Benmarhnia, Tarik; Grenier, Patrick; Brand, Allan; Fournier, Michel; Deguen, Séverine; Smargiassi, Audrey
We propose a novel approach to examine vulnerability in the relationship between heat and years of life lost and apply to neighborhood social disparities in Montreal and Paris. We used historical data from the summers of 1990 through 2007 for Montreal and from 2004 through 2009 for Paris to estimate daily years of life lost social disparities (DYLLD), summarizing social inequalities across groups. We used Generalized Linear Models to separately estimate relative risks (RR) for DYLLD in association with daily mean temperatures in both cities. We used 30 climate scenarios of daily mean temperature to estimate future temperature distributions (2021-2050). We performed random effect meta-analyses to assess the impact of climate change by climate scenario for each city and compared the impact of climate change for the two cities using a meta-regression analysis. We show that an increase in ambient temperature leads to an increase in social disparities in daily years of life lost. The impact of climate change on DYLLD attributable to temperature was of 2.06 (95% CI: 1.90, 2.25) in Montreal and 1.77 (95% CI: 1.61, 1.94) in Paris. The city explained a difference of 0.31 (95% CI: 0.14, 0.49) on the impact of climate change. We propose a new analytical approach for estimating vulnerability in the relationship between heat and health. Our results suggest that in Paris and Montreal, health disparities related to heat impacts exist today and will increase in the future.
Cornwell, Erin York; Behler, Rachel L
Theories of urbanism suggest that the urban context erodes individuals' strong social ties with friends and family. Recent research has narrowed focus to the neighborhood context, emphasizing how localized structural disadvantage affects community-level cohesion and social capital. In this paper, we argue that neighborhood context also shapes social ties with friends and family- particularly for community-dwelling seniors. We hypothesize that neighborhood disadvantage, residential instability, and disorder restrict residents' abilities to cultivate close relationships with neighbors and non-neighbor friends and family. Using data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), we find that older adults who live in disadvantaged neighborhoods have smaller social networks. Neighborhood disadvantage is also associated with less close network ties and less frequent interaction - but only among men. Furthermore, residents of disordered neighborhoods have smaller networks and weaker ties. We urge scholars to pay greater attention to how neighborhood context contributes to disparities in network-based access to resources.
Mohnen, S.M.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Völker, B.G.M.; Flap, H.D.
Neighborhood social capital is increasingly considered to be an important determinant of an individual’s health. Using data from the Netherlands we investigate the influence of neighborhood social capital on an individual’s self-reported health, while accounting for other conditions of health on
Mohnen, S.M.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Völker, B.; Flap, H.
Neighborhood social capital is increasingly considered to be an important determinant of an individual's health. Using data from the Netherlands we investigate the influence of neighborhood social capital on an individual's self-reported health, while accounting for other conditions of health on
Alaimo, Katherine; Reischl, Thomas M.; Allen, Julie Ober
This study examined associations between participation in community gardening/beautification projects and neighborhood meetings with perceptions of social capital at both the individual and neighborhood levels. Data were analyzed from a cross-sectional stratified random telephone survey conducted in Flint, Michigan (N=1916). Hierarchical linear…
Kim, Joongbaeck; Ross, Catherine E.
Is neighborhood-specific social support the most effective type of social support for buffering the effect of neighborhood disorder on depression? Matching theory suggests that it is. The authors extend the research on neighborhood disorder and adult depression by showing that individuals who have higher levels of both general and…
Garthe, Rachel C; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Gregory, Joshua; E Schoeny, Michael
The link between relationship violence and aspects of neighborhood concentrated disadvantage (e.g., percent of unemployed adults, percent of families below poverty level), has been established. However, the literature examining neighborhood social processes, including informal social control and social cohesion, in relation to adolescent dating violence has shown mixed results with a limited theoretical foundation and methodology. Using a social disorganization theoretical framework, this study examined the mediating role of these neighborhood social processes in the relation between concentrated disadvantage and adolescent dating violence within an urban context. Participants included 605 adult residents in 30 census tracts and 203 adolescents from neighborhoods on the West and South sides of Chicago. Neighborhood-level concentrated disadvantage was measured via Census data, adult residents reported on neighborhood social processes, and youth reported on dating violence. Informal social control was negatively associated with dating violence, and social cohesion was positively associated with dating violence. A multilevel mediation model showed that concentrated disadvantage was related to higher levels of dating violence via lower levels of informal social control. These results extend social disorganization theory to dating violence within an urban context, while also highlighting the important role of neighborhood processes on relationship violence. Implications for research and intervention programming are discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.
Socia, Kelly M.; Stamatel, Janet P.
This study uses geospatial and regression analyses to examine the relationships among social disorganization, collective efficacy, social control, residence restrictions, spatial autocorrelation, and the neighborhood distribution of registered sex offenders (RSOs) in Chicago. RSOs were concentrated in neighborhoods that had higher levels of social…
Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the influence of parental socialization styles (authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent and neglectful, and perceived neighborhood risk on three indicators of conduct problems in adolescence (school misconduct, delinquency, and drug use. The sample consists of 1,017 adolescents, aged between 12 and 17. Results from four multivariate factorial designs yielded only main effects of parenting styles and neighborhood risk. Adolescents from authoritative and indulgent families showed lower conduct problems than those with authoritarian and neglectful parents. Also, higher levels of perceived neighborhood risk were significantly associated with more conduct problems. There were no significant interaction effects between parenting styles and perceived neighborhood risk, but results yielded a significant interaction effect between neighborhood risk and sex. Overall, results do not support the idea that parenting styles are more effective under certain neighborhood risk conditions, and suggest that neighbourhood risk influences adolescents’ psychosocial adjustment beyond the influence of parental socialization styles.
Matthew J. Hanka
Full Text Available Sean Safford’s 2009 book Why the Garden Club Couldn’t Save Youngstown introduces a revolutionary idea that much of a community’s economic resilience is tied to the social capital that exists within it. Recent research suggests that social capital not only benefits those who develop it, but it can serve as a source of economic development in the communities in which it arises. Past quantitative research on the economic benefit of social capital has only examined the city or higher levels of aggregation. This study measures social capital in three diverse socioeconomic neighborhoods to better understand how social capital can serve as a tool for economic development. An ordered probit regression model was developed to examine how individual and neighborhood levels of social capital benefit households within these communities. Moreover, this study addresses how differences in social capital across neighborhoods are explained by both individual and neighborhood characteristics.
Swaroop, Sapna; Morenoff, Jeffrey D.
This study explores how neighborhood context influences participation in local social organization through a multilevel-spatial analysis of residents in Chicago neighborhoods. We construct a typology of community participation based on two dimensions: instrumental vs. expressive motivations for participation and formal vs. informal modes of…
Bagley, Erika J; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E; Saini, Ekjyot K; Philbrook, Lauren E; El-Sheikh, Mona
A growing body of work indicates that experiences of neighborhood disadvantage place children at risk for poor sleep. This study aimed to examine how both neighborhood economic deprivation (a measure of poverty) and social fragmentation (an index of instability) are associated with objective measures of the length and quality of children's sleep. Participants were 210 children (54.3% boys) living predominantly in small towns and semirural communities in Alabama. On average children were 11.3 years old (SD = .63); 66.7% of the children were European American and 33.3% were African American. The sample was socioeconomically diverse with 67.9% of the participants living at or below the poverty line and 32.1% from lower-middle-class or middle-class families. Indicators of neighborhood characteristics were derived from the 2012 American Community Survey and composited to create two variables representing neighborhood economic deprivation and social fragmentation. Child sleep period, actual sleep minutes, and efficiency were examined using actigraphy. Higher levels of neighborhood economic deprivation were associated with fewer sleep minutes and poorer sleep efficiency. More neighborhood social fragmentation was also linked with poorer sleep efficiency. Analyses controlled for demographic characteristics, child health, and family socioeconomic status. Findings indicate that living in economically and socially disadvantaged neighborhoods predicts risk for shorter and lower-quality sleep in children. Examination of community context in addition to family and individual characteristics may provide a more comprehensive understanding of the factors shaping child sleep.
Enrique Gracia; Mª Castillo Fuentes; Fernando García
This article aims to analyze the influence of parental socialization styles (authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent and neglectful), and perceived neighborhood risk on three indicators of conduct problems in adolescence (school misconduct, delinquency, and drug use). The sample consists of 1,017 adolescents, aged between 12 and 17. Results from four multivariate factorial designs yielded only main effects of parenting styles and neighborhood risk. Adolescents from authoritative and indulgent...
Ruiz, Linda D; McMahon, Susan D; Jason, Leonard A
In recent years, the quality of education available to children has become increasingly dependent on the social and economic demographics of neighborhoods in which the children live. This study assesses the role of community violence in explaining the relation between socio-economic status (SES) and academic outcomes and the potential of positive school climate to promote academic achievement. With a sample of 297 Chicago public elementary schools, we examine community-level and school-level data and use Geographic Information Systems (GIS) mapping to illustrate how school academic achievement coincides with neighborhood economics and crime statistics. Results support the hypothesized mediation, such that lower SES was associated with lower academic achievement, and violent crime partially mediated this relation. School climate was positively associated with academic achievement, and student safety significantly moderated the relation between SES and academic achievement. Implications for theory, research, and intervention are discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.
Kullberg, Agneta; Timpka, Toomas; Svensson, Tommy; Karlsson, Nadine; Lindqvist, Kent
The authors used a mixed methods approach to examine if the reputation of a housing area has bearing on residential wellbeing and social trust in three pairs of socioeconomically contrasting neighborhoods in a Swedish urban municipality. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations between area reputation and…
Tendulkar, Shalini A.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Dunn, Erin C.; Buka, Stephen; Subramanian, S. V.
Background Social support is frequently linked to positive parenting behavior. Similarly, studies increasingly show a link between neighborhood residential environment and positive parenting behavior. However, less is known about how the residential environment influences parental social support. To address this gap, we examine the relationship between neighborhood concentrated disadvantage and collective efficacy and the level and change in parental caregiver perceptions of non-familial social support. Methodology/Principal Findings The data for this study came from three data sources, the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) Study's Longitudinal Cohort Survey of caregivers and their offspring, a Community Survey of adult residents in these same neighborhoods and the 1990 Census. Social support is measured at Wave 1 and Wave 3 and neighborhood characteristics are measured at Wave 1. Multilevel linear regression models are fit. The results show that neighborhood collective efficacy is a significant (ß = .04; SE = .02; p = .03), predictor of the positive change in perceived social support over a 7 year period, however, not of the level of social support, adjusting for key compositional variables and neighborhood concentrated disadvantage. In contrast concentrated neighborhood disadvantage is not a significant predictor of either the level or change in social support. Conclusion Our finding suggests that neighborhood collective efficacy may be important for inducing the perception of support from friends in parental caregivers over time. PMID:22493683
Tendulkar, Shalini A; Koenen, Karestan C; Dunn, Erin C; Buka, Stephen; Subramanian, S V
Social support is frequently linked to positive parenting behavior. Similarly, studies increasingly show a link between neighborhood residential environment and positive parenting behavior. However, less is known about how the residential environment influences parental social support. To address this gap, we examine the relationship between neighborhood concentrated disadvantage and collective efficacy and the level and change in parental caregiver perceptions of non-familial social support. The data for this study came from three data sources, the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) Study's Longitudinal Cohort Survey of caregivers and their offspring, a Community Survey of adult residents in these same neighborhoods and the 1990 Census. Social support is measured at Wave 1 and Wave 3 and neighborhood characteristics are measured at Wave 1. Multilevel linear regression models are fit. The results show that neighborhood collective efficacy is a significant (ß = .04; SE = .02; p = .03), predictor of the positive change in perceived social support over a 7 year period, however, not of the level of social support, adjusting for key compositional variables and neighborhood concentrated disadvantage. In contrast concentrated neighborhood disadvantage is not a significant predictor of either the level or change in social support. Our finding suggests that neighborhood collective efficacy may be important for inducing the perception of support from friends in parental caregivers over time.
Shalini A Tendulkar
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Social support is frequently linked to positive parenting behavior. Similarly, studies increasingly show a link between neighborhood residential environment and positive parenting behavior. However, less is known about how the residential environment influences parental social support. To address this gap, we examine the relationship between neighborhood concentrated disadvantage and collective efficacy and the level and change in parental caregiver perceptions of non-familial social support. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The data for this study came from three data sources, the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN Study's Longitudinal Cohort Survey of caregivers and their offspring, a Community Survey of adult residents in these same neighborhoods and the 1990 Census. Social support is measured at Wave 1 and Wave 3 and neighborhood characteristics are measured at Wave 1. Multilevel linear regression models are fit. The results show that neighborhood collective efficacy is a significant (ß = .04; SE = .02; p = .03, predictor of the positive change in perceived social support over a 7 year period, however, not of the level of social support, adjusting for key compositional variables and neighborhood concentrated disadvantage. In contrast concentrated neighborhood disadvantage is not a significant predictor of either the level or change in social support. CONCLUSION: Our finding suggests that neighborhood collective efficacy may be important for inducing the perception of support from friends in parental caregivers over time.
Foster, Kirk A.; Hipp, J. Aaron
Much of the current neighborhood-based research uses variables aggregated on administrative boundaries such as zip codes, census tracts, and block groups. However, other methods using current technological advances in geographic sciences may broaden our ability to explore the spatial concentration of neighborhood factors affecting individuals and…
Ma, Yongjuan; Lu, Jun; Shi, Lei
Explaining the evolution of cooperative behavior is one of the most important and interesting problems in a myriad of disciplines, such as evolutionary biology, mathematics, statistical physics, social science and economics Up to now, there have been a great number of works aiming to this issue with the help of evolutionary game theory. However, vast majority of existing literatures simply assume that the interaction neighborhood and replacement neighborhood are symmetric, which seems inconsistent with real-world cases. In this paper, we consider the asymmetrical neighborhood: player of type A, whose factor is controlled by a parameter τ, has four interaction neighbors and four replacement neighbors, while player of type B, whose factor is controlled by a parameter 1 - τ, possess eight interaction neighbors and four replacement neighbors. By means of numerous Monte Carlo simulations, we found that middle τ can make the cooperation reach the highest level While for this finding, its robustness can be further validated in more games.
Stevens, Robin; Gilliard-Matthews, Stacia; Dunaev, Jamie; Woods, Marcus; Brawner, Bridgette M
This study examines the role of social media in the lives of youth living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Feminist Standpoint theory, which privileges the voices of marginalized communities in understanding social phenomena, suggests that youth at the margins have specific knowledge that helps us understand social media more broadly. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 30 females and 30 males aged 13 to 24 about their social worlds and neighborhoods, both on- and offline. The findings reveal a dynamic and somewhat concerning interplay between the geographic neighborhood and the digital neighborhood, whereby negative social interactions in the geographic neighborhood are reproduced and amplified on social media.
Valéria Cristina de Oliveira
Full Text Available This article aims to investigate the determinants of victimization in the neighborhoods of three Brazilian capitals, with emphasis on the involvement of mechanisms that favor the development of various forms of social control in interaction. Social control was treated, therefore, as an intervening variable to clarify the relationship between structural characteristics and crime, an association appointed by the Social Disorganization Theory in the mid-twentieth century. For the analysis we used secondary data from victimization surveys organized by the Center for the Study of Crime and Public Safety, Federal University of Minas Gerais (Crisp / UFMG in partnership with other research centers in the country between 2005/2006, resulting in the possibility for comparison of databases related to vic- timization in Belo Horizonte, Curitiba and Rio de Janeiro. Data were analyzed using hierarchical models suitable for estimating the chance of victimization according to the characteristics of the neighborhoods in these cities
Neutens, Tijs; Vyncke, Veerle; De Winter, Dieter; Willems, Sara
Little research has focused on the spatial distribution of social capital, despite social capital's rising popularity in health research and policy. This study examines the neighborhood differences in social capital and the determinants that explain these differences. Five components of neighborhood social capital are identified by means of factor and reliability analyses using data collected in the cross-sectional SWING study from 762 inhabitants in 42 neighbourhoods in the city of Ghent (Belgium). Neighborhood differences in social capital are explored using hierarchical linear models with cross-level interactions. Significant neighborhood differences are found for social cohesion, informal social control and social support, but not for social leverage and generalized trust. Our findings suggest that neighborhood social capital depends on both characteristics of individuals living in the neighborhood (attachment to neighborhood) and characteristics of the neighborhood itself (deprivation and residential turnover). Our analysis further shows that neighborhood deprivation reinforces the negative effect of declining neighborhood attachment on social cohesion and informal social control. This study foregrounds the importance of contextual effects in encouraging neighborhood social capital. Given the importance of neighborhood-level characteristics, it can be anticipated social capital promoting initiatives are likely to be more effective when tailored to specific areas. Second, our analyses show that not all forms of social capital are influenced by contextual factors to the same extent, implying that changes in neighborhood characteristics are conducive to, say, trust while leaving social support unaffected. Finally, our analysis has demonstrated that complex interrelationships between individual- and neighborhood-level variables exist, which are often overlooked in current work.
Carpiano, Richard M
Drawing upon Bourdieu's [1986. The forms of capital. In: Richardson, J.G. (Ed.), Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education. Greenwood, New York, pp. 241-258.] social capital theory, I test a conceptual model of neighborhood conditions and social capital - considering relationships between neighborhood social capital forms (social support, social leverage, informal social control, and neighborhood organization participation) and adult health behaviors (smoking, binge drinking) and perceived health, as well as interactions between neighborhood social capital and individuals' access to that social capital. Analyzing Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey data linked with tract level census data, results suggest that specific social capital forms were directly associated with both positive and negative health outcomes. Additionally, residents' neighborhood attachment moderated relationships between various social capital forms and health. Future studies should consider social capital resources and the role of differential access to such resources for promoting or compromising health.
Hill, J.M.; Jobling, R.; Pollet, T.V.; Nettle, D.
Previous self-report survey research has demonstrated significant variation in social trust and neighborhood social ties between two neighborhoods of contrasting socioeconomic fortunes within the same English city. Residents in a deprived neighborhood reported that they trusted their neighbors less
Sanhueza, Guillermo E; Delva, Jorge; Andrade, Fernando H; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Bares, Cristina; Castillo, Marcela
The study of neighborhood characteristics and their effects on individuals has become an area of increasing attention by scholars from various disciplines in developed countries. Although there are various methods to study neighborhoods and their impact on human populations, one of the most used is the Systematic Social Observation -Observación Sistemática de Vecindarios (OSV), in Spanish-because it allows the collection of information about various features of the physical, social, environmental and economic characteristics of neighborhoods. The purpose of this article is to (i) briefly present some research on neighborhood effects influential in the U.S., ii) describe how they Systematic Social Observation was designed and implemented in the city of Santiago, Chile, iii) discuss some facilitators and obstacles of the implementation process and, finally iv) list possible contributions and limitations this approach would offer the profession of social work in Chile.
Byrnes, Hilary F.; Miller, Brenda A.; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Cupp, Pamela K.; Atwood, Katharine A.; Fongkaew, Warunee; Rosati, Michael J.; Chookhare, Warunee
Substance use and delinquency in Thai adolescents are growing public health concerns. Research has linked neighborhood characteristics to these outcomes, with explanations focused on neighborhood disorganization, social cohesion, and social control. This study examines the independent associations of these neighborhood constructs with Thai…
Byrnes, Hilary F.; Miller, Brenda A.
Neighborhood characteristics have been linked to healthy behavior, including effective parenting behaviors. This may be partially explained through the neighborhood's relation to parents' access to social support from friends and family. The current study examined associations of neighborhood characteristics with parenting behaviors indirectly…
Does it matter for my health in which neighborhood I live? The fact is, health is determined not only by individual characteristics but also by the neighborhood in which someone lives. This thesis shows that health clusters in Dutch neighborhoods and that this is not only a composition effect (that
John R Hipp
Full Text Available The local neighborhood forms an integral part of our lives. It provides the context through which social networks are nurtured and the foundation from which a sense of attachment and cohesion with fellow residents can be established. Whereas much of the previous research has examined the role of social and demographic characteristic in relation to the level of neighboring and cohesion, this paper explores whether particular environmental features in the neighborhood affect social porosity. We define social porosity as the degree to which social ties flow over the surface of a neighborhood. The focus of our paper is to examine the extent to which a neighborhood's environmental features impede the level of social porosity present among residents. To do this, we integrate data from the census, topographic databases and a 2010 survey of 4,351 residents from 146 neighborhoods in Australia. The study introduces the concepts of wedges and social holes. The presence of two sources of wedges is measured: rivers and highways. The presence of two sources of social holes is measured: parks and industrial areas. Borrowing from the geography literature, several measures are constructed to capture how these features collectively carve up the physical environment of neighborhoods. We then consider how this influences residents' neighboring behavior, their level of attachment to the neighborhood and their sense of neighborhood cohesion. We find that the distance of a neighborhood to one form of social hole-industrial areas-has a particularly strong negative effect on all three dependent variables. The presence of the other form of social hole-parks-has a weaker negative effect. Neighborhood wedges also impact social interaction. Both the length of a river and the number of highway fragments in a neighborhood has a consistent negative effect on neighboring, attachment and cohesion.
Weijs - Perrée, M.; van den Berg, P.E.W.; Arentze, T.A.; Kemperman, A.D.A.M.
Feeling socially integrated and being satisfied with one’s social life are important indicators for happiness and well-being of individuals and for the strength of local communities. The effect of the living environment on social networks and the importance of local social contacts in the
McCoy, Dana Charles; Roy, Amanda L; Sirkman, Gabriel M
Past research has found negative relationships between neighborhood structural disadvantage and students' academic outcomes. Comparatively little work has evaluated the associations between characteristics of neighborhoods and schools themselves. This study explored the longitudinal, reciprocal relationships between neighborhood crime and school-level academic achievement within 500 urban schools. Results revealed that higher neighborhood crime (and particularly violent crime) predicted decreases in school academic achievement across time. School climate emerged as one possible mechanism within this relationship, with higher neighborhood crime predicting decreases in socioemotional learning and safety, but not academic rigor. All three dimensions of school climate were predictive of changes in academic achievement. Although this research supports a primarily unidirectional hypothesis of neighborhoods' impacts on embedded settings, additional work is needed to understand these relationships using additional conceptualizations of neighborhood climate.
Molnar, Beth E; Goerge, Robert M; Gilsanz, Paola; Hill, Andrea; Subramanian, S V; Holton, John K; Duncan, Dustin T; Beatriz, Elizabeth D; Beardslee, William R
Child maltreatment is a preventable public health problem. Research has demonstrated that neighborhood structural factors (e.g. poverty, crime) can influence the proportion of a neighborhood's children who are victims of maltreatment. A newer strategy is the identification of potentially modifiable social processes at the neighborhood level that can also influence maltreatment. Toward this end, this study examines neighborhood-level data (maltreatment cases substantiated by Illinois' child protection agency, 1995-2005, social processes measured by the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, U.S. Census data, proportions of neighborhoods on public assistance, and crime data) that were linked across clusters of contiguous, relatively homogenous Chicago, IL census tracts with respect to racial/ethnic and socioeconomic composition. Our analysis-an ecological-level, repeated cross-sectional design utilizing random-intercept logit models-with a sensitivity analysis using spatial models to control for spatial autocorrelation-revealed consistent associations between neighborhood social processes and maltreatment. Neighborhoods higher in collective efficacy, intergenerational closure, and social networks, and lower in disorder had lower proportions of neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse substantiated cases, controlling for differences in structural factors. Higher collective efficacy and social network size also predicted a lower proportion of substance-exposed infants. This research indicates that strategies to mobilize neighborhood-level protective factors may decrease child maltreatment more effectively than individual and family-focused efforts alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lenzi, Michela; Vieno, Alessio; Perkins, Douglas D; Pastore, Massimiliano; Santinello, Massimo; Mazzardis, Sonia
The present study aims to develop an integrative model that links neighborhood behavioral opportunities and social resources (neighborhood cohesion, neighborhood friendship and neighborhood attachment) to prosocial (sharing, helping, empathic) behavior in early adolescence, taking into account the potential mediating role of perceived support of friends. Path analysis was used to test the proposed theoretical model in a sample of 1,145 Italian early adolescents (6th through 8th graders). More perceived opportunities and social resources in the neighborhood are related to higher levels of adolescent prosocial behavior, and this relationship is partially mediated by perceived social support from friends. The results offer promising implications for future research and intervention programs that aim to modify social systems to improve child and adolescent social competencies.
This article analyzes the relationship between social capital and neighborhood-oriented forms of participation within the context of an innovative Dutch neighborhood improvement program. On the basis of a survey among 307 residents, the author studies the link between three dimensions of social
Kuipers, M.A.; van Poppel, M.N.M.; van den Brink, W.; Wingen, M.; Kunst, A.E.
Background: Evidence on associations of alcohol use with neighborhood disorder and social cohesion is limited. The aim of this study was to further investigate these associations. Methods: Individual data of 14,258 Dutch adults, living in 1546 neighborhoods across the Netherlands, were obtained from
Hong, Seunghye; Zhang, Wei; Walton, Emily
This study examines the associations of neighborhood ethnic density and poverty with social cohesion and self-rated mental health among Asian Americans and Latinos. Path analysis is employed to analyze data from the 2002–2003 National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) and the 2000 U.S. Census (N=2095 Asian Americans living in N=259 neighborhoods; N=2554 Latinos living in N=317 neighborhoods). Findings reveal that neighborhood ethnic density relates to poor mental health in both groups. Social cohesion partially mediates that structural relationship, but is positively related to ethnic density among Latinos and negatively related to ethnic density among Asian Americans. Although higher neighborhood poverty is negatively associated with mental health for both groups, the relationship does not hold in the path models after accounting for social cohesion and covariates. Furthermore, social cohesion fully mediates the association between neighborhood poverty and mental health among Latinos. This study highlights the necessity of reconceptualizing existing theories of social relationships to reflect complex and nuanced mechanisms linking neighborhood structure and mental health for diverse racial and ethnic groups. PMID:24769491
Butcher, Fredrick; Galanek, Joseph D; Kretschmar, Jeff M; Flannery, Daniel J
Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to violence (ETV) is a serious concern across the north-south socioeconomic divide. While studies have found that social support is a protective factor for youth exposed to violence and trauma, little is known about the impact of trauma symptoms on forming and maintaining social relationships which are key to accessing a vital social resource that fosters resilience in youth experiencing trauma symptomatology. Building on previous models that examine the impact of neighborhoods on exposure to violence and trauma, the current study examines the impact of neighborhood disorganization on ETV among youth and ETV's effects on trauma symptoms and social relationships. Data were collected on 2242 juvenile justice-involved youth with behavioral health issues in 11 urban and rural counties in the Midwestern United States. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), our data demonstrated that living in highly disorganized neighborhoods was associated with higher levels of ETV and that ETV was positively associated with trauma symptoms. Mediational analysis showed that trauma symptoms strongly mediated the effect of ETV on social relationships. Freely estimating structural paths by gender revealed that hypothesized associations between these variables were stronger for females than males. Findings here highlight the need to provide trauma-informed care to help youth to build and maintain social relationships. Identification and treatment of trauma symptoms that is culturally informed is a critical first step in ensuring that identified protective factors in local contexts, such as social relations and social support, have opportunities to minimize the impact of ETV among youth across northern and southern nations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vera L N Schölmerich
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Perinatal morbidity rates are relatively high in the Netherlands, and significant inequalities in perinatal morbidity and mortality can be found across neighborhoods. In socioeconomically deprived areas, 'Western' women are particularly at risk for adverse birth outcomes. Almost all studies to date have explained the disparities in terms of individual determinants of birth outcomes. This study examines the influence of neighborhood contextual characteristics on birth weight (adjusted for gestational age and preterm birth. We focused on the influence of neighborhood social capital--measured as informal socializing and social connections between neighbors--as well as ethnic (minority density. METHODS: Data on birth weight and prematurity were obtained from the Perinatal Registration Netherlands 2000-2008 dataset, containing 97% of all pregnancies. Neighborhood-level measurements were obtained from three different sources, comprising both survey and registration data. We included 3.422 neighborhoods and 1.527.565 pregnancies for the birth weight analysis and 1.549.285 pregnancies for the premature birth analysis. Linear and logistic multilevel regression was performed to assess the associations of individual and neighborhood level variables with birth weight and preterm birth. RESULTS: We found modest but significant neighborhood effects on birth weight and preterm births. The effect of ethnic (minority density was stronger than that of neighborhood social capital. Moreover, ethnic (minority density was associated with higher birth weight for infants of non-Western ethnic minority women compared to Western women (15 grams; 95% CI: 12,4/17,5 as well as reduced risk for prematurity (OR 0.97; CI 0,95/0,99. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that neighborhood contexts are associated with birth weight and preterm birth in the Netherlands. Moreover, ethnic (minority density seems to be a protective factor for non-Western ethnic minority women
Schölmerich, Vera L N; Erdem, Özcan; Borsboom, Gerard; Ghorashi, Halleh; Groenewegen, Peter; Steegers, Eric A P; Kawachi, Ichiro; Denktaş, Semiha
Perinatal morbidity rates are relatively high in the Netherlands, and significant inequalities in perinatal morbidity and mortality can be found across neighborhoods. In socioeconomically deprived areas, 'Western' women are particularly at risk for adverse birth outcomes. Almost all studies to date have explained the disparities in terms of individual determinants of birth outcomes. This study examines the influence of neighborhood contextual characteristics on birth weight (adjusted for gestational age) and preterm birth. We focused on the influence of neighborhood social capital--measured as informal socializing and social connections between neighbors--as well as ethnic (minority) density. Data on birth weight and prematurity were obtained from the Perinatal Registration Netherlands 2000-2008 dataset, containing 97% of all pregnancies. Neighborhood-level measurements were obtained from three different sources, comprising both survey and registration data. We included 3.422 neighborhoods and 1.527.565 pregnancies for the birth weight analysis and 1.549.285 pregnancies for the premature birth analysis. Linear and logistic multilevel regression was performed to assess the associations of individual and neighborhood level variables with birth weight and preterm birth. We found modest but significant neighborhood effects on birth weight and preterm births. The effect of ethnic (minority) density was stronger than that of neighborhood social capital. Moreover, ethnic (minority) density was associated with higher birth weight for infants of non-Western ethnic minority women compared to Western women (15 grams; 95% CI: 12,4/17,5) as well as reduced risk for prematurity (OR 0.97; CI 0,95/0,99). Our results indicate that neighborhood contexts are associated with birth weight and preterm birth in the Netherlands. Moreover, ethnic (minority) density seems to be a protective factor for non-Western ethnic minority women, but not for Western women. This helps explain the
Schölmerich, Vera L. N.; Erdem, Özcan; Borsboom, Gerard; Ghorashi, Halleh; Groenewegen, Peter; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Denktaş, Semiha
Background Perinatal morbidity rates are relatively high in the Netherlands, and significant inequalities in perinatal morbidity and mortality can be found across neighborhoods. In socioeconomically deprived areas, ‘Western’ women are particularly at risk for adverse birth outcomes. Almost all studies to date have explained the disparities in terms of individual determinants of birth outcomes. This study examines the influence of neighborhood contextual characteristics on birth weight (adjusted for gestational age) and preterm birth. We focused on the influence of neighborhood social capital – measured as informal socializing and social connections between neighbors – as well as ethnic (minority) density. Methods Data on birth weight and prematurity were obtained from the Perinatal Registration Netherlands 2000–2008 dataset, containing 97% of all pregnancies. Neighborhood-level measurements were obtained from three different sources, comprising both survey and registration data. We included 3.422 neighborhoods and 1.527.565 pregnancies for the birth weight analysis and 1.549.285 pregnancies for the premature birth analysis. Linear and logistic multilevel regression was performed to assess the associations of individual and neighborhood level variables with birth weight and preterm birth. Results We found modest but significant neighborhood effects on birth weight and preterm births. The effect of ethnic (minority) density was stronger than that of neighborhood social capital. Moreover, ethnic (minority) density was associated with higher birth weight for infants of non-Western ethnic minority women compared to Western women (15 grams; 95% CI: 12,4/17,5) as well as reduced risk for prematurity (OR 0.97; CI 0,95/0,99). Conclusions Our results indicate that neighborhood contexts are associated with birth weight and preterm birth in the Netherlands. Moreover, ethnic (minority) density seems to be a protective factor for non-Western ethnic minority women, but
Fleischer, Nancy L.; Lozano, Paula; Santillán, Edna Arillo; Shigematsu, Luz Myriam Reynales; Thrasher, James F.
Background Recent increases in violent crime may impact a variety of health outcomes in Mexico. We examined relationships between neighborhood-level violence and smoking behaviors in a cohort of Mexican smokers from 2011–2012, and whether neighborhood-level social cohesion modified these relationships. Methods Data were analyzed from adult smokers and recent ex-smokers who participated in Waves 5–6 of the International Tobacco Control Mexico Survey. Self-reported neighborhood violence and social cohesion were asked of Wave 6 survey participants (n=2129 current and former smokers, n=150 neighborhoods). Neighborhood-level averages for violence and social cohesion (range 4–14 and 10–25, respectively) were assigned to individuals. We used generalized estimating equations to determine associations between neighborhood indicators and individual-level smoking intensity, quit behaviors, and relapse. Results Higher neighborhood violence was associated with higher smoking intensity (Risk Ratio (RR)=1.17, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.02–1.33), and fewer quit attempts (RR=0.72, 95% CI 0.61–0.85). Neighborhood violence was not associated with successful quitting or relapse. Higher neighborhood social cohesion was associated with more quit attempts and more successful quitting. Neighborhood social cohesion modified the association between neighborhood violence and smoking intensity: in neighborhoods with higher social cohesion, as violence increased, smoking intensity decreased and in neighborhoods with lower social cohesion, as violence increased, so did smoking intensity. Conclusion In the context of recent increased violence in Mexico, smokers living in neighborhoods with more violence may smoke more cigarettes per day and make fewer quit attempts than their counterparts in less violent neighborhoods. Neighborhood social cohesion may buffer the impact of violence on smoking intensity. PMID:26043898
Bender, Anne Mette Flenstrup; Kawachi, Ichiro; Jørgensen, Torben
BACKGROUND: Participation in population-based preventive health check has declined over the past decades. More research is needed to determine factors enhancing participation. The objective of this study was to examine the association between two measures of neighborhood level social capital...... on participation in the health check phase of a population-based lifestyle intervention. METHODS: The study population comprised 12,568 residents of 73 Danish neighborhoods in the intervention group of a large population-based lifestyle intervention study - the Inter99. Two measures of social capital were applied......; informal socializing and voting turnout. RESULTS: In a multilevel analysis only adjusting for age and sex, a higher level of neighborhood social capital was associated with higher probability of participating in the health check. Inclusion of both individual socioeconomic position and neighborhood...
Shacham, Enbal; López, Julia D; Önen, Nur F; Overton, Edgar T
Social support has been noted to improve health outcomes for individuals with HIV. Understanding how neighborhoods contribute to feelings of social support is beneficial to create environments where populations with HIV can be supported. This study assessed the relationship between neighborhood perceptions and social support with HIV management. A total of 201 individuals were recruited; individuals with HIV, 18 years or older, who were eligible to participate in the 2-hour interview. Psychiatric diagnostic interviews were conducted alongside assessments of social support and neighborhood perceptions; biomedical markers were abstracted from medical records. Correlations and linear regression analyses were performed to assess relationships between social support and neighborhood perceptions with HIV management biomarkers. The majority of the sample was male (68.8%) and African American (72.3%), with a mean age of 43.1 years. Overall, 78% were receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) prescriptions, with 69% being virally suppressed. Fear of neighborhood activities was independently associated with receiving current cART. Reports of social support and neighborhood perceptions were highly correlated. Findings suggest that supportive home environments likely would improve perceptions of social support.
Kramer, D; Stronks, K; Maas, J; Wingen, M; Kunst, A E
Studies on the relation between the social neighborhood environment and sports participation have produced inconsistent results. Use of generic sports outcomes may have obscured associations only apparent for sports at certain locations. This study aims to assess the association between the social neighborhood environment and three location-specific sports outcomes. Repeated cross-sectional data on sports participation (any type of sports, sports at indoor sports clubs, sports at outdoor sports clubs, sports on streets) were obtained from 20 600 adults using the Dutch national health survey 2006-2009. Data on neighborhood social safety and social capital were obtained using the Dutch Housing Research 2006. Over 40% of Dutch adults participated in any type of sports. Indoor sports clubs were most popular. Multilevel logistic regression analyses revealed that neighborhood social safety was positively associated with sports at indoor sports clubs [odds ratio (OR) = 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06-1.48), but not with the other sports outcomes. Contrary, neighborhood social capital was positively associated with sports on streets only (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.17-2.44). The results suggest that a positive social neighborhood environment enhances sports participation, but that this impact depends on the location of the sports activity. This study highlights the importance of using location-specific sports outcomes when assessing environmental determinants. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Henderson, Heather; Child, Stephanie; Moore, Spencer; Moore, Justin B; Kaczynski, Andrew T
Limited research has explored how specific elements of physical and social environments influence mental health indicators such as perceived stress, or whether such associations are moderated by gender. This study examined the relationship between selected neighborhood characteristics and perceived stress levels within a primarily low-income, older, African-American population in a mid-sized city in the Southeastern U.S. Residents (n = 394; mean age=55.3 years, 70.9% female, 89.3% African American) from eight historically disadvantaged neighborhoods completed surveys measuring perceptions of neighborhood safety, social cohesion, aesthetics, and stress. Multivariate linear regression models examined the association between each of the three neighborhood characteristics and perceived stress. Greater perceived safety, improved neighborhood aesthetics, and social cohesion were significantly associated with lower perceived stress. These associations were not moderated by gender. These findings suggest that improving social attributes of neighborhoods may have positive impacts on stress and related benefits for population health. Future research should examine how neighborhood characteristics influence stress over time. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.
Donnelly, Louis; McLanahan, Sara; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Garfinkel, Irwin; Wagner, Brandon G; Jacobsen, Wade C; Gold, Sarah; Gaydosh, Lauren
Adolescent mental health problems are associated with poor health and well-being in adulthood. We used data from a cohort of 2,264 children born in large US cities in 1998-2000 to examine whether neighborhood collective efficacy (a combination of social cohesion and control) is associated with improvements in adolescent mental health. We found that children who grew up in neighborhoods with high collective efficacy experienced fewer depressive and anxiety symptoms during adolescence than similar children from neighborhoods with low collective efficacy. The magnitude of this neighborhood effect is comparable to the protective effects of depression prevention programs aimed at general or at-risk adolescent populations. Our findings did not vary by family or neighborhood income, which indicates that neighborhood collective efficacy supports adolescent mental health across diverse populations and urban settings. We recommend a greater emphasis on neighborhood environments in individual mental health risk assessments and greater investment in community-based initiatives that strengthen neighborhood social cohesion and control. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Newbury, Joanne; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Odgers, Candice L; Fisher, Helen L
Little is known about the impact of urbanicity, adverse neighborhood conditions and violent crime victimization on the emergence of adolescent psychotic experiences. Participants were from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative cohort of 2232 British twins who were interviewed about adolescent psychotic experiences at age 18. Urbanicity, neighborhood characteristics, and personal victimization by violent crime were measured during childhood and adolescence via geocoded census data, surveys of over 5000 immediate neighbors of the E-Risk participants, and interviews with participants themselves. Adolescents raised in urban vs rural neighborhoods were significantly more likely to have psychotic experiences (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.21-2.30, P = .002). This association remained significant after considering potential confounders including family socioeconomic status, family psychiatric history, and adolescent substance problems (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.01-2.03, P = .042), but became nonsignificant after considering adverse social conditions in urban neighborhoods such as low social cohesion and high neighborhood disorder (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 0.94-1.92, P = .102). The combined association of adverse neighborhood social conditions and personal crime victimization with adolescent psychotic experiences (adjusted OR = 4.86, 95% CI = 3.28-7.20, P < .001) was substantially greater than for either exposure alone, highlighting a potential interaction between neighborhood conditions and crime victimization (interaction contrast ratio = 1.81, 95% CI = -0.03 to 3.65) that was significant at the P = .054 level. Cumulative effects of adverse neighborhood social conditions and personal victimization by violent crime during upbringing partly explain why adolescents in urban settings are more likely to report psychotic experiences. Early intervention efforts for psychosis could be targeted towards victimized youth living in urban and socially
Kirst, Maritt; Lazgare, Luis Palma; Zhang, Yu Janice; O'Campo, Patricia
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a growing public health problem, and gaps exist in knowledge with respect to appropriate prevention and treatment strategies. A growing body of research evidence suggests that beyond individual factors (e.g., socio-economic status, psychological processes, substance abuse problems), neighborhood characteristics, such as neighborhood economic disadvantage, high crime rates, high unemployment and social disorder, are associated with increased risk for IPV. However, existing research in this area has focused primarily on risk factors inherent in neighborhoods, and has failed to adequately examine resources within social networks and neighborhoods that may buffer or prevent the occurrence of IPV. This study examines the effects of neighborhood characteristics, such as economic disadvantage and disorder, and individual and neighborhood resources, such as social capital, on IPV among a representative sample of 2412 residents of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Using a population based sample of 2412 randomly selected Toronto adults with comprehensive neighborhood level data on a broad set of characteristics, we conducted multi-level modeling to examine the effects of individual- and neighborhood-level effects on IPV outcomes. We also examined protective factors through a comprehensive operationalization of the concept of social capital, involving neighborhood collective efficacy, community group participation, social network structure and social support. Findings show that residents who were involved in one or more community groups in the last 12 months and had high perceived neighborhood problems were more likely to have experienced physical IPV. Residents who had high perceived social support and low perceived neighborhood problems were less likely to experience non-physical IPV. These relationships did not differ by neighborhood income or gender. Findings suggest interesting contextual effects of social capital on IPV. Consistent with
Background Health researchers have explored how different aspects of neighborhood characteristics contribute to health and well-being, but current understanding of built environment factors is limited. Purpose This study explores whether the association between stress and health varies by residential neighborhood, and if yes, whether built and social neighborhood environment characteristics act as moderators. Methods This study uses multilevel modeling and variables derived from geospatial data to explore the role of neighborhood environment in moderating the association of stress with health. Individual-level data (N=4,093) were drawn from residents of 45 neighborhoods within Philadelphia County, PA, collected as part of the 2006 Philadelphia Health Management Corporation's Household Health Survey. Results We find that the negative influence of high stress varied by neighborhood, that residential stability and affluence (social characteristics) attenuated the association of high stress with health, and that the presence of hazardous waste facilities (built environment characteristics) moderated health by enhancing the association with stress. Conclusions Our findings suggest that neighborhood environment has both direct and moderating associations with health, after adjusting for individual characteristics. The use of geospatial data could broaden the scope of stress–health research and advance knowledge by untangling the intertwined relationship between built and social environments, stress, and health. In particular, future studies should integrate built environment characteristics in health-related research; these characteristics are modifiable and can facilitate health promotion policies. PMID:20300905
Mericle, Amy A; Kaskutas, Lee A; Polcin, Doug L; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J
Socioecological approaches to public health problems like addiction emphasize the importance of person-environment interactions. Neighborhood and social network characteristics may influence the likelihood of relapse among individuals in recovery, but these factors have been understudied, particularly with respect to conceptualizing social network characteristics as moderators of neighborhood disadvantage. Drawing from a larger prospective study of individuals recruited from outpatient treatment (N=451) and interviewed 1, 3, 5, and 7 years later, the aim of this study was to examine the independent and interactive effects of neighborhood and social network characteristics on continued problem drinking after treatment. Models using generalized estimating equations controlling for demographic and other risk factors found the number of heavy drinkers in one's network increases risk of relapse, with the effects being significantly stronger among those living in disadvantaged neighborhoods than among those in non-disadvantaged neighborhoods. No independent effects were found for neighborhood disadvantage or for the number of network members supporting reduced drinking. Future research is needed to examine potential protective factors in neighborhoods which may offset socioeconomic disadvantage as well as to investigate the functions that network members serve in helping to improve long-term treatment outcomes.
Yamamoto, Masahiro; Jo, Hyerim
Despite the accumulated evidence for the environmental correlates of physical activity, social processes underlying this association are not entirely clear. This study positions communication characterized by weak ties as a social mechanism linking neighborhood walkability with physical exercise. Data from a survey of Chicago residents show that perceived neighborhood walkability is positively related to frequency of weak-tie communication. Frequency of weak-tie communication is related positively to perceived social cohesion and negatively to anonymity, both of which are significantly related to frequency of physical exercise in the neighborhood. Data also show a sequential indirect relationship involving perceived neighborhood walkability, weak-tie communication, anonymity, and physical exercise. Implications are discussed in terms of the role of communication in promoting locality-based physical exercise. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Timperio, Anna; Veitch, Jenny; Carver, Alison
The aim of this study is to examine associations between the neighborhood social environment and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA)(1) and walking among women, and whether these associations are mediated by perceived personal safety. Women (n = 3784) living in disadvantaged urban and rural neighborhoods within Victoria, Australia completed a self-administered survey on five social environment variables (neighborhood crime, neighborhood violence, seeing others walking and exercising in the neighborhood, social trust/cohesion), perceived personal safety, and their physical activity in 2007/8. Linear regression analyses examined associations between social environment variables and LTPA and walking. Potential mediating pathways were assessed using the product-of-coefficients test. Moderated mediation by urban/rural residence was examined. Each social environment variable was positively associated with engaging in at least 150 min/week of LTPA (OR = 1.16 to 1.56). Only two social environment variables, seeing others walking (OR = 1.45) and exercising (OR = 1.31), were associated with ≥ 150 min/week of walking. Perceived personal safety mediated all associations. Stronger mediation was found in urban areas for crime, violence and social trust/cohesion. The neighborhood social environment is an important influence on physical activity among women living in disadvantaged areas. Feelings of personal safety should not be included in composite or aggregate scores relating to the social environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Subramanian, S V; Lochner, Kimberly A; Kawachi, Ichiro
Assessment of social capital at the neighborhood level is often based on aggregating individual perceptions of trust and reciprocity. Individual perceptions, meanwhile, are influenced through a range of individual attributes. This paper examines the socioeconomic and demographic attributes that systematically correlate with individual perception of social capital and determines the extent to which such attributes account for neighborhood differences in social capital. Using improved multilevel modeling procedures, we ascertain the extent to which differences in social capital perception can be ascribed to true neighborhood-level variations. The analysis is based on the 1994-95 Community Survey of the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). The response measure is based on survey respondent's perceptions of whether people in their neighborhood can be trusted. The results suggest that even after accounting for individual demographic (age, sex, race, marital status) and socioeconomic characteristics (income, education), significant neighborhood differences remain in individual perceptions of trust, substantiating the notion of social capital as a true contextual construct.
Full Text Available Latinos are disproportionately impacted by drinking and driving arrests and alcohol-related fatal crashes. Why, and how, these disparities occur remains unclear. The neighborhood environments that recent Latino immigrants encounter in their host communities can potentially influence health behaviors over time, including the propensity to engage in drinking and driving. This cross-sectional study utilizes a sample of 467 documented and undocumented adult recent Latino immigrants in the United States to answer the following research questions: (a How do neighborhood-level factors, combined with social support, impact drinking and driving risk behaviors?; and (b Does acculturative stress moderate the effects of those associations? Results indicate neighborhood-level factors (informal social control and social capital have protective effects against drinking and driving risk behaviors via the mediating mechanism of social support. Acculturative stress moderated associations between neighborhood informal social control and social support, whereby the protective effects of informal social control on social support were not present for those immigrants with higher levels of acculturative stress. Our findings contribute to the limited knowledge of drinking and driving among Latino immigrants early in the immigration process and suggest that, in the process of developing prevention programs tailored to Latino immigrants, greater attention must be paid to neighborhood-level factors.
Vilhjalmsdottir, Arndis; Gardarsdottir, Ragna B; Bernburg, Jon Gunnar; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora
Theory holds that income inequality may harm adolescent mental health by reducing social capital within neighborhood communities. However, research on this topic has been very limited. We use multilevel data on 102 public schools and 5958 adolescents in Iceland (15 and 16 years old) to examine whether income inequality within neighborhoods is associated with emotional distress in adolescents. Moreover, we test whether indicators of social capital, including social trust and embeddedness in neighborhood social networks, mediate this contextual effect. The findings show that neighborhood income inequality positively influences emotional distress of individual adolescents, net of their personal household situations and social relations. However, although the indicators of social capital negatively influence emotional distress, they do not mediate the contextual effect of neighborhood income inequality. The study illustrates the role of economic disparities in adolescent mental health, but calls for more research on the underlying social and social-psychological mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sanchez, Mariana; Romano, Eduardo; Dawson, Christyl; Huang, Hui; Sneij, Alicia; Cyrus, Elena; Rojas, Patria; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Brook, Judith; De La Rosa, Mario
Latinos are disproportionately impacted by drinking and driving arrests and alcohol-related fatal crashes. Why, and how, these disparities occur remains unclear. The neighborhood environments that recent Latino immigrants encounter in their host communities can potentially influence health behaviors over time, including the propensity to engage in drinking and driving. This cross-sectional study utilizes a sample of 467 documented and undocumented adult recent Latino immigrants in the United States to answer the following research questions: (a) How do neighborhood-level factors, combined with social support, impact drinking and driving risk behaviors?; and (b) Does acculturative stress moderate the effects of those associations? Results indicate neighborhood-level factors (informal social control and social capital) have protective effects against drinking and driving risk behaviors via the mediating mechanism of social support. Acculturative stress moderated associations between neighborhood informal social control and social support, whereby the protective effects of informal social control on social support were not present for those immigrants with higher levels of acculturative stress. Our findings contribute to the limited knowledge of drinking and driving among Latino immigrants early in the immigration process and suggest that, in the process of developing prevention programs tailored to Latino immigrants, greater attention must be paid to neighborhood-level factors. PMID:27801856
Fujiwara, Takeo; Yamaoka, Yui; Kawachi, Ichiro
We sought to investigate the relationship between neighborhood social capital and infant physical abuse using a population-based sample of women with 4-month-old infants in Japan. A questionnaire was administered to women who participated in a 4-month health checkup program (n = 1277; valid response rate, 80 %). We inquired about their perceptions of the level of trust in their neighborhood (an indicator of "social capital") as well as the availability of support from their personal social networks. Infant physical abuse during the past month was assessed by self-reports of spanking, shaking or smothering. The prevalence of infant physical abuse at 4 months of age was 9.0 % (95 % confidence interval [CI], 7.6-10.7 %). Women living in trusting neighborhoods were less likely to report infant physical abuse compared to those living in areas with low neighborhood trust (odds ratio [OR] 0.25, 95 % CI 0.06-0.97). In addition, women with supportive social networks were less likely to report infant physical abuse (OR 0.59, 95 % CI 0.36-0.99). In addition to one's personal social network, social trust in the neighborhood was independently associated with lowered risk of infant physical abuse. To prevent infant abuse, interventions should consider strengthening community social bonds in addition to strengthening the social network of isolated mothers.
Cagney, Kathleen A.; Skarupski, Kimberly A.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F.
Abstract Objectives. Despite a well-established association between relative social position and health, stratification at smaller levels of social organization has received scant attention. Neighborhood is a localized context that has increasing relevance for adults as they age, thus one’s relative position within this type of mesolevel group may have an effect on mental health, independent of absolute level of social and economic resources. We examine the relationship between an older adult’s relative rank within their neighborhoods on two criteria and depressive symptoms. Method. Using data from the Chicago Health and Aging Project, neighborhood relative social position was ascertained for two social domains: income and social reputation (number of neighbors one knows well enough to visit). Using multilevel models, we estimated the effect of relative position within the neighborhood on depressive symptoms, net of absolute level for each domain and average neighborhood level. Results. Higher neighborhood relative rankings on both income and visiting neighbors were associated with fewer depressive symptoms. Although both were modest in effect, the gradient in depressive symptoms was three times steeper for the relative rank of visiting neighbors than for income. Men had steeper gradients than women in both domains, but no race differences were observed. Discussion. These findings suggest that an older adult’s relative position in a local social hierarchy is associated with his/her mental health, net of absolute position. PMID:26333821
Kelley-Moore, Jessica A; Cagney, Kathleen A; Skarupski, Kimberly A; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F
Despite a well-established association between relative social position and health, stratification at smaller levels of social organization has received scant attention. Neighborhood is a localized context that has increasing relevance for adults as they age, thus one's relative position within this type of mesolevel group may have an effect on mental health, independent of absolute level of social and economic resources. We examine the relationship between an older adult's relative rank within their neighborhoods on two criteria and depressive symptoms. Using data from the Chicago Health and Aging Project, neighborhood relative social position was ascertained for two social domains: income and social reputation (number of neighbors one knows well enough to visit). Using multilevel models, we estimated the effect of relative position within the neighborhood on depressive symptoms, net of absolute level for each domain and average neighborhood level. Higher neighborhood relative rankings on both income and visiting neighbors were associated with fewer depressive symptoms. Although both were modest in effect, the gradient in depressive symptoms was three times steeper for the relative rank of visiting neighbors than for income. Men had steeper gradients than women in both domains, but no race differences were observed. These findings suggest that an older adult's relative position in a local social hierarchy is associated with his/her mental health, net of absolute position. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Kloos, Bret; Townley, Greg
The present study examined the relationships between how research participants experienced their neighborhood, their neighborhood social climate, and psychological well-being. Participants (n = 525) were residents of supported housing programs who used mental health services at one of 17 community mental health centers in South Carolina. Hierarchical regression and mediation analyses were employed to answer research questions. Results suggest that neighbor relations, perceptions of neighborhood safety, and neighborhood satisfaction were significantly associated with perceptions of neighborhood social climate; and neighborhood social climate accounted for a significant amount of the variance in psychiatric distress. Of particular interest, perceptions of neighborhood social climate fully mediated the relationship between the specific reported neighborhood experiences and psychiatric distress. These findings have implications for interventions and policy aimed at promoting integration of individuals with serious mental illness into community settings.
Newbury, Joanne; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Odgers, Candice L
Abstract Background: Little is known about the impact of urbanicity, adverse neighborhood conditions and violent crime victimization on the emergence of adolescent psychotic experiences. Methods: Participants were from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative cohort of 2232 British twins who were interviewed about adolescent psychotic experiences at age 18. Urbanicity, neighborhood characteristics, and personal victimization by violent crime were measured during childhood and adolescence via geocoded census data, surveys of over 5000 immediate neighbors of the E-Risk participants, and interviews with participants themselves. Results: Adolescents raised in urban vs rural neighborhoods were significantly more likely to have psychotic experiences (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.21–2.30, P = .002). This association remained significant after considering potential confounders including family socioeconomic status, family psychiatric history, and adolescent substance problems (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.01–2.03, P = .042), but became nonsignificant after considering adverse social conditions in urban neighborhoods such as low social cohesion and high neighborhood disorder (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 0.94–1.92, P = .102). The combined association of adverse neighborhood social conditions and personal crime victimization with adolescent psychotic experiences (adjusted OR = 4.86, 95% CI = 3.28–7.20, P crime victimization (interaction contrast ratio = 1.81, 95% CI = −0.03 to 3.65) that was significant at the P = .054 level. Conclusions: Cumulative effects of adverse neighborhood social conditions and personal victimization by violent crime during upbringing partly explain why adolescents in urban settings are more likely to report psychotic experiences. Early intervention efforts for psychosis could be targeted towards victimized youth living in urban and socially adverse neighborhoods. PMID:28535284
Mays, Vickie M.; Cochran, Susan D.
Neighborhood characteristics have been shown to impact child well-being. However, it remains unclear how these factors combine with family characteristics to influence child development. The current study helps develop that understanding by investigating how neighborhoods directly impact child and adolescent behavior problems as well as moderate the influence of family characteristics on behavior. Using multilevel linear models, we examined the relationship among neighborhood conditions (poverty and social capital) and maternal depression on child and adolescent behavior problems. The sample included 741 children, age 5–11, and 564 adolescents, age 12–17. Outcomes were internalizing (e.g. anxious/depressed) and externalizing (e.g. aggressive/hyperactive) behavior problems. Neighborhood poverty and maternal depression were both positively associated with behavior problems for children and adolescents. However, while neighborhood social capital was not directly associated with behavior problems, the interaction of social capital and maternal depression was significantly related to behavior problems for adolescents. This interaction showed that living in neighborhoods with higher levels of social capital attenuated the relationship between maternal depression and adolescent behavior problems and confirmed the expectation that raising healthy well-adjusted children depends not only on the family, but also the context in which the family lives. PMID:24659390
Delany-Brumsey, Ayesha; Mays, Vickie M; Cochran, Susan D
Neighborhood characteristics have been shown to impact child well-being. However, it remains unclear how these factors combine with family characteristics to influence child development. The current study helps develop that understanding by investigating how neighborhoods directly impact child and adolescent behavior problems as well as moderate the influence of family characteristics on behavior. Using multilevel linear models, we examined the relationship among neighborhood conditions (poverty and social capital) and maternal depression on child and adolescent behavior problems. The sample included 741 children, age 5–11, and 564 adolescents, age 12–17. Outcomes were internalizing (e.g. anxious/depressed) and externalizing (e.g. aggressive/hyperactive) behavior problems. Neighborhood poverty and maternal depression were both positively associated with behavior problems for children and adolescents. However, while neighborhood social capital was not directly associated with behavior problems, the interaction of social capital and maternal depression was significantly related to behavior problems for adolescents. This interaction showed that living in neighborhoods with higher levels of social capital attenuated the relationship between maternal depression and adolescent behavior problems and confirmed the expectation that raising healthy well-adjusted children depends not only on the family, but also the context in which the family lives.
Hong, Andy; Sallis, James F; King, Abby C; Conway, Terry L; Saelens, Brian; Cain, Kelli L; Fox, Eric H; Frank, Lawrence D
This study examines the moderating effect of perceived safety on the association of green space with neighborhood social capital in older adults. Green space may play an important role for promoting neighborhood social capital and health for older adults; however, safety remains a significant challenge in maximizing the benefits of green space. Data were drawn from 647 independent-living seniors who participated in the Senior Neighborhood Quality of Life Study in the Seattle/King County and Baltimore/Washington DC region. The results suggest that certain green space elements, such as natural sights, may be beneficial to neighborhood social capital of older adults. However, other types of green space, such as parks and street trees, may be less advantageous to older adults who perceive their neighborhoods as unsafe for pedestrians. Findings highlight the importance of pedestrian safety in examining associations of green space with neighborhood social capital in older adults. Further studies using a longitudinal design are warranted to confirm the causality of the findings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jones, Malia; Pebley, Anne R
Research on neighborhood effects has focused largely on residential neighborhoods, but people are exposed to many other places in the course of their daily lives-at school, at work, when shopping, and so on. Thus, studies of residential neighborhoods consider only a subset of the social-spatial environment affecting individuals. In this article, we examine the characteristics of adults' "activity spaces"-spaces defined by locations that individuals visit regularly-in Los Angeles County, California. Using geographic information system (GIS) methods, we define activity spaces in two ways and estimate their socioeconomic characteristics. Our research has two goals. First, we determine whether residential neighborhoods represent the social conditions to which adults are exposed in the course of their regular activities. Second, we evaluate whether particular groups are exposed to a broader or narrower range of social contexts in the course of their daily activities. We find that activity spaces are substantially more heterogeneous in terms of key social characteristics, compared to residential neighborhoods. However, the characteristics of both home neighborhoods and activity spaces are closely associated with individual characteristics. Our results suggest that most people experience substantial segregation across the range of spaces in their daily lives, not just at home.
Donnelly, Louis; McLanahan, Sara; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Garfinkel, Irwin; Wagner, Brandon G.; Jacobsen, Wade C.; Gold, Sarah; Gaydosh, Lauren
Adolescent mental health problems are associated with poor health and well-being in adulthood. This study uses data from a birth cohort of children born in large U.S. cities (N=2,264) to examine whether neighborhood collective efficacy (social cohesion and control) is associated with improvements in adolescent mental health. We find that children who grow up in high collective efficacy neighborhoods experience fewer depressive and anxiety symptoms during adolescence than sim...
We aimed to develop measures to assess features of neighborhood quality and individual social capital, as well as their associations with depressive symptoms among early adolescents. To determine whether relations of depressive symptoms with neighborhood quality might be contingent upon the level of individual cognitive social capital, neighborhood-by-cognitive social capital interaction terms were examined. A qualitative study was conducted to elicit the perceptions of early adolescents about their neighborhood environment. Subsequently, we recruited 2,002 eighth graders and asked for responses to a self-administered questionnaire. The variables analyzed in this study were the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (10 items), features of neighborhood quality, cognitive and structural individual social capital, and demographics. We adopted a generalized estimating equation regression model for the multivariate analysis. The analytic sample was 1,786 with no missing variable in the models. Seven subscales were devised to assess quality features of neighborhood environments with an examination of validity and reliability: "availability of services," "good neighborhood relations," "spaces for recreation," "insecurity and danger of accidents," "dirty-looking, squalid, unclean," "civic communities," and "aesthetic look." We also developed a scale of individual cognitive social capital, which consisted of three constructs: "social trust," "reciprocity," and "social norms." Additionally, the number of social activities in which subjects participated was counted as an indicator of the structural aspect of individual social capital. On examination with the generalized estimating equation regression model, "availability of services," "insecurity and danger of accidents," "dirty-looking, squalid, unclean," and cognitive social capital were significantly associated with the CES-D scores controlling for demographics. We also found a significant interplay between
Harada, Kazuhiro; Masumoto, Kouhei; Katagiri, Keiko; Fukuzawa, Ai; Chogahara, Makoto; Kondo, Narihiko; Okada, Shuichi
Strengthening neighborhood social networks is important for promoting health among older adults. However, effective intervention strategies aimed at increasing older adults' social networks have not yet been established. The present study examined whether a university-led community intervention that provided communication opportunities could increase older Japanese adults' neighborhood social networks. The present study used a quasi-experimental design. Before the intervention, using postal mail, we carried out a baseline questionnaire survey that was sent to all people living in the Tsurukabuto community aged ≥60 years (n = 1769), of whom 1068 responded. For the community intervention, 18 event-based programs were provided over the course of 1 year at Kobe University. Academic staff at Kobe University organized all the programs. During the program, social interactions among participants were promoted. A follow-up survey was distributed to those who responded to the baseline survey, and 710 individuals answered the question about their participation in the intervention programs (138 respondents were participants, 572 were non-participants). The neighborhood social network was measured in both the baseline and follow-up surveys. Analysis of covariance showed that the changes in neighborhood social network among participants in the program was significantly higher than the changes among non-participants (P = 0.046) after adjusting for the baseline score of social network. The present study found that participants of the intervention expanded their neighborhood social network, but non-participants did not. This finding shows that community interventions using university resources could increase older adults' neighborhood social networks. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 462-469. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Johnson, Craig; Bansha Dulal, Hari; Prowse, Martin Philip
This article lays the foundation for this special issue on social protection and climate change, introducing and evaluating the ways in which the individual articles contribute to our understanding of the subject.......This article lays the foundation for this special issue on social protection and climate change, introducing and evaluating the ways in which the individual articles contribute to our understanding of the subject....
Hsiang, S. M.
Managing climate change requires that we understand the social value of climate-related decisions. Rational decision-making demands that we weigh the potential benefits of climate-related investments against their costs. To date, it has been challenging to quantify the relative social benefit of living under different climatic conditions, so policy debates tend to focus on investment costs without considering their benefits. Here I will discuss challenges and advances in the measurement of climate's impact on society. By linking data and methods across physical and social sciences, we are beginning to understand when, where, and how climatic conditions have a causal impact on human wellbeing. I will present examples from this burgeoning interdisciplinary field that quantify the effect of temperature on macroeconomic performance, the effects of climate on human conflict, and the long-term health and economic impact of tropical cyclones. Each of these examples provide new insight into previously unknown benefits of various climate management strategies. I conclude by describing new efforts to systematically gather and compare findings from across the research community to support informed and rational climate management decisions.
Thompson, Tess; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Pérez, Maria; Struthers, Jim; Sefko, Julianne A.; Lian, Min; Schootman, Mario; Jeffe, Donna B.
Rationale Low social support has been linked to negative health outcomes in breast cancer patients. Objective We examined associations between perceived social support, neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, and neighborhood-level social support in early-stage breast cancer patients and controls. Methods This two-year longitudinal study in the United States included information collected from telephone interviews and clinical records of 541 early-stage patients and 542 controls recruited from 2003 to 2007. Social support was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SS). Residential addresses were geocoded and used to develop measures including neighborhood social support (based on MOS-SS scores from nearby controls) and neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation (a composite index of census tract characteristics). Latent trajectory models were used to determine effects of neighborhood conditions on the stable (intercept) and changing (slope) aspects of social support. Results In a model with only neighborhood variables, greater socioeconomic deprivation was associated with patients’ lower stable social support (standardized estimate = −0.12, p = .027); neighborhood-level social support was associated with social support change (standardized estimate = 0.17, p = .046). After adding individual-level covariates, there were no direct neighborhood effects on social support. In patients, neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was associated with support indirectly through marriage, insurance status, negative affect, and general health. In controls, neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was associated with support indirectly through marriage (p social support differed in patients and controls. Psychosocial and neighborhood interventions may help patients with low social support, particularly patients without partnered relationships in deprived areas. PMID:27017091
Win, Thida; Yamazaki, Toru; Kanda, Koji; Tajima, Kazuo; Sokejima, Shigeru
Studies on social capital and health outcomes have become common, but the relationship between neighborhood social capital and sleep duration by gender is still unclear. We examined the relationship between neighborhood social capital and sleep duration by gender in adults living in a rural community in Japan. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 12,321 residents aged ≥20 years in a town in Mie Prefecture in January-March 2013. Self-completed questionnaires were collected from the residents (n = 7782; valid participation rate, 63.2%). We used five items to assess the neighborhood social capital (Cronbach's α = 0.86). We summed up the scores of each item, and then divided the participants into four groups by quartile of total scores of neighborhood social capital (lowest, low, high, and highest). Sleep duration of social capital presented a 22% higher prevalence of insufficient sleep (PR 1.22; 95% CIs 1.08-1.38) compared to the highest group of neighborhood social capital. Similarly the low group of neighborhood social capital and the high group of neighborhood social capital had 20 and 19% higher prevalence of insufficient sleep (PR 1.20; 95% CIs 1.06-1.36; PR 1.19; 95% CIs 1.06-1.34, respectively) compared to the highest group of neighborhood social capital. For women there was no significant association between neighborhood social capital and insufficient sleep after controlling for all potential confounders. Having lower neighborhood social capital was associated with insufficient sleep among Japanese adults, particularly in the men. This suggests that the context of neighborhood social capital by gender should be considered to promote healthier behaviors with regard to getting enough sleep.
Koblin, Beryl A; Egan, James E; Nandi, Vijay; Sang, Jordan M; Cerdá, Magdalena; Tieu, Hong-Van; Ompad, Danielle C; Hoover, Donald R; Frye, Victoria
Substantial literature demonstrates the influence of the neighborhood environment on health behaviors and outcomes. But limited research examines on how gay and bisexual men experience and exist in various geographic and virtual spaces and how this relates to their sexual behavior. New York City Men 2 Men (NYCM2M) was a cross-sectional study designed to identify neighborhood-level characteristics within the urban environment that influence sexual risk behaviors, substance use, and depression among men who have sex with men (MSM) living in NYC. The sample was recruited using a modified venue-based time-space sampling methodology and through select websites and mobile applications. Whether key neighborhoods of human activity, where a participant resided (termed home), socialized (termed social), or had sex most often (termed sex), were the same or different was evaluated. "Congruence" (or the sameness) of home, social, and most often sex neighborhood was reported by 17 % of men, while 30 % reported that none of their neighborhoods were the same. The largest group of men (39 %) reported that their home and sex neighborhoods were the same but their social neighborhood was different while 10 % reported that their home neighborhood was different than their social and sex neighborhood; 5 % men reported same home and social neighborhoods with a different sex neighborhood. Complete neighborhood incongruence was highest among men who were Black and/or Latino, had lower education and personal income levels, and had greater financial insecurity. In adjusted analysis, serodiscordant condomless anal intercourse and condomless anal intercourse with partners from the Internet or mobile applications were significantly associated with having the same social and sex (but not home) neighborhoods. Understanding the complexity of how different spaces and places relate to the health and sexual behavior of MSM is essential for focusing interventions to best reach various populations
From 2000 onwards Dutch governments have tried to improve the general 'livability' of neighborhoods, of which troublesome and potentially threatening social conditions (social disorder) and physical conditions (physical disorder) are one part. A major focus in these plans for improvement is the
Phillippo, Kate L.; Griffin, Briellen
This study extends research on school choice policy, and on the geography of educational opportunity, by exploring how students understand their school choices and select from them within social-geographical space. Using a conceptual framework that draws from situated social cognition and recent research on neighborhood effects, this study…
Kramer, D.; Stronks, K.; Maas, J.; Wingen, M.; Kunst, A.E.
Studies on the relation between the social neighborhood environment and sports participation have produced inconsistent results. Use of generic sports outcomes may have obscured associations only apparent for sports at certain locations. This study aims to assess the association between the social
Kramer, D.; Stronks, K.; Maas, J.; Wingen, M.; Kunst, A. E.
Studies on the relation between the social neighborhood environment and sports participation have produced inconsistent results. Use of generic sports outcomes may have obscured associations only apparent for sports at certain locations. This study aims to assess the association between the social
Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.; Foshee, Vangie A.; Ennett, Susan T.; Suchindran, Chirayath
Adolescents develop within multiple contexts that synergistically influence their behavior and health. To understand the simultaneous influence of neighborhood and family contexts on adolescents, this study examined relationships of neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage, neighborhood social disorganization, family conflict, parent-child bonding and parental control with trajectories of physical and social aggression. The sample included 5,118 adolescents between ages 11 and 18 (50% female, 52% Caucasian) living in predominantly rural areas. Multilevel growth curve models showed an interaction between neighborhood disadvantage, family conflict and gender on the physical aggression trajectories. The interaction suggested more rapid processes of both increase in and desistance from physical aggression over time for boys with high neighborhood disadvantage and high family conflict, as well as a higher starting point, more gradual increase and slower process of desistance over time for girls in similar neighborhood and family contexts. Less parent-child bonding and less parental control also were associated with higher initial levels of physical aggression. For social aggression, an interaction between family conflict and gender showed girls with high family conflict had the highest initial levels of social aggression, with a more gradual increase over time for these girls compared to their male counterparts in high-conflict families or their female counterparts in low-conflict families. Less parent-child bonding was associated with higher initial levels and a faster increase over time of social aggression, and less parental control was associated with higher initial levels of social aggression. The findings suggest early family-based interventions may help prevent perpetration of both physical and social aggression during adolescence. PMID:23054352
Takagi, Daisuke; Ikeda, Ken'ichi; Kawachi, Ichiro
Crime is an important determinant of public health outcomes, including quality of life, mental well-being, and health behavior. A body of research has documented the association between community social capital and crime victimization. The association between social capital and crime victimization has been examined at multiple levels of spatial aggregation, ranging from entire countries, to states, metropolitan areas, counties, and neighborhoods. In multilevel analysis, the spatial boundaries at level 2 are most often drawn from administrative boundaries (e.g., Census tracts in the U.S.). One problem with adopting administrative definitions of neighborhoods is that it ignores spatial spillover. We conducted a study of social capital and crime victimization in one ward of Tokyo city, using a spatial Durbin model with an inverse-distance weighting matrix that assigned each respondent a unique level of "exposure" to social capital based on all other residents' perceptions. The study is based on a postal questionnaire sent to 20-69 years old residents of Arakawa Ward, Tokyo. The response rate was 43.7%. We examined the contextual influence of generalized trust, perceptions of reciprocity, two types of social network variables, as well as two principal components of social capital (constructed from the above four variables). Our outcome measure was self-reported crime victimization in the last five years. In the spatial Durbin model, we found that neighborhood generalized trust, reciprocity, supportive networks and two principal components of social capital were each inversely associated with crime victimization. By contrast, a multilevel regression performed with the same data (using administrative neighborhood boundaries) found generally null associations between neighborhood social capital and crime. Spatial regression methods may be more appropriate for investigating the contextual influence of social capital in homogeneous cultural settings such as Japan. Copyright
Full Text Available Previous research has examined the role of neighborhood social cohesion in physical activity outcomes; however, less is known about this relationship across Latino subgroups. The purpose of our study was to examine the association between neighborhood social cohesion and aerobic leisure-time physical activity (LTPA among Latino adults and to determine whether these associations differ by Latino subgroup. We used cross-sectional 2013–2014 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS data on Latinos originating from 5 countries/regions (i.e., Latinos of Puerto Rican, Mexican/Mexican-American, Cuban/Cuban-American, Dominican and Central or South American origin aged ≥18 years (n=11,126. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate associations between self-reported neighborhood social cohesion and meeting aerobic LTPA guidelines. Models were adjusted for age, sex, education, and acculturation. We also investigated whether associations varied by Latino subgroup. In adjusted models for all Latino adults, compared with those reporting low social cohesion, individuals who reported high social cohesion (Odds Ratio [OR]: 1.33; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.17–1.52 were significantly more likely to meet the aerobic physical activity guideline. When stratified by Latino subgroups, among Mexican/Mexicans-Americans (OR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.16, 1.66 and Cuban/Cuban Americans (OR: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.97 high social cohesion was associated with meeting the aerobic activity guideline. Among Dominicans, those who reported medium social cohesion (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.93 were less likely to meet the aerobic activity guideline. When examining aerobic physical activity outcomes in the Latino population, the role of neighborhood social cohesion and the variability among Latino subgroups should be considered. Keywords: Neighborhood social cohesion, Physical activity, Latinos, subgroups
Mohnen, S.M.; Völker, B.; Flap, H.; Groenewegen, P.P.
BACKGROUND: Although various studies have found a positive association between neighborhood social capital and individual health, the mechanism explaining this direct effect is still unclear. Neighborhood social capital is the access to resources that are generated by relationships between people in
Saleem, Farzana T; English, Devin; Busby, Danielle R; Lambert, Sharon F; Harrison, Aubrey; Stock, Michelle L; Gibbons, Frederick X
Parental racial socialization is a parenting tool used to prepare African American adolescents for managing racial stressors. While it is known that parents' racial discrimination experiences affect the racial socialization messages they provide, little is known about the influence of factors that promote supportive and communal parenting, such as perceived neighborhood cohesion. In cohesive neighborhoods, neighbors may help parents address racial discrimination by monitoring youth and conveying racial socialization messages; additionally, the effect of neighborhood cohesion on parents' racial socialization may differ for boys and girls because parents socialize adolescents about race differently based on expected encounters with racial discrimination. Therefore, the current study examines how parents' perception of neighborhood cohesion and adolescents' gender moderate associations between parents' racial discrimination experiences and the racial socialization messages they deliver to their adolescents. Participants were a community sample of 608 African American adolescents (54 % girls; mean age = 15.5) and their primary caregivers (86 % biological mothers; mean age = 42.0). Structural equation modeling indicated that parental racial discrimination was associated with more promotion of mistrust messages for boys and girls in communities with low neighborhood cohesion. In addition, parental racial discrimination was associated with more cultural socialization messages about racial pride and history for boys in neighborhoods with low neighborhood cohesion. The findings suggest that parents' racial socialization messages are influenced by their own racial discrimination experiences and the cohesiveness of the neighborhood; furthermore, the content of parental messages delivered varies based on adolescents' gender.
English, Devin; Busby, Danielle R.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Harrison, Aubrey; Stock, Michelle L.; Gibbons, Frederick X.
Parental racial socialization is a parenting tool used to prepare African American adolescents for managing racial stressors. While it is known that parents’ racial discrimination experiences affect the racial socialization messages they provide, little is known about the influence of factors that promote supportive and communal parenting, such as perceived neighborhood cohesion. In cohesive neighborhoods, neighbors may help parents address racial discrimination by monitoring youth and conveying racial socialization messages; additionally, the effect of neighborhood cohesion on parents’ racial socialization may differ for boys and girls because parents socialize adolescents about race differently based on expected encounters with racial discrimination. Therefore, the current study examines how parents’ perception of neighborhood cohesion and adolescents’ gender moderate associations between parents’ racial discrimination experiences and the racial socialization messages they deliver to their adolescents. Participants were a community sample of 608 African American adolescents (54 % girls; mean age = 15.5) and their primary caregivers (86 % biological mothers; mean age = 42.0). Structural equation modeling indicated that parental racial discrimination was associated with more promotion of mistrust messages for boys and girls in communities with low neighborhood cohesion. In addition, parental racial discrimination was associated with more cultural socialization messages about racial pride and history for boys in neighborhoods with low neighborhood cohesion. The findings suggest that parents’ racial socialization messages are influenced by their own racial discrimination experiences and the cohesiveness of the neighborhood; furthermore, the content of parental messages delivered varies based on adolescents’ gender. PMID:27189721
Cramm, Jane M.; van Dijk, Hanna M.; Nieboer, Anna P.
Purpose of the Study: We aimed to investigate whether social capital (obtaining support through indirect ties such as from neighbors) and social cohesion (interdependencies among neighbors) within neighborhoods positively affect the well being of older adults. Design and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 945 of 1,440 (66% response rate)…
Tanggaard Andersen, Pernille; Holst Algren, Maria; Fromsejer Heiberg, Regina
Research has demonstrated that living in a deprived neighborhood contributes to the occurrence and development of poor health. Furthermore evidence shows that social networks are fundamental resources in preventing poor mental health. Neighborhood relationships and networks are vital for sustaining...... and improving quality of life. However, to determine potentials for public health action, the health impact of various types of network resources need to be explored and the association between socioeconomic position and self-rated health needs to be analysed to determine whether it is partially explained...... by social network resources. This is the main aim of this article. Cross-sectional data from one deprived neighborhood located in Denmark were collected in 2008 and 2013 using a postal health survey. The target group was defined as adults older than 16 years. In 2008, 408 residents participated...
Christian, Hayley E; Klinker, Charlotte D; Villanueva, Karen; Knuiman, Matthew W; Foster, Sarah A; Zubrick, Stephan R; Divitini, Mark; Wood, Lisa; Giles-Corti, Billie
Relationships between context-specific measures of the physical and social environment and children's independent mobility to neighborhood destination types were examined. Parents in RESIDE's fourth survey reported whether their child (8-15 years; n = 181) was allowed to travel without an adult to school, friend's house, park and local shop. Objective physical environment measures were matched to each of these destinations. Social environment measures included neighborhood perceptions and items specific to local independent mobility. Independent mobility to local destinations ranged from 30% to 48%. Independent mobility to a local park was less likely as the distance to the closest park (small and large size) increased and less likely with additional school grounds (P dependent upon the specific destination being visited and the impact of neighborhood features varies according to the destination examined. Findings highlight the importance of access to different types and sizes of urban green space for children's independent mobility to parks.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between people’s actual walking experience and their social capital levels in order to examine the possibility of restoring weakened social functions of streets and public spaces in a walking-friendly urban environment. Based on the survey data of 591 residents of Seoul, we empirically analyzed the relationship between walking experience for various purposes and individual perceptions of social capital using one-way ANOVA and OLS regression models. As a result of the analysis, we found that the levels of neighborly trust and networking of people who experienced leisure walking were higher than those of people who did not, while there was no difference in the level of social capital according to walking experiences for other purposes. This result is significant in that it shows the basis for the restoration of the social function of neighborhoods through social capital formation of people as an effect of walking. Hence, it is important to create a walking environment that supports leisure activities.
Full Text Available On August 29th of 2005, Hurricane Katrina hit the gulf coast of the United States leading to one of the most powerful disasters in history. Damage costs reached more than 100 billion dollars, as well as 150,000 flooded houses and 1,330 deaths. 10 years later, the damage remains visible in the city of New Orleans, and the rate of recovery is highly varied throughout different neighborhoods in the city. A popular idea is to associate this to the neighborhood social class, i.e. the poorer an area is, the more difficult the recovery process is. However the reality is more complex. This study looks at two economically similar and highly damaged neighborhoods, with two deeply different recoveries. The Lower 9th Ward, an isolated, and poor neighborhood surrounded by water with the Mississippi River and the industrial canal, has experienced an extremely slow recovery. However, in the isolated and relatively poor neighborhood known as Village de l’Est, located on former marshes at the edge of the city between Lake Pontchartrain and the Bayou Bienvenue, the Vietnamese community ties and cohesion have brought the neighborhood back to fruition faster than anyone would have expected. Despite many common features weakening their technical resilience, such as relatively modern and fast urbanization on former natural and low lands protected mostly by levees, their radically different reaction following Katrina points out the key role of social resilience. This communication will aim to present decisive social aspects of resilience aside from geophysical and physical features such as risk awareness, social link and community culture.
Mathis, Arlesia; Rooks, Ronica; Kruger, Daniel
By 2030, older adults will account for 20% of the U.S. Over 80% of older adults live in urban areas. This study examines associations between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH) among urban older adults. We selected 217 individuals aged 65+ living in a deindustrialized Midwestern city who answered questions on the 2009 Speak to Your Health survey. The relationship between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH) was analyzed using regression and GIS models. Neighborhood variables included social support and participation, perceived racism and crime. Additional models included actual crime indices to compare differences between perceived and actual crime. Seniors who have poor SRH are 21% more likely to report fear of crime than seniors with excellent SRH (p = 0.01). Additional analyses revealed Black seniors are 7% less likely to participate in social activities (p = 0.005) and 4% more likely to report experiencing racism (p older adults living in urban neighborhoods, studies such as this one are important for well-being among seniors. Mitigating environmental influences in the neighborhood which are associated with poor SRH may allow urban older adults to maintain health and reduce disability.
Nieuwbeerta, Paul; McCall, Patricia L.; Elffers, Henk; Wittebrood, Karin
This study tests hypotheses on the relationship between characteristics of neighborhoods in the Netherlands—their socioeconomic disadvantage, social cohesion, and residents’ confidence in the police—and the likelihood of homicide victimization. These hypotheses are derived from social
Marcus, Andrea Fleisch; Echeverria, Sandra E; Holland, Bart K; Abraido-Lanza, Ana F; Passannante, Marian R
A well-established literature has shown that social integration strongly patterns health, including mortality risk. However, the extent to which living in high-poverty neighborhoods and having few social ties jointly pattern survival in the United States has not been examined. We analyzed data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994) linked to mortality follow-up through 2006 and census-based neighborhood poverty. We fit Cox proportional hazards models to estimate associations between social integration and neighborhood poverty on all-cause mortality as independent predictors and in joint-effects models using the relative excess risk due to interaction to test for interaction on an additive scale. In the joint-effects model adjusting for age, gender, race/ ethnicity, and individual-level socioeconomic status, exposure to low social integration alone was associated with increased mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.28-1.59) while living in an area of high poverty alone did not have a significant effect (HR: 1.10; 95% CI: 0.95-1.28) when compared with being jointly unexposed. Individuals simultaneously living in neighborhoods characterized by high poverty and having low levels of social integration had an increased risk of mortality (HR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.35-1.96). However, relative excess risk due to interaction results were not statistically significant. Social integration remains an important determinant of mortality risk in the United States independent of neighborhood poverty. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Johnson, Odis, Jr.
This study explores how linkages between adolescents' educational attitudes and achievement vary according to race, expressive culture, and neighborhood collective socialization qualities. Specifically, the study examines (a) racial differences in how males' educational attitudes relate to their academic performance (i.e.,…
Sundquist, Jan; Sjöstedt, Cecilia; Winkleby, Marilyn; Li, Xinjun; Kendler, Kenneth S; Sundquist, Kristina
This study examines the association between the incidence of drug abuse (DA) and linking (communal) social capital, a theoretical concept describing the amount of trust between individuals and societal institutions. We present results from an 8-year population-based cohort study that followed all residents in Sweden, aged 15-44, from 2003 through 2010, for a total of 1,700,896 men and 1,642,798 women. Linking social capital was conceptualized as the proportion of people in a geographically defined neighborhood who voted in local government elections. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and between-neighborhood variance. We found robust associations between linking social capital and DA in men and women. For men, the OR for DA in the crude model was 2.11 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.02-2.21] for those living in neighborhoods with the lowest vs. highest level of social capital. After accounting for neighborhood level deprivation, the OR fell to 1.59 (1.51-1-68). The ORs remained significant after accounting for age, family income, marital status, country of birth, education level, and region of residence, and after further accounting for comorbidities and family history of comorbidities and family history of DA. For women, the OR decreased from 2.15 (2.03-2.27) in the crude model to 1.31 (1.22-1.40) in the final model, adjusted for multiple neighborhood-level, individual-level variables, and family history for DA. Our study suggests that low linking social capital may have significant independent effects on DA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McMahon, Susan D; Felix, Erika D; Nagarajan, Thara
Although neighborhood stressors have a negative impact on youth, and social support can play a protective role, it is unclear what types and sources of social support may contribute to positive outcomes among at-risk youth. We examined the influences of neighborhood disadvantage and social support on global self-worth among low-income, urban African American youth, both concurrently and longitudinally. We examined social support from both a structural and functional perspective, and tested the main-effects and the stress-buffering models of social support. Participants included 82-130 youth, in 6th-8th grade, who completed self-report measures. Network support results suggest participants received emotional, tangible, and informational support most often from mothers and other female relatives, with friends, fathers, and teachers also playing important roles. Model testing accounted for neighborhood stressors and support from various sources, revealing support from close friends was associated with concurrent self-worth; whereas, parent support predicted self-worth longitudinally, above and beyond initial levels of self-worth. The findings provide evidence for the main-effects model of social support and not the stress-buffering model. Our findings illustrate the importance of extended family networks and the types of support that youth rely upon in African American impoverished communities, as well as how support contributes to global self-worth. Implications and suggestions for future research and intervention are discussed.
Veerle Van Holle
Full Text Available This study examined associations between neighborhood social factors and physical activity (PA and sedentary behavior (SB in older adults. Furthermore, possible moderating effects of neighborhood walkability were explored. Data from 431 community-dwelling Belgian older adults (≥65 years were analyzed. Neighborhood social factors included measures of neighboring, social trust and cohesion and social diversity. Neighborhood walkability was measured objectively. Outcome measures were self-reported weekly minutes of domain-specific walking and TV viewing, and accelerometer-assessed weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA and overall SB. A higher frequency of talking to neighbors was associated with higher levels of self-reported walking for transport and for recreation. Moderation analyses showed that only in highly-walkable neighborhoods, higher social diversity of the neighborhood environment was associated with more transport walking; and talking to neighbors and social interactions among neighbors were negatively associated with overall SB and television viewing, respectively. Findings suggest that a combination of a favorable neighborhood social and physical environment are important to promote older adults’ PA and limit SB.
Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.; Foshee, Vangie A.; Ennett, Susan T.
Background: To understand how neighborhoods influence the development of youth violence, we investigated intrapersonal mediators of the relationship between neighborhood disadvantage and youth violence trajectories between ages 11 and 18. The hypothesized mediators included indicators of social bonding (belief in conventional values, involvement…
Froiland, John Mark; Powell, Douglas R.; Diamond, Karen E.
In response to increasing research and policy interest in the neighborhood context of early school success, this study examined relations among neighborhood social networks, home literacy practices/resources, and children's expressive vocabulary in a suburban at-risk sample in the USA at the beginning of the school year. In a Structural Equation…
Closson, Kalysha; Palmer, Alexis K; Collins, Alexandra B; Salters, Kate; Zhang, Wendy; Montaner, Julio S G; Hogg, Robert S; Parashar, Surita
Built and social environments, including one's perception of their environment, are important determinants of health. The intersection of gender and HIV status may complicate the role of neighborhood cohesion in safety, personal well-being, and health outcomes for populations impacted by social and structural inequities. Among women in particular, social cohesion within the neighborhood they reside in may have a greater influence on health outcomes compared to their male counterparts. We sought to examine perception of neighborhood cohesion (validated scale with a range 0-100, with higher scores indicating higher perceived neighborhood cohesion) among women living with HIV, impacted by social-structural inequities, receiving combination antiretroviral therapy, and enrolled in the Longitudinal Investigations into Supportive Ancillary health services (LISA) study in British Columbia, Canada. Cross-sectional data on neighborhood cohesion and socio-demographic data were collected in an interviewer-administered survey. Of the 1,000 LISA participants interviewed, 908 (including 249 women and 659 men) had complete data for the variables of interest. At the bivariate level, women had worse perceived neighborhood cohesion scores compared to men (median: 56 [95% CI: 44-66] vs. 60 [95% CI: 47-71]). Multivariable model results indicated that for women living with HIV in our sample, greater neighborhood cohesion scores were positively associated with stable housing (β coefficient = 7.85; 95% CI: 3.61, 12.10, p perceptions of neighborhood cohesion.
Snowden, Aleksandra J
This study examined the role that race/ethnicity and social disorganization play in alcohol availability in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, census block groups. This study estimated negative binomial regression models to examine separately the relationship between neighborhood racial/ethnic composition and social disorganization levels for (1) total, (2) on-premise, and (3) off-premise alcohol outlets. Results of this study suggest that proportion Hispanic was positively associated with total and with off-premise alcohol outlets. Second, proportion African American was negatively associated with on-premise alcohol outlets and positively associated with off-premise alcohol outlets. Proportion Asian was not associated with total, on-premise, or off-premise alcohol outlets. However, the effects of race/ethnicity on alcohol availability were either unrelated or negatively related to alcohol outlet availability once neighborhood social disorganization levels were taken into account, and social disorganization was positively and significantly associated with all alcohol outlet types. Neighborhood characteristics contribute to alcohol availability and must be considered in any efforts aimed toward prevention of alcohol-related negative health and social outcomes.
Kirkbride, James B; Jones, Peter B; Ullrich, Simone; Coid, Jeremy W
Although urban birth, upbringing, and living are associated with increased risk of nonaffective psychotic disorders, few studies have used appropriate multilevel techniques accounting for spatial dependency in risk to investigate social, economic, or physical determinants of psychosis incidence. We adopted Bayesian hierarchical modeling to investigate the sociospatial distribution of psychosis risk in East London for DSM-IV nonaffective and affective psychotic disorders, ascertained over a 2-year period in the East London first-episode psychosis study. We included individual and environmental data on 427 subjects experiencing first-episode psychosis to estimate the incidence of disorder across 56 neighborhoods, having standardized for age, sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. A Bayesian model that included spatially structured neighborhood-level random effects identified substantial unexplained variation in nonaffective psychosis risk after controlling for individual-level factors. This variation was independently associated with greater levels of neighborhood income inequality (SD increase in inequality: Bayesian relative risks [RR]: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.04-1.49), absolute deprivation (RR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.08-1.51) and population density (RR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.00-1.41). Neighborhood ethnic composition effects were associated with incidence of nonaffective psychosis for people of black Caribbean and black African origin. No variation in the spatial distribution of the affective psychoses was identified, consistent with the possibility of differing etiological origins of affective and nonaffective psychoses. Our data suggest that both absolute and relative measures of neighborhood social composition are associated with the incidence of nonaffective psychosis. We suggest these associations are consistent with a role for social stressors in psychosis risk, particularly when people live in more unequal communities.
Murayama, Hiroshi; Nofuji, Yu; Matsuo, Eri; Nishi, Mariko; Taniguchi, Yu; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Shinkai, Shoji
While the importance of distinguishing between bonding and bridging social capital is now understood, evidence remains sparse on their contextual effects on health. We examined the associations of neighborhood bonding and bridging social capital with depressive mood among older Japanese. A questionnaire survey of all community residents aged 65 and older in the city of Yabu, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan was conducted in July and August 2012. Bonding and bridging social capital were assessed by evaluating individual homogeneous and heterogeneous social networks in relation to age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Individual responses in each neighborhood were aggregated to create an index of neighborhood-level bonding/bridging social capital. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the associations of such social capital with depressive mood using multilevel binomial logistic regression analysis. Of the 7271 questionnaires distributed, 6416 were analyzed (covering 152 administrative neighborhoods). Approximately 56.8% of respondents were women, and the mean age was 76.2 ± 7.1 years. Neighborhood-level bonding social capital was inversely associated with depressive mood (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.75-0.94), but neighborhood-level bridging social capital was not. Gender-stratified analysis revealed that neighborhood-level bonding social capital was inversely associated with depressive mood in both genders (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.72-0.96 for men; OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.72-0.99 for women), while neighborhood-level bridging social capital was positively associated with depressive mood in women (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.00-1.34). There was also a significant interaction between individual- and neighborhood-level bonding social capital, indicating that people with a weaker homogeneous network and living in a neighborhood with weaker bonding social capital were more likely to have depressive mood. Our results suggest that neighborhood social
Orban, Ester; Sutcliffe, Robynne; Dragano, Nico; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Moebus, Susanne
Previous research suggests that green environments positively influence health. Several underlying mechanisms have been discussed; one of them is facilitation of social interaction. Further, greener neighborhoods may appear more aesthetic, contributing to satisfaction and well-being. Aim of this study was to analyze the association of residential surrounding greenness with self-rated health, using data from 4480 women and men aged 45-75 years that participated in the German population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study. We further aimed to explore the relationships of greenness and self-rated health with the neighborhood environment and social relations. Surrounding greenness was measured using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) within 100 m around participants' residence. As a result, we found that with higher greenness, poor self-rated health decreased (adjusted OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82-0.98; per 0.1 increase in NDVI), while neighborhood satisfaction (1.41, 1.23-1.61) and neighborhood social capital (1.22, 1.12-1.32) increased. Further, we observed inverse associations of neighborhood satisfaction (0.70, 0.52-0.94), perceived safety (0.36, 0.22-0.60), social satisfaction (0.43, 0.31-0.58), and neighborhood social capital (0.53, 0.44-0.64) with poor self-rated health. These results underline the importance of incorporating green elements into neighborhoods for health-promoting urban development strategies.
Garoon, Joshua; Engelman, Michal; Gitlin, Laura; Szanton, Sarah
Trust is often cited as a necessary predecessor of social engagement, and a public-health good. We question those suppositions through analysis of the life histories of lower-income older adults aging in place in Baltimore. These people desired to continue living independently, but also expressed a complex mix of trust and mistrust in their neighbors, neighborhoods, and broader environments. This was the product of interrelated processes of multilevel physical and social changes over time and space - and, we argue, often featured a "healthy mistrust" that pushed participants to pursue personally meaningful forms of social engagement, whether new or continued. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Martinez, Elizabeth; Ulanoff, Sharon H.
This narrative study examines how Latino parents and teachers in the Boyle Heights/East Los Angeles community create and appropriate social capital to increase student achievement. Specifically, the study explores how parents and teachers participate in two community organizations to extend resources that have the potential to positively impact…
Eriksson, Malin; Emmelin, Maria
Variations in health between neighborhoods are well known and the conceptualization of social capital has contributed to an understanding of how contextual factors influence these differences. Studies show positive health-effects from living in high social capital areas, at least for some population sub-groups. The aim of this qualitative study was to understand what constitutes a 'health-enabling' neighborhood. It follows up results from a social capital survey in northern Sweden indicating that the health effects of living in a high social capital neighborhood is gendered in favor of women. A grounded theory situational analysis of eight focus group discussions--four with men and four with women--illustrated similar and different positions on how neighborhood characteristics influence health. A neighborhood, where people say hi to each other ("hi-factor") and where support between neighbors exist, were factors perceived as positive for health by all, as was a good location, neighborhood greenness and proximity to essential arenas. Women perceived freedom from demands, feeling safe and city life as additional health enabling factors. For men freedom to do what you want, a sense of belonging, and countryside life were important. To have burdensome neighbors, physical disturbances and a densely living environment were perceived as negative for health in both groups while demands for a well styled home and feeling unsafe were perceived as negative for health among women. Neighborhood social capital, together with other elements in the living environment, has fundamental influence on people's perceived health. Our findings do not confirm that social capital is more important for women than for men but that distinctive form of social capital differ in impact. Investing in physical interventions, such as planning for meeting places, constructing attractive green areas, and making neighborhoods walking-friendly, may increase human interactions that is instrumental for
Strong, Larkin L.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Wetter, David W.; McNeill, Lorna H.
Purpose Few studies have assessed how attributes of neighborhood environments contribute to sedentary, in addition to active, behaviors. This study investigated associations of perceived social and physical aspects of neighborhood environments with television (TV) viewing and physical activity (PA) in African American adults. Design Cross-sectional analysis of self-reported survey. Setting Large mega-church in Houston, TX. Subjects 1,374 African American men and women. Measures Outcomes included log-transformed daily TV viewing and participation in medium/high levels of PA, measured by the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Neighborhood perceptions were assessed with the Social Cohesion and Trust and the Neighborhood Problems scales. Analysis Multivariable models that controlled for clustering within neighborhoods. Results Reporting more neighborhood problems was significantly associated with greater log-transformed TV viewing in women (β=0.017, SE=0.006, p=0.003), and social cohesion was positively associated with PA in women (OR=1.06, 95% CI=1.02, 1.11, p=0.006). Concerns about litter and walking after dark, and a lack of places to shop were associated with increased TV viewing among women, and concerns about traffic and walking after dark were associated with reduced PA among men. Conclusion Physical and social neighborhood conditions were associated with TV viewing and PA, particularly in women. Neighborhood-based strategies to reduce sedentary behaviors and enhance PA should include attention to social as well as physical aspects of neighborhood environments. PMID:23398134
Carpiano, Richard M
Within the past several years, a considerable body of research on social capital has emerged in public health. Although offering the potential for new insights into how community factors impact health and well being, this research has received criticism for being undertheorized and methodologically flawed. In an effort to address some of these limitations, this paper applies Pierre Bourdieu's (1986) [Bourdieu, P. (1986). Handbook of theory and research for the sociology of education (pp. 241-258). New York: Greenwood] social capital theory to create a conceptual model of neighborhood socioeconomic processes, social capital (resources inhered within social networks), and health. After briefly reviewing the social capital conceptualizations of Bourdieu and Putnam, I attempt to integrate these authors' theories to better understand how social capital might operate within neighborhoods or local areas. Next, I describe a conceptual model that incorporates this theoretical integration of social capital into a framework of neighborhood social processes as health determinants. Discussion focuses on the utility of this Bourdieu-based neighborhood social capital theory and model for examining several under-addressed issues of social capital in the neighborhood effects literature and generating specific, empirically testable hypotheses for future research.
Yang, Tse-Chuan; Chen, I-Chien; Kim, Seulki; Choi, Seung-Won
Though the adverse consequences of perceived housing discrimination have been documented, little is known about whether such experience undermines one's social capital in a neighborhood and even less is about whether and how this relationship is altered by neighborhood features. We proposed a framework that simultaneously considers within-individual and between-neighborhood processes. We applied multilevel structural equation models to data from Philadelphia (n = 9987) and found that (a) perceived housing discrimination was negatively associated with one's social capital even after other confounders were considered, (b) this negative association could be partly explained by the proliferated daily stress and anxiety mechanisms, (c) differential exposures to neighborhood social disadvantage accounted for the variation in social capital across neighborhoods, and (d) the adverse association between perceived housing discrimination and social capital could be attenuated by neighborhood stability. The findings suggested that appropriate interventions should buffer the negative association of perceived housing discrimination with social capital. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gopal K. Singh
Full Text Available We examined trends and neighborhood and sociobehavioral determinants of sleep problems in US children aged 6–17 between 2003 and 2012. The 2003, 2007, and 2011-2012 rounds of the National Survey of Children’s Health were used to estimate trends and differentials in sleep problems using logistic regression. Prevalence of sleep problems increased significantly over time. The proportion of children with <7 days/week of adequate sleep increased from 31.2% in 2003 to 41.9% in 2011-2012, whereas the prevalence of adequate sleep <5 days/week rose from 12.6% in 2003 to 13.6% in 2011-2012. Prevalence of sleep problems varied in relation to neighborhood socioeconomic and built-environmental characteristics (e.g., safety concerns, poor housing, garbage/litter, vandalism, sidewalks, and parks/playgrounds. Approximately 10% of children in neighborhoods with the most-favorable social environment had serious sleep problems, compared with 16.2% of children in neighborhoods with the least-favorable social environment. Children in neighborhoods with the fewest health-promoting amenities or the greatest social disadvantage had 37%–43% higher adjusted odds of serious sleep problems than children in the most-favorable neighborhoods. Higher levels of screen time, physical inactivity, and secondhand smoke exposure were associated with 20%–47% higher adjusted odds of sleep problems. Neighborhood conditions and behavioral factors are important determinants of sleep problems in children.
Young, Marielle C; Gerber, Monica W; Ash, Tayla; Horan, Christine M; Taveras, Elsie M
Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPIs) have the lowest attainment of healthy sleep duration among all racial and ethnic groups in the United States. We examined associations of neighborhood social cohesion with sleep duration and quality. Cross-sectional analysis of 2,464 adults in the NHPI National Health Interview Survey (2014). Neighborhood social cohesion was categorized as a continuous and categorical variable into low (15) according to tertiles of the distribution of responses. We used multinomial logistic regression to examine the adjusted odds ratio of short and long sleep duration relative to intermediate sleep duration. We used binary logistic regression for dichotomous sleep quality outcomes. Sleep outcomes were modeled as categorical variables. 40% of the cohort reported short (9 hours) duration. Mean (SE, range) social cohesion score was 12.4 units (0.11, 4-16) and 23% reported low social cohesion. In multivariable models, each 1 SD decrease in neighborhood social cohesion score was associated with higher odds of short sleep duration (OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.29). Additionally, low social cohesion was associated with increased odds of short sleep duration (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.10, 2.13). No associations between neighborhood social cohesion and having trouble falling or staying asleep and feeling well rested were found. Low neighborhood social cohesion is associated with short sleep duration in NHPIs.
Ailshire, Jennifer; Karraker, Amelia; Clarke, Philippa
A growing number of studies have found a link between outdoor air pollution and cognitive function among older adults. Psychosocial stress is considered an important factor determining differential susceptibility to environmental hazards and older adults living in stressful neighborhoods may be particularly vulnerable to the adverse health effects of exposure to hazards such as air pollution. The objective of this study is to determine if neighborhood social stress amplifies the association between fine particulate matter air pollution (PM 2.5 ) and poor cognitive function in older, community-dwelling adults. We use data on 779 U.S. adults ages 55 and older from the 2001/2002 wave of the Americans' Changing Lives study. We determined annual average PM 2.5 concentration in 2001 in the area of residence by linking respondents with EPA air monitoring data using census tract identifiers. Cognitive function was measured using the number of errors on the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ). Exposure to neighborhood social stressors was measured using perceptions of disorder and decay and included subjective evaluations of neighborhood upkeep and the presence of deteriorating/abandoned buildings, trash, and empty lots. We used negative binomial regression to examine the interaction of neighborhood perceived stress and PM 2.5 on the count of errors on the cognitive function assessment. We found that the association between PM 2.5 and cognitive errors was stronger among older adults living in high stress neighborhoods. These findings support recent theoretical developments in environmental health and health disparities research emphasizing the synergistic effects of neighborhood social stressors and environmental hazards on residents' health. Those living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods, where social stressors and environmental hazards are more common, may be particularly susceptible to adverse health effects of social and physical
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to examine associations between aspects of the neighborhood social environment and body mass index (BMI in youth both cross-sectionally and prospectively; and whether this association was mediated by physical activity, screen-time and sedentary time. Methods Data were collected in 2004 and 2006 in high and low socio-economic areas of Melbourne, Australia. In 2004, 185 children aged 8-9 years (47% boys and 359 children aged 13-15 years (45% boys participated. Parents reported their perceptions of aspects of the social environment (i.e. social networks and social trust/cohesion, and physical activity (i.e. time spent outdoors by their children; and their younger children's walking and cycling trips and screen-time (i.e. TV viewing, computer use. The older children self-reported their walking and cycling trips and their screen-time. All children wore an accelerometer to objectively assess outside-school hours moderate- to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time. BMI was calculated from height and weight measured in 2004 and 2006. Multilevel linear regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between the social environment and BMI. Mediation analyses using the products of coefficient method were conducted to determine whether associations between the social environment and BMI were mediated by the time spent in a range of physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Results Cross-sectional and prospective regression analyses showed that a more positive social network and higher social trust/cohesion was related to lower BMI among children. There was no evidence that time spent in physical activity or sedentary behaviors mediated this relation, despite significant associations between social networks and screen-time and between screen-time and BMI. Conclusions The findings suggest that the neighborhood social environment may be important for preventing overweight and obesity in children. Further
White, Rebecca M B; Knight, George P; Jensen, Michaeline; Gonzales, Nancy A
Neighborhood Latino ethnic concentration, above and beyond or in combination with mothers' and fathers' ethnic socialization, may have beneficial implications for minority adolescents' ethnic attitude and identity development. These hypotheses, along with two competing hypotheses, were tested prospectively (from x¯age = 12.79-15.83 years) in a sample of 733 Mexican-origin adolescents. Neighborhood ethnic concentration had beneficial implications for ethnic identity processes (i.e., ethnic exploration and perceived peer discrimination) but not for ethnic attitudes. For Mexico-born adolescents, high maternal ethnic socialization compensated for living in neighborhoods low on ethnic concentration. Findings are discussed vis-à-vis the ways in which they address major gaps in the neighborhood effects literature and the ethnic and racial identity development literature. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Linton, Sabriya L; Haley, Danielle F; Hunter-Jones, Josalin; Ross, Zev; Cooper, Hannah L F
Theories of social causation and social influence, which posit that neighborhood and social network characteristics are distal causes of substance use, are frequently used to interpret associations among neighborhood characteristics, social network characteristics and substance use. These associations are also hypothesized to result from selection processes, in which substance use determines where people live and who they interact with. The potential for these competing selection mechanisms to co-occur has been underexplored among adults. This study utilizes path analysis to determine the paths that relate census tract characteristics (e.g., economic deprivation), social network characteristics (i.e., having ≥ 1 illicit drug-using network member) and illicit drug use, among 172 African American adults relocated from public housing in Atlanta, Georgia and followed from 2009 to 2014 (7 waves). Individual and network-level characteristics were captured using surveys. Census tract characteristics were created using administrative data. Waves 1 (pre-relocation), 2 (1st wave post-relocation), and 7 were analyzed. When controlling for individual-level sociodemographic factors, residing in census tracts with prior economic disadvantage was significantly associated with illicit drug use at wave 1; illicit drug use at wave 1 was significantly associated with living in economically-disadvantaged census tracts at wave 2; and violent crime at wave 2 was associated with illicit drug-using social network members at wave 7. Findings from this study support theories that describe social causation and neighborhood selection processes as explaining relationships of neighborhood characteristics with illicit drug use and illicit drug-using social networks. Policies that improve local economic and social conditions of neighborhoods may discourage substance use. Future studies should further identify the barriers that prevent substance users from obtaining housing in less
Fagan, Abigail A; Wright, Emily M; Pinchevsky, Gillian M
This paper examined the effects of neighborhood structural (i.e., economic disadvantage, immigrant concentration, residential stability) and social (e.g., collective efficacy, social network interactions, intolerance of drug use, legal cynicism) factors on the likelihood of any adolescent tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use. Analyses drew upon information from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). Data were obtained from a survey of adult residents of 79 Chicago neighborhoods, two waves of interviews with 1657 to 1664 care-givers and youth aged 8 to 16 years, and information from the 1990 U.S. Census Bureau. Hierarchical Bernoulli regression models estimated the impact of neighborhood factors on substance use controlling for individual-level demographic characteristics and psycho-social risk factors. Few neighborhood factors had statistically significant direct effects on adolescent tobacco, alcohol or marijuana use, although youth living in neighborhoods with greater levels of immigrant concentration were less likely to report any drinking. Additional theorizing and more empirical research are needed to better understand the ways in which contextual influences affect adolescent substance use and delinquency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Morenoff, Jeffrey D; House, James S; Hansen, Ben B; Williams, David R; Kaplan, George A; Hunte, Haslyn E
The spatial segregation of the US population by socioeconomic position and especially race/ethnicity suggests that the social contexts or "neighborhoods" in which people live may substantially contribute to social disparities in hypertension. The Chicago Community Adult Health Study did face-to-face interviews, including direct measurement of blood pressure, with a representative probability sample of adults in Chicago. These data were used to estimate socioeconomic and racial-ethnic disparities in the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension, and to analyze how these disparities are related to the areas in which people live. Hypertension was significantly negatively associated with neighborhood affluence/gentrification, and adjustments for context eliminated the highly significant disparity between blacks/African-Americans and whites, and reduced the significant educational disparity by 10-15% to borderline statistical significance. Awareness of hypertension was significantly higher in more disadvantaged neighborhoods and in places with higher concentrations of blacks (and lower concentrations of Hispanics and immigrants). Adjustment for context completely eliminated blacks' greater awareness, but slightly accentuated the lesser awareness of Hispanics and the greater levels of awareness among the less educated. There was no consistent evidence of either social disparities in or contextual associations with treatment of hypertension, given awareness. Among those on medication, blacks were only 40-50% as likely as whites to have their hypertension controlled, but context played little or no role in either the level of or disparities in control of hypertension. In sum, residential contexts potentially play a large role in accounting for racial/ethnic and, to a lesser degree, socioeconomic disparities in hypertension prevalence and, in a different way, awareness, but not in treatment or control of diagnosed hypertension.
McDaniel, Tyler C; Wilson, Dawn K; Coulon, Sandra M; Hand, Gregory A; Siceloff, E Rebekah
African Americans have the highest rate of obesity in the United States relative to other ethnic minority groups. Bioecological factors including neighborhood social and physical environmental variables may be important predictors of weight-related measures specifically body mass index (BMI) in African American adults. Baseline data from the Positive Action for Today's Health (PATH) trial were collected from 417 African American adults. Overall a multiple regression model for BMI was significant, showing positive associations with average daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (B =-.21, Psocial interaction (B =-.13, Psocial interaction was associated with healthier BMI, highlighting it as a potential critical factor for future interventions in underserved, African American communities.
Dulin, Akilah; Risica, Patricia M; Mello, Jennifer; Ahmed, Rashid; Carey, Kate B; Cardel, Michelle; Howe, Chanelle J; Nadimpalli, Sarah; Gans, Kim M
We examined whether neighborhood-, friend-, and family- norms and social support for consumption and purchase of fruits and vegetables (F&V) were associated with F&V intake among low-income residents in subsidized housing communities. We examined baseline data from a study ancillary to the Live Well/Viva Bien intervention. Participants included 290 residents in four low-income subsidized housing sites who were ≥ 18 years of age, English and/or Spanish speaking, and without medical conditions that prevented consumption of F&V. Linear regression models examined associations of norms and social support with F&V intake after adjustments for sociodemographic characteristics. In the analysis, neighborhood social support for F&V was associated with a 0.31 cup increase in F&V intake (95% CI = 0.05, 0.57). The family norm for eating F&V and family social support for eating F&V were associated with a 0.32 cup (95% CI = 0.13, 0.52) and 0.42 cup (95% CI = 0.19, 0.64) increase in F&V intake, respectively. To our knowledge, no other studies have examined neighborhood, family, and peer norms and social support simultaneously and in relation to F&V intake. These findings may inform neighborhood interventions and community-level policies to reduce neighborhood disparities in F&V consumption.
Zhu, Xuemei; Yu, Chia-Yuan; Lee, Chanam; Lu, Zhipeng; Mann, George
This study is to examine changes in residents' physical activities, social interactions, and neighborhood cohesion after they moved to a walkable community in Austin, Texas. Retrospective surveys (N=449) were administered in 2013-2014 to collect pre- and post-move data about the outcome variables and relevant personal, social, and physical environmental factors. Walkability of each resident's pre-move community was measured using the Walk Score. T tests were used to examine the pre-post move differences in the outcomes in the whole sample and across sub-groups with different physical activity levels, neighborhood conditions, and neighborhood preferences before the move. After the move, total physical activity increased significantly in the whole sample and all sub-groups except those who were previously sufficiently active; lived in communities with high walkability, social interactions, or neighborhood cohesion; or had moderate preference for walkable neighborhoods. Walking in the community increased in the whole sample and all subgroups except those who were previously sufficiently active, moved from high-walkability communities, or had little to no preference for walkable neighborhoods. Social interactions and neighborhood cohesion increased significantly after the move in the whole sample and all sub-groups. This study explored potential health benefits of a walkable community in promoting physically and socially active lifestyles, especially for populations at higher risk of obesity. The initial result is promising, suggesting the need for more work to further examine the relationships between health and community design using pre-post assessments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Frye, Victoria; Paul, Margaret M.; Todd, Mary-Justine; Lewis, Veronica; Cupid, Malik; Coleman, Jane; Salmon, Christina; O'Campo, Patricia
How the neighborhood environment relates to intimate partner violence against women has been studied using theories applied originally to general violence. Extending social disorganization and collective efficacy theories, they apply a traditional measure informal social control that does not reflect behaviors specific to partner violence. We…
Nam, Soohyun; Whittemore, Robin; Jung, Sunyoung; Latkin, Carl; Kershaw, Trace; Redeker, Nancy S
African Americans (AAs) have a higher prevalence of sleep disorders than other racial/ethnic groups. However, little is known about the relationships among individual and neighborhood factors related to sleep quality in AAs. The purposes of this study were to (1) describe beliefs about sleep, sleep hygiene behaviors, and sleep quality among AAs; and (2) examine the relationships among sociodemographic characteristics, neighborhood environment, beliefs about sleep, sleep hygiene behaviors, and sleep quality. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 252 AA men and women in the Greater New Haven, CT, USA community. We assessed their sociodemographic characteristics, neighborhood environment, beliefs about sleep, sleep hygiene, and sleep quality with the following measures, respectively: the Neighborhood Environment Scale, the brief version of Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep, the Sleep Hygiene Practice Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. We performed descriptive statistics, correlations and multiple hierarchical regression. About 72% of the participants (mean age: 53.88 ± 14.17 years, 77.8% women) reported experiencing sleep disturbance. People with poor sleep quality were more likely to report poorer neighborhood social environment (social cohesion), poorer overall neighborhood environment, more dysfunctional beliefs toward sleep, and poorer sleep hygiene than those who had good sleep quality. In the final multivariate model that controlled for a number of chronic comorbid conditions, neighborhood environment, beliefs about sleep, and sleep hygiene behaviors were significantly associated with sleep quality. Future efforts are needed to improve sleep among AAs by considering both the individual's belief about sleep, sleep hygiene behaviors and neighborhood factors. Copyright © 2018 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Soobader, Mah-J.; Turbin, Mark S.; Hale, James W.; Buchenau, Michael; Marshall, Julie A.
Objectives. We considered the relationship between an urban adult population's fruit and vegetable consumption and several selected social and psychological processes, beneficial aesthetic experiences, and garden participation. Methods. We conducted a population-based survey representing 436 residents across 58 block groups in Denver, Colorado, from 2006 to 2007. We used multilevel statistical models to evaluate the survey data. Results. Neighborhood aesthetics, social involvement, and community garden participation were significantly associated with fruit and vegetable intake. Community gardeners consumed fruits and vegetables 5.7 times per day, compared with home gardeners (4.6 times per day) and nongardeners (3.9 times per day). Moreover, 56% of community gardeners met national recommendations to consume fruits and vegetables at least 5 times per day, compared with 37% of home gardeners and 25% of nongardeners. Conclusions. Our study results shed light on neighborhood processes that affect food-related behaviors and provides insights about the potential of community gardens to affect these behaviors. The qualities intrinsic to community gardens make them a unique intervention that can narrow the divide between people and the places where food is grown and increase local opportunities to eat better. PMID:21680931
Litt, Jill S; Soobader, Mah-J; Turbin, Mark S; Hale, James W; Buchenau, Michael; Marshall, Julie A
We considered the relationship between an urban adult population's fruit and vegetable consumption and several selected social and psychological processes, beneficial aesthetic experiences, and garden participation. We conducted a population-based survey representing 436 residents across 58 block groups in Denver, Colorado, from 2006 to 2007. We used multilevel statistical models to evaluate the survey data. Neighborhood aesthetics, social involvement, and community garden participation were significantly associated with fruit and vegetable intake. Community gardeners consumed fruits and vegetables 5.7 times per day, compared with home gardeners (4.6 times per day) and nongardeners (3.9 times per day). Moreover, 56% of community gardeners met national recommendations to consume fruits and vegetables at least 5 times per day, compared with 37% of home gardeners and 25% of nongardeners. Our study results shed light on neighborhood processes that affect food-related behaviors and provides insights about the potential of community gardens to affect these behaviors. The qualities intrinsic to community gardens make them a unique intervention that can narrow the divide between people and the places where food is grown and increase local opportunities to eat better.
Parekh, Rupal; Maleku, Arati; Fields, Noelle; Adorno, Gail; Schuman, Donna; Felderhoff, Brandi
Using a social capital and social cohesion lens, we reposition the concept of civic engagement among older adults to examine pathways for building age-friendly communities. We analyzed data drawn from a Community-Based Participatory Research study in the Southern U.S. that explored lived experiences of older adults, age 55 and above, who participated in individual interviews (n = 15) and six focus group discussions (n = 45) to examine their perceptions of social identity, social connectedness, and civic engagement geared toward an age-friendly city. Findings indicated that several older adults had access to social networks and socially invested resources, thereby having opportunities for civic engagement and building age-friendly neighborhoods. However, social, cultural, linguistic, and structural barriers were more evident among certain diverse ethnic populations. Marginalized low-income minorities and immigrants, such as Hispanic participants, felt the lack of social cohesion among the larger society limited their ability to give back, thus decreasing their civic engagement activities. In contrast, Caucasian and African-American older adults were able to contribute to the political process through more civic participation activities. We provide implications for examining the role of social capital and social engagement to bolster civic engagement among older adults in building age-friendly communities.
Claudia Gabriela Vargas Fernández
Full Text Available In the field of urban planning, questioning around sustainability and the possibility of sustainable urban planning has led to a new set of approaches and discussions that impact studies on urban form and sustainable livelihoods. This approach characterized the work presented by Mike Jenks and Colin Jones (2010, Dimensions of the Sustainable City, where a set of variables are presented about urban sustainability from the neighbourhood level of analysis. In that sense, this article proposes the analysis of three social housing neighborhoods in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México, integrating aspects of urban form and social acceptability, in order to understand the relationship between the physical and sociocultural dimensions of the concept of urban sustainability.
Dupuis, Marc; Studer, Joseph; Henchoz, Yves; Deline, Stéphane; Baggio, Stéphanie; N'Goran, Alexandra; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Gmel, Gerhard
This study main purpose was the validation of both French and German versions of a Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion Questionnaire. The sample group comprised 5065 Swiss men from the "Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors." Multigroup Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a three-factor model fits the data well, which substantiates the generalizability of Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion Questionnaire factor structure, regardless of the language. The Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion Questionnaire demonstrated excellent homogeneity (α = 95) and split-half reliability (r = .96). The Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion Questionnaire was sensitive to community size and participants' financial situation, confirming that it also measures real social conditions. Finally, weak but frequent correlations between Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion Questionnaire and alcohol, cigarette, and cannabis dependence were measured. © The Author(s) 2014.
Smith, Daniel Crane
This research (1) gathered data from a sample of employees on their social media practices and the social media policies of their employers and (2) investigated how blogging and other social media added to a model of organizational climate that promotes (a) knowledge sharing and cooperation, and (b) trust in peers and management. The research…
Strong, Larkin L; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Wetter, David W; McNeill, Lorna H
Few studies have assessed how attributes of neighborhood environments contribute to sedentary, in addition to active, behaviors. This study investigated associations of perceived social and physical aspects of neighborhood environments with television (TV) viewing and physical activity (PA) in African-American adults. Cross-sectional analysis of self-reported survey. Large mega-church in Houston, Texas. A total of 1374 African-American men and women. Outcomes included log-transformed daily TV viewing and participation in medium/high levels of PA, measured by the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Neighborhood perceptions were assessed with the Social Cohesion and Trust and the Neighborhood Problems scales. Multivariable models that controlled for clustering within neighborhoods. Reporting more neighborhood problems was significantly associated with greater log-transformed TV viewing in women (β = .017, SE = .006, p = .003), and social cohesion was positively associated with PA in women (odds ratio = 1.06, 95% confidence interval = 1.02, 1.11, p = .006). Concerns about litter and walking after dark and a lack of places to shop were associated with increased TV viewing among women, and concerns about traffic and walking after dark were associated with reduced PA among men. Physical and social neighborhood conditions were associated with TV viewing and PA, particularly in women. Neighborhood-based strategies to reduce sedentary behaviors and enhance PA should include attention to social as well as physical aspects of neighborhood environments.
Lim, Tee Teng; Jung, Sun Young; Kim, Eunyi
This study examined the impact of community and neighborhood on time spent computer gaming. Computer gaming for over 20 hours a week was set as the cutoff line for "engaged use" of computer games. For the analysis, this study analyzed data for about 1,800 subjects who participated in the Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey. The main findings are as follows: first, structural community characteristics and neighborhood social capital affected the engaged use of computer games. Second, adolescents who reside in regions with a higher divorce rate or higher residential mobility were likely to exhibit engaged use of computer games. Third, adolescents who highly perceive neighborhood social capital exhibited lower possibility of engaged use of computer games. Based on these findings, practical implications and directions for further study are suggested.
Gomez-Lopez, Iris N; Clarke, Philippa; Hill, Alex B; Romero, Daniel M; Goodspeed, Robert; Berrocal, Veronica J; Vinod Vydiswaran, V G; Veinot, Tiffany C
An established body of research has used secondary data sources (such as proprietary business databases) to demonstrate the importance of the neighborhood food environment for multiple health outcomes. However, documenting food availability using secondary sources in low-income urban neighborhoods can be particularly challenging since small businesses play a crucial role in food availability. These small businesses are typically underrepresented in national databases, which rely on secondary sources to develop data for marketing purposes. Using social media and other crowdsourced data to account for these smaller businesses holds promise, but the quality of these data remains unknown. This paper compares the quality of full-line grocery store information from Yelp, a crowdsourced content service, to a "ground truth" data set (Detroit Food Map) and a commercially-available dataset (Reference USA) for the greater Detroit area. Results suggest that Yelp is more accurate than Reference USA in identifying healthy food stores in urban areas. Researchers investigating the relationship between the nutrition environment and health may consider Yelp as a reliable and valid source for identifying sources of healthy food in urban environments.
Petersen, Lars Kjerulf; Jensen, Anne; Nielsen, Signe Svalgaard
This poster reports from a explorative study about social aspects of climate change adaptation in Denmark. The aim of the project was to explore how people perceive and relate to climate change adaptation, what risks are associated with climate change and how are those risks balanced with other...... risks and concerns of everyday life? The project found that the distinction between climate change mitigation and adaptation is of little significance for lay people. The prospect of climate change does provoke reflections on social values and the need for saving energy, but when it comes to protecting...... ones own life and property against future damaging effects of climate change the threat seems distant and other forms of home improvement seem more relevant. People have a high level of trust in socio-technical systems and feel that adaptation measures primarily should be taken by the authorities....
Fleisch Marcus, Andrea; Illescas, Alex H; Hohl, Bernadette C; Llanos, Adana A M
Social isolation is an important determinant of all-cause mortality, with evidence suggesting an association with cancer-specific mortality as well. In this study, we examined the associations between social isolation and neighborhood poverty (independently and jointly) on cancer mortality in a population-based sample of US adults. Using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III; 1988-1994), NHANES III Linked Mortality File (through 2011) and 1990 Census, we estimated the relationship between social isolation and high neighborhood poverty and time-to-cancer death using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. We examined the associations of each factor independently and explored the multiplicative and additive interaction effects on cancer mortality risk and also analyzed these associations by sex. Among 16 044 US adults with 17-23 years of follow-up, there were 1133 cancer deaths. Social isolation (HR 1.25, 95% CI: 1.01-1.54) and high neighborhood poverty (HR 1.31, 95% CI: 1.08-1.60) were associated with increased risk of cancer mortality adjusting for age, sex, and race/ethnicity; in sex-specific estimates this increase in risk was evident among females only (HR 1.39, 95% CI: 1.04-1.86). These associations were attenuated upon further adjustment for socioeconomic status. There was no evidence of joint effects of social isolation and high neighborhood poverty on cancer mortality overall or in the sex-stratified models. These findings suggest that social isolation and higher neighborhood poverty are independently associated with increased risk of cancer mortality, although there is no evidence to support our a priori hypothesis of a joint effect.
Hoerster, Katherine D; Wilson, Sarah; Nelson, Karin M; Reiber, Gayle E; Masheb, Robin M
United States Veterans have a higher prevalence of overweight and related chronic conditions compared to the general population. Although diet is a primary and modifiable contributor to these conditions, little is known about factors influencing diet quality among Veterans. The goal of this study is to examine individual, social environment, and physical environment correlates of general diet quality among Veterans. Study participants (N=653) received care at an urban VA Medical Center in Seattle, WA and completed a mailed survey in 2012 and 2013. Diet quality was assessed with Starting the Conversation, an instrument that measures consumption of unhealthy snacks, fast food, desserts, sugar-sweetened beverages, and fats; fruits and vegetables; and healthy proteins. Variables significantly (pfoods in neighborhood stores where the Veteran shops (Diff=-0.37; CI=-0.6, -0.2; pfoods are needed to improve Veteran diet quality. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Bender, Anne Mette; Kawachi, Ichiro; Jørgensen, Torben; Pisinger, Charlotta
Participation in population-based preventive health check has declined over the past decades. More research is needed to determine factors enhancing participation. The objective of this study was to examine the association between two measures of neighborhood level social capital on participation in the health check phase of a population-based lifestyle intervention. The study population comprised 12,568 residents of 73 Danish neighborhoods in the intervention group of a large population-based lifestyle intervention study - the Inter99. Two measures of social capital were applied; informal socializing and voting turnout. In a multilevel analysis only adjusting for age and sex, a higher level of neighborhood social capital was associated with higher probability of participating in the health check. Inclusion of both individual socioeconomic position and neighborhood deprivation in the model attenuated the coefficients for informal socializing, while voting turnout became non-significant. Higher level of neighborhood social capital was associated with higher probability of participating in the health check phase of a population-based lifestyle intervention. Most of the association between neighborhood social capital and participation in preventive health checks can be explained by differences in individual socioeconomic position and level of neighborhood deprivation. Nonetheless, there seems to be some residual association between social capital and health check participation, suggesting that activating social relations in the community may be an avenue for boosting participation rates in population-based health checks. ClinicalTrials.gov (registration no. NCT00289237 ).
Howarth, R.B. [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States). Environmental Studies Program
This paper examines the implications of alternative approaches to intertemporal social choice in a numerically calibrated model of interactions between global climate change and the world economy. Under cost-benefit analysis, relatively modest steps towards greenhouse gas emissions abatement are justified as economically efficient. Under classical utilitarianism and the precautionary principle, in contrast, aggressive steps towards climate stabilization emerge as socially optimal. The paper reviews the value judgement that support each of these normative approaches, arguing that the precautionary principle is most loosely tied to the goals and objectives of the Framework Convention on Climate Change. (Author)
Martens, Patricia J; Chateau, Daniel G; Burland, Elaine M J; Finlayson, Gregory S; Smith, Mark J; Taylor, Carole R; Brownell, Marni D; Nickel, Nathan C; Katz, Alan; Bolton, James M
We explored differences in health and education outcomes between children living in social housing and not, and effects of social housing's neighborhood socioeconomic status. In this cohort study, we used the population-based repository of administrative data at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy. We included children aged 0 to 19 years in Winnipeg, Manitoba, in fiscal years 2006-2007 to 2008-2009 (n = 13,238 social housing; n = 174,017 others). We examined 5 outcomes: age-2 complete immunization, a school-readiness measure, adolescent pregnancy (ages 15-19 years), grade-9 completion, and high-school completion. Logistic regression and generalized estimating equation modeling generated rates. We derived neighborhood income quintiles (Q1 lowest, Q5 highest) from average household income census data. Children in social housing fared worse than comparative children within each neighborhood income quintile. When we compared children in social housing by quintile, preschool indicators (immunization and school readiness) were similar, but adolescent outcomes (grade-9 and high-school completion, adolescent pregnancy) were better in Q3 to Q5. Children in social housing had poorer health and education outcomes than all others, but living in social housing in wealthier areas was associated with better adolescent outcomes.
Chen, Duan-Rung; Lin, Yi-Ching
Asian countries are currently witnessing unprecedented increase in physical inactivity and subsequent negative health outcomes; however, few cross-country studies documenting this trend exist. This paper presents the findings of a nationally representative sample, based on the East Asian Social Survey in 2011. The study sought to examine the association of social identity factors, such as objective socio-economic position, perceived social status and neighborhood quality with physical inactivity, while controlling for psychosocial and physical health. A sample of 5222 adults living in urban areas across China, Taiwan, and South Korea were surveyed. Multivariate nested logistic regressions were constructed. Perceived social status was positively associated with physical activity. Gender difference in physical activity was significant, and this difference widened as educational levels increased. Class division in physical activity was also found. Perceived physical and social features of neighborhood such as suitability for walking and jogging, air quality, and help from neighbors were to different degrees associated with physical inactivity. Gender, marital status, education and perceived social status were common factors associated with physical inactivity in East Asian countries. Perceived urban neighborhood quality is particularly important for Chinese people to stay physically active. Cultural-behavioral norms for physical activity associated with gender and social status call for more studies on cultural perspective for health behaviors in cross-cultural contexts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Do neighborhood economic characteristics, racial composition, and residential stability predict perceptions of stress associated with the physical and social environment? Findings from a multilevel analysis in Detroit.
Schulz, Amy J; Zenk, Shannon N; Israel, Barbara A; Mentz, Graciela; Stokes, Carmen; Galea, Sandro
As the body of evidence linking disparities in the health of urban residents to disparate social, economic and environmental contexts grows, efforts to delineate the pathways through which broader social and economic inequalities influence health have burgeoned. One hypothesized pathway connects economic and racial and ethnic inequalities to differentials in stress associated with social and physical environments, with subsequent implications for health. Drawing on data from Detroit, Michigan, we examined contributions of neighborhood-level characteristics (e.g., poverty rate, racial and ethnic composition, residential stability) and individual-level characteristics (e.g., age, gender) to perceived social and physical environmental stress. We found that neighborhood percent African American was positively associated with perceptions of both social and physical environmental stress; neighborhood percent poverty and percent Latino were positively associated with perceived physical environmental stress; and neighborhood residential stability was negatively associated with perceived social environmental stress. At the individual level, whites perceived higher levels of both social and physical environmental stress compared to African American residents of the same block groups, after accounting for other variables included in the models. Our findings suggest the importance of understanding and addressing contributions of neighborhood structural characteristics to perceptions of neighborhood stress. The consistency of the finding that neighborhood racial composition and individual-level race influence perceptions of both social and physical environments suggests the continuing importance of understanding the role played by structural conditions and by personal and collective histories that vary systematically by race and ethnicity within the United States.
McCoy, Dana Charles; Connors, Maia C; Morris, Pamela A; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Friedman-Krauss, Allison H
Past research has shown robust relationships between neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and children's school achievement and social-emotional outcomes, yet the mechanisms for explaining these relationships are poorly understood. The present study uses data from 1,904 Head Start participants enrolled in the Head Start Impact Study to examine the role that classroom structural and relational quality play in explaining the association between neighborhood poverty and children's developmental gains over the preschool year. Results suggest that neighborhood poverty is directly related to lower levels of classroom quality, and lower gains in early literacy and math scores. Indirect relationships were also found between neighborhood poverty and children's social-emotional outcomes (i.e., approaches to learning and behavior problems) via differences in the physical resources and negative student-teacher relationships within classrooms. These findings highlight the need for policy initiatives to consider community characteristics as potential predictors of disparities in classroom quality and children's cognitive and social-emotional development in Head Start.
Full Text Available The paper uses the results of the sample survey Eurobarometer, which has been requested by the European Commission. The social climate index is used to measure the level of perceptions of population by taking into account their personal situation and their perspective at national level. The paper makes an analysis of the evolution of social climate indices for the countries of European Union and offers information about the expectations of population of analyzed countries. The obtained results can be compared with the forecasting of Eurobarometer, on short term of one year and medium term of five years. Modelling the social climate index and its influence factors offers useful information about the efficiency of social protection and inclusion policies.
Carleton, Tamma A; Hsiang, Solomon M
For centuries, thinkers have considered whether and how climatic conditions-such as temperature, rainfall, and violent storms-influence the nature of societies and the performance of economies. A multidisciplinary renaissance of quantitative empirical research is illuminating important linkages in the coupled climate-human system. We highlight key methodological innovations and results describing effects of climate on health, economics, conflict, migration, and demographics. Because of persistent "adaptation gaps," current climate conditions continue to play a substantial role in shaping modern society, and future climate changes will likely have additional impact. For example, we compute that temperature depresses current U.S. maize yields by ~48%, warming since 1980 elevated conflict risk in Africa by ~11%, and future warming may slow global economic growth rates by ~0.28 percentage points per year. In general, we estimate that the economic and social burden of current climates tends to be comparable in magnitude to the additional projected impact caused by future anthropogenic climate changes. Overall, findings from this literature point to climate as an important influence on the historical evolution of the global economy, they should inform how we respond to modern climatic conditions, and they can guide how we predict the consequences of future climate changes. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Rajaratnam, Julie Knoll; O'Campo, Patricia; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Muntaner, Carles
Objectives: To examine how individual characteristics, social isolation, and neighborhood context affect depressive symptoms in a socio-economically diverse population of women with young children. Methods: Interviews were conducted with 261 mothers from 68 neighborhoods in Baltimore between 1998 and 2000. Depressive symptoms were measured using…
Klijs, Bart; de Leon, Carlos F. Mendes; Kibele, Eva U. B.; Smidt, Nynke
We investigated whether social relations buffer the effect of neighborhood deprivation on mental and physical health-related quality of life. Baseline data from the LifeLines Cohort Study (N=68,111) and a neighborhood deprivation index were used to perform mixed effect linear regression analyses.
Berg, P. van den; Sharmeen, F.; Weijs-Perrée, M.
Contemporary research in the field of transportation is paying due attention to the geography and composition of personal social networks. However, still little is known about the quality of social interactions, although arguably the subjective quality of social interaction is more important for
van den Berg, P.E.W.; Sharmeen, F.; Weijs - Perrée, M.
Contemporary research in the field of transportation is paying due attention to the geography and composition of personal social networks. However, still little is known about the quality of social interactions, although arguably the subjective quality of social interaction is more important for
Smith, Kylie J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Cleland, Verity J; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie
Breakfast skipping is a potentially modifiable behavior that has negative effects on health and is socioeconomically patterned. This study aimed to examine the intrapersonal (health, behavioral, and cognitive) and social factors associated with breakfast skipping. Nonpregnant women (n = 4123) aged 18-45 y from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods throughout Victoria, Australia, completed a postal questionnaire. Sociodemographic characteristics, diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and cognitive and social factors were assessed by self-report. Breakfast skipping was defined in 2 ways: 1) "rarely/never" eating breakfast (n = 498) and 2) eating breakfast ≤2 d/wk (includes those who rarely/never ate breakfast; n = 865). Poisson regression was used to calculate prevalence ratios and linear trends, adjusting for covariates. The P values for linear trends are reported below. Compared with breakfast consumers, women who reported rarely/never eating breakfast tended to have poorer self-rated health (P-trend pay less attention to health (P-trend lower proportion were trying to control their weight (P-trend lower leisure-time physical activity (P-trend = 0.012) and less self-efficacy for eating a healthy diet (P-trend women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. Acknowledging the cross-sectional design and need for causal confirmation, programs that aim to promote breakfast consumption in this population group should consider targeting family-related barriers to healthy eating and nutrition knowledge.
Terry Barker; Şerban Scrieciu; David Taylor
Terry Barker, Şerban Scrieciu and David Taylor discuss the implications of climate change for social justice and the prospects for more sustainable development pathways. They state that the analysis and discussions surrounding the climate change problem, particularly those drawing on the traditional economics literature, have relied on a crude economic utilitarianism that no moral philosopher would endorse. Such arguments have typically ignored the concept of justice itself and wider e...
The impact of the neighborhood on the economic mobility, examining the social networks of inhabitants of three segregated neighborhoods from Salvador de Bahia (Brazil, from the social concept isolation
Full Text Available This qualitative study examines the neighborhood effects on the economic mobility of the inhabitants of three segregated neighborhoods in Salvador (Brazil, in other words the socio-economic advantages and disadvantages affecting the lifes of poor people due to their embeddedness in specific socio-residential contexts. According to the hypothesis of social isolation, the missing articulation with social networks and institutions representing mainstream society and the insufficient exposition to middle class role models foster the reproduction of poverty. However, major disagreement remains whether the contiguity between residents of poor neighborhoods and higherclass condominio-dwellers provides structures of opportunities. Based on a survey analyzing the inhabitants’ egocentric networks, the study confirms that the proximity of Nordeste de Amaralina to middle-/upper-class communities improves the access to labour opportunities. Nevertheless, mechanisms of social segmentation annihilate these potentials. The residents´ networks reveal a high degree of homophily and localism. Segregational structures and the scarcity of economic opportunities in Plataforma foster the networks’ fragmentation whereas the social heterogeneity of Fazenda Grande II interviewees and the socialising effects of public institutions mitigate the impact of segregation. The networks’ composition admits a greater proportion of bridging ties. The study concludes emphasizing the relevance of the social isolation hypothesis in Urban Sociology whenever the process of social network building operates in contexts of segregation where social space appears to be highly congruent with the geographical environment. Whereas Nordeste de Amaralina and Plataforma risk to become socially isolated, the Fazenda Grande II case demonstrates that public investments in social infrastructure stimulate interclass interactions.
Background. Previous studies of neighborhood safety and physical (in)activity have typically neglected to consider the youth’s peer context as a modifier of these relationships. Objective. Test the independent and interactive effects of perceived neighborhood safety and time spent with friends and p...
Gilster, Megan E.
Does participating in neighborhood-focused activism confer different benefits than volunteering? The engagement of community members in neighborhood civic life has been identified as an important component of safe and healthy communities. Research on community engagement has encompassed voluntary associations, volunteering, as well as…
Tomita, Andrew; Labys, Charlotte A.; Burns, Jonathan K
The apartheid regime that governed South Africa from 1948 – 1994 established spatial segregation that is understood to have contributed to the magnitude of neighborhood social disorder in the post-apartheid era. Although a number of neighborhood social disorder characteristics, such as perceived violence and crime in the community, are prominent issues in South Africa, the extent to which these perceived spatial attributes are linked to depression is unknown at the population-level. Multilevel modeling of data from the second wave of the South African National Income Dynamics Study (SA-NIDS) was utilized to examine the relationship between depressive symptomatology and neighborhood social disorder as indicated by the perceived frequency of violent, criminal and illicit activities in the community. Depressive symptomatology was assessed using the 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. A cut off score of ten or higher was used to indicate the presence of significant depressive symptomatology. Results showed that perception of neighborhood social disorder was independently associated with significant levels of depressive symptomatology. Gender, race/ethnicity, perceived health status, and education were significant for individual-level covariates of depression. Community intervention strategies that reduce the risk of neighborhood disorganization and emphasize positive social norms in the neighborhood are warranted. Taking into account the residential de-racialization of a country transitioning from apartheid to non-racial democracy, a longitudinal spatial study design assessing the dynamics between depression and the aforementioned perceptions of neighborhood attributes may also be warranted. PMID:25642654
Sundquist, Jan; Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Li, Xinjun; Kawakami, Naomi; Shiwaku, Kuninori; Sundquist, Kristina
Little is known about the association between neighborhood linking social capital and psychiatric medication in the elderly. The present study analyzes whether there is an association between linking social capital (a theoretical concept describing the amount of trust between individuals and societal institutions) and prescription of antipsychotics, anxiolytics, hypnotics/sedatives, antidepressants, or anti-dementia drugs. The entire Swedish population aged 65+, a total of 1,292,816 individuals, were followed from 1 July 2005 until first prescription of psychiatric medication, death, emigration, or the end of the study on 31 December 2010. Small geographic units were used to define neighborhoods. The definition of linking social capital was based on mean voting participation in each neighborhood unit, categorized in three groups. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and between-neighborhood variance in three different models. There was an inverse association between the level of linking social capital and prescription of psychiatric medications (except for anti-dementia drugs). The associations decreased, but remained significant, after accounting for age, sex, family income, marital status, country of birth, and education level (except for antidepressants). The OR for prescription of antipsychotics in the crude model was 1.65 (95% CI 1.53-1.78) and decreased, but remained significant (OR = 1.26; 95% CI 1.17-1.35), after adjustment for the individual-level sociodemographic variables. Decision-makers should take into account the potentially negative effect of linking social capital on psychiatric disorders when planning sites of primary care centers and psychiatric clinics, as well as other kinds of community support for elderly patients with such disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maass, Ruca; Kloeckner, Christian A; Lindstrøm, Bengt; Lillefjell, Monica
Neighborhood social capital has repeatedly been linked to favorable health-outcomes and life satisfaction. However, it has been questioned whether it's impact on health has been over-rated. We aim to investigate relationships between neighborhood social capital and self-rated health (SRH) and life satisfaction (LS) respectively, both directly and indirectly mediated via Sense of Coherence and self-esteem. Based on a cross-sectional population-survey (N=865) in a medium size Norwegian municipality, we specified a structural equation model (SEM) including the above-listed variables, while controlling for gender, age, education, income, and employment status. The applied model explains more variance in LS (46%) than in SRH (23%). Social capital has a stronger impact on life satisfaction than on health. The indirect pathway via SOC had the highest impact on life satisfaction, but no significant relationship to SRH. Self-rated health was more tightly linked to personal background variables. Enhancing social capital in the neighborhood might be a beneficial strategy to promote life satisfaction, as well as strengthening sense of coherence even in healthy communities. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Spatial filtering using a geographic information system (GIS is often used to smooth health and ecological data. Smoothing disease data can help us understand local (neighborhood geographic variation and ecological risk of diseases. Analyses that use small neighborhood sizes yield individualistic patterns and large sizes reveal the global structure of data where local variation is obscured. Therefore, choosing an optimal neighborhood size is important for understanding ecological associations with diseases. This paper uses Hartley's test of homogeneity of variance (Fmax as a methodological solution for selecting optimal neighborhood sizes. The data from a study area in Vietnam are used to test the suitability of this method. Results The Hartley's Fmax test was applied to spatial variables for two enteric diseases and two socioeconomic determinants. Various neighbourhood sizes were tested by using a two step process to implement the Fmaxtest. First the variance of each neighborhood was compared to the highest neighborhood variance (upper, Fmax1 and then they were compared with the lowest neighborhood variance (lower, Fmax2. A significant value of Fmax1 indicates that the neighborhood does not reveal the global structure of data, and in contrast, a significant value in Fmax2 implies that the neighborhood data are not individualistic. The neighborhoods that are between the lower and the upper limits are the optimal neighbourhood sizes. Conclusion The results of tests provide different neighbourhood sizes for different variables suggesting that optimal neighbourhood size is data dependent. In ecology, it is well known that observation scales may influence ecological inference. Therefore, selecting optimal neigborhood size is essential for understanding disease ecologies. The optimal neighbourhood selection method that is tested in this paper can be useful in health and ecological studies.
Different time scales of climate change and their differential perception in society are discussed. A historical examination of natural climate changes during the past millennium suggests that short-term changes, especially crucial changes, trigger a significant response in and by society. Short-term changes correspond to the 'time horizon of everyday life', that is, to a time scale from days and weeks to a few years. The anticipated anthropogenic climate changes, however, are expected to occur on a longer time scale. They require a response by society not on the basis of primary experience but on the basis of scientifically constructed scenarios and ways in which such information is represented in the modern media for example. Socio-economic impact research relies on concepts that are based on the premise of perfectly informed actors for the development of optimal adaptation strategies. In contrast to such a conception, we develop the concept of a 'social construct of climate' as decisive for the public perception of scientific knowledge about climate and for public policy on climate change. The concept is illustrated using a number of examples. (orig.)
Climate is a key driver regulating vegetation structure across rural ecosystems. In urban ecosystems, multiple interactions between humans and the environment can have homogenizing influences, confounding the relationship between vegetation structure and climate. In fact, vegetat...
Jung, Minsoo; Lin, Leesa; Viswanath, K
During the H1N1 pandemic in 2009-10, the vaccination behavior of parents played a critical role in preventing and containing the spread of the disease and the subsequent health outcomes among children. Several studies have examined the relationship between parents' health communication behaviors and vaccinations for children in general. Little is known, however, about the link between parents' health communication behaviors and the vaccination of their children against the H1N1 virus, and their level of vaccine-related knowledge. We drew on a national survey among parents with at least one child less than 18 years of age (n=639) to investigate Parents' H1N1-related health communication behaviors including sources of information, media exposure, information-seeking behaviors, H1N1-related knowledge, and neighborhood social capital, as well as the H1N1 vaccination rates of their children. Findings showed that there is a significant association between the degree at which parents obtained H1N1 vaccination for their children and health communication variables: watching the national television news and actively seeking H1N1 information. And this association was moderated by the extent of the parents' H1N1-related knowledge. In addition, the parents' degree of neighborhood social capital mediated the association between H1N1 knowledge of the parents and H1N1 vaccination acceptance for their children. We found, compared to those with a low-level of neighborhood social capital, parents who have a high-level of neighborhood social capital are more likely to vaccinate their children. These findings suggest that it is necessary to design a strategic health communication campaign segmented by parent health communication behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brick, Leslie Ann D; Nugent, Nicole R; Kahana, Shoshana Y; Bruce, Douglas; Tanney, Mary R; Fernández, M Isabel; Bauermeister, Jose A
Youth living with HIV (YLH) experience multiple disease-related stresses along with the same structural and developmental challenges faced by their uninfected peers; alcohol use among YLH represents a risk behavior by virtue of potential effects on youth health and increased likelihood of engaging in unprotected sex while drinking alcohol. Research aimed at better understanding the interplay of individual- and neighborhood-level influences on alcohol use for YLH is needed to inform interventions. This study examined whether socioeconomic disadvantage (SED) and social support influence, independently and through interaction, alcohol use in YLH. Data from the Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions (ATN) consisted of YLH across 538 neighborhoods in the United States who acquired HIV behaviorally. Neighborhood-specific data were compiled from the 2010 U.S. Census Bureau and matched with individual-level data from the ATN (N = 1,357) to examine effects that contribute to variation in frequency of alcohol use. Other drug use, being male, being non-Black, and older age were associated with greater alcohol use. Higher social support was negatively associated with alcohol use frequency. A cross-level interaction indicated that the association found between decreasing social support and increasing alcohol use frequency was weakened in areas with lower SED. Implications are discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.
Levy, Barry S; Patz, Jonathan A
The environmental and health consequences of climate change, which disproportionately affect low-income countries and poor people in high-income countries, profoundly affect human rights and social justice. Environmental consequences include increased temperature, excess precipitation in some areas and droughts in others, extreme weather events, and increased sea level. These consequences adversely affect agricultural production, access to safe water, and worker productivity, and, by inundating land or making land uninhabitable and uncultivatable, will force many people to become environmental refugees. Adverse health effects caused by climate change include heat-related disorders, vector-borne diseases, foodborne and waterborne diseases, respiratory and allergic disorders, malnutrition, collective violence, and mental health problems. These environmental and health consequences threaten civil and political rights and economic, social, and cultural rights, including rights to life, access to safe food and water, health, security, shelter, and culture. On a national or local level, those people who are most vulnerable to the adverse environmental and health consequences of climate change include poor people, members of minority groups, women, children, older people, people with chronic diseases and disabilities, those residing in areas with a high prevalence of climate-related diseases, and workers exposed to extreme heat or increased weather variability. On a global level, there is much inequity, with low-income countries, which produce the least greenhouse gases (GHGs), being more adversely affected by climate change than high-income countries, which produce substantially higher amounts of GHGs yet are less immediately affected. In addition, low-income countries have far less capability to adapt to climate change than high-income countries. Adaptation and mitigation measures to address climate change needed to protect human society must also be planned to protect
City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The Durham Neighborhood Compass is a quantitative indicators project with qualitative values, integrating data from local government, the Census Bureau and other...
V.L.N. Schölmerich (Vera); L. Erdem-Eraslan (Lale); G.J.J.M. Borsboom (Gerard); H. Ghorashi (Halleh); P.P. Groenewegen (Peter); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); I. Kawachi (Ichiro); S. Denktaş (Semiha)
textabstractBackground: Perinatal morbidity rates are relatively high in the Netherlands, and significant inequalities in perinatal morbidity and mortality can be found across neighborhoods. In socioeconomically deprived areas, 'Western' women are particularly at risk for adverse birth outcomes.
Schölmerich, V.L.N.; Erdem, O.; Borsboom, G.; Ghorashi, H.; Groenewegen, P.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Kawachi, I.; Denktas, S
Background: Perinatal morbidity rates are relatively high in the Netherlands, and significant inequalities in perinatal morbidity and mortality can be found across neighborhoods. In socioeconomically deprived areas, 'Western' women are particularly at risk for adverse birth outcomes. Almost all
Each year since 2000, the French 'ADEME' (Agency for Environment and Energy Management) conducts a survey on the social representations of greenhouse effect and global warming. This survey is administered by telephone to a representative sample of the French population. The information gathered in the database can answer a series of basic questions concerning public perception in this area. What do the concepts of 'greenhouse effect' and 'global warming' mean for the public? To what extent do people think there is a consensus among scientists to explain these phenomena? Is responsibility for human action clearly established? What kind of solutions, based on public regulation or private initiative can help to remedy this situation? Finally, what were the major changes in public opinion over this 12 years period? (author)
Chang, Aileen Y; Fuller, Douglas O; Carrasquillo, Olveen; Beier, John C
Climate change should be viewed fundamentally as an issue of global justice. Understanding the complex interplay of climatic and socioeconomic trends is imperative to protect human health and lessen the burden of diseases such as dengue fever. Dengue fever is rapidly expanding globally. Temperature, rainfall, and frequency of natural disasters, as well as non-climatic trends involving population growth and migration, urbanization, and international trade and travel, are expected to increase the prevalence of mosquito breeding sites, mosquito survival, the speed of mosquito reproduction, the speed of viral incubation, the distribution of dengue virus and its vectors, human migration patterns towards urban areas, and displacement after natural disasters. The burden of dengue disproportionately affects the poor due to increased environmental risk and decreased health care. Mobilization of social institutions is needed to improve the structural inequalities of poverty that predispose the poor to increased dengue fever infection and worse outcomes. This paper reviews the link between dengue and climatic factors as a starting point to developing a comprehensive understanding of how climate change affects dengue risk and how institutions can address the issues of social justice and dengue outbreaks that increasingly affect vulnerable urban populations. Copyright © 2014 Chang, Fuller, Carrasquillo, Beier. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Petrucci, Alessandra; Salvini, Silvana
Climate and society evolve together in a manner that could place already vulnerable areas and their population at a greater risk to extreme weather events. While efforts have been devoted to better planning preparedness and responses to weather extremes, the interactions among various stakeholders who deal with hazard mitigation and response, and the community members, also related with gender and age differences, are not completely understood. In contrast to physical vulnerability, which arises from the potential for environmental extremes to create adverse physiological changes, social vulnerability arises from the potential for these extreme events to cause changes in people's behavior. People can vary in their potential for injury to themselves and their families. They also vary in the potential for destruction of their homes and workplaces, as well as the destruction of the transportation systems and locations for shopping and recreation they use in their daily activities. It is important to recognize that social vulnerability is not randomly distributed either demographically or geographically. In particular, the social vulnerability arising from a lack of psychological resilience, social network integration, economic assets, and political power vary across demographic groups. Some of these components of social vulnerability can be predicted by demographic characteristics such as gender, age, education, income, and ethnicity. This review explores the gender and social difference dimensions of vulnerability and adaptive capacity in relation to climate change.
Climate change subjects societies to a large range of uncertainties concerning the future and their development orientation. It came up as a scientific global problem, extended to political concerns first at a global and then national scales. Though it has long been the object of economic approaches which have notably contributed to its recognition, particularly the Stern Report, social sciences have hardly been mobilized as part of policies to counteract it. Social sciences strongly question the notion of climate change being built as a global scale transcendent phenomenon, analyzed by several authors. With the rise of adaptation policies, the question becomes even more important. Adaptation first comes up as a spontaneous behaviour, independent of policy, in close relationship to social dimensions as a basic way through which climate change is grasped collectively. Thus adaptation policies' social aspects need to be carefully worked in relation with more general goals for adaptation policies to be implemented efficiently, on the basis of wide interactions between local and global scales. (author)
Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan
sharing engagement (sharing informal knowledge of a personal nature and the staff's application of each other's knowledge to task relevant problems) on diversity climate (openness to linguistic, visual, value and informational diversity) among university teachers. Sample: The study used questionnaire...... to diversity are known to be better integrated and to perform better. While the relation between a positive social climate and group functioning is well documented, we know much less about antecedents for such a climate. Purpose: The aim of this study is to examine the effect of internal learning and knowledge...... knowledge of a personal nature; and (2) their application of each other's knowledge to task relevant problems had strong positive associations with openness to linguistic, visible, value and informational diversity. We conclude that interaction and knowledge sharing among teachers in multicultural...
Shwom, R.; Isenhour, C.; McCright, A.; Robinson, J.; Jordan, R.
The Essential Principles of Climate Science Literacy states that a climate-literate individual can: "understand the essential principles of Earth's climate system, assess scientifically credible information about climate change, communicate about climate and climate change in a meaningful way, and make informed and responsible decisions with regard to actions that may affect climate." We argue that further integration of the social science dimensions of climate change will advance the climate literacy goals of communication and responsible actions. The underlying rationale for this argues: 1) teaching the habits of mind and scientific practices that have synergies across the social and natural sciences can strengthen students ability to understand and assess science in general and that 2) understanding the empirical research on the social, political, and economic processes (including climate science itself) that are part of the climate system is an important step for enabling effective action and communication. For example, while climate literacy has often identified the public's faulty mental models of climate processes as a partial explanation of complacency, emerging research suggests that the public's mental models of the social world are equally or more important in leading to informed and responsible climate decisions. Building student's ability to think across the social and natural sciences by understanding "how we know what we know" through the sciences and a scientific understanding of the social world allows us to achieve climate literacy goals more systematically and completely. To enable this integration we first identify the robust social science insights for the climate science literacy principles that involve social systems. We then briefly identify significant social science contributions to climate science literacy that do not clearly fit within the seven climate literacy principles but arguably could advance climate literacy goals. We conclude
McManus, Beth Marie; Robert, Stephanie A; Albanese, Aggie; Sadek-Badawi, Mona; Palta, Mari
To examine whether (1) neighborhood disadvantage is associated with social function in 2- and 3-year-olds born at very low birth weight (<1500 g) and (2) the association between social function and child's health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is moderated by neighborhood disadvantage. Cross-sectional study using the Newborn Lung Project, a cohort of infants born at very low birth weight in 2003 and 2004 in Wisconsin. Wisconsin. This study includes the subgroup of 626 non-Hispanic black or white infants who were followed up at ages 24 to 43 months with parent-reported health and developmental information. An index of neighborhood disadvantage was derived by principal component analysis of 5 census tract variables (percentage of families in poverty, percentage of households with income higher than the state median, percentage of women with bachelor's degree or more, percentage of single mothers, and percentage of mothers of young children unemployed). Children were then classified (based on index tertiles) as living in either disadvantaged, middle advantage, or advantaged neighborhoods. Children's HRQoL was measured using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory. Social function was measured using the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory. Adjusting for child medical and family socioeconomic attributes, social function was lower (mean difference, -4.60; 95% confidence interval, -8.4 to -0.8) for children living in disadvantaged vs advantaged neighborhoods. We also found that the ill effects of lower HRQoL are particularly bad for children living in a disadvantaged neighborhood. Children born at very low birth weight have disparities in social function at ages 2 and 3 years that are associated with both HRQoL and neighborhood characteristics.
Leventhal, Tama; Shuey, Elizabeth A.
This study explored how neighborhood social processes and resources, relevant to immigrant families and immigrant neighborhoods, contribute to young children's behavioral functioning and achievement across diverse racial/ethnic groups. Data were drawn from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, a neighborhood-based,…
Bateman, Lori Brand; Fouad, Mona N; Hawk, Bianca; Osborne, Tiffany; Bae, Sejong; Eady, Sequoya; Thompson, Joanice; Brantley, Wendy; Crawford, Lovie; Heider, Laura; Schoenberger, Yu-Mei M
The purpose of this article is to describe the process of conducting an assessment of neighborhood perceptions and cohesion by a community coalition-academic team created in the context of community-based participatory research (CBPR), to guide the design of locally relevant health initiatives. Guided by CBPR principles, a collaborative partnership was established between an academic center and a local, urban, underserved neighborhood in Birmingham, Alabama to identify and address community concerns and priorities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in September 2016 among community residents (N=90) to examine perceptions of neighborhood characteristics, including social cohesion and neighborhood problems. The major concerns voiced by the coalition were violence and lack of neighborhood cohesion and safety. The community survey verified the concerns of the coalition, with the majority of participants mentioning increasing safety and stopping the violence as the things to change about the community and the greatest hope for the community. Furthermore, results indicated residents had a moderate level of perceived social cohesion (mean = 2.87 [.67]). The Mid-South TCC Academic and Community Engagement (ACE) Core successfully partnered with community members and stakeholders to establish a coalition whose concerns and vision for the community matched the concerns of residents of the community. Collecting data from different groups strengthened the interpretation of the findings and allowed for a rich understanding of neighborhood concerns.
Lowe, Sarah R; Pothen, John; Quinn, James W; Rundle, Andrew; Bradley, Bekh; Galea, Sandro; Ressler, Kerry J; Koenen, Karestan C
Few studies have explored interactions between genes and social environmental exposures (GxSEs) for trauma-related psychopathology, including symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTS) and major depression (MD). The extant literature suggests the possibility of a GxSE between the rs2267735 variant of the ADCYAP1R1 gene and neighborhood crime. The current study aimed to explore this possibility among a predominantly African American sample of trauma-exposed women. Female participants (N=1361) were recruited from a public hospital, and completed measures of PTS and MD symptoms and provided DNA samples. Participants' home addresses were mapped onto 300 neighborhoods (2010 census tracts), and data on crime within neighborhoods was collected. Multilevel models detected a significant GxSE between rs2267735 and neighborhood crime for MD symptoms (p=.01). Having two copies of the risk (C) allele was associated with higher MD symptoms for participants living in high-crime neighborhoods. At least six limitations are noteworthy: (1) low statistical power; (2) use of self-report symptom inventories; (3) lack of information on symptom onset; (4) homogeneous sample from a single metropolitan area; (5) non-specific index of crime; and (6) use of census tracts to define neighborhoods. The results provide further evidence of GxSEs for psychiatric outcomes among trauma-exposed populations. Further investigations of genetic factors for trauma-related psychopathology should include careful assessments of the social environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mar 23, 2018 ... The importance of the link between gender and climate change has been ... and respond to climate change, which can exacerbate social inequality. ... of women and girls aims to support research with the potential to effect ...
Portacolone, Elena; Perissinotto, Carla; Yeh, Jarmin Christine; Greysen, S Ryan
The aim of this study was to examine the factors contributing to the social isolation of older residents of a high-crime neighborhood through the in-depth examination of their lived experiences. A deeper understanding of factors contributing to social isolation can allow policymakers and health care providers to create policies and programs to alleviate the social isolation of these vulnerable and understudied individuals. Participants were recruited through the support of the Housing Authority and Police and Fire Departments of Richmond, California, a town with a high-crime rate. Fifty-nine ethnographic interviews were conducted with 20 individuals of 58-95 years of age. Transcripts and fieldnotes were analyzed with a focus on the specific factors contributing the social isolation of participants. An overarching theme of tension between personal and structural factors of social isolation and desire for social integration emerged from qualitative content analysis. A tension emerged between a longing to participate in society and the immersion in a reality so dense with obstacles that made participation in society difficult to attain. Four specific themes also emerged. Three themes demonstrated underlying factors of social isolation stemming from the personal sphere and the physical and social environment. The fourth theme illustrated participants' desire for social integration. Findings demonstrate the salience of interventions and programs to make neighborhoods safe and accessible to older residents. Findings also suggest a need to reframe the conceptual framework for social isolation to better measure and alleviate this public health problem. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Whittle, Sarah; Vijayakumar, Nandita; Simmons, Julian G; Dennison, Meg; Schwartz, Orli; Pantelis, Christos; Sheeber, Lisa; Byrne, Michelle L; Allen, Nicholas B
The negative effects of socioeconomic disadvantage on lifelong functioning are pronounced, with some evidence suggesting that these effects are mediated by changes in brain development. To our knowledge, no research has investigated whether parenting might buffer these negative effects. To establish whether positive parenting behaviors moderate the effects of socioeconomic disadvantage on brain development and adaptive functioning in adolescents. In this longitudinal study of adolescents from schools in Melbourne, Australia, data were collected at 3 assessments between 2004 and 2012. Data were analyzed between August 2016 and April 2017. Both family (parental income-to-needs, occupation, and education level) and neighborhood measures of socioeconomic disadvantage were assessed. Positive maternal parenting behaviors were observed during interactions in early adolescence. Structural magnetic resonance imaging scans at 3 times (early, middle, and late adolescence) from ages 11 to 20 years. Global and academic functioning was assessed during late adolescence. We used linear mixed models to examine the effect of family and neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage as well as the moderating effect of positive parenting on adolescent brain development. We used mediation models to examine whether brain developmental trajectories predicted functional outcomes during late adolescence. Of the included 166 adolescents, 86 (51.8%) were male. We found that neighborhood, but not family, socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with altered brain development from early (mean [SD] age, 12.79 [0.425] years) to late (mean [SD] age, 19.08 [0.460] years) adolescence, predominantly in the temporal lobes (temporal cortex: random field theory corrected; left amygdala: B, -0.237; P development of dorsal frontal and lateral orbitofrontal cortices as well as the effects of family disadvantage on the development of the amygdala (occupation: B, 0.382; P = .004; income-to-needs: B, 27
Pearson, Adam R; Schuldt, Jonathon P; Romero-Canyas, Rainer
The recent Paris Agreement to limit greenhouse gas emissions, adopted by 195 nations at the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference, signaled unprecedented commitment by world leaders to address the human social aspects of climate change. Indeed, climate change increasingly is recognized by scientists and policymakers as a social issue requiring social solutions. However, whereas psychological research on intrapersonal and some group-level processes (e.g., political polarization of climate beliefs) has flourished, research into other social processes-such as an understanding of how nonpartisan social identities, cultural ideologies, and group hierarchies shape public engagement on climate change-has received substantially less attention. In this article, we take stock of current psychological approaches to the study of climate change to explore what is "social" about climate change from the perspective of psychology. Drawing from current interdisciplinary perspectives and emerging empirical findings within psychology, we identify four distinct features of climate change and three sets of psychological processes evoked by these features that are fundamentally social and shape both individual and group responses to climate change. Finally, we consider how a more nuanced understanding of the social underpinnings of climate change can stimulate new questions and advance theory within psychology. © The Author(s) 2016.
Freisthler, Bridget; Thomas, Crystal A.; Curry, Susanna R.; Wolf, Jennifer Price
Background: The environments where parents spend time, such as at work, at their child's school, or with friends and family, may exert a greater influence on their parenting behaviors than the residential neighborhoods where they live. These environments, termed activity spaces, provide individualized information about the where parents go,…
Full Text Available This article, theoretically based on socio-spatial concepts of Lefebvre, de Certeau and their further interpreta - tions at the New Urban Sociology school (by Gottdiener, Zukin and others, examines the spread of graffiti in the urban space of Vilnius, the change of the local graffiti map during the years 2010–2013 and the possible social implications of the spotted modification of urban landscape. The qualitative research of Vilnius graffiti – which is understood both as an urban practice and an illicit urban inscription – and the case of Naujininkai neighborhood in particular, is based on data obtained from 1 in-depth interviews with experienced graffiti artists, 2 observation of graffiti in public space and 3 visual urban ethnography. Naujininkai neighborhood was attributed by local graffiti writers to the urban periphery in Vilnius graffiti map in 2010. However in 2010–2013 the visual development of urban landscape in Naujininkai indicates the trend, bringing the neigh- borhood a little closer to the urban core.
Kathy Lynn; Katharine MacKendrick; Ellen M. Donoghue
The effects of climate change are expected to be more severe for some segments of society than others because of geographic location, the degree of association with climate-sensitive environments, and unique cultural, economic, or political characteristics of particular landscapes and human populations. Social vulnerability and equity in the context of climate change...
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to evaluate the effect of neighborhood public space transformation due to rapid urbanization in Tehran since 1960s, on the formation of neighborhood identity. In order to find the role of public spaces in enhancing neighborhood identities, two middle class neighborhoods with different spatial organizations are compared with each other: Nazi Abad a planned neighborhood and Mehran a typical unplanned neighborhood which developed through rapid urbanization. Next, the effect of neighborhood public spaces on neighborhood inhabitants is evaluated from two perspectives: Perceptual dimension and social dimension. The findings indicate that planned spatial organization and various neighborhood public spaces result in stronger neighborhood identity. It enhances both perceptual dimension of neighborhood identity(place attachment and its social dimension (sense of community. In contrast unplanned spatial organization which is the typical feature of Tehran neighborhoods leads to weak neighborhood identity.
Wu, Yun-Hsuan; Moore, Spencer; Dube, Laurette
Curbing the worldwide increase in obesity requires upstream social interventions that modify the environment in which obesity emerges. Recent studies have suggested that social capital and networks may influence a person's risk of obesity. Yet, few longitudinal studies have assessed whether social capital and networks reduce obesity risk in adult populations. In this study, the data come from three waves (2008, 2010, and 2013) of the Montreal Neighborhood Networks and Health Aging Panel (N=2606). Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate body mass index (BMI) with obesity defined as a BMI>30. Name and position generator instruments captured network measures of social capital, including: (1) upper reachability, (2) range, (3) diversity and (4) the number of kin ties. Questions on generalized trust and participation were used to assess cognitive and structural dimensions of social capital. Separate random effects logistic regression was used to examine the association among social network characteristics, social capital, and obesity. We found the greater the number of kin ties in a person's network, the greater the risk of obesity (OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.08-1.62). Adults with higher network diversity (OR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.72-0.96) and high generalized trust (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.35-0.77) were at a lower the risk of obesity. The current study confirmed that higher network capital and trust were protective against obesity, while having kin ties was not. Disentangling the multidimensional role that social capital plays can lead to more effective interventions to reduce obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sweeney, Allison M; Wilson, Dawn K; Lee Van Horn, M
Engaging in regular physical activity (PA) as an older adult has been associated with numerous physical and mental health benefits. The aim of this study is to directly compare how individual-level cognitive factors (self-efficacy for PA, self-determined motivation for PA, self-concept for PA) and neighborhood perceptions of the social factors (neighborhood satisfaction, neighborhood social life) impact moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) longitudinally among older African American adults. Data were analyzed from a sub-set of older African American adults (N = 224, M age = 63.23 years, SD = 8.74, 63.23% female, M Body Mass Index = 32.01, SD = 7.52) enrolled in the Positive Action for Today's Health trial. MVPA was assessed using 7-day accelerometry-estimates and psychosocial data (self-efficacy for PA, self-determined motivation for PA, self-concept for PA, neighborhood satisfaction, neighborhood social life) were collected at baseline, 12-, 18-, and 24-months. Multilevel growth modeling was used to examine within- and between-person effects of individual-level cognitive and social environmental factors on MVPA. At the between-person level, self-concept (b = 0.872, SE = 0.239, p self-concept (b = 0.294, SE = 0.145, p = 0.043) and neighborhood social life (b = 0.270, SE = 0.113, p = 0.017) were associated with increased MVPA. These results suggest that people with a higher average self-concept for PA and a more positive social life engaged in greater average MVPA. Additionally, changes in perceptions of one's neighborhood social life and one's self-concept for PA were associated with greater MVPA over 2 years. These factors may be particularly relevant for future interventions targeting long-term change and maintenance of MVPA in older African Americans. ClinicalTrials.Gov # NCT01025726 registered 1 December 2009.
Van Assche, Jasper; Asbrock, Frank; Roets, Arne; Kauff, Mathias
Positive neighborhood norms, such as strong local networks, are critical to people's satisfaction with, perceived disadvantage of, and intentions to stay in their neighborhood. At the same time, local ethnic diversity is said to be detrimental for these community outcomes. Integrating both frameworks, we tested whether the negative consequences of diversity occur even when perceived social norms are positive. Study 1 ( N = 1,760 German adults) showed that perceptions of positive neighborhood norms buffered against the effects of perceived diversity on moving intentions via neighborhood satisfaction and perceived neighborhood disadvantage. Study 2 ( N = 993 Dutch adults) replicated and extended this moderated mediation model using other characteristics of diversity (i.e., objective and estimated minority proportions). Multilevel analyses again revealed consistent buffering effects of positive neighborhood norms. Our findings are discussed in light of the ongoing public and political debate concerning diversity and social and communal life.
Bruch, Elizabeth; Mare, Robert D.
This paper examines the relationships between the residential choices of individuals and aggregate patterns of neighborhood change. We investigate the conditions under which individuals’ preferences for the race-ethnic composition of their neighborhoods produce high levels of segregation. Using computational models, we find that high levels of segregation occur only when individuals’ preferences follow a threshold function. If individuals make finer-grained distinctions among neighborhoods th...
Brondízio, Eduardo S; de Lima, Ana C B; Schramski, Sam; Adams, Cristina
The Amazon region has been part of climate change debates for decades, yet attention to its social and health dimensions has been limited. This paper assesses literature on the social and health dimensions of climate change in the Amazon. A conceptual framework underscores multiple stresses and exposures created by interactions between climate change and local social-environmental conditions. Using the Thomson-Reuter Web of Science, this study bibliometrically assessed the overall literature on climate change in the Amazon, including Physical Sciences, Social Sciences, Anthropology, Environmental Science/Ecology and Public, Environmental/Occupational Health. From this assessment, a relevant sub-sample was selected and complemented with literature from the Brazilian database SciELO. This sample discusses three dimensions of climate change impacts in the region: livelihood changes, vector-borne diseases and microbial proliferation, and respiratory diseases. This analysis elucidates imbalance and disconnect between ecological, physical and social and health dimensions of climate change and between continental and regional climate analysis, and sub-regional and local levels. Work on the social and health implications of climate change in the Amazon falls significantly behind other research areas, limiting reliable information for analytical models and for Amazonian policy-makers and society at large. Collaborative research is called for.
Williams, Bonita; Le Menestrel, Suzanne M.
This article reviews research and offers program examples for developing social capital in youth with a range of vulnerabilities: emotional, physical, social, and developmental. Protective factors provided by developing social capital at the individual level include access to support networks, transition to employment, and community connectedness.…
Afifi, Rema A; Nakkash, Rima T; Khawaja, Marwan
We sought to examine the associations between social capital, women's empowerment, and smoking behavior among married women in three low-income neighborhoods in Beirut, Lebanon. Data from currently married women aged 15 to 59 years in the 2003 Urban Health Study were used. The dependent variable was cigarette smoking. The main independent variables were five social capital items and three women's empowerment indices. Other socioeconomic variables as well as mental distress, happiness, and community of residence were included as covariates. Bivariate associations were conducted on all variables using chi-square tests. Adjusted odds ratios from binary logistic regression models were then modeled on smoking behavior separately for younger and older women. More than one third (35.9%) of married women reported smoking cigarettes. At the bivariate level, a variety of socioeconomic and demographic variables predicted smoking. With respect to social capital, women who lacked trust and were dissatisfied with the number friends or relatives living nearby were more likely to smoke. As for women's autonomy, high decision making and high mobility were associated with smoking. When analyzed multivariately, social capital items were statistically significant for younger women but not for older women. And the mobility variables were significant for older women but not younger women. Our results support the conclusion that determinants of women's tobacco use are multilayered, and include social capital and women's autonomy. Our results also suggest that younger and older married women may be influenced by differential determinants. Reasons for these differences are explored. Interventions may need to be tailored to each age group separately. Copyright 2010 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The intersection of environmental with social problems is a growing area of concern for scientists, policy makers, and citizens. Climate change and air pollution are two current environmental issues holding the public's attention which require collaboration of all stakeholders to create meaningful solutions. General education science courses are critical venues to engage students in the intersection of science with society. Effective teaching methods for these intersections include case studies, gallery walks, and town hall meetings. A case study from California explores how air quality has greatly improved in Los Angeles in the past 20 years, however residents of neighborhoods with lower socioeconomic status are still exposed to high levels of air pollutants. Students analyze scientific and health data to develop understanding and expertise in the problem, and are then tasked with developing a cost-benefit analysis of solutions. Gallery walks can be used to connect natural phenomena, such as hurricanes and severe weather, with their human impacts. Students bring their personal experiences with disasters and recovery to analyze how societies should deal with the changing climate and weather risks in their region, the country, or across the world. Town hall meetings allow students to gain expertise and perspective while embodying a role as a particular stakeholder in a climate mitigation or adaptation issue. A successful application of this method is a discussion of whether a resort community should be rebuilt on a barrier island after being destroyed in a category 3 hurricane. Stakeholders which students take on as roles have included climate scientists, homeowners, emergency managers, meteorologists, and others. Including distinct connections to social issues in introductory science courses helps students to not only engage with the material in a deeper way, but also helps to create critical thinkers who will become better citizens for tomorrow.
Mahmood, Atiya; Chaudhury, Habib; Michael, Yvonne L; Campo, Michael; Hay, Kara; Sarte, Ann
A substantial body of evidence indicates that regular engagement in moderate-intensity physical activity on most days of the week is sufficient for older adults to achieve positive health outcomes. Although there is a growing body of literature that examines the affect of neighborhood environment on physical activity in older adults, the research tends to overlook social aspects that potentially shape the relationship between physical environment and physical activity. This article presents qualitative themes related to the role of the physical and social environments in influencing physical activity among older adults as identified through the photovoice method with sixty-six older adults in eight neighborhoods in metropolitan Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada and Greater Portland, Oregon, USA. The photovoice data generated seven themes: being safe and feeling secure, getting there, comfort in movement, diversity of destinations, community-based programs, peer support and intergenerational/volunteer activities. Although the majority of these themes have explicit or implicit physical and social aspects, certain themes are primarily based on physical environmental aspects (e.g., safe and feeling secure, comfort in movement), while a few themes are more oriented to social context (e.g., peer support, intergenerational activity/volunteering). The themes are discussed with a focus on how the neighborhood physical and social environmental aspects interplay to foster or hinder older adults in staying active in both everyday activities and intentional physical activities. Policy implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Malecki, Kristen C; Engelman, Corinne D; Peppard, Paul E; Nieto, F Javier; Grabow, Maggie L; Bernardinello, Milena; Bailey, Erin; Bersch, Andrew J; Walsh, Matthew C; Lo, Justin Y; Martinez-Donate, Ana
Growing evidence suggests that mixed methods approaches to measuring neighborhood effects on health are needed. The Wisconsin Assessment of the Social and Built Environment (WASABE) is an objective audit tool designed as an addition to a statewide household-based health examination survey, the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW), to objectively measure participant's neighborhoods. This paper describes the development and implementation of the WASABE and examines the instrument's ability to capture a range of social and built environment features in urban and rural communities. A systematic literature review and formative research were used to create the tool. Inter-rater reliability parameters across items were calculated. Prevalence and density of features were estimated for strata formed according to several sociodemographic and urbanicity factors. The tool is highly reliable with over 81% of 115 derived items having percent agreement above 95%. It captured variance in neighborhood features in for a diverse sample of SHOW participants. Sidewalk density in neighborhoods surrounding households of participants living at less than 100% of the poverty level was 67% (95% confidence interval, 55-80%) compared to 34% (25-44%) for those living at greater than 400% of the poverty level. Walking and biking trails were present in 29% (19-39%) of participant buffer in urban areas compared to only 7% (2-12%) in rural communities. Significant environmental differences were also observed for white versus non-white, high versus low income, and college graduates versus individuals with lower level of education. The WASABE has strong inter-rater reliability and validity properties. It builds on previous work to provide a rigorous and standardized method for systematically gathering objective built and social environmental data in a number of geographic settings. Findings illustrate the complex milieu of built environment features found in participants neighborhoods and have
Lima, Julie; Caughy, Margaret; Nettles, Saundra M; O'Campo, Patricia J
This study builds upon existing research by examining whether risk indices for child psychological well-being behave in the same way in different types of neighborhoods. Specifically, we sought to determine if neighborhood characteristics acted to exacerbate or, alternatively, to buffer risk factors at the family and/or child level. Families with a child entering first grade in Fall 2002 were recruited from Baltimore City neighborhoods, defined as census block groups. This study included 405 children, and data came from an interview with the primary caregiver and an assessment of the first grader. The dependent variables were externalizing behavior and internalizing problems. A family risk index consisting of 13 measures, and a child risk index consisting of three measures were the main independent variables of interest. We examined the effects of these indices on child psychological well-being and behavior across two neighborhood characteristics: neighborhood potential for community involvement with children and neighborhood negative social climate. Results of multivariate analyses indicated that cumulative family risk was associated with an increase in both internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Perceived negative social climate moderated the effect of family risks on behavior problems such that more risk was associated with a larger increment in both externalizing behavior problems and psychological problems for children living in high versus low risk neighborhoods. These findings further emphasize the importance of considering neighborhood context in the study of child psychological well-being. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Daly, Brian P.; Shin, Richard Q.; Thakral, Charu; Selders, Michael; Vera, Elizabeth
In this study we examined the effects of risk factors (perceived neighborhood crime/delinquency problems, neighborhood incivilities) and protective factors (teacher support, family support, peer support) on the school engagement of 123 urban adolescents of color. Age and gender were also examined to determine if different ages (younger or older)…
Odgers, Candice L.; Caspi, Avshalom; Bates, Christopher J.; Sampson, Robert J.; Moffitt, Terrie E.
Background: Children growing up in poor versus affluent neighborhoods are more likely to spend time in prison, develop health problems and die at an early age. The question of how neighborhood conditions influence our behavior and health has attracted the attention of public health officials and scholars for generations. Online tools are now…
Rice, M.; Snow, J.; Jacobson, H.
This workshop was designed to bring together a group of scholars, primarily from the social sciences, to explore research that might help in dealing with global climate change. To illustrate the state of present understanding, it seemed useful to focus this workshop on three broad questions that are involved in coping with climate change. These are: (1) How can the anticipated economic costs and benefits of climate change be identified; (2) How can the impacts of climate change be adjusted to or avoided; (3) What previously studied models are available for institutional management of the global environment? The resulting discussions may (1) identify worthwhile avenues for further social science research, (2) help develop feedback for natural scientists about research information from this domain needed by social scientists, and (3) provide policymakers with the sort of relevant research information from the social science community that is currently available
Wooldridge, Barbara Ross; Minsky, Barbara D.
Develops a model illustrating that two elements of organizational culture--climate and socialization processes--foster acceptance of organizational values and facilitate the development of interfunctional coordination, which in turn influences firm performance. (Contains 42 references.) (JOW)
Rice, M.; Snow, J.; Jacobson, H. [eds.
This workshop was designed to bring together a group of scholars, primarily from the social sciences, to explore research that might help in dealing with global climate change. To illustrate the state of present understanding, it seemed useful to focus this workshop on three broad questions that are involved in coping with climate change. These are: (1) How can the anticipated economic costs and benefits of climate change be identified; (2) How can the impacts of climate change be adjusted to or avoided; (3) What previously studied models are available for institutional management of the global environment? The resulting discussions may (1) identify worthwhile avenues for further social science research, (2) help develop feedback for natural scientists about research information from this domain needed by social scientists, and (3) provide policymakers with the sort of relevant research information from the social science community that is currently available. Individual papers are processed separately for the database.
... fish farming, tourism, and extractive industries, such as mining, oil, and gas. The cumulative effect of climate and socio-economic changes are affecting ecosystems ... More specifically, the project will aim to: - identify the impact of social and ...
Apr 23, 2018 ... Climate change, Gender ... or upper-middle income countries in sub-Saharan and North Africa, ... Please note that applicants submitting proposals for research work in ... current knowledge gaps in socially-transformative climate research: ... access to innovative, clean, and renewable energy services and to ...
Emery, Clifton R; Jolley, Jennifer M; Wu, Shali
This paper examined the relationship between reported Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) desistance and neighborhood concentrated disadvantage, ethnic heterogeneity, residential instability, collective efficacy and legal cynicism. Data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) Longitudinal survey were used to identify 599 cases of IPV in Wave 1 eligible for reported desistance in Wave 2. A Generalized Boosting Model was used to determine the best proximal predictors of IPV desistance from the longitudinal data. Controlling for these predictors, logistic regression of neighborhood characteristics from the PHDCN community survey was used to predict reported IPV desistance in Wave 2. The paper finds that participants living in neighborhoods high in legal cynicism have lower odds of reporting IPV desistance, controlling for other variables in the logistic regression model. Analyses did not find that IPV desistance was related to neighborhood concentrated disadvantage, ethnic heterogeneity, residential instability and collective efficacy.
Snowden, Aleksandra J; Freiburger, Tina L
We estimated spatially lagged regression and spatial regime models to determine if the variation in total, on-premise, and off-premise alcohol outlet(1) density is related to robbery density, while controlling for direct and moderating effects of social disorganization.(2) Results suggest that the relationship between alcohol outlet density and robbery density is sensitive to the measurement of social disorganization levels. Total alcohol outlet density and off-premise alcohol outlet density were significantly associated with robbery density when social disorganization variables were included separately in the models. However, when social disorganization levels were captured as a four item index, only the association between off-premise alcohol outlets and robbery density remained significant. More work is warranted in identifying the role of off-premise alcohol outlets and their characteristics in robbery incidents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
D. C. Kent; Won Keun Min
Neighborhood spaces, pretopological spaces, and closure spaces are topological space generalizations which can be characterized by means of their associated interior (or closure) operators. The category NBD of neighborhood spaces and continuous maps contains PRTOP as a bicoreflective subcategory and CLS as a bireflective subcategory, whereas TOP is bireflectively embedded in PRTOP and bicoreflectively embedded in CLS. Initial and final structures are described in these categories, and it is s...
Full Text Available Neighbourhood parks are designed to provide opportunities for leisure and communal activities for the residents. However, studies have indicated that social interactions in these spaces are not at a satisfactory level. In the urban design context, a good public space should be legible to the observers. Legibility refers to the apparent clarity of the cityscape that directs people’s movement, pattern of activities and form of interaction in public spaces. This paper discusses park’s legibility and its impact on social interaction within a neighbourhood. The results presented are based on a questionnaire survey and a mental mapping exercise conducted with residents in the city of Putrajaya, Malaysia. The results demonstrate a strong relationship between the park’s legibility and the social interactions among the park users. A clear structure of the setting and fewer sight obstacles found within the parks influence residents’ pattern and the Intensity of outdoor activities. The findings contribute to the development of legible environments in neighbourhood park design, its positive impact on social interaction, and social bonding among the residents.
Svastisalee, Chalida; Schipperijn, Jasper; Holstein, Bjørn Evald
Purpose: To investigate whether associations between daily vigorous physical activity (VPA) and the built environment are patterned according to family social class. Methods: We used self-reported daily VPA measured in 6046 11 to 15-year-old boys and girls in 80 schools. Multi-level stratified...... likely to achieve daily VPA than boys. Among children from low family social class backgrounds, girls were less likely to achieve daily VPA than boys (OR = 0.40; CI: 0.28-0.57). Additionally, children from low family social class backgrounds attending schools with low exposure to walking and cycling...... paths had the lowest odds (OR =0.51; CI: 0.29-0.88) of achieving daily VPA than those attending schools with higher exposure to paths. Conclusions: Findings of this study suggest that a lack of supportive physical activity support in school surroundings may have a greater impact on children of low...
Full Text Available This article presents the results of a study conducted from 2005-2007, with the goal of analyzing the problems of social violence and juvenile crime in the largest and most populated municipality in the Greater Buenos Aires region of Argentina. The approach used the prism of the school institutions, considered to be relevant actors in construction of identity of youths and an agency for promoting social inclusion. Despite the changes undergone, it is a space for re-contextualizing experiences of the primary groups and of the social surroundings in which children and youth participate, creating conditions for education. The research sought to recognize the dispositions and perceptions of educational actors (students, teachers, administrators and school guidance counselors concerning violence and crime, and to identify processes of labeling, disappearance and hiding.
Department of Housing and Urban Development — Choice Neighborhoods grants transform distressed neighborhoods, public and assisted projects into viable and sustainable mixed-income neighborhoods by linking...
J. Morgan Grove; Mary L. Cadenasso; William R., Jr. Burch; Steward T. Pickett; Kirsten Schwarz; Jarlath O' Neil-Dunne; Matthew Wilson; Austin Troy; Christopher Boone
Recent advances in remote sensing and the adoption of geographic information systems (GIS) have greatly increased the availibility of high-resolution spatial and attribute data for examing the relationship between social and vegetation structure in urban areas. There are several motivations for understanding this relationship. First, the United States has experienced a...
Full Text Available Depression debilitates the lives of millions and is projected to be the second leading disease burden worldwide by 2020. At the population level, the causes of depression are found in the everyday social and physical environments in which people live. Research has shown that men and women often experience neighbourhood environments differently and that these variations are often reflected in health outcomes. The current study examines whether social and environmental correlates of depression are similar in men and women. This study examines whether (i there are gender differences in the association between neighbourhood disadvantage and depressive symptoms, and (ii dimensions of social capital and cohesion mediate these associations. Data come from the Montreal Neighbourhood Networks and Healthy Aging Study, which consists of a cluster stratified sample of Montreal census tracts (n(ct = 300 and individuals within those tracts (ni = 2707. Depressive symptoms and social capital were measured with a questionnaire. Neighbourhood disadvantage was measured at the census tract level using data from the 2006 Canada Census. Multilevel logistic regression stratified by gender and a three-step mediation analysis procedure were used. Final sample size for these analyses was 2574 adults. Depressive symptoms had a prevalence of 17.3% in the overall sample. Disadvantage was associated with depressive symptoms in women only (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.01-1.55. Perceived neighbourhood cohesion was shown to mediate the association of disadvantage and depressive symptoms in women (ab = 0.02; 95% CI = 0.003-0.04, p<0.05. Other socio-relational variables, specifically generalized trust and trust in neighbours were associated with depression in women but did not act as mediating variables. Health promotion initiatives meant to combat depression may wish to consider gender differences in the design and implementation of neighbourhood or peer-based programs.
BACKGROUND: Neighborhood characteristics have been associated with poor maternal and child health outcomes, yet conceptualization of potential mechanisms is still needed. Census data have long served as proxies for area level socioeconomic influences. Unique information captured ...
Molodtsova, T.; Kirilenko, A.; Stepchenkova, S.
Reporting the observed and modeled changes in climate to public requires the measures understandable by the general audience. E.g., the NASA GISS Common Sense Climate Index (Hansen et al., 1998) reports the change in climate based on six practically observable parameters such as the air temperature exceeding the norm by one standard deviation. The utility of the constructed indices for reporting climate change depends, however, on an assumption that the selected parameters are felt and connected with the changing climate by a non-expert, which needs to be validated. Dynamic discussion of climate change issues in social media may provide data for this validation. We connected the intensity of public discussion of climate change in social networks with regional weather variations for the territory of the USA. We collected the entire 2012 population of Twitter microblogging activity on climate change topic, accumulating over 1.8 million separate records (tweets) globally. We identified the geographic location of the tweets and associated the daily and weekly intensity of twitting with the following parameters of weather for these locations: temperature anomalies, 'hot' temperature anomalies, 'cold' temperature anomalies, heavy rain/snow events. To account for non-weather related events we included the articles on climate change from the 'prestige press', a collection of major newspapers. We found that the regional changes in parameters of weather significantly affect the number of tweets published on climate change. This effect, however, is short-lived and varies throughout the country. We found that in different locations different weather parameters had the most significant effect on climate change microblogging activity. Overall 'hot' temperature anomalies had significant influence on climate change twitting intensity.
Baquero, Barbara; Molina, Marisa; Elder, John P; Norman, Gregory J; Ayala, Guadalupe X
We explored the relationship between obesity and neighborhood-related, social, and cultural variables and possible moderation by acculturation and cross-national practices. We obtained data from the 2009 San Diego Prevention Research Center's community survey, which used multistage sampling methods to recruit 397 adult respondents and conducted multilevel logistic analytic methods. Nearly half of the respondents were obese. Respondents had low acculturation scores and reported crossing the U.S.-Mexico border about three times per month, mostly to visit family and friends. Neighborhoods where respondents lived were predominantly Latino and had 27% home ownership. A significant cross-level interaction emerged: those who reported crossing the border and reported higher levels of collective efficacy were more likely to be obese than those who had not crossed. Study findings provide evidence of the complex relationship among obesity risk factors in a U.S.-Mexico border community that warrant further examination to prevent and control obesity.
Cordero, E. C.; Todd, A.
One of the challenges of communicating climate change to younger audiences is the disconnect between global issues and local impacts. The Green Ninja is a climate-action superhero that aims to energize young people about climate science through media and social engagement tools. In this presentation, we'll highlight two of the tools designed to help K-12 students implement appropriate local mitigation strategies. A mobile phone application builds and supports a social community around taking action at local businesses regarding themes such as food, packaging and energy efficiency. An energy efficiency contest in local schools utilizes smart meter technology to provide feedback on household energy use and conservation. These tools are supported by films and lesson plans that link formal and informal education channels. The effectiveness of these methodologies as tools to engage young people in climate science and action will be discussed.
Ahmet Tanju Gültekin
Full Text Available Since 1980, the dynamics of globalization have directed the processes of social, cultural, and political adjustment as well as those of economic integration and especially capital towards urban development, forming urban space. The wave of globalization in Turkey, within a process of economic change in the context of neo liberal policies, urban space has been turned into the most profitable area of investment in the unearned income (economic rent sector. The residential sector has been included in this process quickly and easily through effective and widespread marketing strategies. Over the last two decades of this development, the Ankara-Çayyolu District has become segregated economically and socially between its upper and upper-middle class residents in the urban context. This segregation is evident in residential areas with high-level physical and spatial quality. On the other hand, in addition to the measurable physical and spatial standards of housing quality, it is also important to find out if the quality of living meets the social and cultural expectations of its residents. Starting from this point of view, we examine residents’ perceptions of their physical and social environment in our chosen sample area in the Prof. Dr. Ahmet Taner Kışlalı Neighborhood, and their demands and awareness of housing quality. The story of this neighborhood, which begins in 1980, at a time when neo liberal policies and the power to form urban space was all-important, is defined here by the residents’ quality of living and awareness of it. Our results obtained are expected to help guide the creation of liveable housing areas in the future.Keywords: Housing Users, Urban Living Quality, Social Living, Awareness, Ankara- Çayyolu-Prof. Dr. Ahmet Taner Kışlalı Neighborhood.
St John, C.; Marx, S.; Markowitz, E.
Researchers from the Center for Research on Environmental Decisions (CRED) published "The Psychology of Climate Change Communication: A Guide for Scientists, Journalists, Educators, Political Aides, and the Interested Public" in 2009. This landmark guide provided climate change communicators a synthesis of the social science research that was pertinent to understanding how people think about climate change and how the practice could be improved. In the fall of 2014 this guide will be rereleased, with a new title, and in a partnership between CRED and ecoAmerica. The updated guide addresses how and why Americans respond in certain ways to climate change and explains how communicators can apply best practices to their own work. The guide, which includes research from a range of social science fields including psychology, anthropology, communications, and behavioral economics, is designed to be useful for experienced and novice communicators alike. Included in the guide are strategies to boost engagement, common mistakes to avoid, and best practices that organizations around the world have used to meaningfully engage individuals and groups on climate change. The proposed presentation will provide an overview of the main findings and tips from the 2014 climate change communication guide. It will provide a deeper look at a few of the key points that are crucial for increasing audience engagement with climate change including understanding how identity shapes climate change, how to lead with solutions, and how to bring the impacts of climate change close to home. It will highlight tips for motivating positive behavior change that will lead people down the path toward solutions. Finally, it will address the benefits and challenges associated with producing a communication guide and insight into synthesizing social science research findings into a usable format for a variety of audiences.
This ecological study compares the utility of neighborhood economic, social, and co-ethnic concentration characteristics in explaining mortality among Latinos aged 25-64 due to all causes and heart disease in Los Angeles County from 2000 to 2004. Results indicate that local economic well-being and social resources are beneficial for both outcomes to varying degrees. Economic well-being is the strongest predictor of all-cause mortality rates among Latinos aged 25-64 and was the only characteristic that significantly predicted heart disease mortality among those aged 45-64. Among social resources, results indicate collective efficacy is comparatively more important for mortality in younger adults. Social interaction was associated with lower mortality but the effect was not significant for any outcome. Co-ethnic concentration was consistently associated with increased mortality, but only achieved significance for all-cause mortality in younger adults. This effect was mediated by neighborhood income. Though social resources appear to be beneficial to a lesser extent, results suggest policy should first aim to address income disparities across local communities. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Braddock, Jomills Henry, II; Gonzalez, Amaryllis Del Carmen
Background/Context: The United States is becoming increasingly racially and ethnically diverse, and increasingly racially isolated across race-ethnic boundaries. Researchers have argued that both diversity and racial isolation serve to undermine the social cohesion needed to bind American citizens to one another and to society at large. Focus of…
Damm, Anna Piil
of men living in the neighborhood, but positively affected by the employment rate of non-Western immigrant men and co-national men living in the neighborhood. This is strong evidence that immigrants find jobs in part through their employed immigrant and co-ethnic contacts in the neighborhood of residence...... successfully addresses the methodological problem of endogenous neighborhood selection. Taking account of location sorting, living in a socially deprived neighborhood does not affect labor market outcomes of refugee men. Furthermore, their labor market outcomes are not affected by the overall employment rate...
Fuka, M. Z.; Fuka, D. R.
This paper shows how we've used the R software suite to extract climate indicator data from Twitter. In the course of this research we've collected extensive data sets of unsolicited observations ("tweets") for hundreds of climate-related phenological, biological, epidemiological and meteorological effects. R has proved itself in our work as a useful tool for manipulating those large data sets. Our experience from this effort has yielded a variety of insights on using R to extract geophysics-specific information from publicly accessible social media sources. We illustrate our methodology by mapping tweeted US armadillo sightings to explore the impact of climate variability on the extent of the animal's range. This example usefully demonstrates R's technical capabilities in collecting, time-stamping, geolocating, analyzing, visualizing and otherwise processing climate-related data derived from unsolicited social media postings. We also "mash-up" the data sets with those acquired by more traditional means, for example, temperature and precipitation data across the armadillo's US range. Our data-handling practice is extendable to social sharing services other than Twitter, providing the environmental modeling community an opportunity to access largely untapped resources of non-traditional climate indicator data to better understand the effects of climate change at local, regional and global scales.
Full Text Available Social contracts play an important role in defining the reciprocal rights, obligations, and responsibilities between states and citizens. Climate change is creating new challenges for both states and citizens, inevitably forcing a rethinking of existing and evolving social contracts. In particular, the social arrangements that enhance the well-being and security of both present and future generations are likely to undergo dramatic transformations in response to ecosystem changes, more extreme weather events, and the consequences of social-ecological changes in distant locations. The types of social contracts that evolve in the face of a changing climate will have considerable implications for adaptation policies and processes. We consider how a resilience approach can contribute to new social contracts in the face of uncertainty and change. Examples from Norway, New Zealand, and Canada show how resilience thinking provides a new way of looking at social contracts, emphasizing the dynamics, links, and complexity of coupled social-ecological systems. Resilience thinking provides valuable insights on the characteristics of a new social contract, and social contract theory provides some insights on creating resilience and human security in a warming world.
Lee, J.; McCusker, J. P.; McGuinness, D. L.
Accelerated climate change causes disasters and disrupts people living all over the globe. Disruptive climate events are often reflected in expressed sentiments of the people affected. Monitoring changes in these sentiments during and after disasters can reveal relationships between climate change and mental health. We developed a semantic web tool that uses linked data principles and semantic web technologies to integrate data from multiple sources and analyze them together. We are converting statistical data on climate change and disaster records obtained from the World Bank data catalog and the International Disaster Database into a Resource Description Framework (RDF) representation that was annotated with the RDF Data Cube vocabulary. We compare these data with a dataset of tweets that mention terms from the Emotion Ontology to get a sense of how disasters can impact the affected populations. This dataset is being gathered using an infrastructure we developed that extracts term uses in Twitter with controlled vocabularies. This data was also converted to RDF structure so that statistical data on the climate change and disasters is analyzed together with sentiment data. To visualize and explore relationship of the multiple data across the dimensions of time and location, we use the qb.js framework. We are using this approach to investigate the social and emotional impact of climate change. We hope that this will demonstrate the use of social media data as a valuable source of understanding on global climate change.
Miles, Rebecca; Wang, Yuxia; Johnson, Suzanne Bennett
Neighborhoods can provide opportunities for children to maintain a healthy weight or encourage unhealthy weight gain. Which neighborhood characteristics matter most remains poorly understood. We investigated links between neighborhood characteristics and weight change over the summer in children from 12 elementary schools with a high proportion of children from low-income families, in a mid-sized city in the US South. Mixed models and objective measures of height and weight were used. Study participants were 2770 children (average age 8.3, range 5.6⁻12.6 years). Older and female children and those who were already overweight were more likely to gain weight over the summer compared to younger, male, and normal weight children. Overweight children who lived near 2 or more small grocery stores gained less weight than overweight children who lived near 0 (weight change, p = 0.0468; body mass index (BMI) change, p = 0.0209) or 1 store (weight change, p = 0.0136; BMI change, p = 0.0033). Normal weight children living in neighborhoods with more large multifamily buildings gained more weight over the summer, although this association only approached significance. Additional efforts to understand which neighborhood factors have greater significance for overweight compared to normal weight children are warranted.
María Catalina Echeverri Londoño
Full Text Available This article presents the results of a psycho-social diagnosis performed to a neighborhood of the city of Armenia, in which the main problems affecting this community were identified: thefts, sale and consumption of psychoactive substances and multiple manifestations of urban violence that underscore the weak existing social capital. To carry out this diagnosis, workshops and interviews with children, young people and adults of the neighborhood, tree problems and social mapping were carried out. A change in the perception of the community on violence and insecurity in the area was made evident, indicating a supposed decline in the occurrence of these problems. By carrying out a discussion and taking up theories that address the issue of violence and drugs, it was inferred that gangs dedicated to the control and sale of drugs in the neighborhood have moved from a disorganized to an organized crime which explains the apparent decline of the problems. In the same way, a contrast of results was made in the light of the theory of the social capital and social welfare, in which possible intervention strategies were suggested so that the community may actively participate in the resolution of their difficulties. RESUMEN: Este artículo presenta los resultados un diagnostico psicosocial realizado a un barrio de la ciudad de Armenia, en el cual se identificaron las principales problemáticas que vive esta comunidad: robos, expendio y consumo de sustancias psicoactivas y múltiples manifestaciones de violencia urbana que evidencian el débil capital social existente. Para llevar a cabo este diagnóstico, se realizaron talleres y entrevistas a niños, niñas, jóvenes y adultos del barrio, árbol de problemas y cartografía social. Se evidenció un cambio en la percepción de la comunidad sobre la violencia e inseguridad en el barrio, que indica un supuesto descenso en la ocurrencia de estas problemáticas. Al realizar una discusión retomando teorías que
Cohen-Vogel, Lora; Goldring, Ellen; Smrekar, Claire
By using Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping software to combine health and crime data with data from 20 schools in one Southeastern district, the study explores whether and how neighborhood conditions affect school-community arrangements. Findings show that the nature of the relationships and the strategies principals and teachers use to…
Nesbitt, Nathan T.
In the past several years the global impacts brought about by climate change have become increasingly apparent through the advent of numerous natural disasters. In these events the social costs of climate change have materialized demonstrating high costs in lives, livelihoods, and equity. Due to geographic bad-luck many of the countries most affected by climate change are those that contributed least, a challenge that's exacerbated by a lack of robust infrastructure in these countries. Wealthy nations remain at risk themselves and incidents such as Hurricanes Sandy & Katrina have demonstrated that in times of crisis even institutions like the Red Cross will abandon the poor to their deaths. As necessary action on climate change would cost the fossil fuel industry 20 trillion, money in politics has stymied action. Recently, however, a groundswell grassroots movement (e.g. People's Climate March in NYC) and great strides in energy technology and policy have begun to create necessary change. Reports quantifying the impacts of climate change will be discussed, as well as an update on the current state of the global climate justice movement. The important contributions from scientists to this movement will be highlighted. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. (DGE-1258923).
Climate change is one of the biggest threats facing global development with the ... of challenges to the human race and the most heinous one has been climate change. ... Keywords: climate change, global warming, social work, environmental ...
Svirezhev, Y.M.; Schellnhuber, H.-J.
A novel approach to the problem of estimating climate impact on social systems is suggested. This approach is based on a risk concept, where the notion of critical events is introduced and the probability of such event is estimated. The estimation considers both the real stochasticity of climatic processes and the artificial stochasticity of climate predictions due to scientific uncertainties. The method is worked out in some detail for the regional problem of crop production and the risks associated with global climate change, and illustrated by a case study (Kursk region of the FSU). In order to get local climatic characteristics (weather) a so-called 'statistical weather generator' is used. One interesting finding is that the 3%-risk level remains constant up to 1- -1.1 deg. C rise of mean seasonal temperature, if the variance does not change. On the other hand, the risk grows rapidly with increasing variance (even if the mean temperature rises very slowly). The risk approach allows to separate two problems: (i) assessment of Global Change impact and (ii) decision-making. The main task for the scientific community is to provide the politicians with different options; the choice of admissible (from the social point of view) critical events and the corresponding risk levels is the business of decision makers. (au)
Full Text Available Drawing on novel survey data, this study maps the distribution of neighborhood and network disadvantage in a population of Milwaukee renters and evaluates the relationship between each disadvantage and multiple social and health outcomes. We find that many families live in neighborhoods with above average disadvantage but are embedded in networks with below average disadvantage, and vice versa. Neighborhood (but not network disadvantage is associated with lower levels of neighborly trust but also with higher levels of community support (e.g., providing neighbors with food. Network (but not neighborhood disadvantage is associated with lower levels of civic engagement. Asthma and diabetes are associated exclusively with neighborhood disadvantage, but depression is associated exclusively with network disadvantage. These findings imply that some social problems may be better addressed by neighborhood interventions and others by network interventions.
Damm, Anna Piil
of men living in the neighborhood, but positively affected by the employment rate of non-Western immigrant men and co-national men living in the neighborhood. This is strong evidence that immigrants find jobs in part through their employed immigrant and co-ethnic contacts in the neighborhood of residence...... successfully addresses the methodological problem of endogenous neighborhood selection. Taking account of location sorting, living in a socially deprived neighborhood does not affect labor market outcomes of refugee men. Furthermore, their labor market outcomes are not affected by the overall employment rate...
Kjerulf Petersen, L.; Jensen, Anne; Svalgaard Nielsen, S.
This report addresses the social aspects of climate change adaptation. How do people perceive and relate to climate change adaptation; what risks are associated with climate change, and how are these risks balanced with other risks and concerns of everyday life and long-range choices? The report is based on an explorative study about social aspects of climate change adaptation in Denmark. The issue was investigated through literature studies and interviews with respondents with residence in different parts of Denmark. The study was based on a distinction between climate change mitigation and adaptation and further on an assumption in adaptation policies that some adaptation measures - for economic or practical reasons - will have to be carried out by private citizens and households. This study showed, however, that the distinction between climate change mitigation and adaptation is of little significance for lay people. Moreover, the prospect of climate change does provoke reflections on social values and the need for saving energy, but when it comes to protecting ones own life and property against future damaging effects of climate change the threat seems distant and other forms of home improvement seem more relevant. Nevertheless, some adaptation measures are carried out by single households and local communities. When households experience weather related damages - of a kind that are expected to occur more frequently and with greater force as a result of climate changes - they take action to repair damages and prevent similar damages in the future; at least the kind of action that is easily carried out such as moving valuable goods from the basement or felling a tree. Such measures are, however, not necessarily understood in a context of climate change adaptation; they are rather specific reactions to acute problems. To the extent that a more thorough precautionary adaptation effort is required, also by private citizens, it will have to be performed in
Harris Hyun-soo Kim
Full Text Available A substantial body of research, based largely on North American and European contexts, demonstrates that social networks play a critical role in protecting and promoting mental, as well as physical, health. The purpose of this study is to examine how “weak” and “strong” network relations are differentially related to individual mental health (depressive symptoms based on a nationally representative sample of South Korean adults. Using multilevel analysis, the current research also investigates the extent to which contextual or neighborhood-level factors moderate the associations between depression and social network. Findings show that regular interaction with weaker ties (acquaintances, neighbors, coworkers, etc. are associated with better mental health. The number of strong ties (family members and friends, on the other hand, is not a significant predictor of psychological distress. In addition, a cross-level interaction term is observed: The negative relationship between weak ties and depressive symptoms is diminished in neighborhoods with more foreign-born residents or immigrants. General implications beyond the empirical case under investigation are discussed, as to why weak ties can be “strong” in relation to mental health and how this phenomenon can vary according to residential characteristics such as ethnic heterogeneity.
Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M; Muñoz, Ángel G; Ryan, Sadie J; Ayala, Efraín Beltrán; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy J; Finkelstein, Julia L; Mejía, Raúl; Ordoñez, Tania; Recalde-Coronel, G Cristina; Rivero, Keytia
Dengue fever, a mosquito-borne viral disease, is a rapidly emerging public health problem in Ecuador and throughout the tropics. However, we have a limited understanding of the disease transmission dynamics in these regions. Previous studies in southern coastal Ecuador have demonstrated the potential to develop a dengue early warning system (EWS) that incorporates climate and non-climate information. The objective of this study was to characterize the spatiotemporal dynamics and climatic and social-ecological risk factors associated with the largest dengue epidemic to date in Machala, Ecuador, to inform the development of a dengue EWS. The following data from Machala were included in analyses: neighborhood-level georeferenced dengue cases, national census data, and entomological surveillance data from 2010; and time series of weekly dengue cases (aggregated to the city-level) and meteorological data from 2003 to 2012. We applied LISA and Moran's I to analyze the spatial distribution of the 2010 dengue cases, and developed multivariate logistic regression models through a multi-model selection process to identify census variables and entomological covariates associated with the presence of dengue at the neighborhood level. Using data aggregated at the city-level, we conducted a time-series (wavelet) analysis of weekly climate and dengue incidence (2003-2012) to identify significant time periods (e.g., annual, biannual) when climate co-varied with dengue, and to describe the climate conditions associated with the 2010 outbreak. We found significant hotspots of dengue transmission near the center of Machala. The best-fit model to predict the presence of dengue included older age and female gender of the head of the household, greater access to piped water in the home, poor housing condition, and less distance to the central hospital. Wavelet analyses revealed that dengue transmission co-varied with rainfall and minimum temperature at annual and biannual cycles, and we
Miranda T. Curzon; Anthony W. D' Amato; Shawn Fraver; Emily S. Huff; Brian J. Palik
Resource availability and its influence on tree-to-tree interactions are expected to change over the course of forest stand development, but the rarity of long-term datasets has limited examinations of neighborhood crowding over extended time periods. How do a history of neighborhood interactions and population-level dynamics, including demographic transition, impact...
Otto, Alexander; Allen, Myles R; Todd, Benjamin J; Bowerman, Niel; Frame, David J
The choice of an appropriate scientific target to guide global mitigation efforts is complicated by uncertainties in the temperature response to greenhouse gas emissions. Much climate policy discourse has been based on the equilibrium global mean temperature increase following a concentration stabilization scenario. This is determined by the equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) which, in many studies, shows persistent, fat-tailed uncertainty. However, for many purposes, the equilibrium response is less relevant than the transient response. Here, we show that one prominent policy variable, the social cost of carbon (SCC), is generally better constrained by the transient climate response (TCR) than by the ECS. Simple analytic expressions show the SCC to be directly proportional to the TCR under idealized assumptions when the rate at which we discount future damage equals 2.8%. Using ensemble simulations of a simple climate model we find that knowing the true value of the TCR can reduce the relative uncertainty in the SCC substantially more, up to a factor of 3, than knowing the ECS under typical discounting assumptions. We conclude that the TCR, which is better constrained by observations, less subject to fat-tailed uncertainty and more directly related to the SCC, is generally preferable to the ECS as a single proxy for the climate response in SCC calculations. (letter)
Otto, Alexander; Todd, Benjamin J.; Bowerman, Niel; Frame, David J.; Allen, Myles R.
The choice of an appropriate scientific target to guide global mitigation efforts is complicated by uncertainties in the temperature response to greenhouse gas emissions. Much climate policy discourse has been based on the equilibrium global mean temperature increase following a concentration stabilization scenario. This is determined by the equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) which, in many studies, shows persistent, fat-tailed uncertainty. However, for many purposes, the equilibrium response is less relevant than the transient response. Here, we show that one prominent policy variable, the social cost of carbon (SCC), is generally better constrained by the transient climate response (TCR) than by the ECS. Simple analytic expressions show the SCC to be directly proportional to the TCR under idealized assumptions when the rate at which we discount future damage equals 2.8%. Using ensemble simulations of a simple climate model we find that knowing the true value of the TCR can reduce the relative uncertainty in the SCC substantially more, up to a factor of 3, than knowing the ECS under typical discounting assumptions. We conclude that the TCR, which is better constrained by observations, less subject to fat-tailed uncertainty and more directly related to the SCC, is generally preferable to the ECS as a single proxy for the climate response in SCC calculations.
Domènech-Abella, Joan; Mundó, Jordi; Lara, Elvira; Moneta, Maria Victoria; Haro, Josep Maria; Olaya, Beatriz
The aim of the present study is to analyze the role of age in the association between socio-economic status (SES) and loneliness as well as the role of neighborhood social capital (NSC) in the association between individual social capital and loneliness. Data include a representative population-based sample from Sant Boi de Llobregat (a suburb of Barcelona) of 1124 adults aged 50 and over. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the survey data. Interactions between SES and age, and NSC and individual social capital were explored. Among the poorest older adults, older individuals showed a lower likelihood of loneliness (OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.02, 0.30, p social capital showed a lower likelihood of loneliness (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.17, 0.73, p social capital after adjusting for covariates. The effect of individual social capital was not significant among individuals living in an area with low NSC. Interventions focusing on low SES middle-aged (50-59 years old) individuals and those aiming to increase NSC could be effective strategies to reduce the prevalence of loneliness in older people.
Adger, W.N.; Kelly, P.M.
The objective of this paper is to outline a conceptual model of vulnerability to climate change as the first step in appraising and understanding the social and economic processes which facilitate and constrain adaptation. Vulnerability as defined here pertains to individuals and social groups. It is the state of individuals, of groups, of communities defined in terms of their ability to cope with and adapt to any external stress placed on their livelihoods and well-being. This proposed approach puts the social and economic well-being of society at the centre of the analysis, thereby reversing the central focus of approaches to climate impact assessment based on impacts on and the adaptability of natural resources or ecosystems and which only subsequently address consequences for human well-being. The vulnerability or security of any group is determined by the availability of resources and, crucially, by the entitlement of individuals and groups to call on these resources. This perspective extends the concept of entitlements developed within neoclassical and institutional economics. Within this conceptual framework, vulnerability can be seen as a socially-constructed phenomenon influenced by institutional and economic dynamics. The study develops proxy indicators of vulnerability related to the structure of economic relations and the entitlements which govern them, and shows how these can be applied to a District in coastal lowland Vietnam. This paper outlines the lessons of such an approach to social vulnerability for the assessment of climate change at the global scale. We argue that the socio-economic and biophysical processes that determine vulnerability are manifest at the local, national, regional and global level but the state of vulnerability itself is associated with a specific population. Aggregation one level to another is therefore not appropriate and global-scale analysis is meaningful only in so far as it deals with the vulnerability of the global
Boykoff, M. T.
Mass media stitch together formal science and policy with everyday activities in the public sphere. Many dynamic, contested and complex factors, along with non-nation state actors (or 'debate shapers'), contribute to how media outlets portray various facets of climate change. Against this backdrop, new and social media have become increasingly influential. The Pew Center Project for Excellence in Journalism has found that topics involving global warming have earned a much greater share of the news hole in new and social media (Internet weblogs, Twitter) than in traditional outlets (television, newspapers, radio), relative to other stories in those same media. This may be due in part to the flexibility and potentially infinite nature of the 'news hole' in new and social media, but may also mark the trends of diminishing traditional news room capabilities. Overall, new and social media have increasingly been harnessed in a variety of ways for communications about climate change around the world. However, with these shifts and developments come numerous questions. Among them: does increased visibility of climate change in new/social media translate to improved communication, or just more noise? Do these spaces provide opportunities for new forms of deliberative community regarding questions of climate mitigation and adaptation? Or has the content of this increased coverage shifted to polemics and arguments over measured traditional media analysis? In this more open space of content production, do new/social media provide more space for contrarian views to circulate? And through its interactivity, does increased consumption of news through new/social media further fragment a public discourse on climate mitigation and adaptation, through information silos where members of the public can stick to sources that help support their already held views? As new and social media representations of climate change demonstrate, the boundaries between who constitute 'authorized
Rajan, Sudhir Chella
Time is fast running out for formulating a viable global climate policy regime even as it seems obvious that the major initiative will have to come from the United States, which currently appears indisposed to take any meaningful action at all. This paper reviews the prospects for emissions reductions in the US passenger transport sector and the technical, economic, social, and political barriers to developing policies that focus solely on technology or pricing. Using scenarios it shows that, in order to meet stringent emissions targets over the coming half-century, technology and pricing policies may have to be supplemented by strategies to change life-styles and land uses in ways that effectively reduce car dependence. In the medium to long term, bold initiatives that treat vehicle users as citizens capable of shifting their interests and behaviour could form kernels of social change that in turn provide opportunities for removing many of the social and political constraints
Andrade, Amanda Cristina de Souza; Peixoto, Sérgio Viana; Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima; Goston, Janaína Lavalli; César, Cibele Comini; Xavier, César Coelho; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Diez Roux, Ana V; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira
This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of leisure-time physical activity and investigate its association with contextual characteristics of the social and physical environment in different socioeconomic statuses, using a household survey in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil (2008-2009). Leisure-time physical activity was measured by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire; and the social and physical environment by scales arising from perception of neighborhood attributes. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed separately for each socioeconomic status stratum. The overall prevalence of leisure-time physical activity was 30.2%, being 20.2% amongst participants of low socioeconomic status, 25.4% in the medium and 40.6% in the high socioeconomic status group. A greater perception of social cohesion was associated with increased leisure-time physical activity only amongst participants of the lowest socioeconomic status even after adjusting for individual characteristics. The results demonstrate the importance of social cohesion for the promotion of leisure-time physical activity in economically disadvantaged groups, supporting the need to stimulate interventions for enhancing social relationships in this population.
In this study I investigate the associations of neighborhood socioeconomic and social environments with the health of Asian Americans living in both Asian ethnic neighborhoods and non-Asian neighborhoods. I use a sample of 1962 Asian Americans from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS, 2003-04). Three key findings emerge. First,…
Kranjac, Ashley W; Kimbro, Rachel T; Denney, Justin T; Osiecki, Kristin M; Moffett, Brady S; Lopez, Keila N
Objectives Previous research has established links between child, family, and neighborhood disadvantages and child asthma. We add to this literature by first characterizing neighborhoods in Houston, TX by demographic, economic, and air quality characteristics to establish differences in pediatric asthma diagnoses across neighborhoods. Second, we identify the relative risk of social, economic, and environmental risk factors for child asthma diagnoses. Methods We geocoded and linked electronic pediatric medical records to neighborhood-level social and economic indicators. Using latent profile modeling techniques, we identified Advantaged, Middle-class, and Disadvantaged neighborhoods. We then used a modified version of the Blinder-Oaxaca regression decomposition method to examine differences in asthma diagnoses across children in these different neighborhoods. Results Both compositional (the characteristics of the children and the ambient air quality in the neighborhood) and associational (the relationship between child and air quality characteristics and asthma) differences within the distinctive neighborhood contexts influence asthma outcomes. For example, unequal exposure to PM 2.5 and O 3 among children in Disadvantaged and Middle-class neighborhoods contribute to asthma diagnosis disparities within these contexts. For children in Disadvantaged and Advantaged neighborhoods, associational differences between racial/ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics and asthma diagnoses explain a significant proportion of the gap. Conclusions for Practice Our results provide evidence that differential exposure to pollution and protective factors associated with non-Hispanic White children and children from affluent families contribute to asthma disparities between neighborhoods. Future researchers should consider social and racial inequalities as more proximate drivers, not merely as associated, with asthma disparities in children.
Pisinger, David; Røpke, Stefan
Heuristics based on large neighborhood search have recently shown outstanding results in solving various transportation and scheduling problems. Large neighborhood search methods explore a complex neighborhood by use of heuristics. Using large neighborhoods makes it possible to find better...... candidate solutions in each iteration and hence traverse a more promising search path. Starting from the large neighborhood search method,we give an overview of very large scale neighborhood search methods and discuss recent variants and extensions like variable depth search and adaptive large neighborhood...
This paper explores social representations of climate change, investigating how climate change is discussed by Swedish laypeople interacting in focus group interviews. The analysis focuses on prototypical examples and metaphors, which were key devices for objectifying climate change representations. The paper analyzes how the interaction of focus group participants with other speakers, ideas, arguments, and broader social representations shaped their representations of climate change. Climate change was understood as a global but distant issue with severe consequences. There was a dynamic tension between representations of climate change as a gradual vs. unpredictable process. Implications for climate change communication are discussed.
Laméris, Joran; Hipp, John R; Tolsma, Jochem
This study examines the effects of neighborhood racial in-group size, economic deprivation and the prevalence of crime on neighborhood cohesion among U.S. whites. We explore to what extent residents' perceptions of their neighborhood mediate these macro-micro relationships. We use a recent individual-level data set, the American Social Fabric Study (2012/2013), enriched with contextual-level data from the U.S. Census Bureau (2010) and employ multi-level structural equation models. We show that the racial in-group size is positively related to neighborhood cohesion and that neighborhood cohesion is lower in communities with a high crime rate. Individuals' perceptions of the racial in-group size partly mediate the relationship between the objective racial in-group size and neighborhood cohesion. Residents' perceptions of unsafety from crime also appear to be a mediating factor, not only for the objective crime rate but also for the objective racial in-group size. This is in line with our idea that racial stereotypes link racial minorities to crime whereby neighborhoods with a large non-white population are perceived to be more unsafe. Residents of the same neighborhood differ in how they perceive the degree of economic decay of the neighborhood and this causes them to evaluate neighborhood cohesion differently, however perceptions of neighborhood economic decay do not explain the link between the objective neighborhood context and neighborhood cohesion. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
This study analyzes the combination of different and differing representations and care practices that social groups belonging to a mid-impoverished sector of Madrid use to alleviate chronic muscular pain, as well as the consequences that this has for both domestic and work life. I collected empirical evidence in a peripheral neighborhood of Madrid during 2004 using a number of anthropological methods such as participant observation, in-depth interviews, and life-history interviews. The following results can be singled out from the completed investigation: in the context of social impoverishment there are macrostructural factors that are transformed into health-destructive processes that influence the development and incidence of chronic muscular illness. This requires the different social groups that are suffering from this to establish a number of care practices mainly based on the use of Western medicine as well as other medical traditions of self-care. These practices relate to economic, educational, sociocultural, and ideological factors that characterize the lives of these individuals. This essay focuses on perceptions of illness and care practices beyond the biomedical context, as it addresses those representations and practices that these impoverished social groups display in accordance with their way of life and in relation to their ailments.
Camila Magalhães Silveira
Full Text Available Research conducted in high-income countries has investigated influences of socioeconomic inequalities on drinking outcomes such as alcohol use disorders (AUD, however, associations between area-level neighborhood social deprivation (NSD and individual socioeconomic status with these outcomes have not been explored in Brazil. Thus, we investigated the role of these factors on drink-related outcomes in a Brazilian population, attending to male-female variations.A multi-stage area probability sample of adult household residents in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area was assessed using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI (n = 5,037. Estimation focused on prevalence and correlates of past-year alcohol disturbances [heavy drinking of lower frequency (HDLF, heavy drinking of higher frequency (HDHF, abuse, dependence, and DMS-5 AUD] among regular users (RU; odds ratio (OR were obtained.Higher NSD, measured as an area-level variable with individual level variables held constant, showed an excess odds for most alcohol disturbances analyzed. Prevalence estimates for HDLF and HDHF among RU were 9% and 20%, respectively, with excess odds in higher NSD areas; schooling (inverse association and low income were associated with male HDLF. The only individual-level association with female HDLF involved employment status. Prevalence estimates for abuse, dependence, and DSM-5 AUD among RU were 8%, 4%, and 8%, respectively, with excess odds of: dependence in higher NSD areas for males; abuse and AUD for females. Among RU, AUD was associated with unemployment, and low education with dependence and AUD.Regular alcohol users with alcohol-related disturbances are more likely to be found where area-level neighborhood characteristics reflect social disadvantage. Although we cannot draw inferences about causal influence, the associations are strong enough to warrant future longitudinal alcohol studies to explore causal mechanisms related to the
Barrington, Wendy E; Stafford, Mai; Hamer, Mark; Beresford, Shirley A A; Koepsell, Thomas; Steptoe, Andrew
Associations between measures of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and health have been identified, yet work is needed to uncover explanatory mechanisms. One hypothesized pathway is through stress, yet the few studies that have evaluated associations between characteristics of deprived neighborhoods and biomarkers of stress are mixed. This study evaluated whether objectively measured neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and individual perceived neighborhood characteristics (i.e. social control and fear of crime) impacted cortisol responses to an induced stressor among older healthy adults. Data from Heart Scan, a sub-study of the Whitehall II cohort, were used to generate multilevel piecewise growth-curve models of cortisol trajectories after a laboratory stressor accounting for neighborhood and demographic characteristics. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was significantly associated with individual perceptions of social control and fear of crime in the neighborhood while an association with blunted cortisol reactivity was only evidence among women. Social control was significantly associated with greater cortisol reactivity and mediation between neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and cortisol reactivity was suggested among women. These findings support a gender-dependent role of neighborhood in stress process models of health. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Ancarani, Alessandro; Di Mauro, Carmela; Giammanco, Maria D
Safety climate is considered beneficial to the improvement of hospital safety outcomes. Nevertheless, the relations between two of its key constituents, namely those stemming from leader-subordinate relations and coworker support for safety, are still to be fully ascertained. This article uses the theoretical lens of Social Exchange Theory to study the joint impact of leader-member exchange in the safety sphere and coworker support for safety on safety-related behavior at the hospital ward level. Social exchange constructs are further related to the existence of a shame-/blame-free environment, seen as a potential antecedent of safety behavior. A cross-sectional study including 166 inpatients in hospital wards belonging to 10 public hospitals in Italy was undertaken to test the hypotheses developed. Hypothesized relations have been analyzed through a fully mediated multilevel structural equation model. This methodology allows studying behavior at the individual level, while keeping into account the heterogeneity among hospital specialties. Results suggest that the linkage between leader support for safety and individual safety behavior is mediated by coworker support on safety issues and by the creation of a shame-free environment. These findings call for the creation of a safety climate in which managerial efforts should be directed not only to the provision of new safety resources and the enforcement of safety rules but also to the encouragement of teamwork and freedom to report errors as ways to foster the capacity of the staff to communicate, share, and learn from each other.
Davis, Morris A.; Gregory, Jesse; Hartley, Daniel A.; Tan, Kegon T. K.
We study how households choose neighborhoods, how neighborhoods affect child ability, and how housing vouchers influence neighborhood choices and child outcomes. We use two new panel data sets with tract-level detail for Los Angeles county to estimate a dynamic model of optimal tract-level location choice for renting households and, separately, the impact of living in a given tract on child test scores (which we call "child ability" throughout). We simulate optimal location choices and change...
Stevens, Robin; Dunaev, Jamie; Malven, Ellen; Bleakley, Amy; Hull, Shawnika
There has been significant interest in the role of social media in the lives of adolescents, particularly as it relates to sexual risk. Researchers have focused on understanding usage behaviors, quantifying effects of social media exposure and activity, and using social media to intervene. Much of this work has focused on college students and non-minority youth. In this paper, we examine the growing body of literature around social media use among US minority youth and its intersection with s...
Larson, E. K.; Li, J.; Zycherman, A.
Integration of social science into climate and global change assessments is fundamental for improving understanding of the drivers, impacts and vulnerability of climate change, and the social, cultural and behavioral challenges related to climate change responses. This requires disciplinary and interdisciplinary knowledge as well as integrational and translational tools for linking this knowledge with the natural and physical sciences. The USGCRP's Social Science Coordinating Committee (SSCC) is tasked with this challenge and is working to integrate relevant social, economic and behavioral knowledge into processes like sustained assessments. This presentation will discuss outcomes from a recent SSCC workshop, "Social Science Perspectives on Climate Change" and their applications to sustained assessments. The workshop brought academic social scientists from four disciplines - anthropology, sociology, geography and archaeology - together with federal scientists and program managers to discuss three major research areas relevant to the USGCRP and climate assessments: (1) innovative tools, methods, and analyses to clarify the interactions of human and natural systems under climate change, (2) understanding of factors contributing to differences in social vulnerability between and within communities under climate change, and (3) social science perspectives on drivers of global climate change. These disciplines, collectively, emphasize the need to consider socio-cultural, political, economic, geographic, and historic factors, and their dynamic interactions, to understand climate change drivers, social vulnerability, and mitigation and adaptation responses. They also highlight the importance of mixed quantitative and qualitative methods to explain impacts, vulnerability, and responses at different time and spatial scales. This presentation will focus on major contributions of the social sciences to climate and global change research. We will discuss future directions for
Abstract Climate change mitigation constitutes a social dilemma, a conflict between personal and collective outcomes. Behaviours that result in personal benefits (e.g. travelling quickly, conveniently and cheaply by plane) also result in a collective cost in the form of climate change. Behavioural theories and evidence suggest this social dilemma structure significantly influences behaviour. This thesis aims to understand how the social dilemma structure of climate change mitigation affect...
Cai, Y.; Judd, K. L.; Lontzek, T.
Many scientists are worried about climate change triggering abrupt and irreversible events leading to significant and long-lasting damages. For example, a rapid release of methane from permafrost may lead to amplified global warming, and global warming may increase the frequency and severity of heavy rainfall or typhoon, destroying large cities and killing numerous people. Some elements of the climate system which might exhibit such a triggering effect are called tipping elements. There is great uncertainty about the impact of anthropogenic carbon and tipping elements on future economic wellbeing. Any rational policy choice must consider the great uncertainty about the magnitude and timing of global warming's impact on economic productivity. While the likelihood of tipping points may be a function of contemporaneous temperature, their effects are long lasting and might be independent of future temperatures. It is assumed that some of these tipping points might occur even in this century, but also that their duration and post-tipping impact are uncertain. A faithful representation of the possibility of tipping points for the calculation of social cost of carbon would require a fully stochastic formulation of irreversibility, and accounting for the deep layer of uncertainties regarding the duration of the tipping process and also its economic impact. We use DSICE, a DSGE extension of the DICE2007 model of William Nordhaus, which incorporates beliefs about the uncertain economic impact of possible climate tipping events and uses empirically plausible parameterizations of Epstein-Zin preferences to represent attitudes towards risk. We find that the uncertainty associated with anthropogenic climate change imply carbon taxes much higher than implied by deterministic models. This analysis indicates that the absence of uncertainty in DICE2007 and similar IAM models may result in substantial understatement of the potential benefits of policies to reduce GHG emissions.
Full Text Available There has been significant interest in the role of social media in the lives of adolescents, particularly as it relates to sexual risk. Researchers have focused on understanding usage behaviors, quantifying effects of social media exposure and activity, and using social media to intervene. Much of this work has focused on college students and non-minority youth. In this paper, we examine the growing body of literature around social media use among US minority youth and its intersection with sexual risk behavior. We introduce the concept of the “digital neighborhood” and examine the intersection of social media and sexual health in two domains: 1 sexual content in social media and 2 evidence of social media effects on sexual behavior. Finally, we discuss the opportunities and challenges for researchers and practitioners engaging youth of color.
AJ, Milam; CDM, Furr-Holden; PJ, Leaf
Community and school violence continue to be a major public health problem, especially among urban children and adolescents. Little research has focused on the effect of school safety and neighborhood violence on academic performance. This study examines the effect of the school and neighborhood climate on academic achievement among a population of 3rd-5th grade students in an urban public school system. Community and school safety were assessed using the School Climate Survey, an annual city-wide assessment of student’s perception of school and community safety. Community violence was measured using the Neighborhood Inventory for Environmental Typology, an objective observational assessment of neighborhood characteristics. Academic achievement was measured using the Maryland State Assessment (MSA), a standardized exam given to all Maryland 3rd-8th graders. School Climate Data and MSA data were aggregated by school and grade. Objective assessments of neighborhood environment and students’ self-reported school and neighborhood safety were both strongly associated with academic performance. Increasing neighborhood violence was associated with statistically significant decreases from 4.2%-8.7% in math and reading achievement; increasing perceived safety was associated with significant increases in achievement from 16%-22%. These preliminary findings highlight the adverse impact of perceived safety and community violence exposure on primary school children’s academic performance. PMID:21197388
Decamps, H.; Amatore, C.; Bach, J.F.; Baccelli, F.; Balian, R.; Carpentier, A.; Charnay, P.; Cuzin, F.; Davier, M.; Dercourt, J.; Dumas, C.; Encrenaz, P.; Jeannerod, M.; Kahane, J.P.; Meunier, B.; Rebut, P.H.; Salencon, J.; Spitz, E.; Suquet, P.; Taquet, P.; Valleron, A.J.; Yoccoz, J.C.; Chapron, J.Y.; Fanon, J.; Andre, J.C.; Auger, P.; Bourrelier, P.H.; Combes, C.; Derrida, B.; Laubier, L.; Laval, K.; Le Maho, Y.; Marsily, G. De; Petit, M.; Schmidt-Laine, C.; Birot, Y.; Peyron, J.L.; Seguin, B.; Barles, S.; Besancenot, J.P.; Michel-Kerjan, E.; Hallegatte, S.; Dumas, P.; Ancey, V.; Requier-Desjardins, M.; Ducharnes, A.; Ciais, P.; Peylin, P.; Kaniewski, D.; Van Campo, E.; Planton, S.; Manuguerra, J.C.; Le Bars, Y.; Lagadec, P.; Kessler, D.; Pontikis, C.; Nussbaum, R.
The Earth has to face more and more devastating extreme events. Between 1970 and 2009, at the worldwide scale, the 25 most costly catastrophes all took place after 1987, and for more than half of them after 2001. Among these 25 catastrophes, 23 were linked to climate conditions. France was not spared: the December 1999 storms led to 88 deaths, deprived 3.5 million households of electricity and costed more than 9 billion euros. The 2003 heat wave led to about 15000 supernumerary deaths between August 1 and August 20. The recent Xynthia storm, with its flood barrier ruptures, provoked 53 deaths in addition to many other tragedies that took place in areas liable to flooding. In the present day context of climate change, we know that we must be prepared to even more dangerous events, sometimes unexpected before. These events can have amplified effects because of the urban development, the overpopulation of coastal areas and the anthropization of natural environments. They represent real 'poverty traps' for the poorest countries of the Earth. The anticipation need is real but is our country ready to answer it? Does it have a sufficient contribution to international actions aiming at reducing risks? Is his scientific information suitable? France is not less vulnerable than other countries. It must reinforce its prevention, its response and resilience capacities in the framework of integrated policies of catastrophes risk management as well as in the framework of climate change adaptation plans. This reinforcement supposes the development of vigilance systems with a better risk coverage and benefiting by the advances gained in the meteorology and health domains. It supposes a town and country planning allowing to improve the viability of ecological and social systems - in particular by protecting their diversity. Finally, this reinforcement requires inciting financial coverage solutions for catastrophes prevention and for their management once they have taken place. A
Darby, Sarah J.; McKenna, Eoghan
Residential electrical demand response (DR) offers the prospect of reducing the environmental impact of electricity use, and also the supply costs. However, the relatively small loads and numerous actors imply a large effort: response ratio. Residential DR may be an essential part of future smart grids, but how viable is it in the short to medium term? This paper reviews some DR concepts, then evaluates the propositions that households in cool temperate climates will be in a position to contribute to grid flexibility within the next decade, and that that they will allow some automated load control. Examples of demand response from around the world are discussed in order to assess the main considerations for cool climates. Different tariff types and forms of control are assessed in terms of what is being asked of electricity users, with a focus on real-time pricing and direct load control in energy systems with increasingly distributed resources. The literature points to the significance of thermal loads, supply mix, demand-side infrastructure, market regulation, and the framing of risks and opportunities associated with DR. In concentrating on social aspects of residential demand response, the paper complements the body of work on technical and economic potential. - Highlights: ► Demand response implies major change in governance of electricity systems. ► Households in cool temperate climates can be flexible, mainly with thermal loads. ► DR requires simple tariffs, appropriate enabling technology, education, and feedback. ► Need to test consumer acceptance of DR in specific conditions. ► Introduce tariffs with technologies e.g., TOU tariff plus DLC with electric vehicles.
Sinclair, P. W.
The internet and social media have been a critical vector for misinformation on climate change. Scientists have not always been proactive or effective in utilizing the medium to bring attention to the best science, to correct misinformation and overcome urban myths. Similarly, mainstream journalists have been handicapped in dealing with the wide open nature of the medium, and often muted by editorial concerns or budget restrictions. Independent communicators who are highly motivated can make inroads in this area by using the internet's immediacy and connectivity to consistently connect viewers and readers to reliable information. Over the last 4 years, I have developed a series of you tube videos, made deliberately provocative to engage the internet's confrontational culture, but carefully crafted to bring the best science into the freewheeling community. In doing so, I have won the confidence of leading climate scientists, and in some cases assisted them in clarifying their message. This presentation will share simple tips, useful practices, and effective strategies for making complex material more clear and user friendly, and help scientists better convey the stories hidden in their data.
Ekholm, Bodil; Hedin, Anna
School climates at 12 day care centers in Sweden were compared to investigate effects of center climates on children's social and emotional behavior. Observations and interviews conducted at the day care centers revealed differences in center climates related to child-rearing patterns, patterns of interaction, the distribution of power, and in…
... climate change and building resilience. Social capital can be a resource for building adaptation by farmers. This study explores the role of social capital in climate change adaptation for improving food security and livelihoods among smallholder farmers. The study was conducted in Appelsbosch, Kwa-Zulu Natal province.
Leipoldt, Jonathan D.; Kayed, Nanna S.; Harder, Annemiek T.; Grietens, Hans; Rimehaug, Tormod
Background: Previous studies have shown that social climate in therapeutic residential youth care (TRC) is important to the welfare of residents, staff, and assessing treatment outcomes. The most influential theory on social climate in residential settings is the theory of Moos. The measurement of the concepts and aspects of this theory using the…
Edling, Christofer; Rydgren, Jens
The social surroundings in which an individual grows up and spends his or her everyday life have an effect on his or her life chances. Much of the research into this phenomenon focuses on so-called neighborhood effects and has put particular emphasis on the negative effects of growing up in a poor neighborhood. Originating from the sociological study of inner-city problems in the United States, the research has recentl...
Nawrotzki, Raphael J; Riosmena, Fernando; Hunter, Lori M; Runfola, Daniel M
Increasing rates of climate migration may be of economic and national concern to sending and destination countries. It has been argued that social networks - the ties connecting an origin and destination - may operate as "migration corridors" with the potential to strongly facilitate climate change-related migration. This study investigates whether social networks at the household and community levels amplify or suppress the impact of climate change on international migration from rural Mexico. A novel set of 15 climate change indices was generated based on daily temperature and precipitation data for 214 weather stations across Mexico. Employing geostatistical interpolation techniques, the climate change values were linked to 68 rural municipalities for which sociodemographic data and detailed migration histories were available from the Mexican Migration Project. Multi-level discrete-time event-history models were used to investigate the effect of climate change on international migration between 1986 and 1999. At the household level, the effect of social networks was approximated by comparing the first to the last move, assuming that through the first move a household establishes internal social capital. At the community level, the impact of social capital was explored through interactions with a measure of the proportion of adults with migration experience. The results show that rather than amplifying , social capital may suppress the sensitivity of migration to climate triggers, suggesting that social networks could facilitate climate change adaptation in place.
This article examines how social and health inequalities shape the health impacts of climate change in the UK, and what the implications are for climate change adaptation and health care provision. The evidence generated by the other articles of the special issue were interpreted using social justice reasoning in light of additional literature, to draw out the key implications of health and social inequalities for health outcomes of climate change. Exposure to heat and cold, air pollution, pollen, food safety risks, disruptions to access to and functioning of health services and facilities, emerging infections and flooding are examined as the key impacts of climate change influencing health outcomes. Age, pre-existing medical conditions and social deprivation are found to be the key (but not only) factors that make people vulnerable and to experience more adverse health outcomes related to climate change impacts. In the future, climate change, aging population and decreasing public spending on health and social care may aggravate inequality of health outcomes related to climate change. Health education and public preparedness measures that take into account differential exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity of different groups help address health and social inequalities to do with climate change. Adaptation strategies based on individual preparedness, action and behaviour change may aggravate health and social inequalities due to their selective uptake, unless they are coupled with broad public information campaigns and financial support for undertaking adaptive measures.
Riosmena, Fernando; Hunter, Lori M.; Runfola, Daniel M.
Increasing rates of climate migration may be of economic and national concern to sending and destination countries. It has been argued that social networks – the ties connecting an origin and destination – may operate as “migration corridors” with the potential to strongly facilitate climate change-related migration. This study investigates whether social networks at the household and community levels amplify or suppress the impact of climate change on international migration from rural Mexico. A novel set of 15 climate change indices was generated based on daily temperature and precipitation data for 214 weather stations across Mexico. Employing geostatistical interpolation techniques, the climate change values were linked to 68 rural municipalities for which sociodemographic data and detailed migration histories were available from the Mexican Migration Project. Multi-level discrete-time event-history models were used to investigate the effect of climate change on international migration between 1986 and 1999. At the household level, the effect of social networks was approximated by comparing the first to the last move, assuming that through the first move a household establishes internal social capital. At the community level, the impact of social capital was explored through interactions with a measure of the proportion of adults with migration experience. The results show that rather than amplifying, social capital may suppress the sensitivity of migration to climate triggers, suggesting that social networks could facilitate climate change adaptation in place. PMID:26692656
Maris, I.; Huizinga, A; Bouman, W.; Tuunainen, V.K.; Rossi, M.; Nandhakumar, J.
This paper outlines a research in progress set to study network effects in social media. The focus is on outlining the theoretical framework in which this study is embedded. The concepts of cumulative network effects and segmentive network effects are introduced to explain the processes by which
Shannon M. Sisco
Full Text Available Low neighborhood-level socioeconomic status has been associated with poorer health, reduced physical activity, increased psychological stress, and less neighborhood-based social support. These outcomes are correlates of late life cognition, but few studies have specifically investigated the neighborhood as a unique source of explanatory variance in cognitive aging. This study supplemented baseline cognitive data from the ACTIVE (Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly study with neighborhood-level data to investigate (1 whether neighborhood socioeconomic position (SEP predicts cognitive level, and if so, whether it differentially predicts performance in general and specific domains of cognition and (2 whether neighborhood SEP predicts differences in response to short-term cognitive intervention for memory, reasoning, or processing speed. Neighborhood SEP positively predicted vocabulary, but did not predict other general or specific measures of cognitive level, and did not predict individual differences in response to cognitive intervention.
Chrisinger, Benjamin W; King, Abby C
models. Interactive data maps allowed participants to (1) reflect on data collected during the neighborhood walk, (2) see how EDA levels changed over the course of the walk in relation to objective neighborhood features (using basemap and DT app photos), and (3) compare their data to other participants along the same route. Participants identified a variety of social and environmental features that contributed to or detracted from their well-being. This initial investigation sets the stage for further research combining qualitative and quantitative data capture and interpretation to identify objective and perceived elements of the built environment influence our embodied experience in different settings. It provides a systematic process for simultaneously collecting multiple kinds of data, and lays a foundation for future statistical and spatial analyses in addition to more in-depth interpretation of how these responses vary within and between individuals.
Tanksley, Tiera chantè; Lopez, Vanessa; Martinez, Francisca
The 2015-2016 Undergraduate Research Partnership Initiative (URPI) study explored students’ use of social media to engage in discussion of racial/ethnic diversity and campus climate. The purpose of the study was to better understand how students utilize social media to talk about issues of racial/ethnic diversity and campus climate to inform how UCLA might capitalize on social media use to promote a safe, welcoming and empowering campus environment. Eighteen interviews and an in-depth content...
Alló, Maria; Loureiro, Maria L.
The present study provides a review of existing assessments of preferences for climate change mitigation and adaptation policies through a worldwide meta-analysis. In this study, we analyze the impact of social values and norms on preferences towards climate change adaptation and mitigation policies. In a sample of 58 international studies, we found that mitigation actions were preferred over adaptation actions, and that preferences towards climate change policies are affected by attitudes towards time and social norms. In particular, societies with a long-term orientation display greater support towards climate change policies. These results therefore reveal the role of social factors as being crucial in order to understand the acceptability of climate change policies at a worldwide level. - highlights: • Effective policy design is required in order to curb climate change. • Using a meta-analysis, we find that mitigation actions are preferred over adaptation actions. • Economic conditions play a crucial role for supporting efforts to combat climate change. • Cultural and social dimensions are relevant for the acceptability of climate policies. • Understanding social norms and cultural variables may help with the climate change debate
' autonomous adaptation by reducing vulnerability to climatic shocks. This paper examines the role of the Productive Safety Net Program in reducing vulnerability to climate related shocks and its impacts on autonomous adaptation strategies ...
Haley, Danielle F; Wingood, Gina M; Kramer, Michael R; Haardörfer, Regine; Adimora, Adaora A; Rubtsova, Anna; Edmonds, Andrew; Goswami, Neela D; Ludema, Christina; Hickson, DeMarc A; Ramirez, Catalina; Ross, Zev; Bolivar, Hector; Cooper, Hannah L F
Neighborhood social and physical factors shape sexual network characteristics in HIV-seronegative adults in the U.S. This multilevel analysis evaluated whether these relationships also exist in a predominantly HIV-seropositive cohort of women. This cross-sectional multilevel analysis included data from 734 women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study's sites in the U.S. South. Census tract-level contextual data captured socioeconomic disadvantage (e.g., tract poverty), number of alcohol outlets, and number of non-profits in the census tracts where women lived; participant-level data, including perceived neighborhood cohesion, were gathered via survey. We used hierarchical generalized linear models to evaluate relationships between tract characteristics and two outcomes: perceived main sex partner risk level (e.g., partner substance use) and perceived main sex partner non-monogamy. We tested whether these relationships varied by women's HIV status. Greater tract-level socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with greater sex partner risk (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.06-1.58) among HIV-seropositive women and less partner non-monogamy among HIV-seronegative women (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.51-0.92). Perceived neighborhood trust and cohesion was associated with lower partner risk (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.69-1.00) for HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative women. The tract-level number of alcohol outlets and non-profits were not associated with partner risk characteristics. Neighborhood characteristics are associated with perceived sex partner risk and non-monogamy among women in the South; these relationships vary by HIV status. Future studies should examine causal relationships and explore the pathways through which neighborhoods influence partner selection and risk characteristics.
Zohar, Dov; Tenne-Gazit, Orly
In order to test the social mechanisms through which organizational climate emerges, this article introduces a model that combines transformational leadership and social interaction as antecedents of climate strength (i.e., the degree of within-unit agreement about climate perceptions). Despite their longstanding status as primary variables, both antecedents have received limited empirical research. The sample consisted of 45 platoons of infantry soldiers from 5 different brigades, using safety climate as the exemplar. Results indicate a partially mediated model between transformational leadership and climate strength, with density of group communication network as the mediating variable. In addition, the results showed independent effects for group centralization of the communication and friendship networks, which exerted incremental effects on climate strength over transformational leadership. Whereas centralization of the communication network was found to be negatively related to climate strength, centralization of the friendship network was positively related to it. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Ryder, Andrew J.; Mitchell, Joshua J.
Understanding institutional climate enhances decision-making capacity when planning new programs and improving learning environments on college campuses. This chapter defines climate, discusses the purpose and advantages of climate assessment, and identifies important factors to consider in planning and conducting a personal and social…
Seidl, Rupert; Lexer, Manfred J
The unabated continuation of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and the lack of an international consensus on a stringent climate change mitigation policy underscore the importance of adaptation for coping with the all but inevitable changes in the climate system. Adaptation measures in forestry have particularly long lead times. A timely implementation is thus crucial for reducing the considerable climate vulnerability of forest ecosystems. However, since future environmental conditions as well as future societal demands on forests are inherently uncertain, a core requirement for adaptation is robustness to a wide variety of possible futures. Here we explicitly address the roles of climatic and social uncertainty in forest management, and tackle the question of robustness of adaptation measures in the context of multi-objective sustainable forest management (SFM). We used the Austrian Federal Forests (AFF) as a case study, and employed a comprehensive vulnerability assessment framework based on ecosystem modeling, multi-criteria decision analysis, and practitioner participation. We explicitly considered climate uncertainty by means of three climate change scenarios, and accounted for uncertainty in future social demands by means of three societal preference scenarios regarding SFM indicators. We found that the effects of climatic and social uncertainty on the projected performance of management were in the same order of magnitude, underlining the notion that climate change adaptation requires an integrated social-ecological perspective. Furthermore, our analysis of adaptation measures revealed considerable trade-offs between reducing adverse impacts of climate change and facilitating adaptive capacity. This finding implies that prioritization between these two general aims of adaptation is necessary in management planning, which we suggest can draw on uncertainty analysis: Where the variation induced by social-ecological uncertainty renders measures aiming to
Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers are at high risk of obesity, yet the aetiology of obesity in this group remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the perceived personal, social and physical environmental factors associated with resilience to obesity among mothers from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Methods Survey data were provided by a cohort of 1840 women aged 18-46 years with dependent children (aged 0-18 years from 40 urban and 40 rural socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods across Victoria, Australia. Mothers responded to a number of questions relating to personal, social and environmental influences on their physical activity and eating habits. Mothers' weight status was classified as healthy weight (BMI: 18.5-24.99, overweight (BMI: 25-29.99 or obese (BMI: 30+. Results Mothers' weight status was bivariably associated with factors from all three domains (personal, social and physical environmental. In a multivariable model, mothers' perceived ability to make time for healthy eating (OR = 1.34 and physical activity (OR = 1.11 despite family commitments, and the frequency with which families ate healthy low-fat foods with mothers (OR = 1.28 remained significantly positively associated with healthy weight status. The frequency with which families encouraged eating healthy low-fat foods remained negatively associated (OR = 0.81 with weight status; ie greater encouragement was associated with less healthy weight status. Conclusions Drawing on the characteristics of mothers resilient to obesity might assist in developing intervention strategies to help other mothers in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods to manage their weight. Such strategies might focus on planning for and prioritising time for healthy eating and physical activity behaviours, and including family members in and encouraging family mealtimes.
Reynolds, Katherine J.; Lee, Eunro; Turner, Isobel; Bromhead, David; Subasic, Emina
In explaining academic achievement, school climate and social belonging (connectedness, identification) emerge as important variables. However, both constructs are rarely explored in one model. In the current study, a social psychological framework based on the social identity perspective (Turner, Hogg, Oakes, Reicher, & Wetherell, 1987) is…
Full Text Available The vulnerabilities and health burdens of climate change fall disproportionately upon lower income communities and communities of color. Yet the very groups who are most affected by climate change impacts are least likely to be involved in climate adaptation discussions. These communities face critical barriers to involvement including historical disenfranchisement, as well as a sense that climate change is distant and not personally relevant. Boundary organizations are increasingly playing an important role in bringing science to bear on policy decision-making with respect to climate change adaptation, an issue fraught with political and ideological tensions. Our project aimed to engage underrepresented communities in climate change adaptation decision-making using a neighborhood consensus conference model developed and tested in several diverse districts of Saint Paul, Minnesota. Our partnership, a “linked chain” of boundary organizations, devised a neighborhood consensus conference model to present best-available climate data as tangible, place-based scenarios. In so doing, we made climate change “personal” for those who remain outside of climate change planning discourses and opened an opportunity for them to assess their community’s vulnerabilities and communicate their priorities for public investment. Our neighborhood-based model built trust and social capital with local residents and allowed us to bring new voices into conversations around climate change adaptation concerns and priorities. We believe this work will have a long term impact on local climate adaptation planning decisions.
Grecni, Z. N.; Keener, V. W.
Assessments inform regional and local climate change governance and provide the critical scientific basis for U.S. climate policy. Despite the centrality of scientific information to public discourse and decision making, comprehensive assessments of climate change drivers, impacts, and the vulnerability of human and ecological systems at regional or local scales are often conducted on an ad hoc basis. Methods for sustained assessment and communication of scientific information are diverse and nascent. The Pacific Islands Regional Climate Assessment (PIRCA) is a collaborative effort to assess climate change indicators, impacts, and adaptive capacity of the Hawaiian archipelago and the US-Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI). In 2012, PIRCA released the first comprehensive report summarizing the state of scientific knowledge about climate change in the region as a technical input to the U.S. National Climate Assessment. A multi-method evaluation of PIRCA outputs and delivery revealed that the vast majority of key stakeholders view the report as extremely credible and use it as a resource. The current study will present PIRCA's approach to establishing physical and social indicators to track on an ongoing basis, starting with the Republic of the Marshall Islands as an initial location of focus for providing a cross-sectoral indicators framework. Identifying and tracking useful indicators is aimed at sustaining the process of knowledge coproduction with decision makers who seek to better understand the climate variability and change and its impacts on Pacific Island communities.
Building urban resilience to climate change and other challenges will be essential for maintaining thriving cities into the future. Resilience has become very popular in both research on and practice of climate adaptation. However, people have different interpretations of what it means: what resilience-building contributes to, what the problems, causes and solutions are, and what trade-offs, side-effects and other normative choices are acceptable. These different ways of ‘framing’ climate res...
Collins, Timothy W.; McDonald, Yolanda J.; Aldouri, Raed; Aboargob, Faraj; Eldeb, Abdelatif; Aguilar, María de Lourdes Romo; Velázquez-Angulo, Juárez Gilberto
Scholars have recognized a climate gap, wherein poor communities face disproportionate impacts of climate change. Others have noted that climate change and economic globalization may mutually affect a region or social group, leading to double exposure. This paper investigates how current and changing patterns of neighborhood demographics are associated with extreme heat in the border city of Juárez, Mexico. Many Juárez neighborhoods are at-risk to triple exposures, in which residents suffer due to the conjoined effects of the global recession, drug war violence, and extreme heat. Due to impacts of the recession on maquiladora employment and the explosion of drug violence (since 2008), over 75% of neighborhoods experienced decreasing population density between 2000 and 2010 and the average neighborhood saw a 40% increase in the proportion of older adults. Neighborhoods with greater drops in population density and increases in the proportion of older residents over the decade are at significantly higher risk to extreme heat, as are neighborhoods with lower population density and lower levels of education. In this context, triple exposures are associated with a climate gap that most endangers lower socioeconomic status and increasingly older aged populations remaining in neighborhoods from which high proportions of residents have departed. PMID:25642135
Gregson, Kim D; Erath, Stephen A; Pettit, Gregory S; Tu, Kelly M
Associations linking parenting emotional climate and quality of parental social coaching with young adolescents' receptivity to parental social coaching were examined (N = 80). Parenting emotional climate was assessed with adolescent-reported parental warmth and hostility. Quality of parental social coaching (i.e., prosocial advice, benign framing) was assessed via parent-report and behavioral observations during a parent-adolescent discussion about negative peer evaluation. An adolescent receptivity latent variable score was derived from observations of adolescents' behavior during the discussion, change in adolescents' peer response plan following the discussion, and adolescent-reported tendency to seek social advice from the parent. Parenting climate moderated associations between coaching and receptivity: Higher quality coaching was associated with greater receptivity in the context of a more positive climate. Analyses suggested a stronger association between coaching and receptivity among younger compared to older adolescents. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2015 Society for Research on Adolescence.
Social cost of carbon (SCC) is the key concept in the economics of climate change. It measures the economic cost of climate impacts. SCC has influence on how beneficial it is to prevent climate change: if the value of SCC increases, investments to low-carbon technology become more attractive and profitable. This paper examines the sensitivity of two important assumptions that affect to SCC: the choice of a discount rate and time horizon. Using the integrated assessment model, ...
Schuster, Roseanne C; Han, Seung Yong; Brewis, Alexandra A; Wutich, Amber
Obesity is socially stigmatized in the U.S., especially for women. Significant research has focused on the role that the social and built environments of neighborhoods play in shaping obesity. However, the role of obesity in shaping neighborhood social structure has been largely overlooked. We test the hypothesis that large body size inhibits an individual's engagement in his or her neighborhood. Our study objectives are to assess if (1) body size (body mass index) interacts with gender to predict engagement in one's neighborhood (neighborhood engagement) and (2) if bonding social capital interacts with gender to predict neighborhood engagement independent of body size. We used data collected from the cross-sectional 2011 Phoenix Area Social Survey (PASS), which systematically sampled residents across four neighborhood types (core urban, urban fringe, suburban, retirement) across the Phoenix Metopolitian Area. Survey data was analyzed using logistic regression for 804 participants, including 35% for whom missing data was computed using multiple imputation. We found that as body size increases, women-but not men-have reduced engagement in their neighborhood, independent of bonding social capital and other key covariates (objective 1). We did not observe the interaction between gender and bonding social capital associated with neighborhood engagement (objective 2). Prior scholarship suggests obesity clusters in neighborhoods due to processes of social, economic, and environmental disadvantage. This finding suggests bi-directionality: obesity could, in turn, undermine neighborhood engagement through the mechanism of weight stigma and discrimination.
Andersen, Lars Peter; Nørdam, Line; Jønsson, Thomas Faurholt
The construction industry has one of the highest frequencies of work-related accidents. We examined whether construction workers predominantly identify themselves in terms of their workgroup or in terms of the construction site. In addition, we examined the associations between social identity...... themselves primarily with their workgroup, and to a lesser degree with the construction site. Social identity and safety climate were related both at the workgroup and construction site levels, meaning that social identity may be an antecedent for safety climate. The association between social identity...
Lalama, Susana M.
The purpose of this study was to explore connections among perceived caring climate, empathy, and student social behaviors in high school bands. Nine high school band directors (N = 9 schools), along with their students (N = 203), completed an electronic questionnaire for variables of caring climate, cognitive empathy, affective empathy, social…
Moreira Moura, Giovane; Sadre, R.; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko; Paschoal Gaspary, L.; De Turk, Filip
Internet Bad Neighborhoods have proven to be an innovative approach for fighting spam. They have also helped to understand how spammers are distributed on the Internet. In our previous works, the size of each bad neighborhood was fixed to a /24 subnetwork. In this paper, however, we investigate if
Mudombi, Shakespear; Fabricius, Christo; Van Zyl-Bulitta, Verena; Patt, Anthony
Global environmental change will have major impacts on ecosystems and human livelihoods while challenging the adaptive capacity of individuals and communities. Social learning, an ongoing adaptive process of knowledge generation, reflection and synthesis, may enhance people’s awareness about climate change and its impacts, with positive outcomes for their adaptive capacity. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of factors promoting social learning in climate change adapta...
van Duinen, Rianne; Filatova, Tatiana; van der Veen, Anne; Seppelt, R.; Voinov, A.A.; Lange, S.; Bankamp, D.
Adaptation to climate change might not always occur, with potentially catastrophic results. Success depends on coordinated actions at both governmental and individual levels (public and private adaptation). Even for a “wet” country like the Netherlands, climate change projections show that the
Building urban resilience to climate change and other challenges will be essential for maintaining thriving cities into the future. Resilience has become very popular in both research on and practice of climate adaptation. However, people have different interpretations of what it means: what
Robinette, Jennifer W; Charles, Susan T; Gruenewald, Tara L
Perceptions of neighborhood disorder (trash, vandalism) and cohesion (neighbors trust one another) are related to residents' health. Affective and behavioral factors have been identified, but often in studies using geographically select samples. We use a nationally representative sample (n = 9032) of United States older adults from the Health and Retirement Study to examine cardiometabolic risk in relation to perceptions of neighborhood cohesion and disorder. Lower cohesion is significantly related to greater cardiometabolic risk in 2006/2008 and predicts greater risk four years later (2010/2012). The longitudinal relation is partially accounted for by anxiety and physical activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kirk, David S; Papachristos, Andrew V
Sociologists have given considerable attention to identifying the neighborhood-level social-interactional mechanisms that influence outcomes such as crime, educational attainment, and health. Yet, cultural mechanisms are often overlooked in quantitative studies of neighborhood effects. This paper adds a cultural dimension to neighborhood effects research by exploring the consequences of legal cynicism. Legal cynicism refers to a cultural frame in which people perceive the law as illegitimate, unresponsive, and ill equipped to ensure public safety. The authors find that legal cynicism explains why homicide persisted in certain Chicago neighborhoods during the 1990s despite declines in poverty and declines in violence city-wide.
Doherty, Kathryn L.; Webler, Thomas N.
Surprisingly few individuals who are highly concerned about climate change take action to influence public policies. To assess social-psychological and cognitive drivers of public-sphere climate actions of Global Warming’s Six Americas `Alarmed’ segment, we developed a behaviour model and tested it using structural equation modelling of survey data from Vermont, USA (N = 702). Our model, which integrates social cognitive theory, social norms research, and value belief norm theory, explains 36-64% of the variance in five behaviours. Here we show descriptive social norms, self-efficacy, personal response efficacy, and collective response efficacy as strong driving forces of: voting, donating, volunteering, contacting government officials, and protesting about climate change. The belief that similar others took action increased behaviour and strengthened efficacy beliefs, which also led to greater action. Our results imply that communication efforts targeting Alarmed individuals and their public actions should include strategies that foster beliefs about positive descriptive social norms and efficacy.
Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Schachter, Ariela
Investigating children's outdoor play unites scholarship on neighborhoods, parental perceptions of safety, and children's health. Utilizing the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study (N = 3,448), we examine mothers' fear of their 5-year-old children playing outdoors, testing associations with neighborhood social characteristics, city-level…
Bell, Lauren E.; Van Velsor, Patricia
Gentrification occurs when the prevailing demographic and economic environment of an urban neighborhood changes in ways related to social class and physical renewal. Gentrification effects are both positive and negative; however, low-income residents may be disproportionately negatively affected. As neighborhoods transform, schools also change.…
Kok, Marcel; Vermeulen, Walter; Faaij, Andre; Jager, David de
Societies need to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases by 80 per cent in order to counter the risks of climate change. This study envisions a climate neutral society - one where the output of polluting gases is minimised by social innovations set up in households, by local authorities, through developments in information and communications technologies and dematerialization, and through the shift towards product service systems and emissions trading. The work discusses the possibilities for steering and orchestrating this long-term transition towards a climate-friendly society, mapping paths through current dilemmas in climate policy and exploring the legal issues of making this transition. (Author)
Pinkster, F.M.; Droogleever Fortuijn, J.
Neighborhood is seen as one of the many social contexts that shape children's cognitive, emotional and social development. However, the neighborhood context does not simply 'imprint' itself on children, but can be mediated or moderated by other social contexts, in particular the family context
This study explores the role of social capital in climate change ... and increase participation and networks with the ... crises, such as ensuring food and nutrition ... region can be attributed to small and marginal .... Strong social capital benefits groups by enabling ... management, and minimum tillage practices ..... enterprises.
Reason, Robert D.
In this article, Robert D. Reason defines personal and social responsibility as a five-component outcome of college, presents a case for thinking about educating for personal and social responsibility through the lens of campus climate that eschews the hunt for a single intervention, and encourages the marshaling of multiple resources in multiple…
Gagnon, Amy G.
Creating a positive social-emotional climate must be the backbone of a quality elementary physical education program. The need to belong, have friends, and feel emotionally safe are basic needs everyone has, but meeting these needs in the classroom can be challenging at times. Strategies regarding how to implement a positive social-emotional…
Bush, Nicole R.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Colder, Craig R.
Although proposed by bioecological models, there has been minimal empirical examination of whether children's individual differences moderate neighborhood effects on development. We used an urban community sample (8–12 years, N = 316) to examine interactions among neighborhood characteristics (problems and social organization) and children's temperament (fear, irritability and impulsivity) in predicting psychosocial adjustment. The main effects of neighborhood and temperament on outcomes were...
Rotger, Gabriel Pons; Galster, George Charles
We investigate the degree to which youth (ages 14-29) criminal offenses are influenced by neighbors, identifying causal effects with a natural experimental allocation of social housing in Copenhagen. We find that youth exposed to a one percentage point higher concentration of neighbors with drug...... criminal records are 6% more likely to be charged for criminal offenses (both drug and property crimes), and this impact manifests itself after six months of exposure. This neighborhood effect is stronger for previous offenders, and does not lead to criminal partnerships. Our exploration of alternative...
Milsom, Sophia A; Freestone, Mark; Duller, Rachel; Bouman, Marisa; Taylor, Celia
Social climate has an influence on a number of treatment-related factors, including service users' behaviour, staff morale and treatment outcomes. Reliable assessment of social climate is, therefore, beneficial within forensic mental health settings. The Essen Climate Evaluation Schema (EssenCES) has been validated in forensic mental health services in the UK and Germany. Preliminary normative data have been produced for UK high-security national health services and German medium-security and high-security services. We aim to validate the use of the EssenCES scale (English version) and provide preliminary normative data in UK medium-security hospital settings. The EssenCES scale was completed in a medium-security mental health service as part of a service-wide audit. A total of 89 patients and 112 staff completed the EssenCES. The three-factor structure of the EssenCES and its internal construct validity were maintained within the sample. Scores from this medium-security hospital sample were significantly higher than those from earlier high-security hospital data, with three exceptions--'patient cohesion' according to the patients and 'therapeutic hold' according to staff and patients. Our data support the use of the EssenCES scale as a valid measure for assessing social climate within medium-security hospital settings. Significant differences between the means of high-security and medium-security service samples imply that degree of security is a relevant factor affecting the ward climate and that in monitoring quality of secure services, it is likely to be important to apply different scores to reflect standards. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Global environmental change will have major impacts on ecosystems and human livelihoods while challenging the adaptive capacity of individuals and communities. Social learning, an ongoing adaptive process of knowledge generation, reflection and synthesis, may enhance people’s awareness about climate change and its impacts, with positive outcomes for their adaptive capacity. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of factors promoting social learning in climate change adaptation initiatives in South Africa. An online survey was used to obtain the views of decision makers in government and non-governmental organisations about the presence of personal factors and organisational factors that promote social learning. Descriptive analysis was used to assess these issues. The findings provide some evidence of social learning in climate change adaptation projects in South Africa, with the majority of respondents indicating that personal social learning indicators were present. Mechanisms for improved conflict resolution were, however, less prevalent. The organisational and governance-related barriers to implementation also presented significant challenges. Some of the main organisational barriers were short timeframes for implementing projects, inadequate financial resources, political interference, shortcomings in governance systems and lack of knowledge and expertise in organisations. There is a need for organisations to promote social learning by ensuring that their organisational environment and governance structures are conducive for their employees to embrace social learning. This will help contribute to the overall success of climate change adaptation initiatives.
Department of Housing and Urban Development — This tool assists the public and Choice Neighborhoods applicants to prepare data to submit with their grant application by allowing applicants to draw the exact...
Robert E. Manning
Democracy demands that public policy ultimately reflect evolving social thought. However, in the nonmarket realm of public land management, and environmental policy more broadly, where price signals that drive the free-market economy are generally lacking, this requires a concerted effort on the part of social science to measure and monitor societal values and related...
Zinsser, Katherine M.; Denham, Susanne A.; Curby, Timothy W.; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel
Early childhood centres are vibrant social communities where child and adult emotions are integral to learning. Previous research has focused on teaching practices that support children's social-emotional learning; fewer studies have attended to relevant centre-level factors, such as the emotional leadership practices of the centre director. The…
Gsottbauer, E.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.
An agreement on climate change mitigation hinges on large-scale international cooperation. Rational agents are supposed to consider the cost and benefits of cooperation, which then determine their negotiation positions. Behavioral economics provides experimental evidence that decision-making in
Rasmussen, Rasmus Ole
Greenland has experienced three major socio-economic shifts during the 19th and 20th century, all of them induced by the interactions between the natural system of climate change, and the socio-economic and sociotechnical system of resource exploitation The first was the shift from a sea mammal b...
Towler, E.; Lazrus, H.; Paimazumder, D.
Traditional drought research has mainly focused on physical drought risks and less on the cultural processes that also contribute to how drought risks are perceived and managed. However, as society becomes more vulnerable to drought and climate change threatens to increase water scarcity, it is clear that drought research would benefit from a more interdisciplinary approach. To assess avoided drought impacts from reduced climate change, drought risks need to be assessed in the context of both climate prediction as well as improved understanding of socio-cultural processes. To this end, this study explores a risk-based framework to combine physical drought likelihoods with perceived risks from stakeholder interviews. Results are presented from a case study on how stakeholders in south-central Oklahoma perceive drought risks given diverse cultural beliefs, water uses, and uncertainties in future drought prediction. Stakeholder interviews (n=38) were conducted in 2012 to understand drought risks to various uses of water, as well as to measure worldviews from the cultural theory of risk - a theory that explains why people perceive risks differently, potentially leading to conflict over management decisions. For physical drought risk, drought projections are derived from a large ensemble of future climates generated from two RCPs that represent higher and lower emissions trajectories (i.e., RCP8.5 and RCP4.5). These are used to develop a Combined Drought Risk Matrix (CDRM) that characterizes drought risks for different water uses as the products of both physical likelihood (from the climate ensemble) and risk perception (from the interviews). We use the CRDM to explore the avoided drought risks posed to various water uses, as well as to investigate the potential for reduction of conflict over water management.
INTRODUCTION Despite the development of innovative neighborhood data collection methods, such as systematic social observation (1, 2), and the utilization of novel administrative data sources including delinquent tax records, homelessness shelter utilization, reports of housing ...
Unsworth, Kerrie L.; Russell, Sally V.; Davis, Matthew C.
In this paper, we argue that individuals – as members of society – play an important role in the expectations of whether or not companies are responsible for addressing environmental issues, and whether or not governments should regulate them. From this perspective of corporate social responsibility as a social contract we report the results of a survey of 1066 individuals. The aim of the survey was to assess participants’ belief in anthropogenic climate change, free-market ideology, and beliefs around who is responsible for dealing with climate change. Results showed that both climate change views and free market ideology have a strong effect on beliefs that companies are responsible for dealing with climate change and on support for regulatory policy to that end. Furthermore, we found that free market ideology is a barrier in the support of corporate regulatory policy. The implications of these findings for research, policy, and practice are discussed. PMID:27588009
Unsworth, Kerrie L; Russell, Sally V; Davis, Matthew C
In this paper, we argue that individuals - as members of society - play an important role in the expectations of whether or not companies are responsible for addressing environmental issues, and whether or not governments should regulate them. From this perspective of corporate social responsibility as a social contract we report the results of a survey of 1066 individuals. The aim of the survey was to assess participants' belief in anthropogenic climate change, free-market ideology, and beliefs around who is responsible for dealing with climate change. Results showed that both climate change views and free market ideology have a strong effect on beliefs that companies are responsible for dealing with climate change and on support for regulatory policy to that end. Furthermore, we found that free market ideology is a barrier in the support of corporate regulatory policy. The implications of these findings for research, policy, and practice are discussed.
Byg, Anja; Herslund, Lise Byskov
We investigate the use of social capital in the form of social ties in the face of commercialization, urbanization and climate change. While discussions of social capital often focus on whether people possess certain social ties or not our study shows that it is also necessary to consider under...... people have engaged in high-input agriculture, business and paid employment. Diversification of livelihoods has made many people less sensitive to climate change, but this does not translate into decreased vulnerability for the community. Intensive agriculture and lower community cohesion seems...... unsustainable in the long run. Thus, decreased vulnerability at the household level may come at the price of increased vulnerability at higher levels and negative consequences for the wider social–ecological system. Evaluating vulnerability and the role of social ties depends on the unit and sector of analysis...
This paper reviews the recent discounting controversy and examines its implications for the appraisal of an illustrative hydropower project in Ethiopia. The analysis uses an integrated hydro-economic model that accounts for how the dam’s transboundary impacts vary with climate change. The real value of the dam is found to be highly sensitive to assumptions about future economic growth. The argument for investment is weakest under conditions of robust global economic growth, particularly if these coincide with unfavourable hydrological or development factors related to the project. If however long-term growth is reduced, the value of the dam tends to increase. There may also be distributional or local arguments favouring investment, if growth in the investment region lags behind that of the rest of the globe. In such circumstances, a large dam can be seen as a form of insurance that protects future vulnerable generations against the possibility of macroeconomic instability or climate shocks.
Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Jensen, Ole Michael
The need for energy retrofitting of the Danish single-family houses is massive, especially for the high proportion of single-family houses built in the 1960s and 1970s. But even though the potential benefits are many, only few families embark on a major energy retrofit. There may be many reasons...... for this. An obvious one may be limited knowledge of non-energy benefits, e.g. in relation to the indoor climate. The objective of this study was to explain this limited effort to save energy by identifying barriers and incentives among house owners in relation to energy retrofitting of one’s own house....... Moreover, it was investigated among house owners, who had carried out energy retrofitting, whether a number of factors, including the perceived indoor climate, became better or worse after retrofitting. A questionnaire survey was carried out among 1,990 house owners in a municipality north of Copenhagen...
Bruce Tranter; Zlatko Skrbis
A large survey of young people in Queensland, Australia, indicates that the majority believe that climate change is occurring, that the planet is warming because of greenhouse gas emissions, and that anthropogenic global warming poses a serious risk to Australia. Parental education has an important influence upon the development of environmental attitudes among young people, with the children of tertiary-educated parents much more likely than others to be concerned about planetary warming. A ...
Full Text Available The 21st century has been the warmest period on record since 1880, making the problem of climate change a central issue in the global political arena. While most approaches to climate change emphasize setting and imposing thresholds for greenhouse gas emissions, this paper argues that the issue of climate change and its solutions should be viewed in a more dynamic and complex way, involving social messes and the fragmentation of industries and organizations. In this context, learning models can offer a starting point to understand the reasons why organizations engage in certain types of corporate environmental strategies with regard to climate change, and can help in the search for solutions to the problem of climate change.
Torres, Jacqueline M; Casey, Joan A
Climate change-related hazards and disasters, known to adversely impact physical and mental health outcomes, are also expected to result in human migration above current levels. Environmentally-motivated migration and displacement may lead to the disruption of existing social ties, with potentially adverse consequences for mobile populations as well as their family members who remain in places of origin. We propose that the disruption of social ties is a key mechanism by which climate-related migration may negatively impact mental health, in particular. Existing social ties may provide social and material resources that buffer mental health stressors related to both prolonged and acute climate events. Preparation for such events may also strengthen these same ties and protect mental health. Communities may leverage social ties, first to mitigate climate change, and second, to adapt and rebuild post-disaster in communities of origin. Additionally, social ties can inform migration decisions and destinations. For example, scholars have found that the drought-motivated adaptive migration of West African Fulbe herders only occurred because of the long-term development of social networks between migrants and non-migrants through trade and seasonal grazing. On the other hand, social ties do not always benefit mental health. Some migrants, including those from poor regions or communities with no formal safety net, may face considerable burden to provide financial and emotional resources to family members who remain in countries of origin. In destination communities, migrants often face significant social marginalization. Therefore, policies and programs that aim to maintain ongoing social ties among migrants and their family and community members may be critically important in efforts to enhance population resilience and adaptation to climate change and to improve mental health outcomes. Several online platforms, like Refugee Start Force, serve to integrate refugees by
Jacqueline M. Torres
Full Text Available Abstract Climate change-related hazards and disasters, known to adversely impact physical and mental health outcomes, are also expected to result in human migration above current levels. Environmentally-motivated migration and displacement may lead to the disruption of existing social ties, with potentially adverse consequences for mobile populations as well as their family members who remain in places of origin. We propose that the disruption of social ties is a key mechanism by which climate-related migration may negatively impact mental health, in particular. Existing social ties may provide social and material resources that buffer mental health stressors related to both prolonged and acute climate events. Preparation for such events may also strengthen these same ties and protect mental health. Communities may leverage social ties, first to mitigate climate change, and second, to adapt and rebuild post-disaster in communities of origin. Additionally, social ties can inform migration decisions and destinations. For example, scholars have found that the drought-motivated adaptive migration of West African Fulbe herders only occurred because of the long-term development of social networks between migrants and non-migrants through trade and seasonal grazing. On the other hand, social ties do not always benefit mental health. Some migrants, including those from poor regions or communities with no formal safety net, may face considerable burden to provide financial and emotional resources to family members who remain in countries of origin. In destination communities, migrants often face significant social marginalization. Therefore, policies and programs that aim to maintain ongoing social ties among migrants and their family and community members may be critically important in efforts to enhance population resilience and adaptation to climate change and to improve mental health outcomes. Several online platforms, like Refugee Start Force
Krysan, Maria; Couper, Mick P.; Farley, Reynolds; Forman, Tyrone
Persistent racial residential segregation is often seen as the result of the preferences of whites and blacks: whites prefer to live with whites while blacks wish to live near many other blacks. The origin of these preferences and their social psychological underpinnings are hotly debated. Are neighborhood preferences colorblind or race-conscious? Does neighborhood racial composition have a net influence upon preferences or is race a proxy for social class? If preferences are race-conscious, is this more a matter of a desire to be in a neighborhood with one’s “own kind” or to avoid being in a neighborhood with another racial group? We tested the racial proxy hypothesis using an innovative experiment that isolated the net effects of race and social class and followed it with an analysis of the social psychological factors associated with residential preferences. Face-to-face surveys using computer assisted interviewing were conducted with random samples of Detroit and Chicago residents. Respondents were asked how desirable they would rate neighborhoods shown in videos in which racial composition and social class characteristics were manipulated and they also completed—via computer assisted self-interviews—questions tapping into perceptions of discrimination, racial and neighborhood stereotypes, and in-group identity. We find that net of social class, the race of a neighborhood's residents significantly influenced how it was rated. Whites said the all-white neighborhoods were most desirable. The independent effect of racial composition was smaller among blacks and blacks identified the racially mixed neighborhood as most desirable. Hypotheses about how racial group identity, stereotypes, and experiences of discrimination influenced the effect of race of residents upon neighborhood preferences were tested and show that for whites, those who hold negative stereotypes about African Americans and the neighborhoods where they live are significantly influenced by
Researchers will carry out a serological study in nine city wards in Dhaka with different levels of dengue virus transmission; a clinical study of suspected cases of dengue in two hospitals; entomological surveys in the nine wards already mentioned; and an ethnographic study in three wards to examine the social and ...
Project aims to study social intelligence of the gifted and average students in different school environments varying on the dimension of enrichment. Two enriched environment and two non-enriched environment schools were selected from fifteen different schools that were studied for existing school environment. General ...
Society is transforming the Earth's system in unprecedented ways, often with significant variations across space and time. In turn, the impacts of climate change on the human system vary dramatically due to differences in cultural, socioeconomic, institutional, and physical processes at the local level. The Climate Science and Applications Program (CSAP) at the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder Colorado addresses societal vulnerability, impacts and adaptation to climate change through the development of frameworks and methods for analyzing current and future vulnerability, and integrated analyses of climate impacts and adaptation at local, regional and global scales. CSAP relies heavily on GIS-based scientific data and knowledge systems to bridge social and physical science approaches in its five focus areas: Governance of inter-linked natural and managed resource systems. The role of urban areas in driving emissions of climate change Weather, climate and global human health, GIS-based science data & knowledge systems. Regional Climate Science and Services for Adaptation Advanced methodologies and frameworks for assessing current and future risks to environmental hazards through the integration of physical and social science models, research results, and remote sensing data are presented in the context of recent national and international projects on climate change and food/water security, urban carbon emissions, metropolitan extreme heat and global health. In addition, innovative CSAP international capacity building programs teaching interdisciplinary approaches for using geospatial technologies to integrate multi-scale spatial information of weather, climate change into important sectors such as disaster reduction, agriculture, tourism and society for decision-making are discussed.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web service depicts nearly 17,000 neighborhood boundaries in over 650 U.S. cities. Zillow created the neighborhood boundaries and is sharing them with the...
Boeckmann, Melanie; Zeeb, Hajo
Climate change puts pressure on existing health vulnerabilities through higher frequency of extreme weather events, changes in disease vector distribution or exacerbated air pollution. Climate change adaptation policies may hold potential to reduce societal inequities. We assessed the role of public health and social justice in European climate change adaptation using a three-fold approach: a document analysis, a critical discourse analysis of a subgroup of strategies, and a ranking of strategies against our social justice framework. The ranking approach favored planning that includes various adaptation types, social issues and infrastructure changes. Themes on values identified in the five subgroup documents showed that risks are perceived as contradictory, technology is viewed as savior, responsibilities need to be negotiated, and social justice is advocated by only a few countries. Of 21 strategy documents assessed overall, those from Austria, England and Sweden received the highest scores in the ranking. Our qualitative assessment showed that in European adaptation planning, progress could still be made through community involvement into adaptation decisions, consistent consideration of social and demographic determinants, and a stronger link between infrastructural adaptation and the health sector. Overall, a social justice framework can serve as an evaluation guideline for adaptation policy documents.
Evans, Louisa S; Hicks, Christina C; Adger, W Neil; Barnett, Jon; Perry, Allison L; Fidelman, Pedro; Tobin, Renae
Adaptation, as a strategy to respond to climate change, has limits: there are conditions under which adaptation strategies fail to alleviate impacts from climate change. Research has primarily focused on identifying absolute bio-physical limits. This paper contributes empirical insight to an emerging literature on the social limits to adaptation. Such limits arise from the ways in which societies perceive, experience and respond to climate change. Using qualitative data from multi-stakeholder workshops and key-informant interviews with representatives of the fisheries and tourism sectors of the Great Barrier Reef region, we identify psycho-social and structural limits associated with key adaptation strategies, and examine how these are perceived as more or less absolute across levels of organisation. We find that actors experience social limits to adaptation when: i) the effort of pursuing a strategy exceeds the benefits of desired adaptation outcomes; ii) the particular strategy does not address the actual source of vulnerability, and; iii) the benefits derived from adaptation are undermined by external factors. We also find that social limits are not necessarily more absolute at higher levels of organisation: respondents perceived considerable opportunities to address some psycho-social limits at the national-international interface, while they considered some social limits at the local and regional levels to be effectively absolute.
Louisa S Evans
Full Text Available Adaptation, as a strategy to respond to climate change, has limits: there are conditions under which adaptation strategies fail to alleviate impacts from climate change. Research has primarily focused on identifying absolute bio-physical limits. This paper contributes empirical insight to an emerging literature on the social limits to adaptation. Such limits arise from the ways in which societies perceive, experience and respond to climate change. Using qualitative data from multi-stakeholder workshops and key-informant interviews with representatives of the fisheries and tourism sectors of the Great Barrier Reef region, we identify psycho-social and structural limits associated with key adaptation strategies, and examine how these are perceived as more or less absolute across levels of organisation. We find that actors experience social limits to adaptation when: i the effort of pursuing a strategy exceeds the benefits of desired adaptation outcomes; ii the particular strategy does not address the actual source of vulnerability, and; iii the benefits derived from adaptation are undermined by external factors. We also find that social limits are not necessarily more absolute at higher levels of organisation: respondents perceived considerable opportunities to address some psycho-social limits at the national-international interface, while they considered some social limits at the local and regional levels to be effectively absolute.
Corominola Ocaña, Víctor
NeighborHood és una aplicació basada en el núvol, adaptable a qualsevol dispositiu (mòbil, tablet, desktop). L'objectiu d'aquesta aplicació és poder permetre als usuaris introduir a les persones del seu entorn més immediat i que aquestes persones siguin visibles per a la resta d'usuaris. NeighborHood es una aplicación basada en la nube, adaptable a cualquier dispositivo (móvil, tablet, desktop). El objetivo de esta aplicación es poder permitir a los usuarios introducir a las personas de su...
Allodi, Mara W.
The purpose of this article is to analyse reasons underlying the neglect of social climate in education. It discusses the relevance of the concept of social climate in learning environments, presents evidence for its effects and importance in special-needs and inclusive education, presents differences existing between settings and discusses the…
Joshua E Cinner
Full Text Available There is an increasing need to evaluate the links between the social and ecological dimensions of human vulnerability to climate change. We use an empirical case study of 12 coastal communities and associated coral reefs in Kenya to assess and compare five key ecological and social components of the vulnerability of coastal social-ecological systems to temperature induced coral mortality [specifically: 1 environmental exposure; 2 ecological sensitivity; 3 ecological recovery potential; 4 social sensitivity; and 5 social adaptive capacity]. We examined whether ecological components of vulnerability varied between government operated no-take marine reserves, community-based reserves, and openly fished areas. Overall, fished sites were marginally more vulnerable than community-based and government marine reserves. Social sensitivity was indicated by the occupational composition of each community, including the importance of fishing relative to other occupations, as well as the susceptibility of different fishing gears to the effects of coral bleaching on target fish species. Key components of social adaptive capacity varied considerably between the communities. Together, these results show that different communities have relative strengths and weaknesses in terms of social-ecological vulnerability to climate change.
Dimitrova, Radosveta; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Galanti, Maria Rosaria
This study evaluated the factorial structure of the Pedagogical and Social Climate in School (PESOC) questionnaire among 307 teachers in Bulgaria. The teacher edition of PESOC consists of 11 scales (i.e., Expectations for Students, Unity Among Teachers, Approach to Students, Basic Assumptions About Students' Ability to Learn, School-Home…
Mainhard, M.T.; Brekelmans, J.M.G.; Brok, den P.J.; Wubbels, Th.
In this study the mean stability of classroom social climates during the first months of the school year and the deviation of individual classrooms (N = 48) and students (N = 1208) from this general trend were investigated by taping students’ interpersonal perceptions of their teachers. Multilevel
Munro, Geoffrey D.; Behlen, Margaret M.
Students often have little understanding of the role psychological science plays in informing us about the impact of human behavior when addressing climate change. We designed an assignment for a social psychology course based on Frantz and Mayer's use of the decision tree model of helping behavior to identify the psychological barriers that…
Barnhardt, Cassie L.
Data from 9,760 college students on 20 campuses were used to explore the extent to which fraternity and sorority organizations assert an influence over the manner in which students experience the climate for personal and social responsibility while in college. Results demonstrated greater exposure to fraternities and sororities can function to…
Armstrong, Amanda; Thomas, Jaymi; Smith, Madeline
The purpose of this exploratory case study was to gather undergraduate students' perceptions of anonymous racist messages found on Yik Yak and to better understand the implications of anonymous platforms on campus racial climate. Given the limited research surrounding students' use of anonymous social media platforms, as well as the predominant…
Gonzalez-Cutre, David; Sicilia, Alvaro; Moreno, Juan Antonio; Fernandez-Balboa, Juan Miguel
The purpose of this study was to analyze the mediating effects of social goals and perceived competence on students' perceptions of motivational climates and dispositional flow in physical education. At the beginning of the physical education unit, 779 students, 12 to 16 years old, were asked to complete four questionnaires: Perceived Motivational…
Muhonen, Tuija; Jönsson, Sandra; Bäckström, Martin
The purpose of this paper is to explore health- and work-related outcomes of cyberbullying behaviour and the potential mediating role of social organisational climate, social support from colleagues and social support from superiors. Altogether 3,371 respondents participated in a questionnaire study. The results of this study indicate that social organisational climate can have a mediating role in the relationship between cyberbullying behaviour and health, well-being, work engagement and intention to quit. Contrary to earlier face-to-face bullying research, the current study showed that cyberbullying behaviour had stronger indirect than direct relationships to health, well-being, work engagement and intention to quit. Communication through digital devices in work life is becoming more prevalent, which in turn increases the risk for cyberbullying behaviour. Organisations need therefore to develop occupational health and safety policies concerning the use of digital communication and social media in order to prevent cyberbullying behaviour and its negative consequences. Cyberbullying behaviour among working adults is a relatively unexplored phenomenon and therefore this study makes valuable contribution to the research field.
Hindman, Elizabeth Blanks
Contributes to scholarship on democracy, community, and journalism by examining the interplay between communication, democracy, and community at an inner-city neighborhood newspaper. Concludes that, through its focus on neighborhood culture, acknowledgment of conflict, and attempts to provide a forum for the neighborhood's self-definition, the…
Estrada, M.; DeBenedict, C.; Bruce, L.
Climate Education Partners (CEP) uses an action research approach to increase climate knowledge and informed decision-making among key influential (KI) leaders in San Diego county. Social media has been one method for disseminating knowledge. During CEP's project years, social media use has proliferated. To capitalize on this trend, CEP iteratively developed a strategic method to engage KIs. First, as with all climate education, CEP identified the audience. Three primary Facebook and Twitter audiences were CEP's internal team, local KIs, and strategic partner organizations. Second, post contents were chosen based on interest to CEP key audiences and followed CEP's communications message triangle, which incorporates the Tripartite Integration Model of Social Influence (TIMSI). This message triangle focuses on San Diegan's valued quality of life, future challenges we face due to the changing climate, and ways in which we are working together to protect our quality of life for future generations. Third, an editorial calendar was created to carefully time posts, which capitalize on when target audiences were using social media most and to maintain consistency. The results of these three actions were significant. Results attained utilizing Facebook and Twitter data, which tracks post reach, total followers/likes, and engagement (likes, comments, mentions, shares). For example we found that specifically mentioning KIs resulted in more re-tweets and resulted in reaching a broader audience. Overall, data shows that CEP's reach to audiences of like-minded individuals and organizations now extends beyond CEP's original local network and reached more than 20,000 accounts on Twitter this year (compared with 460 on Twitter the year before). In summary, through posting and participating in the online conversation strategically, CEP disseminated key educational climate resources and relevant climate change news to educate and engage target audience and amplify our work.
Havermans, B.M.; Boot, C.R.L.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Anema, J.R.; van der Beek, A.J.
Abstract Background Health care workers are exposed to psychosocial work factors. Autonomy and social support are psychosocial work factors that are related to stress, and are argued to largely result from the psychosocial safety climate within organisations. This study aimed to assess to what extent the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress in health care workers can be explained by autonomy and social support. Methods In a cross-sectional study, psychosocial safety climate...
Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Climate change has an impact on economic and natural systems as well as human health. These impacts are particularly visible in urbanised areas. Urban forests, which are one of the main natural features of the cities, are threatened by climate change. Generally, the role of forests in combating climate change is widely recognised and its significance is recognised also in urban areas. However, appropriate responses to climate change are usually lacking in their management. Climate change adaptation in relation to urban forests has been studied less often in comparison to climate change mitigation. Adaptive capacity of forests to climate change consists of adaptive capacity of forests as an ecological system and adaptive capacity of related socio-economic factors. The latter determines the capacity of a system and its actors to implement planned actions. This paper studies social and policy aspects of adaptation processes in urban forests of Belgrade. Materials and Methods: For the purpose of this study content analysis of urban forest policy and management documents was applied. Furthermore, in-depth interviews with urban forest managers and Q-methodology surveys with urban forestry stakeholders were conducted. Triangulation of these data is used to assure validity of results. Results: The results show weak integration of climate change issues in urban forest policy and management documents, as well as weak responses by managers. A comprehensive and systematic approach to this challenge does not exist. Three perspectives towards climate change are distinguished: (I ‘sceptics’ - do not perceive climate change as a challenge, (II ‘general-awareness perspective’ - aware of climate change issues but without concrete concerns toward urban forests, (III ‘management-oriented perspective’ - highlights specific challenges related to urban forest management. Awareness of urban forest managers and stakeholders towards
Blue collar doesn't have to mean drab and dull. At least, not to Troy, New York, historian Mike Esposito, who is a member of a neighborhood revitalization movement seeking to celebrate the people and events that brought diversity, prosperity, and vitality to this upstate New York community more than 100 years ago. Esposito and others invited…
Danckert, Bolette; Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar
is founded on politically sophisticated individuals having a greater comprehension of news and other mass-mediated sources, which makes them less likely to rely on neighborhood cues as sources of information relevant for political attitudes. Based on a unique panel data set with fine-grained information...
Fielding, Kelly S; Hornsey, Matthew J
Environmental challenges are often marked by an intergroup dimension. Political conservatives and progressives are divided on their beliefs about climate change, farmers come into conflict with scientists and environmentalists over water allocation or species protection, and communities oppose big business and mining companies that threaten their local environment. These intergroup tensions are reminders of the powerful influence social contexts and group memberships can have on attitudes, beliefs, and actions relating to climate change and the environment more broadly. In this paper, we use social identity theory to help describe and explain these processes. We review literature showing, how conceiving of oneself in terms of a particular social identity influences our environmental attitudes and behaviors, how relations between groups can impact on environmental outcomes, and how the content of social identities can direct group members to act in more or less pro-environmental ways. We discuss the similarities and differences between the social identity approach to these phenomena and related theories, such as cultural cognition theory, the theory of planned behavior, and value-belief-norm theory. Importantly, we also advance social-identity based strategies to foster more sustainable environmental attitudes and behaviors. Although this theoretical approach can provide important insights and potential solutions, more research is needed to build the empirical base, especially in relation to testing social identity solutions.
Fielding, Kelly S.; Hornsey, Matthew J.
Environmental challenges are often marked by an intergroup dimension. Political conservatives and progressives are divided on their beliefs about climate change, farmers come into conflict with scientists and environmentalists over water allocation or species protection, and communities oppose big business and mining companies that threaten their local environment. These intergroup tensions are reminders of the powerful influence social contexts and group memberships can have on attitudes, beliefs, and actions relating to climate change and the environment more broadly. In this paper, we use social identity theory to help describe and explain these processes. We review literature showing, how conceiving of oneself in terms of a particular social identity influences our environmental attitudes and behaviors, how relations between groups can impact on environmental outcomes, and how the content of social identities can direct group members to act in more or less pro-environmental ways. We discuss the similarities and differences between the social identity approach to these phenomena and related theories, such as cultural cognition theory, the theory of planned behavior, and value-belief-norm theory. Importantly, we also advance social-identity based strategies to foster more sustainable environmental attitudes and behaviors. Although this theoretical approach can provide important insights and potential solutions, more research is needed to build the empirical base, especially in relation to testing social identity solutions. PMID:26903924
Kelly Shanene Fielding
Full Text Available Environmental challenges are often marked by an intergroup dimension. Political conservatives and progressives are divided on their beliefs about climate change, farmers come into conflict with scientists and environmentalists over water allocation or species protection, and communities oppose big business and mining companies that threaten their local environment. These intergroup tensions are reminders of the powerful influence social contexts and group memberships can have on attitudes, beliefs, and actions relating to climate change and the environment more broadly. In this paper we use social identity theory to help describe and explain these processes. We review literature showing how conceiving of oneself in terms of a particular social identity influences our environmental attitudes and behaviors, how relations between groups can impact on environmental outcomes, and how the content of social identities can direct group members to act in more or less pro-environmental ways. We discuss the similarities and differences between the social identity approach to these phenomena and related theories such as cultural cognition theory, the theory of planned behavior and value-belief-norm theory. Importantly, we also advance social-identity based strategies to foster more sustainable environmental attitudes and behaviors. Although this theoretical approach can provide important insights and potential solutions, more research is needed to build the empirical base, especially in relation to testing social identity solutions.
Full Text Available As the Small Island Developing States of the Caribbean prepare to take climate change adaptation measures, there is a distinct possibility that the most vulnerable groups, especially the poor, women, indigenous, elderly, and children in rural and coastal communities are at risk of being marginalized. It is necessary to take into consideration the adaptation needs of these groups that are likely to be disproportionately affected due to inherent structural and social disparities. In this paper we focus on the need to ensure inclusion and social equity in adaptation planning as climate change issues disproportionately impact health, settlement, and livelihoods of these vulnerable groups. We also focus on climate change potential impacts on tourism, agriculture and fisheries sectors, which are the major economic drivers of these island states. Based on Caribbean region wide observations, we recommend priority areas including increasing community participation, local initiatives and filling critical socio-economic and livelihood data gaps, which policy makers need to focus on and incorporate in their climate change adaptation plans in order to ensure effective and equitable climate change adaptation
Børsen, Tom; Antia, Avan N; Glessmer, Mirjam Sophia
The need to make young scientists aware of their social responsibilities is widely acknowledged, although the question of how to actually do it has so far gained limited attention. A 2-day workshop entitled "Prepared for social responsibility?" attended by doctoral students from multiple disciplines in climate science, was targeted at the perceived needs of the participants and employed a format that took them through three stages of ethics education: sensitization, information and empowerment. The workshop aimed at preparing doctoral students to manage ethical dilemmas that emerge when climate science meets the public sphere (e.g., to identify and balance legitimate perspectives on particular types of geo-engineering), and is an example of how to include social responsibility in doctoral education. The paper describes the workshop from the three different perspectives of the authors: the course teacher, the head of the graduate school, and a graduate student. The elements that contributed to the success of the workshop, and thus make it an example to follow, are (1) the involvement of participating students, (2) the introduction of external expertise and role models in climate science, and (3) a workshop design that focused on ethical analyses of examples from the climate sciences.
KIRK, DAVID S.
This study assesses the role of social context in explaining racial and ethnic disparities in arrest, with a focus on how distinct neighborhood contexts in which different racial and ethnic groups reside explain variations in criminal outcomes. To do so, I utilize a multilevel, longitudinal research design, combining individual-level data with contextual data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). Findings reveal that black youths face multiple layers of disad...
Foster, Holly; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Few studies on the correlates of school violence include school and neighborhood influences. We use ecological systems theory and social disorganization theory to simultaneously incorporate neighborhood (e.g., concentrated poverty, residential instability, and immigrant concentration), school, family, and individual predictors of physical school victimization longitudinally among a large socio-economically and ethnically diverse (49% Hispanic; 34% African American) sample of 6 and 9 year olds...
Kakinuma, K.; Yanagawa, A.; Sasaki, T.; Kanae, S.
Coping with future climate changes are one of the most important issues in the world. IPCC (2014) suggested that vulnerability and exposure of social-ecological systems to extreme climatic events (hazard) determine the impact of climate changes. Although the schematic framework is widely accepted, there are high uncertainty of vulnerability of social and ecological systems and it makes difficult to examine it in empirical researches. Our objective is to assess the climate change impact on the social-ecological system in Mongolia. We review researches about trends of climate (Hazard), vegetation, pastoral mobility (Vulnerability) and livestock distribution (Exposure) across Mongolia Climate trends are critical for last several decades and thus hazard may be increasing in Mongolia. Temperature is increasing with high confidence in all regions. Precipitation are slightly decreasing with medium confidence across the country, especially in northern and central regions. Exposure would also be increasing especially in northern, central and western regions, because livestock population are concentrating these regions after 1990. Generally, less productive ecosystems (e.g. few plant productivity and less species richness) are vulnerable to extreme climatic events such as drought. In that sense, southern region may be more vulnerable to climate changes than other regions. However, if we focus on pastoral mobility forms for drought, we get contractive conclusions. Pastoralists in southern region keep mobility to variable and scarce vegetation while pastoralists in northern region less mobile because of stable and much vegetation. Exclusive managements in northern region is able to maximized the number of livestock only under stable precipitation regimes. But at the same time, it is difficult to escape from hazardous areas when it is drought. Thus, in term of rangeland management, northern region would be more vulnerable to increase of drought intensity. Although northern and
Johnson, Renee M; Parker, Elizabeth M; Rinehart, Jenny; Nail, Jennifer; Rothman, Emily F
The purpose of this review is to summarize the empirical research on neighborhood-level factors and dating violence among adolescents and emerging adults to guide future research and practice. In 2015, a total of 20 articles were identified through a search of the literature using PubMed. Eligible articles included those that (1) had been published in a peer-reviewed journal since 2005; (2) reported a measure of association between at least one neighborhood-level factor and dating violence; and (3) had a study population of youth aged dating violence and neighborhood factors, and measures of effect. Results were summarized into three categories based on the aspect of neighborhood that was the focus of the work: demographic and structural characteristics (n=11); neighborhood disorder (n=12); and social disorganization (n=8). There was some evidence to suggest that neighborhood disadvantage is associated with dating violence, but very little evidence to suggest that residence characteristics (e.g., racial heterogeneity) are associated with dating violence. Results do suggest that perceived neighborhood disorder is associated with physical dating violence perpetration, but do not suggest that it is associated with physical dating violence victimization. Social control and community connectedness are both associated with dating violence, but findings on collective efficacy are mixed. Existing research suggests that neighborhood factors may be associated with dating violence. However, there is a limited body of research on the neighborhood context of dating violence, and more rigorous research is needed. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kim, Ha Yeon; Schwartz, Kate; Cappella, Elise; Seidman, Edward
During early adolescence, most public school students undergo school transitions, and many students experience declines in academic performance and social-emotional well-being. Theories and empirical research have highlighted the importance of supportive school environments in promoting positive youth development during this period of transition. Despite this, little is known about the proximal social and developmental contexts of the range of middle grade public schools US students attend. Using a cross-sectional dataset from the eighth grade wave of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort 1998-1999, the current study examines the middle grade school social context from the perspectives of administrators and teachers in public schools with typical grade configurations (k-8 schools, middle schools, and junior high schools) and how it relates to students' perceptions of school climate. We find that administrators and teachers in k-8 schools perceive a more positive school social context, controlling for school structural and demographic characteristics. This school social context, in turn, is associated with students' perceptions of their schools' social and academic climate. Implications for educational policy and practice are discussed.
Blaney, Shannon; Cerda, Magda; Frye, Victoria; Lovasi, Gina S.; Ompad, Danielle; Rundle, Andrew; Vlahov, David
Objective To characterize the influence of the residential neighborhood of older adults on the prevalence of disability. Methods We combined Census data on disability in older adults living in New York City with environmental information from a comprehensive geospatial database. We used factor analysis to derive dimensions of compositional and physical neighborhood characteristics and linear regression to model their association with levels of disability. Measures of neighborhood collective efficacy were added to these models to explore the impact of the social environment. Results Low neighborhood socioeconomic status, residential instability, living in areas with low proportions of foreign born and high proportions of Black residents, and negative street characteristics were associated with higher prevalence of both “physical” disability and “going outside the home” disability. High crime levels were additionally associated with physical disability, although this relationship disappeared when misdemeanor arrests were removed from the crime variable. Low levels of collective efficacy were associated with more going-outside-the-home disability, with racial/ethnic composition dropping out of this model to be replaced by an interaction term. Conclusion The urban environment may have a substantial impact on whether an older adult with a given level of functional impairment is able to age actively and remain independent. PMID:19181694
The realization that well designed graphs and clearly worded summaries were not enough to spur the public and policy makers towards an appropriate understanding of our planet encouraged me to search for other ways to share climate stories with the general public. After co-authoring a popular book on food and climate change and giving many talks to the general public, it struck me that young people were largely missing from the dialogue, and little meaningful progress was being made to design effective solutions. I then started working with faculty and students from the Film and Animation Departments at San Jose State University to develop stories about climate change that would be engaging to younger audiences. The result was the Green Ninja Project, based around the Green Ninja, a superhero who focuses on solutions to climate change using humor and silliness to soften what can be a somewhat challenging topic. The Project includes a) The Green Ninja Show - a series of YouTube videos (over 1,000,000 views) highlighting actions young people can take to reduce climate change, b) The Green Ninja Film Festival where students tell their own climate solutions stories, and c) a collection of educational resources that help teachers bring climate science topics into their classroom using hands-on activities. A key component to this work is promoting social action experiences, so that young people can understand how their actions can make a difference. Based on these experiences, I will provide my own reflections on the challenges and opportunities of communicating climate change with young people.
Caceres, Alan Joseph J; Castillo, Juan; Lee, Jinnie; St John, Katherine
A nearest-neighbor-interchange (NNI)-walk is a sequence of unrooted phylogenetic trees, T1, T2, . . . , T(k) where each consecutive pair of trees differs by a single NNI move. We give tight bounds on the length of the shortest NNI-walks that visit all trees in a subtree-prune-and-regraft (SPR) neighborhood of a given tree. For any unrooted, binary tree, T, on n leaves, the shortest walk takes Θ(n²) additional steps more than the number of trees in the SPR neighborhood. This answers Bryant’s Second Combinatorial Challenge from the Phylogenetics Challenges List, the Isaac Newton Institute, 2011, and the Penny Ante Problem List, 2009.
Wilhelm, Michelle; Qian, Lei; Ritz, Beate
We examined associations between outdoor air pollution and childhood asthma, using measures of SES, neighborhood quality, and social support from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (LA FANS). We linked residential census tracts for 3114 children to government air monitoring stations and estimated average pollutant concentrations for the year before interview. CO and NO(2) levels increased and O(3) levels decreased as neighborhood quality decreased, yet correlations were low. Pollutant levels were not correlated with neighborhood support. Even after adjustment for social environment characteristics, LA FANS children living in high O(3), PM(10), and CO areas appeared to have worse asthma morbidity.
Børsen, Tom; Antia, Avan N.; Glessmer, Mirjam Sophia
climate science meets the public sphere (e.g., to identify and balance legitimate perspectives on particular types of geo-engineering), and is an example of how to include social responsibility in doctoral education. The paper describes the workshop from the three different perspectives of the authors......: the course teacher, the head of the graduate school, and a graduate student. The elements that contributed to the success of the workshop, and thus make it an example to follow, are (1) the involvement of participating students, (2) the introduction of external expertise and role models in climate science......, and (3) a workshop design that focused on ethical analyses of examples from the climate sciences....
Miller, Brian W.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.
Developing resource management strategies in the face of climate change is complicated by the considerable uncertainty associated with projections of climate and its impacts and by the complex interactions between social and ecological variables. The broad, interconnected nature of this challenge has resulted in calls for analytical frameworks that integrate research tools and can support natural resource management decision making in the face of uncertainty and complex interactions. We respond to this call by first reviewing three methods that have proven useful for climate change research, but whose application and development have been largely isolated: species distribution modeling, scenario planning, and simulation modeling. Species distribution models provide data-driven estimates of the future distributions of species of interest, but they face several limitations and their output alone is not sufficient to guide complex decisions for how best to manage resources given social and economic considerations along with dynamic and uncertain future conditions. Researchers and managers are increasingly exploring potential futures of social-ecological systems through scenario planning, but this process often lacks quantitative response modeling and validation procedures. Simulation models are well placed to provide added rigor to scenario planning because of their ability to reproduce complex system dynamics, but the scenarios and management options explored in simulations are often not developed by stakeholders, and there is not a clear consensus on how to include climate model outputs. We see these strengths and weaknesses as complementarities and offer an analytical framework for integrating these three tools. We then describe the ways in which this framework can help shift climate change research from useful to usable.
Full Text Available The modern urbanism activities have led to rupture of previous spatial structure of neighborhoods and destruction of their identity. The New Urbanism Movement, as one of the successful models in urbanization field attempts to revive this lost national-social identity through the project of returning to traditional structure of neighborhoods by applying modern urbanization models and methods. The current paper aims at evaluation and analysis of “the Ostadsara neighborhood's organization based on new urbanism principles” and representation of solutions for planning a successful neighborhood center considering these principles. In this regard, various methods including library method, observation, photography, questionnaire and interview with users of the environment were utilized. The results from identification and assessment of weaknesses and strengths and specification and analysis of potential threats and opportunities shows the possibility of applying walkability, connectivity and integration, improvement of public transportation, improvement of architecture quality and urban design, maintenance and improvement of public and green open spaces, maintenance and strengthening the structure of traditional neighborhood units and using cooperation of Ostadsara neighborhood's inhabitants. Finally, the current study will represent appropriate strategies for changing the mentioned neighborhood into a desirable and prosperous one.
Mao, H.; Bhaduri, B. L.
Understanding public opinions on climate change is important for policy making. Public opinion, however, is typically measured with national surveys, which are often too expensive and thus being updated at a low frequency. Twitter has become a major platform for people to express their opinions on social and political issues. Our work attempts to understand if Twitter data can provide complimentary insights about climate change perceptions. Since the nature of social media is real-time, this data source can especially help us understand how public opinion changes over time in response to climate events and hazards, which though is very difficult to be captured by manual surveys. We use the Twitter Streaming API to collect tweets that contain keywords, "climate change" or "#climatechange". Traditional machine-learning based opinion mining algorithms require a significant amount of labeled data. Data labeling is notoriously time consuming. To address this problem, we use hashtags (a significant feature used to mark topics of tweets) to annotate tweets automatically. For example, hashtags, #climatedenial and #climatescam, are negative opinion labels, while #actonclimate and #climateaction are positive. Following this method, we can obtain a large amount of training data without human labor. This labeled dataset is used to train a deep convolutional neural network that classifies tweets into positive (i.e. believe in climate change) and negative (i.e. do not believe). Based on the positive/negative tweets obtained, we will further analyze risk perceptions and opinions towards policy support. In addition, we analyze twitter user profiles to understand the demographics of proponents and opponents of climate change. Deep learning techniques, especially convolutional deep neural networks, have achieved much success in computer vision. In this work, we propose a convolutional neural network architecture for understanding opinions within text. This method is compared with
Full Text Available This article contributes to efforts to develop more inclusive climate services, understood as institutional arrangements and processes that generate and disseminate science-based climate information to promote improved preparedness to climate impacts. Discussion on equity in climate services tends to focus on the specific challenges of women and the poor in developing countries. We seek to broaden this scope by considering a farming population in the southern United States, whose particular circumstances are shaped by rural poverty as well as by racial discrimination, namely African American farmers. The research is based on a phone survey, in-depth interviews, and a workshop, and was conducted in collaboration with a civil right organization that helped the research team gain trust and entry to this community. The findings show that farmers in this study are vulnerable to drought given their relatively limited access to resources and risk management mechanisms. Climate forecasts can help these farmers move from coping strategies to deal with the effects of climate anomalies to proactive planning to anticipate and mitigate those effects. Research participants were able to identify a range of options for using such information in risk management decisions. Provision of climate services to African American farmers, however, must be consistent with existing patterns of knowledge management. These patterns are shaped by major trends stemming from the transformation of rural Southern life. Social networks of mutual assistance and knowledge transmission have been eroded by the outmigration of African American farmers from rural areas. Additionally, their relationship with public agencies is marred by a legacy of racial inequities, which makes it difficult for well-meaning projects involving the same agencies to establish legitimacy in this community. We discuss how insights from research findings and research process have guided programmatic efforts
Green, C. J.; Gardiner, N.; Niepold, F., III; Esposito, C.
We developed a custom video production stye and a method for analyzing social media behavior so that we may deliberately build and track audience growth for decision-support tools and case studies within the U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit. The new style of video focuses quickly on decision processes; its 30s format is well-suited for deployment through social media. We measured both traffic and engagement with video using Google Analytics. Each video included an embedded tag, allowing us to measure viewers' behavior: whether or not they entered the toolkit website; the duration of their session on the website; and the number pages they visited in that session. Results showed that video promotion was more effective on Facebook than Twitter. Facebook links generated twice the number of visits to the toolkit. Videos also increased Facebook interaction overall. Because most Facebook users are return visitors, this campaign did not substantially draw new site visitors. We continue to research and apply these methods in a targeted engagement and outreach campaign that utilizes the theory of social diffusion and social influence strategies to grow our audience of "influential" decision-makers and people within their social networks. Our goal is to increase access and use of the U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit.
Emery, Isaac; Mbonimpa, Eric; Thal, Alfred E.
Sustainability guidelines and regulations in the United States often focus exclusively on carbon or petroleum reductions. Though some of these policies have resulted in substantial progress toward their goals, the effects of these efforts on other social and environmental externalities are often ignored. In this study, we examine the life-cycle air pollutant emissions for alternative fuel and vehicle purchase scenarios at a military installation near a typical urban area in the United States (U.S.). We find that scenarios which minimize petroleum use or greenhouse gas emissions do not concomitantly minimize criteria air pollutant emissions. We also employ social cost methodologies to quantify economic externalities due to climate change and health-related air pollutant impacts. Accounting for the social costs of climate change and air pollution from vehicle use reveals that criteria air pollutants may have a greater total impact than greenhouse gas emissions in locations similar to the urban area examined in this study. Use of first-generation biofuels, particularly corn grain ethanol, may reduce net petroleum use at the cost of increased total health impacts. More comprehensive policies may be needed to ensure that sustainability policies result in a net benefit to society. - Highlights: • U.S. energy and transportation policies focus on petroleum use and greenhouse gases. • Use of corn ethanol at a military base in Ohio, U.S. increases total social costs vs. gasoline. • Renewable electricity provides cost-effective climate and health protection. • DOD strategy to improve energy security may damage Americans' health. • More inclusive policies needed to protect health and climate.
Weldegebriel, Zerihun; Prowse, Martin Philip
Social-protection programmes like the Productive Safety-Net Programme (PSNP) in Ethiopia can play a positive role in promoting livelihoods and enhancing risk management. This article uses propensity score matching to estimate its effect on income diversification. The results suggest that receiving...... in a positive manner for climate adaptation. The article concludes by arguing for the promotion of positive forms of income diversification and the further investigation of the PSNP’s influence on autonomous adaptation strategies....
Full Text Available The mass media has ensured that the challenging and complex phenomenon of climate change now has the household familiarity of a brand name. But what is it that is understood by climate change, and by whom? What frame of reference is drawn upon to communicate meaningfully about climate change? Do particular subgroups within our society hold different understandings, or have the debate and the prolific dissemination of information about this issue coalesced around a core perception or image of what climate change is? To answer these questions, we conceptualized climate change within the theory of social representations as emergent socially constructed knowledge. We analyzed word association data collected in Australia from persons identifying as having a scientific, government, or general public background (N = 3300. All respondents were asked to write the first words that came to mind when they thought about climate change. Comparative analyses of the word associations reveal that respondents from different backgrounds define climate change in different ways. The results suggest that there is a common core set of concepts shared by the different groups, but there are also a great many differences in how climate change is framed and conceived by respondents. The results are discussed in relation to what they imply for responses to climate change by these social groups and in relation to interventions designed to encourage climate adaptation.
D'Angelo, Heather; Fowler, Stephanie L; Nebeling, Linda C; Oh, April Y
Less than a third of U.S. adolescents meet federal physical activity (PA) guidelines. Understanding correlates of PA at multiple levels of the Social Ecological Model could improve PA interventions among youth. This study examines (1) associations between factors across the Social Ecological Model including psychosocial factors, perceived neighborhood physical and social environment characteristics, and adolescent moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) and (2) whether perceived neighborhood characteristics moderate associations between psychosocial factors and MVPA. A national sample of adolescents (aged 12-17 years) in the 2014 Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating Study was used to examine associations between psychosocial characteristics, perceived neighborhood social and physical characteristics, and self-reported weekly minutes of MVPA. Analyses were conducted in 2015. Interaction terms between psychosocial and neighborhood variables were added to multiple linear regression models to examine moderation hypotheses. Significant two-way interactions revealed that neighborhoods with features perceived as supportive of PA strengthened several psychosocial-MVPA associations. The positive associations between MVPA and friend norms, friend support, and attitudes were strengthened for adolescents living in neighborhoods with high versus low PA resource availability (all p<0.05). Furthermore, the association between controlled and autonomous motivation and MVPA was strengthened under conditions of shops/stores near (versus distant from) adolescents' homes (p<0.05). The association between some psychosocial factors and adolescent MVPA may be environment dependent. Neighborhood physical and social environments supportive of PA are important to consider when developing targeted PA interventions and may strengthen the association between psychosocial-level factors and adolescent MVPA. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.
Schempf, Ashley; Strobino, Donna; O'Campo, Patricia
Neighborhood characteristics have been proposed to influence birth outcomes through psychosocial and behavioral pathways, yet empirical evidence is lacking. Using data from an urban, low-income sample, this study examined the impact of the neighborhood environment on birthweight and evaluated mediation by psychosocial and behavioral factors. The sample included 726 women who delivered a live birth at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, USA between 1995 and 1996. Census-tract data were used to create a principal component index of neighborhood risk based on racial and economic stratification (% Black, % poverty), social disorder (violent crime rate), and physical deterioration (% boarded-up housing) (alpha=0.82). Information on sociodemographic, psychosocial, and behavioral factors was gathered from a postpartum interview and medical records. Random intercept multilevel models were used to estimate neighborhood effects and assess potential mediation. Controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, a standard deviation increase in neighborhood risk conferred a 76g birthweight decrement. This represents an approximate 300g difference between the best and worst neighborhoods. Although stress (daily hassles), perceived locus-of-control, and social support were related to birthweight, their adjustment reduced the neighborhood coefficient by only 12%. In contrast, the neighborhood effect was reduced by an additional 30% and was no longer statistically significant after adjustment for the behavioral factors of smoking, drug use, and delayed prenatal care. These findings suggest that neighborhood factors may influence birthweight by shaping maternal behavioral risks. Thus, neighborhood level interventions should be considered to address multiple maternal and infant health risks. Future studies should examine more direct measures of neighborhood stress, such as perceived neighborhood disorder, and evaluate alternative mechanisms by which neighborhood factors
Martin, Gina; Inchley, Joanna; Humphris, Gerry; Currie, Candace
Despite the well-established need for specific measurement instruments to examine the relationship between neighborhood conditions and adolescent well-being outcomes, few studies have developed scales to measure features of the neighborhoods in which adolescents reside. Moreover, measures of neighborhood features may be operationalised differently by adolescents living in different levels of urban/rurality. This has not been addressed in previous studies. The objectives of this study were to: 1) establish instruments to measure adolescent neighborhood features at both the individual and neighborhood level, 2) assess their psychometric and ecometric properties, 3) test for invariance by urban/rurality, and 4) generate neighborhood level scores for use in further analysis. Data were from the Scottish 2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey, which included an over-sample of rural adolescents. The survey responses of interest came from questions designed to capture different facets of the local area in which each respondent resided. Intermediate data zones were used as proxies for neighborhoods. Internal consistency was evaluated by Cronbach's alpha. Invariance was examined using confirmatory factor analysis. Multilevel models were used to estimate ecometric properties and generate neighborhood scores. Two constructs labeled neighborhood social cohesion and neighborhood disorder were identified. Adjustment was made to the originally specified model to improve model fit and measures of invariance. At the individual level, reliability was .760 for social cohesion and .765 for disorder, and between .524 and .571 for both constructs at the neighborhood level. Individuals in rural areas experienced greater neighborhood social cohesion and lower levels of neighborhood disorder compared with those in urban areas. The scales are appropriate for measuring neighborhood characteristics experienced by adolescents across urban and rural Scotland, and can be used in
Bonebrake, Timothy C; Brown, Christopher J; Bell, Johann D; Blanchard, Julia L; Chauvenet, Alienor; Champion, Curtis; Chen, I-Ching; Clark, Timothy D; Colwell, Robert K; Danielsen, Finn; Dell, Anthony I; Donelson, Jennifer M; Evengård, Birgitta; Ferrier, Simon; Frusher, Stewart; Garcia, Raquel A; Griffis, Roger B; Hobday, Alistair J; Jarzyna, Marta A; Lee, Emma; Lenoir, Jonathan; Linnetved, Hlif; Martin, Victoria Y; McCormack, Phillipa C; McDonald, Jan; McDonald-Madden, Eve; Mitchell, Nicola; Mustonen, Tero; Pandolfi, John M; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Possingham, Hugh; Pulsifer, Peter; Reynolds, Mark; Scheffers, Brett R; Sorte, Cascade J B; Strugnell, Jan M; Tuanmu, Mao-Ning; Twiname, Samantha; Vergés, Adriana; Villanueva, Cecilia; Wapstra, Erik; Wernberg, Thomas; Pecl, Gretta T
Climate change is driving a pervasive global redistribution of the planet's species. Species redistribution poses new questions for the study of ecosystems, conservation science and human societies that require a coordinated and integrated approach. Here we review recent progress, key gaps and strategic directions in this nascent research area, emphasising emerging themes in species redistribution biology, the importance of understanding underlying drivers and the need to anticipate novel outcomes of changes in species ranges. We highlight that species redistribution has manifest implications across multiple temporal and spatial scales and from genes to ecosystems. Understanding range shifts from ecological, physiological, genetic and biogeographical perspectives is essential for informing changing paradigms in conservation science and for designing conservation strategies that incorporate changing population connectivity and advance adaptation to climate change. Species redistributions present challenges for human well-being, environmental management and sustainable development. By synthesising recent approaches, theories and tools, our review establishes an interdisciplinary foundation for the development of future research on species redistribution. Specifically, we demonstrate how ecological, conservation and social research on species redistribution can best be achieved by working across disciplinary boundaries to develop and implement solutions to climate change challenges. Future studies should therefore integrate existing and complementary scientific frameworks while incorporating social science and human-centred approaches. Finally, we emphasise that the best science will not be useful unless more scientists engage with managers, policy makers and the public to develop responsible and socially acceptable options for the global challenges arising from species redistributions. © 2017 Cambridge Philosophical Society.
Omitaomu, Olufemi A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carvalhaes, Thomaz M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Census American Community Survey 2008-2012 data are used to construct a spatially explicit Climate-Induced Social Vulnerability Index (CSVI) for the East Tennessee area. This CSVI is a combination of a Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) and a Climate Index. A method is replicated and adapted to derive a custom SVI by Census tract for the counties participating in the East Tennessee Index, and a Climate Index is developed for the same area based on indicators for climate hazards. The resulting datasets are exported as a raster to be integrated and combined within the Urban Climate Adaptation Tool (Urban-CAT) to act as an indicator for communities which may be differentially vulnerable to changes in climate. Results for the SVI are mapped separately from the complete CSVI in this document as results for the latter are in development.
Besser, Lilah M; McDonald, Noreen C; Song, Yan; Kukull, Walter A; Rodriguez, Daniel A
Some evidence suggests that treating vascular risk factors and performing mentally stimulating activities may delay cognitive impairment onset in older adults. Exposure to a complex neighborhood environment may be one mechanism to help delay cognitive decline. PubMed, Web of Science, and ProQuest Dissertation and Theses Global database were systematically reviewed, identifying 25 studies published from February 1, 1989 to March 5, 2016 (data synthesized, May 3, 2015 to October 7, 2016). The review was restricted to quantitative studies focused on: (1) neighborhood social and built environment and cognition; and (2) community-dwelling adults aged ≥45 years. The majority of studies were cross-sectional, U.S.-based, and found at least one significant association. The diversity of measures and neighborhood definitions limited the synthesis of findings in many instances. Evidence was moderately strong for an association between neighborhood SES and cognition, and modest for associations between neighborhood demographics, design, and destination accessibility and cognition. Most studies examining effect modification found significant associations, with some evidence for effect modification of the neighborhood SES-cognition association by individual-level SES. No studies had low risk of bias and many tested multiple associations that increased the chance of a statistically significant finding. Considering the studies to date, the evidence for an association between neighborhood characteristics and cognition is modest. Future studies should include longitudinal measures of neighborhood characteristics and cognition; examine potential effect modifiers, such as sex and disability; and study mediators that may help elucidate the biological mechanisms linking neighborhood environment and cognition. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dury, Sarah; Willems, Jurgen; De Witte, Nico; De Donder, Liesbeth; Buffel, Tine; Verté, Dominique
This article explores the relationships between municipality features and volunteering by older adults. In the literature, strong evidence exists of the influence of place on older people's health. However, the question how neighborhoods and municipalities promote or hinder volunteer participation remains under-explored. Data for the research are derived from the Belgian Aging Studies. We estimate logistic multilevel models for older individuals' engagement in volunteering across 141 municipalities in Belgium (N = 67,144). Analysis shows that neighborhood connectedness, neighborhood satisfaction, home ownership, and presence of services predict voluntary engagement at older ages. The findings support that perceptions and quality of social resources that relate to neighborhoods may be important factors to explain volunteering among older adults. Moreover, the findings suggest that volunteering in later life must be considered within a broader framework. © The Author(s) 2014.
Fagan, Abigail A.; Wright, Emily M.; Pinchevsky, Gillian M.
Although social disorganization theory hypothesizes that neighborhood characteristics influence youth delinquency, the impact of neighborhood disadvantage on adolescent substance use and racial/ethnic differences in this relationship have not been widely investigated. The present study examines these issues using longitudinal data from 1,856 African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian adolescents participating in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). The results ind...
I.M.B. Bongers (Inge); I.A.M. van de Goor (Ien); H.F.L. Garretsen (Henk)
textabstractResearch was undertaken regarding the Dutch climate on alcohol in 1994 and results were compared with earlier findings. It was found that the social climate on alcohol in The Netherlands can be characterized by 'moderation'. Over the years, drinking without
Obydenkova, Anastassia V; Salahodjaev, Raufhon
The impact of democracy on governments' choice of environmental policies has attracted significant academic attention in recent years. However, less attention has been devoted to the role of the social cognitive capital of the national population. Does society's cognitive capital matter in governmental choice regarding environmental policies, if at all? This study addresses this question through a large-N analysis of 94 countries accounting for the role of both political regimes and social capital in governmental choice of climate change policies. We find that higher social cognitive capital within a democratic state radically increases that state's commitment to adopt environmental policies. More specifically, a 1-point increase in the democracy index is associated with nearly 5 points increase in the adoption of the Climate Laws, Institutions and Measures Index (CLIMI). In a similar vein, a 10 points increase in social cognitive capital is associated with a nearly 16 points increase in CLIMI. The findings presented in this study aim to contribute to the ongoing debate on the impact of democracy and the cognitive capital of society on international environmentalism. The findings will also be interesting for scholars working on the impact of political institutional factors and the role of society in environmental policy choices made at the international level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McMichael, A J; Butler, C D; Dixon, J
The establishment of ecological public health as crucial to modern public health is overdue. While the basic concepts have been gestating for decades, receptivity within broader public health has been limited. This position is changing, not least as the population-level impacts of climate change and, more broadly, of limits to growth are emerging from theory and forecasting into daily reality. This paper describes several key elements of ecological public health thinking. These include the 'environmental' risks to human health (often systemic and disruptive, rather than local and toxic) posed by climate change and other forms of adverse global environmental change. Closer recognition of the links between social and environmental factors has been urged--an 'eco-social' approach--and, relatedly, for greater co-operation between social and natural sciences. The authors revisit critics of capitalism who foresaw the global capture and transformation of ecosystems for material human ends, and their resultant despoliation. The perennial call within public health to reduce vulnerability by lessening poverty is more important than ever, given the multifactored threat to the health of the poor which is anticipated, assuming no radical strategies to alleviate these pressures. But enhanced health security for the poor requires more than the reconfiguring of social determinants; it also requires, as the overarching frame, ecological public health. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Biglan, Anthony; Hinds, Erika
In this review, we examine randomized controlled trials of community interventions to affect health. The evidence supports the efficacy of community interventions for preventing tobacco, alcohol, and other drug use; several recent trials have shown the benefits of community interventions for preventing multiple problems of young people, including antisocial behavior. However, the next generation of community intervention research needs to reflect more fully the fact that most psychological and behavioral problems of humans are interrelated and result from the same environmental conditions. The evidence supports testing new comprehensive community interventions that focus on increasing nurturance in communities. Nurturing communities will be ones in which families, schools, neighborhoods, and workplaces (a) minimize biologically and socially toxic events, (b) richly reinforce prosocial behavior, and (c) foster psychological acceptance. Such interventions also have the potential to make neighborhoods more sustainable.
Te-I Albert Tsai
Full Text Available New Urbanist development in the U.S. aims at enhancing a sense of community and seeks to return to the design of early transitional neighborhoods which have pedestrian-oriented environments with retail shops and services within walking distances of housing. Meanwhile, 6000 of Taiwan’s community associations have been running community empowerment programs supported by the Council for Cultural Affairs that have helped many neighborhoods to rebuild so-called community cohesion. This research attempts to evaluate whether neighborhoods with facilities near housing and shorter travel distances within a neighborhood would promote stronger social interactions and form a better community attachment than neighborhoods that have various opportunities for residents to participate in either formal or informal social gatherings. After interviewing and surveying residents from 19 neighborhoods in Taipei’s Beitou District, and correlating the psychological sense of community with inner neighborhood’s daily travel distances and numbers of participatory activities held by community organizations under empowerment programs together with frequencies of regular individual visits and casual meetings, statistical evidence yielded that placing public facilities near residential locations is more effective than providing various programs for elevating a sense of community.
Since the 18th CPC National Congress,especially since the Central Conference on Work Relating to Neighborhood Diplomacy held in October 2013,China’s neighborhood diplomacy has been energetic,proactive and promising,achieving important results in several aspects.At the same time,it is also in face of challenges
Wong, Michelle S; Chan, Kitty S; Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Thorpe, Roland J; Bleich, Sara N
Neighborhood characteristics have been associated with obesity, but less is known whether relationships vary by race/ethnicity. This study examined the relationship between soda consumption - a behavior strongly associated with obesity - and weight status with neighborhood sociodemographic, social, and built environments by race/ethnicity. We merged data on adults from the 2011-2013 California Health Interview Survey, U.S. Census data, and InfoUSA (n=62,396). Dependent variables were soda consumption and weight status outcomes (body mass index and obesity status). Main independent variables were measures of three neighborhood environments: social (social cohesion and safety), sociodemographic (neighborhood socioeconomic status, educational attainment, percent Asian, percent Hispanic, and percent black), and built environments (number of grocery stores, convenience stores, fast food restaurants, and gyms in neighborhood). We fit multi-level linear and logistic regression models, stratified by individual race/ethnicity (NH (non-Hispanic) Whites, NH African Americans, Hispanics, and NH Asians) controlling for individual-level characteristics, to estimate neighborhood contextual effects on study outcomes. Lower neighborhood educational attainment was associated with higher odds of obesity and soda consumption in all racial/ethnic groups. We found fewer associations between study outcomes and the neighborhood, especially the built environment, among NH African Americans and NH Asians. While improvements to neighborhood environment may be promising to reduce obesity, null associations among minority subgroups suggest that changes, particularly to the built environment, may alone be insufficient to address obesity in these groups. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Chaves, Luis Fernando; Cohen, Justin M; Pascual, Mercedes; Wilson, Mark L
The emergence of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) has been associated with changes in the relationship between people and forests, leading to the view that forest ecosystems increase infection risk and subsequent proposal that deforestation could reduce re-emergence of this disease. We analyzed county-level incidence rates of ACL in Costa Rica (1996-2000) as a function of social and environmental variables relevant to transmission ecology with statistical models that incorporate breakpoints. Once social marginality was taken into account, the effect of living close to a forest on infection risk was small, and diminished exponentially above a breakpoint. Forest cover was associated with the modulation of temporal effects of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) at small spatial scales, revealing an additional complex interplay of environmental forces and disease patterns. Social factors, which previously have not been evaluated rigorously together with environmental and climatic factors, appear to play a critical role that may ultimately determine disease risk.
Xia, Chengyi; Miao, Qin; Zhang, Juanjuan
Highlights: • We present a novel game model in which interaction and learning neighborhood is not identical. • The separation between interaction and learning neighborhood can largely influence the cooperative behaviors. • Monte Carlo simulations are utilized to verify the evolution of cooperation. • When IN is fixed to be 4, medium-sized LN = 8 is the optimal size to promote the cooperation. • When LN is fixed to be 4, the cooperation can also be highly enhanced when IN > 4. -- Abstract: The evolutionary game theory is a very powerful tool to understand the collective cooperation behavior in many real-world systems. In the spatial game model, the payoff is often first obtained within a specific neighborhood (i.e., interaction neighborhood) and then the focal player imitates or learns the behavior of a randomly selected one inside another neighborhood which is named after the learning neighborhood. However, most studies often assume that the interaction neighborhood is identical with the learning neighborhood. Beyond this assumption, we present a spatial prisoner’s dilemma game model to discuss the impact of separation between interaction neighborhood and learning neighborhood on the cooperative behaviors among players on the square lattice. Extensive numerical simulations demonstrate that separating the interaction neighborhood from the learning neighborhood can dramatically affect the density of cooperators (ρ C ) in the population at the stationary state. In particular, compared to the standard case, we find that the medium-sized learning (interaction) neighborhood allows the cooperators to thrive and substantially favors the evolution of cooperation and ρ C can be greatly elevated when the interaction (learning) neighborhood is fixed, that is, too little or much information is not beneficial for players to make the contributions for the collective cooperation. Current results are conducive to further analyzing and understanding the emergence of
Gao, Junling; Weaver, Scott R; Fu, Hua; Jia, Yingnan; Li, Jiang
It has been hypothesized that subjective well-being (SWB) is determined by a combination of individual characteristics, social environment, and physical environment. However, few studies have simultaneously examined the relationships of the social and physical attributes of a neighborhood with SWB. Accordingly, the present study aimed to examine these relationships among Chinese elders. A total of 2,719 elders aged 60 years or older were recruited from 47 neighborhoods in the Xinhua subdistrict of Shanghai by two-stage stratified random sampling and interviewed between July and September 2014. The social and physical attributes of each neighborhood were assessed using validated and psychometrically tested measures. The Chinese version of the international Personal Wellbeing Index was used to assess SWB. Control variables included sex, age, marital status, education level, years living in the neighborhood, self-rated health, chronic conditions, and leisure-time physical activity. Multilevel linear regression analysis was conducted to explore whether social and physical attributes were associated with SWB. The average level of SWB was 74.2 ± 15.7% of the scale maximum. After controlling for individual covariates, individual-level social cohesion and social interaction were positively correlated with SWB, and both individual-level and neighborhood-level aesthetic quality was positively correlated with SWB. In conclusion, both social and physical attributes of neighborhoods were associated with SWB among Chinese elderly. These findings suggest that creating aesthetic and cohesive neighborhoods may encourage Chinese elders to participate in social activities and promote their SWB.
Nguyen, Oanh Kieu; Chan, Connie V; Makam, Anil; Stieglitz, Heather; Amarasingham, Ruben
Social determinants directly contribute to poorer health, and coordination between healthcare and community-based resources is pivotal to addressing these needs. However, our healthcare system remains poorly equipped to address social determinants of health. The potential of health information technology to bridge this gap across the delivery of healthcare and social services remains unrealized. We conducted in-depth, in-person interviews with 50 healthcare and social service providers to determine the feasibility of a social-health information exchange (S-HIE) in an urban safety-net setting in Dallas County, Texas. After completion of interviews, we conducted a town hall meeting to identify desired functionalities for a S-HIE. We conducted thematic analysis of interview responses using the constant comparative method to explore perceptions about current communication and coordination across sectors, and barriers and enablers to S-HIE implementation. We sought participant confirmation of findings and conducted a forced-rank vote during the town hall to prioritize potential S-HIE functionalities. We found that healthcare and social service providers perceived a need for improved information sharing, communication, and care coordination across sectors and were enthusiastic about the potential of a S-HIE, but shared many technical, legal, and ethical concerns around cross-sector information sharing. Desired technical S-HIE functionalities encompassed fairly simple transactional operations such as the ability to view basic demographic information, visit and referral data, and medical history from both healthcare and social service settings. A S-HIE is an innovative and feasible approach to enabling better linkages between healthcare and social service providers. However, to develop S-HIEs in communities across the country, policy interventions are needed to standardize regulatory requirements, to foster increased IT capability and uptake among social service agencies
Johnson Renee M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Neighborhood safety may be an important social environmental determinant of overweight. We examined the relationship between perceived neighborhood safety and overweight status, and assessed the validity of reported neighborhood safety among a representative community sample of urban adolescents (who were racially and ethnically diverse. Methods Data come from the 2006 Boston Youth Survey, a cross-sectional study in which public high school students in Boston, MA completed a pencil-and-paper survey. The study used a two-stage, stratified sampling design whereby schools and then 9th–12th grade classrooms within schools were selected (the analytic sample included 1,140 students. Students reported their perceptions of neighborhood safety and several associated dimensions. With self-reported height and weight data, we computed body mass index (BMI, kg/m2 for the adolescents based on CDC growth charts. Chi-square statistics and corresponding p-values were computed to compare perceived neighborhood safety by the several associated dimensions. Prevalence ratios (PRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated to examine the association between perceived neighborhood safety and the prevalence of overweight status controlling for relevant covariates and school site. Results More than one-third (35.6% of students said they always felt safe in their neighborhood, 43.9% said they sometimes felt safe, 11.6% rarely felt safe, and 8.9% never felt safe. Those students who reported that they rarely or never feel safe in their neighborhoods were more likely than those who said they always or sometimes feel safe to believe that gang violence was a serious problem in their neighborhood or school (68.0% vs. 44.1%, p p = 0.025. In the fully adjusted model (including grade and school stratified by race/ethnicity, we found a statistically significant association between feeling unsafe in one's own neighborhood and overweight status among
Christoplos, Ian; Ngoan, Le Duc; Sen, Le Thi Hoa; Huong, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Lindegaard, Lily Salloum
How do disasters shape local government legitimacy in relation to managing climate- and disaster-related risks? This paper looks at how local authorities in Central Vietnam perceive their social contract for risk reduction, including the partial merging of responsibilities for disaster risk management with new plans for and investments in climate change adaptation and broader socioeconomic development. The findings indicate that extreme floods and storms constitute critical junctures that stimulate genuine institutional change. Local officials are proud of their strengthened role in disaster response and they are eager to boost investment in infrastructure. They have struggled to reinforce their legitimacy among their constituents, but given the shifting roles of the state, private sector, and civil society, and the undiminished emphasis on high-risk development models, their responsibilities for responding to emerging climate change scenarios are increasingly nebulous. The past basis for legitimacy is no longer valid, but tomorrow's social contract is not yet defined. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have highlighted the importance of collective social factors for population health. One of the major challenges is an adequate definition of the spatial units of analysis which present properties potentially related to the target outcomes. Political and administrative divisions of urban areas are the most commonly used definition, although they suffer limitations in their ability to fully express the neighborhoods as social and spatial units. Objective This study presents a proposal for defining the boundaries of local neighborhoods in Rio de Janeiro city. Local neighborhoods are constructed by means of aggregation of contiguous census tracts which are homogeneous regarding socioeconomic indicators. Methodology Local neighborhoods were created using the SKATER method (TerraView software. Criteria used for socioeconomic homogeneity were based on four census tract indicators (income, education, persons per household, and percentage of population in the 0-4-year age bracket considering a minimum population of 5,000 people living in each local neighborhood. The process took into account the geographic boundaries between administrative neighborhoods (a political-administrative division larger than a local neighborhood, but smaller than a borough and natural geographic barriers. Results The original 8,145 census tracts were collapsed into 794 local neighborhoods, distributed along 158 administrative neighborhoods. Local neighborhoods contained a mean of 10 census tracts, and there were an average of five local neighborhoods per administrative neighborhood. The local neighborhood units demarcated in this study are less socioeconomically heterogeneous than the administrative neighborhoods and provide a means for decreasing the well-known statistical variability of indicators based on census tracts. The local neighborhoods were able to distinguish between different areas within administrative neighborhoods
Santos, Simone M; Chor, Dora; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro
Several studies have highlighted the importance of collective social factors for population health. One of the major challenges is an adequate definition of the spatial units of analysis which present properties potentially related to the target outcomes. Political and administrative divisions of urban areas are the most commonly used definition, although they suffer limitations in their ability to fully express the neighborhoods as social and spatial units. This study presents a proposal for defining the boundaries of local neighborhoods in Rio de Janeiro city. Local neighborhoods are constructed by means of aggregation of contiguous census tracts which are homogeneous regarding socioeconomic indicators. Local neighborhoods were created using the SKATER method (TerraView software). Criteria used for socioeconomic homogeneity were based on four census tract indicators (income, education, persons per household, and percentage of population in the 0-4-year age bracket) considering a minimum population of 5,000 people living in each local neighborhood. The process took into account the geographic boundaries between administrative neighborhoods (a political-administrative division larger than a local neighborhood, but smaller than a borough) and natural geographic barriers. The original 8,145 census tracts were collapsed into 794 local neighborhoods, distributed along 158 administrative neighborhoods. Local neighborhoods contained a mean of 10 census tracts, and there were an average of five local neighborhoods per administrative neighborhood.The local neighborhood units demarcated in this study are less socioeconomically heterogeneous than the administrative neighborhoods and provide a means for decreasing the well-known statistical variability of indicators based on census tracts. The local neighborhoods were able to distinguish between different areas within administrative neighborhoods, particularly in relation to squatter settlements. Although the literature on
Godoy-Vaca, Luis; Almaguer, Manuel; Martínez-Gómez, Javier; Lobato, Andrea; Palme, Massimo
The aim of this research is to simulate the performance of a solar chimney located in different macro-zones in Ecuador. The proposed solar chimney model was simulated using a python script in order to predict the temperature distribution and the mass flow over time. The results obtained were firstly compared with experimental data for dry-warm climate. Then, the model was evaluated and tested in real weather conditions: dry-warm, moist-warm and rainy-cold. In addition, the assumed chimney dimensions were chosen according to the literature for the studied conditions. In spite of evaluating the best nightly ventilation, different chimney wall materials were tested: solid brick, common brick and reinforced concrete. The results showed that concrete in a dry-warm climate, a metallic layer on the gap with solid brick in a moist-warm climate and reinforced concrete in a rainy cold climate used for the absorbent wall improve the thermal inertia of the social housing.
Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; Krishnamurti, Tamar; Davis, Alex; Schwartz, Daniel; Fischhoff, Baruch
The social and behavioural sciences are critical for informing climate- and energy-related policies. We describe a decision science approach to applying those sciences. It has three stages: formal analysis of decisions, characterizing how well-informed actors should view them; descriptive research, examining how people actually behave in such circumstances; and interventions, informed by formal analysis and descriptive research, designed to create attractive options and help decision-makers choose among them. Each stage requires collaboration with technical experts (for example, climate scientists, geologists, power systems engineers and regulatory analysts), as well as continuing engagement with decision-makers. We illustrate the approach with examples from our own research in three domains related to mitigating climate change or adapting to its effects: preparing for sea-level rise, adopting smart grid technologies in homes, and investing in energy efficiency for office buildings. The decision science approach can facilitate creating climate- and energy-related policies that are behaviourally informed, realistic and respectful of the people whom they seek to aid.
This book starts with a series of about 20 preconceived ideas about climate and climatic change and analyses each of them in the light of the present day knowledge. Using this approach, it makes a status of the reality of the climatic change, of its causes and of the measures to be implemented to limit its impacts and reduce its most harmful consequences. (J.S.)
Balakhtar Valentina Vizitorіvna
Full Text Available The article reveals the essence of the concepts “socio-psychological climate”, “climate” and “organizational culture”. The author analyses approaches to understanding the socio-psychological climate: the socio-psychological phenomenon, the general emotional and psychological mood, the style of people's relationships with direct contact with each other, the social and psychological compatibility of the members of the group. The features of the formation of the socio-psychological climate in the establishment of the social service, factors affecting the state of the socio-psychological climate in the team are considered.
McBride Murry, Velma; Berkel, Cady; Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Nation, Maury
This article provides a comprehensive review of studies conducted over the past decade on the effects of neighborhood and poverty on adolescent normative and nonnormative development. Our review includes a summary of studies examining the associations between neighborhood poverty and adolescent identity development followed by a review of studies…
Guerra Vio, Cristóbal; Castro Arancibia, Lorena; Vargas Castro, Judith
The School Social Climate Questionnaire (CECSCE) was adapted and applied. Subsequently, its psychometric proprieties were analyzed. The 1075 Chilean students who participated were assessed with the CECSCE and the School Violence Scale. The results showed that the CECSCE has a bifactorial structure, although there was also the possibility of a unifactorial structure. The CECSCE achieved satisfactory reliability and homogeneity indexes. The CECSCES scores were inversely related to the school violence rate. Lastly, differences by gender and educational level were analyzed. Given that there are differences in school climate perceptions in favor of girls, Chilean standards are presented in percentiles by gender. It can therefore be concluded that the CECSCE is sufficiently valid and reliable to be applied in Chile.
Davidson, M.D. [Department of Philosophy, Faculty of Humanities, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Doelenstraat 15, 1012 CP Amsterdam (Netherlands)
This article examines the implications for the social discount rate for damage due to climate change if risk to future generations is handled in accordance with the laws regulating our handling of risk to contemporaries. The conclusions are the following. Under current law, neither geographic distance nor differences in wealth between risk creator and risk bearer play any part in establishing a standard of 'reasonable care'. The concept of intergenerational justice requires these same principles to be applied in the intergenerational context too, implying a zero consumption rate of interest for climate damage. Assuming that the extent to which mitigation is at the expense of alternative investments is equal to society's marginal propensity to save, the social discount rate becomes society's marginal propensity to save times the long-term market rate of return on private investment, implying a social discount rate of around one per cent or a fraction of one per cent. This formula is exact under the assumption of average saving behaviour and by attributing consumption losses due to investment in damage prevention before damage occurs to the risk creator and after damage occurs to the risk bearer.
Fritz, Heather; Cutchin, Malcolm P; Cummins, Emily R
Although evidence suggests that neighborhood conditions are related to stress and health, the processes connecting neighborhood conditions and stress for older minorities is little explored. The purpose of this analysis is to contribute new insights into this issue. We conducted a qualitative analysis as part of a larger mixed methods study of 100 African Americans aged 55 and older living in neighborhoods of varying quality in Detroit, Michigan. A subsample of (n = 20) older adults took photographs of bothersome aspects of their neighborhoods and participated in in-depth photo-elicitation interviews. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. 'Loss of trust in the neighborhood' emerged as the core category to explain how older African Americans in our sample experienced neighborhood stressors in their daily lives. Loss of trust in physical, social, and institutional dimensions of the neighborhood contributed to the core category. The life course of neighborhoods and the trust placed in them appears to be intimately connected to the well-being of older African Americans. We therefore hypothesize that a fundamental pathway through which neighborhood stressors are experienced for older African Americans in U.S. 'Rust Belt' cities is the multifaceted loss of trust in the neighborhood.
Phuong, Le Thi Hong; Wals, Arjen; Sen, Le Thi Hoa; Hoa, Nguyen Quoc; Lu, Van Phan; Biesbroek, Robbert
Social learning is crucial for local smallholder farmers in developing countries to improve their adaptive capacity and to adapt to the current and projected impacts of climate change. While it is widely acknowledged that social learning is a necessary condition for adaptation, few studies have
Roosa, Mark W.; Burrell, Ginger L.; Nair, Rajni L.; Coxe, Stefany; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P.
This study examined a stress process model in which stressful life events and association with delinquent peers mediated the relationship of neighborhood disadvantage to Mexican American early adolescents' mental health. The authors also proposed that child gender, child generation, and neighborhood informal social control would moderate the…
Along with the economic reforms, rapid urbanization, and the growth of a free land market, Chinese cities witness new forms of neighborhood poverty and increasing residential segregation by social class, migration status, and housing tenure. But little is known about the consequences of the growing social-spatial differentiation for children's educational achievement in China. Using national-scale survey data from the China Family Panel Studies in 2010, this study examines the relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and children's test scores in urban China, and explores the mechanisms through which neighborhood environment is associated with children's academic achievement. The results show that neighborhood SES is positively associated with children's verbal and math test scores after accounting for myriad individual and family characteristics. The relationship between neighborhood SES and test scores is partially explained by neighborhood educational institutions and collective socialization. Peer contagion, neighborhood social organization, or neighborhood physical environment do not explain this relationship. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Curtis, Sarah; Fair, Alistair; Wistow, Jonathan; Val, Dimitri V; Oven, Katie
This review, commissioned by the Research Councils UK Living With Environmental Change (LWEC) programme, concerns research on the impacts on health and social care systems in the United Kingdom of extreme weather events, under conditions of climate change. Extreme weather events considered include heatwaves, coldwaves and flooding. Using a structured review method, we consider evidence regarding the currently observed and anticipated future impacts of extreme weather on health and social care systems and the potential of preparedness and adaptation measures that may enhance resilience. We highlight a number of general conclusions which are likely to be of international relevance, although the review focussed on the situation in the UK. Extreme weather events impact the operation of health services through the effects on built, social and institutional infrastructures which support health and health care, and also because of changes in service demand as extreme weather impacts on human health. Strategic planning for extreme weather and impacts on the care system should be sensitive to within country variations. Adaptation will require changes to built infrastructure systems (including transport and utilities as well as individual care facilities) and also to institutional and social infrastructure supporting the health care system. Care sector organisations, communities and individuals need to adapt their practices to improve resilience of health and health care to extreme weather. Preparedness and emergency response strategies call for action extending beyond the emergency response services, to include health and social care providers more generally.
Sparked by the 100th Anniversary of Kurt Lewin's birth, this paper re-examines a classic 1939 study by Lewin, Lippitt, and White, of three leadership styles and the resulting different social climates, that is, autocratic, democratic, and laissez faire. A gradual extension of Lewinian field theory to include unconscious motivations in individual and in group behavior has served to broaden the already significant influence of this research on the behavioral sciences. Two recent developments moved me to write this communication: (1) The 100th Anniversary in 1990 of Kurt Lewin's birth (Maccoby, 1992); and (b) a broadening of Lewinian field theory to encompass unconscious motivations (White, 1992).
The International Seminar on "Climate change and its social and environmental repercussions" (“Alterações Climáticas e suas repercussões socio-ambientais”) took place from 20 to 23 August 2012 in Palácio dos Congressos, in the city of São Tomé, Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe. This meeting was organized by a group of nine public, private and civil society institutions acting in São Tomé and Príncipe, Portugal and Spain, in compliance with the principles of international partne...
Full Text Available While the Philadelphia Water Department (PWD is counting on Green Stormwater Infrastructure (GI as a key component of its long-term plan for reducing combined sewer overflows, many community stakeholders are also hoping that investment in greening can help meet other ancillary goals, collectively referred to as sustainable redevelopment. This study investigates the challenges associated with implementation of GI in Point Breeze, a residential neighborhood of South Philadelphia. The project team performed a detailed study of physical, social, legal, and economic conditions in the pilot neighborhood over the course of several years, culminating in the development of an agent-based model simulation of GI implementation. The model evaluates a whether PWD’s GI goals can be met in a timely manner, b what kinds of assumptions regarding participation would be needed under different theoretical GI policies, and c the extent to which GI could promote sustainable redevelopment. The model outcomes underscore the importance of private land in helping PWD achieve its GI goals in Point Breeze. Achieving a meaningful density of GI in the neighborhoods most in need of sustainable redevelopment may require new and creative strategies for GI implementation tailored for the types of land present in those particular communities.
Bogaert, S.; Boone, Chr.; van Witteloostuijn, A.
We investigate the moderating role of an individual's social value orientation (which refers to self- versus other-regarding preferences) and of climate strength (which refers to the extent of agreement among group members on group norms and values) on the relationship between work group cooperative
Dwyer, Laura A; Patel, Minal; Nebeling, Linda C; Oh, April Y
Neighborhood and psychosocial variables are related to physical activity (PA), yet interactions between these factors in predicting PA are infrequently studied. This analysis examines the independent associations and interactions between self-reported neighborhood and psychosocial variables in relation to moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) among adults from a US panel sample. In adjusted models, neighborhood social capital was positively associated with meeting MVPA guidelines. Fewer barriers, greater self-efficacy, and greater autonomous motivation also corresponded with greater odds of meeting MVPA guidelines. An interaction between social capital and autonomous motivation showed that social capital was only associated with MVPA when autonomous motivation was high. Participants who reported both high autonomous motivation and high social capital were most likely to meet MVPA guidelines. Neighborhood social capital, barriers, self-efficacy, and autonomous motivation may be important correlates in promoting adults' PA. Future directions include using objective neighborhood and PA data in similar analyses and investigating associations of neighborhood and psychosocial variables with multiple PA activities. Intervention research to promote PA should also examine whether effects of interventions targeting psychosocial constructs are moderated by features of an individual's neighborhood or whether perceived social capital can be addressed in interventions in conjunction with psychosocial variables.
Amanda W. Vemuri; J. Morgan Grove; Matthew A. Wilson; William R. Jr. Burch
With the rapid growth of cities worldwide, there is a need to better understand factors contributing to life satisfaction in urban environments. Using data from a long-term study of the Baltimore metropolitan region, we build on existing social scientific literature to examine a suite of theoretical factors that have been proposed to explain higher life satisfaction....
The Neighborhood Environmental Watch Network (NEWNET) is a regional network of environmental monitoring stations and a data archival center that supports collaboration between communities, industry, and government agencies to solve environmental problems. The stations provide local displays of measurements for the public and transmit measurements via satellite to a central site for archival and analysis. Station managers are selected from the local community and trained to support the stations. Archived data and analysis tools are available to researchers, educational institutions, industrial collaborators, and the public across the nation through a communications network. Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Environmental Protection Agency have developed a NEWNET pilot program for the Department of Energy. The pilot program supports monitoring stations in Nevada, Arizona, Utah, Wyoming, and California. Additional stations are being placed in Colorado and New Mexico. Pilot stations take radiological and meteorological measurements. Other measurements are possible by exchanging sensors
Nkoy, Flory L; Stone, Bryan L; Knighton, Andrew J; Fassl, Bernhard A; Johnson, Joseph M; Maloney, Christopher G; Savitz, Lucy A
Collecting social determinants data is challenging. We assigned patients a neighborhood-level social determinant measure, the area of deprivation index (ADI), by using census data. We then assessed the association between neighborhood deprivation and asthma hospitalization outcomes and tested the influence of insurance coverage. A retrospective cohort study of children 2 to 17 years old admitted for asthma at 8 hospitals. An administrative database was used to collect patient data, including hospitalization outcomes and neighborhood deprivation status (ADI scores), which were grouped into quintiles (ADI 1, the least deprived neighborhoods; ADI 5, the most deprived neighborhoods). We used multivariable models, adjusting for covariates, to assess the associations and added a neighborhood deprivation status and insurance coverage interaction term. A total of 2270 children (median age 5 years; 40.6% girls) were admitted for asthma. We noted that higher ADI quintiles were associated with greater length of stay, higher cost, and more asthma readmissions ( P < .05 for most quintiles). Having public insurance was independently associated with greater length of stay (β: 1.171; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.117-1.228; P < .001), higher cost (β: 1.147; 95% CI: 1.093-1.203; P < .001), and higher readmission odds (odds ratio: 1.81; 95% CI: 1.46-2.24; P < .001). There was a significant deprivation-insurance effect modification, with public insurance associated with worse outcomes and private insurance with better outcomes across ADI quintiles ( P < .05 for most combinations). Neighborhood-level ADI measure is associated with asthma hospitalization outcomes. However, insurance coverage modifies this relationship and needs to be considered when using the ADI to identify and address health care disparities. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Havermans, Bo M; Boot, Cécile R L; Houtman, Irene L D; Brouwers, Evelien P M; Anema, Johannes R; van der Beek, Allard J
Health care workers are exposed to psychosocial work factors. Autonomy and social support are psychosocial work factors that are related to stress, and are argued to largely result from the psychosocial safety climate within organisations. This study aimed to assess to what extent the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress in health care workers can be explained by autonomy and social support. In a cross-sectional study, psychosocial safety climate, stress, autonomy, co-worker support, and supervisor support were assessed using questionnaires, in a sample of health care workers (N = 277). Linear mixed models analyses were performed to assess to what extent social support and autonomy explained the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress. A lower psychosocial safety climate score was associated with significantly higher stress (B = -0.21, 95% CI = -0.27 - -0.14). Neither co-worker support, supervisor support, nor autonomy explained the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress. Taken together, autonomy and both social support measures diminished the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress by 12% (full model: B = -0.18, 95% CI = -0.25 - -0.11). Autonomy and social support together seemed to bring about a small decrease in the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress in health care workers. Future research should discern whether other psychosocial work factors explain a larger portion of this relation. This study was registered in the Netherlands National Trial Register, trial code: NTR5527 .
Bo M. Havermans
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health care workers are exposed to psychosocial work factors. Autonomy and social support are psychosocial work factors that are related to stress, and are argued to largely result from the psychosocial safety climate within organisations. This study aimed to assess to what extent the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress in health care workers can be explained by autonomy and social support. Methods In a cross-sectional study, psychosocial safety climate, stress, autonomy, co-worker support, and supervisor support were assessed using questionnaires, in a sample of health care workers (N = 277. Linear mixed models analyses were performed to assess to what extent social support and autonomy explained the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress. Results A lower psychosocial safety climate score was associated with significantly higher stress (B = −0.21, 95% CI = −0.27 – -0.14. Neither co-worker support, supervisor support, nor autonomy explained the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress. Taken together, autonomy and both social support measures diminished the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress by 12% (full model: B = −0.18, 95% CI = −0.25 – -0.11. Conclusions Autonomy and social support together seemed to bring about a small decrease in the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress in health care workers. Future research should discern whether other psychosocial work factors explain a larger portion of this relation. Trial registration This study was registered in the Netherlands National Trial Register, trial code: NTR5527 .
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the social context of girls with conduct disorder (CD, a question of increasing importance to clinicians and researchers. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between three social context domains (neighborhood, family characteristics, and parenting behaviors and CD in adolescent girls, additionally testing for race moderation effects. We predicted that disadvantaged neighborhoods, family characteristics such as parental marital status, and parenting behaviors such as negative discipline would characterize girls with CD. We also hypothesized that parenting behaviors would mediate the associations between neighborhood and family characteristics and CD. Methods We recruited 93 15–17 year-old girls from the community and used a structured psychiatric interview to assign participants to a CD group (n = 52 or a demographically matched group with no psychiatric disorder (n = 41. Each girl and parent also filled out questionnaires about neighborhood, family characteristics, and parenting behaviors. Results Neighborhood quality was not associated with CD in girls. Some family characteristics (parental antisociality and parenting behaviors (levels of family activities and negative discipline were characteristic of girls with CD, but notll. There was no moderation by race. Our hypothesis that the association between family characteristics and CD would be mediated by parenting behaviors was not supported. Conclusion This study expanded upon previous research by investigating multiple social context domains in girls with CD and by selecting a comparison group who were not different in age, social class, or race. When these factors are thus controlled, CD in adolescent girls is not significantly associated with neighborhood, but is associated with some family characteristics and some types of parental behaviors. However, the mechanisms underlying these relationships need to be further
The conceptualization, exploration, and prediction of interplay between climate, weather, important resources, and social and economic - so political - human behavior is cast, and analyzed, in terms familiar from statistical physics and nonlinear dynamics. A simple threshold toy model is presented which emulates human tendencies to either actively engage in responses deriving, in part, from environmental circumstances or to maintain some semblance of status quo, formulated based on efforts drawn from the sociophysics literature - more specifically vis a vis a model akin to spin glass depictions of human behavior - with threshold/switching of individual and collective dynamics influenced by relatively more detailed weather and land surface model (hydrological) analyses via a land data assimilation system (a custom rendition of the NASA GSFC Land Information System). Parameters relevant to human systems' - e.g., individual and collective switching - sensitivity to hydroclimatology are explored towards investigation of overall system behavior; i.e., fixed points/equilibria, oscillations, and bifurcations of systems composed of human interactions and responses to climate and weather through, e.g., agriculture. We discuss implications in terms of conceivable impacts of climate change and associated natural disasters on socioeconomics, politics, and power transfer, drawing from relatively recent literature concerning human conflict.
Thiele-Eich, I.; Aßheuer, T.; Simmer, C.; Braun, B.
Similar to many megacities in the world, Dhaka is regularly threatened by natural hazards. Risks associated with floods and cyclones in particular are expected to increase in the years to come because of global climate change and rapid urbanization. Greater Dhaka is expected to grow from 13.5 million inhabitants in 2007 to 22 million inhabitants by 2025. The vast majority of this growth will take place in informal settlements. Due to the setting of Greater Dhaka in a deltaic plain, the sprawl of slums is primarily taking place in wetlands, swamps and other flood-prone areas. Slum dwellers and informal businesses are vulnerable, but have somehow learned to cope with seasonal floods and developed specific adaptation strategies. An increase of precipitation extremes and tropical cyclones, however, would put considerable stress on the adaptability of the social and economic system. DhakaHazard, a joint research project of the Department of Meteorology at the University of Bonn and the Department of Geography at the University of Cologne, takes up these issues in an interdisciplinary approach. The project, which begun in November 2008, aims to achieve two main objectives: To link analyses of informal social and economic adaptation strategies to models on future climate change and weather extremes. To estimate more accurately the future frequency and magnitude of weather extremes and floods which are crucial for the future adaptability of informal systems. To fulfill these objectives, scientists at the Meteorological Institute are studying the evolution of natural hazards in Bangladesh, while researchers at the Department of Geography are undertaking the task of assessing these hazards from a social point of view. More specifically, the meteorologists are identifying global and regional weather conditions resulting in flooding of the Greater Dhaka region, while possible variations in flood-inducing weather patterns are analyzed by evaluating their frequency and magnitude
Full Text Available The impact of climate change on the coastal zones of Taiwan not only affects the marine environment, ecology, and human communities whose economies rely heavily on marine activities, but also the sustainable development of national economics. The southwest coast is known as the area most vulnerable to climate change; therefore, this study aims to develop indicators to assess social vulnerability in this area of Taiwan using the three dimensions of susceptibility, resistance, and resilience. The modified Delphi method was used to develop nine criteria and 26 indexes in the evaluation, and the analytic hierarchy process method was employed to evaluate the weight of each indicator based on the perspectives of experts collected through questionnaire surveys. The results provide important information pertaining to the vulnerability of the most susceptive regions, the lowest-resistance areas, and the least resilient townships on the southwest coast. The most socially vulnerable areas are plotted based on the present analysis. Experts can consider the vulnerability map provided here when developing adaptation policies. It should be kept in mind that improving the capacities of resistance and resilience is more important than reducing susceptibility in Taiwan.
Full Text Available The social-economic implication of climatic changes in Romania are analysed under the following viewpoints: causes and effects; prevention and abatement; adjustment; institutional aspects of environmental management. The main reason of climatic changes is generated by the greenhouse effect (GE that determines the heating of the terrestrial surface, melt-down of icebergs, tornados, draughts and flooding more frequently and of increasing intensity. These extreme meteorological phenomena determine, over time, increasing human and material losses, which imposes measures with effects on short-, medium- and long-term for diminishing the greenhouse effect in accordance with the commitments and provisions of the Kyoto Protocol and the requirements for the sustainable development of the country. Proposals are made with respect to integrating environmental issues into economic and social development strategies, emphasising the need for increasing environment financing and attaching more importance to the Ministry of Environment which must couple its policy with the acquis communautaire and the EU programme for combating and preventing GE impact.
Rollings, Kimberly A; Wells, Nancy M; Evans, Gary W
Although sociodemographic factors are one aspect of understanding the effects of neighborhood environments on health, equating neighborhood quality with socioeconomic status ignores the important role of physical neighborhood attributes. Prior work on neighborhood environments and health has relied primarily on level of socioeconomic disadvantage as the indicator of neighborhood quality without attention to physical neighborhood quality. A small but increasing number of studies have assessed neighborhood physical characteristics. Findings generally indicate that there is an association between living in deprived neighborhoods and poor health outcomes, but rigorous evidence linking specific physical neighborhood attributes to particular health outcomes is lacking. This paper discusses the methodological challenges and limitations of measuring physical neighborhood environments relevant to health and concludes with proposed directions for future work.
Full Text Available Background: Previous studies suggest that neighborhood social capital is associated with children's mental health. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between neighborhood collective efficacy and children's psychosocial development. Methods: We used data on children and their parents (n = 918 who were part of the Japanese study of Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood (JSHINE from 2010 to 2013 (wave 1 and wave 2. Households were recruited from the Tokyo metropolitan area through clustered random sampling. Changes in children's psychosocial development (assessed using a child behavioral checklist between waves 1 and 2 were regressed on parents' perceptions of changes in neighborhood collective efficacy (social cohesion and informal social control. Results: Change in perception of neighborhood social cohesion was inversely associated with change in child total problems (β = −0.22; 95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.37 to −0.001; effect size d = −0.03. Change in perceptions of neighborhood informal social control was inversely associated with change in children's externalizing problems (β = −0.16; 95% CI: −0.30 to −0.03; d = −0.02. Conclusions: The results of these fixed-effects models suggest that strengthening neighborhood collective efficacy is related to improvements in child psychosocial development.
Stahl, Sarah T; Beach, Scott R; Musa, Donald; Schulz, Richard
Older adults who live alone are more likely to report feelings of depression than those who live with a spouse or other family members. This study examines the effects of residential status and perceived neighborhood characteristics on depression in middle-aged and older adults. This study is based on a probability sample of 1049 adults aged 55-98 years (M = 69 years) residing in Allegheny County, Pittsburgh, PA, USA in 2014. Thirty percent of participants reported living alone. We tested a multivariate model using living alone (vs. living with a family member or others) and perceived neighborhood physical and social quality as predictors of depressive symptomatology while controlling for age, sex, race, education, and disability. Living alone (compared to living with a family member) was associated with elevated levels of depressive symptomatology. However, perceptions of neighborhood social quality moderated this association. Living alone was more highly associated with depression when the perceived social quality of the neighborhood was low. Neighborhood social quality was not associated with depression among older adults who lived with a family member. Perceptions of neighborhood physical quality were not significantly associated with depression. Perceptions of good neighborhood social quality is important for adults who live alone, in terms of fewer symptoms of depression.
Full Text Available This paper provides a deeper understanding of the role of social influences on positive eWOM behaviour (PeWOM of heavy-users of online communities. Drawing on Social Interaction Utility Framework, Group Marketing and Social Learning Theories, we develop and test a research model integrating the interactions between the social climate of a website and Interpersonal Influences in PeWOM. 262 Spanish heavy-users of online communities were selected and the data analysed using partial least squares equation modelling. Overall, the model explains 59% of the variance of PeWOM on online communities. Findings reveal that interaction with other members of the online community (Social Presence is the main predictor of PeWOM. Social Identity is a mediator between Social Presence and PeWOM. Interpersonal Influence has an important role as a moderator variable; the greater the impact of Interpersonal Influence, the stronger the relationship between Social Presence and PeWOM.
van Deurzen, Ioana; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Christensen, Ulla
An influential argument explaining why living in certain neighborhoods can become harmful to one's health maintains that individuals can perceive certain characteristics of the neighborhood as threatening and the prolonged exposure to a threatening environment could induce chronic stress. Following...... this line of argumentation, in the present study we test whether subjective perceptions of neighborhood characteristics relate to an objective measure of stress-related physiological functioning, namely allostatic load (AL). We use a large dataset of 5280 respondents living in different regions of Denmark...... and we account for two alternative mechanisms, i.e., the objective characteristics of the living environment and the socio-economic status of individuals. Our results support the chronic stress mechanisms linking neighborhood quality to health. Heightened perceptions of disorder and pollution were found...
City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The Durham Neighborhood Compass is a quantitative indicators project with qualitative values, integrating data from local government, the Census Bureau and other...
Jennings, Wesley G; Perez, Nicholas M; Reingle Gonzalez, Jennifer M
There has been a considerable amount of scholarly attention to the relationship between neighborhood effects and conduct disorder, particularly in recent years. Having said this, it has been nearly two decades since a comprehensive synthesis of this literature has been conducted. Relying on a detailed and comprehensive search strategy and inclusion criteria, this article offers a systematic and interdisciplinary review of 47 empirical studies that have examined neighborhood effects and conduct disorder. Described results suggest that there are generally robust linkages between adverse neighborhood factors and conduct disorder and externalizing behavior problems, as 67 of the 93 (72.04%) effect sizes derived from these studies yielded statistically significant neighborhood effects. The review also identifies salient mediating and moderating influences. It discusses study limitations and directions for future research as well.
Perez-Smith, Alina; Spirito, Anthony; Boergers, Julie
Adolescents (N=48) who attempted suicide were administered measures of hopelessness and depression. Those living in neighborhoods with weak social networks reported higher levels of hopelessness, even after controlling for socioeconomic backgrounds and depression. Findings suggest that the environmental context may play a role in the emotional…
Sobol, James J.; Wu, Yuning; Sun, Ivan Y.
This study provides a partial test of Klinger's ecological theory of police behavior using hierarchical linear modeling on 1,677 suspects who had encounters with police within 24 beats. The current study used data from four sources originally collected by the Project on Policing Neighborhoods (POPN), including systematic social observation,…
Finding nearest neighbors is a general idea that underlies many artificial intelligence tasks, including machine learning, data mining, natural language understanding, and information retrieval. This idea is explicitly used in the k-nearest neighbors algorithm (kNN), a popular classification method. In this paper, this idea is adopted in the development of a general methodology, neighborhood counting, for devising similarity functions. We turn our focus from neighbors to neighborhoods, a region in the data space covering the data point in question. To measure the similarity between two data points, we consider all neighborhoods that cover both data points. We propose to use the number of such neighborhoods as a measure of similarity. Neighborhood can be defined for different types of data in different ways. Here, we consider one definition of neighborhood for multivariate data and derive a formula for such similarity, called neighborhood counting measure or NCM. NCM was tested experimentally in the framework of kNN. Experiments show that NCM is generally comparable to VDM and its variants, the state-of-the-art distance functions for multivariate data, and, at the same time, is consistently better for relatively large k values. Additionally, NCM consistently outperforms HEOM (a mixture of Euclidean and Hamming distances), the "standard" and most widely used distance function for multivariate data. NCM has a computational complexity in the same order as the standard Euclidean distance function and NCM is task independent and works for numerical and categorical data in a conceptually uniform way. The neighborhood counting methodology is proven sound for multivariate data experimentally. We hope it will work for other types of data.
Ana Flávia Quintão
Full Text Available Vulnerability to climate change is a complex and dynamic phenomenon involving both social and physical/environmental aspects. It is presented as a method for the quantification of the vulnerability of all municipalities of Minas Gerais, a state in southeastern Brazil. It is based on the aggregation of different kinds of environmental, climatic, social, institutional, and epidemiological variables, to form a composite index. This was named “Index of Human Vulnerability” and was calculated using a software (SisVuClima® specifically developed for this purpose. Social, environmental, and health data were combined with the climatic scenarios RCP 4.5 and 8.5, downscaled from ETA-HadGEM2-ES for each municipality. The Index of Human Vulnerability associated with the RCP 8.5 has shown a higher vulnerability for municipalities in the southern and eastern parts of the state of Minas Gerais.
Although a considerable amount of neighborhood research has addressed how fear of negative events may activate stress responses, few studies have noted the potentially embedded nature of negative life events within spatial riskscapes. Co-occurring contextual social and physical h...
Shaw, C.; Hellsten, I.; Nerlich, B.; Crichton, J.; Candlin, C.N.; Firkins, A.S.
The issue of climate change is intimately linked to notions of risk and uncertainty, concepts that pose challenges to climate science, climate change communication, and science-society interactions. While a large majority of climate scientists are increasingly certain about the causes of climate
Nicolle A Mode
Full Text Available Mortality rates in the United States vary based on race, individual economic status and neighborhood. Correlations among these variables in most urban areas have limited what conclusions can be drawn from existing research. Our study employs a unique factorial design of race, sex, age and individual poverty status, measuring time to death as an objective measure of health, and including both neighborhood economic status and income inequality for a sample of middle-aged urban-dwelling adults (N = 3675. At enrollment, African American and White participants lived in 46 unique census tracts in Baltimore, Maryland, which varied in neighborhood economic status and degree of income inequality. A Cox regression model for 9-year mortality identified a three-way interaction among sex, race and individual poverty status (p = 0.03, with African American men living below poverty having the highest mortality. Neighborhood economic status, whether measured by a composite index or simply median household income, was negatively associated with overall mortality (p<0.001. Neighborhood income inequality was associated with mortality through an interaction with individual poverty status (p = 0.04. While racial and economic disparities in mortality are well known, this study suggests that several social conditions associated with health may unequally affect African American men in poverty in the United States. Beyond these individual factors are the influences of neighborhood economic status and income inequality, which may be affected by a history of residential segregation. The significant association of neighborhood economic status and income inequality with mortality beyond the synergistic combination of sex, race and individual poverty status suggests the long-term importance of small area influence on overall mortality.
Wei, Chunzhu; Cabrera-Barona, Pablo; Blaschke, Thomas
This study aims to explore the effect of the neighborhood scale when estimating public services inequality based on the aggregation of social, environmental, and health-related indicators. Inequality analyses were carried out at three neighborhood scales: the original census blocks and two aggregated neighborhood units generated by the spatial “k”luster analysis by the tree edge removal (SKATER) algorithm and the self-organizing map (SOM) algorithm. Then, we combined a set of health-related public services indicators with the geographically weighted principal components analyses (GWPCA) and the principal components analyses (PCA) to measure the public services inequality across all multi-scale neighborhood units. Finally, a statistical test was applied to evaluate the scale effects in inequality measurements by combining all available field survey data. We chose Quito as the case study area. All of the aggregated neighborhood units performed better than the original census blocks in terms of the social indicators extracted from a field survey. The SKATER and SOM algorithms can help to define the neighborhoods in inequality analyses. Moreover, GWPCA performs better than PCA in multivariate spatial inequality estimation. Understanding the scale effects is essential to sustain a social neighborhood organization, which, in turn, positively affects social determinants of public health and public quality of life. PMID:27706072
Tong, Shilu; Dale, Pat; Nicholls, Neville; Mackenzie, John S.; Wolff, Rodney; McMichael, Anthony J.
Background Arbovirus diseases have emerged as a global public health concern. However, the impact of climatic, social, and environmental variability on the transmission of arbovirus diseases remains to be determined. Objective Our goal for this study was to provide an overview of research development and future research directions about the interrelationship between climate variability, social and environmental factors, and the transmission of Ross River virus (RRV), the most common and widespread arbovirus disease in Australia. Methods We conducted a systematic literature search on climatic, social, and environmental factors and RRV disease. Potentially relevant studies were identified from a series of electronic searches. Results The body of evidence revealed that the transmission cycles of RRV disease appear to be sensitive to climate and tidal variability. Rainfall, temperature, and high tides were among major determinants of the transmission of RRV disease at the macro level. However, the nature and magnitude of the interrelationship between climate variability, mosquito density, and the transmission of RRV disease varied with geographic area and socioenvironmental condition. Projected anthropogenic global climatic change may result in an increase in RRV infections, and the key determinants of RRV transmission we have identified here may be useful in the development of an early warning system. Conclusions The analysis indicates that there is a complex relationship between climate variability, social and environmental factors, and RRV transmission. Different strategies may be needed for the control and prevention of RRV disease at different levels. These research findings could be used as an additional tool to support decision making in disease control/surveillance and risk management. PMID:19079707
Shaw, Chris; Hellsten, Iina; Nerlich, Brigitte
The issue of climate change is intimately linked to notions of risk and uncertainty, concepts that pose challenges to climate science, climate change communication, and science-society interactions. While a large majority of climate scientists are increasingly certain about the causes of climate change and the risks posed by its impacts (see IPCC, 2013 and 2014), public perception of climate change is still largely framed by uncertainty, especially regarding impacts (Poortinga et al., 2011). ...
Adriana A. Zuniga-Teran
Full Text Available Neighborhood design affects lifestyle physical activity, and ultimately human wellbeing. There are, however, a limited number of studies that examine neighborhood design types. In this research, we examine four types of neighborhood designs: traditional development, suburban development, enclosed community, and cluster housing development, and assess their level of walkability and their effects on physical activity and wellbeing. We examine significant associations through a questionnaire (n = 486 distributed in Tucson, Arizona using the Walkability Model. Among the tested neighborhood design types, traditional development showed significant associations and the highest value for walkability, as well as for each of the two types of walking (recreation and transportation representing physical activity. Suburban development showed significant associations and the highest mean values for mental health and wellbeing. Cluster housing showed significant associations and the highest mean value for social interactions with neighbors and for perceived safety from crime. Enclosed community did not obtain the highest means for any wellbeing benefit. The Walkability Model proved useful in identifying the walkability categories associated with physical activity and perceived crime. For example, the experience category was strongly and inversely associated with perceived crime. This study provides empirical evidence of the importance of including vegetation, particularly trees, throughout neighborhoods in order to increase physical activity and wellbeing. Likewise, the results suggest that regular maintenance is an important strategy to improve mental health and overall wellbeing in cities.
Zuniga-Teran, Adriana A; Orr, Barron J; Gimblett, Randy H; Chalfoun, Nader V; Guertin, David P; Marsh, Stuart E
Neighborhood design affects lifestyle physical activity, and ultimately human wellbeing. There are, however, a limited number of studies that examine neighborhood design types. In this research, we examine four types of neighborhood designs: traditional development, suburban development, enclosed community, and cluster housing development, and assess their level of walkability and their effects on physical activity and wellbeing. We examine significant associations through a questionnaire ( n = 486) distributed in Tucson, Arizona using the Walkability Model. Among the tested neighborhood design types, traditional development showed significant associations and the highest value for walkability, as well as for each of the two types of walking (recreation and transportation) representing physical activity. Suburban development showed significant associations and the highest mean values for mental health and wellbeing. Cluster housing showed significant associations and the highest mean value for social interactions with neighbors and for perceived safety from crime. Enclosed community did not obtain the highest means for any wellbeing benefit. The Walkability Model proved useful in identifying the walkability categories associated with physical activity and perceived crime. For example, the experience category was strongly and inversely associated with perceived crime. This study provides empirical evidence of the importance of including vegetation, particularly trees, throughout neighborhoods in order to increase physical activity and wellbeing. Likewise, the results suggest that regular maintenance is an important strategy to improve mental health and overall wellbeing in cities.
Russell, Daniel W; Clavél, Frederick D; Cutrona, Carolyn E; Abraham, W Todd; Burzette, Rebecca G
This study examined the impact of neighborhood racial discrimination on the development of major depressive disorder (MDD) in a sample of African American women. Participants were 499 women from Georgia and Iowa with no history of MDD who were followed for 9 to 11 years. Several neighborhood characteristics (community social disorder, community cohesion, and community racism) and individual characteristics (negative life events, financial strain, personal outlook, religious involvement, relationship quality, negative affectivity, and individual experiences of racism) were employed as predictors of whether or not the women met criteria for MDD during this period of time. In a multilevel logistic regression analysis, neighborhood-level discrimination as well as individual-level variables including the number of negative life events, financial strain, and negative affectivity were found to be significant predictors of developing MDD. Analyses of cross-level interactions indicated that the effects of neighborhood-level discrimination were moderated by the quality of individuals' relationships, such that better relationships with others served to lessen the effect of neighborhood discrimination on depression. Implications of these findings for understanding the negative effects of racial discrimination are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Kirk, David S
This study assesses the role of social context in explaining racial and ethnic disparities in arrest, with afocus on how distinct neighborhood contexts in which different racial and ethnic groups reside explain variations in criminal outcomes. To do so, I utilize a multilevel, longitudinal research design, combining individual-level data with contextual data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). Findings reveal that black youths face multiple layers of disadvantage relative to other racial and ethnic groups, and these layers work to create differences in arrest. At the family level, results show that disadvantages in the form of unstable family structures explain much of the disparities in arrest across race and ethnicity. At the neighborhood level, black youths tend to reside in areas with both significantly higher levels of concentrated poverty than other youths as well as lower levels of collective efficacy than white youths. Variations in neighborhood tolerance of deviance across groups explain little of the arrest disparities, yet tolerance of deviance does influence the frequency with which a crime ultimately ends in an arrest. Even after accounting for relevant demographic, family, and neighborhood-level predictors, substantial residual arrest differences remain between black youths and youths of other racial and ethnic groups.
Few studies on the correlates of school violence include school and neighborhood influences. We use ecological systems theory and social disorganization theory to simultaneously incorporate neighborhood (e.g., concentrated poverty, residential instability, and immigrant concentration), school, family, and individual predictors of physical school victimization longitudinally among a large socio-economically and ethnically diverse (49% Hispanic; 34% African American) sample of 6 and 9 year olds (49% female) from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). These children were followed up at Wave II at ages 8 and 11 (n=1425). Results of Hierarchical Generalized Linear Models reveal neighborhood residential instability increases school victimization net of family and individual correlates. Furthermore, cross-level interactions were also supported where residential family mobility has a stronger risk influence in areas of high residential instability. Also, the influence of residential family mobility is decreased in areas with higher levels of immigrant concentration. We also found cross-context connections where parent-to-child aggression in the home is connected to a higher risk of victimization at school. The role of neighborhood and family residential instability on victimization warrants further research. PMID:23263822
Nora Liliana Gorrochategui
Full Text Available The aim of this work is to conceptually define the dimensions of organizational climate within the framework of the RSP and move forward in the identification of the variables that can be a reference in the designing of a tool that is directed exclusively to the highest authorities of the apex of public organizations.Thus, the integration of transdisciplinary conceptual frameworks is used to create reflections that support the selection of dimensions. It is assumed that the sustainable development agenda imposes a new form of reflective and accountable governance. It is claimed that the public bureaucratic model is depleted; proposing as an alternative the public organization metaphor as a "structurally determined and autopoeitic system". In such a way, people become the center of the transformations required by the RSP for the realization of a sustainable society; hence the importance of studying climate like that proposed arises.Additionally, dimensions corresponding to the principles of the RS such as: Ethical behavior, Respect for stakeholder, Accountability and Transparency, are identified. Each of them offers a conceptual development that identifies variables based on offering conceptual definitions that serves for the development of a methodology to implement the study on public organizations.Key words: Public Policy, Social Responsibility, personnel management.
Bretschger, Lukas; Pattakou, Aimilia
The paper analyzes the effects of varying climate impacts on the social cost of carbon and economic growth. We use polynomial damage functions in a model of an endogenously growing two-sector economy. The framework includes nonrenewable natural resources which cause greenhouse gas emissions; pollution stock harms capital and reduces economic growth. We find a big effect of the selected damage function on the social cost of carbon and a significant impact on the growth rate. In our calibration...
Booth, Jaime M; Teixeira, Samantha; Zuberi, Anita; Wallace, John M
Racial/ethnic disparities in self-rated health persist and according to the social determinants of health framework, may be partially explained by residential context. The relationship between neighborhood factors and self-rated health has been examined in isolation but a more holistic approach is needed to understand how these factors may cluster together and how these neighborhood typologies relate to health. To address this gap, we conducted a latent profile analysis using data from the Chicago Community Adult Health Study (CCAHS; N = 2969 respondents in 342 neighborhood clusters) to identify neighborhood profiles, examined differences in neighborhood characteristics among the identified typologies and tested their relationship to self-rated health. Results indicated four distinct classes of neighborhoods that vary significantly on most neighborhood-level social determinants of health and can be defined by racial/ethnic composition and class. Residents in Hispanic, majority black disadvantaged, and majority black non-poor neighborhoods all had significantly poorer self-rated health when compared to majority white neighborhoods. The difference between black non-poor and white neighborhoods in self-rated health was not significant when controlling for individual race/ethnicity. The results indicate that neighborhood factors do cluster by race and class of the neighborhood and that this clustering is related to poorer self-rated health. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Black, Whitney W.; Fedewa, Alicia L.; Gonzalez, Kirsten A.
Research indicates lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth are a vulnerable population--a status that can be attributed to a hostile social climate at school. Intervention strategies, such as educational policies, programs, and a supportive environment, improve the social climate for LGBT students in secondary schools and…
Havermans, B.M.; Boot, C.R.L.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Anema, J.R.; Beek, A.J. van der
BACKGROUND: Health care workers are exposed to psychosocial work factors. Autonomy and social support are psychosocial work factors that are related to stress, and are argued to largely result from the psychosocial safety climate within organisations. This study aimed to assess to what extent the
Havermans, B.M.; Boot, C.R.L.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Anema, J.R.; van der Beek, A.J.
Background Health care workers are exposed to psychosocial work factors. Autonomy and social support are psychosocial work factors that are related to stress, and are argued to largely result from the psychosocial safety climate within organisations. This study aimed to assess to what extent the
Leipoldt, Jonathan David; Rimehaug, Tormod; Harder, A.T.; Kayed, Nanna; Grietens, Hans
Introduction and objectives: Social climate is an understudied factor in residential youth care (RYC) institutions. Already in the 1950’s, the World Health Organization stated that “atmosphere” is an important factor in psychiatric treatment, but a very difficult element to measure. Assessing the
Prati, Gabriele; Albanesi, Cinzia; Pietrantoni, Luca
By using a panel design in a sample of 298 undergraduate/master students at an Italian public university, the present study aimed to test longitudinally the interplay among environmental attitudes, pro-environmental behavior, social identity, and pro-environmental institutional climate. The relationships were tested with cross-lagged analysis…
Leipoldt, Jonathan David; Rimehaug, Tormod; Harder, A.T.; Kayed, Nanna; Grietens, Hans
Troubled youngsters in residential youth care (RYC) institutions live their daily life in and around the institutions with other disturbed youngsters and different staff members. The effect that this emerging social climate has on residents in RYC institutions is not very clear and sometimes
Susan M. Love
Full Text Available Now that the financial needs of post 9/11 student service members/veterans have begun to be addressed, the attention has shifted to disabilities and recovery strategies of student service members/veterans. Therefore, in a cross sectional design, this study electronically surveyed 189 enrolled student service members/veterans attending a large urban state university about their experiences of returning to school. Specifically, this study described the students’ rates of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD and alcohol abuse, perceived stress, adaptive and non-adaptive coping strategies, social support, participation in campus activities, and perceived campus climate. Moreover, correlates of recovery were examined. Although the majority of the returning students were doing well, 36.1% reported a high level of stress, 15.1% reported a high level of anger, 17.3% reported active symptoms of PTSD, and 27.1% screened positive for alcohol problems. Social networks were found to be the most salient factor in recovery. The study’s limitations are discussed and specific support strategies are presented that can be employed by disability services, counseling services and college administrators.
After having outlined that it might be difficult to define a unique price for carbon emissions, the author states that acknowledging a reference price in the Climate agreement would help to guide investment decisions and new financing modes. He proposes that the agreement could include the following article: 'The social and economic value of mitigation actions and their co-benefits to adaptation, health and sustainable development should be recognized and formalized as such. It will help to orient the investment of firms towards low carbon options, to mobilize public funding and to develop financial vehicles to allow scaling up of private investments to support development of low carbon projects and countries' transitions to low-carbon economies. This reference of carbon value will be established by consensus between parties: it should be referred to abatement action costs to reach a global emissions cap as well as the co-benefits of the actions. It will be regularly revised.' The author then discusses how to fill the gap between private and social value of low carbon investments, and how to determine this reference value. He outlines the benefit of a reference value of carbon with respect to a constraining price to reach a credible agreement
Lei, Man-Kit; Beach, Steven R. H.; Simons, Ronald L.; Philibert, Robert A.
Introduction Social scientists have long recognized the important role that neighborhood crime can play in stress-related disease, but very little is known about potential biosocial mechanisms that may link the experience of living in high-crime neighborhoods with depression. Objective The current study introduces an integrated model that combines neighborhood, genetic, and epigenetic factors. Methods Hypotheses were tested with a sample of 99 African American women from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS). Results Allele variants of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) interact with neighborhood crime to predict depressive symptoms in a manner consonant with the differential susceptibility perspective. Furthermore, this association is mediated by DNA methylation of the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene. Conclusion The findings provide support for an integrated model in which changes in DNA methylation, resulting from neighborhood crime, can result in an increase or decrease in gene activity which, in turn, influences depressive symptoms. PMID:26513121
Lei, Man-Kit; Beach, Steven R H; Simons, Ronald L; Philibert, Robert A
Social scientists have long recognized the important role that neighborhood crime can play in stress-related disease, but very little is known about potential biosocial mechanisms that may link the experience of living in high-crime neighborhoods with depression. The current study introduces an integrated model that combines neighborhood, genetic, and epigenetic factors. Hypotheses were tested with a sample of 99 African American women from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS). Allele variants of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) interact with neighborhood crime to predict depressive symptoms in a manner consonant with the differential susceptibility perspective. Furthermore, this association is mediated by DNA methylation of the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene. The findings provide support for an integrated model in which changes in DNA methylation, resulting from neighborhood crime, can result in an increase or decrease in gene activity which, in turn, influences depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fagan, Abigail A; Wright, Emily M; Pinchevsky, Gillian M
Although social disorganization theory hypothesizes that neighborhood characteristics influence youth delinquency, the impact of neighborhood disadvantage on adolescent substance use and racial/ethnic differences in this relationship have not been widely investigated. The present study examines these issues using longitudinal data from 1,856 African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian adolescents participating in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). The results indicated that neighborhood disadvantage did not significantly increase the likelihood of substance use for the full sample. When relationships were analyzed by race/ethnicity, one significant ( p ≤ .10) effect was found; disadvantage increased alcohol use among African Americans only. The size of this effect differed significantly between African American and Hispanic youth. In no other cases did race/ethnicity moderate the impact of disadvantage on substance use. These results suggest that disadvantage is not a strong predictor of adolescent substance use, although other features of the neighborhood may affect such behaviors.
In a range of international reports Vietnam is pointed out as among the 5 to 10 most climate-vulnerable countries, which are taking center stage in global climate change assistance and thus attracting huge amounts of foreign aid for research, mitigation, adaptation, disaster management, etc....... However, for various reasons relating to global and domestic politics, climate change adaptation and mitigation in Vietnam are separating from general environmental management, while at the same time failing to address social inequality. From a global justice perspective this may seem irrelevant but when...... the resulting technocratic approaches are applied to aid programs, addressing climate change as an autonomous field, the problems on the ground become distorted. Based on field studies in central Vietnam, the paper argues that fragmented approaches risk missing the target of helping the most vulnerable...
Dulin-Keita, Akilah; Kaur Thind, Herpreet; Affuso, Olivia; Baskin, Monica L
According to recent research studies, the built and socioeconomic contexts of neighborhoods are associated with African American adolescents' participation in physical activity and obesity status. However, few research efforts have been devoted to understand how African American adolescents' perceptions of their neighborhood environments may affect physical activity behaviors and obesity status. The objective of the current study was to use a perceived neighborhood disorder conceptual framework to examine whether physical activity mediated the relationship between perceived neighborhood disorder and obesity status among African American adolescents. The data were obtained from a cross-sectional study that examined social and cultural barriers and facilitators of physical activity among African American adolescents. The study included a sample of 101 African American adolescents age 12 to 16 years and their parents who were recruited from the Birmingham, Alabama metropolitan area. The primary outcome measure was obesity status which was classified using the International Obesity Task Force cut off points. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was assessed via accelerometry. Perceived neighborhood disorder was assessed using the Perceived Neighborhood Disorder Scale. Mediation models were used to examine whether the relationship between neighborhood disorder and obesity status was mediated by physical activity. Perceived neighborhood disorder was significantly and positively related to obesity status and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was inversely associated with obesity status. However, there was no evidence to support a significant mediating effect of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on the relationship between neighborhood disorder and obesity status. Future studies should longitudinally assess perceived neighborhood disorder characteristics and childhood adiposity to examine the timing, extent, and the mechanisms by which perceived neighborhood
Ortega-Egea, José Manuel; García-de-Frutos, Nieves; Antolín-López, Raquel
The urgency of climate change mitigation calls for a profound shift in personal behavior. This paper investigates psycho-social correlates of extra mitigation behavior in response to climate change, while also testing for potential (unobserved) heterogeneity in European citizens' decision-making. A person's extra mitigation behavior in response to climate change is conceptualized--and differentiated from common mitigation behavior--as some people's broader and greater levels of behavioral engagement (compared to others) across specific self-reported mitigation actions and behavioral domains. Regression analyses highlight the importance of environmental psychographics (i.e., attitudes, motivations, and knowledge about climate change) and socio-demographics (especially country-level variables) in understanding extra mitigation behavior. By looking at the data through the lens of segmentation, significant heterogeneity is uncovered in the associations of attitudes and knowledge about climate change--but not in motivational or socio-demographic links--with extra mitigation behavior in response to climate change, across two groups of environmentally active respondents. The study has implications for promoting more ambitious behavioral responses to climate change, both at the individual level and across countries.
Zwiers, Merle; Bolt, Gideon; Van Ham, Maarten; Van Kempen, Ronald
Neighborhood decline is a complex and multidimensional process. National and regional variations in economic and political structures (including varieties in national welfare state arrangements), combined with differences in neighborhood history, development, and population composition, make it
Powell, Kathleen H
Older adults who live in residential neighborhoods adjacent to college and university campuses have a unique experience that makes them vulnerable to marginalization and displacement. As these neighborhoods become increasingly dominated by college students living in rental properties, older adults find themselves in the minority in a neighborhood where they have lived for many years. In addition, these neighborhoods are attractive to universities, city governments, and private companies for their development potential, which can result in gentrification. A year-long ethnographic study of a campus-adjacent neighborhood in a small US college town that is home to a medium-sized public university sheds light on the relationships between members of 5 stakeholder groups that have a vested interest in the neighborhood. The study highlights the need for additional research on different types of neighborhoods and their effects on aging in place in addition to outlining social work interventions in campus-adjacent neighborhoods that are designed to enhance these intergenerational spaces.
Daniel A. Hackman
Full Text Available Lower socioeconomic status (SES is associated with higher levels of life stress, which in turn affect stress physiology. SES is related to basal cortisol and diurnal change, but it is not clear if SES is associated with cortisol reactivity to stress. To address this question, we examined the relationship between two indices of SES, parental education and concentrated neighborhood disadvantage, and the cortisol reactivity of African-American adolescents to a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test. We found that concentrated disadvantage was associated with cortisol reactivity and this relationship was moderated by gender, such that higher concentrated disadvantage predicted higher cortisol reactivity and steeper recovery in boys but not in girls. Parental education, alone or as moderated by gender, did not predict reactivity or recovery, while neither education nor concentrated disadvantage predicted estimates of baseline cortisol. This finding is consistent with animal literature showing differential vulnerability, by gender, to the effects of adverse early experience on stress regulation and the differential effects of neighborhood disadvantage in adolescent males and females. This suggests that the mechanisms underlying SES differences in brain development and particularly reactivity to environmental stressors may vary across genders.
Young, C.; Blomberg, B.; Kolker, A.; Nguyen, U.; Page, C. M.; Sherchan, S. P.; Tobias, V. D.; Wu, H.
Coastal communities in the Gulf of Mexico are facing new and complex challenges as their physical environment is altered by climate warming and sea level rise. To effectively prepare for environmental changes, coastal communities must build resilience in both physical structures and social structures. One measure of social structure resilience is how much social capital a community possesses. Social capital is defined as the connections among individuals which result in networks with shared norms, values and understandings that facilitate cooperation within or among groups. Social capital exists in three levels; bonding, bridging and linking. Bonding social capital is a measure of the strength of relationships amongst members of a network who are similar in some form. Bridging social capital is a measure of relationships amongst people who are dissimilar in some way, such as age, education, or race/ethnicity. Finally Linking social capital measures the extent to which individuals build relationships with institutions and individuals who have relative power over them (e.g local government, educational institutions). Using census and American Community Survey data, we calculated a Social Capital index value for bonding, bridging and linking for 60 Gulf of Mexico coastal counties for the years 2000, and 2010 to 2015. To investigate the impact of social capital on community resilience we coupled social capital index values with physical datasets of land-use/land cover, sea level change, climate, elevation and surface water quality for each coastal county in each year. Preliminary results indicate that in Gulf of Mexico coastal counties, increased bonding social capital results in decreased population change. In addition, we observed a multi-year time lag in the effect of increased bridging social capital on population stability, potentially suggesting key linkages between the physical and social environment in this complex coupled-natural human system. This
Willits, Dale; Broidy, Lisa; Denman, Kristine
Prior research has identified a link between schools (particularly high schools) and neighborhood crime rates. However, it remains unclear whether the relationship between schools and crime is a reflection of other criminogenic dynamics at the neighborhood level or whether schools influence neighborhood crime patterns independently of other…
Mode, Nicolle A; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B
Mortality rates in the United States vary based on race, individual economic status and neighborhood. Correlations among these variables in most urban areas have limited what conclusions can be drawn from existing research. Our study employs a unique factorial design of race, sex, age and individual poverty status, measuring time to death as an objective measure of health, and including both neighborhood economic status and income inequality for a sample of middle-aged urban-dwelling adults (N = 3675). At enrollment, African American and White participants lived in 46 unique census tracts in Baltimore, Maryland, which varied in neighborhood economic status and degree of income inequality. A Cox regression model for 9-year mortality identified a three-way interaction among sex, race and individual poverty status (p = 0.03), with African American men living below poverty having the highest mortality. Neighborhood economic status, whether measured by a composite index or simply median household income, was negatively associated with overall mortality (pinequality was associated with mortality through an interaction with individual poverty status (p = 0.04). While racial and economic disparities in mortality are well known, this study suggests that several social conditions associated with health may unequally affect African American men in poverty in the United States. Beyond these individual factors are the influences of neighborhood economic status and income inequality, which may be affected by a history of residential segregation. The significant association of neighborhood economic status and income inequality with mortality beyond the synergistic combination of sex, race and individual poverty status suggests the long-term importance of small area influence on overall mortality.
Pinkster, F.M.; Permentier, M.; Wittebrood, K.
A central assumption in the residential mobility literature is that residents in disadvantaged neighborhoods will leave as soon as they are financially able, as a result of ‘residential stress’ related to physical and social disorder in these neighborhoods. However, this assumption contradicts the
Pinkster, Fenne M.; Permentier, Matthieu; Wittebrood, Karin
A central assumption in the residential mobility literature is that residents in disadvantaged neighborhoods will leave as soon as they are financially able, as a result of ‘residential stress’ related to physical and social disorder in these neighborhoods. However, this assumption contradicts the
Lund, Terese J.; Dearing, Eric
Community studies indicating that affluence has social-emotional consequences for youth have conflated family and neighborhood wealth. We examined adolescent boys' delinquency and adolescent girls' anxiety-depression as a function of family, neighborhood, and cumulative affluence in a sample that is primarily of European-American descent, but…
Robert J. Sampson
Full Text Available New social transformations within and beyond the cities of classic urban studies challenge prevailing accounts of spatial inequality. This paper pivots from the Rust Belt to the Sunbelt accordingly, disentangling persistence and change in neighborhood median income and concentrated income extremes in Los Angeles County. We first examine patterns of change over two decades starting in 1990 for all Los Angeles neighborhoods. We then analyze an original longitudinal study of approximately six hundred Angelenos from 2000 to 2013, assessing the degree to which contextual changes in neighborhood income arise from neighborhood-level mobility or individual residential mobility. Overall we find deep and persistent inequality among both neighborhoods and individuals. Contrary to prior research, we also find that residential mobility does not materially alter neighborhood economic conditions for most race, ethnic, and income groups. Our analyses lay the groundwork for a multilevel theoretical framework capable of explaining spatial inequality across cities and historical eras.
Ufkes, Elze G.; Otten, Sabine; van der Zee, Karen I.; Giebels, Ellen
Purpose: In a multicultural context, this study aims to investigate the effect of ingroup versus outgroup categorization and stereotypes on residents' emotional and behavioral reactions in neighbor-to-neighbor conflicts. Based on the literature on the "black sheep effect", the authors predicted that
Mullings, Jasneth Asher; McCaw-Binns, Affette Michelle; Archer, Carol; Wilks, Rainford
To explore the mental health effects of the urban neighborhood on men and women in Jamaica and the implications for urban planning and social development. A cross-sectional household sample of 2 848 individuals 15-74 years of age obtained from the Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey 2007-2008 was analyzed. Secondary analysis was undertaken by developing composite scores to describe observer recorded neighborhood features, including infrastructure, amenities/services, physical conditions, community socioeconomic status, and green spaces around the home. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). Bivariate and multivariate methods were used to explore the associations among gender, neighborhood factors, and risk of depressive symptoms. While no associations were found among rural residents, urban neighborhoods were associated with increased risk of depressive symptoms. Among males, residing in a neighborhood with poor infrastructure increased risk; among females, residing in an informal community/unplanned neighborhood increased risk. The urban neighborhood contributes to the risk of depression symptomatology in Jamaica, with different environmental stressors affecting men and women. Urban and social planners need to consider the physical environment when developing health interventions in urban settings, particularly in marginalized communities.
Jasneth Asher Mullings
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore the mental health effects of the urban neighborhood on men and women in Jamaica and the implications for urban planning and social development. METHODS: A cross-sectional household sample of 2 848 individuals 15-74 years of age obtained from the Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey 2007-2008 was analyzed. Secondary analysis was undertaken by developing composite scores to describe observer recorded neighborhood features, including infrastructure, amenities/services, physical conditions, community socioeconomic status, and green spaces around the home. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV. Bivariate and multivariate methods were used to explore the associations among gender, neighborhood factors, and risk of depressive symptoms. RESULTS: While no associations were found among rural residents, urban neighborhoods were associated with increased risk of depressive symptoms. Among males, residing in a neighborhood with poor infrastructure increased risk; among females, residing in an informal community/unplanned neighborhood increased risk. CONCLUSIONS: The urban neighborhood contributes to the risk of depression symptomatology in Jamaica, with different environmental stressors affecting men and women. Urban and social planners need to consider the physical environment when developing health interventions in urban settings, particularly in marginalized communities.
Moreira Moura, Giovane; Sadre, R.; Pras, Aiko
Malicious hosts tend to be concentrated in certain areas of the IP addressing space, forming the so-called Bad Neighborhoods. Knowledge about this concentration is valuable in predicting attacks from unseen IP addresses. This observation has been employed in previous works to filter out spam. In
Moreira Moura, G.C.; Sadre, R.; Pras, A.
Malicious hosts tend to be concentrated in certain areas of the IP addressing space, forming the so-called Bad Neighborhoods. Knowledge about this concentration is valuable in predicting attacks from unseen IP addresses. This observation has been employed in previous works to filter out spam. In
Moreira Moura, G.C.; Sadre, R.; Pras, A.
Analogous to the real world, sources of malicious activities on the Internet tend to be concentrated in certain networks instead of being evenly distributed. In this article, we formally define and frame such areas as Internet Bad Neighborhoods. By extending the reputation of malicious IP addresses
van Ham, Maarten; Boschman, Sanne; Vogel, Matt
Studies of neighborhood effects often attempt to identify causal effects of neighborhood characteristics on individual outcomes, such as income, education, employment, and health. However, selection looms large in this line of research, and it has been argued that estimates of neighborhood effects are biased because people nonrandomly select into neighborhoods based on their preferences, income, and the availability of alternative housing. We propose a two-step framework to disentangle selection processes in the relationship between neighborhood deprivation and earnings. We model neighborhood selection using a conditional logit model, from which we derive correction terms. Driven by the recognition that most households prefer certain types of neighborhoods rather than specific areas, we employ a principle components analysis to reduce these terms into eight correction components. We use these to adjust parameter estimates from a model of subsequent neighborhood effects on individual income for the unequal probability that a household chooses to live in a particular type of neighborhood. We apply this technique to administrative data from the Netherlands. After we adjust for the differential sorting of households into certain types of neighborhoods, the effect of neighborhood income on individual income diminishes but remains significant. These results further emphasize that researchers need to be attuned to the role of selection bias when assessing the role of neighborhood effects on individual outcomes. Perhaps more importantly, the persistent effect of neighborhood deprivation on subsequent earnings suggests that neighborhood effects reflect more than the shared characteristics of neighborhood residents: place of residence partially determines economic well-being.
Prochaska, John D; Buschmann, Robert N; Jupiter, Daniel; Mutambudzi, Miriam; Peek, M Kristen
Research suggests a linkage between perceptions of neighborhood quality and the likelihood of engaging in leisure-time physical activity. Often in these studies, intra-neighborhood variance is viewed as something to be controlled for statistically. However, we hypothesized that intra-neighborhood variance in perceptions of neighborhood quality may be contextually relevant. We examined the relationship between intra-neighborhood variance of subjective neighborhood quality and neighborhood-level reported physical inactivity across 48 neighborhoods within a medium-sized city, Texas City, Texas using survey data from 2706 residents collected between 2004 and 2006. Neighborhoods where the aggregated perception of neighborhood quality was poor also had a larger proportion of residents reporting being physically inactive. However, higher degrees of disagreement among residents within neighborhoods about their neighborhood quality was significantly associated with a lower proportion of residents reporting being physically inactive (p=0.001). Our results suggest that intra-neighborhood variability may be contextually relevant in studies seeking to better understand the relationship between neighborhood quality and behaviors sensitive to neighborhood environments, like physical activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Our thesis relates to the trans-national corporations whose activities are blamed in the climate change problem. It deals with their actions in relation to the political process engaged by the states at the beginning of the 1990's, and with their influence on the definition of the solutions to be brought to the problem. More precisely, as part of a broader reflection on the social-historical institution of the problem - the fact that it is instituted, by means of the imaginary, in and by particular societies, at a certain moment of their history and for a certain time - and considering the period extending from 1989 to 2001, we wanted to elucidate two things. On the one hand, why, for (or against) what and how did these corporations act (i.e. the cause, the aim and the content of their actions) in relation to the political process. And, on the other hand, up to what point these actions (making the most of a 'relational power'), but also the sole fact that the studied corporations exist (a situation from which they derive an 'institutional power'), had effects on the process and, more especially, on the definition of the solutions. The choice of analysing these major 'non-state' actors arose from two intermingled motivations. The main motivation was to demonstrate the need to take into account these large firms (in addition to the states, the interstate institutions and the other non-state actors) to be able to understand the evolution of the political process, and thus to remedy at the lack of studies on the subject. The other motivation was to contribute, more in filigree, at the comprehension of the way capitalism - understood as a 'social regime' (i.e. a specific type of institution of the society) that can exist only in and by the corporation - face this problem which, more than any other ecological problem, deeply questions it, that means threatens it. (author)
Beehler, Sarah; Ahern, Jennifer; Balmer, Brandi; Kuhlman, Jennifer
This pilot study evaluated the validity and reliability of an Experience of Neighborhood (EON) measure developed to assess neighborhood characteristics that shape reintegration opportunities for returning service members and their families. A total of 91 post-9/11 veterans and spouses completed a survey administered at the Minnesota State Fair. Participants self-reported on their reintegration status (veterans), social functioning (spouses), social support, and mental health. EON factor structure, internal consistency reliability, and validity (discriminant, content, criterion) were analyzed. The EON measure showed adequate reliability, discriminant validity, and content validity. More work is needed to assess criterion validity because EON scores were not correlated with scores on a Census-based index used to measure quality of military neighborhoods. The EON may be useful in assessing broad local factors influencing health among returning veterans and spouses. More research is needed to understand geographic variation in neighborhood conditions and how those affect reintegration and mental health for military families. PMID:28936370
Chitewere, Tendai; Shim, Janet K; Barker, Judith C; Yen, Irene H
This paper articulates how political ecology can be a useful tool for asking fundamental questions and applying relevant methods to investigate structures that impact relationship between neighborhood and health. Through a narrative analysis, we identify how political ecology can develop our future agendas for neighborhood-health research as it relates to social, political, environmental, and economic structures. Political ecology makes clear the connection between political economy and neighborhood by highlighting the historical and structural processes that produce and maintain social inequality, which affect health and well-being. These concepts encourage researchers to examine how people construct neighborhood and health in different ways that, in turn, can influence different health outcomes and, thus, efforts to address solutions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Taggart, Tamara; Brown, Andre L; Kershaw, Trace
Neighborhoods are key socio-environmental contexts for marijuana use during emerging adulthood. This study examined the relationships between neighborhood context, traditional masculine norms (status, toughness, and anti-femininity), and marijuana use among 119 majority African American emerging adult men in a small urban community. Poisson regression models were used to determine the associations between neighborhood problems, social cohesion, and marijuana use. Moderator effects were examined to determine if masculinities modified these associations. Neighborhood problems and social cohesion were positively associated with marijuana use. Men who had a lower endorsement of some traditional masculine norms had greater marijuana use compared to men with a higher endorsement of these norms. These findings have implications for intervention strategies and policies.
Chitewere, Tendai; Shim, Janet K.; Barker, Judith C.; Yen, Irene H.
AIM This paper articulates how political ecology can be a useful tool for asking fundamental questions and applying relevant methods to investigate structures that impact relationship between neighborhood and health. Through a narrative analysis, we identify how political ecology can develop our future agendas for neighborhood-health research as it relates to social, political, environmental, and economic structures. Political ecology makes clear the connection between political economy and neighborhood by highlighting the historical and structural processes that produce and maintain social inequality, which affect health and well-being. These concepts encourage researchers to examine how people construct neighborhood and health in different ways that, in turn, can influence different health outcomes and, thus, efforts to address solutions. PMID:28342425
Nagao, Yoshiro; Thavara, Usavadee; Chitnumsup, Pensri; Tawatsin, Apiwat; Chansang, Chitti; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid
An intense epidemic of dengue haemorrhagic fever in 1998 prompted the Thai government to investigate the feasibility of focalized vector (Aedes aegypti) control programmes. We tested for correlations of three indices of Aedes larval abundance (housing index, container index and Breteau index) against 38 socio-economic and four climatic variables. Availability of public water wells, existence of transport services and proportion of tin houses were positively associated with larval indices. Private water wells, health education, health insurance coverage, thatched houses and use of firewood for cooking were negatively associated. These probably represent both direct effects on breeding sites (private vs. public wells decrease necessity to store water, and health education may encourage breeding site removal), and more general effects of health-related attitudes, housing quality and remoteness from urban areas. Indices were positively associated with daily minimum temperature, an increase in precipitation from the previous month (reflecting the onset of the rainy season) and daily maximum temperatures of approximately 33-34 degrees C. The associations were used to derive statistical models to predict the rank order of larval indices within the study area (Spearman's correlation coefficients = 0.525-0.554). The study provides a rational basis for identifying possible social interventions, and for prioritizing previously unsurveyed villages for further monitoring and focalized vector control.
Bowen, Kathryn J; Ebi, Kristie; Friel, Sharon; McMichael, Anthony J
Addressing climate change and its associated effects is a multi-dimensional and ongoing challenge. This includes recognizing that climate change will affect the health and wellbeing of all populations over short and longer terms, albeit in varied ways and intensities. That recognition has drawn attention to the need to take adaptive actions to lessen adverse impacts over the next few decades from unavoidable climate change, particularly in developing country settings. A range of sectors is responsible for appropriate adaptive policies and measures to address the health risks of climate change, including health services, water and sanitation, trade, agriculture, disaster management, and development. To broaden the framing of governance and decision-making processes by using innovative methods and assessments to illustrate the multi-sectoral nature of health-related adaptation to climate change. This is a shift from sector-specific to multi-level systems encompassing sectors and actors, across temporal and spatial scales. A review and synthesis of the current knowledge in the areas of health and climate change adaptation governance and decision-making processes. A novel framework is presented that incorporates social science insights into the formulation and implementation of adaptation activities and policies to lessen the health risks posed by climate change. Clarification of the roles that different sectors, organizations, and individuals occupy in relation to the development of health-related adaptation strategies will facilitate the inclusion of health and wellbeing within multi-sector adaptation policies, thereby strengthening the overall set of responses to minimize the adverse health effects of climate change.
Kathryn J. Bowen
Full Text Available Background: Addressing climate change and its associated effects is a multi-dimensional and ongoing challenge. This includes recognizing that climate change will affect the health and wellbeing of all populations over short and longer terms, albeit in varied ways and intensities. That recognition has drawn attention to the need to take adaptive actions to lessen adverse impacts over the next few decades from unavoidable climate change, particularly in developing country settings. A range of sectors is responsible for appropriate adaptive policies and measures to address the health risks of climate change, including health services, water and sanitation, trade, agriculture, disaster management, and development. Objectives: To broaden the framing of governance and decision-making processes by using innovative methods and assessments to illustrate the multi-sectoral nature of health-related adaptation to climate change. This is a shift from sector-specific to multi-level systems encompassing sectors and actors, across temporal and spatial scales. Design: A review and synthesis of the current knowledge in the areas of health and climate change adaptation governance and decision-making processes. Results: A novel framework is presented that incorporates social science insights into the formulation and implementation of adaptation activities and policies to lessen the health risks posed by climate change. Conclusion: Clarification of the roles that different sectors, organizations, and individuals occupy in relation to the development of health-related adaptation strategies will facilitate the inclusion of health and wellbeing within multi-sector adaptation policies, thereby strengthening the overall set of responses to minimize the adverse health effects of climate change.
Full Text Available Compact cities and their urban forms have implications on sustainable city development because of high density urban settlement, increased accessibility, and a balanced land use mix. This paper uses quantitative means of understanding urban morphological characteristics with reference to the differing qualities of the urban form (i.e., street patterns, building volumes, land uses and greenery. The results, based on 89 neighborhood communities of Hong Kong, show varying degrees of regional differences in the urban built form supported by numerical statistics and graphical illustrations. This paper offers empirical evidence on some morphological characteristics that can be estimated objectively using modern geospatial technologies and applied universally to inform urban planning. However, more studies linking these quantifiable measures of the physical form with sustainable urban living are needed to account for human comfort in the totality of environmental, social, and economic responsibilities.
Chen, Si; Stimson, Robert
Compact cities and their urban forms have implications on sustainable city development because of high density urban settlement, increased accessibility, and a balanced land use mix. This paper uses quantitative means of understanding urban morphological characteristics with reference to the differing qualities of the urban form (i.e., street patterns, building volumes, land uses and greenery). The results, based on 89 neighborhood communities of Hong Kong, show varying degrees of regional differences in the urban built form supported by numerical statistics and graphical illustrations. This paper offers empirical evidence on some morphological characteristics that can be estimated objectively using modern geospatial technologies and applied universally to inform urban planning. However, more studies linking these quantifiable measures of the physical form with sustainable urban living are needed to account for human comfort in the totality of environmental, social, and economic responsibilities. PMID:29518956
Lai, Poh-Chin; Chen, Si; Low, Chien-Tat; Cerin, Ester; Stimson, Robert; Wong, Pui Yun Paulina
Compact cities and their urban forms have implications on sustainable city development because of high density urban settlement, increased accessibility, and a balanced land use mix. This paper uses quantitative means of understanding urban morphological characteristics with reference to the differing qualities of the urban form (i.e., street patterns, building volumes, land uses and greenery). The results, based on 89 neighborhood communities of Hong Kong, show varying degrees of regional differences in the urban built form supported by numerical statistics and graphical illustrations. This paper offers empirical evidence on some morphological characteristics that can be estimated objectively using modern geospatial technologies and applied universally to inform urban planning. However, more studies linking these quantifiable measures of the physical form with sustainable urban living are needed to account for human comfort in the totality of environmental, social, and economic responsibilities.
Approximately a quarter of all greenhouse gases originate from motor vehicle tailpipe emissions (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007). Along with reducing household energy usage, changes in transportation behavior would have the most dire...
Salva, Julian R.; Sierra, Miguel; Alanis, Ana K. J.
, especially in the younger populations that will shape the future of transport systems. This study proposes a behavioral framework founded on the theory of planned behavior and the social climate model. The study presents a tailor-made, web-based survey and a structural equation model for analyzing transit...... is significantly related to the perceived behavioral control of using transit and the social climate; (b) attitudes, norms, and perceived behavioral control are associated with perceived service quality; (c) gender differences exist in the user experience and appreciation of the social climate in transit; and (d...
Pearce, Jamie; Blakely, Tony; Witten, Karen; Bartie, Phil
Obesogenic environments may be an important contextual explanation for the growing obesity epidemic, including its unequal social distribution. The objective of this study was to determine whether geographic access to fast-food outlets varied by neighborhood deprivation and school socioeconomic ranking, and whether any such associations differed to those for access to healthier food outlets. Data were collected on the location of fast-food outlets, supermarkets, and convenience stores across New Zealand. The data were geocoded and geographic information systems used to calculate travel distances from each census meshblock (i.e., neighborhood), and each school, to the closest fast-food outlet. Median travel distances are reported by a census-based index of socioeconomic deprivation for each neighborhood, and by a Ministry of Education measure of socioeconomic circumstances for each school. Analyses were repeated for outlets selling healthy food to allow comparisons. At the national level, statistically significant negative associations were found between neighborhood access to the nearest fast-food outlet and neighborhood deprivation (p<0.001) for both multinational fast-food outlets and locally operated outlets. The travel distances to both types of fast food outlet were at least twice as far in the least socially deprived neighborhoods compared to the most deprived neighborhoods. A similar pattern was found for outlets selling healthy food such as supermarkets and smaller food outlets (p<0.001). These relationships were broadly linear with travel distances tending to be shorter in more-deprived neighborhoods. There is a strong association between neighborhood deprivation and geographic access to fast food outlets in New Zealand, which may contribute to the understanding of environmental causes of obesity. However, outlets potentially selling healthy food (e.g., supermarkets) are patterned by deprivation in a similar way. These findings highlight the importance of
Elizabeth L. Tung
Full Text Available Neighborhood crime may be an important social determinant of health in many high-poverty, urban communities, yet little is known about its relationship with access to health-enabling resources. We recruited an address-based probability sample of 267 participants (ages ≥35 years on Chicago's South Side between 2012 and 2013. Participants were queried about their perceptions of neighborhood safety and prior experiences of neighborhood crime. Survey data were paired to a comprehensive, directly-observed census of the built environment on the South Side of Chicago. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine access to health-enabling resources (potential and realized access as a function of neighborhood crime (self-reported neighborhood safety and prior experience of theft or property crime, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and self-reported health status. Low potential access was defined as a resident having nearest resources >1 mile from home; poor realized access was defined as bypassing nearby potential resources to use resources >1 mile from home. Poor neighborhood safety was associated with low potential access to large grocery stores (AOR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.04, 2.87, pharmacies (AOR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.33, 3.77, and fitness resources (AOR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.15, 3.24, but not small grocery stores. Any prior experience of neighborhood crime was associated with higher adjusted odds of bypassing nearby pharmacies (AOR = 3.78, 95% CI = 1.11, 12.87. Neighborhood crime may be associated with important barriers to accessing health-enabling resources in urban communities with high rates of crime. Keywords: Built environment, Neighborhood crime, Access to resources, Social determinants of health, Obesity, Hypertension
Ana Isabel Ribeiro
Full Text Available Residing in socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods may pose substantial physiological stress, which can then lead to higher allostatic load (AL, a marker of biological wear and tear that precedes disease. The aim of the present study was to map the current evidence about the relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and AL. A scoping review approach was chosen to provide an overview of the type, quantity, and extent of research available. The review was conducted using three bibliographic databases (PubMed, SCOPUS, and Web of Science and a standardized protocol. Fourteen studies were identified. Studies were predominantly from the USA, cross-sectional, focused on adults, and involved different races and ethnic groups. A wide range of measures of AL were identified: the mode of the number of biomarkers per study was eight but with large variability (range: 6–24. Most studies (n = 12 reported a significant association between neighborhood deprivation and AL. Behaviors and environmental stressors seem to mediate this relationship and associations appear more pronounced among Blacks, men, and individuals with poor social support. Such conclusions have important public health implications as they enforce the idea that neighborhood environment should be improved to prevent physiological dysregulation and consequent chronic diseases.
Maria Isabel Muñoz Carvajal
Full Text Available Nowdays society CSR has emerged as one of the rising values for companies, not only because of the benefits it can bring associating with the image, but also with the growing awareness that companies are becoming as social beings, must report part of their profits to the society of which they were acquired. Internet and all its possibilities is outlined as the most appropriate social media to communicate CSR corporate information. Therefore, in this study we aim to analyze the corporate website of the leading Spanish Ibex 35 and deeply engaged in the use when communicating their CSR and Environmental Sustainability and Climate Change.
Lynne M. Westphal; Jennifer. Hirsch
Addressing climate change requires action at all levels of society, from neighborhood to international levels. Using Rapid Ethnography rooted in Asset Based Community Development theory, we investigated climate-friendly attitudes and behaviors in two Chicago neighborhoods in order to assist the City with implementation of its Climate Action Plan. Our research suggests...
Giurgescu, Carmen; Zenk, Shannon N; Dancy, Barbara L; Park, Chang G; Dieber, William; Block, Richard
To (a) examine the relationships among objective and perceived indicators of neighborhood environment, racial discrimination, psychological distress, and gestational age at birth; (b) determine if neighborhood environment and racial discrimination predicted psychological distress; (c) determine if neighborhood environment, racial discrimination, and psychological distress predicted preterm birth; and (d) determine if psychological distress mediated the effects of neighborhood environment and racial discrimination on preterm birth. Descriptive correlational comparative. Postpartum unit of a medical center in Chicago. African American women (n(1) = 33 with preterm birth; n(2) = 39 with full-term birth). Women completed the instruments 24 to 72 hours after birth. Objective measures of the neighborhood were derived using geographic information systems (GIS). Women who reported higher levels of perceived social and physical disorder and perceived crime also reported higher levels of psychological distress. Women who reported more experiences of racial discrimination also had higher levels of psychological distress. Objective social disorder and perceived crime predicted psychological distress. Objective physical disorder and psychological distress predicted preterm birth. Psychological distress mediated the effect of objective social disorder and perceived crime on preterm birth. Women's neighborhood environments and racial discrimination were related to psychological distress, and these factors may increase the risk for preterm birth. © 2012 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Lestari, W. M.; Sumabrata, J.
Place attachment on neighborhood differs according to place characteristics and person characteristics. By dividing the research area of Kelurahan Kampung Melayu into flood area and non-flood area, this research aims at analyzing place attachment on neighborhood and analyzing factors influencing the place attachment. This research using quantitative approach using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Self-administered questionnaires using likert scale were distributed randomly to 400 residents. Result of the research shows that residents tend to have place attachment to their neighborhood. Factors influencing place attachment on residents born in the neighborhood with length of stay 10 years or longer and having house are family factor for residents living in non-flood area and physical factor as well as social factor for residents in flood area. This research concludes that place attachment on neighborhood is formed because dimension of place is interpreted not merely physically but also socially, namely the existence of family ties and social relationship with people in the neighborhood.
Timperio, Anna; Salmon, Jo; Ball, Kylie; te Velde, Saskia J; Brug, Johannes; Crawford, David
Neighborhoods that discourage physical activity may encourage indoor activities such as television viewing; however few studies have examined associations between neighborhood characteristics and sedentary activities. This study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between perceived and objective measures of the physical and social neighborhood environment and TV viewing among children and adolescents. Cross-sectional and longitudinal. Parents of 190 children and 169 adolescents completed questionnaire items regarding facilities for physical activity, neighborhood safety (general and traffic), social trust/cohesion, social networks and their child's TV viewing in 2006. Adolescents self-reported their TV viewing. Objective measures of reported crime and neighborhood destinations, road connectivity and traffic exposure were also collected. Questions about TV viewing were repeated in 2008 (longitudinal sample: 157 children; 105 adolescents). In children, cul-de-sac density and reported crime were positively and parental agreement that their neighborhood has good sporting facilities was negatively associated with TV viewing in cross-sectional analyses. There were no longitudinal associations among children. In adolescents, number of sports options and parental agreement that there is so much traffic that it is difficult/unpleasant for their child to walk were negatively associated with TV viewing 2 years later. Crime and a lack of quality sporting facilities or options may contribute to greater TV viewing among youth. Copyright Â© 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In this analysis we connect structural neighborhood conditions to birth outcomes through their intermediate effects on mothers’ perceptions of neighborhood danger and their tendency to abuse substances during pregnancy. We hypothesize that neighborhood poverty and racial/ethnic concentration combine to produce environments that mothers perceive as unsafe, thereby increasing the likelihood of negative coping behaviors (substance abuse. We expect these behaviors, in turn, to produce lower birth weights. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a survey of a cohort of children born between 1998 and 2000 and their mothers in large cities in the United States, we find little evidence to suggest that neighborhood circumstances have strong, direct effects on birth weight. Living in a neighborhood with more foreigners had a positive effect on birth weight. To the extent that neighborhood conditions influence birth weight, the effect mainly occurs through an association with perceived neighborhood danger and subsequent negative coping behaviors. Poverty and racial/ethnic concentration increase a mother’s sense that her neighborhood is unsafe. The perception of an unsafe neighborhood, in turn, associates with a greater likelihood of smoking cigarettes and using illegal drugs, and these behaviors have strong and significant effects in reducing birth weight. However, demographic characteristics, rather than perceived danger or substance abuse, mediate the influence of neighborhood characteristics on birth weight.