WorldWideScience

Sample records for nematoda ascarididae incubated

  1. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of Ortleppascaris sinensis (Nematoda: Heterocheilidae) and comparative mitogenomic analysis of eighteen Ascaridida nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J H; Tu, G J; Wu, X B; Li, C P

    2018-05-01

    Ortleppascaris sinensis (Nematoda: Ascaridida) is a dominant intestinal nematode of the captive Chinese alligator. However, the epidemiology, molecular ecology and population genetics of this parasite remain largely unexplored. In this study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence of O. sinensis was first determined using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based primer-walking strategy, and this is also the first sequencing of the complete mitochondrial genome of a member of the genus Ortleppascaris. The circular mitochondrial genome (13,828 bp) of O. sinensis contained 12 protein-coding, 22 transfer RNA and 2 ribosomal RNA genes, but lacked the ATP synthetase subunit 8 gene. Finally, phylogenetic analysis of mtDNAs indicated that the genus Ortleppascaris should be attributed to the family Heterocheilidae. It is necessary to sequence more mtNDAs of Ortleppascaris nematodes in the future to test and confirm our conclusion. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of O. sinensis reported here should contribute to molecular diagnosis, epidemiological investigations and ecological studies of O. sinensis and other related Ascaridida nematodes.

  2. Liver histopathology in the cane toad, Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae), induced by Ortleppascaris sp. larvae (Nematoda: Ascarididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jefferson P E; da Silva, Djane C B; Melo, Francisco T V; Giese, Elane G; Furtado, Adriano P; Santos, Jeannie N

    2013-04-01

    Exposure to parasites is considered to be an important factor in the development of many diseases and histopathologies which are the result of the parasite-host interaction. The present study evaluated the impact of natural infection by larvae of Ortleppascaris sp. (Nematoda: Ascaridida) in the liver of the cane toad Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758). Larvae were encysted in nodules delimited by collagenous fibers and fibroblasts or freely within the hepatic parenchyma, provoking a clear response from the host. The histological examination of the liver revealed viable larvae in a number of different developmental stages, as well as cysts filled with amorphous material and cell residues and surrounded by dense fibrotic tissue. The infection of the liver by these larvae induces a significant increase in the area occupied by melanomacrophages and a reduction or deficit in the vascularization of the liver, hypertrophy of the hepatocytes, vacuolar bodies, and cytoplasmatic granules. Focal concentrations of inflammatory infiltrates were observed enclosing the unencapsulated early-stage larvae. These results indicate that infection by Ortleppascaris sp. induces severe physiological problems and histopathological lesions in the liver of R. marina .

  3. New species of Bakeria (Nematoda; Strongylida; Molineidae), new species of Falcaustra (Nematoda; Ascaridida; Kathlaniidae) and other helminths in Cnemaspis mcguirei (Sauria; Gekkonidae) from Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Grismer, L Lee

    2014-10-01

    Two new nematode species, Bakeria schadi sp. nov. and Falcaustra malaysiaia sp. nov. from the gastrointestinal tract of McGuire's rock gecko, Cnemaspis mcguirei (Sauria: Gekkonidae) collected in Peninsular Malaysia are described. The two species now assigned to Bakeria are separated on the bases of male bursa type and location of the excretory pore: type II in B. schadi sp. nov. and type I in B. bakeri; location of excretory pore, anterior to nerve ring in B. schadi sp. nov. and posterior to nerve ring in B. bakeri. Falcaustra malaysiaia sp. nov. is most similar to F. chabaudi, F. concinnae, F. condorcanquii, F. barbi, F. dubia, and F. tchadi in that these 7 species possess 1 pseudosucker, 1 median papilla plus 10 pairs caudal papillae, and spicules with lengths between 1 and 2 mm. F. barbi and F. tchadi lack adcloacal papillae; the remaining 5 species possess 1 pair of adcloacal papillae. Falcaustra chabaudi is known from Nearctic salamanders; F. concinnae from Nearctic turtles; F. condorcanquii from Neotropical frogs, F. dubia from Oriental frogs, and F. malaysiaia sp. nov. from Oriental geckos. Two additional species of Nematoda were found, Cosmocerca ornata and Meteterakis singaporensis. Cnemaspis mcguirei represents a new host record for Cosmocerca ornata and Meteterakis singaporensis.

  4. Infección inducida en el roedor selvático Dasyprocta leporina (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae, con huevos larvados de Lagochilascaris minor (Nematoda: Ascarididae Induced infection in the wild rodent Dasyprocta leporina (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae with larval eggs of Lagochilascaris minor (Nematoda: Ascarididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gregorio

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Ejemplares de Dasyprocta leporina Linnaeus, 1758 fueron criados alejados de su ambiente natural. A los 3 ó 4 meses de edad, se los inoculó por vía oral con huevos de Lagochilascaris minor Leiper, 1909 obtenidos de una paciente nativa. Los huevos se los incubó por más de 80 dias, para que de ellos fuese posible obtener por compresión mecánica, larvas que se mantuviesen vivas en medio acuoso por 48 horas o más. Sacrificados los animales a los 14 ó 46 dias posteriores a la infección, se hallaron en los músculos esqueléticos larvas ovilladas dentro de nódulos inflamatorios, los cuales no presentaban reacción a cuerpo extraño, abscedación o calcificación. El desarollo de los nódulos no parecía afectar la normalidad de los hospedadores. Las larvas obtenidas eran similares a las descritas por SPRENT como de tercer estadio para estos helmintos. Ratones blancos infectados con material similar, no presentaron nódulos en sus músculos ni se pudo recuperar de sus tejidos larva alguna. Por los hallazgos obtenidos con la infección de estos animales, se postula que el helminto no posee ciclo pulmonar y que su desarrollo requiere de un hospedador intermediario.Specimens of Dasyprocta leporina (Linnaeus, 1758 were raised out their natural environment. At three to four months of age they were orally inoculated with Lagochilascaris minor (Leiper, 1909 eggs obtained from a native patient. The eggs were incubated for more than 80 days so that it was possible to obtain, by mechanical compression, larvae that could be maintained alive in liquid medium for 48 hours or more. The animals were sacrificed 14-46 days after infection and tangled larva in inflammatory nodules were found in skeletal muscle without foreign body reaction, abscess formation or calcification. The development of the nodules did not seem to affect the hosts. The larvae obtained were similar to those described by SPRENT as the third stage of these helminths. When white mice were

  5. Nematoda: Longidoridae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-03-31

    Mar 31, 1988 ... Cytogenetics and reproduction in. Xiphinema and Longidorus. In: Nematode Vectors of. Plant Viruses, (eds.) Lamberti, F., Taylor, C.E. &. Seinhorst, I.W. Plenum Press, London and New York, pp. 139-151. DALMASSO, A. & YOUNES, T. 1969. Ovogenese et embryogenese chez Xiphinema index (Nematoda:.

  6. Toxocara cati (Nematoda, Ascarididae in different wild feline species in Brazil: new host records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Gallas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n3p117 This is the first detailed description of Toxocara cati parasitizing felines in South America. Seventeen run over wild felines (Leopardus colocolo, Leopardus geoffroyi, Leopardus tigrinus, and Puma yagouaroundi were collected from different towns in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The morphometry of males and females allowed the identification of specimens as being T. cati. The helminths were found in the stomach and intestine of hosts with prevalences of 66.6% in L. colocolo, L. geoffroyi, and L. tigrinus; and 60% in P. yagouaroundi. The ecological parameters were calculated for each host and L. colocolo had the highest infection intensity (22.5 helminths/ host. This is the first report of T. cati parasitizing four wild felines species in southern Brazil, besides a new record of this parasite for two host species.

  7. Toxocara cati (Schrank, 1788 (Nematoda, Ascarididae in different wild feline species in Brazil: new host records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Gallas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the first detailed description of Toxocara cati parasitizing felines in South America. Seventeen run over wild felines (Leopardus colocolo, Leopardus geoffroyi, Leopardus tigrinus, and Puma yagouaroundi were collected from different towns in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The morphometry of males and females allowed the identification of specimens as being T. cati. The helminths were found in the stomach and intestine of hosts with prevalences of 66.6% in L. colocolo, L. geoffroyi, and L. tigrinus; and 60% in P. yagouaroundi. The ecological parameters were calculated for each host and L. colocolo had the highest infection intensity (22.5 helminths/host. This is the first report of T. cati parasitizing four wild felines species in southern Brazil, besides a new record of this parasite for two host species.

  8. Toxocara cati (Nematoda: Ascarididae in Didelphis albiventris (Marsupialia: Didelphidae from Brazil: a case of pseudoparasitism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Alves Pinto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Eggs of Toxocara cati were found in the feces of Didelphis albiventris from a peridomestic urban environment in Brazil. Negative fecal tests following short-term captivity of the opossums, as well as the absence of ascaridids during necropsy, suggest the occurrence of pseudoparasitism. Implications of the findings for the epidemiology of toxocariasis are discussed.

  9. Morphological and molecular genetic diversity of Strongyluris calotis (Nematoda: Ascaridida: Heterakidae) in South East and East Asian lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Binh Thi; Ong, An Vinh; Luc, Pham Van; Sato, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    Strongyluris calotis is a heterakid nematode in the large intestine of agamid lizards (Reptilia: Sauria: Agamidae) from the Oriental Region. The standard light microscopic definition of the species counts the "caudal papillae" as 10 pairs on male worms. However, previous work from our group using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on the heterakid from agamid lizards in Japan, Taiwan, and Singapore revealed that this counting contained a pair of phasmids and that two pairs of postcloacal papillae were completely fused to form a pair of united papillae, thus resulting in "10 pairs." In the present study, we examined S. calotis specimens from the Emma Gray's forest lizard, Calotes emma (Agamidae), living in the plain forest at low altitude, and the Vietnam false bloodsucker, Pseudocalotes brevipes (Agamidae), living in the mountainous forest at high altitude in the northern part of Vietnam. Using SEM, the arrangement of caudal papillae in male worms from an Emma Gray's forest lizard was found to be comparable to classical S. calotis specimens from agamid lizards collected in Japan, Taiwan, and Singapore. However, male worms from Vietnam false bloodsuckers did not have a pair of united papillae but had 10 pairs of independent caudal papillae with a pair of phasmids. Molecular genetic analyses of the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) of worms of the classical S. calotis morphotype from Japan and Singapore and two S. calotis morphotypes from Vietnam demonstrated absolutely identical nucleotide sequences of partial 18S rDNA (at least 1764 base pairs (bp)) and 5.8S rDNA (158 bp). However, intraspecific differences were detected in other regions of the rDNA, related to the geographical distribution of hosts regardless of morphotype: 97.8-98.5 % identity (443-446 bp/453 bp) in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-1 region, 96.6-98.0 % identity (425-431 bp/440 bp) in the ITS-2 region, and 99.6-99.7 % identity (1149-1151 bp/1154 bp) in the 28S rDNA. Thus, in the future, taxonomic relationships of S. calotis distributed widely in the Oriental Region as well as other nominal Oriental Strongyluris spp., currently six in number, need to be extensively explored based on molecular genetic analyses in addition to intensive morphological characterization.

  10. Ultrastructure of Ascaridia galli (Schrank, 1788) (Nematoda: Ascaridida) from the endangered green peafowl Pavo muticus Linnaeus (Galliformes: Phasianidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wen-Ting; Guo, Yan-Ning; Zhang, Lu-Ping; Li, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Ascaridia galli (Schrank, 1788) is a common parasite of various galliform birds worldwide. Although A. galli has been extensively studied by many author, knowledge of the morphology of this species in detail is still insufficient. In the present paper, the detailed morphology of A. galli was further studied using light and scanning electron microscopy, based on specimens collected from the endangered green peafowl Pavo muticus Linnaeus (Galliformes: Phasianidae) in China. The results revealed some erroneous and previously unreported morphological features, including the lips lacking real denticles, the lateral alae beginning at some distance posterior to the base of the ventrolateral lips and the caudal papillae with 4 different morphotypes. The present morphological and morphometric data complement previous descriptions and enable us to recognize this species more precisely.

  11. First report of Seuratascaris numidica Seurat, 1917 (Nematoda: Ascarididae) and other helminths from amphibians of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sou, Sujan K; Bursey, Charles R

    2017-03-01

    Studies on nematode parasites from anuran hosts from Eastern India, particularly West Bengal, are rare. To our knowledge, there is a report of larvae of Monhysterides sp. (a fish parasite) from cysts within the body cavity and musculature of Duttaphrynus melanostictus, Hoplobatrachus tigerinus and Euphlyctis hexadactylus as well as descriptions of Aplectana duttaphryni from D. melanostictus , Aplectana dubrajpuri from H. tigerinus , Cosmocerca microhylae from Microhyla rubra and Rhabdias bulbicauda from D. melanostictus . Here, we report mature individuals of typical anuran parasites, Diplodiscus amphichrus and Seuratascaris numidica , from H. tigerinus and larvae of Acuariidae (a bird parasite) from Fejervarya limnocharis collected in Kulti, West Bengal.

  12. Distribution and risk factors of Ascarididae and other geohelminths in the soil of Uberlandia, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Kelem Cristina Pereira; Grama, Daliane Faria; Fava, Natália M Nasser; Úngari, Letícia Pereira; Faria, Elaine Silva Marques; Cury, Márcia Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Among the geohelminths, parasites from the Ascarididae family have a significant role in the human and animal health. This research aims to determine the prevalence of Ascarididae species in the soil in different areas located in a city of Minas Gerais State, Brazil (South America). The study was developed in squares, parks, sports clubs, orchards and municipal children's schools. Samples of sand/soil/grass were collected from January to August 2014. The optical microscope screening was performed through formal-ether and spontaneous sedimentation techniques. Out of the 183 collected samples, eight (4.4%) belonged to parks, 16 (8.7%) to sports clubs, 76 (41.5%) to squares, 23 (12.6%) to orchards, and 60 (32.8%) to schools. Out of the total, 28 (15.3%) contained Ascarididae eggs. Higher levels of positivity were demonstrated in the raining season (25.0%), in samples collected in the southern region of the town (25.1%), on ground soils (27.3%). Twenty-three (12.6%) were detected by the formal-ether sedimentation technique and 10 (5.5%) by spontaneous sedimentation technique. Therefore, it was concluded that the soils in the city of Uberlandia are contaminated with eggs and larvae of geohelminths, enabling dissemination of illnesses among animals and human beings.

  13. Toxocara (Nematoda: Ascaridida and Other Soil-Transmitted Helminth Eggs Contaminating Soils in Selected Urban and Rural Areas in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vachel Gay V. Paller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The extent of contamination of soils with soil transmitted helminthes (STH eggs, particularly Toxocara, was determined in selected urban and rural towns of Laguna, Philippines. Soil samples were collected from public schools, house yards, and empty lots. Results revealed that, of the 1480 soil samples collected, 460 (31% were positive for STH eggs. Toxocara sp. was the most prevalent (77%, followed by Ascaris sp. (11%, hookworms/strongyles/free-living nematodes (7%, and Trichuris sp. (5%. Some soil physicochemical parameters were also determined and associated with Toxocara eggs prevalence and density in soil. Results revealed that Toxocara sp. eggs were most prevalent in less acidic, relatively high temperature and high moisture soil conditions. They were also prevalent in sandy, silty, and loamy soil textures but less prevalent in clayey. No significant differences were found between depth 1 (0–5 cm and depth 2 (6–10 cm. This study revealed that Toxocara sp. eggs are ubiquitous and the extent of contamination in soils from the selected towns of Laguna is relatively high. Hence, the data generated in this study can be used in promoting public awareness, particularly for pet owners and local health officials, for effective prevention and control of this parasitosis.

  14. First record of Mermithidae (Nematoda) parasitic in Plecoptera

    OpenAIRE

    Ravizza, C.; Zwick, P.

    2006-01-01

    The first record of Nematoda Mermithidae in adults and larvae of two Protonemura species (Plecoptera Nemouridae) and of Isoperla rivulorum (Pictet) (Plecoptera Perlodidae) from North Italy and Bavaria (Germany) is presented. The malformed genitalia of several parasitically castrated adults are described and illustrated. Primi reperti di Mermithidae (Nematoda) endoparassiti di Plecoptera. Viene segnalata per la prima volta la presenza di Mermithidae (Nematoda) nell’addome di adulti e di ninfe ...

  15. Integrating education and incubation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée; Riis, Nina Louise Fynbo

    During the last decade student business incubation activities have become mainstream activities in Western universities. This is also the case in Danish higher education where all universities have established in-house student incubators. The models applied are different and place varied emphasis...... on the integration of extracurricular activities with formal credit awarding activities. In a Danish context, such integration has become increasingly important due to recent political reforms aimed at shortening the time it takes students to graduate in order to reduce national higher education expenditures....... On this backdrop, this paper explores the following questions: • How and to what extent do university student incubators collaborate with formal study programmes? • And which factors influence this integration of curricular and extracurricular activities?...

  16. Humidification of incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpin, V A; Rutter, N

    1985-01-01

    The effect of increasing the humidity in incubators was examined in 62 infants of less than 30 weeks' gestation. Thirty three infants nursed in high humidity for two weeks were compared retrospectively with 29 infants from an earlier study who were nursed under plastic bubble blankets or with topical paraffin but without raised humidity. Humidification reduced skin water loss and improved maintenance of body temperature from birth, but did not delay the normal postnatal maturation of the skin. Infants nursed without humidity frequently became hypothermic in spite of a high incubator air temperature. These advantages must be weighed against the finding that overheating was more common and Pseudomonas was more commonly isolated from the infants. It is recommended that incubator humidity is raised for babies under 30 weeks' gestation in the first days of life but meticulous attention should be paid to fluid balance, avoiding overheating, and cleansing of the humidifier reservoir. PMID:3985653

  17. Business Incubators Support College Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Sutama

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Business incubators have a very important role in developing entrepreneurship, since it gives large opportunity to its participants to develop their business skill during incubation. The Indonesian government today provides a major boost to the development of business incubators in universities or other form of higher education institutions. The purpose of this research is to analyze the validation of the establishment of business incubator in colleges. In Ministerial Regulation (Permen Minister of Cooperation and Small Medium Entrepreneurship the Republic of Indonesia No. 24/2015 explained that the head of the university, the Rector or the Director may issue a business incubators license. Thus, internal validation can be done by university or college management through the issuance of Decree (SK Establishment complete with personnel appointed as manager. Furthermore, the college, has to provide a place or room consisting of office space, tenant room at least 3, discussion room 1, and tenant production display room. External validation is carried out by tenants through their success of becoming independent businessmen after being forged or incubated in a business incubator for a maximum of 3 years in one incubation period.

  18. Diffusion of student business incubators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée; Honig, Benson; Riis, Nina Louise Fynbo

    education. Applying neo-institutional theory, we examine the development of student incubation activities in the field of general state-funded Danish universities. We review institutional pressures from the political sphere that led to the diffusion of student incubation, introducing a three-phase process...

  19. New records of Ascaridia platyceri (Nematoda) in parrots (Psittaciformes)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kajerová, V.; Baruš, Vlastimil; Literák, I.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 7 (2004), s. 237-241 ISSN 0375-8427 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/03/0061 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : ascarids * morphology * Nematoda Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.790, year: 2004 http://www.vri.cz/docs/vetmed/49-7-237.pdf

  20. Advanced Portable Preterm Baby Incubator

    OpenAIRE

    Shaib , M.; Rashid , M.; Hamawy , L.; Arnout , M.; Majzoub , I. ,; Zaylaa , A. ,

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Nearly 20 million premature and Low Birth Weight infants are born each year in developing countries, 4 million die within their first month. These deaths occur due to the unavailability or unreliability of traditional incubators. Moreover, although Telemedicine is helpful in rural areas, the shortage of healthcare providers have made it inaccessible in both basic healthcare. Thereby, traditional preterm baby and low-birth weight incubators and therapeutic techniques la...

  1. Business support within business incubators.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratinho, Tiago; Harms, Rainer; Groen, Arend J.

    2009-01-01

    Business incubators (BI) have been established worldwide as tools for company creation and small businesses support. BIs claim to help their tenants by providing them with the optimal conditions for increasing early stage survival. Practitioners and researchers agree that business support is a

  2. Evolutionary dynamics of incubation periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottino-Loffler, Bertrand; Scott, Jacob G; Strogatz, Steven H

    2017-12-21

    The incubation period for typhoid, polio, measles, leukemia and many other diseases follows a right-skewed, approximately lognormal distribution. Although this pattern was discovered more than sixty years ago, it remains an open question to explain its ubiquity. Here, we propose an explanation based on evolutionary dynamics on graphs. For simple models of a mutant or pathogen invading a network-structured population of healthy cells, we show that skewed distributions of incubation periods emerge for a wide range of assumptions about invader fitness, competition dynamics, and network structure. The skewness stems from stochastic mechanisms associated with two classic problems in probability theory: the coupon collector and the random walk. Unlike previous explanations that rely crucially on heterogeneity, our results hold even for homogeneous populations. Thus, we predict that two equally healthy individuals subjected to equal doses of equally pathogenic agents may, by chance alone, show remarkably different time courses of disease.

  3. Saraniyadhamma Community knowledge Incubator area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siripong Arundechachai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were to 1 study the situation of the community knowledge incubator area at the past to the present time in Banhad,Tambon banhad, Amphoe banhad Changwat KhonKaen, 2 study guidelines Buddhadhamma “Saraniyadhamma” revised by Community knowledge application Banhad, Tambon banhad, Amphoe banhad Changwat KhonKaen, 3 study workflow of Saraniyadhamma that led to the creation of the network community knowledge incubator area together with another community. The target groups used in this research of the purposive sampling family farmers of 10, in Tambon banhad,Amphoe banhad Changwat KhonKaen. the Qualitative research.was used in this Study The results showed that 1 diversing issues in the Community live action of the relationships or occupations experience can be passed down, as well as the risk of loss the relationships between the people and people, people and supernatural. After people and nature lost in the community, but thay Continue to Perform, because community has strengths given the importance of all, to themselves, to others, generous, generosity, mounting traditions, Led to the creation Community Knowledge Incubator 2 adopting Buddhism’s “Saraniyadhamma 6” that applied to community Knowledge Incubator by giving to make immunity community. Strong The six fetures, were Principle 1: Metta-kayakamma, feature on sacrifiction, unity and synergy. Principle 2: Metta-manokamma, feature on mercifulness, collective sacrification. Principle 3: Metta-kayakamma, feature on good things, speak well, good action. Principle 4: Sadharana-bhogi, feature on humane society, mutual respect. Principle 5 Sila-samannata, feature on, follow the rules of society. Principle 5 Metta-manokamma feature on rationality, listening to the opinion of others. It found that there were process-driven learning and following six rules of saraniyadhamma, and immunity system, risk Decoupled. 3 Networks Saraniyadhamma learnt together with other

  4. Technology Business Incubators as Engines of Growth: Towards a distinction between Technology Incubators and Non-Technology Incubators.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratinho, Tiago; Harms, Rainer; Groen, Arend J.

    2009-01-01

    Business incubators are an increasingly popular tool for promoting job and wealth creation. Yet given the heterogeneity of incubation models, it is not always clear how incubators operate, what their main characteristics are and how can they best contribute to job and wealth creation. If technology

  5. Technology business incubators as engines of growth: towards a distinction between technology incubators and non-technology incubators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratinho, Tiago; Harms, Rainer; Groen, Arend J.; Langan Fox, Janice

    2010-01-01

    Business incubators are an increasingly popular tool for promoting job and wealth creation. Yet given the heterogeneity of incubation models, it is not always clear how incubators operate, what their main characteristics are and how can they best contribute to job and wealth creation. If technology

  6. Southwest Regional Clean Energy Incubation Initiative (SRCEII)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Michael [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2017-10-31

    The Austin Technology Incubator’s (ATI’s) Clean Energy Incubator at the University of Texas at Austin (ATI-CEI) utilized the National Incubator Initiative for Clean Energy (NIICE) funding to establish the Southwest Regional Clean Energy Incubation Initiative, composed of clean energy incubators from The University of Texas at Austin (UT-Austin), The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP), The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), and Texas A&M University (TAMU).

  7. What determines a successful business incubator?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Sophia; Brem, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Business incubators have become an important pillar in the attraction and the support of innovation and entrepreneurship – in practice, and to a greater extent in theory as well. Based on earlier research, we give an overview of business incubator literature between 2001 and 2013. We review...... these results in a generic business incubation process model, which is elaborated in a pre-, main- and after-incubation phase. Finally, we introduce an incubator guide, which is summarizing the key areas into a questionnaire. Hence, on the one hand, we foster future research on business incubation with our...... conceptual framework based on an extensive literature review. On the other hand, we support managers and policy makers with a practice-oriented and research-based evaluation tool for a status quo analysis as well as a solid basis for a further incubator development....

  8. The Co-evolution of Business Incubators and National Incubator Networks in Emerging Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Robinson

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The study proposes a three stage model of the development of business incubation practices in emerging markets. The model addresses the diffusion of incubation practices to new markets, the institutionalization of those practices and the co-evolution of incubators and national networks of incubation. The model is based on interviews conducted in Bolivia, Peru, Chile, Argentina, and Brazil. New incubators in emerging markets often face strong cultural norms and institutional impediments to helping entrepreneurs start new businesses. As incubation becomes better established in a country, incubators provide more advanced technical, legal and market-based advice. Networks of incubators form to share specialized services across many incubators, to allocate government funding to incubators, and to lobby for public and private support of innovation.

  9. The Upgrade to Hybrid Incubators in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Gao, Yuchen

    countries and emerging economics. Based on a single in-depth case-study of Tuspark Incubator, this study explores key factors and specific ways for the upgrade to hybrid incubators in the context of China. By using categorical analysis, three factors, i.e. incubation subdivision, intermediary platform......, and proactive approach, are found to be essential for a formerly government-sponsored TBI’s upgrading. The result of this study also provides new insights and several implications for incubator managers and policy makers in emerging economies. In addition, whether the key factors can be used in upgrade of other...... TBIs in China requires further study....

  10. The business incubator in a network perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøllingtoft, Anne; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2003-01-01

    Recent years have seen the emergence of a new incubator model, the "networked incubator", which is a hybrid form of the archetypal business incubators, based on territorial synergy, relational symbiosis and economices of scale, to the benefit of the participating 'incubatees'. The question...... addressed in this paper is why this new model has emerged and what distinguishes it from the more traditional incubator model. The theoretical basis of the research is social capital theory. Empirically, the paper is based on 6 months' ethnographic data collected in one of the first known networked...

  11. Understanding management practices in business incubators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, Vincent; Thijssen, Sander; Pascucci, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Following the call for process-oriented research on business incubation processes, this paper investigates the process of business incubation (BI) via an understanding of management practices and interactions. Based on a comprehensive literature review and empirical evidence of management practices

  12. National Security Technology Incubator Evaluation Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-12-31

    This report describes the process by which the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) will be evaluated. The technology incubator is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report includes a brief description of the components, steps, and measures of the proposed evaluation process. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. The NSTI will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. An effective evaluation process of the NSTI is an important step as it can provide qualitative and quantitative information on incubator performance over a given period. The vision of the NSTI is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety and security. The mission of the NSTI is to identify, incubate, and accelerate technologies with national security applications at various stages of development by providing hands-on mentoring and business assistance to small businesses and emerging or growing companies. To achieve success for both incubator businesses and the NSTI program, an evaluation process is essential to effectively measure results and implement corrective processes in the incubation design if needed. The evaluation process design will collect and analyze qualitative and quantitative data through performance evaluation system.

  13. Micro and Small Enterprises Incubator - Phase III

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The goals of the Mozambique Information and Communication Technology Micro and Small Enterprises Incubator (MICTI Incubator) are twofold: to identify sustainable opportunities for technology-based businesses in priority development areas; and to test the assumption that technology-based businesses can mentor the ...

  14. Micro-incubator for bacterial biosensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Estine; Land, Kevin; Joubert, Trudi-Heleen

    2016-02-01

    The presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli ) is a commonly used indicator micro-organism to determine whether water is safe for human consumption.1 This paper discusses the design of a micro-incubator that can be applied to concentrate bacteria prior to environmental water quality screening tests. High sensitivity and rapid test time is essential and there is a great need for these tests to be implemented on-site without the use of a laboratory infrastructure. In the light of these requirements, a mobile micro-incubator was designed, manufactured and characterised. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) receptacle has been designed to house the 1-5 ml cell culture sample.2 A nano-silver printed electronics micro-heater has been designed to incubate the bacterial sample, with an array of temperature sensors implemented to accurately measure the sample temperature at various locations in the cell culture well. The micro-incubator limits the incubation temperature range to 37+/-3 °C in order to ensure near optimal growth of the bacteria at all times.3 The incubation time is adjustable between 30 minutes and 9 hours with a maximum rise time of 15 minutes to reach the set-point temperature. The surface area of the printed nano silver heating element is 500 mm2. Electrical and COMSOL Multiphysics simulations are included in order to give insight on micro-incubator temperature control. The design and characterization of this micro-incubator allows for further research in biosensing applications.

  15. MONITORING BABY INCUBATOR SENTRAL DENGAN KOMUNIKASI WIRELESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ary Sulistyo Utomo

    2018-04-01

    180m. Pengujian suhu ruang baby incubator menggunakan termometer sebagai perbandingan dengan nilai suhu yang dibaca pada alat. Dari pengukuran diperoleh tingkat perbedaan 0% pada suhu 30oC dan 2,8% pada suhu 37oC.   Kata kunci: baby incubator, sistem monitoring sentral, microsoft visual studio, arduino.

  16. Evolution of plant parasitism in the phylum Nematoda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, Casper W; Smant, Geert; Helder, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Within the species-rich and trophically diverse phylum Nematoda, at least four independent major lineages of plant parasites have evolved, and in at least one of these major lineages plant parasitism arose independently multiple times. Ribosomal DNA data, sequence information from nematode-produced, plant cell wall-modifying enzymes, and the morphology and origin of the style(t), a protrusible piercing device used to penetrate the plant cell wall, all suggest that facultative and obligate plant parasites originate from fungivorous ancestors. Data on the nature and diversification of plant cell wall-modifying enzymes point at multiple horizontal gene transfer events from soil bacteria to bacterivorous nematodes resulting in several distinct lineages of fungal or oomycete-feeding nematodes. Ribosomal DNA frameworks with sequence data from more than 2,700 nematode taxa combined with detailed morphological information allow for explicit hypotheses on the origin of agronomically important plant parasites, such as root-knot, cyst, and lesion nematodes.

  17. Potensi Jamur Parasit Telur Sebagai Agens Hayati Pengendali Nematoda Puru Akar Meloidogyne incognita pada Tanaman Tomat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwi Indarti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne spp. are sedentary endoparasitic that attacks various economically important plants. Utilization of nematode’s fungal egg parasite as biocontrol agents of sedentary endoparasitic nematodes have a good possibility of potential success to be applied in the field level, because this fungi is able to colonize in and causes damage to eggs as well as female nematodes inside the root. The purpose of this research are to know the parasitism ability of this parasitic fungi to Meloidogyne incognita eggs, and its effects on second stage larvae hatching rate and the development of galls number in the host. The result shows that the parasitic fungi, those of Trichoderma, Penicillium, Talaromyces, Fusarium genera were able to parasitize root-knot nematode eggs (25.09 to 89.79%, caused root-knot nematode egg hatching to decrease, suppressed the formation of galls, and reduced the population of second stage nematode larvae in the greenhouse. Nematoda puru-akar Meloidogyne spp. adalah nematoda endoparasitik sedentari, bersifat polifag, dan mempunyai nilai ekonomi tinggi. Pemanfaatan jamur parasit telur sebagai agens hayati pengendali nematoda endoparasitik sedentari mempunyai potensi tingkat keberhasilan tinggi untuk diterapkan pada aras lapangan karena mampu mengoloni dan merusak telur maupun stadium nematoda betina yang terlindungi jaringan tanaman. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui kemampuan parasitasi isolat-isolat jamur parasit telur terhadap telur nematoda Meloidogyne incognita, dan pengaruhnya terhadap tingkat penetasan telur menjadi L-2, serta pembentukan jumlah puru pada tanaman terserang. Hasil penelitian didapatkan bahwa jamur parasit telur yang termasuk genera Tricoderma, Penicillium, Talaromyces, dan Fusarium mampu memarasit telur M. incognita berkisar antara 25,09–89,79%, mengakibatkan penurunan persentase jumlah L-2 nematoda yang bersangkutan, serta menekan pembentukan puru akar pada aplikasi aras

  18. Measuring the performance of business incubators

    OpenAIRE

    VANDERSTRAETEN, Johanna; MATTHYSSENS, Paul; VAN WITTELOOSTUIJN, Arjen

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on incubator performance measurement. First, we report the findings of an extensive literature review. Both existing individual measures and more comprehensive measurement systems are discussed. This literature review shows that most incubator researchers and practitioners only use one or a few indicators for performance evaluation, and that existing measurement systems do not recognize the importance of short, medium and long-term results, do not always include an incubato...

  19. Establishment and Development of Business Incubators

    OpenAIRE

    Teliceanu Claudiu Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Business incubators are established in order to help new businesses to consolidate and, consequently, to lead to creation of new jobs as part of a strategic framework - territorial oriented, or on a particular policy priority or a combination of these factors. The business incubator supports its customers to overcome the legislative, administrative barriers and thus to start much easier a business, by facilitating the business establishment process and their access to community support network.

  20. Teaching Population Growth Using Cultures of Vinegar Eels, "Turbatrix aceti" (Nematoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    A simple laboratory exercise is presented that follows the population growth of the common vinegar eel, "Turbatrix aceti" (Nematoda), in a microcosm using a simple culture medium. It lends itself to an exercise in a single semester course. (Contains 4 figures.)

  1. Observations on the distribution and biology of Huffmanela huffmani (Nematoda: Trichosomoididae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cox, M. K.; Huffman, D. G.; Moravec, František

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 1 (2004), s. 50-54 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Nematoda * Trichosomoididae * Huffmanela Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 0.837, year: 2004

  2. Fauna of soil nematodes (Nematoda) in coal post-mining sites in Illinois, USA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Háněl, Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 2 (2013), s. 103-112 ISSN 1211-376X R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME08019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : soil zoology * ecology * Nematoda * species and generic richness * faunal similarity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  3. Morphometric and molecular characteristics of Labeonema synodontisi n. comb. (Nematoda: Atractidae) from the West African fishes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koubková, B.; Baruš, Vlastimil; Hodová, I.; Šimková, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 5 (2008), s. 1013-1020 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093404; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Nematoda * West African fishes * genetics Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.473, year: 2008

  4. Ultrastructure of the body wall of female Philometra obturans (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frantová, Denisa; Bruňanská, Magdaléna; Fagerholm, H.-P.; Kihlström, M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 5 (2005), s. 327-332 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/03/0061 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Nematoda * ultrastructure * cuticule Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.226, year: 2005

  5. Morphometric and molecular characterization of Parapharyngodon echinatus (Nematoda, Pharyngodonidae) from the Senegal gecko ( Tarentola parvicarinata )

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mašová, Š.; Baruš, Vlastimil; Hodová, I.; Matějusová, I.; Koubek, Petr; Koubková, B.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2008), s. 274-283 ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Nematoda * Senegal gecko * West Africa Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.748, year: 2008

  6. National Security Technology Incubator Business Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-12-31

    This document contains a business plan for the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI), developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) and performed under a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This business plan describes key features of the NSTI, including the vision and mission, organizational structure and staffing, services, evaluation criteria, marketing strategies, client processes, a budget, incubator evaluation criteria, and a development schedule. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. The NSTI will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The vision of the NSTI is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety, security, and protection of the homeland. The NSTI is operated and managed by the Arrowhead Center, responsible for leading the economic development mission of New Mexico State University (NMSU). The Arrowhead Center will recruit business with applications for national security technologies recruited for the NSTI program. The Arrowhead Center and its strategic partners will provide business incubation services, including hands-on mentoring in general business matters, marketing, proposal writing, management, accounting, and finance. Additionally, networking opportunities and technology development assistance will be provided.

  7. An MR-compatible neonatal incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paley, M N J; Hart, A R; Lait, M; Griffiths, P D

    2012-07-01

    To develop a neonatal MR-compatible incubator for transporting babies between a neonatal intensive care unit and an MRI unit that is within the same hospital but geographically separate. The system was strapped to a standard MR-compatible patient trolley, which provides space for resuscitation outside the incubator. A constant-temperature exothermic heat pad was used to maintain temperature together with a logging fluoro-optic temperature monitor and alarm system. The system has been designed to accommodate standard knee-sized coils from the major MR manufacturers. The original incubator was constructed from carbon fibre, but this required modification to prevent radiofrequency shading artefacts due to the conducting properties of the carbon fibre. A high-tensile polyester material was used, which combined light weight with high impact strength. The system could be moved onto the patient bed with the coils and infant in place by one technologist. Studies in eight neonatal patients produced high quality 1.5 T MR images with low motion artefacts. The incubator should also be compatible with imaging in 3 T MR systems, although further work is required to establish this. Images were acquired using both rapid and high-resolution sequences, including three-dimensional volumes, proton spectra and diffusion weighting. The incubator provides a safe, quiet environment for neonates during transport and imaging, at low cost.

  8. [Audit "Toys and incubators in neonatology"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raginel, T; Bigoin-Dupont, M; Aguelon, V; Fines-Guyon, M; Guillemin, M G

    2009-08-01

    Owing to an increase in nosocomial septicaemias in the Neonatalogy department, we've judged it necessary to consider the role of items not linked to the nursing procedures, and nevertheless present in the incubators, as well as the hygiene techniques applied to them. In November 2007, we've made a longitudinal prospective study consisting in an observation audit during 3 successive days, observing every single incubator with a newborn baby. In each incubator, we've checked whether there were or not items that weren't required by the nursing activities, along with their characteristics and the hygiene procedures applied to them. We've inquired as well whether the parents and the nursing staff knew and applied the required hygiene procedures. In 13 among the 17 incubators under survey, at least one item not strictly required by the nursing procedures could be found. The number of toys in each incubator varied from seven to one. Among the 33 toys surveyed, 24 (73%) of them showed a score of maximum fluffiness (4 out of 4), and only 10 wore labels giving cleansing advice from the manufacturers. Without any record about the cleaning/disinfecting of the toys brought in hospital, we have observed that the parents were given varied advice about how to clean the toys at home before putting them in the incubators (only four parents had washed the toys in their washing machines at more than 30 degrees C). From the six samples under scrutiny, all the culture results were tested positive. In particular two of the soft toys sampled were found infected by a Pseudomonas oryzihabitans. These particular toys belonged to a baby who had been diagnosed with a septicaemia characterized by hemocultures positive to a P. oryzihabitans of a different strain. Our audit has been an efficient reminder that any item put in an incubator is a potential vector and reservoir of pathogen organisms. After a general feedback towards the department staff, the medical staff then prescribed to

  9. Agamermis (Nematoda: Mermithidae) Infection in South Carolina Agricultural Pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbins, Francesca L; Agudelo, Paula; Reay-Jones, Francis P F; Greene, Jeremy K

    2016-12-01

    Native and invasive stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and the closely related invasive Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) are agricultural pests in the southeastern United States. Natural enemies, from various phyla, parasitize these pests and contribute to population regulation. We specifically investigated Nematoda infections in pentatomid and plataspid pests in one soybean field in South Carolina in 2015. Nematodes were identified through molecular and morphological methods and assigned to family Mermithidae, genus Agamermis . This study reports mermithid nematode infection in immature M. cribraria for the first time and provides the first mermithid host record for the stink bugs Chinavia hilaris , Euschistus servus , and another Euschistus species, and a grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in South Carolina. The same Agamermis species infected all hosts. The broad host range and prevalence suggests that Agamermis may be an important contributor to natural mortality of pentatomid and plataspid pests. Previous mermithid host records for the Pentatomidae and Plataspidae worldwide are summarized. Further work is needed to assess the impact of infection on populations over a broader range of agricultural fields and geographic localities.

  10. Mitochondrial genome diversity in dagger and needle nematodes (Nematoda: Longidoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares-Rius, J E; Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, C; Archidona-Yuste, A; Blok, V C; Castillo, P

    2017-02-02

    Dagger and needle nematodes included in the family Longidoridae (viz. Longidorus, Paralongidorus, and Xiphinema) are highly polyphagous plant-parasitic nematodes in wild and cultivated plants and some of them are plant-virus vectors (nepovirus). The mitochondrial (mt) genomes of the dagger and needle nematodes, Xiphinema rivesi, Xiphinema pachtaicum, Longidorus vineacola and Paralongidorus litoralis were sequenced in this study. The four circular mt genomes have an estimated size of 12.6, 12.5, 13.5 and 12.7 kb, respectively. Up to date, the mt genome of X. pachtaicum is the smallest genome found in Nematoda. The four mt genomes contain 12 protein-coding genes (viz. cox1-3, nad1-6, nad4L, atp6 and cob) and two ribosomal RNA genes (rrnL and rrnS), but the atp8 gene was not detected. These mt genomes showed a gene arrangement very different within the Longidoridae species sequenced, with the exception of very closely related species (X. americanum and X. rivesi). The sizes of non-coding regions in the Longidoridae nematodes were very small and were present in a few places in the mt genome. Phylogenetic analysis of all coding genes showed a closer relationship between Longidorus and Paralongidorus and different phylogenetic possibilities for the three Xiphinema species.

  11. Technology Business Incubators in China and India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Mingfeng; Baskaran, Angathevar; Pancholi, Jatin

    2011-01-01

    We present a comparative case study of Technology Business Incubators (TBIs) in two major emerging economies in Asia - China and India. We employ an integrative analytical framework that combines three broad categories of indicators (originally developed by developed by Mian, 1997): Management...

  12. Micro-incubator for bacterial biosensing applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Clasen, E

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a commonly used indicator micro-organism to determine whether water is safe for human consumption. This paper discusses the design of a micro-incubator that can be applied to concentrate bacteria prior...

  13. Selective medium for aerobic incubation of Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted on the formulation of a selective medium that could be used to isolate Campylobacter from mixed bacterial cultures using aerobic incubation. A non-selective, basal broth medium was prepared and supplemented with Bolton, Cefex, or Skirrow antibiotic mixtures. The ability of pur...

  14. Incubation temperature and hemoglobin dielectric of chicken embryos incubated under the influence of electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafey, T M; Al-Batshan, H A; Shalaby, M I; Ghannam, M M

    2006-01-01

    Eggs from a layer-type breeder flock (Baladi, King Saud University) between 61 and 63 weeks of age were used in 3 trials to study the effects of electric field (EF) during incubation on the internal temperature of incubation, and eggs and hemoglobin (Hb) dielectric of chicken embryos at 18 days of age. Dielectric relative permittivity (epsilon') and conductivity (sigma) of Hb were examined in the range of frequency from 20 to 100 kHz. The values of dielectric increment (Deltaepsilon') and the relaxation times (tau) of Hb molecules were calculated. The internal temperature of eggs was measured in empty (following the removal of egg contents) and fertilized eggs in trials 1 and 2, respectively. The level of the EF was 30 kV/m, 60 Hz. EF incubation of embryos influenced the temperature of incubation and electrical properties of Hb molecules and did not influence the temperature of incubation and internal environment of eggs when empty eggs were incubated. EF incubation of fertilized eggs significantly raised the temperature of incubation, egg air cell, and at the surface of the egg yolk by approximately 0.09, 0.60, and 0.61 degrees F, respectively and Hb epsilon', sigma, Deltaepsilon', and tau as a function of the range of frequency of 20 to 100 kHz when compared with their counterparts of the control group. It was concluded that the exposure of fertilized chicken eggs to EF of 30 kV/m, 60 Hz, during incubation altered dielectric properties of Hb and that probably affected cell to cell communication and created the right environment for enhancing the growing process and heat production of embryos consequently increasing the temperature of the internal environment of the egg, and incubation.

  15. National Security Technology Incubation Project Continuation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-09-30

    This document contains a project continuation plan for the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI). The plan was developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This continuation plan describes the current status of NSTI (staffing and clients), long-term goals, strategies, and long-term financial solvency goals.The Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University (NMSU) is the operator and manager of the NSTI. To realize the NSTI, Arrowhead Center must meet several performance objectives related to planning, development, execution, evaluation, and sustainability. This continuation plan is critical to the success of NSTI in its mission of incubating businesses with security technology products and services.

  16. Program Incubation and Commercialization Best Practices Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, Shannon

    2018-04-06

    As a reminder, the primary task of the 4C Program is to increase the commercialization rate of cleantech companies in California. Commercialization, broadly defined, is the innovation continuum of developing and introducing a new product or service into the market. For measurability, the 4C Program defines commercialization as encompassing a startup’s: (a) preparation, (b) incubation, (c) commercial-scale pilot / demonstration, and (d) first customer.

  17. Social capital dimensions among incubated entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ezequiel Quijano Quijano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article shows contributions from leading researchers in the fi eld of social capital as support of corporate sustainability and the contribution generated by a descriptive case study based on a representative sample from entrepreneurs from the Fundación Parque de Desarrollo Tecnológico (Parquesoft in Colombia, to contrast the theoretical approaches. The findings show a slight presence of social capital in the performance of incubated entrepreneurs.

  18. Species of Angiostrongylus (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea in wildlife: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Spratt

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-one species of Angiostrongylus plus Angiostrongylus sp. (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea are known currently in wildlife. These occur naturally in rodents, tupaiids, mephitids, mustelids, procyonids, felids, and canids, and aberrantly in a range of avian, marsupial and eutherian hosts including humans. Adults inhabit the pulmonary arteries and right atrium, ventricle and vena cava, bronchioles of the lung or arteries of the caecum and mesentery. All species pass first-stage larvae in the faeces of the host and all utilise slugs and/or aquatic or terrestrial snails as intermediate hosts. Gastropods are infected by ingestion or penetration of first-stage larvae; definitive hosts by ingestion of gastropods or gastropod slime. Transmission of at least one species may involve ingestion of paratenic hosts. Five developmental pathways are identified in these life cycles. Thirteen species, including Angiostrongylus sp., are known primarily from the original descriptions suggesting limited geographic distributions. The remaining species are widespread either globally or regionally, and are continuing to spread. Small experimental doses of infective larvae (ca. 20 given to normal or aberrant hosts are tolerated, although generally eliciting a granulomatous histopathological response; large doses (100–500 larvae often result in clinical signs and/or death. Two species, A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis, are established zoonoses causing neurological and abdominal angiostrongliasis respectively. The zoonotic potential of A. mackerrasae, A. malaysiensis and A. siamensis particularly warrant investigation. Angiostrongylus cantonensis occurs in domestic animals, mammalian and avian wildlife and humans in the metropolitan areas of Brisbane and Sydney, Australia, where it has been suggested that tawny frogmouths and brushtail possums may serve as biosentinels. A major conservation issue is the devastating role A. cantonensis may play around zoos and fauna

  19. Redescription of Cucullanus robustus (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) from the conger eel Conger myriaster off Korea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Park, J. K.; Moravec, František

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 1729, - (2008), s. 1-7 ISSN 1175-5326 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0170; GA MŠk LC522 Grant - others: Korea Research Foundation(KR) KRF-2006-C00544 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cucullanus * Cucullanidae * Conger * fish parasite * Korea * Nematoda Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.740, year: 2008

  20. Mercury content in Anguillicola crassus (Nematoda) and its host Anguilla anguilla

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palíková, M.; Baruš, Vlastimil

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 2 (2003), s. 289-294 ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/03/0061 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Nematoda * parasites * Anguilla anguilla Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.336, year: 2003 http://vfu-www.vfu.cz/acta-vet/vol72/pdf/72_289.pdf

  1. Philometra ovata (Nematoda: Philometroidea): a potential sentinel species of heavy metal accumulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baruš, Vlastimil; Jarkovský, J.; Prokeš, Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 5 (2007), s. 929-933 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0170; GA MZe(CZ) QF3029 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519; CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Nematoda * heavy metal accumulation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.512, year: 2007

  2. Parathion alters incubation behavior of laughing gulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D.H.; Mitchell, C.A.; Hill, E.F.

    1983-01-01

    One member of each pair of incubating laughing gulls at 9 nests was trapped, orally dosed with either 6 mg/kg parathion in corn oil or corn oil alone, and marked about the neck with red dye. Each nest was marked with a numbered stake and the treatment was recorded. A pilot study with captive laughing gulls had determined the proper dosage of parathion that would significantly inhibit their brain AChE activity (about 50% of normal) without overt signs of poisoning. After dosing, birds were released and the nests were observed for 2 1/2 days from a blind on the nesting island. The activities of the birds at each marked nest were recorded at 10-minute intervals. Results indicated that on the day of treatment there was no difference (P greater than 0.05, Chi-square test) in the proportion of time spent on the nest between treated and control birds. However, birds dosed with 6 mg/kg parathion spent significantly less time incubating on days 2 and 3 than did birds receiving only corn oil. By noon on the third day, sharing of nest duties between pair members in the treated group had approached normal, indicating recovery from parathion intoxication. These findings suggest that sublethal exposure of nesting birds to an organophosphate (OP) insecticide, such as parathion, may result in decreased nest attentiveness, thereby making the clutch more susceptible to predation or egg failure. Behavioral changes caused by sublethal OP exposure could be especially detrimental in avian species where only one pair member incubates or where both members are exposed in species sharing nest duties.

  3. Physics Incubator at Kansas State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanders, Bret; Chakrabarti, Amitabha

    Funded by a major private endowment, the physics department at Kansas State University has recently started a physics incubator program that provides support to research projects with a high probability of commercial application. Some examples of these projects will be discussed in this talk. In a parallel effort, undergraduate physics majors and graduate students are being encouraged to work with our business school to earn an Entrepreneurship minor and a certification in Entrepreneurship. We will discuss how these efforts are promoting a ``culture change'' in the department. We will also discuss the advantages and the difficulties in running such a program in a Midwest college town.

  4. Weight monitoring system for newborn incubator application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widianto, Arif; Nurfitri, Intan; Mahatidana, Pradipta; Abuzairi, Tomy; Poespawati, N. R.; Purnamaningsih., Retno W.

    2018-02-01

    We proposed weight monitoring system using load cell sensor for newborn incubator application. The weight sensing system consists of a load cell, conditioning signal circuit, and microcontroller Arduino Uno R3. The performance of the sensor was investigated by using the various weight from 0 up to 3000 g. Experiment results showed that this system has a small error of 4.313% and 12.5 g of threshold and resolution value. Compared to the typical baby scale available in local market, the proposed system has a lower error value and hysteresis.

  5. BIOREACTOR WITH LID FOR EASY ACCESS TO INCUBATION CAVITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    There is provided a bioreactor which is provided with a lid (13) that facilitates access to the incubation cavity. Specifically the end wall of the incubation cavity is constituted by the lid (13) so that removal of the cap renders the incubation cavity fully accessible.......There is provided a bioreactor which is provided with a lid (13) that facilitates access to the incubation cavity. Specifically the end wall of the incubation cavity is constituted by the lid (13) so that removal of the cap renders the incubation cavity fully accessible....

  6. Accuracy of egg flotation throughout incubation to determine embryo age and incubation day in waterbird nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2010-01-01

    Floating bird eggs to estimate their age is a widely used technique, but few studies have examined its accuracy throughout incubation. We assessed egg flotation for estimating hatch date, day of incubation, and the embryo's developmental age in eggs of the American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana), Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's Tern (Sterna forsteri). Predicted hatch dates based on egg flotation during our first visit to a nest were highly correlated with actual hatch dates (r = 0.99) and accurate within 2.3 ± 1.7 (SD) days. Age estimates based on flotation were correlated with both day of incubation (r = 0.96) and the embryo's developmental age (r = 0.86) and accurate within 1.3 ± 1.6 days and 1.9 ± 1.6 days, respectively. However, the technique's accuracy varied substantially throughout incubation. Flotation overestimated the embryo's developmental age between 3 and 9 days, underestimated age between 12 and 21 days, and was most accurate between 0 and 3 days and 9 and 12 days. Age estimates based on egg flotation were generally accurate within 3 days until day 15 but later in incubation were biased progressively lower. Egg flotation was inaccurate and overestimated embryo age in abandoned nests (mean error: 7.5 ± 6.0 days). The embryo's developmental age and day of incubation were highly correlated (r = 0.94), differed by 2.1 ± 1.6 days, and resulted in similar assessments of the egg-flotation technique. Floating every egg in the clutch and refloating eggs at subsequent visits to a nest can refine age estimates.

  7. Innovation Incubator: Whisker Labs Technical Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, Bethany F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frank, Stephen M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Earle, Lieko [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scheib, Jennifer G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The Wells Fargo Innovation Incubator (IN2) is a program to foster and accelerate startup companies with commercial building energy-efficiency and demand management technologies. The program is funded by the Wells Fargo Foundation and co-administered by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Whisker Labs, an Oakland, California-based company, was one of four awardees in the first IN2 cohort and was invited to participate in the program because of its novel electrical power sensing technology for circuit breakers. The stick-on Whisker meters install directly on the front face of the circuit breakers in an electrical panel using adhesive, eliminating the need to open the panel and install current transducers (CTs) on the circuit wiring.

  8. INNOVATION CLUSTERS: SOCIAL LEARNING AND BUSINESS INCUBATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Deac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A sustainable innovation is more expensive than a regular one but it may lead to long termbenefits and durable competitive advantage, especially if many firms from the networkcollude or act within constrained environments such as business incubators. The opinionformation process, which leads to sustainable innovation, may be viewed as a collectivecognitive process resembling that of branding and re-branding. Technological innovationscan be viewed as sequences of cost reduction events and, in a many-firm setting, sociallearning which leads to sustainability-oriented behaviour depends on (mutual trustrelations. The experimental modelling part of the paper illustrates selected aspects of theconcept just outlined by developing a stylized dynamic model of the firm.

  9. RELIABILITY ASSESSMENTS OF INFANT INCUBATOR AND THE ANALYZER

    OpenAIRE

    Özdemirci, Emre; Özarslan Yatak, Meral; Duran, Fecir; Canal, Mehmet Rahmi

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 80% of newborn in Turkey are put in neonatal incubators because of their problematic cases. Incubators used for treatment may adversely affect baby’s health seriously, if they adjusts or measures the parameters incorrectly. In this study, complications arisen because of inaccurate adjustment and measurement of incubator parameters were investigated. Current infant incubator analyzers were researched and the deficiencies were evaluated considering the standards and clin...

  10. The Impact of the Incubator on the Internationalization of Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Engelman; Aurora Carneiro zen; Edi Madalena Fracasso

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to examine how technology incubators contribute to the internationalization of incubated Brazilian companies. To do so, was developed a framework that, in addition to supporting research, can be used to provide a basis for studies of internationalization in small technology-based companies and incubators and to assist their managers. By comparing the factors identified as influencing internationalization and the actions and services provided by the technology incubators, an in...

  11. Egg incubator control system with short message service (sms) fault ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The egg incubator system with temperature sensor can measure the state of the incubator and automatically change to the suitable condition for the egg. The health of the egg is very important for the development of embryo. The status condition in the incubator system will appear on the liquid crystal display (LCD) screen.

  12. Effects of oil transferred from incubating gulls to their eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, K.A.; LeFever, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    No. 2 fuel oil, or water, was applied to the breast feathers of incubating laughing gulls trapped at their nest site on an island colony in Texas. Gulls were released after treatment and allowed to incubate their eggs for 5 days. Oil was transferred from the feathers of incubating adults to their eggs and resulted in 41% embryo mortality compared with 2% in controls.

  13. Anguillicola crassus (Nematoda, Dracunculoidea) infections of European eel (Anguila anguilla) in the Netherlands : epidemiology, pathogenensis and pathobiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haenen, O.L.M.

    1995-01-01


    In the 1980s an eel parasitic nematode, Anguillicola crassus (Nematoda, Dracunculoidea), which infects the swimbladder of European eels ( Anguilla anguilla ) and other freshwater fish species, was introduced into The Netherlands. This thesis

  14. Ultrastructure of the body wall of Cystidicoloides ephemeridarum (Nematoda, Cystidicolidae) in relation to the histopathology of this nematode in salmonids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frantová, Denisa; Moravec, František

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 2 (2003), s. 100-108 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB6022305 Grant - others:GA FRVŠ(CZ) 1262/2002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Nematoda * ultrastructure Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2003

  15. Comparative studies on intestine ultrastructure of third-stage larvae and adults of Cystidicoloides ephemeridarum (Nematoda, Cystidicolidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frantová, Denisa; Moravec, František

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 5 (2004), s. 377-383 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB6022305 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Nematoda * Cystidicolidae * ultrastructure Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.060, year: 2004

  16. Redescription of Parapharyngodon micipsae (Seurat 1917) (Nematoda Pharyngodonidae) from the new host Tarentola parvicarinata Joger 1980 (Squamata Gekkonidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mašová, Š.; Baruš, Vlastimil; Hodová, I.; Koubek, Petr; Koubková, B.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 2 (2009), s. 243-255 ISSN 0394-6975 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : parasite * Nematoda * gecko * Senegal * West Africa Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.706, year: 2009

  17. Towards a distinction between technology incubators and non-technology incubators: can they contribute to economic growth?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratinho, Tiago; Harms, Rainer; Groen, Arend J.; Fink, M.; Hatak, I.

    2010-01-01

    Business incubators are an increasingly popular tool for promoting job and wealth creation. Yet given the heterogeneity of incubation models, it is not always clear how incubators operate, what their main characteristics are and how can they best contribute to job and wealth creation. If technology

  18. Marketing Plan for the National Security Technology Incubator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-03-31

    This marketing plan was developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project by the Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University. The vision of the National Security Technology Incubator program is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety and security. The plan defines important aspects of developing the incubator, such as defining the target market, marketing goals, and creating strategies to reach the target market while meeting those goals. The three main marketing goals of the incubator are: 1) developing marketing materials for the incubator program; 2) attracting businesses to become incubator participants; and 3) increasing name recognition of the incubator program on a national level.

  19. Stellar 'Incubators' Seen Cooking up Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 This image composite compares visible-light and infrared views from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope of the glowing Trifid Nebula, a giant star-forming cloud of gas and dust located 5,400 light-years away in the constellation Sagittarius. Visible-light images of the Trifid taken with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, Baltimore, Md. (inside left, figure 1) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, Ariz., (outside left, figure 1) show a murky cloud lined with dark trails of dust. Data of this same region from the Institute for Radioastronomy millimeter telescope in Spain revealed four dense knots, or cores, of dust (outlined by yellow circles), which are 'incubators' for embryonic stars. Astronomers thought these cores were not yet ripe for stars, until Spitzer spotted the warmth of rapidly growing massive embryos tucked inside. These embryos are indicated with arrows in the false-color Spitzer picture (right, figure 1), taken by the telescope's infrared array camera. The same embryos cannot be seen in the visible-light pictures (left, figure 1). Spitzer found clusters of embryos in two of the cores and only single embryos in the other two. This is one of the first times that multiple embryos have been observed in individual cores at this early stage of stellar development.

  20. National Alliance for Clean Energy Incubators New Mexico Clean Energy Incubator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Suzanne S.

    2004-12-15

    The National Alliance for Clean Energy Incubators was established by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop an emerging network of business incubators for entrepreneurs specializing in clean energy enterprises. The Alliance provides a broad range of business services to entrepreneurs in specific geographic locales across the U.S. and in diverse clean energy technology areas such as fuel cells, alternative fuels, power generation, and renewables, to name a few. Technology Ventures Corporation (TVC) participates in the Alliance from its corporate offices in Albuquerque, NM, and from its sites in Northern and Southern New Mexico, California, and Nevada. TVC reports on the results of its attempts to accelerate the growth and success of clean energy and energy efficiency companies through its array of business support services. During the period from September 2002 through September 2004, TVC describes contributions to the Alliance including the development of 28 clients and facilitating capital raises exceeding $35M.

  1. A new species of Thelastomathidae (Nematoda) a parasite of Neocurtilla claraziana Saussure (Orthoptera, Gryllotalpidae) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camino, Nora B; Maiztegui, Bárbara

    2002-07-01

    Gryllophila cephalobulata n. sp. (Nematoda, Thelastomatidae) a parasite of the mole cricket Neocurtilla claraziana (Orthoptera, Gryllotalpidae) isolated in Buenos Aires Province, is described and illustrated. It is characterized by cuticle annulated all along the length of the body; the first ring has 4 lobules, the second one has 14 lobules, the others rings are simple, the stoma is short and has 4 small teeth, the genital papillae are arranged in 5 pairs, of which 3 pairs are preanal and 2 pairs are postanal. The tail appendage of the male is long and filiform.

  2. Identifikasi Fusarium dan Nematoda Parasitik yang Berasosiasi dengan Penyakit Kuning Lada di Kalimantan Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryanti Suryanti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pepper (Piper nigrum, known as the “King of Spices” is one of the most important spices. In the international market, Indonesian pepper has high selling value, due to its flavor characteristics. Pepper yellowing disease is one of the most important disease that caused the decrease of pepper production and become the main problem in the cultivation of pepper in West Kalimantan. This research was conducted to determine the major causal agent of leaf yellowing disease of pepper. The Fusarium associated with diseased plant were isolated from the symptomatic plant and nematodes were isolated from the root with leaf yellowing symptom. The Fusarium isolates were cultured on agar medium, and the nematode was cultured on tomato plant. From diseased pepper in West Kalimantan, it was isolated 4 Fusarium isolates and plant parasitic nematode Meloidogyne. The result showed that H isolate of Fusarium was the most virulent isolate and identified asFusarium solani. The Meloidogyne was identified by the female perenial patern.The nematode was identified as Meloidogyne incognita. INTISARI Lada (Piper nigrum L. merupakan salah satu jenis rempah penting yang telah dikenal sebagai “King of Spices”. Di pasar internasional, lada Indonesia mempunyai daya jual tinggi karena cita rasanya yang khas. Salah satu kendala dalam budidaya lada adalah adanya penyakit kuning lada dan sampai saat ini menjadi masalah utama pada pertanaman lada di Kalimantan Barat. Informasi tentang patogen utama yang berinteraksi dengan penyakit kuning lada masih sangat terbatas, sehingga penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi patogen utama yang berasosiasi dengan penyakit kuning lada. Isolasi Fusarium dilakukan dari batang lada dan isolasi nematoda dilakukan dari akar lada yang bergejala penyakit kuning di Kalimantan Barat. Fusarium hasil isolasi dikulturkan dalam medium agar, sedangkan nematoda hasil isolasi dikulturkan dalam akar tomat. Dari hasil isolasi berhasil didapatkan

  3. New species of Parapharyngodon (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) in Phymaturus spp. (Iguania: Liolaemidae) from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramallo, Geraldine; Bursey, Charles; Castillo, Gabriel; Acosta, Juan Carlos

    2016-09-01

    Parapharyngodon sanjuanensis sp. nov. (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) from the large intestines of Phymaturus punae and Phymaturus williamsi (Squamata: Liolaemidae) from province of San Juan, Argentina, is described and illustrated. Parapharyngodon sanjuanensis sp. nov. is the 54th species assigned to the genus and the 8th from the Neotropical region. It differs from other species in the genus in that males possess 8 caudal papillae, 6 of which are large and pedunculate, 2 are small, almost inconspicuous; anterior lip echinate, posterior lip bilobate; females possess prominent vulva and short stiff tail spike.

  4. Business Incubation in Chile: Development, Financing and Financial Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Chandra

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Business incubation in Chile is still in its nascent stages, with approximately 27 incubators supported primarily by a coalition of government and universities. Chilean business incubators tend to capitalize on regional resource strengths and have a strategic focus on high growth, high innovation, high impact businesses as a result of a government mandate to focus on developing business with high potential for economic development and job creation. The government’s efforts to create the framework conditions for entrepreneurship by investing in business incubators, organizing risk capital for early stage ventures to fill capital market gaps and support for angel networks as well as incubator funding are discussed. Policy implications for the continued growth of the incubation industry are provided.

  5. Short Nissl staining for incubated cryostat sections of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroos, O F

    1991-01-01

    Nissl stain often binds poorly to cryostat sections which have been incubated in solutions of radiolabeled ligands. Such incubation is used in receptor autoradiography of the brain when using the in vitro method. We have developed a rapid (16 min) modification of Nissl staining for sections that bind stain poorly, e.g., incubated sections. The method stains well sections which cannot be stained with other rapid Nissl staining methods.

  6. Study of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields in infant incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermáková, Eleonora

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the work was to present the results of measurements of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF EMF), namely the magnetic flux density, inside infant incubators, and to compare these results with the data published by other authors who point out to a possible association between leukemia or other diseases observed in newborns kept in incubators after the birth and the ELF EMF exposure in the incubator. The measured magnetic flux densities were compared with the reference values for this frequency range indicated in the European Union (EU) recommendations. The repeated measurements in incubators were made with a calibrated magnetometer EFA 300 in the frequency range of 5-30 kHz. Effective values of magnetic flux densities of ELF EMF were determined taking account of the reference values. The results of many repeated measurements showing the values of magnetic flux density in modern incubators with plastic supporting frame, were compared with those obtained in old type incubators with iron skeleton. A power frequency of 50 Hz was detected in the incubator and the ELF EMF values were by over two orders lower than the EU reference values. The paper emphasizes the need to take a special care of newborns kept in incubators even if only the sub-reference values are detected. The EU reference values are intended for the adult human population. A baby in an incubator has much smaller dimensions, higher electric conductivity and maybe trigger another mechanism of response to ELF EMF than that indicated in this paper.

  7. Incubator Display Software Cost Reduction Toolset Software Requirements Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Susanne; Jeffords, Ralph

    2005-01-01

    The Incubator Display Software Requirements Specification was initially developed by Intrinsyx Technologies Corporation (Intrinsyx) under subcontract to Lockheed Martin, Contract Number NAS2-02090, for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center (ARC) Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP). The Incubator Display is a User Payload Application (UPA) used to control an Incubator subrack payload for the SSBRP. The Incubator Display functions on-orbit as part of the subrack payload laptop, on the ground as part of the Communication and Data System (CDS) ground control system, and also as part of the crew training environment.

  8. Avian Incubation Patterns Reflect Temporal Changes in Developing Clutches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caren B Cooper

    Full Text Available Incubation conditions for eggs influence offspring quality and reproductive success. One way in which parents regulate brooding conditions is by balancing the thermal requirements of embryos with time spent away from the nest for self-maintenance. Age related changes in embryo thermal tolerance would thus be expected to shape parental incubation behavior. We use data from unmanipulated Black-capped Chickadee (Poecile atricapillus nests to examine the temporal dynamics of incubation, testing the prediction that increased heat flux from eggs as embryos age influences female incubation behavior and/or physiology to minimize temperature fluctuations. We found that the rate of heat loss from eggs increased with embryo age. Females responded to increased egg cooling rates by altering incubation rhythms (more frequent, shorter on- and off- bouts, but not brood patch temperature. Consequently, as embryos aged, females were able to increase mean egg temperature and decrease variation in temperature. Our findings highlight the need to view full incubation as more than a static rhythm; rather, it is a temporally dynamic and finely adjustable parental behavior. Furthermore, from a methodological perspective, intra- and inter-specific comparisons of incubation rhythms and average egg temperatures should control for the stage of incubation.

  9. Influence of incubation management on pipping position, hatching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of incubation management on pipping position, hatching ability and survival of ostrich chicks. Z Brand, SWP Cloete, IA Malecki, CR Brown. Abstract. Despite numerous studies, the effect of artificial incubation on the hatchability and survival of near-term ostrich chicks is still not well understood. Records from 13 975 ...

  10. Meeting embryonic requirements of broilers throughout incubation: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Molenaar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available During incubation of chicken embryos, environmental conditions, such as temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 concentration, must be controlled to meet embryonic requirements that change during the different phases of embryonic development. In the current review, the effects of embryo temperature, egg weight loss, and CO2 concentration on hatchability, hatchling quality, and subsequent performance are discussed from an embryonic point of view. In addition, new insights related to the incubation process are described. Several studies have shown that a constant eggshell temperature (EST of 37.5 to 38.0°C throughout incubation results in the highest hatchability, hatchling quality, and subsequent performance. Egg weight loss must be between 6.5 and 14.0% of the initial egg weight, to obtain an adequate air cell size before the embryo internally pips. An increased CO2 concentration during the developmental phase of incubation (first 10 days can accelerate embryonic development and hatchability, but the physiological mechanisms of this acceleration are not completely understood. Effects of ar increased CO2 concentration during late incubation also need further investigation. The preincubation warming profile, thermal manipulation, and in ovo feeding are new insights related to the incubation process and show that the optimal situation for the embryo during incubation highly depends on the conditions of the eggs before (storage duration and during incubation (environmental conditions and on the conditions of the chickens after hatching (environmental temperature.

  11. Development Of A Biogas-Powered Poultry Egg Incubator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study advances the utilization of biogas energy for chick production. A wooden frame still-air incubator was developed, which uses biogas as a fuel to supply heat through a burner installed at the base. A no-load test was carried out during which incubator temperatures were calibrated against ambient temperatures ...

  12. Business Incubators: A Review. Digest Number 97-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, Gwyer

    A business incubator is an organization of services designed to nurture new businesses. Services that can be offered include management assistance, access to financing, business or technical support services, and shared office services. In 1997, 550 incubators served more than 13,000 clients, affiliates, and graduates. More than 80 percent of the…

  13. Are incubators the new wonder tool for entrepreneurship education?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toon Buddingh

    2014-01-01

    In the nineties of the last century, a lot of (ICT) incubators started in the Netherlands, many private (GorillaPark, Ant Factory, Lost Boys and Newconomy), some public, such as Twinning. Most of them stopped early this century or gone bankrupt. From 2005 university incubators like YesDelft!,

  14. State of the art incubator for controlled atmosphere studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1998-01-01

    in the design of the incubator, due to their importance for the final performance of the incubator. This includes choice of temperature control system, humidification system, gas addition and control, data collection and process control, and the physical design which includes airlocks for taking out samples...

  15. Business Incubators: Creation of a Fit in Armenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorian, A.; Ratinho, Tiago; Harms, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the extent to which business incubation services meet tenant’s needs. Additionally, we pose the question of whether the current business incubators actually cover the needs of a particular industry. Our empirical setting is a developing country in the Caucasian Region

  16. [Centralized management strategy of the infant incubators in NICUs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-cheng

    2005-07-01

    There are many problems existing at present in the incubator applications and management. Among them, the prominent problems are their cleaning and disinfection. We hope to find, through the centralized management and clinical engineering, an efficient strategy in order to get more reasonable and better maintenance, cleaning and training for infant incubators in NICUs. Scientific management will provide an excellent service to infant patients.

  17. Improvements in and relating to the incubation of samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagshawe, K.D.

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus is described for incubating a plurality of biological samples and particularly as part of an analysis, e.g. radioimmunoassay or enzyme assay, of the samples. The apparatus is comprised of an incubation station with a plurality of containers to which samples together with diluent and reagents are supplied. The containers are arranged in rows in two side-by-side columns and are circulated sequentially. Sample removal means is provided either at a fixed location or at a movable point relative to the incubator. Circulation of the containers and the length of sample incubation time is controlled by a computer. The incubation station may include a plurality of sections with the columns in communication so that rows of samples can be moved from the column of one section to the column of an adjacent section, to provide alternative paths for circulation of the samples. (author)

  18. The Impact of the Incubator on the Internationalization of Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Engelman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine how technology incubators contribute to the internationalization of incubated Brazilian companies. To do so, was developed a framework that, in addition to supporting research, can be used to provide a basis for studies of internationalization in small technology-based companies and incubators and to assist their managers. By comparing the factors identified as influencing internationalization and the actions and services provided by the technology incubators, an integrated model with four constructs (entrepreneurs; organizational characteristics; network; foreign market was built. The results demonstrate that incubation positively affects the internationalization of companies and indicate the actions and services that contribute towards the internationalization, as also reveals aspects that could be improved.

  19. Effects of Ascorbic Acid Injection in Incubated Eggs Submitted to Heat Stress on Incubation Parameters and Chick Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sgavioli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dose-dependent positive effects on hatchability and hatchling weight have been attributed to ascorbic acid (AA when eggs were submitted or not to intermittent heat stress during incubation. Fertile breeder (Cobb(r eggs were used to determine if the pre-incubation injection of AA in ovo affects the incubation and hatchling quality of egg incubated under thermoneutral or intermittent heat stress conditions. Eggs were not injected or injected with 0, 2,4, or 6% AA/100µL water and incubated at continuous thermoneutral (37.5ºC or hot (39.0ºC temperature. Eggshell temperature (EST increased in the second half of the incubation period in all experimental groups. The EST of non-injected eggs and of those injected with water was higher when incubated at 39°C than at 37.5°C, but EST was not different among eggs injected with AA. Egg mass loss and eggshell conductance were higher in the eggs incubated at 39°C than at 37.5°C.Hatchability was lower in the eggs injected with AA. Liver and yolk sac weights were higher, whereas heart and liver weights were lower in hatchlings from eggs incubated at 39°C; however, hatchling weight was not affected by incubation temperature. The results showed that AA doses affected egg conductive heat loss and hatchability, and that they did not minimize the effects of high incubation temperature on liver and heart development.

  20. Proleptus acutus Dujardin, 1845 (Nematoda, Physalopteridae parasite of rays Zapteryx brevirostris Müller & Henle, 1841 (Rhinobatiformes, Rhinobatidae in Brazil Proleptus acutus Dujardin, 1845 (Nematoda, Physalopteridae parasita de raias Zapteryx brevirostris Müller & Henle, 1841 (Rhinobatiformes, Rhinobatidae no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a ocorrência de Proleptus acutus Dujardin, 1845 (Nematoda, Physalopteridae parasitando Zapteryx brevirostris Müller & Henle, 1841 (Rhinobatiformes, Rhinobatidae em Ubatuba, estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Vinte raias foram analisadas e P. acutus foi encontrado no estômago e intestinos de 14 (70% animais. Este é o primeiro relato da ocorrência dessa espécie de nematóide em Z. brevirostris no Brasil.

  1. Creativity – The Unconscious Foundations of the Incubation Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone M. eRitter

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Creativity is one of the most important assets we have to navigate through the fast changing world of the 21st century. Anecdotal accounts of creative individuals suggest that oftentimes, creative discoveries result from a process whereby initial conscious thought is followed by a period during which one refrains from task-related conscious thought. For example, one may spend an embarrassing amount of time thinking about a problem when the solution suddenly pops into consciousness while taking a shower. Not only creative individuals but also traditional theories of creativity have put a lot of emphasis on this incubation stage in creative thinking. The aim of the present article is twofold. First, an overview of the domain of incubation and creativity is provided by reviewing and discussing studies on incubation, mind-wandering, and sleep. Second, the causes of incubation effects are discussed. Previously, little attention has been paid to the causes of incubation effects and most findings do not really speak to whether the effects should be explained by unconscious processes or merely by consequences of a period of distraction. In the latter case, there is no need to assume active unconscious processes. The findings discussed in the current article support the idea that it is not merely the absence of conscious thought that drives incubation effects, but that during an incubation period unconscious processes contribute to creative thinking. Finally, practical implications and directions for future research will be discussed.

  2. Principles and Best Practices in Successful Tourism Business Incubators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea F. Şchiopu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The business incubators are entities that provide support to start-up companies, managing the obstacles faced by entrepreneurs and facilitating the hazardous process of business creation. This article aims to identify the existing views on best practices that can contribute to the achieving of business incubators’ objectives. Moreover, the present study investigates how the business incubators can ensure the success of tourism, with evidence grounded in both theory and case studies from around the world. In this paper, the authors have identified several types of incubators that could be used successfully for the benefit of start-ups in the tourism sector, such as network incubators, incubators in ecotourism or nature-based incubators. The authors also propose a new perspective on best practices in business incubation, emphasizing the role of the emotions that entrepreneurs have to cope with. Even though the studies in this area are still scarce, the authors strongly believe that this will be a topic highly discussed in the near future, given the fact that emotion and logical thought are intertwined, interacting in complex ways during problem solving, decision making, and other important forms of cognition that entrepreneurs use when pursuing their ventures.

  3. Aligning business strategy of incubator center and tenants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyawan, Yudha; Agustiani, Elly; Jumayla, Sari

    2017-06-01

    Incubator center is developed to help a particular group of small business players to achieve the expected business growth. In this center, business players often called as tenants will get assistances in pertaining with space, professional network, marketing, investment or funding, and training to improve their business capability. There are three types of incubator center, namely universities that help their alumni or business people in their surrounded area, company that supports small business as the corporate social responsibility, and independent organizations that have specialties in the business development. Some might success in increasing the capacity of the tenants, while other can have difficulties to increase the simplest business capability, e.g., to define the production cost to measure the profit. This study was intended to propose a model to align the business strategy between incubator center and its tenants. The sales and profit growth are the main priorities for the tenants together with their business capability and sustainability. The proposed alignment model provides measurement tools that link the motivation of tenants for joining the incubation process with the mission of incubator center. The linkage covered the key performance indicators (KPI), steps to achieve the target and evaluation tools to improve the current handicaps. An experiment on 4 (four) diverse business fields of the tenants of an incubator center was performed to test the model. As a result, the increase of KPI of incubator center will simultaneously yield a higher value of the tenants' sales.

  4. Kemampuan Isolataktinomisetes Menghasilkan Enzim yang Dapatmerusak Kulit Telur Nematoda Puru-Akar Meloidogyne spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Rahayu TP

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil microbes including actinomycetes are known to produce various hydrolytic enzymes and antibiotics that can be used as biological controlling agents nematode. Therefore, surveys conducted in several areas in Yogyakarta, Central Java and East Java, to search for actinomycetes with chitinolytic, proteolytic, and chitino-proteolytic activity. Isolation of Actinomycetes produced 84 isolates, and most was obtained from shrimp head waste (26 isolates. After the selection based on their ability to hydrolyze chitines and protein in the medium, those whith the highest chitin and protein hydrolysis activity, are consecutive PSJ 27, TL 8, and TL 10 isolates. Test results of crude enzyme produced by selected isolates against root-knot nematode eggshell, showed that the isolates that have chitino-proteolytic activity (TL 10, is a highly effective isolate in damage eggshell. There are three types of damage to the nematode eggs. In the young eggs, crude enzyme preparation causing damage on vitelline and chitin layers. In the older eggs, preparation of crude enzyme cause premature hatching.   Sebagian mikrobia tanah, termasuk aktinomisetes, diketahui mampu menghasilkan berbagai enzim hidrolitik dan antibiotik yang dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai agens pengendalian hayati nematoda. Oleh karena itu,survei dilakukan di beberapa daerah di Yogyakarta, Jawa Tengah, dan Jawa Timur untuk mencari aktinomisetes yang mempunyai aktivitas kitinolitik, proteolitik dan kitino-proteolitik. Isolasi aktinomisetes menghasilkan 84 isolat, dan yang terbanyak diperoleh dari limbah kepala udang (26 isolat. Setelah dilakukan seleksi berdasarkan kemampuannya menghidrolisis kitin dan protein dalam medium, yang mempunyai aktivitas hidrolisis protein, kitin, protein dan kitin tertinggi berturut-turut adalah isolat PSJ 27, TL 8, dan TL 10. Hasil uji enzim kasar yang dihasilkan isolat terpilih terhadap perusakan kulit telur nematoda puru-akar menunjukkan bahwa isolat yang memiliki

  5. Tricholeiperia peruensis n. sp. (Nematoda, Molineidae) del quiróptero Lophostoma silvicolum occidentalis (Phyllostomidae) en Tumbes, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Marina; Martínez, Rosa; Tantaleán V, Manuel; Cadenillas, Richard; Pacheco, Víctor

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, Tricholeiperia peruensis. n sp. (Nematoda, Molineidae) is described on the basis of 25 collected specimens from 5 bat intestines of the Lophostoma silvicolum occidentalis species from Angostura, district of Pampas de Hospital, department of Tumbes, Peru. The new species is characterized by the morphology of the cephalic vesicle in the form of hood with recesses, for the size and form of spikes whose distal end of the external branch is divided in 2 from which the internal...

  6. Navigating the Role of Business Incubators: A Review on the Current Literature on Business Incubation in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thobekani Lose

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Business incubators (BIs are a significant tool in promoting the development of entrepreneurial firms, technology-based growth firms and economic growth in South Africa. The study reviewed the current literature on business incubation in South Africa. BIs in South Africa emerged as a popular strategy in the 1990s and most of the current literature was established in the same period. However, the current literature is still limited. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of existing knowledge on the role and effectiveness of business incubation in supporting the development of new small startup businesses. The quantitative and qualitative literature published by the academic and practitioner communities is reviewed. The searches indicated that incubation has encouraged many studies in South Africa. The studies can be categorised under the following themes: the role and contribution of incubators, success factors for business incubation, obstacles, and the relationship between incubators and entrepreneurship. The areas for further research are suggested. Two major areas that new research can explore focus on the creation of the model and selfsustainability of BIs.

  7. Redescription of Dracunculus globocephalus Mackin, 1927 (Nematoda: Dracunculidae), a parasite of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Frantisek; Little, M D

    2004-12-01

    Dracunculus globocephalus Mackin, 1927 (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) is redescribed from specimens collected from the mesentery of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina (L.), in Louisiana, USA. The use of scanning electron microscopy, applied for the first time in this species, made it possible to study details in the structure of the cephalic end and the arrangement of male caudal papillae that are difficult to observe under the light microscope. This species markedly differs from all other species of Dracunculus in having the spicules greatly unequal in size and shape, in the absence of a gubernaculum, and in the disposition of male caudal papillae. The validity of D. globocephalus is confirmed, but the above mentioned morphological differences are not sufficient for listing it in a separate genus. This is the first record of D. globocephalus in Louisiana.

  8. International strategies of business incubation: the USA, Germany and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Tsaplin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine strategies of business incubation in the following countries: the USA, Germany and Russia using both a comparative theoretical analysis of different performance criteria of business incubators and interviewing experts who work directly with startup companies. We find that there are more differences than similarities between the strategies of business incubation in these countries. The USA prove to be far ahead of Germany and especially Russia in supporting start-ups. The study might impact a business practice in the way of clarifying the most significant characteristics and general trends of business incubation strategies in the countries mentioned to take them into account in the process of launching and developing startup companies in one or another country.

  9. Particle size alterations of feedstuffs during in situ NDF incubation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krämer, Monika; Nørgaard, P.; Lund, Peter

    2013-01-01

    feedstuffs with a decrease of 74 % between 24 h and 288 h in situ rumen incubation. Together with the highest mass proportion (20 %) of particles in the critical zone for escape (smaller than 0.005 mm2 in area) for late cut grass silage after 288 h in situ rumen incubation, this imposes a risk for particle...... evaluated in terms of particle size for a broad range of feedstuffs which typically serve as NDF sources in dairy cow rations. Early and late cut grass silages, corn silage, alfalfa silage, rapeseed meal and dried distillers grains were examined. Treatments were I) drying and grinding of forage samples...... and grinding of concentrates, II) neutral detergent soluble (NDS) extraction, III) machine-washing and NDS extraction, IV) 24 h rumen incubation, machine-washing and NDS extraction, and V) 288 h rumen incubation, machine-washing and NDS extraction. Degradation profiles for potentially degradable NDF were...

  10. Influence of incubation management on pipping position, hatching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Technology

    Despite numerous studies, the effect of artificial incubation on the .... effects of environmental factors such as production year, season, female age, ... Eggs were obtained from the commercial ostrich breeding flock maintained at the Oudtshoorn.

  11. Learning Incubator: an instrument to foster entrepreneurship in Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Dirce Stein; Obem, Marielle Kulakowski; Pereira, Simone Barbosa; Gomes, Carine Alves; Backes, Marli Terezinha Stein; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini

    2015-01-01

    this study aimed to know the contributions of the Learning Incubator to the process of lifelong education in health. this is a qualitative field research whose data was collected from August to December 2014 by the focus group technique. The research had 34 employees of a Teaching Hospital in the central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul that participated previously in the incubation process. from the data encoded by content analysis, three themes were selected: Learning Incubator - welcoming and integrating space; An instigating instrument that enhances possibilities; Continuous and lifelong education strategy. the Learning Incubator is an important instrument to foster entrepreneurship in nursing and other health areas due to its capacity of rethinking mechanized practices, to the possibility of instigating new ways of being and acting, and to the ability of creating and developing new ideas based on individual and institutional needs.

  12. A STUDY ON INDIAN HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTE BASED BUSINESS INCUBATORS

    OpenAIRE

    RANA BASU; DHRUBES BISWAS

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify and explore the various range of business incubation services being provided to the nascent entrepreneurs which is based on comprehensive compilation and subsequent analysis of literature followed by case based approach in context to Indian higher educational institute (HEI) based business incubation centres. The objective behind this research is to critically assess the assistance services and to prioritize the service dimensions provided by the busin...

  13. CO2 emissions from soil incubated with sugarcane straw and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-08-13

    Aug 13, 2014 ... CO2 emissions peaked at 5.45, 10.82, 14.00, 11.92 and 11.20, 14.47, 15.98,and 14.74 µg mol of. CO2 g-1 s-1 within the ... of mineral N for plants and microorganisms. The .... incubation and were highest when incubated at 30°C with average daily ... because the majority of labile C had been consumed.

  14. Principles and Best Practices in Successful Tourism Business Incubators

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea F. Schiopu; Dragos C. Vasile; Claudia E. Tuclea

    2015-01-01

    The business incubators are entities that provide support to start-up companies, managing the obstacles faced by entrepreneurs and facilitating the hazardous process of business creation. This article aims to identify the existing views on best practices that can contribute to the achieving of business incubators’ objectives. Moreover, the present study investigates how the business incubators can ensure the success of tourism, with evidence grounded in both theory and case studies from aroun...

  15. Incubation environment impacts the social cognition of adult lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siviter, Harry; Deeming, D Charles; van Giezen, M F T; Wilkinson, Anna

    2017-11-01

    Recent work exploring the relationship between early environmental conditions and cognition has shown that incubation environment can influence both brain anatomy and performance in simple operant tasks in young lizards. It is currently unknown how it impacts other, potentially more sophisticated, cognitive processes. Social-cognitive abilities, such as gaze following and social learning, are thought to be highly adaptive as they provide a short-cut to acquiring new information. Here, we investigated whether egg incubation temperature influenced two aspects of social cognition, gaze following and social learning in adult reptiles ( Pogona vitticeps ). Incubation temperature did not influence the gaze following ability of the bearded dragons; however, lizards incubated at colder temperatures were quicker at learning a social task and faster at completing that task. These results are the first to show that egg incubation temperature influences the social cognitive abilities of an oviparous reptile species and that it does so differentially depending on the task. Further, the results show that the effect of incubation environment was not ephemeral but lasted long into adulthood. It could thus have potential long-term effects on fitness.

  16. The Rufous Hornero (Furnarius rufus) nest as an incubation chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Felipe L S; Braga, Talita V; Roper, James J

    2015-01-01

    Foraging and incubation are mutually exclusive activities for parent birds. A trade-off is generated when a combination of food availability and temperature regulation force birds to choose one and neglect the other, at least temporarily. The Rufous Hornero builds large, oven-like, mud nests, the evolutionary cause of which remains unknown. We tested that temperature variation inside the nest is that which is expected if one function of the nest were for temperate regulation. If so, this would suggest that the nest works as an incubation chamber (but which now may serve more than one function). We divided nests into two natural treatments: nests that received more continuous direct sunshine (sun), and those that received less direct sunshine, due to shade from trees or buildings (shade). Thermometer data loggers were placed in the nest cavity and outside, in the shade of the nest, and temperature was measured every 10min. We predicted that temperatures would consistently be higher and less variable in nests than outside nests. Also, at higher ambient temperatures the nest would function better as an incubation chamber as a consequence of having evolved in a hotter climate. Thus, in Curitiba, where temperatures are lower than where the species (and nest) evolved, nests in greater sunshine should have thermal characteristics that support the incubation chamber hypothesis. Predictions were supported: with Repeated Measures ANOVA and t-tests, we found that temperatures were more constant and higher in nests, especially when in the sun, and as the season progressed (hotter ambient temperatures). We conclude that the large mud nest of the Rufous Hornero works as an incubation chamber that likely evolved to help resolve the incubation-foraging trade-off in the very seasonal and hot regions where the bird evolved. Thus, as an incubation chamber, the nest allows the bird to forage rather than incubate thereby resolving the foraging-incubation trade-off and potentially

  17. Business Incubators - the savior of startups? : An exploratory study on knowledge acquisition in a business incubator from a startup perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Pettersson, Beatrice; Götsén, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Startups play a vital role in economic development, however, have a high rate of failure, partly due to insufficient knowledge resources. A business incubator is an institution aimed to assist startups with services and resources in order to facilitate their development. There is, however, a gap in previous research regarding knowledge flows and acquisition in business incubators. Furthermore, few scholars have conducted research from the startup perspective in this context. This study, there...

  18. Testing of mechanical ventilators and infant incubators in healthcare institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badnjevic, Almir; Gurbeta, Lejla; Jimenez, Elvira Ruiz; Iadanza, Ernesto

    2017-01-01

    The medical device industry has grown rapidly and incessantly over the past century. The sophistication and complexity of the designed instrumentation is nowadays rising and, with it, has also increased the need to develop some better, more effective and efficient maintenance processes, as part of the safety and performance requirements. This paper presents the results of performance tests conducted on 50 mechanical ventilators and 50 infant incubators used in various public healthcare institutions. Testing was conducted in accordance to safety and performance requirements stated in relevant international standards, directives and legal metrology policies. Testing of output parameters for mechanical ventilators was performed in 4 measuring points while testing of output parameters for infant incubators was performed in 7 measuring points for each infant incubator. As performance criteria, relative error of output parameters for mechanical ventilators and absolute error of output parameters for infant incubators was calculated. The ranges of permissible error, for both groups of devices, are regulated by the Rules on Metrological and Technical Requirements published in the Official Gazette of Bosnia and Herzegovina No. 75/14, which are defined based on international recommendations, standards and guidelines. All ventilators and incubators were tested by etalons calibrated in an ISO 17025 accredited laboratory, which provides compliance to international standards for all measured parameters.The results show that 30% of the tested medical devices are not operating properly and should be serviced, recalibrated and/or removed from daily application.

  19. Incubation times of dinosaur eggs via embryonic metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Scott A.

    2016-08-01

    The incubation times for the eggs of 21 dinosaurs are determined from an estimate of their embyronic metabolic rate and the mass of the hatchlings via a mass growth model based on conservation of energy. Embryos in extant birds and crocodiles are studied in order to determine the best model for embryonic metabolism and growth. These results are used to develop a theoretical model that predicts the incubation times of an egg. This model is applied to dinosaur eggs and provides a unique window into dinosaur reproduction. The dinosaurs studied come from both Saurischia and Ornithischia. The incubation times vary from about 28 days for Archaeopteryx lithographica to about 76 days for Alamosaurus sanjuanensis.

  20. Morphological and molecular characterization of Seuratascaris numidica (Seurat, 1917) (Ascaridida: Ascarididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Xia; Zhang, Kuang; Zhang, Lu-Ping; Li, Liang

    2018-03-26

    Seuratascaris numidica (Seurat, 1917) is a specialized nematode species parasitizing amphibians only. In the present study, the detailed morphology of this poorly known species was studied using light and scanning electron microscopy based on the newly material collected from Hoplobatrachus chinensis (Osbeck) (Amphibia: Anura) in China. We found that the relative length of intestinal caecum in our male specimens (representing 68.4-71.1% of oesophageal length) is slighter longer than the previously reported data (not over 60.0% of oesophageal length). Our SEM observations also revealed the presence of ca. 64-76 small conical denticles on each lip. In addition, Angusticaecum wuyiensis Wang, 1981, collected from Rana schmackeri Boettger (Amphibia: Anura) from Wuyi Mountain in Fujian Province, China was considered as a new synonym of S. numidica. The ITS and cox1 sequences of S. numidica were also sequenced for the first time and there is no nucleotide variability detected in both regions. The present supplementary morphological and molecular data (especially the ITS and cox1 sequences) obtained herein is extremely important and useful to determine the morphological variability, population genetics and phylogenetic position of S. numidica in the future.

  1. The nematode Diplotridena henryi (Nematoda : Diplotriaenoidea) as the possible cause of subcutaneous emphysema and respiratory insufficiency in a great tit (Parus major)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Literák, I.; Baruš, Vlastimil; Hauptmanová, K.; Halouzka, R.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 1 (2003), s. 23-25 ISSN 0440-6605 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Parus major * Nematoda * respiratory insufficiency Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.474, year: 2003

  2. Two new nematode species, Orientatractis campechensis n. sp. and Orientatractis chiapasensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Atractidae) from cichlid fishes in southern Mexico and Nicaragua

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    González-Solís, D.; Moravec, František

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 6 (2004), s. 1443-1449 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Nematoda * Atractidae * parasites of fish Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.439, year: 2004

  3. Evolutionary relationships of Spirurina (Nematoda: Chromadorea: Rhabditida) with special emphasis on dracunculoid nematodes inferred from SSU rRNA gene sequences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wijová, Martina; Moravec, František; Horák, Aleš; Lukeš, Julius

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 9 (2006), s. 1067-1075 ISSN 0020-7519 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0170 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Nematoda * Spirurina * SSU rRNA gene sequences Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 3.337, year: 2006

  4. Soil nematodes (Nematoda) in the Voděradské bučiny National Nature Reserve (Czech Republic) - an overall characterization of the fauna

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Háněl, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 3 (2015), s. 215-234 ISSN 1211-376X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/93/0276 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : soil zoology * ecology * Nematoda * diversity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  5. An annotated list of parasites (Isopoda, Copepoda, Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda and Nematoda) collected in groupers (Serranidae, Epinephelinae) in New Caledonia emphasizes parasite biodiversity in coral reef fish

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Justine, J.-L.; Beveridge, I.; Boxshall, G.A.; Bray, R. A.; Moravec, František; Trilles, J.-P.; Whittington, I.D.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2010), s. 237-262 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Isopoda * Copepoda * Monogenea * Digenea * Cestoda * Nematoda * Serranidae * Epinephelinae * parasite biodiversity * coral reef * New Caledonia Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.533, year: 2010

  6. Broiler incubation. 1. Effect of elevated temperature during late incubation on body weight and organs of chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leksrisompong, N; Romero-Sanchez, H; Plumstead, P W; Brannan, K E; Brake, J

    2007-12-01

    Three experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of increased egg temperature during the final third of incubation on BW, yolk sac, heart, and digestive organs of broiler chicks at hatching. Egg temperatures were found to be approximately 1.0 to 1.5 degrees C higher than incubator air temperature. Elevated egg temperature (39.5 degrees C) after embryonic day 14 generally accelerated hatching time but decreased the relative weight of the heart in all 3 experiments, whereas BW and relative weights of the gizzard, proventriculus, and small intestines were significantly smaller in 2 of 3 experiments as compared with the control (approximately 38.2 degrees C). Relative weights of the yolk sac or liver were significantly larger due to elevated egg temperature in single experiments only. A striking feature of the chicks that developed at an elevated egg temperature was their white color as compared with the yellow color of chicks from eggs incubated at more normal temperatures.

  7. Accuracy of egg flotation throughout incubation to determine embryo age and incubation day in water bird nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2010-01-01

    Floating bird eggs to estimate their age is a widely used technique, but few studies have examined its accuracy throughout incubation. We assessed egg flotation for estimating hatch date, day of incubation, and the embryo's developmental age in eggs of the American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana), Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's Tern (Sterna forsteri). Predicted hatch dates based on egg flotation during our first visit to a nest were highly correlated with actual hatch dates (r = 0.99) and accurate within 2.3 ?? 1.7 (SD) days. Age estimates based on flotation were correlated with both day of incubation (r = 0.96) and the embryo's developmental age (r = 0.86) and accurate within 1.3 ?? 1.6 days and 1.9 ?? 1.6 days, respectively. However, the technique's accuracy varied substantially throughout incubation. Flotation overestimated the embryo's developmental age between 3 and 9 days, underestimated age between 12 and 21 days, and was most accurate between 0 and 3 days and 9 and 12 days. Age estimates based on egg flotation were generally accurate within 3 days until day 15 but later in incubation were biased progressively lower. Egg flotation was inaccurate and overestimated embryo age in abandoned nests (mean error: 7.5 ?? 6.0 days). The embryo's developmental age and day of incubation were highly correlated (r = 0.94), differed by 2.1 ?? 1.6 days, and resulted in similar assessments of the egg-flotation technique. Floating every egg in the clutch and refloating eggs at subsequent visits to a nest can refine age estimates. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2010.

  8. Comparative clinical evaluation of a prototype non-electric transport incubator and an electrical infant incubator in a neonatal unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadeh, Y; Nili, F; Nayeri, F; Wickramasinghe, Y

    2001-09-01

    A new non-electric transport incubator has been developed for transferring babies between health facilities in developing countries. The temperature performance of this prototype was compared with a commercial electric incubator. The warm-up time for the prototype was 51.8 min, compared with 48.1 min for the electric incubator. Forty-five non-distressed premature babies, aged 24-72 h, with a gestational age of less than 37 weeks, were continuously evaluated for a 2 h period. Twenty-five babies, with a mean weight of 2073 g (range 1500-2500 g), were studied in the prototype, and 20 babies, with a mean weight of 2076g (range 1550-2500 g), were studied in the electrical incubator. The rectal and abdominal skin temperature, heart rate, oxygen saturation and respiratory rate of the babies were recorded. The temperature, oxygen and humidity level of the canopy and the room temperature were also measured. The SaO2, heart rate and respiratory rate were within the normal range (in the prototype: 96.5%, 130.5 beats min(-1) and 43 breaths min(-1), respectively; and, in the electric incubator: 96.5%, 128.5 beats min(-1) and 40 breaths min(-1), respectively). No evidence of carbon dioxide narcosis, hypoxia, acidosis or adverse thermoregulatory behaviour were observed in the two groups. The mean rectal temperature for both groups was within the range 36.5 degrees C-37.5 degrees C. There was no significant difference between the measurements of the two groups. The level of oxygen inside the canopy was 21%, and no decrease was observed. The new nonelectric transport incubator confirmed its safety and efficiency in providing a warm environment for non-distressed premature babies over a 2 h period.

  9. Degradation of 14C-ETU in a soil profile investigated by means of incubation in two different incubation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bech, A.; Johannesen, H.

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of the paper is to elucidate the mechanism of biodegradation of ethylenethiourea (ETU) in arable soils, both on the surface and in the deeper layers. The effect of incubation system upon the ETU biodegradation was studied by incubation of undisturbed and mixed soil cores in tubes or flasks respectively. The total mineralization of ETU to CO2 in the ploughed layer and in the deeper layers is investigated by means of biodegradation tests with 14 C-ETU in soil samples collected from 15, 60 and 100 cm depth. ETU microbial biodegradation was studied in a series of tests covering conversion and isolation of ETU degrading microorganisms. (EG) 86 refs

  10. Effect of varying incubation periods on cytotoxicity and virucidal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Backgrounds: Justicia gendarussa Burm.f. has an anti-HIV activity. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of incubation periods on the cytotoxicity and virucidal activities of the J. gendarussa leaves extract on MOLT-4 cells. Materials and Methods: The cytotoxicity assay was evaluated by using the WST-1 test with ...

  11. MARKETING CHALLENGES FOR SOUTH AFRICAN PUBLIC SECTOR BUSINESS INCUBATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donaldson Walter James

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship and innovation form the cornerstone of economic development in many developing countries. Through this, rather ideal combination employment can be enhanced, communities can be uplifted through education, and growth can be increased through discretionary purchasing power. This cycle has positive spinoffs which can alleviate poverty and decrease famine. Recent local research suggests that more than eighty percent of entrepreneurs, start-ups and Business ‘Incubatees’ don’t make it through their first year of establishment after leaving a Business Incubator programme. This paper tries to identify some of the marketing challenges faced by Business Incubators, and indeed BIMs in the Public Sector environment in South Africa. Identification and highlighting the possible drawbacks for ‘incubatees’ may assist them with success or meeting competitive challenges when they depart from the security of the relevant programmes. This study examines some of the skills, knowledge and attributes required for BIMs in this sector and what is required to meet the business and marketing challenges faced to remain sustainable. The survey was aimed at the largest, focused segment of South African Business Incubators affiliated to the industrial public sector and the hypothesis was to prove that strategic marketing information, acumen and knowledge is a key differentiator towards the growth and sustainability of Business Incubators in that sector. It is notable that these marketing challenges may also compare favourably with several other public sector segments in relevant countries of the southern African region as similar macroeconomic challenges are faced.

  12. An Agile Innovation Framework Supported through Business Incubators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unal, O.; Afsarmanesh, H.; Angelov, S.; Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Afsarmanesh, H.

    2014-01-01

    Entrepreneurs and SMEs that develop new ideas are the main sources of innovation in products and services in the society. However, due to the lack of required resources and know-how innovation ideas may not develop into full-fledged results. Business incubators can play an important role here. They

  13. note on variable incubation period within a clutch of eggs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compo Biochem. Physiol. 53A: 1-6. MENDELSOHN, 1. M., BIGOS, H. C. & LEDGER, 1. A. In press. The biology of the black-shouldered. NOTE ON VARIABLE. INCUBATION PERIOD WITHIN A. CLUTCH OF EGGS OF THE. LEOPARD TORTOISE. (GEOCHELONE P ARDALIS). (CHELONIA: CRYPTODIRA: TESTUDINIDAE).

  14. The effects of incubation period and temperature on the Hydrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of incubation period and temperature on the Hydrogen sulphide (H 2 S) technique for detection of faecal contamination in water. ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. Journal Home ... A total of 171 water samples from 3 sources were analyzed for the presence of faecal contamination by

  15. Genetic parameters for ostrich incubation traits in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic parameters for ostrich incubation traits in South Africa. Z Brand, S Cloete, I Malecki, C Brown. Abstract. Data obtained from a pair-mated ostrich flock located at Oudtshoorn, South Africa, were used to estimate genetic parameters for egg weight (EWT), weight of day-old chicks (CWT), water loss to 21 (WL21) and 35 ...

  16. Systematic factors that affect ostrich egg incubation traits | Brand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data obtained from a pair-mated ostrich flock maintained at Oudtshoorn, South Africa, were used to estimate environmental and genetic parameters for egg weight (EWT), water loss of incubated eggs up to 21 days (WL21), water loss up to 35 days (WL35), pipping time (PT) and weight of day-old chicks (CWT). Between ...

  17. Business incubators: (how) do they support their tenants?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratinho, Tiago; Harms, Rainer; Groen, Arend J.

    2009-01-01

    Business incubators (BI) have been established worldwide as tools for company creation and small businesses support. BIs claim to help their tenants by providing them with the optimal conditions for increasing early stage survival. Practitioners and researchers agree that business support is a

  18. Encapsulation of Aloe Vera and Its Effect During Yogur Incubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Adolfo Parra Huertas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The yogurt is milk derivative highly consumed around the world,as well as aloe vera. Both have reports tocontribute to human health. The purpose of this research is to determine the effect of the addition of capsules with aloe vera during the incubation of yogurt. Aloeverawas encapsulated in alginate at two different concentrations, 1% and 2%,addingthe capsules from the moment of incubation and comparing the effect of the addition of capsules withthe non-addition of them. For these samples were determined: pH, acidity, syneresis, lactic acid bacteria count, sensory evaluation and proximate analysis. The results indicated that for the three treatments pH values and acid behaved similarly to each characteristic of the yogurt during incubation. The lactic acid bacteria count indicated that treatment with capsules containing 2% sodium alginate had higher counts. Sensorially, three treatments had a favorable acceptability; proximate analysis had favorable values . In conclusion,the tests showed the viability of encapsulated aloe vera in the manufacture of yogurt during incubation time without being affected by the concentration of sodium alginate.

  19. An Automated System for Incubation of Pelagic Fish Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Jørgensen

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available An automated system for incubation of pelagic fish eggs is described. The system has an internal air driven water circulation which separates healthy and dead or strongly infected eggs. A processor controlled, pulsed water exchange provides a strongly reduced water requirement. The equipment has also an automated temperature and salinity control and adjustment.

  20. Factors affecting sleep/vigilance behaviour in incubating mallards

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Javůrková, V.; Hořák, D.; Kreisinger, J.; Klvaňa, P.; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 4 (2011), s. 345-355 ISSN 0179-1613 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB601110803; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : mallard * vigilance * antipredation behaviour * incubation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.008, year: 2011

  1. [The oxygen consumption of ostrich embryos during incubation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, G; Dzapo, V

    1995-02-01

    This work deals with the oxygen consumption of ostrich chicks during incubation. Brood eggs were incubated in a hermetic isolated acrylic-glass cylinder. Reduction of oxygen content in the air surrounding the egg was measured using an oxygen-sensitive electrode. A sigmoid curve could be drawn during incubation, with the steepest phase being around day 26. Maximum oxygen consumption was reached on day 36. It was slightly decreased until day 39, when the embryo switches to lung circulation, followed again by an increase until hatching. Average oxygen consumptions for the whole brood interval were calculated to 63.6 liters. Oxygen volumes consumed on day 36 result in a demand about to 240 liters of fresh air per egg and day. Oxygen consumption of the embryos on day 36 was significantly positive correlated with their vitality. Numb or less vital embryos could be clearly differentiated from others. The higher a chick's oxygen consumption, the earlier and shorter its hatching. Possible applications of the method in regard to the evaluation of incubation parameters or chicken constitution are discussed.

  2. Assessment of predation risk through referential communication in incubating birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Toshitaka N.

    2015-05-01

    Parents of many bird species produce alarm calls when they approach and deter a nest predator in order to defend their offspring. Alarm calls have been shown to warn nestlings about predatory threats, but parents also face a similar risk of predation when incubating eggs in their nests. Here, I show that incubating female Japanese great tits, Parus minor, assess predation risk by conspecific alarm calls given outside the nest cavity. Tits produce acoustically discrete alarm calls for different nest predators: “jar” calls for snakes and “chicka” calls for other predators such as crows and martens. Playback experiments revealed that incubating females responded to “jar” calls by leaving their nest, whereas they responded to “chicka” calls by looking out of the nest entrance. Since snakes invade the nest cavity, escaping from the nest helps females avoid snake predation. In contrast, “chicka” calls are used for a variety of predator types, and therefore, looking out of the nest entrance helps females gather information about the type and location of approaching predators. These results show that incubating females derive information about predator type from different types of alarm calls, providing a novel example of functionally referential communication.

  3. High turnover of fungal hyphae in incubation experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Franciska T; Bååth, Erland; Kuyper, Thom W; Bloem, Jaap

    2009-03-01

    Soil biological studies are often conducted on sieved soils without the presence of plants. However, soil fungi build delicate mycelial networks, often symbiotically associated with plant roots (mycorrhizal fungi). We hypothesized that as a result of sieving and incubating without plants, the total fungal biomass decreases. To test this, we conducted three incubation experiments. We expected total and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal biomass to be higher in less fertilized soils than in fertilized soils, and thus to decrease more during incubation. Indeed, we found that fungal biomass decreased rapidly in the less fertilized soils. A shift towards thicker hyphae occurred, and the fraction of septate hyphae increased. However, analyses of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and neutral lipid fatty acids could not clarify which fungal groups were decreasing. We propose that in our soils, there was a fraction of fungal biomass that was sensitive to fertilization and disturbance (sieving, followed by incubation without plants) with a very high turnover (possibly composed of fine hyphae of AM and saprotrophic fungi), and a fraction that was much less vulnerable with a low turnover (composed of saprotrophic fungi and runner hyphae of AMF). Furthermore, PLFAs might not be as sensitive in detecting changes in fungal biomass as previously thought.

  4. Incubator Baby Shows: A Medical and Social Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Hannah

    2001-01-01

    America's first hospitals for premature infants were built at the turn of the twentieth century at fairs, amusement parks, and expositions. These hospitals represented both a medical and a social frontier. They had a great impact on American medicine because they demonstrated the success of caring for premature infants using incubators. The…

  5. Designing a Low-Cost Multifunctional Infant Incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Kevin; Gibson, Aaron; Wong, Don; Tilahun, Dagmawi; Selock, Nicholas; Good, Theresa; Ram, Geetha; Tolosa, Leah; Tolosa, Michael; Kostov, Yordan; Woo, Hyung Chul; Frizzell, Michael; Fulda, Victor; Gopinath, Ramya; Prasad, J Shashidhara; Sudarshan, Hanumappa; Venkatesan, Arunkumar; Kumar, V Sashi; Shylaja, N; Rao, Govind

    2014-06-01

    Every year, an unacceptably large number of infant deaths occur in developing nations, with premature birth and asphyxia being two of the leading causes. A well-regulated thermal environment is critical for neonatal survival. Advanced incubators currently exist, but they are far too expensive to meet the needs of developing nations. We are developing a thermodynamically advanced low-cost incubator suitable for operation in a low-resource environment. Our design features three innovations: (1) a disposable baby chamber to reduce infant mortality due to nosocomial infections, (2) a passive cooling mechanism using low-cost heat pipes and evaporative cooling from locally found clay pots, and (3) insulated panels and a thermal bank consisting of water that effectively preserve and store heat. We developed a prototype incubator and visited and presented our design to our partnership hospital site in Mysore, India. After obtaining feedback, we have determined realistic, nontrivial design requirements and constraints in order to develop a new prototype incubator for clinical trials in hospitals in India. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  6. Mind Wandering and the Incubation Effect in Insight Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tengteng; Zou, Hong; Chen, Chuansheng; Luo, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Although many anecdotes suggest that creative insights often arise during mind wandering, empirical research is still sparse. In this study, the number reduction task (NRT) was used to assess whether insightful solutions were related to mind wandering during the incubation stage of the creative process. An experience sampling paradigm was used to…

  7. Incubation of Spirometra eggs at laboratory conditions by Modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incubation of Spirometra eggs was conducted in the helminthology laboratory Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Sokoine University of Agriculture during the period July to September, 2012. Spirometra eggs from faeces of naturally infected lions (Panthera leo) from Tarangire National Park, Tanzania were cultured at laboratory ...

  8. A system for incubations at high gas partial pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eSauer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available High-pressure is a key feature of deep subsurface environments. High partial pressure of dissolved gasses plays an important role in microbial metabolism, because thermodynamic feasibility of many reactions depends on the concentration of reactants. For gases, this is controlled by their partial pressure, which can exceed one MPa at in-situ conditions. Therefore, high hydrostatic pressure alone is not sufficient to recreate true deep subsurface in-situ conditions, but the partial pressure of dissolved gasses has to be controlled as well.We developed an incubation system that allows for incubations at hydrostatic pressure up to 60 MPa, temperatures up to 120° C and at high gas partial pressure. The composition and partial pressure of gasses can be manipulated during the experiment. The system is mainly made from off-the-shelf components with only very few custom-made parts. A flexible and inert PVDF incubator sleeve, which is almost impermeable for gases, holds the sample and separates it from the pressure fluid. The flexibility of the incubator sleeve allows for sub-sampling of the medium without loss of pressure. Experiments can be run in both static and flow through mode. The incubation system described here is usable for versatile purposes, not only the incubation of microorganisms and determination of growth rates, but also for chemical degradation or extraction experiments under high gas saturation, e.g. fluid-gas-rock-interactions in relation to carbon dioxide sequestration.As an application of the system we extracted organic acids from sub-bituminous coal using H2O as well as a H2O-CO2 mixture at elevated temperature (90°C and pressure (5 MPa. Subsamples were taken during the incubation and analysed by ion chromatography. Furthermore we demonstrated the applicability of the system for studies of microbial activity, using samples from the Isis mud volcano. We could detect an increase in sulphate reduction rate upon the addition of

  9. Tricholeiperia peruensis n. sp. (Nematoda, Molineidae) del quiróptero Lophostoma silvicolum occidentalis (Phyllostomidae) en Tumbes, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Marina; Martínez, Rosa; Tantaleán, Manuel; Cadenillas, Richard; Pacheco, Víctor

    2008-01-01

    En el presente trabajo, se describe a Tricholeiperia peruensis n. sp. (Nematoda, Molineidae) en base a 25 especímenes colectados del intestino de 5 murciélagos de la especie Lophostoma silvicolum occidentalis de la localidad de Angostura, distrito Pampas de Hospital, departamento de Tumbes, Perú. La nueva especie se caracteriza por la morfología de la vesícula cefálica en forma de capuchón con escotaduras, por el tamaño y forma de las espículas cuyo extremo distal de la rama externa se divide...

  10. A new species of Biacantha (Nematoda: Molineidae), a parasite of the common vampire bat from the Yungas, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Mirna C; Ramallo, Geraldine; Claps, Lucía E; Miotti, M Daniela

    2012-12-01

    A new species of Biacantha Wolfgang, 1954 (Nematoda: Molineidae), is described from the common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus Geoffroy and St. Hilaire, 1810, from northwest Argentina. Biacantha normaliae n. sp. Oviedo, Ramallo, and Claps, is characterized by the disposition and number of ridges of the synlophe, the excretory pore located on a knob, 2 lateral processes on the tail of females, the male caudal bursa morphology, and lack of gubernaculum. This is the first species of nematode described in a vampire bat from Argentina.

  11. Morphology of chimpanzee pinworms, Enterobius (Enterobius) anthropopitheci (Gedoelst, 1916) (Nematoda: Oxyuridae), collected from chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, on Rubondo Island, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Hideo; Ikeda, Yatsukaho; Fujisaki, Akiko; Moscovice, Liza R; Petrzelkova, Klara J; Kaur, Taranjit; Huffman, Michael A

    2005-12-01

    The chimpanzee pinworm, Enterobius (Enterobius) anthropopitheci (Gedoelst, 1916) (Nematoda: Oxyuridae), is redescribed based on light and scanning electron microscopy of both sexes collected from the feces of chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, of an introduced population on Rubondo Island, Tanzania. Enterobius (E.) anthropopitheci is characterized by having a small body (males 1.13-1.83 mm long, females 3.33-4.73 mm long), a rather straight spicule with a ventral membranous formation in males, double-crested lateral alae in females, small eggs (53-58 by 24-28 microm), and a smooth eggshell with 3 longitudinal thickenings. Morphological comparison is made between the present and previous descriptions.

  12. Being flexible through customization : The impact of incubator focus and customization strategies on incubate survival and growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderstraeten, J.; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen; Matthyssens, P.; Andreassi, T.

    Given the increased importance of flexibility in company development models, it is not surprising that start-up support structures such as business incubators give more attention to flexible service offerings. In this paper, we argue that an incubator’s service customization strategy is ideal in

  13. First Blindness Cases of Horses Infected with Setaria Digitata (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jihun; Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Kim, Ha-Jung; Jeong, Hak-Sub; Kim, Byung-Su; Choi, Eunsang; Shin, Sung-Shik

    2017-12-01

    Ocular setariases of cattle were reported but those of equine hosts have never been reported in the Republic of Korea (Korea). We found motile worms in the aqueous humor of 15 horses (Equus spp.) from 12 localities in southern parts of Korea between January 2004 and November 2017. After the affected animals were properly restrained under sedation and local anesthesia, 10 ml disposable syringe with a 16-gauge needle was inserted into the anterior chamber of the affected eye to successfully remove the parasites. The male worm that was found in 7 of the cases showed a pair of lateral appendages near the posterior terminal end of the body. The papillar arrangement was 3 pairs of precloacal, a pair of adcloacal, and 3 pairs of postcloacal papillae, plus a central papilla just in front of the cloaca. The female worms found in the eyes of 8 horses were characterized by the tapering posterior terminal end of the body with a smooth knob. Worms were all identified as Setaria digitata (von Linstow, 1906) by the morphologic characteristics using light and electron microscopic observations. This is the first blindness cases of 15 horses infected with S. digitata (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in Korea.

  14. Uncinaria sanguinis sp. n. (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) from the endangered Australian sea lion, Neophoca cinerea (Carnivora: Otariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Alan D; Higgins, Damien P; Slapeta, Jan; Gray, Rachael

    2014-06-01

    This study investigates the identity of hookworms parasitising the Australian sea lion, Neophoca cinerea (Péron), from three colonies in South Australia, Australia. The Australian sea lion is at risk of extinction because its population is small and genetically fragmented. Using morphological and molecular techniques, we describe a single novel species, Uncinaria sanguinis sp. n. (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae). The new species is most similar to hookworms also parasitic in otariid hosts, Uncinaria lucasi Stiles, 1901 and Uncinaria hamiltoni Baylis, 1933. Comparative morphometrics offered limited utility for distinguishing between species within this genus whilst morphological features and differences in nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences delineated U. sanguinis sp. n. from named congeners. Male specimens of U. sanguinis sp. n. differ from U. lucasi and U. hamiltoni by relatively shorter anterolateral and externodorsal rays, respectively, and from other congeners by the relative lengths and angulations of bursal rays, and in the shape of the spicules. Female specimens of U. sanguinis sp. n. are differentiated from Uncinaria spp. parasitic in terrestrial mammals by differences in vulval anatomy and the larger size of their eggs, although are morphologically indistinguishable from U. lucasi and U. hamiltoni. Molecular techniques clearly delimited U. sanguinis sp. n. as a distinct novel species. Obtaining baseline data on the parasites of wildlife hosts is important for the investigation of disease and the effective implementation and monitoring of conservation management.

  15. Anisakis simplex (Nematoda: Anisakidae from horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus in Atlantic coast of Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar Shawket

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To focus on the description of the Anisakis simplex (A. simplex parasites of Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus, 1758 from the Atlantic coast of Mehdia (Kenitra, Morocco from December 2014 to November 2015. Methods: A total of 1 012 Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus, 1758 obtained from commercial fishing were performed autopsy for their parasitic Nematoda. Then 6 695 specimens of A. simplex were collected from their abdominal cavity. These parasites were attached on different organs particularly on ovaries and testes. All parasites were counted, measured and photographed under microscopy. Results: The infection levels of fishes by larval A. simplex are expressed by prevalence (35.28%, mean intensity (18.75 and abundance (6.6. The effect of parasitism did not show a significant negative impact on the condition of the examined fishes. Conclusions: Significant positive correlations were found between host length and A. simplex occurrence, and abundance. The variation observed in the infection levels was discussed within the seasons and climatic change.

  16. Evidence of morphine like substance and μ-opioid receptor expression in Toxacara canis (Nematoda: Ascaridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golabi, Mostafa; Naem, Soraya; Imani, Mehdi; Dalirezh, Nowruz

    2016-01-01

    Toxocara canis (Nematoda: Ascaridae) is an intestinal nematode parasite of dogs, which can also cause disease in humans. Transmission to humans usually occurs because of direct contact with T. canis eggs present in soil contaminated with the feces of infected dogs. This nematode has extraordinary abilities to survive for many years in different tissues of vertebrates, and develop to maturity in the intestinal tract of its definitive host. Survival of parasitic nematodes within a host requires immune evasion using complicated pathways. Morphine-like substance, as well as opioids, which are known as down regulating agents, can modulate both innate and acquired immune responses, and let the parasite survives in their hosts. In the present study, we aimed to find evidences of morphine-like substance and µ-opiate receptor expression in T. canis , using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results indicated that T. canis produced morphine-like substances at the level of 2.31± 0.26 ng g -1 wet weight, and expressed µ-opiate receptor as in expected size of 441 bp. According to our findings, it was concluded that T. canis , benefits using morphine-like substance to modulate host immunity.

  17. UNIVERSITIES AND INCUBATORS: KEY FACTORS DRIVING ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Mahlmann Kipper

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic diversification is an utterly important factor for regions that are directly or indirectly related to any productive mechanisms and seek to strengthen their foundations for the generation of jobs and income. Within this context, to invest in business preparation and maturation, especially in the ones related to the technological area, turns out to be an interesting mean of diversifying a regional economy that is facing the risk of stagnation. This study considers the importance of the role taken on by universities and their incubators in driving entrepreneurship and supporting the creation of new companies and the innovative capacity of a country through knowledge transfer amongst universities and companies, generating benefits and socioeconomic progress in a country. It also conducts a case study on a company of the information technology area, recently incubated and whose major objective consists in becoming part of this economic diversification basis.

  18. Innovation, incubation and entrepreneurship case studies from IIT Kanpur

    CERN Document Server

    Khandekar, Sameer

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on promoting entrepreneurial ecosystems within universities and educational institutes. It especially emphasizes the thriving systems and practices existing within the Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (IITK). It discusses cases and successes of the SIDBI Incubation and Innovation Centre in the Institute. This edited volume highlights the vision of IITK and describes a few of the major achievements of the past few years. It especially showcases the requirements and challenges of creating, sustaining, and boosting such entrepreneurial ecosystems and incubation centres. The contents of this book will be useful to researchers, administrators, and corporate collaborators working in the area of monetizing technology coming from educational institutions by converting it to successful products and business ideas. .

  19. Continuous measurements of nitrous oxide isotopomers during incubation experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Malte Nordmann; Balslev-Harder, David; Christensen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    relevant for studies of atmospheric chemistry. We present results from continuous incubation experiments with denitrifying bacteria, Pseudomonas fluorescens (producing and reducing N2O) and P. chlororaphis (only producing N2O). The continuous position dependent measurements reveal the transient pattern....... fluorescens, the calculations results in SP values of −5.7 ‰ ± 5.6 during production of N2O and 2.3 ‰ ± 3.2 during reduction of N2O. In summary, we implemented continuous measurements of N2O isotopomers during incubation of denitrifying bacteria and believe that similar experiments will lead to a better...... understanding of denitrifying bacteria and N2O turnover in soils and sediments and ultimately hands-on knowledge on the biotic mechanisms behind greenhouse gas exchange of the Globe....

  20. A Common Loon incubates rocks as surrogates for eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStefano, Stephen; Koenen, Kiana K. G.; Pereira, Jillian W.

    2013-01-01

    A nesting Gavia immer (Common Loon) was discovered incubating 2 rocks on a floating nest platform on the Quabbin reservoir in central Massachusetts for 43 days, well beyond the typical period of 28 days, before we moved in to investigate. The rocks were likely unearthed in the soil and vegetation used on the platform to create a more natural substrate for the nest. We suggest sifting through soil and vegetation to remove rocks before placing material on nest platforms.

  1. Incubating a Space Strategy: The Role of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Instruction in broad ranging subjects was given to “round out complete education as an Air Corps officer, especially where he will have close...development of space education ; and the internal connections within the military remain strong at ACSC, while the external connections, especially to...INCUBATING A SPACE STRATEGY: THE ROLE OF EDUCATION BY ELISABETH K. WHITE A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF

  2. New York Nano-Bio Molecular Information Technology (NYNBIT) Incubator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Digendra K

    2008-12-19

    This project presents the outcome of an effort made by a consortium of six universities in the State of New York to develop a Center for Advanced technology (CAT) in the emerging field of Nano-Bio-Molecular Information Technology. The effort consists of activities such as organization of the NYNBIT incubator, collaborative research projects, development of courses, an educational program for high schools, and commercial start-up programs.

  3. Considerations for Creating a Food Business Incubator in Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquarelli, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Due to overwhelming current demand for affordable rental commercial kitchen space in Virginia, this report was compiled in order to assess a viable Virginia model for small food business support. The incubator business model is gaining in popularity across the country, and increasing the capacity for small food business operations in many metropolitan areas. Multiple in-person interviews were conducted with food producers, food retailers, shared-use kitchen owners, city/county officials, and ...

  4. A New Environmental Monitoring System For Silkworm Incubators

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra Duque-Torres; Juan Ruiz-Rosero; Gesille Zambrano-Gonzalez; Martha Almanza-Pinzon; Oscar Mauricio Caicedo Rendon; Gustavo Ramirez-Gonzalez

    2018-01-01

    A newly Monitoring Environmental Conditions System is proposed based on Raspberry-Pi. This proposal monitors the temperature, humidity, and luminosity in a silkworm incubator. The monitoring data are collected and save in the cloud for the subsequent analysis. The monitoring environmental system is based on Raspberry Pi due to capabilities, features, and low cost. The preliminary tests were realized in a real scenery and the results demonstrating its reliability.

  5. EMPOWERING IT ENTREPRENEURSHIPS: WHAT’S THE CONTRIBUTION OF BUSINESS INCUBATORS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wescley Silva Xavier

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the contribution of Business Incubators for small IT business. In this way, a deep research in three Brazilian IT Incubators was developed. We investigated the perception of incubators’ managers, tenant and graduated entrepreneurs regarding to the key elements of incubation process, as support and infrastructure, university-incubator interaction, and management training. Our findings indicate some deficiencies in IT Incubators, predominantly in prospecting customers, attracting financial resources, and establishing relationships within universities and research centers.

  6. Thermal management in closed incubators: New software for assessing the impact of humidity on the optimal incubator air temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanaud, Stéphane; Decima, Pauline; Pelletier, Amandine; Libert, Jean-Pierre; Durand, Estelle; Stephan-Blanchard, Erwan; Bach, Véronique; Tourneux, Pierre

    2017-08-01

    Low-birth-weight (LBW) neonates are nursed in closed incubators to prevent transcutaneous water loss. The RH's impact on the optimal incubator air temperature setting has not been studied. On the basis of a clinical cohort study, we modelled all the ambient parameters influencing body heat losses and gains. The algorithm quantifies the change in RH on the air temperature, to maintain optimal thermal conditions in the incubator. Twenty-three neonates (gestational age (GA): 30.0 [28.9-31.6] weeks) were included. A 20% increase and a 20% decrease in the RH induced a change in air temperature of between -1.51 and +1.85°C for a simulated 650g neonate (GA: 26 weeks), between -1.66 and +1.87°C for a 1000g neonate (GA: 31 weeks), and between -1.77 and +1.97°C for a 2000g neonate (GA: 33 weeks) (phumidity +c age +d weight (phumidity. The software constitutes a decision support tool for improving patient care in routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Phylogenetic Relationships of Cucullanidae (Nematoda), with Observations on Seuratoidea and the Monophyly of Cucullanus, Dichelyne and Truttaedacnitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Anindo; Nadler, Steven A

    2016-02-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of Cucullanidae were explored using near-complete sequences of the 18S rDNA (rRNA gene). Sequences (1,750-1,760 bp) were obtained from 7 species of Cucullanidae belonging to 3 genera, Cucullanus (2 spp.), Dichelyne (2 spp.), Truttaedacnitis (3 spp.), and 1 species of Quimperiidae ( Paraseuratum sp.). These sequences were aligned with those of 128 other nematode species available in GenBank, including 3 other cucullanids (Dichelyne mexicanus, Cucullanus robustus, and Cucullanus baylisi) and 2 non-cucullanid seuratoids (Paraquimperia africana, and Linstowinema sp.). Bayesian (BPP) and maximum likelihood (ML) analyses of 2 different datasets strongly supported a monophyletic Cucullanidae. Bayesian analysis placed this family as the sister group to a clade containing species of Diplogasterida, Strongylida, Rhabditida, and Tylenchida with very strong support. Neither BPP nor ML analyses recovered a close relationship of Cucullanidae to Ascaridida. None of the 3 non-cucullanid seuratoid species were sister to Cucullanidae, nor did they form a monophyletic group of their own, which questions the monophyly of Seuratoidea and the relationships among species within this superfamily. The 3 genera of cucullanids were also not monophyletic, although morphologically similar species such as the 2 species of Cucullanus from Neotropical catfishes and 2 species of Dichelyne from Nearctic ictalurid catfishes were sister taxa with strong support. The results were ambiguous with respect to the relationship of 2 Truttaedacnitis spp. in Nearctic freshwater fishes but do not support Truttaedacnitis heterodonti, a parasite of heterodontid sharks, as belonging to this genus. The study shows that all aspects of the conventional classification of Seuratoidea and its taxa should be scrutinized by even more extensive sampling across hosts and habitats.

  8. The Mitochondrial Genome of Toxocara canis

    OpenAIRE

    Jex, Aaron R.; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Littlewood, D. Timothy J.; Hu, Min; Gasser, Robin B.

    2008-01-01

    Toxocara canis (Ascaridida: Nematoda), which parasitizes (at the adult stage) the small intestine of canids, can be transmitted to a range of other mammals, including humans, and can cause the disease toxocariasis. Despite its significance as a pathogen, the genetics, epidemiology and biology of this parasite remain poorly understood. In addition, the zoonotic potential of related species of Toxocara, such as T. cati and T. malaysiensis, is not well known. Mitochondrial DNA is known to provid...

  9. Nematoda: Dorylaimida

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1992-04-02

    sedimenta- tion method (Loubser 1985), killed by gentle heat, fixed in. FAA, processed into glycerine by Thome's slow method and mounted on permanent slides. Measurements and draw- ings were made with the aid of a Zeiss ...

  10. Nematoda: Dorylaimidae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Box 524, Auckland Park, 2006. A.J. Meyer. Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, 7600. Received 5 December 1994; accepted 15 May 1995. Calcaridorylaimus sirgeli n.sp. is described from Cape Fynbos in mountains in the south~western Cape Prov- ince. It differs from all ...

  11. Nematoda: Tylenchidae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1996-02-05

    Feb 5, 1996 ... 149-175 body annules intersected by 14 longitudinal lines (incisures), protruding lateral fields marked by four incisures, and an ... line, while the two outer lines are mere continuations of lon- gitudinal lines from further ..... Andrassy (1982), is possibly a printer's error, since no other. Neotliada (1o(1ulation ...

  12. A system for incubations at high gas partial pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Patrick; Glombitza, Clemens; Kallmeyer, Jens

    2012-01-01

    dioxide sequestration. As an application of the system we extracted organic compounds from sub-bituminous coal using H2O as well as a H2O–CO2 mixture at elevated temperature (90°C) and pressure (5 MPa). Subsamples were taken at different time points during the incubation and analyzed by ion chromatography....... Furthermore we demonstrated the applicability of the system for studies of microbial activity, using samples from the Isis mud volcano. We could detect an increase in sulfate reduction rate upon the addition of methane to the sample....

  13. A rumor transmission model with incubation in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jianwen; Wu, Wenjiang

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a rumor transmission model with incubation period and constant recruitment in social networks. By carrying out an analysis of the model, we study the stability of rumor-free equilibrium and come to the local stable condition of the rumor equilibrium. We use the geometric approach for ordinary differential equations for showing the global stability of the rumor equilibrium. And when ℜ0 = 1, the new model occurs a transcritical bifurcation. Furthermore, numerical simulations are used to support the analysis. At last, some conclusions are presented.

  14. The Data Envelopment Analysis Method in Benchmarking of Technological Incubators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Kaczmarska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an original concept for the application of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA in benchmarking processes within innovation and entrepreneurship centers based on the example of technological incubators. Applying the DEA method, it is possible to order analyzed objects, on the basis of explicitly defined relative efficiency, by compiling a rating list and rating classes. Establishing standards and indicating “clearances” allows the studied objects - innovation and entrepreneurship centers - to select a way of developing effectively, as well as preserving their individuality and a unique way of acting with the account of local needs. (original abstract

  15. Human-centered incubator: beyond a design concept

    OpenAIRE

    Goossens, R H M; Willemsen, H

    2013-01-01

    We read with interest the paper by Ferris and Shepley1 on a human-centered design project with university students on neonatal incubators. It is interesting to see that in the design solutions and concepts as presented by Ferris and Shepley,1 human-centered design played an important role. In 2005, a master thesis project was carried out in the Delft University of Technology, following a similar human-centered design approach.2, 3 In that design project we also addressed the noise level insid...

  16. Preterm infant thermal care: differing thermal environments produced by air versus skin servo-control incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, K A; Burr, R

    1999-06-01

    Incubator thermal environments produced by skin versus air servo-control were compared. Infant abdominal skin and incubator air temperatures were recorded from 18 infants in skin servo-control and 14 infants in air servo-control (26- to 29-week gestational age, 14 +/- 2 days postnatal age) for 24 hours. Differences in incubator and infant temperature, neutral thermal environment (NTE) maintenance, and infant and incubator circadian rhythm were examined using analysis of variance and scatterplots. Skin servo-control resulted in more variable air temperature, yet more stable infant temperature, and more time within the NTE. Circadian rhythm of both infant and incubator temperature differed by control mode and the relationship between incubator and infant temperature rhythms was a function of control mode. The differences between incubator control modes extend beyond temperature stability and maintenance of NTE. Circadian rhythm of incubator and infant temperatures is influenced by incubator control.

  17. Descriptions of Deladenus albizicus n. sp. and D. processus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina) from Haryana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, V V S; Somvanshi, Vishal S; Bajaj, Harish K

    2015-03-01

    Two different nematodes were isolated from the bark of Albizia lebbeck trees; one from insect infested and another from noninfested, healthy tree. Based on the biological, morphological, and molecular evidences, the nematodes are described as Deladenus albizicus n. sp. and D. processus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina). Deladenus albizicus n. sp., isolated from insect-infested tree, multiplied on the fungus Nigrospora oryzae. Myceliophagous females of this nematode reproduced by parthenogenesis and spermathecae were indistinct. Infective females, readily produced in the cultures, are dorsally curved. Only one type of males containing small-sized sperms in their genital tracts were produced in the culture. Myceliophagous females: L = 0.75 to 1.71 mm, a = 32.3 to 50.8, b = 9.3 to 11.2, b' = 5.2 to 7.3, c = 27.2 to 35.6, V = 91.0 to 93.3, c' = 2.0 to 2.9, stylet = 11 to 12 µm, excretory pore in the region of median pharyngeal bulb, 43 to 47 µm anterior to hemizonid. Deladenus processus n. sp., isolated from bark of healthy A. lebbeck tree, was cultured on Alternaria alternata. Myceliophagous females reproduced by amphimixis and their spermathecae contained rounded sperms. Infective females were never produced, even in old cultures. Myceliophagous females: L = 0.76 to 0.99 mm, a = 34 to 49, b = 13.3 to 17.7, b' = 3.8 to 5.8, c = 19.6 to 22.8, V = 92.2 to 93.5, c' = 2.7 to 3.5, stylet = 6 to 7 µm, excretory pore in the proximity of hemizonid, tail conoid, tapering from both sides to a long pointed central process. It is proposed to classify Deladenus species in three groups: durus, siricidicola, and laricis groups based on female and spermatogonia dimorphism, mode of reproduction, and insect parasitism.

  18. Emerging Connections: Quantum & Classical Optics Incubator Program Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesky, Marcia [Optical Society of America, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-11-06

    The Emerging Connections: Quantum & Classical Optics Incubator was a scientific meeting held in Washington, DC on 6-8 November 2016. This Incubator provided unique and focused experiences and valuable opportunities to discuss advances, challenges and opportunities regarding this important area of research. Quantum optics and classical optics have coexisted for nearly a century as two distinct, but consistent descriptions of light in their respective domains. Recently, a number of detailed examinations of the structure of classical light beams have revealed that effects widely thought to be solely quantum in origin also have a place in classical optics. These new quantum-classical connections are informing classical optics in meaningful ways specifically by expanding understanding of optical coherence. Simultaneously, relationships discovered with classical light beams now also serve as a vehicle to illuminate concepts that no longer solely belong to the quantum realm. Interference, polarization, coherence, complementarity and entanglement are a partial list of elementary notions that now appear to belong to both quantum and classical optics. The goal of this meeting was to bring emerging quantum-classical links into wider view and to indicate directions in which forthcoming and future work would promote discussion and lead to a more unified understanding of optics.

  19. Effect of comfort pads and incubator design on neonatal radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xia; Baad, Michael; Reiser, Ingrid; Feinstein, Kate A.; Lu, Zhengfeng [University of Chicago Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-01-15

    There has been increasing interest in patient dose reduction in neonatal intensive care units. Removing comfort pads for radiography has been identified as a potential means to decrease patient dose. To assess the effect of comfort pads and support trays on detector entrance exposure (DEE) and image quality for neonatal radiography, and its implication for patient dose. Comfort pads and support trays from three incubator and warmer systems were examined. The attenuation of the primary beam by these structures was measured using a narrow beam geometry. Their effect on DEE and image quality was then assessed using typical neonatal chest radiography techniques with three configurations: (1) both the comfort pad and support included in the beam, (2) only the support tray included and (3) both the comfort pad and support tray removed. Comfort pads and support trays were found to attenuate the primary beam by 6-15%. Eliminating these structures from the X-ray beam's path was found to increase the detector entrance exposure by 28-36% and increase contrast-to-noise ratio by more than 21%, suggesting room for patient dose reduction when the same image quality is maintained. Comfort pads and tray support devices can have a considerable effect on DEE and image quality, with large variations among different incubator designs. Positioning the image detector directly underneath neonatal patients for radiography is a potential means for patient dose reduction. However, such benefit should be weighed against the risks of moving the patient. (orig.)

  20. Effect of comfort pads and incubator design on neonatal radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Xia; Baad, Michael; Reiser, Ingrid; Feinstein, Kate A.; Lu, Zhengfeng

    2016-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in patient dose reduction in neonatal intensive care units. Removing comfort pads for radiography has been identified as a potential means to decrease patient dose. To assess the effect of comfort pads and support trays on detector entrance exposure (DEE) and image quality for neonatal radiography, and its implication for patient dose. Comfort pads and support trays from three incubator and warmer systems were examined. The attenuation of the primary beam by these structures was measured using a narrow beam geometry. Their effect on DEE and image quality was then assessed using typical neonatal chest radiography techniques with three configurations: (1) both the comfort pad and support included in the beam, (2) only the support tray included and (3) both the comfort pad and support tray removed. Comfort pads and support trays were found to attenuate the primary beam by 6-15%. Eliminating these structures from the X-ray beam's path was found to increase the detector entrance exposure by 28-36% and increase contrast-to-noise ratio by more than 21%, suggesting room for patient dose reduction when the same image quality is maintained. Comfort pads and tray support devices can have a considerable effect on DEE and image quality, with large variations among different incubator designs. Positioning the image detector directly underneath neonatal patients for radiography is a potential means for patient dose reduction. However, such benefit should be weighed against the risks of moving the patient. (orig.)

  1. A preliminary survey of soil nematodes (Nematoda) in inverse gorges in the České Švýcarsko National Park (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Háněl, Ladislav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 74, - (2010), s. 39-48 ISSN 1211-376X. [Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /10./. České Budějovice, 21.04.2009-24.04.2009] Grant - others:EEA Financial Mechanism(BE) CZ0048 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : soil zoology * ecology * Nematoda Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  2. Phylogenetic relationships of some spirurine nematodes (Nematoda: Chromadorea: Rhabditida: Spirurina) parasitic in fishes inferred from SSU rRNA gene sequences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černotíková, Eva; Horák, Aleš; Moravec, František

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2011), s. 135-148 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0170; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Nematoda * Spirurina * SSU rRNA * phylogeny * taxonomy Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.812, year: 2011 http://www.paru.cas.cz/folia/pdfs/showpdf.php?pdf=21981

  3. Draft Whole-Genome Sequence of Serratia sp. Strain TEL, Associated with Oscheius sp. TEL-2014 (Nematoda: Rhabditidae) Isolated from a Grassland in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lephoto, Tiisetso E; Featherston, Jonathan; Gray, Vincent M

    2015-07-09

    Here, we report on the draft genome sequence of Serratia sp. strain TEL, associated with Oscheius sp. TEL-2014 (Nematoda: Rhabditidae, KM492926) isolated from a grassland in Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve near Johannesburg in South Africa. Serratia sp. strain TEL has a genome size of 5,000,541 bp with 4,647 genes and a G+C content of 59.1%. Copyright © 2015 Lephoto et al.

  4. Draft Whole-Genome Sequence of Serratia sp. Strain TEL, Associated with Oscheius sp. TEL-2014 (Nematoda: Rhabditidae) Isolated from a Grassland in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Lephoto, Tiisetso E.; Featherston, Jonathan; Gray, Vincent M.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report on the draft genome sequence of Serratia sp. strain TEL, associated with Oscheius sp. TEL-2014 (Nematoda: Rhabditidae, KM492926) isolated from a grassland in Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve near Johannesburg in South Africa. Serratia sp. strain TEL has a genome size of 5,000,541 bp with 4,647 genes and a G+C content of 59.1%.

  5. A new genus and species of philometrid (Nematoda) from the subcutaneous tissue of the crevalle jack, Caranx hippos (Osteichthyes), from the southern Gulf of Mexico

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Montoya-Mendoza, J.; Salgado-Maldonado, G.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 6 (2008), s. 1346-1350 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0170; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Nematoda * Philometridae * Caranx * Caranginema * Gulf of Mexico Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.165, year: 2008

  6. Trans-shell infection by pathogenic micro-organisms reduces the shelf life of non-incubated bird's eggs: a constraint on the onset of incubation?

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Mark I; Beissinger, Steven R; Toranzos, Gary A; Rodriguez, Roberto A; Arendt, Wayne J

    2003-01-01

    Many birds initiate incubation before clutch completion, which results in asynchronous hatching. The ensuing within-brood size disparity often places later-hatched nestlings at a developmental disadvantage, but the functional significance of the timing of the onset of incubation is poorly understood. Early incubation may serve to maintain the viability of early-laid eggs, which declines over time owing to the putative effects of ambient temperature. An unexplored risk to egg viability is tran...

  7. APPLICATION OF THE MODEL CERNE FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF CRITERIA INCUBATION SELECTION IN TECHNOLOGY BASED BUSINESSES : A STUDY IN INCUBATORS OF TECHNOLOGICAL BASE OF THE COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clobert Jefferson Passoni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Business incubators are a great source of encouragement for innovative projects, enabling the development of new technologies, providing infrastructure, advice and support, which are key elements for the success of new business. The technology-based firm incubators (TBFs, which are 154 in Brazil. Each one of them has its own mechanism for the selection of the incubation companies. Because of the different forms of management of incubators, the business model CERNE - Reference Center for Support for New Projects - was created by Anprotec and Sebrae, in order to standardize procedures and promote the increase of chances for success in the incubations. The objective of this study is to propose selection criteria for the incubation, considering CERNE’s five dimensions and aiming to help on the decision-making in the assessment of candidate companies in a TBF incubator. The research was conducted from the public notices of 20 TBF incubators, where 38 selection criteria were identified and classified. Managers of TBF incubators validated 26 criteria by its importance via online questionnaires. As a result, favorable ratings were obtained to 25 of them. Only one criterion differed from the others, with a unfavorable rating.

  8. Rabies viral encephalitis with proable 25 year incubation period!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Shankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of rabies viral encephalitis in a 48-year-old male with an unusually long incubation period, historically suspected to be more than 20 years. The case was referred for histological diagnosis following alleged medical negligence to the forensic department. The histology and immunocytochemical demonstration of rabies viral antigen established the diagnosis unequivocally. The case manifested initially with hydrophobia and aggressive behavior, although he suddenly went to the bathroom and drank a small amount of water. History of dog bite 25 years back was elicited retrospectively following clinical suspicion. There was no subsequent history to suggest nonbite exposure to a rabid dog to consider recent event causing the disease, although this cannot be totally excluded.

  9. Prions in milk from ewes incubating natural scrapie.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lacroux

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Since prion infectivity had never been reported in milk, dairy products originating from transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE-affected ruminant flocks currently enter unrestricted into the animal and human food chain. However, a recently published study brought the first evidence of the presence of prions in mammary secretions from scrapie-affected ewes. Here we report the detection of consistent levels of infectivity in colostrum and milk from sheep incubating natural scrapie, several months prior to clinical onset. Additionally, abnormal PrP was detected, by immunohistochemistry and PET blot, in lacteal ducts and mammary acini. This PrP(Sc accumulation was detected only in ewes harbouring mammary ectopic lymphoid follicles that developed consequent to Maedi lentivirus infection. However, bioassay revealed that prion infectivity was present in milk and colostrum, not only from ewes with such lympho-proliferative chronic mastitis, but also from those displaying lesion-free mammary glands. In milk and colostrum, infectivity could be recovered in the cellular, cream, and casein-whey fractions. In our samples, using a Tg 338 mouse model, the highest per ml infectious titre measured was found to be equivalent to that contained in 6 microg of a posterior brain stem from a terminally scrapie-affected ewe. These findings indicate that both colostrum and milk from small ruminants incubating TSE could contribute to the animal TSE transmission process, either directly or through the presence of milk-derived material in animal feedstuffs. It also raises some concern with regard to the risk to humans of TSE exposure associated with milk products from ovine and other TSE-susceptible dairy species.

  10. Incubator weaning in preterm infants and associated practice variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, R; Kirkby, S; Turenne, W; Greenspan, J

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the relationship of weight of preterm infants when first placed into an open crib with days to full oral feedings, growth velocity and length of stay (LOS), and to identify unwarranted variation in incubator weaning after adjusting for severity indices. A retrospective study using the ParadigmHealth neonatal database from 2003 to 2006 reviewed incubator weaning to an open crib in appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) infants from 22 to weeks gestation. Primary outcome measurements included days to full oral (PO) feeding, weight gain from open crib to discharge and length of stay. Models were severity adjusted. To understand hospital practice variation, we also used a regression model to estimate the weight at open crib for the top 10 volume hospitals. In all 2908 infants met the inclusion criteria for the study. Their mean weight at open crib was 1850 g. On average every additional 100 g an infant weighed at the open crib was associated with increased time to full PO feeding by 0.8 days, decreased weight gained per day by 1 gram and increased LOS by 0.9 days. For the top 10 volume hospitals, severity variables alone accounted for 9% of the variation in weight at open crib, whereas the hospital in which the baby was treated accounted for an additional 19% of the variation. Even after controlling for severity, significant practice variation exists in weaning to an open crib, leading to potential delays in achieving full-volume oral feeds, decreased growth velocity and prolonged LOS.

  11. On a New Species of Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Anisakidae from Cauque mauleanum (Pisces: Atherinidae by Brightfield and Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres Patricio

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Hysterothylacium geschei n. sp. (Nematoda, Anisakidae is described from the intestine of Cauque mauleanum (Steindachner (Pisces: Atherinidae from Lake Panguipulli (39º43'S; 72º13'W, Chile. Eleven (78.6% out of 14 fish were infected, with a mean intensity (range of 14.4 (1-55 worms. The new species can be differentiated from the two previously described species of freshwater fishes from South America by the presence of lateral alae, the number of caudal papillae, and the length of the spicules, oesophagus, intestinal caecum, distance vulva-anterior extremity and the length ratio intestinal caecum: ventricular appendix. From the fishes examined in Lake Panguipulli, including the introduced salmonid species Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum and the authochthonous species Basilichthys australis Eigenmann (Atherinidae and Percichthys trucha (Valenciennes (Percichthyidae, only one specimen of P. trucha was found parasitized by a third-stage larva of this species.

  12. Unpainting the black box : exploring mechanisms and practices of start-up incubators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weele, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Although incubators have become one of the most prominent instruments to stimulate the emergence and growth of start-ups, questions are being raised about their effectiveness. One major obstacle to evaluate the effectiveness of incubators is that the incubator remains a ‘black box’: the extant

  13. Soil respiration is not limited by reductions in microbial biomass during long-term soil incubations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declining rates of soil respiration are reliably observed during long-term laboratory incubations, but the cause is uncertain. We explored different controls on soil respiration during long-term soil incubations. Following a 707 day incubation (30 C) of soils from cultivated and forested plots at Ke...

  14. Network brokers or hit makers? Analyzing the influence of incubation on start-up investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rijnsoever, Frank J.; Van Weele, Marijn A.; Eveleens, Chris P.

    Incubators are a prominent way to support technology based start-ups. Yet, it remains unclear to what extent these incubators enhance start-up performance, nor is it known through which mechanisms this would occur. In this paper we test two mechanisms to explain the relationship between incubation

  15. A study of knowledge supernetworks and network robustness in different business incubators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haihong; Wu, Wenqing; Zhao, Liming

    2016-04-01

    As the most important intangible resource of the new generation of business incubators, knowledge has been studied extensively, particularly with respect to how it spreads among incubating firms through knowledge networks. However, these homogeneous networks do not adequately describe the heterogeneity of incubating firms in different types of business incubators. To solve the problem of heterogeneity, the notion of a knowledge supernetwork has been used both to construct a knowledge interaction model among incubating firms and to distinguish social network relationships from knowledge network relationships. The process of knowledge interaction and network evolution can then be simulated with a few rules for incubating firms regarding knowledge innovation/absorption, social network connection, and entry and exit, among other aspects. Knowledge and networks have been used as performance indicators to evaluate the evolution of knowledge supernetworks. Moreover, we study the robustness of incubating firms' social networks by employing four types of attack strategies. Based on our simulation results, we conclude that there have been significant knowledge interaction and network evolution among incubating firms on a periodic basis and that both specialized and diversified business incubators have every advantage necessary in terms of both knowledge and networks to cultivate start-up companies. As far as network robustness is concerned, there is no obvious difference between the two types of business incubators with respect to the stability of their network structures, but specialized business incubators have stronger network communication abilities than diversified business incubators.

  16. New Data on the Morphology and Distribution of Oswaldocruzia Skrjabini (Nematoda, Molineidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Svitin R. S.

    2015-01-01

    Шестнадцать экземпляров Oswaldocruzia (Nematoda, Molineidae) были обнаружены в материале от Zootoca vivipara Lichtenshtein, 1823 собранном на территории Украины. Нематоды были определены как O. skrjabini Travassos, 1917 на основании наличия развитых латеральных крыльев и вида хозяина. Представлено дополненное описание вида с новыми морфологическими признаками, морфометрией и распространением в Украине. Oswaldocruzia skrjabini отличается от других видов рода наличием дополнительных отростков н...

  17. New Data on the Morphology and Distribution of Oswaldocruzia Skrjabini (Nematoda, Molineidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitin R. S.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Шестнадцать экземпляров Oswaldocruzia (Nematoda, Molineidae были обнаружены в материале от Zootoca vivipara Lichtenshtein, 1823 собранном на территории Украины. Нематоды были определены как O. skrjabini Travassos, 1917 на основании наличия развитых латеральных крыльев и вида хозяина. Представлено дополненное описание вида с новыми морфологическими признаками, морфометрией и распространением в Украине. Oswaldocruzia skrjabini отличается от других видов рода наличием дополнительных отростков на ветках fork и shoe спикул.

  18. Continuous measurements of nitrous oxide isotopomers during incubation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Malte; Balslev-Harder, David; Christensen, Søren; Priemé, Anders; Elberling, Bo; Crosson, Eric; Blunier, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important and strong greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. It is produced by microbes during nitrification and denitrification in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The main sinks for N2O are turnover by denitrification and photolysis and photo-oxidation in the stratosphere. In the linear N = N = O molecule 15N substitution is possible in two distinct positions: central and terminal. The respective molecules, 14N15N16O and 15N14N16O, are called isotopomers. It has been demonstrated that N2O produced by nitrifying or denitrifying microbes exhibits a different relative abundance of the isotopomers. Therefore, measurements of the site preference (difference in the abundance of the two isotopomers) in N2O can be used to determine the source of N2O, i.e., nitrification or denitrification. Recent instrument development allows for continuous position-dependent δ15N measurements at N2O concentrations relevant for studies of atmospheric chemistry. We present results from continuous incubation experiments with denitrifying bacteria, Pseudomonas fluorescens (producing and reducing N2O) and Pseudomonas chlororaphis (only producing N2O). The continuous measurements of N2O isotopomers reveals the transient isotope exchange among KNO3, N2O, and N2. We find bulk isotopic fractionation of -5.01 ‰ ± 1.20 for P. chlororaphis, in line with previous results for production from denitrification. For P. fluorescens, the bulk isotopic fractionation during production of N2O is -52.21 ‰ ± 9.28 and 8.77 ‰ ± 4.49 during N2O reduction.The site preference (SP) isotopic fractionation for P. chlororaphis is -3.42 ‰ ± 1.69. For P. fluorescens, the calculations result in SP isotopic fractionation values of 5.73 ‰ ± 5.26 during production of N2O and 2.41 ‰ ± 3.04 during reduction of N2O. In summary, we implemented continuous measurements of N2O isotopomers during incubation of denitrifying bacteria and believe that similar experiments will lead to a better

  19. Effect of High Incubation Temperature on the Blood Parameters of Layer Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sgavioli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Adequate environmental temperature control is essential for incubation efficiency. Layer breeder eggs (n=360 were weighed and distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with two treatments, consisting of two incubation temperatures (T1=37.5 °C, control; and T2=39.0 °C, hot, with two incubators per temperature, and 90 eggs per incubator, totaling 360 eggs. Hatchability, embryo mortality, and chick cloacal and body surface temperatures were not affected by incubation temperature. Eggs incubated at the hot temperature presented greater egg mass loss and higher eggshell conductance than those incubated at the control temperature. Layer chicks derived from eggs incubated at control temperature showed greater absolute weight, yolk-free egg mass, and heavier hearts than those from eggs submitted to heat stress during incubation. The control group presented lower base excess and ionized calcium blood levels. Incubating eggs at temperatures higher than those recommended compromises body and heart development of layer chicks and negatively affects blood ionized calcium availability, and therefore, bone mineralization during embryo development. Efficient temperature control during the incubation of fertile eggs is essential to obtain good quality layer chicks.

  20. Business Incubation as an Instrument of Innovation: The Experience of South America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haven Allahar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the experience of business incubation as an innovative developmental instrument based on the recent experience of the South American countries of Brazil and Chile and the Caribbean island nation of Trinidad and Tobago. A qualitative research method was adopted involving a review of published reports, journal articles and relevant case studies; and face-to-face semi-structured interviews with incubator managerial staff. The major findings are that there are great similarities among the incubators studied in terms of their links to universities, services offered, and funding challenges, but there is growing acceptance of incubation as a potentially valid tool for promoting business development and innovation although most incubators are at the early stage. The paper is original because the case study application to incubation in Trinidad and Tobago is new with only one related article published, and this study therefore adds value to the body of research because business incubation has been under-researched in the study area. The research is limited to the extent that the case study focuses on a comparison of selected incubator features and did not include the views of clients. The practical implications of this study is that sponsors of incubators and managers need to obtain a deeper understanding of the incubation ecosystem especially with regard to innovation-based incubators, if successful innovative businesses are to emerge. The results of the study can also be generalized over the small island developing states of the Caribbean.

  1. Analyzing the Dynamics of a Rumor Transmission Model with Incubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang'an Huo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a rumor transmission model with incubation that incorporates constant recruitment and has infectious force in the latent period and infected period. By carrying out a global analysis of the model and studying the stability of the rumor-free equilibrium and the rumor-endemic equilibrium, we use the geometric approach for ordinary differential equations which is based on the use of higher-order generalization of Bendixson’s criterion. It shows that either the number of rumor infective individuals tends to zero as time evolves or the rumor persists. We prove that the transcritical bifurcation occurs at R0 crosses the bifurcation threshold R0=1 by projecting the flow onto the extended center manifold. Since the rumor endemic level at the equilibrium is a continuous function of R0, as a consequence for successful eradication of the rumor, one should simply reduce R0 continuously below the threshold value 1. Finally, the obtained results are numerically validated and then discussed from both the mathematical and the sociological perspectives.

  2. Getting better integrated into foreign markets supported by the incubator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie; Gretzinger, Susanne; Hollensen, Svend

    The challenges associated with entering foreign growth markets, like BRIC markets, remain significant, especially for inexperienced SMEs. These challenges can include inadequate knowledge about a host country’s culture, norms, values and business environment, and a lack of embeddedness in the ind...... into the following two propositions: - The higher the level of the company’s accumulated experiential knowledge, the faster integration into the foreign market. - The use of incubator facilitates a faster integration into a specific high growth foreign market.......The challenges associated with entering foreign growth markets, like BRIC markets, remain significant, especially for inexperienced SMEs. These challenges can include inadequate knowledge about a host country’s culture, norms, values and business environment, and a lack of embeddedness...... in the industry networks abroad. Such barriers can often hinder successful foreign market entry. One concept to use for SMEs, which lack experiential knowledge when bridging new distant international growth markets, is the ‘incubator’. It is best described as a shared office-space facility, including a local...

  3. Sound Environments Surrounding Preterm Infants Within an Occupied Closed Incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Aya; Matsuo, Hiroya

    2016-01-01

    Preterm infants often exhibit functional disorders due to the stressful environment in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The sound pressure level (SPL) in the NICU is often much higher than the levels recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Our study aims to describe the SPL and sound frequency levels surrounding preterm infants within closed incubators that utilize high frequency oscillation (HFO) or nasal directional positive airway pressure (nasal-DPAP) respiratory settings. This is a descriptive research study of eight preterm infants (corrected agenoise levels were observed and the results were compared to the recommendations made by neonatal experts. Increased noise levels, which have reported to affect neonates' ability to self-regulate, could increase the risk of developing attention deficit disorder, and may result in tachycardia, bradycardia, increased intracranial pressure, and hypoxia. The care provider should closely assess for adverse effects of higher sound levels generated by different modes of respiratory support and take measures to ensure that preterm infants are protected from exposure to noise exceeding the optimal safe levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Rethinking the extrinsic incubation period of malaria parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohm, Johanna R; Baldini, Francesco; Barreaux, Priscille; Lefevre, Thierry; Lynch, Penelope A; Suh, Eunho; Whitehead, Shelley A; Thomas, Matthew B

    2018-03-12

    The time it takes for malaria parasites to develop within a mosquito, and become transmissible, is known as the extrinsic incubation period, or EIP. EIP is a key parameter influencing transmission intensity as it combines with mosquito mortality rate and competence to determine the number of mosquitoes that ultimately become infectious. In spite of its epidemiological significance, data on EIP are scant. Current approaches to estimate EIP are largely based on temperature-dependent models developed from data collected on parasite development within a single mosquito species in the 1930s. These models assume that the only factor affecting EIP is mean environmental temperature. Here, we review evidence to suggest that in addition to mean temperature, EIP is likely influenced by genetic diversity of the vector, diversity of the parasite, and variation in a range of biotic and abiotic factors that affect mosquito condition. We further demonstrate that the classic approach of measuring EIP as the time at which mosquitoes first become infectious likely misrepresents EIP for a mosquito population. We argue for a better understanding of EIP to improve models of transmission, refine predictions of the possible impacts of climate change, and determine the potential evolutionary responses of malaria parasites to current and future mosquito control tools.

  5. Effects of incubation temperature on growth and performance of the veiled chameleon (Chamaeleo calyptratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Robin M

    2008-10-01

    I evaluated the effect of incubation temperature on phenotypes of the veiled chameleon, Chamaeleo calyptratus. I chose this species for study because its large clutch size (30-40 eggs or more) allows replication within clutches both within and among experimental treatments. The major research objectives were (1) to assess the effect of constant low, moderate, and high temperatures on embryonic development, (2) to determine whether the best incubation temperature for embryonic development also produced the "best" hatchlings, and (3) to determine how a change in incubation temperature during mid-development would affect phenotype. To meet these objectives, I established five experimental temperature regimes and determined egg survival and incubation length and measured body size and shape, selected body temperatures, and locomotory performance of lizards at regular intervals from hatching to 90 d, or just before sexual maturity. Incubation temperature affected the length of incubation, egg survival, and body mass, but did not affect sprint speed or selected body temperature although selected body temperature affected growth in mass independently of treatment and clutch. Incubation at moderate temperatures provided the best conditions for both embryonic and post-hatching development. The highest incubation temperatures were disruptive to development; eggs had high mortality, developmental rate was low, and hatchlings grew slowly. Changes in temperature during incubation increased the among-clutch variance in incubation length relative to that of constant temperature treatments. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Philometra thaiensis sp. nov. (Nematoda, Philometridae) from Tetraodon palembangensis and T. fluviatilis (Pisces) from fresh waters in Thailand, with a key to Philometra spp. parasitic in the host's abdominal cavity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Fiala, Ivan; Dyková, Iva

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 4 (2004), s. 319-324 ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/03/0061 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Nematoda * Philometra * parasite Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.560, year: 2004

  7. Distribution of trophic groups of soil nematodes (Nematoda) and soil food web condition in inverse gorges in the České Švýcarsko National Park (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Háněl, Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 2 (2013), s. 87-101 ISSN 1211-376X Grant - others:EEA Financial Mechanism(NO) CZ0048 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : soil zoology * ecology * Nematoda * trophic group * Bohemian Switzerland National Park Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  8. Free-living nematodes (Nematoda) of the Rokytská Slať and the Chalupská Slať peat bogs in the Bohemian Forest (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Háněl, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 3 (2015), s. 199-213 ISSN 1211-376X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/99/1416 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : soil zoology * ecology * Nematoda * diversity * peatland Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  9. Is the evolution of clutch size limited by incubation ability in shorebirds?

    OpenAIRE

    Beatty, Jessica Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Incubation is a crucial aspect of avian life history where differences in incubation techniques and investments can have long lasting effects on offspring and parental well- being and reproductive success. The factors limiting why some birds, such as shorebirds, have fixed clutch sizes has intrigued life history theorist to propose different hypotheses about the evolution of clutch size. Lack's "incubation limitation hypothesis," suggesting that clutch size is limited by the amount of eggs a ...

  10. Functioning of the students business-incubators on the base of leading Ukrainian universities

    OpenAIRE

    S.A. Tulchinska

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the article. The aim of the article is the research of business-incubators functioning in Ukraine as a component of innovative infrastructure in general and student business-incubators in particular and developing criteria for evaluating their activity. The results of the analysis. It was determined that purpose of student innovation business incubator should be protection and representation of students interests through innovative transformation of students ideas, projects in t...

  11. INCUBATORS WITHIN UNIVERSITY AND CLUSTERED CONTEXTS: CASES OF NATIONAL CHIAO TUNG UNIVERSITY (NCTU AND NATIONAL TSING HUA UNIVERSITY (NTHU INCUBATORS IN HSINCHU, TAIWAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Akmaliah Adham

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Research literature on business incubators has highlighted the significance of clustered locational contexts and networking as key to an incubator's success. Using the case study approach, this study aimed to test the validity of this framework for explaining the level of success of the National Chiao Tung University (NCTU and National Tsing Hua University (NTHU Incubators in Hsinchu, Taiwan – both of which are highly-networked, cluster-centric and university-based. In-depth interviews were conducted with the managers of both incubators, and these were followed by information gathering on university patents and knowledge transfers from the research and development (R&D office at each university. Analysis found that the incubators' locational contexts determined the degree and manner of their networking, but their profitability and growth potential were influenced by many other factors working in combination. Satisfying their sponsors' requirements and serving their core functions through sound management and strategic planning appeared to be the key to achieving profitability and sustainability, with benefits for all stakeholders. These constructs provide directions for more research on the performance of incubators and other business entities that are located within university and clustered contexts.

  12. Knowledge service decision making in business incubators based on the supernetwork model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liming; Zhang, Haihong; Wu, Wenqing

    2017-08-01

    As valuable resources for incubating firms, knowledge resources have received gradually increasing attention from all types of business incubators, and business incubators use a variety of knowledge services to stimulate rapid growth in incubating firms. Based on previous research, we generalize the knowledge transfer and knowledge networking services of two main forms of knowledge services and further divide knowledge transfer services into knowledge depth services and knowledge breadth services. Then, we construct the business incubators' knowledge supernetwork model, describe the evolution mechanism among heterogeneous agents and utilize a simulation to explore the performance variance of different business incubators' knowledge services. The simulation results show that knowledge stock increases faster when business incubators are able to provide knowledge services to more incubating firms and that the degree of discrepancy in the knowledge stock increases during the process of knowledge growth. Further, knowledge transfer services lead to greater differences in the knowledge structure, while knowledge networking services lead to smaller differences. Regarding the two types of knowledge transfer services, knowledge depth services are more conducive to knowledge growth than knowledge breadth services, but knowledge depth services lead to greater gaps in knowledge stocks and greater differences in knowledge structures. Overall, it is optimal for business incubators to select a single knowledge service or portfolio strategy based on the amount of time and energy expended on the two types of knowledge services.

  13. How do entrepreneurs’ characteristics influence the benefits from the various elements of a business incubator?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monsson, Christian Kjær; Jørgensen, Søren Berg

    2016-01-01

    /implications – The conclusions have importance for regional government and development managers aiming at designing new business incubators. The authors suggest that in order to enhance the effect of incubator programmes they must be tailor-made to the individual entrepreneur. Originality/value – Previous studies have either...... and a survey of 100 incubatees in order to study entrepreneurs within a specific incubator programme called the Growth Factories located in Region Zealand, Denmark. Findings – The authors find that there are significant differences in the perceived benefit of various business incubator elements for incubatees...

  14. Small business incubators: An emerging phenomenon in South Africa’s SMME economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukovhe Masutha

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa much policy attention is focused on the potential of the small, medium and micro-enterprise (SMME economy for job creation. Nevertheless, despite government support for the SMME economy, high mortality rates are experienced by start-up enterprises. In common with international experience South Africa has adopted business incubation as a strategic tool for assisting the survival as well as building the competitiveness of SMMEs. This article analyses the state of business incubation in South Africa drawing attention to marked differences between the groups of public sector business incubators as opposed to those business incubators which have been initiated by the private sector.

  15. Current distribution of Achatina fulica, in the state of São Paulo including records of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Nematoda) larvae infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Guimarães, Marisa Cristina de Almeida; Takahashi, Fernanda Yoshika; Eduardo, Juliana Manas

    2010-01-01

    The currently known distribution range of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, is presented. The record of A. fulica naturally infested with Aelurostrongylus abstrusus larvae (Railliet, 1898) (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae) can be found in the city of Guaratinguetá. It was found A. fulica with Metastrongylidae larvae without known medical and veterinary importance in the cities of Carapicuíba, Embu-Guaçu, Itapevi, São Caetano do Sul, São Paulo and Taboão da Serra.

  16. Redescription of Enterobius (Enterobius) macaci Yen, 1973 (Nematoda: Oxyuridae: Enterobiinae) based on material collected from wild Japanese macaque, Macaca fuscata (Primates: Cercopithecidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Hideo; Sato, Hiroshi; Torii, Harumi

    2012-02-01

    Enterobius (Enterobius) macaci Yen, 1973 (Nematoda: Oxyuridae: Enterobiinae) was collected from a Japanese macaque, Macaca fuscata, in Nara and Yamaguchi Prefectures, Honshu Island, Japan, for the first time. A redescription is presented along with DNA sequence data. This pinworm is a typical member of the subgenus Enterobius and is characteristic in the spicule morphology, being readily distinguished from other congeners. Phylogenetic analyses based on 18S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Cox1 gene assign its position in the pinworm lineage adapted to the Old World primates, showing divergence before the splitting of the chimpanzee and human pinworms.

  17. Tenant Recruitment and Support Processes in Sustainability-Profiled Business Incubators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Natasha; Kanda, Wisdom

    2016-01-01

    Recruitment and support processes in sustainability-profiled incubators have received little research attention. The article addresses this knowledge gap in an empirical investigation of three sustainability-oriented incubators in Sweden, Finland and Germany. The data are based on interviews with managers, stakeholders and tenants in Green Tech…

  18. A Conceptual Development Framework for Management and Leadership Learning in the UK Incubator Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Hannon, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Focuses attention upon a recent phenomenon promoted by public sector policy and government funding and adopted within the private sector as a vehicle for wealth creation, where wealth can mean the development of different forms of capital such as financial, intellectual and social. Incubators and incubation programmes have established themselves…

  19. Artificial incubation of muscovy duck eggs : Why some eggs hatch and others do not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harun, MAS; Veeneklaas, RJ; Visser, GH; Van Kampen, M

    This study was designed to gain insight into the influence of spraying and cooling, during artificial incubation, on the embryo metabolic rate and hatching ability of Muscovy duck eggs. Three times a week 93 incubated eggs were sprayed and cooled for 0.5 h at room temperature. Daily embryo metabolic

  20. A Study of Business Incubators: Models, Best Practices, and Recommendations for NASA and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This study was conducted to provide NASA-Kennedy Space Center with information and recommendations to support establishing one or more technology-based business incubators In Florida. The study involved assembling information about incubators: why they succeed, why they fail, how they are organized, and what services they provide. Consequently, this study focuses on widely-recognized "best practices," needed to establish successful technology- based business incubators. The findings are used to optimize the design and implementation of one or more technology-based business incubators to be established in Florida. Recommendations reflect both the essential characteristics of successful incubators and the optimal business demographics in Florida. Appendix A provides a fuller description of the objectives of the study. Technology-based business incubators are an increasing catalyst of new business development across the USi Incubators focus on providing entrepreneurs and small start-up firms with a wide array of support services necessary to bring forth new products and processes based on technologies developed in the nation's federal and private laboratories and universities. Appendix B provides extensive discussion of findings relative to technology- based business incubators.

  1. A new view of avian life-history evolution tested on an incubation paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas E

    2002-02-07

    Viewing life-history evolution in birds based on an age-specific mortality framework can explain broad life-history patterns, including the long incubation periods in southern latitudes documented here. I show that incubation periods of species that are matched phylogenetically and ecologically between Argentina and Arizona are longer in Argentina. Long incubation periods have mystified scientists because they increase the accumulated risk of time-dependent mortality to young without providing a clear benefit. I hypothesize that parents of species with low adult mortality accept increased risk of mortality to their young from longer incubation if this allows reduced risk of mortality to themselves. During incubation, songbird parents can reduce risk of mortality to themselves by reducing nest attentiveness (percentage of time on the nest). Here I show that parents of species with lower adult mortality exhibit reduced nest attentiveness and that lower attentiveness is associated with longer incubation periods. However, the incubation period is also modified by juvenile mortality. Clutch size variation is also strongly correlated with age-specific mortality. Ultimately, adult and juvenile mortality explain variation in incubation and other life-history traits better than the historical paradigm.

  2. A Framework of Successful E-Business Incubator for Indonesian Public Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Gozali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In many developed countries, many business incubators take part to help starts-up company to develop their own business; especially the baby born business cannot compete with the giant industries that have become the old business players. Universities play an important role in motivating young graduates to become technology entrepreneur. Unemployment in Indonesia is still the main issue for the government program to increase welfare in the future. In year 2014 the data from Statistic Center of Indonesia state that Indonesia has 4% unemployment from Indonesia’ work generation. In Indonesia, incubators has been developed since 1992 initiated by the government, Cooperative Department and also universities. This effort continued in 1997 when there was a program called the Development of Entrepreneurship Culture in universities, and of its activity was New Entrepreneur Incubator. The objectives of the research are to investigate the success factor for e-business incubator, and to propose and develop a framework for successful e-business incubator for public universities in Indonesia. Research location is in Indonesia for the public universities that have their e-business incubator. This research will conduct quantitative and qualitative analyses based on data collection from incubator managers and business founders in Indonesia. The result of this research is a framework for successful e-business incubator in Indonesian public universities.

  3. Automatic Incubator-type Temperature Control System for Brain Hypothermia Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaohua, Lu; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi

    An automatic air-cooling incubator is proposed to replace the manual water-cooling blanket to control the brain tissue temperature for brain hypothermia treatment. Its feasibility is theoretically discussed as follows: First, an adult patient with the cooling incubator is modeled as a linear dynamical patient-incubator biothermal system. The patient is represented by an 18-compartment structure and described by its state equations. The air-cooling incubator provides almost same cooling effect as the water-cooling blanket, if a light breeze of speed around 3 m/s is circulated in the incubator. Then, in order to control the brain temperature automatically, an adaptive-optimal control algorithm is adopted, while the patient-blanket therapeutic system is considered as a reference model. Finally, the brain temperature of the patient-incubator biothermal system is controlled to follow up the given reference temperature course, in which an adaptive algorithm is confirmed useful for unknown environmental change and/or metabolic rate change of the patient in the incubating system. Thus, the present work ensures the development of the automatic air-cooling incubator for a better temperature regulation of the brain hypothermia treatment in ICU.

  4. The Incubator Concept as an Entry Mode Option for Danish SME's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Svend; Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the relevance of an alternative entry mode, the incubator concept. Such an alternative entry mode like the so-called incubator is increasingly being used as a shortcut or bridge to a distant market. In-depth qualitative research on a selected case (Kelsen...

  5. Changes in the air cell volume of artificially incubated ostrich eggs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 2160 images of candled, incubated ostrich eggs were digitized to determine the percentage of egg volume occupied by the air cell at different stages of incubation. The air cell on average occupied 2.5% of the volume of fresh eggs. For eggs that hatched successfully, this volume increased to an average of 24.4% ...

  6. Effects of temperature and CO2 during late incubation on broiler chicken development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maatjens, C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Incubation conditions need to be adjusted to meet embryonic requirements to obtain optimal chick quality and hatchability. Eggshell temperature (EST) can be used as a non- invasive method to determine embryo temperature. A high EST of 38.9°C during the second or third week of incubation

  7. Effect of Incubator Type and Broiler Breeder Age on Hatchability and Chick Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ICS Araújo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of broiler breeder age and incubator type on hatching parameters, hatch window, embryo diagnosis results, and hatchling physical quality. The treatments consisted of a combination of three broiler breeder ages (29, 35 and 59 weeks of age and two incubator types (single stage, SS; or and multiple stage, MS. A completely randomized design in a 3x2 factorial arrangement was applied. In Experiment I, 1,896 eggs were used and 360 eggs in Experiment II. There was an interaction between breeder age and incubator type only for hatchling physical quality score. Independently of incubator type, hatchability rate, late embryo mortality, and egg contamination were higher in the eggs laid by older breeders (59-wk-old. Early mortality (0-4 days was higher in the embryos from young breeders (29-wk-old. A shorter hatch window birth was obtained in the SS incubator, resulting in higher hatchling body weight relative to egg weight, and better hatchling physical quality score. Both types of incubators provide good conditions for embryo development; however, the physical quality of chicks derived from eggs from intermediate-aged breeders (35-wk-old is better when eggs are incubated in SS incubators.

  8. The costs of egg production and incubation in great tits (Parus major)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.E.; Lessells, C.M.

    2001-01-01

    The costs of egg production and incubation may have a crucial effect on avian reproductive decisions, such as clutch size and the timing of reproduction. We carried out a brood-size enlargement experiment on the great tit (Parus major), in which the birds had to lay and incubate extra eggs (full

  9. Microbial infection affects egg viability and incubation behavior in a tropical passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark I. Cook; Steven R. Beissinger; Gary A. Toranzos; Roberto A. Arendt Rodriguez

    2004-01-01

    Many avian species initiate incubation before clutch completion, which causes eggs to hatch asynchronously. This influences brood competitive dynamics and often results in nestling mortality. The prevailing hypotheses contend that parents incubate early because asynchronous hatching provides fitness benefits to parents or surviving offspring. An alternative idea is...

  10. Effect of location of eggs in the incubator on hatchability of eggs from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the hatchability of all eggs set and of fertile eggs was the highest in eggs placed in the front of the machine. Furthermore, early and middle stage deaths during incubation were lower in the front of the incubator compared to the back. The differences between eggs placed in the upper, middle and lower parts of the machine ...

  11. Assessment and Certification of Neonatal Incubator Sensors through an Inferential Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Medeiros de Araújo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Measurement and diagnostic systems based on electronic sensors have been increasingly essential in the standardization of hospital equipment. The technical standard IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission 60601-2-19 establishes requirements for neonatal incubators and specifies the calibration procedure and validation tests for such devices using sensors systems. This paper proposes a new procedure based on an inferential neural network to evaluate and calibrate a neonatal incubator. The proposal presents significant advantages over the standard calibration process, i.e., the number of sensors is drastically reduced, and it runs with the incubator under operation. Since the sensors used in the new calibration process are already installed in the commercial incubator, no additional hardware is necessary; and the calibration necessity can be diagnosed in real time without the presence of technical professionals in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Experimental tests involving the aforementioned calibration system are carried out in a commercial incubator in order to validate the proposal.

  12. The value of business incubation services for early stage start-ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Brian; Tanev, Stoyan; Jensen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    of the needs of early stage start-ups since they: i) do not have a well-articulated business model but work towards establishing one; ii) operate under conditions of significantly high risks and uncertainties; and iii) have not developed the minimum viable set of partners that would enable them to demonstrate...... in specific incubation programs. The findings should contribute to existing literature within the topic of business-incubation, as well as provide managers of both incubators and start-ups with actionable insights about the ways of maximizing the value of incubation services.......The paper focuses on conceptualizing the value of business incubation services for early stage start-ups that are typical of university-based entrepreneurial ecosystems. The challenge of such conceptualization consists in two main issues. The first issue is taking into account the specificity...

  13. Tricholeiperia peruensis n. sp. (Nematoda, Molineidae del quiróptero Lophostoma silvicolum occidentalis (Phyllostomidae en Tumbes, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vargas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo, se describe a Tricholeiperia peruensis n. sp. (Nematoda, Molineidae en base a 25 especímenes colectados del intestino de 5 murciélagos de la especie Lophostoma silvicolum occidentalis de la localidad de Angostura, distrito Pampas de Hospital, departamento de Tumbes, Perú. La nueva especie se caracteriza por la morfología de la vesícula cefálica en forma de capuchón con escotaduras, por el tamaño y forma de las espículas cuyo extremo distal de la rama externa se divide en dos, de las cuales la rama interna sufre una nueva división; por la disposición de las costillas de la bolsa copulatríz donde, entre otros detalles, las antero y postero-ventrales están separadas y las externo-dorsales nacen cerca de la parte media del tronco dorsal y son gruesas.

  14. Two new species of philometrid nematodes (Nematoda: Philometridae) in Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) from the South Bali Sea, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Kartika; Palm, Harry W

    2013-01-25

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopy, two new species of philometrid nematodes, Spirophilometra endangae sp. nov. and Philometra epinepheli sp. nov. (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea: Philometridae) are described from Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) (Perciformes: Serranidae) from the South Bali Sea, Indonesia. Spirophilometra endangae sp. nov. was isolated from the fins of E. coioides. The new species can be distinguished from the most closely related S. eichleri Parukhin, 1971 by a larger total body length and the site of infection in the host. The new species differs from S. centropomi (Caballero, 1974) also in the larger body size of the gravid females and the site of infection in the host. S. en-dangae sp. nov. differs from S. pacifica (Moravec, Santana-Pineros, Gonzales-Solis & Torres-Huerta, 2007) in the struc-ture and arrangement of the spines on the middle part of the body, the infection site of the worm, the type host and the zoogeographical host distribution. Philometra epinepheli sp. nov. differs from all other Philometra spp. congeners so far recorded from Ephinepelus groupers in the total body length and the site of infection. This is the first opercula-infecting species of Philometra described from the fish family Serranidae.

  15. Incubation temperature affects the behavior of adult leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, D; Tousignant, A; Crews, D

    1994-06-01

    The leopard gecko has temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD); females are predominantly produced when incubated at 26 degrees C (100%), 30 degrees C (70%), and 34 degrees C (95%), whereas males are predominantly produced at 32.5 degrees C (75%). Exogenous estradiol can override the effect of temperature on sex determination. To compare temperature-determined females with hormone-determined females, eggs from the male-biased temperature were treated with estradiol benzoate during incubation. As adults, animals from a male-biased incubation temperature were more likely to exhibit aggression than animals from female-biased incubation temperatures. Furthermore, females from a male-biased incubation temperature tended to be less attractive than females from female-biased temperatures. Hormone-determined females were both attractive and aggressive. This suggests that incubation temperature is an important development determinant of adult aggressiveness and attractiveness. The 26 degrees C animals ovariectomized on the day of hatch exhibited more frequent aggression and were unreceptive to males, indicating that postnatal ovarian hormones also play a role in adult sociosexual behaviors. The parallel between incubation temperature and intrauterine position in laboratory mammals is discussed.

  16. Noise level in neonatal incubators: A comparative study of three models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Zacarías, F; Beira Jiménez, J L; Bustillo Velázquez-Gaztelu, P J; Hernández Molina, R; Lubián López, Simón

    2018-04-01

    Preterm infants usually have to spend a long time in an incubator, excessive noise in which can have adverse physiological and psychological effects on neonates. In fact, incubator noise levels typically range from 45 to 70 dB but differences in this respect depend largely on the noise measuring method used. The primary aim of this work was to assess the extent to which noise in an incubator comes from its own fan and how efficiently the incubator can isolate external noise. Three different incubator models were characterized for acoustic performance by measuring their internal noise levels in an anechoic chamber, and also for noise isolation efficiency by using a pink noise source in combination with an internal and an external microphone that were connected to an SVAN958 noise analyzer. The incubators studied produced continuous equivalent noise levels of 53.5-58 dB and reduced external noise by 5.2-10.4 dB. A preterm infant in an incubator is exposed to noise levels clearly exceeding international recommendations even though such levels usually comply with the limit set in the standard IEC60601-2-19: 2009 (60 dBA) under normal conditions of use. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Factors affecting incubation patterns and sex roles of black oystercatchers in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Caleb S.; Haig, Susan M.; Goldstein, Michael I.; Huso, Manuela M. P.

    2012-01-01

    Studies examining the effects of human disturbance on avian parental behavior and reproductive success are fundamental to bird conservation. However, many such studies fail to also consider the influence of natural threats, a variable environment, and parental roles. Our work examines interactive relationships of cyclical (time of day, tide, temperature, seasonality) and stochastic (natural/human disturbance) processes with incubation patterns (attendance, bout lengths, recess rates) of the Black Oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani), a shorebird of conservation concern. We used 24-hour-per-day video monitoring of 13 molecularly-sexed breeding pairs to systematically examine incubation, revealing previously undocumented information that may inform conservation practices for the genus. Seven of 22 video-monitored nests failed, primarily from egg depredation by nocturnally-active mammals. Analyses of 3177 hrs of video footage indicated a near doubling of incubation bout lengths at night, corresponding to the increased risk of nighttime egg predation. Females had higher overall nest attendance (54% vs. 42%) and longer mean incubation bout lengths than males (88 min vs. 73 min). Uninterrupted incubation bouts were over twice as long as bouts interrupted by disturbance. Incubating males departed nests substantially more frequently due to nest-area disturbances than females in one, but not both, years of our study. Our findings suggest that sexes exhibit different, but complimentary, incubation patterns, facilitating efficient egg care in a dynamic environment with several nest threats. We emphasize the importance of considering natural influences when evaluating human threats to shorebird reproductive behavior and success.

  18. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COMPANY AND INCUBATOR FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Ferreira Alves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The biotechnology activities development demands an intense academic and scientific basis, a productive sector capable of transforming academic research in scientific products and services, and the creation of an institutional environment to promote the sector’s development. Moreover, many biotechnology companies establish formal partnerships with Universities (by technological incubator to expand innovative capacity coming into the market. The importance of biotechnology for developing countries is perceived by its ability to promote national development based on knowledge and innovation. In Brazil, the government establishes technological incubators to accelerate the company consolidation. In this way, it is important to study the relationship between the actors involved. In this context, this article aims to analyze the relationship between a technological incubator and a biotech company. To do so, the qualitative approach was adopted to reach the objective. Interviews with incubator’s employees of a Brazilian University and biotechnology company’s managers were conducted. The results show that the company-incubator interaction promoted projects approval which were able to support new researches development and to purchase production equipment. Incubated companies have higher chances of survival in the market from the interaction with University, through the technological incubator. The relationship between the incubator and the biotech company is considered a fundamental condition for biotechnology activities development.

  19. Screening of Lactic Acid Bacteria for Anti-Fusarium Activity and Optimization of Incubation Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Vegi, Anuradha; Wolf-Hall, Charlene

    2017-10-01

    Anti-Fusarium activities of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) Lactobacillus plantarum 299V, L. plantarum NRRL-4496, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus VT1 were determined by a microdilution assay developed in this study against Fusarium graminearum 08/RG/BF/51. A cell-free Lactobacillus culture supernatant (CFLCS) of L. rhamnosus VT1 had the highest anti-Fusarium activity. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the incubation conditions for production of CFLCS. A Box-Behnken factorial design was used to investigate the effects of incubation time, shaking speed, and incubation temperature on the inhibition rate of CFLCS. A model equation was generated to predict the inhibition rate of CFLCS under various incubation conditions. A low probability value (0.0012) and associated F value of 25.10 suggested that the model was highly significant. A high R 2 value (0.978) indicated a very satisfactory model performance. Response surface methodology analysis suggested that an incubation temperature at 34°C, a shaking speed at 170 rpm, and an incubation time of 55 h were the best combination for production of CFLCS from L. rhamnosus VT1. Under these incubation conditions, a 10% L. rhamnosus VT1 CFLCS solution was predicted to inhibit the growth of F. graminearum by 75.6% in vitro and inhibited 83.7% of the growth in the validation experiment. Thus, the CFLCS of L. rhamnosus VT1 was an effective anti-Fusarium mixture.

  20. EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT OF YELLOWFIN TUNA (Thunnus albacares AT DIFFERENT INCUBATION TEMPERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Harianto Hutapea

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in order to figure out the effect of incubation temperature on embryonic development of yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares eggs. Five different incubation temperatures were applied as treatments, i.e.: 24°C, 26°C, 28°C, 30°C, and 32°C with 3 replicate each. Ten micro plates with lid (IWAKI, Japan were used; each has 6 well and 10 mL volumes. Five micro plates were used for experiment and five for balance on shaker. Three well of each micro plate were filled with 8 mL ultra violet sterilized sea water and 50 fertilized eggs. Temperature was set using Multi Thermo Incubator which has 5 level racks. Temperatures were set from the lowest to the highest on bottom to upper rack order. To maintain eggs dispersed in the medium, shaker on each rack was operated at 150 RPM. The embryo was monitored every 30-60 minutes depends on embryonic stage development using Microscope which was connected to Digital Camera DXM 1200F. Image analyses by Image Analyzer Program. The results showed, incubation temperature was significantly affect (P<0.05 embryonic development and hatching time of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares eggs. Optimum incubation temperature for embryo development and hatching was 28°C. Decreased on incubation temperature slows down embryo development at all stages, and vice versa, increased on incubation temperature accelerates embryo development.

  1. DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED IN ISO 9001:2008 IMPLEMENTATION PROJECTS IN INCUBATED TECHNOLOGY-BASED COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gome Salgado

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Quality Management Systems (QMS are designed to continuously improve the performance of organizations aiming to constantly improve their services seeking to overcome their results. Thus, for the services and/or products offered to transmit confidence and credibility, they should be designed within appropriate norms and standards. This research aims to assess the difficulties encountered by the incubated companies participating in the PRIME-FINEP project and developing projects for certification of their QMS in accordance with ISO 9001:2008. An exploratory survey was performed in nine incubated technology-based companies (TBC, through a questionnaire with 21 questions totaling the opinion of 20 respondents. After analyzing the data it is concluded, with statistical meaning, that the TBC's with little incubation time present difficulties in implementing the quality policy (5.3, difficulty not identified in other studies conducted in large companies. However difficulties similar to those of the large companies are present in the incubated TBC, and are the following: documentation requirements (4.2 present in all incubated companies (regardless of incubation time, and design and development (7.3 present in companies with little incubation time. The difficulty in implementing the quality policy (5.3 is reflected in the achievement of the QMS certification project in accordance with ISO 9001:2008.

  2. Geographic variation in avian incubation periods and parental influences on embryonic temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas E; Auer, Sonya K; Bassar, Ronald D; Niklison, Alina M; Lloyd, Penn

    2007-11-01

    Theory predicts shorter embryonic periods in species with greater embryo mortality risk and smaller body size. Field studies of 80 passerine species on three continents yielded data that largely conflicted with theory; incubation (embryonic) periods were longer rather than shorter in smaller species, and egg (embryo) mortality risk explained some variation within regions, but did not explain larger differences in incubation periods among geographic regions. Incubation behavior of parents seems to explain these discrepancies. Bird embryos are effectively ectothermic and depend on warmth provided by parents sitting on the eggs to attain proper temperatures for development. Parents of smaller species, plus tropical and southern hemisphere species, commonly exhibited lower nest attentiveness (percent of time spent on the nest incubating) than larger and northern hemisphere species. Lower nest attentiveness produced cooler minimum and average embryonic temperatures that were correlated with longer incubation periods independent of nest predation risk or body size. We experimentally tested this correlation by swapping eggs of species with cool incubation temperatures with eggs of species with warm incubation temperatures and similar egg mass. Incubation periods changed (shortened or lengthened) as expected and verified the importance of egg temperature on development rate. Slower development resulting from cooler temperatures may simply be a cost imposed on embryos by parents and may not enhance offspring quality. At the same time, incubation periods of transferred eggs did not match host species and reflect intrinsic differences among species that may result from nest predation and other selection pressures. Thus, geographic variation in embryonic development may reflect more complex interactions than previously recognized.

  3. Geographic variation in avian incubation periods and parental influences on embryonic temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T.E.; Auer, S.K.; Bassar, R.D.; Niklison, Alina M.; Lloyd, P.

    2007-01-01

    Theory predicts shorter embryonic periods in species with greater embryo mortality risk and smaller body size. Field studies of 80 passerine species on three continents yielded data that largely conflicted with theory; incubation (embryonic) periods were longer rather than shorter in smaller species, and egg (embryo) mortality risk explained some variation within regions, but did not explain larger differences in incubation periods among geographic regions. Incubation behavior of parents seems to explain these discrepancies. Bird embryos are effectively ectothermic and depend on warmth provided by parents sitting on the eggs to attain proper temperatures for development. Parents of smaller species, plus tropical and southern hemisphere species, commonly exhibited lower nest attentiveness (percent of time spent on the nest incubating) than larger and northern hemisphere species. Lower nest attentiveness produced cooler minimum and average embryonic temperatures that were correlated with longer incubation periods independent of nest predation risk or body size. We experimentally tested this correlation by swapping eggs of species with cool incubation temperatures with eggs of species with warm incubation temperatures and similar egg mass. Incubation periods changed (shortened or lengthened) as expected and verified the importance of egg temperature on development rate. Slower development resulting from cooler temperatures may simply be a cost imposed on embryos by parents and may not enhance offspring quality. At the same time, incubation periods of transferred eggs did not match host species and reflect intrinsic differences among species that may result from nest predation and other selection pressures. Thus, geographic variation in embryonic development may reflect more complex interactions than previously recognized. ?? 2007 The Author(s).

  4. Early efforts in modeling the incubation period of infectious diseases with an acute course of illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishiura Hiroshi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The incubation period of infectious diseases, the time from infection with a microorganism to onset of disease, is directly relevant to prevention and control. Since explicit models of the incubation period enhance our understanding of the spread of disease, previous classic studies were revisited, focusing on the modeling methods employed and paying particular attention to relatively unknown historical efforts. The earliest study on the incubation period of pandemic influenza was published in 1919, providing estimates of the incubation period of Spanish flu using the daily incidence on ships departing from several ports in Australia. Although the study explicitly dealt with an unknown time of exposure, the assumed periods of exposure, which had an equal probability of infection, were too long, and thus, likely resulted in slight underestimates of the incubation period. After the suggestion that the incubation period follows lognormal distribution, Japanese epidemiologists extended this assumption to estimates of the time of exposure during a point source outbreak. Although the reason why the incubation period of acute infectious diseases tends to reveal a right-skewed distribution has been explored several times, the validity of the lognormal assumption is yet to be fully clarified. At present, various different distributions are assumed, and the lack of validity in assuming lognormal distribution is particularly apparent in the case of slowly progressing diseases. The present paper indicates that (1 analysis using well-defined short periods of exposure with appropriate statistical methods is critical when the exact time of exposure is unknown, and (2 when assuming a specific distribution for the incubation period, comparisons using different distributions are needed in addition to estimations using different datasets, analyses of the determinants of incubation period, and an understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms.

  5. Early efforts in modeling the incubation period of infectious diseases with an acute course of illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, Hiroshi

    2007-05-11

    The incubation period of infectious diseases, the time from infection with a microorganism to onset of disease, is directly relevant to prevention and control. Since explicit models of the incubation period enhance our understanding of the spread of disease, previous classic studies were revisited, focusing on the modeling methods employed and paying particular attention to relatively unknown historical efforts. The earliest study on the incubation period of pandemic influenza was published in 1919, providing estimates of the incubation period of Spanish flu using the daily incidence on ships departing from several ports in Australia. Although the study explicitly dealt with an unknown time of exposure, the assumed periods of exposure, which had an equal probability of infection, were too long, and thus, likely resulted in slight underestimates of the incubation period. After the suggestion that the incubation period follows lognormal distribution, Japanese epidemiologists extended this assumption to estimates of the time of exposure during a point source outbreak. Although the reason why the incubation period of acute infectious diseases tends to reveal a right-skewed distribution has been explored several times, the validity of the lognormal assumption is yet to be fully clarified. At present, various different distributions are assumed, and the lack of validity in assuming lognormal distribution is particularly apparent in the case of slowly progressing diseases. The present paper indicates that (1) analysis using well-defined short periods of exposure with appropriate statistical methods is critical when the exact time of exposure is unknown, and (2) when assuming a specific distribution for the incubation period, comparisons using different distributions are needed in addition to estimations using different datasets, analyses of the determinants of incubation period, and an understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms.

  6. Metabolic cost of incubation in the Laysan albatross and Bonin petrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, G S; Whittow, G C

    1983-01-01

    1. Oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production were measured in resting and incubating Laysan albatrosses and Bonin petrels on Midway Atoll in the north central Pacific Ocean. 2. Incubation metabolism within the thermal neutral zone is less than or equal to resting metabolism in the albatross and petrel. 3. The respiratory quotients (0.64-0.72) during the long fasts indicate fat metabolism. 4. The estimated fractional water content of the albatross and petrel do not change during incubation fasts because water loss is balanced by metabolic water production.

  7. Experimental corneal calcification, hydration and /sup 45/Ca uptake in rabbit corneas incubated in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obenberger, J [Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Prague. Oftalmologicka Laborator; Dobiasova, M; Babicky, A [Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Prague. Isotopova Laborator Biologickych Ustavu

    1974-07-01

    Experimental corneal calcification could easily be produced by a combination of corneal injury (perfusion of the anterior chamber of the eye with a solution of potassium permanganate) amd dihydrotachysterol (DHT) treatment. Rabbit corneas with induced calcification as well as corneas of three additional groups of rabbits, i.e. those treated with permanganate or DHT only and control animals were incubated for two hours in a medium containing /sup 45/Ca. An increased uptake of /sup 45/Ca into the cornea was found in the group of rabbits receiving DHT only. Potassium cyanide added to the incubation medium did not affect corneal hydration nor the final activity of the incubated corneas. (auth)

  8. Role of Anterior Intralaminar Nuclei of Thalamus Projections to Dorsomedial Striatum in Incubation of Methamphetamine Craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan; Witonsky, Kailyn R; Lofaro, Olivia M; Surjono, Felicia; Zhang, Jianjun; Bossert, Jennifer M; Shaham, Yavin

    2018-02-28

    Relapse to methamphetamine (Meth) seeking progressively increases after withdrawal from drug self-administration (incubation of Meth craving). We previously demonstrated a role of dorsomedial striatum (DMS) dopamine D1 receptors (D1Rs) in this incubation. Here, we studied the role of afferent glutamatergic projections into the DMS and local D1R-glutamate interaction in this incubation in male rats. We first measured projection-specific activation on day 30 relapse test by using cholera toxin b (retrograde tracer) + Fos (activity marker) double-labeling in projection areas. Next, we determined the effect of pharmacological reversible inactivation of lateral or medial anterior intralaminar nuclei of thalamus (AIT-L or AIT-M) on incubated Meth seeking on withdrawal day 30. We then used an anatomical asymmetrical disconnection procedure to determine whether an interaction between AIT-L→DMS glutamatergic projections and postsynaptic DMS D1Rs contributes to incubated Meth seeking. We also determined the effect of unilateral inactivation of AIT-L and D1R blockade of DMS on incubated Meth seeking, and the effect of contralateral disconnection of AIT-L→DMS projections on nonincubated Meth seeking on withdrawal day 1. Incubated Meth seeking was associated with selective activation of AIT→DMS projections; other glutamatergic projections to DMS were not activated. AIT-L (but not AIT-M) inactivation or anatomical disconnection of AIT-L→DMS projections decreased incubated Meth seeking. Unilateral inactivation of AIT-L or D1R blockade of the DMS had no effect on incubated Meth craving, and contralateral disconnection of AIT-L→DMS projections had no effect on nonincubated Meth seeking. Our results identify a novel role of AIT-L and AIT-L→DMS glutamatergic projections in incubation of drug craving and drug seeking. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Methamphetamine seeking progressively increases after withdrawal from drug self-administration, a phenomenon termed incubation of

  9. Phylogenetic relationships of some spirurine nematodes (Nematoda: Chromadorea: Rhabditida: Spirurina) parasitic in fishes inferred from SSU rRNA gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernotíková, Eva; Horák, Ales; Moravec, Frantisek

    2011-06-01

    Abstract: Small subunit rRNA sequences were obtained from 38 representatives mainly of the nematode orders Spirurida (Camallanidae, Cystidicolidae, Daniconematidae, Philometridae, Physalopteridae, Rhabdochonidae, Skrjabillanidae) and, in part, Ascaridida (Anisakidae, Cucullanidae, Quimperiidae). The examined nematodes are predominantly parasites of fishes. Their analyses provided well-supported trees allowing the study ofphylogenetic relationships among some spirurine nematodes. The present results support the placement of Cucullanidae at the base of the suborder Spirurina and, based on the position of the genus Philonema (subfamily Philoneminae) forming a sister group to Skrjabillanidae (thus Philoneminae should be elevated to Philonemidae), the paraphyly of the Philometridae. Comparison of a large number of sequences of representatives of the latter family supports the paraphyly of the genera Philometra, Philometroides and Dentiphilometra. The validity of the newly included genera Afrophilometra and Caranginema is not supported. These results indicate geographical isolation has not been the cause of speciation in this parasite group and no coevolution with fish hosts is apparent. On the contrary, the group of South-American species ofAlinema, Nilonema and Rumai is placed in an independent branch, thus markedly separated from other family members. Molecular data indicate that the skrjabillanid subfamily Esocineminae (represented by Esocinema bohemicum) should be either elevated to the rank of an independent family or Daniconematidae (Mexiconema africanum) should be decreased to Daniconematinae and transferred to the family Skrjabillanidae. Camallanid genera Camallanus and Procamallanus, as well as the subgenera Procamallanus and Spirocamallanus are confirmed to be paraphyletic. Paraphyly has also been found within Filarioidea, Habronematoidea and Thelazioidea and in Cystidicolidae, Physalopteridae and Thelaziidae. The results of the analyses also show that

  10. Analysis for grouping of factors of performance of technology-based enterprise in incubators: study of the incubators of the State of Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo Andrade Júnior

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study it has for objective to evaluate the capacity of overcoming of difficulties of Technology-based enterprise in incubators, aiming at to the proposal of action of improvements and performance for groupings, using as reference the incubators the State of Santa Catarina. The used methodology privileges the qualitative approach. The research is characterized for being of the type description-exploratory, carried through under the study form multicase. The interview constitutes the main instrument of collection of data. Intentional samples had been used to select the citizens of this inquiry. For presentation and analysis of the data set and interpretation of the verbal stories, it was used technique of content analysis and the technique of triangulation for quarrel of the results. The results of the research had allowed identifying to the difficulties of resident enterprise in incubators and its relevance in the overcoming of the difficulties on the basis of four groupings: in the financial restrictions, of management, production and commercialization considering elements that allow action of improvement. Moreover, the research contributes practice by proposing of actions for improvements to be adopted by companies and also by incubators in order to improve their factors of performance and evaluation.

  11. Effect of mini-sprinkler irrigation system on Heterorhabditis baujardi LPP7 (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae infective juvenile Efeito do sistema de irrigação por microaspersão em juvenis infectantes de Heterorhabditis baujardi LPP7 (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Lara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs are currently being used as successful biological control agents of soil-dwelling insect pests. Previous field and greenhouse studies demonstrated that application techniques and non-biotic factors (temperature and pressure have a significant effect on EPNs efficacy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of an irrigation spray application system on the viability, infectivity and host search capability of Heterorhabditis baujardi LPP7 (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae infective juveniles (IJ. Two assays were proposed. Their viability was evaluated under the microscope after the IJ passed through the irrigation system. Infectivity on Galleria mellonella larvae, and host search capability, as evidenced by larval mortality, were evaluated in containers (Experiment 1. In the field (Experiment 2, mortality of G. mellonella larvae was evaluated under different nematode concentrations (0, 100,000, 300,000 and 500,000 IJ per tree. No differences were recorded on the viability, infectivity and host search capability of the IJ in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, differences were recorded among the different concentrations used (p Nematóides entomopatogênicos (NEPs vêm sendo usados com sucesso como agentes do controle biológico de pragas de solo. Estudos anteriores mostraram que técnicas de aplicação e fatores abióticos (temperatura e pressão afetam a eficiência dos NEPs em testes de campo e casa-de-vegetação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de condições geradas por um sistema de irrigação por microaspersão, na viabilidade, infectividade e na capacidade de busca de hospedeiros nos juvenis infectantes (JI de Heterorhabditis baujardi LPP7 (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae. Dois experimentos foram propostos. A viabilidade dos juvenis infectantes (JI foi avaliada no microscópio imediatamente após sua passagem pelo sistema de irrigação. A infectividade e a capacidade de busca pelo

  12. Perfil do suporte oferecido pelas incubadoras brasileiras às empresas incubadas The profile of the support offered by the brazilian incubators to the incubated companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Maury Raupp

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo objetiva delinear o perfil do suporte oferecido pelas incubadoras brasileiras às empresas incubadas. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, de natureza quanti-qualitativa, realizado por meio de pesquisa survey. A população da pesquisa corresponde a 179 incubadoras brasileiras, tendo-se obtido um retorno de 37 delas. A coleta de dados deu-se com base em questionário enviado por e-mail aos coordenadores das incubadoras. Inicia-se o estudo fazendo uma breve incursão teórica acerca de incubadoras de empresas, fases do processo de incubação e suporte das incubadoras às empresas incubadas. Na seqüência, identifica-se os procedimentos metodológicos adotados. Em seguida, procede-se à descrição e análise dos dados coletados. Por último, apresenta-se as conclusões do estudo realizado, bem como recomendações para futuras pesquisas.The goal of this article is to outline the profile of the support offered by the Brazilian incubators to the incubated companies. This is a descriptive study, based on both quality and quantity, done through a survey. The target of the research was 179 Brazilian incubators, having heard from 37 of them. The data collection was based on questionnaire sent through e-mail to the coordinators of the incubators. The study began with a brief theoretical foray about incubators of companies. After that, the adopted methodological procedures are identified. Then, the description and the analysis of the data collected are done. At last, the conclusion of the study and recommendation for future researches are presented.

  13. The incubation period distribution of tuberculosis estimated with a molecular epidemiological approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgdorff, M.W.; Sebek, M.; Geskus, R.B.; Kremer, K.; Kalisvaart, N.; Soolingen, D. van

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is limited information on the distribution of incubation periods of tuberculosis (TB). METHODS: In The Netherlands, patients whose Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates have identical DNA fingerprints in the period 1993-2007 were interviewed to identify epidemiological links between

  14. Curcumin uptake enhancement using low dose light illumination during incubation in Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Renan A.; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; da Silva, Ana P.; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Guimarães, Francisco E. G.

    2017-07-01

    A new PDI protocol is presented in this study. C. albicans cells pre-illuminated with a low dose light demonstrated an increase of curcumin uptake when compared to dark incubation, leading to a higher PDI efficacy.

  15. Influence of starter culture strains, pH adjustment and incubation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... in fermented dairy products. In this study ... (36ºC) incubation temperature caused an increase in EPS production. Viscosity of ... contains most of the lactose of cheese-milk. ..... Protein content, heat treatment and the presence.

  16. The design of neonatal incubators: a systems-oriented, human-centered approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, T K; Shepley, M M

    2013-04-01

    This report describes a multidisciplinary design project conducted in an academic setting reflecting a systems-oriented, human-centered philosophy in the design of neonatal incubator technologies. Graduate students in Architectural Design and Human Factors Engineering courses collaborated in a design effort that focused on supporting the needs of three user groups of incubator technologies: infant patients, family members and medical personnel. Design teams followed established human-centered design methods that included interacting with representatives from the user groups, analyzing sets of critical tasks and conducting usability studies with existing technologies. An iterative design and evaluation process produced four conceptual designs of incubators and supporting equipment that better address specific needs of the user groups. This report introduces the human-centered design approach, highlights some of the analysis findings and design solutions, and offers a set of design recommendations for future incubation technologies.

  17. The design of multi temperature and humidity monitoring system for incubator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junyu; Xu, Peng; Peng, Zitao; Qiang, Haonan; Shen, Xiaoyan

    2017-01-01

    Currently, there is only one monitor of the temperature and humidity in an incubator, which may cause inaccurate or unreliable data, and even endanger the life safety of the baby. In order to solve this problem,we designed a multi-point temperature and humidity monitoring system for incubators. The system uses the STC12C5A60S2 microcontrollers as the sender core chip which is connected to four AM2321 temperature and humidity sensors. We select STM32F103ZET6 core development board as the receiving end,cooperating with Zigbee wireless transmitting and receiving module to realize data acquisition and transmission. This design can realize remote real-time observation data on the computer by communicating with PC via Ethernet. Prototype tests show that the system can effectively collect and display the information of temperature and humidity of multiple incubators at the same time and there are four monitors in each incubator.

  18. Mobile Incubation in Waved Albatross (Phoebastria irrorata: Associated Hatching Failure and Artificial Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill A. Awkerman

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Waved albatrosses often relocate their eggs during incubation by placing the egg between the tarsi and shuffling forward. This behavior frequently results in eggs becoming lodged between rocks, accounting for at least 10%, and perhaps as much as 80%, of breeding failures. Because albatross populations worldwide are currently threatened, artificial means of augmenting reproductive success may be necessary to mitigate losses caused by anthropogenic effects. We characterize the frequency and extent of egg movement; test several hypotheses related to microhabitat, timing, and incubation location to explain the behavior; and investigate the utility of repositioning lodged eggs in a location in which breeding birds might resume incubation. Egg rescue increased both the likelihood of continued incubation as well as the hatching rate in our experiment, and provides an efficient, low-cost management option for this species.

  19. ENHANCING INNOVATION ROLES OF PESANTREN BUSINESS INCUBATOR IN PONDOK PESANTREN SUNAN DRAJAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biyati Ahwarumi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Business Incubator is one of PPSD’s (Pondok Pesantren Sunan Drajat sub-units that supports their owneconomy independency. PPSD have existed as an important part of education, social and especially economic institution for Muslim community in East Java. Each year, Muslim intellectuals graduate from PPDS as Santri graduates, and mostly work, not only as religion teachers, but also as entrepreneurs, back in their hometown. The phenomenon of Santri Entrepreneurs appears to be the main inspiration for Business Incubator foundation. The researcher subsequently observes such phenomenon, also known as Santri anti-poverty agent, by using Action Research method as a base of observation for data collecting, analysis and synthesis process. The aim is to describe innovative methods of PPSD’s Business Incubator in generating entrepreneurs along with pesantren ecosystem where this research was conducted. The research findings are the description of knowledge management and recommendation for developing entrepreneurship within incubator related to PPSD policy.

  20. Exposing broiler eggs to green, red and white light during incubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, G S

    2017-07-01

    Previous work has shown that exposing broiler eggs to white light during incubation can improve hatchability and post-hatch animal welfare. It was hypothesized that due to how different wavelengths of light can affect avian physiology differently, and how pigmented eggshells filter light that different monochromatic wavelengths would have differential effects on hatchability and post-hatch animal welfare indicators. To determine, we incubated chicken eggs (n=6912) under either no light (dark), green light, red light or white light; the light level was 250 lux. White and red light were observed to increase hatch of fertile (P0.05). Fear response of during isolation and tonic immobility was reduced (P0.05) from dark incubated broilers. All light incubated broilers had lower (Phatchery efficiency and post-hatch animal welfare at the same time.

  1. Development Of A Neonatal Incubator Analyzer [desenvolvimento De Um Analisador De Incubadoras Neonatais

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrino J.C.; Leite H.J.D.; Kalid R.A.; Hermini A.H.; Lepikson H.A.

    2011-01-01

    Although designed to benefit premature newborns (NB) by creating an artificial environment close to the uterine conditions, the use of neonatal incubators may expose the NB to several sources of risk. Periodic inspections for verification of minimum requirements of performance and safety can identify these and their degrees of impact, helping to minimize them. In order to automate the metrological evaluation essays in neonatal incubators, we present the development of an analyzer with the cap...

  2. The Role Of Business Incubators In The Economic Development Of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Imam Salem

    2014-01-01

    Business incubators are perceived to be a mainstay of economic development programs. They create value by combining the entrepreneurial drive of a startup with resources generally available to new ventures. Among the primary objectives of business incubators are creating employment opportunities in the local economy and commercializing technologies. Saudi government has put high-growth, innovative businesses at the heart of its economic agenda. The aim of this paper is to enhance understa...

  3. Limited male incubation ability and the evolution of egg size in shorebirds

    OpenAIRE

    Lislevand, Terje; Thomas, Gavin H.

    2006-01-01

    In bird species where males incubate but are smaller than females, egg size may be constrained by male body size, and hence ability to incubate the eggs. Using data from 71 such shorebird species, we show that egg size decreases as the degree of female-biased sexual size dimorphism increases, after controlling for female body mass. Relative egg size was not related to mean clutch size. However, when controlling for mating system, the relationship between female-biased sexual size dimorp...

  4. External Service Providers to the National Security Technology Incubator: Formalization of Relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-04-30

    This report documents the formalization of relationships with external service providers in the development of the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI). The technology incubator is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report summarizes the process in developing and formalizing relationships with those service providers and includes a sample letter of cooperation executed with each provider.

  5. Processes of Incubating African Female Entrepreneurs: Some Evidences from Senegal and Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Imani Silver Kyaruzi; Chantal Ahoefa Hales

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine the processes of incubating African female entrepreneurs. It is observed that despite the growing interest and large volume of literature on business incubation and their role in local economic growth, theories have been silent on explaining the role(s) of “female incubatees” within this process. The particular focus of this paper is on our current understanding of the nature of the complex processes of providing business support services to female entrepreneurs in...

  6. Electromagnetic fields produced by incubators influence heart rate variability in newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellieni, C V; Acampa, M; Maffei, M; Maffei, S; Perrone, S; Pinto, I; Stacchini, N; Buonocore, G

    2008-07-01

    Incubators are largely used to preserve preterm and sick babies from postnatal stressors, but their motors produce high electromagnetic fields (EMFs). Newborns are chronically exposed to these EMFs, but no studies about their effects on the fragile developing neonatal structure exist. To verify whether the exposure to incubator motor electric power may alter autonomous nervous system activity in newborns. Heart rate variability (HRV) of 43 newborns in incubators was studied. The study group comprised 27 newborns whose HRV was studied throughout three 5-minute periods: with incubator motor on, off, and on again, respectively. Mean HRV values obtained during each period were compared. The control group comprised 16 newborns with constantly unrecordable EMF and exposed to changes in background noise, similar to those provoked by the incubator motor. Mean (SD) total power and the high-frequency (HF) component of HRV increased significantly (from 87.1 (76.2) ms2 to 183.6 (168.5) ms2) and the mean low-frequency (LF)/HF ratio decreased significantly (from 2.0 (0.5) to 1.5 (0.6)) when the incubator motor was turned off. Basal values (HF = 107.1 (118.1) ms2 and LF/HF = 1.9 (0.6)) were restored when incubators were turned on again. The LF spectral component of HRV showed a statistically significant change only in the second phase of the experiment. Changes in background noise did not provoke any significant change in HRV. EMFs produced by incubators influence newborns' HRV, showing an influence on their autonomous nervous system. More research is needed to assess possible long-term consequences, since premature newborns may be exposed to these high EMFs for months.

  7. Temperature during the last week of incubation. III. Effects on chicken embryo physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maatjens, C.M.; Roovert-Reijrink, van I.A.M.; Engel, B.; Pol, van der C.W.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated effects of eggshell temperature (EST) of 35.6, 36.7, 37.8, or 38.9°C applied from d of incubation (E) 15, E17, or E19 onward on chicken embryo physiology. A total of 2,850 first-grade eggs of a 43-week-old Ross 308 broiler breeder flock were incubated at an EST of 37.8°C until E15.

  8. The effect of varying incubation times for hypotonic treatment of lymphocytes in dicentric assay technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noraisyah Yusof; Noriah Jamal; Rahimah Abdul Rahim; Juliana Mahamad Napiah

    2010-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has recommended that incubation time for the hypotonic treatment of lymphocytes in dicentric assay technique to be between 15 to 20 minutes. Incubation time will effect the hypotonic treatment of lymphocytes and thus, the breakage of cytoplasmic membrane. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of varying incubation times for hypotonic treatment of lymphocytes in dicentric assay technique. In this study, we choose to use our standard protocol for dicentric assay technique. However, for the hypotonic treatment of lymphocytes, the incubation times were varied from 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 minutes respectively. Lymphocytes were then fixed and stained with Giemsa. The cells were then analyzed for clear background that indicates good metaphases. We found that incubation time of 30 minutes gives the best metaphase images. This incubation time is longer than what has been recommended by the IAEA. This maybe explained by the fact that our country's climate is of higher humidity compared with the European countries. (author)

  9. Leaching of soils during laboratory incubations does not affect soil organic carbon mineralisation but solubilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Domínguez, Beatriz; Studer, Mirjam S; Hagedorn, Frank; Niklaus, Pascal A; Abiven, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Laboratory soil incubations provide controlled conditions to investigate carbon and nutrient dynamics; however, they are not free of artefacts. As carbon and nitrogen cycles are tightly linked, we aimed at investigating whether the incubation-induced accumulation of mineral nitrogen (Nmin) biases soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralisation. For this, we selected two soils representative of the C:N ratio values found in European temperate forests, and applied two incubation systems: 'closed' beakers and 'open' microlysimeters. The latter allowed leaching the soil samples during the incubation. By the end of the 121-day experiment, the low C:N soil significantly accumulated more Nmin in beakers (5.12 g kg-1 OC) than in microlysimeters (3.00 g kg-1 OC) but there was not a significant difference in SOC mineralisation at any point of the experiment. On the other hand, Nmin did not accumulate in the high C:N soil but, by the end of the experiment, leaching had promoted 33.9% more SOC solubilisation than beakers. Therefore, we did not find evidence that incubation experiments introduce a bias on SOC mineralisation. This outcome strengthens results from soil incubation studies.

  10. Fitness cost of incubation in great tits (Parus major) is related to clutch size

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heij, Maaike E; van den Hout, Piet J; Tinbergen, Joost M

    2006-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that parents produce the number of offspring that maximizes their fitness. In birds, natural selection on parental decisions regarding clutch size may act during egg laying, incubation or nestling phase. To study the fitness consequences of clutch size during the incubation phase, we manipulated the clutch sizes during this phase only in three breeding seasons and measured the fitness consequences on the short and the long term. Clutch enlargement did not affect the offspring fitness of the manipulated first clutches, but fledging probability of the subsequent clutch in the same season was reduced. Parents incubating enlarged first clutches provided adequate care for the offspring of their first clutches during the nestling phase, but paid the price when caring for the offspring of their second clutch. Parents that incubated enlarged first clutches had lower local survival in the 2 years when the population had a relatively high production of second clutches, but not in the third year when there was a very low production of second clutches. During these 2 years, the costs of incubation were strong enough to change positive selection, as established by brood size manipulations in this study population, into stabilizing selection through the negative effect of incubation on parental fitness. PMID:16928638

  11. Sod1 deficiency reduces incubation time in mouse models of prion disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen Akhtar

    Full Text Available Prion infections, causing neurodegenerative conditions such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and kuru in humans, scrapie in sheep and BSE in cattle are characterised by prolonged and variable incubation periods that are faithfully reproduced in mouse models. Incubation time is partly determined by genetic factors including polymorphisms in the prion protein gene. Quantitative trait loci studies in mice and human genome-wide association studies have confirmed that multiple genes are involved. Candidate gene approaches have also been used and identified App, Il1-r1 and Sod1 as affecting incubation times. In this study we looked for an association between App, Il1-r1 and Sod1 representative SNPs and prion disease incubation time in the Northport heterogeneous stock of mice inoculated with the Chandler/RML prion strain. No association was seen with App, however, significant associations were seen with Il1-r1 (P = 0.02 and Sod1 (P<0.0001 suggesting that polymorphisms at these loci contribute to the natural variation observed in incubation time. Furthermore, following challenge with Chandler/RML, ME7 and MRC2 prion strains, Sod1 deficient mice showed highly significant reductions in incubation time of 20, 13 and 24%, respectively. No differences were detected in Sod1 expression or activity. Our data confirm the protective role of endogenous Sod1 in prion disease.

  12. Incubation period for campylobacteriosis and its importance in the estimation of incidence related to travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, B J; Lake, R J

    2013-10-03

    Differentiation between travel-related and domestic cases of infectious disease is important in managing risk. Incubation periods of cases from several outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in Canada, Europe, and the United States with defined exposure time of less than 24 hours were collated to provide information on the incubation period distribution. This distribution was consistent across the varied outbreaks considered, with 84% (702/832) of cases having an incubation period of four days or less and 1% having an incubation period of eight days or more. The incubation period distribution was incorporated into a model for the number of travel-related cases presenting with symptom onset at given dates after return to their country of residence. Using New Zealand notification data between 2006 and 2010 for cases who had undertaken foreign travel within 10 days prior to symptom onset, we found that 29.6% (67/227 cases; 95% confidence interval (CI): 28.3–30.8%) of these cases were likely to have been domestic cases. When cases with symptom onset prior to arrival were included, the probable domestic cases represented 11.8% (67/571; 95% CI: 11.2–12.3%). Consideration of incubation time distributions and consistent collection of travel start/end dates with symptom onset dates would assist attribution of cases to foreign travel.

  13. Distribution of Thelastomatoid Nematodes (Nematoda: Oxyurida) in Endemic and Introduced Cockroaches on the Galápagos Island Archipelago, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnott, Devinn; Carreno, Ramon A; Herrera, Henri

    2015-08-01

    The thelastomatoid pinworm fauna (Nematoda: Oxyurida: Thelastomatoidea) was surveyed in 3 endemic species and 6 introduced species of cockroach hosts (Insecta: Blattaria) in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. A total of 658 host specimens were examined from preserved collections that had been collected between 1966 and 2003 from 7 islands in the archipelago. Eight species of pinworms were identified from these cockroach hosts, including the dominant species Cephalobellus ovumglutinosus and a Severianoia sp. as well as Leidynema appendiculata, Hammerschmidtiella diesingi, an unidentified Cephalobellus species resembling Cephalobellus magalhaesi, an unidentified Protrellus species closely resembling Protrellus shamimi, and an undescribed Blattophila sp. Five new host records are identified for C. ovumglutinosus including the endemic Galápagos cockroaches Chorisoneura carpenteri, Ischnoptera snodgrassii, and Ischnoptera santacruzensis. These endemics were also infected with an undescribed Blatticola sp. Other species recorded resemble known pinworms from other hosts around the world. Prevalence between islands and between host species was variable, but total prevalence for individual pinworm species was consistently low (<10%). A single host specimen examined was infected with more than 1 pinworm species; otherwise only a single species was observed in each infected host. At least 1 introduced pinworm species carried to the islands via invasive cockroach hosts was present in endemic host species, but several globally widespread introduced pinworm species were absent from endemic cockroaches. Santa Cruz was inhabited by the greatest number of pinworm species, likely due to a higher rate of invasive host introduction. This survey, the first from this region, showed that the distribution and transmission of pinworms in the Galápagos Islands is complex and may provide future models of invertebrate dispersal and speciation in an ecosystem already rich with examples of

  14. THE BUSINESS INCUBATORS AS A LEVER FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND SUPPORT OF YOUNG ENTREPRENEURS IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana MIRZAC

    2014-01-01

    The business incubators are an instrument of indirect financial support mechanisms in the field of business entrepreneurship of small and medium business, as in the final stage of incubation operators can obtain the status of a successful enterprise and help support new entrepreneurs that are working effectively and which are at the stage of incubation. The university incubators meet the need for action to support businesses resulting primarily from activities of universities having the m...

  15. Redescription, systematic status and molecular characterisation of Multicaecum heterotis Petter, Vassiliadès et Marchand, 1979 (Nematoda: Heterocheilidae), an intestinal parasite of Heterotis niloticus (Osteichthyes: Arapaimidae) in Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mašová, Š.; Moravec, František; Baruš, V.; Seifertová, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2010), s. 280-288 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GD526/09/H025 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Nematoda * Brevimulticaecum * Multicaecum * Senegal * Sudan * Africa * Heterotis * barcoding * 18S rDNA sequences * ITS2 sequences Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.533, year: 2010

  16. Construction of Agricultural University Students’ Entrepreneurship Incubation Base – Taking Sichuan Agricultural University as a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Xia Yao; Jianping Xie; Linchun He

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, as an effective practice in university students’ entrepreneurship education, construction of university students’ entrepreneurship incubation base has been rapidly developed in different universities. This paper takes construction of the entrepreneurship incubation base in Sichuan Agricultural University as a case study, analyzes the current status of university students’ entrepreneurship incubation base and makes a discussion on establishment of management institution, f...

  17. The effect of male incubation feeding on female nest attendance and reproductive performance in a socially monogamous bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amininasab, Seyed Mehdi; Birker, Martje; Kingma, Sjouke A.; Hildenbrandt, Hanno; Komdeur, Jan

    The incubation of eggs plays a key role in avian parental care. To ensure embryo development, incubating parents have to keep their eggs within the appropriate temperature limits. To do so, incubating individuals allocate substantial energy to the thermal demands of their eggs, but they face a

  18. Time allocation between feeding and incubation in uniparental arctic-breeding shorebirds: energy reserves provide leeway in a tight schedule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulp, I.Y.M.; Schekkerman, H.

    2006-01-01

    Birds with uniparental incubation may face a time allocation problem between incubation and feeding. Eggs need regular warming to hatch successfully, but the parent must leave the nest to feed and safeguard its own survival. Time allocation during incubation is likely to depend on factors

  19. Availability of caesium isotopes in vegetation estimated from incubation and extraction experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salbu, B.; Oestby, G.; Garmo, T.H.; Hove, K.

    1992-01-01

    A rapid and inexpensive incubation and extraction technique for estimating the available low molecular weight and potentially bioavailable fraction of Cs isotopes in vegetation has been developed. Samples of contaminated vegetation (grass, herbage and fungi) and litter were exposed to rumen liquid from sheep, by in vitro incubation or by placing nylon bags in the rumen of sheep (in sacco). The results were compared with laboratory extractions using rumen buffer, NH 4 OAc, CsCl and de-ionized water. The release of low molecular weight 137 Cs species after in vitro incubation with rumen liquid for 4-8 h was 75-85% for grass, herbage and fungi, 30% for lichen and 10% for litter. The reproducibility of the method was 5% for digestible matrices and 10-20% for litter where the fraction of Cs isotopes released was small. Extractions with NH 4 OAc and CsCl released 75 and 80% of the Cs isotopes in grass, respectively. Significantly lower extraction yields were obtained with de-ionized water and buffer. During in sacco incubation, 90-100% of the Cs isotopes in vegetation was released within 1 h; however, potentially available low molecular weight forms and Cs-bearing colloidal material could not be differentiated. The results obtained by incubation with rumen liquid and by extraction with NH 4 OAc or CsCl were in good agreement with published data from a 3 week feeding trial. For practical reasons extraction with NH 4 OAc or CsCl rather than incubation with rumen liquid is recommended for estimating the fraction of available low molecular weight Cs species. Results from incubation with rumen liquid showed that the availability of Cs isotopes in grass collected in 1986 was low (15%), but increased with time up to 1989 (75-80%). It is probable that the high fraction of inert 137 Cs species reflects surface contamination in 1986. (author)

  20. Effects of ultraviolet irradiation and postirradiation incubation on heterogeneous nuclear RNA size in murine cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, R.; Sauerbier, W.

    1978-01-01

    We have analyzed the decrease in synthesis of individual size classes of heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA) in ultraviolet (uv)-irradiated Merwin plasmacytoma (MPC-11) cells at various times of postirradiation incubation. HnRNA from nonirradiated control cells is distributed over a wide range from approximately 60S to 5S, with 42S RNA carrying more label than any other size class. HnRNA from uv-irradiated cells shows a dose-dependent shift in size distribution toward lower molecular weight. The size distribution of hnRNA synthesized after prolonged times of postirradiation incubation is restored toward normal, i.e., synthesis of long RNA molecules increases relative to the synthesis of short ones. Analysis of the total number of hnRNA chains synthesized during a 20-min [ 3 H]uridine pulse shows a considerable eduction in their number with increasing uv dose. Murine cell lines are excision-repair-deficient but capable of post replication repair inhibited by caffeine. HnRNA transcripts of cells incubated in its presence were studied. The caffeine, which has no effect on hnRNA size in control cells, inhibits to a considerable extent the restoration of full-length transcripts during postirradiation incubation. The lack of excision repair in MPC-11 was confirmed by the analysis of pyrimidine dimers in trichloracetic acid-insoluble and soluble fractions within 8 h of postirradiation incubation. The size of parental and daughter strand DNA in uv-irradiated cells was correlated with RNA transcript size. The parental DNA in these experiments does not change its size as a consequence of uv exposure and postirradiation incubation. In contrast, daughter DNA strands are short in uv-irradiated cells and they increase in size during postirradiation incubation to reach the size of parental strands after 8 h

  1. Effects of incubation on solubility and mobility of trace metals in two contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Lena Q.; Dong Yan

    2004-01-01

    Much research has focused on changes in solubility and mobility of trace metals in soils under incubation. In this experiment, changes in solubility and mobility of trace metals (Pb, Cu and As) and Fe in two contaminated soils from Tampa, Florida and Montreal, Canada were examined. Soils of 30 g were packed in columns and were incubated for 3-80 days under water-flooding incubation. Following incubation, metal concentrations in pore water (water soluble) and in 0.01 M CaCl 2 leachates (exchangeable+water soluble) were determined. While both soils were contaminated with Pb (1600-2500 mg kg -1 ), Tampa soil was also contaminated with As (230 mg kg -1 ). Contrast to the low pH (3.8) of Tampa soil, Montreal soil had an alkaline pH of 7.7 and high Ca of 1.6%. Concentrations of Fe(II) increased with incubation time in the Tampa soil mainly due to reductive Fe dissolution, but decreased in the Montreal soil possibly due to formation of FeCO 3 . The inverse relationship between concentrations of Pb and Fe(II) in pore water coupled with the fact that Fe(II) concentrations were much greater than those of Pb in pore water may suggest the importance of Fe(II) in controlling Pb solubility in soils. However, changes in concentrations of Fe(II), Pb, Cu and As in pore water with incubation time were similar to those in leachate, i.e. water soluble metals were positively related to exchangeable metals in the two contaminated soils. This research suggests the importance of Fe in controlling metal solubility and mobility in soils under water-flooded incubation. - Iron is important in controlling metal solubility and mobility in flooded soils

  2. Light scattering method to measure red blood cell aggregation during incubation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorzewski, B.; Szołna-Chodór, A.; Baryła, J.; DreŻek, D.

    2018-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) aggregation can be observed both in vivo as well as in vitro. This process is a cause of alterations of blood flow in microvascular network. Enhanced RBC aggregation makes oxygen and nutrients delivery difficult. Measurements of RBC aggregation usually give a description of the process for a sample where the state of a solution and cells is well-defined and the system reached an equilibrium. Incubation of RBCs in various solutions is frequently used to study the effects of the solutions on the RBC aggregation. The aggregation parameters are compared before and after incubation while the detailed changes of the parameters during incubation remain unknown. In this paper we have proposed a method to measure red blood cell aggregation during incubation based on the well-known technique where backscattered light is used to assess the parameters of the RBC aggregation. Couette system consisting of two cylinders is adopted in the method. The incubation is observed in the Couette system. In the proposed method following sequence of rotations is adapted. Two minutes rotation is followed by two minutes stop. In this way we have obtained a time series of back scattered intensity consisting of signals respective for disaggregation and aggregation. It is shown that the temporal changes of the intensity manifest changes of RBC aggregation during incubation. To show the ability of the method to assess the effect of incubation time on RBC aggregation the results are shown for solutions that cause an increase of RBC aggregation as well as for the case where the aggregation is decreased.

  3. Influence of the incubation conditions on culture media to optimize primary isolation of Mycobacterium bovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Yumi Ikuta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of Mycobacterium bovis is critical to a surveillance system for bovine tuberculosis based on detection of lesions in abattoirs. Thus, four solid culture media and three incubation conditions were investigated to elucidate which combination overcomes the others by assessing growth, time to the first appearance of colonies and their number. Ninety-seven samples of granulomatous lesions were submitted to the decontamination procedure by 1-hexadecylpyridinium chloride at 0.75% w/v, and inoculated on two egg-based media, Stonebrink’s (ST and Löwenstein-Jensen’s with sodium pyruvate (LJp, and two agar-based media, tuberculosis blood agar (B83 and Middlebrook 7H11 medium (7H11. Each medium was incubated at 37°C for 90 days in three incubation conditions: in air, in air containing 10% carbon dioxide (CO2, and in air in slopes closed with burned hydrophobic cotton and subsequently plugged with a cork to create a microaerophilic atmosphere. The colonies appeared faster and in higher number when incubated in air containing 10% CO2 (p < 0.01, independent of media. B83 showed a faster growth and detected more isolates at 30 days of incubation, when compared to ST (0.0178, LJp (p < 0.0001 and 7H11 (p < 0.0001, though there was no difference between B83, ST and LJp at 60 and 90 days of incubation. 7H11 presented the lowest number of isolates (p < 0.0001 and a longer period for the appearance of the first colony (p < 0.001. According to our findings, the concomitant use of ST and B83 media incubated in air containing 10% CO2 increases the isolation of M. bovis in a shorter period of time, which improves bovine tuberculosis diagnosis.

  4. Can incubators work in Africa? Acorn Technologies and the entrepreneur-centric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakma, Justin; Masum, Hassan; Singer, Peter A

    2010-12-13

    Incubators are organizations that support the growth of new and typically technology-based enterprises, by providing business support services that bring together human and financial capital. Although the traditional role of incubators has been for economic development, they may also be a useful policy lever to tackle global health, by fostering the development and delivery of local health innovation.Given its high disease burden, life sciences incubators hold particular potential for Africa. As the most industrially advanced African nation, South Africa serves as a litmus test for identifying effective incubator policies. The case study method was used to illustrate how one such publicly funded incubator founded in 2002, Acorn Technologies, helped to catalyze local health product innovation. Acorn helped to support twelve biomedical device firms. One of them, Real World Diagnostics, was founded by a trainee from Acorn's innovative internship program (Hellfire). It developed rapid strip diagnostic tests for locally prevalent diseases including schistosomiasis and HIV, and reported $2 million (USD) in revenue in 2009.Acorn achieved this success by operating as a non-profit virtual incubator with little physical infrastructure. Employing a virtual model in combination with stringent selection criteria of capital efficiency for clients proved to be effective in reducing its own fixed costs. Acorn focused on entrepreneurship training and networking, both critical at an early stage in an environment dominated by multinational biomedical device companies.Acorn and its clients learned that employing a cross-subsidy business model allowed one to generate royalty revenue through imports to subsidize R&D for local diseases. However, funding constraints and government expectations for rapid self-sustainability forced Acorn to merge with its sister biotechnology incubator in 2009. A key to Acorn's achievements was identifying entrepreneurs with technologies with health and

  5. Can incubators work in Africa? Acorn Technologies and the entrepreneur-centric model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer Peter A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incubators are organizations that support the growth of new and typically technology-based enterprises, by providing business support services that bring together human and financial capital. Although the traditional role of incubators has been for economic development, they may also be a useful policy lever to tackle global health, by fostering the development and delivery of local health innovation. Given its high disease burden, life sciences incubators hold particular potential for Africa. As the most industrially advanced African nation, South Africa serves as a litmus test for identifying effective incubator policies. The case study method was used to illustrate how one such publicly funded incubator founded in 2002, Acorn Technologies, helped to catalyze local health product innovation. Discussion Acorn helped to support twelve biomedical device firms. One of them, Real World Diagnostics, was founded by a trainee from Acorn’s innovative internship program (Hellfire. It developed rapid strip diagnostic tests for locally prevalent diseases including schistosomiasis and HIV, and reported $2 million (USD in revenue in 2009. Acorn achieved this success by operating as a non-profit virtual incubator with little physical infrastructure. Employing a virtual model in combination with stringent selection criteria of capital efficiency for clients proved to be effective in reducing its own fixed costs. Acorn focused on entrepreneurship training and networking, both critical at an early stage in an environment dominated by multinational biomedical device companies. Acorn and its clients learned that employing a cross-subsidy business model allowed one to generate royalty revenue through imports to subsidize R&D for local diseases. However, funding constraints and government expectations for rapid self-sustainability forced Acorn to merge with its sister biotechnology incubator in 2009. Summary A key to Acorn’s achievements was

  6. Can incubators work in Africa? Acorn Technologies and the entrepreneur-centric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Incubators are organizations that support the growth of new and typically technology-based enterprises, by providing business support services that bring together human and financial capital. Although the traditional role of incubators has been for economic development, they may also be a useful policy lever to tackle global health, by fostering the development and delivery of local health innovation. Given its high disease burden, life sciences incubators hold particular potential for Africa. As the most industrially advanced African nation, South Africa serves as a litmus test for identifying effective incubator policies. The case study method was used to illustrate how one such publicly funded incubator founded in 2002, Acorn Technologies, helped to catalyze local health product innovation. Discussion Acorn helped to support twelve biomedical device firms. One of them, Real World Diagnostics, was founded by a trainee from Acorn’s innovative internship program (Hellfire). It developed rapid strip diagnostic tests for locally prevalent diseases including schistosomiasis and HIV, and reported $2 million (USD) in revenue in 2009. Acorn achieved this success by operating as a non-profit virtual incubator with little physical infrastructure. Employing a virtual model in combination with stringent selection criteria of capital efficiency for clients proved to be effective in reducing its own fixed costs. Acorn focused on entrepreneurship training and networking, both critical at an early stage in an environment dominated by multinational biomedical device companies. Acorn and its clients learned that employing a cross-subsidy business model allowed one to generate royalty revenue through imports to subsidize R&D for local diseases. However, funding constraints and government expectations for rapid self-sustainability forced Acorn to merge with its sister biotechnology incubator in 2009. Summary A key to Acorn’s achievements was identifying entrepreneurs

  7. Factors related to shell deaths during artificial incubation of ostrich eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Brand

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available he ostrich industry experiences a high rate of embryonic mortalities during artificial incubation of eggs. Embryonic deaths were studied from data recorded on 37 740 fertile eggs incubated artificially during the 1998-2005 breeding seasons. Roughly 10 000 eggs that sustained embryonic mortalities were classified according to the stage and nature of death, i.e. before 21 days of incubation, after 21 days of incubation, deaths after pipping and rotten eggs. Although infection may have played a role in ~1300 rotten eggs, no detailed knowledge of the pathogens involved was available. The remainder of deaths could not be related to pathogens and the deaths were thus generally referred to as non-infectious. The overall level of embryonic mortality in all the eggs studied was 28.5 %. Overall embryonic mortality was affected by incubator, with higher levels (57.0 % found in eggs incubated in an African Incubator(R and also in eggs that were transferred between incubators during incubation (38.1 %. Overall embryonic mortality also increased in eggs produced by older females. Eggs produced in the autumn had the highest level of embryonic mortality at 53.6 %, whereas eggs produced in the winter had a marginally higher level of embryonic mortalities of 29.2 % compared with eggs produced during summer (27.4 %. Eggs produced by South African (SA Black males crossed to Zimbabwean Blue females had high levels of embryonic losses of 45.7 %. The embryonic mortality of eggs produced by SA Blacks or Zimbabwean Blue breeding birds subjected to pure breeding was similar at ~33-34 %, but embryonic mortality was improved in eggs produced by Zimbabwean Blue males crossed to SA Black females (27 %. Embryonic mortality was increased in eggs that were set directly (32.0 % or subjected to longer than 6 days of storage (43.5 %. Embryonic mortality was affected by year. The results that were obtained will assist in determining non-infectious factors that have a negative

  8. Effect of Incubation Time and Sucrose Addition on the Characteristics of Cheese Whey Yoghurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhartadi, E.; Utami, R.; Nursiwi, A.; Sari, A. M.; Widowati, E.; Sanjaya, A. P.; Esnadewi, E. A.

    2017-04-01

    The effect of incubation time and concentration of sucrose addition on the characteristics of cheese whey yogurt (lactic acid content, pH, total lactic acid bacteria, antioxidant activity, viscosity) and sensory characteristics (color, odor, flavor, consistency, and overalls) were investigated. The cheese whey yogurt fermentation process was carried out for 24h and 36h with the addition of sucrose 8, 10, and 12% (w/w) of total solid, respectively. The results showed that the lactic acid content, total lactic acid bacteria, antioxidant activity, and viscosity of cheese whey yogurt were affected by the incubation time and sucrose addition. The level of pH of yogurt which was incubated at 24h and 36h were relatively in the same levels, which were 4.51 up to 4.63. Due the sensory characteristic of cheese whey yogurt the panellists gave the high score for the cheese whey yogurt which was incubated at 24h and sucrose addition 12% (w/w) of total solid. The cheese whey yogurt has 0.41% lactic acid content; pH 4.51; 7.09 log total lactic acid bacteria cells / ml; 5.78% antioxidant activity; and 5.97 cP viscosity. The best sensory and physico-chemical characteristic of cheese whey yogurt was achieved by 24h incubation time and 12% concentration of sucrose addition.

  9. Dissolution and aggregation of Cu nanoparticles in culture media: effects of incubation temperature and particles size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lingxiangyu; Fernández-Cruz, María Luisa; Connolly, Mona; Schuster, Michael; Navas, José María

    2015-01-01

    Here, the effects of incubation temperature and particle size on the dissolution and aggregation behavior of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) in culture media were investigated over 96 h, equivalent to the time period for acute cell toxicity tests. Three CuNPs with the nominal sizes of 25, 50, and 100 nm and one type of micro-sized particles (MPs, ∼500 nm) were examined in culture media used for human and fish hepatoma cell lines acute tests. A large decrease in sizes of CuNPs in the culture media was observed in the first 24 h incubation, and subsequently the sizes of CuNPs changed slightly over the following 72 h. Moreover, the decreasing rate in size was significantly dependent on the incubation temperature; the higher the incubation temperature, the larger the decreasing rate in size. In addition to that, we also found that the release of copper ions depended on the incubation temperature. Moreover, the dissolution rate of Cu particles increased very fast in the first 24 h, with a slight increase over the following 72 h

  10. Egg incubation effects generate positive correlations between size, speed and learning ability in young lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiel, Joshua Johnstone; Lindström, Tom; Shine, Richard

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies have suggested that body size and locomotor performance are targets of Darwinian selection in reptiles. However, much of the variation in these traits may derive from phenotypically plastic responses to incubation temperature, rather than from underlying genetic variation. Intriguingly, incubation temperature may also influence cognitive traits such as learning ability. Therefore, we might expect correlations between a reptile's size, locomotor speed and learning ability either due to selection on all of these traits or due to environmental effects during egg incubation. In the present study, we incubated lizard eggs (Scincidae: Bassiana duperreyi) under 'hot' and 'cold' thermal regimes and then assessed differences in hatchling body size, running speed and learning ability. We measured learning ability using a Y-maze and a food reward. We found high correlations between size, speed and learning ability, using two different metrics to quantify learning (time to solution, and directness of route), and showed that environmental effects (incubation temperature) cause these correlations. If widespread, such correlations challenge any simple interpretation of fitness advantages due to body size or speed within a population; for example, survivors may be larger and faster than nonsurvivors because of differences in learning ability, not because of their size or speed.

  11. Dissolution and aggregation of Cu nanoparticles in culture media: effects of incubation temperature and particles size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lingxiangyu [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology (China); Fernández-Cruz, María Luisa; Connolly, Mona [Spanish National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and Technology - INIA, Department of Environment (Spain); Schuster, Michael [Technische Universität München, Department of Chemistry (Germany); Navas, José María, E-mail: jmnavas@inia.es [Spanish National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and Technology - INIA, Department of Environment (Spain)

    2015-01-15

    Here, the effects of incubation temperature and particle size on the dissolution and aggregation behavior of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) in culture media were investigated over 96 h, equivalent to the time period for acute cell toxicity tests. Three CuNPs with the nominal sizes of 25, 50, and 100 nm and one type of micro-sized particles (MPs, ∼500 nm) were examined in culture media used for human and fish hepatoma cell lines acute tests. A large decrease in sizes of CuNPs in the culture media was observed in the first 24 h incubation, and subsequently the sizes of CuNPs changed slightly over the following 72 h. Moreover, the decreasing rate in size was significantly dependent on the incubation temperature; the higher the incubation temperature, the larger the decreasing rate in size. In addition to that, we also found that the release of copper ions depended on the incubation temperature. Moreover, the dissolution rate of Cu particles increased very fast in the first 24 h, with a slight increase over the following 72 h.

  12. Incubation of ethanol reinstatement depends on test conditions and how ethanol consumption is reduced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Brett C.; Lamb, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    In reinstatement studies (a common preclinical procedure for studying relapse), incubation occurs (longer abstinence periods result in more responding). This finding is discordant with the clinical literature. Identifying determinants of incubation could aid in interpreting reinstatement and identifying processes involved in relapse. Reinstated responding was examined in rats trained to respond for ethanol and food under a multiple concurrent schedule (Component 1: ethanol FR5, food FR150; Component 2: ethanol FR5, food FR5–alternating across the 30-min session). Ethanol consumption was then reduced for 1 or 16 sessions either by suspending training (rats remained in home cage) or by providing alternative reinforcement (only Component 2 stimuli and contingencies were presented throughout the session). In the next session, stimuli associated with Component 1 were presented and responses recorded but ethanol and food were never delivered. Two test conditions were studied: fixed-ratio completion either produced ethanol- or food-associated stimuli (signaled) or had no programmed consequence (unsignaled). Incubation of ethanol responding was observed only after suspended training during signaled test sessions. Incubation of food responding was also observed after suspended training. These results are most consistent with incubation resulting from a degradation of feedback functions limiting extinction responding, rather than an increased motivation. PMID:25595114

  13. Analysis of the Organizational Structure of Enterprises of Technological Basis With Projects Without Incubators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Gimenes Bera Oshita

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The contingency theory assumes that the structure of the organization involves environment, people, technologies and administrative techniques for achieving the objectives of the company, which must comply with the contingent factors and the environment in which it is inserted. Being that, by the evolution of technology companies must be innovative from an organic structure. Thus, the incubated companies have innovative feature, this way: how is the organizational structure of enterprises of technological basis with projects in incubators? This research aims to asses and classify the organizational structure of enterprises of technological basis with projects in incubators in the State of Paraná. To achieve this goal it carried out a literature review on the contingency theory. Afterwards it was applied the questionnaire with companies incubated in that sought to identify their organizational structure Trough the applied methodology was found that, in General, incubated companies presented some mechanistic designs features with command-based rules and procedures in that only one person takes the decision, which way be the reflection of a technological breakthrough in which companies migrate to a mechanistic designs structure for organic , as well as in the results of Joan Woodward (1958, in which the occurrence of technological advancement, companies use the mechanistic designs structure, changing later to organic.

  14. Costs of Reproduction in Breeding Female Mallards: Predation Risk during Incubation Drives Annual Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd W. Arnold

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effort expended on reproduction may entail future costs, such as reduced survival or fecundity, and these costs can have an important influence on life-history optimization. For birds with precocial offspring, hypothesized costs of reproduction have typically emphasized nutritional and energetic investments in egg formation and incubation. We measured seasonal survival of 3856 radio-marked female Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos from arrival on the breeding grounds through brood-rearing or cessation of breeding. There was a 2.5-fold direct increase in mortality risk associated with incubating nests in terrestrial habitats, whereas during brood-rearing when breeding females occupy aquatic habitats, mortality risk reached seasonal lows. Mortality risk also varied with calendar date and was highest during periods when large numbers of Mallards were nesting, suggesting that prey-switching behaviors by common predators may exacerbate risks to adults in all breeding stages. Although prior investments in egg laying and incubation affected mortality risk, most relationships were not consistent with the cost of reproduction hypothesis; birds with extensive prior investments in egg production or incubation typically survived better, suggesting that variation in individual quality drove both relationships. We conclude that for breeding female Mallards, the primary cost of reproduction is a fixed cost associated with placing oneself at risk to predators while incubating nests in terrestrial habitats.

  15. Current distribution of Achatina fulica, in the State of São Paulo including records of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Nematoda larvae infestation Distribuição atual de Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 no Estado de São Paulo com registro de infestação por larvas de Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Nematoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Pires Ohlweiler

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The currently known distribution range of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, is presented. The record of A. fulica naturally infested with Aelurostrongylus abstrusus larvae (Railliet, 1898 (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae can be found in the city of Guaratinguetá. It was found A. fulica with Metastrongylidae larvae without known medical and veterinary importance in the cities of Carapicuíba, Embu-Guaçu, Itapevi, São Caetano do Sul, São Paulo and Taboão da Serra.É apresentada a distribuição de Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. É fornecido o registro de A. fulica naturalmente infestada por larvas de Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898 (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae no município de Guaratinguetá. Foi encontrada A. fulica portando larvas de Metastrongylidae sem importância médica e veterinária conhecida nos municípios de Carapicuíba, Embu Guaçu, Itapevi, São Caetano do Sul, São Paulo e Taboão da Serra.

  16. Ichthyouris voltagrandensis n.sp. (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) from Myleus tiete Eigenmann & Norris, 1900 (Osteichthyes: Characidae) in the Volta Grande Reservoir, MG, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, M L; Yoshitoshi, E R; Umekita, H

    2001-05-01

    The present work studied helminth parasites of "pacu-manteiga", Myleus tiete (Osteichthyes: Characidae) from Volta Grande Reservoir, MG, Brazil. Fishes with 142.6 +/- 24.7 g weight and 17.3 +/- 1.0 cm total length were collected. Five out six analysed fish (prevalence 83.3%) were parasitized in the intestine with an average of 535.6 +/- 334.6 oxyurid nematodes per fish. The helminth was identified as Ichthyouris voltagrandensis n.sp. (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae). It differs from I. brasiliensis (Moravec et al., 1992a) by the absence of lateral alae, higher measures of tail and caudal alae of males, esophageal isthmus length, distance of excretory pore from anterior end and spicule length. In addition, eggs were provided by two long filaments in just one pole and by the first time the authors observed flagellate spermatozoa from dissected males. The authors exposes comparative table of measures of the five described species of the genus Ichthyouris.

  17. A multilocus approach to assessing co-evolutionary relationships between Steinernema spp. (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) and their bacterial symbionts Xenorhabdus spp. (gamma-Proteobacteria: Enterobacteriaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming-Min; Stock, S Patricia

    2010-09-01

    Nematodes of the genus Steinernema Travassos, 1927 (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) and their associated bacteria, Xenorhabdus spp. (gamma-Proteobacteria), are an emergent model of terrestrial animal-microbe symbiosis. Interest in this association initially arose out of their potential as biocontrol agents against insect pests, but, despite advances in their field application and the growing popularity of this model system, relatively little has been published to uncover the evolutionary facets of this beneficial partnership. This study adds to the body of knowledge regarding nematode-bacteria symbiosis by proposing a possible scenario for their historical association in the form of a cophylogenetic hypothesis. Topological and likelihood based testing methods were employed to reconstruct a history of association between 30 host-symbiont pairs and to gauge the level of similarity between their inferred phylogenetic patterns.

  18. Digenea, Nematoda, Cestoda, and Acanthocephala, parasites in Potamotrygonidae (Chondrichthyes from the upper Paraná River floodplain, states of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavanelli, G. C.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper represents the first study on the endoparasitic fauna of Potamotrygon falkneri and P.motoro in the upper Paraná River floodplain. Fishes were collected by fishing rod and gillnetting in different stations ofthe floodplain, from March, 2005 to September, 2006. Parasites were sampled, fixed and preserved according tospecialized literature. About half of the analyzed fish were parasitized by at least one of the following species ofendoparasites: Clinostomum complanatum, Genarchella sp. and Tylodelphys sp. (metacercaria (Digenea;Acanthobothrium regoi, Rhinebothrium paratrygoni, Paroncomegas araya and Potamotrygonocestus travassosi(Cestoidea; Brevimulticaecum sp. (larva, Cucullanus sp., Echinocephalus sp. and Spinitectus sp. (Nematoda; andQuadrigyrus machadoi (Acanthocephala. Some species were already registered in Chondrichthyes and others werepreviously recorded in Osteichthyes from the study area. The study listed ten new records of parasites in the host P.falkneri, one new record in the host P. motoro and five new records in the locality upper Paraná River.

  19. First record of larvae of Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Anisakidae with zoonotic potential in the pirarucu Arapaima gigas (Osteichthyes: Arapaimidae from South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Andrade-Porto

    Full Text Available Abstract Third-stage larvae (L3 of Hysterothylacium sp. were collected by the first time in juveniles of pirarucu Arapaima gigas farmed in the Rio Preto da Eva, Amazonas state. Ninety-eight (98 out of 100 examined fish showed to be parasitized. Five hundred and ninety larvae of Hysterothylacium sp. were collected from the intestines, stomach and pyloric caeca. The mean intensity of parasite indexes was 6.02 (±5.75 ranging from 1 to 40 larvae per host and the mean abundance was 5.9 (±5.76. The A. gigas is the new host record for larvae of Hysterothylacium sp. in Brazil, and this is the first record of larvae of Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Anisakidae with zoonotic potential in the pirarucu from South America.

  20. First record of larvae of Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Anisakidae) with zoonotic potential in the pirarucu Arapaima gigas (Osteichthyes: Arapaimidae) from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Porto, S M; Cárdenas, M Q; Martins, M L; Oliveira, J K Q; Pereira, J N; Araújo, C S O; Malta, J C O

    2015-11-01

    Third-stage larvae (L3) of Hysterothylacium sp. were collected by the first time in juveniles of pirarucu Arapaima gigas farmed in the Rio Preto da Eva, Amazonas state. Ninety-eight (98) out of 100 examined fish showed to be parasitized. Five hundred and ninety larvae of Hysterothylacium sp. were collected from the intestines, stomach and pyloric caeca. The mean intensity of parasite indexes was 6.02 (±5.75) ranging from 1 to 40 larvae per host and the mean abundance was 5.9 (±5.76). The A. gigas is the new host record for larvae of Hysterothylacium sp. in Brazil, and this is the first record of larvae of Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Anisakidae) with zoonotic potential in the pirarucu from South America.

  1. Effect of temperature on incubation period, embryonic mortality, hatch rate, egg water loss and partridge chick weight (Rhynchotus rufescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakage ES

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of incubation temperature (34.5; 35.5; 36.5; 37.5 and 38.5ºC, on incubation period, embryonic mortality, hatching rate, water loss and chick weight at hatch, using daily incubation of partridge (Rhynchotus rufescens eggs. The highest hatching percentage was obtained between 35.5 and 36.5ºC. Incubation length and temperature were inversely proportional. Water loss was lower in eggs incubated at low temperatures as compared to high temperatures. There was no difference among incubation temperatures in absolute and relative hatchling weights. Early embryonic mortality increased at low temperatures (36.5ºC. Our results show that, under conditions of daily incubation of eggs in the same incubator, higher hatching rate can be obtained using temperatures between 35.5ºC and 36.5ºC; incubation temperature is inversely proportional to incubation length, and absolute and relative weights of partridge chicks are not affected by incubation temperature.

  2. European business venturing in times of digitisation - An analysis of for-profit business incubators in a triple helix context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Kreusel, Nico; Roth, Natalie

    2018-01-01

    Business incubators have been developed as a key component of entrepreneurial activities in countries all over Europe. These incubators have a non-profit or a for-profit profile, with one-third located in Germany. The increased engagement of private business in what was a public-dominated incubat......Business incubators have been developed as a key component of entrepreneurial activities in countries all over Europe. These incubators have a non-profit or a for-profit profile, with one-third located in Germany. The increased engagement of private business in what was a public......-dominated incubation landscape may influence established theoretical frameworks. Within this context, this paper analyses 11 German business incubators to look at the most common types of for-profit business incubators in Germany and their main characteristics. Moreover, it introduces classification criteria...... for these incubators. Another aspect of the analysis is the effect of the triple helix dimensions of the different incubation types. The results show that two additional types of incubators can be identified in addition to the traditional public business incubator model, namely 'company builders' and 'accelerators...

  3. Male songbirds provide indirect parental care by guarding females during incubation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedy, B.C.; Martin, T.E.

    2009-01-01

    Across many taxa, guarding of fertile mates is a widespread tactic that enhances paternity assurance. However, guarding of mates can also occur during the nonfertile period, and the fitness benefits of this behavior are unclear. Male songbirds, for example, sometimes guard nonfertile females during foraging recesses from incubation. We hypothesized that guarding postreproductive mates may have important, but unrecognized, benefits by enhancing female foraging efficiency, thereby increasing time spent incubating eggs. We tested the hypothesis in 2 songbird species by examining female behavior during natural and experimentally induced absences of males. Male absence caused increased vigilance in foraging females that decreased their efficiency and resulted in less time spent incubating eggs. Male guarding of nonfertile females can thus provide a previously unrecognized form of indirect parental care.

  4. Limited male incubation ability and the evolution of egg size in shorebirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lislevand, Terje; Thomas, Gavin H

    2006-06-22

    In bird species where males incubate but are smaller than females, egg size may be constrained by male body size, and hence ability to incubate the eggs. Using data from 71 such shorebird species, we show that egg size decreases as the degree of female-biased sexual size dimorphism increases, after controlling for female body mass. Relative egg size was not related to mean clutch size. However, when controlling for mating system, the relationship between female-biased sexual size dimorphism and relative egg size was only significant in polyandrous species. The relatively small eggs of socially polyandrous shorebirds have previously been explained as an energy-saving strategy associated with the production of multiple clutches. Our findings suggest that egg size evolution is better explained by male incubation limitation in these birds.

  5. Availability of a P from phosphate rock, thermophosphate and trip superphosphate after different incubation periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraoka, T.; Boaretto, A.E.; Scivittaro, W.B.; Brasil, E.C.

    2002-01-01

    Patos phosphate rock, Yoorin thermophosphate and triple phosphate were mixed with a tropical acid soil (Haplic Ferralsol) and incubated for different periods (short term experiment 1: 0, 1 and 30 days, and long term experiment 2: 0, 1, 30, 60, 150 and 300 days). The experiments were started with the longest period in order to have all the periods ending at the same time when rice was sown. Soil samples were taken for available P determination through Bray 1 method. There was clear decrease in extractable P with increasing period of incubation, probably due to reversion reactions to form less soluble forms of P. In addition, the reversion reactions seemed to be a more intensive process than the dissolution process. The Yoorin thermophosphate, probably due to its alkaline nature and Si content, proved to be a superior agronomic P source by maintaining the same extractable P content during the whole incubation period. (author)

  6. Mathematical modelling of thermoregulation processes for premature infants in closed convectively heated incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraguela, Andrés; Matlalcuatzi, Francisca D; Ramos, Ángel M

    2015-02-01

    The low-weight newborns and especially the premature infants have difficulty in maintaining their temperature in the range considered to be normal. Several studies revealed the importance of thermal environment and moisture to increase the survival rate of newborns. This work models the process of heat exchange and energy balance in premature newborns during the first hours of life in a closed incubator. In addition, a control problem was proposed and solved in order to maintain thermal stability of premature newborns to increase their rate of survival and weight. For this purpose, we propose an algorithm to control the temperature inside the incubator. It takes into account the measurements of the body temperature of a premature newborn which are recorded continuously. We show that using this model the temperature of a premature newborn inside the incubator can be kept in a thermal stability range. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Soil structure and microbial activity dynamics in 20-month field-incubated organic-amended soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Schjønning, Per; Møldrup, Per

    2014-01-01

    to determine compressive strength. During incubation, the amount of WDC depended on soil carbon content while the trends correlated with moisture content. Organic amendment only yielded modest decreases (mean of 14% across all sampling times and soils) in WDC, but it was sufficient to stimulate the microbial......Soil structure formation is essential to all soil ecosystem functions and services. This study aims to quantify changes in soil structure and microbial activity during and after field incubation and examine the effect of carbon, organic amendment and clay on aggregate characteristics. Five soils...... community (65–100% increase in FDA). Incubation led to significant macroaggregate formation (>2 mm) for all soils. Friability and strength of newly-formed aggregates were negatively correlated with clay content and carbon content, respectively. Soil workability was best for the kaolinite-rich soil...

  8. A Theory for the Incubation Period Following a Stress Reduction During Creep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde-Sørensen, Jørgen

    1978-01-01

    incubation period is much shorter than the time needed to establish an equilibrium structure at the new lower stress. The dependence of dislocation line tension upon line length is taken into account; as a result of this, recovery rates are predicted to depend on stress to a power larger than three......A dislocation model is presented for the phenomena following a stress reduction during creep. It is suggested that an incubation period for the production of new mobile dislocations arises because attractive junctions on the verge of breaking just before the stress reduction are no longer so after...... the stress reduction. The breaking stress of the junctions must be lowered by climb movements in the surrounding network before the junctions can break and release new mobile dislocations. On the basis of these concepts, an expression is derived for the length of the incubation period. This theoretical...

  9. In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic effects of Caesalpinia bonducella (L. Roxb. leaf extract on Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda and Syphacia obvelata (Nematoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamalima Gogoi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leaves of Caesalpinia bonducella (L. Roxb., have been traditionally used as herbal remedy against intestinal helminths helminth infections in traditional medicine of India. Aim: This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic effects of C. bonducella leaf extract against Syphacia obvelata (Nematoda and Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda. Materials and Methods: The in vitro anthelmintic activity of the extract was investigated on adult Syphacia obvelata (Nematoda and Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda worms in terms of physical motility and mortality of parasites. The in vivo study was performed in H. diminuta-rat model and S. obvelata-mice model, by monitoring the egg per gram (EPG of faeces count and worm count of animals following the treatment with different doses of plant extract. Results: The study recorded significant and dose-dependent anthelmintic effects of extract on both the parasites. In the in vitro study, 30 mg/ml concentration of extract caused mortality of H. diminuta in 2.5±0.2 h and S. obvelata in 3.57± 0.16 h. In the in vivo study, the extract showed a comparatively better efficacy on S. obvelata, where its 800 mg/kg dose revealed 93% reduction of worm load in mice, as compared to 85% reduction of H. diminuta worms in load. Conclusions: The findings suggest that leaf extract of C. bonducella possesses significant anthelmintic effects, and supports its use as an anthelmintic in traditional medicine. This appears to be the first report of in vivo anthelmintic activity of Caesalpinia bonducella against these parasites [J Complement Med Res 2016; 5(4.000: 427-433

  10. Molecular diversity of bacterial endosymbionts associated with dagger nematodes of the genus Xiphinema (Nematoda: Longidoridae) reveals a high degree of phylogenetic congruence with their host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares-Rius, Juan E; Archidona-Yuste, Antonio; Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, Carolina; Prieto, Pilar; Castillo, Pablo

    2016-12-01

    Bacterial endosymbionts have been detected in some groups of plant-parasitic nematodes, but few cases have been reported compared to other groups in the phylum Nematoda, such as animal-parasitic or free-living nematodes. This study was performed on a wide variety of plant-parasitic nematode families and species from different host plants and nematode populations. A total of 124 nematode populations (previously identified morphologically and molecularly) were screened for the presence of potential bacterial endosymbionts using the partial 16S rRNA gene and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and confocal microscopy. Potential bacterial endosymbionts were only detected in nematode species belonging to the genus Xiphinema and specifically in the X. americanum group. Fifty-seven partial 16S rRNA sequences were obtained from bacterial endosymbionts in this study. One group of sequences was closely related to the genus 'Candidatus Xiphinematobacter' (19 bacterial endosymbiont sequences were associated with seven nematode host species, including two that have already been described and three unknown bacterial endosymbionts). The second bacterial endosymbiont group (38 bacterial endosymbiont sequences associated with six nematode species) was related to the family Burkholderiaceae, which includes fungal and soil-plant bacterial endosymbionts. These endosymbionts were reported for the first time in the phylum Nematoda. Our findings suggest that there is a highly specific symbiotic relationship between nematode host and bacterial endosymbionts. Overall, these results were corroborated by a phylogeny of nematode host and bacterial endosymbionts that suggested that there was a high degree of phylogenetic congruence and long-term evolutionary persistence between hosts and endosymbionts. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A Handy Preterm Infant Incubator for Providing Intensive Care: Simulation, 3D Printed Prototype, and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaylaa, Amira J; Rashid, Mohamad; Shaib, Mounir; El Majzoub, Imad

    2018-01-01

    Preterm infants encounter an abrupt delivery before their complete maturity during the third trimester of pregnancy. Polls anticipate an increase in the rates of preterm infants for 2025, especially in middle- and low-income countries. Despite the abundance of intensive care methods for preterm infants, such as, but not limited to, commercial, transport, embrace warmer, radiant warmer, and Kangaroo Mother Care methods, they are either expensive, lack the most essential requirements or specifications, or lack the maternal-preterm bond. This drove us to carry this original research and innovative idea of developing a new 3D printed prototype of a Handy preterm infant incubator. We aim to provide the most indispensable intensive care with the lowest cost, to bestow low-income countries with the Handy incubator's care, preserve the maternal -preterm's bond, and diminish the rate of mortality. Biomedical features, electronics, and biocompatible materials were utilized. The design was simulated, the prototype was 3D printed, and the outcomes were tested and evaluated. Simulation results showed the best fit for the Handy incubator's components. Experimental results showed the 3D-printed prototype and the time elapsed to obtain it. Evaluation results revealed that the overall performance of Kangaroo Mother Care and the embrace warmer was 75 ± 1.4% and 66.7 ± 1.5%, respectively, while the overall performance of our Handy incubator was 91.7 ± 1.6%, thereby our cost-effective Handy incubator surpassed existing intensive care methods. The future step is associating the Handy incubator with more specifications and advancements.

  12. [Development of Monitoring System for Infant Incubator Based on IOT Technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenfeng; Peng, Dunlu; Gu, Nan

    2017-05-30

    IOT(Internet of things) is a relatively new technology, more and more integrated into our lives. In this paper we use infant incubator for example, introduce the application of IOT technology to reduce the risk of the use of medical devices, and through the dynamic management to improve the management level and efficiency. Put forward a method of medical equipment linked. Combined with the point of IOT technology and sensor technology, we find out the actual needs of the management and use of infant incubator. For the dynamic management of medical equipment, we use sensors to control risk points. The system meets the needs of the hospital and patients in many areas.

  13. Incubation Temperature during Fetal Development Influences Morphophysiological Characteristics and Preferred Ambient Temperature of Chicken Hatchlings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane de Souza Morita

    Full Text Available Skin and feather characteristics, which play a critical role in body temperature maintenance, can be affected by incubation circumstances, such as incubation temperature. However, no study to date has assessed the influence of incubation temperature during the fetal stage on morphometric characteristics and vascular development of the skin, feather characteristics, and their relationship to hormone levels and preferred temperature in later life in chickens. Broiler breeder eggs were exposed to low (36°C, control (37.5°C, or high (39°C temperatures (treatments LT, CK, and HT, respectively from day 13 of incubation onward, because it is known that the endocrine axes are already established at this time. During this period, eggshell temperature of HT eggs (38.8±0.33°C was higher than of LT (37.4±0.08°C and CK eggs (37.8 ±0.15°C. The difference between eggshell and incubator air temperature diminished with the increasing incubation temperature, and was approximately zero for HT. HT hatchlings had higher surface temperature on the head, neck, and back, and thinner and more vascularized skin than did CK and LT hatchlings. No differences were found among treatments for body weight, total feather weight, number and length of barbs, barbule length, and plasma T4 concentration. LT hatchlings showed lower plasma T3 and GH, as well as lower T3/T4 ratio and decreased vascularity in the neck, back, and thigh skin compared to CK hatchlings. On the other hand, HT hatchlings had decreased skin thickness and increased vascularity, and preferred a higher ambient temperature compared to CK and HT hatchlings. In addition, for all treatments, surface temperature on the head was higher than of the other body regions. We conclude that changes in skin thickness and vascularity, as well as changes in thyroid and growth hormone levels, are the result of embryonic strategies to cope with higher or lower than normal incubation temperatures. Additionally exposure to

  14. Effect of temperature on the egg incubation period of Taeniopteryx nebulosa (Plecoptera)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brittain, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    Eggs of Taeniopteryx nebulosa (L.) were incubated in the laboratory at constant temperatures between 2/sup 0/C and 24/sup 0/C and at field temperatures. A relationship, linear on logarithmic scales, was found between water temperature (T/sup 0/C) and mean egg incubation period (Y days) for the temperature range 2 to 24/sup 0/C. The relationship is given by the regression equation: Y = 313 T/sup -1/./sup 03/ (r = 0.998, p < 0.001). Hatching success was low below 4/sup 0/C and above 20/sup 0/C.

  15. Physical origin of the incubation time of self-induced GaN nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consonni, V.; Trampert, A.; Geelhaar, L.; Riechert, H.

    2011-01-01

    The nucleation process of self-induced GaN nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy has been investigated by reflection high-energy electron diffraction measurements. It is found that stable nuclei in the form of spherical cap-shaped islands develop only after an incubation time that is strongly dependent upon the growth conditions. Its evolution with the growth temperature and gallium rate has been described within standard island nucleation theory, revealing a nucleation energy of 4.9 ± 0.1 eV and a very small nucleus critical size. The consideration of the incubation time is critical for the control of the nanowire morphology.

  16. Incubation as a form of psychotherapy in the care of patients in ancient and modern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, M G

    1975-01-01

    Incubation or temple sleep in sanctuaries of Aesculapius, Amphiaraos, Trophonios, etc., for the care of patients was practised even in the older times of ancient Greece and may be viewed as a form of psychotherapy and especially as 'dream-psychotherapy'. In Greek antiquity, as it is known, dreams were considered as a way of communication between gods and men. Survival of the custom of incubation exists even in our times in modern Greece, but are disappearing slowly. An attempt is made to find an explanation, if any, of those miraculous cures in accordance with the scientific thought of today.

  17. Business Incubators – Favorable Environment for Small and Medium Enterprises Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia MORARU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The biggest problem for many small and medium enterprises (SMEs is not the idea or the product provided and neither its customers, but their needs. High prices of production and office space are critical to the survival of a small business. Incubators come as a response to the needs of small and medium enterprises in key steps of a business, such as initiation and market penetration. An incubator aims to have a positive effect on the economic health of an area, of a community.

  18. Business incubator as a support measure for start-ups in Russia and Sweden. : Comparative analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kiseleva, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Growth and developing of start-ups plays an important role as starting new business is one of the indicator that shows the economy level of each country. At that time start-ups need support and one of such support institutions is business incubator who can provide all resources that start-ups need. Different studies exist about business incubator as a support measure and the role of them for start- ups, but there is a lack of studies in analyzing this topic in different business environments....

  19. Student experimenter and sponsor display SE83-9 'Chix in Space' incubator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Student experimenter John C. Vellinger (left) explains components of an incubator for his Student Experiment (SE) 83-9 Chicken Embryo Development in Space or 'Chix in Space' to be carried onboard STS-29 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Mark S. Deusser, representing the sponsoring organization, holds up the incubator for inspection by STS-29 crewmembers who will monitor in-space operation of the experiment. Mission Specialist (MS) Robert C. Springer is partially visible in the lower right foreground. The student's sponsor is Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC).

  20. Aspects of the life history of Muspicea borreli (Nematoda: Muspiceidae, parasite of the house mouse (Mus domesticus in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spratt D.M.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of Muspicea borreli (Nematoda infection in wild populations of Mus domesticus in forests in southeastern New South Wales and in rural Canberra, Australia was variable, relatively low and the parasite occurred predominantly in male mice. Experimental infection of BALB/c mice occurred only via subcutaneous inoculation but was achieved using i adults containing embryonating eggs, ii adults containing active larvae and iii active larvae dissected from the uterus of female worms. Experimental infection was not established using adults containing unembryonated eggs and was not established via intraperitoneal, percutaneous nor oral routes. Evidence indicates that larvae develop to the infective stage in the uterus of the adult worm, suggests that an obligate developmental phase on the host skin does not occur and that autoinfection is possible. Experimental infection predominated in males; females rarely became infected. When male BALB/c mice were inoculated subcutaneously with M. borreli, immediately paired with an uninoculated female and permitted to breed for 90 days, infection was found in male and female offspring only of the second and subsequent litters or in the breeding female partner. Transmission to the young occurred within 21 days of birth and fifth-stage M. borreli were found in offspring of the second and subsequent litters only after 35 or more days. However, when a male was inoculated but mating delayed for 23 days, infection was found in progeny of the first and second litters. The life cycle is direct and the prepatent period in BALB/c mice is estimated at 50-60 days. The precise mode of transmission of the parasite in breeding pairs of mice was not determined but larvae remained active for approximately an hour in balanced saline solutions (pH = 7.2 and in human saliva but died under conditions emulating free-living (tap water pH = 7.1 and stomach (pepsin solution pH = 2 environments. Transmission was not effected by

  1. Perinatal development and nutrient utilization in chickens : effects of incubation conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, R.

    2010-01-01

    Suboptimal incubation conditions can negatively affect survival and development of chicken embryos. However, physiological mechanisms that may explain these effects, and the long-lasting consequences are largely unknown. Therefore, the first aim of this thesis was to investigate effects of eggshell

  2. The incubation period distribution of tuberculosis estimated with a molecular epidemiological approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgdorff, Martien W.; Sebek, Maruschka; Geskus, Ronald B.; Kremer, Kristin; Kalisvaart, Nico; van Soolingen, Dick

    2011-01-01

    There is limited information on the distribution of incubation periods of tuberculosis (TB). In The Netherlands, patients whose Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates have identical DNA fingerprints in the period 1993-2007 were interviewed to identify epidemiological links between cases. We determined

  3. Predicting nitrous oxide emissions from manure properties and soil moisture: An incubation experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baral, Khagendra Raj; Arthur, Emmanuel; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind

    2016-01-01

    Field-applied manure is a source of essential plant nutrients, but benefits may be partly offset by high rates of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, as modified by manure characteristics and soil properties. In a 28-d incubation experiment we quantified short-term emissions of N2O from a sandy loam...

  4. δ15N in soil leachate: Incubation experiments with different fertilisers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lojen, S.; Pintar, M.; Lobnik, F.

    1999-01-01

    Groundwater in agriculturally intensive areas is exposed to heavy pollution by nutrients and phytopharmaceutical agents. A laboratory soil column incubation experiment was set up to investigate the influence of different fertilisers in two soil types on the concentration and isotopic composition of dissolved nitrate in the leachate

  5. [A pathogenesis study of tic disorder in children based on pathogen incubation theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ya-bing; Wu, Min

    2007-11-01

    Pathogen incubation theory includes "no manifestation after infection" and "manifestation after incubation". Clinical data showed that the incidence and recurrence of tic disorders in children had a strong relevance to six exogenous factors. The pathogenesis is similar to the pathogenic mechanism based on incubation of pathogen theory, so we proposed a theory of "tic disorder induced by incubation of pathogen". Pathogenic wind can be classified into exterior wind and endogenous wind. Pathogenic wind is more apt to move, rise and migrate. The characteristics of pathogenic wind, especially easy mobility, determine the symptoms and signs of tic disorder, for pathogenic wind can be characterized by vibration and involuntary movement such as convulsion and tremor. If exogenous pathogenic wind moves into half-exterior and half-interior phase from the exterior, both the exterior and interior syndromes should be treated at the same time. We should regulate the function of the liver and the lung, expel pathogenic wind by dispersing the lung, and calm endogenous wind by removing obstruction in the collaterals and soothing the liver.

  6. Rapid production of Candida albicans chlamydospores in liquid media under various incubation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicia, Zavalza-Stiker; Blanca, Ortiz-Saldivar; Mariana, García-Hernández; Magdalena, Castillo-Casanova; Alexandro, Bonifaz

    2006-01-01

    The production of chlamydospores is a diagnostic tool used to identify Candida albicans; these structures also represent a model for morphogenetic research. The time required to produce them with standard methods is 48-72 hours in rice meal agar and tensoactive agents. This time can be shorted using liquid media such as cornmeal broth (CMB) and dairy supplements. Five media were tested: CMB plus 1% Tween-80, CMB plus 5% milk, CMB plus 5% milk serum, milk serum, and milk serum plus 1% Tween-80, under different incubation conditions: at 28 degrees C and 37 degrees C in a metabolic bath stirring at 150 rpm, and at 28 degrees C in a culture stove. The reading time points were established at 8 and 16 hours. The best results were obtained at 16 hours with CMB plus 5% milk under incubation at 28 degrees C and stirring at 150 rpm. The next most efficient methods were CMB plus 5% milk serum and CMB plus 1% Tween-80, under the same incubation conditions. The other media were ineffective in producing chlamydospores. The absence of stirring at 28 degrees C prevented the formation of chlamydospores within the set time points, and incubation at 37 degrees C decreased their production. This paper reports that the time to form C. albicans chlamydospores can be reduced.

  7. ANTIMICROBIAL BIO-NONWOVEN FABRICS FOR EYES'S SWATH AND DIAPERS FOR INFANT'S INCUBATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ElSayed A. ElNashar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An infant incubator is a piece of equipment common to pediatric hospitals, birthing centers and neonatal intensive care units. While the unit may serve several specific functions, it is generally used to provide a safe and stable environment for newborn infants, often those who were born prematurely or with an illness or disability that makes them especially vulnerable for the first several months of life. The objective of this research was to gain a better understanding of New Approach for a Bio-Nonwoven fabrics and infant's incubator in terms of the specific materials as MaterBi/PCL® as Bioplastic and the elements of comfort, drivers associated with it and its waste biodegradation by different methods. Shortly after birth, the beginning in first hours of life babies with neonatal, a byproduct of the red blood cells decomposition. Many convenient features to consider with tow basic disposable eyes` swathe and diapers on infant’s incubator options: cloth of basic disposable eyes` swathe and diapers, with their end use properties. The form design of eyes` swathe® and diapers® shapes, for infant’s incubator stage then consider convenience, cost, and environmental waste.

  8. Carbon dioxide emission from maize straw incubated with soil under various moisture and nitrogen levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abro, S.A.; Tian, X.; Hussain, Q.; Talpur, M.; Singh, U.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the decomposition of maize straw incorporated into soil amended with nitrogen (N) and moisture (M) levels. Clay loam topsoil amended with maize straw was adjusted to four initial nitrogen treatments (C/N ratios of 72, 36, 18, and 9) and four moisture levels (60%, 70%, 80% and 90 % of field capacity) for the total of 16 treatments and incubated at 20 deg. C for 51 days. CO/sub 2/-C evolved was regularly recorded for all treatments during entire incubation period. Results showed that the mixing of straw with soil accelerated decomposition rates and enhanced cumulative CO/sub 2/-C production. The incorporation of straw brought about 50% increase in the cumulative CO/sub 2/-C production as compared with controls. About 45% of added maize straw C was mineralized to CO/sub 2/-C in 51 days. We conclude that incorporation of straw into soil along with the addition of N and moisture levels significantly affected CO/sub 2/-C evolution, cumulative CO/sub 2-C/, C mineralization and soil organic carbon deposition. The CO/sub 2/ emission was in positive correlation with (R2=0.99) N, moisture and incubation time (days). The straw returning into soil may enhance carbon pools and, thus will improve soil and environmental quality. (author)

  9. Computer-generated versus nurse-determined strategy for incubator humidity and time to regain birthweight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helder, Onno K.; Mulder, Paul G. H.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.

    2008-01-01

    To compare effects on premature infants' weight gain of a computer-generated and a nurse-determined incubator humidity strategy. An optimal humidity protocol is thought to reduce time to regain birthweight. Prospective randomized controlled design. Level IIIC neonatal intensive care unit in the

  10. Design of an Incubator for Premature Infant Based on LabVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lina; Zhou, Runjing

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the system structure, hardware circuits, control algorithms, and software program of the incubator for premature infant based on LabVIEW. The main advantages of this device are that preheating is less time than others, the capability of meeting of emergency is provided, control track of temperature and humidity are visible, operation is easy to clinical practice, and maintainability is possessed.

  11. Lysosome stabilization in slices of rat liver when incubated with vitamin A excess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morre, D.M.; Morre, D.J.; Bowen, S.; Reutter, W.

    1986-01-01

    An organ culture of slices of livers from adult rats was used to study effect of vitamin A (all-trans retinol) on lysosome stability. Lysosomes were purified by centrifugation in Percoll gradients. Preparations were monitored by electron microscopy and evaluated by morphometry and assays of marker enzymes. Enrichments relative to homogenates and crude pellets were estimated from latent (triton X-100) acid p-nitrophenylphosphatase specific activities. Lysosomes prepared from unincubated slices were enriched 50-fold in latent acid phosphatase relative to homogenates. In contrast, lysosomes prepared from slices incubated for 30 min in PBS alone were enriched only 20-fold. When 25 μg/ml retinol was included in the incubation medium, enrichments of 40-fold were obtained. The integrity of the slices was monitored by electron microscopy and their viability was confirmed by a sustained uptake and incorporation of [ 3 H]leucine into protein (up to 2 h in culture). The loss of lysosomes from homogenates of slices incubated in the absence of retinol was accompanied by a loss of acid phosphatase from the lysosomal pellet to the supernatant during purification. Addition of retinol to slices just prior to homogenization was without effect. The results demonstrate a stabilizing influence of vitamin A on lysosomes during incubation of licer slices. The findings contrast earlier reports of retinol-induced lysosome fragility in other in vitro systems

  12. Fitness cost of incubation in great tits (Parus major) is related to clutch size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Heij, Maaike E.; van den Hout, Piet J.; Tinbergen, Joost M.

    2006-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that parents produce the number of offspring that maximizes their fitness. In birds, natural selection on parental decisions regarding clutch size may act during egg laying, incubation or nestling phase. To study the fitness consequences of clutch size during the

  13. INCUBATORS AND GOVERNMENT POLICY FOR DEVELOPING IT INDUSTRY AND REGION IN EMERGING ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Atiqah Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Incubation, a concept supported by a variety of economic cluster theories, is a vital element in economic development in developed countries. The entrepreneurial businesses that they house often improve the developed economies in terms of not only jobs but also wealth creation. The question that this article embraces is as follows: "Do incubators play the same vital role in economic development in developing regions of the world?" We use the case study methodology to develop this query in a focus area of regional development in an emerging economy. We examine the implementation of three incubators located in designated cybercities. The cybercity concept is one of the Malaysian government's initiatives to encourage the development of the IT industry within the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC Program. This study takes advantage of the 10-year development of cybercities by performing a longitudinal study. We found that these incubators did well in achieving their initial performance objectives, but they need to catch up with developed countries' continued rapid progress.

  14. Adopting Disruptive Technologies in Traditional Universities: Continuing Education as an Incubator for Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Walter; Anderson, Terry; Garrison, Randy

    1999-01-01

    Traditional universities are feeling the impact of "disruptive technologies" such as distance education. Seeing how businesses have responded to such disruptions, universities should "incubate" innovations in a semiautonomous unit such as continuing education, which can address new markets with low margins. (SK)

  15. Are they helping? An examination of business incubators' impact on tenant firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratinho, Tiago

    2011-01-01

    Business incubators (BI) have been established throughout the world as spurs to economic growth. Promoters and BIs‟ managers claim an important role in creating companies, support them till graduation and therefore often boast their contribution to job and wealth creation. Particularly since the

  16. Nest attentiveness and egg temperature do not explain the variation in incubation periods in tropical birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, Bernadine; Ricklefs, R.E.; Williams, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    The wide range in incubation periods among bird species has puzzled biologists for decades, because an extended egg-phase increases time-dependent mortality of the eggs. We investigated a recently proposed mechanistic explanation inspired by life-history theory, suggesting that adults may increase

  17. A Model for Promoting Poultry Industry Development in Togo: Part 1. Management Practices and Incubation Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tona, K.; Agbonon, A.; Eklu-Gadegbeku, K.; Teteh, A.; Simons, P.; Buyse, J.; Everaert, N.; Kemp, B.; Decuypere, E.; Gbeassor, M.

    2014-01-01

    In commercial poultry husbandry practice, the hatchery takes over the incubation of bird eggs in order to provide as many day-old chicks as needed at any time to farmers. The main bottleneck for poultry industry development in Togo is the lack of day-old chick supply. Indeed, there is no proficient

  18. Mobi-incubation user experience for rural entrepreneurs in emerging economies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chelule, E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available . mobi-Incubation applications should be designed with appreciation of brand, image and other elements of emotional design. 6.3 Accessible Accessibility describes how easy it is for people to use the applications. In this case the mobi...

  19. Incubation and Growth of Life Sciences, Medical and Biotechnology Businesses in Proteomics, Genomics, Medicine, and Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    Medical and Biotechnology Businesses in Proteomics , Genomics, Medicine, and Dentistry PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Mark S. Long Brian C...2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Incubation and Growth of Life Sciences, Medical and Biotechnology Businesses in Proteomics ...aflatoxins B1 and G1 from Aspergillus flavus. All toxins studied were purchased from Sigma Aldrich and used without further purification. Solutions

  20. Periodical low eggshell temperatures during incubation and post hatch dietary arginine supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afsarian, O.; Shahir, M.H.; Akhlaghi, A.; Lotfolahian, H.; Hoseini, A.; Lourens, A.

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of a periodically low eggshell temperature exposure during incubation and dietary supplementation of arginine on performance, ascites incidence, and cold tolerance acquisition in broilers. A total of 2,400 hatching eggs were randomly assigned to

  1. Effect of short-term pre-hatch heat shock of incubating eggs on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These results suggest that prenatal thermal conditioning is not detrimental to broiler growth under standard rearing conditions in the absence of thermal stress. However, survival rate was improved but live weight and FCR were in some cases significantly poorer. Keywords: Heat stress, incubation, parent age, live weight, ...

  2. Incubation reduces microbial growth on eggshells and the opportunity for trans-shell infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark I. Cook; Steven R. Beissinger; Gary A. Toranzos; Wayne J. Arendt

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggshells harbour microbes shortly after laying, and under appropriate ambient conditions they can multiply rapidly, penetrate through shell pores, infect egg contents and cause embryo mortality. We experimentally examined how incubation affects bacterial processes on the eggshells of pearl-eyed thrashers Margarops fuscatus nesting in tropical montane and lowland...

  3. Ambient-temperature incubation for the field detection of Escherichia coli in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J; Stauber, C; Murphy, J L; Khan, A; Mu, T; Elliott, M; Sobsey, M D

    2011-04-01

     Escherichia coli is the pre-eminent microbiological indicator used to assess safety of drinking water globally. The cost and equipment requirements for processing samples by standard methods may limit the scale of water quality testing in technologically less developed countries and other resource-limited settings, however. We evaluate here the use of ambient-temperature incubation in detection of E. coli in drinking water samples as a potential cost-saving and convenience measure with applications in regions with high (>25°C) mean ambient temperatures.   This study includes data from three separate water quality assessments: two in Cambodia and one in the Dominican Republic. Field samples of household drinking water were processed in duplicate by membrane filtration (Cambodia), Petrifilm™ (Cambodia) or Colilert® (Dominican Republic) on selective media at both standard incubation temperature (35–37°C) and ambient temperature, using up to three dilutions and three replicates at each dilution. Matched sample sets were well correlated with 80% of samples (n = 1037) within risk-based microbial count strata (E. coli CFU 100 ml−1 counts of 1000), and a pooled coefficient of variation of 17% (95% CI 15–20%) for paired sample sets across all methods.   These results suggest that ambient-temperature incubation of E. coli in at least some settings may yield sufficiently robust data for water safety monitoring where laboratory or incubator access is limited.

  4. Performance differentials of agglomeration and strategic groups: a test of incubation and new venture strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amezcua, A.S.; Ratinho, Tiago; Jayamohan, P.

    2013-01-01

    Our paper investigates how nascent firms ‘performance is affected by strategic group membership and industrial agglomeration. Agglomeration is defined using geographical concentration while strategic groups are measured as incubated firms that belong to the industry most highly represented within an

  5. Evaluation of the effect of temperature and time of incubation on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The complete blood count (CBC) is one of the most common tests requested by physicians. The results of this test are affected by different factors such as temperature and time of incubation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate changes in CBC results at room temperature (RT). In a cross-sectional study, ...

  6. Determining the need for improvement of infant incubator design with quality function deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, U.; Ginting, R.; Siregar, I.

    2018-02-01

    A Newborns need particular attention because it takes time to adapt to the outside world. In accordance with the standard post-neonatal procedures, newborns should be incorporated into the incubator within a specified period of time according to the infant’s health level. Infant incubator as a medical device used to care for newborns, often get complaints from doctors and child nurses. The complaint indicates consumer dissatisfaction with incubator products in the hospital. Broadly speaking, objection against infant incubators lie in inappropriate designs. To overcome these complaints the researchers apply the method of Quality Function Deployment to determine the characteristics of priority techniques in accordance with the wishes of consumers with it. The primary focus of QFD is to engage customers in the product development process as early as possible, which their needs and desires serve as the starting point of the QFD process. Therefore, QFD is called the voice of customer. The underlying philosophy is that customers are not always satisfied with a product even though the product has been perfectly produced. The results show that the category used as a priority improvement is the additional function of the oxygen cylinder and the size of the door hole. QFD phase one produces technical characteristics of Ergonomy, Features and Cost as critical part determinants.

  7. ENDOGENOUS PYROGEN RELEASE FROM RABBIT BLOOD CELLS INCUBATED IN VITRO WITH PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATKINS, E; CRONIN, M; ISACSON, P

    1964-12-11

    Rabbit blood cells incubated in vitro with purified parainfluenza-5 virus (DA strain) released a rapidly acting pyrogen. Spleen and lymph node cells were inactive. The pyrogen resembled in behavior a pyrogen extracted from granulocytic exudates. Similar cells in the blood are believed to be activated by virus in vivo to produce the circulating endogenous pyrogen that mediates virus-induced fever.

  8. Fundamental Space Biology-1: HHR and Incubator for ISS Space Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirven-Brooks, M.; Fahlen, T.; Sato, K.; Reiss-Bubenheim, D.

    The Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) is developing an Incubator and a Habitat Holding Rack (HHR) to support life science experiments aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The HHR provides for cooling and power needs, and supports data transfer (including telemetry, commanding, video processing, Ethernet), video compression, and data and command storage). The Incubator is a habitat that provides for controlled temperature between +4 C and +45 C and air circulation. It has a set of connector ports for power, analog and digital sensors, and video pass-through to support experiment-unique hardware within the Incubator specimen chamber. The Incubator exchanges air with the ISS cabin. The Fundamental Space Biology-1 (FSB-1) Project will be delivering, the HHR and two Incubators to ISS. The two inaugural experiments to be conducted on ISS using this hardware will investigate the biological effects of the space environment on two model organisms, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae; yeast) and Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans; nematode). The {M}odel {Y}east {C}ultures {o}n {S}tation (MYCOS) experiment will support examination of the effect of microgravity and cosmic radiation on yeast biology. In the second series of experiments during the same increment, the effects of microgravity and space environment radiation on C. elegans will be examined. The {F}undamental Space Biology {I}ncubator {E}xperiment {R}esearch using {C}. {e}legans (FIERCE) study is designed to support a long duration, multi-generational study of nematodes. FIERCE on-orbit science operations will include video monitoring, sub-culturing and periodic fixation and freezing of samples. For both experiments, investigators will be solicited via an International Space Life Sciences Research Announcement. In the near future, the Centrifuge Accommodation Module will be delivered to ISS, which will house the SSBRP 2.5 m Centrifuge Rotor. The Incubator can be placed onto the Centrifuge

  9. Utilization Efficiency of Yolk Egg on Maanvis (Pterophyllum scalare Embryos and Larvae in Different Incubation Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Budiardi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine the efficiency of yolk egg utilization in embryos and larvae, hatching rate, incubation time to hatch, and growth rate of maanvis (Pterophyllum scalare larvae incubated at room remperature, 27oC, and 30oC.  Results of study showed that yolk egg utilization efficiency of embryos and larvae incubated at 30oC was 73.70% and 0,18%, respectively, and no different with that of room and 27oC incubation temperatures.  Hatching rate of eggs incubated at 30oC (84.75% was also same with that of other treatments.  However, incubation time to hatch (27.41 hours was shorter than that of other treatments.  The growth rate by length of larvae (2.16% and survival rate (75.28% incubated at 30oC was also higher compared with that of other treatments.  Thus, in general, optimum temperature for egg hatching and larval rearing of maanvis was 30oC. Keywords: maanvis, Pterophyllum scalare, egg yolk, larvae, embryo, temperature   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui efisiensi pemanfaatan kuning telur pada embrio dan larva, derajat penetasan, lama inkubasi telur hingga menetas, dan laju pertumbuhan serta kelangsungan hidup larva ikan maanvis (Pterophyllum scalare yang diinkubasi pada suhu ruang, 27oC dan 30oC.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai efisiensi pemanfaatan kuning telur bila diinkubasi pada suhu 30oCsebesar 73,70% pada fase embrio dan 0,18% pada fase larva, dan tidak berbeda dengan suhu ruang dan 27oC.  Demikian juga dengan derajat penetasan telur  (84,75% tidak berbeda dengan perlakuan lainnya.  Sementara itu, lama inkubasi telur hingga menetas (27,41 jam lebih cepat dibandingkan dengan suhu inkubasi perlakuan lainnya. Demikian juga dengan laju pertumbuhan panjang (2,16% dan kelangsungan hidup larva (75,28% lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan perlakuan lainnya. Dengan demikian, secara umum suhu optimal untuk penetasan dan pemeliharaan larva ikan maanvis adalah 30°C. Kata kunci: ikan maanvis

  10. Fate of lignin, cutin and suberin in soil organic matter fractions - an incubation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Carsten W.; Mueller, Kevin E.; Freeman, Katherine H.; Ingrid, Kögel-Knabner

    2010-05-01

    The turnover of soil organic matter (SOM) is controlled by its chemical composition, its spatial accessibility and the association with the mineral phase. Separation of bulk soils by physical fractionation and subsequent chemical analysis of these fractions should give insights to how compositional differences in SOM drive turnover rates of different size-defined carbon pools. The main objective of this study was to elucidate the relative abundance and recalcitrance of lignin, cutin and suberin in aggregated bulk soils and SOM fractions in the course of SOM decomposition. Bulk soils and physically-separated size fractions (sand, silt and clay) of the Ah horizon of a forest soil (under Picea abies L.Karst) were parallel incubated over a period of one year. In order to differentiate between particulate OM (POM) and mineral-associated SOM the particle size fractions were additionally separated by density after the incubation experiment. We used solid-state 13C-CPMAS NMR spectroscopy and GC-MS (after copper oxide oxidation and solvent extraction) to analyze the composition of the incubated samples. The abundance and isotopic composition (including 13C and 14C) of the respired CO2 further enabled us to monitor the dynamics of SOM mineralization. This approach allowed for differentiating between C stabilization of soil fractions due to accessibility/aggregation and to biochemical recalcitrance at different scales of resolution (GC-MS, NMR). We found a relative enrichment of alkyl C and decreasing lignin contents in the order of sand particulate OM (POM). For the fresh particulate OM (POM) of the sand fraction a clear decay of lignin was observed in the course of the incubation experiment, indicated by decreasing C/V and increasing ac/alV ratios. A relative decrease of aliphatic C in the incubated fractions compared to the incubated bulk soils showed the preferential mineralization of less recalcitrant C compounds that were spatially inaccessible in aggregates of the bulk

  11. Repeated restraint stress exposure during early withdrawal accelerates incubation of cue-induced cocaine craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Ryan M; Rosenkranz, J Amiel; Wolf, Marina E; Caccamise, Aaron; Shroff, Freya; Smith, Alyssa B; Loweth, Jessica A

    2018-01-01

    A major challenge for treating cocaine addiction is the propensity for abstinent users to relapse. Two important triggers for relapse are cues associated with prior drug use and stressful life events. To study their interaction in promoting relapse during abstinence, we used the incubation model of craving and relapse in which cue-induced drug seeking progressively intensifies ('incubates') during withdrawal from extended-access cocaine self-administration. We tested rats for cue-induced cocaine seeking on withdrawal day (WD) 1. Rats were then subjected to repeated restraint stress or control conditions (seven sessions held between WD6 and WD14). All rats were tested again for cue-induced cocaine seeking on WD15, 1 day after the last stress or control session. Although controls showed a time-dependent increase in cue-induced cocaine seeking (incubation), rats exposed to repeated stress in early withdrawal exhibited a more robust increase in seeking behavior between WD1 and WD15. In separate stressed and control rats, equivalent cocaine seeking was observed on WD48. These results indicate that repeated stress in early withdrawal accelerates incubation of cocaine craving, although craving plateaus at the same level were observed in controls. However, 1 month after the WD48 test, rats subjected to repeated stress in early withdrawal showed enhanced cue-induced cocaine seeking following acute (24 hours) food deprivation stress. Together, these data indicate that chronic stress exposure enhances the initial rate of incubation of craving during early withdrawal, resulting in increased vulnerability to cue-induced relapse during this period, and may lead to a persistent increase in vulnerability to the relapse-promoting effects of stress. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Shaping of Competencies of Managers in Academic Incubators of Entrepreneurship in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurowska-Pysz Joanna

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Participation of future entrepreneurs in Academic Incubators of Entrepreneurship (AIE in Poland is one of the innovative paths to shape their managerial competences. The aim of the paper is to analyse and evaluate the activities of the AIEs as an environment inside of which managerial competencies are formed, and formulate recommendations concerning the improvement of AIEs, in terms of the development of managerial skills of future entrepreneurs. Design/methodology/approach: The author relied on research - study surveys and empirical, qualitative, exploratory research, which were supported by figures. The author focused on four important issues: - Motives of researchers and students interested in the support of AIE; - The quality of support offered by the incubator to its participants as well as the frequency of use of this support by future entrepreneurs; - The possibility of extending the support system for AIE participants; - Traits / managerial and entrepreneurial competences desired in people running their own businesses. Results: AIE participants are focused primarily on implementing their business ventures and to a much lesser extent, care about the simultaneous development of their managerial competencies to manage these projects. It is manifested, among other by differentiated assessment of the suitability of certain forms of support from the incubator and the low intensity of use of this support. Despite this, AIE participants perceive the development of desirable traits and strengthening of specific entrepreneurial, management competencies. It is not a very dynamic growth, although it translates into their motivation to start a business after leaving the incubator. Conclusion: It is recommended to place greater emphasis on mobilizing the future entrepreneurs to make use of forms of support for the development of their managerial competences. It is necessary for complex preparation of future entrepreneurs to

  13. Effects of Soil Moisture on the Temperature Sensitivity of Soil Heterotrophic Respiration: A Laboratory Incubation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weiping; Hui, Dafeng; Shen, Weijun

    2014-01-01

    The temperature sensitivity (Q10) of soil heterotrophic respiration (Rh) is an important ecological model parameter and may vary with temperature and moisture. While Q10 generally decreases with increasing temperature, the moisture effects on Q10 have been controversial. To address this, we conducted a 90-day laboratory incubation experiment using a subtropical forest soil with a full factorial combination of five moisture levels (20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% water holding capacity - WHC) and five temperature levels (10, 17, 24, 31, and 38°C). Under each moisture treatment, Rh was measured several times for each temperature treatment to derive Q10 based on the exponential relationships between Rh and temperature. Microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial community structure and soil nutrients were also measured several times to detect their potential contributions to the moisture-induced Q10 variation. We found that Q10 was significantly lower at lower moisture levels (60%, 40% and 20% WHC) than at higher moisture level (80% WHC) during the early stage of the incubation, but became significantly higher at 20%WHC than at 60% WHC and not significantly different from the other three moisture levels during the late stage of incubation. In contrast, soil Rh had the highest value at 60% WHC and the lowest at 20% WHC throughout the whole incubation period. Variations of Q10 were significantly associated with MBC during the early stages of incubation, but with the fungi-to-bacteria ratio during the later stages, suggesting that changes in microbial biomass and community structure are related to the moisture-induced Q10 changes. This study implies that global warming’s impacts on soil CO2 emission may depend upon soil moisture conditions. With the same temperature rise, wetter soils may emit more CO2 into the atmosphere via heterotrophic respiration. PMID:24647610

  14. Noise distribution of an incubator with nebulizer at a neonatal intensive care unit in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H F; Chang, Y J

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the noise distribution and sources of peak noise inside an incubator with a nebulizer at a neonatal intensive care unit of a medical center in Southern Taiwan. Sound levels were monitored continuously with an electronic sound-meter for 24 hours daily over a one-week period. Three working hours (day, evening, and night hours) in the weekday and weekend (total 48 hours) were selected randomly from the one-week period of noise survey to observe peak noise at levels > or = 65 dBA. Results revealed that 24.8% of the total monitoring period had sound levels at or = 70 dBA. Furthermore, a total of 947 peak noises > or = 65 dBA were found within the 48 hours, of which 61.5% were in a range of 65-69 dBA, 24% of 70-74 dBA, 9.8% of 75-79 dBA, and 4.8% > or = 80 dBA. Human-related sources, equaling 79%, were the dominant peak noises. These noises included opening and closing doors, banging the incubator hood, conversation among staff, nursing activity inside the incubator, tearing and opening paper or bags, opening and closing trash can lids, and bumping metal carts or other apparatus. Nonhuman-related sources were 21% including alarms of monitors and running of the incubator motor. Results of this study showed that the noise distribution in the incubator with nebulizer was far above a protective limitation of 58 dBA, suggested by the American Academy of Pediatrics in 1974. However, most peak noises could be reduced by modification of staff behavior. Therefore, determinations of noise distribution and sources of peak noise in this study are useful for further noise reduction programs.

  15. Is newborn melatonin production influenced by magnetic fields produced by incubators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellieni, Carlo Valerio; Tei, Monica; Iacoponi, Francesca; Tataranno, Maria Luisa; Negro, Simona; Proietti, Fabrizio; Longini, Mariangela; Perrone, Serafina; Buonocore, Giuseppe

    2012-08-01

    During permanence in most incubators, newborns are very close to the electric engine, which represents a source of electromagnetic fields (EMF). Previous studies demonstrated a decrease in melatonin production in adults and animals exposed to EMF. To assess melatonin production in a group of newborns exposed to EMF, and to evaluate whether removing the babies from the source of MF can affect melatonin production. We have recruited 28 babies (study group), who had spent at least 48 h in incubator where we had previously assessed the presence of significant EMF. We have measured their mean 6-hydroxy-melatonin-sulfate (6OHMS) urine excretion at the end of their permanence in the incubators, and compared it with their mean 6OHMS excretion after having been put in cribs, where EMF are below the detectable limit (babies who were not exposed to EMF during both samples. Mean 6OHMS/cr values were respectively 5.34±4.6 and 7.68±5.1ng/mg (p=0.026) when babies were exposed to EMF in incubators, and after having been put in the crib. In the control group, mean 6OHMS/cr values in the first and in the second sample were respectively 5.91±5.41 vs 6.17±3.94ng/mg (p=0.679). The transitory increase in melatonin production soon after removing newborns from incubators demonstrates a possible influence of EMF on melatonin production in newborns. Further studies are needed to confirm these data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Imaging the neonate in the incubator: an investigation of the technical, radiological and nursing issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutch, S J; Wentworth, S D P

    2007-11-01

    Modern neonatal incubators incorporate an X-ray tray device into the mattress support structure to facilitate patient examination with minimal disturbance and distress. However, the usual method of examination is to place the image plate directly underneath the baby. Users often cite radiological reasons for not using X-ray trays but modern quantitative evidence is lacking. This work looks at the technical and clinical aspects of imaging neonates in incubators and the impact that these may have in determining the imaging protocol. A number of hospitals were surveyed to determine their current method of examination and the reasons for their preference. Experimental measurements of the radiological impact of using (or not using) the X-ray tray were performed for a range of neonatal incubators. The average dose to the image plate was 5.9 microGy (range 5.4-6.4 microGy) for the "plate on mattress" method and 3.0 microGy (2.0-3.8 microGy) when using the tray--a 49% reduction owing to the mattress support materials. However, when using a computed radiography (CR) imaging system, the image quality differences were marginal. Survey results indicated that nurses preferred to use the tray but that radiographers were reluctant. We conclude that incubator manufacturers could do much to improve the radiological performance of their equipment and we offer recommendations. We also conclude that, with appropriate nurse and radiographer training and the advent of CR imaging systems, use of X-ray tray facilities may optimize imaging of the neonate in the incubator.

  17. Hydrostatic pressure incubation affects barrier properties of mammary epithelial cell monolayers, in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mießler, Katharina S; Markov, Alexander G; Amasheh, Salah

    2018-01-01

    During lactation, accumulation of milk in mammary glands (MG) causes hydrostatic pressure (HP) and concentration of bioactive compounds. Previously, a changed expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins was observed in mice MGs by accumulation of milk, in vivo. The TJ primarily determines the integrity of the MG epithelium. The present study questioned whether HP alone can affect the TJ in a mammary epithelial cell model, in vitro. Therefore, monolayers of HC11, a mammary epithelial cell line, were mounted into modified Ussing chambers and incubated with 10 kPa bilateral HP for 4 h. Short circuit current and transepithelial resistance were recorded and compared to controls, and TJ proteins were analyzed by Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining. In our first approach HC11 cells could withstand the pressure incubation and a downregulation of occludin was observed. In a second approach, using prolactin- and dexamethasone-induced cells, a decrease of short circuit current was observed, beginning after 2 h of incubation. With the addition of 1 mM barium chloride to the bathing solution the decrease could be blocked temporarily. On molecular level an upregulation of ZO-1 could be observed in hormone-induced cells, which was downregulated after the incubation with barium chloride. In conclusion, bilateral HP incubation affects mammary epithelial monolayers, in vitro. Both, the reduction of short circuit current and the change in TJ proteins may be interpreted as physiological requirements for lactation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pyruvate incubation enhances glycogen stores and sustains neuronal function during subsequent glucose deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Pavan K; Sadgrove, Matthew P; Galeffi, Francesca; Turner, Dennis A

    2012-01-01

    The use of energy substrates, such as lactate and pyruvate, has been shown to improve synaptic function when administered during glucose deprivation. In the present study, we investigated whether prolonged incubation with monocarboxylate (pyruvate or lactate) prior rather than during glucose deprivation can also sustain synaptic and metabolic function. Pyruvate pre-incubation(3-4h) significantly prolonged (>25 min) the tolerance of rat hippocampal slices to delayed glucose deprivation compared to control and lactate pre-incubated slices, as revealed by field excitatory post synaptic potentials (fEPSPs); pre-incubation with pyruvate also reduced the marked decrease in NAD(P)H fluorescence resulting from glucose deprivation. Moreover, pyruvate exposure led to the enhancement of glycogen stores with time, compared to glucose alone (12 μmol/g tissue at 4h vs. 3.5 μmol/g tissue). Prolonged resistance to glucose deprivation following exogenous pyruvate incubation was prevented by glycogenolysis inhibitors, suggesting that enhanced glycogen mediates the delay in synaptic activity failure. The application of an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist enhanced glycogen utilization and prolonged the time to synaptic failure, further confirming this hypothesis of the importance of glycogen. Moreover, tissue levels of ATP were also significantly maintained during glucose deprivation in pyruvate pretreated slices compared to control and lactate. In summary, these experiments indicate that pyruvate exposure prior to glucose deprivation significantly increased the energy buffering capacity of hippocampal slices, particularly by enhancing internal glycogen stores, delaying synaptic failure during glucose deprivation by maintaining ATP levels, and minimizing the decrease in the levels of NAD(P)H. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A critical assessment of the occurrence and extend of oxygen contamination during anaerobic incubations utilizing commercially available vials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Brabandere, Loreto; Thamdrup, Bo; Revsbech, Niels Peter

    2011-01-01

    contaminate the samples by oxygen diffusing from or through their plastic or rubber components. In this study, we investigated the sources and extent of oxygen contamination during anoxic incubations, and present solutions to minimize oxygen contamination. In particular, we investigated oxygen contamination...... in Labco® Exetainers, glass vials with a butyl rubber septum in the screw cap, which are frequently used in microbiological experiments. Our results show that significant oxygen contamination occurred at different stages during the incubation. Contamination occurred when Exetainers were either filled...... or incubated for more than16 h under oxic atmosphere, but also under an oxygen-free atmosphere due to diffusion of oxygen out of the butyl rubber septum. Therefore, to avoid oxygen contamination during incubations, we suggest (1) filling and incubating the incubation containers under anoxic atmosphere (glove...

  20. Sensitization of Micrococcus radiophilus to gamma-rays by postirradiation incubation with chloramphenicol or at nonpermissive temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitayama, S; Harsojo,; Matsuyama, A [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    1980-12-01

    M. radiophilus was sensitized to gamma-rays by postirradiation incubation at 42/sup 0/C or at 30/sup 0/C in the presence of chloramphenicol. Radiation induced strand scissions and alkali labile bonds in DNA were repaired by post-irradiation incubation under normal conditions. However, these lesions were repaired only partially during the incubation at 42/sup 0/C or in the presence of chloramphenicol.

  1. THE BUSINESS INCUBATORS AS A LEVER FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND SUPPORT OF YOUNG ENTREPRENEURS IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana MIRZAC

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The business incubators are an instrument of indirect financial support mechanisms in the field of business entrepreneurship of small and medium business, as in the final stage of incubation operators can obtain the status of a successful enterprise and help support new entrepreneurs that are working effectively and which are at the stage of incubation. The university incubators meet the need for action to support businesses resulting primarily from activities of universities having the main goal to turn research results into productive technological activities, with efficient economic results.

  2. Thermophilic nitrate-reducing microorganisms prevent sulfate reduction in cold marine sediments incubated at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomnyashchaya, Yana; Rezende, Julia; Hubert, Casey

    2014-05-01

    Hydrogen sulphide produced during metabolism of sulphate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) is toxic, corrosive and causes detrimental oil reservoir souring. During secondary oil recovery, injecting oil reservoirs with seawater that is rich in sulphate and that also cools high temperature formations provides favourable growth conditions for SRM. Nitrate addition can prevent metabolism of SRM by stimulating nitrate-reducing microorganisms (NRM). The investigations of thermophilic NRM are needed to develop mechanisms to control the metabolism of SRM in high temperature oil field ecosystems. We therefore established a model system consisting of enrichment cultures of cold surface marine sediments from the Baltic Sea (Aarhus Bay) that were incubated at 60°C. Enrichments contained 25 mM nitrate and 40 mM sulphate as potential electron acceptors, and a mixture of the organic substrates acetate, lactate, propionate, butyrate (5 mM each) and yeast extract (0.01%) as potential carbon sources and electron donors. Slurries were incubated at 60°C both with and without initial pasteurization at 80°C for 2 hours. In the enrichments containing both nitrate and sulphate, the concentration of nitrate decreased indicating metabolic activity of NRM. After a four-hour lag phase the rate of nitrate reduction increased and the concentration of nitrate dropped to zero after 10 hours of incubation. The concentration of nitrite increased as the reduction of nitrate progressed and reached 16.3 mM after 12 hours, before being consumed and falling to 4.4 mM after 19-day of incubation. No evidence for sulphate reduction was observed in these cultures during the 19-day incubation period. In contrast, the concentration of sulphate decreased up to 50% after one week incubation in controls containing only sulphate but no nitrate. Similar sulfate reduction rates were seen in the pasteurized controls suggesting the presence of heat resistant SRM, whereas nitrate reduction rates were lower in the

  3. Modulating intracellular acidification by regulating the incubation time of proton caged compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Marilena; Sabbatella, Gianfranco; Antonaroli, Simonetta; Orlando, Viviana; Biagioni, Stefano; Nucara, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    A proton caged compound, the 1-(2-nitrophenyl)- ethylhexadecyl sulfonate (HDNS), was dosed into HEK-293 at different incubation times. Samples were irradiated with filtered UV light for inducing photolysis of the HDNS and then probed by infrared spectroscopy. The intracellular acidification reaction can be followed by monitoring the consequent CO2 peak intensity variation. The total CO2 produced is similar for all the samples, hence it is only a function of the initial HDNS concentration. The way it is achieved, though, is different for the different incubation times and follows kinetics, which results in a combination of a linear CO2 increase and a steep CO2 increase followed by a decay. This is interpreted in terms of confinement of the HDNS into intracellular vesicles of variable average size and sensitive to UV light when they reach critical dimensions.

  4. A simplified radioimmunoassay for triiodothyronine (T3) using pre-incubated labelled antigen and antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, M.R.A.; Nagvekar, U.H.; Desai, C.N.; Mani, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    The development of a simplified radioimmunoassay for triiodothyronine (T 3 ) using pre-incubated labelled T 3 and antibody is described. The assay is carried out by adding 50 μl of standard or sample to 0.4 ml of pre-incubated reagent dispensed in assay tubes. The reaction was allowed to proceed for about four hours and the antigen-antibody complex precipitated by the addition of 1 cm 3 of 22% polyethylene glycol solution. Due to the high dissociation constant of T 3 -antibody complex at 37 deg C, the labelled antigen-antibody complex dissociates and thereby the unlabelled antigen binds with the antibody. The sensitivity of this assay is comparable to an assay done by the equilibrium method using the same antibody. Sixty serum samples were analyzed using this method and were compared with the equilibrium assay. (author)

  5. Bifurcation and spatial pattern formation in spreading of disease with incubation period in a phytoplankton dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randhir Singh Baghel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we propose a three dimensional mathematical model of phytoplankton dynamics with the help of reaction-diffusion equations that studies the bifurcation and pattern formation mechanism. We provide an analytical explanation for understanding phytoplankton dynamics with three population classes: susceptible, incubated, and infected. This model has a Holling type II response function for the population transformation from susceptible to incubated class in an aquatic ecosystem. Our main goal is to provide a qualitative analysis of Hopf bifurcation mechanisms, taking death rate of infected phytoplankton as bifurcation parameter, and to study further spatial patterns formation due to spatial diffusion. Here analytical findings are supported by the results of numerical experiments. It is observed that the coexistence of all classes of population depends on the rate of diffusion. Also we obtained the time evaluation pattern formation of the spatial system.

  6. Incubation of human blood fractions leads to changes in apparent miRNA abundance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Jørgensen, Stine Thuen; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    in significant changes in the abundance of miR-21, miR-155, Let-7c and Let 7f in plasma, miR-21, miR-23a and miR-150 in RBC and miR-15b, miR-126, miR155 and Let-7g in PBMC, while no change was seen in PRP and PMN. Interestingly, in the samples incubated with glass beads, no miRNAs were significantly affected...... in plasma, RBC, PBMC and PMN, while expression of miR-25, miR15a, miR-126 and miR223 was significantly changed in PRP. Thus, PRP, as the only blood fraction depended on stimulation to change its miRNA profile upon incubation. For the other fractions, stimulation either leveled out the changes induced...

  7. Background ELF magnetic fields in incubators: a factor of importance in cell culture work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mild, Kjell Hansson; Wilén, Jonna; Mattsson, Mats-Olof; Simko, Myrtill

    2009-07-01

    Extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields in cell culture incubators have been measured. Values of the order of tens of muT were found which is in sharp contrast to the values found in our normal environment (0.05-0.1microT). There are numerous examples of biological effects found after exposure to MF at these levels, such as changes in gene expression, blocked cell differentiation, inhibition of the effect of tamoxifen, effects on chick embryo development, etc. We therefore recommend that people working with cell culture incubators check for the background magnetic field and take this into account in performing their experiments, since this could be an unrecognised factor of importance contributing to the variability in the results from work with cell cultures.

  8. Influx of CO2 from Soil Incubated Organic Residues at Constant Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoukat Ali Abro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Temperature induced CO2 from genotypic residue substances is still less understood. Two types of organic residues (wheat- maize were incubated at a constant temperature (25°C to determine the rate and cumulative influx of CO2 in laboratory experiment for 40 days. Further, the effect of surface and incorporated crop residues with and without phosphorus addition was also studied. Results revealed that mixing of crop residues increased CO2-C evolution significantly & emission rare was 37% higher than that of control. At constant temperature, soil mixed residues, had higher emission rates CO2-C than the residues superimposed. There was linear correlation of CO2-C influxed for phosphorus levels and residue application ways with entire incubation at constant temperature. The mixing of organic residues to soil enhanced SOC levels and biomass of microbially bound N; however to little degree ammonium (NH4-N and nitrate NO3-N nitrogen were decreased.

  9. Effect of particle size and microbial phytase on phytate degradation in incubated maize and soybean meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ton Nu, Mai Anh; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of screen size (1, 2 and 3 mm) and microbial phytase (0 and 1000 FTU/kg as-fed) on phytate degradation in maize (100% maize), soybean meal (100% SBM) and maize–SBM (75% maize and 25% SBM) incubated in water for 0, 2, 4, 8 and 24 h at 38°C...... reduced APS by 48% in maize, 30% in SBM and 26% in maize–SBM. No interaction between screen size and microbial phytase on phytate degradation was observed, but the interaction between microbial phytase and incubation time was significant (P... of screen size and feed on microbial phytase efficacy on phytate degradation. The interaction between screen size and feed affected the relative phytate degradation rate (Rd) of microbial phytase as well as the time to decrease 50% of the phytate P (t) (P

  10. Evolution of parental incubation behaviour in dinosaurs cannot be inferred from clutch mass in birds

    OpenAIRE

    Birchard, Geoffrey F.; Ruta, Marcello; Deeming, D. Charles

    2013-01-01

    A recent study proposed that incubation behaviour (i.e. type of parental care) in theropod dinosaurs can be inferred from an allometric analysis of clutch volume in extant birds. However, the study in question failed to account for factors known to affect egg and clutch size in living bird species. A new scaling analysis of avian clutch mass demonstrates that type of parental care cannot be distinguished by conventional allometry because of the confounding effects of phylogeny and hatchling m...

  11. Incubation temperature influences trade-off between structural size and energy reserves in mallard hatchlings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koláčková, M.; Prokůpková, L.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Hořák, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 1 (2015), s. 1-10 ISSN 1522-2152 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB601110803 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : body mass * chemical composition * hatching * incubation * parent-offspring interaction * parental investment * phenotype * reproductive success * reptile * survival * temperature effect * trade-off * waterfowl Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.007, year: 2015

  12. Formation of chloroform in spruce forest soil - results from laboratory incubation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselmann, K.F.; Laturnus, F.; Svensmark, B.

    2000-01-01

    The release of chloroform, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, tetrachloromethane, trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene from an organic rich spruce forest soil was studied in laboratory incubation experiments by dynamic headspace analysis, thermodesorption and gas chromatography. Performance parameters...... are presented for the dynamic headspace system. For spruce forest soil, the results showed a significant increase in chloroform concentration in the headspace under aerobic conditions over a period of seven days, whereas the concentration of the other compounds remained fairly constant. A biogenic formation...

  13. Effects of temperature, light and incubation period on production, germination and bioactivity of Trichoderma atroviride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryaei, A; Jones, E E; Ghazalibiglar, H; Glare, T R; Falloon, R E

    2016-04-01

    The goal was to determine the effect of temperature, light and incubation period on production, germination and bioactivity of Trichoderma atroviride LU132 against Rhizoctonia solani. The incubation temperatures of 20, 25 or 30°C were assessed on the production of T. atroviride conidia under constant light over a 25 and 50 days periods. The resulting conidia were also studied for germination and bioactivity. Conidium production was maximum at 25°C after 20 days. The second peak of conidium production occurred at 45-50 days. Incubation at 25°C after 15 days showed optimum production of T. atroviride LU132. Conidia produced at 30°C gave the greatest germination and bioactivity in comparison with incubation at 20 or 25°C. This study indicates that the temperature at which conidia of T. atroviride are produced affects germination and bioactivity. Formulations based on production of the high conidia yield may not result in optimal bioactivity and there is a trade-off between quantity and quality of T. atroviride LU132 conidia. Conidium production was shown to be a continuous process, and increased under a dark/light regime. This is the first report of bimodal conidium production in a Trichoderma biological control agent (BCA), which is likely to be on 20 days cycle, and is dependent on colony age rather than abiotic factors. Conidia produced after 15 days are likely to be the most suitable for use in commercial production of this strain as a BCA. Most studies on Trichoderma-based BCA have only shown the effect of culture conditions on the high conidia yield regardless of conidium quality. This study is the first report on conidium quality affected by principal culture conditions for Trichoderma biological control formulations. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Image quality associated with the use of an MR-compatible incubator in neonatal neuroimaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Regan, K

    2012-04-01

    MRI in the neonate poses significant challenges associated with patient transport and monitoring, and the potential for diminished image quality owing to patient motion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a dedicated MR-compatible incubator with integrated radiofrequency coils in improving image quality of MRI studies of the brain acquired in term and preterm neonates using standard MRI equipment.

  15. The mood variation in mothers of preterm infants in Kangaroo mother care and conventional incubator care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo, Elizeu Coutinho; Cruvinel, Fernando; Lukasova, Katerina; D'Antino, Maria Eloisa Famá

    2007-10-01

    Preterm babies are more prone to develop disorders and so require immediate intensive care. In the conventional neonatal intensive care, the baby is kept in the incubator, separated from the mother. Some actions have been taken in order to make this mother-child separation less traumatic. One of these actions is the Kangaroo mother care (KMC) characterized by skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn. The objective of this study was to compare the mood variation of mothers enrolled in the KMC program to those in the conventional incubator care. In one general hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil, 90 mothers were evaluated before and after contact with the baby in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The participants were divided into three groups: 30 mothers of term newborns (TG), 30 mothers of preterm infants included in KMC program (PGK) and 30 preterms with incubator placement (PGI). The Brazilian version of the Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS) was used for the assessment before and after the infant's visit. Results showed that TG mothers reported fewer occurrences of depressive states than PGK and PGI mothers. A significant mood variation was observed for PGK and PGI after the infant's visit. PGK mothers reported feeling calmer, stronger, well-coordinated, energetic, contented, tranquil, quick-witted, relaxed, proficient, happy, friendly and clear-headed. The only variation showed by PGI mothers was an increase in feeling clumsy. This study shows a positive effect of the KMC on the mood variation of preterm mothers and points to the need of a more humane experience during the incubator care.

  16. A Framework of Successful E-Business Incubator for Indonesian Public Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Lina Gozali; Maslin Masrom; Habibah Norehan Haron; Teuku Yuri M Zagloel

    2015-01-01

    . In many developed countries, many business incubators take part to help starts-up company to develop their own business; especially the baby born business cannot compete with the giant industries that have become the old business players. Universities play an important role in motivating young graduates to become technology entrepreneur. Unemployment in Indonesia is still the main issue for the government program to increase welfare in the future. In year 2014 the data from Statistic Center...

  17. Preparation and Characterization of Nanoparticles Made from Co-Incubation of SOD and Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Cai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The attractive potential of natural superoxide dismutase (SOD in the fields of medicine and functional food is limited by its short half-life in circulation and poor permeability across the cell membrane. The nanoparticle form of SOD might overcome these limitations. However, most preparative methods have disadvantages, such as complicated operation, a variety of reagents—some of them even highly toxic—and low encapsulation efficiency or low release rate. The aim of this study is to present a simple and green approach for the preparation of SOD nanoparticles (NPs by means of co-incubation of Cu/Zn SOD with glucose. This method was designed to prepare nanoscale aggregates based on the possible inhibitory effect of Maillard reaction on heating-induced aggregation during the co-incubation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE results indicated that the Maillard reaction occurred during the co-incubation process. It was found that enzymatically active NPs of Cu/Zn SOD were simultaneously generated during the reaction, with an average particle size of 175.86 ± 0.71 nm, and a Zeta potential of −17.27 ± 0.59 mV, as established by the measurement of enzymatic activity, observations using field emission scanning electron microscope, and analysis of dynamic light scattering, respectively. The preparative conditions for the SOD NPs were optimized by response surface design to increase SOD activity 20.43 fold. These SOD NPs showed storage stability for 25 days and better cell uptake efficacy than natural SOD. Therefore, these NPs of SOD are expected to be a potential drug candidate or functional food factor. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the preparation of nanoparticles possessing the bioactivity of the graft component protein, using the simple and green approach of co-incubation with glucose, which occurs frequently in the food industry during thermal processing.

  18. Business Plan: Community Business Incubator for Scaling Independent Designers in Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    Bachir, Abir

    2012-01-01

    Local design is a business incubator that seeks to scale design and designers in Qatar within the category of furnishings, home wear and apparel. Meeting larger social objectives includes increasing national entrepreneurial activity and decreasing the gender gap through the provision of accessible opportunities in design. Our products reflect individual and regional pride. Our processes utilize efficient operational resources while infusing social responsibility in a growing economy. The Wo...

  19. Comparison of the flows of nitrogen and inorganic phosphorous, dissolved in the Cienaga Grande de Santa Marta, Colombian Caribbean; obtained from incubation cameras in situ and incubation of silt nucleus in laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navas S, Gabriel R; Zea Sven; Campos, Nestor Hernando

    2002-01-01

    This research focused on the comparison of low cost methodologies to determine ionic nitrogen and phosphorous fluxes across the soft sediment-water interface in Cienaga Grande de Santa Marta. In situ transparent incubation chambers and sediment cores for laboratory incubation were employed. It was found that inside the incubation chambers a depletion of dissolved oxygen occurred thus the incubation couldn't be extended for more than six hours, time insufficiently to detect important variations in concentration of the analyzed ions. Furthermore in addition, chambers were difficult to handle. Twenty-four hour sediment core incubation in the laboratory did not have the above-mentioned problems. Oxygen concentration could be kept constant, and ion concentration changes were generally large enough to allow quantitative estimations of the fluxes

  20. Open-dish incubator for live cell imaging with an inverted microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Steven R; Lamoureux, Phillip; Ngo, Kha; Reynolds, Matthew; Buxbaum, Robert E

    2003-10-01

    Here we describe the design and fabrication of an inexpensive cell culture incubator for the stage of an inverted light microscope for use in live cell imaging. This device maintains the temperature of the cell culture at 37 degrees C with great stability and, after reaching equilibrium, provides focal stability of an image for 20-25 min with oil-immersion lenses. We describe two versions of the incubator: one for use with standard 60-mm plastic culture dishes, and the other version for imaging of cells on glass coverslips. Either can be made for less than $400. Most components are widely available commercially, and it requires only simple wiring and 3 h to assemble. Although the device is generally useful for live cell imaging on an inverted microscope, it is particularly suitable for work in which instruments are introduced into the culture, such as electrophysiology or micromanipulation. The design is based on the principle that control performance is limited by the lag time between detection and response. The key element of the design is a heated, temperature-controlled aluminum ring serving as a mini-incubator surrounding the culture vessel. For this reason, we call our design a "ringcubator."

  1. Effects of Egg Incubation Methods on Locomotor Performances of Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas) Hatchlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Uzair Rusli; Joseph, J.; Hock-Chark, L.; Zainudin Bachol

    2015-01-01

    Effects of different incubation methods on crawling and swimming ability of post-emergence green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) hatchlings at Cherating (Kuantan, Pahang) and Chagar Hutang (Pulau Redang, Terengganu) Turtle Sanctuary were analysed during nesting season in 2009. Mean crawling speed of hatchlings incubated in styrofoam box, beach hatchery and in situ were at 0.042±0.008, 0.136±0.026 and 0.143±0.045 m/ s, respectively. Crawling performance of hatclings from styrofoam box can be improved by keeping them for at least 48 h after their emergence. For swimming performance, all types of incubation methods showed significant differences in mean power-stroke rate during their early swimming effort ranging at 93-114 strokes/ min. However, no correlation was found between morphological characteristics of hatchlings and swimming performance. The results from this study may give different perspective in evaluating hatchling production, which is in terms of hatchling morphological characteristics and their locomotor performance. (author)

  2. Preliminary data on growth and enzymatic abilities of soil fungus Humicolopsis cephalosporioides at different incubation temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elíades, Lorena Alejandra; Cabello, Marta N; Pancotto, Verónica; Moretto, Alicia; Rago, María Melisa; Saparrat, Mario C N

    2015-01-01

    Nothofagus pumilio (Poepp & Endl.) Krasser, known as "lenga" is the most important timber wood species in southernmost Patagonia (Argentina). Humicolopsis cephalosporioides Cabral & Marchand is a soil fungus associated with Nothofagus pumilio forests, which has outstanding cellulolytic activity. However, there is no information about the ability of this fungus to use organic substrates other than cellulose, and its ability to produce different enzyme systems, as well as its response to temperature. The aim of this study was to examine the role of H. cephalosporioides in degradation processes in N. pumilio forests in detail by evaluating the in vitro ability of four isolates of this fungus to grow and produce different lytic enzyme systems, and their response to incubation temperature. The ability of the fungi to grow and produce enzyme systems was estimated by inoculating them on agar media with specific substrates, and the cultures were incubated at three temperatures. A differential behavior of each strain in levels of growth and enzyme activity was found according to the medium type and/or incubation temperature. A intra-specific variability was found in H. cephalosporioides. Likewise a possible link between the saprotrophic role of this fungus in N. pumilio forests and the degradation of organic matter under stress conditions, such as those from frosty environments, was also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Speckled eggs: water-loss and incubation behaviour in the great tit Parus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, James P; Gosler, Andrew G

    2006-10-01

    Many small passerine birds worldwide lay white eggs speckled with red, brown and black protoporphyrin pigment spots (maculation). Unlike some patterns of avian eggshell pigmentation which clearly serve a crypsis or signalling function, the ubiquity of maculation among passerines suggests that its origins lie in another function, not specific to any particular ecological or behavioural group. Elsewhere, we have presented evidence that protoporphyrin pigments serve a structural function related to eggshell thickness and calcium availability: eggshell maculation in the great tit Parus major increases with decreasing soil calcium levels, pigments demarcate thinner areas of shell, and both the pigment intensity and distribution are related to shell thickness. Here we show that maculation also affects the rate of water loss from the egg during incubation (approximately Mass Loss per Day or MLD, which is critical to egg viability), but not that of unincubated eggs. We also demonstrate, both by observation and experiment, that the effect of female incubation behaviour on MLD compensates in some way for variation in egg characteristics, and that differences between females in the degree of such compensation are related to differences in clutch maculation. Our results suggest that, while a principal function of maculation in this species may be to strengthen the eggshell, it may also reduce eggshell permeability when large amounts of pigment are used, and that this necessitates a behavioural adjustment from the female during incubation. We discuss these findings and make further testable predictions from our model.

  4. Typeability of PowerPlex Y (Promega) profiles in selected tissue samples incubated in various environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemcunowicz-Janica, Anna; Pepiński, Witold; Janica, Jacek Robert; Janica, Jerzy; Skawrońska, Małgorzata; Koc-Zórawska, Ewa

    2007-01-01

    In cases of decomposed bodies, Y chromosomal STR markers may be useful in identification of a male relative. The authors assessed typeability of PowerPlex Y (Promega) loci in post mortem tissue material stored in various environments. Kidney, spleen and pancreas specimens were collected during autopsies of five persons aged 20-30 years, whose time of death was determined within the limit of 14 hours. Tissue material was incubated at 21 degrees C and 4 degrees C in various environmental conditions. DNA was extracted by the organic method from tissue samples collected in 7-day intervals and subsequently typed using the PowerPlexY-STR kit and ABI 310. A fast decrease in the typeability rate was seen in specimens incubated in peat soil and in sand. Kidney tissue samples were typeable in all PowerPlexY-STR loci within 63 days of incubation at 4 degrees C. Faster DNA degradation was recorded in spleen and pancreas specimens. In samples with negative genotyping results, no DNA was found by fluorometric quantitation. Decomposed soft tissues are a potential material for DNA typing.

  5. Mentoring Entrepreneurial Networks: mapping conceptions of participants in technological-based business incubators in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontes Regis, Helder

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent entrepreneurship research agenda includes the analysis of cognitive structures of successful entrepreneurs, revealing an important tool for the examination of an entrepreneurial career. Using techniques of cognitive maps, this study explores the concepts of a successful career and the network itself, as a whole, for career development. Fifty-three entrepreneurs were studied, in seven technological incubators in the city of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Specifically, this study aimed to map the shared meanings of the incubated entrepreneurs regarding informal support networks. Such networks support the entrepreneurial career and the present study explores the characteristics and the conceptual model that underlies the networks. The data collection was achieved through interviews through a free evocation technique. The shared meanings indicate the existence of inherent thought categories that support network context in the incubator environment, mainly the mentoring networks. The results endorse the interpretation of an informal mentoring model emerging from the dominant evocations concerning a successful career and of the network itself as promoter of career development.

  6. Laboratory evidence for short and long-term damage to pink salmon incubating in oiled gravel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heintz, R.; Rice, S.; Wiedmer, M.

    1995-01-01

    Pink salmon, incubating in gravel contaminated with crude oil, demonstrated immediate and delayed responses in the laboratory at doses consistent with the concentrations observed in oiled streams in Prince William Sound. The authors incubated pink salmon embryos in a simulated intertidal environment with gravel contaminated by oil from the Exxon Valdez. During the incubation and emergence periods the authors quantified dose-response curves for characters affected directly by the oil. After emergence, fish were coded wire tagged and released, or cultured in netpens. Delayed responses have been observed among the cultured fish, and further observations will be made when coded wire tagged fish return in September 1995. The experiments have demonstrated that eggs need not contact oiled gravel to experience increased mortality, and doses as low as 17 ppb tPAH in water can have delayed effects on growth. A comparison of sediment tPAH concentrations from streams in Prince William Sound with these laboratory data suggests that many 1989 brood pink salmon were exposed to deleterious quantities of oil

  7. A large outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes infection with short incubation period in a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Bjørn Odd; Lingaas, Egil; Torfoss, Dag; Strøm, Erik H; Nordøy, Ingvild

    2010-12-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen with a high mortality rate. We report a large, nosocomial outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes infection. Patients with L. monocytogenes isolated from a sterile site, or from faeces when diarrhoea and fever were present, were included. Clinical data were collected from the patient records. The incubation period was calculated as the time between exposure and start of symptoms. Seventeen patients (11 women, median age 64 years) were infected of whom 15 patients were at increased risk for listeriosis. Eleven patients received empiric antibiotic treatment, eight of them with cephalosporins. Three patients died with a resulting mortality rate of 18%. The source of the outbreak was a Camembert cheese made from pasteurised milk containing up to 360 million colony forming units per portion. The median incubation period was 3-4 days. The incubation period in this outbreak was significantly shorter than previously reported, a fact that may be due to the high number of ingested bacteria. Furthermore, food restrictions in hospitals seem warranted, as do treatment with antibiotics effective against L. monocytogenes in at-risk populations. Copyright © 2010 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Elasticity and breaking strength of synthetic suture materials incubated in various equine physiological and pathological solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, C M; Buckley, C T; Jenner, F; Moissonnier, P; Brama, P A J

    2014-07-01

    Selection of suture material in equine surgery is often based on costs or subjective factors, such as the surgeon's personal experience, rather than objective facts. The amount of objective data available on durability of suture materials with regard to specific equine physiological conditions is limited. To evaluate the effect of various equine physiological and pathological fluids on the rate of degradation of a number of commonly used suture materials. In vitro material testing. Suture materials were exposed in vitro to physiological fluid, followed by biomechanical analysis. Three absorbable suture materials, glycolide/lactide copolymer, polyglactin 910 and polydioxanone were incubated at 37°C for 7, 14 or 28 days in phosphate-buffered saline, equine serum, equine urine and equine peritoneal fluid from an animal with peritonitis. Five strands of each suture material type were tested to failure in a materials testing machine for each time point and each incubation medium. Yield strength, strain and Young's modulus were calculated, analysed and reported. For all suture types, the incubation time had a significant effect on yield strength, percentage elongation and Young's modulus in all culture media (Ptype was also shown significantly to influence changes in each of yield strength, percentage elongation and Young's modulus in all culture media (Ptype of fluid have significant effects on the biomechanical properties of various suture materials. These findings are important for evidence-based selection of suture material in clinical cases. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  9. Properties of slate mining wastes incubated with grape marc compost under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradelo, Remigio; Moldes, Ana Belén; Barral, María Teresa

    2009-02-01

    The effect of the addition of spent grape marc compost (GMC) and vermicompost (GMV) as amendments to slate mining wastes was evaluated in a laboratory incubation experiment. Mixtures of slate processing fines (SPF), with three doses of each amendment (4%, 8% and 16% compost, dry weight), plus a control were incubated at 25 degrees C in the laboratory for 90 days. The changes in the chemical and biological properties of the mixtures (pH, total C, total N, inorganic N, available nutrients, microbial biomass carbon and dehydrogenase activity) were investigated during the incubation period, and once it was finished, the phytotoxicity of the mixtures was determined by the germination of Lolium multiflorum Lam. seeds. The addition of the amendments significantly increased the nutrient concentrations of the SPF and enhanced biological activity by increasing microbial biomass and enzymatic activity. Results improved with higher doses; within the composts, GMV showed a better performance than GMC. These results prove the suitability of grape marc-derived amendments for the biochemical amelioration of mining wastes, and highlight the benefits of organic amendment in restoration projects.

  10. Buying Time—The Immune System Determinants of the Incubation Period to Respiratory Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Moran

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory viruses cause disease in humans characterized by an abrupt onset of symptoms. Studies in humans and animal models have shown that symptoms are not immediate and appear days or even weeks after infection. Since the initial symptoms are a manifestation of virus recognition by elements of the innate immune response, early virus replication must go largely undetected. The interval between infection and the emergence of symptoms is called the incubation period and is widely used as a clinical score. While incubation periods have been described for many virus infections the underlying mechanism for this asymptomatic phase has not been comprehensively documented. Here we review studies of the interaction between human pathogenic respiratory RNA viruses and the host with a particular emphasis on the mechanisms used by viruses to inhibit immunity. We discuss the concept of the “stealth phase”, defined as the time between infection and the earliest detectable inflammatory response. We propose that the “stealth phase” phenomenon is primarily responsible for the suppression of symptoms during the incubation period and results from viral antagonism that inhibits major pathways of the innate immune system allowing an extended time of unhindered virus replication.

  11. Incubation behaviour in triazenepolymer thin films upon near-infrared femtosecond laser pulse irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonse, J; Wiggins, S M; Solis, J; Sturm, H; Urech, L; Wokaun, A; Lippert, T

    2007-01-01

    The effects of laser radiation induced by a sequence of ultrashort (130 fs), near-infrared (800 nm) Ti:sapphire laser pulses in ∼1 μm thick triazenepolymer films on glass substrates have been investigated by means of in-situ real-time reflectivity measurements featuring a ps-resolution streak camera and a ns-resolution photodiode set-up. The polymer films show incubation effects when each laser pulse in the sequence has a fluence below the single-pulse damage threshold. Non-damage conditions are maintained for several incubation pulses such that the reflectivity of the film shows a rapid decrease of up to 30% within 1 ns but subsequently recovers to its initial value on a ms timescale. Additional pulses lead to a permanent film damage. The critical number of laser pulses needed to generate a permanent damage of the film has been studied as a function of the laser fluence. Once damage is created, further laser pulses cause a partial removal of the film material from the glass substrate. Scanning force microscopy has been used to characterise ex-situ the irradiated surface areas. Based on these complementary measurements possible incubation mechanisms are discussed

  12. Formation of tissue factor activity following incubation of recombinant human tissue factor apoprotein with plasma lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, T.; Kisiel, W.

    1990-01-01

    Incubation of recombinant human tissue factor apoprotein (Apo-TF) with human plasma decreased the recalcified clotting time of this plasma in a time-and dose-dependent manner suggesting relipidation of the Apo-TF by plasma lipoproteins. Incubation of Apo-TF with purified preparations of human very low density, low density and high density lipoproteins resulted in tissue factor activity in a clotting assay. The order of effectiveness was VLDL greater than LDL much greater than HDL. Tissue factor activity generated by incubation of a fixed amount of Apo-TF with plasma lipoproteins was lipoprotein concentration-dependent and saturable. The association of Apo-TF with lipoprotein particles was supported by gel filtration studies in which 125 I-Apo-TF coeluted with the plasma lipoprotein in the void volume of a Superose 6 column in the presence and absence of calcium ions. In addition, void-volume Apo-TF-lipoprotein fractions exhibited tissue factor activity. These results suggest that the factor VIII-bypassing activity of bovine Apo-TF observed in a canine hemophilic model may be due, in part, to its association with plasma lipoproteins and expression of functional tissue factor activity

  13. Camallanus maculatus n. sp. (Nematoda: Camallanidae in an ornamental fish Xiphophorus maculatus (Osteichthyes: Poeciliidae cultivated in São Paulo State, Brazil Camallanus maculatus n. sp. (Nematoda: Camallanidae em peixe ornamental Xiphophorus maculatus (Osteichthyes: Poeciliidae cultivado no estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Martins

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes Camallanus maculatus n. sp. (Nematoda: Camallanidae from Xiphophorus maculatus (Osteichthyes: Poecilidae collected in an ornamental fish farm in São Paulo State, Brazil. Thirty-three out of 40 examined fish were parasitized (82% prevalence with mean intensity of 2.8 (1-20. Male specimens were 3,500µm total length and females 7,100µm total length, provided with orange-brown buccal capsule and two developed tridents. Males showed two unequal spicules, gubernaculum absent and females with vulva situated in the middle of the body. The main characteristics were the sleekly longitudinal ridges in the buccal capsule in both sexes, enlargement at the anterior end of the smaller spicule, the number of genital papillae, longer muscular and glandular portion of esophagus and round tail in female.Descreve-se Camallanus maculatus n. sp. (Nematoda: Camallanidae em Xiphophorus maculatus (Osteichthyes: Poecilidae capturado em uma piscicultura ornamental no estado de São Paulo. De 40 peixes examinados, 33 estavam parasitados (prevalência de 82% cuja intensidade média foi de 2,8 (1-20. Os machos apresentaram 3.500µm e as fêmeas com 7,100µm de comprimento total, providos de uma cápsula bucal laranja-castanho e dois tridentes. Observaram-se machos com espículos desiguais, gubernáculo ausente e fêmeas com vulva situada na metade do corpo. As principais características foram as estrias longitudinais lisas em cada valva da cápsula bucal em ambos os sexos, o espículo menor com alargamento na extremidade anterior, o número de papilas genitais, as porções muscular e glandular do esôfago longas e a cauda longa e arredondada na fêmea.

  14. Assessment of the theoretical basis of the Rule of Additivity for the nucleation incubation time during continuous cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Y.T.; Lowe, T.C.; Asaro, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    The rule of additivity was first proposed by Scheil and Steinberg for predicting the incubation time for nucleation of solid phases during continuous-cooling phase transformations, and has since been widely used for both the nucleation incubation and the entire process of phase transformation. While having been successfully used to calculate the transformed volume fraction during continuous cooling in many steel alloy systems, there is experimental evidence that shows rule of additivity to be invalid for describing the incubation time for nucleation. Attempts to prove the validity of the rule of additivity for the incubation time have not met with much success, and much confusion still exists about its applicability to the incubation time. This article investigates the additivity of the consumption of the incubation time for nucleation during continuous cooling through an analysis based upon classical nucleation theory. It is rigorously demonstrated that the rule of additivity is invalid for the incubation time for nucleation. However, in practice, the relative error caused by using the rule of additivity could be very small in many cases due to the resolution limit of current experimental techniques. The present theory provides an explanation for the failure of the rule of additivity in predicting the incubation time for nucleation during continuous cooling. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  15. Effects of egg incubation condition on the post-hatching growth and performance of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, Kathleen M. [State Univ. of New York (SUNY),Buffalo, NY (United States)

    1990-12-01

    The effect of incubation temperature on the post-hatching growth and performance capacities of the common snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina was investigated in the laboratory. Turtle eggs were collected from four sites in New York State and randomly assigned to four incubation temperature treatments to produce males (constant 26°C and downshifted 30-26-30°C) and females (constant 30°C and upshifted 26-30-26°C) under constant and altered temperature regimes. The incubation conditions resulted in 92% males from the constant 26°C group and 93% males from the downshifted group. 100% females resulted from both the constant 30°C group and the upshifted group. Turtles hatching from eggs incubated constantly at 26°C were significantly larger than hatchlings from eggs incubated at a constant 30°C or downshifted. Hatchlings were raised in individual aquaria at 25°C and fed earthworms and fish. After a 9-month growth period, turtles which had been incubated at a constant 30°C gained significantly more mass than did turtles from eggs which had been downshifted or upshifted. There was no extended effect of incubation condition on Post-hatching performance and learning ability as measured by righting and feeding responses. Thus, the mass gain differences seen in this study suggest that physiological differences do result as the consequence of incubation condition. However, these physiological differences are not reflected in normal locomotive or feeding behavior.

  16. Effects of egg incubation condition on the post-hatching growth and performance of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, K.M.

    1990-12-01

    The effect of incubation temperature on the post-hatching growth and performance capacities of the common snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina was investigated in the laboratory. Turtle eggs were collected from four sites in New York State and randomly assigned to four incubation temperature treatments to produce males (constant 26[degree]C and downshifted 30-26-30[degree]C) and females (constant 30[degree]C and upshifted 26-30-26[degree]C) under constant and altered temperature regimes. The incubation conditions resulted in 92% males from the constant 26[degree]C group and 93% males from the downshifted group. 100% females resulted from both the constant 30[degree]C group and the upshifted group. Turtles hatching from eggs incubated constantly at 26[degree]C were significantly larger than hatchlings from eggs incubated at a constant 30[degree]C or downshifted. Hatchlings were raised in individual aquaria at 25[degree]C and fed earthworms and fish. After a 9-month growth period, turtles which had been incubated at a constant 30[degree]C gained significantly more mass than did turtles from eggs which had been downshifted or upshifted. There was no extended effect of incubation condition on Post-hatching performance and learning ability as measured by righting and feeding responses. Thus, the mass gain differences seen in this study suggest that physiological differences do result as the consequence of incubation condition. However, these physiological differences are not reflected in normal locomotive or feeding behavior.

  17. Cost of reproduction in a long-lived bird: incubation effort reduces immune function and future reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Sveinn Are; Hasselquist, Dennis; Folstad, Ivar; Erikstad, Kjell Einar

    2005-05-22

    Life-history theory predicts that increased current reproductive effort should lead to a fitness cost. This cost of reproduction may be observed as reduced survival or future reproduction, and may be caused by temporal suppression of immune function in stressed or hard-working individuals. In birds, consideration of the costs of incubating eggs has largely been neglected in favour of the costs of brood rearing. We manipulated incubation demand in two breeding seasons (2000 and 2001) in female common eiders (Somateria mollissima) by creating clutches of three and six eggs (natural range 3-6 eggs). The common eider is a long-lived sea-duck where females do not eat during the incubation period. Mass loss increased and immune function (lymphocyte levels and specific antibody response to the non-pathogenic antigens diphtheria and tetanus toxoid) was reduced in females incubating large clutches. The increased incubation effort among females assigned to large incubation demand did not lead to adverse effects on current reproduction or return rate in the next breeding season. However, large incubation demand resulted in long-term fitness costs through reduced fecundity the year after manipulation. Our data show that in eiders, a long-lived species, the cost of high incubation demand is paid in the currency of reduced future fecundity, possibly mediated by reduced immune function.

  18. IN Like Flint: How the Innovation Incubator at UM-Flint Fosters Social Entrepreneurship in a City Remaking Itself

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Nic

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on how the University of Michigan-Flint's Innovation Incubator supports emerging for-profit businesses and nonprofit organizations through programming, business plan development, and ongoing mentorship. The Incubator is especially interested in supporting start-ups that address key social issues in the surrounding community,…

  19. Dinosaur incubation periods directly determined from growth-line counts in embryonic teeth show reptilian-grade development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Gregory M; Zelenitsky, Darla K; Kay, David Ian; Norell, Mark A

    2017-01-17

    Birds stand out from other egg-laying amniotes by producing relatively small numbers of large eggs with very short incubation periods (average 11-85 d). This aspect promotes high survivorship by limiting exposure to predation and environmental perturbation, allows for larger more fit young, and facilitates rapid attainment of adult size. Birds are living dinosaurs; their rapid development has been considered to reflect the primitive dinosaurian condition. Here, nonavian dinosaurian incubation periods in both small and large ornithischian taxa are empirically determined through growth-line counts in embryonic teeth. Our results show unexpectedly slow incubation (2.8 and 5.8 mo) like those of outgroup reptiles. Developmental and physiological constraints would have rendered tooth formation and incubation inherently slow in other dinosaur lineages and basal birds. The capacity to determine incubation periods in extinct egg-laying amniotes has implications for dinosaurian embryology, life history strategies, and survivorship across the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction event.

  20. Adaptive influence of extrinsic and intrinsic factors on variation of incubation periods among tropical and temperate passerines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas E.; Ton, Riccardo; Oteyza, Juan C.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding intrinsic (physiological) and extrinsic (e.g., temperature) causes of variation in embryonic development time (incubation period) is important because they can have different impacts on individual quality. Robert Ricklefs and colleagues have argued that longer incubation periods result primarily from intrinsic physiological programs that increase individual quality and adult survival. They claim that incubation periods are largely invariant and that extrinsic factors like temperature have little impact. We have argued that adult survival may be a cause rather than a consequence of much of the variation in embryonic development time. A reduction in extrinsic sources of annual adult mortality (e.g., migration, predation, nonbreeding-season mortality) favors reduced parental effort during incubation to minimize costs to future reproduction and survival. Reduced parental effort, in turn, manifests as cooler average egg temperatures that yield longer incubation periods. Ricklefs and colleagues mischaracterized our hypothesis and deconstructed their own incorrect version, while also making some incorrect statements. We show that reevaluation of previous evidence provided by this group actually supports a role of egg temperature for the variation in incubation periods. We also summarize other observational and experimental evidence that incubation periods are not invariant and that egg temperature has a strong causal influence on variation within and among species. In fact, egg temperature explains ∼60% of the difference in incubation periods among species. The remaining ∼40% reflects intrinsic physiological programs and other factors, potentially providing intrinsic benefits. Ultimately, annual adult mortality explains substantial variation in parental effort and egg temperature, and the latter strongly explains variation in incubation periods. Both intrinsic programs and extrinsic temperature effects need to be considered in attempts to understand

  1. Biomaterials trigger endothelial cell activation when co-incubated with human whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herklotz, Manuela; Hanke, Jasmin; Hänsel, Stefanie; Drichel, Juliane; Marx, Monique; Maitz, Manfred F; Werner, Carsten

    2016-10-01

    Endothelial cell activation resulting from biomaterial contact or biomaterial-induced blood activation may in turn also affect hemostasis and inflammatory processes in the blood. Current in vitro hemocompatibility assays typically ignore these modulating effects of the endothelium. This study describes a co-incubation system of human whole blood, biomaterial and endothelial cells (ECs) that was developed to overcome this limitation. First, human endothelial cells were characterized in terms of their expression of coagulation- and inflammation-relevant markers in response to various activators. Subsequently, their capacity to regulate hemostasis as well as complement and granulocyte activation was monitored in a hemocompatibility assay. After blood contact, quiescent ECs exhibited anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory properties. When they were co-incubated with surfaces exhibiting pro-coagulant or pro-inflammatory characteristics, the ECs down-regulated coagulation but not complement or leukocyte activation. Analysis of intracellular levels of the endothelial activation markers E-selectin and tissue factor showed that co-incubation with model surfaces and blood significantly increased the activation state of ECs. Finally, the coagulation- and inflammation-modulating properties of the ECs were tested after blood/biomaterial exposure. Pre-activation of ECs by biomaterials in the blood induced a pro-coagulant and pro-inflammatory state of the ECs, wherein the pro-coagulant response was higher for biomaterial/blood pre-activated ECs than for TNF-α-pre-activated cells. This work provides evidence that biomaterials, even without directly contacting the endothelium, affect the endothelial activation state with and have consequences for plasmatic and cellular reactions in the blood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Monitoring System and Temperature Controlling on PID Based Poultry Hatching Incubator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiudin, S.; Kholis, N.

    2018-04-01

    Poultry hatching cultivation is essential to be observed in terms of temperature stability by using artificial penetration incubator which applies On/Off control. The On/Off control produces relatively long response time to reach steady-state conditions. Moreover, how the system works makes the component worn out because the lamp is on-off periodically. Besides, the cultivation in the market is less suitable to be used in an environment which has fluctuating temperature because it may influence plant’s temperature stability. The study aims to design automatic poultry hatching cultivation that can repair the temperature’s response of plant incubator to keep stable and in line with the intended set-point temperature value by using PID controller. The method used in PID controlling is designed to identify plant using ARX (Auto Regressive eXogenous) MATLAB which is dynamic/non-linear to obtain mathematical model and PID constants value that is appropriate to system. The hardware design for PID-based egg incubator uses Arduino Uno R3, as the main controller that includes PID source, and PWM, to keep plant temperature stability, which is integrated with incandescent light actuators and sensors where DHTI 1 sensor as the reader as temperature condition and plant humidity. The result of the study showed that PID constants value of each plant is different. For parallel 15 Watt plant, Kp = 3.9956, Ki = 0.361, Kd = 0, while for parallel 25 Watt plant, the value of Kp = 5.714, Ki = 0.351, Kd = 0. The PID constants value were capable to produce stable system response which is based on set-point with steady state error’s value is around 5%, that is 2.7%. With hatching percentage of 70-80%, the hatching process is successful in air-conditioned environment (changeable).

  3. Curriculum Design and Implementation of the Emergency Medicine Chief Resident Incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisondi, Michael A; Chou, Adaira; Joshi, Nikita; Sheehy, Margaret K; Zaver, Fareen; Chan, Teresa M; Riddell, Jeffrey; Sifford, Derek P; Lin, Michelle

    2018-02-24

    Background Chief residents receive minimal formal training in preparation for their administrative responsibilities. There is a lack of professional development programs specifically designed for chief residents. Objective In 2015, Academic Life in Emergency Medicine designed and implemented an annual, year-long, training program and virtual community of practice for chief residents in emergency medicine (EM). This study describes the curriculum design process and reports measures of learner engagement during the first two cycles of the curriculum. Methods Kern's Six-Step Approach for curriculum development informed key decisions in the design and implementation of the Chief Resident Incubator. The resultant curriculum was created using constructivist social learning theory, with specific objectives that emphasized the needs for a virtual community of practice, longitudinal content delivery, mentorship for participants, and the facilitation of multicenter digital scholarship. The 12-month curriculum included 11 key administrative or professional development domains, delivered using a combination of digital communications platforms. Primary outcomes measures included markers of learner engagement with the online curriculum, recognized as modified Kirkpatrick Level One outcomes for digital learning. Results An average of 206 chief residents annually enrolled in the first two years of the curriculum, with an overall participation by 33% (75/227) of the allopathic EM residency programs in the United States (U.S.). There was a high level of learner engagement, with an average 13,414 messages posted per year. There were also 42 small group teaching sessions held online, which included 39 faculty and 149 chief residents. The monthly e-newsletter had a 50.7% open rate. Digital scholarship totaled 23 online publications in two years, with 67 chief resident co-authors and 21 faculty co-authors. Conclusions The Chief Resident Incubator is a virtual community of practice that

  4. Growth medium and incubation temperature alter the Pseudogymnoascus destructans transcriptome: implications in identifying virulence factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Michael E; Davy, Christina M; Vanderwolf, Karen J; Willis, Craig K R; Saville, Barry J; Kyle, Christopher J

    2018-02-23

    Pseudogymnoascus destructans is the causal agent of bat white-nose syndrome (WNS), which is devastating some North American bat populations. Previous transcriptome studies provided insight regarding the molecular mechanisms involved in WNS; however, it is unclear how different environmental parameters could influence pathogenicity. This information could be useful in developing management strategies to mitigate the negative impacts of P. destructans on bats. We cultured three P. destructans isolates from Atlantic Canada on two growth media (potato dextrose agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar) that differ in their nitrogen source, and at two separate incubation temperatures (4 C and 15 C) that approximate the temperature range of bat hibernacula during the winter and a temperature within its optimal mycelial growth range. We conducted RNA sequencing to determine transcript levels in each sample and performed differential gene expression (DGE) analyses to test the influence of growth medium and incubation temperature on gene expression. We also compared our in vitro results with previous RNA-sequencing data sets generated from P. destructans growing on the wings of a susceptible host, Myotis lucifugus. Our findings point to a critical role for substrate and incubation temperature in influencing the P. destructans transcriptome. DGE analyses suggested that growth medium plays a larger role than temperature in determining P. destructans gene expression and that although the psychrophilic fungus responds to different nitrogen sources, it may have evolved for continued growth at a broad range of low temperatures. Further, our data suggest that down-regulation of the RNA-interference pathway and increased fatty acid metabolism are involved in the P. destructans-bat interaction. Finally, we speculate that to reduce the activation of host defense responses, P. destructans minimizes changes in the expression of genes encoding secreted proteins during bat colonization.

  5. Transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus during the incubation period in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Stenfeldt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the quantitative characteristics of a pathogen’s capability to transmit during distinct phases of infection is important to enable accurate predictions of the spread and impact of a disease outbreak. In the current investigation, the potential for transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV during the incubation (preclinical phase of infection was investigated in seven groups of pigs that were sequentially exposed to a group of donor pigs that were infected by simulated-natural inoculation. Contact-exposed pigs were co-mingled with infected donors through successive eight-hour time slots spanning from 8 to 64 hours post inoculation (hpi of the donor pigs. The transition from latent to infectious periods in the donor pigs was clearly defined by successful transmission of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD to all contact pigs that were exposed to the donors from 24 hpi and later. This onset of infectiousness occurred concurrent with detection of viremia, but approximately 24 hours prior to the first appearance of clinical signs of FMD in the donors.Thus, the latent period of infection ended approximately 24 hours earlier than the end of the incubation period. There were significant differences between contact-exposed groups in the time elapsed from virus exposure to the first detection of FMDV shedding, viremia and clinical lesions. Specifically, the onset and progression of clinical FMD was more rapid in pigs that had been exposed to the donor pigs during more advanced phases of disease, suggesting that these animals had received a higher effective challenge dose. These results demonstrate transmission and dissemination of FMD within groups of pigs during the incubation period of infection. Furthermore, the findings suggest that under current conditions, shedding of FMDV in oropharyngeal fluids is a more precise proxy for FMDV infectiousness than clinical signs of infection. These findings may impact modeling of the propagation of

  6. Experimental Incubations Elicit Profound Changes in Community Transcription in OMZ Bacterioplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Frank J.; Dalsgaard, Tage; Young, Curtis R.; Thamdrup, Bo; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Ulloa, Osvaldo; Canfield, Don E.; DeLong, Edward F.

    2012-01-01

    Sequencing of microbial community RNA (metatranscriptome) is a useful approach for assessing gene expression in microorganisms from the natural environment. This method has revealed transcriptional patterns in situ, but can also be used to detect transcriptional cascades in microcosms following experimental perturbation. Unambiguously identifying differential transcription between control and experimental treatments requires constraining effects that are simply due to sampling and bottle enclosure. These effects remain largely uncharacterized for “challenging” microbial samples, such as those from anoxic regions that require special handling to maintain in situ conditions. Here, we demonstrate substantial changes in microbial transcription induced by sample collection and incubation in experimental bioreactors. Microbial communities were sampled from the water column of a marine oxygen minimum zone by a pump system that introduced minimal oxygen contamination and subsequently incubated in bioreactors under near in situ oxygen and temperature conditions. Relative to the source water, experimental samples became dominated by transcripts suggestive of cell stress, including chaperone, protease, and RNA degradation genes from diverse taxa, with strong representation from SAR11-like alphaproteobacteria. In tandem, transcripts matching facultative anaerobic gammaproteobacteria of the Alteromonadales (e.g., Colwellia) increased 4–13 fold up to 43% of coding transcripts, and encoded a diverse gene set suggestive of protein synthesis and cell growth. We interpret these patterns as taxon-specific responses to combined environmental changes in the bioreactors, including shifts in substrate or oxygen availability, and minor temperature and pressure changes during sampling with the pump system. Whether such changes confound analysis of transcriptional patterns may vary based on the design of the experiment, the taxonomic composition of the source community, and on the

  7. Extinction of conditioned cues attenuates incubation of cocaine craving in adolescent and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Heather B; Zbukvic, Isabel C; Luikinga, Sophia J; Lawrence, Andrew J; Kim, Jee Hyun

    2017-09-01

    Relapse to drug use is often precipitated by exposure to drug associated cues that evoke craving. Cue-induced drug craving has been observed in both animals and humans to increase over the first few weeks of abstinence and remain high over extended periods, a phenomenon known as 'incubation of craving'. As adolescence represents a period of vulnerability to developing drug addiction, potentially due to persistent reactivity to drug associated cues, we first compared incubation of cocaine craving in adolescent and adult rats. Adolescent (P35) and adult (P70) rats were trained to lever press to obtain intravenous cocaine, with each drug delivery accompanied by a light cue that served as the conditioned stimulus (CS). Following acquisition of stable responding, rats were tested for cue-induced cocaine-seeking after either 1 or 30days of abstinence. Additional groups of rats were also tested after 30days of abstinence, however these rats were subjected to a cue extinction session 1week into the abstinence period. Rats were injected with aripiprazole, a dopamine 2 receptor (D2R)-like partial agonist, or vehicle, 30min prior to cue extinction. We found that adolescent and adult rats acquired and maintained a similar level of cocaine self-administration, and rats of both ages exhibited a higher level of cue-induced cocaine-seeking if they were tested after 30days of abstinence compared to 1day. Incubation of cocaine craving was significantly reduced to 1day levels in both adults and adolescents that received cue extinction training. Administration of aripiprazole prior to cue extinction did not further reduce cue-induced drug-seeking. These results indicate that cue extinction training during abstinence may effectively reduce cue-induced relapse at a time when cue-induced drug craving is usually high. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A large volume striped bass egg incubation chamber: design and comparison with a traditional method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    I conducted a comparative study of a new jar design (experimental chamber) with a standard egg incubation vessel (McDonald jar). Experimental chambers measured 0.4 m in diameter by 1.3 m in height and had a volume of 200 L. McDonald hatching jars measured 16 cm in diameter by 45 cm in height and had a volume of 6 L. Post-hatch survival was estimated at 48, 96 and 144 h. Stocking rates resulted in an average egg density of 21.9 eggs ml-1 (range = 21.6 – 22.1) for McDonald jars and 10.9 eggs ml-1 (range = 7.0 – 16.8) for experimental chambers. I was unable to detect an effect of container type on survival to 48, 96 or 144 h. At 144 h striped bass fry survival averaged 37.3% for McDonald jars and 34.2% for experimental chambers. Survival among replicates was significantly different. Survival of striped bass significantly decreased between 96 and 144 h. Mean survival among replicates ranged from 12.4 to 57.3%. I was unable to detect an effect of initial stocking density on survival. Experimental jars allow for incubation of a larger number of eggs in a much smaller space. As hatchery production is often limited by space or water supply, experimental chambers offer an alternative to extending spawning activities, thereby reducing manpower and cost. However, the increase in the number of eggs per rearing container does increase the risk associated with catastrophic loss of a production unit. I conclude the experimental chamber is suitable for striped bass egg incubation.

  9. Direct effects of incubation temperature on morphology, thermoregulatory behaviour and locomotor performance in jacky dragons (Amphibolurus muricatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquerré, Damien; Keogh, J Scott; Schwanz, Lisa E

    2014-07-01

    Incubation temperature is one of the most studied factors driving phenotypic plasticity in oviparous reptiles. We examined how incubation temperature influenced hatchling morphology, thermal preference and temperature-dependent running speed in the small Australian agamid lizard Amphibolurus muricatus. Hatchlings incubated at 32 °C grew more slowly than those incubated at 25 and 28 °C during their first month after hatching, and tended to be smaller at one month. These differences were no longer significant by three months of age due to selective mortality of the smallest hatchlings. The cooler incubation treatments (25 °C and 28 °C) produced lizards that had deeper and wider heads. Hatchlings from 28 °C had cooler and more stable temperature preferences, and also had lower body temperatures during a 2-h thermoregulatory behaviour trial. Locomotor performance was enhanced at higher body temperatures, but incubation temperature had no measurable effect either independently or in interaction with body temperature. Our study demonstrates that incubation temperature has direct effects on morphology and thermoregulatory behaviour that appears to be independent of any size-dependent effects. We postulate a mechanistic link between these two effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of incubation on bacterial communities of eggshells in a temperate bird, the Eurasian Magpie (Pica pica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Young Lee

    Full Text Available Inhibitory effect of incubation on microbial growth has extensively been studied in wild bird populations using culture-based methods and conflicting results exist on whether incubation selectively affects the growth of microbes on the egg surface. In this study, we employed culture-independent methods, quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, to elucidate the effect of incubation on the bacterial abundance and bacterial community composition on the eggshells of the Eurasian Magpie (Pica pica. We found that total bacterial abundance increased and diversity decreased on incubated eggs while there were no changes on non-incubated eggs. Interestingly, Gram-positive Bacillus, which include mostly harmless species, became dominant and genus Pseudomonas, which include opportunistic avian egg pathogens, were significantly reduced after incubation. These results suggest that avian incubation in temperate regions may promote the growth of harmless (or benevolent bacteria and suppress the growth of pathogenic bacterial taxa and consequently reduce the diversity of microbes on the egg surface. We hypothesize that this may occur due to difference in sensitivity to dehydration on the egg surface among microbes, combined with the introduction of Bacillus from bird feathers and due to the presence of antibiotics that certain bacteria produce.

  11. The Incubation Period of Primary Epstein-Barr Virus Infection: Viral Dynamics and Immunologic Events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha K Dunmire

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is a human herpesvirus that causes acute infectious mononucleosis and is associated with cancer and autoimmune disease. While many studies have been performed examining acute disease in adults following primary infection, little is known about the virological and immunological events during EBV's lengthy 6 week incubation period owing to the challenge of collecting samples from this stage of infection. We conducted a prospective study in college students with special emphasis on frequent screening to capture blood and oral wash samples during the incubation period. Here we describe the viral dissemination and immune response in the 6 weeks prior to onset of acute infectious mononucleosis symptoms. While virus is presumed to be present in the oral cavity from time of transmission, we did not detect viral genomes in the oral wash until one week before symptom onset, at which time viral genomes were present in high copy numbers, suggesting loss of initial viral replication control. In contrast, using a sensitive nested PCR method, we detected viral genomes at low levels in blood about 3 weeks before symptoms. However, high levels of EBV in the blood were only observed close to symptom onset-coincident with or just after increased viral detection in the oral cavity. These data imply that B cells are the major reservoir of virus in the oral cavity prior to infectious mononucleosis. The early presence of viral genomes in the blood, even at low levels, correlated with a striking decrease in the number of circulating plasmacytoid dendritic cells well before symptom onset, which remained depressed throughout convalescence. On the other hand, natural killer cells expanded only after symptom onset. Likewise, CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells decreased two fold, but only after symptom onset. We observed no substantial virus specific CD8 T cell expansion during the incubation period, although polyclonal CD8 activation was detected in

  12. Differences induced by incubation temperature, versus androgen manipulation, in male leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Victoria; Crews, David

    2012-08-20

    A fundamental tenet of sexual selection is that in sexually dimorphic traits, there is variation within a sex. In leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius), a species with temperature-dependent sex determination, embryonic temperature contributes both to sex determination and polymorphisms within each sex. In this study we report that males from different incubation temperatures, one hitherto untested, exhibit significant differences in behavior even when castrated. Further, treatment with dihydrotestosterone increases scent marking, a territorial behavior. This supports previous results indicating that temperature has a direct organizing action on brain and sociosexual behavior independent of gonadal hormones. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evolution of parental incubation behaviour in dinosaurs cannot be inferred from clutch mass in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchard, Geoffrey F; Ruta, Marcello; Deeming, D Charles

    2013-08-23

    A recent study proposed that incubation behaviour (i.e. type of parental care) in theropod dinosaurs can be inferred from an allometric analysis of clutch volume in extant birds. However, the study in question failed to account for factors known to affect egg and clutch size in living bird species. A new scaling analysis of avian clutch mass demonstrates that type of parental care cannot be distinguished by conventional allometry because of the confounding effects of phylogeny and hatchling maturity. Precociality of young but not paternal care in the theropod ancestors of birds is consistent with the available data.

  14. A simple system for in-droplet incubation and quantification of agglutination assays

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, David

    2013-10-28

    This work reports on a simple system for quantitative sensing of a target analyte based on agglutination in micro-channels. Functionalized microbeads and analyte with no prior incubation are flowed in droplets (~2μL) through a thin silicone tube filled with mineral oil at a flow rate of 150 μL/min. Hydrodynamic forces alone produce a highly efficient mixing of the beads within the droplet, without the need of complex mixing structures or magnetic actuation. The setup allows rapid observation of agglutination (<2 min), which is quantified using image analysis, and has potential application to high-throughput analysis.

  15. CAXIAS DO SUL TECHNOLOGY INCUBATOR: TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION THROUGH THE TRIPLE HELIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Bresolin Tisott

    2014-09-01

    on investment in the form of registered patents, attracting new students and recognition as a technological, entrepreneurial and innovative university. The perceived benefits for the industrial sector are training and development for businesses and entrepreneurs, while the municipal government perceives the reduced number of businesses failing and the financial returns, in the form of taxes, as benefits. The findings show that the Triple Helix concept developed by Etzkowitz (2009 plays a cooperative and participatory role in the Technology Incubator, even though it could be applied to more segments of society.

  16. Best Practices for In-Situ Sediment-Water Incubations with Benthic Landers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengberg, Anders; Kononets, Mikhail; Hall, Per; Nilsson, Madeleine; Ekeroth, Nils

    2017-04-01

    Biological, chemical, physical and geological processes that take place at the seafloor are crucial in influencing and regulating many aquatic environments. One method to estimate exchange rates, fluxes, between the sediment and the overlying water is in-situ sediment-water incubations using autonomous chamber landers. As for all field sampling and measurements best practices methods are needed to obtain high quality data. With experiences form many years usage of the Gothenburg autonomous bottom lander systems this presentation will describe some of the experimental work that has been done with focus on quality control and data evaluation methods.

  17. Effect of incubation temperature, seed age and scarification on germination and emergence of persian shallot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, J.; Sabet, S.A.K.; Golshani, M.; Mortazavi, S.N.; Jafari, F.; Chirani, J.A.O.

    2010-01-01

    Persian shallot grows as a wild plant in some mountains of Iran, The aim of our research was to study the relationship between different temperatures, seed age and duration of sulfuric acid treatment on Persian shallot seed germination. The interactive effect of incubation temperature, seed age and scarification treatments had a significant effect on the germination and emergence percentage of Persian shallot. It is concluded that suitable condition for Persian shallot seed germination is scarification of one year old seeds with sulfuric acid for 15 min, and stratification at 4 deg. C. In fact Persian shallot seeds need both scarification and stratification for germination enhancement. (author)

  18. Incubation Programs from Public Research Organizations as Catalysts for Open Business Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven H. De Cleyn

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In many economies, new knowledge and technology creation and transfer towards local entities and new startups have been recognized as catalysts for industry renewal and tools for safeguarding (or even enhancing a region’s employment and prosperity. This article presents a case study of iMinds, a network organization in Flanders, Belgium. The organization fosters interdisciplinary research in information and communication technologies (ICT and strongly engages in transferring these new technologies towards local actors and in creating and supporting new startups. iMinds’ incubation and entrepreneurship programs act as catalysts for open innovation and company startup activities in the Flemish region.

  19. Design of fiber optic based respiratory sensor for newborn incubator application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhia, Arika; Devara, Kresna; Abuzairi, Tomy; Poespawati, N. R.; Purnamaningsih, Retno W.

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports the design of respiratory sensor using fiber optic for newborn incubator application. The sensor works based on light intensity losses difference obtained due to thorax movement during respiration. The output of the sensor launched to support electronic circuits to be processed in Arduino Uno microcontroler such that the real-time respiratory rate (breath per minute) can be presented on LCD. Experiment results using thorax expansion of newborn simulator show that the system is able to measure respiratory rate from 10 up to 130 breaths per minute with 0.595% error and 0.2% hysteresis error.

  20. How do students from Student Incubators (SI) use networks and how can SI support the activity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Mariendal

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines Student Entrepreneur’s (SE) use of networks as part of their activities in a Student Incubator (SI). Recommendations are made as to how SI can create activities to support students' use of internal and external relationships and discusses the paradox between running a learning...... in an entrepreneurial context. Often the increasing attention to entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial processes will probably emphasise growth and development environments (e.g. SIs) at educational institutions. An aspect which is currently not given much attention but which have considerable influence on both learning...

  1. Probabilistic analysis of degradation incubation time of steam generator tubing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, M.D.; Jyrkama, M.I.; Lu, Y.; Chi, L.

    2012-01-01

    The prediction of degradation free lifetime of steam generator (SG) tubing material is an important step in the life cycle management and decision for replacement of steam generators during the refurbishment of a nuclear station. Therefore, an extensive experimental research program has been undertaken by the Canadian Nuclear Industry to investigate the degradation of widely-used SG tubing alloys, namely, Alloy 600 TT, Alloy 690 TT, and Alloy 800. The corrosion related degradations of passive metals, such as pitting, crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) etc. are assumed to start with the break down of the passive film at the tube-environment interface, which is characterized by the incubation time for passivity breakdown and then the degradation growth rate, and both are influenced by the chemical environment and coolant temperature. Since the incubation time and growth rate exhibit significant variability in the laboratory tests used to simulate these degradation processes, the use of probabilistic modeling is warranted. A pit is initiated with the breakdown of the passive film on the SG tubing surface. Upon exposure to aggressive environments, pitting corrosion may not initiate immediately, or may initiate and then re-passivate. The time required to initiate pitting corrosion is called the pitting incubation time, and that can be used to characterize the corrosion resistance of a material under specific test conditions. Pitting may be the precursor to other corrosion degradation mechanisms, such as environmentally-assisted cracking. This paper will provide an overview of the results of the first stage of experimental program in which samples of Alloy 600 TT, Alloy 690 TT, and Alloy 800 were tested under various temperatures and potentials and simulated crevice environments. The testing environment was chosen to represent layup, startup, and full operating conditions of the steam generators. Degradation incubation times for over 80 samples were

  2. A simple system for in-droplet incubation and quantification of agglutination assays

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, David; Kodzius, Rimantas; Foulds, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    This work reports on a simple system for quantitative sensing of a target analyte based on agglutination in micro-channels. Functionalized microbeads and analyte with no prior incubation are flowed in droplets (~2μL) through a thin silicone tube filled with mineral oil at a flow rate of 150 μL/min. Hydrodynamic forces alone produce a highly efficient mixing of the beads within the droplet, without the need of complex mixing structures or magnetic actuation. The setup allows rapid observation of agglutination (<2 min), which is quantified using image analysis, and has potential application to high-throughput analysis.

  3. Incubation of Aquilaria subintegra with Microbial Culture Supernatants Enhances Production of Volatile Compounds and Improves Quality of Agarwood Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monggoot, Sakon; Kulsing, Chadin; Wong, Yong Foo; Pripdeevech, Patcharee

    2018-06-01

    Incubation with microbial culture supernatants improved essential oil yield from Aquilaria subintegra woodchips. The harvested woodchips were incubated with de man, rogosa and sharpe (MRS) agar, yeast mold (YM) agar medium and six different microbial culture supernatants obtained from Lactobacillus bulgaricus , L. acidophilus , Streptococcus thermophilus , Lactococcus lactis , Saccharomyces carlsbergensis and S. cerevisiae prior to hydrodistillation. Incubation with lactic acid bacteria supernatants provided higher yield of agarwood oil (0.45% w/w) than that obtained from yeast (0.25% w/w), agar media (0.23% w/w) and water (0.22% w/w). The composition of agarwood oil from all media and microbial supernatant incubations was investigated by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Overall, three major volatile profiles were obtained, which corresponded to water soaking (control), as well as, both YM and MRS media, lactic acid bacteria, and yeast supernatant incubations. Sesquiterpenes and their oxygenated derivatives were key components of agarwood oil. Fifty-two volatile components were tentatively identified in all samples. Beta-agarofuran, α-eudesmol, karanone, α-agarofuran and agarospirol were major components present in most of the incubated samples, while S. cerevisiae -incubated A. subintegra provided higher amount of phenyl acetaldehyde. Microbial culture supernatant incubation numerically provided the highest yield of agarwood oil compared to water soaking traditional method, possibly resulting from activity of extracellular enzymes produced by the microbes. Incubation of agarwood with lactic acid bacteria supernatant significantly enhanced oil yields without changing volatile profile/composition of agarwood essential oil, thus this is a promising method for future use.

  4. Rarely reported, widely distributed, and unexpectedly diverse: molecular characterization of mermithid nematodes (Nematoda: Mermithidae) infecting bumble bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus) in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripodi, Amber D; Strange, James P

    2018-03-16

    Mermithid nematodes (Nematoda: Mermithida: Mermithidae) parasitize a wide range of both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrate hosts, yet are recorded in bumble bees (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus) only six times historically. Little is known about the specific identity of these parasites. In a single-season nationwide survey of internal parasites of 3646 bumble bees, we encountered six additional instances of mermithid parasitism in four bumble bee species and genetically characterized them using two regions of 18S to identify the specific host-parasite relationships. Three samples from the northeastern USA are morphologically and genetically identified as Mermis nigrescens, whereas three specimens collected from a single agricultural locality in the southeast USA fell into a clade with currently undescribed species. Nucleotide sequences of the V2-V6 region of 18S from the southeastern specimens were 2.6-3.0% divergent from one another, and 2.2-4.0% dissimilar to the nearest matches to available data. The dearth of available data prohibits positive identification of this parasite and its affinity for specific bumble bee hosts. By doubling the records of mermithid parasitism of bumble bee hosts and providing genetic data, this work will inform future investigations of this rare phenomenon.

  5. Historical biogeography among species of Varestrongylus lungworms (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae) in ungulates: episodic expansion and host colonization linking Eurasia and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verocai, Guilherme G; Kutz, Susan J; Hoberg, Eric P

    2018-05-03

    Varestrongylus lungworms (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae) include 10 nominal species that parasitize wild and domesticated artiodactyles. Eight species are endemic to the western Palearctic and Eurasia, whereas two are limited in distribution to the Nearctic. Complex host associations, primarily among Cervidae and Bovidae (Caprinae), and biogeography were explored based on direct comparisons of parasite and host phylogenies to reveal the historical development of this fauna. Diversification among Varestrongylus species has an intricate history extending over the Pliocene and Quaternary involving episodic processes for geographic and host colonization: (1) Varestrongylus has origins in Eurasia with independent expansion events into bordering ecozones; (2) cervids are ancestral hosts; (3) the caprine-associated V. pneumonicus is basal and a result of an independent host colonization event; (4) secondary diversification, linked to sequential and independent host colonization events, occurred within cervids (V. sagittatus + V. tuvae; V. alpenae; and V. capreoli, V. alces + V. eleguneniensis); (5) at least two additional host colonization events into caprines occurred, followed or not by diversification (V. qinghaiensis + V. longispiculatus; V. capricola, respectively); (6) two independent events of geographic expansion into North America from Eurasia with cervids in the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene are postulated (V. alpenae, V. eleguneniensis). Comparisons based on phylogenetic hypotheses derived from comparative morphology and molecular inference for these nematodes are consistent with the postulated history for coevolutionary and biogeographic history. Episodes of geographic and host colonization, often in relation to rapid shifts in climate and habitat perturbation, have dominated the history of diversification of Varestrongylus.

  6. New records of philometrids (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off Australia, including description of four new species and erection of Digitiphilometroides gen. n.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Frantisek; Barton, Diane P

    2018-04-16

    The following six species of the Philometridae (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) were recorded from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia in 2015 and 2016: Philometra arafurensis sp. n. and Philometra papillicaudata sp. n. from the ovary and the tissue behind the gills, respectively, of the emperor red snapper Lutjanus sebae (Cuvier); Philometra mawsonae sp. n. and Dentiphilometra malabarici sp. n. from the ovary and the tissue behind the gills, respectively, of the Malabar blood snapper Lutjanus malabaricus (Bloch et Schneider); Philometra sp. from the ovary of the goldbanded jobfish Pristipomoides multidens (Day) (Perciformes: all Lutjanidae); and Digitiphilometroides marinus (Moravec et de Buron, 2009) comb. n. from the body cavity of the cobia Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus) (Perciformes: Rachycentridae). Digitiphilometroides gen. n. is established based on the presence of unique digital cuticular ornamentations on the female body. New gonad-infecting species, P. arafurensis and P. mawsonae, are characterised mainly by the length of spicules (252-264 µm and 351-435 µm, respectively) and the structure of the gubernaculum, whereas P. papillicaudata is characterised mainly by the body length (70 mm) of gravid female, extent of the oesophageal gland, size of caudal projections and the location in the host. Dentiphilometra malabarici differs from congeners mainly in the arrangement of circumoral teeth (in a single row), extent of the oesophageal gland and the absence of sclerotised teeth or protuberances on the oesophageal lobes in the mouth. Digitiphilometroides marinus has not previously been reported from fishes in Australian waters.

  7. Temperature induced decoupling of enzymatic hydrolysis and carbon remineralization in long-term incubations of Arctic and temperate sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robador, Alberto; Brüchert, Volker; Steen, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    explored the temperature sensitivity of enzymatic hydrolysis and its connection to subsequent steps in anoxic organic carbon degradation in long-term incubations of sediments from the Arctic and the North Sea. These sediments were incubated under anaerobic conditions for 24 months at temperatures of 0, 10......, and 20 ºC. The short-term temperature response of the active microbial community was tested in temperature gradient block incubations. The temperature optimum of extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis, as measured with a polysaccharide (chondroitin sulfate), differed between Arctic and temperate habitats...

  8. Humidity control of an incubator using the microcontroller-based active humidifier system employing an ultrasonic nebulizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güler, I; Burunkaya, M

    2002-01-01

    Relative humidity levels of an incubator were measured and controlled. An ultrasonic nebulizer system as an active humidifier was used to humidify the incubator environment. An integrated circuit-type humidity sensor was used to measure the humidity level of the incubator environment. Measurement and control processes were achieved by a PIC microcontroller. The high-performance and high-speed PIC provided the flexibility of the system. The developed system can be used effectively for the intensive care of newborns and/or premature babies. Since the humidifier generates an aerosol in ambient conditions, it is possible to provide the high relative humidity level for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes in medicine.

  9. Changes in microbial and nutrient composition associated with rumen content compost incubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Karuna; Shrestha, Pramod; Adetutu, Eric M; Walsh, Kerry B; Harrower, Keith M; Ball, Andrew S; Midmore, David J

    2011-02-01

    Physico-chemical and microbiological investigations were carried out on rumen content material composted for nine months, fresh vermicasts (obtained after passing the same compost through the guts of a mixture of three species of earthworms: Eisenia fetida, Lumbricus rubellus and Perionyx excavates) and microbially enhanced extracts derived from rumen compost, vermicast and vermicast leachate incubated for up to 48 h. Compared to composted rumen contents, vermicast was only improved in terms of microbial biomass C, while vermicast leached extract was significantly higher in NH(4)(+)-N,PO(4)(-)-P, humic acid, bacterial counts and total microbial activity compared to rumen compost extract. Although no difference between treatments was observed in genetic diversity as indicated by DGGE analysis, community level functional diversity of vermicast leached extract (Biolog™) was higher than that of composted rumen contents, vermicast and rumen compost extract indicating an enhancement of microbial activity rather than diversity due to liquid incubation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of incubation temperature and androgens on dopaminergic activity in the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Brian George; Ataya, Ramona Sousan; Rushworth, David; Zhao, Jun; Crews, David

    2007-04-01

    Male leopard geckos that hatch from eggs incubated at a female-biased temperature (Tf) behave differently when compared with males hatching at a temperature which produces a male-biased sex ratio (Tm). We investigated the effect of incubation temperature and androgen implantation on aspects of the dopaminergic system of Tf and Tm males. Our data suggest that more dopamine (DA) is stored in the nucleus accumbens of naive Tf males compared with naïve Tm males when they encounter a receptive female conspecific across a barrier. No difference was measured in the preoptic area and the ventral tegmental area (VTA). This difference in intracellular DA levels in a motivation-related brain nucleus might be correlated with differences in sociosexual behavior observed between the two morphs. There were no differences in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expressing cell numbers in the VTA of cholesterol (CH)-implanted naive castrated Tf and Tm males. Only Tf males implanted with testosterone had significantly higher TH immunopositive cell numbers in the VTA compared with CH- and dihydrotestosterone-implanted Tf males. These data indicate that both the embryonic environment as well as the circulating hormonal milieu can modulate neurochemistry, which might in turn be a basis for individual variation in behavior. Copyright (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Dynamic failure of dry and fully saturated limestone samples based on incubation time concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri V. Petrov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the results of experimental study of the dynamic rock failure based on the comparison of dry and saturated limestone samples obtained during the dynamic compression and split tests. The tests were performed using the Kolsky method and its modifications for dynamic splitting. The mechanical data (e.g. strength, time and energy characteristics of this material at high strain rates are obtained. It is shown that these characteristics are sensitive to the strain rate. A unified interpretation of these rate effects, based on the structural–temporal approach, is hereby presented. It is demonstrated that the temporal dependence of the dynamic compressive and split tensile strengths of dry and saturated limestone samples can be predicted by the incubation time criterion. Previously discovered possibilities to optimize (minimize the energy input for the failure process is discussed in connection with industrial rock failure processes. It is shown that the optimal energy input value associated with critical load, which is required to initialize failure in the rock media, strongly depends on the incubation time and the impact duration. The optimal load shapes, which minimize the momentum for a single failure impact, are demonstrated. Through this investigation, a possible approach to reduce the specific energy required for rock cutting by means of high-frequency vibrations is also discussed.

  12. [Development of Human Health Discoveries. 10 years results of Young Innovative Company incubation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsac, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Medicine is evolving every day in its operating procedures and the services offered to patients, emphasizing personalized medicine, safety and medical benefits. The individual patient is more than ever the hub of healthcare organization. Medical innovation is thus a public health priority. However it requires an accurate assessment of medical utility and risk-benefit ratios, and in-depth analysis of economic and organizational impacts. Ten years of experience in the Paris Biotech Santé company incubator has identified key actions for effective support of research projects and the success of innovative companies. Strong expertise is needed to prepare development plans, ensure compliance with regulatory requirements and obtain research funding. During its first decade, this incubator has created 87 innovative companies employing 1500 people, raised more than 90 million euros of funding, and reached a cumulative company value of 1200 million euros. Key factors of success have been identified, but an analysis of the causes of failure shows that operational adjustments are mandatory, particularly a strong commitment from medical experts, in order to promote access to new and useful products for patients while at the same time assessing their social impact.

  13. Pelvis morphology suggests that early Mesozoic birds were too heavy to contact incubate their eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles Deeming, D; Mayr, Gerald

    2018-02-27

    Numerous new fossils have driven an interest in reproduction of early birds, but direct evidence remains elusive. No Mesozoic avian eggs can be unambiguously assigned to a species, which hampers our understanding of the evolution of contact incubation, which is a defining feature of extant birds. Compared to living species, eggs of Mesozoic birds are relatively small, but whether the eggs of Mesozoic birds could actually have borne the weight of a breeding adult has not yet been investigated. We estimated maximal egg breadth for a range of Mesozoic avian taxa from the width of the pelvic canal defined by the pubic symphysis. Known elongation ratios of Mesozoic bird eggs allowed us to predict egg mass and hence the load mass an egg could endure before cracking. These values were compared to the predicted body masses of the adult birds based on skeletal remains. Based on 21 fossil species, we show that for nonornithothoracine birds body mass was 187% of the load mass of the eggs. For Enantiornithes, body mass was 127% greater than the egg load mass, but some early Cretaceous ornithuromorphs were 179% heavier than their eggs could support. Our indirect approach provides the best evidence yet that early birds could not have sat on their eggs without running the risk of causing damage. We suggest that contact incubation evolved comparatively late in birds. © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  14. Chronic hypoxic incubation blunts a cardiovascular reflex loop in embryonic American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eme, John; Hicks, James W; Crossley, Dane A

    2011-10-01

    Hypoxia is a naturally occurring environmental challenge for embryonic non-avian reptiles, and this study is the first to investigate the impact of chronic hypoxia on a possible chemoreflex loop in a developing non-avian reptile. We measured heart rate and blood pressure in normoxic and hypoxic-incubated (10% O(2)) American alligator embryos (Alligator mississippiensis) at 70 and 90/95% of development. We hypothesized that hypoxic incubation would blunt embryonic alligators' response to a reflex loop stimulated by phenylbiguanide (PBG), a 5-HT(3) receptor agonist that stimulates vagal pulmonary C-fiber afferents. PBG injection caused a hypotensive bradycardia in 70 and 95% of development embryos (paired t tests, P alligator, with an extended length of time between each developmental stage relative to avian species, may provide an excellent model to test the cardiorespiratory effects of prolonged exposure to changes in atmospheric gases. This extended period allows for lengthy studies at each stage without the transition to a new stage, and the natural occurrence of hypoxia and hypercapnia in crocodilian nests makes this stress ecologically and evolutionarily relevant.

  15. Effect of irradiation and leukocyte filtration on red cell transfusion for premature infants in an incubator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawa, Fumihiro; Iwasita, Yoichi; Motegi, Saori; Nakajima, Tomoko; Sawai, Kiyoshi; Sawada, Ken [Toho Univ., Chiba (Japan). Sakura Hospital

    1999-06-01

    We investigated the effect of irradiation and leukocyte filtration on red cells in MAP solution (RC-MAP) for premature infants. RC-MAPs were stored for 3 or 7 days and pretreated with 15-Gy irradiation and a leukocyte depletion filter, with either the irradiation or filtration performed first. Infusion was performed using an infusion pump for 8 hr at a speed of 2 ml/hr through a 4 ml, 100 cm tube and a 24 G needle passing into an infant incubator warmed to 34degC. Free hemoglobin concentration in the supernatant of tested RC-MAP stored 7 days and irradiated after filtration was increased to the maximum level of 42.6 mg/dl. Potassium ion level in the supernatants and ATP and 2, 3-DPG concentration in red cells from tested RC-MAP were similar to pretreated values. Maximum potassium ion level was increased to 23.5 mEq/l. Our results showed that both irradiation and filtration against RC-MAP solutions stored for 3 or 7 days is safe for use with premature infants in warmed incubators. However, further investigation is necessary to clarify the risk of bacterial contamination in such transfusion situations. (author)

  16. Edible crabs "go west": migrations and incubation cycle of Cancer pagurus revealed by electronic tags.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewan Hunter

    Full Text Available Crustaceans are key components of marine ecosystems which, like other exploited marine taxa, show seasonable patterns of distribution and activity, with consequences for their availability to capture by targeted fisheries. Despite concerns over the sustainability of crab fisheries worldwide, difficulties in observing crabs' behaviour over their annual cycles, and the timings and durations of reproduction, remain poorly understood. From the release of 128 mature female edible crabs tagged with electronic data storage tags (DSTs, we demonstrate predominantly westward migration in the English Channel. Eastern Channel crabs migrated further than western Channel crabs, while crabs released outside the Channel showed little or no migration. Individual migrations were punctuated by a 7-month hiatus, when crabs remained stationary, coincident with the main period of crab spawning and egg incubation. Incubation commenced earlier in the west, from late October onwards, and brooding locations, determined using tidal geolocation, occurred throughout the species range. With an overall return rate of 34%, our results demonstrate that previous reluctance to tag crabs with relatively high-cost DSTs for fear of loss following moulting is unfounded, and that DSTs can generate precise information with regards life-history metrics that would be unachievable using other conventional means.

  17. Incubation under Climate Warming Affects Behavioral Lateralisation in Port Jackson Sharks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Vila Pouca

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is warming the world’s oceans at an unprecedented rate. Under predicted end-of-century temperatures, many teleosts show impaired development and altered critical behaviors, including behavioral lateralisation. Since laterality is an expression of brain functional asymmetries, changes in the strength and direction of lateralisation suggest that rapid climate warming might impact brain development and function. However, despite the implications for cognitive functions, the potential effects of elevated temperature in lateralisation of elasmobranch fishes are unknown. We incubated and reared Port Jackson sharks at current and projected end-of-century temperatures and measured preferential detour responses to left or right. Sharks incubated at elevated temperature showed stronger absolute laterality and were significantly biased towards the right relative to sharks reared at current temperature. We propose that animals reared under elevated temperatures might have more strongly lateralized brains to cope with deleterious effects of climate change on brain development and growth. However, far more research in elasmobranch lateralisation is needed before the significance of these results can be fully comprehended. This study provides further evidence that elasmobranchs are susceptible to the effects of future ocean warming, though behavioral mechanisms might allow animals to compensate for some of the challenges imposed by climate change.

  18. Evolution of Sr distribution coefficient as a function of time, incubation conditions and measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guo; Staunton, Siobhan

    2005-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the dynamics of radiostrontium in soil is required to allow accurate long-term predictions of its mobility. We have followed the soil solution distribution of 85 Sr as a function of time under controlled conditions over 4 months and studied the effect of soil moisture content and organic matter amendments. Data have been compared to redox conditions and soil pH. To fuel the ongoing debate on the validity of distribution coefficient (K d ) values measured in dilute suspension, we have compared values obtained from the activity concentration in soil solution obtained by centrifugation to data obtained in suspension with or without air-drying of the soil samples after incubation. The 85 Sr adsorption properties of soil, incubated without prior contamination were also measured. There is some time-dependent adsorption of Sr. This is partly due to changing soil composition due to the decomposition of added organic matter and anaerobic conditions induced by flooding. There is also a kinetic effect, but adsorption remains largely reversible. Most of the observed effects are lost when soil is suspended in electrolyte solution

  19. Evaluation of different X ray equipment and incubators for pediatric radiographic images implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbi, E.D.O.; Souza, R.T.F.; Pina, D.R.

    2009-01-01

    The children frequent/y are exposed to the ionizing radiation and other emotional and physical risks in the attempts repeated to get radiographic images of quality. This study it has as objective to evaluate X ray beam about quality and intensity at three different equipment with single-phase generator of voltage and the absorption factors to 5 different incubators and 3 different cradles in the neonatal UTI of the Clinics Hospital on the Medicine College in Botucatu. The methodology consisted of carrying through measured of half Layer Value and Radiation output for the different X ray equipment with voltage with in between 45 and 100 kVp, applied at the X ray tube. The measures of the absorption factors had been carried through varying the thicknesses of attenuating material (phantom) for the different voltage value with in between 50 and 100kVp. The results had shown the same energy effective for the different X ray equipment and the same absorption factors for the different incubators and evaluated cradles, taking into account, the same thickness of attenuating material and same voltage. (author)

  20. Latitudinal variation in avian incubation attentiveness and a test of the food limitation hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfoun, A.D.; Martin, T.E.

    2007-01-01

    Avian incubation attentiveness has important fitness consequences through its influence on the number and quality of hatched young and energetic costs imposed on parents. Nest attentiveness is highly variable across species and geographical regions. We reviewed the literature and found a worldwide pattern that nest attentiveness of passerines is generally lower in south temperate and tropical regions than in north temperate regions. We also conducted a food manipulation experiment to assess the extent to which nest attentiveness may reflect proximate responses versus an evolved behaviour. We used the karoo prinia, Prinia maculosa, in South Africa, which has very low nest attentiveness (???49%) compared with that of many passerine birds. We provided supplemental food during early incubation to experimental females and compared nest attentiveness and on- and off-bout lengths of experimental and paired control females.??Nest attentiveness of females at food-provisioned nests was significantly higher than that of control females (57% versus 49%). Food-supplemented females also spent significantly less time off the nest than did control females, whereas mean on-bout lengths did not differ. However, mean nest attentiveness of food-provisioned females was still substantially below that of other similar bird species worldwide. Food can be an important proximate influence on parental care behaviour, but proximate influences of food do not explain broad latitudinal patterns of attentiveness. ?? 2007 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  1. Sound levels in a neonatal intensive care unit significantly exceeded recommendations, especially inside incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Johanna; de Suremain, Aurelie; Berne Audeoud, Frederique; Ego, Anne; Debillon, Thierry

    2017-12-01

    This study measured sound levels in a 2008 built French neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and compared them to the 2007 American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommendations. The ultimate aim was to identify factors that could influence noise levels. The study measured sound in 17 single or double rooms in the NICU. Two dosimeters were installed in each room, one inside and one outside the incubators, and these conducted measurements over a 24-hour period. The noise metrics measured were the equivalent continuous sound level (L eq ), the maximum noise level (L max ) and the noise level exceeded for 10% of the measurement period (L 10 ). The mean L eq , L 10 and L max were 60.4, 62.1 and 89.1 decibels (dBA), which exceeded the recommended levels of 45, 50 and 65 dBA (p care was correlated to an increased noise level, except for a postconceptional age below 32 weeks. The sound levels significantly exceeded the AAP recommendations, particularly inside incubators. A multipronged strategy is required to improve the sound environment and protect the neonates' sensory development. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Renewable energy and wild life conservation: design and construction of a solar incubator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, John Martin; Schiller, Silvia de; Garreta, Fabian [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Centro de Investigacion Habitat y Energia, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1998-09-01

    This paper presents the design, construction and results of a solar powered incubator and pools for rearing yacare, a specie of the crocodile family, found in northern Argentina. The design was developed by the Research Centre Habitat and Energy, Faculty of Architecture, Design and Urbanism, Buenos Aires University in the framework of a Cooperation Agreement with the Argentine Wild Life Foundation. The installation, located in a Wild Life Refuge in a remote sub-tropical area of the Chaco Province in the north-east region of Argentina, consists of an incubation chamber for hatching the yacare with strict temperature conditions, pools for rearing the young during a year, heated by solar energy, an auxiliary wood-fired water heater and PV system to power the pumps control system and other minimal requirements such as lighting. The concepts, system development and integration, construction process and measured performance are presented together with the first results of this project which integrates low impact renewable energy systems to support the conservation of an endangered specie. (Author)

  3. The Creative Economy on the Environmental of the Technological Parks and Incubators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Emmanuil Inglesis Barcellos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The creative economy has become a key element in generating ideas, products and services being an evolving concept based on creative assets, which modifies the profile of industry and global market, from the partnership between creativity and economics combined with innovation and technology. In Brazil, Technological Parks and Incubators, in turn, have not devoted themselves with real interest in this emerging sector; they are involved primarily with technologies for areas such as biotechnology, environment, embedded electronics, alternative energy, oil, software and, mainly, IT (ICT. This article identifies how the economy and creative industry have changed the entrepreneurial profile in the national and global environment and how these trends are applicable in relation to the environment of the Parks and Incubators for the inclusion of creativity in the current Brazilian scenario. Shows that the creative production promotes skills that constitute the knowledge of Design, Architecture,Cultural Heritage, Media, Culture and Arts, acting democratically, adding knowledge, diversity and differentiation, overcoming social and regional barriers and making social inclusion. It shows that a market segment that involved about US $ 624 billion in 2011, more than doubling between 2002 and 2011, maintains a growth trajectory has only 2% of the featured activities of the Parks aimed at its development and promotion.

  4. Incubation period and immune function: A comparative field study among coexisting birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, M.G.; Martin, T.E.

    2006-01-01

    Developmental periods are integral components of life history strategies that can have important fitness consequences and vary enormously among organisms. However, the selection pressures and mechanisms causing variation in length of developmental periods are poorly understood. Particularly puzzling are prolonged developmental periods, because their selective advantage is unclear. Here we tested the hypotheses that immune function is stronger in species that are attacked at a higher rate by parasites and that prolonged embryonic development allows the development of this stronger immune system. Through a comparative field study among 12 coexisting passerine bird species, we show that species with higher blood parasite prevalence mounted stronger cellular immune responses than species with lower prevalence. These results provide support for the hypothesis that species facing greater selection pressure from parasites invest more in immune function. However, species with longer incubation periods mounted weaker cellular immune responses than species with shorter periods. Therefore, cellular immune responses do not support the hypothesis that longer development time enhances immunocompentence. Future studies should assess other components of the immune system and test alternative causes of variation in incubation periods among bird species. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

  5. Dynamics and complexity of body temperature in preterm infants nursed in incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Kerstin; Pramana, Isabelle; Delgado-Eckert, Edgar; Kumar, Nitin; Datta, Alexandre N; Frey, Urs; Schulzke, Sven M

    2017-01-01

    Poor control of body temperature is associated with mortality and major morbidity in preterm infants. We aimed to quantify its dynamics and complexity to evaluate whether indices from fluctuation analyses of temperature time series obtained within the first five days of life are associated with gestational age (GA) and body size at birth, and presence and severity of typical comorbidities of preterm birth. We recorded 3h-time series of body temperature using a skin electrode in incubator-nursed preterm infants. We calculated mean and coefficient of variation of body temperature, scaling exponent alpha (Talpha) derived from detrended fluctuation analysis, and sample entropy (TSampEn) of temperature fluctuations. Data were analysed by multilevel multivariable linear regression. Data of satisfactory technical quality were obtained from 285/357 measurements (80%) in 73/90 infants (81%) with a mean (range) GA of 30.1 (24.0-34.0) weeks. We found a positive association of Talpha with increasing levels of respiratory support after adjusting for GA and birth weight z-score (pbody temperature in incubator-nursed preterm infants show considerable associations with GA and respiratory morbidity. Talpha may be a useful marker of autonomic maturity and severity of disease in preterm infants.

  6. Predicting the denitrification capacity of sandy aquifers from shorter-term incubation experiments and sediment properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Eschenbach

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the spatial variability of denitrification rates and the lifetime of denitrification in nitrate-contaminated aquifers is crucial to predict the development of groundwater quality. Therefore, regression models were derived to estimate the measured cumulative denitrification of aquifer sediments after one year of incubation from initial denitrification rates and several sediment parameters, namely total sulphur, total organic carbon, extractable sulphate, extractable dissolved organic carbon, hot water soluble organic carbon and potassium permanganate labile organic carbon.

    For this purpose, we incubated aquifer material from two sandy Pleistocene aquifers in Northern Germany under anaerobic conditions in the laboratory using the 15N tracer technique. The measured amount of denitrification ranged from 0.19 to 56.2 mg N kg−1 yr−1. The laboratory incubations exhibited high differences between non-sulphidic and sulphidic aquifer material in both aquifers with respect to all investigated sediment parameters. Denitrification rates and the estimated lifetime of denitrification were higher in the sulphidic samples. For these samples, the cumulative denitrification measured during one year of incubation (Dcum(365 exhibited distinct linear regressions with the stock of reduced compounds in the investigated aquifer samples. Dcum(365 was predictable from sediment variables within a range of uncertainty of 0.5 to 2 (calculated Dcum(365/measured Dcum(365 for aquifer material with a Dcum(365 > 20 mg N kg−1 yr−1. Predictions were poor for samples with lower Dcum(365, such as samples from the NO3 bearing groundwater zone, which includes the non-sulphidic samples, from the upper part of both aquifers where denitrification is not sufficient to

  7. Temperature - Impact of chiller failure on the short-term temperature variation in the incubation of salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In salmon recovery programs it is commonly necessary to chill incubation and early rearing temperatures to match wild development times. The most common failure mode...

  8. Chiller Design Model - Impact of chiller failure on the short-term temperature variation in the incubation of salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In salmon recovery programs it is commonly necessary to chill incubation and early rearing temperatures to match wild development times. The most common failure mode...

  9. Embryonic metabolism of the ornithischian dinosaurs Protoceratops andrewsi and Hypacrosaurus stebingeri and implications for calculations of dinosaur egg incubation times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Scott A.

    2017-04-01

    The embryonic metabolisms of the ornithischian dinosaurs Protoceratops andrewsi and Hypacrosaurus stebingeri have been determined and are in the range observed in extant reptiles. The average value of the measured embryonic metabolic rates for P. andrewsi and H. stebingeri are then used to calculate the incubation times for 21 dinosaurs from both Sauischia and Ornithischia using a mass growth model based on conservation of energy. The calculated incubation times vary from about 70 days for Archaeopteryx lithographica to about 180 days for Alamosaurus sanjuanensis. Such long incubation times seem unlikely, particularly for the sauropods and large theropods. Incubation times are also predicted with the assumption that the saurischian dinosaurs had embryonic metabolisms in the range observed in extant birds.

  10. Innovation incubators – entities of support of small and medium-sized enterprises’ competitiveness in the Modern economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maier Lidia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Innovation incubators are entities of the infrastructure network of support of small and medium-sized enterprises. At the stage of SMEs’ maximum vulnerability, they improve the survival of innovative businesses through the range of services and facilities provided. They are designed to mitigate the problems faced by SMEs, which develop and implement innovations, ensuring sustainability and competitiveness. Along with promoting the entrepreneurial spirit, innovation incubators play an essential role in promoting knowledge and innovation transfer, introduction of the research results into economic circuit, creating links between businesses, universities, research institutions, etc., links between people, talents and resources.In this article, we will focus on innovation incubators, their role in the development of SMEs in the world and in the Republic of Moldova, making an accent in the creation and development of the country's first Innovation Incubator „Inovatorul”.

  11. Temperature during the last week of incubation. I. Effects on hatching pattern and broiler chicken embryonic organ development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maatjens, C.M.; Roovert-Reijrink, van I.A.M.; Engel, B.; Pol, van der C.W.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of an eggshell temperature (EST) of 35.6, 36.7, 37.8, and 38.9°C applied from d of incubation (E) 15, E17, and E19 on hatching pattern and embryonic organ development. A total of 2,850 first-grade eggs of a 43-week-old Ross 308 broiler breeder flock were incubated at an

  12. Exposure of embryos to cyclically cold incubation temperatures durably affects energy metabolism and antioxidant pathways in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyau, T; Collin, A; Yenisey, C; Crochet, S; Siegel, P B; Akşit, M; Yalçin, S

    2014-08-01

    Cyclically cold incubation temperatures have been suggested as a means to improve resistance of broiler chickens to ascites; however, the underlying mechanisms are not known. Nine hundred eggs obtained from 48 wk Ross broiler breeders were randomly assigned to 2 incubation treatments: control I eggs were incubated at 37.6°C throughout, whereas for cold I eggs the incubation temperature was reduced by 1°C for 6 h daily from 10 to 18 d of incubation. Thereafter, chickens were reared at standard temperatures or under cold exposure that was associated or not with a postnatal cold acclimation at d 5 posthatch. At hatch, hepatic catalase activity and malondialdehyde content were measured. Serum thyroid hormone and triglyceride concentrations, and muscle expression of several genes involved in the regulation of energy metabolism and oxidative stress were also measured at hatch and 5 and 25 d posthatch. Cold incubation induced modifications in antioxidant pathways with higher catalase activity, but lower expression of avian uncoupling protein 3 at hatch. However, long-term enhancement in the expression of avian uncoupling protein 3 was observed, probably caused by an increase in the expression of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α. These effects were not systematically associated with an increase in serum triiodothyronine concentrations that were observed only in chickens exposed to both cold incubation and later acclimation at 5 d with cold rearing. Our results suggest that these conditions of cyclically cold incubation resulted in the long-term in changes in antioxidant pathways and energy metabolism, which could enhance the health of chickens reared under cold conditions. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Cost of reproduction in a long-lived bird: incubation effort reduces immune function and future reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Hanssen, S A; Hasselquist, Dennis; Folstad, I; Erikstad, K E

    2005-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that increased current reproductive effort should lead to a fitness cost. This cost of reproduction may be observed as reduced survival or future reproduction, and may be caused by temporal suppression of immune function in stressed or hard-working individuals. In birds, consideration of the costs of incubating eggs has largely been neglected in favour of the costs of brood rearing. We manipulated incubation demand in two breeding seasons (2000 and 2001) in female...

  14. The effects of incubation on academic and non-academic high-tech start-ups: evidence from Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Colombo, Massimo G.; Piva, Evila; Rentocchini, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at empirically investigating whether technology incubators help academic high-tech start-ups to establish collaborations with other organizations, thus increasing the competitiveness of these firms. In doing so, we take into account the specificities of academic high-tech start-ups with respect to their non-academic counterparts. We compare the effects of incubation on academic and non-academic high-tech start-ups through econometric estimates using a large sample of Italian f...

  15. A case study of incubation of tourism activities in the region of Subotica as a chance of tourism management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zedi Ildiko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of tourism at the micro level can be channeled through various aspects of the implementation of business ideas. One of the features of modern mechanisms is the use of business incubators and their ability to implement business ideas of tourist industry. Specific target groups, who want to do business in the field of tourism, with the support of the incubator can get through the first 3 years of operations, which are needed to stabilize. Incubation of tourism services, so far hasn't been the subject of the research and study in our region, because the incubators were big news in our country. The micro-entrepreneurship, in the sector in which has a lot of beginners in the field of tourism, the problems of management and its development are closely related to the usual problems of starting his own business, with the risks that are specific to the tourism sector. The tourism sector is a very sensitive sector of the economy, who right now, very quickly respond to any changes in the environment. This paper discusses about the possibility of using business incubators for incubation of tourist services, the conditions for the development of management skills, to overcome the risk in the business, the link of business incubation of micro level with the development of the tourism industry, through case studies. The aim is to conclude as specified instructions that will help Micro-entrepreneurs in the process of incubation of tourist services and developing their own organizational management in practice. They will apply normative methods, namely: observation, comparison, analysis and synthesis, inference of induction and deduction.

  16. The impact of university-based incubation support on the innovation strategy of academic spin-offs

    OpenAIRE

    Soetanto, Danny Prabowo; Jack, Sarah Louise

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops understanding about how incubation support and innovation strategy can determine the performance of academic spin-offs. Using a sample of spin-offs from the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Norway, we analyse the potential moderating effect of incubation support (networking and entrepreneurial support) on innovation strategy effectiveness. The empirical results demonstrate: (1) a technology and market exploitation strategy has a stronger and more positive effect on the ...

  17. Sex steroid levels across the reproductive cycle of female leopard geckos, Eublepharis macularius, from different incubation temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhen, T; Sakata, J T; Zeller, M; Crews, D

    2000-05-01

    Incubation temperature during embryonic development determines gonadal sex in many reptiles, including the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius). In this study, we examined the hormonal and behavioral changes that occur during the reproductive cycle of female leopard geckos from four (i.e., 26, 30, 32.5, and 34 degrees C) incubation temperatures. Controlling for reproductive status, plasma levels of dihydrotestosterone (DHT), testosterone (T), and progesterone (P) varied with incubation temperature but estradiol 17-beta (E2) levels did not. Controlling for the effects of incubation temperature, DHT and T levels were low when females were previtellogenic, increased slightly during early vitellogenesis, increased dramatically during late vitellogenesis (i.e., prior to ovulation), and then decreased to previtellogenic levels after ovulation. In contrast, E2 levels increased gradually from the previtellogenic stage to the early vitellogenic stage, peaked during late vitellogenesis, and decreased to previtellogenic levels after ovulation. Levels of P increased from the previtellogenic stage to the early vitellogenic stage, remained elevated during late vitellogenesis, and then decreased after ovulation. Moreover, we determined that females were not sexually receptive when previtellogenic, were somewhat receptive during early vitellogenesis (approximately 20% receptive), were most receptive during late vitellogenesis (approximately 80% receptive), and were again unreceptive after ovulation. Incubation temperature did not influence receptivity. Overall, these data show that hormone levels and behavior change coordinately during the reproductive cycle. Although incubation temperature has persistent effects on endocrine physiology in adult female leopard geckos, these effects are modest compared to hormonal changes across the reproductive cycle.

  18. Cypripedium calceolus germination in situ: seed longevity, and dormancy breakage by long incubation and cold winters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne N. Rasmussen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A successful in situ germination experiment with Cypripedium calceolus, the European Lady’s slipper, is reported here for the first time. The seeds originated from controlled pollinations within and between two closely related Danish populations. The seeds were sown ripe in seed packets in proximity of mother plants. Germination was first observed after 4.5 y in the ground, following two successive cold and snowy winters, and only in one population. Seedlings expanded through the sides of the broken testa and were hair-less. A corresponding set of seeds, germinated in vitro as asymbiotic controls, responded positively to repeated cold stratifications after long incubation, suggesting that time (leaching? and chilling are dormancy breakage factors.

  19. Effect of incubation temperatures for inactivation of Escherichia coli and related bacteria after gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakauma, Makoto; Ito, Hitoshi; Tada, Mikiro

    2000-01-01

    Irradiated fresh meat or fishery products have been expected to store and distribute under refrigerated temperature below 10degC. From previous reports, growth of coliform bacteria in these products were suppressed by gamma-irradiation below expected doses obtained at 30-37degC. This research was performed to observe the irradiation effect on the inactivation of Escherichia coli and related bacteria at different incubation temperatures of 10-40degC on plate agar after irradiation. From this study, D10 values of all strains decreased 17- 45% at 10degC compared with maximum D10 values at 30- 40degC. Radiation sensitivities were related to the ability to grow at low temperatures in which psychrotrophic type E. coli A4-1 indicated most sensitive to radiation, next of Salmonella enteritidis YK-2, E. coli S2, B4 whereas most resistant at Enterobacter agglomerans K3-1. (author)

  20. Automatic Evaluation of Colonies Growth rate of Yeasts incubated in Petri dishes using Mobile Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alecsander Pereira Martins

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an automatic method based on computer vision implemented in mobile platform capable of monitoring the growth of microbial colonies incubated in Petri dishes. The developed optimized image processing algorithm performs this task without human intervention from images of colonies of the microorganism in different evolution phases. The contribution of this paper is the development of a fast and robust mobile tool to assist bioprocess experts in monitoring the growth of colonies without using the conventional error prone evaluation techniques. The obtained results successfully demonstrated dimensional alterations in colonies in a faster and more precise fashion when compared with the conventional method, with the additional advantage of versatility in producing reliable estimation of the growth rates with higher statistical significance.

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 230 Helicobacter pylori strains: importance of medium, inoculum, and incubation time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartzen, S H; Andersen, L P; Bremmelgaard, A

    1997-01-01

    No standardized method of susceptibility testing for Helicobacter pylori is currently available, so before a large agar dilution study comprising 230 H. pylori strains belonging to more than 80 genetically different groups was initiated, we performed a relatively small preliminary study....../spot) as the inoculum and 72 h as the incubation time. A modest inoculum effect was noted for amoxicillin and metronidazole. By the methodology derived from our preliminary study, the susceptibilities of 230 H. pylori strains to six antibiotics were subsequently determined. The results were generally in accord...... with those of others, and apart from metronidazole, the MIC of which for approximately 25% of the strains tested was >8 microg/ml, resistance was low in Denmark. The situation might, however, quickly change when and if the number of indications for antibiotic therapy for H. pylori infections increase...

  2. Influence of ultraviolet ray irradiation on length of egg hatchability and on length of incubation period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, S.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of irradiation of White Leghorn eggs with ultraviolet rays on their embryonal development, egg hatchability, viability of hatched chicks and their liveweight, is studied. Irradiation length was 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 40 and 60 min in two experiments and 2, 4, 16 and 256 min in one trial. It was established that egg irradiation with ultraviolet rays affected positively egg hatchability and viability of the chicks, the irradiation effect being strongest in the range of 2 to 40 min. No significant difference was established between liveweight of chicks obtained from irradiated and nonirradiated eggs. It was further found that the length of incubation period was shortened by 2 to 5 hrs with increase in irradiation length over 5 min. (author)

  3. In-Well Sediment Incubators to Evaluate Microbial Community Stability and Dynamics following Bioimmobilization of Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, Brett R.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Gan, M.; Resch, Charles T.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Smithgall, A.N.; Pfiffner, S.; Freifeld, Barry M.; White, D.C.; Long, Philip E.

    2009-01-01

    An in-situ incubation device (ISI) was developed in order to investigate the stability and dynamics of sediment associated microbial communities to prevailing subsurface oxidizing or reducing conditions. Here we describe the use of these devices at the Old Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) site. During the 7 month deployment oxidized Rifle aquifer background sediments (RABS) were deployed in previously biostimulated wells under iron reducing conditions, cell densities of known iron reducing bacteria including Geobacteraceae increased significantly showing the microbial community response to local subsurface conditions. PLFA profiles of RABS following in situ deployment were strikingly similar to those of adjacent sediment cores suggesting ISI results could be extrapolated to the native material of the test plots. Results for ISI deployed reduced sediments showed only slight changes in community composition and pointed toward the ability of the ISIs to monitor microbial community stability and response to subsurface conditions.

  4. A study of the incubation of microbead agglutination assays in a microfluidic system

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, David

    2016-12-19

    This work reports on a quantitative study of the incubation of a microbead-based agglutination assay inside a microfluidic system. In this system, a droplet (1.25µL) consisting of a mixture of functionalized microbeads and analyte is flowed through a 0.51mm internal diameter silicone tube. Hydrodynamic forces alone produce a very efficient mixing of the beads within the droplet. We tested the agglutination at different speeds and show a robust response at the higher range of speeds (150 – 200µL/min), while also reaching a completion in the agglutination process. At these velocities, a length of 180cm is shown to be sufficient to confidently measure the agglutination assay, which takes between 2.5 – 3 minutes. This high throughput quantification method has the potential of accelerating the measurements of various types of biomarkers, which can greatly benefit the fields of biology and medicine.

  5. Effect of incubation temperatures for inactivation of Escherichia coli and related bacteria after gamma-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakauma, Makoto; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Tada, Mikiro [Okayama Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    2000-09-01

    Irradiated fresh meat or fishery products have been expected to store and distribute under refrigerated temperature below 10degC. From previous reports, growth of coliform bacteria in these products were suppressed by gamma-irradiation below expected doses obtained at 30-37degC. This research was performed to observe the irradiation effect on the inactivation of Escherichia coli and related bacteria at different incubation temperatures of 10-40degC on plate agar after irradiation. From this study, D10 values of all strains decreased 17- 45% at 10degC compared with maximum D10 values at 30- 40degC. Radiation sensitivities were related to the ability to grow at low temperatures in which psychrotrophic type E. coli A4-1 indicated most sensitive to radiation, next of Salmonella enteritidis YK-2, E. coli S2, B4 whereas most resistant at Enterobacter agglomerans K3-1. (author)

  6. Age-dependent branching processes for surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases with incubation period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marusia N Bojkova

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review the recent results of the authors in the area of infectious disease modelling by means of branching stochastic processes. This is a new approach involving age-dependent branching models, which turned out to be more appropriate and flexible for describing the spread of an infection in a given population, than discrete time ones. Concretely, Bellman-Harris and Sevast’yanov’s branching processes are investigated. It is justified that the proposed models are proper candidates as models of infectious diseases with incubation period like measles, mumps, avian flu, etc. It is worth to notice that in general the developed methodology is applicable to the diseases that follow the so-called SIR (susceptible- infected-removed scheme in terms of epidemiological models. Two policies of extra-vaccination level are proposed and compared on the ground of simulation examples.

  7. How can the gap between educations and student incubators be bridged at higher educational institutes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Mette Lindahl; Rasmussen, Jan Erik Røjkjær; Brandt, Erika Zimmer

    2015-01-01

    ). It is in the DNA of some educational institutes like Babson and in some educational programs like the business degrees to work with entrepreneurship. But it comes natural for a minority of the total student body to see them self as entrepreneurs and act as such. At some educations and educational institutes...... are not naturally cultivated. At these educations and for these students there is a large gap between their education and the opportunity of becoming an entrepreneur or intrapreneur (a person who spots opportunities in existing organisations and act on them resulting in value creation), manifesting itself in a lack...... opportunities and as an extension of this clarify to the students the purpose and relevance of the student incubators increasing the likelihood of students joining them and getting support in acting on their entrepreneurial opportunities....

  8. THE KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN INTENSIVE ENVIRONMENTS OF KNOWLEDGE: THE SMALL INCUBATED SOFTWARES COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greyce Krambeck

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the understanding and behavior of entrepreneurs incubated for software companies (development of information systems, provide services in information technology - hardware and software, and advise on the implementation of administrative management systems in relation to knowledge, in the obtaining and facilitating the use of knowledge and availability of media. Initially, it sought a fundamental concept for the study and is based contextualise the issue, making the connection with the knowledge of the views of academic and business. After an analysis was conducted based on applied research to executives on their understanding of the concept of knowledge regarding the way in which it operates (professional and personal, concluding with the importance of knowledge for business growth from the person.

  9. Brain Gene Expression is Influenced by Incubation Temperature During Leopard Gecko (Eublepharis macularius) Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallotta, Maria Michela; Turano, Mimmo; Ronca, Raffaele; Mezzasalma, Marcello; Petraccioli, Agnese; Odierna, Gaetano; Capriglione, Teresa

    2017-06-01

    Sexual differentiation (SD) during development results in anatomical, metabolic, and physiological differences that involve not only the gonads, but also a variety of other biological structures, such as the brain, determining differences in morphology, behavior, and response in the breeding season. In many reptiles, whose sex is determined by egg incubation temperature, such as the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius, embryos incubated at different temperatures clearly differ in the volume of brain nuclei that modulate behavior. Based on the premise that "the developmental decision of gender does not flow through a single gene", we performed an analysis on E. macularius using three approaches to gain insights into the genes that may be involved in brain SD during the thermosensitive period. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we studied the expression of genes known to be involved in gonadal SD such as WNT4, SOX9, DMRT1, Erα, Erβ, GnRH, P450 aromatase, PRL, and PRL-R. Then, further genes putatively involved in sex dimorphic brain differentiation were sought by differential display (DDRT-PCR) and PCR array. Our findings indicate that embryo exposure to different sex determining temperatures induces differential expression of several genes that are involved not only in gonadal differentiation (PRL-R, Wnt4, Erα, Erβ, p450 aromatase, and DMRT1), but also in neural differentiation (TN-R, Adora2A, and ASCL1) and metabolic pathways (GP1, RPS15, and NADH12). These data suggest that the brains of SDT reptiles might be dimorphic at birth, thus behavioral experiences in postnatal development would act on a structure already committed to male or female. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Incubation at room temperature may be an independent factor that induces chlamydospore production in Candida dubliniensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancak, Banu; Colakoglu, Sule; Acikgoz, Ziya Cibali; Arikan, Sevtap

    2005-08-01

    Production of chlamydospores is one of the phenotypic features used to differentiate Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis. C. albicans produces few chlamydospores on only cornmeal/rice-Tween agar at room temperature, whereas C. dubliniensis produces abundant chlamydospores at this temperature both on cornmeal agar and some other commonly used media. We tried to determine whether the room temperature is the main factor that induces chlamydospore production of C. dubliniensis, regardless of the medium used. For this purpose, 100 C. albicans and 24 C. dubliniensis isolates were tested for chlamydospore production at room temperature and at 37 degrees C on some routinely used media, including eosin-methylene blue agar (EMB), nutrient agar (NA), nutrient broth (NB), and also on an investigational medium, phenol red agar (PR). At 37 degrees C, none of the isolates produced chlamydospores on any of the tested media. At 26 degrees C, all C. dubliniensis isolates produced abundant chlamydospores and pseudohyphae after 24-48 h on all tested media. At this incubation temperature, all C. albicans isolates failed to produce chlamydospores and pseudohyphae on EMB, NA, and NB, whereas 2 of the C. albicans isolates produced a few chlamydospores on PR. We also observed that all C. dubliniensis isolates tested on EMB and PR produced rough colonies with a hyphal fringe around the colonies, whereas none of the C. albicans isolates showed this property. In conclusion, incubation at 26 degrees C may play the key role for production of abundant chlamydospores and pseudohyphae by C. dubliniensis. Comprehensive molecular studies are needed to clarify the genetic basis of this observation. Using EMB and PR may be an inexpensive, a time-saving, and a simple way of presumptive identification of C. dubliniensis based on chlamydospore formation and colony morphology.

  11. Manure biochar influence upon soil properties, phosphorus distribution and phosphatase activities: A microcosm incubation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yi; Liang, Xinqiang; He, Miaomiao; Liu, Yu; Tian, Guangming; Shi, Jiyan

    2016-01-01

    Using manure-derived-biochar as an alternative phosphorus (P) source has bright future prospects to improve soil P status. A 98-day microcosm incubation experiment was set up for two soils which were amended with manure biochar at proportions of 0, 0.5% and 1.5%. Swine manure samples were air-dried and manure biochar was prepared by pyrolysis at 400 °C for 4 h. As determined by P-31 nuclear magnetic resonance ((31)P NMR) spectroscopy, manure biochar mainly increased the contents and fractions of orthophosphate and pyrophosphate in two soils, while decreased those of monoesters (P<0.05). At the end of incubation, 1.5% of manure biochar raised soil pH by 0.5 and 0.6 units, cation exchange capacity by 16.9% and 32.2%, and soil total P by 82.1% and 81.1% for silt loam and clay loam soils, respectively, as compared with those soils without biochar. Simultaneously, 1.5% of manure biochar decreased acid phosphomonoesterase activities by 18.6% and 34.0% for clay loam and silt loam, respectively; while it increased alkaline phosphomonoesterase activities by 28.5% and 95.1% for clay loam and silt loam, respectively. The enhancement of soil P availability after manure biochar addition was firstly due to the orthophosphate and pyrophosphate as the major P species in manure biochar which directly increased contents of soil inorganic P, and also attributed to the decomposition of some organic P like monoesters by enhanced alkaline phosphomonoesterase activities from manure biochar addition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of incubated defatted rubber seed meal with sheep rumen liquor for Pangasius diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Agus Suprayudi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The research evaluated the use of rubber seed meal (Hevea brasiliensis; RBS incubated with sheep rumen liquor as a subtitution of soybean meal in catfish Pangasionodon sp. diet. The fish was cultured for 40 days and fed with the experimental diet containing RBS at five different diet compositions regarding to soybean meal substitution level, i.e. 0% (control, 12%, 23%, 34%, and 44%. Feeding was done three times a day to satiation. No significant different was found on fish-protein retention and survival rate in all treatments. Based on the study result, the use of rubber-seed meal (Hevea brasiliensis; RBS incubated with sheep rumen liquor could substitute soybean meal in catfish Pangasionodon sp. diet. Keywords: Hevea brasiliensis, Pangasionodon sp., catfish, sheep rumen liquor, rubber seed meal  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini mengevaluasi penggunaan tepung bungkil biji karet (Hevea brasiliensis; TBBK yang diinkubasi dengan cairan rumen domba sebagai pengganti tepung bungkil kedelai pada pakan ikan patin Pangasionodon sp. Pemeliharaan ikan dilakukan selama 40 hari dengan pemberian lima komposisi pakan berbeda sesuai tingkat substitusi tepung bungkil kedelai oleh tepung bungkil karet. TBBK yang ditambahkan untuk mengganti bungkil kedelai adalah sebesar 0%, 12%, 23%, 34% dan 44%. Pemberian pakan dilakukan selama tiga kali sehari secara at satiation. Tidak ditemukan perbedaan signifikan (P>0,05 pada nilai retensi protein dalam tubuh dan kelangsungan hidup ikan uji pada semua perlakuan. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, dapat disimpulkan bahwa tepung bungkil biji karet yang diinkubasi dengan cairan rumen domba dapat digunakan sebagai pengganti bungkil kedelai pada pakan ikan patin Pangasionodon sp. Kata kunci: Hevea brasiliensis, Pangasionodon sp., patin, rumen domba, tepung biji karet 

  13. Mercury alters initiation and construction of nests by zebra finches, but not incubation or provisioning behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Stephanie Y; Hopkins, William A; Cristol, Daniel A

    2017-11-01

    Mercury is an environmental contaminant that impairs avian reproduction, but the behavioral and physiological mechanisms underlying this effect are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to determine whether lifetime dietary exposure to mercury (1.2 µg/g wet weight in food) impacted avian parental behaviors, and how this might influence reproductive success. To distinguish between the direct effects of mercury on parents and offspring, we created four treatment groups of captive-bred zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), with control and mercury-exposed adults raising cross-fostered control or mercury-exposed eggs (from maternal transfer). Control parents were 23% more likely to fledge young than parents exposed to mercury, regardless of egg exposure. Mercury-exposed parents were less likely to initiate nests than controls and spent less time constructing them. Nests of mercury-exposed pairs were lighter, possibly due to an impaired ability to bring nest material into the nestbox. However, nest temperature, incubation behavior, and provisioning rate did not differ between parental treatments. Unexposed control eggs tended to have shorter incubation periods and higher hatching success than mercury-exposed eggs, but there was no effect of parental exposure on these parameters. We accidentally discovered that parent finches transfer some of their body burden of mercury to nestlings during feeding through secretion in the crop. These results suggest that, in mercury-exposed songbirds, pre-laying parental behaviors, combined with direct exposure of embryos to mercury, likely contribute to reduced reproductive success and should be considered in future studies. Further research is warranted in field settings, where parents are exposed to greater environmental challenges and subtle behavioral differences might have more serious consequences than were observed in captivity.

  14. Nematoda: Haliplectidae, Suborder Leptolaimina

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-09-13

    Sep 13, 1991 ... The Alexandria dune field lies between the Sundays River ... field may have originated in an area where the channel of an ... A: Anterior region of holotype male; B: Anterior region of female; C: External morphology of.

  15. Effects of Defaunation on Fermentation Characteristics and Methane Production by Rumen Microbes When Incubated with Starchy Feed Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Z. Qin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro experiment was conducted to examine the effects of defaunation (removal of protozoa on ruminal fermentation characteristics, CH4 production and degradation by rumen microbes when incubated with cereal grains (corn, wheat and rye. Sodium lauryl sulfate as a defaunation reagent was added into the culture solution at a concentration of 0.000375 g/ml, and incubated anaerobically for up to 12 h at 39°C. Following defaunation, live protozoa in the culture solution were rarely observed by microscopic examination. A difference in pH was found among grains regardless of defaunation at all incubation times (p<0.01 to 0.001. Defaunation significantly decreased pH at 12 h (p<0.05 when rumen fluid was incubated with grains. Ammonia-N concentration was increased by defaunation for all grains at 6 h (p<0.05 and 12 h (p<0.05 incubation times. Total VFA concentration was increased by defaunation at 6 h (p<0.05 and 12 h (p<0.01 for all grains. Meanwhile, defaunation decreased acetate and butyrate proportions at 6 h (p<0.05, p<0.01 and 12 h (p<0.01, p<0.001, but increased the propionate proportion at 3 h, 6 h and 12 h incubation (p<0.01 to 0.001 for all grains. Defaunation increased in vitro effective degradability of DM (p<0.05. Production of total gas and CO2 was decreased by defaunation for all grains at 1 h (p<0.05, p<0.05 and then increased at 6 h (p<0.05, p<0.05 and 12 h (p<0.05, p<0.05. CH4 production was higher from faunation than from defaunation at all incubation times (p<0.05.

  16. Pre-incubation of porcine semen reduces the incidence of polyspermy on embryos derived from low quality oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Francisco Brogni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The main cause of low efficiency of in vitro produced porcine embryos is the high polyspermic penetration rates at fertilization, which is aggravated in low quality oocytes. Experiment 1 evaluated the embryo development in high and low quality oocytes. Experiment 2 evaluated the embryo development and quality of low quality oocytes fertilized with sperm pre-incubated during 0h (control, 0.5h, 1h and 1.5h. Experiment 3 investigated fertilization and monospermic rates of the same groups of Experiment 2. Experiment 4 evaluated embryo development, cell density, fertilization and monospermic rates of high quality oocytes using semen pre incubated during the best time observed in the previous experiments. Cleavage and blastocyst rates were analyzed by chi-square test, and remaining data by ANOVA and Tukey test (P≤0.05. The cleavage (74.8 vs 51.7% and blastocyst (33.7 vs 9.8% rates were greater in oocytes of high versus low quality, with no differences in cell density. Fertilization rates (65.6 to 79.5% were not influenced by pre-incubation time. However, semen pre-incubation during 1.5h increased monospermic penetration (53.3% and cleavage rates (92.5% in low quality oocytes. Blastocyst rate was improved with 1.5h of semen pre incubation; however they were still lower than that observed with high quality control oocytes. Ultimately, pre-incubation did not influence fertilization, monospermic penetration, embryo development rates, nor cell density in oocytes of high quality. Low-quality porcine oocytes resulted in better rates of embryo development if in vitro fertilized with sperm pre-incubated for 1.5 hour.

  17. Unravelling the Biodiversity and Molecular Phylogeny of Needle Nematodes of the Genus Longidorus (Nematoda: Longidoridae) in Olive and a Description of Six New Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archidona-Yuste, Antonio; Navas-Cortés, Juan A; Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, Carolina; Palomares-Rius, Juan E; Castillo, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The genus Longidorus includes a remarkable group of invertebrate animals of the phylum Nematoda comprising polyphagous root-ectoparasites of numerous plants including several agricultural crops and trees. Damage is caused by direct feeding on root cells as well as by transmitting nepoviruses that cause disease on those crops. Thus, correct identification of Longidorus species is essential to establish appropriate control measures. We provide the first detailed information on the diversity and distribution of Longidorus species infesting wild and cultivated olive soils in a wide-region in southern Spain that included 159 locations from which 449 sampling sites were analyzed. The present study doubles the known biodiversity of Longidorus species identified in olives by including six new species (Longidorus indalus sp. nov., Longidorus macrodorus sp. nov., Longidorus onubensis sp. nov., Longidorus silvestris sp. nov., Longidorus vallensis sp. nov., and Longidorus wicuolea sp. nov.), two new records for wild and cultivate olives (L. alvegus and L. vineacola), and two additional new records for wild olive (L. intermedius and L. lusitanicus). We also found evidence of some geographic species associations to western (viz. L. alvegus, L. intermedius, L. lusitanicus, L. onubensis sp. nov., L. vineacola, L. vinearum, L. wicuolea sp. nov.) and eastern distributions (viz. L. indalus sp. nov.), while only L. magnus was detected in both areas. We developed a comparative study by considering morphological and morphometrical features together with molecular data from nuclear ribosomal RNA genes (D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S, ITS1, and partial 18S). Results of molecular and phylogenetic analyses confirmed the morphological hypotheses and allowed the delimitation and discrimination of six new species of the genus described herein and four known species. Phylogenetic analyses of Longidorus spp. based on three molecular markers resulted in a general consensus of these species

  18. Fibrinolytic Activity and Dose-Dependent Effect of Incubating Human Blood Clots in Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester: In Vitro Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abuzar Elnager

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE has been reported to possess time-dependent fibrinolytic activity by in vitro assay. This study is aimed at investigating fibrinolytic dose-dependent activity of CAPE using in vitro assays. Methods. Standardized human whole blood (WB clots were incubated in either blank controls or different concentrations of CAPE (3.75, 7.50, 15.00, 22.50, and 30.00 mM. After 3 hours, D-dimer (DD levels and WB clot weights were measured for each concentration. Thromboelastography (TEG parameters were recorded following CAPE incubation, and fibrin morphology was examined under a confocal microscope. Results. Overall, mean DD (μg/mL levels were significantly different across samples incubated with different CAPE concentrations, and the median pre- and postincubation WB clot weights (grams were significantly decreased for each CAPE concentration. Fibrin removal was observed microscopically and indicated dose-dependent effects. Based on the TEG test, the Ly30 fibrinolytic parameter was significantly different between samples incubated with two different CAPE concentrations (15.0 and 22.50 mM. The 50% effective dose (ED50 of CAPE (based on DD was 1.99 mg/mL. Conclusions. This study suggests that CAPE possesses fibrinolytic activity following in vitro incubation and that it has dose-dependent activities. Therefore, further investigation into CAPE as a potential alternative thrombolytic agent should be conducted.

  19. Serum thromboxane B2 (TXB2 Determination is Influenced by Sample Incubation Temperature in Healthy Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Jerin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of serum thromboxane B2 (TXB2 production by platelets is a specific test for assessment of platelet cyclooxygenase (COX-1 activity following administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of sample incubation at 37 °C for one hour on serum TXB2 concentration in comparison with incubation at room temperature. A total of 54 blood samples for serum TXB2 measurements were collected from six healthy beagle dogs into two separate serum tubes. While one group of tubes was incubated in a 37 °C water bath, the second group of tubes was left to coagulate at room temperature, both for one hour. Serum TXB2 concentrations were measured by ELISA. The mean concentration (± SD of serum TXB2 in the group of samples that were incubated at 37 °C was significantly (P 2 concentration in healthy beagle dogs and demonstrate that validated methods for assessment of COX-1 activity by measurement of serum TXB2 should be used in order to make results more reliable and comparable between different studies. The results of this study might be of great help in planning NSAID studies in dogs by providing the information that TXB2 generation by platelets is influenced profoundly by incubation temperature.

  20. Effect of prolonged incubation with copper on endothelium-dependent relaxation in rat isolated aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarugi, Alberto; Pitari, Giovanni Mario; Costa, Rosa; Ferrante, Margherita; Villari, Loredana; Amico-Roxas, Matilde; Godfraind, Théophile; Bianchi, Alfredo; Salomone, Salvatore

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the effects of prolonged exposure to copper (Cu2+) on vascular functioning of isolated rat aorta. Aortic rings were exposed to CuSO4 (3–24 h) in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium with or without 10% foetal bovine serum (FBS) and then challenged with vasoconstrictors or vasodilators in the absence of Cu2+. Exposure to 2 μM Cu2+ in the absence of FBS did not modify the response to phenylephrine (PE) or acetylcholine (ACh) in aortic rings incubated for 24 h. Identical exposure in the presence of FBS increased the contractile response to 1 μM PE by 30% (P<0.05) and impaired the relaxant response to 3 μM ACh or 1 μM A23187 (ACh, from 65.7±7.1 to 6.2±1.1%, n=8; A23187, from 74.6±8.2 to 12.0±0.8%, n=6; P<0.01 for both). Cu2+ exposure did not affect the relaxant response to NO-donors. Impairment of vasorelaxation appeared 3 h after incubation with 2 μM Cu2+ and required 12 h to attain a steady state. Vasorelaxation to ACh was partially restored by 1 mM tiron (intracellular scavenger of superoxide ions; maximum relaxation 34.2±6.4%, n=10, P<0.01 vs Cu2+ alone), whereas catalase, superoxide dismutase or cycloheximide were ineffective. Twenty-four hour-exposure to 2 μM Cu2+ did not affect endothelium integrity or eNOS expression, and increased the Cu content in arterial rings from 6.8±1.1 to 18.9±2.9 ng mg−1 wet weight, n=8; P<0.01. Our results show that, in the presence of FBS, prolonged exposure to submicromolar concentrations of Cu2+ impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in aortic rings, probably through an intracellular generation of superoxide ions. PMID:12163352

  1. Arsenic speciation in arsenic-rich Brazilian soils from gold mining sites under anaerobic incubation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mello, J. W. V.; Talbott, J.L.; Scott, J.; Roy, W.R.; Stucki, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Background. Arsenic speciation in environmental samples is essential for studying toxicity, mobility and bio-transformation of As in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Although the inorganic species As(III) and As(V) have been considered dominant in soils and sediments, organisms are able to metabolize inorganic forms of arsenic into organo-arsenic compounds. Arsenosugars and methylated As compounds can be found in terrestrial organisms, but they generally occur only as minor constituents. We investigated the dynamics of arsenic species under anaerobic conditions in soils surrounding gold mining areas from Minas Gerais State, Brazil to elucidate the arsenic biogeochemical cycle and water contamination mechanisms. Methods. Surface soil samples were collected at those sites, namely Paracatu Formation, Banded Iron Formation and Riacho dos Machados Sequence, and incubated in CaCl2 2.5 mmol L-1 suspensions under anaerobic conditions for 1, 28, 56 and 112 days. After that, suspensions were centrifuged and supernatants analyzed for soluble As species by IC-ICPMS and HPLC-ICPMS. Results. Easily exchangeable As was mainly arsenite, except when reducible manganese was present. Arsenate was mainly responsible for the increase in soluble arsenic due to the reductive dissolution of either iron or manganese in samples from the Paracatu Formation and Riacho dos Machados Sequence. On the other hand, organic species of As dominated in samples from the Banded Iron Formation during anaerobic incubation. Discussion. Results are contrary to the expectation that, in anaerobic environments, As release due to the reductive dissolution of Fe is followed by As(V) reduction to As(III). The occurrence of organo-arsenic species was also found to be significant to the dynamics of soluble arsenic, mainly in soils from the Banded Iron Formation (BIF), under our experimental conditions. Conclusions. In general, As(V) and organic As were the dominant species in solution, which is surprising

  2. A pan-Arctic synthesis of CH4 and CO2 production from anoxic soil incubations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treat, C.C.; Natali, Susan M.; Ernakovich, Jessica; Iverson, Colleen M.; Lupasco, Massimo; McGuire, A. David; Norby, Richard J.; Roy Chowdhury, Taniya; Richter, Andreas; Šantrůčková, Hana; Schädel, C.; Schuur, Edward A.G.; Sloan, Victoria L.; Turetsky, Merritt R.; Waldrop, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    Permafrost thaw can alter the soil environment through changes in soil moisture, frequently resulting in soil saturation, a shift to anaerobic decomposition, and changes in the plant community. These changes, along with thawing of previously frozen organic material, can alter the form and magnitude of greenhouse gas production from permafrost ecosystems. We synthesized existing methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) production measurements from anaerobic incubations of boreal and tundra soils from the geographic permafrost region to evaluate large-scale controls of anaerobic CO2 and CH4 production and compare the relative importance of landscape-level factors (e.g., vegetation type and landscape position), soil properties (e.g., pH, depth, and soil type), and soil environmental conditions (e.g., temperature and relative water table position). We found fivefold higher maximum CH4 production per gram soil carbon from organic soils than mineral soils. Maximum CH4 production from soils in the active layer (ground that thaws and refreezes annually) was nearly four times that of permafrost per gram soil carbon, and CH4 production per gram soil carbon was two times greater from sites without permafrost than sites with permafrost. Maximum CH4 and median anaerobic CO2 production decreased with depth, while CO2:CH4 production increased with depth. Maximum CH4 production was highest in soils with herbaceous vegetation and soils that were either consistently or periodically inundated. This synthesis identifies the need to consider biome, landscape position, and vascular/moss vegetation types when modeling CH4 production in permafrost ecosystems and suggests the need for longer-term anaerobic incubations to fully capture CH4 dynamics. Our results demonstrate that as climate warms in arctic and boreal regions, rates of anaerobic CO2 and CH4 production will increase, not only as a result of increased temperature, but also from shifts in vegetation and increased

  3. Larvas de simulídeos (Diptera, Simuliidae do centro oeste, sudeste e sul do Brasil, parasitadas por microsporídeos (Protozoa e mermitídeos (Nematoda Simulids larvae (Diptera, Simuliidae from middle western, southeastern and southern Brazil, with microsporids (Protozoa and mermithids (Nematoda parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ambrós Ginarte

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey of simulid larval parasites was carried out in different localities of the states of Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from February 1996 to May 1998. Prevalences for the microsporidian Polydispyrenia simulii Lutz & Splendore, 1908 were found in Morungaba and Leme, São Paulo, ranging from around 0.7 to 66.7%, depending mainly on the host simulid species. Microsporidiosis was registered in localities of São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. Parasitism by Isomermis sp. (Nematoda, Mermithidae was found in Simulium larvae from Serra do Japi, ranging from 0.8 to 45.8%, depending on the simulid species and the larval microhabitat in the stream, whether a cemented ramp in a lake outlet or the natural stream bed. Parasitism by mermithids was also found in ten localities. Mycoses caused by Coelomycidium sp. were for the first time recorded for larvae of Simulium (Chirostilbia pertinax Kollar, 1832.

  4. Characterization of incubation experiments and development of an enrichment culture capable of ammonium oxidation under iron-reducing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S.; Jaffé, P. R.

    2015-02-01

    Incubation experiments were conducted using soil samples from a forested riparian wetland where we have previously observed anaerobic ammonium oxidation coupled to iron reduction. Production of both nitrite and ferrous iron was measured repeatedly during incubations when the soil slurry was supplied with either ferrihydrite or goethite and ammonium chloride. Significant changes in the microbial community were observed after 180 days of incubation as well as in a continuous flow membrane reactor, using 16S rRNA gene PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, 454 pyrosequencing, and real-time quantitative PCR analysis. We be Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6), belonging to the Acidimicrobiaceae family, whose closest cultivated relative is Ferrimicrobium acidiphilum (with 92% identity) and Acidimicrobium ferrooxidans (with 90% identity), might play a key role in this anaerobic biological process that uses ferric iron as an electron acceptor while oxidizing ammonium to nitrite. After ammonium was oxidized to nitrite, nitrogen loss proceeded via denitrification and/or anammox.

  5. Evaluation of 100 brain examinations using a 3 Tesla MR-compatible incubator - safety, handling, and image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirin, Selma; Goericke, Sophia L.; Kinner, Sonja; Schweiger, Bernd; Huening, Britta M.; Stein, Anja; Felderhoff-Mueser, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have revealed the importance of brain imaging in term and preterm infants. The aim of this retrospective study was to review safety, handling, and image quality of MR brain imaging using a new 3 Tesla MR-compatible incubator. Between 02/2011 and 05/2012 100 brain MRIs (84 infants, mean gestational age 32.2 ± 4.7 weeks, mean postmenstrual age at imaging 40.6 ± 3.4 weeks) were performed using a 3 Tesla MR-compatible incubator with dedicated, compatible head coil. Seventeen examinations (13 infants, mean gestational age 35.1 ± 5.4 weeks, mean postmenstrual age at imaging 47.8 ± 7.4 weeks) with a standard head coil served as a control. Image analysis was performed by a neuroradiologist and a pediatric radiologist in consensus. All but two patients with known apnea were transferred to the MR unit and scanned without problems. Handling was easier and faster with the incubator; relevant motion artifacts (5.9 vs. 10.8 %) and the need for repetitive sedation (43.0 vs. 86.7 %) were reduced. Considering only images not impaired by motion artifacts, image quality (4.8 ± 0.4 vs. 4.3 ± 0.8, p = 0.047) and spatial resolution (4.7 ± 0.4 vs. 4.2 ± 0.6, p = 0.011) of T2-weighted images were scored significantly higher in patients imaged with the incubator. SNR increased significantly (171.6 ± 54.5 vs. 80.5 ± 19.8, p < 0.001) with the use of the incubator. Infants can benefit from the use of a 3 Tesla MR-compatible incubator because of its safety, easier, and faster handling (compared to standard imaging) and possibility to obtain high-quality MR images even in unstable patients. (orig.)

  6. Effect of irradiation ad incubation of palm oil empty fruit bunch medium on the Growth of rice mushroom (volvariella volvaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darmawi; Suwadji, E.

    1998-01-01

    Study on the effect of irradiation and time incubation of composted palm oil empty fruit bunch (EFB) were conducted in growth chamber in the plastic bag as growth medium. Treatments were consisted of sterilization of composted EFB growth medium by autoclave heating were conducted at 2.0 kg/cm 2 for 40 minutes and gamma irradiation at the dose of 0, 15, 30, and 45kGy. After sterilization, EFB medium were inoculated using mushroom seed of V. volvaceae. The time of incubation of EFB medium after inoculation was 2 and 4 weeks before mushroom harvesting. Growth chamber was maintained at 28-35 0 C room temperature and humidity > 80%. Parameters of the experiment were determined on mushroom analysis i.e. fat, protein, and content and weight of mushroom. analysis od EFB medium after incubation were determined i.e. total fiber and percentage of rendement. Results of the experiment showed that dose of 45 kGy effected on mushroom fat content 0.52% which was decreasing regards to the delay of incubation period. Irradiation treatment did not effect EFB fat content compared to non irradiated EFB (0.82%). Irradiation treatment and one.variety produced number of plaincreasing on mushroom protein content. Mushroom starch content was obtained on the dose of 15 kGy and 4 weeks of incubation period 3.09 and 3.13% respectively. The dose of 45 kGy and autoclave heating were decreasing total fiber of EFB medium 29.29 and 28.02% respectively. The dose of 45 kGy on EFB medium with 2 weeks of incubation period produced weight of mushroom 30.92 and 27.73 g/bag respectively. (author)

  7. Differential investment and costs during avian incubation determined by individual quality: an experimental study of the common eider (Somateria mollissima).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Sveinn Are; Erikstad, Kjell Einar; Johnsen, Vigdis; Bustnes, Jan Ove

    2003-03-07

    Individuals of different quality may have different investment strategies, shaping responses to experimental manipulations, thereby rendering the detection of such patterns difficult. However, previous clutch-size manipulation studies have infrequently incorporated individual differences in quality. To examine costs of incubation and reproductive investment in relation to changes in clutch size, we enlarged and reduced natural clutch sizes of four and five eggs by one egg early in the incubation period in female common eiders (Somateria mollissima), a sea duck with an anorectic incubation period. Females that had produced four eggs (lower quality) responded to clutch reductions by deserting the nest more frequently but did not increase incubation effort in response to clutch enlargement, at the cost of reduced hatch success of eggs. Among birds with an original clutch size of five (higher quality), reducing and enlarging clutch size reduced and increased relative body mass loss respectively without affecting hatch success. In common eiders many females abandon their own ducklings to the care of other females. Enlarging five-egg clutches led to increased brood care rate despite the higher effort spent incubating these clutches, indicating that the higher fitness value of a large brood is increasing adult brood investment. This study shows that the ability to respond to clutch-size manipulations depends on original clutch size, reflecting differences in female quality. Females of low quality were reluctant to increase investment at the cost of lower hatch success, whereas females of higher quality apparently have a larger capacity both to increase incubation effort and brood care investment.

  8. Transferases activity in blood plasma of chickens hatched from eggs irradiated during incubation by low dose gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraljevic, P.; Vilic, M.; Miljanic, S.; Simpraga, M.

    2005-01-01

    In our earlier studies chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy gamma rays before incubation showed a significantly higher growth than controls during the fattening period (1-42 days). The activity of aspartate-aminotransferase (AST), alanine-aminotransferase (ALT) and plasma glucose in the same chickens were also significantly higher. These results suggested that low-dose gamma-radiation stimulated certain metabolic processes in chickens hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of low-dose ionising radiation on AST and ALT activity in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from eggs irradiated during incubation. The eggs of heavy breeding chickens (Avian, line 34) were exposed to 0.15 Gy of gamma-radiation (6 0C o) on the seventh day of incubation, i.e. at the time when the organogenesis in chickens is completed. The control group of chickens hatched from non-irradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for both groups. After hatching, blood samples were taken from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20, 32 and 42. The activity of both enzymes was determined spectrophotometrically using Boehringer Mannheim GmbH optimised kits. On day 10, AST and ALT activity were significantly higher in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs, but it significantly dropped for both enzymes on day 20. Our results indicate that exposure of eggs to low-dose gamma-radiation on the seventh day of incubation affects AST and ALT activity in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. However, this effect is somewhat different from the effects of egg exposure to low-dose gamma radiation before incubation.(author)

  9. Who's Got the Bridge? - Towards Safe, Robust Autonomous Operations at NASA Langley's Autonomy Incubator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, B. Danette; Cross, Charles D.; Motter, Mark A.; Neilan, James H.; Qualls, Garry D.; Rothhaar, Paul M.; Tran, Loc; Trujillo, Anna C.; Crisp, Vicki K.

    2015-01-01

    NASA aeronautics research has made decades of contributions to aviation. Both aircraft and air traffic management (ATM) systems in use today contain NASA-developed and NASA sponsored technologies that improve safety and efficiency. Recent innovations in robotics and autonomy for automobiles and unmanned systems point to a future with increased personal mobility and access to transportation, including aviation. Automation and autonomous operations will transform the way we move people and goods. Achieving this mobility will require safe, robust, reliable operations for both the vehicle and the airspace and challenges to this inevitable future are being addressed now in government labs, universities, and industry. These challenges are the focus of NASA Langley Research Center's Autonomy Incubator whose R&D portfolio includes mission planning, trajectory and path planning, object detection and avoidance, object classification, sensor fusion, controls, machine learning, computer vision, human-machine teaming, geo-containment, open architecture design and development, as well as the test and evaluation environment that will be critical to prove system reliability and support certification. Safe autonomous operations will be enabled via onboard sensing and perception systems in both data-rich and data-deprived environments. Applied autonomy will enable safety, efficiency and unprecedented mobility as people and goods take to the skies tomorrow just as we do on the road today.

  10. Calcification process dynamics in coral primary polyps as observed using a calcein incubation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Ohno

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Calcification processes are largely unknown in scleractinian corals. In this study, live confocal imaging was used to elucidate the spatiotemporal dynamics of the calcification process in aposymbiotic primary polyps of the coral species Acropora digitifera. The fluorophore calcein was used as a calcium deposition marker and a visible indicator of extracellular fluid distribution at the tissue-skeleton interface (subcalicoblastic medium, SCM in primary polyp tissues. Under continuous incubation in calcein-containing seawater, initial crystallization and skeletal growth were visualized among the calicoblastic cells in live primary polyp tissues. Additionally, the distribution of calcein-stained SCM and contraction movements of the pockets of SCM were captured at intervals of a few minutes. Our experimental system provided several new insights into coral calcification, particularly as a first step in monitoring the relationship between cellular dynamics and calcification in vivo. Our study suggests that coral calcification initiates at intercellular spaces, a finding that may contribute to the general understanding of coral calcification processes.

  11. Incubator embedded cell culture imaging system (EmSight) based on Fourier ptychographic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinho; Henley, Beverley M; Kim, Charlene H; Lester, Henry A; Yang, Changhuei

    2016-08-01

    Multi-day tracking of cells in culture systems can provide valuable information in bioscience experiments. We report the development of a cell culture imaging system, named EmSight, which incorporates multiple compact Fourier ptychographic microscopes with a standard multiwell imaging plate. The system is housed in an incubator and presently incorporates six microscopes. By using the same low magnification objective lenses as the objective and the tube lens, the EmSight is configured as a 1:1 imaging system that, providing large field-of-view (FOV) imaging onto a low-cost CMOS imaging sensor. The EmSight improves the image resolution by capturing a series of images of the sample at varying illumination angles; the instrument reconstructs a higher-resolution image by using the iterative Fourier ptychographic algorithm. In addition to providing high-resolution brightfield and phase imaging, the EmSight is also capable of fluorescence imaging at the native resolution of the objectives. We characterized the system using a phase Siemens star target, and show four-fold improved coherent resolution (synthetic NA of 0.42) and a depth of field of 0.2 mm. To conduct live, long-term dopaminergic neuron imaging, we cultured ventral midbrain from mice driving eGFP from the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter. The EmSight system tracks movements of dopaminergic neurons over a 21 day period.

  12. Use of Stable Isotopes and Incubation Studies to Characterize Methane Production Mechanism in Northern Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanton, J. P.; Fields, D.; Hines, M. E.; Rooney-Varga, J.

    2003-12-01

    Arctic and boreal ecosystems are important since they occupy greater than 1/5 of the Earth's terrestrial surface, they are sensitive to subtle climate changes, and they have significant effects on the atmosphere. Methanogenesis is dominated by two major pathways, acetotrophic (i.e., acetoclastic) methanogenesis in which acetate is the immediate precursor of CH4 (and CO2), and H2/CO2 methanogenesis in which CH4 is a product of H2 oxidation coupled with CO2 reduction. Recent studies suggest that acetotrophic methanogenesis does not occur widely in the northern wetlands and acetate can accumulate to high levels (Duddleston et al., 2002; Hines et al., 2001a). Methanogenesis at these sites is dominated by the H2/CO2 pathway and the importance of acetate as a precursor of CH4 seems to decrease with decreasing temperature and increasing oligotrophy. We surveyed a transect across Alaska from Deadhorse to Anchorage and used stable isotope distributions of DIC, CH4 and H2O to discern the relative importance of differing methane production mechanisms. These results compared favorably to incubation studies. Vegetation type was found to be a strong indicator of methane production mechanism, with Carex indicating acetotrophic methaneogenesis and sphagnum being an indicator of a lack of acetate methaneogenesis. The effects of production pathway variation on the dD of methane will also be presented.

  13. Redox oscillation affecting mercury mobility from highly contaminated coastal sediments: a mesocosm incubation experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emili A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg mobility at the sediment-water interface was investigated during a laboratory incubation experiment on highly contaminated sediments (up to 23 μg g−1 of the Gulf of Trieste. Undisturbed sediment was collected in front of the Isonzo River mouth, which inflows Hg-rich suspended material originating from the Idrija (NW Slovenia mining district. Since hypoxic and anoxic conditions at the bottom are frequently observed, a redox oscillation was simulated in the laboratory at in situ temperature, using a dark flux chamber. Temporal variations of several parameters were monitored simultaneously: dissolved Hg and methylmercury (MeHg, O2, NH4+, NO3−+NO2−, PO43−, H2S, dissolved Fe and Mn, dissolved inorganic and organic carbon (DIC and DOC. Benthic fluxes of Hg and MeHg were higher under anoxic conditions while re-oxygenation caused concentrations of MeHg and Hg to rapidly drop, probably due to re-adsorption onto Fe/Mn oxyhydroxides and enhanced demethylation. Hence, during anoxic events, sediments of the Gulf of Trieste may be considered as an important source of dissolved Hg species for the water column. However, re-oxygenation of the bottom compartment mitigates Hg and MeHg release from the sediment, thus acting as a natural “defence” from possible interaction between the metal and the aquatic organisms.

  14. Egg turning behavior and incubation temperature in Forster’s terns in relation to mercury contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Gregory T.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Shaffer, Scott A.

    2018-01-01

    Egg turning behavior is an important determinant of egg hatchability, but it remains relatively understudied. Here, we examined egg turning rates and egg temperatures in Forster’s terns (Sterna forsteri). We used artificial eggs containing a data logger with a 3-D accelerometer, a magnetometer, and a temperature thermistor to monitor parental incubation behavior of 131 tern nests. Overall, adults turned their eggs an average (±SD) of 3.8 ± 0.8 turns h-1, which is nearly two times higher than that of other seabirds. Egg turning rates increased with nest initiation date. We also examined egg turning rates and egg temperatures in relation to egg mercury contamination. Mercury contamination has been shown to be associated with reduced egg hatchability, and we hypothesized that mercury may decrease egg hatchability via altered egg turning behavior by parents. Despite the high variability in egg turning rates among individuals, the rate of egg turning was not related to mercury concentrations in sibling eggs. These findings highlight the need for further study concerning the potential determinants of egg turning behavior.

  15. Transformation of trinitrotoluene to triaminotoluene by mixed cultures incubated under methanogenic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, P.; Chow, T.; Adrian, N.R.

    2000-04-01

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is an explosive widely used by the military. Although it is no longer manufactured in the US, large amounts of wastewater are generated annually from load, assembly, packing, and demilitarization operations. Granular-activated carbon adsorption is the standard technology for treating wastewater containing TNT and maintaining discharges within the limits established under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System. Studies evaluating biological treatment of pink water with an anaerobic fluidized-bed, granular-activated carbon bioreactor have been promising, but the fate of TNT is unknown. The authors investigated the anaerobic transformation of TNT by biofilm microorganisms obtained from a wastewater treatment plant receiving explosive manufacturing wastewater. The TNT was transformed to a mixture of 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene; 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene; 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene; and 2,6-diamino-4-nitrotoluene before culminating in the formation of triaminotoluene (TAT). Triaminotoluene was susceptible to further degradation under anaerobic conditions, but its fate was not determined. Methane formation was inhibited but resumed after the depletion of the diaminonitrotoluene isomers. These studies demonstrate near stoichiometric formation of TAT from TNT and the transformation of 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene to 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene and 2,6-diamino-4-nitrotoluene by a mixed culture incubated under methanogenic conditions. This evidence indicates TAT is also a likely end-product of TNT biodegradation in the anaerobic fluidized fed bioreactor.

  16. Mineralization of nitrogen from pelletized sewage sludge - a laboratory incubation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wattiez, Anne-Laure

    2000-01-01

    Nitrogen limits the productivity of most ecosystems, but can also cause environmental problems. With the increasing amount of sludge generated by better wastewater treatment, land application of pelletized sludge appears as a combined solution to waste disposal and plant nitrogen nutrition issues. Six types of sludge pellets/granules, containing different mixtures of sludge, ash and/or lime have been inoculated and incubated for 8 weeks at 20 deg C in the dark, to study N net mineralisation rates. Laboratory results showed no indication of general differences between sludge/ash and sludge/lime mixtures, with respect to N mineralisation and nitrification, but some differences between Umeaa pellets and GaevIe granules were discernible. The higher net N mineralisation rates in pellets appeared to be related to sludge properties. On the contrary pellets had a low level of nitrification, which might be explained by preliminary heat treatment of the sludge and the seemingly slow recolonization of nitrifiers. It is also believed that considerable amounts of N were lost, and that the major route for these losses was ammonia volatilisation. From an economical point of view, sludge pelletisation appears to be the most cost-effective means of disposal. It transforms sludge into a valuable, odourless and storable fertiliser or heat source. Some income could even be expected. The benefits obtained from an increased tree growth could justify forest fertilisation with pelletized sludge, but further research is needed to determine more precisely the possible growth increment and the consequences on the environment

  17. Mineralization of nitrogen from pelletized sewage sludge - a laboratory incubation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wattiez, Anne-Laure

    2000-07-01

    Nitrogen limits the productivity of most ecosystems, but can also cause environmental problems. With the increasing amount of sludge generated by better wastewater treatment, land application of pelletized sludge appears as a combined solution to waste disposal and plant nitrogen nutrition issues. Six types of sludge pellets/granules, containing different mixtures of sludge, ash and/or lime have been inoculated and incubated for 8 weeks at 20 deg C in the dark, to study N net mineralisation rates. Laboratory results showed no indication of general differences between sludge/ash and sludge/lime mixtures, with respect to N mineralisation and nitrification, but some differences between Umeaa pellets and GaevIe granules were discernible. The higher net N mineralisation rates in pellets appeared to be related to sludge properties. On the contrary pellets had a low level of nitrification, which might be explained by preliminary heat treatment of the sludge and the seemingly slow recolonization of nitrifiers. It is also believed that considerable amounts of N were lost, and that the major route for these losses was ammonia volatilisation. From an economical point of view, sludge pelletisation appears to be the most cost-effective means of disposal. It transforms sludge into a valuable, odourless and storable fertiliser or heat source. Some income could even be expected. The benefits obtained from an increased tree growth could justify forest fertilisation with pelletized sludge, but further research is needed to determine more precisely the possible growth increment and the consequences on the environment.

  18. Effect of wood ash application on soil solution chemistry of tropical acid soils: incubation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkana, J C Voundi; Demeyer, A; Verloo, M G

    2002-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of wood ash application on soil solution composition of three tropical acid soils. Calcium carbonate was used as a reference amendment. Amended soils and control were incubated for 60 days. To assess soluble nutrients, saturation extracts were analysed at 15 days intervals. Wood ash application affects the soil solution chemistry in two ways, as a liming agent and as a supplier of nutrients. As a liming agent, wood ash application induced increases in soil solution pH, Ca, Mg, inorganic C, SO4 and DOC. As a supplier of elements, the increase in the soil solution pH was partly due to ligand exchange between wood ash SO4 and OH- ions. Large increases in concentrations of inorganic C, SO4, Ca and Mg with wood ash relative to lime and especially increases in K reflected the supply of these elements by wood ash. Wood ash application could represent increased availability of nutrients for the plant. However, large concentrations of basic cations, SO4 and NO3 obtained with higher application rates could be a concern because of potential solute transport to surface waters and groundwater. Wood ash must be applied at reasonable rates to avoid any risk for the environment.

  19. Emission of Carbon Dioxide Influenced by Different Water Levels from Soil Incubated Organic Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M. B.; Puteh, A. B.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the influence of different organic residues and water levels on decomposition rate and carbon sequestration in soil. Organic residues (rice straw, rice root, cow dung, and poultry litter) including control were tested under moistened and flooding systems. An experiment was laid out as a complete randomized design at 25°C for 120 days. Higher CO2-C (265.45 mg) emission was observed in moistened condition than in flooding condition from 7 to 120 days. Among the organic residues, poultry litter produced the highest CO2-C emission. Poultry litter with soil mixture increased 121% cumulative CO2-C compared to control. On average, about 38% of added poultry litter C was mineralized to CO2-C. Maximum CO2-C was found in 7 days after incubation and thereafter CO2-C emission was decreased with the increase of time. Control produced the lowest CO2-C (158.23 mg). Poultry litter produced maximum cumulative CO2-C (349.91 mg). Maximum organic carbon was obtained in cow dung which followed by other organic residues. Organic residues along with flooding condition decreased cumulative CO2-C, k value and increased organic C in soil. Maximum k value was found in poultry litter and control. Incorpored rice straw increased organic carbon and decreased k value (0.003 g d−1) in soil. In conclusion, rice straw and poultry litter were suitable for improving soil carbon. PMID:24163626

  20. PATERNAL GENOTYPE INFLUENCES INCUBATION PERIOD, OFFSPRING SIZE, AND OFFSPRING SHAPE IN AN OVIPAROUS REPTILE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Mats; Gullberg, Annica; Shine, Richard; Madsen, Thomas; Tegelström, Håkan

    1996-06-01

    Theoretical models for the evolution of life-history traits assume a genetic basis for a significant proportion of the phenotypic variance observed in characteristics such as hatching date and offspring size. However, recent experimental work has shown that much of the phenotypic variance in hatchling reptiles is induced by nongenetic factors, such as maternal nutrition and thermoregulation, and the physical conditions experienced during embryogenesis. Thus, there is no unambiguous evidence for strictly genetic (intraspecific) influences on the phenotypes of hatchling reptiles. We report results from a technique that uses a genetic marker trait and DNA fingerprinting to determine paternity of offspring from multiply sired clutches of European sand lizards, Lacerta agilis. By focusing on paternal rather than maternal effects, we show that hatchling genotypes exert a direct influence on the duration of incubation, the size (mass, snout-vent length) and shape (relative tail length) of the hatchling, and subsequent growth rates of the lizard during the first 3 mo of life. Embryos with genes that code for a few days' delay in hatching are thereby larger when they hatch, having undergone further differentiation (and hence, have changed in bodily proportions), and are able to grow faster after hatching. Our data thus provide empirical support for a crucial but rarely tested assumption of life-history theory, and illuminate some of the proximate mechanisms that produce intraspecific variation in offspring phenotypes. © 1996 The Society for the Study of Evolution.