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Sample records for negro river amazon

  1. OSL dating of sediments from Negro and Solimões riversAmazon, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiore, M.; Soares, E.A.A.; Mittani, J.C.R.; Yee, M.; Tatumi, S.H.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the OSL dating results of Quaternary fluvial deposits from the confluence of Negro and Solimões rivers were studied. The equivalent doses (D e ) of sediments were obtained using a Single Aliquot Regeneration (SAR) protocol. Statistic studies were made using frequency histogram, weighted histogram and Radial plot in order to analyze the D e fluctuations. Ages from 74.5 to 205 thousand of years (Pleistocene) were recorded. The gamma-ray spectroscopy was used to evaluate the natural radioisotopes concentrations of the samples and low concentrations were found with values between 0.64 and 3.71 ppm for 235 U and 238 U; 2.01–9.77 ppm for 232 Th; already, for 40 K, the concentration was negligible. The OSL dating of sediments has contributed to a better understanding of the evolution of Negro and Solimões rivers, in Amazon, Brazil. - Highlights: ► OSL dating of fluvial terraces from Amazon. ► SAR protocols applied to Amazon sediments dating. ► OSL dating of Solimão and Negro rivers sediments

  2. [The people of the black waters: the Amazon caboclo of the Negro river].

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    dos Santos, Fernando Sergio Dumas

    2007-12-01

    The article constructs a historically contextualized description of the people who live along the Negro river, a Brazilian affluent in the Amazon basin. Drawing on information about the daily social experience of the participants from the dawn of the twentieth century through the mid-1990s, the processes by which the population and communities took shape are identified. On the Negro river, contact between Brazilian society and the autochthonous, catechized indigenous groups living there was determinant in shaping the territory's caboclo identity. Starting in the last quarter of the nineteenth century, this nomenclature took root and entered the popular lexicon. Extractivist activities played a major role in spreading the term, within a context where the predominant social relations derived from the 'cultura do barracão'.

  3. Increasing incidence of malaria in the Negro River basin, Brazilian Amazon.

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    Cabral, A C; Fé, N F; Suárez-Mutis, M C; Bóia, M N; Carvalho-Costa, F A

    2010-08-01

    Malaria in Brazil is virtually restricted to the Amazon Region, where it has a heterogeneous geographic distribution. We reviewed secondary data in order to describe the regional and temporal distribution of 8018 malaria cases seen between 2003 and 2007 in Santa Isabel do Rio Negro, a municipality in the northwest Brazilian Amazon. A significant rise in malaria incidence, mainly in the Yanomami Indian reservation, was observed during this time. Anopheline breeding sites were also mapped and entomological data were obtained through the capture of larval and adult mosquitoes. Thirty-three potential breeding sites were identified in the urban and periurban areas, 28 of which were positive for anopheline larvae. Anopheles darlingi specimens were captured in both intra- and peridomicile locations in the urban areas. Demographic data were also assessed via a sectional survey, revealing that the majority of dwellings were vulnerable to mosquitoes. This study suggests that urban and periurban areas of this municipality are highly susceptible to epidemic malaria, which is endemic in the Yanomami Indian reservation near the city. In addition, transmission can be perpetuated autochthonously in the urban area, drawing attention to the continuous need for preventative measures such as controlling adult and aquatic stages of mosquitoes and improving housing.

  4. Influence of seasonality on the interaction of mercury with aquatic humic substances extracted from the Middle Negro River Basin (Amazon)

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    Oliveira, Luciana C. de, E-mail: lcamargo@ufscar.br [Federal University of Sao Carlos (UFSCar), Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Botero, Wander G. [Federal University of Alagoas (UFAL), Arapiraca, AL (Brazil); Santos, Felipe A. [Institute of Biosciences, Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Sargentini Junior, Ezio [National Amazon Research Institute (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil); Rocha, Julio C.; Santos, Ademir dos [Institute of Chemistry of Araraquara, Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    High mercury concentrations in different environmental matrices in the Amazon have been attributed to mining activities. However, high concentrations of mercury are also present in the soil and water in places like in the middle of the Negro River Basin, which is far away from any anthropogenic emission sources. The Amazon region is characterized by two different regional seasons, with well-defined flood and low water periods. The objective of this work was to investigate the seasonal influences of the interaction between mercury and aquatic humic substances (AHS), which are the main agents of the natural organic complexation capacity. The results of the multivariate statistical analysis of the data showed that the humic substances had different structural characteristics, depending on each season. The ability of humic substances to form complexes with Hg(II) is not directly related to their carbon content, but to the nature and availability of the functional groups present in its structure. The functional groups are carboxylic and aromatic directly related to the higher complexation capacity of AHS by mercury ions. (author)

  5. Influence of seasonality on the interaction of mercury with aquatic humic substances extracted from the Middle Negro River Basin (Amazon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Luciana C. de; Botero, Wander G.; Santos, Felipe A.; Sargentini Junior, Ezio; Rocha, Julio C.; Santos, Ademir dos

    2012-01-01

    High mercury concentrations in different environmental matrices in the Amazon have been attributed to mining activities. However, high concentrations of mercury are also present in the soil and water in places like in the middle of the Negro River Basin, which is far away from any anthropogenic emission sources. The Amazon region is characterized by two different regional seasons, with well-defined flood and low water periods. The objective of this work was to investigate the seasonal influences of the interaction between mercury and aquatic humic substances (AHS), which are the main agents of the natural organic complexation capacity. The results of the multivariate statistical analysis of the data showed that the humic substances had different structural characteristics, depending on each season. The ability of humic substances to form complexes with Hg(II) is not directly related to their carbon content, but to the nature and availability of the functional groups present in its structure. The functional groups are carboxylic and aromatic directly related to the higher complexation capacity of AHS by mercury ions. (author)

  6. Morphological variation among populations of Hemigrammus coeruleus (Characiformes: Characidae in a Negro River tributary, Brazilian Amazon

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    Henrique Lazzarotto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We explored patterns of phenotypic variation in Hemigrammus coeruleus from the Unini River basin, a blackwater river in the Brazilian Amazon. Geometric morphometrics was used to evaluate variation in body shape among populations from four tributaries (UN2-UN5. We found no evidence for sexual dimorphism in body size and shape. However, morphological differences among populations were detected as the analyses recovered significant groups corresponding to each sub-basin, with some overlap among them. The populations from UN2, UN3 and UN5 had more elongate bodies than fish from UN4. The most morphologically divergent population belonged to UN4, the tributary with the most divergent environmental conditions and the only one with seasonally-muddy waters. The morphological variation found among these populations is likely due to phenotypic plasticity or local adaptation, arising as a product of divergent ecological selection pressures among sub-basins. This work constitutes one of the first to employ a population-level geometric morphometric approach to assess phenotypic variation in Amazonian fishes. This method was able to distinguish subtle differences in body morphology, and its use with additional species can bring novel perspectives on the evaluation of general patterns of phenotypic differentiation in the Amazon.

  7. An ethnobotanical study of anti-malarial plants among indigenous people on the upper Negro River in the Brazilian Amazon.

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    Frausin, Gina; Hidalgo, Ari de Freitas; Lima, Renata Braga Souza; Kinupp, Valdely Ferreira; Ming, Lin Chau; Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Milliken, William

    2015-11-04

    In this article we present the plants used for the treatment of malaria and associated symptoms in Santa Isabel do Rio Negro in the Brazilian Amazon. The region has important biological and cultural diversities including more than twenty indigenous ethnic groups and a strong history in traditional medicine. The aims of this study are to survey information in the Baniwa, Baré, Desana, Piratapuia, Tariana, Tukano, Tuyuca and Yanomami ethnic communities and among caboclos (mixed-ethnicity) on (a) plant species used for the treatment of malaria and associated symptoms, (b) dosage forms and (c) distribution of these anti-malarial plants in the Amazon. Information was obtained through classical ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological methods from interviews with 146 informants in Santa Isabel municipality on the upper Negro River, Brazil. Fifty-five mainly native neotropical plant species from 34 families were in use. The detailed uses of these plants were documented. The result was 187 records (64.5%) of plants for the specific treatment of malaria, 51 records (17.6%) of plants used in the treatment of liver problems and 29 records (10.0%) of plants used in the control of fevers associated with malaria. Other uses described were blood fortification ('dar sangue'), headache and prophylaxis. Most of the therapeutic preparations were decoctions and infusions based on stem bark, root bark and leaves. These were administered by mouth. In some cases, remedies were prepared with up to three different plant species. Also, plants were used together with other ingredients such as insects, mammals, gunpowder and milk. This is the first study on the anti-malarial plants from this region of the Amazon. Aspidosperma spp. and Ampelozizyphus amazonicus Ducke were the most cited species in the communities surveyed. These species have experimental proof supporting their anti-malarial efficacy. The dosage of the therapeutic preparations depends on the kind of plant, quantity of plant

  8. The density and biomass of mesozooplankton and ichthyoplankton in the Negro and the Amazon Rivers during the rainy season: the ecological importance of the confluence boundary

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    Ryota Nakajima

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The boundary zone between two different hydrological regimes is often a biologically enriched environment with distinct planktonic communities. In the center of the Amazon River basin, muddy white water of the Amazon River meets with black water of the Negro River, creating a conspicuous visible boundary spanning over 10 km along the Amazon River. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the confluence boundary between the white and black water rivers concentrates prey and is used as a feeding habitat for consumers by investigating the density, biomass and distribution of mesozooplankton and ichthyoplankton communities across the two rivers during the rainy season. Our results show that mean mesozooplankton density (2,730 inds. m−3 and biomass (4.8 mg m−3 were higher in the black-water river compared to the white-water river (959 inds. m−3; 2.4 mg m−3; however an exceptionally high mesozooplankton density was not observed in the confluence boundary. Nonetheless we found the highest density of ichthyoplankton in the confluence boundary (9.7 inds. m−3, being up to 9-fold higher than in adjacent rivers. The confluence between white and black waters is sandwiched by both environments with low (white water and high (black water zooplankton concentrations and by both environments with low (white water and high (black water predation pressures for fish larvae, and may function as a boundary layer that offers benefits of both high prey concentrations and low predation risk. This forms a plausible explanation for the high density of ichthyoplankton in the confluence zone of black and white water rivers.

  9. The density and biomass of mesozooplankton and ichthyoplankton in the Negro and the Amazon Rivers during the rainy season: the ecological importance of the confluence boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Ryota; Rimachi, Elvis V; Santos-Silva, Edinaldo N; Calixto, Laura S F; Leite, Rosseval G; Khen, Adi; Yamane, Tetsuo; Mazeroll, Anthony I; Inuma, Jomber C; Utumi, Erika Y K; Tanaka, Akira

    2017-01-01

    The boundary zone between two different hydrological regimes is often a biologically enriched environment with distinct planktonic communities. In the center of the Amazon River basin, muddy white water of the Amazon River meets with black water of the Negro River, creating a conspicuous visible boundary spanning over 10 km along the Amazon River. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the confluence boundary between the white and black water rivers concentrates prey and is used as a feeding habitat for consumers by investigating the density, biomass and distribution of mesozooplankton and ichthyoplankton communities across the two rivers during the rainy season. Our results show that mean mesozooplankton density (2,730 inds. m -3 ) and biomass (4.8 mg m -3 ) were higher in the black-water river compared to the white-water river (959 inds. m -3 ; 2.4 mg m -3 ); however an exceptionally high mesozooplankton density was not observed in the confluence boundary. Nonetheless we found the highest density of ichthyoplankton in the confluence boundary (9.7 inds. m -3 ), being up to 9-fold higher than in adjacent rivers. The confluence between white and black waters is sandwiched by both environments with low (white water) and high (black water) zooplankton concentrations and by both environments with low (white water) and high (black water) predation pressures for fish larvae, and may function as a boundary layer that offers benefits of both high prey concentrations and low predation risk. This forms a plausible explanation for the high density of ichthyoplankton in the confluence zone of black and white water rivers.

  10. O povo das águas pretas: o caboclo amazônico do rio Negro The people of the black waters: the Amazon caboclo of the Negro river

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    Fernando Sergio Dumas dos Santos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta uma descrição historicamente contextualizada do povo que vive ao longo do rio Negro, afluente brasileiro da bacia do Amazonas. Processos de constituição da população e das comunidades são identificados, nas fontes, a partir da experiência social cotidiana dos partícipes do processo histórico estudado, o qual percorre o século XX até a metade de sua última década. No rio Negro, o contato entre a sociedade brasileira e os diversos grupos indígenas que ali viviam, autóctones e catequizados, foi determinante para a constituição da identidade cabocla do território. A partir do último quartel do século XIX, a nomenclatura consolidou-se e vulgarizou-se, tendo na empresa extrativista um forte elemento propagador, em um contexto em que predominam as relações sociais constituintes da cultura do barracão.The article constructs a historically contextualized description of the people who live along the Negro river, a Brazilian affluent in the Amazon basin. Drawing on information about the daily social experience of the participants from the dawn of the twentieth century through the mid-1990s, the processes by which the population and communities took shape are identified. On the Negro river, contact between Brazilian society and the autochthonous, catechized indigenous groups living there was determinant in shaping the territory's caboclo identity. Starting in the last quarter of the nineteenth century, this nomenclature took root and entered the popular lexicon. Extractivist activities played a major role in spreading the term, within a context where the predominant social relations derived from the 'cultura do barracão'.

  11. Diel variation of larval fish abundance in the Amazon and Rio Negro

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    ARAUJO-LIMA C. A. R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Many streams and large rivers present higher ichthyoplankton densities at night. However, in some rivers this does not occur and larvae are equally abundant during the day. Larval drift diel variation is an important information for planning sampling programs for evaluating larval distribution and production. The aim of this study was to test whether the abundance of larval fish was different at either period. We tested it by comparing day and night densities of characiform, clupeiform and siluriform larvae during five years in the Amazon and one year in Rio Negro. We found that larvae of three species of characiform and larvae of siluriform were equally abundant during day and night in the Amazon. Conversely, the catch of Pellona spp. larvae was significantly higher during the day. In Rio Negro, however, larval abundance was higher during the night. These results imply that day samplings estimate adequately the abundance of these characiform and siluriform larvae in the Amazon, but not Pellona larvae. Evaluations of larved densities of Rio Negro will have to consider night sampling.

  12. Diel variation of larval fish abundance in the Amazon and Rio Negro

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    C. A. R. M. ARAUJO-LIMA

    Full Text Available Many streams and large rivers present higher ichthyoplankton densities at night. However, in some rivers this does not occur and larvae are equally abundant during the day. Larval drift diel variation is an important information for planning sampling programs for evaluating larval distribution and production. The aim of this study was to test whether the abundance of larval fish was different at either period. We tested it by comparing day and night densities of characiform, clupeiform and siluriform larvae during five years in the Amazon and one year in Rio Negro. We found that larvae of three species of characiform and larvae of siluriform were equally abundant during day and night in the Amazon. Conversely, the catch of Pellona spp. larvae was significantly higher during the day. In Rio Negro, however, larval abundance was higher during the night. These results imply that day samplings estimate adequately the abundance of these characiform and siluriform larvae in the Amazon, but not Pellona larvae. Evaluations of larved densities of Rio Negro will have to consider night sampling.

  13. A survey of necrophagous blowflies (Diptera: Oestroidea in the Amazonas-Negro interfluvial region (Brazilian Amazon

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    Eduardo Amat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The fauna of blowflies (Calliphoridae and Mesembrinellidae in three localities of primary Amazon forest coverage in the Amazonas-Negro interfluvial region was assessed. A total of 5066 blowflies were collected, with Chloroprocta idiodea being the most abundant species (66.3%. A difference in species richness between the localities ZF2 and Novo Airão was observed. Comparison among sampled sites revealed no considerable variation in fauna composition, except for the species Eumesembrinella benoisti (Séguy 1925 and Hemilucilia sp., whose occurrence was observed only in a single locality. Apparently, Amazon rivers are not efficient geographical barriers to influence the current composition of necrophagous blowfly assemblages. Also, most of the blowfly species did not show a noticeable specificity for any specific forest among the interfluvial areas of the ombrophilous forest. Finally, an updated checklist of necrophagous blowfly species of the Amazonas state in Brazil is presented.

  14. Chemical study of sediments from Solimoes and Negro rivers by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Jose O. dos [Coordenacao de Cursos Tecnicos e Superiores. Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Sergipe, Lagarto, SE (Brazil); Munita, Casimiro S., E-mail: camunita@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Soares, Emilio A.A., E-mail: easores@ufam.edu.br [Departamento de Geociencias. Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The events of the last 70,000 yrs of the history of the Solimoes-Amazon river system are recorded in the fluvial terraces at region of confluence of the Negro and Solimoes rivers, and are markers of changes in the landscape of the Amazon region and it can be observed by analyzing the sedimentary deposits quaternary in Amazon fluvial system. The aim of this work was to contribute with the characterization sedimentological - stratigraphic of Pleistocene succession of the confluence zone of the Negro and Solimoes rivers by means of elemental chemical analysis. To provenance study, 24 elements were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis from sediment samples collected at confluence of Negro and Solimoes rivers and the results were interpreted using cluster and linear discriminant analysis, which classification to priori were samples previously defined according to Pleistocene stratigraphic units individualized at study area. According to discriminant analysis, one can infer that samples from the basin of the Solimoes River and Parana do Ariau grabens (GPA) are not significantly different, but there was a clear separation of sediments from Negro and GPA groups. It was also obtained that samples from highest and lowest terraces that the of the Solimoes river and Parana do Ariau are different, suggesting that it is a process that reflects the influence of chemical weathering on the uppermost terrace deposits. Thus, this work contributes to determine the contribution of the sediments deposited by the Solimoes and Negro rivers in the filling of tectonic depressions and in the variations of degree of weathering between younger and older units, and provides additional subsidies to build the geological evolution of the area. (author)

  15. Chemical study of sediments from Solimoes and Negro rivers by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Jose O. dos; Munita, Casimiro S.; Soares, Emilio A.A.

    2011-01-01

    The events of the last 70,000 yrs of the history of the Solimoes-Amazon river system are recorded in the fluvial terraces at region of confluence of the Negro and Solimoes rivers, and are markers of changes in the landscape of the Amazon region and it can be observed by analyzing the sedimentary deposits quaternary in Amazon fluvial system. The aim of this work was to contribute with the characterization sedimentological - stratigraphic of Pleistocene succession of the confluence zone of the Negro and Solimoes rivers by means of elemental chemical analysis. To provenance study, 24 elements were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis from sediment samples collected at confluence of Negro and Solimoes rivers and the results were interpreted using cluster and linear discriminant analysis, which classification to priori were samples previously defined according to Pleistocene stratigraphic units individualized at study area. According to discriminant analysis, one can infer that samples from the basin of the Solimoes River and Parana do Ariau grabens (GPA) are not significantly different, but there was a clear separation of sediments from Negro and GPA groups. It was also obtained that samples from highest and lowest terraces that the of the Solimoes river and Parana do Ariau are different, suggesting that it is a process that reflects the influence of chemical weathering on the uppermost terrace deposits. Thus, this work contributes to determine the contribution of the sediments deposited by the Solimoes and Negro rivers in the filling of tectonic depressions and in the variations of degree of weathering between younger and older units, and provides additional subsidies to build the geological evolution of the area. (author)

  16. Pleistocene-Holocene sedimentation of Solimões-Amazon fluvial system between the tributaries Negro and Madeira, Central Amazon

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    Eliezer Senna Gonçalves Júnior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In the scope of Solimões-Amazon fluvial system between the Negro and Madeira tributaries, three levels of Quaternary fluvial terraces overlie the Alter do Chão and Novo Remanso formations further than 100 km southward its current main channel. Smooth undulated topography presenting low drainages density formed by sparse secondary plain channels and rounded lakes characterizes these deposits. Internally, they show point bars morphology constituted by intercalated layers of mud (silt and clay and sand forming an inclined heterolithic stratification. The asymmetric distribution of fluvial terraces allied to the records of old scroll-bars features and paleochannels in many extensions of the Solimões River suggests the predominance of a meander pattern between 240 to 6 kyears. On the other hand, the development of the current anabranching pattern took place in the last six kyears due to the Holocene sea-level rise, besides the action of neotectonics and rainforest establishment related to the increase of humidity in Amazonia.

  17. Quantificação de fluxos de mercúrio gasoso na interface solo/atmosfera utilizando câmara de fluxo dinâmica: aplicação na bacia do Rio Negro Quantification of atmosphere - soil mercury fluxes by using a dynamic flux chamber: application at the Negro River basin, Amazon

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    Gabriella Magarelli

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Gaseous mercury sampling conditions were optimized and a dynamic flux chamber was used to measure the air/surface exchange of mercury in some areas of the Negro river basin with different vegetal coverings. At the two forest sites (flooding and non-flooding, low mercury fluxes were observed: maximum of 3 pmol m-2 h-1 - day and minimum of -1 pmol m-2 h-1 - night. At the deforested site, the mercury fluxes were higher and always positive: maximum of 26 pmol m-2 h-1 - day and 17 pmol m-2 h-1 - night. Our results showed that deforestation could be responsible for significantly increasing soil Hg emissions, mainly because of the high soil temperatures reached at deforested sites.

  18. Sedimentology and Palynostratigraphy of a Pliocene-Pleistocene (Piacenzian to Gelasian) deposit in the lower Negro River: Implications for the establishment of large rivers in Central Amazonia

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    Soares, Emílio Alberto Amaral; D'Apolito, Carlos; Jaramillo, Carlos; Harrington, Guy; Caputo, Mario Vicente; Barbosa, Rogério Oliveira; Bonora dos Santos, Eneas; Dino, Rodolfo; Gonçalves, Alexandra Dias

    2017-11-01

    The Amazonas fluvial system originates in the Andes and runs ca. 6700 km to the Atlantic Ocean, having as the main affluent the Negro River (second largest in water volume). The Amazonas transcontinental system has been dated to the late Miocene, but the timing of origin and evolutionary processes of its tributaries are still poorly understood. Negro River alluvial deposits have been dated to the middle to late Pleistocene. Recently, we studied a number of boreholes drilled for the building of a bridge at the lower course of the Negro River. A thin (centimetric) sedimentary deposit was found, laterally continuous for about 1800 m, unconformably overlaying middle Miocene strata and unconformably overlain by younger Quaternary deposits. This deposit consists predominantly of brownish-gray sandstones cemented by siderite and with subordinate mudstone and conglomerate beds. Palynological, granulometric, textural and mineralogical data suggest that the initial Negro River aggradation took place in the deep incised valley under anoxic conditions and subsequently along the floodplain, with efficient transport of mixed origin particles (Andean and Amazonic). Angiosperm leaves, wood and pollen are indicative of a tropical continental palaeoenvironment. A well preserved palynoflora that includes Alnipollenites verus, Grimsdalea magnaclavata and Paleosantalaceaepites cingulatus suggests a late Pliocene to early Pleistocene (Piacenzian to Gelasian) age for this unit, which was an age yet unrecorded in the Amazon Basin. These results indicate that by the late Pliocene-early Pleistocene, large scale river activity was occurring in Central Amazonia linking this region with the Andean headwaters, and therefore incompatible with Central Amazonia barriers like the Purus arch.

  19. A field study of the confluence between Negro and Solimões Rivers. Part 1: Hydrodynamics and sediment transport

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    Gualtieri, Carlo; Filizola, Naziano; de Oliveira, Marco; Santos, Andrè Martinelli; Ianniruberto, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Confluences are a common feature of riverine systems, where are located converging flow streamlines and potential mixing of separate flows. The confluence of the Negro and Solimões Rivers ranks among the largest on Earth and its study may provide some general insights into large confluence dynamics and processes. An investigation was recently conducted about that confluence in both low and high-flow conditions using acoustic Doppler velocity profiling (ADCP), water quality sampling and high-resolution seismic data. First, the study gained insights into the characterization of the basic hydrodynamics parameters about the confluence as well as of those affecting sediments transport. Second, the analysis of the results showed that common hydrodynamic features noted in previous confluence studies were herein observed. Finally, some differences between low-flow and relatively high-flow conditions about the transfer of momentum from the Solimões to the Negro side of the Amazon Channel were identified.

  20. Abundância e distribuição das larvas de peixes no Lago Catalão e no encontro dos rios Solimões e Negro, Amazonas, Brasil Abundance and distribution of fish larvae in Catalão Lake and in the confluence of the Solimões and Negro River, Amazon, Brazil

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    Rosseval Galdino Leite

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A abundância e a distribuição mensal de larvas de peixes no Lago Catalão, situado próximo ao encontro dos rios Solimões e Negro, foram avaliadas entre os meses de janeiro e maio de 2001. As amostras foram coletadas com uma rede de ictioplâncton cônico-cilíndrica (350 µm de malha, Ø 0,3 m e 2 m de comprimento, com um fluxômetro acoplado na boca da rede para a obtenção do volume de água filtrado pela mesma. As variáveis categóricas consideradas foram: posição no lago (margem e centro, profundidade (superfície e fundo e turno (diurno e noturno; tendo sido realizada a Análise Fatorial de Correspondência (AFC usando a densidade larval (larvas. m-3 como variável resposta e os meses como descritores. A AFC discriminou a ocorrência de larvas por unidade experimental entre o mês de janeiro e os demais meses, com 58,15% de inércia, e a densidade larval mudou conforme a posição no lago e o período do dia. A maior parte das larvas era protolarva e alimentava-se na margem, tanto na superfície quanto no fundo do lago. Concluiu-se que o Lago Catalão é um importante berçário para as larvas dos peixes que desovam no rio Solimões e também para as larvas dos peixes que desovam no próprio lago.The abundance and monthly distribution of fish larvae in Catalão Lake, situated near the confluence of the Solimões and Negro River was evaluated between January and May 2001. The samples were obtained using a conical plankton net (350 µm, Ø 0.3, 2 m long, with a flow meter attached to the opening of the net. The categorical variables were: position in the lake (margin and center, period of the day (day and night and depth (surface and bottom. The analysis was made with Fatorial Correspondence Analyses (FCA using the larval density (larvae.m-3 as answer variable and the months as descriptors. The feeding activity of larvae was also studied. Most of them were protolarvae feeding in the margin of the lake, on the surface as well as on

  1. Parasitic fauna of eight species of ornamental freshwater fish species from the middle Negro River in the Brazilian Amazon Region Fauna parasitária de oito espécies de peixes ornamentais de água doce do médio Rio Negro na Amazônia brasileira

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    Marcos Tavares-Dias

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-seven specimens of cardinal tetra Paracheirodon axelrodi, 33 rosy tetra Hyphessobrycon copelandi (Characidae, 28 marbled hatchetfish Carnegiella strigata, 26 blackwing hatchetfish Carnegiella martae (Gasteropelecidae, 27 bodó Ancistrus hoplogenys (Loricariidae, 31 brown pencilfish Nannostomus eques, 38 oneline pencilfish Nannostomus unifasciatus (Lebiasinidae and 13 angelfish Pterophyllum scalare (Cichlidae were collected from the middle Negro River, State of Amazonas, Brazil, for parasitological studies. Out of the total of 223 fish examined, 143 (64.1% were parasitized by at least one parasite species. The highest prevalence rate was for Monogenea (36.7%, followed by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora (20.6%, Trichodina spp. (Ciliophora (4.0%, Piscinoodinium pillulare (Dinoflagellida (1.3%, Tetrahymena sp. (Ciliophora (0.89%, and Procamallanus sp. (Nematoda (0.4%. All eight fish species had Monogenea (Gyrodactylidae and Dactylogyridae in the gills, but the highest prevalence occurred in P. scalare and the lowest in P. axelrodi and C. strigata. However, the highest mean intensity of Monogenea was found in P. scalare and A. hoplogenys. The protozoan I. multifiliis occurred in the six ornamental fish species examined, but C. strigata and C. martae had higher prevalence and mean intensity. Trichodina spp. were found only in the gills of C. strigata, C. martae and N. eques, and with higher mean intensity in C. strigata. On the other hand, the protozoan P. pilullare was found only in the gills of C. martae. This is the first report of Tetrahymena sp. in Brazil, and it occurred in the gills of C. strigata.Para estudos parasitológicos, 27 espécimes de cardinal Paracheirodon axelrodi, 33 rosa-céu Hyphessobrycon copelandi (Characidae, 28 peixes borboleta Carnegiella strigata e 26 Carnegiella martae (Gasteropelecidae, 27 bodó ou cascudo Ancistrus hoplogenys (Loricariidae, 31 peixes-lápis Nannostomus eques e 38 Nannostomus unifasciatus

  2. Pyomyositis in the upper Negro river basin, Brazilian Amazonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Alvaro Humberto Diniz; Faragher, Brian; Lalloo, David G

    2012-01-01

    Pyomyositis remains poorly documented in tropical Latin America. We therefore performed a retrospective review of cases admitted to a hospital in the upper Negro river basin during 2002-2006. Seasonality was assessed by the cosinor model and independent predictors of outcome were identified...... lesions). Staphylococcus aureus was the only identified infecting organism (18 of 20 culture results, 90%). Complications occurred in 17 patients (20.7%) and the case fatality rate was 2.4%. Children were more likely to present with eosinophilia than adults (OR= 4.20, 95% CI 1.08-16.32, p=0.......048), but no other significant differences regarding clinical presentation and outcomes were observed. The time-to-fever resolution was the only independent determinant of poor outcome (OR=1.52, 95% CI 1.22-1.92, p...

  3. The Amazon, measuring a mighty river

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1967-01-01

    The Amazon, the world's largest river, discharges enough water into the sea each day to provide fresh water to the City of New York for over 9 years. Its flow accounts for about 15 percent of all the fresh water discharged into the oceans by all the rivers of the world. By comparison, the Amazon's flow is over 4 times that of the Congo River, the world's second largest river. And it is 10 times that of the Mississippi, the largest river on the North American Continent.

  4. Mining or Tourism: The Development Preference of Settlers Along Pagatban River in Negros Oriental, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique G. Oracion

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the development preference of settlers surveyed along the upstream, midstream, and downstream sections of Pagatban River in Negros Oriental in central Philippines. The majority of 120 respondents, equally distributed along the three sections of the river, are against the restoration of mining but are in favor of tourism development considering the ecological costs and economic benefits they have to bear with and enjoy, respectively. Specif ically, the data show that the nu...

  5. Amazon River investigations, reconnaissance measurements of July 1963

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltman, Roy Edwin; Sternberg, H. O'R.; Ames, F.C.; Davis, L.C.

    1964-01-01

    The first measurements of the flow of the Amazon River were made in July 1963 as a joint project of the University of Brazil, the Brazilian Navy, and the U.S. Geological Survey. The discharge of the Amazon River at Obidos was 7,640,000 cfs at an annual flood stage somewhat lower than the average. For comparison the maximum known discharge of the Mississippi River at Vicksburg is about 2,300,000 cfs. Dissolved-solids concentrations and sediment loads of the Amazon River and of several major tributaries were found to be low.

  6. Radium and barium in the Amazon River system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, W.S.; Edmond, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Data for 226 Ra and 228 Ra in the Amazon River system show that the activity of each radium isotope is strongly correlated with barium concentrations. Two trends are apparent, one for rivers which drain shield areas and another for all other rivers. These data suggest that there has been extensive fractionation of U, Th, and Ba during weathering in the Amazon basin. The 226 Ra data fit a flux model for the major ions indicating that 226 Ra behaves conservatively along the main channel of the Amazon River

  7. Insights into iron sources and pathways in the Amazon River provided by isotopic and spectroscopic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, Daniel Santos; Poitrasson, Franck; Boaventura, Geraldo Resende; Allard, Thierry; Vieira, Lucieth Cruz; Santos, Roberto Ventura; Mancini, Luiz; Seyler, Patrick

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigated the weathering and transport mechanisms of Fe in the Amazon River. A particular emphasis was placed on Fe partitioning, speciation, and isotopic fractionation in the contrasting waters of the Solimões and Negro rivers and their mixing zone at the beginning of the Amazon River. Samples collected in the end-member rivers and thirteen sites distributed throughout the mixing zone were processed through frontal vacuum filtration and tangential-flow ultrafiltration to separate the different suspended solid fractions, i.e., particulate (P > 0.45 μm and P > 0.22 μm), colloidal (0.22 μm > C > 5 kDa) and truly dissolved elements (TD particulate fractions yielded light isotopic compositions of -0.344‰ for P > 0.22 μm and -0.104‰ for P > 0.45 μm fractions). The mineral particulate-rich waters of the Solimões River had dissolved and colloidal fractions with light isotopic composition (-0.532‰ and -0.176‰, respectively), whereas the particulate fractions yielded δ57Fe values close to those of the continental crust (i.e., -0.029‰ for P > 0.22 μm and 0.028‰ for P > 0.45 μm). Ten kilometers downstream from the Negro and Solimões junction, the concentrations of colloidal and dissolved Fe species deviate markedly from conservative mixing. A maximum Fe loss of 43 μg/L (i.e., 50% of the dissolved and colloidal Fe) is observed 110 km downstream from the rivers junction. The contrasting Negro and Solimões Rivers isotopic compositions along the pore-sized water fractions is attributable to the biogeochemical processes involving different types of upland soils and parental materials. For instance, the isotopic composition of colloidal and dissolved Fe from the Negro River are consistent with Fe oxidation and complexation mechanisms at the interface between waterlogged podzols and river networks, as supported by strong organo-Fe complexes signals observed by EPR. Conversely, the particulate and colloidal fractions from the Solim

  8. Análise biogeográfica da avifauna da região oeste do baixo Rio Negro, amazônia brasileira Biogeographical analysis of the avifauna in the lower western Rio Negro region in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio H. Borges

    2007-12-01

    were identified and PNJ grouped with sites in the upper Orinoco river and Guiana. Similarly, JNP grouped with the upper Orinoco river and Guiana is the sister-group in the area cladogram with strongest support. Different sub-groups of species reveal area cladograms with different topologies, suggesting complex scenarios of avifauna diversification. These scenarios may have been influenced by geological events occurring during the Miocene and Pleistocene. In this study was identified an area of endemism previously not described for the Amazon, the Rio Negro endemic area. The avifauna of PNJ is representative of the northwestern and western Amazon and has taxa with distributions restricted to the central region of the Amazon, reinforcing its importance in protecting the biodiversity of the Amazon.

  9. Trace elements distribution in bottom sediments from Amazon River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, L.B.L.S.; Nadai Fernandes, E. de; Oliveira, H. de; Bacchi, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Amazon River discharges into a dynamic marine environment where there have been many interactive processes affecting dissolved and particulate solids, either those settling on the shelf or reaching the ocean. Trace elemental concentration, especially of the rare earth elements, have been determined by neutron activation analysis in sixty bottom sediment samples of the Amazon River estuary, providing information for the spatial and temporal variation study of those elements. (author). 16 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  10. Radium-226 in waters of the Amazon river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirshova, M.P.; Vinogradova, A.S.; Popov, N.I.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of the Amazon river waters for 226 Ra content is carried out. Exploration works are carried out in the framework of the soviet investigations of the Amazon river in 1983 by the Academy of Science of USSR on board a research ship ''Professor Schtokman'' with the agreement and participation of brazilian scientists. Radium determination has been carried out in reference with equilibrium radon preliminary accumulated in samples (30 y) tightly closed. The general 226 Ra concentrations observed in the Amazon waters exceed 4-6 times the values known before relating to a ''diluted'' element fraction. It happens due to the presence of the river suspended matter in the water analysed; it is a carrier of additional quantities of 226 Ra, and considerable. The mixture zone of river and ocean waters is shown to be no ''geochemical barrier'' on the way to the ocean for river radium inlike the other microelements of the river run-off

  11. Metazoan endoparasites of Pygocentrus nattereri (Characiformes: Serrasalminae in the Negro River, Pantanal, Brazil

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    Wagner Vicentin

    Full Text Available In the period of October 2007 to August 2008, 152 specimens ofPygocentrus nattereri were caught in the Negro River in the Nhecolândia region, central Pantanal wetland, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The specimens were necropsied and a total of 4,212 metazoan endoparasites were recovered, belonging to 10 taxons:Procamallanus (Spirocamallanusinopinatus, Philometridae gen. sp.,Eustrongylides sp., Brevimulticaecum sp.,Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda, Echinorhynchus paranensis (Acanthocephala, Leiperia gracile,Sebekia oxycephala, Subtriquetra sp. 1 andSubtriquetra sp. 2 (Pentastomida. This is the first record of two parasite species from P. nattereri: E. paranensis and L. gracile.

  12. Chemical composition of black-watered rivers in the Amazons Region (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbe, Adriana M.C.; Santos, Ana G. da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Most investigations addressing Amazonian water chemistry are focused on the Solimoes, Amazonas and Negro rivers. Knowledge of the chemical composition of their smaller tributaries is restricted to some few, punctual data. The smaller rivers, that only present inputs from their catchments, are very important to understand the overall mechanisms controlling the chemistry of larger rivers of the region. With this objective the chemical composition of the principal Solimoes river black-watered tributaries in the western Brazilian Amazon during the low water period were determined. The data reveal the black water chemical composition to be highly variable and strongly influenced by the local geological environment: the Badajos basin being chemically more diluted; the Coari basin presenting higher SiO 2 contents, as well as smaller lakes having higher pH, conductivity, Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ and Sr, yet not as much as those found in the Solimoes river. The chemical composition of these waters is compatible with the low physical erosion and the region's highly leached tropical environment from which most soluble elements were quickly removed. (author)

  13. Assessment of the Relationship between Andean Ice Core Precipitation Indicators and Amazon River Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, N.; Alsdorf, D.; Thompson, L.; Mosley-Thompson, E.; Melack, J.

    2006-12-01

    Prior to the last 100 years, there is a significant lack of hydrologic knowledge for the Amazon Basin. A 100- year record of discharge from the city of Manaus, located at the confluence of the Solimoes and Negro rivers, is the most complete record for the basin. Inundated wetlands play a key role in carbon out-gassing to the atmosphere whereas discharge from the Amazon River contributes about 20% of the total freshwater flux delivered to the world's oceans. As discharge (Q) and inundation are directly related to precipitation, we are developing a method to extend our understanding of Q and inundation into the 19^{th} century. Using proxy data preserved in Andean glaciers and ice caps and recovered from ice cores, annually resolved histories of δ^{18)O and mass accumulation are available. The latter is a proxy for local precipitation amount whereas δ18O is influenced by continental scale processes (i.e., evaporation, convection) as well as by temperature and hence, by varying climate regimes. We have correlated the accumulation and δ18O records from Core 1 drilled on the Quelccaya ice-cap in the southern Andes of Peru with the Manaus discharge data. As ice core annual layers correspond to the thermal year (in Peru, July to June of the following year) and the discharge records are kept daily (January to December), we averaged 365 days of Q data seeking the optimal correlation for each start and end date. The best statistical relationship between δ18O and Q (r = -0.41, p = < 0.001) is attained when Q is averaged from March 16 to March 15 of the following year. We also correlated 23 years of ENSO events, which are linked to both Amazon River discharge and ice core δ18O (r = -0.60, p = < 0.001). These linear relationships are used to create Amazon discharge for the 20^{th} century and to extrapolate Q into the 19^{th} century. Previously developed relationships between Q and mainstem inundated area are then used to estimate inundated area along the main Amazon

  14. Medicinal animals: knowledge and use among riverine populations from the Negro River, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Leme da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article documents the use of animals in the home medicine among riverine populations from the Negro River, State of Amazonas, Brazil. Data were collected through interviews and observations concerning to the knowledge and everyday practices of the use of medicinal animals. About 60 animal species are known with medicinal purposes. The knowledge is well distributed between sexes (men and women and localities (urban and rural. The use of medicinal animals is embedded in etiological concepts and involves a complex cosmological vision of the cure process. The rural exodus and the facilitated access to the western medicine may be promoting the loss of the traditional knowledge, which can be mitigated through the valorization and transmission of this knowledge to the future generations.

  15. Organic complexation and translocation of ferric iron in podzols of the Negro River watershed. Separation of secondary Fe species from Al species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, E.; Allard, Th.; Benedetti, M. F.; Bardy, M.; do Nascimento, N. R.; Li, Y.; Calas, G.

    2009-04-01

    The development of podzols in lateritic landscapes of the upper Amazon basin contributes to the exportation of organic carbon and associated metals in the black waters of the Negro River watershed. We have investigated the distribution of Fe III in the clay-size fraction of eight organic-rich horizons of waterlogged plateau podzols, to unravel the weathering conditions and mechanisms that control its transfer to the rivers. The speciation and amount of Fe III stored in residual mineral phases of laterites, or bound to organic compounds of weakly and well-expressed podzols, were determined by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy combined with chemical analyses. Reducing conditions restrict the production of organo-Fe complexes in the subsoil B-horizons of waterlogged podzols and most of the Fe 2+ released from the dissolution of Fe-oxides is exported to the rivers via the perched groundwater. However, significant amounts of diluted Fe III bound to organic ligands (Fe IIIOM) and nano Fe-oxides are produced at the margin of the depression in the topsoil A horizons of weakly expressed podzols due to shorter periods of anoxia. The downward translocation of organically bound metals from topsoil A to subsoil B-horizons of podzols occurs in shorter distances for Fe than it does for Al. This separation of secondary Fe species from Al species is attributed to the physical fractionation of their organic carriers in texture contrasted B-horizons of podzols, as well as to the effect of pH on metal speciation in soil solutions and metal binding onto soil organic ligands (mostly for Al). This leads us to consider the topsoil A horizons of weakly expressed podzols, as well as the subsoil Bh horizon of better-expressed ones, as the main sources for the transfer of Fe IIIOM to the rivers. The concentration of Fe IIIOM rises from soil sources to river colloids, suggesting drastic biogeochemical changes in more oxygenated black waters of the Negro River watershed. The

  16. Metazoan endoparasites of Serrasalmus marginatus (Characiformes: Serrasalminae in the Negro River, Pantanal, Brazil Metazoários endoparasitos de Serrasalmus marginatus (Characiformes: Serrasalminae no Rio Negro, Pantanal, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Vicentin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to inventory the metazoan endoparasites of Serrasalmus marginatus, 91 specimens were examined. They were captured in the Negro River in Pantanal wetland, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Central-Western Brazil, from October 2007 to August 2008. Parasites of six taxa were recovered: Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus inopinatus, Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda, metacercarial type Diplostomulum (Digenea, Brevimulticaecum sp. (Nematoda and Sebekia oxycephala, Subtriquetra sp. 1 and Subtriquetra sp. 2 (Pentastomida. The latter five species are reported for the first time in S. marginatus.Com o objetivo de inventariar os metazoários endoparasitos em Serrasalmus marginatus, no Rio Negro, Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil, foram examinados 91 espécimes capturados no período de outubro de 2007 a agosto de 2008. Foram registrados seis táxons parasitos: Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus inopinatus, Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda, metacercária do tipo Diplostomulum (Digenea; Brevimulticaecum sp. (Nematoda; e Sebekia oxycephala, Subtriquetra sp. 1 e Subtriquetra sp. 2 (Pentastomida. As últimas cinco espécies citadas são registradas pela primeira vez em S. marginatus.

  17. Mining or Tourism: The Development Preference of Settlers Along Pagatban River in Negros Oriental, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique G. Oracion

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the development preference of settlers surveyed along the upstream, midstream, and downstream sections of Pagatban River in Negros Oriental in central Philippines. The majority of 120 respondents, equally distributed along the three sections of the river, are against the restoration of mining but are in favor of tourism development considering the ecological costs and economic benefits they have to bear with and enjoy, respectively. Specif ically, the data show that the number of respondents who do not prefer the restoration of mining is highest among downstream households while the number of those who do not prefer tourism development is highest among upstream households. The midstream respondents generally prefer both development projects. The chi-square test proves signif icant differences in the development preferences of respondents across settlements along the river. There are also significant differences in tourism preference according to the sex of the respondents, and in mining preference according to farm access, and monthly income of their households. The significant differences in household farm access and income relative to their locations further explain why economic and geographic variations result in divided preference for mining. Given that tourism development is preferred over restoration of mining, how the former’s benefits can be enjoyed across settlements should be looked into and planned with genuine community participation.

  18. Placentation in dolphins from the Amazon River Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva, Vera M F; Carter, Anthony M; Ambrosio, Carlos E

    2007-01-01

    A recent reassessment of the phylogenetic affinities of cetaceans makes it timely to compare their placentation with that of the artiodactyls. We studied the placentae of two sympatric species of dolphin from the Amazon River Basin, representing two distinct families. The umbilical cord branched ...

  19. ARSENIC, CADMIUM, CHROMIUM, LEAD, MERCURY, AND SELENIUM LEVELS IN BLOOD OF FOUR SPECIES OF TURTLES FROM THE AMAZON IN BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian; Schneider, Larissa; Vogt, Richard; Gochfeld, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Using blood as a method of assessing metal levels in turtles may be useful for populations that are threatened or endangered or are decreasing. In this study the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) in blood of four species of turtles from the tributaries of the Rio Negro in the Amazon of Brazil were examined. The turtles included the six-tubercled Amazon (river) turtle (Podocnemis sextuberculata), red-headed Amazon (river) turtle (Po...

  20. Three new species of the armored catfish genus Loricaria (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from river channels of the Amazon basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Thomas

    Full Text Available Three new species of Loricaria are described from large white- and black-water river channels of the Amazon basin of Brazil, the upper rio Negro drainage of southern Venezuela, and clear waters of the lower rio Tocantins. Loricaria spinulifera and L. pumila differ from other species of Loricaria by having unique patterns of abdominal plate development and hypertrophied odontodes forming conspicuous crests on dorsal surfaces of the head and predorsal plates. Both are small species of Loricaria, reaching sexual maturity at less than 120 mm SL, and exhibiting sexually dimorphic characters consistent with members of the L. cataphracta complex. Loricaria spinulifera differs from L. pumila in having a unique arrangement of buccal papillae and large thorn-like odontodes on the dorsum of the head. Loricaria pumila is the smallest known Loricaria, reaching sexual maturity at less than 80 mm SL. Loricaria lundbergi differs from other Loricaria by having a unique abdominal plate pattern, broad head, and small basicaudal plate. Loricaria lundbergi is sympatric with L. spinulifera in the lower rio Negro drainage, but is also known from the rio Baria system of the Casiquiare drainage. Loricaria pumila occurs in the lower rio Amazonas and lower rio Tocantins. All three new species exhibit varying degrees of reduction in eye size and pigmentation seen in other fishes inhabiting deep river channels of South America.

  1. Morphology and mitochondrial phylogenetics reveal that the Amazon River separates two eastern squirrel monkey species: Saimiri sciureus and S. collinsi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercês, Michelle P; Lynch Alfaro, Jessica W; Ferreira, Wallax A S; Harada, Maria L; Silva Júnior, José S

    2015-01-01

    Saimiri has a complicated taxonomic history, and there is continuing disagreement about the number of valid taxa. Despite these controversies, one point of consensus among morphologists has been that the eastern Amazonian populations of squirrel monkeys form a single terminal taxon, Saimiri sciureus sciureus (Linnaeus, 1758). This group is distributed to both the north and south of the middle to lower Amazon River and in the Marajó Archipelago. However, a recent molecular study by Lavergne and colleagues suggested that the Saimiri sciureus complex (comprised of S. s. sciureus sensu lato, S. s. albigena, S. s. macrodon, and S. s. cassiquiarensis) was paraphyletic. The discordance between morphological and molecular studies prompted us to conduct a new multidisciplinary analysis, employing a combination of morphological, morphometric, and molecular markers. Our results suggest the currently recognized taxon S. s. sciureus contains two distinct species, recognized by the Phylogenetic Species Concept: Saimiri sciureus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Saimiri collinsi Osgood, 1916. East Amazonian squirrel monkeys north of the Amazon have a gray crown (S. sciureus), and south of the Amazon, the crown is yellow (S. collinsi). Morphometric measurements also clearly distinguish between the two species, with the most important contributing factors including width across upper canines for both sexes. For males, the mean zygomatic breadth was significantly wider in S. sciureus compared to S. collinsi, and for females, the width across the upper molars was wider in S. sciureus compared to S. collinsi. Mitochondrial phylogenetic analyses support this separation of the eastern Amazonian squirrel monkeys into two distinct taxa, recovering one clade (S. sciureus) distributed to the north of the Amazon River, from the Negro River and Branco River to the Guiana coast and the Brazilian state of Amapá, and another clade (S. collinsi) south of the Amazon River, from the region of the Tapaj

  2. The igapó of the Negro River in central Amazonia: Linking late-successional inundation forest with fluvial geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Juan Carlos; Latrubesse, Edgardo M.

    2013-10-01

    Despite important progress on Amazonian floodplain research, the flooded forest of the Negro River "igapó" has been little investigated. In particular, no study has previously focused the linkage between fluvial geomorphology and the floristic variation across the course of the river. In this paper we describe and interpret relations between igapó forest, fluvial geomorphology and the spatial evolution of the igapó forest through the Holocene. Therefore, we investigate the effect of geomorphological units of the floodplain and channel patterns on tree diversity, composition and structural parameters of the late-successional igapó forest. Our results show that sites sharing almost identical flooding regime, exhibit variable tree assemblages, species richness and structural parameters such as basal area, tree density and tree heights, indicating a trend in which the geomorphologic styles seem to partially control the organization of igapó's tree communities. This can be also explained by the high variability of well-developed geomorphologic units in short distances and concentrated in small areas. In this dynamic the inputs from the species pool of tributary rivers play a crucial role, but also the depositional and erosional processes associated with the evolution of the floodplain during the Holocene may control floristic and structural components of the igapó forests. These results suggest that a comprehensive approach integrating floristic and geomorphologic methods is needed to understand the distribution of the complex vegetation patterns in complex floodplains such as the igapó of the Negro River. This combination of approaches may introduce a better comprehension of the temporal and spatial evolutionary analysis and a logic rationale to understand the vegetation distribution and variability in function of major landforms, soil distributions and hydrology. Thus, by integrating the past into macroecological analyses will sharpen our understanding of the

  3. Bacterial Biogeography across the Amazon River-Ocean Continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Doherty

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal patterns in microbial biodiversity across the Amazon river-ocean continuum were investigated along ∼675 km of the lower Amazon River mainstem, in the Tapajós River tributary, and in the plume and coastal ocean during low and high river discharge using amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes in whole water and size-fractionated samples (0.2–2.0 μm and >2.0 μm. River communities varied among tributaries, but mainstem communities were spatially homogeneous and tracked seasonal changes in river discharge and co-varying factors. Co-occurrence network analysis identified strongly interconnected river assemblages during high (May and low (December discharge periods, and weakly interconnected transitional assemblages in September, suggesting that this system supports two seasonal microbial communities linked to river discharge. In contrast, plume communities showed little seasonal differences and instead varied spatially tracking salinity. However, salinity explained only a small fraction of community variability, and plume communities in blooms of diatom-diazotroph assemblages were strikingly different than those in other high salinity plume samples. This suggests that while salinity physically structures plumes through buoyancy and mixing, the composition of plume-specific communities is controlled by other factors including nutrients, phytoplankton community composition, and dissolved organic matter chemistry. Co-occurrence networks identified interconnected assemblages associated with the highly productive low salinity near-shore region, diatom-diazotroph blooms, and the plume edge region, and weakly interconnected assemblages in high salinity regions. This suggests that the plume supports a transitional community influenced by immigration of ocean bacteria from the plume edge, and by species sorting as these communities adapt to local environmental conditions. Few studies have explored patterns of microbial diversity in

  4. Andean contributions to the biogeochemistry of the amazon river system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    Atlántico. Un nuevo programa colaborativo de investigación se inició en 1994 con el propósito de caracterizar de una manera más completa la biogeoquímica de los ríos andinos. Contributions from Andean rivers may play a significant role in determining the basin-wide biogeochemistry integrated into the mainstem Amazon River of Brazil. Concentration data for organic C, NO3-, and PO43- in Andean rivers are highly variable and reveal no clear spatial or altitudinal patterns. Concentrations measured in Andean rivers are similar to those reported in the mainstem Amazon river and its major tributaries. Explanations of processes which alter Andean-derived particulates and solutes as they exit the Cordillera are only speculative at this time, but their net effect is to diminish Andean signals through decomposition and dilution by lowland inputs. The 13C of particulate and dissolved organic matter in the mainstem Amazon provides evidence that some fraction of Andean derived material persists within the river system, ultimately to be discharged to the Atlantic Ocean. In 1994 a new collaborative research program was launched to further characterize the biogeochemistry of Andean rivers.

  5. Amazon River carbon dioxide outgassing fuelled by wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril, Gwenaël; Martinez, Jean-Michel; Artigas, L Felipe; Moreira-Turcq, Patricia; Benedetti, Marc F; Vidal, Luciana; Meziane, Tarik; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Bernardes, Marcelo C; Savoye, Nicolas; Deborde, Jonathan; Souza, Edivaldo Lima; Albéric, Patrick; Landim de Souza, Marcelo F; Roland, Fabio

    2014-01-16

    River systems connect the terrestrial biosphere, the atmosphere and the ocean in the global carbon cycle. A recent estimate suggests that up to 3 petagrams of carbon per year could be emitted as carbon dioxide (CO2) from global inland waters, offsetting the carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems. It is generally assumed that inland waters emit carbon that has been previously fixed upstream by land plant photosynthesis, then transferred to soils, and subsequently transported downstream in run-off. But at the scale of entire drainage basins, the lateral carbon fluxes carried by small rivers upstream do not account for all of the CO2 emitted from inundated areas downstream. Three-quarters of the world's flooded land consists of temporary wetlands, but the contribution of these productive ecosystems to the inland water carbon budget has been largely overlooked. Here we show that wetlands pump large amounts of atmospheric CO2 into river waters in the floodplains of the central Amazon. Flooded forests and floating vegetation export large amounts of carbon to river waters and the dissolved CO2 can be transported dozens to hundreds of kilometres downstream before being emitted. We estimate that Amazonian wetlands export half of their gross primary production to river waters as dissolved CO2 and organic carbon, compared with only a few per cent of gross primary production exported in upland (not flooded) ecosystems. Moreover, we suggest that wetland carbon export is potentially large enough to account for at least the 0.21 petagrams of carbon emitted per year as CO2 from the central Amazon River and its floodplains. Global carbon budgets should explicitly address temporary or vegetated flooded areas, because these ecosystems combine high aerial primary production with large, fast carbon export, potentially supporting a substantial fraction of CO2 evasion from inland waters.

  6. Trace elements and radionuclides in the Connecticut River and Amazon River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dion, E.P.

    1983-01-01

    The Connecticut River, its estuary and the Amazon River plume were studied to elucidate processes which control the flux of nuclides to the sea. Major ions (Ca, Mg, Na, Cl, Bicarbonate) and selected trace elements (Ra, Ba, Cu, Si) are introduced to the Connecticut River in proportion to the total dissolved load of various groundwaters. Si, Ra, and Ba are subject to removal from solution by seasonal diatom productivity; whereas the other groundwater-derived elements are found in proportion to TDS both time and space. These nuclides are released in the estuary when a portion of the Ra, Ba, and Si in riverine biogenic detritus is trapped in salt marshes and coves bordering the estuary where it redissolves and is exported to the main river channel at ebb tide. In the Amazon River estuary, the Ra and Ba are released in mid-salinity waters. Ra and Ba together with Si are subsequently removed by diatom productivity as reflected in increased Ra and Ba in the suspended particles and depleted dissolved nuclide concentrations in samples from the high productivity zone. In both the Connecticut River system and the Amazon River plume, Cu behaves conservatively; whereas the fates of Fe and Al are linked to soil-derived humic acids. Trace elements in Amazon plume sediments are found simply in proportion to the percentage of fine-grained size materials, despite low Th-228/Ra-228 mean residence times in the plume and the presence of Cs-137 in the sediment column. Estimates of the total flux of nuclides to the oceans can best be calculated on a mass balance basis using groundwater inputs. Unless significant repositories for nuclides exist in the river-estuarine system, the groundwater flux of dissolved nuclides is net flux to the ocean despite the reactions which occur in both rivers and estuaries

  7. Fish assemblages of the Casiquiare River, a corridor and zoogeographical filter for dispersal between the Orinoco and Amazon basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winemiller, K.O.; Lopez-Fernandez, H.; Taphorn, D.C.; Nico, L.G.; Duque, A.B.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether the Casiquiare River functions as a free dispersal corridor or as a partial barrier (i.e. filter) for the interchange of fish species of the Orinoco and Negro/Amazon basins using species assemblage patterns according to geographical location and environmental features. Location: The Casiquiare, Upper Orinoco and Upper Negro rivers in southern Venezuela, South America. Methods: Our study was based on an analysis of species presence/absence data and environmental information (11 habitat characteristics) collected by the authors and colleagues between the years 1984 and 1999. The data set consisted of 269 sampled sites and 452 fish species (> 50,000 specimens). A wide range of habitat types was included in the samples, and the collection sites were located at various points along the entire length of the Casiquiare main channel, at multiple sites on its tributary streams, as well as at various nearby sites outside the Casiquiare drainage, within the Upper Orinoco and Upper Rio Negro river systems. Most specimens and field data used in this analysis are archived in the Museo de Ciencias Naturales in Guanare, Venezuela. We performed canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) based on species presence/absence using two versions of the data set: one that eliminated sites having < 5 species and species occurring at < 5 sites; and another that eliminated sites having < 10 species and species occurring at < 10 sites. Cluster analysis was performed on sites based on species assemblage similarity, and a separate analysis was performed on species based on CCA loadings. Results: The CCA results for the two versions of the data set were qualitatively the same. The dominant environmental axis contrasted assemblages and sites associated with blackwater vs. clearwater conditions. Longitudinal position on the Casiquiare River was correlated (r2 = 0.33) with CCA axis-1 scores, reflecting clearwater conditions nearer to its origin

  8. Molecular diagnosis of the arowanas Osteoglossum ferreirai Kanazawa, 1966 and O. bicirrhossum (Cuvier, 1829 from the Orinoco and Amazon River basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Doris Escobar L.

    Full Text Available The arowanas, fishes of Gondwanan origin, are represented in South America by the genus Osteoglossum. All species were initially reported as being exclusive to the Amazon region, with O. ferreirai restricted to the Negro River basin and O. bicirrhosum to the Amazon and Essequibo Rivers basin. Starting in the mid 1970's it was reported that O. ferreirai also occurs in the Orinoco River basin. In all regions the arowanas assumed significant socio-economic importance due to their popularity in the international ornamental fish trade, leading to over-exploitation of both species in some areas. The Orinoco populations are particularly heavily exploited, and thus conservation and management measures are needed. Both depend on the clarification of taxonomic status, and phylogenetic distinctness of the Orinoco populations. With the goal of molecularly characterizing the two species of Osteoglossum, and comparing populations of Osteoglossum from the Orinoco and Amazon basins, we characterized individuals sampled from eight localities, one in the Orinoco River basin and seven in the Amazon River basin. We sampled 39 individuals, obtaining 1004 base pairs, of which 79 were synapomorphies. Genetic distance between the two species calculated using the HKY + G model of molecular evolution was 8.94%. Intraspecific distances ranged from 0.42% in O. bicirrhosum to 0.10% in O. ferreirai. The genetic characterization confirmed the taxonomic status of O. ferreirai in the Orinoco basin, and suggested that its distribution in the Orinoco basin is unlikely to be the result of vicariance or natural dispersal, but rather an anthropic introduction.

  9. Trace elements and radionuclides in the Connecticut River and Amazon River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dion, E.P.

    1983-01-01

    The Connecticut River, its estuary, and the Amazon River estuary were studied to elucidate some of the processes which control river water chemistry and the flux of elements to the sea. The approach taken was to identify inputs to the Connecticut River and to investigate geochemical processes which modify the dissolved load. The form and quantity of nuclides which are in turn supplied to the estuary are altered by processes unique to that transition zone to the ocean. The Connecticut River estuary was sampled on a seasonal basis to investigate the role of the estuary in controlling the flux of elements to the sea. The knowledge gained from the Connecticut River study was applied to the quantitatively more significant Amazon River estuary. There a variety of samples were analyzed to understand the processes controlling the single greatest flux of elements to the Atlantic Ocean. The results indicate that estimates of the total flux of nuclides to the oceans can best be calculated based on groundwater inputs. Unless significant repositories for nuclides exist in the river-estuarine system, the groundwater flux of dissolved nuclides is that which will eventually be delivered to the ocean despite the reactions which were shown to occur in both rivers and estuaries. 153 references, 63 figures, 28 tables

  10. Provenance studies in Amazon basin by means of chemical composition obtained by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J.O.; Munita, C.S.; Soares, E.A.A.

    2015-01-01

    This study determines the provenance of the 106 sediments samples deposited by the Solimoes and Negro rivers in the tectonic depressions in Manaus, Amazon state, Brazil. Twenty-four chemical elements in the sediment samples collected before the confluence of Negro and Solimoes rivers have been determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis, INAA. It is inferred from the multivariate statistical methods that samples from the basin of the Solimoes river and tectonic depression 1 (the most significant of the region) are not significantly different. These results indicate the contribution this river in the sedimentary fill during the evolution in the Quaternary. (author)

  11. Late Miocene onset of the Amazon River and the Amazon deep-sea fan: Evidence from the Foz do Amazonas Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figueiredo, J.; Hoorn, C.; van der Ven, P.; Soares, E.

    2009-01-01

    New biostratigraphic, isotopic, and well log data from exploration wells on the outer continental shelf and uppermost Amazon deep-sea fan, Brazil, reveal that the Amazon River was initiated as a transcontinental river between 11.8 and 11.3 Ma ago (middle to late Miocene), and reached its present

  12. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 dolphins from free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from Sustainable Development Reserve Mamirauá (...

  13. The Late Miocene paleogeography of the Amazon Basin and the evolution of the Amazon River system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latrubesse, Edgardo M.; Cozzuol, Mario; da Silva-Caminha, Silane A. F.; Rigsby, Catherine A.; Absy, Maria Lucia; Jaramillo, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    On the basis of paleontological content (vertebrates and palynology) and facies analysis from river banks, road cuts, and three wells, we have assigned the uppermost levels of the Solimões Formation in western Amazonia, Brazil, to the Late Miocene. The vertebrate fossil record from outcropping sediments is assigned to the Huayquerian-Mesopotamian mammalian biozones, spanning 9-6.5 Ma. Additionally, we present results that demonstrate that deposits in Peruvian Amazonia attributed to Miocene tidal environments are actually fluvial sediments that have been misinterpreted (both environmentally and chronologically) by several authors. The entire Late Miocene sequence was deposited in a continental environment within a subsiding basin. The facies analysis, fossil fauna content, and palynological record indicate that the environment of deposition was dominated by avulsive rivers associated with megafan systems, and avulsive rivers in flood basins (swamps, lakes, internal deltas, and splays). Soils developed on the flatter, drier areas, which were dominated by grasslands and gallery forest in a tropical to subtropical climate. These Late Miocene sediments were deposited from westward of the Purus arch up to the border of Brazil with Peru (Divisor Ranges) and Bolivia (Pando block). Eastward of the Iquitos structural high, however, more detailed studies, including vertebrate paleontology, need to be performed to calibrate with more precision the ages of the uppermost levels of the Solimões Formation. The evolution of the basin during the late Miocene is mainly related to the tectonic behavior of the Central Andes (˜ 3°-15°S). At approximately 5 Ma, a segment of low angle of subduction was well developed in the Nazca Plate, and the deformation in the Subandean foreland produced the inland reactivation of the Divisor/Contamana Ranges and tectonic arrangements in the Eastern Andes. During the Pliocene southwestern Brazilian Amazonia ceased to be an effective sedimentary

  14. Simulating floods in the Amazon River Basin: Impacts of new river geomorphic and dynamic flow parameterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, M. T.; Costa, M. H.; Howard, E. A.

    2006-12-01

    In this paper we analyze the hydrology of the Amazon River system for the latter half of the 20th century with our recently completed model of terrestrial hydrology (Terrestrial Hydrology Model with Biogeochemistry, THMB). We evaluate the simulated hydrology of the Central Amazon basin against limited observations of river discharge, floodplain inundation, and water height and analyze the spatial and temporal variability of the hydrology for the period 1939-1998. We compare the simulated discharge and floodplain inundated area to the simulations by Coe et al., 2002 using a previous version of this model. The new model simulates the discharge and flooded area in better agreement with the observations than the previous model. The coefficient of correlation between the simulated and observed discharge for the greater than 27000 monthly observations of discharge at 120 sites throughout the Brazilian Amazon is 0.9874 compared to 0.9744 for the previous model. The coefficient of correlation between the simulated monthly flooded area and the satellite-based estimates by Sippel et al., 1998 exceeds 0.7 for 8 of the 12 mainstem reaches. The seasonal and inter-annual variability of the water height and the river slope compares favorably to the satellite altimetric measurements of height reported by Birkett et al., 2002.

  15. The Amazon. Bio-geochemistry applied to river basin management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tardy, Yves; Bustillo, Vincent; Roquin, Claude; Mortatti, Jefferson; Victoria, Reynaldo

    2005-01-01

    A hydrochemical model, using hydrograph separation, developed for the Niger basin, has been proposed as a strategic tool for studying the watershed dynamics at any time and space scales. The model is applied to the Amazon basin, including the main channel and its major tributaries. The database corresponds to a sampling and analytical program developed over 8 cruises at 9 stations (about 70 samples), collected in the framework of the CAMREX Project (1982-1984). The model, based on a hydrograph separation of 3 reservoirs, is successful in extrapolating and predicting the geochemical and environmental behaviour of such large basins, naturally submitted to large secular or annual, regular or even catastrophic climatic oscillations. Several topics have been considered. (1) Coherence among the physico-chemical analyses: dissolved species (pH, NH 4 + , Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , NO 3 - , HCO 3 - , Cl - , DOC - , SO 4 2- , HPO 4 2- , SiO 2 , O 2 and CO 2 ), and inorganic or organic suspended load (fine and coarse fractions FSS, CSS, POCF, POCC). (2) Hydrograph separation in 3 reservoir contributions: R S , the superficial or rapid runoff, R I , the hypodermic or intermediate runoff, including the flood plain contributions, and R B the ground water or base flow. (3) Estimation of the isotopic and physico-chemical features of each of the 3 flow components: R S , R I , and R B . (4) Determination of the 3 hydrological parameters (size of the reservoir, drying up coefficient, and residence time of water), characterizing each of the 3 flow components (R S , R I , and R B ), in each of the 9 basins considered. (5) Hydrological and geochemical balances for all the parameters analysed either (a) cruise by cruise for all tributaries and the Amazon River at Obidos, or (b) among each of the 3 river flow components. (6) Isotopic data set of δ 18 O in waters, tests of coherence of the hydrograph separation model. (7) Relationships between isotopic signatures and morphological or

  16. Bioavailability, ecotoxicity, and geological characteristics of trace lead in sediments from two sites on Negro River, Uruguay, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez, Diana M; Huertas, Raquel; Carrara, María V; Carnikián, Agustín; Bouvier, María E; Martínez, María J; Keel, Karen; Pioda, Carolina; Darré, Elena; Pérez, Ramiro; Viera, Santiago; Massa, Enrique

    2012-04-01

    Bioassays of two sites along the Rio Negro in Uruguay indicate ecotoxicity, which could be attributable to trace concentrations of lead in river sediments. Monthly samples at two sites at Baygorria and Bonete locations were analyzed for both particle size and lead. Lead was determined by atomic spectrometry in river water and sediment and particle size by sieving and sedimentation. Data showed that Baygorria's sediments have greater percentage of clay than Bonete's (20.4 and 5.8%, respectively). Lead was measurable in Baygorria's sediments, meanwhile in Bonete's, it was always below the detection limit. In water samples, lead was below detection limit at both sites. Bioassays using sub-lethal growth and survival test with Hyalella curvispina amphipod, screening with bioluminescent bacteria Photobacterium leiognathi, and acute toxicity bioassay with Pimephales promelas fish indicated toxicity at Baygorria, with much less effect at Bonete. Even though no lethal effects could be demonstrated, higher sub-lethal toxicity was found in samples from Baygorria site, showing a possible concentration of the contaminant in the clay fraction.

  17. Hafnium and neodymium isotopes and REY distribution in the truly dissolved, nanoparticulate/colloidal and suspended loads of rivers in the Amazon Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merschel, Gila; Bau, Michael; Schmidt, Katja; Münker, Carsten; Dantas, Elton L.

    2017-09-01

    Radiogenic isotopes in river sediments and river waters have been widely used in provenance studies, as these samples naturally integrate the geology/chemistry of the entire catchment. While the Hf and Nd isotope systems are coupled during igneous processes, they are decoupled during supergene processes at the Earth's surface, which is reflected by the isotope composition of riverine sediments. We present the first data for both Hf and Nd isotope compositions of the dissolved (0.2 μm-filtrates rich in nanoparticles and colloids, NPCs) and the truly dissolved (1 kDa-ultrafiltrates) load of rivers. Hafnium and Nd isotope compositions and concentrations of the Rare Earths and Yttrium (REY) and Hf were determined for suspended particles (>0.2 μm) as well as for the dissolved and the truly dissolved load of the Rio Solimões, the Amazon's largest tributary draining the Andes, and of the Rio Negro, an organic NPC- and particle-rich river draining the rainforest of northern Amazonia. We also analyzed the Nd isotope compositions of suspended sediments and 0.2 μm-filtered water samples from the Amazon River and its tributaries Rio Tapajos, Rio Xingu and Rio Jari. Our novel results clearly show that the decoupling of the Hf and Nd isotope systems is related to incongruent weathering processes on the continent, as this decoupling can already be observed in the different Hf and Nd pools, i.e. in the particulate, the NPC-dominated dissolved and the truly dissolved load of rivers. In the Rio Negro and Rio Solimões, a strong particle size-dependent difference in Hf isotope composition is observed. Values of εHf become more radiogenic as filter poresize decreases, which can be related to the density- and size-dependent distribution of Hf-rich minerals, e.g. zircons, and their absence from the truly dissolved pool. In contrast, the Nd isotope composition of Amazonian river waters reflects that of their catchment geology. Tributaries draining the Precambrian Brazilian and

  18. Sediment budget in the Ucayali River basin, an Andean tributary of the Amazon River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Santini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Formation of mountain ranges results from complex coupling between lithospheric deformation, mechanisms linked to subduction and surface processes: weathering, erosion, and climate. Today, erosion of the eastern Andean cordillera and sub-Andean foothills supplies over 99% of the sediment load passing through the Amazon Basin. Denudation rates in the upper Ucayali basin are rapid, favoured by a marked seasonality in this region and extreme precipitation cells above sedimentary strata, uplifted during Neogene times by a still active sub-Andean tectonic thrust. Around 40% of those sediments are trapped in the Ucayali retro-foreland basin system. Recent advances in remote sensing for Amazonian large rivers now allow us to complete the ground hydrological data. In this work, we propose a first estimation of the erosion and sedimentation budget of the Ucayali River catchment, based on spatial and conventional HYBAM Observatory network.

  19. Holocene provenance shift of suspended particulate matter in the Amazon River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höppner, Natalie; Lucassen, Friedrich; Chiessi, Cristiano M.; Sawakuchi, André O.; Kasemann, Simone A.

    2018-06-01

    The strontium (Sr), neodymium (Nd) and lead (Pb) isotope signatures of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in rivers reflect the radiogenic isotope signatures of the rivers' drainage basin. These signatures are not significantly affected by weathering, transport or depositional cycles, but document the sedimentary contributions of the respective sources. We report new Sr, Nd and Pb isotope ratios and element concentrations of modern SPM from the Brazilian Amazon River basin and document the past evolution of the basin by analyzing radiogenic isotopes of a marine sediment core from the slope off French Guiana archiving the last 40 kyr of Amazon River SPM, and the Holocene section of sediment cores raised between the Amazon River mouth and the slope off French Guiana. The composition of modern SPM confirms two main source areas, the Andes and the cratonic Shield. In the marine sediment core notable changes occurred during the second phase of Heinrich Stadial 1 (i.e. increased proportion of Shield rivers SPM) and during the last deglaciation (i.e. increased proportion of Madeira River SPM) together with elsewhere constant source contributions. Furthermore, we report a prominent offset in Sr and Nd isotopic composition between the average core value (εNd: -11.7 ± 0.9 (2SD), 87Sr/86Sr: 0.7229 ± 0.0016 (2SD)) and the average modern Amazon River SPM signal (εNd: -10.5 ± 0.5 (2SD), 87Sr/86Sr: 0.7213 ± 0.0036 (2SD)). We suggest that a permanent change in the Amazon River basin sediment supply during the late Holocene to a more Andean dominated SPM was responsible for the offset.

  20. Variation of the isotopic composition of dissolved organic carbon during the runoff cycle in the Amazon River and the floodplains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albéric, Patrick; Pérez, Marcela A. P.; Moreira-Turcq, Patricia; Benedetti, Marc F.; Bouillon, Steven; Abril, Gwenaël

    2018-01-01

    Given the relative scarcity of stable isotope data on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the Amazon Basin, we hypothesized that the variability in DOC sources may be underestimated in such major river basins. To explore the links between the mainstem and tributaries and the floodplain, particular efforts were made during five distinct cruises at different stages of the hydrograph between October 2008 and January 2011, to document the spatial and temporal variation of DOC concentrations and δ13C-DOC in the central Amazon River system (Brazil). Based on more than 200 data, the spatial and temporal variability of δ13C-DOC values was found to be larger than previously reported in the same area. Although a small range of variation was observed throughout the hydrological cycle in the upper reach of the studied section (-29.2 to -29.5‰ in the Rio Negro and -28.7 to -29.0‰ in the Rio Solimões), a much larger one (-28.0 to -34.6‰) was found in the lower reach of the river, as the proportion of open lakes increased downstream in the floodplains. The low variability in the upper reaches suggests constant and homogeneous DOC sources from upland soils and flooded forest, while lower δ13C-DOC values recorded in the lower reach mainstem at high and falling waters can be attributed to a greater export of plankton-derived 13C-depleted DOC from flooded lakes. Noteworthy are the higher δ13C-DOC values measured in the Rio Madeira and the associated flooded lakes (-26.5 to -28.8‰), which may reflect the imprint from upland headwaters and a weaker density of flooded forest in the watershed. The higher δ13C-DOC values observed in the lower reach during low waters are still not fully understood. Floating meadows principally consisting of C4 macrophytes were found to increase δ13C-DOC values by ∼1.5‰ in their vicinity, but this impact was no longer noticeable at distances of ∼10 m from the plant rafts. This rather modest 13C-enrichment suggests rapid decomposition and

  1. Chemical and carbon isotope composition of Varzeas sediments and its interactions with some Amazon basin rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinelli, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    Varzea sediment samples were collected on the banks of Amazon rivers and in the most important tributaires. The samples were taken in three different river stages. The major cations, pH, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, carbon and δ 13 C values were determined. The concentration of major basic cations - Ca,Mg,K e Na were greater in the main channel sediments than in the tributaires. Probably the differences in the substrats geology and erosion regimes of the basins account for this patterns, generally. The major basic cation, total phosphorus and carbon concentration were lower in the low Amazon Varzeas. Between the three differents sampling periods, pratically the elements concentration in Varzea sediment was constant. Finally, the datas showed that the most parts of Varzea carbon sediment had it's origin in the fine particulated organic matter transported by the Amazon river. (C.D.G.) [pt

  2. Storage and remobilization of suspended sediment in the lower amazon river of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, R.H.; Dunne, T.; Richey, J.E.; Santos, U.De. M.; Salati, E.

    1985-01-01

    In the lower Amazon River, suspended sediment is stored during rising stages of the river and resuspended during falling river stages. The storage and resuspension in the reach are related to the mean slope of the flood wave on the river surface; this slope is smaller during rising river stages than during falling stages. The pattern of storage and resuspension damps out the extreme values of high and low sediment discharge and tends to keep them near the mean value between 3.0 ?? 106 and 3.5 ?? 106 metric tons per day. Mean annual discharge of suspended sediment in the lower Amazon is between 1.1 ?? 109 and 1.3 ?? 109 metric tons per year.

  3. A geomorphological assessments of the distribution of sediment sinks along the lower Amazon River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, E.; Latrubesse, E. M.

    2017-12-01

    Floodplain sediment storage budget is examined along the 1,000 km reach of the lower Amazon River based on extensive sets of remote sensing data and field measurements. Incorporating the washload discharges at gauge stations at the main channel and major tributaries, we analyzed the roles of vast floodplain on the Amazon River seasonal variability in sediment discharges. Annual washload accumulation rate on floodplain along the reach in between Manacapuru and Obidos of is estimated to be 79 Mt over inter-annual average. Period that the net loss over to the floodplain of washload coincide with discharge rising phase of the Amazon River at Obidos, when the river water level rises to make hydrologic connections to floodplain. Only during the early falling phase (July-August), 3.6 Mt of washload net gain occurred in a year, which was less than 5% of the annual net loss to the floodplain. To assess the spatial distribution of sediment sinks along the lower Amazon, we incorporated various hydro-geomorphic factors regarding floodplain geomorphic styles and morphometric parameters, such floodplain width, levee heights, water-saturated area, suspended sediment distribution over floodplain and distribution of impeded floodplain. Impeded floodplain that contains numerous large rounded lakes is the definition of active sediment sinks along the lower Amazon, which seasonally stores most of the water and traps sediment from the river. The results of these hydro-geomorphic factors collectively indicate that the extent and magnitudes of sediment sinks becomes larger downstream (from Manacapuru to Monte Alegre), which is proportionally related to the development of the water-saturated floodplain. This indicates the nonlinear geomorphic evolution of the Amazon floodplain through its longitudinal profile since the late Holocene that downstream reaches are still to be infilled with sediments (incomplete floodplain) thus acting as sediment sinks.

  4. Insight on the Peruvian Amazon River: A Planform Metric Characterization of its Morphodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A. M. P.; Ortals, C.; Frias, C. E.; Abad, J. D.; Vizcarra, J.

    2014-12-01

    Starting in Peru, the Amazon River flows through Colombia and Brazil; additionally, tributaries from Bolivia, Venezuela, and Ecuador contribute to the massive river and its unique geomorphic features. Accordingly, the Amazon Basin has become an important aspect of South America; it is an area of extraordinary biodiversity, rich resources, and unique cultures. However, due to the sheer magnitude and exceptionality of the Amazon River, research regarding the morphodynamic processes that shape and define the river has been difficult. Consequently, current research has not completely understood the planform dynamics of some portions of this river that present a main channel and secondary channels known as "anabranching structures". The purpose of this research was to gain an understanding of the geomorphology of the upper Amazon, the Peruvian section, by obtaining migration rates and planform metrics, including channel count, length, width, and sinuosity, as well as island count, area, and shape. With this data, the morphodynamics of the Peruvian Amazon, especially the relationship between the main channel and its secondary channels in each "anabranching structure" along the river, could be analyzed according to correlations found between various metrics. This analysis was carried out for 5-year time spans over a period of 25 years. Preliminary results showed that the average migration rate versus channel bend radius envelope peak is lower for the secondary channels than for the main channel. However, the maximum migration rate was not always found in the main channel; for several structures, the most dynamic channels were the secondary ones. This implies a certain periodicity to the river's migratory patterns that could be related to the valley boundaries, the local channel sinuosity or geological formations in the study area.

  5. The implantation process of oral health services in indian communities of the rivers Tiquié and Uaupés – special indian sanitary district for the Alto Rio Negro – Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Aparecida Chaves NUNES

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reconstitutes the implantation process of oral health services in Indian communities of the rivers Tiquié and Uaupés – Special Indian Sanitary District for the Alto Rio NegroAmazons. In the political, administrative, anthropological and socioeconomic context, it aims at identifying its contribution to the organization of basic attention in oral health and its reflexes in the assistance provided. The reality in the realm of contracts 439/99 and 2349/00 is established as a recut, celebrated between Fundação Nacional de Saúde and the Associação Saúde Sem Limites in the period of 2000 – 2001 which object is the organization of health services in the Tiquié and Uaupés rivers area, in the implantation process context at the Rio Negro’s Special Indian Sanitary District. It reveals the strategical dimension of establishing, in the field of organization and operation of the services, the guiding principles of Unique Health System. It points out, as fundamental in the oral health basic attention, the local planning, with emphasis in a greater visualization of life reality of the local population. Its daily practice reflects the restrictions regarding the political, technical and administrative sectors in order to define projects propose intervention mechanisms, allocate and manage the existing resources and the potential ones including human resources. It is necessary that the managers assume the challenges of power, work and knowledge relations between the population and the professionals and among different groups of these segments.

  6. Interannual variability in water storage over 2003-2008 in the Amazon Basin from GRACE space gravimetry, in situ river level and precipitation data

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier , L.; Becker , M.; Cazenave , A.; Longuevergne , L.; Llovel , W.; Rotunno Filho , Otto Correa

    2012-01-01

    International audience; We investigate the interannual variability over 2003-2008 of different hydrological parameters in the Amazon river basin: (1) vertically-integrated water storage from the GRACE space gravimetry mission, (2) surface water level of the Amazon River and its tributaries from in situ gauge stations, and (3) precipitation. We analyze the spatio-temporal evolution of total water storage from GRACE and in situ river level along the Amazon River and its main tributaries and not...

  7. Determination of inundation area in the Amazon River floodplain using the SMMR 37 GHz polarization difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sippel, S.J.; Hamilton, S.K.; Melack, J.M.; Choudhury, B.J.

    1994-01-01

    The 37 GHz polarization difference observed by the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR), which was operated on board the Nimbus-7 satellite, provides a sensitive indicator of surface water. These data can provide information on seasonal inundation patterns in large tropical wetlands such as the Amazon River floodplain. Although the SMMR data are of low resolution, we were able to estimate the area inundated within a group of pixels by using linear mixing models which incorporate the major end-members of the observed microwave signatures. The models were then used to estimate seasonal changes in inundation area over a 7-year period for a 34,550 km 2 area along the Amazon River near Manaus. The seasonal changes in inundation area determined using mixing models correlate well with changes in river stage. (author)

  8. Distribution and flux of 226Ra and 228Ra in the Amazon River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, R.M.; Sarmiento, J.L.; Stallard, R.F.; Moore, W.S.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of 226 Ra and 228 Ra in the Amazon River estuary show that desorption from riverborne suspended particulate matter in the estuary increases the riverine flux of both isotopes to the ocean by a factor of approximately 5 over the flux attributable to radium dissolved in the river water alone. The total Amazon flux supplies approximately 0.20% of the 226 Ra and approximately 2.6% of the 228 Ra standing crops in the near-surface Atlantic (0-200 m). Diffusive flux from estuarine and shelf sediments and desorption from resuspended sediments in the region of the estuary approximately double the estuarine 226 Ra concentration and quadruple the estuarine 228 Ra concentration above that caused by the dissolved and desorbed river components alone

  9. Eustatic and tectonic change effects in the reversion of the transcontinental Amazon River drainage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Vicente Caputo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The development of the transcontinental Amazon River System involved geological events in the Andes Chain; Vaupés, Purus and Gurupá arches; sedimentary basins of the region and sea level changes. The origin and age of this river have been discussed for decades, and many ideas have been proposed, including those pertaining to it having originated in the Holocene, Pleistocene, Pliocene, Late Miocene, or even earlier times. Under this context, the geology of the sedimentary basins of northern Brazil has been analyzed from the Mesozoic time on, and some clarifications are placed on its stratigraphy. Vaupés Arch, in Colombia, was uplifted together with the Andean Mountains in the Middle Miocene time. In the Cenozoic Era, the Purus Arch has not blocked this drainage system westward to marine basins of Western South America or eastward to the Atlantic Ocean. Also the Gurupá Arch remained high up to the end of Middle Miocene, directing this drainage system westward. With the late subsidence and breaching of the Gurupá Arch and a major fall in sea level, at the beginning of the Late Miocene, the Amazon River quickly opened its pathway to the west, from the Marajó Basin, through deep headward erosion, capturing a vast drainage network from cratonic and Andean areas, which had previously been diverted towards the Caribbean Sea. During this time, the large siliciclastic influx to the Amazon Mouth (Foz do Amazonas Basin and its fan increased, due to erosion of large tracts of South America, linking the Amazon drainage network to that of the Marajó Basin. This extensive exposure originated the Late Miocene (Tortonian unconformity, which marks the onset of the transcontinental Amazon River flowing into the Atlantic Ocean.

  10. Assessment of climate change impacts on streamflow dynamics in the headwaters of the Amazon River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Y.; Beighley, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Amazon River basin is the largest watershed in the world containing thousands of tributaries. Although the mainstream and its larger tributaries have been the focus on much research, there has been few studies focused on the hydrodynamics of smaller rivers in the foothills of the Andes Mountains. These smaller rivers are of particular importance for the fishery industry because fish migrate up these headwater rivers to spawn. During the rainy season, fish wait for storm event to increase water depths to a sufficient level for their passage. Understanding how streamflow dynamics will change in response to future conditions is vital for the sustainable management of the fishery industry. In this paper, we focus on improving the accuracy of river discharge estimates on relatively small-scale sub-catchments (100 ~ 40,000 km2) in the headwaters of the Amazon River basin. The Hillslope River Routing (HRR) hydrologic model and remotely sensed datasets are used. We provide annual runoff, seasonal patterns, and daily discharge characteristics for 81 known migration reaches. The model is calibrated for the period 2000-2014 and climate forecasts for the period 2070-2100 are used to assess future changes in streamflow dynamics. The forecasts for the 2070 to 2100 period were obtained by selecting 5 climate models from IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) based on their ability to represent the main aspects of recent (1970 to 2000) Amazon climate. The river network for the HRR model is developing using surface topography based on the SRTM digital elevation model. Key model forcings include precipitation (TRMM 3B42) and evapotranspiration (MODIS ET, MOD16). Model parameters for soil depth, hydraulic conductivity, runoff coefficients and lateral routing were initially approximated based on literature values and adjusted during calibration. Measurements from stream gauges located near the reaches of interest were used for

  11. Passive microwave observations of inundation area and the area/stage relation in the Amazon River floodplain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sippel, S.J.; Hamilton, S.K.; Melack, J.M.; Novo, E.M.M.

    1998-01-01

    Inundation patterns in Amazon River floodplains are revealed by analysis of the 37GHz polarization difference observed by the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer on the Nimbus-7 satellite. Flooded area is estimated at monthly intervals for January 1979 through August 1987 using mixing models that account for the major landscape units with distinctive microwave emission characteristics. Results are presented separately for 12 longitudinal reaches along the Amazon River main stem in Brazil as well as for three major tributaries (the Jurua, Purus and Madeira rivers). The total area along the Amazon River main stem that was flooded (including both floodplain and open water) varied between 19 000 and 91 000 km 2 . The correlation between flooded area and river stage is used to develop a predictive relationship and reconstruct regional inundation patterns in the floodplain of the Amazon River main stem over the past 94 years of stage records (1903± 1996). The mean flooded area along the Amazon River during this 94-year period was 46 800 km 2 , of which the openwater surfaces of river channels and floodplain lakes comprised about 20 700 km 2 . (author)

  12. Simulating hydrologic and hydraulic processes throughout the Amazon River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beighley, R.E.; Eggert, K.G.; Dunne, T.; He, Y.; Gummadi, V.; Verdin, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    Presented here is a model framework based on a land surface topography that can be represented with various degrees of resolution and capable of providing representative channel/floodplain hydraulic characteristics on a daily to hourly scale. The framework integrates two models: (1) a water balance model (WBM) for the vertical fluxes and stores of water in and through the canopy and soil layers based on the conservation of mass and energy, and (2) a routing model for the horizontal routing of surface and subsurface runoff and channel and floodplain waters based on kinematic and diffusion wave methodologies. The WBM is driven by satellite-derived precipitation (TRMM_3B42) and air temperature (MOD08_M3). The model's use of an irregular computational grid is intended to facilitate parallel processing for applications to continental and global scales. Results are presented for the Amazon Basin over the period Jan 2001 through Dec 2005. The model is shown to capture annual runoff totals, annual peaks, seasonal patterns, and daily fluctuations over a range of spatial scales (>1, 000 to Amazon vary by approximately + /− 5 to 10 cm, and the fractional components accounting for these changes are: root zone soil moisture (20%), subsurface water being routed laterally to channels (40%) and channel/floodplain discharge (40%). Annual variability in monthly water storage changes by + /− 2·5 cm is likely due to 0·5 to 1 month variability in the arrival of significant rainfall periods throughout the basin.

  13. Scaling properties reveal regulation of river flows in the Amazon through a forest reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Salazar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Many natural and social phenomena depend on river flow regimes that are being altered by global change. Understanding the mechanisms behind such alterations is crucial for predicting river flow regimes in a changing environment. Here we introduce a novel physical interpretation of the scaling properties of river flows and show that it leads to a parsimonious characterization of the flow regime of any river basin. This allows river basins to be classified as regulated or unregulated, and to identify a critical threshold between these states. We applied this framework to the Amazon river basin and found both states among its main tributaries. Then we introduce the forest reservoir hypothesis to describe the natural capacity of river basins to regulate river flows through land–atmosphere interactions (mainly precipitation recycling that depend strongly on the presence of forests. A critical implication is that forest loss can force the Amazonian river basins from regulated to unregulated states. Our results provide theoretical and applied foundations for predicting hydrological impacts of global change, including the detection of early-warning signals for critical transitions in river basins.

  14. Scaling properties reveal regulation of river flows in the Amazon through a forest reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Juan Fernando; Villegas, Juan Camilo; María Rendón, Angela; Rodríguez, Estiven; Hoyos, Isabel; Mercado-Bettín, Daniel; Poveda, Germán

    2018-03-01

    Many natural and social phenomena depend on river flow regimes that are being altered by global change. Understanding the mechanisms behind such alterations is crucial for predicting river flow regimes in a changing environment. Here we introduce a novel physical interpretation of the scaling properties of river flows and show that it leads to a parsimonious characterization of the flow regime of any river basin. This allows river basins to be classified as regulated or unregulated, and to identify a critical threshold between these states. We applied this framework to the Amazon river basin and found both states among its main tributaries. Then we introduce the forest reservoir hypothesis to describe the natural capacity of river basins to regulate river flows through land-atmosphere interactions (mainly precipitation recycling) that depend strongly on the presence of forests. A critical implication is that forest loss can force the Amazonian river basins from regulated to unregulated states. Our results provide theoretical and applied foundations for predicting hydrological impacts of global change, including the detection of early-warning signals for critical transitions in river basins.

  15. Patterns of Bacterial and Archaeal Gene Expression through the Lower Amazon River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satinsky, Brandon M.; Smith, Christa B.; Sharma, Shalabh; Ward, Nicholas D.; Krusche, Alex V.; Richey, Jeffrey E.; Yager, Patricia L.; Crump, Byron C.; Moran, Mary Ann

    2017-08-08

    Analysis of metatranscriptomic and metagenomic datasets from the lower reaches of the Amazon River between Obidos and the river mouth revealed microbial transcript and gene pools dominated by Actinobacteria, Thaumarchaeota, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Planctomycetes. Three mainstem stations spanning a 625 km reach had similar gene expression patterns (transcripts gene copy-1) across a diverse suite of element cycling genes, but two tributary-influenced stations at the mouth of the Tapajos River and near the Tocantins River at Belem had distinct transcriptome composition and expression ratios, particularly for genes encoding light-related energy capture (higher) and iron acquisition and ammonia oxidation (lower). Environmental parameters that were useful predictors of gene expression ratios included concentrations of lignin phenols, suspended sediments, nitrate, phosphate, and particulate organic carbon and nitrogen. Similar to the gene expression data, these chemical properties reflected highly homogeneous mainstem stations punctuated by distinct tributary- influenced stations at Tapajos and Belem. Although heterotrophic processes were expected to dominate in the lower Amazon, transcripts from photosynthetic bacteria were abundant in tributary-influenced regions, and transcripts from Thaumarcheota taxa genetically capable of chemosynthetic ammonia oxidation accounted for up to 21% of the transcriptome at others. Based on regressions of transcript numbers against gene numbers, expression ratios of Thaumarchaeota populations were largely unchanged within the mainstem, suggesting a relatively minor role for gene regulation. These quantitative gene and transcript inventories detail a diverse array of energy acquisition strategies and metabolic capabilities for bacteria and archaea populations of the world’s largest river system.

  16. Isotopic variation of oxygen in the water of river Solimoes/Amazon and its main tributaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortatti, J.; Martinelli, L.A.; Matsui, E.; Victoria, R.L.; Richey, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Eight cruises in the Amazon Basin were realized during the period between April (1982) and August (1984). Waters of main channel of the River Solimoes/Amazon and its tributaries were sampled and analysed for sup(18)0 content by mass spectrometry. A depth integrated sampler coupled to a variable speed hydraulic winch was used. The sampling was accomplished at different river stages, at upper Solimoes, middle and lower Amazon region. The δ sup(18) 0 values obtained in these reaches showed the same seasonal variation pattern. In the dry season, δ sup(18) 0 values become higher than in the rainy season. The isotopic variability in the region may be explained by the origin and dynamics of the water vapour. The spatial variation in δ sup(18) 0 values at the main channel was compared for high and low water stages; it showed an isotopic gradient of 0.052 and 0.048 sup(0)/∞ δ sup(18) 0/100 km, respectively. (author)

  17. Purus River suspended sediment variability and contributions to the Amazon River from satellite data (2000-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Andre Luis Martinelli Real dos; Martinez, Jean Michel; Filizola, Naziano Pantoja; Armijos, Elisa; Alves, Luna Gripp Simões

    2018-01-01

    The Purus River is one of the major tributaries of Solimões River in Brazil, draining an area of 370,091 km2 and stretching over 2765 km. Unlike those of the other main tributaries of the Amazon River, the Purus River's sediment discharge is poorly characterized. In this study, as an alternative to the logistic difficulties and considering high monitoring costs, we report an experiment where field measurement data and 2700 satellite (MODIS) images are combined to retrieve both seasonal and interannual dynamics in terms of the Purus river sediment discharge near its confluence with the Solimões River. Field radiometric and hydrologic measurements were acquired during 18 sampling trips, including 115 surface water samples and 61 river discharge measurements. Remote sensing reflectance gave important results in the red and infrared levels. They were very well correlated with suspended sediment concentration. The values of R2 are greater than 0.8 (red band) and 0.9 (NIR band). A retrieval algorithm based on the reflectance in both the red and the infrared was calibrated using the water samples collected for the determination of the surface-suspended sediment concentration (SSS). The algorithm was used to calculate 16 years of SSS time series with MODIS images at the Purus River near its confluence with the Solimões River. Results from satellite data correlated with in situ SSS values validate the use of satellite data to be used as a tool to monitor SSS in the Purus River. We evidenced a very short and intense sediment discharge pulse with 55% of the annual sediment budget discharged during the months of January and February. Using river discharge records, we calculated the mean annual sediment discharge of the Purus River at about of 17 Mt·yr-1.

  18. Amazon River carbon dioxide outgassing fuelled by wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abril, G.; Martinez, J.M.; Artigas, L.F.; Moreira-Turcq, P.; Benedetti, M.F.; Vidal, L.; Meziane, T.; Kim, J.-H.; Bernardes, M.C.; Savoye, N.; Deborde, J.; Souza, E.L.; Alberic, P.; de Souza, M.F.L.; Roland, F.

    2014-01-01

    River systems connect the terrestrial biosphere, the atmosphere and the ocean in the global carbon cycle(1). A recent estimate suggests that up to 3 petagrams of carbon per year could be emitted as carbon dioxide (CO2) from global inland waters, offsetting the carbon uptake by terrestrial

  19. Origin and processing of terrestrial organic carbon in the Amazon system: lignin phenols in river, shelf, and fan sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuwen; Schefuß, Enno; Mulitza, Stefan; Chiessi, Cristiano M.; Sawakuchi, André O.; Zabel, Matthias; Baker, Paul A.; Hefter, Jens; Mollenhauer, Gesine

    2017-05-01

    The Amazon River transports large amounts of terrestrial organic carbon (OCterr) from the Andean and Amazon neotropical forests to the Atlantic Ocean. In order to compare the biogeochemical characteristics of OCterr in the fluvial sediments from the Amazon drainage basin and in the adjacent marine sediments, we analysed riverbed sediments from the Amazon mainstream and its main tributaries as well as marine surface sediments from the Amazon shelf and fan for total organic carbon (TOC) content, organic carbon isotopic composition (δ13CTOC), and lignin phenol compositions. TOC and lignin content exhibit positive correlations with Al / Si ratios (indicative of the sediment grain size) implying that the grain size of sediment discharged by the Amazon River plays an important role in the preservation of TOC and leads to preferential preservation of lignin phenols in fine particles. Depleted δ13CTOC values (-26.1 to -29.9 ‰) in the main tributaries consistently correspond with the dominance of C3 vegetation. Ratios of syringyl to vanillyl (S / V) and cinnamyl to vanillyl (C / V) lignin phenols suggest that non-woody angiosperm tissues are the dominant source of lignin in the Amazon basin. Although the Amazon basin hosts a rich diversity of vascular plant types, distinct regional lignin compositions are not observed. In the marine sediments, the distribution of δ13CTOC and Λ8 (sum of eight lignin phenols in organic carbon (OC), expressed as mg/100 mg OC) values implies that OCterr discharged by the Amazon River is transported north-westward by the North Brazil Current and mostly deposited on the inner shelf. The lignin compositions in offshore sediments under the influence of the Amazon plume are consistent with the riverbed samples suggesting that processing of OCterr during offshore transport does not change the encoded source information. Therefore, the lignin compositions preserved in these offshore sediments can reliably reflect the vegetation in the Amazon

  20. DIVERSITY AND SPATIO-TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE ICHTHYOPLANKTON IN THE LOWER AMAZON RIVER, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Maia Zacardi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated (i the taxonomic composition of the larval fish fauna of the lower Amazon River, (ii the structure of the larval assemblage, and (iii the relationship between the abundance of the ichthyoplankton and environmental variables, in order to evaluate the importance of this river sector as spawning and nursery grounds for the region’s fish species. Data were collected monthly between January and December 2013 during the day and at night sampling cycles. A total of 2,295 fish eggs and 46,298 larvae were collected, quantified and classified larvae in 63 taxa. These larvae belonged to species with a variety of reproductive strategies. Individuals at a very early stage of development made up 92% of the specimens collected. High densities of larvae were recorded between January and March, corresponding to the breeding season of most of the species exploited by local fisheries. This peak in density was associated with the period in which rainfall, river water levels, and dissolved oxygen concentrations all peaked, while pH and electrical conductivity reached their lowest levels. The results of the present study confirmed that a number of different fish species use the margins of the lower Amazon river as spawning grounds and nurseries, as well as dispersal routes. This emphasizes the importance of these areas for the reproduction of local fish species and the maintenance of their populations, and highlights the need for the preservation of these areas and the more effective regulation of the closed season. Keywords: Amazon; distribution; fish eggs and larvae; environmental variables; conservation.

  1. Virioplankton Assemblage Structure in the Lower River and Ocean Continuum of the Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Bruno S. de O.; Coutinho, Felipe H.; Gregoracci, Gustavo B.; Leomil, Luciana; de Oliveira, Louisi S.; Fróes, Adriana; Tschoeke, Diogo; Soares, Ana Carolina; Cabral, Anderson S.; Ward, Nicholas D.; Richey, Jeffrey E.; Krusche, Alex V.; Yager, Patricia L.; de Rezende, Carlos Eduardo; Thompson, Cristiane C.; Thompson, Fabiano L.; Imperiale, Michael J.

    2017-10-04

    ABSTRACT

    The Amazon River watershed and its associated plume comprise a vast continental and oceanic area. The microbial activities along this continuum contribute substantially to global carbon and nutrient cycling, and yet there is a dearth of information on the diversity, abundance, and possible roles of viruses in this globally important river. The aim of this study was to elucidate the diversity and structure of virus assemblages of the Amazon River-ocean continuum. Environmental viral DNA sequences were obtained for 12 locations along the river’s lower reach (n= 5) and plume (n= 7). Sequence assembly yielded 29,358 scaffolds, encoding 82,546 viral proteins, with 15 new complete viral genomes. Despite the spatial connectivity mediated by the river, virome analyses and physical-chemical water parameters clearly distinguished river and plume ecosystems. Bacteriophages were ubiquitous in the continuum and were more abundant in the transition region. Eukaryotic viruses occurred mostly in the river, while the plume had more viruses of autotrophic organisms (Prochlorococcus,Synechococcus) and heterotrophic bacteria (Pelagibacter). The viral familiesMicroviridaeandMyoviridaewere the most abundant and occurred throughout the continuum. The major functions of the genes in the continuum involved viral structures and life cycles, and viruses from plume locations and Tapajós River showed the highest levels of functional diversity. The distribution patterns of the viral assemblages were defined not only by the occurrence of possible hosts but also by water physical and chemical parameters, especially salinity. The findings presented here help to improve understanding of the possible roles of viruses in the organic matter cycle along the river-ocean continuum.

    IMPORTANCEThe Amazon River forms a vast plume in the

  2. Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) use a high-frequency short-range biosonar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladegaard, Michael; Jensen, Frants Havmand; de Freitas, Mafalda

    2015-01-01

    to interpret in acoustically complex habitats, echolocation clicks of wild Amazon river dolphins were recorded using a vertical seven-hydrophone array. We identified 404 on-axis biosonar clicks having a mean SLpp of 190.3±6.1 dB re. 1 μPa, mean SLEFD of 132.1±6.0 dB re. 1 μPa2s, mean Fc of 101.2±10.5 kHz, mean...

  3. Recovery of Methane Consumption by Secondary Forests in the Amazon River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, K. D.; Meredith, L. K.; Piccini, W.; Pedrinho, A.; Nüsslein, K.; Van Haren, J. L. M.; Camargo, P. B. D.; Mui, T. S.; Saleska, S. R.

    2017-12-01

    Methane (CH4) is a major greenhouse gas in Earth's atmosphere and its atmospheric global mole fraction has roughly doubled since the start of the industrial revolution. The tropics are thought to be a major CH4 emitter, with the Amazon River Basin estimated to contribute 7 % of the annual flux to the atmosphere. The Amazon has experienced extensive land use change during the past 30 years, but we lack an understanding of the qualitative and quantitative effects of land use change on CH4 flux from the Amazon and the associated reasons. To illuminate the factors controlling CH4 flux across land use gradients in the Amazon we measured the CH4 fluxes and will measure the associated stable isotopic composition from pastures, primary forests, and secondary forests, at Ariquemes (Western Amazon, more deforested), and Santarem (Eastern Amazon, less deforested), Brazil. The sites near Santarem were sampled in June of 2016 and the sites near Ariquemes were sampled in March and April of 2017, both at the end of the wet season. Little difference was observed between land use types in Santarem with each land use type slightly consuming atmospheric CH4. However, pasture fluxes at Ariquemes were higher (+520 μg-C m-2 hr-1) than in primary (0 μg-C m-2 hr-1) and secondary forests (-20 μg-C m-2 hr-1; p = 6*10-4). CH4 flux from individual Santarem sites was not correlated with environmental variables. CH4 flux from Airquemes was correlated with several parameters across all samples including soil temperature (p = 7*10-4), and soil humidity (p = 0.02). Despite the fact that pastures experienced higher soil temperatures than forest soils this appears to be a low predictor of CH4 flux from these environments as it was seen at both Santarem and Ariquemes. The analysis of the stable isotopic composition of CH4 from these chambers will aid in understanding the competing processes of microbial CH4 consumption and production in these soils and why pastures may become CH4 sources and

  4. Patterns of Bacterial and Archaeal Gene Expression through the Lower Amazon River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon M. Satinsky

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of metatranscriptomic and metagenomic datasets from the lower reaches of the Amazon River between Óbidos and the river mouth revealed microbial transcript and gene pools dominated by Actinobacteria, Thaumarchaeota, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Planctomycetes. Three mainstem stations spanning a 625 km reach had similar gene expression patterns (transcripts gene copy−1 across a diverse suite of element cycling genes, but two tributary-influenced stations at the mouth of the Tapajós River and near the Tocantins River at Belém had distinct transcriptome composition and expression ratios, particularly for genes encoding light-related energy capture (higher and iron acquisition and ammonia oxidation (lower. Environmental parameters that were useful predictors of gene expression ratios included concentrations of lignin phenols, suspended sediments, nitrate, phosphate, and particulate organic carbon and nitrogen. Similar to the gene expression data, these chemical properties reflected highly homogeneous mainstem stations punctuated by distinct tributary-influenced stations at Tapajós and Belém. Although heterotrophic processes were expected to dominate in the lower Amazon, transcripts from photosynthetic bacteria were abundant in tributary-influenced regions, and transcripts from Thaumarcheota taxa genetically capable of chemosynthetic ammonia oxidation accounted for up to 21% of the transcriptome at others. Based on regressions of transcript numbers against gene numbers, expression ratios of Thaumarchaeota populations were largely unchanged within the mainstem, suggesting a relatively minor role for gene regulation. These quantitative gene and transcript inventories detail a diverse array of energy acquisition strategies and metabolic capabilities for bacteria and archaea populations of the world's largest river system.

  5. Trophic ecology of two piranha species, Pygocentrus nattereri and Serrasalmus marginatus (Characiformes, Characidae, in the floodplain of the Negro River, Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Silva Ferreira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study aimed to evaluate influence of hydrological variation, ontogeny and interspecific variation in the feeding activity and diet composition for P. nattereri and S. marginatus in floodplain of Negro River, South Pantanal. METHODS: The samples were taken with the use of gillnets and cast nets of different sizes, from October/2005 to August/2008. RESULTS: We sampled 748 specimens, 442 of P. nattereri and 306 of S. marginatus. We identified 31 items in the dry and 14 in the flood season for P. nattereri, and 29 items in the dry and eight in the flood season for S. marginatus. For both species, fish was the predominant food item in both seasons. The PERMANOVA results showed that the diet varied significantly between the two species (p<0.001, during ontogenetic development (p<0.001 and seasonally (p=0.024. The ancova results suggests that the intensity of food intake was higher in the dry season (p<0.001 for both species. The niche breadth varied only between studied species with S. marginatus presenting higher niche breadth than P. nattereri. CONCLUSION: Piranhas feed more during dry season, probably because in this period food is more varied and abundant, due to the concentration of fish in the main river channel. There were ontogenetic changes in the diet, with no feeding overlap between the two species, probably because of differences in preference for some items and differences in feeding behavior displayed during hunting attacks.

  6. Palms and Palm Communities in the Upper Ucayali River Valley - a Little-Known Region in the Amazon Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik; Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Kristiansen, Thea

    2010-01-01

    The Amazon region and its palms are inseparable. Palms make up such an important part of the rain forest ecosystem that it is impossible to imagine the Amazon basin without them. Palms are visible in the canopy and often fill up the forest understory. Palms – because of their edible fruits...... – are cornerstone species for the survival of many animals, and palms contribute substantially to forest inventories in which they are often among the ten most important families. Still, the palms and palm communities of some parts of the Amazon basin remain poorly studied and little known. We travelled to a little......-explored corner of the western Amazon basin, the upper Ucayali river valley. There, we encountered 56 different palms, 18 of which had not been registered for the region previously, and 21 of them were found 150–400 km beyond their previously known limits....

  7. Luminescence of quartz and feldspar fingerprints provenance and correlates with the source area denudation in the Amazon River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawakuchi, A. O.; Jain, M.; Mineli, T. D.; Nogueira, L.; Bertassoli, D. J.; Häggi, C.; Sawakuchi, H. O.; Pupim, F. N.; Grohmann, C. H.; Chiessi, C. M.; Zabel, M.; Mulitza, S.; Mazoca, C. E. M.; Cunha, D. F.

    2018-06-01

    The Amazon region hosts the world's largest watershed spanning from high elevation Andean terrains to lowland cratonic shield areas in tropical South America. This study explores variations in optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) signals in suspended silt and riverbed sands retrieved from major Amazon rivers. These rivers drain Pre-Cambrian to Cenozoic source rocks in areas with contrasting denudation rates. In contrast to the previous studies, we do not observe an increase in the OSL sensitivity of quartz with transport distance; for example, Tapajós and Xingu Rivers show more sensitive quartz than Solimões and Madeira Rivers, even though the latter have a significantly larger catchment area and longer sediment transport distance. Interestingly, high sensitivity quartz is observed in rivers draining relatively stable Central Brazil and Guiana shield areas (denudation rate ξ = 0.04 mmyr-1), while low sensitivity quartz occurs in less stable Andean terrains (ξ = 0.24 mmyr-1). An apparent linear correlation between quartz OSL sensitivity and denudation rate suggests that OSL sensitivity may be used as a proxy for erosion rates in the Amazon basin. Furthermore, luminescence sensitivity measured in sand or silt arises from the same mineral components (quartz and feldspar) and clearly discriminates between Andean and shield sediments, avoiding the grain size bias in provenance analysis. These results have implications for using luminescence sensitivity as a proxy for Andean and shield contributions in the stratigraphic record, providing a new tool to reconstruct past drainage configurations within the Amazon basin.

  8. Swath-altimetry measurements of the main stem Amazon River: measurement errors and hydraulic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M. D.; Durand, M.; Jung, H. C.; Alsdorf, D.

    2015-04-01

    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, scheduled for launch in 2020, will provide a step-change improvement in the measurement of terrestrial surface-water storage and dynamics. In particular, it will provide the first, routine two-dimensional measurements of water-surface elevations. In this paper, we aimed to (i) characterise and illustrate in two dimensions the errors which may be found in SWOT swath measurements of terrestrial surface water, (ii) simulate the spatio-temporal sampling scheme of SWOT for the Amazon, and (iii) assess the impact of each of these on estimates of water-surface slope and river discharge which may be obtained from SWOT imagery. We based our analysis on a virtual mission for a ~260 km reach of the central Amazon (Solimões) River, using a hydraulic model to provide water-surface elevations according to SWOT spatio-temporal sampling to which errors were added based on a two-dimensional height error spectrum derived from the SWOT design requirements. We thereby obtained water-surface elevation measurements for the Amazon main stem as may be observed by SWOT. Using these measurements, we derived estimates of river slope and discharge and compared them to those obtained directly from the hydraulic model. We found that cross-channel and along-reach averaging of SWOT measurements using reach lengths greater than 4 km for the Solimões and 7.5 km for Purus reduced the effect of systematic height errors, enabling discharge to be reproduced accurately from the water height, assuming known bathymetry and friction. Using cross-sectional averaging and 20 km reach lengths, results show Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency values of 0.99 for the Solimões and 0.88 for the Purus, with 2.6 and 19.1 % average overall error in discharge, respectively. We extend the results to other rivers worldwide and infer that SWOT-derived discharge estimates may be more accurate for rivers with larger channel widths (permitting a greater level of cross

  9. Tapeworms (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea) of firewood catfish Sorubimichthys planiceps (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) from the Amazon River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chambrier, Alain; Scholz, Tomás

    2008-03-01

    A survey of proteocephalidean cestodes found in the firewood catfish Sorubimichthys planiceps (Spix et Agassiz) from the Amazon River is provided. The following taxa parasitic in S. planiceps are redescribed on the basis of their type specimens and material collected recently in the Amazon River, near the type localities in Brazil, and in Iquitos, Peru: Monticellia lenha Woodland, 1933; Nomimoscolex lenha (Woodland, 1933) (syn. Proteocephalus lenha Woodland, 1933); and Monticellia megacephala Woodland, 1934, for which a new genus, Lenhataenia, is proposed, with L. megacephala (Woodland, 1934) comb. n. as its type and only species. The new genus is a member of the Monticelliinae, i.e. has all genital organs in the cortex, and is most similar to Chambriella in possessing biloculate suckers and lacking a metascolex. It differs in the morphology of the cirrus-sac that contains a strongly coiled, thick-walled internal sperm duct (vas deferens) and a muscular cirrus of the appearance typical of most proteocephalideans, whereas that of Chambriella is sigmoid, with voluminous, tightly sinuous thick-walled internal sperm duct. In addition, Lenhataenia possesses a well developed internal musculature, whereas the internal musculature of Chambriella is weakly developed, formed by a low number of muscle fibres. The scolex morphology and distribution of microtriches of Peltidocotyle lenha (Woodland, 1933) (syn. Othinoscolex lenha Woodland, 1933 and Othinoscolex myzofer Woodland, 1933), Chambriella sp. and Choanoscolex sp. are described using scanning electron microscopy. The two latter taxa may be new for science and are reported from S. planiceps for the first time.

  10. Surface water quality and deforestation of the Purus river basin, Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Antonio Ríos-Villamizar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the last years, deforestation constitutes a threat for the aquatic ecosystems. This paper aims to characterize the water quality of the Purus river in the Brazilian Amazon, and investigate the relations between water quality and deforestation of the Purus river basin over a 9-year period, as well as to quantify the Purus river basin’s land cover changes (% in a 5-year period. Sampling data from upstream to downstream show a decrease in pH-value, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, and total suspended solids. Correlation analysis revealed a significant negative correlation of the accumulated total deforestation values (km2 with the pH-value (in all the study sites, and a significant positive correlation with temperature (only in two sites. However, the deforestation rates (km2/year did not present, in none of the study stations, any significant correlation with water quality parameters. It seems that the effects of deforestation on water quality are related not with the rate but with the total area deforested. It was estimated that the basin’s forested area decreased by 5.17%. Since similar attributes are common in other basins of the whitewater systems of the Brazilian Amazon, this results may be seen as a warning on the effects of deforestation on water quality (reduction in pH and increment in temperature values, in larger areas than those of our study sites. To maintain the conservation and preservation status of the Purus river basin, it is necessary, the implementation of a transboundary watershed management program that could serve as a conservation model for Brazil and other countries of the Amazonian region.

  11. The influence of tides on biogeochemical dynamics at the mouth of the Amazon River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, N. D.; Sawakuchi, H. O.; Neu, V.; de Matos Valerio, A.; Less, D.; Guedes, V.; Wood, J.; Brito, D. C.; Cunha, A. C.; Kampel, M.; Richey, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    A major barrier to computing the flux of constituents from the world's largest rivers to the ocean is understanding the dynamic processes that occur along tidally-influenced river reaches. Here, we examine the response of a suite of biogeochemical parameters to tide-induced flow reversals at the mouth of the Amazon River. Continuous measurements of pCO2, pCH4, dissolved O2, pH, turbidity, and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) were made throughout tidal cycles while held stationary in the center of the river and during hourly transects for ADCP discharge measurements. Samples were collected hourly from the surface and 50% depth during stationary samplings and from the surface during ADCP transects for analysis of suspended sediment concentrations along with other parameters such as nutrient and mercury concentrations. Suspended sediment and specific components of the suspended phase, such as particulate mercury, concentrations were positively correlated to mean river velocity during both high and low water periods with a more pronounced response at 50% depth than the surface. Tidal variations also influenced the concentration of O2 and CO2 by altering the dynamic balance between photosynthesis, respiration, and gas transfer. CO2 was positively correlated and O2 and pH were negatively correlated with river velocity. The concentration of methane generally increased during low tide (i.e. when river water level was lowest) both in the mainstem and in small side channels. In side channels concentrations increased by several orders of magnitude during low tide with visible bubbling from the sediment, presumably due to a release of hydrostatic pressure. These results suggest that biogeochemical processes are highly dynamic in tidal rivers, and these dynamic variations need to be quantified to better constrain global and regional scale budgets. Understanding these rapid processes may also provide insight into the long-term response of aquatic systems to change.

  12. Amazon River dissolved load: temporal dynamics and annual budget from the Andes to the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moquet, Jean-Sébastien; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Crave, Alain; Viers, Jérôme; Filizola, Naziano; Martinez, Jean-Michel; Oliveira, Tereza Cristina; Sánchez, Liz Stefanny Hidalgo; Lagane, Christelle; Casimiro, Waldo Sven Lavado; Noriega, Luis; Pombosa, Rodrigo

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study is to estimate the export fluxes of major dissolved species at the scale of the Amazon basin, to identify the main parameters controlling their spatial distribution and to identify the role of discharge variability in the variability of the total dissolved solid (TDS) flux through the hydrological cycle. Data are compiled from the monthly hydrochemistry and daily discharge database of the "Programa Climatologico y Hidrologico de la Cuenca Amazonica de Bolivia" (PHICAB) and the HYBAM observatories from 34 stations distributed over the Amazon basin (for the 1983-1992 and 2000-2012 periods, respectively). This paper consists of a first global observation of the fluxes and temporal dynamics of each geomorphological domain of the Amazon basin. Based on mean interannual monthly flux calculations, we estimated that the Amazon basin delivered approximately 272 × 10(6) t year(-1) (263-278) of TDS during the 2003-2012 period, which represents approximately 7 % of the continental inputs to the oceans. This flux is mainly made up by HCO3, Ca and SiO2, reflecting the preferential contributions of carbonate and silicate chemical weathering to the Amazon River Basin. The main tributaries contributing to the TDS flux are the Marañon and Ucayali Rivers (approximately 50 % of the TDS production over 14 % of the Amazon basin area) due to the weathering of carbonates and evaporites drained by their Andean tributaries. An Andes-sedimentary area-shield TDS flux (and specific flux) gradient is observed throughout the basin and is first explained by the TDS concentration contrast between these domains, rather than variability in runoff. This observation highlights that, under tropical context, the weathering flux repartition is primarily controlled by the geomorphological/geological setting and confirms that sedimentary areas are currently active in terms of the production of dissolved load. The log relationships of concentration vs discharge have

  13. Luminescence of quartz and feldspar fingerprints provenance and correlates with the source area denudation in the Amazon River basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawakuchi, A.O.; Jain, M.; Mineli, T.D.

    2018-01-01

    The Amazon region hosts the world's largest watershed spanning from high elevation Andean terrains to lowland cratonic shield areas in tropical South America. This study explores variations in optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) signals in suspended...... silt and riverbed sands retrieved from major Amazon rivers. These rivers drain Pre-Cambrian to Cenozoic source rocks in areas with contrasting denudation rates. In contrast to the previous studies, we do not observe an increase in the OSL sensitivity of quartz with transport distance; for example...... shield areas (denudation rate ξ=0.04 mmyr−1), while low sensitivity quartz occurs in less stable Andean terrains (ξ=0.24 mmyr−1). An apparent linear correlation between quartz OSL sensitivity and denudation rate suggests that OSL sensitivity may be used as a proxy for erosion rates in the Amazon basin...

  14. Evapotranspiration seasonality across the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiji Maeda, Eduardo; Ma, Xuanlong; Wagner, Fabien Hubert; Kim, Hyungjun; Oki, Taikan; Eamus, Derek; Huete, Alfredo

    2017-06-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) of Amazon forests is a main driver of regional climate patterns and an important indicator of ecosystem functioning. Despite its importance, the seasonal variability of ET over Amazon forests, and its relationship with environmental drivers, is still poorly understood. In this study, we carry out a water balance approach to analyse seasonal patterns in ET and their relationships with water and energy drivers over five sub-basins across the Amazon Basin. We used in situ measurements of river discharge, and remotely sensed estimates of terrestrial water storage, rainfall, and solar radiation. We show that the characteristics of ET seasonality in all sub-basins differ in timing and magnitude. The highest mean annual ET was found in the northern Rio Negro basin (˜ 1497 mm year-1) and the lowest values in the Solimões River basin (˜ 986 mm year-1). For the first time in a basin-scale study, using observational data, we show that factors limiting ET vary across climatic gradients in the Amazon, confirming local-scale eddy covariance studies. Both annual mean and seasonality in ET are driven by a combination of energy and water availability, as neither rainfall nor radiation alone could explain patterns in ET. In southern basins, despite seasonal rainfall deficits, deep root water uptake allows increasing rates of ET during the dry season, when radiation is usually higher than in the wet season. We demonstrate contrasting ET seasonality with satellite greenness across Amazon forests, with strong asynchronous relationships in ever-wet watersheds, and positive correlations observed in seasonally dry watersheds. Finally, we compared our results with estimates obtained by two ET models, and we conclude that neither of the two tested models could provide a consistent representation of ET seasonal patterns across the Amazon.

  15. Evaluation of Primary Production in the Lower Amazon River Based on a Dissolved Oxygen Stable Isotopic Mass Balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagne-Maynard, William C.; Ward, Nicholas D.; Keil, Richard G.; Sawakuchi, Henrique O.; Da Cunha, Alan C.; Neu, Vania; Brito, Daimio C.; Da Silva Less, Diani F.; Diniz, Joel E. M.; De Matos Valerio, Aline; Kampel, Milton; Krusche, Alex V.; Richey, Jeffrey E.

    2017-02-07

    The Amazon River outgasses nearly an equivalent amount of CO2 as the rainforest sequesters on an annual basis due to microbial decomposition of terrigenous and aquatic organic matter. Most research performed in the Amazon has been focused on unraveling the mechanisms driving CO2 production since the recognition of a persistent state of CO2 supersaturation. However, although the river system is clearly net heterotrophic, the interplay between primary production and respiration is an essential aspect to understanding the overall metabolism of the ecosystem and potential transfer of energy up trophic levels. For example, an efficient ecosystem is capable of both decomposing high amounts of organic matter at lower trophic levels, driving CO2 emissions, and accumulating energy/biomass in higher trophic levels, stimulating fisheries production. Early studies found minimal evidence for primary production in the Amazon River mainstem and it has since been assumed that photosynthesis is strongly limited by low light penetration attributed to the high sediment load. Here, we test this assumption by measuring the stable isotopic composition of O218O-O2) and O2 saturation levels in the lower Amazon River from Óbidos to the river mouth and its major tributaries, the Xingu and Tapajós rivers, during high and low water periods. An oxygen mass balance model was developed to estimate the input of photosynthetic oxygen in the discrete reach from Óbidos to Almeirim, midway to the river mouth. Based on the oxygen mass balance we estimate that primary production occurred at a rate of 0.39 ± 0.24 g O m3 d-1 at high water and 1.02 ± 0.55 g O m3 d-1 at low water. This translates to 41 ± 24% of the rate of O2 drawdown via respiration during high water and 67 ± 33% during low water. These primary production rates are 2-7 times higher than

  16. Bioaccumulation of methylmercury in fish tissue from the Roosevelt River, Southwestern Amazon basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rodrigues dos Anjos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a major pollutant in the Amazon River system, and its levels in fish and human hair are usually above the limit recommended by health agencies. The objective of this study was to analyze the methylmercury (MeHg concentration in fish tissue from the Roosevelt River. The river's water velocity, depth, pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and substrate type were measured, and fifty specimens distributed in 14 fish species were collected. A total of 64.3% of the sampled species were of the order Characiform and 71.4% of the species were carnivores. Fifty percent of the species had MeHg concentrations above threshold limit (Hg-T 0.5 mg kg-1 established for food by the World Health Organization. Cichla monoculus had the highest value of MeHg (2.45 mg kg-1. The MeHg concentration in fish varied according to dietary habits. The study also found bioaccumulation of MeHg in fish tissue in the following descending order: carnivorous > detritivorous > frugivore. Low significant correlations were found between fish weight or length and MeHg. Further studies on MeHg contamination are recommended in tissues of fish consumed in human riverine communities in the Roosevelt River Basin.

  17. Human exposure and risk assessment associated with mercury pollution in the Caqueta River, Colombian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Carranza-Lopez, Liliana; Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Ripoll-Arboleda, Adriana; Muñoz-Sosa, Diego

    2016-10-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global contaminant posing severe risks to human health worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of total Hg (T-Hg) in human hair and fish in the Caqueta River, at the Colombian Amazon, as well as to determine fish consumption-based risks for T-Hg ingestion. T-Hg levels were measured using a direct mercury analyzer. The overall mean T-Hg level in hair for humans in the Caqueta River sample (n = 200) was 17.29 ± 0.61 μg/g (1.2 to 47.0 μg/g). Ninety-four percent of the individuals had hair T-Hg concentrations greater than the WHO threshold level (5 μg/g), and 79 % displayed levels higher than 10 μg/g. Average Hg concentrations in fish varied between 0.10-0.15 μg/g and 0.10-1.60 μg/g, for noncarnivorous and carnivorous species, respectively. Based on the maximum allowable fish consumption rate for adults, most carnivorous species should be avoided in the diet, as their target hazard quotient ranged from 2.96 up to 31.05, representing a risk for Hg-related health problems. In the light of existing evidence for elevated Hg levels in the indigenous population of the Colombian Amazon, carnivorous fish should be restricted as part of the diet, and breastfeeding should be reduced to protect children health. Most importantly, gold mining activities directly on rivers demand immediate attention from the national government to avoid extensive damage on the environment and human health.

  18. Nickel toxicity to cardinal tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi) differs seasonally and among the black, white and clear river waters of the Amazon basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Aleicia; Wood, Chris M; Smith, D Scott; Correia, Tiago Gabriel; Val, Adalberto L

    2017-10-15

    This study investigated the acute toxicity of nickel (Ni) to cardinal tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi), within the three main water types of the Amazon basin: black (Rio Negro), white (Rio Solimões) and clear (Rio Tapajós) during the wet and dry season at pH 7 (representative of white and clear rivers) and pH 4 (representative of black waters). The influence of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) quality on Ni toxicity within the three waters was also explored via the use of DOC isolates. Differences in water chemistry, DOC quality and ion concentrations were shown between waters and between seasons. Toxicity of Ni was shown to vary between river waters, seasons, and pHs. Ni was significantly less toxic during the dry season at pH 4 in all three river waters; for example, black water during the wet season had an LC 50 of 9.72 mg Ni/L compared to 41.5 mg Ni/L during the dry season. At pH 7, contrasting effects in toxicity between seasons were shown between black and clear waters (black: wet = 28.9 mg/L, dry = 17.3 mg/L; clear: wet = 13.8 mg/L, dry = 24.1 mg/L). There were no significant differences in Ni toxicity for white waters at pH 7 (white: wet = 22.2 mg/L, dry = 21.8). Overall, Ni was shown to be more toxic at pH 7 than at pH 4 except in black water during the wet season. Toxicity of Ni at pH 4 was positively related to DOC concentration and amount of humic-like and fulvic-like DOC and negatively related to fluorescence index. Therefore, at pH 4, Ni is more toxic in waters containing more allochthonous DOC, consisting of higher amounts of humic-like and fulvic-like components. LC 50 values for the different DOC concentrates at the same DOC concentration of 4.5 mg/L (black: 26.8 mg/L; white: 73.3 mg/L; clear: 49.2) support the river water findings at pH 4 (Ni more toxic in presence of black DOC) indicating that DOC quality alone can influence Ni toxicity at this pH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Amazon at sea: Onset and stages of the Amazon River from a marine record, with special reference to Neogene plant turnover in the drainage basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorn, Carina; Bogotá-A, Giovanni R.; Romero-Baez, Millerlandy; Lammertsma, Emmy I.; Flantua, Suzette G. A.; Dantas, Elton L.; Dino, Rodolfo; do Carmo, Dermeval A.; Chemale, Farid

    2017-06-01

    The Amazon submarine fan is a large sediment apron situated offshore Pará (Brazil) and represents the most distal extent of the Amazon River. The age of onset of this transcontinental river remains debated, yet is of great importance for understanding biotic evolutionary processes on land and at sea. Here we present new geochemical and palynological data from a borehole drilled at the continental slope and dated based on nannofossil biostratigraphy. We found that sediments of mixed source (craton and adjacent) occur at least from the late Oligocene (NP25) to late Miocene (NN9), and that the earliest Andes-derived sediments occur in NN10 (late Miocene). Our geochemical record indicates an onset of the transcontinental Amazon River between 9.4 and 9 Ma, which postdates the regional unconformity by 1 to 1.5 My. The shift in sediment geochemistry is more gradually replicated in the palynological record by a change from coastal plain and tropical lowland taxa to a mixture of tropical lowland, and montane forest to open Andean taxa. In particular, the appearance of taxa such as Jamesonia and Huperzia, followed by Valeriana, Polylepis-Acaena, Lysipomia and Plantago (with a current altitudinal range from 3200 to 4000 m) suggests the development of open, treeless, vegetation between 9.5 and 5.4 Ma, and highlight the presence of a high Andes in the late Miocene hinterland. Poaceae progressively increased from 9 Ma, with a notable rise from 4 Ma onwards, and percentages well above post-glacial and modern values, particularly between 2.6 and 0.8 Ma. We hypothesize that the rise of the grasses is a basin-wide phenomenon, but that the Plio-Pleistocene expansion of open, treeless vegetation on the Andean slopes and foothills are the main contributor. This rise in grasses was likely caused by climatic fluctuations, and subsequent changes in relief and erosion rates. We conclude that the onset of the Amazon River is coupled with Neogene Andean tectonism and that subsequent

  20. DDT concentration in fish from the Tapajós River in the Amazon region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Rosivaldo de Alcântara; Lopes, Anna Sylmara da Costa; de Souza, Larissa Costa; Lima, Marcelo de Oliveira; Santos, Lourivaldo da Silva

    2016-06-01

    DDT and metabolites were measured in six species of fish collected from the Tapajós River in the village of Barreiras, near the town of Itaituba in the Brazilian Amazon region. The selected fish were the most consumed and economically important to the local people. DDT was used frequently in this region for malaria control. Fish samples were analyzed after extraction by microwave-assisted extraction in hexane/acetone (8:2, v/v) by gas chromatography with electron capture detector. Residues of op'-DDT and pp'-DDT and metabolites were detected, including pp'-DDE, pp'-DDD, op'-DDT, and op'-DDE, in 98% of the samples, with a greater abundance of pp'-DDT. Total DDT levels were 7.1-249.5 ng g(-1) wet weight (w.w). The DDE/DDT ratio was low, indicating recent exposure to DDT. The study area that may be related to generated waste used in public health campaigns to combat mosquitos (Anopheles spp.), still present in the Amazon environment, that transmit malaria. DDT levels and metabolites found in fish species do not present risks to human health because they are below acceptable limits for consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cytogenetic characterization of the strongly electric Amazonian eel, Electrophorus electricus (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes, from the Brazilian rivers Amazon and Araguaia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia B.A. Fonteles

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A karyotype analysis of the electric eel, Electrophorus electricus (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes, a strongly electric fish from northern South America, is presented. Two female specimens were analyzed, one from the Amazon River and one from the Araguaia River. The specimens had a chromosomal number of 2n = 52 (42M-SM + 10A. C-bands were present in a centromeric and pericentromeric position on part of the chromosomes; some interstitial C-bands were also present. Heteromorphic nucleolus organizer regions (NORs were detected in two chromosome pairs of the specimen from the Amazon River. The chromosome number and karyotype characteristics are similar to those of other Gymnotidae species. The genera Electrophorus and Gymnotus are positioned as the basal lineages in the Gymnotiformes phylogeny.

  2. Amazon river flow regime and flood recessional agriculture: Flood stage reversals and risk of annual crop loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coomes, Oliver T.; Lapointe, Michel; Templeton, Michael; List, Geneva

    2016-08-01

    The annual flood cycle is an important driver of ecosystem structure and function in large tropical rivers such as the Amazon. Riparian peasant communities rely on river fishing and annual floodplain agriculture, closely adapted to the recession phase of the flood pulse. This article reports on a poorly documented but important challenge facing farmers practicing flood recessional agriculture along the Amazon river: frequent, unpredictable stage reversals (repiquetes) which threaten to ruin crops growing on channel bars. We assess the severity of stage reversals for rice production on exposed river mud bars (barreales) near Iquitos, Peru. Crop loss risk is estimated based on a quantitative analysis of 45 years of daily Amazon stage data and field data from floodplain communities nearby in the Muyuy archipelago, upstream of Iquitos. Rice varieties selected, elevations of silt rich bars where rice is sown, as well as planting and harvest dates are analyzed in the light of the timing, frequencies and amplitudes of observed stage reversals that have the potential to destroy growing rice. We find that unpredictable stage reversals can produce substantial crop losses and shorten significantly the length of average growing seasons on lower elevation river bars. The data reveal that local famers extend planting down to lower bar elevations where the mean probabilities of re-submergence before rice maturity (due to reversals) approach 50%, below which they implicitly consider that the risk of crop loss outweighs the potential reward of planting.

  3. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, and selenium levels in blood of four species of turtles from the Amazon in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian; Schneider, Larissa; Vogt, Richard; Gochfeld, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Using blood as a method of assessing metal levels in turtles may be useful for populations that are threatened or endangered or are decreasing. In this study the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) in blood of four species of turtles from the tributaries of the Rio Negro in the Amazon of Brazil were examined. The turtles included the six-tubercled Amazon (river) turtle (Podocnemis sextuberculata), red-headed Amazon (river) turtle (Podocnemis erythrocephala), big-headed Amazon (river) turtle (Peltocephalus dumerilianus), and matamata turtle (Chelus fimbriatus). Blood samples were taken from the vein in the left hind leg of each turtle. There were significant interspecific differences in the sizes of the turtles from the Rio Negro, and in concentrations of Pb, Hg, and Se; the smallest species (red-headed turtles) had the highest levels of Pb in their blood, while Se levels were highest in big-headed turtles and lowest in red-headed turtles. Hg in blood was highest in matamata, intermediate in big-headed, and lowest in the other two turtles. Even though females were significantly larger than males, there were no significant differences in metal levels as a function of gender, and the only relationship of metals to size was for Cd. Variations in metal levels among species suggest that blood may be a useful bioindicator. Metal levels were not high enough to pose a health risk to the turtles or to consumers, such as humans.

  4. [Prevalence of arterial hypertension in communities along the Madeira River, Western Brazilian Amazon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Beatriz Fátima Alves de; Mourão, Dennys de Souza; Gomes, Núbia; Costa, Janaina Mara C; Souza, Andreia Vasconcelos de; Bastos, Wanderley Rodrigues; Fonseca, Marlon de Freitas; Mariani, Carolina Fiorillo; Abbad, Guilherme; Hacon, Sandra S

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence of hypertension among adults (n = 841) in communities along the Madeira River in the Brazilian Amazon, prior to startup of the Santo Antônio Hydroelectric Plant. The study gathered information on sociodemographic conditions, history of diseases, habits, fish consumption, and anthropometric parameters. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and the respective confidence intervals. Among the riverine communities, 26% (95%CI: 23%-29%) of adults presented hypertension (29% in men [95%CI: 24%-33%] and 23% in women [95%CI: 19%-27%]). Factors associated with hypertension were age, BMI, and place of residence in men and age, triglycerides, and blood glucose in women. The findings can contribute to strategies for state and municipal health services to monitor and prevent cardiovascular events.

  5. Nonlinear interactions between the Amazon River basin and the Tropical North Atlantic at interannual timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Builes-Jaramillo, Alejandro; Marwan, Norbert; Poveda, Germán; Kurths, Jürgen

    2018-04-01

    We study the physical processes involved in the potential influence of Amazon (AM) hydroclimatology over the Tropical North Atlantic (TNA) Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) at interannual timescales, by analyzing time series of the precipitation index (P-E) over AM, as well as the surface atmospheric pressure gradient between both regions, and TNA SSTs. We use a recurrence joint probability based analysis that accounts for the lagged nonlinear dependency between time series, which also allows quantifying the statistical significance, based on a twin surrogates technique of the recurrence analysis. By means of such nonlinear dependence analysis we find that at interannual timescales AM hydrology influences future states of the TNA SSTs from 0 to 2 months later with a 90-95% statistical confidence. It also unveils the existence of two-way feedback mechanisms between the variables involved in the processes: (1) precipitation over AM leads the atmospheric pressure gradient between TNA and AM from 0 to 2 month lags, (2) the pressure gradient leads the trade zonal winds over the TNA from 0 to 3 months and from 7 to 12 months, (3) the zonal winds lead the SSTs from 0 to 3 months, and (4) the SSTs lead precipitation over AM by 1 month lag. The analyses were made for time series spanning from 1979 to 2008, and for extreme precipitation events in the AM during the years 1999, 2005, 2009 and 2010. We also evaluated the monthly mean conditions of the relevant variables during the extreme AM droughts of 1963, 1980, 1983, 1997, 1998, 2005, and 2010, and also during the floods of 1989, 1999, and 2009. Our results confirm that the Amazon River basin acts as a land surface-atmosphere bridge that links the Tropical Pacific and TNA SSTs at interannual timescales. The identified mutual interactions between TNA and AM are of paramount importance for a deeper understanding of AM hydroclimatology but also of a suite of oceanic and atmospheric phenomena over the TNA, including recently

  6. Patterns of Transcript Abundance of Eukaryotic Biogeochemically-Relevant Genes in the Amazon River Plume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L Zielinski

    Full Text Available The Amazon River has the largest discharge of all rivers on Earth, and its complex plume system fuels a wide array of biogeochemical processes, across a large area of the western tropical North Atlantic. The plume thus stimulates microbial processes affecting carbon sequestration and nutrient cycles at a global scale. Chromosomal gene expression patterns of the 2.0 to 156 μm size-fraction eukaryotic microbial community were investigated in the Amazon River Plume, generating a robust dataset (more than 100 million mRNA sequences that depicts the metabolic capabilities and interactions among the eukaryotic microbes. Combining classical oceanographic field measurements with metatranscriptomics yielded characterization of the hydrographic conditions simultaneous with a quantification of transcriptional activity and identity of the community. We highlight the patterns of eukaryotic gene expression for 31 biogeochemically significant gene targets hypothesized to be valuable within forecasting models. An advantage to this targeted approach is that the database of reference sequences used to identify the target genes was selectively constructed and highly curated optimizing taxonomic coverage, throughput, and the accuracy of annotations. A coastal diatom bloom highly expressed nitrate transporters and carbonic anhydrase presumably to support high growth rates and enhance uptake of low levels of dissolved nitrate and CO2. Diatom-diazotroph association (DDA: diatoms with nitrogen fixing symbionts blooms were common when surface salinity was mesohaline and dissolved nitrate concentrations were below detection, and hence did not show evidence of nitrate utilization, suggesting they relied on ammonium transporters to aquire recently fixed nitrogen. These DDA blooms in the outer plume had rapid turnover of the photosystem D1 protein presumably caused by photodegradation under increased light penetration in clearer waters, and increased expression of silicon

  7. Particle size of sediments collected from the bed of the Amazon River and its tributaries in June and July 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Carl F.; Meade, R.H.; Mahoney, H.A.; Delany, B.M.

    1977-01-01

    Sixty-five samples of bed material were collected from the Amazon River and its major tributaries between Belem, Brazil, and Iquitos, Peru. Samples were taken with a standard BM-54 sampler, a pipe dredge, or a Helley-Smith bedload sampler. Most of the samples have median diameters in the size range of fine to medium sand and contain small percentages of fine gravel. Complete size distributions are tabulated.

  8. Mesozooplankton Graze on Cyanobacteria in the Amazon River Plume and Western Tropical North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon J. Conroy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Diazotrophic cyanobacteria, those capable of fixing di-nitrogen (N2, are considered one of the major sources of new nitrogen (N in the oligotrophic tropical ocean, but direct incorporation of diazotrophic N into food webs has not been fully examined. In the Amazon River-influenced western tropical North Atlantic (WTNA, diatom diazotroph associations (DDAs and the filamentous colonial diazotrophs Trichodesmium have seasonally high abundances. We sampled epipelagic mesozooplankton in the Amazon River plume and WTNA in May–June 2010 to investigate direct grazing by mesozooplankton on two DDA populations: Richelia associated with Rhizosolenia diatoms (het-1 and Hemiaulus diatoms (het-2, and on Trichodesmium using highly specific qPCR assays targeting nitrogenase genes (nifH. Both DDAs and Trichodesmium occurred in zooplankton gut contents, with higher detection of het-2 predominantly in calanoid copepods (2.33–16.76 nifH copies organism-1. Abundance of Trichodesmium was low (2.21–4.03 nifH copies organism-1, but they were consistently detected at high salinity stations (>35 in calanoid copepods. This suggests direct grazing on DDAs, Trichodesmium filaments and colonies, or consumption as part of sinking aggregates, is common. In parallel with the qPCR approach, a next generation sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes identified that cyanobacterial assemblage associated with zooplankton guts was dominated by the non-diazotrophic unicellular phylotypes Synechococcus (56% and Prochlorococcus (26%. However, in two separate calanoid copepod samples, two unicellular diazotrophs Candidatus Atelocyanobacterium thalassa (UCYN-A and Crocosphaera watsonii (UCYN-B were present, respectively, as a small component of cyanobacterial assemblages (<2%. This study represents the first evidence of consumption of DDAs, Trichodesmium, and unicellular cyanobacteria by calanoid copepods in an area of the WTNA known for high carbon export. These diazotroph populations

  9. Zooplankton From a Reef System Under the Influence of the Amazon River Plume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid Neumann-Leitão

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available At the mouth of the Amazon River, a widespread carbonate ecosystem exists below the river plume, generating a hard-bottom reef (∼9500 km2 that includes mainly large sponges but also rhodolith beds. The mesozooplankton associated with the pelagic realm over the reef formation was characterized, considering the estuarine plume and oceanic influence. Vertical hauls were carried out using a standard plankton net with 200 μm mesh size during September 2014. An indicator index was applied to express species importance as ecological indicators in community. Information on functional traits was gathered for the most abundant copepod species. Overall, 179 zooplankton taxa were recorded. Copepods were the richest (92 species, most diverse and most abundant group, whereas meroplankton were rare and less abundant. Species diversity (>3.0 bits.ind-1 and evenness (>0.6 were high, indicating a complex community. Small holoplanktonic species dominated the zooplankton, and the total density varied from 107.98 ind. m-3 over the reef area to 2,609.24 ind. m-3 in the estuarine plume, with a significant difference between coastal and oceanic areas. The most abundant copepods were the coastal species ithona plumifera and Clausocalanus furcatus and early stages copepodites of Paracalanidae. The holoplanktonic Oikopleura, an important producer of mucous houses, was very abundant on the reefs. The indicator species index revealed three groups: (1 indicative of coastal waters under the influence of the estuarine plume [Euterpina acutifrons, Parvocalanus crassirostris, Oikopleura (Vexillaria dioica and Hydromedusae]; (2 characterized coastal and oceanic conditions (Clausocalanus; (3 characterized the reef system (O. plumifera. Two major copepods functional groups were identified and sorted according to their trophic strategy and coastal-oceanic distribution. The species that dominated the coastal area and the area over the rhodolith beds are indicators of the estuarine

  10. Freshwater shrimps (Macrobrachium depressimanum and Macrobrachium jelskii) as biomonitors of Hg availability in the Madeira River Basin, Western Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, R C F; Holanda, I B B; De Carvalho, D P; Almeida, R; Souza, C M M; Lacerda, L D; Bastos, W R

    2018-01-10

    Total mercury (THg) concentrations measured in two freshwater shrimp species (Macrobrachium depressimanum and Macrobrachium jelskii) showed a relationship with the location of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) from the Madeira River Basin, Western Amazon. Between August 2009 and May 2010, 212 shrimp samples were collected in the confluence of the Madeira River with three of its tributaries (Western Amazon). THg concentration was quantified in the exoskeleton, hepatopancreas and muscle tissue of the shrimps by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry. There were no significant differences between the two shrimp species when samples came from the Madeira River, but Hg concentrations were significantly lower in a tributary outside the influence of the gold mining area. Average THg concentrations were higher in the hepatopancreas (up to 160.0 ng g -1 ) and lower in the exoskeleton and muscle tissue (10.0-35.0 ng g -1 and Madeira River respond to local environmental levels of Hg and can be considered as biomonitors for environmental Hg at this spatial scale. These organisms are important for moving Hg up food webs including those that harbor economic significant fish species and thus enhancing human exposure.

  11. The Negro Dance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Dunham

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Katherine Dunham’s The Negro Dance (1941 focuses on dances in the West Indies and on their similarities with North American dance forms rooted in African culture. Though backed up by the New Negro arguments of the time, it shows Dunham’s prominent elaboration of a dignified African-American art based on syncretic bodily practices, which anticipated theorizations in dance and cultural studies. By uniting a theoretical approach and performance ability, she also made methodological choices which, decades later, became standard practices in the field of dance anthropology. Moreover, she is now considered an ante litteram exponent of public or applied anthropology due to the fact that, by using various strategies, she managed to take anthropological knowledge out of the academic world and use it as an instrument for social transformation. The Negro Dance is introduced by Rossella Mazzaglia and followed by an afterword by Cristiana Natali and a biographical note by Marie-Christine Dunham Pratt.

  12. New Evidence For A Late Miocene Onset Of The Amazon River Following Andean Tectonics And Quaternary Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorn, M. C.; Bogota-Angel, G.; Romero-Baez, M.; Lammertsma, E.; Flantua, S. G. A.; Dantas, E. L.; Dino, R.; do Carmo, D.; Chemale, F., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    The Amazon River influenced biotic evolution on land and at sea, but its onset and development are still debated. Terrestrial sedimentary records are sparse, far apart, and do not present a continuous stratigraphy and thus greatly complicate the reconstruction of the history of this river system. At sea the stratigraphic record is better known thanks to hydrocarbon exploration efforts, but these data are not in the public domain. Renewed exploration in the Amazon submarine fan (Brazilian Equatorial Margin) has provided novel data and materials from wells drilled along the slope of the Amazon submarine fan, that are now partially available for scientific research. Here we report on the results of a geochemical and palynological study of `Well 2' based on which we determined the age and provenance of early Miocene to Pleistocene sediments. The palynological data were also used to reconstruct past biomes on land, which ranged from mangrove and lowland forest to alpine vegetation. A distinct change in provenance was observed between 9.4 Ma and 9 Ma, which represented a change from Amazonian to Andean sediment source. This signal is replicated in the palynological record, which shows a shift from lowland to high-mountain taxa. Furthermore, we observed a very large increase of grass pollen from the Pliocene onwards with a further rise in the Pleistocene. These changes coincide with a rise in sedimentation rates. We interpret these results as following: a) the arrival of Andean sediments is related to the onset of the transcontinental river, b) the two-step rise of grass pollen and manifold increase in sediment discharge are related to Quaternary climatic change. These results agree with earlier and recent findings on the Ceara Rise and firmly place the birth of this river in the late Miocene. This study exemplifies the continental scale of tectonic changes on fluvial environments and biota across a W-E transect of South America. The study of this well is continued and we

  13. Desmidias (zygnemaphyceae) of a small tributary of the Amazons River in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez Avellaneda, Marcela; Duque, Santiago

    2000-01-01

    This is a contribution to the knowledge of the freshwater algae of the Colombian Amazon region. Two of the 13 taxa are reported for the first time from Colombia and 10 are new records for the Colombian Amazon. Ecological characteristics are given for these desmids

  14. Community involvement works where enforcement fails: conservation success through community-based management of Amazon river turtle nests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Norris

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Law enforcement is widely regarded as a cornerstone to effective natural resource management. Practical guidelines for the optimal use of enforcement measures are lacking particularly in areas protected under sustainable and/or mixed use management regimes and where legal institution are weak. Focusing on the yellow-spotted river turtles (Podocnemis unifilis along 33 km of river that runs between two sustainable–use reserves in the Brazilian Amazon as an illustrative example, we show that two years of patrols to enforce lawful protection regulations had no effect on nest harvesting. In contrast, during one year when community-based management approaches were enacted harvest levels dropped nearly threefold to a rate (26% that is likely sufficient for river turtle population recovery. Our findings support previous studies that show how community participation, if appropriately implemented, can facilitate effective natural resource management where law enforcement is limited or ineffective.

  15. The reactivity of plant-derived organic matter and the potential importance of priming effects along the lower Amazon River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Nicholas D.; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Sawakuchi, Henrique O.; Gagne-Maynard, William; Cunha, Alan C.; Brito, Daimio C.; Neu, Vania; de Matos Valerio, Aline; da Silva, Rodrigo; Krusche, Alex V.; Richey, Jeffrey E.; Keil, Richard G.

    2016-06-01

    Here we present direct measurements of the biological breakdown of 13C-labeled substrates to CO2 at seven locations along the lower Amazon River, from Óbidos to the mouth. Dark incubation experiments were performed at high and low water periods using vanillin, a lignin phenol derived from vascular plants, and at the high water period using four different 13C-labeled plant litter leachates. Leachates derived from oak wood were degraded most slowly with vanillin monomers, macrophyte leaves, macrophyte stems, and whole grass leachates being converted to CO2 1.2, 1.3, 1.7, and 2.3 times faster, respectively, at the upstream boundary, Óbidos. Relative to Óbidos, the sum degradation rate of all four leachates was 3.3 and 2.6 times faster in the algae-rich Tapajós and Xingu Rivers, respectively. Likewise, the leachates were broken down 3.2 times more quickly at Óbidos when algal biomass from the Tapajós River was simultaneously added. Leachate reactivity similarly increased from Óbidos to the mouth with leachates breaking down 1.7 times more quickly at Almeirim (midway to the mouth) and 2.8 times more quickly across the river mouth. There was no discernible correlation between in situ nutrient levels and remineralization rates, suggesting that priming effects were an important factor controlling reactivity along the continuum. Further, continuous measurements of CO2, O2, and conductivity along the confluence of the Tapajós and Amazon Rivers and the Xingu and Jarauçu Rivers revealed in situ evidence for enhanced O2 drawdown and CO2 production along the mixing zone of these confluences.

  16. Wood-fuel biomass from the Madeira River. A sustainable option for electricity production in the Amazon region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacellar, Atlas Augusto [Center of Amazonic Energy Development, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Campus Universitario, Av. General Rodrigo Octavio Jordao Ramos, 3000, 69077-000 Manaus, Amazonas (Brazil); Rocha, Brigida R.P. [Post-Graduate Program in Electrical Engineering, Institute of Technology, Universidade Federal do Para, Rua Augusto Correa 1, Guama, 66075-110 Belem, Para (Brazil)

    2010-09-15

    The universal provision of electricity remains far from achieved in the Brazilian Amazon, given the geographical obstacles, the dispersion of its inhabitants, the indistinctness of appropriate technologies, and the economic obstacles. Governmental action was taken in 2003 with the creation of the Light for All Program (PLpT), with the goal of bringing electricity to all rural consumers by 2010. In addition, the National Electric Power Agency, ANEEL (Agencia Nacional de Energia Eletrica), which is responsible in Brazil for the electrical sector regulation, has issued a determination of compulsory access to electricity by 2015. This study describes research conducted on the Madeira River, in the Brazilian Amazon, where the electric needs of the communities and small towns along the river can be satisfied through the gasification system, using as a renewable feedstock the wood-fuel biomass deposited on the riverbed, derived from natural processes, which the Ministry of Transport is already legally obligated to remove in order to provide safe navigation along the river. The study concludes by comparing the competitiveness of this system to diesel thermoelectric plants, along with its advantages in reducing the emission of greenhouse gases. Our results should help future studies in others areas with similar phenomena. (author)

  17. Wood-fuel biomass from the Madeira River: A sustainable option for electricity production in the Amazon region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacellar, Atlas Augusto, E-mail: abacellar@ufam.edu.b [Center of Amazonic Energy Development, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Campus Universitario, Av. General Rodrigo Octavio Jordao Ramos, 3000, 69077-000 Manaus, Amazonas (Brazil); Rocha, Brigida R.P. [Post-Graduate Program in Electrical Engineering, Institute of Technology, Universidade Federal do Para, Rua Augusto Correa 1, Guama, 66075-110 Belem, Para (Brazil)

    2010-09-15

    The universal provision of electricity remains far from achieved in the Brazilian Amazon, given the geographical obstacles, the dispersion of its inhabitants, the indistinctness of appropriate technologies, and the economic obstacles. Governmental action was taken in 2003 with the creation of the Light for All Program (PLpT), with the goal of bringing electricity to all rural consumers by 2010. In addition, the National Electric Power Agency, ANEEL (Agencia Nacional de Energia Eletrica), which is responsible in Brazil for the electrical sector regulation, has issued a determination of compulsory access to electricity by 2015. This study describes research conducted on the Madeira River, in the Brazilian Amazon, where the electric needs of the communities and small towns along the river can be satisfied through the gasification system, using as a renewable feedstock the wood-fuel biomass deposited on the riverbed, derived from natural processes, which the Ministry of Transport is already legally obligated to remove in order to provide safe navigation along the river. The study concludes by comparing the competitiveness of this system to diesel thermoelectric plants, along with its advantages in reducing the emission of greenhouse gases. Our results should help future studies in others areas with similar phenomena.

  18. Wood-fuel biomass from the Madeira River: A sustainable option for electricity production in the Amazon region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacellar, Atlas Augusto; Rocha, Brigida R.P.

    2010-01-01

    The universal provision of electricity remains far from achieved in the Brazilian Amazon, given the geographical obstacles, the dispersion of its inhabitants, the indistinctness of appropriate technologies, and the economic obstacles. Governmental action was taken in 2003 with the creation of the Light for All Program (PLpT), with the goal of bringing electricity to all rural consumers by 2010. In addition, the National Electric Power Agency, ANEEL (Agencia Nacional de Energia Eletrica), which is responsible in Brazil for the electrical sector regulation, has issued a determination of compulsory access to electricity by 2015. This study describes research conducted on the Madeira River, in the Brazilian Amazon, where the electric needs of the communities and small towns along the river can be satisfied through the gasification system, using as a renewable feedstock the wood-fuel biomass deposited on the riverbed, derived from natural processes, which the Ministry of Transport is already legally obligated to remove in order to provide safe navigation along the river. The study concludes by comparing the competitiveness of this system to diesel thermoelectric plants, along with its advantages in reducing the emission of greenhouse gases. Our results should help future studies in others areas with similar phenomena.

  19. Beyond harm's reach? Submersion of river turtle nesting areas and implications for restoration actions after Amazon hydropower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Darren; Michalski, Fernanda; Gibbs, James P

    2018-01-01

    The global expansion of energy demands combined with abundant rainfall, large water volumes and high flow in tropical rivers have led to an unprecedented expansion of dam constructions in the Amazon. This expansion generates an urgent need for refined approaches to river management; specifically a move away from decision-making governed by overly generalized guidelines. For the first time we quantify direct impacts of hydropower reservoir establishment on an Amazon fresh water turtle. We conducted surveys along 150 km of rivers upstream of a new dam construction during the low water months that correspond to the nesting season of Podocnemis unifilis in the study area. Comparison of nest-areas before (2011, 2015) and after (2016) reservoir filling show that reservoir impacts extend 13% beyond legally defined limits. The submerged nesting areas accounted for a total of 3.8 ha of nesting habitat that was inundated as a direct result of the reservoir filling in 2016. Our findings highlight limitations in the development and implementation of existing Brazilian environmental impact assessment process. We also propose potential ways to mitigate the negative impacts of dams on freshwater turtles and the Amazonian freshwater ecosystems they inhabit.

  20. Beyond harm’s reach? Submersion of river turtle nesting areas and implications for restoration actions after Amazon hydropower development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Fernanda; Gibbs, James P.

    2018-01-01

    The global expansion of energy demands combined with abundant rainfall, large water volumes and high flow in tropical rivers have led to an unprecedented expansion of dam constructions in the Amazon. This expansion generates an urgent need for refined approaches to river management; specifically a move away from decision-making governed by overly generalized guidelines. For the first time we quantify direct impacts of hydropower reservoir establishment on an Amazon fresh water turtle. We conducted surveys along 150 km of rivers upstream of a new dam construction during the low water months that correspond to the nesting season of Podocnemis unifilis in the study area. Comparison of nest-areas before (2011, 2015) and after (2016) reservoir filling show that reservoir impacts extend 13% beyond legally defined limits. The submerged nesting areas accounted for a total of 3.8 ha of nesting habitat that was inundated as a direct result of the reservoir filling in 2016. Our findings highlight limitations in the development and implementation of existing Brazilian environmental impact assessment process. We also propose potential ways to mitigate the negative impacts of dams on freshwater turtles and the Amazonian freshwater ecosystems they inhabit. PMID:29333347

  1. Provenance of sands from the confluence of the Amazon and Madeira rivers based on detrital heavy minerals and luminescence of quartz and feldspar

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Daniel R.; Sawakuchi, André O.; Guedes, Carlos C. F.; Giannini, Paulo C. F.; Grohmann, Carlos H.; Ferreira, Manuela P.

    2015-03-01

    Source-to-sink systems are poorly known in tropical rivers. For the Amazonian rivers, the majority of the provenance studies remain focused on the suspended load, implying a poor understanding of the processes governing production and distribution of sands. In this study, we perform heavy mineral and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) analysis to cover the entire spectrum (heavy and light minerals fraction) of 29 sand samples of the Lower Madeira river region (Amazon and Madeira rivers), of which the main goal was to find provenance indicators specific to these rivers. Despite the tropical humid climate, the sands of the Amazon and Lower Madeira rivers are rich in unstable heavy minerals as augite, hypersthene, green hornblende and andalusite. The Madeira river is highlighted by its higher content of andalusite, with source attributed to the Amazon Craton (medium-to-high grade metamorphic rocks), while the Amazon river, upstream of the Madeira river mouth, has a signature of augite and hypersthene, that suggests an Andean provenance (volcanic rocks). Sands from the Madeira river can be tracked in the Amazon river by the increasing concentration in andalusite. OSL analysis of the light minerals fraction was used as an index of feldspar concentration and sedimentary history of quartz grains. Lower feldspar concentration and quartz grains with longer sedimentary history (higher OSL sensitivity) also point to a major contribution of cratonic sources for the sands in the Madeira river. While the sands from the Lower Madeira would be mainly supplied by cratonic rocks, previous work recognised that suspended sediments (silt and clay) are derived from Andean rocks. Therefore, we interpret a decoupling between the sources of sand and mud (silt and clay) under transport in the Madeira river. Andean sands (rich in augite and hypersthene) would be trapped in the foreland zones of the Beni and Mamoré tributaries. In the Amazon river sands, the low OSL sensitivity of the

  2. Amazon river basin evapotranspiration and its influence on the rainfall in southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folegatti, M. V.; Wolff, W.

    2017-12-01

    Amazon river basin (ARB) presents a positive water balance, i.e. the precipitation is higher than evapotranspiration. Regarding the regional circulation, ARB evapotranspiration represents an important source of humidity for the South of Brazil. Thus, the aim of this work is to answer the question: how much is the correlation between ARB evapotranspiration and rainfall in South of Brazil? The shapefiles data of ARB and countries/states boundary were obtained through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE), respectively. According to rasters data, the precipitation was obtained from study of Numerical Terradynamic Simulation Group (NTSG) for images of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), under code MOD16A2, whereas rasters data for evapotranspiration were obtained from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) by Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), under code 3B43_V7. The products MOD16A2 and 3B43_V7 have a respective spatial resolution of 0.5º and 0.25º, and a monthly temporal resolution from January/2000 to December/2014. For ARB and South region of Brazil was calculated the mean evapotranspiration and mean precipitation through the pixels within of the respective polygons. To answer the question of this work was performed the cross-correlation analysis between these time series. We observed the highest value for the lag that corresponds the begin of spring (October), being 0.3 approximately. As a result, the mean precipitation on South region of Brazil during spring and summer was in the order of 15% to 30 %, explained by ARB evapotranspiration. For this reason, the maintenance of ARB is extremely important for water resource grant in South of Brazil.

  3. The distribution of thiamin and pyridoxine in the western tropical North Atlantic Amazon River plume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Pualani Barada

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available B-vitamins are recognized as essential organic growth factors for many organisms, although little is known about their abundance and distribution in marine ecosystems. Despite their metabolic functions regulating important enzymatic reactions, the methodology to directly measure different B-vitamins in aquatic environments has only recently been developed. Here, we present the first direct measurements of two B-vitamins, thiamin (B1 and pyridoxine (B6, in the Amazon River plume-influenced Western Tropical North Atlantic (WTNA Ocean, an area known to have high productivity, carbon (C and dinitrogen (N2 fixation, and C sequestration. The vitamins B1 and B6 ranged in concentrations from undetectable to 230 pM and 40 pM, respectively. Significantly higher concentrations were measured in the surface plume water at some stations and variation with salinity was observed, suggesting a possible riverine influence on those B-vitamins. The influences of vitamins B1 and B6 on biogeochemical processes such as C and N2 fixation were investigated using a linear-regression model that indicated that the availability of those organic factors could affect these rates in the WTNA. In fact, significant increases in C fixation and N2 fixation were observed with increasing vitamin B1 concentrations at some low and mesohaline stations (stations 9.1 and 1; p value <0.017 and <0.03, respectively. N2 fixation was also found to have a significant positive correlation with B1 concentrations at station 1 (p value = 0.029, as well as vitamin B6 at station 9.1 (p value <0.017. This work suggests that there can be a dynamic interplay between essential biogeochemical rates (C and N2 fixation and B-vitamins, drawing attention to potential roles of B-vitamins in ecosystem dynamics, community structure, and global biogeochemistry.

  4. Grazing by Zooplankton on Diazotrophs in the Amazon River Plume and Western Tropical North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, B.; Steinberg, D. K.; Song, B.; Foster, R.

    2016-02-01

    Organisms capable of fixing di-nitrogen (N2), known as diazotrophs, are important primary producers and a potentially significant source for new nitrogen entering the planktonic food web. However, limited evidence exists for zooplankton grazing on diazotrophs compared to other primary producers. In the western tropical North Atlantic Ocean (WTNA), the Amazon River plume creates a niche for symbiotic diatom-diazotroph associations (DDAs) which can form large blooms. In adjacent non-plume-influenced waters, the colonial cyanobacterium Trichodesmium is abundant. In order to reveal zooplankton-diazotroph grazing interactions and determine the fate of newly fixed nitrogen, gut contents of zooplankton captured in these two regions were compared based on quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay of nitrogenase genes (nifH), and their microbiomes compared using next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis of 16S rRNA genes. We sampled individual copepods from discrete depth intervals (0-25m and 25-50m) and in two size classes (0.5-1mm and 1-2mm) for analysis. A modified DNA extraction protocol was developed and 54 extracts were used as templates in nifH qPCR assays for the larger size fraction diazotrophs (>10µm): Trichodesmium, and Hemiaulus or Rhizosolenia (diatoms)-Richelia (diazotroph) associations. Copepod gut content nifH copies ranged from 1.6 to 13.6 copies individual-1 for the assay targeting the Hemiaulus-Richelia DDA and from 1.1 to 3.0 copies individual-1 for Trichodesmium. 16S NGS conducted on 35 extracts with an Ion Torrent PGM and mothur revealed that cyanobacteria sequences accounted for up to 20% of sequences per extract. Our results show that both DDAs and Trichodesmium are prey for zooplankton, and that new nitrogen moves through the food web via these grazing interactions. These interactions should be considered in future explorations of the global ocean nitrogen cycle.

  5. LBA-ECO LC-03 Hypsography, Rivers, Roads, and DEM, Four Areas across Brazilian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides four related spatial data products for four study areas across the Brazilian Amazon: Manaus, Amazonas; Tapajos National Forest, Para Western...

  6. Functional groups of entomofauna associated to aquatic macrophytes in Correntoso river, Rio Negro sub-region, Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i1.7822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Sabino

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to study the structure of functional groups of entomofauna associated to aquatic macrophytes in Correntoso river, Rio Negro sub-region, Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Six samples were taken in different seasonal periods; ebb, dry and wet. The organisms were collected using D net (300 m mesh, sweeping five times through the roots of macrophyte banks at each sample session. Three environments were compared (open, intermediary, close using data from six collection sites, through which were analyzed absolute abundance, observed richness of families and the sampled specimens were also separated in functional groups. A total of 60 families from 12 orders of Insecta were registered, totaling 19,773 sampled insects. The largest number of families was categorized into predators functional group, with 34 families collected, followed by the collectors with 17, shredders-herbivores ten and scrapers eight.

  7. Mercury Pollution in Soils from the Yacuambi River (Ecuadorian Amazon) as a Result of Gold Placer Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Blanco, Charo; Collahuazo, Luis; Torres, Sandra; Chinchay, Luis; Ayala, Diana; Benítez, Paulina

    2015-09-01

    Gold mining is known to generate important economic products but also to produce several types of contamination/pollution. We report here the first data about Hg concentrations in the soils of the Yacuambi River in the Ecuadorian Amazon. We analyzed soil samples to assess the extent of contamination caused by gold placer mining in this area. Hg concentrations in soils exceeded the local background concentrations. High concentrations of Mn, As, Pb, Cr, Cu, Fe and Zn in some soil samples were probably derived from the geology of the site, which is rich in polysulfides and metamorphic rocks. Placer mining may accelerate the natural release of these elements to the environment by the exposure of the bedrock to the atmosphere. Accumulation of Hg in the river soils may be a potential source of toxicity for aquatic life and a risk to human health in the future.

  8. Environment sensitization through arts: an experience with communities along Amazon rivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Wanderleia Isabel P. de; Gusmao, Dulce Milena Almeida [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In Brazil, the deforestation, pollution, losses in historic and cultural patrimony are each time more common in communities which, due to the great distances from urban centers, lack of any level of information. Normally, in these communities, theaters do not exist, nor local cinemas or places where people can have access to any type of art and culture. In this context, the Amazon suffers from the same problems than other regions in Brazil, however allied to logistic difficulties and other local specificities. That way, this work is about an experience lived in the Urucu-Coari-Manaus gas pipeline construction and assembly process, in which 18 communities were involved in a work of Environmental Education through arts: music, theater, movies, and others. In those communities there is great disinformation or distortion regarding programs and environmental plans from Urucu-Coari-Manaus gas pipeline, mainly due to the distance from urban centers and lack of communication vehicles. But this initiative did not come from an obligation or legal recommendations, but from a necessity to reach this public using an assertive communication. This work's specific goals were: To use the interpenetration between art and education and the playful, creative and humorous language of specific artistic interventions, adjusted to that public and its peculiarities, in order to lead the dialogue between different knowledge, that is, between traditional culture and environmental concepts paved in studies and scientific data, and to spread Urucu-Manaus gas pipeline environmental programs; To arise, in the artistic interventions, that specific public's participation and integration, always focusing the environmental message and the respect for the Amazonian culture; To value, in all artistic interventions, people's traditional knowledge, the Amazonian environment and, mainly, the importance of each local inhabitant for that environment's conservation, important for us all

  9. A reassessment of the suspended sediment load in the Madeira River basin from the Andes of Peru and Bolivia to the Amazon River in Brazil, based on 10 years of data from the HYBAM monitoring programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauchel, Philippe; Santini, William; Guyot, Jean Loup; Moquet, Jean Sébastien; Martinez, Jean Michel; Espinoza, Jhan Carlo; Baby, Patrice; Fuertes, Oscar; Noriega, Luis; Puita, Oscar; Sondag, Francis; Fraizy, Pascal; Armijos, Elisa; Cochonneau, Gérard; Timouk, Franck; de Oliveira, Eurides; Filizola, Naziano; Molina, Jorge; Ronchail, Josyane

    2017-10-01

    The Madeira River is the second largest tributary of the Amazon River. It contributes approximately 13% of the Amazon River flow and it may contribute up to 50% of its sediment discharge to the Atlantic Ocean. Until now, the suspended sediment load of the Madeira River was not well known and was estimated in a broad range from 240 to 715 Mt yr-1. Since 2002, the HYBAM international network developed a new monitoring programme specially designed to provide more reliable data than in previous intents. It is based on the continuous monitoring of a set of 11 gauging stations in the Madeira River watershed from the Andes piedmont to the confluence with the Amazon River, and discrete sampling of the suspended sediment concentration every 7 or 10 days. This paper presents the results of the suspended sediment data obtained in the Madeira drainage basin during 2002-2011. The Madeira River suspended sediment load is estimated at 430 Mt yr-1 near its confluence with the Amazon River. The average production of the Madeira River Andean catchment is estimated at 640 Mt yr-1 (±30%), the corresponding sediment yield for the Andes is estimated at 3000 t km-2 yr-1 (±30%), and the average denudation rate is estimated at 1.20 mm yr-1 (±30%). Contrary to previous results that had mentioned high sedimentation rates in the Beni River floodplain, we detected no measurable sedimentation process in this part of the basin. On the Mamoré River basin, we observed heavy sediment deposition of approximately 210 Mt yr-1 that seem to confirm previous studies. But while these studies mentioned heavy sedimentation in the floodplain, we showed that sediment deposition occurred mainly in the Andean piedmont and immediate foreland in rivers (Parapeti, Grande, Pirai, Yapacani, Chimoré, Chaparé, Secure, Maniqui) with discharges that are not sufficiently large to transport their sediment load downstream in the lowlands.

  10. A 30 Ma history of the Amazon River inferred from terrigenous sediments and organic matter on the Ceará Rise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soelen, E.E.; Kim, J.-H.; Ventura Santos, R.; Dantas, E.L.; Vasconcelos de Almeida, F.; Pinheiro Pires, J.; Roddaz, M.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2017-01-01

    The history of the Amazon River is a much-discussed subject, and the timing of the development of a transcontinental system in particular is a matter of some controversy, with estimations varying between the Early Miocene and the Pliocene or even the Pleistocene. To shed further light on this, we

  11. Hydrochemistry of the Parauari-Maues Acu river basin (Amazon region, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringel, S.R.B.

    1980-08-01

    The chemical composition of the Parauari-Maues Acu basin is studied through the determination of pH, calcium, magnesium, iron, chloride, sodium, potassium, zinc, copper and manganese. Four expeditions were made and samples were collected in 16 different points of the main course. Chemical analysis of the rivers waters shows seasonal flutuations of the concentrations of the elements in the main river as well as in the main afluents like Nambi river, Amana river and Urupadi river. (Author) [pt

  12. Índices bióticos para avaliação da qualidade ambiental em trechos do rio Correntoso, Pantanal do Negro, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil = Biotic indexes for the evaluation of environmental quality in stretches of the Correntoso river, Pantanal do Negro, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Henrique da Silva

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo pesquisar a estrutura da comunidade de insetos aquaticos, utilizando esta comunidade como indicadora da qualidade ambiental de um trecho do rio Correntoso, Pantanal do Negro, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Foram realizadas seis campanhas de coleta em diferentes periodos sazonais: vazante, seca e cheia. Os organismos foram coletados utilizando rede D com malha de 300 ƒÝm eesforco amostral de cinco lances de rede nas raizes dos bancos de macrofitas. Foram comparados tres ambientes (aberto, intermediario e fechado, por juncao dos dados obtidos de seis sitios de coleta. Foi analisada a riqueza, abundancia absoluta e relativa das familias de insetos amostrados e a avaliacao da qualidade da agua usando o indiceBMWP, indice BMWP-ASPT, indice IBF e indice de diversidade de Shannon-Wienner, com log2. Foram registradas 60 familias pertencentes a 12 ordens da Classe Insecta, totalizando 19.773 individuos coletados. Entre os indices aplicados, o indice BMWP foi o que melhor representou as condicoes do ambiente estudado.This work aimed to research the aquatic insect community structure using this community as a bioindicator of the environmental quality in a stretch of the Correntoso river, in Pantanal do Negro, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Six collections were taken in different seasonal periods; ebb, dry and wet. The organisms were collected using a 300 ƒÝm mesh D net sweeping five times through the roots of macrophyte banks at each sample. Three environments were compared (open, intermediary, closed by adding the information from six collection sites. Family richness, absolute and relative abundance ofinsect samples and an evaluation of water quality were analyzed by using the BMWP index, BMWP-ASPT index, IBF index and Shannon diversity index, with log2. A total of 60 families from 12 orders of Insecta Class were recorded, totaling 19,773 individuals. Among the indexes applied, the BMWP index was the one that best

  13. Isotopic values of the Amazon headwaters in Peru: comparison of the wet upper Río Madre de Dios watershed with the dry Urubamba-Apurimac river system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambs, L; Horwath, A; Otto, T; Julien, F; Antoine, P-O

    2012-04-15

    The Amazon River is a huge network of long tributaries, and little is known about the headwaters. Here we present a study of one wet tropical Amazon forest side, and one dry and cold Atiplano plateau, originating from the same cordillera. The aim is to see how this difference affects the water characteristics. Different kind of water (spring, lake, river, rainfall) were sampled to determine their stable isotopes ratios (oxygen 18/16 and hydrogen 2/1) by continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). These ratios coupled with chemical analysis enabled us to determine the origin of the water, the evaporation process and the water recycling over the Amazon plain forest and montane cloud forest. Our study shows that the water flowing in the upper Madre de Dios basin comes mainly from the foothill humid forest, with a characteristic water recycling process signature, and not from higher glacier melt. On the contrary, the water flowing in the Altiplano Rivers is mainly from glacier melts, with a high evaporation process. This snow and glacier are fed mainly by Atlantic moisture which transits over the large Amazon forest. The Atlantic moisture and its recycling over this huge tropical forest display a progressive isotopic gradient, as a function of distance from the ocean. At the level of the montane cloud forest and on the altiplano, respectively, additional water recycling and evaporation occur, but they are insignificant in the total water discharge. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. The extreme 2014 flood in south-western Amazon basin: the role of tropical-subtropical South Atlantic SST gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinoza, Jhan Carlo; Marengo, José Antonio; Ronchail, Josyane; Carpio, Jorge Molina; Flores, Luís Noriega; Guyot, Jean Loup

    2014-01-01

    Unprecedented wet conditions are reported in the 2014 summer (December–March) in South-western Amazon, with rainfall about 100% above normal. Discharge in the Madeira River (the main southern Amazon tributary) has been 74% higher than normal (58 000 m 3 s −1 ) at Porto Velho and 380% (25 000 m 3 s −1 ) at Rurrenabaque, at the exit of the Andes in summer, while levels of the Rio Negro at Manaus were 29.47 m in June 2014, corresponding to the fifth highest record during the 113 years record of the Rio Negro. While previous floods in Amazonia have been related to La Niña and/or warmer than normal tropical South Atlantic, the 2014 rainfall and flood anomalies are associated with warm condition in the western Pacific-Indian Ocean and with an exceptionally warm Subtropical South Atlantic. Our results suggest that the tropical and subtropical South Atlantic SST gradient is a main driver for moisture transport from the Atlantic toward south-western Amazon, and this became exceptionally intense during summer of 2014. (letter)

  15. Biflagellate spermatozoon structure of the hermaphrodite fish Satanoperca jurupari (Heckel, 1840 (Teleostei, Cichlidae from the Amazon River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. MATOS

    Full Text Available The ultrastructural features of the sperm were studied in the hermaphroditic teleost Satanoperca jurupari HECKEL, 1840 from Amazon River. Spermatocytes, spermatids and sperm develop in the testicular cysts among the different oocyte stages. Different stages of early spermatocyte development, mainly the ones with synaptonemal complexes were often observed. The mature spermatozoa belong to the introsperm type, with a short head (~ 3 mm long and 1.3 mum wide without acrosome, short midpiece (~ 1.2 mum long and 1.8 mum wide containing several mitochondria surrounding two centrioles and forming a mitochondrial collar. They have two flagella (each ~15 mum long each of which has a common 9 + 2 microtubular pattern. Each flagellum has two opposite lateral cytoplasmic extensions that begin about 3 mum the midpiece still close to the end piece of flagellum.

  16. Biflagellate spermatozoon structure of the hermaphrodite fish Satanoperca jurupari (Heckel, 1840 (Teleostei, Cichlidae from the Amazon River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATOS E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructural features of the sperm were studied in the hermaphroditic teleost Satanoperca jurupari HECKEL, 1840 from Amazon River. Spermatocytes, spermatids and sperm develop in the testicular cysts among the different oocyte stages. Different stages of early spermatocyte development, mainly the ones with synaptonemal complexes were often observed. The mature spermatozoa belong to the introsperm type, with a short head (~ 3 mm long and 1.3 mum wide without acrosome, short midpiece (~ 1.2 mum long and 1.8 mum wide containing several mitochondria surrounding two centrioles and forming a mitochondrial collar. They have two flagella (each ~15 mum long each of which has a common 9 + 2 microtubular pattern. Each flagellum has two opposite lateral cytoplasmic extensions that begin about 3 mum the midpiece still close to the end piece of flagellum.

  17. Influence of uranium and thorium in the natural radioactivity in shales from the middle Amazon river region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro, A.L.

    1982-02-01

    The feasibility of using the fission track registration technique in the determination of the uranium and thorium content in shales from the middle Amazon river region is studied. The above technique permits, through the determination of the uranium concentration, to establish a correlation between the uranium content and the organic matter present in the shale. In establishing the ratio between the fission tracks due to 238 U and 235 U, the sample was contaminated with natural uranium and analized, so that no modifications on the analysis conditions might change or distort the results. The experimental results were satisfactory and they may contribute to the study of the industrial exploration of these energy sources as well as to the analysis of problems related to environmental control. (Author) [pt

  18. Cytogenetic and DNA barcoding reveals high divergence within the trahira, Hoplias malabaricus (Characiformes: Erythrinidae from the lower Amazon River

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    Diego Ferreira Marques

    Full Text Available Molecular and cytogenetic data have provided evidence of cryptic speciation in the widespread South American trahira, Hoplias malabaricus. In the present study, karyotypes and DNA barcode sequences of specimens from seven populations inhabiting the lower Amazon River were analyzed in order to characterize the levels of genetic divergence within a single karyomorph. All the specimens presented karyotypes with 2n = 40 chromosomes (20m+20sm that were consistent with the species' C karyomorph. The DNA barcodes revealed six haplogroups, with clear divergence between populations from Brazil and Argentina. The results support the species complex hypothesis and indicate that a single karyomorph of H. malabaricus may harbor more than one species

  19. Past terrestrial water storage (1980–2008 in the Amazon Basin reconstructed from GRACE and in situ river gauging data

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    M. Becker

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial water storage (TWS composed of surface waters, soil moisture, groundwater and snow where appropriate, is a key element of global and continental water cycle. Since 2002, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE space gravimetry mission provides a new tool to measure large-scale TWS variations. However, for the past few decades, direct estimate of TWS variability is accessible from hydrological modeling only. Here we propose a novel approach that combines GRACE-based TWS spatial patterns with multi-decadal-long in situ river level records, to reconstruct past 2-D TWS over a river basin. Results are presented for the Amazon Basin for the period 1980–2008, focusing on the interannual time scale. Results are compared with past TWS estimated by the global hydrological model ISBA-TRIP. Correlations between reconstructed past interannual TWS variability and known climate forcing modes over the region (e.g., El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation are also estimated. This method offers new perspective for improving our knowledge of past interannual TWS in world river basins where natural climate variability (as opposed to direct anthropogenic forcing drives TWS variations.

  20. Vulnerability associated with "symptoms similar to those of mercury poisoning" in communities from Xingu River, Amazon basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva-Junior, Flávio Mnaoel Rodrigues; Oleinski, Ritta M; Azevedo, Antonia E S; Monroe, Kátia C M C; Dos Santos, Marina; Da Silveira, Tatiane Britto; De Oliveira, Adrianne Maria Netto; Soares, Maria Cristina Flores; Pereira, Tatiana Da Silva

    2017-06-03

    The Brazilian Amazon is known to be a region with high levels of mercury (Hg) in the environment and studies point to an association between high levels of natural mercury in the mother rock and the vast number of clandestine gold mines. Other studies already report the contamination of fish in this region, as well as high levels of Hg in biological material from environmentally exposed populations. On the other hand, this is one of the least developed regions of the planet and it is necessary to understand the vulnerability factors in these populations that may be intoxicated by this element. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the vulnerability factors in communities from Xingu River-Amazon basin probably exposed to Hg. A cross-selection study in two cities localized in Xingu River was conducted, and the sample contained was 268 individuals. sociodemographic questions, lifestyle, diet habits and health conditions were collated. The majority of the sample was female, between 30 and 59 years old, had less than 3 years of educational level and lived in the local of study more than 240 months. There was regular fish consumption (95.9%), principally carnivorous species (80.5%). The visual problem has a highest prevalence (43.3%) between the health problems and about the symptoms of Hg intoxication, memory loss (42.9%), weakness (35.1%), fatigue (34.3%), mood changes (28.7%) and difficulties in concentration (27.2%) was most reported. The female sex, age over 60, educational level below 3 years of study, did not had flush toilet, smoke and least one chronic non-communicable disease represent higher probability to had symptoms of Hg intoxication. Lack of access to health services, low education level and income evidence the susceptibility of this community to diseases and injuries. The vulnerable groups identified in this study should be a priority in public health and environmental health policies.

  1. Metal and metalloid distribution in different environmental compartments of the middle Xingu River in the Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Danielle Regina Gomes; Faccin, Henrique; Molin, Thaís Ramos Dal; de Carvalho, Leandro Machado; Amado, Lílian Lund

    2017-12-15

    Concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Hg, and Ni were analyzed during rainy and dry seasons in water, sediment, soil, and two fish species. The analysis took place at four points in the Xingu River, one point in the Fresco River, and two mining pits in the southeastern area of the Eastern Amazon, Brazil. In the water, the total concentration of As (>0.14μg/L) was higher than the local reference values at all sampling points and in both seasons. Ordination analysis (PCA) highlighted As and Cu elements in the water. PERMANOVA showed that the metals behaved differently in the water throughout the monitored season and between sampling points. The sites with mining activity were the regions that were the most contaminated by metals. Samples of sediment (Ni>18mg/kg and Cr>37.30mg/kg) and soil (Pb>72mg/kg, Cr>75mg/kg and Ni>30mg/Kg) showed concentrations above the recommended by local legislation. Metal values in the muscle of both fish species were relatively low at all sampling points and in both monitored seasons. Concentrations in water, sediment, and soil showed that some points of the Xingu River, Fresco River and mining pits are contaminated by trace elements, mainly As, Hg, Cr, Pb, and Ni. This was the first study about trace elements in the Middle Xingu River, which leads us to conclude that rainfall and cassiterite mining activities strongly influence the mobilization of metals, especially in abiotic compartments. However, the fish analyzed did not exhibit relevant levels of contamination. This indicates low risk for human consumption. Additionally, results highlight the need to establish local criteria to define contamination limits for different metals while taking into account local geochemistry particularities and biome diversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Origin, transport and deposition of leaf-wax biomarkers in the Amazon Basin and the adjacent Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggi, Christoph; Sawakuchi, André O.; Chiessi, Cristiano M.; Mulitza, Stefan; Mollenhauer, Gesine; Sawakuchi, Henrique O.; Baker, Paul A.; Zabel, Matthias; Schefuß, Enno

    2016-11-01

    Paleoenvironmental studies based on terrigenous biomarker proxies from sediment cores collected close to the mouth of large river systems rely on a proper understanding of the processes controlling origin, transport and deposition of biomarkers. Here, we contribute to the understanding of these processes by analyzing long-chain n-alkanes from the Amazon River system. We use the δD composition of long-chain n-alkanes from river bed sediments from the Amazon River and its major tributaries, as well as marine core-top samples collected off northeastern South America as tracers for different source areas. The δ13C composition of the same compounds is used to differentiate between long-chain n-alkanes from modern forest vegetation and petrogenic organic matter. Our δ13C results show depleted δ13C values (-33 to -36‰) in most samples, indicating a modern forest source for most of the samples. Enriched values (-31 to -33‰) are only found in a few samples poor in organic carbon indicating minor contributions from a fossil petrogenic source. Long-chain n-alkane δD analyses show more depleted values for the western tributaries, the Madeira and Solimões Rivers (-152 to -168‰), while n-alkanes from the lowland tributaries, the Negro, Xingu and Tocantins Rivers (-142 to -154‰), yield more enriched values. The n-alkane δD values thus reflect the mean annual isotopic composition of precipitation, which is most deuterium-depleted in the western Amazon Basin and more enriched in the eastern sector of the basin. Samples from the Amazon estuary show a mixed long-chain n-alkane δD signal from both eastern lowland and western tributaries. Marine core-top samples underlying the Amazon freshwater plume yield δD values similar to those from the Amazon estuary, while core-top samples from outside the plume showed more enriched values. Although the variability in the river bed data precludes quantitative assessment of relative contributions, our results indicate that long

  3. Spatial variability of soil carbon stock in the Urucu river basin, Central Amazon-Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceddia, Marcos Bacis; Villela, André Luis Oliveira; Pinheiro, Érika Flávia Machado; Wendroth, Ole

    2015-09-01

    The Amazon Forest plays a major role in C sequestration and release. However, few regional estimates of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in this ecoregion exist. One of the barriers to improve SOC estimates is the lack of recent soil data at high spatial resolution, which hampers the application of new methods for mapping SOC stock. The aims of this work were: (i) to quantify SOC stock under undisturbed vegetation for the 0-30 and the 0-100 cm under Amazon Forest; (ii) to correlate the SOC stock with soil mapping units and relief attributes and (iii) to evaluate three geostatistical techniques to generate maps of SOC stock (ordinary, isotopic and heterotopic cokriging). The study site is located in the Central region of Amazon State, Brazil. The soil survey covered the study site that has an area of 80 km(2) and resulted in a 1:10,000 soil map. It consisted of 315 field observations (96 complete soil profiles and 219 boreholes). SOC stock was calculated by summing C stocks by horizon, determined as a product of BD, SOC and the horizon thickness. For each one of the 315 soil observations, relief attributes were derived from a topographic map to understand SOC dynamics. The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm soil depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m(-2), respectively, which is, 34 and 16%, lower than other studies. The SOC stock is higher in soils developed in relief forms exhibiting well-drained soils, which are covered by Upland Dense Tropical Rainforest. Only SOC stock in the upper 100 cm exhibited spatial dependence allowing the generation of spatial variability maps based on spatial (co)-regionalization. The CTI was inversely correlated with SOC stock and was the only auxiliary variable feasible to be used in cokriging interpolation. The heterotopic cokriging presented the best performance for mapping SOC stock. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mudanças no padrão epidemiológico da malária em área rural do médio Rio Negro, Amazônia brasileira: análise retrospectiva Changes in the epidemiological pattern of malaria in a rural area of the middle Rio Negro, Brazilian Amazon: a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Cecilia Suárez-Mutis

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo dos casos de malária ocorridos entre 1992 e 2004 no Município de Barcelos, Amazonas, Brasil, aprofundando as informações existentes na área altamente endêmica do Rio Padauri, afluente do Rio Negro. Foram identificados 16.795 casos de malária, sendo 61,4% (10.318 da área rural e 38,6% (6.477 da área urbana, com uma incidência parasitária anual média de 136,7 por mil habitantes na área urbana e 613,6 na área rural. A incidência parasitária anual média no Rio Padauri foi de 708,9/1.000. Nesse rio, foram diferenciados dois períodos epidemiológicos, sendo um denominado epidêmico (1992-1998 e outro pós-epidêmico (1999-2004. Comparando os dois períodos, a proporção homem/mulher mudou de 1,8 para 1,14, a média de idade dos pacientes passou de 17,9 para 14,8, o percentual de casos por Plasmodium falciparum reduziu-se de 51,9% para 23,7, e o percentual de lâminas com baixa densidade parasitária de P. falciparum passou de 35,3% para 44,9%, e as de P. vivax de 24% para 35%. Todas essas diferenças foram estatisticamente significativas (p A retrospective study on reported malaria cases in the municipality (county of Barcelos, Amazonas State, Brazil, was performed from 1992 to 2004, emphasizing the high endemic area along the Padauiri, an affluent of the Rio Negro. 16,795 cases were reported, 10,318 (61.4% from the rural area and 6,477 (38.6% from the urban area. Mean annual parasite index for the period was 136.7 per 1,000 inhabitants in the urban area and 613.6 per 1,000 in the rural area of Barcelos and 708.9 per 1,000 in the Padauiri area. In the latter area, two periods were considered: one epidemic, from 1992 to 1998, and the other post-epidemic, from 1999 to 2004. Comparing the two periods, the male/female ratio changed from 1.8 to 1.14, mean patient age from 17.9 to 14.8, proportion of Plasmodium falciparum cases from 51.9% to 23.7%, proportion of slides with low P. falciparum parasite

  5. PAH Baselines for Amazonic Surficial Sediments: A Case of Study in Guajará Bay and Guamá River (Northern Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Camila Carneiro Dos Santos; Santos, Ewerton; Ramos, Brunalisa Silva; Damasceno, Flaviana Cardoso; Correa, José Augusto Martins

    2018-06-01

    The 16 priority PAH were determined in sediment samples from the insular zone of Guajará Bay and Guamá River (Southern Amazon River mouth). Low hydrocarbon levels were observed and naphthalene was the most representative PAH. The low molecular weight PAH represented 51% of the total PAH. Statistical analysis showed that the sampling sites are not significantly different. Source analysis by PAH ratios and principal component analysis revealed that PAH are primary from a few rate of fossil fuel combustion, mainly related to the local small community activity. All samples presented no biological stress or damage potencial according to the sediment quality guidelines. This study discuss baselines for PAH in surface sediments from Amazonic aquatic systems based on source determination by PAH ratios and principal component analysis, sediment quality guidelines and through comparison with previous studies data.

  6. Understanding Hydrological Regime Alterations Caused by dams: the Santiago River case in the Andean Region of the Amazon Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosero-Lopez, D.; Flecker, A.; Walter, M. T.

    2016-12-01

    Water resources in South America have been clearly targeted as key sources for hydropower expansion over the next 30 years. Ecuador, among the most biologically diverse countries in the world, has the highest density of hydropower dams, either operational, under construction, or planned, in the Amazon Basin. Ecuador's ambitious plan to change its energy portfolio is conceived to satisfy the country's demand and to empower the country to be the region's first hydroelectric energy exporter. The Santiago watershed located in the southeast part of the country has 39 facilities either under construction or in operation. The Santiago River and its main tributaries (Zamora and Upano) are expected to be impounded by large dams over the next 10 years. In order to understand the magnitude and potential impacts of regional dam development on hydrological regimes, a 35-year historical data set of stream discharge was analyzed. We examined flow regimes for time series between the construction of each dam, starting with the oldest and largest built in 1982 up until the most recent dam built in 2005. Preliminary results indicate a systematic displacement in flow seasonality following post-dam compared to pre-dam conditions. There are also notable differences in the distributions of peaks and pulses in post-dam flows. The range of changes from these results shows that punctuated and cumulative impacts are related to the size of each new impoundment. These observations and their implications to the livelihoods, biota, and ecosystems services in the Santiago watershed need to be incorporated into a broader cost-benefit analysis of hydropower generation in the western Amazon Basin.

  7. Metalloproteomics Approach to Analyze Mercury in Breast Milk and Hair Samples of Lactating Women in Communities of the Amazon Basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerbino, M R; Vieira, José Cavalcante Souza; Braga, C P; Oliveira, G; Padilha, I F; Silva, T M; Zara, L F; Silva, N J; Padilha, P M

    2018-02-01

    Mercury is a potentially toxic element that is present in the environment of the Brazilian Amazon and is responsible for adverse health effects in humans. This study sought to assess possible protein biomarkers of mercury exposure in breast milk samples from lactating women in the Madeira and Negro Rivers in the Brazilian Amazon. The mercury content of hair samples of lactating women was determined, and the proteome of breast milk samples was obtained using two-dimensional electrophoresis after protein precipitation with acetone. Mercury measurements of protein spots obtained via protein fractionation were performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS), and it was observed that mercury is linked to proteins with molecular masses in the range of 14-26 kDa. The total mercury concentration was also determined by GFAAS in unprocessed milk, lyophilized milk, and protein pellets, with the purpose of determining the mercury mass balance in relation to the concentration of this element in milk and pellets. Approximately 85 to 97% of mercury present in the lyophilized milk from samples of lactating women of the Madeira River is bound in the protein fraction. From lactating women of the Negro River, approximately 49% of the total mercury is bound in the protein fraction, and a difference of 51% is bound in the lipid fraction.

  8. The estuarine chemistry and isotope systematics of 234,238U in the Amazon and Fly Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarzenski, P.; Campbell, P.; Porcelli, D.; McKee, B.

    2004-01-01

    Natural concentrations of 238U and ??234U values were determined in estuarine surface waters and pore waters of the Amazon and Fly (Papua New Guinea) Rivers to investigate U transport phenomena across river-dominated land-sea margins. Discharge from large, tropical rivers is a major source of dissolved and solid materials transported to the oceans, and are important in defining not only oceanic mass budgets, but also terrestrial weathering rates. On the Amazon shelf, salinity-property plots of dissolved organic carbon, pH and total suspended matter revealed two vastly contrasting water masses that were energetically mixed. In this mixing zone, the distribution of uranium was highly non-conservative and exhibited extensive removal from the water column. Uranium removal was most pronounced within a salinity range of 0-16.6, and likely the result of scavenging and flocculation reactions with inorganic (i.e., Fe/Mn oxides) and organic colloids/particles. Removal of uranium may also be closely coupled to exchange and resuspension processes at the sediment/water interface. An inner-shelf pore water profile indicated the following diagenetic processes: extensive (???1 m) zones of Fe(III) - and, to a lesser degree, Mn(IV) - reduction in the absence of significant S(II) concentrations appeared to facilitate the formation of various authigenic minerals (e.g., siderite, rhodocrosite and uraninite). The pore water dissolved 238U profile co-varied closely with Mn(II). Isotopic variations as evidenced in ??234U pore waters values from this site revealed information on the origin and history of particulate uranium. Only after a depth of about 1 m did the ??234U value approach unity (secular equilibrium), denoting a residual lattice bound uranium complex that is likely an upper-drainage basin weathering product. This suggests that the enriched ??234U values represent a riverine surface complexation product that is actively involved in Mn-Fe diagenetic cycles and surface

  9. The estuarine chemistry and isotope systematics of 234,238U in the Amazon and Fly Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarzenski, Peter; Campbell, Pamela; Porcelli, Don; McKee, Brent

    2004-12-01

    Natural concentrations of 238U and δ234U values were determined in estuarine surface waters and pore waters of the Amazon and Fly (Papua New Guinea) Rivers to investigate U transport phenomena across river-dominated land-sea margins. Discharge from large, tropical rivers is a major source of dissolved and solid materials transported to the oceans, and are important in defining not only oceanic mass budgets, but also terrestrial weathering rates. On the Amazon shelf, salinity-property plots of dissolved organic carbon, pH and total suspended matter revealed two vastly contrasting water masses that were energetically mixed. In this mixing zone, the distribution of uranium was highly non-conservative and exhibited extensive removal from the water column. Uranium removal was most pronounced within a salinity range of 0-16.6, and likely the result of scavenging and flocculation reactions with inorganic (i.e., Fe/Mn oxides) and organic colloids/particles. Removal of uranium may also be closely coupled to exchange and resuspension processes at the sediment/water interface. An inner-shelf pore water profile indicated the following diagenetic processes: extensive (˜1 m) zones of Fe(III)—and, to a lesser degree, Mn(IV)—reduction in the absence of significant S(II) concentrations appeared to facilitate the formation of various authigenic minerals (e.g., siderite, rhodocrosite and uraninite). The pore water dissolved 238U profile co-varied closely with Mn(II). Isotopic variations as evidenced in δ234U pore waters values from this site revealed information on the origin and history of particulate uranium. Only after a depth of about 1 m did the δ234U value approach unity (secular equilibrium), denoting a residual lattice bound uranium complex that is likely an upper-drainage basin weathering product. This suggests that the enriched δ234U values represent a riverine surface complexation product that is actively involved in Mn-Fe diagenetic cycles and surface

  10. Estimation of erosion and sedimentation yield in the Ucayali river basin, a Peruvian tributary of the Amazon River, using ground and satellite methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, William; Martinez, Jean-Michel; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Espinoza, Raul; Vauchel, Philippe; Lavado, Waldo

    2014-05-01

    Since 2003, the works of HYBAM observatory (www.ore-hybam.org) has allowed to quantify with accuracy, precision and over a long period Amazon's main rivers discharges and sediments loads. In Peru, a network of 8 stations is regularly gauged and managed in association with the national meteorological and Hydrological service (SENAMHI), the UNALM (National Agrological University of La Molina) and the National Water Agency (ANA). Nevertheless, some current processes of erosion and sedimentation in the foreland basins are still little known, both in volumes and in localization. The sedimentary contributions of Andean tributaries could be there considerable, masking a very strong sedimentation in subsidence zones localized between the control points of the HYBAM's network. The development of spatial techniques such as the Altimetry and reflectance measurement allows us today to complete the ground's network: HYBAM's works have allowed establishing a relation between surface concentration and reflectance in Amazonian rivers (Martinez et al., 2009, Espinoza et al., 2012) and reconstituting water levels series (Calmant et al., 2006, 2008). If the difficulty of calibration of these techniques increases towards the upstream, their use can allow a first characterization of the tributaries contributions and sedimentation zones. At world level, erosion and sedimentation yields in the upper Ucayali are exceptional, favored by a marked seasonality in this region (Espinoza et al., 2009, Lavado, 2010, Pépin et al., 2010) and the presence of cells of extreme precipitation ("Hotspots") (Johnson et al., 1976, Espinoza et al, 2009a). The upper Ucayali drainage basin is a Piggyback where the River run with a low slope, parallel to the Andean range, deposing by gravity hundred millions a year of sands, silts and clays. In this work, we thus propose an estimation of sedimentation and erosion yield in the Ucayali river basin using ground and satellite methods.

  11. A retrospective study of pathologic findings in the Amazon and Orinoco river dolphin (Inia geoffrensis) in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Christopher J; Boede, Ernesto O; Hartmann, Manuel García; Lowenstein-Whaley, Joanne; Mujica-Jorquera, Esmeralda; Parish, Scott V; Parish, James V; Garner, Michael M; Stadler, Cynthia K

    2007-06-01

    River dolphins are especially susceptible to negative human impacts. For their conservation, attempts of relocation or procreation ex situ may become important in the future to avoid their extinction. Additional knowledge and medical experiences of river dolphin management in captivity may aid such conservation efforts. The medical records and necropsy and histopathology reports on 123 captive Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) were re-viewed. Of these 123 animals, 105 were necropsied and 70 necropsies were supported with histopathology. Eighteen animals were not necropsied. Among wild-born animals, mortality was highest in the first 2 mo immediately postcapture and transport, accounting for 32 of 123 deaths. Pneumonia and skin lesions (cutaneous and subcutaneous ulcerations and abscesses) were the most common findings, found in 44 of 105 (42%) and 38 of 105 (36%) of gross diagnoses, respectively. At least 10 of 44 cases of pneumonia diagnosed grossly included a verminous component. Cachexia, from a variety of causes, was a major gross finding in 21 animals. Fifteen animals had histologic evidence of significant renal pathology, and this was the primary cause of death in 13 cases. Hepatic pathology was found in 18 cases, and bacterial sepsis was confirmed via histology in 16 cases. Based on these findings, it may be concluded that keys to successful maintenance of this species include 1) prophylactic anthelminthic and antibiotic therapy immediately post-capture; 2) maintenance of animals in larger enclosures than in past attempts, in compatible groups, and in facilities capable of separating aggressive animals; 3) maintenance in microbiologically hygienic water quality at all times; and 4) a proactive program of preventive medicine during the immediate postcapture, quarantine, and maintenance period of captivity.

  12. A 30 Ma history of the Amazon River inferred from terrigenous sediments and organic matter on the Ceará Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Soelen, Elsbeth E.; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Santos, Roberto Ventura; Dantas, Elton Luiz; Vasconcelos de Almeida, Fernanda; Pires, Juliana Pinheiro; Roddaz, Martin; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2017-09-01

    The history of the Amazon River is a much-discussed subject, and the timing of the development of a transcontinental system in particular is a matter of some controversy, with estimations varying between the Early Miocene and the Pliocene or even the Pleistocene. To shed further light on this, we studied the sediment provenance of an Oligocene to Late Pleistocene marine sedimentary section from the Ceará Rise (ODP Site 925), a topographic high in the central Atlantic Ocean, using major element concentrations and Nd isotopic composition in 85 samples. In addition, the carbon isotopic composition of bulk organic matter and changes in the distribution of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) were used to identify periods of increased river outflow. On the basis of these results, we suggest that the history of the development of the Amazon River is characterized by specific steps. During the late Oligocene/Early Miocene (30-18.3 Ma), the terrigenous mass accumulation rates (TARs) were high, and sediment and GDGT compositions suggest that a large river system existed, which at times received weathering products from a younger and probably Andean sediment source. A shift to a younger Andean sediment provenance after 8.7 Ma indicates that the Amazon River became permanently connected with the Andes. Between 18.3 and 4.5 Ma, TARs were generally low, and GDGTs were derived for the most part from in situ production in marine waters. Around 4.5 Ma, the river expanded, probably due to ongoing tectonic activity, and uplift in the Andes increased Andean rock erosion. This led to a strong increase in terrigenous sediment deposition and enhanced organic matter preservation on the Ceará Rise, and the delivery of terrestrial (both soil and riverine) branched GDGTs to the Ceará Rise.

  13. Spatial variability of soil carbon stock in the Urucu river basin, Central Amazon-Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceddia, Marcos Bacis, E-mail: marcosceddia@gmail.com [Department of Soil, Institute of Agronomy, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropédica, RJ 23890-000 (Brazil); Villela, André Luis Oliveira [Colégio Técnico da UFRRJ, RJ, Seropédica 23890-000 (Brazil); Pinheiro, Érika Flávia Machado [Department of Soil, Institute of Agronomy, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropédica, RJ 23890-000 (Brazil); Wendroth, Ole [Department of Plant & Soil Sciences, University of Kentucky, College of Agriculture, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Amazon Forest plays a major role in C sequestration and release. However, few regional estimates of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in this ecoregion exist. One of the barriers to improve SOC estimates is the lack of recent soil data at high spatial resolution, which hampers the application of new methods for mapping SOC stock. The aims of this work were: (i) to quantify SOC stock under undisturbed vegetation for the 0–30 and the 0–100 cm under Amazon Forest; (ii) to correlate the SOC stock with soil mapping units and relief attributes and (iii) to evaluate three geostatistical techniques to generate maps of SOC stock (ordinary, isotopic and heterotopic cokriging). The study site is located in the Central region of Amazon State, Brazil. The soil survey covered the study site that has an area of 80 km{sup 2} and resulted in a 1:10,000 soil map. It consisted of 315 field observations (96 complete soil profiles and 219 boreholes). SOC stock was calculated by summing C stocks by horizon, determined as a product of BD, SOC and the horizon thickness. For each one of the 315 soil observations, relief attributes were derived from a topographic map to understand SOC dynamics. The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm soil depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m{sup −2}, respectively, which is, 34 and 16%, lower than other studies. The SOC stock is higher in soils developed in relief forms exhibiting well-drained soils, which are covered by Upland Dense Tropical Rainforest. Only SOC stock in the upper 100 cm exhibited spatial dependence allowing the generation of spatial variability maps based on spatial (co)-regionalization. The CTI was inversely correlated with SOC stock and was the only auxiliary variable feasible to be used in cokriging interpolation. The heterotopic cokriging presented the best performance for mapping SOC stock. - Highlights: • The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m{sup −2}, respectively. • SOC stocks were 34 and 16

  14. Spatial variability of soil carbon stock in the Urucu river basin, Central Amazon-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceddia, Marcos Bacis; Villela, André Luis Oliveira; Pinheiro, Érika Flávia Machado; Wendroth, Ole

    2015-01-01

    The Amazon Forest plays a major role in C sequestration and release. However, few regional estimates of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in this ecoregion exist. One of the barriers to improve SOC estimates is the lack of recent soil data at high spatial resolution, which hampers the application of new methods for mapping SOC stock. The aims of this work were: (i) to quantify SOC stock under undisturbed vegetation for the 0–30 and the 0–100 cm under Amazon Forest; (ii) to correlate the SOC stock with soil mapping units and relief attributes and (iii) to evaluate three geostatistical techniques to generate maps of SOC stock (ordinary, isotopic and heterotopic cokriging). The study site is located in the Central region of Amazon State, Brazil. The soil survey covered the study site that has an area of 80 km 2 and resulted in a 1:10,000 soil map. It consisted of 315 field observations (96 complete soil profiles and 219 boreholes). SOC stock was calculated by summing C stocks by horizon, determined as a product of BD, SOC and the horizon thickness. For each one of the 315 soil observations, relief attributes were derived from a topographic map to understand SOC dynamics. The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm soil depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m −2 , respectively, which is, 34 and 16%, lower than other studies. The SOC stock is higher in soils developed in relief forms exhibiting well-drained soils, which are covered by Upland Dense Tropical Rainforest. Only SOC stock in the upper 100 cm exhibited spatial dependence allowing the generation of spatial variability maps based on spatial (co)-regionalization. The CTI was inversely correlated with SOC stock and was the only auxiliary variable feasible to be used in cokriging interpolation. The heterotopic cokriging presented the best performance for mapping SOC stock. - Highlights: • The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m −2 , respectively. • SOC stocks were 34 and 16%, respectively

  15. Time series for water levels in virtual gauge stations in the Amazon basin using satellite radar altimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gabriel León Hernández

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Using satellite altimeter radar technology for monitoring changes in water levels at continental scale is a relatively recent ad- vance. Several studies have demonstrated the interest being shown in applying this technology to monitoring the hydrographic patterns of large-scale basins worldwide. The current study presents the inference of time series representing changes in water le- vel for bodies of water by defining virtual gauge stations deduced for two very different rivers in terms of their biophysical and to- pographic characteristics; the two rivers were the Rio Negro in the Brazilian Amazon Basin and the Caqueta River on the Colombian side. The differences between the two rivers revealed the limits of satellite radar altimeter when applied to continental waters (±20cm and ±40 cm precision for Río Negro and Río Caquetá, respectively. However, applying this technology seems very promising, since new missions have been scheduled to be put into orbit by the end of 2008.

  16. Modelling the Effects of Sea-level, Climate Change, Geology, and Tectonism on the Morphology of the Amazon River Valley and its Floodplain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, R. E.; Cremon, E.; Dunne, T.

    2017-12-01

    How continental-scale rivers respond to climate, geology, and sea level change is not well represented in morphodynamic models. Large rivers respond to influences less apparent in the form and deposits of smaller streams, as the huge scales require long time periods for changes in form and behavior. Tectonic deformation and excavation of resistant deposits can affect low gradient continental-scale rivers, thereby changing flow pathways, channel slope and sinuosity, along-stream patterns of sediment transport capacity, channel patterns, floodplain construction, and valley topography. Nowhere are such scales of morphodynamic response grander than the Amazon River, as described in papers by L.A.K. Mertes. Field-based understanding has improved over the intervening decades, but mechanistic models are needed to simulate and synthesize key morphodynamic components relevant to the construction of large river valleys, with a focus on the Amazon. The Landscape-Linked Environmental Model (LLEM) utilizes novel massively parallel computer architectures to simulate multiple-direction flow, sediment transport, deposition, and incision for exceptionally large (30-80 million nodes per compute unit) lowland dispersal systems. LLEM represents key fluvial processes such as bed and bar deposition, lateral and vertical erosion/incision, levee and floodplain construction, floodplain hydrology, `badlands dissection' of weak sedimentary deposits during falling sea level, tectonic and glacial-isostatic deformation, and provides a 3D record of created stratigraphy and underlying bedrock. We used LLEM to simulate the development of the main valley of the Amazon over the last million years, exploring the propagation of incision waves and system dissection during glacial lowstands, followed by rapid valley filling and extreme lateral mobility of channels during interglacials. We present metrics, videos, and 3D fly-throughs characterizing how system development responds to key assumptions

  17. New views on "old" carbon in the Amazon River: Insight from the source of organic carbon eroded from the Peruvian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K. E.; Hilton, R. G.; West, A. J.; Malhi, Y.; Gröcke, D. R.; Bryant, C. L.; Ascough, P. L.; Robles Caceres, A.; New, M.

    2013-05-01

    rivers play a key role in the delivery of particulate organic carbon (POC) to large river systems and the ocean. Due to the extent of its drainage area and runoff, the Amazon River is one of Earth's most important biogeochemical systems. However, the source of POC eroded from the humid region of the Eastern Andes and the input of fossil POC from sedimentary rocks (POCfossil) remains poorly constrained. Here we collected suspended sediments from the Kosñipata River during flood events to better characterize Andean POC, measuring the nitrogen to organic carbon ratio (N/C), stable carbon isotopes (δ13Corg) and radiocarbon (Δ14Corg). Δ14Corg values ranged from -711‰ to -15‰, and significant linear trends between Δ14Corg, N/C and δ13Corg suggested that this reflects the mixing of POCfossil with very young organic matter (Δ14Corg 50‰) from the terrestrial biosphere (POCnon-fossil). Using N/C and Δ14Corg in an end-member mixing analysis, we quantify the fraction of POCfossil (to within 0.1) and find that it contributes a constant proportion of the suspended sediment mass (0.37 ± 0.03%) and up to 80% of total POC. In contrast, the relative contribution of POCnon-fossil was variable, being most important during the rising limb and peak discharges of flood events. The new data shed light on published measurements of "old" POC (low Δ14Corg) in Andean-fed tributaries of the Amazon River, with their Δ14Corg and δ13Corg values consistent with variable addition of POCfossil. The findings suggest a greater persistence of Andean POC in the lowland Amazon than previously recognized.

  18. Correlation between river slope and meandering variability (obtained by DGPS data) and morphotectonics for two Andean tributaries of the Amazon river: the case of Beni (Bolivia) and Napo (Ecuador-Peru) rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourrel, L.; Darrozes, J.; Guyot, J.; Christophoul, F.; Bondoux, F.

    2007-05-01

    The Beni river drains a catchment area of 282 000 km2 of which 40 percent are located in the Cordillera of the Bolivian and Peruvian Andes, and the rest in the Amazonian plain : the studied reaches runs from Guanay (Andean Piedmont) to Riberalta (junction with Madre de Dios river) that represents a distance by the river of 1055 km. The Napo river starts in the Ecuadorian Andes and leaves Ecuador in Nuevo Rocafuerte (27 400 km2) and enters in Peru until its junction with the Amazon river : the studied section runs from Misahualli (Andean Piedmont) to this junction, that represents a distance by the river of 995 km. The GPS data were acquired using a mobile GPS embarked on a boat and 4 fixed bases located along the Beni river, 6 along the Napo river and the two rivers profile calculated from post-treated differential GPS solutions. For the Beni river, two sectors were identified: - the upstream sector (~230 km) between Guanay (414 m) and 50 km downstream Rurrenabaque (245 m) is located in Andean Piedmont, which consists in a series of thrusts associated with anticlines and synclines (the subandean zone), and presents slope values range between 135 cm/km and 10 cm/km and an average index of sinuosity (IS) of 1.29, - the downstream sector (~ 820 km) which runs in Amazonian plain (until Riberalta -165 m-), is characterized by an average slope of 8 cm/km and an average IS of 2.06 (this sector is much more homogeneous and the Beni river shows a meandering channel). For the Napo River, three sectors were identified: - the first sector (~140 km) between Misahualli (401 m) and Coca (265 m), is located in Andean Piedmont (subandean zone) and presents slope values range between 170 cm/km and 30 cm/km and an average IS of 1.6, - the second sector (~250 km) between Coca (when the Napo river enters in the Amazonian plain) and Nuevo Rocafuerte (190 m), presents slope values range between 30 cm/km and 20 cm/km and an average IS of 1.2, and a convex-up shape profile corresponding to

  19. Restoration Effects of the Riparian Forest on the Intertidal Fish Fauna in an Urban Area of the Amazon River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Stephen F.; Vasconcelos, Huann C. G.; Mendes-Junior, Raimundo N. G.; Araújo, Andrea S.; Costa-Campos, Carlos Eduardo; Nascimento, Walace S.; Isaac, Victoria J.

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization causes environmental impacts that threaten the health of aquatic communities and alter their recovery patterns. In this study, we evaluated the diversity of intertidal fish in six areas affected by urbanization (areas with native vegetation, deforested areas, and areas in process of restoration of vegetation) along an urban waterfront in the Amazon River. 20 species were identified, representing 17 genera, 14 families, and 8 orders. The different degrees of habitat degradation had a major effect on the composition of the fish fauna; the two least affected sectors were the only ones in that all 20 species were found. Eight species were recorded in the most degraded areas. The analysis revealed two well-defined groups, coinciding with the sectors in better ecological quality and degraded areas, respectively. The native vegetation has been identified as the crucial factor to the recovery and homeostasis of the studied ecosystem, justifying its legal protection and its use in the restoration and conservation of altered and threatened environments. These results reinforce the importance of maintaining the native vegetation as well as its restoration in order to benefit of the fish populations in intertidal zones impacted by alterations resulting from inadequate urbanization. PMID:27699201

  20. Restoration Effects of the Riparian Forest on the Intertidal Fish Fauna in an Urban Area of the Amazon River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio C. Sá-Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization causes environmental impacts that threaten the health of aquatic communities and alter their recovery patterns. In this study, we evaluated the diversity of intertidal fish in six areas affected by urbanization (areas with native vegetation, deforested areas, and areas in process of restoration of vegetation along an urban waterfront in the Amazon River. 20 species were identified, representing 17 genera, 14 families, and 8 orders. The different degrees of habitat degradation had a major effect on the composition of the fish fauna; the two least affected sectors were the only ones in that all 20 species were found. Eight species were recorded in the most degraded areas. The analysis revealed two well-defined groups, coinciding with the sectors in better ecological quality and degraded areas, respectively. The native vegetation has been identified as the crucial factor to the recovery and homeostasis of the studied ecosystem, justifying its legal protection and its use in the restoration and conservation of altered and threatened environments. These results reinforce the importance of maintaining the native vegetation as well as its restoration in order to benefit of the fish populations in intertidal zones impacted by alterations resulting from inadequate urbanization.

  1. Geochemistry of the Congo and Amazon river systems. Boron isotopic geochemistry in corals. Continental erosion and ocean pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillardet, J.

    1995-01-01

    Two main geological processes control the CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere at a geological time scale: CO 2 outgasing from the interior of the Earth and CO 2 consumption by continental weathering. In the thesis, we initiate two different directions that can be useful to constraint the past climate evolution models. The first one is the extensive study of the largest rivers of the world using the classical geochemical analyses (major and trace elements, Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes) and modelling approaches. The study case of this thesis are the Congo and Amazon Basin. In particular, the coupling between chemical and physical erosion is examined and related to the hydrologic and tectonic parameters. Relief, thus tectonics appear to best control CO 2 consumption by rock weathering. The second part of the work is devoted to the measurement of boron isotopic ratio in corals because it may be used as a proxy for paleo-ocean pH. It could thus bring important pieces of information on the global C cycle and climate evolution. The technical part is extensively described and the method applied to the corals from the last interglacial period. Our conclusion is that corals are likely to be influence by early diagenetic changes that modify the boron isotopic composition of corals. We thus propose a test to select the samples. (author)

  2. Structure of parasites community in Chaetobranchopsis orbicularis (Cichlidae), a host from the Amazon River system in northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares-Dias, Marcos; Oliveira, Marcos Sidney Brito

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the component communities of parasites in Chaetobranchopsis orbicularis from a tributary of the Amazon River system, in Northern Brazil. In 32 fish examined, 902,551 parasites were collected, including Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Piscinoodinium pillulare, Sciadicleithrum geophagi, Posthodiplostomum sp., Clinostomum marginatum, Echinorhynchus paranensis, Neoechinorhynchus pterodoridis, and Dolops longicauda. I. multifiliis was the dominant and abundant parasite species. The ectoparasites presented aggregate dispersion, but the endoparasites showed random dispersion pattern. Mean species richness was 4.0 ± 1.5 parasites, mean Brillouin diversity (HB) was 0.33 ± 0.28, mean evenness was 0.15 ± 0.13, and Berger-Parker dominance (d) was 0.85 ± 0.17. The species richness of parasites and HB were positively correlated with the length of hosts. There was positive correlation between the abundance of P. pillulare and length and weight, between the abundance of I. multifiliis and weight, as well as between the abundance of E. paranensis and N. pterodoridis and the length of hosts. Body condition of the hosts was not affected by moderate parasitism. The low diversity of endoparasites indicates that C. orbicularis is a host with low position in the food web. This is the first record of all these parasites for C. orbicularis.

  3. Mansonellosis at Medium Purus River (Brazilian Amazon - DOI: 10.3395/reciis.v2i1.113en

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Leite Adami

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Mansonella ozzardi is a filarial autochthonous parasite of the American continent that is frequently found infecting human beings in the Brazilian Amazon. The human infection by M. ozzardi is still seen as non pathogenic despite the variety of symptoms related to it such as fever, articular pain, headache, lymphadenopathy, eosinophily and pruritic skins eruptions. During an expedition in the Acre State, we were able to visit the Kamikuã, an Indian village located along the Purus river, close to the city of Boca do Acre (Amazonas State. The inhabitants had been diagnosed as harboring dog´s worms (Dirofilaria immitis but our blood samples collections from some individuals evidenced M. ozzardi infections. In fact, human populations from endemic areas are always complaining about symptoms of M. ozzardi infection and remain living together with high parasitic loads in the expectation of correct diagnostic and treatment. Studies on mansonellosis chemotherapy and control should be carried out in order to add knowledge about the infection and to provide hope and answers for those who live in endemic areas.

  4. Modeling surface water dynamics in the Amazon Basin using MOSART-Inundation v1.0: impacts of geomorphological parameters and river flow representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiangyu; Li, Hong-Yi; Leung, L. Ruby; Tesfa, Teklu K.; Getirana, Augusto; Papa, Fabrice; Hess, Laura L.

    2017-03-01

    In the Amazon Basin, floodplain inundation is a key component of surface water dynamics and plays an important role in water, energy and carbon cycles. The Model for Scale Adaptive River Transport (MOSART) was extended with a macroscale inundation scheme for representing floodplain inundation. The extended model, named MOSART-Inundation, was used to simulate surface hydrology of the entire Amazon Basin. Previous hydrologic modeling studies in the Amazon Basin identified and addressed a few challenges in simulating surface hydrology of this basin, including uncertainties of floodplain topography and channel geometry, and the representation of river flow in reaches with mild slopes. This study further addressed four aspects of these challenges. First, the spatial variability of vegetation-caused biases embedded in the HydroSHEDS digital elevation model (DEM) data was explicitly addressed. A vegetation height map of about 1 km resolution and a land cover dataset of about 90 m resolution were used in a DEM correction procedure that resulted in an average elevation reduction of 13.2 m for the entire basin and led to evident changes in the floodplain topography. Second, basin-wide empirical formulae for channel cross-sectional dimensions were refined for various subregions to improve the representation of spatial variability in channel geometry. Third, the channel Manning roughness coefficient was allowed to vary with the channel depth, as the effect of riverbed resistance on river flow generally declines with increasing river size. Lastly, backwater effects were accounted for to better represent river flow in mild-slope reaches. The model was evaluated against in situ streamflow records and remotely sensed Envisat altimetry data and Global Inundation Extent from Multi-Satellites (GIEMS) inundation data. In a sensitivity study, seven simulations were compared to evaluate the impacts of the five modeling aspects addressed in this study. The comparisons showed that

  5. Professor Camillo Negro's Neuropathological Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiò, Adriano; Gianetto, Claudia; Dagna, Stella

    2016-01-01

    Camillo Negro, Professor in Neurology at the University of Torino, was a pioneer of scientific film. From 1906 to 1908, with the help of his assistant Giuseppe Roasenda and in collaboration with Roberto Omegna, one of the most experienced cinematographers in Italy, he filmed some of his patients for scientific and educational purposes. During the war years, he continued his scientific film project at the Military Hospital in Torino, filming shell-shocked soldiers. In autumn 2011, the Museo Nazionale del Cinema, in partnership with the Faculty of Neurosciences of the University of Torino, presented a new critical edition of the neuropathological films directed by Negro. The Museum's collection also includes 16 mm footage probably filmed in 1930 by Doctor Fedele Negro, Camillo's son. One of these films is devoted to celebrating the effects of the so-called "Bulgarian cure" on Parkinson's disease.

  6. The role of fluvial sediment supply and river-mouth hydrology in the dynamics of the muddy, Amazon-dominated Amapa-Guianas coast, South America: A three-point research agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony, Edward J.; Gardel, Antoine; Proisy, Christophe; Fromard, François; Gensac, Erwan; Peron, Christina; Walcker, Romain; Lesourd, Sandric

    2013-01-01

    The morphology and sediment dynamics of the 1500 km-long coast of South America between the mouths of the Amazon and the Orinoco Rivers are largely dependent on the massive suspended-sediment discharge of the Amazon, part of which is transported alongshore as mud banks. These mud banks have an overwhelming impact on the geology, the geomorphology, the ecology and the economy of this coast. Although numerous field investigations and remote sensing studies have considerably enhanced our underst...

  7. Controls on cutoff formation along a tropical meandering river in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, J.; Constantine, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    The termination of meander bends is an inherent part of the evolution of meandering rivers. Cutoffs are produced by one of two mechanisms: neck cutoffs occur when two adjacent meanders converge, while chute cutoffs are generated by flood-driven floodplain incision, resulting in a shorter, steeper channel path. Here we use an annually-resolved record of Landsat imagery, coupled with daily discharge data to assess the role of high-magnitude discharges (Q ≥ QBF) on cutoff formation along the Rio Beni, Bolivia. Our results suggest that despite numerous above-bankfull events, the dominant cutoff mechanism operating on the Beni is neck cutoff. Evaluating the formation of these cutoffs reveals that migration rates accelerate during years of high discharge, and eventually cause the migrating bends to breach. The density of floodplain vegetation and the medium into which the channel migrated was also responsible for the patterns of cutoff documented along this river. The presence of existing floodplain channels permitted the river to divert its flow along shorter courses thereby facilitating cutoff, and limiting sinuosity growth. Understanding the long-term evolution of meandering channels is important since their morphodynamics are responsible for the creation of highly biodiverse riparian habitats, as well as the store and release of alluvial material. Moreover, the interactions between discharge and the channel-floodplain system are integral for the functioning and long-term evolution of these landscapes, particularly in the face of global climate change.

  8. Solar-Aligned Pictographs at the Paleoindian Site of Painel do Pilão along the Lower Amazon River at Monte Alegre, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christopher Sean

    2016-01-01

    The archaeological sites near Monte Alegre, along Brazil's lower Amazon River, provide new information on the little-known activities and symbolism of South American Paleoindians toward the end of the Ice Age. While paleoindian sites like Monte Verde in Chile, or Guitarrero Cave in Peru, are located near the pacific coast, Monte Alegre lies much further inland, 680 km upriver from the mouth of the Amazon River and the Atlantic Coast. With excavated wood charcoal radiocarbon dated as early as 13,200 calibrated years ago, the hill-as a source of sandstone and quartz lithics-supplied early pioneers with adequate tools needed for colonizing the interior of the continent. Once there, they painted rock art on the landscape, which bears a record of the sun's horizon positions throughout the year. At just 2° south of the equator, Monte Alegre shows no overt seasonal changes beyond fluctuating rainfall amounts, unlike at higher latitudes where temperature, amount of daylight, foliage, and forms of precipitation markedly change. Near the equator, solar and stellar horizon sightings most visibly track the passage of time and seasonal cycles. However, horizons are often hidden behind high forest canopy throughout much of the Amazon Rainforest; but in the Monte Alegre hill ridges looming above the river, paleoindians could hike above the canopy to peer at the horizon, more effectively synchronizing their activities to ecological cycles. This research suggests that Monte Alegre paleoindians delimited the azimuthal range of the sun in a solar year with notational pictographs aligned to horizon sightings at Painel do Pilão, and leaving a painted grid of tally marks that might have served as a rudimentary early calendar. The broad-reaching implication for early Americans is that through the strategic placement of rock art, these ancient artists fostered predictive archaeorecording from which resources could be optimally extracted, ceremonial activities could be consistently

  9. Conflicts between river dolphins (Cetacea: Odontoceti and fisheries in the Central Amazon: a path toward tragedy?

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    Luiz Cláudio Pinto de Sá Alves

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Dolphin interactions with fishermen have increased significantly and pose potential risks to the boto, Inia geoffrensis (Blainville, 1817, and the tucuxi, Sotalia fluviatilis (Gervais & Deville, 1853. The main objective of the present paper was to describe the existing conflicts between river dolphins and fishermen in the municipality of Manacapuru region. Sixteen fishermen were interviewed in Manacapuru, state of Amazonas, Brazil who described a situation of ongoing conflict that may be unsustainable. Two merchants from Manacapuru made unconfirmed reports on a boto carcass trade. Data collection for this study occurred between April 20th and April 25th, 2009, but the first author had been conducting research on river dolphins and fisheries in Manacapuru and nearby cities since the beginning of 2008, in order to gain the trust of the fishermen interviewed. The hunting and deliberate killing of the species is probably more threatening to botos than their incidental capture in fishing gears in the Manacapuru region. This practice may result from the fact that dolphins are prone to damaging fishing equipment, and stealing (and possibly damaging fish from the nets. They are portrayed negatively in numerous myths and superstitions of traditional Amazonian folklore, making them extremely undesired or even hated, seen as pests, and used in the piracatinga, Calophysus macropterus (Lichtenstein, 1819 fishery as bait. For tucuxis, incidental capture still represents the major threat to their conservation in the region evaluated here.

  10. Floristic and structural status of forests in permanent preservation areas of Moju river basin, Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, J C; Vieira, I C G; Almeida, A S; Silva, C A

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to analyze the floristic patterns and the structure of disturbed and undisturbed upland forests, in Permanent Preservation Areas (PPAs) along the Moju river, in the Brazilian state of Pará. Trees with a diameter equal to or larger than 10cm at 1.30m from the ground (DBH) ≥10cm were analyzed for the upper stratum. For the middle stratum, individuals with DBH between 4.99 and 9.99cm were sampled. Forty-five families and 221 species were found in disturbed forests, and 43 families and 208 species in undisturbed forests. Floristic similarity was high between strata and between forest types, with values above 50%. Similarity was highest between middle strata. The most species-abundant families in undisturbed forests were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Chrysobalanaceae and Myrtaceae; the species with the highest density there were Eschweilera grandiflora, Licania sclerophylla and Zygia cauliflora. In disturbed forests, the dominant families were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Lecythidaceae and Melastomataceae. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was 3.21 for undisturbed forests and 2.85 for disturbed forests. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis did not group the forests by their floristic composition in both upper and middle strata. Overall, the PPA forests along the Moju river, even if disturbed, did not show major floristic changes but substantially change their structural characteristics.

  11. Floristic and structural status of forests in permanent preservation areas of Moju river basin, Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract The goal of this study is to analyze the floristic patterns and the structure of disturbed and undisturbed upland forests, in Permanent Preservation Areas (PPAs along the Moju river, in the Brazilian state of Pará. Trees with a diameter equal to or larger than 10cm at 1.30m from the ground (DBH ≥10cm were analyzed for the upper stratum. For the middle stratum, individuals with DBH between 4.99 and 9.99cm were sampled. Forty-five families and 221 species were found in disturbed forests, and 43 families and 208 species in undisturbed forests. Floristic similarity was high between strata and between forest types, with values above 50%. Similarity was highest between middle strata. The most species-abundant families in undisturbed forests were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Chrysobalanaceae and Myrtaceae; the species with the highest density there were Eschweilera grandiflora, Licania sclerophylla and Zygia cauliflora. In disturbed forests, the dominant families were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Lecythidaceae and Melastomataceae. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was 3.21 for undisturbed forests and 2.85 for disturbed forests. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS analysis did not group the forests by their floristic composition in both upper and middle strata. Overall, the PPA forests along the Moju river, even if disturbed, did not show major floristic changes but substantially change their structural characteristics.

  12. Simultaneous abrupt shifts in hydrology and fish assemblage structure in a floodplain lake in the central Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röpke, Cristhiana P; Amadio, Sidinéia; Zuanon, Jansen; Ferreira, Efrem J G; Deus, Cláudia Pereira de; Pires, Tiago H S; Winemiller, Kirk O

    2017-01-10

    Combined effects of climate change and deforestation have altered precipitation patterns in the Amazon. This has led to changes in the frequency of extreme events of flood and drought in recent decades and in the magnitude of the annual flood pulse, a phenomenon that influences virtually all aspects of river-floodplain ecosystem dynamics. Analysis of long-term data revealed abrupt and synchronous changes in hydrology and fish assemblage structure of a floodplain lake near the confluence of Amazon and Negro rivers. After an intense drought in 2005, the assemblage assumed a different and fairly persistent taxonomic composition and functional structure. Declines in abundance after 2005 were more pronounced for species of all sizes having equilibrium life history strategy, large species with periodic life history strategy, and for all trophic levels except primary consumers. Our results suggest that the extreme drought triggered changes in the fish assemblage and subsequent anomalous hydrological conditions have hampered assemblage recovery. These findings stress the need to account for climatic-driven hydrological changes in conservation efforts addressing aquatic biodiversity and fishery resources in the central Amazon.

  13. Resource availability and diet in Harpy Eagle breeding territories on the Xingu River, Brazilian Amazon

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    FH. Aguiar-Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract In the Tapajos-Xingu interfluve, one of the largest birds of prey, the Harpy Eagle, is under intense anthropogenic pressure due to historical and recent reductions in forest cover. We studied prey availability and use by Harpy Eagle on six breeding territories on the low- and mid-Xingu River, between 2013 and 2015. We evaluated food resource availability using the environmental-surveys database from two methods: terrestrial surveys (RAPELD method and fauna rescue/flushing before vegetation suppression for the Belo Monte Hydroelectric Complex construction. Harpy Eagle diet was identified by prey remains sampled around six nest trees. Eighteen species of mammals, birds and reptiles comprised the prey items. Most prey species were sloths, primates and porcupines, which have arboreal habits and are found in forested areas, but two species, hoatzin and iguana, are usually associated with riverine habitats. The proportion of prey from each species predated on the nest best studied was different from estimated availability (χ2 = 54.23; df = 16; p < 0.001, however there was a positive correlation (rs = 0.7; p < 0.01 between prey species consumed and abundance available, where the predation was more on species more abundant. Continuous monitoring of the Harpy Eagle diet at these nests could evidence changes in the assemblage of prey species available for Harpy Eagles, due to changes in the seasonal flood pulse of the Xingu River to be caused by the operation of the hydroelectric dam, and changes in habitat features by forest reduction around breeding territories. We believe that it is important to consider the protection of remnants of forested areas in the landscape matrix surrounding the breeding territories to maintain the food resource availability and allow all pairs to successfully reproduce.

  14. A Synoptic Assessment of the Amazon River-Ocean Continuum during Boreal Autumn: From Physics to Plankton Communities and Carbon Flux

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    Moacyr Araujo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon generates the world's largest offshore river plume, which covers extensive areas of the tropical Atlantic. The data and samples in this study were obtained during the oceanographic cruise Camadas Finas III in October 2012 along the Amazon River-Ocean Continuum (AROC. The cruise occurred during boreal autumn, when the river plume reaches its maximum eastward extent. In this study, we examine the links between physics, biogeochemistry and plankton community structure along the AROC. Hydrographic results showed very different conditions, ranging from shallow well-mixed coastal waters to offshore areas, where low salinity Amazonian waters mix with open ocean waters. Nutrients, mainly NO3− and SiO2−, were highly depleted in coastal regions, and the magnitude of primary production was greater than that of respiration (negative apparent oxygen utilization. In terms of phytoplankton groups, diatoms dominated the region from the river mouth to the edge of the area affected by the North Brazil Current (NBC retroflection (with chlorophyll a concentrations ranging from 0.02 to 0.94 mg m−3. The North Equatorial Counter Current (NECC region, east of retroflection, is fully oligotrophic and the most representative groups are Cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates. Additionally, in this region, blooms of cyanophyte species were associated with diatoms and Mesozooplankton (copepods. A total of 178 zooplankton taxa were observed in this area, with Copepoda being the most diverse and abundant group. Two different zooplankton communities were identified: a low-diversity, high-abundance coastal community and a high-diversity, low-abundance oceanic community offshore. The CO2 fugacity (fCO2sw, calculated from total alkalinity (1,450 < TA < 2,394 μmol kg−1 and dissolved inorganic carbon (1,303 < DIC < 2,062 μmol kg−1 measurements, confirms that the Amazon River plume is a sink of atmospheric CO2 in areas with salinities <35 psu, whereas, in regions

  15. Dactylogyrids (Platyhelminthes, Monogenoidea) from the gills of Hoplias malabaricus (Characiformes: Erythrinidae) from coastal rivers of the Oriental Amazon Basin: species of Urocleidoides and Constrictoanchoratus n. gen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, K D C; Rodrigues, A R O; Cunha, J-M; Domingues, M V

    2018-05-01

    Five species of Urocleidoides (one new) and two new species of Constrictoanchoratus n. gen. are described in this study. All were collected from the gills of Hoplias malabaricus (Characiformes: Erythrinidae) captured in six localities of coastal rivers of the north-eastern sector the State of Pará (Oriental Amazon): Urocleidoides brasiliensis Rosim, Mendoza-Franco & Luque, 2011; Urocleidoides bulbophallus n. sp.; Urocleidoides cuiabai Rosim, Mendoza-Franco & Luque, 2011; Urocleidoides eremitus Kritsky, Thatcher & Boeger, 1986; Urocleidoides malabaricusi Rosim, Mendoza-Franco & Luque, 2011; Constrictoanchoratus lemmyi n. gen. n. sp.; and Constrictoanchoratus ptilonophallus n. gen. n. sp. This is the first reported occurrence of the four previously described species of Urocleidoides parasitizing H. malabaricus from streams in the Oriental Amazon Basin. The analysis of voucher specimens of U. eremitus parasitizing the gills of H. malabaricus from the Upper Paraná River floodplain in the limits of States of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, indicates that these specimens are members of a new species of Urocleidoides, described here as Urocleidoides paranae n. sp. Constrictoanchoratus n. gen. is proposed for the species with a male copulatory organ sclerotized, coiled, clockwise; ventral anchor with elongate superficial root, inconspicuous deep root; dorsal anchor with inconspicuous roots, and a constriction at the intersection between the shaft and the point. The host-parasite diversity scenario and host specificity of the species of Constrictoanchoratus n. gen. and Urocleidoides from the gills of H. malabaricus are also discussed in this study.

  16. Scorched mussels (Brachidontes spp., Bivalvia: Mytilidae) from the tropical and warm-temperate southwestern Atlantic: the role of the Amazon River in their speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovant, Berenice; Basso, Néstor G; Orensanz, José María; Lessa, Enrique P; Dincao, Fernando; Ruzzante, Daniel E

    2016-03-01

    Antitropicality is a distribution pattern where closely related taxa are separated by an intertropical latitudinal gap. Two potential examples include Brachidontes darwinianus (south eastern Brazil to Uruguay), considered by some authors as a synonym of B. exustus (Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean), and B. solisianus, distributed along the Brazilian coast with dubious records north of the intertropical zone. Using two nuclear (18S and 28S rDNA) and one mitochondrial gene (mtDNA COI), we aimed to elucidate the phylogeographic and phylogenetic relationships among the scorched mussels present in the warm-temperate region of the southwest Atlantic. We evaluated a divergence process mediated by the tropical zone over alternative phylogeographic hypotheses. Brachidontes solisianus was closely related to B. exustus I, a species with which it exhibits an antitropical distribution. Their divergence time was approximately 2.6 Ma, consistent with the intensification of Amazon River flow. Brachidontes darwinianus, an estuarine species is shown here not to be related to this B. exustus complex. We suspect ancestral forms may have dispersed from the Caribbean to the Atlantic coast via the Trans-Amazonian seaway (Miocene). The third species, B rodriguezii is presumed to have a long history in the region with related fossil forms going back to the Miocene. Although scorched mussels are very similar in appearance, their evolutionary histories are very different, involving major historical contingencies as the formation of the Amazon River, the Panama Isthmus, and the last marine transgression.

  17. Technical note: A hydrological routing scheme for the Ecosystem Demography model (ED2+R tested in the Tapajós River basin in the Brazilian Amazon

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    F. F. Pereira

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Land surface models are excellent tools for studying how climate change and land use affect surface hydrology. However, in order to assess the impacts of Earth processes on river flows, simulated changes in runoff need to be routed through the landscape. In this technical note, we describe the integration of the Ecosystem Demography (ED2 model with a hydrological routing scheme. The purpose of the study was to create a tool capable of incorporating to hydrological predictions the terrestrial ecosystem responses to climate, carbon dioxide, and land-use change, as simulated with terrestrial biosphere models. The resulting ED2+R model calculates the lateral routing of surface and subsurface runoff resulting from the terrestrial biosphere models' vertical water balance in order to determine spatiotemporal patterns of river flows within the simulated region. We evaluated the ED2+R model in the Tapajós, a 476 674 km2 river basin in the southeastern Amazon, Brazil. The results showed that the integration of ED2 with the lateral routing scheme results in an adequate representation (Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency up to 0.76, Kling–Gupta efficiency up to 0.86, Pearson's R up to 0.88, and volume ratio up to 1.06 of daily to decadal river flow dynamics in the Tapajós. These results are a consistent step forward with respect to the no river representation common among terrestrial biosphere models, such as the initial version of ED2.

  18. How livestock and flooding mediate the ecological integrity of working forests in Amazon River floodplains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Christine M; Sheikh, Pervaze; Gagnon, Paul R; Mcgrath, David G

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of working forests to tropical conservation and development depends upon the maintenance of ecological integrity under ongoing land use. Assessment of ecological integrity requires an understanding of the structure, composition, and function and major drivers that govern their variability. Working forests in tropical river floodplains provide many goods and services, yet the data on the ecological processes that sustain these services is scant. In flooded forests of riverside Amazonian communities, we established 46 0.1-ha plots varying in flood duration, use by cattle and water buffalo, and time since agricultural abandonment (30-90 yr). We monitored three aspects of ecological integrity (stand structure, species composition, and dynamics of trees and seedlings) to evaluate the impacts of different trajectories of livestock activity (alleviation, stasis, and intensification) over nine years. Negative effects of livestock intensification were solely evident in the forest understory, and plots alleviated from past heavy disturbance increased in seedling density but had higher abundance of thorny species than plots maintaining low activity. Stand structure, dynamics, and tree species composition were strongly influenced by the natural pulse of seasonal floods, such that the defining characteristics of integrity were dependent upon flood duration (3-200 d). Forests with prolonged floods ≥ 140 d had not only lower species richness but also lower rates of recruitment and species turnover relative to forests with short floods flooding hindered forest regeneration, but overall forest integrity was largely related to the hydrological regime and age. Given this disjunction between factors mediating canopy and understory integrity, we present a subset of metrics for regeneration and recruitment to distinguish forest condition by livestock trajectory. Although our study design includes confounded factors that preclude a definitive assessment of the major

  19. Coupling a basin erosion and river sediment transport model into a large scale hydrological model: an application in the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buarque, D. C.; Collischonn, W.; Paiva, R. C. D.

    2012-04-01

    erosion or deposition is allowed for silt and clay. The model was first applied on the Madeira River basin, one of the major tributaries of the Amazon River (~1.4*106 km2) accounting for 35% of the suspended sediment amount annually transported for the Amazon river to the ocean. Model results agree with observed data, mainly for monthly and annual time scales. The spatial distribution of soil erosion within the basin showed a large amount of sediment being delivered from the Andean regions of Bolivia and Peru. Spatial distribution of mean annual sediment along the river showed that Madre de Dios, Mamoré and Beni rivers transport the major amount of sediment. Simulated daily suspended solid discharge agree with observed data. The model is able to provide temporaly and spatialy distributed estimates of soil loss source over the basin, locations with tendency for erosion or deposition along the rivers, and to reproduce long term sediment yield at several locations. Despite model results are encouraging, further effort is needed to validate the model considering the scarcity of data at large scale.

  20. Occurrence of Cymbasoma longispinosum Bourne, 1890 (Copepoda: Monstrilloida in the Curuçá River estuary (Amazon Littoral

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    Natália R. Leite

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out to verify the occurrence and distribution of Cymbasoma longispinosum Bourne, 1890 in a tropical Amazon estuary from North Brazil. Samplings were performed bimonthly from July/2003 to July/2004 at two different transects (Muriá and Curuçá rivers situated along the Curuçá estuary (Pará, North Brazil. Samples were collected during neap tides via gentle (1 to 1.5 knots 200 μm-mesh net tows from a small boat. Additional subsurface water samples were collected for the determination of environmental parameters. Males and females of Cymbasoma longispinosum were only observed during September and November/2003. The highest number of organisms was found in September/2003 at the Muriá River transect. The presence of C. longispinosum in samples obtained during September and November/2003 could probably be related to the reproductive period of this species in the studied estuary, which is directly related to the dry period in the region. The highest salinity values and the highest number of individuals observed in September/2003 corroborate with the previous assumption, since no C. longispinosum was found during the months comprising the rainy period (January to June.O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido para verificar a ocorrência e distribuição de Cymbasoma longispinosum Bourne, 1890 em um estuário tropical amazônico da região norte do Brasil. As coletas foram realizadas bimestralmente de julho/2003 a julho/2004 em dois diferentes transectos (rios Muriá e Curuçá situados ao longo do estuário do Curuçá (Pará, Norte do Brasil. Amostras foram coletadas durante marés de quadratura por intermédio de arrastos com redes de plâncton de 200μm de abertura de malha, através de um pequeno barco a motor (1 a 1,5 knots. Amostras adicionais de água subsuperficial foram coletadas para determinação dos parâmetros ambientais. Machos e fêmeas de C. longispinosum foram observados apenas durante os meses de

  1. A multi-approach and multi-scale study on water quantity and quality changes in the Tapajós River basin, Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra Nóbrega, Rodolfo Luiz; Lamparter, Gabriele; Hughes, Harold; Chenjerayi Guzha, Alphonce; Santos Silva Amorim, Ricardo; Gerold, Gerhard

    2018-04-01

    We analyzed changes in water quantity and quality at different spatial scales within the Tapajós River basin (Amazon) based on experimental fieldwork, hydrological modelling, and statistical time-trend analysis. At a small scale, we compared the river discharge (Q) and suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC) of two adjacent micro-catchments ( < 1 km2) with similar characteristics but contrasting land uses (forest vs. pasture) using empirical data from field measurements. At an intermediary scale, we simulated the hydrological responses of a sub-basin of the Tapajós (Jamanxim River basin, 37 400 km2), using a hydrological model (SWAT) and land-use change scenario in order to quantify the changes in the water balance components due to deforestation. At the Tapajós' River basin scale, we investigated trends in Q, sediments, hydrochemistry, and geochemistry in the river using available data from the HYBAM Observation Service. The results in the micro-catchments showed a higher runoff coefficient in the pasture (0.67) than in the forest catchment (0.28). At this scale, the SSC were also significantly greater during stormflows in the pasture than in the forest catchment. At the Jamanxim watershed scale, the hydrological modelling results showed a 2 % increase in Q and a 5 % reduction of baseflow contribution to total Q after a conversion of 22 % of forest to pasture. In the Tapajós River, however, trend analysis did not show any significant trend in discharge and sediment concentration. However, we found upward trends in dissolved organic carbon and NO3- over the last 20 years. Although the magnitude of anthropogenic impact has shown be scale-dependent, we were able to find changes in the Tapajós River basin in streamflow, sediment concentration, and water quality across all studied scales.

  2. A scaling approach to Budyko's framework and the complementary relationship of evapotranspiration in humid environments: case study of the Amazon River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, A. M.; Poveda, G.; Sivapalan, M.; Vallejo-Bernal, S. M.; Bustamante, E.

    2016-02-01

    This paper studies a 3-D state space representation of Budyko's framework designed to capture the mutual interdependence among long-term mean actual evapotranspiration (E), potential evapotranspiration (Ep) and precipitation (P). For this purpose we use three dimensionless and dependent quantities: Ψ = E ⁄ P, Φ = Ep ⁄ P and Ω = E ⁄ Ep. This 3-D space and its 2-D projections provide an interesting setting to test the physical soundness of Budyko's hypothesis. We demonstrate analytically that Budyko-type equations are unable to capture the physical limit of the relation between Ω and Φ in humid environments, owing to the unfeasibility of Ep ⁄ P = 0 when E ⁄ Ep → 1. Using data from 146 sub-catchments in the Amazon River basin we overcome this inconsistency by proposing a physically consistent power law: Ψ = kΦe, with k = 0.66, and e = 0.83 (R2 = 0.93). This power law is compared with two other Budyko-type equations. Taking into account the goodness of fits and the ability to comply with the physical limits of the 3-D space, our results show that the power law is better suited to model the coupled water and energy balances within the Amazon River basin. Moreover, k is found to be related to the partitioning of energy via evapotranspiration in terms of Ω. This suggests that our power law implicitly incorporates the complementary relationship of evapotranspiration into the Budyko curve, which is a consequence of the dependent nature of the studied variables within our 3-D space. This scaling approach is also consistent with the asymmetrical nature of the complementary relationship of evapotranspiration. Looking for a physical explanation for the parameters k and e, the inter-annual variability of individual catchments is studied. Evidence of space-time symmetry in Amazonia emerges, since both between-catchment and between-year variability follow the same Budyko curves. Finally, signs of co-evolution of catchments are explored by linking spatial

  3. Geochronologic study of sediments deposition of two lakes from the Rio Negro basin, Amazonas State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Ana Carla F.; Mozeto, Antonio A.; Cazotti, Raul I.; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F.; Taddei, Maria Helena

    2000-01-01

    Since 1963 the radionuclide 210 Pb became an important tool for dating (geochronology) recent sediments (up to 120 years). In this work the sedimentary geochronology of two lakes from the Negro River Basin was determined, using different radiochemical separation methods for 210 Pb and 226 Ra. (author)

  4. THE ECONOMIC SITUATION OF NEGROES IN THE UNITED STATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    BY 1960, NEGROES CONSTITUTED 10.5 PERCENT OF THE POPULATION IN THE UNITED STATES. THE RECENT GREATER RATE OF POPULATION GROWTH AMONG NEGROES THAN AMONG WHITES RESULTS LARGELY FROM A DROP IN THE NEGRO DEATH RATE. IN 1900, ABOUT 90 PERCENT OF NEGROES LIVED IN THE SOUTH. ONLY 60 PERCENT WERE STILL IN THE SOUTH BY 1960, AND THE MAJORITY OF THEM WERE…

  5. The Influence of Changes in Lifestyle and Mercury Exposure in Riverine Populations of the Madeira River (Amazon Basin near a Hydroelectric Project

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    Sandra S. Hacon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Amazon Basin, naturally occurring methylmercury bioaccumulates in fish, which is a key source of protein consumed by riverine populations. The hydroelectric power-plant project at Santo Antônio Falls allows us to compare the Hg exposure of riverine populations sparsely distributed on both sides of the Madeira river before the area is to be flooded. From 2009 to 2011, we concluded a population survey of the area (N = 2,008; representing circa 80% of community residents that estimated fish consumption and mercury exposure of riverine populations with different degrees of lifestyle related to fish consumption. Fish samples from the Madeira river (N = 1,615 and 110 species were analyzed for Hg. Hair-Hg was significantly lower (p < 0.001 in less isolated communities near to the capital of Porto Velho (median 2.32 ppm than in subsistence communities in the Cuniã Lake, 180 km from Porto Velho city (median 6.3 ppm. Fish Hg concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 6.06 µg/g, depending on fish size and feeding behavior. Currently available fish in the Madeira river show a wide variability in Hg concentrations. Despite cultural similarities, riparians showed hair-Hg distribution patterns that reflect changes in fish-eating habits driven by subsistence characteristics.

  6. The influence of changes in lifestyle and mercury exposure in riverine populations of the Madeira River (Amazon Basin) near a hydroelectric project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacon, Sandra S; Dórea, José G; Fonseca, Márlon de F; Oliveira, Beatriz A; Mourão, Dennys S; Ruiz, Claudia M V; Gonçalves, Rodrigo A; Mariani, Carolina F; Bastos, Wanderley R

    2014-02-26

    In the Amazon Basin, naturally occurring methylmercury bioaccumulates in fish, which is a key source of protein consumed by riverine populations. The hydroelectric power-plant project at Santo Antônio Falls allows us to compare the Hg exposure of riverine populations sparsely distributed on both sides of the Madeira river before the area is to be flooded. From 2009 to 2011, we concluded a population survey of the area (N = 2,008; representing circa 80% of community residents) that estimated fish consumption and mercury exposure of riverine populations with different degrees of lifestyle related to fish consumption. Fish samples from the Madeira river (N = 1,615) and 110 species were analyzed for Hg. Hair-Hg was significantly lower (p < 0.001) in less isolated communities near to the capital of Porto Velho (median 2.32 ppm) than in subsistence communities in the Cuniã Lake, 180 km from Porto Velho city (median 6.3 ppm). Fish Hg concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 6.06 µg/g, depending on fish size and feeding behavior. Currently available fish in the Madeira river show a wide variability in Hg concentrations. Despite cultural similarities, riparians showed hair-Hg distribution patterns that reflect changes in fish-eating habits driven by subsistence characteristics.

  7. (210)Pb and composition data of near-surface sediments and interstitial waters evidencing anthropogenic inputs in Amazon River mouth, Macapá, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, José Reinaldo Cardoso; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos

    2011-04-01

    Activity profiles of excess (210)Pb determined in three sediment cores from Amazon River mouth, Macapá city, Brazil, provided the evaluation of sedimentation rates, contributing to a better knowledge of the hydrological conditions in the site that is the capital of Amapá State and is drained by the waters of the huge Amazon River. Chemical data were also determined in the sediments, allowing identify signatures coupled to anthropogenic inputs held in the past in Amapá State. Significant direct relationships between LOI (loss on ignition) and organic matter were found for all sediments profiles. Silica was found to be inversely related to organic matter in the three profiles; its decrease accompanied an increase on the specific surface of the sediments. This relationship was confirmed by a great number of inverse significant correlations among silica and oxides Na(2)O, K(2)O, CaO, MgO, Al(2)O(3), P(2)O(5), Fe(2)O(3) and MnO. It was possible to identify the role of organic matter on adsorption of several oxides in the core sediments profiles. Apparent sediment mass accumulation rates corresponding to values between 450 and 2510 mg cm(-2)yr(-1) were obtained, and are compatible with the results of others studies. The (210)Pb activities in one sampling point suggested the occurrence of anthropogenic inputs related to the initial period of the mining activities conducted in Serra do Navio, Amapá State, for the commercialization of Mn ores. This was reinforced by the abrupt fluctuations in chemical data obtained for the sediments and composition of the interstitial waters occurring there. The Atlantic hurricane activity also appeared to affect the sedimentation rates in the area, as two different values were recorded in each profile. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Synoptic Assessment of the Amazon River-Ocean Continuum during Boreal Autumn: From Physics to Plankton Communities and Carbon Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Moacyr; Noriega, Carlos; Hounsou-gbo, Gbekpo Aubains; Veleda, Doris; Araujo, Julia; Bruto, Leonardo; Feitosa, Fernando; Flores-Montes, Manuel; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Melo, Pedro; Otsuka, Amanda; Travassos, Keyla; Schwamborn, Ralf; Neumann-Leitão, Sigrid

    2017-01-01

    The Amazon generates the world's largest offshore river plume, which covers extensive areas of the tropical Atlantic. The data and samples in this study were obtained during the oceanographic cruise Camadas Finas III in October 2012 along the Amazon River-Ocean Continuum (AROC). The cruise occurred during boreal autumn, when the river plume reaches its maximum eastward extent. In this study, we examine the links between physics, biogeochemistry and plankton community structure along the AROC. Hydrographic results showed very different conditions, ranging from shallow well-mixed coastal waters to offshore areas, where low salinity Amazonian waters mix with open ocean waters. Nutrients, mainly NO3− and SiO2−, were highly depleted in coastal regions, and the magnitude of primary production was greater than that of respiration (negative apparent oxygen utilization). In terms of phytoplankton groups, diatoms dominated the region from the river mouth to the edge of the area affected by the North Brazil Current (NBC) retroflection (with chlorophyll a concentrations ranging from 0.02 to 0.94 mg m−3). The North Equatorial Counter Current (NECC) region, east of retroflection, is fully oligotrophic and the most representative groups are Cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates. Additionally, in this region, blooms of cyanophyte species were associated with diatoms and Mesozooplankton (copepods). A total of 178 zooplankton taxa were observed in this area, with Copepoda being the most diverse and abundant group. Two different zooplankton communities were identified: a low-diversity, high-abundance coastal community and a high-diversity, low-abundance oceanic community offshore. The CO2 fugacity (fCO2sw), calculated from total alkalinity (1,450 35 and higher-intensity winds, the CO2 flux is reversed. Lower fCO2sw values were observed in the NECC area. The ΔfCO2 in this region was less than 5 μatm (−0.3 mmol m−2 d−1), while the ΔfCO2 in the coastal region was

  9. A Synoptic Assessment of the Amazon River-Ocean Continuum during Boreal Autumn: From Physics to Plankton Communities and Carbon Flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Moacyr; Noriega, Carlos; Hounsou-Gbo, Gbekpo Aubains; Veleda, Doris; Araujo, Julia; Bruto, Leonardo; Feitosa, Fernando; Flores-Montes, Manuel; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Melo, Pedro; Otsuka, Amanda; Travassos, Keyla; Schwamborn, Ralf; Neumann-Leitão, Sigrid

    2017-01-01

    The Amazon generates the world's largest offshore river plume, which covers extensive areas of the tropical Atlantic. The data and samples in this study were obtained during the oceanographic cruise Camadas Finas III in October 2012 along the Amazon River-Ocean Continuum (AROC). The cruise occurred during boreal autumn, when the river plume reaches its maximum eastward extent. In this study, we examine the links between physics, biogeochemistry and plankton community structure along the AROC. Hydrographic results showed very different conditions, ranging from shallow well-mixed coastal waters to offshore areas, where low salinity Amazonian waters mix with open ocean waters. Nutrients, mainly [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], were highly depleted in coastal regions, and the magnitude of primary production was greater than that of respiration (negative apparent oxygen utilization). In terms of phytoplankton groups, diatoms dominated the region from the river mouth to the edge of the area affected by the North Brazil Current (NBC) retroflection (with chlorophyll a concentrations ranging from 0.02 to 0.94 mg m -3 ). The North Equatorial Counter Current (NECC) region, east of retroflection, is fully oligotrophic and the most representative groups are Cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates. Additionally, in this region, blooms of cyanophyte species were associated with diatoms and Mesozooplankton (copepods). A total of 178 zooplankton taxa were observed in this area, with Copepoda being the most diverse and abundant group. Two different zooplankton communities were identified: a low-diversity, high-abundance coastal community and a high-diversity, low-abundance oceanic community offshore. The CO 2 fugacity (fCO 2 sw), calculated from total alkalinity (1,450 35 and higher-intensity winds, the CO 2 flux is reversed. Lower fCO 2 sw values were observed in the NECC area. The ΔfCO 2 in this region was less than 5 μatm (-0.3 mmol m -2 d -1 ), while the ΔfCO 2 in the

  10. Manganese and Mercury Levels in Water, Sediments, and Children Living Near Gold-Mining Areas of the Nangaritza River Basin, Ecuadorian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Merizalde, Max V; Menezes-Filho, José A; Cruz-Erazo, Claudia Teresa; Bermeo-Flores, Santos Amable; Sánchez-Castillo, María Obdulia; Hernández-Bonilla, David; Mora, Abrahan

    2016-08-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold-mining activities performed in mountain areas of the Southern Ecuadorian Amazon have incorporated several heavy metals into the aquatic systems, thus increasing the risk of exposure in populations living in adjacent zones. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the contamination levels of mercury (Hg) and manganese (Mn) in several rivers of the Nangaritza River basin and assess the exposure in school-aged children residing near the gold-mining zones. River water and sediment samples were collected from a highly contaminated (HEx) and a moderately contaminated (MEx) zones. Hair Mn (MnH) and urinary Hg (HgU) levels were determined in school-aged children living in both zones. High concentrations of dissolved Mn were found in river waters of the HEx zone (between 2660 and 3990 µg l(-1)); however, Hg levels, in general, were lower than the detection limit (DL; MnH in children of the HEx and MEx zones were 5.5 and 3.4 µg g(-1), respectively, whereas the median values of HgU concentrations in children living in the HEx and MEx zones were 4.4 and 0.62 µg g-creat(-1), respectively. Statistically significant differences were observed between both biomarkers in children from the HEx and MEx zones. In addition, boys presented significantly greater MnH levels in both zones. The greater MnH values were found in children living in alluvial areas, whereas children living in the high mountain areas, where some ore-processing plants are located close to or inside houses and schools, had the greater HgU concentrations. In summary, the data reported in this paper highlights that artisanal and small-scale gold-mining activities can not only produce mercurial contamination, that can also release other heavy metals (such as Mn) that may pose a risk to human health.

  11. A multi-approach and multi-scale study on water quantity and quality changes in the Tapajós River basin, Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. B. Nóbrega

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed changes in water quantity and quality at different spatial scales within the Tapajós River basin (Amazon based on experimental fieldwork, hydrological modelling, and statistical time-trend analysis. At a small scale, we compared the river discharge (Q and suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC of two adjacent micro-catchments ( <  1 km2 with similar characteristics but contrasting land uses (forest vs. pasture using empirical data from field measurements. At an intermediary scale, we simulated the hydrological responses of a sub-basin of the Tapajós (Jamanxim River basin, 37 400 km2, using a hydrological model (SWAT and land-use change scenario in order to quantify the changes in the water balance components due to deforestation. At the Tapajós' River basin scale, we investigated trends in Q, sediments, hydrochemistry, and geochemistry in the river using available data from the HYBAM Observation Service. The results in the micro-catchments showed a higher runoff coefficient in the pasture (0.67 than in the forest catchment (0.28. At this scale, the SSC were also significantly greater during stormflows in the pasture than in the forest catchment. At the Jamanxim watershed scale, the hydrological modelling results showed a 2 % increase in Q and a 5 % reduction of baseflow contribution to total Q after a conversion of 22 % of forest to pasture. In the Tapajós River, however, trend analysis did not show any significant trend in discharge and sediment concentration. However, we found upward trends in dissolved organic carbon and NO3− over the last 20 years. Although the magnitude of anthropogenic impact has shown be scale-dependent, we were able to find changes in the Tapajós River basin in streamflow, sediment concentration, and water quality across all studied scales.

  12. Four decades of land-cover, land-use and hydroclimatology changes in the Itacaiúnas River watershed, southeastern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Filho, Pedro Walfir M; de Souza, Everaldo B; Silva Júnior, Renato O; Nascimento, Wilson R; Versiani de Mendonça, Breno R; Guimarães, José Tasso F; Dall'Agnol, Roberto; Siqueira, José Oswaldo

    2016-02-01

    Long-term human-induced impacts have significantly changed the Amazonian landscape. The most dramatic land cover and land use (LCLU) changes began in the early 1970s with the establishment of the Trans-Amazon Highway and large government projects associated with the expansion of agricultural settlement and cattle ranching, which cleared significant tropical forest cover in the areas of new and accelerated human development. Taking the changes in the LCLU over the past four decades as a basis, this study aims to determine the consequences of land cover (forest and savanna) and land use (pasturelands, mining and urban) changes on the hydroclimatology of the Itacaiúnas River watershed area of the located in the southeastern Amazon region. We analyzed a multi-decadal Landsat dataset from 1973, 1984, 1994, 2004 and 2013 and a 40-yr time series of water discharge from the Itacaiúnas River, as well as air temperature and relative humidity data over this drainage area for the same period. We employed standard Landsat image processing techniques in conjunction with a geographic object-based image analysis and multi-resolution classification approach. With the goal of detecting possible long-term trends, non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was applied, based on a Sen slope estimator on a 40-yr annual PREC, TMED and RH time series, considering the spatial average of the entire watershed. In the 1970s, the region was entirely covered by forest (99%) and savanna (∼0.3%). Four decades later, only ∼48% of the tropical forest remains, while pasturelands occupy approximately 50% of the watershed area. Moreover, in protected areas, nearly 97% of the tropical forest remains conserved, while the forest cover of non-protected areas is quite fragmented and, consequently, unevenly distributed, covering an area of only 30%. Based on observational data analysis, there is evidence that the conversion of forest cover to extensive and homogeneous pasturelands was accompanied by systematic

  13. The role of fluvial sediment supply and river-mouth hydrology in the dynamics of the muddy, Amazon-dominated Amapá-Guianas coast, South America: A three-point research agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Edward J.; Gardel, Antoine; Proisy, Christophe; Fromard, François; Gensac, Erwan; Peron, Christina; Walcker, Romain; Lesourd, Sandric

    2013-07-01

    The morphology and sediment dynamics of the 1500 km-long coast of South America between the mouths of the Amazon and the Orinoco Rivers are largely dependent on the massive suspended-sediment discharge of the Amazon, part of which is transported alongshore as mud banks. These mud banks have an overwhelming impact on the geology, the geomorphology, the ecology and the economy of this coast. Although numerous field investigations and remote sensing studies have considerably enhanced our understanding of the dynamics of this coast over the last three decades, much still remains to be understood of the unique functional mechanisms and processes driving its evolution. Among the themes that we deem as requiring further attention three come out as fundamental. The first concerns the mechanisms of formation of individual mud banks from mud streaming on the shelf off the mouth of the Amazon. An unknown quantity of the fluid mud generated by offshore estuarine front activity is transported shoreward and progressively forms mud banks on the Amapá coast, Brazil. The volume of each mud bank can contain from the equivalent of the annual mud supply of the Amazon to several times this annual sediment discharge. The mechanisms by which individual banks are generated from the Amazon turbidity maximum are still to be elucidated. Areas of research include regional mesoscale oceanographic conditions and mud supply from the Amazon. The second theme is that of variations in rates of migration of mud banks, which influence patterns of coastal accretion. Research emphasis needs to be placed on the analysis of both regional meteorological-hydrodynamic forcing and distant Atlantic forcing, as well as on the hydrology of the large rivers draining the Guyana Shield. The rivers appear to generate significant offshore deflection of mud banks in transit alongshore, through a hydraulic-groyne effect. This may favour both muddy accretion on the updrift coast and downdrift mud liquefaction with

  14. Characteristics and Diurnal Cycle of GPM Rainfall Estimates over the Central Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Oliveira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies that investigate and evaluate the quality, limitations and uncertainties of satellite rainfall estimates are fundamental to assure the correct and successful use of these products in applications, such as climate studies, hydrological modeling and natural hazard monitoring. Over regions of the globe that lack in situ observations, such studies are only possible through intensive field measurement campaigns, which provide a range of high quality ground measurements, e.g., CHUVA (Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GlobAl Precipitation Measurement and GoAmazon (Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon over the Brazilian Amazon during 2014/2015. This study aims to assess the characteristics of Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM satellite-based precipitation estimates in representing the diurnal cycle over the Brazilian Amazon. The Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (IMERG and the Goddard Profiling Algorithm—Version 2014 (GPROF2014 algorithms are evaluated against ground-based radar observations. Specifically, the S-band weather radar from the Amazon Protection National System (SIPAM, is first validated against the X-band CHUVA radar and then used as a reference to evaluate GPM precipitation. Results showed satisfactory agreement between S-band SIPAM radar and both IMERG and GPROF2014 algorithms. However, during the wet season, IMERG, which uses the GPROF2014 rainfall retrieval from the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI sensor, significantly overestimates the frequency of heavy rainfall volumes around 00:00–04:00 UTC and 15:00–18:00 UTC. This overestimation is particularly evident over the Negro, Solimões and Amazon rivers due to the poorly-calibrated algorithm over water surfaces. On the other hand, during the dry season, the IMERG product underestimates mean precipitation in comparison to the S-band SIPAM

  15. Modeling Surface Water Dynamics in the Amazon Basin Using Mosart-Inundation-v1.0: Impacts of Geomorphological Parameters and River Flow Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiangyu; Li, Hong-Yi; Leung, Ruby; Tesfa, Teklu K.; Getirana, Augusto; Papa, Fabrice; Hess, Laura L.

    2017-01-01

    Surface water dynamics play an important role in water, energy and carbon cycles of the Amazon Basin. A macro-scale inundation scheme was integrated with a surface-water transport model and the extended model was applied in this vast basin. We addressed the challenges of improving basin-wide geomorphological parameters and river flow representation for 15 large-scale applications. Vegetation-caused biases embedded in the HydroSHEDS DEM data were alleviated by using a vegetation height map of about 1-km resolution and a land cover dataset of about 90-m resolution. The average elevation deduction from the DEM correction was about 13.2 m for the entire basin. Basin-wide empirical formulae for channel cross-sectional geometry were adjusted based on local information for the major portion of the basin, which could significantly reduce the cross-sectional area for the channels of some subregions. The Manning roughness coefficient of the channel 20 varied with the channel depth to reflect the general rule that the relative importance of riverbed resistance in river flow declined with the increase of river size. The entire basin was discretized into 5395 subbasins (with an average area of 1091.7 km2), which were used as computation units. The model was driven by runoff estimates of 14 years (1994 2007) generated by the ISBA land surface model. The simulated results were evaluated against in situ streamflow records, and remotely sensed Envisat altimetry data and GIEMS inundation data. The hydrographs were reproduced fairly well for the majority of 25 13 major stream gauges. For the 11 subbasins containing or close to 11 of the 13 gauges, the timing of river stage fluctuations was captured; for most of the 11 subbasins, the magnitude of river stage fluctuations was represented well. The inundation estimates were comparable to the GIEMS observations. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that refining floodplain topography, channel morphology and Manning roughness coefficients

  16. Different cytotypes in fishes of the genus Hypostomus Lcépède, 1803, (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from Xingu river (Amazon region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Milhomem

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the karyotypes of three specimens of fishes of the genus Hypostomus Lacepede, 1803 (Loricaridae from Xingu River (Amazon region. We used conventional staining techniques, including C-banding, Ag-NOR staining, CMA3- and DAPI-banding. Each specimen had a different cytotype: Hypostomus sp. Xingu-1 had 2n=64 (32M/SM, 32ST/A; Hypostomus sp. Xingu-2 has 2n=66 (32M/SM, 34ST/A, and Hypostomus sp. Xingu-3 had 2n=65 (38M/SM, 26ST/A + 1 B. The three cytotypes showed similar C-, CMA3- and DAPI-banding patterns. The nucleolus organizing regions were located in the short arm of chromosome pair 25 of Hypostomus sp. Xingu-1 and pair 29 of Hypostomus sp. Xingu-2, and in the long arm of pair 30 of Hypostomus sp. Xingu-3, probably because of a pericentric inversion. A fusion/fission rearrangement explains the difference in the diploid number and number of M/SM and ST/A chromosomes between the 2n= 64 and 2n=66 cytotypes. The B chromosome most probably explains the difference between the 2n=64 and 2n=65 cytotypes. The cytotype with 2n=65 had a significantly larger number of M/SM chromosomes, probably because of pericentric inversions. These three cytotypes may represent different species.

  17. Effect of seasonal flooding cycle on litterfall production in alluvial rainforest on the middle Xingu River (Amazon basin, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, M; Giarrizzo, T; Jesus, A J S

    2015-08-01

    The assumption for this study was that litterfall in floodplain environments of the middle Xingu river follows a pattern of seasonal variation. According to this view, litterfall production (total and fractions) was estimated in four alluvial rainforest sites on the middle Xingu River over an annual cycle, and examined the effect of seasonal flooding cycle. The sites included two marginal flooded forests of insular lakes (Ilha Grande and Pimentel) and two flooded forests on the banks of the Xingu itself (Boa Esperança and Arroz Cru). Total litterfall correlated with rainfall and river levels, but whereas the leaf and fruit fractions followed this general pattern, the flower fraction presented an inverse pattern, peaking in the dry season. The litterfall patterns recorded in the present study were consistent with those recorded at other Amazonian sites, and in some other tropical ecosystems.

  18. Seasonal and inter-annual dynamics of suspended sediment at the mouth of the Amazon river: The role of continental and oceanic forcing, and implications for coastal geomorphology and mud bank formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensac, Erwan; Martinez, Jean-Michel; Vantrepotte, Vincent; Anthony, Edward J.

    2016-04-01

    Fine-grained sediments supplied to the Ocean by the Amazon River and their transport under the influence of continental and oceanic forcing drives the geomorphic change along the 1500 km-long coast northward to the Orinoco River delta. The aim of this study is to give an encompassing view of the sediment dynamics in the shallow coastal waters from the Amazon River mouth to the Capes region (northern part of the Amapa region of Brazil and eastern part of French Guiana), where large mud banks are formed. Mud banks are the overarching features in the dynamics of the Amazon-Orinoco coast. They start migrating northward in the Capes region. Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) concentrations were calculated from satellite products (MODIS Aqua and Terra) acquired over the period 2000-2013. The Census-X11 decomposition method used to discriminate short-term, seasonal and long-term time components of the SPM variability has rendered possible a robust analysis of the impact of continental and oceanic forcing. Continental forcing agents considered are the Amazon River water discharge, SPM concentration and sediment discharge. Oceanic forcing comprises modelled data of wind speed and direction, wave height and direction, and currents. A 150 km-long area of accretion is detected at Cabo Norte that may be linked with a reported increase in the river's sediment discharge concurrent with the satellite data study period. We also assess the rate of mud bank migration north of Cabo Norte, and highlight its variability. Although we confirm a 2 km y-1 migration rate, in agreement with other authors, we show that this velocity may be up to 5 km y-1 along the Cabo Orange region, and we highlight the effect of water discharge by major rivers debouching on this coastal mud belt in modulating such rates. Finally, we propose a refined sediment transport pattern map of the region based on our results and of previous studies in the area such as the AMASSEDS programme, and discuss the

  19. Methylmercury in a predatory fish (Cichla spp.) inhabiting the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehrig, Helena do A [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), 21941-902 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: kehrig@biof.ufrj.br; Howard, Bruce M. [T.H. Huxley School, Imperial College, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom); Malm, Olaf [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), 21941-902 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2008-07-15

    This research tested whether limnological conditions, biological characteristics of fish and anthropogenic impacts influenced the assimilation of methylmercury into the muscle of a sedentary piscivorous fish, Cichla spp., from three rivers (Negro, Madeira, Tapajos) and two hydroelectric reservoirs (Balbina, Tucurui) within the Brazilian Amazon. Methylmercury in this fish ranged from 0.04 to 1.43 {mu}g g{sup -1} w.w. across sites. No significant differences were observed in the methylmercury concentrations between males and females, or for different morphotypes of this species. Positive correlations were found between methylmercury and fish body weight. No differences were found between the weight normalized methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations or its percent of total mercury in fish from the three rivers; weight normalized MeHg was highest in one of the two reservoirs. In Rio Tapajos, where gold mining and deforestation cause high water turbidity, fish showed the highest MeHg and concentrations were different across the four sites examined. In all sampling areas, the %MeHg was found to be higher than 70. - Cichla spp. may be considered good bioindicators of methylmercury contamination in the Amazonian ecosystem because of their integration of this pollutant over time.

  20. Methylmercury in a predatory fish (Cichla spp.) inhabiting the Brazilian Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehrig, Helena do A; Howard, Bruce M.; Malm, Olaf

    2008-01-01

    This research tested whether limnological conditions, biological characteristics of fish and anthropogenic impacts influenced the assimilation of methylmercury into the muscle of a sedentary piscivorous fish, Cichla spp., from three rivers (Negro, Madeira, Tapajos) and two hydroelectric reservoirs (Balbina, Tucurui) within the Brazilian Amazon. Methylmercury in this fish ranged from 0.04 to 1.43 μg g -1 w.w. across sites. No significant differences were observed in the methylmercury concentrations between males and females, or for different morphotypes of this species. Positive correlations were found between methylmercury and fish body weight. No differences were found between the weight normalized methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations or its percent of total mercury in fish from the three rivers; weight normalized MeHg was highest in one of the two reservoirs. In Rio Tapajos, where gold mining and deforestation cause high water turbidity, fish showed the highest MeHg and concentrations were different across the four sites examined. In all sampling areas, the %MeHg was found to be higher than 70. - Cichla spp. may be considered good bioindicators of methylmercury contamination in the Amazonian ecosystem because of their integration of this pollutant over time

  1. The source and fate of sediment and mercury in the Tapajós River, Pará, Brazilian Amazon: Ground- and space-based evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telmer, Kevin; Costa, Maycira; Simões Angélica, Rômulo; Araujo, Eric S; Maurice, Yvon

    2006-10-01

    We present results of mercury (Hg) in surface waters and soils and an analysis of satellite imagery from the Tapajós River basin, Brazilian Amazon, and the Reserva Garimpeira do Tapajós, the legal gold mining district of the basin. Hg bound to suspended sediment was roughly 600 and 200 times the concentration of dissolved Hg per litre of water, in impacted and pristine areas, respectively. Suspended sediments thus represent the major pathway of river-borne Hg. Median concentrations of Hg in suspended load from both impacted and pristine waters were 134 ppb, and 80% of samples were below 300ppb-in the range of naturally occurring surficial materials in the tropics. Regionally, riverine Hg fluxes were proportional to the concentration of total suspended solids. This shows that the dominant source of Hg is the sediment itself rather than anthropogenic mercury discharge from the small-scale mines. To independently test this conclusion, a mass balance was performed. A conservative calculation of the annual export of mercury (Hg) from the Creporí River (a minimum) was 1.6 tonnes for the year 1998-it could be significantly larger. This amount of Hg is difficult to account for by anthropogenic discharge alone, confirming that enhanced physical erosion caused by sluicing and dredging operations is the dominant source of Hg. We therefore conclude that gold mining operations are primarily responsible for elevated Hg concentrations. The dominant source of contamination is not, however, the loss of Hg in the gold amalgamation process. Rather, the disturbance and mobilization of large quantities of Hg-rich sediment and floodplain soil into the water column during mining operations is the source of contamination. These findings shift the focus of remediation and prevention efforts away from Hg control toward soil and sediment erosion control. The minimization or elimination of Hg losses in the mining process remains important for the health of local peoples and environments

  2. Water Balance in the Amazon Basin from a Land Surface Model Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getirana, Augusto C. V.; Dutra, Emanuel; Guimberteau, Matthieu; Kam, Jonghun; Li, Hong-Yi; Decharme, Bertrand; Zhang, Zhengqiu; Ducharne, Agnes; Boone, Aaron; Balsamo, Gianpaolo; hide

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent advances in land surfacemodeling and remote sensing, estimates of the global water budget are still fairly uncertain. This study aims to evaluate the water budget of the Amazon basin based on several state-ofthe- art land surface model (LSM) outputs. Water budget variables (terrestrial water storage TWS, evapotranspiration ET, surface runoff R, and base flow B) are evaluated at the basin scale using both remote sensing and in situ data. Meteorological forcings at a 3-hourly time step and 18 spatial resolution were used to run 14 LSMs. Precipitation datasets that have been rescaled to matchmonthly Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) andGlobal Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) datasets and the daily Hydrologie du Bassin de l'Amazone (HYBAM) dataset were used to perform three experiments. The Hydrological Modeling and Analysis Platform (HyMAP) river routing scheme was forced with R and B and simulated discharges are compared against observations at 165 gauges. Simulated ET and TWS are compared against FLUXNET and MOD16A2 evapotranspiration datasets andGravity Recovery and ClimateExperiment (GRACE)TWSestimates in two subcatchments of main tributaries (Madeira and Negro Rivers).At the basin scale, simulated ET ranges from 2.39 to 3.26 mm day(exp -1) and a low spatial correlation between ET and precipitation indicates that evapotranspiration does not depend on water availability over most of the basin. Results also show that other simulated water budget components vary significantly as a function of both the LSM and precipitation dataset, but simulated TWS generally agrees with GRACE estimates at the basin scale. The best water budget simulations resulted from experiments using HYBAM, mostly explained by a denser rainfall gauge network and the rescaling at a finer temporal scale.

  3. Radio carbonic dates (14C) from Dolores Fm. (Santa Lucia River,Canelones Department and Gutierrez chico Creek,Rio Negro Department)and comments about the vertebrate fauna associated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubilla, M.

    1999-01-01

    Radiometric dates(14C)were performed based on fossil woods coming from late Pleistocene levels and assigned to dolores Fm.(Rio Negro Department, Gutierrez Chico Creek: Canelones Department, Danta Lucia basin).The 14C ages date the fossiliferous levels near the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary: 10.480+/-100 y B.P.(LP-1110,wood in det.), 10.500+/-110 y B.P. (LP-1143.wood in det.)and 11.650+/130 y B.P.(LP-509, Prosopis?sp.).Several ta xa of mammals recorded in the Dolores Fm.characterise the late Pleistocene of South Am erica( L ujunian f auna).Accordingly with the 14 dates, the most recent record of mega fauna of Uruguay is here reported.Archaeological sites with mega fauna have been described from other localities of South America with similar radiometric dates.In spite of the current controversy about the regional finipleistocenic climatic oscillation,the scarcely fossiliferous evidences suggest arid to semiarid and cold climatic condition.These evidences must be improved to test accurately the regional climatic hypothesis

  4. As traduções de Bates: dois naturalistas no Rio Amazonas Bates's translations: two naturalists in the Amazon River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Carneiro Rodrigues

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho analisam-se duas traduções do relato da viagem do naturalista Henry Walter Bates pela Amazônia, uma publicada em 1944 na Coleção Brasiliana feita pelo naturalista Candido de Mello-Leitão, outra editada em 1979 na Coleção Reconquista do Brasil, assinada por Regina Regis Junqueira. O objetivo do artigo é problematizar a demarcação de limites nítidos entre uma ética da diferença e uma ética da igualdade, pois, em ambos os textos, tanto ocorre um movimento no sentido de preservar a alteridade do texto e do autor, quanto no de domesticar o texto. A análise busca também evidenciar que cada tradução, realizada a partir de diferentes projetos editoriais e tradutórios, acaba por suscitar diferentes imagens do naturalista e dos lugares por ele visitados.Two translations of the travel writing by the naturalist Henry Walter Bates in the Amazon are analyzed in this work: one published in 1944 in the Brasiliana Collection by the naturalist Candido de Mello-Leitão, and another edited in 1979 in the Reconquista do Brasil Collection, signed by Regina Regis Junqueira. The purpose of this study is to examine the delimitation of clear boundaries between an ethics of difference and an ethics of equality, since the two texts present a movement that both preserves the otherness of the text and the author and domesticates the text. The analysis also aims to evidence that each translation, carried out from different editorial and translational projects, ultimately projects different images of naturalist and the places visited by him.

  5. The reactivity of plant-derived organic matter in the Amazon River and implications on aquatic carbon fluxes to the atmosphere and ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, N. D.; Sawakuchi, H. O.; Keil, R. G.; da Silva, R.; Brito, D. C.; Cunha, A. C.; Gagne-Maynard, W.; de Matos, A.; Neu, V.; Bianchi, T. S.; Krusche, A. V.; Richey, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    The remineralization of terrestrially-derived organic carbon (OC), along with direct CO2 inputs from autochthonous plant respiration in floodplains, results in an evasive CO2 gas flux from inland waters that is an order of magnitude greater than the flux of OC to the ocean. This phenomenon is enhanced in tropical systems as a result of elevated temperatures and productivity relative to temperate and high-latitude counterparts. Likewise, this balance is suspected to be influenced by increasing global temperatures and alterations to hydrologic and land use regimes. Here, we assess the reactivity of terrestrial and aquatic plant-derived OM near the mouth of the Amazon River. The stable isotopic signature of CO2 (δ13CO2) was monitored in real-time during incubation experiments performed in a closed system gas phase equilibration chamber connected to a Picarro Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer. Incubations were performed under natural conditions and with the injection of isotopically labeled terrestrial macromolecules (e.g. lignin) and algal fatty acids. Under natural conditions, δ13CO2 became more depleted, shifting from roughly -23‰ to -27‰ on average, suggesting that C3 terrestrial vegetation was the primary fuel for CO2 production. Upon separate injections of 13C-labeled lignin and algal fatty acids, δ13CO2 increased near instantaneously and peaked in under 12 hours. Roughly 75% of the labeled lignin was converted to CO2 at the peak in δ13CO2, whereas less than 20% of the algal fatty acids were converted to CO2 (preliminary data subject to change). The rate of labeled-OC remineralization was enhanced by the addition of a highly labile substrate (e.g. ethyl acetate). Likewise, constant measurements of O2/pCO2 along the lower river revealed anomalously high CO2 and low O2 levels near the confluence of the mainstem and large tributaries with high algal productivity. These collective results suggest that the remineralization of complex terrestrial macromolecules is

  6. The impact of rise of the Andes and Amazon landscape evolution on diversification of lowland terra-firme forest birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixo, A.; Wilkinson, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    Since the 19th Century, the unmatched biological diversity of Amazonia has stimulated a diverse set of hypotheses accounting for patterns of species diversity and distribution in mega-diverse tropical environments. Unfortunately, the evidence supporting particular hypotheses to date is at best described as ambiguous, and no generalizations have emerged yet, mostly due to the lack of comprehensive comparative phylogeographic studies with thorough trans-Amazonian sampling of lineages. Here we report on spatial and temporal patterns of diversification estimated from mitochondrial gene trees for 31 lineages of birds associated with upland terra-firme forest, the dominant habitat in modern lowland Amazonia. The results confirm the pervasive role of Amazonian rivers as primary barriers separating sister lineages of birds, and a protracted spatio-temporal pattern of diversification, with a gradual reduction of earlier (1st and 2nd) and older (> 2 mya) splits associated with each lineage in an eastward direction (the easternmost tributaries of the Amazon, the Xingu and Tocantins Rivers, are not associated with any splits older than > 2 mya). This "younging-eastward" pattern may have an abiotic explanation related to landscape evolution. Triggered by a new pulse of Andean uplift, it has been proposed that modern Amazon basin landscapes may have evolved successively eastward, away from the mountain chain, starting ~10 mya. This process was likely based on the deposition of vast fluvial sediment masses, known as megafans, which apparently extended in series progressively eastward from Andean sources. The effects on drainage patterns are apparent from the location of axial rivers such as the Negro / Orinoco and Madeira which lie at the distal ends of major megafan ramparts at cratonic margins furthest from the Andes. Megafan extension plausibly explains the progressive extinction of the original Pebas wetland of west-central Amazonia by the present fluvial landsurfaces where

  7. SOCIAL CHANGE AND THE NEGRO PROBLEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROSE, ARNOLD

    A FEW OF THE DYNAMIC FORCES OF CHANGE THAT HAVE BROUGHT ABOUT A NEW SITUATION FOR THE AMERICAN NEGRO ARE PRESENTED. THESE FORCES HAVE OCCURRED WITHOUT A VIOLENT REVOLUTION AND WITHIN MANY INSTITUTIONS, THE FORCES WERE MOST COMPLETE IN THE ECONOMIC SPHERES, LESS SO IN THE LEGAL AND POLITICAL SPHERES, AND LEAST IN THE SPHERE OF SOCIAL RELATIONSHIP.…

  8. O negro e a universidade brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delcele Mascarenhas Queiroz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En la investigación sobre la participación de los segmentos raciales en la universidad brasileña, realizada en distintas regiones de Brasil, se busca reflejar sobre las razones de la persistencia de desiguladades entre negros y blancos en la sociedad brasileña, mismo después de más de un siglo del fin de la esclavitud. La investigación envolvió universidades públicas en estados con variados porcentajes de negros en su población. La conclusión que se hace es que la desigualdad entre blancos y negros resulta de un modo racista de actuar que incluye la discriminación hacia el negro como un mecanismo de diferenciación en la sociedad.__________________ABSTRACT:Through the research on the racial segments participation in the Brazilian university, done in different regions of Brazil, the article intends to show the reasons of the persisting inequality between black people and white people in the Brazilian society, even after more than a century since the slavery abolition. The research involved public universities in states with diverse percentages of black people within the population. The conclusion is that inequality between black people and white people is a consequence of a racist way of acting that includes the discrimination towards black people as a mechanism of differentiation in the society.

  9. A Narrative History of Peru’s Invasion and Occupation of Leticia (Colombia, Amazon River, September 1932

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Camacho Arango

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on Peruvian, Colombian and British archives, this paper reconstructs the beginnings of the Leticia Conflict between Peru and Colombia (1932-1933 at the local and regional levels. Facts are presented in three chronological series that overlap partially: the invasion and occupation of Leticia; Colombian reactions from the Putumayo river basin and Bogotá; and Peruvian reactions from Iquitos and Lima. The article shows how events unfolded and it implicitly compares the triangular relations between local society, central government and the armed forces at the boundaries between both countries.

  10. Agro-extractivist value chains and regional development: the case of the Lower Tocantins River in the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Dürr, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    The Lower Tocantins river region offers a wide range of agricultural and extractive products like açaí palm fruits, pepper, oil palms and manioc, which are produced for local and national consumption and for exports. These products do not only generate value added in the agricultural sector, but also indirectly in other sectors like agro-industry and commerce. The value chains of agricultural and extractive products form the basis of the rural economy and hence for the development of the nine...

  11. Impact of forested fallows on fertility and mercury content in soils of the Tapajós River region, Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patry, Cynthia; Davidson, Robert; Lucotte, Marc; Béliveau, Annie

    2013-08-01

    Recent research on slash-and-burn agriculture conducted in the Amazonian basin has suggested that soils must be left under forested fallows for at least 10 to 15 years to regain fertility levels comparable to non-disturbed forests in order to allow for short cycle crop cultivation. However, small scale farmers tend nowadays to re-burn secondary forests as soon as after 3 to 5 years, thus could contribute to further reduce soil fertility and could enhance the transfer of mercury (Hg) naturally present in soils of the region towards water courses. The present research project sets out to characterize the impact of forested fallows of differing age and land-use history on soils properties (fertility and Hg contents) in the region of the Tapajós River, an active pioneer front of the Brazilian Amazon. To do this, soil samples in forested fallows of variable age and in control primary forests were retrieved. In general, soil fertility of grouped forested fallows of different ages was similar to that of the primary forests. But when discriminating soils according to their texture, forested fallows on coarse grained soils still had much higher NH4/NO3 ratios, NH4 and Ca contents than primary forests, this even 15 years after burning. The impact of repeated burnings was also assessed. Fallows on coarse grained soils showed an impoverishment for all variables related to fertility when the number of burnings was 5 or more. For fallows on fine grained soils that underwent 5 or more burnings, NO3 contents were low although a cation enrichment was observed. Total soil Hg content was also sensitive to repeated burnings, showing similar losses for forested fallows established on both types of soil. However, Hg linked to coarse particles appeared to migrate back towards fine particles at the surface of coarse grained soils in fallows older than 7 years. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Mercury and selenium in fishes from the Tapajós River in the Brazilian Amazon: An evaluation of human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lino, A S; Kasper, D; Guida, Y S; Thomaz, J R; Malm, O

    2018-07-01

    This work aimed to evaluate associated risks of fish consumption to human health, concerning mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) concentrations in fish species largely consumed in the Tapajós River basin in the Brazilian Amazon. Total mercury (THg), methylmercury (MeHg) and Se concentrations were measured in 129 fish specimens from four sites of the Tapajós River basin. Estimated daily intake (EDI) of Hg and Se were reported regarding fish consumption. EDI were compared with the reference value of provisional tolerable daily intake proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). Se:Hg ratios and selenium health benefit values (Se HBVs) seem to offer a more comprehensive fish safety model. THg concentrations in fishes ranged from 0.03 to 1.51 μg g -1 of wet weight (w.w.) and MeHg concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 1.44 μg g -1 (w.w.). 80% of the samples were below the value of Hg recommended by the WHO for human consumption (0.5 μg g -1 w.w.). However, Hg EDI exceeded the dose suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (0.1 μg kg -1  day -1 ), due to the large level of fish consumption in that area. Se concentrations in fishes ranged from 0.02 to 0.44 μg g -1 w.w. An inverse pattern was observed between Hg and Se concentrations in the trophic chain (highest levels of Se in the lowest trophic levels). The molar ratio Se:Hg and Se HBVs were higher in iliophagous and herbivorous fishes, which is noteworthy to reduce toxic effects of Hg contamination. For planktivores, the content of Se and Hg was almost equimolar. Carnivorous fishes - with the exception of Hemisorubim platyrhynchos and Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum -, showed Se:Hg ratios <1. Thus, they do not act as a favorable source of Se in the diet. Therefore, reduced intake of carnivorous fishes with preferential consumption of iliophages, herbivores and, to some extent, even planktivores should be promoted as part of a healthier diet. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All

  13. Seasonal effects of wastewater to the water quality of the Caeté river estuary, Brazilian Amazon

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    Luci C.C. Pereira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bragança's socioeconomic situation is highly dependent on estuarine and marine biological resources that are influenced by tidal cycles and climatology. Field measurements (hydrological, hydrodynamic and microbiological variables were taken in the most urbanized zone from Caeté estuary to characterise the quality of the local environment. During the dry period, the estuary was more eutrophic and presented the highest temperature (30.5 °C in Oct./06, salinity (17 psu in Feb./07, pH (8.24 in Feb./07 and fecal coliform (> 1000 MPN/100 ml in Dec./06 and Feb./07 values. The phytoplankton Cyclotella meneghiniana, Coscinodiscus centralis and other r-strategist species were observed. The lack of basic hydric canalization was responsible for the local contamination, especially during the dry period when more concentrated wastewater from the city was emitted into the estuary, showing the human influence on the reduction of local estuarine water quality. In Bragança, the fishery is considered one of the main economic activities so, this contamination is worrisome because a large part of the local economy depends on biological resources and, thus, the contamination could negatively affect the environmental health of this Amazon ecosystem.A situação socioeconômica de Bragança depende principalmente dos recursos biológicos estuarinos e marinhos, que são influenciados pelos ciclos de marés e climatologia. Coletas oceanográficas (com medidas de variáveis hidrológicas, hidro-dinâmicas e microbiológicas foram realizadas na área mais urbanizada do estuário do Caeté, para caracterizar a qualidade das águas no setor estudado. Durante o período seco, o estuário foi mais eutrófico e apresentou os maiores valores de temperatura (30,5°C em Out./06, salinidade (17 psu em Fev./07, pH (8,24 em Fev./07 e coliformes fecais (>1000 MNP/ 100 ml em Dez./06 e Fev./07. As espécies fitoplanctô-nicas Cyclotella meneghiniana, Coscinodiscus centralis e outras

  14. U-Pbdating on detrital zircon and Nd and Hf isotopes related to the provenance of siliciclastic rocks of the Amazon Basin: Implications for the origin of Proto-Amazonas River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Elton Luiz; Silva Souza, Valmir; Nogueira, Afonso C. R.; Ventura Santos, Roberto; Poitrasson, Franck; Vieira Cruz, Lucieth; Mendes Conceição, Anderson

    2014-05-01

    Previous provenance studies along the Amazonas river have demonstrated that the Amazon drainage basin has been reorganized since the Late Cretaceous with the uplift of the Andes and the establishment of the transcontinental Amazon fluvial system from Late Miocene to Late Pleistocene (Hoorn et al., 1995; Potter, 1997, Wesselingh et al., 2002; Figueiredo et al. 2009, Campbell et al., 2006, Nogueira et al. 2013).There is a lack of data from Eastern and Central Amazonia and only limited core data from the Continental Platform near to current Amazonas river mouth. Central Amazonia is strategic to unveil the origin of Amazonas River because it represents the region where the connection of the Solimões and Amazonas basin can be studied through time (Nogueira et al. 2013). Also, there is a shortage of information on the old Precambrian and Paleozoic sediment sources relative to Cretaceous and Miocene siliciclastic deposits of the Solimões and Amazonas basins. We collected stratigraphic data, detrital zircon U-Pb ages and Nd and Hf isotopes from Precambrian, Paleozoic, Cretaceous and Miocene siliciclastic deposits of the Northwestern border of Amazonas Basin. They are exposed in the Presidente Figueiredo region and in the scarps of Amazon River, and occur to the east of the Purus Arch. This Northwest-Southeast trending structural feature that divides the Solimões and Amazonas basin was active at various times since the Paleozoic. Detrital zircon ages for the Neoproterozoic Prosperança Formation yielded a complex signature, with different populations of Neoproterozoic (550, 630 and 800 Ma) and Paleoproterozoic to Archean sources (1.6, 2.1 and 2.6 Ga). Also Nd and Hf isotopes show two groups of TDM model ages between 1.4 to 1.53 Ga and 2.2 and 3.1 Ga. Sediments typical of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of the Nhamundá and Manacapuru Formations revealed NdTDM model ages of 1.7, 2.2 and 2.7 Ga, but Hf isotopes and U-Pb zircon ages are more varied. They characterize a

  15. Fragmentation of Andes-to-Amazon connectivity by hydropower dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Elizabeth P; Jenkins, Clinton N; Heilpern, Sebastian; Maldonado-Ocampo, Javier A; Carvajal-Vallejos, Fernando M; Encalada, Andrea C; Rivadeneira, Juan Francisco; Hidalgo, Max; Cañas, Carlos M; Ortega, Hernan; Salcedo, Norma; Maldonado, Mabel; Tedesco, Pablo A

    2018-01-01

    Andes-to-Amazon river connectivity controls numerous natural and human systems in the greater Amazon. However, it is being rapidly altered by a wave of new hydropower development, the impacts of which have been previously underestimated. We document 142 dams existing or under construction and 160 proposed dams for rivers draining the Andean headwaters of the Amazon. Existing dams have fragmented the tributary networks of six of eight major Andean Amazon river basins. Proposed dams could result in significant losses in river connectivity in river mainstems of five of eight major systems-the Napo, Marañón, Ucayali, Beni, and Mamoré. With a newly reported 671 freshwater fish species inhabiting the Andean headwaters of the Amazon (>500 m), dams threaten previously unrecognized biodiversity, particularly among endemic and migratory species. Because Andean rivers contribute most of the sediment in the mainstem Amazon, losses in river connectivity translate to drastic alteration of river channel and floodplain geomorphology and associated ecosystem services.

  16. Seasonal variation in the distribution and isotopic composition of phytoplankton in an amazon floodplain lake, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caraballo, Pedro; Forsberg, Bruce R; Leite, Rosseval G

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the seasonal variation and isotopic composition of phytoplankton, water samples were collected monthly between October 2007 and November 2008 in Lake Catalao, a floodplain lake at the confluence between rivers Negro and Amazon. Analyses of total chlorophyll concentration and δ"13C and δ"15N isotopic abundances were made from particulate size fractions of 30-60, 10-30 and <10 μm in the littoral, pelagic, and floating meadows regions. Chlorophyll concentration was found to be inversely associated to lake depth, and high concentrations of chlorophyll in the floating meadows zone were significant. The fraction <10 μm was the most abundant representing in average more than 40% of the particulate matter. The δ3 13C values were relatively constant during the study (-25.1% -34.0%), whereas the δ"15N values showed strong variability (15.6% 2.4%), which has been attributed to the resuspension of sediments during mixing of the water column. Mixing associated to the sudden drop in temperature during the rising water period was an important event in the trophic and isotopic dynamics of the lake. Variations in chlorophyll content were generally associated with the dilution process, in which concentration was inversely correlated to the water level, whereas abundance was directly correlated to the water level.

  17. Forest succession in the Upper Rio Negro of Colombia and Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldarriaga, J.G.; West, D.C.; Tharp, M.L.

    1986-11-01

    Woody vegetation from 23 forest stands along the Upper Rio Negro of Venezuela and Colombia was sampled in 1982 to examine the hypothesis that the Amazon forest has been largely undisturbed since the Pleistocene, to quantify vegetation development during different stages of succession following agricultural development, and to determine the time required for a successional stand to become a mature forest. The ubiquitousness of charcoal in the tierra firme forest indicated the presence of fire associated with extreme dry periods and human disturbances. Changes in species composition, vegetation structure, and woody biomass were studied on 19 abandoned farms and four mature forest stands. Living and dead biomass for the tress and their components was determined by regression equations developed from measurements of harvested trees. The rate of recovery of floristic composition, structure, and biomass following disturbance is relatively slow. Aboveground dead biomass remained high 14 years after the forest was disturbed by the agricultural practices. The lowest dead biomass is reached 20 years after abandonment, and the largest values are found in mature forests. Data analysis of 80-year-old stands showed that the species composition approached that of a mature forest. Approximately 140 to 200 years was required for an abandoned farm to attain the basal area and biomass values comparable to those of a mature forest. The results of this study indicate that recovery is five to seven times longer in the Upper Rio Negro than it is in other tropical areas in South America

  18. Forest succession in the Upper Rio Negro of Colombia and Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldarriaga, J.G.; West, D.C.; Tharp, M.L.

    1986-11-01

    Woody vegetation from 23 forest stands along the Upper Rio Negro of Venezuela and Colombia was sampled in 1982 to examine the hypothesis that the Amazon forest has been largely undisturbed since the Pleistocene, to quantify vegetation development during different stages of succession following agricultural development, and to determine the time required for a successional stand to become a mature forest. The ubiquitousness of charcoal in the tierra firme forest indicated the presence of fire associated with extreme dry periods and human disturbances. Changes in species composition, vegetation structure, and woody biomass were studied on 19 abandoned farms and four mature forest stands. Living and dead biomass for the tress and their components was determined by regression equations developed from measurements of harvested trees. The rate of recovery of floristic composition, structure, and biomass following disturbance is relatively slow. Aboveground dead biomass remained high 14 years after the forest was disturbed by the agricultural practices. The lowest dead biomass is reached 20 years after abandonment, and the largest values are found in mature forests. Data analysis of 80-year-old stands showed that the species composition approached that of a mature forest. Approximately 140 to 200 years was required for an abandoned farm to attain the basal area and biomass values comparable to those of a mature forest. The results of this study indicate that recovery is five to seven times longer in the Upper Rio Negro than it is in other tropical areas in South America.

  19. How many more dams in the Amazon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tundisi, J.G.; Goldemberg, J.; Matsumura-Tundisi, T.; Saraiva, A.C.F.

    2014-01-01

    The Amazon watershed harbors a megadiversity of terrestrial and aquatic plants and animals. Mechanisms that sustain this biodiversity are the water level fluctuations the fluvial dynamics and the intense gene flux due to permanent integration of climatological, geomorphological and biological components of the system. The construction of hydroelectric reservoirs to support economic development of Brazil and other countries that share the Amazon basin will interfere with the ecological dynamics of this ecosystem changing the hydrological, hydrosocial and fundamental processes. Furthermore the construction of Andean reservoirs can disrupt the connectivity with the lower Amazon ecosystem. Principles of ecohydrologies, ecological engineering and preservation of key river basins, have to be applied in order to optimize energy production and promote conservation practices. Long term planning and integration of countries that share the Amazon basin is a strategic decision to control and develop the hydropower exploitation in the region. - Highlights: • The Amazon basin is an ecosystem of megadiversity. • The demand for energy threatens this ecosystem. • Climate, water, forests and floodplain interacts in the Amazon basin. • Dams in the Amazon basin will impact the hydrological and biological systems. • Ecohydrological principles and ecological engineering technology are necessary

  20. Causes and impacts of the 2005 Amazon drought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Ning; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Marengo, Jose A; Nobre, Carlos A; Subramaniam, Ajit; Mariotti, Annarita; Neelin, J David

    2008-01-01

    A rare drought in the Amazon culminated in 2005, leading to near record-low streamflows, small Amazon river plume, and greatly enhanced fire frequency. This episode was caused by the combination of 2002-03 El Nino and a dry spell in 2005 attributable to a warm subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. Analysis for 1979-2005 reveals that the Atlantic influence is comparable to the better-known Pacific linkage. While the Pacific influence is typically locked to the wet season, the 2005 Atlantic impact concentrated in the Amazon dry season when its hydroecosystem is most vulnerable. Such mechanisms may have wide-ranging implications for the future of the Amazon rainforest

  1. The Vine Trust's Amazon Hope boats--providing a dental service on the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Shona M C

    2013-01-01

    The Vine Trust's Amazon Hope Project is a medical and dental programme providing healthcare to communities along the Amazon River in Peru. Volunteers from the UK and other countries work alongside Peruvian staff employed by their partner organization, Union Biblica del Peru, to provide a health service from a boat which serves communities on several tributaries who otherwise would have no other access to care. The dental programme involves a basic restorative and extraction service, with scope to develop a preventive programme. Dentists'and DCPs' skills are transferable globally: this article illustrates how one volunteer dental project is working to provide relevant and sustainable dental health care in the Amazon jungle.

  2. Helping the Amazon's Caboclos riverine communities cope with ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-11-15

    Nov 15, 2013 ... Tides expand the Amazon's delta's lacework of rivers and streams twice a day, ... last longer, causing more environmental damage and threatening their communities. ... Managing flood risk through collaborative governance.

  3. Determinação dos elementos-traço (Zn, Co e Ni em sedimentos da Plataforma Continental Amazônica sob influência da descarga do rio Amazonas Determination of trace elements (Zn, Co and Ni in sediments at the Amazon Continental Shelf on influence of the Amazon River discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Wanzeller Siqueira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi desenvolvida na Plataforma Continental Amazônica (PCA no trecho compreendido entre os cabos Orange (AP e Maguari (PA, para determinar os teores de Zn, Co e Ni nos sedimentos superficiais, identificando o papel dos sedimentos como fonte ou reserva de elementos-traço. A concentração dos elementos metálicos apresentou a seguinte associação: Zn > Ni > Co. Os sedimentos localizados na PCA podem ser considerados como sítio de ocorrência natural dos elementos metálicos, não havendo influência de fontes poluidoras na liberação destes para o sistema.Determination of trace elements (Zn, Co and Ni in sediments at the Amazon Continental Shelf on influence of the Amazon River discharge This research was developed at Amazon Continental Shelf (ACS between the Orange Cape (Amapá State and the Maguari Cape (Pará State, to determine the levels of zinc, cobalt and nickel in the superficial sediments identifying its inputs and outputs. The rate of these metallic elements in the sediments decreases following Zn> Ni> Co. The concentrations of total metals in the surface sediments range from Zn = 52.8 159.5; Ni = 21.7 47.4 and Co = 14.3 48.8 (mg.kg-1. The levels of trace elements observed in the sediments at ACS are of natural occurrence. Pollution sources of metallic elements were not observed.

  4. Cyrilia sp. (Apicomplexa: Haemogregarinidae) in the Amazonian freshwater stingray Potamotrygon wallacei (cururu stingray) in different hydrological phases of the Rio Negro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A T; Araújo, M L G; Pantoja-Lima, J; Aride, P H R; Tavares-Dias, M; Brinn, R P; Marcon, J L

    2017-01-01

    Intraerythrocytic parasites are frequently found in fish, including elasmobranchs. The Amazonian rivers present well defined annual hydrological cycles that results in drastic modifications of the environmental conditions with deep implications in the life cycle of the whole associated biota in those fluvial systems. The freshwater stingray Potamotrygon wallacei (stingray cururu) is a new species restricted to the Middle Rio Negro basin and it is subject to strong alterations in their natural habitats (igapós) a result of the constant variations in the water level of Rio Negro. This work demonstrates the occurrence of intraerythrocytic parasite Cyrilia sp. in this stingray species. Additionally, the prevalence and quantification of hemoparasites in different phases of Rio Negro were also established. Field sampling was carried in the Archipelago of Mariuá, Middle Rio Negro, involving different stages of the water cycle. The intraerythrocytic parasites were quantified by direct counting in blood smears using a total counting of 2000 erythrocytes in each blood smear. The presence of parasites intraerythrocytic generates changes in the morphology of blood cell. The largest amount of the hemoparasites was recorded in the drought period. We observed a decreasing tendency in the number of parasites in the blood between the drought periods and inundation. We concluded that the level of Negro River influences the incidence of intraerythrocytic parasites in the cururu stingray and the drought represents the period of larger susceptibility to the infestation.

  5. Cyrilia sp. (Apicomplexa: Haemogregarinidae in the Amazonian freshwater stingray Potamotrygon wallacei (cururu stingray in different hydrological phases of the Rio Negro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract Intraerythrocytic parasites are frequently found in fish, including elasmobranchs. The Amazonian rivers present well defined annual hydrological cycles that results in drastic modifications of the environmental conditions with deep implications in the life cycle of the whole associated biota in those fluvial systems. The freshwater stingray Potamotrygon wallacei (stingray cururu is a new species restricted to the Middle Rio Negro basin and it is subject to strong alterations in their natural habitats (igapós a result of the constant variations in the water level of Rio Negro. This work demonstrates the occurrence of intraerythrocytic parasite Cyrilia sp. in this stingray species. Additionally, the prevalence and quantification of hemoparasites in different phases of Rio Negro were also established. Field sampling was carried in the Archipelago of Mariuá, Middle Rio Negro, involving different stages of the water cycle. The intraerythrocytic parasites were quantified by direct counting in blood smears using a total counting of 2000 erythrocytes in each blood smear. The presence of parasites intraerythrocytic generates changes in the morphology of blood cell. The largest amount of the hemoparasites was recorded in the drought period. We observed a decreasing tendency in the number of parasites in the blood between the drought periods and inundation. We concluded that the level of Negro River influences the incidence of intraerythrocytic parasites in the cururu stingray and the drought represents the period of larger susceptibility to the infestation.

  6. Being Negro in Recife Brazil: A Political Aesthetics Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leerzem, van L.; Nuijten, M.C.M.; Vries, de P.A.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we explore the role of cultura negra and what it means to be negro for a particular segment of the population of Recife, Brazil. We zoom in on participants in Terça Negra (negro Tuesday), one of the foremost weekly events in the city. For these participants, self-identifying as

  7. Medellín Negro 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Forero Quintero, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Medellín Negro es un proyecto académico, editorial, cultural y social desarrollado por el Grupo de Estudios Literarios (GEL) de la Universidad de Antioquia y auspiciado por la Alcaldía de Medellín en el marco de su Fiesta del Libro y la Cultura ; tiene el objetivo de propiciar un espacio urbano de discusión interdisciplinaria y abierto al público en torno al tema del crimen en las sociedades contemporáneas, tomando como eje la literatura negra o, como proponen sus organizadores, la literatura...

  8. The Amazon River’s Ecosystem: Where Land Meets the Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Nicholas; Sawakuchi, Henrique; Richey, Jeffrey

    2018-01-18

    What happens to plant matter on its journey down the Amazon River to the Atlantic Ocean? One research group investigated the region where river and ocean meet to fill in this part of the story.

  9. Report on the radioactive mineral development project in Negros Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G. Jr.

    1981-12-01

    A reconnaissance radiometric and stream sediment survey was conducted in Negros Island from April to May 1980. An area in Mabinay, Negros Oriental with significant above-background uranium in stream sediment was delineated in Upper Miocene to Pliocene continental clastic associated with silty limestone. In general, Negros has low radioactivity except for isolated points which have 2-3 times above-the-background radioactivity. Other areas in the western part of the island with high radioactivity and above-normal uranium in stream sediments were delineated. However, these above-normal observations were noted in areas underlain by recent volcanic sediments which were probably derived from Mt. Kanlaon. (author)

  10. Los agujeros negros y las ondas del Doctor Einstein

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Alberto Rodríguez-Meza

    2017-01-01

    Se describen los principales desarrollos científicos que llevaron a la detección de las ondas gravitacionales por el proyecto ligo: la relatividad general, sus predicciones de agujeros negros y ondas gravitacionales, la relatividad numérica y las simulaciones de la colisión y coalescencia de dos agujeros negros y los desarrollos de diversos detectores de ondas gravitacionales. Finalmente la detección de las ondas gravitacionales confirma la existencia de los enigmáticos agujeros negros.

  11. Los agujeros negros y las ondas del Doctor Einstein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Alberto Rodríguez-Meza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los principales desarrollos científicos que llevaron a la detección de las ondas gravitacionales por el proyecto ligo: la relatividad general, sus predicciones de agujeros negros y ondas gravitacionales, la relatividad numérica y las simulaciones de la colisión y coalescencia de dos agujeros negros y los desarrollos de diversos detectores de ondas gravitacionales. Finalmente la detección de las ondas gravitacionales confirma la existencia de los enigmáticos agujeros negros.

  12. Neutrons, radiation and archaeology: a multi analytical case study of incised rim tradition ceramics in Central Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazenfratz-Marks, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is an interdisciplinary archaeometric study involving archaeological ceramic material from two large archaeological sites in Central Amazon, namely Lago Grande and Osvaldo, on the confluence region of Negro and Solimoes rivers. It was tested a hypothesis about the existence of an exchange network between the former inhabitants of those sites, focusing on material and/or technological exchange. That hypothesis has implications for archaeological theories of human occupation of the pre-colonial Central Amazon, which try to relativise the role of ecological difficulties of the tropical forest as a limiting factor for the emergence of social complexity in the region. The physical-chemical characterization of potsherds and clay samples near the sites was carried out by: instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) to determine the elemental chemical composition; electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to determine the firing temperature; X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine the mineralogical composition; and dating by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). Previous studies showed that Osvaldo and Lago Grande were occupied by people which produced pottery classified in the Manacapuru and Paredao phases, subclasses of the Incised Rim Tradition, around the 5-10th and 7-12th centuries BC, respectively. INAA results were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods, whereby two chemical groups of pottery were defined for each archaeological site. Significant variation in firing temperatures and mineralogical composition were not identified for such groups. By integration of the results with archaeological data, the superposition between pairs of chemical groups was interpreted as a correlate of an ancient exchange network, although it was not possible to define if it existed exclusively between Lago Grande and Osvaldo. On the contrary, it was suggested that Lago Grande participated in a more extensive exchange network by comparison of two chemical groups

  13. The Pulse of the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, R. G.; Moura, J. M. S.; Mitsuya, M.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Holmes, R. M.; Galy, V.; Drake, T.

    2017-12-01

    Rivers integrate over a fixed and definable area (the watershed), with their discharge and chemistry at any given point a function of upstream processes. As a consequence, examination of riverine discharge and chemistry can provide powerful indictors of change within a watershed. To assess the validity of this approach long-term datasets are required from fluvial environments around the globe. The Amazon River delivers one-fifth of the total freshwater discharged to the ocean and so represents a fundamentally important site for examination of long-term major ion, trace element, nutrient, and organic matter (OM) export. Here we describe data from a multi-year, monthly sampling campaign of the Amazon River at Obidos (Para, Brazil). Clear seasonality in all analyte fluxes is apparent and is linked to hydrology, however dissolved OM composition appears dominated by allochthonous sources throughout the year as evidenced by optical parameters indicative of high molecular weight and high relative aromatic content. Annual loads of some analytes for 2011-2013 inclusive varied by up to 50%, highlighting significant variability in flux from year to year that was linked to inter-annual hydrologic shifts (i.e. higher fluxes in wetter years). Finally, encompassing both intra- and inter-annual variability, a robust correlation was observed between chromophoric dissolved OM (CDOM) absorbance and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration highlighting the potential to improve DOC flux estimates at this globally significant site via CDOM measurements from in situ technologies or remote sensing techniques.

  14. Archimboldi: El agujero negro de 2666

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Ríos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo busca demostrar una hipótesis: que en la obra de Roberto Bolaño el tiempo será asumido como un viaje hacia el caos y la percepción de "desfases" en la estructura cronológica. Dicho enfoque se aplicará concretamente a 2666, la novela donde Bolaño expuso su mayor preocupación por la cuestión temporal, y en especial a "La parte de Archimboldi", donde se evidencia que el escritor alemán no sólo actuaría como un personaje que, debido al hechizo de sus novelas, provoca su ulterior persecución, sino que opera como un verdadero "agujero negro", capaz de fagocitar toda circunstancia estética y vivencial que gire a su alrededor.

  15. Physical basis for river segmentation from water surface observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samine Montazem, A.; Garambois, P. A.; Calmant, S.; Moreira, D. M.; Monnier, J.; Biancamaria, S.

    2017-12-01

    With the advent of satellite missions such as SWOT we will have access to high resolution estimates of the elevation, slope and width of the free surface. A segmentation strategy is required in order to sub-sample the data set into reach master points for further hydraulic analyzes and inverse modelling. The question that arises is : what will be the best node repartition strategy that preserves hydraulic properties of river flow? The concept of hydraulic visibility introduced by Garambois et al. (2016) is investigated in order to highlight and characterize the spatio-temporal variations of water surface slope and curvature for different flow regimes and reach geometries. We show that free surface curvature is a powerful proxy for characterizing the hydraulic behavior of a reach since concavity of water surface is driven by variations in channel geometry that impacts the hydraulic properties of the flow. We evaluated the performance of three segmentation strategies by means of a well documented case, that of the Garonne river in France. We conclude that local extrema of free surface curvature appear as the best candidate for locating the segment boundaries for an optimal hydraulic representation of the segmented river. We show that for a given river different segmentation scales are possible: a fine-scale segmentation which is driven by fine-scale hydraulic to large-scale segmentation driven by large-scale geomorphology. The segmentation technique is then applied to high resolution GPS profiles of free surface elevation collected on the Negro river basin, a major contributor of the Amazon river. We propose two segmentations: a low-resolution one that can be used for basin hydrology and a higher resolution one better suited for local hydrodynamic studies.

  16. La presencia de Negros en la Nordpatagonia. 1779-1837

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Noemí Martínez de Gorla

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the juridical and social effects created by the individual assimilation of the slave and freeperson in the Rio Negro and the massive entrance of blacks during the war with Brazil, a historic moment when differences were established between African blacks and American blacks. This distinction was modified with the decree of September 12, 1827, when such distinctions were abolished.//Este trabajo estudia los efectos jurídicos y sociales creados por la asimilación individual del esclavo y de la persona libre en el Rio Negro y la entrada masiva de africanos durante la guerra con Brasil, momento histórico en el que las diferencias entre africanos negros y americanos negros fueron establecidas. Esta distinción fue modificada con el decreto 12 de 1827, cuando se abolieron tales diferencias.

  17. The changing hydrology of a dammed Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpe, Kelsie; Kaplan, David

    2017-01-01

    Developing countries around the world are expanding hydropower to meet growing energy demand. In the Brazilian Amazon, >200 dams are planned over the next 30 years, and questions about the impacts of current and future hydropower in this globally important watershed remain unanswered. In this context, we applied a hydrologic indicator method to quantify how existing Amazon dams have altered the natural flow regime and to identify predictors of alteration. The type and magnitude of hydrologic alteration varied widely by dam, but the largest changes were to critical characteristics of the flood pulse. Impacts were largest for low-elevation, large-reservoir dams; however, small dams had enormous impacts relative to electricity production. Finally, the “cumulative” effect of multiple dams was significant but only for some aspects of the flow regime. This analysis is a first step toward the development of environmental flows plans and policies relevant to the Amazon and other megadiverse river basins. PMID:29109972

  18. Proyecto MeCIN: Alto Valle de Río Negro, Argentina MeCIN Project: alto Valle of Rio negro, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto L Flores

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta los resultados obtenidos durante el experimento de campo MeCIN (Mediciones de la Capa de Inversión Nocturna cuyo objetivo fue estudiar el comportamiento del viento, la temperatura del aire y la evolución del enfriamiento en los valles de los ríos Neuquén, Limay y Negro en noches con inversión térmica en las primaveras de los años 1992 al 1997. Las situaciones sinópticas que propiciaron los intensos efectos radiativos nocturnos fueron asociadas con un anticiclón migratorio postfrontal en 1000 hPa y un eje de vaguada en 500 hPa. Los gradientes verticales de temperatura alcanzaron valores medios entre 0,26 °C/m en el valle del río Neuquén y 0,14 °C/m en el del Negro. El tope de la inversión térmica, en promedio, se ubicó a más de 30 m. Las mediciones de los perfiles de velocidad del viento mostraron un patrón de dos capas: una capa inferior sin movimiento y otra superior con velocidades en promedio entre 2,9 m/s y 4,0 m/s. El enfriamiento nocturno fue superior en la zona de chacras y menor en cercanías del río y sobre la meseta. La temperatura del aire durante la noche fue menor en el valle que en la meseta, dependiendo de su altura.This paper presents the results of field experience MeCIN (Measurements of the Nocturnal Inversion Layer. The project was performed to study the characteristics of wind, air temperature and the evolution of nocturnal cooling in the Neuquén, Limay, and Negro river valleys during nighttime with thermal inversion in the layer near ground, between 1992 and 1997 spring seasons. The mean synoptic situations that favored the nocturnal radiative effects were associated with migratory postfrontal 1000 hPa anticyclones and a though axis in 500 hPa. The mean vertical gradient of air temperature was 0,26 °C/m in the Neuquén river valley and 0,14 °C/m in the Negro river valley. The top of the thermal inversion, on the average, was located above 30 m. The wind speed profile presented two

  19. Trace elements distribution in the Amazon floodplain soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, E.A.N.; Ferraz, E.S.B.; Oliveira, H.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was performed on aluvial soil samples from several sites on the foodplains of the Amazon River and its major tributaries for trace elements determination. The spatial and temporal variations of chemical composition of floodland sediments in the Amazon basin are discussed. No significant difference was found in trace elemental distribution in the floodland soils along the Amazon main channel, even after the source material has been progressively diluted with that from lowland draining tributaries. It was also seen that the average chemical composition of floodplain soils compares well with that of the suspended sedimets. (author) 12 refs.; 5 figs.; 2 tabs

  20. Dataset of long-term monitoring of ground-dwelling ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the influence areas of a hydroelectric power plant on the Madeira River in the Amazon Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Itanna O; de Souza, Jorge L P

    2018-01-01

    Biodiversity loss is accelerating rapidly in response to increasing human influence on the Earth's natural ecosystems. One way to overcome this problem is by focusing on places of human interest and monitoring the changes and impacts on the biodiversity. This study was conducted at six sites within the influence area of the Santo Antônio Hydroelectric Power Plant in the margins of the Madeira River in Rondônia State. The sites cover a latitudinal gradient of approximately 100 km in the Brazilian Amazon Basin. The sampling design included six sampling modules with six plots (transects) each, totaling 30 sampling plots. The transects were distributed with 0 km, 0.5 km, 1 km, 2 km, 3 km and 4 km, measured perpendicularly from the river margin towards the interior of the forest. For sampling the ground-dwelling ants, the study used the ALL (ants of the leaf litter) protocol, which is standardized globally in the inventories of ant fauna. For the purpose of impact indicators, the first two campaigns (September 2011 to November 2011) were carried out in the pre-filling period, while campaigns 3 to 10 (February 2012 to November 2014) were carried out during and after the filling of the hydroelectric reservoir. A total of 253 events with a total of 9,165 occurrences were accounted during the monitoring. The ants were distributed in 10 subfamilies, 68 genera and 324 species/morphospecies. The impact on ant biodiversity during the periods before and after filling was measured by ecological indicators and by the presence and absence of some species/morphospecies. This is the first study, as far as we know, including taxonomic and ecological treatment to monitor the impact of a hydroelectric power plant on ant fauna. Until recently, most studies conducted on hydroelectric plants, located in the Amazon Basin, were carried out after the implementation of dams in order to assess their impacts on the environment and biodiversity (Benchimol and Peres 2015, Latrubesse et al. 2017

  1. Water quality changes in floodplain lakes due to the Amazon River flood pulse: Lago Grande de Curuaí (Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AG Affonso

    Full Text Available Assurance of water quality for human consumption is essential for public health policies. In the Amazon floodplain, the seasonal water level variation causes periodic flooding of marginal areas that are usually used for settlements, agriculture and livestock. Therefore, the exchange of materials between the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem affects the proportion of suspended and dissolved components in water and its physical-chemical characteristics, and consequently the quality of the water used by local people. Following this approach, the aim of this study is to evaluate changes in water quality in Lago Grande de Curuaí floodplain, Óbidos, Pará in response to the flood pulse, during one hydrological year from 2003 to 2004, based on water use classes (according to National Water Agency 357/2005 resolution using chlorophyll-a and dissolved oxygen concentration as parameters and the eutrophication index. Ordinary kriging was applied to interpolate chlorophyll-a and dissolved oxygen and to predict values at non sampled locations. Each location was then classified according to water use acceptable parameters and to Carlson Trophic State Index modified by Toledo to map lake water classes and trophic status. The result showed that Lago Grande de Curuaí floodplain is a supereutrophic system, with levels of dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll-a not suitable for human supply during the receding water phase. These areas are located near the riverine communities, which can cause health problems due to the presence of potentially toxic algae. Therefore, monitoring water quality in Amazon lakes is essential to ensure the availability has appropriate quality for human and animal supplies.

  2. Mixing as a driver of temporal variations in river hydrochemistry: 1. Insights from conservative tracers in the Andes-Amazon transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Mark A.; Baronas, J. Jotautas; Clark, Kathryn E.; Feakins, Sarah J.; West, A. Joshua

    2017-04-01

    The response of hillslope processes to changes in precipitation may drive the observed changes in the solute geochemistry of rivers with discharge. This conjecture is most robust when variations in the key environmental factors that affect hillslope processes (e.g., lithology, erosion rate, and climate) are minimal across a river's catchment area. For rivers with heterogenous catchments, temporal variations in the relative contributions of different tributary subcatchments may modulate variations in solute geochemistry with runoff. In the absence of a dense network of hydrologic gauging stations, alternative approaches are required to distinguish between the different drivers of temporal variability in river solute concentrations. In this contribution, we apportion the water and solute fluxes of a reach of the Madre de Dios River (Peru) between its four major tributary subcatchments during two sampling campaigns (wet and dry seasons) using spatial variations in conservative tracers. Guided by the results of a mixing model, we identify temporal variations in solute concentrations of the main stem Madre de Dios that are due to changes in the relative contributions of each tributary. Our results suggest that variations in tributary mixing are, in part, responsible for the observed concentration-discharge (C-Q) relationships. The implications of these results are further explored by reanalyzing previously published C-Q data from this region, developing a theoretical model of tributary mixing, and, in a companion paper, comparing the C-Q behavior of a suite of major and trace elements in the Madre de Dios River system.

  3. Associativismo negro em terras sulinas: das irmandades aos clubes para negros em Pelotas (1820-1943

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Oliveira da Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa as associações negras pelotenses que permitiram a constituição de uma identidade negra positiva percebida em relação direta com o contexto relacional vivenciado em âmbito nacional e internacional. Destacamos ainda a busca por um entrelaçamento entre diferentes associações tendo como ponto em comum a identificação racial mediada pela busca por uma posição social diferenciada. Diretamente vinculado ao período do pós-Abolição almejava-se a cidadania em uma sociedade ainda muito preconceituosa racialmente. A delimitação espacial focaliza o estudo na cidade de Pelotas, localizada no extremo sul do Rio Grande do Sul, entre os anos de 1820 a 1943. Tem inicio com a criação da primeira irmandade negra em 1820. Dentre as associações destacamos o surgimento dos clubes sociais negros (1917-1931 e suas atividades em conjunto, com ênfase para o surgimento da Frente Negra Pelotense (1933 e a busca por uma identidade racial que fosse comungada por todo o grupo negro local.

  4. Growth of the Cichla temensis Humboldt, 1821 (Perciformes: Cichlidae from the middle rio Negro, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Pereira Campos

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate age and growth of the peacock bass Cichla temensis from the rio Negro (Brazilian Amazonia by analyzing scale annuli. Specimens were captured between October 2011 and September 2012 in the main channel of the river and in adjacent lakes in the municipality of Barcelos, AM, Brazil. Six growth checks were identified on the scales of specimens. The annual variation in body condition observed suggests that fat is accumulated during the dry season. Results for the GSI (gonadosomatic index showed that peak reproduction occurred in the receding-water period, indicating that the fish had energy deficiencies as a result of reproductive activity. RMI (relative marginal increment analysis revealed that an annulus is formed once a year during the receding-water period. The population parameters estimated were L50 (length at sexual maturity = 31.11 cm, L∞ (asymptotic length = 68.05 cm, k (growth coefficient = 0.20.year-1 and A0.95 (longevity = 14 years. Our results corroborate the validity of using growth rings in scales as indicators to estimate the age and growth rate of Cichla temensis in the middle rio Negro.

  5. The major floods in the Amazonas river and tributaries (Western Amazon Basin) during the 1970-2012 period : a focus on the 2012 flood

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, J. C.; Ronchail, J.; Frappart, F.; Lavado, W.; Santini, William; Guyot, Jean-Loup

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the authors analyze the origin of the extreme floods in the Peruvian Amazonas River during the 1970-2012 period, focusing on the recent April 2012 flooding (55 400 m(3) s(-1)). Several hydrological variables, such as rainfall, terrestrial water storage, and discharge, point out that the unprecedented 2012 flood is mainly related to an early and abundant wet season over the north of the basin. Thus, the peak of the Maranon River, the northern contributor of the Amazonas, occurred...

  6. Programming Amazon EC2

    CERN Document Server

    Vliet, Jurg

    2011-01-01

    If you plan to use Amazon Web Services to run applications in the cloud, the end-to-end approach in this book will save you needless trial and error. You'll find practical guidelines for designing and building applications with Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) and a host of supporting AWS tools, with a focus on critical issues such as load balancing, monitoring, and automation. How do you move an existing application to AWS, or design your application so that it scales effectively? How much storage will you require? Programming Amazon EC2 not only helps you get started, it will also keep y

  7. Mercury and flooding cycles in the Tapajos river basin, Brazilian Amazon: The role of periphyton of a floating macrophyte (Paspalum repens)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho-Souza, Sergio A.; Guimaraes, Jean R.D.; Miranda, Marcio R.; Poirier, Hugo; Mauro, Jane B.N.; Lucotte, Marc; Mergler, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) increases mercury (Hg) toxicity and is biomagnified in the trophic chain contaminating riverine Amazon populations. Freshwater macrophyte roots are a main site of Hg methylation in different Brazilian environments. Paspalum repens periphyton was sampled in four floodplain lakes during the dry, rainy and wet seasons for measurement of total Hg (THg), MeHg, Hg methylation potentials, %C, %N, δ 13 C, δ 15 N and bacterial heterotrophic production as 3 H-leucine incorporation rate. THg concentration varied from 67 to 198 ng/g and the potential of Me 203 Hg formation was expressive (1-23%) showing that periphyton is an important matrix both in the accumulation of Hg and in MeHg production. The concentration of MeHg varied from 1 to 6 ng/g DW and was positively correlated with Me 203 Hg formation. Though methylmercury formation is mainly a bacterial process, no significant correlation was observed between the methylation potentials and bacterial production. The multiple regressions analyses suggested a negative correlation between THg and %C and %N and between methylation potential and δ 13 C. The discriminant analysis showed a significant difference in periphyton δ 15 N, δ 13 C and THg between seasons, where the rainy season presented higher δ 15 N and the wet period lighter δ 13 C, lower THg values and higher Me 203 Hg formation. This exploratory study indicates that the flooding cycle could influence the periphyton composition, mercury accumulation and methylmercury production. - Research highlights: → During rainy season mercury (Hg 2+ ) is carried out from terrestrial to aquatic systems by runoff. → Macrophyte roots accumulates Hg 2+ from suspended particulate matter (SPM). → Hg methylation increases during the wet season. → Flooded forest is a source of labile organic carbon and bioavailable Hg. → Macrophytes decompose during the dry season and made up terrestrial soil.

  8. Spatial and temporal distribution in density and biomass of two Pseudodiaptomus species (Copepoda: Calanoida in the Caeté river estuary (Amazon region - North of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Magalhães

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal density and biomass distribution of the planktonic copepods Pseudodiaptomus richardi and P. acutus along a salinity gradient were investigated in the Caeté River Estuary (North-Brazil in June and December, 1998 (dry season and in February and May, 1999 (rainy season. Copepod biomass was estimated using regression parameters based on the relation of dry weight and body length (prosome of adult organisms. The Caeté River Estuary was characterized by high spatial and temporal variations in salinity (0.8-37.2‰. Exponential length-weight relationships were observed for both Pseudodiaptomus species. Density and biomass values oscillated between 0.28-46.18 ind. m-3 and 0.0022-0.3507 mg DW. m-3 for P. richardi; and between 0.01-17.02 ind. m-3 and 0.0005-0.7181 mg DW. m-3 for P. acutus. The results showed that the contribution of P. richardi for the secondary production in the Caeté River Estuary is more important in the limnetic zone than in other zones where euhaline-polyhaline regimes were predominant. However, it was not possible to observe a clear pattern of spatial and temporal distribution for P. acutus.

  9. Archaeometric study of Amazon ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabino, Claudia de Vilhena Schayer; Amaral, Angela Maria; Poirior, Andre Pierre Prous

    2002-01-01

    There is no evidence of urban civilization in Brazilian prehistory; most inhabitants lived in tribal organization, probably with regional economic integration among several independent tribes. There are few evidences of seasonal migrations between the coast and the inland of southern Brazil. Some specialized horticulturists competed among themselves but other groups lived more isolatedly and probably peacefully, in the upper interfluvial regions. The chiefdom system is supposed to have existed only along the Amazon River. In this region, some pottery makers may have been specialized craftsmen and finest ceramics, that should have been exported from one village/region to another, can be found. In this study we tested some limited possibilities in three different cultural and regional contexts to see if application of analytic analysis in economically and politically 'simple' societies should give any results. (author)

  10. Background and Training Needs of Persistently Unemployed Negroes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beacham, Herbert C.

    1971-01-01

    The major purpose of the study was to describe the home, educational and occupational back grounds, econmic status, frequency and duration of unemployment of persistently unemployed Negroes in Tampa, Florida, and their expressed opinions about training, retraining, and relocation of their residences to obtain employment after training. (Author)

  11. Guerreiro Ramos: o personalismo negro Guerreiro Ramos: black personalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muryatan Santana Barbosa

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Baseando-se em pesquisa recém-finalizada sobre a trajetória intelectual do sociólogo Alberto Guerreiro Ramos (1915-1982 (cf. Barbosa, 2004, este ensaio apresenta a filosofia política do personalismo negro, cerne do pensamento de Guerreiro Ramos acerca do negro brasileiro e mundial. Ademais, tratar-se-á de estabelecer, sucintamente, a proximidade de tal visão humanista do negro com recentes perspectivas multiculturalistas e pós-coloniais, a fim de mostrar a contemporaneidade desta contribuição de Guerreiro Ramos à teoria social e à práxis dos movimentos negros.As a result of nearly a finished research about the intellectual performance of the sociologist Alberto Guerreiro Ramos (1915-1982, this paper envisages the political philosophy of black personalism. This was the kern of Guerreiro Ramos thought about Brazilian and World-dimensioned Black. An attempt is made to connect this humanistic vision of Blackmen with recent multiculturalist and postcolonial visions, in order to point out the present day contribution of Guerreiro Ramos to social theory and praxis of Black movements.

  12. Input of particulate organic and dissolved inorganic carbon from the Amazon to the Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Druffel, E. R. M; Bauer, J. E; Griffin, S.

    2005-01-01

    We report concentrations and isotope measurements (radiocarbon and stable carbon) of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and suspended particulate organic carbon (POC) in waters collected from the mouth of the Amazon River and the North Brazil Current. Samples were collected in November 1991, when the Amazon hydrograph was at its annual minimum and the North Brazil Current had retroflected into the equatorial North Atlantic. The DIC Δ14C results revealed postbomb carbon in river and ocean waters...

  13. Mercury and flooding cycles in the Tapajos river basin, Brazilian Amazon: The role of periphyton of a floating macrophyte (Paspalum repens)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho-Souza, Sergio A., E-mail: sacs@biof.ufrj.br [Lab. Tracadores Wolfgang C. Pfeiffer, SL 049, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho/UFRJ, Bloco G, Centro de Ciencias e Saude, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 21949-902 (Brazil); Guimaraes, Jean R.D.; Miranda, Marcio R. [Lab. Tracadores Wolfgang C. Pfeiffer, SL 049, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho/UFRJ, Bloco G, Centro de Ciencias e Saude, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 21949-902 (Brazil); Poirier, Hugo [Chaire de Reserche en Environment, Universite du Quebec a Montreal (UQaM), CP 8888, Montreal, H3C 3P8 (Canada); Mauro, Jane B.N. [Lab. Tracadores Wolfgang C. Pfeiffer, SL 049, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho/UFRJ, Bloco G, Centro de Ciencias e Saude, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 21949-902 (Brazil); Lucotte, Marc [Chaire de Reserche en Environment, Universite du Quebec a Montreal (UQaM), CP 8888, Montreal, H3C 3P8 (Canada); Mergler, Donna [CINBIOSE, UQaM, CP 8888, succ. Centre-ville, Montreal, H3C 3P8 (Canada)

    2011-06-15

    Methylmercury (MeHg) increases mercury (Hg) toxicity and is biomagnified in the trophic chain contaminating riverine Amazon populations. Freshwater macrophyte roots are a main site of Hg methylation in different Brazilian environments. Paspalum repens periphyton was sampled in four floodplain lakes during the dry, rainy and wet seasons for measurement of total Hg (THg), MeHg, Hg methylation potentials, %C, %N, {delta}{sup 13}C, {delta}{sup 15}N and bacterial heterotrophic production as {sup 3}H-leucine incorporation rate. THg concentration varied from 67 to 198 ng/g and the potential of Me{sup 203}Hg formation was expressive (1-23%) showing that periphyton is an important matrix both in the accumulation of Hg and in MeHg production. The concentration of MeHg varied from 1 to 6 ng/g DW and was positively correlated with Me{sup 203}Hg formation. Though methylmercury formation is mainly a bacterial process, no significant correlation was observed between the methylation potentials and bacterial production. The multiple regressions analyses suggested a negative correlation between THg and %C and %N and between methylation potential and {delta}{sup 13}C. The discriminant analysis showed a significant difference in periphyton {delta}{sup 15}N, {delta}{sup 13}C and THg between seasons, where the rainy season presented higher {delta}{sup 15}N and the wet period lighter {delta}{sup 13}C, lower THg values and higher Me{sup 203}Hg formation. This exploratory study indicates that the flooding cycle could influence the periphyton composition, mercury accumulation and methylmercury production. - Research highlights: {yields} During rainy season mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) is carried out from terrestrial to aquatic systems by runoff. {yields} Macrophyte roots accumulates Hg{sup 2+} from suspended particulate matter (SPM). {yields} Hg methylation increases during the wet season. {yields} Flooded forest is a source of labile organic carbon and bioavailable Hg. {yields} Macrophytes

  14. Influence of ecological factors and of land use on mercury levels in fish in the Tapajós River basin, Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio da Silva, D; Lucotte, M; Paquet, S; Davidson, R

    2009-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination of riparian communities and of environmental compartments of the Amazon can be directly related to the occupation of the territory. The objective of this study was to identify the characteristics of aquatic environments that are associated with high levels of Hg in ichthyofauna. Our research aimed at determining the influence of variables related to fish ecology, types of aquatic environment, fishing activities by local riparian populations, and watershed use on the levels of contamination of ichthyofauna. Six sites were sampled during two distinct periods of the hydrological cycle: at the beginning of descending waters and during low waters. We focused on ten dominant fish species representing four trophic levels: Curimata inornata, Geophagus proximus, Schizodon vittatum, Leporinus fasciatus, Anostomoides laticeps, Hemiodus unimaculatus, Caenotropus labyrinthicus, Hoplias malabaricus, Plagioscion squamosissimus, Acestrorhynchus falcirostris. The study sites, which included lotic and lentic habitats, are exploited year-round by local riparian communities. Spatial variations in Hg contamination in ichthyofauna were determined by factorial analysis of variance taking into account fish diets, seasons, and sampling sites. Multiple regressions were used to check the influence of ecological and anthropogenic variables and variables related to watershed uses, on Hg levels in key species representing the four trophic groups. Each variable was checked independently. Next, multiple regressions were used to verify the concomitant influence of selected variables. Independently of the study site and the phase of the hydrologic cycle, fish Hg contamination followed the trend piscivores>omnivores>herbivores>detritivores. In all the aquatic study sites, Hg levels measured in predatory species were often higher than the 500 ng/g fresh weight threshold. Mean Hg levels in key species were significantly higher during descending waters in lotic environments

  15. Phylogenetic relationships among Synallaxini spinetails (Aves: Furnariidae) reveal a new biogeographic pattern across the Amazon and Paraná river basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramunt, Santiago

    2014-09-01

    Relationships among genera in the tribe Synallaxini have proved difficult to resolve. In this study, I investigate relationships among Synallaxis, Certhiaxis and Schoeniophylax using DNA sequences from the mitochondrion and three nuclear regions. I implemented novel primers and protocols for amplifying and sequencing autosomal and sex-linked introns in Furnariidae that resolved basal relationships in the Synallaxini with strong support. Synallaxis propinqua is sister to Schoeniophylax phryganophilus, and together they form a clade with Certhiaxis. The results are robust to analytical approaches when all genomic regions are analyzed jointly (parsimony, maximum likelihood, and species-tree analysis) and the same basal relationships are recovered by most genomic regions when analyzed separately. A sister relationship between S. propinqua, an Amazonian river island specialist, and S. phryganophilus, from the Paraná River basin region, reveals a new biogeographic pattern shared by at least other four pairs of taxa with similar distributions and ecologies. Estimates of divergence times for these five pairs span from the late Miocene to the Pleistocene. Identification of the historical events that produced this pattern is difficult and further advances will require additional studies of the taxa involved and a better understanding of the recent environmental history of South America. A new classification is proposed for the Synallaxini, including the description of a new genus for S. propinqua. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A pesca comercial na bacia do rio Madeira no estado de Rondônia, Amazônia brasileira The Commercial fisheries of the Madeira river basin in the Rondônia state, brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Rodrigues da Costa Doria

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo caracteriza quali e quantitativamente a atividade pesqueira comercial na bacia do rio Madeira, afluente do rio Amazonas, no trecho entre Guajará-Mirim e Porto Velho, estado de Rondônia. No período de janeiro a dezembro/2004, foram registrados 460 t, correspondendo 935 viagens. A análise dos dados oriundos do monitoramento dos desembarques demonstrou que a pesca na região tem caráter artesanal de pequena escala, destacando a maior participação das canoas motorizadas (131 unidades do que barcos pesqueiros (45 unidades; capacidade média: 3.000kg na frota pesqueira. Os peixes migradores jaraqui (Semaprochilodus spp., dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, sardinha (Triportheus spp., jatuarana/matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus e B. cephalus, curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans e filhote (Brachyplatystoma filamentosum se destacaram na composição das espécies desembarcadas. As informações técnicas geradas são importantes para subsidiar ações de ordenamento pesqueiro, bem como para avaliar futuras variações que possam ocorrer na atividade frente aos impactos dos empreendimentos hidrelétricos em construção na região.This study presents qualitative and quantitative information about commercial fishery in the basin of the Madeira River, tributary of the Amazon River, describing the fishing activity in the segment between Guajará-Mirim and Porto Velho, in Rondônia State. From January to December/2004, 219 fishermen and 935 trips were registered, corresponding to the capture of 460 t of fish. Data from fish landings demonstrate that fisheries in the region are small-scaled and point to a higher participation of small motorized canoes (130 units than of fishing boats (45 units; average capacity: 3000 kg in the fishing fleet. Migratory species like jaraqui (Semaprochilodus spp., dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, sardinha (Triportheus spp., jatuarana/matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus e B. cephalus, curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans

  17. Development of regional future climate change scenarios in South America using the Eta CPTEC/HadCM3 climate change projections: climatology and regional analyses for the Amazon, Sao Francisco and the Parana River basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marengo, Jose A.; Chou, Sin Chan; Alves, Lincoln M.; Pesquero, Jose F.; Soares, Wagner R.; Santos, Daniel C.; Lyra, Andre A.; Sueiro, Gustavo; Chagas, Diego J.; Gomes, Jorge L.; Bustamante, Josiane F.; Tavares, Priscila [National Institute for Space Research (INPE) Cachoeira Paulista, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Kay, Gillian; Betts, Richard [UK Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, Devon (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    The objective of this study is to assess the climate projections over South America using the Eta-CPTEC regional model driven by four members of an ensemble of the Met Office Hadley Centre Global Coupled climate model HadCM3. The global model ensemble was run over the twenty-first century according to the SRES A1B emissions scenario, but with each member having a different climate sensitivity. The four members selected to drive the Eta-CPTEC model span the sensitivity range in the global model ensemble. The Eta-CPTEC model nested in these lateral boundary conditions was configured with a 40-km grid size and was run over 1961-1990 to represent baseline climate, and 2011-2100 to simulate possible future changes. Results presented here focus on austral summer and winter climate of 2011-2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100 periods, for South America and for three major river basins in Brazil. Projections of changes in upper and low-level circulation and the mean sea level pressure (SLP) fields simulate a pattern of weakening of the tropical circulation and strengthening of the subtropical circulation, marked by intensification at the surface of the Chaco Low and the subtropical highs. Strong warming (4-6 C) of continental South America increases the temperature gradient between continental South America and the South Atlantic. This leads to stronger SLP gradients between continent and oceans, and to changes in moisture transport and rainfall. Large rainfall reductions are simulated in Amazonia and Northeast Brazil (reaching up to 40%), and rainfall increases around the northern coast of Peru and Ecuador and in southeastern South America, reaching up to 30% in northern Argentina. All changes are more intense after 2040. The Precipitation-Evaporation (P-E) difference in the A1B downscaled scenario suggest water deficits and river runoff reductions in the eastern Amazon and Sao Francisco Basin, making these regions susceptible to drier conditions and droughts in the future

  18. Amazon estuary - assessment of trace elements in seabed sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, L.B.L.S.; Fernandes, E.A.N.; Oliveira, H.; Bacchi, M.A.; Ferraz, E.S.B.

    1997-01-01

    The interactive processes operating on the continental shelf to the river mouth control the amount and the characteristics of the Amazon discharge reaching the Atlantic Ocean. In this study, the distribution of trace elemental concentrations, with emphasis to the rare-earth elements, in sediment cores collected at several stations from the Amazon continental shelf during the falling water period was investigated by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Cores from the terrigenous and blue water zones have relatively uniform REE concentrations throughout the profile. Cerium anomalies for samples of the upper section of the eight stations are consistently positive and of high values (normally > 2). Similar variation in the elemental concentration ratios between the seabed sediments and Amazon River suspended sediments was seen for stations located in the biogenic and blue water zones, with an enrichment for Ce, Sm, Fe, Th, and Sc and a depletion for the La, Eu, Tb, Yb, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Ta, and Zn. The shale-normalized REE patterns from shelf sediments are enriched in LREE relative to HREE, with enrichment factors varying from 1.5 for stations near the river mouth (terrigenous zone) to 1.9 for station located far in the blue water zone. Published data for the Amazon River suspended sediment agree remarkably well with this observation of LREE-enrichment. (author)

  19. Effects of different water storage procedures on the dissolved Fe concentration and isotopic composition of chemically contrasted waters from the Amazon River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, Daniel S; Poitrasson, Franck; Boaventura, Geraldo R

    2015-11-15

    Although recent studies have investigated the Fe isotopic composition of dissolved, colloidal and particulate phases from continental and oceanic natural waters, few efforts have been made to evaluate whether water sample storage and the separation of different pore-size fractions through filtration can cause any change to the Fe isotopic compositions. The present study investigates the possible biases introduced by different water storage conditions on the dissolved Fe concentration and isotopic composition of chemically different waters. Water samples were collected from an organic-rich river and from mineral particulate-rich rivers. Filtered and unfiltered water samples were stored either at room temperature or frozen at -18°C in order to assess possible biases due to (i) different water storage temperature, and (ii) storage of bulk (unfiltered) vs filtered water. Iron isotope measurements were performed by Multicollector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry with a Thermo Electron Neptune instrument, after Fe purification using anion-exchange resins. Our data reveal that bulk water storage at room temperature without filtration produces minor changes in the dissolved Fe isotopic composition of mineral particulate-rich waters, but significant isotopic composition changes in organic-rich waters. In both cases, however, the impact of the different procedures on the Fe concentrations was strong. On the other hand, the bulk water stored frozen without filtration produced more limited changes in the dissolved Fe concentrations, and also on isotopic compositions, relative to the samples filtered in the field. The largest effect was again observed for the organic-rich waters. These findings suggest that a time lag between water collection and filtration may cause isotopic exchanges between the dissolved and particulate Fe fractions. When it is not possible to filter the samples in the field immediately after collection, the less detrimental approach is to

  20. Evasion of CO2 and dissolved carbon in river waters of three small catchments in an area occupied by small family farms in the eastern Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz Silva da Rosa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available CO2 effluxes from streams and rivers have been hypothesized to be a critical pathway of carbon flow from the biosphere back to the atmosphere. This study was conducted in three small Amazonian catchments to evaluate carbon evasion and dynamics, where land-use change has occurred on small family-farms. Monthly field campaigns were conducted from June 2006 to May 2007 in the Cumaru (CM, Pachibá (PB and São João (SJ streams. Electrical conductivity, pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen measurements were done in situ, while water samples were collected to determine dissolved organic carbon (DOC and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC concentrations, as well as carbon dioxide partial pressures (pCO2 and CO2 evasion fluxes. Instantaneous discharge measured by a current meter was used to calculate DOC fluxes. Considering all the sites, DOC, DIC, pCO2, and CO2 flux measurements ranged as follows, respectively: 0.27 - 12.13 mg L-1; 3.5 - 38.9 mg L-1; 2,265 - 26,974 ppm; and 3.39 - 75.35 μmol m-2 s-1. DOC annual flux estimates for CM, SJ and PB were, respectively, 281, 245, and 169 kg C ha-1. CO2 evasion fluxes had an average of 22.70 ± 1.67 μmol m-2 s-1. These CO2 evasion fluxes per unit area were similar to those measured for major Amazonian rivers, thus confirming our hypothesis that small streams can evade substantial quantities of CO2. As secondary vegetation is abundant as a result of family farming management in the region, we conclude that this vegetation can be a major driver of an abundant carbon cycle.

  1. Proliferation of hydroelectric dams in the Andean Amazon and implications for Andes-Amazon connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N

    2012-01-01

    Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1) There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2) There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3) Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics.

  2. Proliferation of hydroelectric dams in the Andean Amazon and implications for Andes-Amazon connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Finer

    Full Text Available Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1 There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2 There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3 Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics.

  3. A poesia ‘é-sou’ negra = Negro poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pires Laranjeira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Os diversos cânones da poesia brasileira não contemplam a poesia negrobrasileira como deveria ser. Sendo o poeta Luiz Gama ainda hoje menosprezado, em comparação com Castro Alves, é necessário, pois, colocá-lo no seu verdadeiro lugar de significação. Porém, esse esforço deve servir também para compreender que Gama, na sua poesia, ainda mostra alguma conformidade com certos preconceitos rácicos próprios do século XIX e que se encontram, por exemplo, em poetas angolanos. Já o poeta Solano Trindade, devido à sua formação ideologicamente comprometida com os pobres e miseráveis da sociedade, trata o negro como um ser social, econômico e cultural de corpointeiro, concepção aprofundada por Cuti, que, finalmente, deixa de apelidar o mestiço de mulato, segundo a conformidade com o Movimento Negro. Por outro lado, é um poeta da modernidade mais avançada, quer formalmente, quer atingindo o âmago do subconsciente negro, ao versar o seu sofrimento íntimo, de modo inédito. Brazilian poetry’s several literary canons fail to fully investigate Brazilian Black Poetry as it should be. In spite of the fact that the poet Luiz Gama is currently not in the limelight when compared to Castro Alves, the replacing of his real place of significance is actually worthwhile. This effort should also be needed to understand that Gama in his poetry shows a type of conformity with certain racial bias common in the 19th century as, for example, in the poetry of Angola. On the other hand, due to his ideologically committed ideology with the poor and destitute in society, the poet Solano Trindade deals with the Negro as a social, economical and cultural person. This concept is partook by Cuti who, at long last, do not call the half-breed as ‘mulato’, following orientations of the Negro Movement. On the other hand, he is formally poet featuring themost advanced modernity as he reaches the heart of the Negro subconscious in his singing of deep

  4. BIOTIC (FORAMINIFERA AND THECAMOEBIANS AND ABIOTIC PARAMETERS AS PROXIES FOR IDENTIFICATION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL HETEROGENEITY IN CAETÉ RIVER ESTUARY, AMAZON COAST, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazaro Luiz Mattos Laut1

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Foraminifera and thecamoebians assemblages were analyzed at Caeté River Estuary in order to identify saline gradients and intensity of human impacts. In the study area, 29 species of foraminifera typically from intertidal environments and 11 species of thecamoebians were identified. The microfaunal assemblages were characterized by low diversity, averaging 1.9 at the mouth and 0.5 near Bragança City. These values are common in transitional coastal environments along de Brazilian Coast. Statistical analysis, based on the relative abundance of species, did not reveal the presence of an estuarine gradient, which was corroborated by the physical and chemical parameters measured in the field. An increasing of sedimentary fine fraction and organic matter occurs in the intermediate region of the estuary, indicating attenuation of the stream influence. The calcareous foraminifera species were associated with high salinity, temperature and pH values. The agglutinated species were associated with muddy sediment, total organic matter and lower salinity. Four environmental compartments were identified based on biotic and abiotic analysis, but they do not represent the classic estuarine gradient, instead, they represent the differences in the freshwater supply and mangrove distance.

  5. Buracos negros primordiais e astrofísica observacional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custódio, P. S.; Horvath, J. E.

    2003-02-01

    A história da física contemporânea é pródiga em grandes descobertas (a Relatividade e a Mecânica Quântica entre as mais importantes) até meados dos anos '30. O peso destes desenvolvimentos é tão grande que outros feitos de grande porte (por exemplo, a teoria da nucleossíntese nas estrelas) são geralmente considerados como "filhotes" dos primeiros, ao menos na imaginação popular. Porém, algumas exceções à regra não-escrita são dignas de menção. Entre estas últimas está a descoberta por S.W.Hawking e colaboradores das propriedades de emissão dos buracos negros, trabalho que iniciou uma disciplina com vida própria denominada Termodinâmica de Buracos Negros.

  6. Negros y pardos en Buenos Aires, 1811-1860

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosal, Miguel Ángel

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    El presente es un sucinto estudio sobre diversos aspectos relacionados con la esclavitud en Buenos Aires durante el período independiente y hasta su total extinción. En ese sentido analizaremos: 1 Los hitos del proceso abolicionista (y los retrocesos que sufrió el mismo. 2 La compraventa de esclavos y las cartas de libertad. 3 Los afroporteños propietarios (tanto de inmuebles como de esclavos. 4 Las "naciones africanas". 5 La esclavitud en la secesionista Buenos Aires de 1853 a 1860. El análisis de algunos de estos temas nos permitirá hacer comparaciones con la situación del negro porteño durante la época hispánica, sobre la cual hemos realizado una tesis doctoral titulada "Negros y pardos en Buenos Aires (1750-1820" y publicado algunos artículos en diversas revistas especializadas.

  7. Geophysical investigations of magma plumbing systems at Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    MacQueen, Patricia Grace

    2013-01-01

    Cerro Negro near Léon, Nicaragua is a very young (163 years), relatively small basaltic cinder cone volcano that has been unusually active during its short lifespan (recurrence interval 6-7 years), presenting a significant hazard to nearby communities. Previous studies have raised several questions as to the proper classification of Cerro Negro and its relation to neighboring Las Pilas-El Hoyo volcano. Analysis of Bouguer gravity data collected at Cerro Negro has revealed connected positive d...

  8. Neutrons, radiation and archaeology: a multi analytical case study of incised rim tradition ceramics in Central Amazon; Neutrons, radiacao e arqueologia: estudo de caso multianalitico de ceramicas da tradicao borda incisa na Amazonia Central

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazenfratz-Marks, Roberto

    2014-07-01

    This thesis is an interdisciplinary archaeometric study involving archaeological ceramic material from two large archaeological sites in Central Amazon, namely Lago Grande and Osvaldo, on the confluence region of Negro and Solimoes rivers. It was tested a hypothesis about the existence of an exchange network between the former inhabitants of those sites, focusing on material and/or technological exchange. That hypothesis has implications for archaeological theories of human occupation of the pre-colonial Central Amazon, which try to relativise the role of ecological difficulties of the tropical forest as a limiting factor for the emergence of social complexity in the region. The physical-chemical characterization of potsherds and clay samples near the sites was carried out by: instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) to determine the elemental chemical composition; electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to determine the firing temperature; X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine the mineralogical composition; and dating by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). Previous studies showed that Osvaldo and Lago Grande were occupied by people which produced pottery classified in the Manacapuru and Paredao phases, subclasses of the Incised Rim Tradition, around the 5-10th and 7-12th centuries BC, respectively. INAA results were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods, whereby two chemical groups of pottery were defined for each archaeological site. Significant variation in firing temperatures and mineralogical composition were not identified for such groups. By integration of the results with archaeological data, the superposition between pairs of chemical groups was interpreted as a correlate of an ancient exchange network, although it was not possible to define if it existed exclusively between Lago Grande and Osvaldo. On the contrary, it was suggested that Lago Grande participated in a more extensive exchange network by comparison of two chemical groups

  9. Mercury levels assessment in hair of riverside inhabitants of the Tapajós River, Pará State, Amazon, Brazil: fish consumption as a possible route of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faial, Kleber; Deus, Ricardo; Deus, Simonny; Neves, Ramiro; Jesus, Iracina; Santos, Elisabeth; Alves, Cláudio Nahum; Brasil, Davi

    2015-04-01

    all showed values in accordance with the range established by current legislation. In this regard, the results provided by this study, while not conclusive, are strong indicators that despite not having been shown the relationship between the concentration of mercury in hair and feeding habits along the Tapajós River basin communities showed that a plausible correlation exists between levels of mercury and selenium in fish. This fact may serve as a subsidy to research human health, because in the Amazon, there is still a lot to examine with regards to the full understanding of the Se cycle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Potential groundwater contribution to Amazon evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Y.; Miguez-Macho, G.

    2010-07-01

    Climate and land ecosystem models simulate a dry-season vegetation stress in the Amazon forest, but observations show enhanced growth in response to higher radiation under less cloudy skies, indicating an adequate water supply. Proposed mechanisms include larger soil water store and deeper roots in nature and the ability of roots to move water up and down (hydraulic redistribution). Here we assess the importance of the upward soil water flux from the groundwater driven by capillarity. We present a map of water table depth from observations and groundwater modeling, and a map of potential capillary flux these water table depths can sustain. The maps show that the water table beneath the Amazon can be quite shallow in lowlands and river valleys (2.1 mm day-1 to the land surface averaged over Amazonia, but varies from 0.6 to 3.7 mm day-1 across nine study sites. Current models simulate a large-scale reduction in dry-season photosynthesis under today's climate and a possible dieback under projected future climate with a longer dry season, converting the Amazon from a net carbon sink to a source and accelerating warming. The inclusion of groundwater and capillary flux may modify the model results.

  11. The Amazon's energetic paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Marcos Vinicius Miranda da; Bermann, Celio

    1999-01-01

    The main energy sources in Amazon region are hydroelectric, biomass, and natural gas. Although abundance of these resources, the energy consumption in this region is one of the most low of Brazil. The article overviews this paradox. In this context, economical, geopolitical, and technical aspects are presented

  12. ¿Qué pasa con el Pacífico Negro en el Atlántico Negro?. El Atlántico Negro de Paul Gilroy frente a los acontecimientos (afrocolombianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lioba Rossbach de Olmos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo presenta una critica al Atlántico Negro ("The Black Atlantic" y a Paul Gilroy como representante de los estudios culturales desde un punto de vista antropológico y empírico usando como ejemplo la reciente dinámica política de Colombia. Especialmente en el "Pacífico Negro" colombiano se están constituyendo (nuevas identidades étnicas negras. La nueva constitución de 1991 y una serie de disposiciones legales favorables contribuyen a que el "Pacifico Negro" se presenta como antítesis del Atlántico Negro de Gilroy.

  13. Morbidity of Chagas heart disease in the microregion of Rio Negro, Amazonian Brazil: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Rodrigues Coura

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A case-control study on the morbidity of Chagas heart disease was carried out in the municipality of Barcelos in the microregion of the Rio Negro, state of Amazonas. One hundred and six individuals, who were serologically positive for Trypanosoma cruzi infection, as confirmed by at least two techniques with different principles, were matched according to age and sex with an equal number of seronegative individuals. The cases and controls were evaluated using an epidemiological questionnaire and clinical, electrocardiograph and echocardiograph examinations. In the seroepidemiological evaluation, 62% of the interviewees recognised triatomines and most of them confirmed that they had seen these insects in the piassava plantations of the riverside communities of the Negro River tributaries. Of the seropositive patients, 25.8% affirmed that they had been stung by the triatomines and 11.7% denied having been stung. The principal clinical manifestations of the seropositive individuals were palpitations, chest pain and dyspnoea upon effort. Cardiac auscultation revealed extrasystoles, bradycardia and systolic murmurs. The electrocardiographic alterations were ventricular extrasystoles, left and right bundle branch block, atrioventricular block and primary T wave alterations. The echocardiogram was altered in 22.6% of the seropositive individuals and in 8.5% of the seronegative individuals.

  14. TIPIFICACIÓN MORFOLÓGICA DE CURSOS PRINCIPALES. CUENCA DEL ARROYO EL NEGRO, SISTEMA DE VENTANIA, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia M. Campo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rivers are natural, dynamic and complex systems. Its main function is the transportation of water, sediments and nutrients, conforming areas of great ecological and territorial value. Morphology varies according to the structure and the drainage network. Fluvial systems typification classifies and characterize rivers in order to provide substantial information about every section. Although there are several classifications and characterizations, Rosgen’s combines hydrological, geomorphological and ecological aspects that serves as important indicators towards this study. River classifications are relevant to understanding natural systems and their function, being an instrument of major importance in territorial planning, which provides a significant benefit to environment and society. The area encloses the lower basin of El Negro stream in Sierra de la Ventana, Argentina. Thehomonym village occupies part of the floodplain of the main channel. In recent years, the real estate pressure in these areas led to the opening of new subdivisions for the construction of resorts, changing the stream morphology. The aim of this work is to morphologically characterize and typify a section located in the lower basin of El Negro stream to generate a methodology applicable to other courses in the sector. Before typification, sectioning was implemented following criteria by Ollero Ojeda y otros (2003 and utilizing aerial photographs. The corresponding portion of the lower basin was selected for morphological characterization as the one showing major changes due to being in the urbanized area. The investigation was done based on Thorne’s methodology (1998, and afterwards typified following Rosgen’s criteria (1994. The typification resulted in a A3 stream category based on its morphological characteristics. The methodology allows to comprehend fluvial dynamics and gather data from a sector where scarces or nonexists, in order to generate representative

  15. Parental Influence, Youth Contra-Culture and Rural Adolescent Attitudes Toward Negroes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Richard L.; And Others

    High school students and heads of households in rural areas of Illinois were studied with respect to their attitudes toward Negroes. The hypothesis used was that a youth subculture or "contra-culture" did serve as an important socializing agent in forming the attitudes of students toward Negroes. Results indicated that there was only…

  16. The Image of the Negro in Deep South Public School State History Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaurin, Melton

    This report reviews the image portrayed of the Negro, in textbooks used in the deep South. Slavery is painted as a cordial, humane system under kindly masters and the Negro as docile and childlike. Although the treatment of the modern era is relatively more objective, the texts, on the whole, evade treatment of the Civil Rights struggle, violence,…

  17. Geophysical Investigations of Magma Plumbing Systems at Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQueen, Patricia Grace

    Cerro Negro near Leon, Nicaragua is a very young (163 years), relatively small basaltic cinder cone volcano that has been unusually active during its short lifespan (recurrence interval 6--7 years), presenting a significant hazard to nearby communities. Previous studies have raised several questions as to the proper classification of Cerro Negro and its relation to neighboring Las Pilas-El Hoyo volcano. Analysis of Bouguer gravity data collected at Cerro Negro has revealed connected positive density anomalies beneath Cerro Negro and Las Pilas-El Hoyo. These findings suggest that eruptions at Cerro Negro may be tapping a large magma reservoir beneath Las Pilas-El Hoyo, implying that Cerro Negro should be considered the newest vent on the Las Pilas-El Hoyo volcanic complex. As such, it is possible that the intensity of volcanic hazards at Cerro Negro may eventually increase in the future to resemble those pertaining to a stratovolcano. Keywords: Cerro Negro; Las Pilas-El Hoyo; Bouguer gravity; magmatic plumbing systems; potential fields; volcano.

  18. Nineteenth-Century Racism: The Anthropologist Who First Defined the Negro's Place in Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents excerpts from an 1863 address by British anthropologist James Hunt to the Anthropological Society of London. Hunt's paper, "The Negro's Place in Nature," has been called the most important document in an era that laid the foundation for scientific racism. In it, Hunt suggested that physical characteristics of the Negro race were related…

  19. On-the-Job Orientation of Unemployed Negro Skill Center Trainees and Their Supervisors. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Hjalmar

    The problems inherent in employing hard-core unemployed Negroes and the optimal locus of on-the-job orientation to integrate such employees into thework force were subjects of this study. It focused on young Negro females who, because of their inability to meet selections minimums for job entry, had a high potential for chronic unemployment. Among…

  20. Metalogénesis de la veta Farallón Negro rama norte, Farallón Negro, provincia de Catamarca

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Facundo; Fogliata, Ana; Montenegro, Nicolás; Hagemann, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    La veta Farallón Negro Rama Norte forma parte del yacimiento Farallón Negro ubicado en Hualfín, Departamento Belén, Catamarca. Este yacimiento se encuentra dentro del Complejo Volcánico Farallón Negro de edad terciaria, que constituye la roca de caja de un sistema de vetas rico en oro. La veta Farallón Negro Rama Norte tiene rumbo general N40°O e inclinación de 65° NE, tiene una corrida de 600 m, y se extiende desde la superficie hasta unos 400 m en profundidad. La roca de caja es una monzoni...

  1. Seasonal Variation in the Distribution and Isotopic Composition of Phytoplankton in an Amazon Floodplain Lake, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Caraballo Gracia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the seasonal variation and isotopic composition of phytoplankton, water samples were collected monthly between October 2007 and November 2008 in Lake Catalão, a floodplain lake at the confluence between rivers Negro and Amazon. Analyses of total chlorophyll concentration and δ13C and δ15N isotopic abundances were made from particulate size fractions of 30-60, 10-30 and <10 µm in the littoral, pelagic, and floating meadows regions. Chlorophyll concentration was found to be inversely associated to lake depth, and high concentrations of chlorophyll in the floating meadows zone were significant.  The fraction <10 µm was the most abundant representing in average more than 40% of the particulate matter. The δ13C values were relatively constant during the study (-25.1‰ ~ -34.0‰, whereas the δ15N values showed strong variability (15.6‰ ~ 2.4‰, which has been attributed to the resuspension of sediments during mixing of the water column. Mixing associated to the sudden drop in temperature during the rising water period was an important event in the trophic and isotopic dynamics of the lake. Variations in chlorophyll content were generally associated with the dilution process, in which concentration was inversely correlated to the water level, whereas abundance was directly correlated to the water level. VARIACIÓN ESTACIONAL DE LA DISTRIBUCIÓN Y COMPOSICIÓN ISOTÓPICA DEL FITOPLANCTON EN UN LAGO DE INUNDACIÓN EN LA AMAZONIA, BRASIL.   Con el propósito de evaluar la variación estacional de la abundancia isotópica (δ13C e δ15N del fitoplancton, muestreos mensuales fueron realizados entre octubre de 2007 y noviembre de 2008 en el lago Catalão, un lago de inundación en la zona de confluencia de los ríos Negro y Solimões, ubicado frente a la ciudad de Manaus (AM, Brasil. Análisis de la clorofila total y evaluaciones de la abundancia natural de δ13C y δ15N fueron realizados en las fracciones partículadas de 30-60, 10

  2. An analysis of the influence of the local effects of climatic and hydrological factors affecting new malaria cases in riverine areas along the Rio Negro and surrounding Puraquequara Lake, Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Paulo Eduardo Guzzo; Candido, Luiz Antonio; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; da Silva Junior, Urbano Lopes; Correa, Honorly Katia Mestre

    2018-04-26

    A study was conducted at three sampling regions along the Rio Negro and surrounding Puraquequara Lake, Amazonas, Brazil. The aim was to determine the influence of the local effects of climatic and hydrological variables on new malaria cases. Data was gathered on the river level, precipitation, air temperature, and the number of new cases of autochthonous malaria between January 2003 and December 2013. Monthly averages, time series decompositions, cross-correlations, and multiple regressions revealed different relationships at each location. The sampling region in the upper Rio Negro indicated no statistically significant results. However, monthly averages suggest that precipitation and air temperature correlate positively with the occurrence of new cases of malaria. In the mid Rio Negro and Puraquequara Lake, the river level positively correlated, and temperature negatively correlated with new transmissions, while precipitation correlated negatively in the mid Rio Negro and positively on the lake. Overall, the river level is a key variable affecting the formation of breeding sites, while precipitation may either develop or damage them. A negative temperature correlation is associated with the occurrence of new annual post-peak cases of malaria, when the monthly average exceeds 28.5 °C. This suggests that several factors contribute to the occurrence of new malaria cases as higher temperatures are reached at the same time as precipitation and the river levels are lowest. Differences between signals and correlation lags indicate that local characteristics have an impact on how different variables influence the disease vector's life cycle, pathogens, and consequently, new cases of malaria.

  3. Uranium geochemistry on the Amazon shelf: Evidence for uranium release from bottom sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, B.A.; DeMaster, D.J.; Nittrouer, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    In Amazon-shelf waters, as salinity increases to 36.5 x 10 -3 , dissolved uranium activities increase to a maximum of 4.60 dpm 1 -1 . This value is much higher than the open-ocean value (2.50 dpm 1 -1 ), indicating a source of dissolved uranium to shelf waters in addition to that supplied from open-ocean and riverine waters. Uranium activities are much lower for surface sediments in the Amazon-shelf sea bed (mean: 0.69 ± .09 dpm g -1 ) than for suspended sediments in the Amazon river (1.82 dpm g -1 ). Data suggest that the loss of particulate uranium from riverine sediments is probably the result of uranium desorption from the ferric-oxyhydroxide coatings on sediment particles, and/or uranium release by mobilization of the ferric oxyhydroxides. The total flux of dissolved 238 U from the Amazon shelf (about 1.2 x 10 15 dpm yr -1 ) constitutes about 15% of uranium input to the world ocean, commensurate to the Amazon River's contribution to world river-water discharge. Measurement of only the riverine flux of dissolved 238 U underestimates, by a factor of about 5, the flux of dissolved 238 U from the Amazon shelf to the open ocean

  4. Input of particulate organic and dissolved inorganic carbon from the Amazon to the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druffel, E. R. M.; Bauer, J. E.; Griffin, S.

    2005-03-01

    We report concentrations and isotope measurements (radiocarbon and stable carbon) of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and suspended particulate organic carbon (POC) in waters collected from the mouth of the Amazon River and the North Brazil Current. Samples were collected in November 1991, when the Amazon hydrograph was at its annual minimum and the North Brazil Current had retroflected into the equatorial North Atlantic. The DIC Δ14C results revealed postbomb carbon in river and ocean waters, with slightly higher values at the river mouth. The low DIC δ13C signature of the river end-member (-11‰) demonstrates that about half of the DIC originated from the remineralization of terrestrially derived organic matter. A linear relationship between DIC and salinity indicates that DIC was mixed nearly conservatively in the transition zone from the river mouth to the open ocean, though there was a small amount (≤10%) of organic matter remineralization in the mesohaline region. The POC Δ14C values in the river mouth were markedly lower than those values from the western Amazon region (Hedges et al., 1986). We conclude that the dominant source of POC near the river mouth and in the inner Amazon plume during November 1991 was aged, resuspended material of significant terrestrial character derived from shelf sediments, while the outer plume contained mainly marine-derived POC.

  5. Amazon River Basin Precipitation, 1972-1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The precipitation data is 0.2 degree gridded monthly precipitation data based upon monthly rain data from Peru and Bolivia and daily rain data from Brazil....

  6. [Aquatic Ecological Index based on freshwater (ICE(RN-MAE)) for the Rio Negro watershed, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero, Laura Cristina; Longo, Magnolia; John Jairo, Ramirez; Guillermo, Chalar

    2014-04-01

    Aquatic Ecological Index based on freshwater (ICE(RN-MAE)) for the Rio Negro watershed, Colombia. Available indices to assess the ecological status of rivers in Colombia are mostly based on subjective hypotheses about macroinvertebrate tolerance to pollution, which have important limitations. Here we present the application of a method to establish an index of ecological quality for lotic systems in Colombia. The index, based on macroinvertebrate abundance and physicochemical variables, was developed as an alternative to the BMWP-Col index. The method consists on determining an environmental gradient from correlations between physicochemical variables and abundance. The scores obtained in each sampling point are used in a standardized correlation for a model of weighted averages (WA). In the WA model abundances are also weighted to estimate the optimum and tolerance values of each taxon; using this information we estimated the index of ecological quality based also on macroinvertebrate (ICE(RN-MAE)) abundance in each sampling site. Subsequently, we classified all sites using the index and concentrations of total phosphorus (TP) in a cluster analysis. Using TP and ICE(RN-MAE), mean, maximum, minimum and standard deviation, we defined threshold values corresponding to three categories of ecological status: good, fair and critical.

  7. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156696207

    2015-01-01

    This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

  8. Spawning areas, dispersion and microhabitats of fish larvae in the Anavilhanas Ecological Station, rio Negro, Amazonas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinbergh C. de Oliveira

    Full Text Available The abundance and distribution of ichthyoplankton and their relationships to current velocity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and electrical conductivity of the water in the Anavilhanas Ecological Station, Negro River, Amazonas State, Brazil, were analyzed. Preferred microhabitats for spawning, dispersion and nursery were also verified. Sampling was undertaken during the falling water period of 2001 and the rising water period of 2002, in a section of 100 km subdivided into 5 subsections, with a total of 20 stations (5 beaches, 5 ravines, 5 channels, and 5 lake channels at night and during the day at the surface and at the bottom. 647 eggs and 4,187 larvae were captured, belonging to 10 families and four orders: Characiformes (6, Siluriformes (2, Perciformes (1, and Clupeiformes (1. Engraulidae (55.39%, Pimelodidae (30.45%, Auchenipteridae (5.23% and Sciaenidae (5.13% were the dominant families. The hierarchical statistical model (ANOVA with three factors (microhabitat, depth and period was applied to the environmental variables and the larval abundance, showing greater abundances of sciaenids in the ravines and lower abundances of engraulids in the channels. The highest captures were obtained at lower temperature values, at the bottom during the day and at the surface at night, suggesting an active larval behavior. The presence of the four larval development stages in all subsection for pimelodids and sciaenids, and in three subsections for engraulids, indicates that the Anavilhanas Ecological Station is an important spawning and nursery area for species of these groups in the Negro River. Larvae abundance of all characiform families was extremely low (from 0.1 to 1.17%, suggesting that they do not spawn in this system.

  9. Time-variations of equivalent water heights'from Grace Mission and in-situ river stages in the Amazon basin Variações temporais do equivalente à altura d'água obtidas da Missão Grace e da altura d'água in-situ nos rios da bacia Amazônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Guilherme Vaz de Almeida

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE mission is dedicated to measuring temporal variations of the Earth's gravity field. In this study, the Stokes coefficients made available by Groupe de Recherche en Géodésie Spatiale (GRGS at a 10-day interval were converted into equivalent water height (EWH for a ~4-year period in the Amazon basin (from July-2002 to May-2006. The seasonal amplitudes of EWH signal are the largest on the surface of Earth and reach ~ 1250mm at that basin's center. Error budget represents ~130 mm of EWH, including formal errors on Stokes coefficient, leakage errors (12 ~ 21 mm and spectrum truncation (10 ~ 15 mm. Comparison between in situ river level time series measured at 233 ground-based hydrometric stations (HS in the Amazon basin and vertically-integrated EWH derived from GRACE is carried out in this paper. Although EWH and HS measure different water bodies, in most of the cases a high correlation (up to ~80% is detected between the HS series and EWH series at the same site. This correlation allows adjusting linear relationships between in situ and GRACE-based series for the major tributaries of the Amazon river. The regression coefficients decrease from up to down stream along the rivers reaching the theoretical value 1 at the Amazon's mouth in the Atlantic Ocean. The variation of the regression coefficients versus the distance from estuary is analysed for the largest rivers in the basin. In a second step, a classification of the proportionality between in situ and GRACE time-series is proposed.A missão espacial Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE é dedicada às medidas das variações temporais no campo gravitacional da Terra. Neste estudo, os coeficientes de Stokes disponibilizados pelo Groupe de Recherche en Géodésie Spatiale (GRGS com intervalos de 10 dias foram convertidos no equivalente à altura d'água (EWH para um período de 4 anos na bacia Amazônica (de julho de 2002 a maio de 2006

  10. Forcing and mixing processes in the Amazon estuary: a study case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizerra, M.O.M.; Pontes, R.K. da S.; Carmo, A.M.C.; Rosario, R.P.; Gallo, M.N.; Vinzon, S.B.

    2008-01-01

    The research area of this paper is located at the estuary of the Amazon River (Brazil), more precisely at the river mouth (parallels 00 0 30 ' N and 1 0 30 ' N meridians 049 0 00 ' W and 050 0 00 ' W). This paper presents the results of air movement analysis on the surface atmospheric circulation over the Mouth of the Amazon River, salinity and temperature measures as well as measurements of currents, carried out along a longitudinal section in the navigation canal region of the Northern Bar of the Amazon River (Barra Norte do Rio Amazonas) in June 2006, during the river flood season in the quadrature tide. This paper purports to contribute towards better interpreting the dynamic effect in hydrodynamic, meteorological and hydro geographical parameters at the river mouth. The conclusion drawn from an examination of the issues and related research is that: a) the saline wedge-type stratification can be seen approximately 100 km away from the mouth of the Amazon River during the end of the rainy season in the quadrature tide; b) probably, at Amazon estuary quadrature entrainment processes are predominant and are the responsible for increased salinity in surface layer, whereas turbulence scattering mixing is secondary to it. c) The large flow of fresh water from the Amazon River at the end of the rainy season implies the displacement of the front saline position over the internal Amazon continental platform. d) The tidal wave shows a positive asymmetry in the canal, with floods lasting less than the ebb tide. This asymmetry in the canal, with floods lasting less than the ebb tide. This asymmetry decreases towards the ocean, eventually becoming reversed in the presence of a saline wedge. The speeds, however, have a negative asymmetry, with more intense ebb tides, due to the river flow and is more evident by the existence of quadrature tides. e) The progressive behavior of the tidal wave in its propagation in the Northern Channel as well as the effect of morphology on

  11. Isotopic and chemical evidence for three accretionary magmatic arcs ( 1.79 - 1.42 Ga) in the SW Amazon Craton, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraldes, Mauro Cesar; Teixeira, Wilson; Schmus, William Randall van

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-one U/Pb ages of granitoids in the SW Amazon craton define three crustal accretionary events during the Paleo-and Mesoproterozoic that represent significant portions of the Rio Negro-Juruena Province and the Rondonian/San Ignacio province. Two events refer to the Rio Negro-Juruena province: The Alto Jauru greenstone belt comprises acid volcanics and tonalite to granite gneisses with U/Pb ages from 1790 to 1750 Ma. Sm/Nd isotopic data (e N -d (t) from +2.6 to +2.2 and T DM from 2.0 to 1.80 Ga) indicate a volcanic arc with juvenile signatures for these units. The second event (Cachoeirinha arc) comprises granites to tonalites with U/Pb ages from 1580 to 1530 Ma. Sm/Nd results. (author)

  12. Connected magma plumbing system between Cerro Negro and El Hoyo Complex, Nicaragua revealed by gravity survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQueen, Patricia; Zurek, Jeffrey; Williams-Jones, Glyn

    2016-11-01

    Cerro Negro, near León, Nicaragua is a young, relatively small basaltic cinder cone volcano that has been unusually active during its short lifespan. Multiple explosive eruptions have deposited significant amounts of ash on León and the surrounding rural communities. While a number of studies investigate the geochemistry and stress regime of the volcano, subsurface structures have only been studied by diffuse soil gas surveys. These studies have raised several questions as to the proper classification of Cerro Negro and its relation to neighboring volcanic features. To address these questions, we collected 119 gravity measurements around Cerro Negro volcano in an attempt to delineate deep structures at the volcano. The resulting complete Bouguer anomaly map revealed local positive gravity anomalies (wavelength 0.5 to 2 km, magnitude +4 mGal) and regional positive (10 km wavelength, magnitudes +10 and +8 mGal) and negative (12 and 6 km wavelength, magnitudes -18 and -13 mGal) Bouguer anomalies. Further analysis of these gravity data through inversion has revealed both local and regional density anomalies that we interpret as intrusive complexes at Cerro Negro and in the Nicaraguan Volcanic Arc. The local density anomalies at Cerro Negro have a density of 2700 kg m-3 (basalt) and are located between -250 and -2000 m above sea level. The distribution of recovered density anomalies suggests that eruptions at Cerro Negro may be tapping an interconnected magma plumbing system beneath El Hoyo, Cerro La Mula, and Cerro Negro, and more than seven other proximal volcanic features, implying that Cerro Negro should be considered the newest cone of a Cerro Negro-El Hoyo volcanic complex.

  13. O negro no cinema brasileiro: O período silencioso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel dos Santos Carvalho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata da participação do negro no cinema brasileiro no período de 1898 até os anos 1920. Seu objetivo é: 1 contextualizar o cinema no Brasil em relação à problemática vivida pela população negra no período pós-abolicionista; 2 descrever, ainda que sucintamente, os filmes que trazem representações sobre o negro brasileiro, 3 discutir as representações do negro em cinco filmes.

  14. Foraminifera and Thecamoebians as hydrodynamic indicators for Amazon estuarine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laut, L. L.; Figueiredo, A. G.; Santos, V. F.; Souza-Vieira, S.

    2007-05-01

    The Amazon mangrove forest in Brazilian territory is one of the most extended in the world. It goes from Ponta do Tubarao (4S e 43W) to Cape Orange (5N e 51W) along 2,250 km of coast line. Because the Amazon River System influence, it can be divided into two regions; one with river influence toward north and the other without river influence. In order to characterize the mangrove environment hydrodynamic on both sides of the Amazon River System, foraminifera and thecamoebians assemblages were investigated in the sediment of two estuaries; Araguari to the North (1 15S - 50 30W) and Caete to the South (0 50S - 46 30W). For both estuaries forams and thecamoebians species distribution are atypical relative to other world regions. In both, there are only few calcareous forams and almost all are small and possible of being transported in suspension. Typical estuarine species were not identified. The typical mangrove forams which are agglutinated species were dominant in both estuaries. However, the Caete estuary has a large number of forams species (29), indicating better efficiency in mixing fresh and salt water in comparison to the Araguari. On the other hand, the Araguari has big richness of thecamoebians species (15) indicating fresh water prevalence. The fresh water predominance is due to the Amazon water plume being diverted to the Amapa coast where the Araguari estuary is located. The foraminifera species was also used to determine the salt water penetration in the estuary. In the Caete estuary, salt water penetrates to about 40 km while in the Araguari it does coincide with the limit of the bore tide wave "pororoca" penetration, 45 km. Based on the species succession (forams to thecamoebians species) the Araguary estuary can be divided into three regions controlled by turbidity: the outer, middle and inner estuary. The Caete species succession is not that clear and only could be divided based on salinity into outer and inner estuary. In both estuaries forams and

  15. Amazon`s strategic analysis approaching the Spanish market

    OpenAIRE

    Rúa de la Plaza, José

    2018-01-01

    Amazon.com has not stopped growing since its foundation in 1994, and has become the leading company in the world of e-commerce. Amazon emerged from a great idea of its founder Jeff Bezos, who has managed to turn an online books store into a company that is constantly thinking about its customers and trying to innovate, either improving existing products and services, developing new ones or entering new markets. Amazon takes advantage of economies of scale that derive from its excellent dis...

  16. The study of untreated syphilis in the Negro male

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brawley, Otis W.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: The participation of minorities in clinical studies is the subject of much discussion and has even become the subject of Federal law. The project known as the Tuskegee Syphilis Study and officially titled 'The Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male', is one of the great debacles of American medicine and a national shame. Despite the fact that its existence is well known, many do not know the historical facts of the study nor the context of the study. My purpose here is to recount the facts of the study and its historical context. Methods: The history recounted here is taken from documents gathered during a U.S. Senate investigation of the study, original papers located in National Library of Medicine, and books about the trial. Results: The trial began in 1931 as a survey of the natural history of untreated tertiary syphilis in Black men. This study enrolled 399 men with syphilis and 201 uninfected men to serve as controls. All were at least 25 years old at enrollment. The men were told they were in a study, but never educated about the implications. Later, men were not informed that there was a treatment for effective treatment for their disease - a treatment that was being withheld from them. This trial continued till 1972. Conclusion: Many of the issues that led to the study and caused it to continue for 40 years still exist. The lessons of the Public Health Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Untreated Negro include the dangers of paternalism, arrogance, blind loyalty, and misuse of science. 'Those who do not appreciate history are condemned to repeat it' (Alfred North Whitehead)

  17. Amazon: Is Profitability a Possibility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett DENNIS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s society, companies seem to all be following the same trend; growth in profitability at all cost. Higher profits, for the most part, leads to more investors and more potential financing. Amazon.com appears to be breaking that trend, however. Their strategy seems to be growth, but not in profits. We would like to look into how and why Amazon is growing at such a fast pace, while their profits are staying steady at a very low level. Is profitability a possibility for Amazon? We believe that a marginal increase in price could accomplish just that, with a minimal impact to consumers.

  18. Is Amazon the next Google?

    OpenAIRE

    Budzinski, Oliver; Köhler, Karoline Henrike

    2015-01-01

    Dominant or apparently dominant internet platform increasingly become subject to both antitrust investigations and further-reaching political calls for regulation. While Google is currently in the focus of the discussion, the next candidate is already on the horizon - the ubiquitous online trading platform Amazon. Competitors and suppliers but also famous economists like Paul Krugman unite in criticizing Amazon's market power and alleged abuse of it. In this paper, we collect the multitude of...

  19. Analogical reasoning in amazons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obozova, Tanya; Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-11-01

    Two juvenile orange-winged amazons (Amazona amazonica) were initially trained to match visual stimuli by color, shape, and number of items, but not by size. After learning these three identity matching-to-sample tasks, the parrots transferred discriminative responding to new stimuli from the same categories that had been used in training (other colors, shapes, and numbers of items) as well as to stimuli from a different category (stimuli varying in size). In the critical testing phase, both parrots exhibited reliable relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) behavior, suggesting that they perceived and compared the relationship between objects in the sample stimulus pair to the relationship between objects in the comparison stimulus pairs, even though no physical matches were possible between items in the sample and comparison pairs. The parrots spontaneously exhibited this higher-order relational responding without having ever before been trained on RMTS tasks, therefore joining apes and crows in displaying this abstract cognitive behavior.

  20. Violence against Amazon women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Vera Lúcia de Azevedo; Souza, Maria de Lourdes de; Monticelli, Marisa; Oliveira, Marília de Fátima Vieira de; Souza, Carlos Benedito Marinho de; Costa, Carlos Alberto Leal da; Brüggemann, Odaléa Maria

    2009-01-01

    This quantitative and exploratory study analyzed violence against Amazon women presented in print media according to type and severity, and whether aggressors fell under the Maria da Penha law. A total of 181 issues of a regional newspaper were consulted. Based on content analysis, 164 items addressing violence against women were selected and 46 were included in the corpus of analysis. Results were gathered in three thematic groups: women killed with cruelty, sexual violence against women regardless of age, and violence against women and the limitations of the Maria da Penha law. Violence against these women varied in terms of form and severity, including up to homicide. Women are submitted to sexual violence from childhood through adulthood. The enforcement of this law shows the community it has a means to cope with this social phenomenon.

  1. Preliminary study of chemical compositional data from Amazon ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyota, Rosimeiri G.; Munita, Casimiro S.; Luz, Fabio A.; Neves, Eduardo G.; Oliveira, Paulo M.S.

    2005-01-01

    Eighty seven ceramic samples from Acutuba, Lago Grande and Osvaldo archaeological sites located in the confluence of the rivers Negro and Solimoes were submitted to chemical analysis using instrumental neutron activation analysis to determine As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Rb, Na, Nd, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Yb, Zn, and U. The database were studied using the Mahalanobis distance, and discriminant analysis. The results showed that the ceramics of each site differ from each other in chemical composition and that they form three different groups. Chemical classification of the ceramics suggests that vessels were made locally, as only ceramics from the same area show homogeneity of data. (author)

  2. Atmospheric mercury concentrations in the basin of the amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachiya, N; Takizawa, Y; Hisamatsu, S; Abe, T; Abe, Y; Motohashi, Y

    1998-01-01

    A wide regional mercury pollution in Amazon, Brazil is closely associated with goldmining that has been carried out in the basin of tributaries of the Amazon since the eighteenth century. Possible involvement has been discussed on atmospheric circulation in distributing the volatile pollutant. We developed a portable air sampler for the collection of mercury compounds and determined atmospheric mercury concentrations at several sites in Brazil including the basin of the Amazon tributaries. The mean concentration of total mercury was between 9.1 and 14.0 ng/m(3) in the basin of the Uatumã River located in the tropical rain forest far from goldmining sites and from urbanized area. These mercury levels exceeded the background level previously reported in rural area and, furthermore, were higher than concentrations observed in Rio de Janeiro and in Manaus that were compatible with the reference values for urban area. Mercury concentrations were also determined in gold refineries in the basin of the Tapajos River, and detected at a significant but not a health deteriorating level. Although only preliminary data were available, the present observations were in favor of the hypothesis that mercury is distributed widely by long distant transport by the atmospheric circulation after released at gold mining sites.

  3. Reduced precipitation over large water bodies in the Brazilian Amazon shown from TRMM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Rodrigo Cauduro Dias; Buarque, Diogo Costa; Clarke, Robin T.; Collischonn, Walter; Allasia, Daniel Gustavo

    2011-02-01

    Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) data show lower rainfall over large water bodies in the Brazilian Amazon. Mean annual rainfall (P), number of wet days (rainfall > 2 mm) (W) and annual rainfall accumulated over 3-hour time intervals (P3hr) were computed from TRMM 3B42 data for 1998-2009. Reduced rainfall was marked over the Rio Solimões/Amazon, along most Amazon tributaries and over the Balbina reservoir. In a smaller test area, a heuristic argument showed that P and W were reduced by 5% and 6.5% respectively. Allowing for TRMM 3B42 spatial resolution, the reduction may be locally greater. Analyses of diurnal rainfall patterns showed that rainfall is lowest over large rivers during the afternoon, when most rainfall is convective, but at night and early morning the opposite occurs, with increased rainfall over rivers, although this pattern is less marked. Rainfall patterns reported from studies of smaller Amazonian regions therefore exist more widely.

  4. Changes in the Carbon Cycle of Amazon Ecosystems During the 2010 Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christophera; Klooster, Steven; Hiatt, Cyrus; Genovese, Vanessa; Castilla-Rubino, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing was combined with the NASA-CASA carbon cycle simulation model to evaluate the impact of the 2010 drought (July through September) throughout tropical South America. Results indicated that net primary production (NPP) in Amazon forest areas declined by an average of 7% in 2010 compared to 2008. This represented a loss of vegetation CO2 uptake and potential Amazon rainforest growth of nearly 0.5 Pg C in 2010. The largest overall decline in ecosystem carbon gains by land cover type was predicted for closed broadleaf forest areas of the Amazon River basin, including a large fraction of regularly flooded forest areas. Model results support the hypothesis that soil and dead wood carbon decomposition fluxes of CO2 to the atmosphere were elevated during the drought period of 2010 in periodically flooded forest areas, compared to forests outside the main river floodplains.

  5. Changes in the carbon cycle of Amazon ecosystems during the 2010 drought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, Christopher [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States); Klooster, Steven; Hiatt, Cyrus; Genovese, Vanessa [California State University Monterey Bay, Seaside, CA (United States); Castilla-Rubio, Juan Carlos, E-mail: chris.potter@nasa.gov [Planetary Skin Institute, Silicon Valley, CA (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Satellite remote sensing was combined with the NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) carbon cycle simulation model to evaluate the impact of the 2010 drought (July through September) throughout tropical South America. Results indicated that net primary production in Amazon forest areas declined by an average of 7% in 2010 compared to 2008. This represented a loss of vegetation CO{sub 2} uptake and potential Amazon rainforest growth of nearly 0.5 Pg C in 2010. The largest overall decline in ecosystem carbon gains by land cover type was predicted for closed broadleaf forest areas of the Amazon river basin, including a large fraction of regularly flooded forest areas. Model results support the hypothesis that soil and dead wood carbon decomposition fluxes of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere were elevated during the drought period of 2010 in periodically flooded forest areas, compared to those for forests outside the main river floodplains.

  6. Changes in the carbon cycle of Amazon ecosystems during the 2010 drought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, Christopher; Klooster, Steven; Hiatt, Cyrus; Genovese, Vanessa; Castilla-Rubio, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing was combined with the NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) carbon cycle simulation model to evaluate the impact of the 2010 drought (July through September) throughout tropical South America. Results indicated that net primary production in Amazon forest areas declined by an average of 7% in 2010 compared to 2008. This represented a loss of vegetation CO 2 uptake and potential Amazon rainforest growth of nearly 0.5 Pg C in 2010. The largest overall decline in ecosystem carbon gains by land cover type was predicted for closed broadleaf forest areas of the Amazon river basin, including a large fraction of regularly flooded forest areas. Model results support the hypothesis that soil and dead wood carbon decomposition fluxes of CO 2 to the atmosphere were elevated during the drought period of 2010 in periodically flooded forest areas, compared to those for forests outside the main river floodplains.

  7. Classification and Use of Natural and Anthropogenic Soils by Indigenous Communities of the Upper Amazon Region of Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Peña-Venegas, C.P.; Stomph, T.J.; Verschoor, G.; Echeverri, J.A.; Struik, P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Outsiders often oversimplify Amazon soil use by assuming that abundantly available natural soils are poorly suited to agriculture and that sporadic anthropogenic soils are agriculturally productive. Local perceptions about the potentials and limitations of soils probably differ, but information on these perceptions is scarce. We therefore examined how four indigenous communities in the Middle Caquetá River region in the Colombian Amazon classify and use natural and anthropogenic soils. The st...

  8. Uranium in river water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, M.R.; Edmond, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The concentration of dissolved uranium has been determined in over 250 river waters from the Orinoco, Amazon, and Ganges basins. Uranium concentrations are largely determined by dissolution of limestones, although weathering of black shales represents an important additional source in some basins. In shield terrains the level of dissolved U is transport limited. Data from the Amazon indicate that floodplains do not represent a significant source of U in river waters. In addition, the authors have determined dissolved U levels in forty rivers from around the world and coupled these data with previous measurements to obtain an estimate for the global flux of dissolved U to the oceans. The average concentration of U in river waters is 1.3 nmol/kg, but this value is biased by very high levels observed in the Ganges-Brahmaputra and Yellow rivers. When these river systems are excluded from the budget, the global average falls to 0.78 nmol/kg. The global riverine U flux lies in the range of 3-6 x 10 7 mol/yr. The major uncertainty that restricts the accuracy of this estimate (and that of all other dissolved riverine fluxes) is the difficulty in obtaining representative samples from rivers which show large seasonal and annual variations in runoff and dissolved load

  9. El vacío iluminado del negro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Sánchez Ortiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Negación y suma de todos los colores, el negro posee una enorme potencialidad que a lo largo de los siglos se ha visto plasmada a través de diversas manifestaciones artísticas, en un lento transcurrir que le ha posibilitado asumir un puesto relevante en el ámbito contemporáneo. La negrura tiene un inmenso abanico de asociaciones negativas y espantosas. Nos remite a los rincones más oscuros de nuestra memoria. Algo lógico teniendo en cuenta su vinculación con la oscuridad y el miedo a lo oculto, a diferencia de lo luminoso, que se relaciona preferentemente con cualidades muy positivas. Cosmogónicamente, la negrura es el caos; ontogénicamente, es el signo de la muerte y la tumba, o del ambivalente útero; es también el color del no ser, del vacío; físicamente connota la ceguera; psicológicamente significa la temible tierra de los sueños y el inconsciente. El negro nos exhorta a mirar la oscuridad, a reconocer la belleza en la ausencia del color y de la luz.Black (disclaimer and sum of all colours has a large potential that, over the centuries, has been reflected through various art forms which has enabled him to assume an important place in the contemporary scene. The blackness has a huge range of negative and appalling associations. It refers us to the darkest corners of our memory; which makes sense considering its link with the darkness and fear of the occult (in contrast to light, which is associated preferentially with very positive qualities. Cosmogonically, the darkness is chaos. Ontogenetically, is the sign of death and the grave, or ambivalent uterus. It is also the colour of non-being, emptiness and physically it connotes blindness. Psychologically it signifies the dreaded land of dreams and the unconscious. The black exhorts us to look at the darkness and to recognize beauty in the absence of colour and light.

  10. Isotopic evidence for identifying the mechanism of salinization of groundwater in Bacolod City,Negros Occidental

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, Soledad S.; Almoneda, Rosalinda V.; Sucgang, Raymond J.; Desengano, Daisy; Lim, Fatima

    2008-01-01

    Saline water is easily identified by measurement of the conductivity of the ionic species in the water. In groundwater, it is important to identify the mechanism of salinization for proper management of the resource. Salinization may come from: a) leaching of salts by percolating water, b) intrusion of modern saltwater bodies of connate water, and c) concentration of dissolved salts due to evaporation. The salinity and isotopic concentrations of 18 O, 2 H, and 3 H of the water sources were used to assess the processes which lead to the salinization of groundwater in Bacolod City, Negros Occidental. The isotopic composition of deep groundwater, river water, and springs cluster along the LMWL with δ 18 O ranging from -7.9 ''promille'' to -6.5 ''promille'' and δ 2 H ranging from -52.6 ''promille'' to -39.1''promille''. Two isotopically distinct groups of deep groundwater were deleated; the higher elevation wells yielding isotopically depleted waters while the lowland wells yielding relatively enriched water with higher conductivity. The shallow coastal wells exhibited more enriched isotope values with δ 18 O values from 6.10 ''promille''-5.61''promille'' and δ 2 H from -43.1''promille'' to -38.8''promille'' and highest conductivity. The relative enrichment in the isotopic composition of the deep groundwater in the lowland and the shallow groundwater along the coast is attributed to saltwater intrusion. The process of salinization in these waters is differentiated based on the relationship between their isotopic compositions and the chlorine concentrations. The high salinity of the isotopically enriched and old deep groundwater inland is attributed to mixing with connate water. On the other hand , mixing with modern sea water is evident in the deep and shallow coastal wells. (author)

  11. Surface freshwater storage and dynamics in the Amazon basin during the 2005 exceptional drought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frappart, Frédéric; Ramillien, Guillaume; Papa, Fabrice; Calmant, Stéphane; Santos da Silva, Joecila; Prigent, Catherine; Seyler, Frédérique

    2012-01-01

    The Amazon river basin has been recently affected by extreme climatic events, such as the exceptional drought of 2005, with significant impacts on human activities and ecosystems. In spite of the importance of monitoring freshwater stored and moving in such large river basins, only scarce measurements of river stages and discharges are available and the signatures of extreme drought conditions on surface freshwater dynamics at the basin scale are still poorly known. Here we use continuous multisatellite observations of inundation extent and water levels between 2003 and 2007 to monitor monthly variations of surface water storage at the basin scale. During the 2005 drought, the amount of water stored in the river and floodplains of the Amazon basin was ∼130 km 3 (∼70%) below its 2003–7 average. This represents almost a half of the anomaly of minimum terrestrial water stored in the basin as estimated using the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data. (letter)

  12. Investigating the subsurface connection beneath Cerro Negro volcano and the El Hoyo Complex, Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Swetha; Moune, Séverine; Williams-Jones, Glyn

    2016-10-01

    Cerro Negro, the youngest volcano along the Central American Volcanic Belt (CAVB), is a polygenetic cinder cone with relatively frequent basaltic eruptions. The neighbouring El Hoyo complex, of which Las Pilas is the dominant edifice, is a much larger and older complex with milder and less frequent eruptions. Previous studies have suggested a deep link beneath these two closely spaced volcanoes (McKnight, 1995; MacQueen, 2013). Melt inclusions were collected from various tephra samples in order to determine whether a connection exists and to delineate the features of this link. Major, volatile, and trace elemental compositions reveal a distinct geochemical continuum with Cerro Negro defining the primitive endmember and El Hoyo representing the evolved endmember. Magmatic conditions at the time of melt inclusion entrapment were estimated with major and volatile contents: 2.4 kbar and 1170 °C for Cerro Negro melts and 1.3 kbar and 1130 °C for El Hoyo melts with an overall oxygen fugacity at the NNO buffer. Trace element contents are distinct and suggest Cerro Negro magmas fractionally crystallise while El Hoyo magmas are a mix between primitive Cerro Negro melts and residual and evolved El Hoyo magma. Modelling of end member compositions with alphaMELTS confirms the unique nature of El Hoyo magmas as resulting from incremental mixing between Cerro Negro and residual evolved magma at 4 km depth. Combining all available literature data, this study presents a model of the interconnected subsurface plumbing system. This model considers the modern day analogue of the Lemptégy cinder cones in Massif Central, France and incorporates structurally controlled dykes. The main implications of this study are the classification of Cerro Negro as the newest conduit within the El Hoyo Complex as well as the potential re-activation of the El Hoyo edifice.

  13. Bilingual Education and Language Use among the Shipibo of the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacelosky, Kathleen

    2001-01-01

    Investigates how language choice for education contributes to changes in the way a society views and uses language in the context of the Peruvian Amazon. Oral surveys were administered to Shipibo people in 13 communities along the Ucayali River of eastern Peru where a transition type bilingual education program was introduced several decades ago.…

  14. Impacts of future deforestation and climate change on the hydrology of the Amazon Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guimberteau, Matthieu; Ciais, Philippe; Pablo Boisier, Juan; Paula Dutra Aguiar, Ana; Biemans, Hester; Deurwaerder, De Hannes; Galbraith, David; Kruijt, Bart; Langerwisch, Fanny; Poveda, German; Rammig, Anja; Andres Rodriguez, Daniel; Tejada, Graciela; Thonicke, Kirsten; Randow, Von Celso; Randow, Rita; Zhang, Ke; Verbeeck, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Deforestation in Amazon is expected to decrease evapotranspiration (ET) and to increase soil moisture and river discharge under prevailing energy-limited conditions. The magnitude and sign of the response of ET to deforestation depend both on the magnitude and regional patterns of land-cover change

  15. Stage-discharge rating curves based on satellite altimetry and modeled discharge in the Amazon basin

    OpenAIRE

    Paris, Adrien; Dias de Paiva, Rodrigo; Santos da Silva, Joecila; Medeiros Moreira, Daniel; Calmant, Stephane; Garambois, Pierre-André; Collischonn, Walter; Bonnet, Marie-Paule; Seyler, Frederique

    2016-01-01

    In this study, rating curves (RCs) were determined by applying satellite altimetry to a poorly gauged basin. This study demonstrates the synergistic application of remote sensing and watershed modeling to capture the dynamics and quantity of flow in the Amazon River Basin, respectively. Three major advancements for estimating basin-scale patterns in river discharge are described. The first advancement is the preservation of the hydrological meanings of the parameters expressed by ...

  16. Hydrologic resilience and Amazon productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlström, Anders; Canadell, Josep G; Schurgers, Guy; Wu, Minchao; Berry, Joseph A; Guan, Kaiyu; Jackson, Robert B

    2017-08-30

    The Amazon rainforest is disproportionately important for global carbon storage and biodiversity. The system couples the atmosphere and land, with moist forest that depends on convection to sustain gross primary productivity and growth. Earth system models that estimate future climate and vegetation show little agreement in Amazon simulations. Here we show that biases in internally generated climate, primarily precipitation, explain most of the uncertainty in Earth system model results; models, empirical data and theory converge when precipitation biases are accounted for. Gross primary productivity, above-ground biomass and tree cover align on a hydrological relationship with a breakpoint at ~2000 mm annual precipitation, where the system transitions between water and radiation limitation of evapotranspiration. The breakpoint appears to be fairly stable in the future, suggesting resilience of the Amazon to climate change. Changes in precipitation and land use are therefore more likely to govern biomass and vegetation structure in Amazonia.Earth system model simulations of future climate in the Amazon show little agreement. Here, the authors show that biases in internally generated climate explain most of this uncertainty and that the balance between water-saturated and water-limited evapotranspiration controls the Amazon resilience to climate change.

  17. Ozone measurements in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.

    Several scientists of the Brazilian Institute for Space Research (Instituto de Pesquisas Espacias, or INPE; headquarters at Sāo Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo) went to Manaus (3°S, 60°W), in the central region of the Amazon forest during July-August 1985 to study the atmosphere of the equatorial rainforest. The expedition to the Amazon was part of a large binational atmospheric chemistry field campaign that was organized to measure several atmospheric gases of the forest environment. This was definitely the largest scientific field expedition in this field ever performed on Brazilian territory.

  18. Insecta, Coleoptera, Elmidae, Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passos, M. I. S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A list of Elmidae species from Amazon is presented. The list was prepared based on a literature surveyand examination of the entomological collection of Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA. The listincludes 102 species, with ten new occurrences recorded, being one for the Amazon (which includes areas ofBrazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Guyana, French Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela three for the Amazonas state,and six for other localities in Brazil. Reports about species bibliography contents were also included, as well asavailable species municipalities distributional data.

  19. Repeat-Pass Multi-Temporal Interferometric SAR Coherence Variations with Amazon Floodplain and Lake Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, H.; Alsdorf, D.

    2006-12-01

    Monitoring discharge in the main channels of rivers and upland tributaries as well as storage changes in floodplain lakes is necessary for understanding flooding hazards, methane production, sediment transport, and nutrient exchange. Interferometric processing of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data may enable hydrologists to detect environmental and ecological changes in hydrological systems over space and time. An aim of our experiments is to characterize interferometric SAR coherence variations that occur in Amazon aquatic habitats. We analyze coherence variations in JERS-1 data at three central Amazon sites; Lake Balbina, the Cabaliana floodplain, and the confluence of the Purus and Amazon rivers. Because radar pulse interactions with inundated vegetation typically follow a double-bounce travel path which returns energy to the antenna, coherence will vary with vegetation type, physical baseline, and temporal baseline. Balbina's vegetation consists mostly of forest and inundated trunks of dead, leafless trees as opposed to Cabaliana and Amazon- Purus (dominated by flooded forests), thus it serves to isolate the vegetation signal. Coherence variations with baselines were determined from 253 interferograms at Balbina, 210 at Calbaliana, and 153 at Purus. The average temporal and perpendicular baselines (mean std.) are 574 394 days and 1708 1159 m at Balbina, 637 435 days and 1381 981 m at Cabaliana, and 587 425 days and 1430 964 m at Purus. Balbina has a stronger coherence than either Cabaliana or Amazon-Purus. With results of Mann-Whitney statistical tests, Balbina has a difference between terre-firme and flooded coherence values plotted with perpendicular baseline but Cabaliana and Amazon-Purus do not show this difference. Balbina has a linearly decreasing trend in coherence plotted with temporal baseline whereas Cabaliana and Amazon-Purus have a steep drop-off, non- linear change. A strong annual periodicity is evident on power spectrums of the coherence values

  20. Potential groundwater contribution to Amazon evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate and land ecosystem models simulate a dry-season vegetation stress in the Amazon forest, but observations do not support these results, indicating adequate water supply. Proposed mechanisms include larger soil water store and deeper roots in nature and the ability of roots to move water up and down (hydraulic redistribution, both absent in the models. Here we provide a first-order assessment of the potential importance of the upward soil water flux from the groundwater driven by capillarity. We present a map of equilibrium water table depth from available observations and a groundwater model simulation constrained by these observations. We then present a map of maximum capillary flux these water table depths, combined with the fine-textured soils in the Amazon, can potentially support. The maps show that the water table beneath the Amazon can be shallow in lowlands and river valleys (<5 m in 36% and <10 m in 60% of Amazonia. These water table depths can potentially accommodate a maximum capillary flux of 2.1 mm day−1 to the land surface averaged over Amazonia, but varies from 0.6 to 3.7 mm day−1 across nine study sites.

    We note that the results presented here are based on limited observations and simple equilibrium model calculations, and as such, have important limitations and must be interpreted accordingly. The potential capillary fluxes are not indicative of their contribution to the actual evapotranspiration, and they are only an assessment of the possible rate at which this flux can occur, to illustrate the power of soil capillary force acting on a shallow water table in fine textured soils. They may over-estimate the actual flux where the surface soils remain moist. Their contribution to the actual evapotranspiration can only be assessed through fully coupled model simulation of the dynamic feedbacks between soil water and groundwater with sub-daily climate forcing. The equilibrium water table

  1. Hydrological Predictability for the Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towner, Jamie; Stephens, Elizabeth; Cloke, Hannah; Bazo, Juan; Coughlan, Erin; Zsoter, Ervin

    2017-04-01

    Population growth in the Peruvian Amazon has prompted the expansion of livelihoods further into the floodplain and thus increasing vulnerability to the annual rise and fall of the river. This growth has coincided with a period of increasing hydrological extremes with more frequent severe flood events. The anticipation and forecasting of these events is crucial for mitigating vulnerability. Forecast-based Financing (FbF) an initiative of the German Red Cross implements risk reducing actions based on threshold exceedance within hydrometeorological forecasts using the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). However, the lead times required to complete certain actions can be long (e.g. several weeks to months ahead to purchase materials and reinforce houses) and are beyond the current capabilities of GloFAS. Therefore, further calibration of the model is required in addition to understanding the climatic drivers and associated hydrological response for specific flood events, such as those observed in 2009, 2012 and 2015. This review sets out to determine the current capabilities of the GloFAS model while exploring the limits of predictability for the Amazon basin. More specifically, how the temporal patterns of flow within the main coinciding tributaries correspond to the overall Amazonian flood wave under various climatic and meteorological influences. Linking the source areas of flow to predictability within the seasonal forecasting system will develop the ability to expand the limit of predictability of the flood wave. This presentation will focus on the Iquitos region of Peru, while providing an overview of the new techniques and current challenges faced within seasonal flood prediction.

  2. Filmografía y bibliografía del cine negro americano (1930-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. José Luis Sánchez Noriega

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available La actualidad del cine negro queda patente con el éxito de crítica y de público de obras recientes como Casino (Martin Scorsese, 1995, La brigada del sombrero (Lee Tamahori, 1996, Al caer el sol (Robert Benton, 1996 o Donnie Brasco (Mike Newell, 1996. Hace unos meses han aparecido dos libros que se ocupan de este género y ofrecen una selección de un centenar de películas: El cine negro en 100 películas de Antonio Santamarina (Alianza, Madrid, 1999 y Obras maestras del cine negro (Mensajero, Bilbao, 1998, de quien firma estas líneas.

  3. Phylogenetic stratigraphy in the Guerrero Negro hypersaline microbial mat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J Kirk; Caporaso, J Gregory; Walker, Jeffrey J; Spear, John R; Gold, Nicholas J; Robertson, Charles E; Hugenholtz, Philip; Goodrich, Julia; McDonald, Daniel; Knights, Dan; Marshall, Paul; Tufo, Henry; Knight, Rob; Pace, Norman R

    2013-01-01

    The microbial mats of Guerrero Negro (GN), Baja California Sur, Mexico historically were considered a simple environment, dominated by cyanobacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria. Culture-independent rRNA community profiling instead revealed these microbial mats as among the most phylogenetically diverse environments known. A preliminary molecular survey of the GN mat based on only ∼1500 small subunit rRNA gene sequences discovered several new phylum-level groups in the bacterial phylogenetic domain and many previously undetected lower-level taxa. We determined an additional ∼119,000 nearly full-length sequences and 28,000 >200 nucleotide 454 reads from a 10-layer depth profile of the GN mat. With this unprecedented coverage of long sequences from one environment, we confirm the mat is phylogenetically stratified, presumably corresponding to light and geochemical gradients throughout the depth of the mat. Previous shotgun metagenomic data from the same depth profile show the same stratified pattern and suggest that metagenome properties may be predictable from rRNA gene sequences. We verify previously identified novel lineages and identify new phylogenetic diversity at lower taxonomic levels, for example, thousands of operational taxonomic units at the family-genus levels differ considerably from known sequences. The new sequences populate parts of the bacterial phylogenetic tree that previously were poorly described, but indicate that any comprehensive survey of GN diversity has only begun. Finally, we show that taxonomic conclusions are generally congruent between Sanger and 454 sequencing technologies, with the taxonomic resolution achieved dependent on the abundance of reference sequences in the relevant region of the rRNA tree of life.

  4. Neisseria meningitidis: a neglected cause of infectious haemorrhagic fever in the amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, David E; Silva, Luciete A

    2007-12-01

    Neisseria meningitidis has not been seen as a significant cause of infectious haemorrhagic fever in the Amazon inlands; most reported cases are from the city of Manaus, the capital of the State of Amazonas. This picture is sustained by the lack of reliable microbiology laboratories, the perception of the health care workers, and the difficult to reach medical assistance; thus the number of confirmed cases is even lower with no reference of the strains phenotype. We report here the investigation of a case of suspected meningococcemia and his close contacts in a rural community in the Coari Lake, up the Amazon River.

  5. Neisseria meningitidis: a neglected cause of infectious haemorrhagic fever in the amazon rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Barroso

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis has not been seen as a significant cause of infectious haemorrhagic fever in the Amazon inlands; most reported cases are from the city of Manaus, the capital of the State of Amazonas. This picture is sustained by the lack of reliable microbiology laboratories, the perception of the health care workers, and the difficult to reach medical assistance; thus the number of confirmed cases is even lower with no reference of the strains phenotype. We report here the investigation of a case of suspected meningococcemia and his close contacts in a rural community in the Coari Lake, up the Amazon River.

  6. GoAmazon – Scaling Amazon Carbon Water Couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, Manvendra Krishna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-06

    Forests soak up 25% of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by anthropogenic fossil energy use (10 Gt C y-1) moderating its atmospheric accumulation. How this terrestrial CO2 uptake will evolve with climate change in the 21st century is largely unknown. Rainforests are the most active ecosystems with the Amazon basin storing 120 Gt C as biomass and exchanging 18 Gt C y-1 of CO2 via photosynthesis and respiration and fixing carbon at 2-3 kg C m-2 y-1. Furthermore, the intense hydrologic and carbon cycles are tightly coupled in the Amazon where about half of the water is recycled by evapotranspiration and the other half imported from the ocean by Northeasterly trade winds. Climate models predict a drying in the Amazon with reduced carbon uptake while observationally guided assessments indicate sustained uptake. We will resolve this huge discrepancy in the size and sign of the future Amazon carbon cycle by performing the first simultaneous regional scale high frequency measurements of atmospheric CO2, H2O, HOD, CH4, N2O and CO at the T3 site in Manacupuru, Brazil as part of DOE's GoAmazon project. Our data will be used to inform and develop DOE's CLM on the tropical carbon-water couplings at the appropriate grid scale (10-50km). Our measurements will also validate the CO2 data from Japan's GOSAT and NASA's imminent OCO-2 satellite (launch date July 2014).

  7. Influencia de la marea astronómica sobre las variaciones del nivel del Río Negro en la zona de Carmen de Patagones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique D'Onofrio

    2010-12-01

    son en promedio un 49% de las obtenidas en Punta Redonda, mientras que para las amplitudes de las componentes semidiurnas le corresponde un 42%. Para estudiar las variaciones del nivel medio debidas a los distintos caudales del río y a las ondas de tormenta en Carmen de Patagones, se realiza la convolución de las alturas observadas con filtros pasabajos diseñados a partir de la ventana de Hamming. Para el período considerado se observa una diferencia máxima de 156 cm en los niveles medios y se detecta la presencia de ondas de tormenta. Finalmente para estudiar la influencia de los distintos caudales en la marea astronómica en Carmen de Patagones, se realizan análisis armónicos para diferentes niveles medios. Se encuentra que a una disminución de nivel medio de 156 cm, le corresponde un aumento de 60 cm en la amplitud de la componente M2.The Río Negro, natural limit between Buenos Aires and Río Negro provinces, is one of the most important rivers of the Patagonia that ends in the Atlantic Ocean. It is navigable in the stretch between the mouth and Carmen de Patagones by vessels up to 2.04 m draft, being more difficult upstream because of irregularities in depth. The Atlantic Ocean tidal wave enters into the river producing a semidiurnal regime up to Carmen de Patagones. Knowledge of the tidal wave on this part of the RíoNegro is fundamental to the calibration of numerical models, the improvement of flood warning systems and decision related to coastal management. In this paper four sets of tide measurements are analyzed, two obtained in the Carmen de Patagones hydrometer for a period of 608 and 731 days, other of 77 days coming from a staff installed in the kilometer 18 of the river and the last one of 79 days obtained with a pressure sensor anchored close to Punta Redonda (mouth of the Río Negro. Power spectrum of observed levels for the three localities are calculated and compared to detect energy changes produced in the frequency band corresponding to

  8. The Amazon Basin in transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric A. Davidson; Alessandro C. de Araujo; Paulo Artaxo; Jennifer K. Balch; I. Foster Brown; Mercedes M.C. Bustamente; Michael T. Coe; Ruth S. DeFriess; Michael Keller; Marcos Longo; J. William Munger; Wilfrid Schroeder; Britaldo Soares-Filho; Carlos M. Souza, Jr.; Steven C. Wofsy

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural expansion and climate variability have become important agents of disturbance in the Amazon basin. Recent studies have demonstrated considerable resilience of Amazonian forests to moderate annual drought, but they also show that interactions between deforestation, fire and drought potentially lead to losses of carbon storage and changes in regional...

  9. Amazon Fund: financing deforestation avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Marcovitch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon Fund, created in 2008 by the Brazilian Federal Government, is managed by Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social (BNDES. It is a pioneering initiative to fundraise and manage financial resources to cut back deforestation and support sustainable development for 30 million inhabitants in the Amazon Biome. The Amazon Fund has already received more than R$ 1.7 billion in grants (about USD 787 million. This essay analyzes the Amazon Fund's governance and management with focus on its operation and from its stakeholders' perspectives. A combination of research methods includes: documental research, in-depth interviews, and speech analysis. The study offers a comparative analysis of strengths and weaknesses related to its governance. Furthermore, it proposes ways to improve its management towards greater effectiveness. The essay also includes an assessment of the government of Norway, a major donor to the fund. The governments of Norway and Germany, in partnership with Brazil, reveal how important it is to experiment with new means of international cooperation to successfully reduce greenhouse gas emissions through rainforest preservation.

  10. A new species of Diaphorocleidus (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalinae) from the gills of Argonectes robertsi (Characiformes) and new records of dactylogyrids parasitic on fishes from the Xingu River, Amazon Basin, Brazil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moreira, J.; Scholz, Tomáš; Luque, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 4 (2016), č. článku e20160022. ISSN 1984-4670 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Dactylogyridae * Hemiodontidae * Monogenea * Neotropics * Xingu River Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.584, year: 2015

  11. Eolic central Guerrero Negro, BCS, Mexico, performance first year operation; Central eolica Guerrero Negro, BCS, Mexico, resultados del primer ano de operacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadenas Tovar, Roberto; Sanchez Cornejo, Carlos; Lopez Rios, Serafin [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Ley Romero, Jose R [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Comision Federal de Electricidad installed a 600 kW wind turbine in the Guerrero Negro isolated electrical grid to evaluate, under actual operation conditions, the contribution of wind energy in the generation of electricity. This paper describes the performance of the wind turbine in terms of its availability, power curve and electricity produced. The results have been satisfactory, electricity was supplied with a lesser fuel consumption than before. [Spanish] La Comision Federal de Electricidad instalo en Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico un aerogenerador de 600 kW para evaluar en condiciones reales de operacion la integracion de la energia del viento a sistemas electricos aislados basados en diesel. En este trabajo se describen los resultados del primer ano de operacion del aerogenerador en terminos de su disponibilidad, curva de potencia y generacion obtenida. Los resultados han sido satisfactorios, registrandose una reduccion en el consumo de combustible fosil en el sistema.

  12. Response of the Amazon rainforest to late Pleistocene climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggi, Christoph; Chiessi, Cristiano M.; Merkel, Ute; Mulitza, Stefan; Prange, Matthias; Schulz, Michael; Schefuß, Enno

    2017-12-01

    Variations in Amazonian hydrology and forest cover have major consequences for the global carbon and hydrological cycles as well as for biodiversity. Yet, the climate and vegetation history of the lowland Amazon basin and its effect on biogeography remain debated due to the scarcity of suitable high-resolution paleoclimate records. Here, we use the isotopic composition (δD and δ13C) of plant-waxes from a high-resolution marine sediment core collected offshore the Amazon River to reconstruct the climate and vegetation history of the integrated lowland Amazon basin for the period from 50,000 to 12,800 yr before present. Our results show that δD values from the Last Glacial Maximum were more enriched than those from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 and the present-day. We interpret this trend to reflect long-term changes in precipitation and atmospheric circulation, with overall drier conditions during the Last Glacial Maximum. Our results thus suggest a dominant glacial forcing of the climate in lowland Amazonia. In addition to previously suggested thermodynamic mechanisms of precipitation change, which are directly related to temperature, we conclude that changes in atmospheric circulation are crucial to explain the temporal evolution of Amazonian rainfall variations, as demonstrated in climate model experiments. Our vegetation reconstruction based on δ13C values shows that the Amazon rainforest was affected by intrusions of savannah or more open vegetation types in its northern sector during Heinrich Stadials, while it was resilient to glacial drying. This suggests that biogeographic patterns in tropical South America were affected by Heinrich Stadials in addition to glacial-interglacial climate variability.

  13. On the offshore dispersal of the Amazon's Plume in the North Atlantic: Comments on the paper by A. Longhurst, ``Seasonal cooling and blooming in tropical oceans''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller-Karger, F. E.; Richardson, P. L.; Mcgillicuddy, D.

    1995-11-01

    Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) satellite images show extensive plumes of discolored water extending from South America into the western tropical Atlantic. The most conspicuous plumes originate at the mouths of the Amazon and Orinoco Rivers, and plumes originating at smaller rivers can also be seen from space. In a recent paper by Longhurst (1993), the plume associated with the Amazon River was attributed to phytoplankton blooms stimulated by nutrients supplied via eddy upwelling. We revisit the argument that this plume is of riverine origin, and offer evidence that material present near continental margins can be advected offshore and trace circulation patterns in the adjacent ocean.

  14. Trans-Amazon Drilling Project (TADP): origins and evolution of the forests, climate, and hydrology of the South American tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, P. A.; Fritz, S. C.; Silva, C. G.; Rigsby, C. A.; Absy, M. L.; Almeida, R. P.; Caputo, M.; Chiessi, C. M.; Cruz, F. W.; Dick, C. W.; Feakins, S. J.; Figueiredo, J.; Freeman, K. H.; Hoorn, C.; Jaramillo, C.; Kern, A. K.; Latrubesse, E. M.; Ledru, M. P.; Marzoli, A.; Myrbo, A.; Noren, A.; Piller, W. E.; Ramos, M. I. F.; Ribas, C. C.; Trnadade, R.; West, A. J.; Wahnfried, I.; Willard, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    This article presents the scientific rationale for an ambitious ICDP drilling project to continuously sample Late Cretaceous to modern sediment in four different sedimentary basins that transect the equatorial Amazon of Brazil, from the Andean foreland to the Atlantic Ocean. The goals of this project are to document the evolution of plant biodiversity in the Amazon forests and to relate biotic diversification to changes in the physical environment, including climate, tectonism, and the surface landscape. These goals require long sedimentary records from each of the major sedimentary basins across the heart of the Brazilian Amazon, which can only be obtained by drilling because of the scarcity of Cenozoic outcrops. The proposed drilling will provide the first long, nearly continuous regional records of the Cenozoic history of the forests, their plant diversity, and the associated changes in climate and environment. It also will address fundamental questions about landscape evolution, including the history of Andean uplift and erosion as recorded in Andean foreland basins and the development of west-to-east hydrologic continuity between the Andes, the Amazon lowlands, and the equatorial Atlantic. Because many modern rivers of the Amazon basin flow along the major axes of the old sedimentary basins, we plan to locate drill sites on the margin of large rivers and to access the targeted drill sites by navigation along these rivers.

  15. Trans-Amazon Drilling Project (TADP): origins and evolution of the forests, climate, and hydrology of the South American tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, P.A.; Fritz, S.C.; Silva, C.G.; Rigsby, C.A.; Absy, M.L.; Almeida, R.P.; Caputo, Maria C.; Chiessi, C.M.; Cruz, F.W.; Dick, C.W.; Feakins, S.J.; Figueiredo, J.; Freeman, K.H.; Hoorn, C.; Jaramillo, C.A.; Kern, A.; Latrubesse, E.M.; Ledru, M.P.; Marzoli, A.; Myrbo, A.; Noren, A.; Piller, W.E.; Ramos, M.I.F.; Ribas, C.C.; Trinadade, R.; West, A.J.; Wahnfried, I.; Willard, Debra A.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the scientific rationale for an ambitious ICDP drilling project to continuously sample Late Cretaceous to modern sediment in four different sedimentary basins that transect the equatorial Amazon of Brazil, from the Andean foreland to the Atlantic Ocean. The goals of this project are to document the evolution of plant biodiversity in the Amazon forests and to relate biotic diversification to changes in the physical environment, including climate, tectonism, and the surface landscape. These goals require long sedimentary records from each of the major sedimentary basins across the heart of the Brazilian Amazon, which can only be obtained by drilling because of the scarcity of Cenozoic outcrops. The proposed drilling will provide the first long, nearly continuous regional records of the Cenozoic history of the forests, their plant diversity, and the associated changes in climate and environment. It also will address fundamental questions about landscape evolution, including the history of Andean uplift and erosion as recorded in Andean foreland basins and the development of west-to-east hydrologic continuity between the Andes, the Amazon lowlands, and the equatorial Atlantic. Because many modern rivers of the Amazon basin flow along the major axes of the old sedimentary basins, we plan to locate drill sites on the margin of large rivers and to access the targeted drill sites by navigation along these rivers.

  16. Sources and distributions of branched and isoprenoid tetraether lipids on the Amazon shelf and fan : Implications for the use of GDGT-based proxies in marine sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zell, Claudia; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Hollander, David; Lorenzoni, Laura; Baker, Paul; Silva, Cleverson Guizan; Nittrouer, Charles; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2014-01-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) in river fan sediments have been used successfully to reconstruct mean annual air temperature (MAAT) and soil pH of the Congo River drainage basin. However, in a previous study of Amazon deep-sea fan sediments the reconstructed MAATs were ca.

  17. Potential hydrologic changes in the Amazon by the end of the 21st century and the groundwater buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokhrel, Yadu N; Fan, Ying; Miguez-Macho, Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    This study contributes to the discussions on the future of the Amazon rainforest under a projected warmer-drier climate from the perspectives of land hydrology. Using IPCC HadGEM2-ES simulations of the present and future Amazon climate to drive a land hydrology model that accounts for groundwater constraint on land drainage, we assess potential hydrologic changes in soil water, evapotranspiration (ET), water table depth, and river discharge, assuming unchanged vegetation. We ask: how will ET regimes shift at the end of the 21st century, and will the groundwater help buffer the anticipated water stress in some places-times? We conducted four 10 yr model simulations, at the end of 20th and 21st century, with and without the groundwater. Our model results suggest that, first, over the western and central Amazon, ET will increase due to increased potential evapotranspiration (PET) with warmer temperatures, despite a decrease in soil water; that is, ET will remain PET or atmospheric demand-limited. Second, in the eastern Amazon dry season, ET will decrease in response to decreasing soil water, despite increasing PET demand; that is, ET in these regions-seasons will remain or become more soil water or supply-limited. Third, the area of water-limited regions will likely expand in the eastern Amazonia, with the dry season, as indicated by soil water store, even drier and longer. Fourth, river discharge will be significantly reduced over the entire Amazon but particularly so in the southeastern Amazon. By contrasting model results with and without the groundwater, we found that the slow soil drainage constrained by shallow groundwater can buffer soil water stress, particularly in southeastern Amazon dry season. Our model suggests that, if groundwater buffering effect is accounted for, the future Amazon water stress may be less than that projected by most climate models. (letter)

  18. The Making of the New Negro : Black Authorship, Masculinity, and Sexuality in the Harlem Renaissance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pochmara, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The Making of the New Negro onderzoekt zwarte mannelijkheid in de periode van de Harlem Renaissance, die lange tijd weinig wetenschappelijke aandacht trok, totdat in de jaren negentig veel geleerden ontdekten hoe complex, belangrijk en boeiend deze tijd was. Anna Pochmara maakt gebruik van

  19. Native Sons: A Critical Study of Twentieth-Century Negro American Authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolies, Edward

    This analysis of 20th-century Negro literature contains chapters discussing 16 authors: (1) "The First Forty Years: 1900-1940," including W. E. B. DuBois, Charles W. Chesnutt, James W. Johnson, Paul L. Dunbar, Langston Hughes, Jean Toomer, Claude McKay, and Countee Cullen; (2) "Migration: William Attaway and 'Blood on the Forge'"; (3) "Richard…

  20. Jobs and Income for Negroes. Policy Papers in Human Resources and Industrial Relations No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, Charles C.

    In spite of increasingly effective anti-discrimination laws and a reduction in the educational differential between blacks and whites, the rapid economic progress made by Negroes in the 1940's and early 1950's has not continued. This study finds evidence that labor market adjustments and population changes are major factors. The labor market…

  1. Self-Esteem and Achievement Expectation for White and Negro Children. Curriculum Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenheim, Fred

    The relationship between self-esteem, academic expectations, and ethnic group membership was studied in a New York City elementary school which had an approximately equal enrollment of Negro, white, and Spanish-background pupils. Subjects were 162 sixth-grade students who were tested with two projective tests and one specifically designed…

  2. Palaeomagnetic constraints on the age of Lomo Negro volcanic eruption (El Hierro, Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasante-Marcos, Víctor; Pavón-Carrasco, Francisco Javier

    2014-12-01

    A palaeomagnetic study has been carried out in 29 cores drilled at six different sites from the volcanic products of Lomo Negro eruption (El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain). Systematic thermal and alternating field demagnetization of the samples' natural remanent magnetization revealed a northward, stable palaeomagnetic direction similar in all the samples. Rock magnetic experiments indicate that this palaeomagnetic component is carried by a mixture of high-Ti and low-Ti titanomagnetite crystals typical of basaltic lithologies that have experienced a significant degree of oxyexsolution during subaerial cooling. The well constrained palaeomagnetic direction of Lomo Negro lavas was used to perform a palaeomagnetic dating of the volcanic event, using the SHA.DIF.14k global geomagnetic model restricted for the last 3000 yr. It can be unambiguously concluded that Lomo Negro eruption occurred well before the previously proposed date of 1793 AD, with three different age ranges being statistically possible during the last 3 ka: 115 BC-7 AD, 410-626 AD and 1499-1602 AD. The calibration of a previously published non-calibrated 14C dating suggests a XVI c. date for Lomo Negro eruption. This conclusion leaves open the possibility that the seismic crisis occurred at El Hierro in 1793 AD was related to an intrusive magmatic event that either did not reach the surface or either culminated in an unregistered submarine eruption similar to the one occurred in 2011-2012 at the southern off-shore ridge of the island.

  3. El Negro, el Niño, witchcraft and the absence of rain in Botswana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gewald, J.B.

    2001-01-01

    In October 2000, the remains of 'El Negro', a Tswana man who had died 170 years before and who, as a stuffed specimen, had been on display in Europe for over 160 years, were flown from Spain to Botswana and given a State funeral in the capital Gaborone. In early 2001, as it became clear that the

  4. The Negro in the Furniture Industry. The Racial Policies of American Industry Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, William E.

    This is the twenty-eighth of a series of studies conducted to determine variances in industrial employment practices of Negroes and to develop appropriate hiring policies. This particular study sought to examine current racial employment policies in the furniture industry within the context of the industry's structure and history. Interviews with…

  5. Food Consumption Patterns in Relation to Life Styles of In-migrant Negro Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome, Norge W.

    This paper discusses the relevance of sociocultural characterization to an understanding of the food consumption patterns of families headed by inmigrant Negro manual workers in the central city of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Field techniques employed in ethnological studies and in dietary surveys were followed in this study. The original population…

  6. An American Dilemma. The Negro problem and Modern Democracy. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrdal, Gunnar

    This study, originally commissioned by the Carnegie Corporation in 1938, makes it clear that the root of the "Negro problem" is the conflict between American moral valuations preserved in the American ideal and the valuations existing on specific planes of individual and group living. There is a jarring discrepancy between the professed…

  7. Saúde reprodutiva e mulheres indígenas do Alto Rio Negro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Azevedo

    Full Text Available O presente artigo descreve e analisa as concepções próprias das mulheres indígenas do Alto Rio Negro sobre saúde reprodutiva, relacionando-as a indicadores de fecundidade. As informações qualitativas apontam para um conhecimento detalhado e complexo que as mulheres indígenas dessa região possuem sobre seu corpo e os cuidados com sua saúde. Os níveis e padrões etários da fecundidade estão relacionados com a etnia das mulheres, portanto, aos sistemas tradicionais de cuidados com a saúde desses povos. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida entre 1997 e 2003, na região de Iauaretê, Terra Indígena Alto Rio Negro (AM, e teve como primeira fonte de dados o Censo Indígena Autônomo do Rio Negro - CIARN-, levado a efeito pela Federação das Organizações Indígenas do Rio Negro - FOIRN - em 1992.

  8. Spatial clustering and longitudinal variation of Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in a river of the Amazon: the importance of the forest fringe and of obstructions to flow in frontier malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, F S M; Arruda, M E; Gurgel, H C; Honório, N A

    2011-12-01

    Deforestation has been linked to a rise in malaria prevalence. In this paper, we studied longitudinally 20 spots, including forested and deforested portions of a temporary river in a malarigenous frontier zone. Larval habitat parameters influencing distribution of Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae were studied. We observed that larvae were clustered in forested-deforested transitions. For the first time in the literature, it was verified that parameters determining larval distribution varied from deforested to forested areas. The proximity to human dwellings was also a significant factor determining distribution, but larvae was most importantly associated with a previously undescribed parameter, the presence of small obstructions to river flow, such as tree trunks within the river channel, which caused pooling of water during the dry season ('microdams'). In deforested areas, the most important factor determining distribution of larvae was shade (reduced luminance). Larvae were absent in the entire studied area during the wet season and present in most sites during the dry season. During the wet-dry transition, larvae were found sooner in areas with microdams, than in other areas, suggesting that flow obstruction prolongs the breeding season of An. darlingi. Adult mosquito densities and malaria incidence were higher during the dry season. Our data correlate well with the published literature, including the distribution of malaria cases near the forest fringes, and has permitted the creation of a model of An. darlingi breeding, where preference for sites with reduced luminance, human presence and microdams would interact to determine larval distribution.

  9. Modelling sustainable international tourism demand to the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Divino, Jose Angelo; McAleer, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The Amazon rainforest is one of the world's greatest natural wonders and holds great importance and significance for the world's environmental balance. Around 60% of the Amazon rainforest is located in the Brazilian territory. The two biggest states of the Amazon region are Amazonas (the upper Amazon) and Para (the lower Amazon), which together account for around 73% of the Brazilian Legal Amazon, and are the only states that are serviced by international airports in Brazil's North region. Th...

  10. Questioning the Influence of Sunspots on Amazon Hydrology: Even a Broken Clock Tells the Right Time Twice a Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J. C. A.; Gloor, M.; Boom, A.; Neill, D. A.; Cintra, B. B. L.; Clerici, S. J.; Brienen, R. J. W.

    2018-02-01

    It was suggested in a recent article that sunspots drive decadal variation in Amazon River flow. This conclusion was based on a novel time series decomposition method used to extract a decadal signal from the Amazon River record. We have extended this analysis back in time, using a new hydrological proxy record of tree ring oxygen isotopes (δ18OTR). Consistent with the findings of Antico and Torres, we find a positive correlation between sunspots and the decadal δ18OTR cycle from 1903 to 2012 (r = 0.60, p r = -0.30, p = 0.11, 1799-1902). This result casts considerable doubt over the mechanism by which sunspots are purported to influence Amazon hydrology.

  11. The impact of channel capture on estuarine hydro-morphodynamics and water quality in the Amazon delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Dos Santos, Eldo; Pinheiro Lopes, Paula Patrícia; da Silva Pereira, Hyrla Herondina; de Oliveira Nascimento, Otávio; Rennie, Colin David; da Silveira Lobo O'Reilly Sternberg, Leonel; Cavalcanti da Cunha, Alan

    2018-05-15

    Due to progressive erosion of the new Urucurituba Channel, the Amazon River has recently captured almost all discharge from the lower Araguari River (Amapá-AP, Brazil), which previously flowed directly to the Atlantic Ocean. These recent geomorphological changes have caused strong impacts on the landscape and hydrodynamic patterns near the Araguari River mouth, especially the alteration of the riverine drainage system and its water quality. Landsat images were used to assess the estuarine landscape morphodynamic, particularly the expansion of the Urucurituba Channel, 80km from the Araguari River mouth, chronicling its connection to the Amazon River. The results suggest that the Urucurituba developed by headward migration across the Amazon delta; this is perhaps the first observation of estuarine distributary network development by headward channel erosion. The rate of Urucurituba Channel width increase has been ≈5m/month since 2011, increasing drainage capacity of the channel. We also collected in situ hydrodynamic measurements and analyzed 17 water quality parameters. Having 2011 as baseline, the flowrate of Araguari River has been diverted by up to 98% through Urucurituba Channel, with substantial changes in net discharge recorded at 3 monitoring stations. Statistically significant differences in water quality (pEstuarine salinity and solids concentrations have increased. Overall, we demonstrate changes in landscape, hydrodynamics and water quality of the lower Araguari River. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Stomach Content of a Juvenile Bolivian River Dolphin (Inia geoffrensis boliviensis) from the Upper Madeira Basin, Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aliaga-Rossel, E.; Beerman, A.S.; Sarmiento, J.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents a study about the stomach content of a juvenile Bolivian river dolphin (Inia geoffrensis boliviensis), an endemic subspecies of the Amazon River dolphin, found in the upper Madeira River basin in Bolivia. The study finds that the stomach of Bolivian river dolphin contained a

  13. Consumo de morera (Morus alba y sorgo negro forrajero (Sorghum almum en ganado Jersey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Boschini

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cosecharon ramas de morera de 84 días y forraje de sorgo negro forrajero de 77 días de rebrote. El forraje fue suministrado a seis toretes Jersey con un peso vivo promedio de 337 (±24,27 kg, distribuidos en un diseño de cuadrado latino 3 x 3, repetido. Los tratamientos experimentales fueron: a.- suministro único de morera, b.- 50% de morera y 50% de sorgo negro forrajero en base verde tal como fue cosechada y c.- suministro único de sorgo negro forrajero. Ambos forrajes se ofrecieron a los animales en forma picada (hojas y tallos. La mezcla de morera y sorgo se realizó en partes iguales en base al peso fresco. Cada animal recibió 50 kg/día de forraje verde. La relación promedio de hoja:tallo en la morera fue de 1,3 (±0,39 y de 0,84 (±0,26 en el sorgo negro. Se recolectaron muestras del material ofrecido y rechazado para el análisis de materia seca, proteína cruda, fibra neutro detergente y cenizas totales. No se observaron diferencias (p>0,05 en el consumo de materia fresca y de materia seca (kg/animal/día entre los tratamientos. La ingesta de materia seca por cada 100 kg de peso vivo de los animales fue de 1,94% para la dieta de morera, 1,82% para la mezcla morera/sorgo y 1,67% para la dieta de sorgo negro, lo cual fue inferior al 2% esperado

  14. Health, Healthcare Access, and Use of Traditional Versus Modern Medicine in Remote Peruvian Amazon Communities: A Descriptive Study of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, Jonathan; Ramirez, Ronald; Wingfield, Tom

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need for healthcare research, funding, and infrastructure in the Peruvian Amazon. We performed a descriptive study of health, health knowledge and practice, and healthcare access of 13 remote communities of the Manat? and Amazon Rivers in northeastern Peru. Eighty-five adults attending a medical boat service were interviewed to collect data on socioeconomic position, health, diagnosed illnesses, pain, healthcare access, and traditional versus modern medicine use. In this se...

  15. Neogene sharks and rays from the Brazilian 'Blue Amazon'.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orangel Aguilera

    Full Text Available The lower Miocene Pirabas Formation in the North of Brazil was deposited under influence of the proto-Amazon River and is characterized by large changes in the ecological niches from the early Miocene onwards. To evaluate these ecological changes, the elasmobranch fauna of the fully marine, carbonate-rich beds was investigated. A diverse fauna with 24 taxa of sharks and rays was identified with the dominant groups being carcharhiniforms and myliobatiforms. This faunal composition is similar to other early Miocene assemblages from the proto-Carribbean bioprovince. However, the Pirabas Formation has unique features compared to the other localities; being the only Neogene fossil fish assemblage described from the Atlantic coast of Tropical Americas. Phosphate oxygen isotope composition of elasmobranch teeth served as proxies for paleotemperatures and paleoecology. The data are compatible with a predominantly tropical marine setting with recognized inshore and offshore habitats with some probable depth preferences (e.g., Aetomylaeus groups. Paleohabitat of taxa particularly found in the Neogene of the Americas (†Carcharhinus ackermannii, †Aetomylaeus cubensis are estimated to have been principally coastal and shallow waters. Larger variation among the few analyzed modern selachians reflects a larger range for the isotopic composition of recent seawater compared to the early Miocene. This probably links to an increased influence of the Amazon River in the coastal regions during the Holocene.

  16. The effects on Amazon floodplains of the dynamics between the water and land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Helena Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Waters and lands in the Amazon, especially near the Solimões/Amazonas Rivers, are very dynamic, recreating the landscapes along the rivers’ paths. The waters transport and deposit eroded materials, causing changes in the lifestyles of the meadow’s residents. In addition to this, there are the recent climatic changes caused by the El Niño phenomenon, intensifying the meadows’ transformations. This research explored the quantitative and qualitative values of knowledge of local people in order to understand the environment in which they live. With an understanding of the islands’ environmental system and the perceptions of seventeen female farmers of the amazon meadow, coupled with appropriate theory and methods, it was possible to explore and execute this research. Valha-me-Deus and Chaves, both in the county of Jurupis, PA, were the islands chosen for the study. The goal of the study was to characterize the dynamics of the waters and lands of the Amazon River together with the re-creation of the river islands and the effects of climate change over the floodplains. The data show meaningful changes in the studied environmental systems, resulting in irreversible losses in the cultivation of food crops such as papaya, cocoa, manioc and bananas, especially after the intense river flooding of 2009.

  17. First record of Annonaceae wood for the Neogene of South America, Amazon Basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Alberto Amaral Soares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The relief of the regions of Manaus and Itacoatiara, Central Amazon, is supported by Neogene siliciclastic rocks, bounded at the base and top by lateritic paleosols and covered by quaternary sedimentary deposits from the Solimões-Amazon river system. This unit is informally assigned to the Novo Remanso Formation, consists of usually reddish and ferruginized sandstones, conglomerates and pelites, with few identified fossil records, a fact that has hindered its stratigraphic position, and the paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the last phase of the Amazon Basin settling. This study describes, for the first time, the occurrence of fossil wood in outcroppings of the left bank of the Amazon River, where anatomical and morphological data has enabled its characterization to the species level. Thus, the data marks the record of the Annonaceae in South America, as well as the depositional processes related to incorporation of organic material in the sandy layer and the fossilization processes that allowed its preservation. In an unprecedented way, this study has described Duguetiaxylon amazonicum nov. gen and sp. and provided information on the anatomical and systematic character, as well as data on plant-insect interaction, and a better understanding of the family.

  18. Oil pollution in soils and sediments from the Northern Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell-Melé, Antoni; Moraleda-Cibrián, Núria; Cartró-Sabaté, Mar; Colomer-Ventura, Ferran; Mayor, Pedro; Orta-Martínez, Martí

    2018-01-01

    Oil has been extracted from the Northern Peruvian Amazon for over four decades. However, few scientific studies have assessed the impacts of such activities in the environment and health of indigenous communities in the region. We have investigated the occurrence of petrogenic hydrocarbon pollution in soils and sediments from areas favoured as hunting or fishing grounds by local indigenous inhabitants. The study was conducted in one of the most productive oil blocks in Peru, located in the headwaters of the Amazon river. Soils and river sediments, in the vicinity of oil extraction and processing infrastructure, contained an oil pollution signature as attested by the occurrence of hopanes and steranes. Given the lack of any other significant source of oil pollution in the region, the sources of hydrocarbons are likely to be the activities of the oil industry in the oil block, from voluntary discharges or accidental spills. Spillage of produced water was commonplace until 2009. Moreover, petrogenic compounds were absent in control samples in sites far removed from any oil infrastructure in the oil block. Our findings suggest that wildlife and indigenous populations in this region of the Amazon are exposed to the ingestion of oil polluted soils and sediments. The data obtained supports previous claims that the local spillage of oil and produced waters in the water courses in the Corrientes and Pastaza basins could have eventually reached the main water course of the Amazon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Environmental considerations in energy planning for the Amazon region: Downstream effects of dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manyari, Waleska Valenca; de Carvalho, Osmar Abilio

    2007-01-01

    The most salient current feature of the electric energy sector in Brazil is the pressing need for expansion. In this context, the hydroelectric resources of the Amazon region are considered a competitive alternative despite the structural problems they entail. These include reliance of new investments and environmental restrictions. Concerning the latter, plans to build large-scale dams in the region have drawn criticism mainly on account of the loss of forest cover in areas flooded by dam reservoirs and the conflicts concerning the relocation of indigenous and riverside communities in the region. This article seeks to contribute to better understanding of the environmental issue in the Amazon by focusing attention on the downstream effects of dams, which have large-scale, hitherto neglected ecological repercussions. The impact of dams extends well beyond the area surrounding the artificial lakes they create, harming rich Amazon wetland ecosystems. The morphology of dammed rivers changes in response to new inputs of energy and matter, which may in turn destroy certain biotopes. This is a remote-sensing-based case study of the Tucurui hydroelectric scheme in the Amazon state of Para. Attention is drawn to the need to take into account effects on alluvial rivers downstream from hydroelectric power plants when it comes to making planning decisions, as part of a sustainable energy policy

  20. RESISTENCIA A SEQUÍA DE LINEAS Y VARIEDADES DE FRIJOL NEGRO TROPICAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Lopez Salinas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos de esta investigación fueron: clasificar genotipos de frijol negro por su tolerancia a sequía e identificar los de mayor eficiencia en el rendimiento en condiciones de riego y sequía. Para ello, en invierno-primavera 2008 se condujeron dos experimentos en Medellín de Bravo, Veracruz; uno con riego todo el ciclo y el otro sin riego, a partir del inicio de floración. Se evaluaron nueve líneas, seis variedades y Criollo Arbolito (testigo local en diseño bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones. Se cuantificó días a madurez fisiológica, producción de materia seca sin grano, vainas por planta, peso de 100 semillas y rendimiento de grano. Se hicieron análisis de varianza por condición de humedad y uno combinado. Como estimadores de eficiencia se utilizaron el índice de susceptibilidad a sequía (ISS y el índice de eficiencia relativa del rendimiento (IER. Con riego, Negro INIFAP, 82L-17-80, Negro Tacaná y Negro Veracruz, fueron los genotipos más productivos con más de 1,0 t ha-1. Con sequía sobresalieron los dos últimos genotipos, más la línea DOR 448, con rendimientos superiores a 400 kg ha-1. El rendimiento bajo sequía en promedio representó el 37,7% con respecto al de riego. Con ISS de 0,71, 0,85 y 0,87, las líneas DOR-448, NGO 17-99 e Icta Ju-97-1, respectivamente, fueron clasificadas como resistentes a sequía. Las variedades Negro Tacaná y Negro Veracruz con valores de IER de 1,67 y 1,47, mostraron la mayor eficiencia en el rendimiento en ambas condiciones de humedad.

  1. Seismotectonics of the 6 February 2012 Mw 6.7 Negros Earthquake, central Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurelio, M. A.; Dianala, J. D. B.; Taguibao, K. J. L.; Pastoriza, L. R.; Reyes, K.; Sarande, R.; Lucero, A.

    2017-07-01

    At 03:49 UTC on the 6th of February 2012, Negros Island in the Visayan region of central Philippines was struck by a magnitude Mw 6.7 earthquake causing deaths of over 50 people and tremendous infrastructure damage leaving hundreds of families homeless. The epicenter was located in the vicinity of the eastern coastal towns of La Libertad and Tayasan of the Province of Negros Oriental. Earthquake-induced surface deformation was mostly in the form of landslides, liquefaction, ground settlement, subsidence and lateral spread. There were no clear indications of a fault surface rupture. The earthquake was triggered by a fault that has not been previously recognized. Earthquake data, including epicentral and hypocentral distributions of main shock and aftershocks, and focal mechanism solutions of the main shock and major aftershocks, indicate a northeast striking, northwest dipping nodal plane with a reverse fault mechanism. Offshore seismic profiles in the Tañon Strait between the islands of Negros and Cebu show a northwest dipping reverse fault consistent in location, geometry and mechanism with the nodal plane calculated from earthquake data. The earthquake generator is here proposed to be named the Negros Oriental Thrust (NOT). Geologic transects established from structural traverses across the earthquake region reveal an east-verging fold-thrust system. In the latitude of Guihulngan, this fold-thrust system is represented by the Razor Back Anticline - Negros Oriental Thrust pair, and by the Pamplona Anticline - Yupisan Thrust pair in the latitude of Dumaguete to the south. Together, these active fold-thrust systems are causing active deformation of the western section of the Visayan Sea Basin under a compressional tectonic regime. This finding contradicts previous tectonic models that interpret the Tañon Strait as a graben, bounded on both sides by normal faults supposedly operating under an extensional regime. The Negros Earthquake and the active fold

  2. Selective logging in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. P. Asner; D. E. Knapp; E. N. Broadbent; P. J. C. Oliveira; M Keller; J. N. Silva

    2005-01-01

    Amazon deforestation has been measured by remote sensing for three decades. In comparison, selective logging has been mostly invisible to satellites. We developed a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote-sensing analysis of selective logging in the top five timber-producing states of the Brazilian Amazon. Logged areas ranged from 12,075 to 19,823 square...

  3. Hot and steamy fractures in the Philippines: the characterisation and permeability evaluation of fractures of the Southern Negros Geothermal Field, Negros Oriental, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastoriza, Loraine; Holdsworth, Robert; McCaffrey, Kenneth; Dempsey, Eddie; Walker, Richard; Gluyas, Jon; Reyes, Jonathan

    2017-04-01

    Fluid flow pathway characterisation is critical to geothermal exploration and exploitation. It requires a good understanding of the structural evolution, fault distribution and fluid flow properties. A dominantly fieldwork-based approach has been used to evaluate the potential fracture permeability characteristics of a typical high-temperature geothermal reservoir in the Southern Negros Geothermal Field, Philippines. This is a liquid-dominated geothermal resource hosted in the andesitic to dacitic Quaternary Cuernos de Negros Volcano in Negros Island. Fieldwork reveals two main fracture groups based on fault rock characteristics, alteration type, relative age of deformation, and associated thermal manifestation, with the younger fractures mainly related to the development of the modern geothermal system. Palaeostress analyses of cross-cutting fault and fracture arrays reveal a progressive counterclockwise rotation of stress axes from the (?)Pliocene up to the present-day, which is consistent with the regional tectonic models. A combined slip and dilation tendency analysis of the mapped faults indicates that NW-SE structures should be particularly promising drilling targets. Frequency versus length and aperture plots of fractures across six to eight orders of magnitude show power-law relationships with a change in scaling exponent in the region of 100 to 500m length-scales. Finally, evaluation of the topology of the fracture branches shows the dominance of Y-nodes that are mostly doubly connected suggesting good connectivity and permeability within the fracture networks. The results obtained in this study illustrate the value of methods that can be globally applied during exploration to better characterize fracture systems in geothermal reservoirs using multiscale datasets.

  4. Paleoambientes lacustres en la sección inferior de la Formación Río Negro, (Mioceno - Plioceno, Río Negro, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Schillizzi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudian paleoambientes lacustres aflorantes en un sector de la plataforma marina ubicadas en la localidad de La Lobería, Provincia de Río Negro. Los medios lagunares son buenos indicadores de las modificaciones climáticas soportadas por el ambiente. La metodología aplicada para la investigación consistió en tamizados por vía seca de las psamítas, análisis con difractometría de rayos "X" de las arcillas y observaciones paleontológicas. En la plataforma intermareal se determino la presencia de tres secciones que componen el miembro inferior de la Formación Río Negro. La sección basal esta formada por areniscas finas, gris verdoso, de origen eólico y depositadas en un medio de dunas con influencia ácuea. La sección media esta constituida por limolitas arcillosas a arenosas finas, color pardo rosado, con estratificación, moldes de bivalvos dulceacuícolas e icnitas de vertebrados. Esta sección se asocia a lagunas someras y restringidas, ambiente que se habría extendido en dirección NE. Este nivel esta cubierto por la sección superior formada por areniscas gris azuladas claras, con estratificación cruzada a horizontal, depositadas en un medio eólico. En la actualidad los ambientes lagunares descriptos soportan una fuerte erosión marina.This paper describes pond paleoenvironments from a marine platform sited in La Lobería, Río Negro Province, Argentina. Ponds are good indicators of paleoenvironmental evolution because they are very sensitive to changes in climatic conditions. The methodology used for this research consisted in dry sieving, X-ray diffractometry analysis and paleontological observations. Three sections belonging to the lower section of the Río Negro formation were determined in the intertidal platform. The lower section is composed of fine-grained greenish gray sandstones deposited in an aeolian dune environment with acueos influence. The middle section consists of stratifield pinkish brown clayey to

  5. Runoff modeling of the Amazon basin using 18 O as a conservative tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortatti, Jefferson; Victoria, Reynaldo L.; Moraes, Jorge M.; Rodrigues Junior, Jose C.; Matsumoto, Otavio M.

    1997-01-01

    Using the δO 18 O content of natural waters as a conservative tracer, a runoff modelling of the Amazon river basin was carried out in order to study the hydrological characteristics of the precipitation-runoff relationship. Measurements of the δ 18 O in rainfall waters made in the high Solimoes region at Benjamin Constant, in the central part of basin at Manaus, and at the mouth near the Marajo Island, while the river waters were measured at Obidos only, as a proxy for the mouth, during the 1973-1974 hydrological years. The hydrography separation of the Amazon river was performed using the isotopic method to estimate the contributions of the surface runoff (event water) and baseflow (pre-event water) components to the total river flow. At peak discharge, the average contribution of the baseflow was 57% of the total river flow. The annual average contributions for surface runoff and baseflow were 30.3 and 69.7%, respectively. The residence time of the subsurface water in the basin was estimated as being 7 months, by fitting a sinusoidal function to the isotopic values of rainfall and river waters. The low values of the amplitude damping in the basin suggest high mixing waters during the runoff process. (author). 21 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  6. Exploring the Geomorphology of the Amazon's Planalto and Understanding the Origin of the Modern Amazon Basin with Imaging Radar:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, R.; McDonald, K. C.; Azarderakhsh, M.; Campbell, K.; Cracraft, J.; Carnaval, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Amazon basin is a biodiversity biome and plays a significant role into shaping the earth's climate, ocean and atmospheric gases. Understanding the history of the formation of the basin is essential to our understanding of the region's biodiversity loss and response to climate change. Ancient River channels in lowland Amazonia exhibit right angle branching structures as well as intricately intertwined channels. Past research has attributed these characteristic as a result of subsurface faults but makes it difficult to validate this augment due to dense vegetation and sedimentation. We seek to employ remote sensing techniques for examining geomorphological features and the relationship to evolutionary processes that shaped biodiversity in the modern Amazon River Basin. We utilize UAVSAR imagery gathered from the NASA/JPL airborne imaging radar over the Planalto, in the Madre de Dios region of Southeastern Peru in an assessment of the underlying geomorphology, its relationship to the current distribution of vegetation, and geologic processes through deep time. In the late Neogene, the Amazonian lowlands comprised either a series of independent basins or a single sedimentary basin. The Amazonian Planalto is variously described as either erosional surface or a surface of deposition. We employ UAVSAR data collection to assess (1) the utility of these radar data for use in identifying associated geomorphologic features, and (2) UAVSAR's utility in aiding interpretation of ALOS PALSAR and STRM datasets to support a basin-wide characterization. We derive maps of river networks using a canny based edge detection method applied on the UAVSAR backscatter images. We develop an algorithm, which separates the river networks into various catchments based on connected component and then calculates angles at each branch point. We then assess distribution of right angle branching structure throughout the entire region. The results of the analysis will have a major impact on

  7. Patterns of geographic expansion of Aedes aegypti in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Anne Guagliardo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Peruvian Amazon, the dengue vector Aedes aegypti is abundant in large urban centers such as Iquitos. In recent years, it has also been found in a number of neighboring rural communities with similar climatic and socioeconomic conditions. To better understand Ae. aegypti spread, we compared characteristics of communities, houses, and containers in infested and uninfested communities.We conducted pupal-demographic surveys and deployed ovitraps in 34 communities surrounding the city of Iquitos. Communities surveyed were located along two transects: the Amazon River and a 95 km highway. We calculated entomological indices, mapped Ae. aegypti presence, and developed univariable and multivariable logistic regression models to predict Ae. aegypti presence at the community, household, or container level.Large communities closer to Iquitos were more likely to be infested with Ae. aegypti. Within infested communities, houses with Ae. aegypti had more passively-filled containers and were more often infested with other mosquito genera than houses without Ae. aegypti. For containers, large water tanks/drums and containers with solar exposure were more likely to be infested with Ae. aegypti. Maps of Ae. aegypti presence revealed a linear pattern of infestation along the highway, and a scattered pattern along the Amazon River. We also identified the geographical limit of Ae. aegypti expansion along the highway at 19.3 km south of Iquitos.In the Peruvian Amazon, Ae. aegypti geographic spread is driven by human transportation networks along rivers and highways. Our results suggest that urban development and oviposition site availability drive Ae. aegypti colonization along roads. Along rivers, boat traffic is likely to drive long-distance dispersal via unintentional transport of mosquitoes on boats.

  8. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (rio Mamore virus) in the peruvian Amazon region

    OpenAIRE

    Mamani, Enrique; Centro Nacional de Salud Pública. Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. biólogo.; García, María P.; Centro Nacional de Salud Pública. Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. tecnólogo médico.; Miraval, María L.; Centro Nacional de Salud Pública. Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. médico anátomo-patólogo.; Valencia, Pedro; Centro Nacional de Salud Pública. Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico infectólogo.; Quino, Alberto H.; Hospital Regional de Loreto, Gobierno Regional de Loreto. Loreto, Perú. médico intensivista.; Álvarez, Carlos; Unidad de Análisis y Generación de Evidencias en Salud Pública. Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. médico anátomo-patólogo.; Donaires, Luis F.; Dirección Regional de Salud de Loreto, Gobierno Regional de Loreto. Loreto, Perú. médico epidemiólogo.

    2014-01-01

    Hantavirus infection is a viral zoonotic infection borne by rodents which most letal form clinical is the Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (SPH, Spanish abbreviation). The Mamore River variant originates in South America and was found in rodents without any association to human diseases. Two cases of SPH were identified in the Peruvian Amazon region in November 2011. In both cases, a molecular diagnostic testing was conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Salud from Peru. A phylogenetic analy...

  9. Uranium geochemistry on the Amazon shelf: Chemical phase partitioning and cycling across a salinity gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swarzenski, P.W.; McKee, B.A.; Booth, J.G.

    1995-01-01

    The size distribution of U was examined in surface waters of the Amazon shelf. Water samples were collected during a low discharge river stage across a broad salinity gradient (0.3-35.4%) and fractionated by planar filtration and tangential-flow ultrafiltration into (1) solution (U s , c , 10,000 MW-0.4 μm), (3) dissolved (U d p >0.4 μm) phases. Concentrations of colloidal U comprise up to 92% of the dissolved U fraction at the river mouth and attain highest values (∼0.45 μg/L) in the productive, biogenic region of the Amazon shelf (salinities above ∼20%). U d and U c distributions are highly nonconservative relative to ideal dilution of river water and seawater, indicating extensive removal at salinities below ∼10%. The distribution of U s also shows some nonconservative behavior, yet removal, if any, is minimal. Saltwater-induced precipitation and aggregation of riverine colloidal material is most likely the dominant mechanism of U removal in the low salinity, terrigenous region of the Amazon shelf. There is evident of a substantial colloidal U input (∼245% of the riverine U c flux) into surface waters above 5%. Such U c enrichment most likely is the result of colloidal U-rich porewater diffusion/advection from the seabed and fluid muds or shelf-wide particle-colloid disaggregation. Removal of solution and dissolved phase U via a colloidal intermediate and U c aggregation in terms of coagulation phase U via a colloidal intermediate and U c aggregation was examined in terms of coagulation theory. The high reactive nature of all U phases on the Amazon shelf suggests that remobilization and fractionation of U may also occur in other river-influenced coastal environments

  10. Mercury pollution in the Upper Beni River, Amazonian basin : Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Maurice Bourgoin, Laurence; Quiroga, I.; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Malm, O.

    1999-01-01

    Mercury contamination caused by the amalgamation of gold in small-scale gold mining is an environmental problem of increasing concern, particularly in tropical regions like the Amazon, where a new boom of such gold mining started in the 1970s. In Brazil, research into these problems has been carried out for many years, but there is no available data for Bolivia. The present paper surveys mercury contamination of a Bolivian river system in the Amazon drainage basin, measured in water, fish, an...

  11. An Atlantic influence on Amazon rainfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho [University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, College Park, MD (United States); Zeng, Ning [University of Maryland, Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, College Park, MD (United States); University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, College Park, MD (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Rainfall variability over the Amazon basin has often been linked to variations in Pacific sea surface temperature (SST), and in particular, to the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, only a fraction of Amazon rainfall variability can be explained by ENSO. Building upon the recent work of Zeng (Environ Res Lett 3:014002, 2008), here we provide further evidence for an influence on Amazon rainfall from the tropical Atlantic Ocean. The strength of the North Atlantic influence is found to be comparable to the better-known Pacific ENSO connection. The tropical South Atlantic Ocean also shows some influence during the wet-to-dry season transition period. The Atlantic influence is through changes in the north-south divergent circulation and the movement of the ITCZ following warm SST. Therefore, it is strongest in the southern part of the Amazon basin during the Amazon's dry season (July-October). In contrast, the ENSO related teleconnection is through anomalous east-west Walker circulation with largely concentrated in the eastern (lower) Amazon. This ENSO connection is seasonally locked to boreal winter. A complication due to the influence of ENSO on Atlantic SST causes an apparent North Atlantic SST lag of Amazon rainfall. Removing ENSO from North Atlantic SST via linear regression resolves this causality problem in that the residual Atlantic variability correlates well and is in phase with the Amazon rainfall. A strong Atlantic influence during boreal summer and autumn is particularly significant in terms of the impact on the hydro-ecosystem which is most vulnerable during the dry season, as highlighted by the severe 2005 Amazon drought. Such findings have implications for both seasonal-interannual climate prediction and understanding the longer-term changes of the Amazon rainforest. (orig.)

  12. UNA PROPUESTA DE AULA PARA EL ABORDAJE DE LA REGIÓN DEL ALTO VALLE DE RÍO NEGRO Y NEUQUÉN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermina Muñoz Castillo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the Postgraduate specialization Educational contents in Geography in National Comahue University, the interest was focused in the study involved North Patagonia region and the spatial transformations derived from global and national economic restructuring in recent times. The present report presents a collection of contents and geographical themes associated with this area, directed to plan a new annual schedule of geographic classroom contents. The idea behind this proposal was the incorporation of the concept of region, considering the High Valley region of Negro and Neuquén rivers as a study case, and the analysis of fruit farming understood as one of the local production processes which clearly show significant changes in its dynamics as a result of the macroeonomic transformations. The objective is to propose contents which allow middle school students to acquire new knowledge about the North Patagonia region, specifically the Alto Valle region of Río Negro and Neuquén, based on the incomplete study of the region as a cross-curricular theme. This presentation offers a new perspective of thinking about new teaching approaches in the classroom in which students’ everyday life would be considered, specially their own representations of their local sphere as a valid tool to build meaningful and socially relevant knowledge. Geography teaching needs to reconsider to meet students’ demands, to provide tools to offer a solution of their problems and practical needs. The construction of a critical and reflexive subject is essential, and Geography, particularly, assumes a formative and assiduous role, because, through its tools, it intends to realise the student’s intervention, turning himself into an active participant of the construction of his reality.

  13. AMAZON HADOOP FRAMEWORK USED IN BUSINESS FOR BIG DATA ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Ankush Verma*, Dr Neelesh Jain

    2017-01-01

    The Amazon MapReduce programming model, introduced by Amazon, a simple and efficient way of performing distributed computation over large data sets on the web especially for e-commerce. Amazon EMR work on Master/Slave Architecture using Amazon EMR for map and reduce big data. Amazon EC2 use cloud computing is a central part of designed web service that provides resizable compute capacity in the cloud. Here we also discuss about the Benefit and limitation of using Amazon EMR. Amazon S3 use eas...

  14. A pesca de pequena escala no rio Madeira pelos desembarques ocorridos em Manicoré (Estado do Amazonas, Brasil Small-scale fishery at Madeira River by fish landings in Manicoré city (Amazon State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Soares Cardoso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo analisar o desembarque da pesca comercial na região do Médio rio Madeira, tendo como área focal o município de Manicoré, buscando identificar as espécies explotadas, os locais de pesca e sua contribuição para o abastecimento local de pescado. O desembarque foi amostrado diariamente, utilizando questionários aplicados aos pescadores após a comercialização do pescado. Foram desembarcadas no ano de 2002 aproximadamente 225,4 toneladas de pescado. Canoas motorizadas efetuaram mais expedições de pesca, entretanto os barcos de pesca desembarcaram uma maior produção. Os valores médios de desembarque foram de 11,2; 5,4 e 2,4 toneladas por mês para barcos, canoas e compradores de pescado respectivamente, sendo as capturas compostas por 32 espécies ou grupo de espécies, sendo jaraqui (Semaprochilodus spp, pacu (Mylossoma duriventre, curimatá (Prochilodus nigricans, sardinha (Triportheus spp e jatuarana (Brycon spp, responsáveis por 75% do pescado desembarcado. Foram identificados 32 locais de pesca, sendo os mais explotados os rios Madeira e Manicoré, os lagos Acará e Boquerão e o igarapé Matupiri.The study aimed to analyze the landing of commercial fishing in Middle Madeira River, near Manicoré city, identifying the exploited species, fishing grounds and the contribution for the local supplying of fish. Fish landings were sampled daily, using questionnaires, given to fishermen after the fish sale. In 2002, 225.4 tons of fish were landed in Manicoré city. Motorized canoes undertook more fishing trips, but the higher fish landings were accomplished by boats. Mean values of fish landings were 11.2 tons/month, 5.4 tons/month and 2.4 tons/month for boats, motorized canoes and fish purchasers, respectively. 32 species or group of species were landed, with a predominance of jaraqui (Semaprochilodus spp, pacu (Mylossoma duriventre, curimatá (Prochilodus nigricans, sardinha (Triportheus spp e jatuarana

  15. Deep mycoses in Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhari, S; Cunha, M G; Schettini, A P; Talhari, A C

    1988-09-01

    Patients with deep mycoses diagnosed in dermatologic clinics of Manaus (state of Amazonas, Brazil) were studied from November 1973 to December 1983. They came from the Brazilian states of Amazonas, Pará, Acre, and Rondônia and the Federal Territory of Roraima. All of these regions, with the exception of Pará, are situated in the western part of the Amazon Basin. The climatic conditions in this region are almost the same: tropical forest, high rainfall, and mean annual temperature of 26C. The deep mycoses diagnosed, in order of frequency, were Jorge Lobo's disease, paracoccidioidomycosis, chromomycosis, sporotrichosis, mycetoma, cryptococcosis, zygomycosis, and histoplasmosis.

  16. Getting started With Amazon Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Getting Started With Amazon Redshift is a step-by-step, practical guide to the world of Redshift. Learn to load, manage, and query data on Redshift.This book is for CIOs, enterprise architects, developers, and anyone else who needs to get familiar with RedShift. The CIO will gain an understanding of what their technical staff is working on; the technical implementation personnel will get an in-depth view of the technology, and what it will take to implement their own solutions.

  17. The Teles Pires volcanic province: A paleogeoproterozoic silicic-dominated large igneous province in southwest Amazon craton and tectonic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, Jayme Alfredo Dexheimer; Saes, Gerson Souza; Macambira, Moacir Jose Buenano

    2001-01-01

    Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) are important features of the Earth history especially recognized during Paleo to Mezosoic times when they are related to the break up of supercontinents (Coffin and Eldhom, 1994). These provinces occur in several different tectonic settings such as volcanic passive margins, submarine ridges and continental and oceanic plateaux. Mafic-dominanted provinces are the most well known among the LIPs and the best examples are the Karoo, Kerguelem and Ontong-Java. LIPs including an important silicic component have been described in some basaltic provinces of southern Africa (Milner et al. 1992). More recently, silicic-dominated LIPs have been recognized in eastern Australia (Bryan et al., 2000), in southern South America (Pankhurst et al. 1998) and in Antartica Penninsula (Riley and Leat, 1999). The common characteristics of this kind of LIP include: 1) large volume of silicic rocks with dominance of ignimbrites, 2) active over 40 to 50 m.y.; and 3) spatially and temporally associated with plate break up. In this paper we present the main geologic and geochronologic characteristics of the Teles Pires volcanic province from southwest Amazon Craton, which allow its classification as a Paleoprotorozoic silicic-dominated LIP. Geologic implications of this suggestion includes the existence of a large cratonic plate as old as 1.81Ga for the Amazon Craton, therefore the proposed 1.85-1.55 Ga magmatic arc of Rio Negro-Juruena Province should be reviewed (au)

  18. Santos negros nas Américas na crise do Antigo Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline dos Santos Guedes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetos de estudo deste ensaio são a irmandade de São Baltasar em Buenos Aires e a irmandade de São Elesbão e Santa Efigênia no Rio de Janeiro de fins do século XVIII até princípios do século XIX. Ambas as instituições têm majoritariamente associados negros e contam também com santos negros como patronos. Observe-se a importância da apropriação da religião católica por estes afrodescendentes e o papel que esses “santos de cor” exercem no cotidiano desta população restrita de direitos devido à sua ascendência africana. As irmandades são instituições de suma importância na dinâmica colonial, então os negros se inserem nessas instituições ou criam suas próprias, muitas vezes na tentativa de penetrar no mundo social das colônias, ganhando maior visibilidade.

  19. Resposta do detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg ao "ringdown" de buraco negros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, C. A.; Aguiar, O. D.; Magalhães, N. S.

    2003-08-01

    Acredita-se que quando duas estrelas de nêutrons coalescem, elas, eventualmente, formam um buraco negro com massa igual a soma das massas dos objetos originais. Durante a formação do buraco negro, o espaço-tempo em torno do sistema sofre perturbações que se propagam na forma de radiação gravitacional. A forma de onda associada a radiação gravitacional, durante este estágio, aproxima-se a uma senóide exponencialmente amortecida. Este tipo de sinal é conhecido como "ringdown", e seu comportamento e parametrização são muito bem conhecidos. Neste trabalho, simulamos computacionalmente sinais provenientes do "ringdown" de buracos negros, com a finalidade de testar o desempenho do detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg em observá-los, quando entrar em funcionamento. Este primeiro teste teórico ajudou-nos a criar estratégias de detecção de sinais imersos no ruído instrumental. Calculamos a relação sinal-ruído como uma função da frequência, bem como sua integral dentro da faixa de sensibilidade do detector. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o detector Schenberg terá sensibilidade suficiente para detectar este tipo de sinal, proveniente de fontes astrofísicas localizadas dentro de um raio de ~100kpc.

  20. Eunotiaceae (Bacillariophyceae em igarapés da Amazônia Central, Manaus e Presidente Figueiredo, Brasil Eunotiaceae (Bacillariophyceae from central Amazon rivers, Manaus and Presidente Figueiredo districts, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ferrari

    2007-01-01

    Amazonian rivers and to register the typical morphologic frustule variations of some species. Planktonic and periphytic samples were collected from five rivers located at the BR-174 highway, near Manaus and Presidente Figueiredo districts, during 1996 and 1997. Slides were prepared in accordance with the technique of slow oxidation for the qualitative determination. Twenty-three species of Eunotia and six of Actinella were identified. Dicotomic keys, taxonomic comments and photographic illustrations were added. Morphotypes of Eunotia zygodon were registered. Species scarcelly mentioned on diatom literature were registered, such as, Eunotia falcifera and Eunotia rostellata.

  1. Descarte de peixes na pesca comercial em Tefé, médio Solimões, Amazônia Central = Discarded catches from commercial fisheries in the middle Solimões river, Central Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandick da Silva Batista

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Descartes são comuns na pesca comercial, sendo avaliados para apoiar o manejo da pesca na região. Por meio de acompanhamentos diários das pescarias da frota comercial de Tefé, foi descrito o descarte de pescado no médio Solimões. Utilizando análises de correlação e covariância, foram avaliados fatores que determinam o descarte com três modalidades distintas de pesca. Os pescadores selecionaram o pescado no momento da captura por espécie e tamanho. As espécies de pescados mais descartados foram jaraquis, tucunarés e branquinhas, porém os mais freqüentes, no descarte, foram espécies dos Siluriformes. Os apetrechos de pesca analisados apresentaram diferenças nas características de seu descarte. O descarte foi menor na enchente-cheia (5-17% da captura, conforme apetrecho que durante a vazante-seca (20-62%, conforme apetrecho. Discards are common in commercial fishery, and are evaluated in order to support fisheries management in the region. Fish discards in themiddle Solimões River were described through daily monitoring of fishing activities by the commercial fleet of the town of Tefé. By making use of analyses of correlation and covariance, determinant factors for discards in three different types of fisheries wereevaluated. The crew selected the fish at the moment of capture, by species and size. Among the most discarded fish species were jaraquis Semaprochilodus spp., tucunarés Cichla spp. and branquinhas Curimatidae; however, the most frequently discarded were Siluriform species. The fishing gear analyzed featured differences in their discarding characteristics. Discard was lower during the flood period (5-17% of catches, depending on gear than during the dry season (20-62% of catches, depending on gear.

  2. Amazon Web Services- a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Narendula, Rammohan

    2012-01-01

    The Amazon Web Services (AWS) is a set (more than 25) of proprietary web-based services owned by Amazon.com. All these services ranging from simple storage to sophisticated database services constitute the cloud platform oered by Amazon. An extensive list of customers for AWS include Dropbox, UniLever, Airbnb, Nasdaq, Netflix. As of 2007, there are more than 300K developers actively using AWS. It is one of the pioneers which brought the cloud computing closer to masses helping number of start...

  3. Transfer of trace elements in the Amazon basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraz, E.S.B.; Tuon, R.L.; Fernandes, E.A.N.

    1991-01-01

    The Amazon basin is the world's largest system both in terms of drainage area, 7x10 6 km 2 , and sediment discharge, about 1.3x10 9 tons of solid suspended material each year. It is located at northern South America in the equatorial zone, extending through nine countries, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Surinam, French Guyana, and Brazil, where is the majority (70%) of the total area. The Amazon basin is geologically limited in the west by the Andes Cordillera, in the south by the Brazilian altiplain, in the north by the Guyana mountains and in the east by the Atlantic Ocean. It is the most fabulous natural ecosystem of the world, remaining in a perfect state of equilibrium, not yet deeply studied. The development of mathematic models describing its dynamics is very important for its comprehension and preservation. Trace elements, in special the rare earth elements, can be useful to elaborate such models. Several processes in rivers and estuaries have been investigated through the use of REEs as tracers, addressing the riverine input of elements to the oceans from continents. Trace elements were also used to elaborate a model for chemical exchange from the water to the sediments and the subsequent release from the sediments into the water. (5 refs., 6 figs.)

  4. Range extension of Moenkhausia oligolepis (Günther,1864 to the Pindaré river drainage, of Mearim river basin, and Itapecuru river basin of northeastern Brazil (Characiformes: Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Cristofore Guimarães

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports range extansion of Moenkhausia oligolepis to the Pindaré river drainage, of the Mearim river basin, and Itapecuru river basin, Maranhão state, northeastern Brazil. This species was previously known only from Venezuela, Guianas, and the Amazon River basins. In addition, we present some meristic and morphometric data of the specimens herein examined and discuss on its diagnostic characters.

  5. Dependence of hydropower energy generation on forests in the Amazon Basin at local and regional scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, Claudia M; Coe, Michael T; Costa, Marcos H; Nepstad, Daniel C; McGrath, David G; Dias, Livia C P; Rodrigues, Hermann O; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S

    2013-06-04

    Tropical rainforest regions have large hydropower generation potential that figures prominently in many nations' energy growth strategies. Feasibility studies of hydropower plants typically ignore the effect of future deforestation or assume that deforestation will have a positive effect on river discharge and energy generation resulting from declines in evapotranspiration (ET) associated with forest conversion. Forest loss can also reduce river discharge, however, by inhibiting rainfall. We used land use, hydrological, and climate models to examine the local "direct" effects (through changes in ET within the watershed) and the potential regional "indirect" effects (through changes in rainfall) of deforestation on river discharge and energy generation potential for the Belo Monte energy complex, one of the world's largest hydropower plants that is currently under construction on the Xingu River in the eastern Amazon. In the absence of indirect effects of deforestation, simulated deforestation of 20% and 40% within the Xingu River basin increased discharge by 4-8% and 10-12%, with similar increases in energy generation. When indirect effects were considered, deforestation of the Amazon region inhibited rainfall within the Xingu Basin, counterbalancing declines in ET and decreasing discharge by 6-36%. Under business-as-usual projections of forest loss for 2050 (40%), simulated power generation declined to only 25% of maximum plant output and 60% of the industry's own projections. Like other energy sources, hydropower plants present large social and environmental costs. Their reliability as energy sources, however, must take into account their dependence on forests.

  6. Adaptação e validação do Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT para população ribeirinha do interior da Amazônia, Brasil Adaptation and validation of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT for a river population in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Otávio Moretti-Pires

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo foi validar o Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT para a população do interior do Amazonas, Brasil. A versão original em Inglês foi traduzida para o Português, usando-se o procedimento recomendado pela Organização Mundial da Saúde. O texto foi, então, retraduzido e enviado para um tradutor inglês nativo, que aprovou a tradução. O AUDIT foi administrado a 361 habitantes, três vezes, em um período de duas semanas (teste e reteste. Os dados foram analisados para a confiabilidade e consistência interna. O alfa de Cronbach foi de 0,87 na primeira aplicação, 0,87 na segunda e 0,86 na terceira. A confiabilidade Teste/Reteste foi avaliada usando-se o coeficiente de correlação intraclasse, que para a pontuação total do AUDIT foi de 0,93. A área sob a curva ROC foi de 0,805 no ponto de corte sete (sensibilidade de 76,4% e especificidade 75%. Conclusões: a versão do AUDIT validada mostra-se internamente consistente e estável no contexto investigado, destacando-se a necessidade de avaliação de outras propriedades psicométricas.The objective of this study was to validate the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT for a river population in the Brazilian Amazon. The original English version of AUDIT was translated into Portuguese, using the procedure recommended by the World Health Organization. The text was then back-translated and submitted to a native English translator, who approved the translation. AUDIT was administered to 361 inhabitants for a total of three times in two weeks. Data were analyzed for test/retest reliability and internal consistency. Cronbach's alpha was 0.87 at the first interview, 0.87 at the second, and 0.86 at the third. Test/retest reliability assessed via the intra-class correlation coefficient for the total AUDIT scale was 0.93. Area under ROC was 0.805 for a cutoff of seven (sensitivity 76.4%; specificity 75%. The validated AUDIT proved to be internally

  7. Rainfall trends in the Brazilian Amazon Basin in the past eight decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyamurty, Prakki; de Castro, Aline Anderson; Tota, Julio; da Silva Gularte, Lucia Eliane; Manzi, Antonio Ocimar

    2010-01-01

    Rainfall series at 18 stations along the major rivers of the Brazilian Amazon Basin, having data since 1920s or 1930s, are analyzed to verify if there are appreciable long-term trends. Annual, rainy-season, and dry-season rainfalls are individually analyzed for each station and for the region as a whole. Some stations showed positive trends and some negative trends. The trends in the annual rainfall are significant at only six stations, five of which reporting increasing trends (Barcelos, Belem, Manaus, Rio Branco, and Soure stations) and just one (Itaituba station) reporting decreasing trend. The climatological values of rainfall before and after 1970 show significant differences at six stations (Barcelos, Belem, Benjamin Constant, Iaurete, Itaituba, and Soure). The region as a whole shows an insignificant and weak downward trend; therefore, we cannot affirm that the rainfall in the Brazilian Amazon basin is experiencing a significant change, except at a few individual stations. Subregions with upward and downward trends are interspersed in space from the far eastern Amazon to western Amazon. Most of the seasonal trends follow the annual trends, thus, indicating a certain consistency in the datasets and analysis.

  8. Nuclear method applied in archaeological sites at the Amazon basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicoli, Ieda Gomes; Bernedo, Alfredo Victor Bellido; Latini, Rose Mary

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was to use the nuclear methodology to character pottery discovered inside archaeological sites recognized with circular earth structure in Acre State - Brazil which may contribute to the research in the reconstruction of part of the pre-history of the Amazonic Basin. The sites are located mainly in the Hydrographic Basin of High Purus River. Three of them were strategic chosen to collect the ceramics: Lobao, in Sena Madureira County at north; Alto Alegre in Rio Branco County at east and Xipamanu I, in Xapuri County at south. Neutron Activation Analysis in conjunction with multivariate statistical methods were used for the ceramic characterization and classification. An homogeneous group was established by all the sherds collected from Alto Alegre and was distinct from the other two groups analyzed. Some of the sherds collected from Xipamunu I appeared in Lobao's urns, probably because they had the same fabrication process. (author)

  9. On the footprints of a major Brazilian Amazon earthquake

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    ALBERTO V. VELOSO

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Combining historical accounts and seismological studies, three hundred years of dormant information emerged as a source of the largest known seismic event that rocked Brazil since the beginning of our colonization. The probable epicenter location of the 1690 tremor lies on the left bank of the Amazon River, about 45 km downstream from the modern day Manaus. A year later, while passing this area, a missionary met witnesses of the tremor and observed remarkable changes in the topography and vegetation along the margin of the river. By 1692 another priest confirmed this event and the occurrence of large waves in the river, which led to the flooding of the Native Indians' terrains. The tremor spread seismic waves throughout the forest and shook indigenous constructions as far as one thousand kilometers away. A calculation of the seismic parameters shows an estimated magnitude of 7, a maximum intensity of IX MM and a felt area of about 2 million km2. Due to the long recurrence period for this type of tremor, the discovery of one of these events is valuable for seismic global intraplate studies. As for Brazil, it unravels the myth that the country was never hit by severe earthquakes.

  10. Trophic opportunism of central Amazon floodplain fish

    OpenAIRE

    Mortillaro, J. M.; Pouilly, Marc; Wach, M.; Freitas, C. E. C.; Abril, G.; Meziane, T.

    2015-01-01

    The food web of the central Amazon basin displays one of the largest discrepancies in food source utilisation versus availability for consumers. While C-4 macrophytes dominate the primary producing biomass in floodplains, the food web is dominated by the use of C-3 carbon sources. Amazon fish species have wide-ranging diets and show feeding flexibility in response to spatial and temporal patterns in food source availability. Fish are therefore expected to use a range of available resources. F...

  11. HEPATITIS B IN RONDÔNIA (WESTERN AMAZON REGION, BRAZIL: descriptive analysis and spatial distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel de Deus VIEIRA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The Amazon is one of the regions who have the highest rates of infection by the hepatitis B virus in the world. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiological data and spatial distribution of hepatitis B cases reported between 2002 and 2012 in the Brazilian State of Rondônia. Methods Social and clinical data of these individuals were studied through the Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN, including the following variables: gender, age group, vaccination, contact with a known patient with HBV, exposure to risk factors, source of infection, and clinical status. Results There were 7,132 cases reported in Rondônia, with an average incidence rate of 42/100,000 inhabitants per year. The municipalities with the highest incidence rates were Monte Negro (187.6/100,000 inhabitants and Ariquemes (157.2/100,000 inhabitants. The 20-39 year-old age group had the highest number of cases (n = 3,834, and 69.9% of patients were likely infected via sexual contact. Regarding the clinical disease status, most of the patients (80.7% were in the chronic phase. Conclusions There was a recent 402% increase in the diagnosis of hepatitis B, which is likely owing to the improvements in the public diagnostic system. This highlights the need for public policies to prevent and control the disease.

  12. Self education and the production of indigenous children in the Northwest Amazon (Brazil

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    Rita de Cácia Oenning da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Supported by ethnographic documentation, by the anthropological literature and by data collected in the field, this article relates the process by which indigenous peoples in the northwest Amazon learn and teach children with the rich dialogue about the production of persons. The techniques and the meaning of «producing people» are transmitted in day to day life, in the interaction between generations, and in the narratives of specialists and family members (especially grandparents. At the same time, this process is intertwined with ritual and mythic knowledge transmission, which is, if not always explicit, always present in the indigenous groups of the region. Children also play active roles in this process of formation and self- formation; in this article, I lay out this social agency my means of a careful description of the day in the life of children in the multiethnic village of Tabocal do uneiuxi, santa Isabel do Rio negro. In this narrative, I point of the ways that children are agents in their own education and self-production, emphasizing their protagonism in the process of «producing people», as they incorporate and transform knowledge.

  13. Airborne and spaceborne radar images for geologic and environmental mapping in the Amazon rain forest, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, John P.; Hurtak, James J.

    1986-01-01

    Spaceborne and airborne radar image of portions of the Middle and Upper Amazon basin in the state of Amazonas and the Territory of Roraima are compared for purposes of geological and environmental mapping. The contrasted illumination geometries and imaging parameters are related to terrain slope and surface roughness characteristics for corresponding areas that were covered by each of the radar imaging systems. Landforms range from deeply dissected mountain and plateau with relief up to 500 m in Roraima, revealing ancient layered rocks through folded residual mountains to deeply beveled pediplain in Amazonas. Geomorphic features provide distinct textural signatures that are characteristic of different rock associations. The principle drainages in the areas covered are the Rio Negro, Rio Branco, and the Rio Japura. Shadowing effects and low radar sensitivity to subtle linear fractures that are aligned parallel or nearly parallel to the direction of radar illumination illustrate the need to obtain multiple coverage with viewing directions about 90 degrees. Perception of standing water and alluvial forest in floodplains varies with incident angle and with season. Multitemporal data sets acquired over periods of years provide an ideal method of monitoring environmental changes.

  14. Antigenic cross-reactivity and immunogenicity of Bothrops venoms from snakes of the Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Maria de Fátima D; Cardoso, Silvia Travaglia; Soares, Oscar Espellet; Pereira, Aparecida Pietro; Fernandes, Daniel Silva; Tambourgi, Denise Vilarinho; Sant'Anna, Osvaldo Augusto

    2010-04-01

    Snakebites are still a critical public health problem in developing countries or isolated areas. In Brazil, the North Region has a high distribution coefficient worsened by the significant number of eventually unreported cases, due to difficulties in access to health services, to the natural geographic barriers and the vast territory. In the Rio Negro area, the species Bothrops atrox, Bothrops brazili, Lachesis muta muta and Bothriopsis taeniata are thought to be the major species responsible for snakebites. The aim of this study was to qualitatively and quantitatively determine the antigenic cross-reactivity and expression of toxins and the immunogenicity of Bothrops venom species of the Amazon and to evaluate the general efficacy of the therapeutic sera. The in vivo assays demonstrated that the defibrinating activity of B. taeniata venom was absent but that the lethal and hemorrhagic properties were more intense than in the B. atrox venom. The results evidence venom variability among the two B. atrox populations from two distinct Amazonian regions, which may reveal a subjacent speciation process. The results point to new aspects that may guide the improvement of anti-Bothropic therapeutic serum. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. On Dams in the Amazon Basin, Teleconnected Impacts, and Neighbors Unaware of the Damage to their Natural Resources and Assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latrubesse, E. M.; Park, E.

    2017-12-01

    In a recent study, Latrubesse et al., (2017) demonstrated that the accumulated negative environmental effects of more than one hundred existing dams and at least 288 proposed dams, if constructed, will trigger massive hydrophysical and biotic disturbances that will affect the Amazon basin's floodplains, estuary and sediment plume. The authors introduced a Dam Environmental Vulnerability Index (DEVI) to quantify the current and potential impacts of dams in the basin. The current and potential vulnerabilities of different regions of the Amazon basin was assessed, and the results highlighted the need for a more efficient and integrative legal framework involving all nine countries of the basin in an anticipatory assessment to minimize the negative socio-environmental and biotic impacts of hydropower developments. Here we present expanded information on the potential impacts of dams in the lower Amazon and the northeast Atlantic coast of South America, and revisit our proposed integrative strategies for basin management which are based on the adaptation and functionality of the institutional and legal framework already existing in the Amazon countries. Participative strategies involving members from the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization (ACTO) countries, and additional members (for example, France), such as the creation of a basin committee -as defined by the Brazilian Law of Waters of Brazil-, and the creation of an Amazon Basin Panel allowing the participation of scientists that could have a policy-relevant role but should be not policy-prescriptive, are also discussed. ReferencesLatrubesse, E., Arima E. Dunne T., Park E., Baker V, Horta F.,Wight, C., Wittmann F., Zuanon, J., Baker P., Ribas C, Norgaard R., Filizola N., Ansar A., Flyvbjerg B., Stevaux, J. 2017. Damming the rivers of the Amazon basin. Nature, 546, 363-369.

  16. Fishing effort and catch composition of urban market and rural villages in Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallwass, Gustavo; Lopes, Priscila Fabiana; Juras, Anastacio Afonso; Silvano, Renato Azevedo Matias

    2011-02-01

    The management of small-scale freshwater fisheries in Amazon has been based usually on surveys of urban markets, while fisheries of rural villages have gone unnoticed. We compared the fishing characteristics (catch, effort and selectivity) between an urban market and five small villages in the Lower Tocantins River (Brazilian Amazon), downstream from a large reservoir. We recorded 86 and 601 fish landings in the urban market and villages, respectively, using the same methodology. The urban fishers showed higher catch per unit of effort, higher amount of ice (related to a higher fishing effort, as ice is used to store fish catches) and larger crew size per fishing trip, but village fishers had a higher estimated annual fish production. Conversely, urban and village fishers used similar fishing gear (gillnets) and the main fish species caught were the same. However, village fishers showed more diverse strategies regarding gear, habitats and fish caught. Therefore, although it underestimated the total amount of fish caught in the Lower Tocantins River region, the data from the urban market could be a reliable indicator of main fish species exploited and fishing gear used by village fishers. Monitoring and management should consider the differences and similarities between urban and rural fisheries, in Amazon and in other tropical regions.

  17. Fishing Effort and Catch Composition of Urban Market and Rural Villages in Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallwass, Gustavo; Lopes, Priscila Fabiana; Juras, Anastacio Afonso; Silvano, Renato Azevedo Matias

    2011-02-01

    The management of small-scale freshwater fisheries in Amazon has been based usually on surveys of urban markets, while fisheries of rural villages have gone unnoticed. We compared the fishing characteristics (catch, effort and selectivity) between an urban market and five small villages in the Lower Tocantins River (Brazilian Amazon), downstream from a large reservoir. We recorded 86 and 601 fish landings in the urban market and villages, respectively, using the same methodology. The urban fishers showed higher catch per unit of effort, higher amount of ice (related to a higher fishing effort, as ice is used to store fish catches) and larger crew size per fishing trip, but village fishers had a higher estimated annual fish production. Conversely, urban and village fishers used similar fishing gear (gillnets) and the main fish species caught were the same. However, village fishers showed more diverse strategies regarding gear, habitats and fish caught. Therefore, although it underestimated the total amount of fish caught in the Lower Tocantins River region, the data from the urban market could be a reliable indicator of main fish species exploited and fishing gear used by village fishers. Monitoring and management should consider the differences and similarities between urban and rural fisheries, in Amazon and in other tropical regions.

  18. The Amazon hydrometeorology: Climatology, variability and links to changes in weather patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Katia De Avila

    My thesis focuses on improving the quantification of the hydrological cycle and understanding the atmospheric processes that link weather to climate in the Amazon River basin. By using ERA40 and independent observations, I assess how well we can estimate the surface water budget in the Amazon River basin. I find that ERA40 basin wide annual precipitation (P) overall agrees with observations showing a slight underestimation of 10% in average, whereas runoff (R) is underestimated by a larger margin (˜25%). Observed residual of precipitation and runoff (denoted as P-R) is better estimated by ERA40 P-R than actual ET which includes soil moisture nudging. The causes for said discrepancies were found to partly relate to soil moisture nudging that needs to be applied during the dry season to produce realistic ET and compensate for the low soil moisture recharge during the previous wet season. Insufficient recharge may in part be caused by underestimation of rainfall amount and intensity; moreover the shallow root layer in the model does not represent the deep soil water reservoir characteristic of the Amazonian forest. Whether the hydrological cycle and weather patterns in the Amazon have changed during the past few decades is a highly debatable but central question for detecting climate change in the region. The second part of my thesis focus on the physical links between rainfall changes detected in observations, and changes of synoptic scale systems as represented by ERA40. My results suggest that an observed delayed wet season onset is consistent with a decreasing number of cold air incursion (CAI) days in southern Amazon for the period 1979--2001. The variability of CAI into southern Amazon is related to the variability of SST upstream of South America in the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans. A Singular Value Decomposition Analysis (SVD) between CAI days and global SST reveal three main modes of co-variability. The first mode describes the effect of the El Nino

  19. Two new species of the Hypostomus cochliodon group (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from the rio Negro basin in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Hollanda Carvalho

    Full Text Available Two new species of Hypostomus are described from the middle and upper rio Negro in Brazil. They are assigned to the Hypostomus cochliodon group (sensu Armbruster, 2003 by possessing few spoon-shaped teeth, and dentary angle averaging less than 80º. Hypostomus kopeyaka is described from the rio Tiquié, a tributary of the rio Uaupés, upper rio Negro basin, presents a unique color pattern among the Hypostomus species belonging to the Hypostomus cochliodon group, consisting of conspicuously horizontally elongated, closely-set black spots over the entire dorsal and lateral surfaces of the body. Hypostomus weberi is described from the middle rio Negro and can be distinguished from all remaining Hypostomus species belonging to the Hypostomus cochliodon group by possessing a unique color pattern consisting in large, rounded, widelyspaced black spots over body and fins.

  20. Hydrology and climate in the southwestern Amazon basin (Bolivia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchail, J.; Bourrel, L.; Maurice-Bourgoin, L.; Vauchel, P.; Cochonneau, G.; Guyot, J. L.; Phillips, L.; Castro, A.

    2003-04-01

    The variability of the runoff of the Bolivian tributaries of the Madeira River, the greatest southern affluent of the Amazon R., is of major importance for the riparian people safety and for the economic development of the region. We investigated whether the discharge of these rivers is predictable or not, using the Sea Surface Temperatures Anomalies (SSTAs) in the Equatorial Pacific and in the Tropical Atlantic oceans. The hydrological variability is studied using daily river discharge data of 3 tributaries: the Rio Beni in Rurrenabaque, the Rio Ichilo in Puerto Villaroel and the Mamoré River in Puerto Varador, respectively representative of the Andes, the Andean Piedmont and the lowlands. This information has been collected and criticized in the mark of successive Bolivian - French conventions. The hydrological response of the Andean river is out of phase with that of the piedmont and plain rivers. The Rio Beni in Rurrenabaque experiments high runoff during La Niña events and during cool (warm) events in the northern (southern) tropical Atlantic. On the contrary, the Ichilo and Mamoré Rivers and inundation data show that high runoff are more frequent during El Niño events and when the southern tropical Atlantic Ocean is cooler than normally. 30% of the Beni R. discharge variability is explained by the ENSO events and 25% by the SSTAs in the tropical Atlantic. In the Andean piedmont and in the lowlands, the ENSO explains 45% of the discharges, but differences in series lengths may also contribute to this better result. On the contrary, the relationship with the southern tropical Atlantic is only a tendency and is not statistically significant. To conclude, the SSTAs in the tropical oceans do not allow a prediction of the discharge variability of the Bolivian tributaries of the Madeira River but they contribute to their comprehension. The present results, different for Andean and Piedmont or lowlands tributaries, are consistent with those relative to the ENSO

  1. Organobentonita como sustituto de negro de carbono en formulaciones de caucho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Manchado, M. A.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Rubber compounds based on natural rubber reinforced with ammonium salt modified bentonite have been prepared and characterized. It pretends to evaluate the possibility of using these white fillers as substitute of carbon black in natural rubber compounds. Vulcametric curves show that the organoclay and carbon black accelerate the vulcanization reaction and, furthermore, give rise to a marked increase in the torque. However, it is of interest to point out that these effects are more marked in the case of the organoclay. In addition, the mechanical characterization show the strong reinforcing effect of both fillers, but this effect is newly more sensible when the organoclay is added to the NR. It is worthy to note that the mechanical properties of 10% organoclay-NR nanocomposite are comparable to the 40 phr carbon black filled compound.

    Se han preparado y caracterizado nanocomposites de caucho natural reforzados con bentonita modificada orgánicamente con una sal de amonio. Se pretende evaluar la posibilidad de utilizar estas cargas claras como sustitutos del negro de carbono en las formulaciones de caucho natural. Las curvas de vulcanización muestran que tanto la bentonita organofilizada como el negro de carbono aceleran la reacción de vulcanización y además, dan lugar a un considerable incremento en el torque. No obstante, es interesante destacar que estos efectos son más marcados en el caso de la organobentonita. Por su parte, la caracterización mecánica muestra el fuerte efecto reforzante de ambas cargas, si bien este efecto es nuevamente más acusado en presencia de la organobentonita. Es importante señalar que las propiedades mecánicas del nanocomposite reforzado con 10 partes de organobentonita son similares a las del composite con 40 partes de negro de carbono.

  2. El impacto de la crisis fiscal en el trabajo en negro: las provincias de noroeste argentino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Panaia

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se enmarca dentro de los estudios de génesis, crecimiento y dinamismo del sector informal y aumento o disminución de la propensión a trabajar en condiciones de informalidad, ya sea por la forma de contrato (precariedad; por la falta de pago (evasión previsional o comunmente llamado «en gris» o « en negro» por su característica de clandestinidad (ilegalidad o por realizarse en unidades económicas informales. En el contexto económico de la década del '90, en la Argentina, con las nuevas medidas que construyen un nuevo perfil del mercado de trabajo, se analizan los determinantes del mercado de trabajo sin aportes utilizando los datos de la construcción de un mapa de propensión al trabajo en negro, en base a un método de análisis de inobservables de fenómenos de multiples causas y múltiples consecuencias. El mapa construido para todo el país, en una investigación anterior, sirve de base para un análisis más profundo de la zona del Noroeste Argentino, una de las regiones más desfavorecidas del país y donde la propensión al aumento del trabajo en negro es más intensa, contrastándolo con los del total del país.

  3. Validación de genotipos de frijol negro en la zona central del Estado de Veracruz, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Ugalde Acosta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Validación de genotipos de frijol negro en la zona central del estado de Veracruz, México. El objetivo del presentetrabajo, fue validar genotipos de frijol con el paquete tecnológico del INIFAP, en parcelas de productores. Durante los ciclosde humedad residual de 1998 a 2001 se establecieron nueveparcelas de validación. Los genotipos utilizados fueron: las lí-neas II-307 y DOR-500 y las variedades Negro Huasteco 81,Negro Cotaxtla 91 y Negro INIFAPy como testigo del productor la variedad Jamapa. En las parcelas se realizaron las laboresde manejo agronómico recomendadas por el INIFAPpara esazona de producción. Cada parcela ocupó una superficie total de3000 m2. Se realizaron análisis de varianza individuales por localidad, considerando como repetición los rendimientos obtenidos por cada genotipo (500 m2 por ciclo de evaluación; también se efectuaron análisis combinado con prueba deseparación de medias (DMS 5% y un análisis económico mediante la Tasa de Retorno Marginal. Los resultados indicaronque las variedades y líneas mejoradas fueron superiores en másdel 100% en rendimiento al testigo. El análisis económicomostró que el mayor beneficio económico se obtuvo al sembrarlas variedades Negro INIFAPy Negro Cotaxtla 91, con utilidades superiores a los US $ 286/ha y una relación beneficio/costo de 1,52 y 1,51, respectivamente.

  4. Epidemiological surveillance of cystic echinococcosis in dogs, sheep farms and humans in the Rio Negro Province

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, Alicia; Costa, María T.; Gustavo, Cantoni; Mancini, Sergio; Mercapide, Carlos; Herrero, Eduardo; Volpe, Marcela; Araya, Daniel; Talmon, Gabriel; Chiosso, Carlos; Vázquez, Gabriela; Del Carpio, Mario; Santillán, Graciela; Larrieu, Edmundo

    2006-01-01

    La vigilancia de la equinococcosis quística para detectar infestación por Echinococcus granulosus en la Provincia de Río Negro en el período 1980-2002 fue efectuada en el hombre mediante encuestas serológicas y ultrasonográficas en población joven, y en el perro por el test de arecolina. Dadas las limitaciones de esta técnica, se planteó suplantarla por el complejo copro ELISA Western Blot en heces caninas recolectadas del suelo. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue comparar las ventajas y li...

  5. La teoría de la radiación del cuerpo negro

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Se expondrán las ideas fundamentales que permitieron a Planck encontrar la teoría correcta para explicar el espectro de energía radiada por un cuerpo negro al calentarse como una función de la temperatura e independientemente de la naturaleza y la forma de éste; las dificultades que tuvo Planck para aceptar la teoría atómica y los desarrollos de Ludwing Boltzmann de la segunda ley de la termodinámica, la ley de la entropía, los cuales fueron los pilares para desarrollar la teoría de los cuant...

  6. El proyecto de cuotas raciales y la afirmación del negro en Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Igreja, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    El debate sobre el establecimiento de cuotas raciales en los exámenes de selección para el ingreso en las universidades brasileñas sigue polarizado. Posiciones a favor y en contra se confrontan en el mundo académico. De un lado, están principalmente los datos estadísticos divulgados que evalúan la diferencia social entre negros y blancos, con el objetivo de mesurar el impacto del racismo en la sociedad. Estos datos se han vuelto la “prueba irrefutable” de los efectos perversos del racismo en ...

  7. The fate of particle-reactive radionuclides on the Amazon and Yangtze continental shelves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    Water column and seabed samples collected from the continental shelves adjacent to the Yangtze and Amazon Rivers were analyzed for particle-reactive radionuclides ( 234 Th, 228 Th, 210 Pb), and their respective parent nuclides ( 238 U, 228 Ra, 226 Ra). On the Amazon shelf, dissolved 238 U activities increase with increasing salinity to a shelf maximum (4.6 dpm 1 -1 ) that is much higher than the open-ocean value (2.5 dpm 1 -1 ) because uranium is desorbed from the ferric-oxyhydroxide coatings of bottom sediments and advected into the overlying water column during periodic resuspension events. As a result, measurement of only the riverine flux of dissolved 238 U underestimates (by a factor of 5) the flux of dissolved uranium from the Amazon shelf to the open ocean. K e values decrease with increased SSC and range from 10 5 ·10 6 ml g -1 for Th and from 10 4 ·10 6 ml g -1 for Po and Pb. The approach to equilibrium can best be described as a two-step process that is initially rapid (rate constants: 10-100 d -1 , during the first 30 minutes), but becomes less rapid (rate constants: 1-4 d -1 ) as equilibrium is attained. Distribution coefficients for 234 Th, 228 Th and 210 Pb exhibit large spatial variability on the Amazon shelf (range: 10 3 - 10 6 ml g -1 ) and on the Yangtze shelf (range: 10 4 - 10 6 ml g -1 ). On the Amazon shelf, particle residence time is short (2-3 hours) relative to scavenging residence time (15-20 hours) therefore, only 1-31% of equilibrium between dissolved and particulate thorium is attained. On the Yangtze shelf, particle residence time is long (12-89 hours) relative to scavenging time (2-23 hours) resulting in K d values near (97-100%) equilibrium

  8. Amazon water lenses and the influence of the North Brazil Current on the continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestes, Yuri O.; Silva, Alex Costa da; Jeandel, Catherine

    2018-05-01

    The exchange processes on the Amazon continental shelf in northern Brazil are subject to complex interactions that involve forcings derived from distinct sources. The Amazon shelf is a unique and highly dynamic environment in which considerable discharge of freshwater enters the Atlantic Ocean, producing extensive Amazon Water Lenses (AWL). In addition to the presence of the AWL, the shelf is influenced by the semidiurnal oscillations of the tides and the strong North Brazil Current (NBC), a boundary current of the western Atlantic. The present study was based primarily on the influence of the freshwater input and the NBC on the shelf and the Amazon Shelf Break (ASB) off the mouth of the Pará River. For this purpose, hydrographic and hydrodynamic data were obtained by moorings of the AMANDES Project (April-July 2008), located on the Amazon shelf and the ASB. Spectral analysis and the continuous wavelet transform were applied to define tidal (high frequency/short period) and subtidal (low frequency/long period) signals. The results indicated that on both the shelf and the break, the semidiurnal tides are responsible for the residual landward transport and are predominantly across-shelf. Low-frequency motions in the synoptic bands and the AWL are related to spatial changes in the velocity field, mainly on the ASB in the along-shelf direction. The flow of the NBC can be interpreted as an along-shelf low-frequency oscillation capable of altering the spatial configuration of the velocity field, although its influence is perceived only in the absence of the AWL.

  9. Applying NASA Imaging Radar Datasets to Investigate the Geomorphology of the Amazon's Planalto

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, K. C.; Campbell, K.; Islam, R.; Alexander, P. M.; Cracraft, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Amazon basin is a biodiversity rich biome and plays a significant role into shaping Earth's climate, ocean and atmospheric gases. Understanding the history of the formation of this basin is essential to our understanding of the region's biodiversity and its response to climate change. During March 2013, the NASA/JPL L-band polarimetric airborne imaging radar, UAVSAR, conducted airborne studies over regions of South America including portions of the western Amazon basin. We utilize UAVSAR imagery acquired during that time over the Planalto, in the Madre de Dios region of southeastern Peru in an assessment of the underlying geomorphology, its relationship to the current distribution of vegetation, and its relationship to geologic processes through deep time. We employ UAVSAR data collections to assess the utility of these high quality imaging radar data for use in identifying geomorphologic features and vegetation communities within the context of improving the understanding of evolutionary processes, and their utility in aiding interpretation of datasets from Earth-orbiting satellites to support a basin-wide characterization across the Amazon. We derive maps of landcover and river branching structure from UAVSAR imagery. We compare these maps to those derived using imaging radar datasets from the Japanese Space Agency's ALOS PALSAR and Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Results provide an understanding of the underlying geomorphology of the Amazon planalto as well as its relationship to geologic processes and will support interpretation of the evolutionary history of the Amazon Basin. Portions of this work have been carried out within the framework of the ALOS Kyoto & Carbon Initiative. PALSAR data were provided by JAXA/EORC and the Alaska Satellite Facility.This work is carried out with support from the NASA Biodiversity Program and the NSF DIMENSIONS of Biodiversity Program.

  10. Pre-Columbian urbanism, anthropogenic landscapes, and the future of the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckenberger, Michael J; Russell, J Christian; Fausto, Carlos; Toney, Joshua R; Schmidt, Morgan J; Pereira, Edithe; Franchetto, Bruna; Kuikuro, Afukaka

    2008-08-29

    The archaeology of pre-Columbian polities in the Amazon River basin forces a reconsideration of early urbanism and long-term change in tropical forest landscapes. We describe settlement and land-use patterns of complex societies on the eve of European contact (after 1492) in the Upper Xingu region of the Brazilian Amazon. These societies were organized in articulated clusters, representing small independent polities, within a regional peer polity. These patterns constitute a "galactic" form of prehistoric urbanism, sharing features with small-scale urban polities in other areas. Understanding long-term change in coupled human-environment systems relating to these societies has implications for conservation and sustainable development, notably to control ecological degradation and maintain regional biodiversity.

  11. Genetic differentiation and trade among populations of Peach Palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) in the Peruvian Amazon - implications for genetic resource management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adin, A.; Weber, J.C.; Sotelo Montes, C.; Vidaurre, H.; Vosman, B.J.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) is cultivated for fruit and 'heart of palm', and is an important component of agroforestry systems in the Peruvian Amazon. In this study, AFLP was used to compare genetic diversity among domesticated populations along the Paranapura and Cuiparillo rivers, which

  12. Philometra mirabilis sp. n. (Nematoda: Philometridae), a new gonad-infecting parasite from the freshwater fish Cichla mirianae (Cichlidae) in Brazilian Amazon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Diggles, B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 5 (2015), s. 1929-1932 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : parasitic nematode * Dracunculoidea * cichlid fish * ovary * Amazon River basin * Brazil Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.027, year: 2015

  13. Modelling sustainable international tourism demand to the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Divino (Jose Angelo); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe Amazon rainforest is one of the world’s greatest natural wonders and holds great importance and significance for the world’s environmental balance. Around 60% of the Amazon rainforest is located in the Brazilian territory. The two biggest states of the Amazon region are Amazonas (the

  14. Business as Usual: Amazon.com and the Academic Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ullen, Mary K.; Germain, Carol Anne

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Steve Coffman proposed that libraries form a single interlibrary loan based entity patterned after Amazon.com. This study examined the suitability of Amazon.com's Web interface and record enhancements for academic libraries. Amazon.com could not deliver circulating monographs in the University at Albany Libraries' collection quickly…

  15. O vermelho e o negro: um experimento para pensar o ritual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houseman Michael

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata da performance de um rito de iniciação inventado pelo autor, realizado como um experimento para pensar certos traços recorrentes da ação ritual e, em particular, da iniciação (masculina. O ritual em questão, O Vermelho e o Negro, foi planejado para consistir essencialmente, se não exclusivamente, em um padrão específico de interação: O Vermelho e o Negro não pertence a nenhuma tradição cultural reconhecível, não envolve quase nenhum simbolismo explícito, suas "crenças" subjacentes são abertamente despropositadas, suas qualidades cênicas mínimas e não se pode atribuir a ele praticamente nenhuma função social. Um dos objetivos do exercício é explorar e fundamentar uma abordagem relacional da análise do ritual na qual este é visto como atuação de relações específicas. Entre os temas discutidos estão os do enquadramento, da simulação, do sigilo, da imposição de sofrimento, da eficácia cerimonial, da condensação ritual e do complexo jogo de perspectivas internas e externas ao grupo.

  16. Ancient remains and the first peopling of the Americas: Reassessing the Hoyo Negro skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo, Soledad; Bortolini, Maria C; Bonatto, Sandro L; Hünemeier, Tábita; Santos, Fabrício R; González-José, Rolando

    2015-11-01

    A noticeably well-preserved ∼12.500 years-old skeleton from the Hoyo Negro cave, Yucatán, México, was recently reported, along with its archaeological, genetic and skeletal characteristics. Based exclusively on an anatomical description of the skull (HN5/48), Chatters and colleagues stated that this specimen can be assigned to a set of ancient remains that differ from modern Native Americans, the so called "Paleoamericans". Here, we aim to further explore the morphological affinities of this specimen with a set of comparative cranial samples covering ancient and modern periods from Asia and the Americas. Images published in the original article were analyzed using geometric morphometrics methods. Shape variables were used to perform Principal Component and Discriminant analysis against the reference samples. Even thought the Principal Component Analysis suggests that the Hoyo Negro skull falls in a subregion of the morphospace occupied by both "Paleoamericans" and some modern Native Americans, the Discriminant analyses suggest greater affinity with a modern Native American sample. These results reinforce the idea that the original population that first occupied the New World carried high levels of within-group variation, which we have suggested previously on a synthetic model for the settlement of the Americas. Our results also highlight the importance of developing formal classificatory test before deriving settlement hypothesis purely based on macroscopic descriptions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Analysis of heavy oils: Method development and application to Cerro Negro heavy petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-12-01

    On March 6, 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ministry of Energy and Mines of Venezuela (MEMV) entered into a joint agreement which included analysis of heavy crude oils from the Venezuelan Orinoco oil belt. The purpose of this report is to present compositional data and describe new analytical methods obtained from work on the Cerro Negro Orinoco belt crude oil since 1980. Most of the chapters focus on the methods rather than the resulting data on Cerro Negro oil, and results from other oils obtained during the verification of the method are included. In addition, published work on analysis of heavy oils, tar sand bitumens, and like materials is reviewed, and the overall state of the art in analytical methodology for heavy fossil liquids is assessed. The various phases of the work included: distillation and determination of routine'' physical/chemical properties (Chapter 1); preliminary separation of >200{degrees} C distillates and the residue into acid, base, neutral, saturated hydrocarbon and neutral-aromatic concentrates (Chapter 2); further separation of acid, base, and neutral concentrates into subtypes (Chapters 3--5); and determination of the distribution of metal-containing compounds in all fractions (Chapter 6).

  18. Analysis of heavy oils: Method development and application to Cerro Negro heavy petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbognani, L.; Hazos, M.; Sanchez, V. (INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Caracas (Venezuela)); Green, J.A.; Green, J.B.; Grigsby, R.D.; Pearson, C.D.; Reynolds, J.W.; Shay, J.Y.; Sturm, G.P. Jr.; Thomson, J.S.; Vogh, J.W.; Vrana, R.P.; Yu, S.K.T.; Diehl, B.H.; Grizzle, P.L.; Hirsch, D.E; Hornung, K.W.; Tang, S.Y.

    1989-12-01

    On March 6, 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ministry of Energy and Mines of Venezuela (MEMV) entered into a joint agreement which included analysis of heavy crude oils from the Venezuelan Orinoco oil belt.The purpose of this report is to present compositional data and describe new analytical methods obtained from work on the Cerro Negro Orinoco belt crude oil since 1980. Most of the chapters focus on the methods rather than the resulting data on Cerro Negro oil, and results from other oils obtained during the verification of the method are included. In addition, published work on analysis of heavy oils, tar sand bitumens, and like materials is reviewed, and the overall state of the art in analytical methodology for heavy fossil liquids is assessed. The various phases of the work included: distillation and determination of routine'' physical/chemical properties (Chapter 1); preliminary separation of >200{degree}C distillates and the residue into acid, base, neutral, saturated hydrocarbon and neutral-aromatic concentrates (Chapter 2); further separation of acid, base, and neutral concentrates into subtypes (Chapters 3-5); and determination of the distribution of metal-containing compounds in all fractions (Chapter 6).

  19. Turismo religioso en la Basílica del Cristo Negro de Esquipulas, Guatemala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Daniel Rosas Paz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Los santuarios religiosos representan, en la actualidad, espacios de atracción de turistas, creyentes o no, y de devotos; sobresalen algunos que, por su magnetismo espiritual, exhiben áreas extendidas de adherencia devocional y turística. Guatemala se inserta en el escenario anterior a través del caso de la Basílica de Esquipulas que resguarda a la venerada imagen del Cristo Negro; ubicada en la Ciudad-Santuario homónima al suroriente del arribo cíclico de miles de turistas y peregrinos que incentivan la economía local. El contexto territorial referido motivó la realización de este trabajo que tiene como objetivo revelar características geográficas del turismo religioso en el Santuario del Cristo Negro de Esquipulas; en una primera parte, se precisan los postulados teórico-conceptuales examinados que atañen al turismo religioso; posteriormente, se describen particularidades geográficas del contexto regional y local; finalmente, se detallan los hallazgos que comprueban la importancia geográfica del turismo religioso en el Santuario a partir de la investigación en gabinete y el trabajo realizado en campo.

  20. THE NEGRO IN AMERICAN HISTORY TEXTBOOKS, A REPORT OF A STUDY OF THE TREAMENT OF NEGROES IN AMERICAN HISTORY TEXTBOOKS USED IN GRADES FIVE AND EIGHT AND IN THE HIGH SCHOOLS OF CALIFORNIA'S PUBLIC SCHOOLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    THIS REPORT PRESENTS THE FINDINGS OF A PANEL OF SIX AMERICAN HISTORIANS FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA WHO REVIEWED SEVEN HISTORY TEXTS WIDELY USED IN THE STATE TO ASSESS THEIR TREATMENT OF THE AMERICAN NEGRO. THEY FOUND THAT MOST OF THE TEXTS REFLECTED VIEWS REJECTED OR DRASTICALLY MODIFIED BY GOOD CURRENT HISTORICAL SCHOLARSHIP. MANY OF THESE…

  1. Extreme flood events in the Bolivian Amazon wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ovando

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Study region: The Amazonian wetlands of Bolivia, known as the Llanos de Moxos, are believed to play a crucial role in regulating the upper Madeira hydrological cycle, the most important southern tributary of the Amazon River. Because the area is vast and sparsely populated, the hydrological functioning of the wetlands is poorly known. Study focus: We analyzed the hydrometeorological configurations that led to the major floods of 2007, 2008 and 2014. These data, together with flood mapping derived from remote sensing images, were used to understand the dynamics of the Llanos during the three flood events. New hydrological insights for the region: The results showed that large floods are the result of the superimposition of flood waves from major sub-basins of the region. As a previous study suggested, the dynamics of the floods are controlled by an exogenous process, created by the flood wave originating in the Andes piedmont that travels through the Mamoré River; and by an endogenous process, which is the runoff originating in the Llanos. Our study showed that the first process is evident only at the initial phase of the floods, and although important for attenuating the rising flood wave, it is of lesser importance compared to the endogenous process. We conclude that the endogenous process controls the magnitude and duration of major floods. Keywords: Flood dynamics, Wetlands, Remote sensing, Llanos de Moxos

  2. Landslides Are Common In The Amazon Rainforests Of SE Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, S. P.; Muttiah, R. S.; Janovec, J. P.

    2005-12-01

    The recent landslides in La Conchita, California, Mumbai, India, Ratnapura, Sri Lanka and Sugozu village, Turkey have dramatically illustrated prolonged rainfall on water induced change in soil shear stress. In these examples, the human footprint may have also erased or altered the natural river drainage from small to large scales. By studying patterns of landslides in natural ecosystems, government officials, policy makers, engineers, geologists and others may be better informed about likely success of prevention or amelioration programs in risk prone areas. Our study area in the Los Amigos basin in Amazon rainforests of Southeastern Peru, has recorded several hundred landslides. The area has no large human settlements. The basin is characterized by heavy rainfall, dense vegetation, river meander and uniform soils. Our objectives were: 1). Determine the spatial pattern of landslides using GIS and Remotely sensed data, 2). Model the statistical relationship between environmental variables and, 3). Evaluate influence of drainage on landscape and soil loss. GIS layers consisted of: 50cm aerial imagery, DEMs, digitized streams, soils, geology, rainfall from the TRMM satellite, and vegetation cover from the LANDSAT and MODIS sensors.

  3. Characterization of Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894 (Diptera:Culicidae larval habitats near the Amazon River in Colombia Caracterización preliminar de los sitios de cría de Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse, 1894 (Diptera: Culicidae en el municipio de Leticia, Amazonas, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Alberto Olano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Because the role of Aedes albopictus as an incriminated vector of several viral pathogens, its control is important to human health. To establish appropriate control methods, characterization of the larval habitats is a necessary first step.
    Objective. Habitats of the immature stages of Ae. albopictus were characterized with respect to physical-chemical parameters and by floral and faunal arrays present.
    Materials and methods. Leticia is located at the southernmost tip of Colombia on the banks of the Amazon River. In the urban area, 154 houses were inspected in December 2002 and January 2003. Physical-chemical data were collected, including exposure to sunlight, location, container size and material, water conductivity, and dissolved oxygen. Macroinvertebrates and plankton samples were taken at each positive larval site. The results were compared using descriptive analysis, principal component analysis, classification dendrograms, and diversity indexes.
    Results. Twenty-one habitats were found positive for Diptera, and 13 were positive for Ae. albopictus larvae. Most of the positive habitats (92% were located near the houses--they were small or medium size receptacles located in the shade. This water generally had low conductivity and low turbidity, although high values of these parameters were also identified. The habitats had low diversity indexes for macroinvertebrates and high diversity indexes for plankton. In the principal component analysis, significant correlation was found with mites, oligochaetes and hemipterans (the macroinvertebrates and with bacilarophyceaes, clorophyceaes and cianophyceas (the algal forms.
    Conclusion. In Leticia, females of Ae. albopictus were found in newly established habitats with sufficient availability of resources, low conductivity, and turbidity, lower intra-and interspecific competition.Introducción. Dada la importancia de Aedes albopictus en la salud pública, es necesario

  4. Spectral mixture analysis for water quality assessment over the Amazon floodplain using Hyperion/EO-1 images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lênio Soares Galvão

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Water composition undergoes complex spatial and temporal variations throughout the central Amazon floodplain. This study analyzed the spectral mixtures of the optically active substances (OASs in water with spaceborne hyperspectral images. The test site was located upstream the confluence of Amazon (white water and Tapajós (clear-water rivers, where two Hyperion images were acquired from the Earth Observing One (EO-1 satellite. The first image was acquired on September 16, 2001, during the falling water period of the Amazon River. The second image was acquired on June 23, 2005, at the end of the high water period. The images were pre-processed to remove stripes of anomalous pixels, convert radiance-calibrated data to surface reflectance, mask land, clouds and macrophytes targets, and spectral subset the data within the range of 457-885nm. A sequential procedure with the techniques Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF, Pixel Purity Index (PPI and n-dimensional visualization of the MNF feature space was employed to select end-members from both images. A single set of end-members was gathered to represent the following spectrally unique OASs: clear-water; dissolved organic matter; suspended sediments; and phytoplankton. The Linear Spectral Unmixing algorithm was applied to each Hyperion image in order to map the spatial distribution of these constituents, in terms of sub-pixel fractional abundances. Results showed three patterns of changes in the water quality from high to falling flood periods: decrease of suspended inorganic matter concentration in the Amazon River; increase of suspended inorganic matter and phytoplankton concentrations in varzea lakes; and increase of phytoplankton concentration in the Tapajós River.

  5. Spectral mixture analysis for water quality assessment over the Amazon floodplain using Hyperion/EO-1 images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lênio Soares Galvão

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Water composition undergoes complex spatial and temporal variations throughout the central Amazon floodplain. This study analyzed the spectral mixtures of the optically active substances (OASs in water with spaceborne hyperspectral images. The test site was located upstream the confluence of Amazon (white water and Tapajós (clear-water rivers, where two Hyperion images were acquired from the Earth Observing One (EO-1 satellite. The first image was acquired on September 16, 2001, during the falling water period of the Amazon River. The second image was acquired on June 23, 2005, at the end of the high water period. The images were pre-processed to remove stripes of anomalous pixels, convert radiance-calibrated data to surface reflectance, mask land, clouds and macrophytes targets, and spectral subset the data within the range of 457-885nm. A sequential procedure with the techniques Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF, Pixel Purity Index (PPI and n-dimensional visualization of the MNF feature space was employed to select end-members from both images. A single set of end-members was gathered to represent the following spectrally unique OASs: clear-water; dissolved organic matter; suspended sediments; and phytoplankton. The Linear Spectral Unmixing algorithm was applied to each Hyperion image in order to map the spatial distribution of these constituents, in terms of sub-pixel fractional abundances. Results showed three patterns of changes in the water quality from high to falling flood periods: decrease of suspended inorganic matter concentration in the Amazon River; increase of suspended inorganic matter and phytoplankton concentrations in varzea lakes; and increase of phytoplankton concentration in the Tapajós River.

  6. Lead exposure in indigenous children of the Peruvian Amazon : seeking the hidden source,venturing into participatory research

    OpenAIRE

    Anticona Huaynate, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. In 2006, a Peruvian environmental agency reported the presence of elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) in indigenous communities of the Corrientes river basin. This is a territory in the Peruvian Amazon where oil activity has been associated with serious environmental effects, with impact on an ongoing social conflict. This PhD project aimed to determine the lead sources, risk factors and pathways in children of these communities and to suggest control and prevention strategies. Gi...

  7. The recent extreme hydrological events in the Western Amazon Basin: The role of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, J.; Ronchail, J.; Guyot, J.; Santini, W.; Lavado, W.; Ore-Hybam Observatory

    2013-05-01

    The Peruvian Amazonas River, the main western tributary of the Amazon basin, has a huge drainage (750 000 km2, 50% of which lies in the Andes) and a mean discharge estimated in 32 000 m3/s, which correspond to 15% of the Amazon discharge at the estuary. Recently, in a context of significant discharge diminution during the low-water season (1970-2012), severe hydrological events, as intense droughts and floods, have been reported in the Peruvian Amazonas River. As they have not been always observed in other regions of the Amazon basin and because they have strong impacts on vulnerable riverside residents, we shall focus on the origin and the predictability of the western Amazon extremes, providing a review of the main findings about the climate features during recent extreme hydrological events in western Amazon. While the lowest discharge value was observed in September 2010 (8 300 m3/s) at the hydrological Tamshiyacu station (near to Iquitos city), a rapid transition toward a high discharge was noticed in April 2011 (45 000 m3/s). Finally, in April 2012, during the on going high waters period, the Amazonas River is experimenting its historical highest discharge (55 000 m3/s). Our work is based on several datasets including in-situ discharge and rainfall information from ORE-HYBAM observatory. Extreme droughts (1995, 2005 and 2010) are generally associated with positive SST anomalies in the tropical North Atlantic and weak trade winds and water vapor transport toward the western Amazon, which, in association with increased subsidence over central and southern Amazon, explain the lack of rainfall and very low discharge values. But, in 1998, toward the end of the 1997-98 El Niño event, the drought has been more likely related to an anomalous divergence of water vapor in the western Amazon that is characteristic of a warm event in the Pacific. The years with a rapid transition form low waters to very high floods (e.g. September 2010 to April 2011) are characterized

  8. Food, feeding, and refuelling of Red Knots during northward migration at San Antonio Oeste, Rio Negro, Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez, PM; Piersma, T; Verkuil, Y; González, Patricia M.

    1996-01-01

    We studied the food and feeding ecology of Red Knots Calidris canutus rufa on an area of rocky flat, or restinga, near San Antonio Oeste in the northwest of Golfo San Matias, Provincia de Rio Negro, Argentina in March 1992. These Red Knots are on their way north, from ''wintering'' areas in Tierra

  9. TEST BIAS--VALIDITY OF THE SCHOLASTIC APTITUDE TEST FOR NEGRO AND WHITE STUDENTS IN INTEGRATED COLLEGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CLEARY, T. ANNE

    FOR THIS RESEARCH, A TEST WAS SAID TO BE BIASED FOR MEMBERS OF A SUBGROUP OF THE POPULATION IF, IN THE PREDICTION OF A CRITERION FOR WHICH THE TEST WAS DESIGNED, CONSISTENT NONZERO ERRORS OF PREDICTION ARE MADE FOR MEMBERS OF THE SUBGROUP. SAMPLES OF NEGRO AND WHITE STUDENTS FROM THREE INTEGRATED COLLEGES WERE STUDIED. IN THE TWO EASTERN COLLEGES,…

  10. Amazon: Navigating the Jungle of a Business

    OpenAIRE

    McIntosh Theroux, Brett; Rais El Fenni, Tarik

    2014-01-01

    This project investigated Amazon.com, Inc’s business model and environment, particularly, the effect of Amazon’s implementation of a drone delivery system and the Amazon Fire TV, and its related services. This was achieved through an examination of four areas, the four working questions; revolving around an analysis and discussion of Amazon’s business model and environment, with particular focus on the two new features. Also, an analysis and discussion of how Amazon’s business model could be ...

  11. Rethinking the strategy of Amazon.com

    OpenAIRE

    Heng, Michael S.H.

    2001-01-01

    The strategic challenge facing Amazon.com is that it is not able to convince the investment community that it is able to generate profits in the long run. The doubt of investors is well grounded. This paper argues that Amazon should make a strategic shift to operate as a provider of technical services and business consulting in the area of business-to-consumer e-commerce. At the same time it should reduce the range of the items sold on-line to, say, books and CDs, and treat this part of its b...

  12. Greenhouse problem in the Amazon jungle clearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, E.J.; Margulis, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the contribution of Amazon jungle clearing to the greenhouse problem and makes an assessment of long-run prospects. The introductory sections pose the problem from both international and Brazilian perspectives. The next section describes major features of the Amazonia ecosystems and presents methods and evidence on deforestation and on its impact on carbon dioxide emissions. Based upon cross-section information for a sample of municipalities in the Brazilian Amazon, the following section estimates elasticities of deforestation in relation to major economic factors- government policies included- and uses them to make projections for the future pace of deforestation. The last section discusses policy alternatives to slow down forest conversion

  13. Taxonomias das doenças entre os índios Baniwa (arawak e desana (tukano oriental do alto rio negro (Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Garnelo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo estuda as taxonomias de doenças de dois povos indígenas da região do Alto Rio Negro, Noroeste amazônico (Brasil: os Baniwa, da família lingüística arawak, e os Desana, da família lingüística tukano oriental. Tomando como base explicativa a produção mítica dessas etnias, as autoras comparam seus sistemas de doença e cura e demonstram que as circunstâncias ligadas ao surgimento de uma doença particular, as representações de pessoa e do mundo natural, e as modalidades de relação entre os grupos humanos, a natureza e o cosmos, participam da interpretação da doença. Essa ênfase na causalidade social e/ou com a ordem do mundo traduz-se na terminologia vernacular e na classificação das doenças em ambos os grupos estudados. A produção do processo patogênico liga-se a uma "economia simbólica da alteridade" (Viveiros de Castro, 2002. Promover a saúde e evitar a doença exigem cooperação, reciprocidade, diligência, controle das ações predatórias e do apetite alimentar e sexual.The present paper studies the disease taxonomies on two indigenous peoples from the upper Negro River region, in the Amazonian northwest (Brazil, the Baniwa, from the Arawak, and the Desana, from the oriental Tukano linguistic families. Taking these ethnies' mythic production as an explicative basis, the authors make comparisons between their disease and cure systems and demonstrate that the circumstances linked to the outbreak of a particular disease, the representation of people and of the natural world, and the modalities of relations between human groups, nature and the cosmos, participate on the disease's interpretation. Both studied groups translate this emphasis on social causality and/or world order into the vernacular terminology and disease classification. The pathogenic process production is linked to an "alteration symbolic economy" (Viveiros de Castro, 2002. Promoting good health and preventing disease, requires

  14. First record of Arapaima gigas (Schinz, 1822) (Teleostei: Osteoglossomorpha), the "pirarucu", in the upper Paraná River basin, Southeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Fernando; Casatti, Lilian; Manzotti, Angelo; Ravazzi, Délcero

    2015-01-01

    Arapaima gigas (Schinz), the "pirarucu", is one of largest freshwater fish of the Neotropical region, naturally occurring in the Amazon, Essequibo, and Orinoco river basins. Herein, it is first recorded from the Grande River, in the upper Paraná River basin. This record is based on the finding of one dead specimen on the left margin of the Grande River, and in situ observation of juveniles and adults in the river.

  15. Identidad y escenificación de estereotipos en Los negros de Jean Genet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario León Pinto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available En la obra Los negros del dramaturgo francés Jean Genet nos enfrentamos, de manera muy compleja y evidentemente polémica, al problema de la identidad cultural y racial, del dominio ideológico, de la colonización y el proceso de descolonización, particularmente desde el problema de “lo negro” en el ámbito cultural del colonialismo, centrándose la obra en la problemática en torno a la identidad del ser negro, como una identidad construida por el blanco. Este conflicto identitario es presentado en escena evidenciando y tensionando el artificio teatral. De este modo, en este artículo veremos cómo se escenifica dicho conflicto mediante un uso extremo de los recursos teatrales y del motivo del teatro dentro del teatro, particularmente a partir de personajes que muestran una identidad engañosa, explicitando que son actores representando un rol (reflejo perfecto de la realidad del hombre negro que constantemente representa un papel dado por el blanco, y gestando un espacio posible para la rebelión y liberación de sus propias subjetividades detrás de los diferentes niveles de la representación. Palabra clave: Jean Genet, identidad, colonialismo, postcolonialismo, teatro dentro del teatro.   In the play The Blacks by French dramatist Jean Genet we are faced, in both a complex and controversial manner, with the issues of cultural and racial identity, ideological dominion, colonialism and the process of decolonization as seen from the perspective of “the blackness” issue against the backdrop of colonialism. The play revolves around the problem of identity of being black as one built by the white man. This conflict is staged by overtly showing and exaggerating theatrical artifices. Thus, in this paper we shall discuss how such a conflict is brought onto the stage by heightening theatrical resources, as well as the theme of a play within the play. This theme shows characters bearing an ill-defined identity, revealing them as actors

  16. Diatoms from the Colombian and Peruvian Amazon: the Genera Encyonema, Encyonopsis and Gomphonema (Cymbellales: Bacillariophyceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia A Vouilloud

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Diatoms from the Colombian and Peruvian Amazon: the Genera Encyonema, Encyonopsis and Gomphonema (Cymbellales, Bacillariophyceae. The diatom flora of the Colombian and Peruvian Amazon is far less studied than the flora of the Brazilian sector of the basin. Here we present results related to the genera Encyonema, Encyonopsis and Gomphonema. Plankton and periphyton samples were collected in lotic and lentic waterbodies from the Amazonian-Andean region, the Amazon River, Japurá River and Porvenir River basins during 1993, 1994, 2001 and 2003. At each sampling station pH, temperature, water transparency and conductivity were registered. Samples were analyzed with phase contrast microscope (LM and scanning electron microscope (SEM. Ten taxa are new records for the area; Encyonema for the Peruvian and Colombian Amazon and Encyonopsis for the Colombian Sector. Encyonema neogracile var. tenuipunctatum, E. vulgare, Encyonopsis frequentis, Gomphonema augur var. sphaerophorum and G. contraturris are recorded for the first time in Colombia; Encyonema venezolanum and G. neoapiculatum in Colombia and Peru and the latter also for Amazonia. E. angustecapitatum was mentioned in Colombia before at a pond located at 3000m asl. We describe a new species from Porvenir River, Amazonas, Colombia: Encyonema amazonianum. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (1: 45-62. Epub 2010 March 01.La flora diatomológica de la Amazonia Colombiana y Peruana está mucho menos estudiada que la flora del sector brasilero. Se presentan los resultados de los géneros Encyonema, Encyonopsis y Gomphonema. Muestras de plancton y perifiton fueron colectadas en ambientes lóticos y lénticos de la región amazónica-andina, en los ríos Amazonas, Japurá y Porvenir durante 1993, 1994, 2001 y 2003. En cada estación de muestreo se realizaron mediciones de pH, temperatura, transparencia del agua y conductividad. Las muestras fueron analizadas con microscopio óptico con contraste de fases y microscopio electr

  17. Logistics at the Amazon forest: the challenge of Urucu-Manaus pipeline construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Ricardo Magalhaes; Araujo, Jorge Marques de; Barbosa, Gilberto Rodrigues; Campos, Marcos Zeferino Teixeira [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The predominant difficulties and logistics complexities at the Amazon Region, required of the technical body responsible for the construction of the Undertaking Urucu-Manaus Pipeline, technological knowledge and a profound background of the regional particularities, qualities that were determinants for the execution of this significant work. The logistics solutions, supported on an accurate and adequate planning for people, equipment and material mobilization for several front services, were planned considering the constant climatic variables, river flood and dry periods and with the monitoring daily routines of the communities located around the pipeline construction influence area. (author)

  18. [Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (Rio Mamore virus) in the Peruvian Amazon region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casapía, Martín; Mamani, Enrique; García, María P; Miraval, María L; Valencia, Pedro; Quino, Alberto H; Alvarez, Carlos; Donaires, Luis F

    2012-01-01

    Hantavirus infection is a viral zoonotic infection borne by rodents which most letal form clinical is the Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (SPH, Spanish abbreviation). The Mamore River variant originates in South America and was found in rodents without any association to human diseases. Two cases of SPH were identified in the Peruvian Amazon region in November 2011. In both cases, a molecular diagnostic testing was conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Salud from Peru. A phylogenetic analysis of a viral genome fragment and a histopathological evaluation were conducted. Both patients developed adult respiratory distress syndrome and refractory shock. A patient died and another one recovered 12 days later.

  19. VIERNES NEGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NÉSTOR ANDRÉS ROA MARTÍNEZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente caso tiene como objetivo presentar la situación compleja que se genera en una gran empresa manufacturera de materia prima para el sector de la construcción, cuando el sistema integrado de información que dispone Sufre un colapso (o ¿se cae el sistema¿, como se denomina comúnmente en la fecha de cierre. Esta falla genera un constreñimiento en las actividades logísticas relacionadas con el centro de distribución, unidad que despacha los pedidos a nivel nacional; impidiendo la facturación de pedidos y, por consiguiente, generando incumplimiento en las entregas, insatisfacción del cliente y posible pérdida de pedidos y no cumplimiento de la cuota de ventas de la empresa afectando los estados de resultados.

  20. Viernes Negro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Andrés Roa Martínez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente caso tiene como objetivo presentar la situación compleja que se genera en una gran empresa manufacturera de materia prima para el sector de la construcción, cuando el sistema integrado de información que dispone Sufre un colapso (o “se cae el sistema”, como se denomina comúnmente en la fecha de cierre. Esta falla genera un constreñimiento en las actividades logísticas relacionadas con el centro de distribución, unidad que despacha los pedidos a nivel nacional; impidiendo la facturación de pedidos y, por consiguiente, generando incumplimiento en las entregas, insatisfacción del cliente y posible pérdida de pedidos y no cumplimiento de la cuota de ventas de la empresa afectando los estados de resultados.

  1. Sand Negro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Mira Skadegård

    2016-01-01

    . The discussion centers around how persons in a shared context, who are racialized differently and have differing vantage points and perspectives, must navigate within a particular, asymmetric power relationship. I implement Gayatri Spivak’s notion of the sovereign subject to come to an understanding of some...

  2. Reflections on hydroelectric dams in the Amazon: water, energy and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha Koiffmann Becker

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The essay discusses the deployment of hydroelectric dams in the Amazon having as a starting point the relations between water and hydropower consumption at different scales of analyses. So, if all parts of the world are affected by global processes, they are not in the same way. The global scale is dominated by the apocalyptic discourse of increasing water scarcity and global warming, requiring the reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases through the use of renewable energy and new technologies. On a Brazilian national scale, the problems are, rather, how to manage the abundance of water with social and territorial justice, and how to stop the loss of 20% of the electricity produced. Finally, it is at the regional scale - in the Amazon - that major problems arise: i the biggest paradox between the abundance of water and social inaccessibility to this resource; ii most of the dams planned for the country will be built there, with the risk of negative impacts already known; iii the obligation of building sluices at all the proposed dams, suggested by the industrial sector in name of the rivers navigation, will serve, in fact, to export commodities produced in the Brazilian central region. An ethical question is, therefore, posed to society and to Brazilian government: are really needed so many hydroelectric dams in the Amazon?

  3. Land Use Dynamics in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Walker

    1996-01-01

    The articles presented in this special issue of Ecological Economics address the important theme of land use dynamics as it pertains to the Brazilian Amazon. Much environmental change is an ecological artifact of human agency, and such agency is often manifested in land use impacts, particularly in tropical areas. The critical problem of tropical deforestation is but...

  4. Health Concerns in the Amazon Region

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Residents of the Amazon region of South America contend with a number of health threats - from mosquito-borne diseases to difficulty accessing doctors and healthcare facilities in such a vast area. This podcast helps explore some of the health issues in the region and what's being done to address them.

  5. Charcoal chronology of the Amazon forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goulart, Ana Carolina; Macario, Kita D.; Scheel-Ybert, Rita; Alves, Eduardo Q.; Bachelet, Caroline; Pereira, Bruna B.; Levis, Carolina; Marimon Junior, Ben Hur; Marimon, Beatriz S.; Quesada, Carlos Alberto; Feldpausch, Ted R.

    2017-01-01

    The Amazon region holds a wide variety of ethnic groups and microclimates, enabling different interactions between humans and environment. To better understand the evolution of this region, ancient remains need to be analysed by all possible means. In this context, the study of natural and/or

  6. Deforestation crimes and conflicts in the Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores and explains deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest. It primarily takes a green criminological perspective and looks at the harm that is inflicted on many of the Amazon’s inhabitants, including indigenous populations such as ‘uncontacted’ tribes of hunters-gatherers,

  7. Principal Connection / Amazon and the Whole Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerr, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    A recent controversy over Amazon's culture has strong implications for the whole child approach, and it offers powerful lessons for principals. A significant difference between the culture of so many businesses today and the culture at good schools is that in good schools, the welfare of the employees is very important. Student success is the…

  8. Does the Amazon suffer from BSE prevention?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink, E.V.; Nonhebel, S.; Schoot Uiterkamp, A.J.M.

    In the last decade, large-scale production of soybeans has been a major driver of the enhanced deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. We show that these soybeans are mainly exported to the EU to substitute for the BSE related banned meat and bone meal in livestock feed. This strongly suggests a link

  9. Potencial hortícola de los zapotes negros, Diospyros spp. (Ebenaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    García Díaz, Roger Fabián; Cuevas Sánchez,Jesús Axayacatl; Colinas León, María Teresa; Basurto Peña,Francisco; Zizumbo Villarreal,Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Se exploró el potencial hortícola del género Diospyros (Ebenaceae) mediante análisis biogeográficos, climáticos, morfológicos y etnobotánicos. Los análisis geográficos permitieron identificar las áreas óptimas para la conservación y el aprovechamiento de 20 especies. Con aquellas conocidas como Zapotes Negros, D. nigra y D. Conzattii, se aplicó un análisis climático. Por último se estudió la variabilidad morfológica asociada al nivel de manejo en tres zonas de México. Veracruz y Península de ...

  10. Argentina against the Allende government, the look of daily Río Negro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Azcoitia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we address the news about the Argentine-Chilean ties that circulated through the most influential newspaper of Argentine Norpatagonia during the years of the government of Salvador Allende (1970-1973. Through the tools of discourse analysis we realize the multiple dimensions that conditioned the discourses as well as the meanings acquired by binational relations within the framework of the discourses. We consider that this type of studies contributes to deconstruct the essential glances over the other, giving account of the several edges contained in the representations that circulate through the press. This acquires greater relevance in the case of the Northern Patagonia, it is in a region whose links with Chile set up an as historical as everyday experience In this sense, the discourses that prevailed in the Río Negro built a Chile Its past and present intimately linked it to the future of Argentina and the region.

  11. Volcanic hazard map for Telica, Cerro Negro and El Hoyo volcanoes, Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asahina, T.; Navarro, M.; Strauch, W.

    2007-05-01

    A volcano hazard study was conducted for Telica, Cerro Negro and El Hoyo volcanoes, Nicaragua, based on geological and volcanological field investigations, air photo analyses, and numerical eruption simulation. These volcanoes are among the most active volcanoes of the country. This study was realized 2004-2006 through technical cooperation of Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) with INETER, upon the request of the Government of Nicaragua. The resulting volcanic hazard map on 1:50,000 scale displays the hazards of lava flow, pyroclastic flows, lahars, tephra fall, volcanic bombs for an area of 1,300 square kilometers. The map and corresponding GIS coverage was handed out to Central, Departmental and Municipal authorities for their use and is included in a National GIS on Georisks developed and maintained by INETER.

  12. Jovens negros em conflito com a lei: escola e trajetórias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Aparecida de Pinho Pinho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho busca investigar as trajetórias de vida e de escolarização de jovens negros em processo de “ressocializacao", visando averiguar os fatores sociais que os levaram a ser considerados em conflito com alei. As analises foram realizadas a luz doaporte teórico das relações etnico-raciais,com ênfase nos enfoques teorico-metodologicos da dialética e da fenomenologia. Os resultados indicam que as condições de pobreza material e não material herdadas de gerações anteriores e o contexto escolar contribuem fortemente para a construção da situação atual desses jovens, que enfrentam a naturalização do racismo, evidenciada em diferentes momentos das narrativas produzidas pelos componentes do universo empírico desta pesquisa.

  13. [Yanomami children's nutritional status in the middle Rio Negro, Brazilian Amazônia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istria, Jacques; Gazin, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    The nutritional status of 290 Yanomami Amerindians children, from birth to about six year-olds, living in the middle Rio Negro, Brazilian Amazonia, has been studied in 1998 and 1999 using the weight-for-height. All of them were of low stature. Twenty malnourished (7%), defined as below two standard deviations of NCHS' data, have been observed. Five of them showed a severe malnutrition (

  14. Queering I Am Not Your Negro: or Why We Need James Baldwin More Than Ever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Corber

    2017-10-01

    similar effect on audiences. However, even as it succeeds in reanimating Baldwin’s voice for a new political era, I Am Not Your Negro inadvertently exposes the difficulty of fully capturing or honoring the writer’s complex legacy. As scholars have long noted, interest in Baldwin’s life and work tends to divide along racial and sexual lines, and Peck’s documentary is no exception. The filmmaker privileges Baldwin’s blackness over his queerness by overlooking the parts of The Devil Finds Work and No Name in the Street in which the writer’s queerness figures prominently.

  15. Das bruxas, dos índios, dos negros e dos jovens da Febem

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvia Leser de Mello

    2001-01-01

    Este artigo visa discutir os temas Pesquisa e Direitos Humanos, partindo da definição do que pretende a Ciência, suas limitações e momentos seus a serviço de condenações de bruxas e ateus. Trata-se de levantar a questão da 'parcialidade' da Ciência e das formas de exclusão que ela ajudou a gerar e manter face aos criminosos, aos loucos, aos negros e, sem dúvida, aos jovens das camadas populares que são institucionalizados na FEBEM. E, na tentativa de resistência a se deixar levar pelo que de ...

  16. Das bruxas, dos índios, dos negros e dos jovens da Febem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Leser de Mello

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo visa discutir os temas Pesquisa e Direitos Humanos, partindo da definição do que pretende a Ciência, suas limitações e momentos seus a serviço de condenações de bruxas e ateus. Trata-se de levantar a questão da 'parcialidade' da Ciência e das formas de exclusão que ela ajudou a gerar e manter face aos criminosos, aos loucos, aos negros e, sem dúvida, aos jovens das camadas populares que são institucionalizados na FEBEM. E, na tentativa de resistência a se deixar levar pelo que de nefasto existe na mercantilização da Ciência hoje, buscar radicalizar a exigência de defesa dos Direitos Humanos.

  17. Race, Apology, and Public Memory at Maryland's Hospital for the 'Negro' Insane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zosha Stuckey

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To respond to a recent demand of the ACLU of Maryland, and to augment theories from Disability Incarcerated (2014 about the convergence of race, disability, and due process (or lack thereof, this essay analyzes the extent to which racism informed the creation of Maryland's Hospital for the 'Negro' Insane (Crownsville Hospital. In order to understand the extent of racism in Crownsville's earlier years, I will take into account 14 categories within conditions of confinement from 1921-1928 and compare them to the nearby, white asylum. Ultimately, the hospital joins the ranks of separate and unequal (Plessy vs. Ferguson institutions founded alongside a rhetoric of fear that the Baltimore Sun daily paper deemed "a Black invasion" of the city of Baltimore. Even more, I add to public memory of this racialized space invoking the rhetorical frame, as Kendall Phillips advises, of responsibility and apology (versus absolution within the context of present-day racial justice movements.

  18. Hydrological Retrospective of floods and droughts: Case study in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongchuig Correa, Sly; Cauduro Dias de Paiva, Rodrigo; Carlo Espinoza Villar, Jhan; Collischonn, Walter

    2017-04-01

    previously detected by other researches. In the whole basin, we estimated an upward trend of maximum annual discharges at Amazon River. In order to estimate better future hydrological behavior and their impacts on the society, HR could be used as a methodology to understand past extreme events occurrence in many places considering the global coverage of rainfall datasets.

  19. La novelística feminista de Carmen Laforet y el género negro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson, Roberta

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In her five long novels, Carmen Laforet consistently attempted to find new narrative means of framing a feminist message. There exist studies of her use of the Bildungsroman, the Gothic, and Expressionism in Nada. This essay focuses on elements of detective fiction, especially the noir subgenre, in Laforet’s novelistic production, concentrating on Al volver la esquina published posthumously in 2004. The masculine protagonistnarrator moves in a world that is akin to those of North American noir films and novels in order to reveal his dilemma as a man of traditional Spanish masculinist values in a Spain that is beginning to experience the influence of other countries where gender roles are changing.En sus cinco novelas largas, Carmen Laforet intentaba consistentemente encontrar nuevos modos narrativos para enmarcar un mensaje feminista. Ya se ha estudiado su incorporación de la Bildungsroman, lo gótico y lo expresionista en Nada. Este ensayo se enfoca en los elementos de la novela detectivesca, sobre todo el subgénero negro, en la novelística de Laforet. Se concentra en Al volver la esquina publicada póstumamente en 2004, y en la que el protagonista- narrador masculino se mueve en un mundo que se asemeja a los del cine y novela negros norteamericanos, para revelar su dilema de hombre de valores tradicionales masculinistas en una España que está empezando a sentir la influencia de otros países donde los papeles de los géneros sexuales están cambiando.

  20. Photosynthesis within Mars' volcanic craters?: Insights from Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, K. L.; Hynek, B. M.; McCollom, T. M.

    2011-12-01

    Discrete locales of sulfate-rich bedrocks exist on Mars and in many cases represent the products of acid-sulfate alteration of martian basalt. In some places, the products have been attributed to hydrothermal processes from local volcanism. In order to evaluate the habitability of such an environment, we are investigating the geochemical and biological composition of active fumaroles at Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua, where fresh basaltic cinders similar in composition to martian basalts are altered by acidic, sulfur-bearing gases. Temperatures at active fumaroles can reach as high as 400°C and the pH of the steam ranges from Cyanobacteria and Ktedonobacteria, however Actinobacteria, alpha-Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria were also identified. Many of the cyanobacterial sequences were similar to those of the eukaryotic Cyanidiales, red algae that inhabit acidic, geothermal environments. Many of sequences related to Ktedonobacteria and Actinobacteria have also been found in acid mine drainage environments. The Archaeal community was far less diverse, with sequences matching those of unclassified Desulfurococcales and unclassified Thermoprotei. These sequences were more distant from isolated species than the bacterial sequences. Similar bacterial and archaeal communities have been found in hot spring environments in Yellowstone National Park, Greenland, Iceland, New Zealand and Costa Rica. Some of Mars' volcanoes were active for billions of years and by analogy to Cerro Negro, may have hosted photosynthetic organisms that could have been preserved in alteration mineral assemblages. Even on a generally cold and dry Mars, volcanic craters likely provided long-lived warm and wet conditions and should be a key target for future exploration assessing habitability.

  1. Negros e indios en el obraje de San Ildefonso. Real Audiencia de Quito. 1665-1666

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tardieu, Jean Pierre

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The concentration space of the textile mills in the colonial Andean world aggravated the tension between the indigenous workers and the black slaves. Ignoring the protective legislation issued in favor of the natives, the owners took advantage of the inversion of social values that was widely accepted and the thirst for compensation brought about by the frustrations of slavery, that turned the Indians into «slaves of the slaves», thus turning the blacks of the mill into true servile thugs. We will study the mechanisms of the system and its consequences in the second half of the 17th century through the case of the San Ildefonso mill, located near Ambato, in modern-day Ecuador.

    El espacio concentracionario de los obrajes textiles del mundo andino colonial exacerbó las tensiones entre los trabajadores indígenas y los esclavos negros. Haciendo caso omiso de la legislación protectora emitida a favor de los naturales, los dueños se valieron de la inversión de los valores sociales admitida por muchos y de la sed de compensación suscitada por las frustraciones de la esclavitud, que hacían de los indios los «esclavos de los esclavos», para transformar a los negros de los obrajes en verdaderos matones serviles. Estudiaremos los mecanismos del sistema y sus consecuencias en la segunda mitad del siglo XVII a través del caso del obraje de San Ildefonso, situado cerca de Ambato, en el Ecuador actual.

  2. ELEMENTOS METODOLOGICOS INICIALES EN UN PROCESO DE INVESTIGACION - EXTENSION. EL CASO DE CAÑO NEGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Martín José Francisco Miranda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aprovechando la realización de este seminario, hemos querido presentar ante los extensionistas de nuestra Facultad, unas primeras notas acerca del "Proyecto Piloto para la Gestión Productiva-Ambiental con los Pobladores de Caño Negro, Refugio de Vida Silvestre". El propósito de este trabajo inicial, es poner en discusión algunos de los elementos metodológicos que hemos ubicado, al momento de arrancar con un proyecto de investigación-extensión, que pretende recurrir a los procedimientos desarrollados y utilizados en los procesos de INVESTIGACION PARTICIPATIVA, INVESTIGACION ACCION. Además y haciendo eco de las intensiones de este seminario, se espera sirva de elemento para la reflexión conjunta de aspectos de esta naturaleza, que a la postre resultan ser problemas comunes o al menos semejantes, y que además, están en el tapete de la discusión y el análisis. Como la mayoría de ustedes saben, se trata del proyecto de extensión que las escuelas de Sociología, Ambientales, Planificación y Promoción Social y Geografía, iniciaron en marzo de este año en Caño Negro, distrito del cantón de Los Chiles, Alajuela, el cual describiremos con más detalle a continuación.

  3. Dependence of hydropower energy generation on forests in the Amazon Basin at local and regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, Claudia M.; Coe, Michael T.; Costa, Marcos H.; Nepstad, Daniel C.; McGrath, David G.; Dias, Livia C. P.; Rodrigues, Hermann O.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical rainforest regions have large hydropower generation potential that figures prominently in many nations’ energy growth strategies. Feasibility studies of hydropower plants typically ignore the effect of future deforestation or assume that deforestation will have a positive effect on river discharge and energy generation resulting from declines in evapotranspiration (ET) associated with forest conversion. Forest loss can also reduce river discharge, however, by inhibiting rainfall. We used land use, hydrological, and climate models to examine the local “direct” effects (through changes in ET within the watershed) and the potential regional “indirect” effects (through changes in rainfall) of deforestation on river discharge and energy generation potential for the Belo Monte energy complex, one of the world’s largest hydropower plants that is currently under construction on the Xingu River in the eastern Amazon. In the absence of indirect effects of deforestation, simulated deforestation of 20% and 40% within the Xingu River basin increased discharge by 4–8% and 10–12%, with similar increases in energy generation. When indirect effects were considered, deforestation of the Amazon region inhibited rainfall within the Xingu Basin, counterbalancing declines in ET and decreasing discharge by 6–36%. Under business-as-usual projections of forest loss for 2050 (40%), simulated power generation declined to only 25% of maximum plant output and 60% of the industry’s own projections. Like other energy sources, hydropower plants present large social and environmental costs. Their reliability as energy sources, however, must take into account their dependence on forests. PMID:23671098

  4. Genetic structure and historical diversification of catfish Brachyplatystoma platynemum (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) in the Amazon basin with implications for its conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Luz Eneida; Pereira, Luiz Henrique G; Costa-Silva, Guilherme Jose; Roxo, Fábio F; Batista, Jacqueline S; Formiga, Kyara; Foresti, Fausto; Oliveira, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Brachyplatystoma platynemum is a catfish species widely distributed in the Amazon basin. Despite being considered of little commercial interest, the decline in other fish populations has contributed to the increase in the catches of this species. The structure, population genetic variability, and evolutionary process that have driven the diversification of this species are presently unknown. Considering that, in order to better understand the genetic structure of this species, we analyzed individuals from seven locations of the Amazon basin using eight molecular markers: control region and cytochrome b mtDNA sequences, and a set of six nuclear microsatellite loci. The results show high levels of haplotype diversity and point to the occurrence of two structured populations (Amazon River and the Madeira River) with high values for FST. Divergence time estimates based on mtDNA indicated that these populations diverged about 1.0 Mya (0.2–2.5 Mya 95% HPD) using cytochrome b and 1.4 Mya (0.2–2.7 Mya 95% HPD) using control region. During that time, the influence of climate changes and hydrological events such as sea level oscillations and drainage isolation as a result of geological processes in the Pleistocene may have contributed to the current structure of B. platynemum populations, as well as of differences in water chemistry in Madeira River. The strong genetic structure and the time of genetic divergence estimated for the groups may indicate the existence of strong structure populations of B. platynemum in the Amazon basin. PMID:26045952

  5. Artigo: Movimento negro: das denúncias do racismo à prática de políticas públicas

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, João Carlos; NUCLEO DE ESTUDOS NEGROS

    2004-01-01

    Analyzing the role of the Negro Movement in the process of democratization and bringing to light the structural and institutional racism in Brazil, this paper shows that the 1990s were central for the constitution of a more articulated identity of the Negro Movement at the national level. This has a positive impact for public visibility of the racial question in the country. In response to popular pressure, the State has initiated policies against racism and in favor of the ...

  6. Spatial Variability of the Background Diurnal Cycle of Deep Convection around the GoAmazon2014/5 Field Campaign Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burleyson, Casey D.; Feng, Zhe; Hagos, Samson M.; Fast, Jerome; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-07-01

    The Amazon rainforest is one of a few regions of the world where continental tropical deep convection occurs. The Amazon’s isolation makes it challenging to observe, but also creates a unique natural laboratory to study anthropogenic impacts on clouds and precipitation in an otherwise pristine environment. Extensive measurements were made upwind and downwind of the large city of Manaus, Brazil during the Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014-2015 (GoAmazon2014/5) field campaign. In this study, 15 years of high-resolution satellite data are analyzed to examine the spatial and diurnal variability of convection occurring around the GoAmazon2014/5 sites. Interpretation of anthropogenic differences between the upwind (T0) and downwind (T1-T3) sites is complicated by naturally-occurring spatial variability between the sites. During the rainy season, the inland propagation of the previous day’s sea-breeze front happens to be in phase with the background diurnal cycle near Manaus, but is out of phase elsewhere. Enhanced convergence between the river-breezes and the easterly trade winds generates up to 10% more frequent deep convection at the GoAmazon2014/5 sites east of the river (T0a, T0t/k, and T1) compared to the T3 site which was located near the western bank. In general, the annual and diurnal cycles during 2014 were representative of the 2000-2013 distributions. The only exceptions were in March when the monthly mean rainrate was above the 95th percentile and September when both rain frequency and intensity were suppressed. The natural spatial variability must be accounted for before interpreting anthropogenically-induced differences among the GoAmazon2014/5 sites.

  7. Identidades en movimiento: familias chilenas en la fruticultura del Alto Valle de Río Negro, Argentina Identities in movement: chilean families in the fruit production of the Alto Valle de Río Negro, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Trpin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo, basado en el trabajo de campo realizado en áreas rurales del Alto Valle de Río Negro, Argentina, desde el año 1999, tiene como propósito presentar las relaciones en las cuales se insertan hombres y mujeres chilenas que residen y trabajan en "chacras" destinadas a la producción frutícola. Las diferentes actividades en las chacras se organizan según el sexo y la edad, definiéndose una segmentación del mercado de trabajo en la que se ven involucrados los diferentes miembros de la familia. Como desarrollaré, ser trabajadores chilenos en la fruticultura del Alto Valle de Río Negro reproduce una identidad étnica y nacional en el seno de la cotidianeidad familiar y laboral.This article, based on field work conducted in rural areas of the Alto Valle de Río Negro, Argentina, from 1999 on, analyzes the relations in which Chilean men and women who reside and work in small farms destined to fruit production are inserted. The different activities in the small farms are organized according to sex and age, circumscribing a segment of the labor market in which different members of the family are involved. As I will demonstrate, to be a Chilean worker in the fruit growing region of the Alto Valle is to reproduce an ethnic and national identity through work routines mediated by family relations.

  8. Projected increases in the annual flood pulse of the western Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkafli, Zed; Buytaert, Wouter; Manz, Bastian; Veliz Rosas, Claudia; Willems, Patrick; Lavado-Casimiro, Waldo; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Santini, William

    2016-04-01

    The impact of a changing climate on the Amazon basin is a subject of intensive research due to its rich biodiversity and the significant role of rain forest in carbon cycling. Climate change has also direct hydrological impact, and there have been increasing efforts to understand such dynamics at continental and subregional scales such as the scale of the western Amazon. New projections from the Coupled Model Inter- comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) ensemble indicate consistent climatic warming and increasing seasonality of precipitation in the Peruvian Amazon basin. Here we use a distributed land surface model to quantify the potential impact of this change in the climate on the hydrological regime of the river. Using extremes value analysis, historical and future projections of the annual minimum, mean, and maximum river flows are produced for a range of return periods between 1 and 100 years. We show that the RCP 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios of climate change project an increased severity of the wet season flood pulse (7.5% and 12% increases respectively for the 100- year return floods). These findings are in agreement with previously projected increases in high extremes under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) climate projections, and are important to highlight due to the potential consequences on reproductive processes of in-stream species, swamp forest ecology, and socio-economy in the floodplain, amid a growing literature that more strongly emphasises future droughts and their impact on the viability of the rain forest system over the greater Amazonia.

  9. Oil and gas projects in Amazon: an environmental challenge; Projetos de petroleo e gas na Amazonia: um desafio ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taam, Mauricio [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cabral, Nelson [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Regional Norte SMS ; Cardoso, Vanderlei [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude

    2004-07-01

    In the heart of the Amazon forest, some 600 km from the city of Manaus, the Brazilian Oil Company - PETROBRAS - is developing the 'URUCU PROJECT'. Consisting on 3 oil and gas production fields and 3 natural gas processing plant, 2 huge pipelines crossing the dense Amazon forest and its rivers and going towards COARI - the Fluvial Terminal of Solimoes river. Then, vessels and ferries, loads LGN to the north region and oil to feed the Manaus refinery plant. In a near future natural gas pipelines will connect COARI to Manaus and URUCU to Porto Velho. The whole project will allow energy supply to the less developed and isolated region of Brazil, and brings relief for the local population, but represents one of the biggest challenges for the oil and gas industry in terms of environmental sustainability for projects in very sensitive areas. The paper concludes that it is viable to face such a challenges counting on an Environmental Management System tailored to fit the region peculiarities, including a high level of Preparedness and Response for oil incidents, and last but never least assuming a respectful attitude towards the Amazon and its people. (author)

  10. Tornar-se negro: trajetÃrias de vida de professores universitÃrios no CearÃ

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Auxiliadora de Paula GonÃalves Holanda

    2009-01-01

    A pesquisa trata dos processos de construÃÃo de subjetividades dos professores universitÃrios negros da Universidade Federal do Cearà (UFC) ao longo de suas trajetÃrias de vida. O caminho percorrido rumo ao objeto de anÃlise foi conhecer e analisar as construÃÃes identitÃrias de professores dessa universidade nas experiÃncias do tornar-se negro, vivenciadas desde a infÃncia atà o ingresso no mundo do trabalho, no contÃnuo processo de identificaÃÃo e negociaÃÃo prÃprio da formaÃÃo humana. O fo...

  11. [Folklore and popular medicine in the Amazon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrique, Márcio Couto

    2009-01-01

    This discussion of the relations between folklore and popular medicine in the Amazon takes Canuto Azevedo's story "Filhos do boto" (Children of the porpoise) as an analytical reference point. Replete with elements of cultural reality, folk tales can serve as historical testimonies expressing clashes between different traditions. Folk records are fruit of what is often a quarrelsome dialogue between folklorists, social scientists, physicians, and pajés and their followers, and their analysis should take into account the conditions under which they were produced. Based on the imaginary attached to the figure of the porpoise--a seductive creature with healing powers--the article explores how we might expand knowledge of popular medicine as practiced in the Amazon, where the shamanistic rite known as pajelança cabocla has a strong presence.

  12. Nitrogen mass balance in the Brazilian Amazon: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, L A; Pinto, A S; Nardoto, G B; Ometto, J P H B; Filoso, S; Coletta, L D; Ravagnani, E C

    2012-08-01

    The main purpose of this study is to perform a nitrogen budget survey for the entire Brazilian Amazon region. The main inputs of nitrogen to the region are biological nitrogen fixation occurring in tropical forests (7.7 Tg.yr(-1)), and biological nitrogen fixation in agricultural lands mainly due to the cultivation of a large area with soybean, which is an important nitrogen-fixing crop (1.68 Tg.yr(-1)). The input due to the use of N fertilizers (0.48 Tg.yr(-1)) is still incipient compared to the other two inputs mentioned above. The major output flux is the riverine flux, equal to 2.80 Tg.yr(-1) and export related to foodstuff, mainly the transport of soybean and beef to other parts of the country. The continuous population growth and high rate of urbanization may pose new threats to the nitrogen cycle of the region through the burning of fossil fuel and dumping of raw domestic sewage in rivers and streams of the region.

  13. Commons management and ecotourism: Ethnographic evidence from the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Lee Stronza

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluates the relationship between ecotourism and commons management. Social and economic impacts of ecotourism in an indigenous village in the Peruvian Amazon are considered in relation to opportunities for collective action to manage common pool resources, including wildlife, forests, and river habitats. Longitudinal, ethnographic data gathered over 12 years about a joint venture ecotourism project between a private company and a local community show three outcomes that support commons management and three outcomes that challenge it. The outcomes in favor of commons management include: direct economic returns that act as conservation incentives, strengthened organization resulting from participatory management of ecotourism, and expanded networks of support from outside actors. Outcomes that are challenging the potential for collective action include: direct economic returns that enable expanded individual production and extraction, a new spirit of individual entrepreneurship that threatens to debilitate traditional social relations and institutions, and a conservation ethic that fosters dualistic thinking about people and nature and the zoning of places where resources are used vs. where they are preserved.

  14. Pilvipalvelut: Microsoft Azure vs. Amazon Web Services

    OpenAIRE

    Aro, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli tutustua kahteen suosittuun pilvipalveluntarjoajaan, Microsoft Azureen ja Amazon Web Serviceen, sekä vertailla miten ne eroavat toisistaan ominaisuuksiltaan, palveluiltaan ja hinnoittelultaan. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli antaa hyvä yleiskuva vertailtavista pilvipalveluntarjoajista, niiden tarjoamista palveluista, ja niiden sopivuudesta yrityksen pilviratkaisuksi. Vertailu tehtiin yrityksen näkökulmasta. Työn alussa tarkasteltiin pilvipalveluita yleisesti ...

  15. Deforestation crimes and conflicts in the Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores and explains deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest. It primarily takes a green criminological perspective and looks at the harm that is inflicted on many of the Amazon’s inhabitants, including indigenous populations such as ‘uncontacted’ tribes of hunters-gatherers, the oldest human societies. The green criminological perspective also implies that the definition of victimisation is being enlarged: not only (future) humans, but also non-humans can be considered...

  16. Health Concerns in the Amazon Region

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-09

    Residents of the Amazon region of South America contend with a number of health threats - from mosquito-borne diseases to difficulty accessing doctors and healthcare facilities in such a vast area. This podcast helps explore some of the health issues in the region and what's being done to address them.  Created: 4/9/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 4/9/2009.

  17. Application of a simulation model of water quality in the improvement of high basin of Rio Negro - Antioquia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina Perez, Francisco; Wills Toro, Alvaro; Ramirez Cardona, Juan F

    1995-01-01

    The present article consigns the application of a model of water quality: QUAL2E, of the high basin of the Rio Negro in the East Antioquia. The system Rio Negro was divided in 16 homogeneous tracts, in which 15 seating capacity stations and sampling were located, this way 5 in the Rio Negro and 10 in the main flowing gulches. In the period October of 1993 to May of 1994, they were carried out 10 samplings of quality of the water, coupling this way, the basic data for the hydrological scenarios of summer, intermission and winter. Later on it was carried out the calibration of the pattern for the summer and the validation for winter; the parameters were refined especially suspended solids, dissolved oxygen and DBO5. The use of the pattern allows carrying out the prospective for the quality of the water in the region facilitating a better one taking of