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Sample records for negotiate safer sex

  1. Community Influences on Married Women's Safer Sex Negotiation Attitudes in Bangladesh: A Multilevel Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesmin, Syeda S; Cready, Cynthia M

    2016-02-01

    The influence of disadvantaged or deprived community on individuals' health risk-behaviors is increasingly being documented in a growing body of literature. However, little is known about the effects of community characteristics on women's sexual attitudes and behaviors. To examine community effects on married women's safer sex negotiation attitudes, we analyzed cross-sectional data from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys on a sample of 15,134 married women in 600 communities. We estimated two multilevel logistic regression models. Model 1, which included only individual-level variables, showed that women's autonomy/empowerment, age, and HIV knowledge had significant associations with their safer sex negotiation attitudes. We did not find any socioeconomic status gradient in safer sex negotiation attitudes at the individual level. Adding community-level variables in Model 2 significantly improved the fit of the model. Strikingly, we found that higher community-level poverty was associated with greater positive safer sex negotiation attitudes. Prevailing gender norms and overall women's empowerment in the community also had significant effects. While research on community influences calls for focusing on disadvantaged communities, our research highlights the importance of not underestimating the challenges that married women in economically privileged communities may face in negotiating safer sex. To have sufficient and equitable impact on married women's sexual and reproductive health, sexual and reproductive health promotion policies and programs need to be directed to women in wealthier communities as well.

  2. [Sexual Behavior and Self-Efficacy for the Negotiation of Safer Sex in Heterosexual Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Santiago-Rivas, Marimer; Serrano-García, Irma

    2009-05-01

    Self-efficacy has been defined as one of the factors that may facilitate or impede safer sex. Studies reveal that peoples in steady relationships practice safer sex less often that those in casual relationships. We conducted a study with 447 sexually active heterosexual adults. A self-administered questionnaire was designed to study the sexual behavior, the male condom use and the practice of mutual masturbation, and the self-efficacy toward these practices. Results show that most men are sexually active and that there is a low frequency of male condom use and the practice of mutual masturbation as safer sex. The majority of those who use the male condom are engage in casual relationships. However, participants have high levels of self-efficacy toward these practices. Although self-efficacy is one of the factors that influence in deciding to practice safer sex, it is not sufficient to reach this goal.

  3. Can a woman refuse sex if her husband has a sexually transmitted infection? Attitudes toward safer-sex negotiation among married women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesmin, Syeda S; Cready, Cynthia M

    2014-06-01

    In developing countries, HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancy take an enormous toll on women's reproductive health, yet preventive programmes are lacking as married women's risks are frequently underestimated. We examined predictors of married Bangladeshi women's attitudes towards safer-sex negotiation using data on 15,178 currently married women aged 15-49 from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey. Approximately 92% of women believed that a wife's refusal to have sex with her husband is justified if he has an STI. Multilevel logistic regression analysis revealed that the likelihood of a woman holding this belief increased with her autonomy, as measured by the ability to go to a health centre/hospital without another adult, participation in household decision making and rejection of wife beating (p < 0.001). Other significant predictors were knowledge/awareness of STIs (p < 0.05), living in Dhaka division (p < 0.001) and younger age (p < 0.01). Our findings suggest that sexual health education programmes may be more effective if they include strategies to address social norms and cultural practices that limit women's autonomy in society.

  4. Women's household decision-making autonomy and safer sex negotiation in Nigeria: An analysis of the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yujiro; Sedziafa, Alice P; Vercillo, Siera; Antabe, Roger; Luginaah, Isaac

    2018-02-01

    Although married women's safer sex negotiation with their husbands is critical in reducing new HIV infections in Nigeria, its linkage to women's household decision-making autonomy is less explored in Nigeria. Drawing data from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey and using the logistic regression technique, we examined the associations between women's household decision-making autonomy and two indicators of the ability to engage in safer sex including whether married women 1) can refuse sex and 2) ask for condom use during sexual intercourse with husbands. Findings indicate that 64% and 41% of married women can refuse sex and ask for condom use, respectively. While the impact of women's household decision-making autonomy on the ability to refuse sex remained statistically significant after controlling for theoretically relevant variables (OR = 1.15; p < 0.001), its impact on the ability to ask for condom use became weakly significant once socioeconomic variables were controlled (OR = 1.03; p < 0.1). Based on these results, we have two suggestions. First, it may be important that marital-based policies and counselling promote environments in which married women can establish equal power relations with their husbands. Second, it is also important to eliminate structural barriers that hinder married women's economic opportunities in Nigeria.

  5. Married women's negotiation for safer sexual intercourse in Kenya: Does experience of female genital mutilation matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Xiangnan; Sano, Yujiro; Kansanga, Moses; Baada, Jemima; Antabe, Roger

    2017-12-01

    Married women's ability to negotiate for safer sex is important for HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa, including Kenya. Yet, its relationship to female genital mutilation is rarely explored, although female genital mutilation has been described as a social norm and marker of womanhood that can control women's sexuality. Drawing on the social normative influence theory, this study addressed this void in the literature. We analysed data from the 2014 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey using logistic regression. Our sample included 8,602 married women. Two indicators of safer sex, namely the ability to refuse sex and the ability to ask for condom use, were explored. We found that women who had undergone genital mutilation were significantly less likely to report that they can refuse sex (OR=0.87; p<.05) and that they can ask for condom use during sexual intercourse (OR=0.62; p<.001) than their counterparts who had not undergone genital mutilation, while controlling for theoretically relevant variables. Our findings indicate that the experience of female genital mutilation may influence married women's ability to negotiate for safer sex through gendered socialization and expectations. Based on these findings, several policy implications are suggested. For instance, culturally sensitive programmes are needed that target both married women who have undergone genital mutilation and their husbands to understand the importance of safer sexual practices within marriage. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Female gratification, sexual power and safer sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skafte, Ina; Silberschmidt, Margrethe

    2014-01-01

    The gender-based response to HIV in sub-Saharan Africa has tended to reinforce normative stereotypes of women as subordinated, passive and powerless victims, in particular in sexual relations. However, based on qualitative data from Rwanda, this paper argues that such conceptualisations fail to r...... both to practice safer sex and to access decision-making power and material resources. This suggests that inherent in sexual relations is a potential for the empowerment of women and the transformation of gender relations.......The gender-based response to HIV in sub-Saharan Africa has tended to reinforce normative stereotypes of women as subordinated, passive and powerless victims, in particular in sexual relations. However, based on qualitative data from Rwanda, this paper argues that such conceptualisations fail...... to recognise that while women do comply with prevalent social norms, they also challenge these norms and sex becomes a domain in which they can exert power. Female sexuality and sexual gratification - acknowledged and valued by women as well as men - play a pivotal role in the Rwandese mode of sexual...

  7. Positive reinforcement to promote safer sex among clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, S

    1992-01-01

    The AIDS Research Foundation of India (ARFI) began an intervention program with sex workers in Madras where the women reported that they were willing to use condoms, whereas the customers were not. Accordingly, ARFI is focusing on clients using a positive reinforcement approach: repetition of the desirability of condom use by communication. First, truck drivers and dock workers have been targeted. Drivers interviewed by ARFI were familiar with the condom as a contraceptive method rather than a disease-preventing method, and used it with their wives. The ARFI program has convinced tobacco shopkeepers to stock condoms for drivers. Truckers receive key chains with a holder for a condom. At transit site tea shops songs are aired about road and roadside safety sponsored by a tire manufacturer with a message about rubber (tires and condoms). Women selling sex at transit sites are also educated about the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) while attempting to increase their level of hygiene. The typical Friday night sex-seeking behavior among dock workers consists of drinking in a wine shop and soliciting sex workers. Port management and unions have also been recruited for promoting AIDS-related education after participating in health education sessions with flip charts and flash cards. Rest rooms display posters on condom use, some men have been recruited as condom holders for distribution on Friday nights, and barber shops also feature posters with messages about safer sex. AIDS/STD prevention programs have to deal with prevailing practices, values, and beliefs. Results indicate increased condom use among clients as shown by increased sales at transit site tobacco shops and shops around the port. In the future the program will pay more attention to improving the negotiation skills of sex workers.

  8. Viral Transmissions: Safer Sex Videos, Disability, and Queer Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Karisa Butler-Wall

    2016-01-01

    Bringing disability studies into conversation with queer histories of AIDS activism, this article examines the relationship between disability and queer politics in safer sex videos created by AIDS activists in the 1980s. As a form of what the author terms "guerrilla biopolitics," safer sex videos insisted on the viability of queer life and sexual expression at a historical moment of intense homophobia and sex negativity. At the same time, the vision of sexual health and identity they offered...

  9. Viral Transmissions: Safer Sex Videos, Disability, and Queer Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karisa Butler-Wall

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bringing disability studies into conversation with queer histories of AIDS activism, this article examines the relationship between disability and queer politics in safer sex videos created by AIDS activists in the 1980s. As a form of what the author terms "guerrilla biopolitics," safer sex videos insisted on the viability of queer life and sexual expression at a historical moment of intense homophobia and sex negativity. At the same time, the vision of sexual health and identity they offered risked reproducing racialized and classed ideologies of ableism. Seeking to "crip" our understandings of safer sex discourses and practices, this study explores how risk reduction techniques have been historically linked to imperatives of compulsory able-bodiedness, precluding alternative expressions of queer/crip life.

  10. Using a narrative to spark safer sex communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donné, Lennie; Hoeks, Jacobus; Jansen, C. J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: College students are a group at risk for contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs). While they are generally well informed about STIs, they do not consistently use condoms. An important element in preventing STIs is safer sex communication, especially with a sexual partner. This

  11. Using a Narrative to Spark Safer Sex Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donné, Lennie; Hoeks, John; Jansen, Carel

    2017-01-01

    Objective: College students are a group at risk for contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs). While they are generally well informed about STIs, they do not consistently use condoms. An important element in preventing STIs is safer sex communication, especially with a sexual partner. This may be difficult, however, because of a lack of…

  12. Motivational influences on the safer sex behavior of agency-based male sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael D; Seal, David W

    2008-10-01

    Although indoor male sex workers (MSWs) have been found to engage in lower rates of HIV risk behavior with clients than street-based MSWs, few studies have examined the motivations behind such practices. We interviewed 30 MSWs working for the same escort agency regarding their safer sex practices with clients and their reasons for these. As in other research, MSWs reported little risk behavior with clients. Five motivational themes related to safer sex on the job emerged: health concerns, emotional intimacy, client attractiveness, relationships, and structural work factors. Results suggest that participants engaged in rational decision-making relative to sex with clients, facilitated by reduced economic incentive for riskier behavior and a supportive social context. MSWs desired a safe sexual work place, personal integrity, and minimal negative consequences to personal relationships. Collaborating with sex work employers to study their role in encouraging a safer workplace may be important to future research.

  13. Anger as a moderator of safer sex motivation among low-income urban women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroder, Kerstin E E; Carey, Michael P

    2005-10-01

    Theoretical models suggest that both HIV knowledge and HIV risk perception inform rational decision making and, thus, predict safer sex motivation and behavior. However, the amount of variance explained by knowledge and risk perception is typically small. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated whether the predictive power of HIV knowledge and HIV risk perception on safer sex motivation is affected by trait anger. We hypothesized that anger may disrupt rational decision making, distorting the effects of both HIV knowledge and risk perception on safer sex intentions. Data from 232 low-income, urban women at risk for HIV infection were used to test a path model with past sexual risk behavior, HIV knowledge, and HIV risk perception as predictors of safer sex intentions. Moderator effects of anger on safer sex intentions were tested by simultaneous group comparisons between high-anger and low-anger women (median split). The theoretically expected "rational pattern" was found among low-anger women only, including (a) a positive effect of knowledge on safer sex intentions, and (b) buffer (inhibitor) effects of HIV knowledge and HIV risk perception on the negative path leading from past risk behavior to safer sex intentions. Among high-anger women, an "irrational pattern" emerged, with no effects of HIV knowledge and negative effects of both past risk behavior and HIV risk perception on safer sex intentions. In sum, the results suggest that rational knowledge- and risk-based decisions regarding safer sex may be limited to low-anger women.

  14. Should we consider steps with variable height for a safer stair negotiation in older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzler, Marcos R; da Rocha, Emmanuel S; Dos Santos, Christielen S; Ceccon, Fernando G; Priario, Liver A; Carpes, Felipe P

    2018-01-01

    Effects of exercise on foot clearances are important. In older adults variations in foot clearances during walking may lead to a fall, but there is a lack of information concerning stair negotiation in older adults. Whether a condition of post exercise changes foot clearances between steps of a staircase in older adults still unknown. To determine differences in clearances when older adults negotiate different steps of a staircase before and after a session of aerobic exercise. Kinematics data from 30 older adults were acquired and the toe and heel clearances were determined for each step. Clearances were compared between the steps. Smaller clearances were found at the highest step during ascending and descending, which was not changed by exercise. Smaller clearances suggest higher risk of tripping at the top of the staircase, regardless of exercise. A smaller step at the top of a short flight of stairs could reduce chances of tripping in older adults. It suggests that steps with variable height could make stair negotiation safer in older adults. This hypothesis should be tested in further studies.

  15. Seriously Mentally Ill Women’s Safer Sex Behaviors and the Theory of Reasoned Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Mary E.; Pinkerton, Steven D.; Somlai, Anton M.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Gibson, Richard H.; Hackl, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Seriously mentally ill women at risk for HIV infection (n = 96) participated in structured interviews assessing sexual and substance use behavior over a 3-month period. The majority of the women (63.5%) did not use condoms. Consistent with the Theory of Reasoned Action, condom use attitudes and perceived social norms about safer sex were associated with safer sex intentions. Supplementing TRA variables with safer sex self-efficacy explained additional variance in safer sex intentions. Greater safer sex intentions were related to both greater condom use and to less frequent unprotected intercourse. In addition, less frequent sex after drug use and a less fatalistic outlook were associated with less frequent unprotected intercourse. Life circumstances specific to this population are particularly important to examine to improve the effectiveness of risk reduction interventions for seriously mentally ill women. PMID:19458268

  16. Anger as a Moderator of Safer Sex Motivation among Low Income Urban Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Michael P.

    2005-01-01

    Theoretical models suggest that both HIV knowledge and HIV risk perception inform rational decision-making and, thus, predict safer sex motivation and behavior. However, the amount of variance explained by knowledge and risk perception is typically small. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated whether the predictive power of HIV knowledge and HIV risk perception on safer sex motivation is affected by trait anger. We hypothesized that anger may disrupt rational-decision making, distorting the effects of both HIV knowledge and risk perception on safer sex intentions. Data from 232 low-income, urban women at risk for HIV infection were used to test a path model with past sexual risk behavior, HIV knowledge, and HIV risk perception as predictors of safer sex intentions. Moderator effects of anger on safer sex intentions were tested by simultaneous group comparisons between high-anger and low-anger women (median-split). The theoretically expected “rational pattern” was found among low-anger women only, including (a) a positive effect of knowledge on safer sex intentions, and (b) buffer (inhibitor) effects of HIV knowledge and HIV risk perception on the negative path leading from past risk behavior to safer sex intentions. Among high-anger women, an “irrational pattern” emerged, with no effects of HIV knowledge and negative effects of both past risk behavior and HIV risk perception on safer sex intentions. In sum, the results suggest that rational knowledge and risk-based decisions regarding safer sex may be limited to low-anger women. PMID:16247592

  17. Gaming for Safer Sex: Young German and Turkish People Report No Specific Culture-Related Preferences Toward Educational Games Promoting Safer Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüll, Phil; Ruiter, Robert A C; Wiers, Reinout W; Kok, Gerjo

    2016-12-01

    Comprehensive sex education programs specifically designed for adolescents and young adults that take into account gender norms and cultural background have shown promise as a means of countering the high sexually transmitted infection rate in young people. Recently, digital gaming interventions delivered on computers or mobile devices have emerged as another way to promote safer sex behavior in a young population. Tailoring these computer-based interventions to their target population has been recognized to increase positive behavior outcomes. In this qualitative study, we investigated whether young female and male adults from two different cultural backgrounds (all living in Germany) would have different preferences and needs in relation to an educational game promoting safer sex. We conducted four semistructured focus group interviews comprising open-ended questions with male and female participants who had either a German or a Turkish background. In total, 20 individuals, aged between 18 and 22 years, from two socially diverse and ethnically mixed vocational schools in Germany participated. Independent of cultural background and gender, participants preferred a real-world design with a first-person visual perspective over a fantasy-like third-person perspective. Furthermore, they preferred highly customizable avatars. All participants mentioned the importance of including an alcohol-intoxicated avatar and most participants wanted there to be additional information available about various safer sex approaches and about the use of different barrier protection methods. Males and females reported similar preferences for the design of an educational game promoting safer sex, with the only difference being exactly how the topic of having sexual intercourse should be addressed in the game. Males preferred a direct approach, whereas females had a preference for treating this subject more sympathetically. Educational games offer anonymity and can provide young people

  18. Condom negotiations among female sex workers in the Philippines: environmental influences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianne A Urada

    Full Text Available Social and structural influences of condom negotiation among female sex workers (FSWs remain understudied. This study assesses environmental and individual factors associated with condom negotiation among FSWs at high risk for acquiring HIV in a large urban setting of Metro Manila, Philippines.Female bar/spa workers (N = 498, aged 18 and over, underwent interview-led surveys examining their sexual health practices in the context of their risk environments. Data were collected from April 2009-January 2010 from 54 venues. Multiple logistic regressions were conducted to assess socio-behavioral factors (e.g., age, education, length of time employed as an entertainer, and alcohol/drug use and socio-structural factors (e.g., venue-level peer/manager support, condom rule/availability, and sex trafficking associated with condom negotiation, adjusting for individuals nested within venues.Of 142 FSWs who traded sex in the previous 6 months (included in the analysis, 24% did not typically negotiate condom use with venue patrons. Factors in the physical environment--trafficked/coerced into work (AOR = 12.92, 95% CI = 3.34-49.90, economic environment--sex without a condom to make more money (AOR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.01-2.30, policy environment--sex without a condom because none was available (AOR = 2.58, 95% CI = 1.49-4.48, and individual risk--substance use (AOR = 2.36, 95% CI = 1.28-4.35 were independently associated with FSWs' lack of condom negotiation with venue patrons.Factors in the physical, economic, and policy environments, over individual (excepting substance use and social level factors, were significantly associated with these FSWs' condom negotiations in the Philippines. Drawing upon Rhodes' risk environment framework, these results highlight the need for policies that support safer sex negotiations among sex workers in the context of their risk environments. Interventions should reduce barriers to condom negotiation

  19. Motives and barriers to safer sex and regular STI testing among MSM soon after HIV diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, Titia; Zuure, Freke; Stolte, Ineke; Davidovich, Udi

    2017-01-01

    Understanding why some recently with HIV diagnosed men who have sex with men (MSM) choose for safer sex and regular STI testing, whereas others do not, is important for the development of interventions that aim to improve the sexual health of those newly infected. To gain insight into motives and

  20. A Pilot Intervention to Promote Safer Sex in Heterosexual Puerto Rican Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Seal, David Wyatt; Ronis, David L

    2014-09-01

    Although the sexual transmission of HIV occurs in the context of an intimate relationship, preventive interventions with couples are scarce, particularly those designed for Hispanics. In this article, we present the effect of a pilot intervention directed to prevent HIV/AIDS in heterosexual couples in Puerto Rico. The intervention was theory-based and consisted of five three-hour group sessions. Primary goals included increasing male condom use and the practice of mutual masturbation as a safer sex method, and promoting favorable attitudes toward these behaviors. Twenty-six couples participated in this study. Fifteen were randomly assigned to the intervention group and eleven to a control group. Retention rates at post-intervention and follow-up were 82% for the whole sample. Results showed that there was a significant increase in the use of male condoms with main partners in the intervention group when compared with the control group. Couples in the intervention group also had better scores on secondary outcomes, such as attitudes toward condom use and mutual masturbation, HIV information, sexual decision-making, and social support. We found that these effects persisted over the three month follow up. A significant effect was also observed for the practice of mutual masturbation, but not for sexual negotiation. These results showed that promoting male condom use in dyadic interventions among heterosexual couples in Puerto Rico is feasible. Our findings suggest that because vaginal penetration has been constructed as the sexual script endpoint among many Hispanic couples, promoting other non-penetrative practices, such as mutual masturbation, may be difficult.

  1. Seriously Mentally Ill Women's Safer Sex Behaviors and the Theory of Reasoned Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Mary E.; Pinkerton, Steven D.; Somlai, Anton M.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; McAuliffe, Timothy L.; Gibson, Richard H.; Hackl, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Seriously mentally ill women at risk for HIV infection (n = 96) participated in structured interviews assessing sexual and substance-use behavior over a 3-month period. The majority of the women (63.5%) did not use condoms. Consistent with the theory of reasoned action, attitudes toward condom use and perceived social norms about safer sex were…

  2. Achieving Safety: Safer Sex, Communication, and Desire among Young Gay Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Anna; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Pingel, Emily; Johns, Michelle Marie; Santana, Matthew Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Conceptualizations of safer sex practices among young gay men (YGM) are frequently structured around communication between partners and the subsequent utilization or absence of condoms in a sexual encounter. Drawing on a sample of 34 in-depth interviews with YGM, ages 18 to 24, the authors explore the ways in which conceptualizations and…

  3. Understanding Barriers to Safer Sex Practice in Zimbabwean Marriages: Implications for Future HIV Prevention Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugweni, Esther; Omar, Mayeh; Pearson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Against the backdrop of high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence in stable relationships in Southern Africa, our study presents sociocultural barriers to safer sex practice in Zimbabwean marriages. We conducted 36 in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions with married men and women in Zimbabwe in 2008. Our aim was to identify…

  4. Albania's students teach their peers about sexuality and safer sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliriani, E; Asllani, P

    1995-01-01

    Under the previous pronatalist regime, Albania was the country with the youngest population and the highest birth rate in Europe. Nevertheless, sexuality used to be repressed, and the penalty for homosexuality was 10 years in prison. The repercussions of this period when information, education, and services in the field of sexual health were withheld are still felt. There are still thousands of young people and teenagers who lack the knowledge about sexuality and reproduction. Every day in Albania, at least one student has an abortion. The Organization for the Propagation of Sexual Education (SOPSE) was officially launched in November 1993, and it was initially based among students of the University of Tirana. After attending workshops concerned with health education, they became the first peer educators for sex, contraception and AIDS information. SOPSE has carried out about 700 sessions of counseling in student residences at the branch created at the University of Korca and has also distributed about 2000 condoms. SOPSE also organized a masked ball for students at the University of Tirana. 25 SOPSE members each invited 4 other students, and everyone received a free condom. The ball was also attended by representatives from Action Plus, an Albanian nongovernmental organization concerned with AIDS prevention, which distributed condoms and information at the ball. In addition, there were participants from the UN Development Programme, the World Health Organization, the Ministry of Health, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the Albanian Family Planning Association, as well as a number of journalists and medical professors. Part of the evening was devoted to telling the students about SOPSE, putting across safe sex messages, introducing contraceptive methods, and discussing sexuality and the risks of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV infection.

  5. Parent-Adolescent Sexual Communication and Adolescent Safer Sex Behavior: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widman, Laura; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Noar, Seth M.; Nesi, Jacqueline; Garrett, Kyla

    2016-01-01

    Importance Parent-adolescent sexual communication has received considerable attention as one factor that can positively impact safer sex among youth; however, the evidence linking communication to youth contraceptive and condom use has not been empirically synthesized. Objective This meta-analysis examined the effect of parent-adolescent sexual communication on youth safer sex behavior and explored potential moderators of this association. Data Sources A systematic search was conducted of studies published through June 2014 using Medline, PsycINFO, and Communication & Mass Media Complete databases and relevant review articles. Study Selection Studies were included if they: 1) sampled adolescents (mean sample age≤18); 2) included an adolescent report of sexual communication with parent(s); 3) measured safer sex behavior; and 4) were published in English. Data Extraction and Synthesis Correlation coefficients (r) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed from studies and meta-analyzed using random-effects models. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was safer sex behavior, including use of contraceptives/birth control or condoms. Results Seventy-one independent effects representing over three decades of research on 25,314 adolescents (mean age = 15.1) were synthesized. Across studies, there was a small, significant weighted mean effect (r = .10, [95% CI:0.08–0.13]) linking parent-adolescent sexual communication to safer sex behavior, which was statistically heterogeneous (Q = 203.50, p communication with girls (r = .12) than boys (r = .04), and among youth who discussed sex with mothers (r = .14) compared to fathers (r = .03). Effects did not differ for contraceptive versus condom use, or among longitudinal versus cross-sectional studies, indicating parent sexual communication had a similar impact across study designs and outcomes. Several methodological issues were identified in the literature; future studies can improve on these by measuring

  6. Parent-Adolescent Sexual Communication and Adolescent Safer Sex Behavior: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widman, Laura; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Noar, Seth M; Nesi, Jacqueline; Garrett, Kyla

    2016-01-01

    Parent-adolescent sexual communication has received considerable attention as a factor that can positively affect safer sex behavior among youth; however, the evidence linking such communication to youth contraceptive and condom use has not been empirically synthesized. To examine the effect of parent-adolescent sexual communication on safer sex behavior among youth and explore potential moderators of this association. A systematic search of studies published from database inception through June 30, 2014, using the MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Communication & Mass Media Complete databases and relevant review articles yielded 5098 studies, of which 52 studies with 25,314 adolescents met the study eligibility criteria. Analysis was conducted from July 1, 2014, to July 27, 2015. Studies were included if they sampled adolescents (mean sample age ≤18 years), included an adolescent report of sexual communication with one or both parents, measured safer sex behavior, and were published in English. Correlation coefficients (r) and 95% CIs were computed from studies and meta-analyzed using random-effects models. Safer sex behavior, including use of contraceptives or condoms. Fifty-two articles, including 71 independent effects representing more than 3 decades of research on 25,314 adolescents (weighted mean age, 15.2 years) were synthesized. Across studies, there was a significant weighted mean effect (r = 0.10; 95% CI, 0.08-0.13) linking parent-adolescent sexual communication with safer sex behavior, which was statistically heterogeneous (Q = 203.50, P communication with girls (r = 0.12) than boys (r = 0.04) and among youth who discussed sex with their mothers (r = 0.14) compared with their fathers (r = 0.03). Effects did not differ for contraceptive vs condom use or among longitudinal vs cross-sectional studies, indicating that parent sexual communication had a similar effect across study designs and outcomes. Several methodological issues were

  7. HIV knowledge, risk perception, and safer sex practices among female sex workers in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Eunice; Bauai, Ludwina; Sapuri, Mathias; Kaldor, John M; Fairley, Christopher K; Keogh, Louise A

    2011-01-01

    Sex workers are considered a high-risk group for sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and are often targeted by prevention interventions with safer sex messages. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which knowledge of HIV and perception of risk influence safer sex practices among female sex workers (FSWs) in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. FSWs (n = 174) were recruited from 19 sites to participate in the study. Qualitative data were collected using semistructured interviews with FSWs (n = 142) through focus group discussions and (n = 32) individual interviews. In addition, quantitative data were collected from all FSWs using a short structured, demographic questionnaire. Data were analyzed using recurring themes and calculations of confidence intervals. Despite some common misperceptions, overall, most FSWs were basically aware of the risks of HIV and informed about transmission and prevention modalities but used condoms inconsistently. Most reported using condoms ‘sometimes’, almost one-sixth ‘never’ used condoms, only a fraction used condoms ‘always’ with clients, and none used condoms ‘always’ with regular sexual partners (RSPs). Among these FSWs, being knowledgeable about the risks, transmission, and prevention of HIV did not translate into safe sex. The findings suggest that certain contextual barriers to safer sex practices exist. These barriers could heighten HIV vulnerability and possibly may be responsible for infection in FSWs. Specific interventions that focus on improving condom self-efficacy in FSWs and simultaneously target clients and RSPs with safer sex messages are recommended. PMID:21445375

  8. Identifying psychosocial variables that predict safer-sex intentions in adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil eBrüll

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Young people are especially vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections. The triad of deliberate and effective safer-sex behavior encompasses condom use, combined with additional information about a partner’s sexual health, and the kind of sex acts usually performed. To identify psychosocial predictors of young people’s intentions to have safer sex, as related to this triad we conducted an online study with 211 sexually active participants aged between 18 and 24 years. Predictors (i.e. perceived behavioural control, subjective norms and intention taken from Fishbein and Ajzen’s Reasoned Action Approach (RAA, were combined with more distal variables (e.g. behavioral inhibition, sensation seeking, parental monitoring, and knowledge about sexually transmitted infections. Beyond the highly predictive power of RAA variables, additional variance was explained by the number of instances of unprotected sexual intercourse during the last twelve months and reasons for using barrier protection during first sexual intercourse. In particular, past condom nonuse behavior moderated perceived behavioral control related to intended condom use. Further, various distal variables showed significant univariate associations with intentions related to the three behaviors of interest. It may, therefore, be helpful to include measures of past behavior as well as certain additional distal variables in future safer-sex programs designed to promote health sustaining sexual behavior.

  9. Measurement Noninvariance of Safer Sex Self-Efficacy Between Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Black Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Donald; Budd, Elizabeth L; Plax, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Black and lesbian, gay, bisexual, or questioning (LGBQ) youth in the United States are disproportionately affected by HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Although self-efficacy is strongly, positively associated with safer sex behaviors, no studies have examined the validity of a safer sex self-efficacy scale used by many federally funded HIV/STD prevention programs. This study aims to test factor validity of the Sexual Self-Efficacy Scale by using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to determine if scale validity varies between heterosexual and LGBQ Black youth. The study uses cross-sectional data collected through baseline surveys with 226 Black youth (15 to 24 years) enrolled in community-based HIV-prevention programs. Participants use a 4-point Likert-type scale to report their confidence in performing 6 healthy sexual behaviors. CFAs are conducted on 2 factor structures of the scale. Using the best-fitting model, the scale is tested for measurement invariance between the 2 groups. A single-factor model with correlated errors of condom-specific items fits the sample well and, when tested with the heterosexual group, the model demonstrates good fit. However, when tested with the LGBQ group, the same model yields poor fit, indicating factorial noninvariance between the groups. The Sexual Self-Efficacy Scale does not perform equally well among Black heterosexual and LGBQ youth. Study findings suggest additional research is needed to inform development of measures for safer sex self-efficacy among Black LGBQ youth to ensure validity of conceptual understanding and to accurately assess effectiveness of HIV/STD prevention interventions among this population.

  10. Safer sex decision-making among men with haemophilia and HIV and their female partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, K L; Cotton, D; Huszti, H C; Parsons, J T

    2001-01-01

    An exploratory qualitative study of adult heterosexual men with haemophilia and HIV and women who were their sexual partners was conducted as formative research to better understand cognitive factors involved in behavioural intentions and practices which comprise HIV risk-reduction for sexual transmission. The study sought to generate hypotheses, uncover themes, and develop a broad perspective on possible determinants of behaviours related to HIV transmission risk reduction. Qualitative analysis of these data served as a basis for developing a subsequent quantitative, hypothesis-testing survey and an intervention. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 23 single men and 28 married men with haemophilia and HIV infection, and 28 married women partners selected through stratified, purposeful sampling. The interviews identified beliefs, attitudes, and values underlying decisions regarding target behaviours related to preventing sexual transmission of HIV, including (1) using condoms consistently during vaginal intercourse and (2) talking to partners about risk reduction. The interviews elicited information about perceived advantages and disadvantages of performing each of the targeted behaviours, and factors that facilitate or prevent performing them. Qualitative analysis of coded responses yielded important themes regarding how choices are made about sexual activity and safer sex. Most notably, communication between partners (1) plays a direct, key role in facilitating condom use and (2) forms the basis for maintaining emotional intimacy in these relationships. The link between condom use and communicating about safer sex was viewed as pivotal in achieving HIV prevention for individuals in serodiscordant couples. Recommendations for risk reduction intervention development are discussed.

  11. Transactional sex and the challenges to safer sexual behaviors: a study among male sex workers in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biello, Katie B; Thomas, Beena E; Johnson, Blake E; Closson, Elizabeth F; Navakodi, Pandiaraja; Dhanalakshmi, A; Menon, Sunil; Mayer, Kenneth H; Safren, Steven A; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2017-02-01

    Male sex workers (MSW) are a significant but invisible population in India who are at risk for HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Few studies from India have documented HIV risk factors and motivations for sex work in this population. Between 2013 and 2014, a community-based convenience sample of 100 MSW in Chennai (south India) completed a baseline risk assessment as part of a behavioral intervention. Participants were ≥18 years, and reported current sex work. We report medians and proportions, and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney and chi-square tests are used to examine differences between sex work and sexual behavior measures by income source. Participants were engaged in sex work for 5.0 years (IQR = 2.3-10.0), and earned 3000 (IQR = 2000-8000) Rupees (India engage in high levels of sexual risk for HIV/STIs. Money appears to be a driving factor for engaging in sex work and condomless sex with clients. HIV prevention interventions with MSW should focus on facilitating skills that will support their ability to negotiate sexual safety in the context of monetary disincentives.

  12. Gender Power Control, Sexual Experiences, Safer Sex Practices, and Potential HIV Risk Behaviors Among Young Asian-American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jieha; Rough, Kathryn; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of three domains of sexual behaviors among young Asian-American women: sexual experiences, safer sex practices, and potential HIV risk behaviors. We also investigated the impact of gender power control on these domains. Among sexually experienced women, 51% reported using condoms during their most recent sex act, 63% reported inconsistent condom use, and 18% reported ever having forced sex. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that women’s perceived lower relationship power control was not associated with vaginal sex or safer sex practices, but it was powerfully associated with forced sex and all three potential HIV risk behaviors. This study demonstrates that control within young Asian-American women’s intimate relationships exerts different associations depending on the type of sexual behavior. The application of the Theory of Gender and Power should be employed with prudence when designing HIV interventions for this population. PMID:21259042

  13. Gender power control, sexual experiences, safer sex practices, and potential HIV risk behaviors among young Asian-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Lee, Jieha; Rough, Kathryn; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2012-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of three domains of sexual behaviors among young Asian-American women: sexual experiences, safer sex practices, and potential HIV risk behaviors. We also investigated the impact of gender power control on these domains. Among sexually experienced women, 51% reported using condoms during their most recent sex act, 63% reported inconsistent condom use, and 18% reported ever having forced sex. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that women's perceived lower relationship power control was not associated with vaginal sex or safer sex practices, but it was powerfully associated with forced sex and all three potential HIV risk behaviors. This study demonstrates that control within young Asian-American women's intimate relationships exerts different associations depending on the type of sexual behavior. The application of the Theory of Gender and Power should be employed with prudence when designing HIV interventions for this population.

  14. Factors associated with condom use negotiation by female sex workers in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Nazmul; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Mridha, Malay K; Ahmed, Anisuddin; Reichenbach, Laura J; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Azim, Tasnim

    2013-10-01

    Negotiation for condom use by female sex workers with their male clients can enhance condom use. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1395 female sex workers; 439 from two brothels, 442 from 30 hotels, and 514 from streets of two cities in Bangladesh to determine the predictors of condom use negotiation. Consistent condom use rates in the 7 days prior to interview were reported to be 16.2%, 21.7%, and 4.5% among the brothel, hotel, and street-based female sex workers, respectively. Overall, 28.1% of female sex workers negotiated for condom use with their clients. Participation in behaviour change communication (BCC) programmes (AOR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-2.0) and self-perceived risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection (AOR, 1.8 95% CI, 1.6-2.1) were positive predictors for condom negotiation. Compared to the hotel-based female sex workers, street (AOR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.9) and brothel-based female sex workers (AOR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5-0.9) were less likely to negotiate for condom use. Female sex workers in Bangladesh are at high risk for sexually transmitted infection / human immunodeficiency virus infection because of low overall negotiation for condom use. Participation in BCC programmes had positive effect on condom negotiation by female sex workers, and should be strengthened in commercial sex venues.

  15. A Randomised Controlled Trial Using Mobile Advertising to Promote Safer Sex and Sun Safety to Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, J.; Aitken, C. K.; Dixon, H. G.; Lim, M. S. C.; Gouillou, M.; Spelman, T.; Wakefield, M.; Hellard, M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Mobile phone text messages (SMS) are a promising method of health promotion, but a simple and low cost way to obtain phone numbers is required to reach a wide population. We conducted a randomised controlled trial with simultaneous brief interventions to (i) evaluate effectiveness of messages related to safer sex and sun safety and (ii) pilot the…

  16. Motives and barriers to safer sex and regular STI testing among MSM soon after HIV diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijman, Titia; Zuure, Freke; Stolte, Ineke; Davidovich, Udi

    2017-03-07

    Understanding why some recently with HIV diagnosed men who have sex with men (MSM) choose for safer sex and regular STI testing, whereas others do not, is important for the development of interventions that aim to improve the sexual health of those newly infected. To gain insight into motives and barriers to condom use and regular STI testing among MSM soon after HIV diagnosis, 30 HIV-positive MSM participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews on sexual health behaviours in the first year after HIV diagnosis. Typical barriers to condom use soon after diagnosis were emotions such as anger, relief, and feelings of vulnerability. Additional barriers were related to pre-diagnosis patterns of sexual-social behaviour that were difficult to change, communication difficulties, and substance use. Barriers to STI testing revolved around perceptions of low STI risk, faulty beliefs, and burdensome testing procedures. The great diversity of motives and barriers to condom use and STI testing creates a challenge to accommodate newly infected men with information, motivation, and communication skills to match their personal needs. An adaptive, tailored intervention can be a promising tool of support.

  17. Heavy Sexual Content Versus Safer Sex Content: A Content Analysis of the Entertainment Education Drama Shuga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Nancy Achieng'; Miller, Ann Neville; Ngure, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Extremely popular with Kenyan youth, the entertainment-education drama Shuga was designed with specific goals of promoting condom use, single versus multiple sexual partners, and destigmatization of HIV. Almost as soon as it aired, however, it generated controversy due to its extensive sexual themes and relatively explicit portrayal of sexual issues. To determine how safer sex, antistigma messages, and overall sexual content were integrated into Shuga, we conducted a content analysis. Results indicated that condom use and HIV destigmatization messages were frequently and clearly communicated. Negative consequences for risky sexual behavior were communicated over the course of the entire series. Messages about multiple concurrent partnerships were not evident. In addition, in terms of scenes per hour of programming, Shuga had 10.3 times the amount of sexual content overall, 8.2 times the amount of sexual talk, 17.8 times the amount of sexual behavior, and 9.4 times the amount of sexual intercourse as found in previous analysis of U.S. entertainment programming. Research is needed to determine how these factors may interact to influence adolescent viewers of entertainment education dramas.

  18. Development of a theory-guided pan-European computer-assisted safer sex intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöstlinger, Christiana; Borms, Ruth; Dec-Pietrowska, Joanna; Dias, Sonia; Rojas, Daniela; Platteau, Tom; Vanden Berghe, Wim; Kok, Gerjo

    2016-12-01

    HIV is a growing public health problem in Europe, with men-having-sex-with-men and migrants from endemic regions as the most affected key populations. More evidence on effective behavioral interventions to reduce sexual risk is needed. This article describes the systematic development of a theory-guided computer-assisted safer sex intervention, aiming at supporting people living with HIV in sexual risk reduction. We applied the Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol to develop this counseling intervention in the framework of a European multicenter study. We conducted a needs assessment guided by the information-motivation-behavioral (IMB) skills model, formulated change objectives and selected theory-based methods and practical strategies, i.e. interactive computer-assisted modules as supporting tools for provider-delivered counseling. Theoretical foundations were the IMB skills model, social cognitive theory and the transtheoretical model, complemented by dual process models of affective decision making to account for the specifics of sexual behavior. The counseling approach for delivering three individual sessions was tailored to participants' needs and contexts, adopting elements of motivational interviewing and cognitive-behavioral therapy. We implemented and evaluated the intervention using a randomized controlled trial combined with a process evaluation. IM provided a useful framework for developing a coherent intervention for heterogeneous target groups, which was feasible and effective across the culturally diverse settings. This article responds to the need for transparent descriptions of the development and content of evidence-based behavior change interventions as potential pillars of effective combination prevention strategies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Association between 'safer sex fatigue' and rectal gonorrhea is mediated by unsafe sex with casual partners among HIV-positive homosexual men.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolte, Ineke G; Wit, John B F de; Kolader, Marion-Eliëtte; Fennema, Johan S A; Coutinho, Roel A; Dukers, Nicole H T M

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate whether and what sexual risk behavior is a mediator of associations between rectal gonorrhea (RG) and highly active antiretroviral therapy-related beliefs, safer sex fatigue, or sexual sensation-seeking among homosexual men. STUDY DESIGN:

  20. Association between 'safer sex fatigue' and rectal gonorrhea is mediated by unsafe sex with casual partners among HIV-positive homosexual men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolte, Ineke G.; de Wit, John B. F.; Kolader, Marion; Fennema, Han; Coutinho, Roel A.; Dukers, Nicole H. T. M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate whether and what sexual risk behavior is a mediator of associations between rectal gonorrhea (RG) and highly active antiretroviral therapy-related beliefs, safer sex fatigue, or sexual sensation-seeking among homosexual men. STUDY DESIGN:

  1. Criminalizing Sex Work Clients and Rushed Negotiations among Sex Workers Who Use Drugs in a Canadian Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberg, Adina; Shannon, Kate; Krüsi, Andrea; DeBeck, Kora; Milloy, M-J; Nosova, Ekaterina; Kerr, Thomas; Hayashi, Kanna

    2017-08-01

    Previous research indicates that criminalization of sex work is associated with harms among sex workers. In 2013, the Vancouver Police Department changed their sex work policy to no longer target sex workers while continuing to target clients and third parties in an effort to increase the safety of sex workers (similar to "end-demand sex work" approaches being adopted in a number of countries globally). We sought to investigate the trends and correlates of rushing negotiations with clients due to police presence among 359 sex workers who use drugs in Vancouver before and after the guideline change. Data were derived from three prospective cohort studies of people who use drugs in Vancouver between 2008 and 2014. We used sex-stratified multivariable generalized estimating equation models. The crude percentages of sex workers who use drugs reporting rushing client negotiations changed from 8.9% before the guideline change to 14.8% after the guideline change among 259 women, and from 8.6 to 7.1% among 100 men. In multivariable analyses, there was a significant increase in reports of rushing client negotiation after the guideline change among women (p = 0.04). Other variables that were independently associated with increased odds of rushing client negotiation included experiencing client-perpetrated violence (among both men and women) and non-heterosexual orientation (among women) (all p sex workers who use drugs. It was also associated with client-perpetrated violence and other markers of vulnerability. These findings lend further evidence that criminalizing the purchase of sexual services does not protect the health and safety of sex workers.

  2. Gaming for Safer Sex : Young German and Turkish People Report No Specific Culture-Related Preferences Toward Educational Games Promoting Safer Sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brüll, P.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Wiers, R.W.; Kok, G.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Comprehensive sex education programs specifically designed for adolescents and young adults that take into account gender norms and cultural background have shown promise as a means of countering the high sexually transmitted infection rate in young people. Recently, digital gaming

  3. Condom negotiation and use among female sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Tran, Ly T H; Beasley, R Palmer; Ross, Michael W

    2013-02-01

    We examined condom-use negotiation strategies and condom use among 81 female sex workers (FSWs) in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Percentages of FSWs who did not negotiate condom use or could not describe a negotiation strategy with native clients, foreign clients, and non-paying partners were 15.0, 29.0 and 67.6 %, respectively. The most common negotiation strategy used was "provision of risk information" for native clients (43.8 %) and non-paying partners (26.5 %), and "direct request" for foreign clients (39.5 %). About half could not describe more than one negotiation strategy. Consistent condom use was high with native clients (98.8 %), yet comparatively lower with foreign clients (86.9 %) and non-paying partners (26.5 %). FSWs who did not negotiate or did not know how to negotiate condom use were less likely to report condom use with non-paying regular partners. Future interventions should enhance condom negotiation strategies between FSWs and all partner types.

  4. A Peer-Led, Social Media-Delivered, Safer Sex Intervention for Chinese College Students: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wai Han; Wong, Carlos King Ho; Wong, William Chi Wai

    2017-08-09

    The peer-led, social media-delivered intervention is an emerging method in sexual health promotion. However, no research has yet investigated its effectiveness as compared with other online channels or in an Asian population. The objective of this study is to compare a peer-led, social media-delivered, safer sex intervention with a sexual health website. Both conditions target Chinese college students in Hong Kong. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with a peer-led, safer sex Facebook group as the intervention and an existing online sexual health website as the control. The intervention materials were developed with peer input and followed the information-motivation-behavioral skills model; the intervention was moderated by peer educators. The participants filled out the online questionnaires before and after the 6-week intervention period. Outcome evaluations included safer sex attitudes, behavioral skills, and behaviors, while process evaluation focused on online experience, online-visiting frequency, and online engagement. The effect of online-visiting frequency and online engagement on outcome variables was investigated. Of 196 eligible participants-100 in the control group and 96 in the intervention group-who joined the study, 2 (1.0%) control participants joined the Facebook group and 24 of the remaining 194 participants (12.4%) were lost to follow-up. For the process evaluation, participants in the intervention group reported more satisfying online experiences (Psocial media-delivered, safer sex intervention was found to be feasible and effective in improving attitudes toward condom use and behavioral skills, but was not significantly more effective than a website. Future research may focus on the long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of this popular method, as well as the potential cultural differences of using social media between different countries. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR): ChiCTR-IOR-16009495; http

  5. A randomised controlled trial using mobile advertising to promote safer sex and sun safety to young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, J; Aitken, C K; Dixon, H G; Lim, M S C; Gouillou, M; Spelman, T; Wakefield, M; Hellard, M E

    2011-10-01

    Mobile phone text messages (SMS) are a promising method of health promotion, but a simple and low cost way to obtain phone numbers is required to reach a wide population. We conducted a randomised controlled trial with simultaneous brief interventions to (i) evaluate effectiveness of messages related to safer sex and sun safety and (ii) pilot the use of mobile advertising for health promotion. Mobile advertising subscribers aged 16-29 years residing in Victoria, Australia (n = 7606) were randomised to the 'sex' or 'sun' group and received eight messages during the 2008-2009 summer period. Changes in sex- and sun-related knowledge and behaviour were measured by questionnaires completed on mobile phones. At follow-up, the sex group had significantly higher sexual health knowledge and fewer sexual partners than the sun group. The sun group had no change in hat-wearing frequency compared with a significant decline in hat-wearing frequency in the sex group. This is the first study of mobile advertising for health promotion, which can successfully reach most young people. Challenges experienced with project implementation and evaluation should be considered as new technological approaches to health promotion continue to be expanded.

  6. Safer sex maintenance among gay men: are we making any progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, M L

    1992-08-01

    Although early acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention programs produced dramatic reductions in unsafe sexual practices on the part of homosexual men, there is evidence that new behaviors have not been maintained consistently. Various cohort studies have related risky sex relapse to low self-efficacy, emotional depression, and relationship issues. Unprotected sex is widely perceived as more pleasurable than condom use and is likely to be practiced by gay men concerned with their partner's presumed preferences. This finding suggests a need to identify ways of increasing the pleasure associated with safe sex by eroticizing condom use. Approaches that include erotic descriptions of safe sex (e.g., pamphlets with explicit photographs, mass media campaigns that use sexually explicit language, and attractively packaged condoms) have been found to increase behavioral risk reduction practices. All interventions aimed at preventing risky sex relapse should be empirically based and delivered in a fashion acceptable to the homosexual community.

  7. "Differently normal" and "normally different": negotiations of female embodiment in women's accounts of 'atypical' sex development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntram, Lisa

    2013-12-01

    During recent decades numerous feminist scholars have scrutinized the two-sex model and questioned its status in Western societies and medicine. Along the same line, increased attention has been paid to individuals' experiences of atypical sex development, also known as intersex or 'disorders of sex development' (DSD). Yet research on individuals' experiences of finding out about their atypical sex development in adolescence has been scarce. Against this backdrop, the present article analyses 23 in-depth interviews with women who in their teens found out about their atypical sex development. The interviews were conducted during 2009-2012 and the interviewees were all Swedish. Drawing on feminist research on female embodiment and social scientific studies on diagnosis, I examine how the women make sense of their bodies and situations. First, I aim to explore how the women construe normality as they negotiate female embodiment. Second, I aim to investigate how the divergent manners in which these negotiations are expressed can be further understood via the women's different access to a diagnosis. Through a thematic and interpretative analysis, I outline two negotiation strategies: the "differently normal" and the "normally different" strategy. In the former, the women present themselves as just slightly different from 'normal' women. In the latter, they stress that everyone is different in some manner and thereby claim normalcy. The analysis shows that access to diagnosis corresponds to the ways in which the women present themselves as "differently normal" and "normally different", thus shedding light on the complex role of diagnosis in their negotiations of female embodiment. It also reveals that the women make use of what they do have and how alignments with and work on norms interplay as normality is construed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Homelessness among a cohort of women in street-based sex work: the need for safer environment interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson Kate

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drawing on data from a community-based prospective cohort study in Vancouver, Canada, we examined the prevalence and individual, interpersonal and work environment correlates of homelessness among 252 women in street-based sex work. Methods Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression using generalized estimating equations (GEE was used to examine the individual, interpersonal and work environment factors that were associated with homelessness among street-based sex workers. Results Among 252 women, 43.3% reported homelessness over an 18-month follow-up period. In the multivariable GEE logistic regression analysis, younger age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.93; 95%confidence interval [95%CI] 0.93-0.98, sexual violence by non-commercial partners (aOR = 2.14; 95%CI 1.06-4.34, servicing a higher number of clients (10+ per week vs Conclusions These findings indicate a critical need for safer environment interventions that mitigate the social and physical risks faced by homeless FSWs and increase access to safe, secure housing for women.

  9. Female gratification, sexual power and safer sex: female sexuality as an empowering resource among women in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skafte, Ina; Silberschmidt, Margrethe

    2014-01-01

    The gender-based response to HIV in sub-Saharan Africa has tended to reinforce normative stereotypes of women as subordinated, passive and powerless victims, in particular in sexual relations. However, based on qualitative data from Rwanda, this paper argues that such conceptualisations fail to recognise that while women do comply with prevalent social norms, they also challenge these norms and sex becomes a domain in which they can exert power. Female sexuality and sexual gratification - acknowledged and valued by women as well as men - play a pivotal role in the Rwandese mode of sexual intercourse. This provides women a central position in sexual relations, which affords them sexual power. Recognising their sexuality as a resource and drawing upon this 'sexual capital', women are active social agents who have the capacity to manipulate and challenge male dominance in a deliberate strategy both to practice safer sex and to access decision-making power and material resources. This suggests that inherent in sexual relations is a potential for the empowerment of women and the transformation of gender relations.

  10. Safer sex and condom use: findings from the Second Australian Study of Health and Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, Richard O; Badcock, Paul B; Rissel, Chris; Richters, Juliet; Smith, Anthony M A; Grulich, Andrew E; Simpson, Judy M

    2014-11-01

    Background It is important to have current and reliable estimates of the frequency and correlates of condom use among Australian adults. A representative sample of 20094 men and women aged 16-69 years, from all states and territories, completed computer-assisted telephone interviews. The overall participation rate among eligible people was 66.2%. Although most respondents had used a condom at some time in their lives, fewer than half of those who were sexually active in the year before being interviewed had used a condom in that year. Condom use in the last year was associated with youth, speaking a language other than English at home, bisexual identity, greater education, residence in major cities, lower income and having multiple sexual partners in the last year. One-quarter of respondents used a condom the last time they had vaginal intercourse and one-sixth of these were put on after genital contact. Condom use during most recent vaginal sex was associated with youth, lower income, having sex with a non-regular partner and not using another form of contraception. Condom use appears to have increased between 2001-02 and 2012-13. Consistent with other research, this study showed that condom use was strongly associated with partner type and use of other contraception. There may be a need to highlight among people with multiple sexual partners the fact that non-barrier methods of contraception do not offer protection against sexually transmissible infections. The finding that many condoms were applied after genital contact suggests a need to promote both use and correct use of condoms.

  11. Virtually 'in the heat of the moment': insula activation in safe sex negotiation among risky men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin J; Xue, Feng; Droutman, Vita; Barkley-Levenson, Emily; Melrose, A James; Miller, Lynn C; Monterosso, John R; Bechara, Antoine; Appleby, Paul R; Christensen, John L; Godoy, Carlos G; Read, Stephen J

    2018-01-01

    HIV is most prevalent among men who have sex with men (MSM), and although most MSM use condoms consistently during casual sex, some take risks. To better understand the psychology of those risky decisions, we examined neural correlates of playing a virtual sexual 'hook up' game in an functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner in MSM who had, in the past 90 days, been sexually risky (N = 76) or safe (N = 31). We found that during potentially risky sexual choices, previously risky MSM had more right insula activity than previously safe MSM. Real-life sexual risk was related to trait positive and negative urgency. Insula activity that differentiated risky and safe MSM was related to trait positive and negative urgency. Future work should further examine if, and to what extent, insula activation during safe sex negotiation drives MSM's rash risky sexual decision-making. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Importance of Women's Relative Socioeconomic Status within Sexual Relationships in Communication about Safer Sex and HIV/STI Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchomba, Felix M; Chan, Christine; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2015-06-01

    The socioeconomic status (SES) of women is increasingly considered an important factor for HIV/STI risk. The HIV/STI literature has largely focused on women's absolute levels of SES, and therefore, the importance of their SES relative to their male sexual partners remains understudied. This paper examines the association between women's relative SES and frequency of safer sex communication among heterosexual couples. A convenience sample of 342 couples (N = 684) recruited in New York City was asked about frequency of discussions with their partner about the need to use male condoms, about HIV prevention, and about STI prevention in the previous 90 days. Differences between partners in education, income, employment, housing, and incarceration history were combined using principal component analysis to form an index of women's relative SES. Negative binomial regression models assessed associations between woman's relative SES and communication frequency controlling for age, sex, race, ethnicity, education, and relationship type using a generalized estimating equation framework. On average, participants had 2.5, 4.2, and 4.8 discussions regarding the need to use male condoms, about HIV prevention, and about STI prevention, respectively. A one standard deviation increase in a woman's relative SES score was associated with increased frequency of discussions about male condom use (adjusted rate ratio [aRR], 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.29), about HIV prevention (aRR, 1.25; CI, 1.14-1.37), and about STI prevention (aRR, 1.29; CI, 1.18-1.41). Women's relative SES may be an important factor for sexual communication, and further research on its role in HIV/STI risk may uncover avenues for intervention.

  13. Negotiating the Edge: The Rationalization of Sexual Risk Taking Among Western Male Sex Tourists to Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Simon; Limmer, Mark

    2017-09-08

    Every year thousands of Western men travel to Thailand as sex tourists to participate in paid-for sex. Although many of these men will use condoms to protect themselves against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), others will not, despite the risks. By applying Steven Lyng's (1990) concept of edgework to data collected from 14 face-to-face interviews with male sex tourists in Pattaya, Thailand, and 1,237 online discussion board posts, this article explores the ways in which these men understood and sought to rationalize the sexual risks they took. We argue that notions of likelihood of infection and significance of consequence underpin these behaviors, and we identify the existence of understandings of sexual risk that reject mainstream safer-sex messages and frame condomless sex as a broadly safe activity for heterosexual men. The article concludes by summarizing the difficulties inherent in driving behavior change among this group of men, for whom sexual risks appear to be easily rationalized away as either inconsequential or irrelevant.

  14. College-Bound Teens’ Decisions about the Transition to Sex: Negotiating Competing Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    The normative influence of parents, close friends, and other peers on teens’ sexual behavior has been well documented. Yet, we still know little about the processes through which these oftentimes competing norms impact teens’ own sexual norms and behaviors. Drawing on qualitative data from 47 interviews conducted with college-bound teens, we investigate the processes through which perceived parental, close friend, and other peer norms about sex influenced teens’ decisions about whether and when to have sex. Although virtually all teens perceived that most of their peers were having sex and that parents were almost universally against teen sex, some teens had sex and others did not. Our findings demonstrate that teens who remained virgins and those who were sexually active during high school often negotiated different sets of competing norms. Differences in understandings of age norms, in close friends’ sexual norms and behaviors, and in communication about sex with parents, close friends and other peers were related to different levels of sexual behavior for teens who otherwise shared many similarities in social location (e.g.. class, race, and educational status). While virgins reported an individualized process of deciding whether they were ready for sex, we find that their behavior fits within a traditional understanding of an age norm because of the emphasis on avoiding negative sanctions. Sexually experienced teens, on the other hand, explicitly reported abiding by a group age norm that prescribed sex as normal during high school. Finally, parents’ normative objections to teen sex – either moral or practical – and the ways they communicated with their teen about sex had important influence on teens’ own sexual norms and behaviors during high school. PMID:22439133

  15. College-Bound Teens' Decisions about the Transition to Sex: Negotiating Competing Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennott, Christie; Mollborn, Stefanie

    2011-06-01

    The normative influence of parents, close friends, and other peers on teens' sexual behavior has been well documented. Yet, we still know little about the processes through which these oftentimes competing norms impact teens' own sexual norms and behaviors. Drawing on qualitative data from 47 interviews conducted with college-bound teens, we investigate the processes through which perceived parental, close friend, and other peer norms about sex influenced teens' decisions about whether and when to have sex. Although virtually all teens perceived that most of their peers were having sex and that parents were almost universally against teen sex, some teens had sex and others did not. Our findings demonstrate that teens who remained virgins and those who were sexually active during high school often negotiated different sets of competing norms. Differences in understandings of age norms, in close friends' sexual norms and behaviors, and in communication about sex with parents, close friends and other peers were related to different levels of sexual behavior for teens who otherwise shared many similarities in social location (e.g.. class, race, and educational status). While virgins reported an individualized process of deciding whether they were ready for sex, we find that their behavior fits within a traditional understanding of an age norm because of the emphasis on avoiding negative sanctions. Sexually experienced teens, on the other hand, explicitly reported abiding by a group age norm that prescribed sex as normal during high school. Finally, parents' normative objections to teen sex - either moral or practical - and the ways they communicated with their teen about sex had important influence on teens' own sexual norms and behaviors during high school.

  16. Same sex couples and marriage: Negotiating relational landscapes with families and friends

    OpenAIRE

    Smart, Carol

    2007-01-01

    Focusing on the decision to enter into a marriage and/or to conduct a commitment ceremony, this paper explores how same-sex couples negotiate their relationships with both family and friends at the point at which they make decisions about who to invite to their ceremony. The ceremony is argued to be a 'fateful moment' at which point lesbians and gay men necessarily take stock of relationships which are meaningful to them. It is argued that the data from the qualitative interviews on which thi...

  17. Love grows with sex: teenagers negotiating sex and gender in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    How do teenagers located in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa, the epicentre of the HIV pandemic, give meaning to sexuality? This paper examines teenage black Africans investments in sex and sexuality and the gendered dynamics through which sexuality is articulated. Whilst unequal gender relations of power ...

  18. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOCIAL, POLICY AND PHYSICAL VENUE FEATURES AND SOCIAL COHESION ON CONDOM USE FOR PREGNANCY PREVENTION AMONG SEX WORKERS: A SAFER INDOOR WORK ENVIRONMENT SCALE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Putu; Shoveller, Jean; Dobrer, Sabina; Ogilvie, Gina; Montaner, Julio; Chettiar, Jill; Shannon, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aims to: report on a newly developed ‘Safer Indoor Work Environmental Scale’ that characterizes the social, policy and physical features of indoor venues and social cohesion; and using this scale, longitudinally evaluate the association between these features on sex workers’ (SWs’) condom use for pregnancy prevention. Methods Drawing on a prospective open cohort of female SWs working in indoor venues, a newly-developed ‘Safer Indoor Work Environment Scale’ was used to build six multivariable models with generalized estimating equations (GEE), to determine the independent effects of social, policy and venue-based features and social cohesion on condom use. Results Of 588 indoor SWs, 63.6% used condoms for pregnancy prevention in the last month. In multivariable GEE analysis, the following venue-based features were significantly correlated with barrier contraceptive use for pregnancy prevention: managerial practices and venue safety policies (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)=1.09; 95% Confidence Interval (95%CI) 1.01–1.17) access to sexual and reproductive health services/supplies (AOR=1.10; 95%CI 1.00–1.20) access to drug harm reduction (AOR=1.13; 95%CI 1.01–1.28), and social cohesion among workers (AOR=1.05; 95%CI 1.03–1.07). Access to security features was marginally associated with condom use (AOR=1.13; 95%CI 0.99–1.29). Conclusion The findings of the current study highlight how work environment and social cohesion among SWs are related to improved condom use. Given global calls for the decriminalization of sex work, and potential legislative reforms in Canada, this study points to the critical need for new institutional arrangements (e.g., legal and regulatory frameworks; labour standards) to support safer sex workplaces. PMID:25678713

  19. The relationship between social, policy and physical venue features and social cohesion on condom use for pregnancy prevention among sex workers: a safer indoor work environment scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Putu; Shoveller, Jean; Dobrer, Sabina; Ogilvie, Gina; Montaner, Julio; Chettiar, Jill; Shannon, Kate

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to report on a newly developed Safer Indoor Work Environmental Scale that characterises the social, policy and physical features of indoor venues and social cohesion; and using this scale, longitudinally evaluate the association between these features on sex workers' (SWs') condom use for pregnancy prevention. Drawing on a prospective open cohort of female SWs working in indoor venues, a newly developed Safer Indoor Work Environment Scale was used to build six multivariable models with generalised estimating equations (GEE), to determine the independent effects of social, policy and physical venue-based features and social cohesion on condom use. Of 588 indoor SWs, 63.6% used condoms for pregnancy prevention in the last month. In multivariable GEE analysis, the following venue-based features were significantly correlated with barrier contraceptive use for pregnancy prevention: managerial practices and venue safety policies (adjusted OR (AOR)=1.09; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.17), access to sexual and reproductive health services/supplies (AOR=1.10; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.20), access to drug harm reduction (AOR=1.13; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.28) and social cohesion among workers (AOR=1.05; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.07). Access to security features was marginally associated with condom use (AOR=1.13; 95% CI 0.99 to 1.29). The findings of the current study highlight how work environment and social cohesion among SWs are related to improved condom use. Given global calls for the decriminalisation of sex work, and potential legislative reforms in Canada, this study points to the critical need for new institutional arrangements (eg, legal and regulatory frameworks; labour standards) to support safer sex workplaces. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. What messages can foster safer sex among young women? Experimental evidence concerning the role of emotions and moral norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matera, Camilla; Nerini, Amanda; Baroni, Duccio; Stefanile, Cristina

    2018-07-01

    Through a 2 × 2 × 2 quasi experimental design (N = 254), this research investigated if a social campaign eliciting positive emotions and activating moral norms might enhance condom negotiation skills, intended and estimated condom among young women with or without past sexual experience with casual partners. Emotions had a main effect on one of the six condom negotiation strategies we considered; for most of the other variables an interaction effect with moral norms and/or past behaviour emerged. Concerning estimated condom use, positive emotions worked better than negative ones when moral norms were salient. With respect to negotiations skills, positive rather than negative emotions seemed more effective for women with past causal sexual experience. In women without this kind of experience, positive emotions seemed to work better when moral norms were salient. Moral norms had a main effect on negotiation self-efficacy, but not in the predicted direction: when moral norms were more salient women were found to be less confident about their negotiation ability. These results suggest that a message which makes moral norms salient should at the same time elicit positive emotions in order to be effective; moreover, messages should be carefully tailored according to women's past behaviour.

  1. Love grows with sex: teenagers negotiating sex and gender in the context of HIV and the implications for sex education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhana, Deevia

    2017-03-01

    How do teenagers located in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa, the epicentre of the HIV pandemic, give meaning to sexuality? This paper examines teenage black Africans investments in sex and sexuality and the gendered dynamics through which sexuality is articulated. Whilst unequal gender relations of power continue to feature prominently within relationship dynamics fuelling the gendering of HIV, attention to the micro-processes through which relationships are forged remain significant in illustrating the complex connections between love, sex and gender. Drawing on empirical findings with teenagers between the ages of 16 and 17 years old, the paper shows how relationships are conceptualised based on discourses of love. Love is inextricably bound up with sex and when teenagers talk about love and sex they also talk about condom use, multiple sexual partners and gender inequalities. What teenagers were interested in for their sexual relationships was not raised in sex education programmes at school. Implications for addressing teenage constructions of sexuality are discussed in the conclusion.

  2. Do Safer Sex Self-Efficacy, Attitudes toward Condoms, and HIV Transmission Risk Beliefs Differ among Men who have Sex with Men, Heterosexual Men, and Women Living with HIV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widman, Laura; Golin, Carol E.; Grodensky, Catherine A.; Suchindran, Chirayath

    2013-01-01

    To understand sexual decision-making processes among people living with HIV, we compared safer sex self-efficacy, condom attitudes, sexual beliefs, and rates of unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse with at-risk partners (UAVI-AR) in the past 3 months among 476 people living with HIV: 185 men who have sex with men (MSM), 130 heterosexual men, and 161 heterosexual women. Participants were enrolled in SafeTalk, a randomized, controlled trial of a safer sex intervention. We found 15% of MSM, 9% of heterosexual men, and 12% of heterosexual women engaged in UAVI-AR. Groups did not differ in self-efficacy or sexual attitudes/beliefs. However, the associations between these variables and UAVI-AR varied within groups: greater self-efficacy predicted less UAVI-AR for MSM and women, whereas more positive condom attitudes – but not self-efficacy – predicted less UAVI-AR for heterosexual men. These results suggest HIV prevention programs should tailor materials to different subgroups. PMID:22252475

  3. Teaching Modules to Build HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Safer Sex Skills among African-American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanekar, Amar; Sharma, Manoj

    2011-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic has taken a tremendous toll on the population of the United States. College students, including African-Americans aged 13-24 years, across the nation are susceptible to contracting sexually transmitted diseases including HIV/AIDS as they participate in unsafe sex practices. The purpose of this article is to provide teaching…

  4. Virtually ‘in the heat of the moment’: insula activation in safe sex negotiation among risky men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Feng; Droutman, Vita; Barkley-Levenson, Emily; Melrose, A James; Miller, Lynn C; Monterosso, John R; Bechara, Antoine; Appleby, Paul R; Christensen, John L; Godoy, Carlos G; Read, Stephen J

    2018-01-01

    Abstract HIV is most prevalent among men who have sex with men (MSM), and although most MSM use condoms consistently during casual sex, some take risks. To better understand the psychology of those risky decisions, we examined neural correlates of playing a virtual sexual ‘hook up’ game in an functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner in MSM who had, in the past 90 days, been sexually risky (N = 76) or safe (N = 31). We found that during potentially risky sexual choices, previously risky MSM had more right insula activity than previously safe MSM. Real-life sexual risk was related to trait positive and negative urgency. Insula activity that differentiated risky and safe MSM was related to trait positive and negative urgency. Future work should further examine if, and to what extent, insula activation during safe sex negotiation drives MSM’s rash risky sexual decision-making. PMID:29149326

  5. Reducing widespread pipe sharing and risky sex among crystal methamphetamine smokers in Toronto: do safer smoking kits have a potential role to play?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter Charlotte

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Crystal methamphetamine smoking is associated with many negative health consequences, including the potential for transmission of hepatitis. We examined whether or not a kit for crystal methamphetamine smoking might have some potential to reduce the negative health effects of crystal methamphetamine smoking. Methods Five focus groups were conducted with crystal methamphetamine smokers recruited by community health agencies and youth shelters in Toronto, Canada. Target groups included homeless/street-involved youth, sex workers, men who have sex with men, and youth in the party scene. Participants (n = 32 were asked questions about motivations for crystal methamphetamine use, the process of smoking, health problems experienced, sharing behaviour, risky sexual practices, and the ideal contents of a harm reduction kit. Results Pipe sharing was widespread among participants and was deemed integral to the social experience of smoking crystal methamphetamine. Heated pipes were unlikely to cause direct injuries, but participants mentioned having dry, cracked lips, which may be a vector for disease transmission. Many reported having sex with multiple partners and being less likely to use condoms while on the drug. Demand for harm reduction kits was mixed. Conclusions Changing pipe sharing behaviours may be difficult because many participants considered sharing to be integral to the social experience of smoking crystal methamphetamine. Within the context of a broader health promotion and prevention program, pilot testing of safer smoking kits to initiate discussion and education on the risks associated with sharing pipes and unprotected sex for some communities (e.g., homeless/street-involved youth is worth pursuing.

  6. Battle of the sexes: gender stereotype confirmation and reactance in negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kray, L J; Thompson, L; Galinsky, A

    2001-06-01

    The authors examined how gender stereotypes affect negotiation performance. Men outperformed women when the negotiation was perceived as diagnostic of ability (Experiment 1) or the negotiation was linked to gender-specific traits (Experiment 2), suggesting the threat of negative stereotype confirmation hurt women's performance relative to men. The authors hypothesized that men and women confirm gender stereotypes when they are activated implicitly, but when stereotypes are explicitly activated, people exhibit stereotype reactance, or the tendency to behave in a manner inconsistent with a stereotype. Experiment 3 confirmed this hypothesis. In Experiment 4, the authors examined the cognitive processes involved in stereotype reactance and the conditions under which cooperative behaviors between men and women can be promoted at the bargaining table (by activating a shared identity that transcends gender).

  7. The Treatment Advocacy Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Peer-Led Safer Sex Intervention for HIV-Infected Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKirnan, David J.; Tolou-Shams, Marina; Courtenay-Quirk, Cari

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Primary care may be an effective venue for delivering behavioral interventions for sexual safety among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM); however, few studies show efficacy for such an approach. We tested the efficacy of the Treatment Advocacy Program (TAP), a 4-session, primary-care-based, individual counseling intervention…

  8. Negotiating homosexual identities: the experiences of men who have sex with men in Guangzhou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haochu Howard; Holroyd, Eleanor; Lau, Joseph T F

    2010-05-01

    This paper reports on an ethnographic study of male homosexuality in contemporary Chinese society. The study focused on how men negotiated with the mainstream Chinese heterosexual society and in so doing constructed their sexual identities. The factors found to inform sexual identity were: the cultural imperative of heterosexual marriage, normative family obligations, desired gender roles, emotional experiences and a need for social belonging. The four types of sexual identities constructed included: establishing a deliberate non-homosexual identity, accumulating an individual homosexual identity, forming a collective homosexual identity and adopting a flexible sexual identity. For the men interviewed, sexual identity was both fluid and fragmented, derived from highly personalised negotiations between individualised needs and social and cultural constructs. The analysis is set against the background of China's rapid and recent economic development, shifting national and international social environments and improved access to the Internet.

  9. "When you carry condoms all the boys think you want it": negotiating competing discourses about safe sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, L; Harrison, L; Warr, D

    1998-02-01

    With the advent of HIV, sexual health campaigns and formal sex education in schools have worked to instil the concept of safe sex into the collective minds of Australia's youth. However the concept in its present guise is a fairly limited one. We argue in this paper that the predominant emphasis in education programmes on safe sex as condom use may be counter-productive for some young heterosexuals for two reasons. First, this strategy is male-focused and may not extrapolate well to young women who face special risks around pregnancy and rigid societal gender norms which govern sexual behaviour. Second, health promotion strategies aimed at young heterosexuals are based on an assumption of rational decision-making in sexual encounters and obscure the non-rational nature of arousal and desire, and the unequal power relations that exist between young men and women engaging in sex. Five hundred and twelve senior rural students participated in the study which included group discussions about sexuality and survey items which focused on the meanings of safe sex and the accessibility and use of condoms. The results showed that though most students identified condoms with safe sex, many were ambivalent about using them. Reasons given related to problems of negotiation, difficulties of access, and the risks which condoms gave no protection from, such as a sullied reputation. Perhaps, partly because of this, some students were looking to less secure methods of protection such as informal history-taking and monogamy. It is argued that successful sexual health promotion strategies must address the broad spectrum of concerns facing young men and women when they become sexually active and that consideration be given to the social context in which young people conduct their sexual lives.

  10. Restricted Freedom: Negotiating Same-Sex Identifications in the Residential Spaces of a South African University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msibi, Thabo; Jagessar, Valenshia

    2015-01-01

    International higher education research focused on students who claim same-sex identifications in university residential spaces has tended to prioritise the "gay as victim" discourse, often leading to the pathologising of same-sex identification. While there is emerging research seeking to challenge this dimension of scholarship by…

  11. "Let's Talk about the Institution": Same-Sex Common-Law Partners Negotiating Marriage Equality and Relationship Legitimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Katherine A; Frohard-Dourlent, Hélène

    2015-11-01

    The 2005 Canada-wide legalization of same-sex marriage provided same-sex couples with access to an institution they had previous been excluded from. Yet not all couples choose to marry. In this paper, we examine why this is the case, considering the role of personal, political, and historical factors. We draw on 22 interviews with people in common-law same-sex relationships in Toronto to examine how they understand their relationship within the new context of marriage equality. We find that participants feel they are held accountable to marriage as a default relationship legitimacy norm, indicating that this new institutional access is accompanied by a set of social expectations. Despite their awareness of the need to navigate a social context favoring marriage, participants individualize their relationship decisions as personal rather than political. Participants often contradict themselves as they articulate what marriage means to them, suggesting that, in this period of legal and social transition, people are negotiating multiple meanings, societal messages, and traditions when it comes to making sense of their relationship. We discuss the implications of these findings for LGBQ activism and the framing of sexuality-based inequalities in Canadian society. © 2015 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  12. Death before Birth : Negotiating Reproduction, Female Infanticide and Sex Selective Abortion in Tamil Nadu, South India

    OpenAIRE

    Perwez, Mohammad Shahid.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with the cultural and political underpinnings of female infanticide and sex selective abortion in contemporary South India. Based on a fifteen months' ethnographic fieldwork in western parts of Salem district in Tamil Nadu, I explore the ideas and practices around deaths of (un)born children - particularly in the context of issues of gender-selective child survival, use and control over new reproductive technologies for sex selection, fertility and reproductio...

  13. Sex, class and consumerism: British sitcom’s negotiation of the single girl

    OpenAIRE

    Ball, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explores the representation of working-class femininities in the cycle of female ensemble sitcoms that emerged in the late 1960s and early 1970s in the UK. Drawing parallels with The Mary Tyler Moore Show, it will examine how The Liver Birds’ construction of and address to women drew upon the consumerist template of femininity made popular by Helen Gurley Brown in Sex and the Single Girl (1962). However given the historical propensity for working-class women to be marginalised or...

  14. Disclosure and Self-Efficacy Among HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Comparison Between Older and Younger Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Monique J; Serovich, Julianne M; Kimberly, Judy A; Umasabor-Bubu, Ogie

    2015-11-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV in the US. HIV among older adults also continues to be an important public health problem. Age is associated with disclosure of HIV serostatus and self-efficacy for condom use. However, studies examining self-efficacy and disclosure among older MSM (age 50 and older) living with HIV are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between being 50 and older, and disclosure behaviors, intentions and attitudes, and self-efficacy for condom use, disclosure, and negotiation for safer sex practices among HIV-positive MSM. Data were gathered from 340 participants at the baseline assessment of a longitudinal disclosure intervention study. Linear regression was used to determine the association between being older (age 50 and older) and disclosure behaviors, intentions and attitudes, and self-efficacy for condom use, disclosure, and negotiation for safer sex practices. After adjusting for time since diagnosis and number of sexual partners, MSM aged 50 and older scored lower in disclosure behavior (β = -7.49; 95% CI: -14.8, -0.18) and in self-efficacy for negotiation of safer sex practices (β = -0.80; 95% CI: -1.57, -0.04) compared to MSM 18-34 years. Intervention and prevention programs should endeavor to improve disclosure and self-efficacy for negotiating safer sex practices among older HIV-positive MSM. More health care providers should initiate sexual health discussions, especially among older HIV-positive MSM populations, which may help to improve their disclosure behavior and self-efficacy for negotiating safer sex practices.

  15. Disclosure and Self-Efficacy Among HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Comparison Between Older and Younger Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serovich, Julianne M.; Kimberly, Judy A.; Umasabor-Bubu, Ogie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV in the US. HIV among older adults also continues to be an important public health problem. Age is associated with disclosure of HIV serostatus and self-efficacy for condom use. However, studies examining self-efficacy and disclosure among older MSM (age 50 and older) living with HIV are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between being 50 and older, and disclosure behaviors, intentions and attitudes, and self-efficacy for condom use, disclosure, and negotiation for safer sex practices among HIV-positive MSM. Data were gathered from 340 participants at the baseline assessment of a longitudinal disclosure intervention study. Linear regression was used to determine the association between being older (age 50 and older) and disclosure behaviors, intentions and attitudes, and self-efficacy for condom use, disclosure, and negotiation for safer sex practices. After adjusting for time since diagnosis and number of sexual partners, MSM aged 50 and older scored lower in disclosure behavior (β = −7.49; 95% CI: −14.8, −0.18) and in self-efficacy for negotiation of safer sex practices (β = −0.80; 95% CI: −1.57, −0.04) compared to MSM 18–34 years. Intervention and prevention programs should endeavor to improve disclosure and self-efficacy for negotiating safer sex practices among older HIV-positive MSM. More health care providers should initiate sexual health discussions, especially among older HIV-positive MSM populations, which may help to improve their disclosure behavior and self-efficacy for negotiating safer sex practices. PMID:26348705

  16. Negotiating Ability of Using Condom to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Disease and HIV/AIDS of Commercial Sex Worker Woman in Region Surakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Widodo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The data from Board of Health in Surakarta City, on 8 September 2005, from 155 commercial sex worker woman had blood examined, there were 7 persons positive in HIV. One of factor affecting the high infection HIV/AIDS in women commercial sex worker was low use of condom. Aims of this research was to know factor-factor associated with didn’t use of condom and social aspect negotiations about using condom (education, economics status, working experience, devilling place, occupation, ethnic, religious, and income. This research is qualitative research using guided group discussion technique, in-depth interview, and participatory observation. Subject for this research were 30 persons, consist of 25 commercial sex worker, 3 guest, 1 room owner, and 1 parent. Independent variables in this research are social economics characteristic, demography and community characteristics. Dependent variables as PPSK capability in condom using negotiating to prevent sexually transmitted disease and HIV/AIDS. Commonly, despite knowing that everyone, including themselves, is vulnerable to AIDS infection, the respondents ignore asking the guest/partners for condom use. Most of them don’t ask for condom use due to their fear of either being the target of the guest anger and bad words, or losing money from them. Women commercial sex worker Silir in using condom and prevent sexual transmitted disease had free education from Board of Health in Surakarta City. In the street prostitutes are low support from peer, room owner, hotel owner, or guest about using condom for women commercial sex worker in illegal place, caused women commercial sex worker in the street more potential and high risk to spread sexual transmitted diseases than they were operated in Silir. The low capability of the street prostitutes for negotiating condom use with the guest customers results from: misperception on "safe-sex" behavior for seeking "help", economic and psychology pressure, free and

  17. SaferProducts API

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — On March 11, 2011, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission launched SaferProducts.gov. This site hosts the agency's new Publicly Available Consumer Product...

  18. Negotiation Games

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Hoffmann

    2015-01-01

    Negotiations, a model of concurrency with multi party negotiation as primitive, have been recently introduced by J. Desel and J. Esparza. We initiate the study of games for this model. We study coalition problems: can a given coalition of agents force that a negotiation terminates (resp. block the negotiation so that it goes on forever)?; can the coalition force a given outcome of the negotiation? We show that for arbitrary negotiations the problems are EXPTIME-complete. Then we show that for...

  19. Promoting male partner HIV testing and safer sexual decision making through secondary distribution of self-tests by HIV-negative female sex workers and women receiving antenatal and post-partum care in Kenya: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumurthy, Harsha; Masters, Samuel H; Mavedzenge, Sue Napierala; Maman, Suzanne; Omanga, Eunice; Agot, Kawango

    2016-06-01

    Increased uptake of HIV testing by men in sub-Saharan Africa is essential for the success of combination prevention. Self-testing is an emerging approach with high acceptability, but little evidence exists on the best strategies for test distribution. We assessed an approach of providing multiple self-tests to women at high risk of HIV acquisition to promote partner HIV testing and to facilitate safer sexual decision making. In this cohort study, HIV-negative women aged 18-39 years were recruited at two sites in Kisumu, Kenya: a health facility with antenatal and post-partum clinics and a drop-in centre for female sex workers. Participants gave informed consent and were instructed on use of oral fluid based rapid HIV tests. Participants enrolled at the health facility received three self-tests and those at the drop-in centre received five self-tests. Structured interviews were conducted with participants at enrolment and over 3 months to determine how self-tests were used. Outcomes included the number of self-tests distributed by participants, the proportion of participants whose sexual partners used a self-test, couples testing, and sexual behaviour after self-testing. Between Jan 14, 2015, and March 13, 2015, 280 participants were enrolled (61 in antenatal care, 117 in post-partum care, and 102 female sex workers); follow-up interviews were completed for 265 (96%). Most participants with primary sexual partners distributed self-tests to partners: 53 (91%) of 58 participants in antenatal care, 91 (86%) of 106 in post-partum care, and 64 (75%) of 85 female sex workers. 82 (81%) of 101 female sex workers distributed more than one self-test to commercial sex clients. Among self-tests distributed to and used by primary sexual partners of participants, couples testing occurred in 27 (51%) of 53 in antenatal care, 62 (68%) of 91 from post-partum care, and 53 (83%) of 64 female sex workers. Among tests received by primary and non-primary sexual partners, two (4%) of 53

  20. Safe on My Phone? Same-Sex Attracted Young People’s Negotiations of Intimacy, Visibility, and Risk on Digital Hook-Up Apps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kath Albury

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article draws on focus group interviews with same-sex attracted Australian men and women aged 18-29, to reflect on their accounts of the perceived risks and opportunities offered by hook-up apps such as Grindr, Blendr, and Hornet. Until recently, scholarly accounts of same-sex attracted men hooking up online have primarily focused on measuring the safety of sexual encounters in relation to HIV and “risky” sexual practices. This article extends previous health-related studies by considering the ways that the exchange of sexually explicit digital self-portraits (or selfies feature within digital sexual negotiations and also exploring same-sex attracted women’s perceptions of safety and risk in relation to dating and hook-up apps and websites. It draws on recent scholarship on Grindr and other geo-locative hook-up apps to explore the material role that mobile phones and apps play in establishing a sense of safety, intimacy, and/or risk within flirtations and sexual interactions and the ways that young people’s “off-label” (or non-sexual uses of hook-up apps might facilitate (and diminish their sense of queer identity and visibility.

  1. Negotiation Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Hoffmann

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Negotiations, a model of concurrency with multi party negotiation as primitive, have been recently introduced by J. Desel and J. Esparza. We initiate the study of games for this model. We study coalition problems: can a given coalition of agents force that a negotiation terminates (resp. block the negotiation so that it goes on forever?; can the coalition force a given outcome of the negotiation? We show that for arbitrary negotiations the problems are EXPTIME-complete. Then we show that for sound and deterministic or even weakly deterministic negotiations the problems can be solved in PTIME. Notice that the input of the problems is a negotiation, which can be exponentially more compact than its state space.

  2. Being a woman and feeling like a woman: Respectability, responsibility, desirability and the margins for negotiating safe sex among women of Afro-Surinamese and Dutch Antillean descent in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertens, M.G.B.C.; Krumeich, A.; Schaalma, H.P.; van den Borne, B.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe and understand gender roles and the relational context of sexual decision-making and safe sex negotiation among Afro-Surinamese and Dutch Antillean women in the Netherlands. Twenty-eight individual in-depth interviews and eight focus group discussions were

  3. Towards Safer Nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Rune; Baun, Anders

    2014-01-01

    As nanomaterials become more widespread in everything from industrial processes to consumer products, concerns about human and environmental safety are being taken increasingly more seriously. In our research we are working with minimizing the impact and risks of engineered nanomaterials by looking...... or the exposure and optimally both. Examples include the 5 SAFER principles (Morose, 2010) or screenings of early warning signs (Hansen et al., 2013). Taking the full life cycle of nanomaterials into account, the principles of Green chemistry and Green engineering could also prove useful to reduce...... the environmental impact of nanomaterials (Eckelman et al., 2008). Our research interests include the feasibility of “safer-­‐by-­‐design” approaches, the production of greener nanomaterials and operationalization, adaption and creation of frameworks to facilitate safety engineering. Research and insight...

  4. Sex work among men who have sex with men and transgender women in Bogotá.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Fernanda T; Reisen, Carol A; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Vidal-Ortiz, Salvador; Gonzales, Felisa A; Betancourt, Fabián; Aguilar, Marcela; Poppen, Paul J

    2014-11-01

    This qualitative study examined sex work among internally displaced male and transgender female sex workers in Bogotá, Colombia. Internal displacement has occurred in Colombia as a result of decades of conflict among armed groups and has created large-scale migration from rural to urban areas. Informed by the polymorphous model of sex work, which posits that contextual conditions shape the experience of sex work, we examined three main research questions. The first dealt with how internal displacement was related to the initiation of sex work; the second concerned the effect of agency on sex worker satisfaction; and the third examined how sex work in this context was related to HIV and other risks. Life history interviews were conducted with 26 displaced individuals who had done sex work: 14 were men who have sex with men and 12 were transgender women (natal males). Findings revealed that many participants began doing sex work in the period immediately after displacement, because of a lack of money, housing, and social support. HIV risk was greater during this time due to limited knowledge of HIV and inexperience negotiating safer sex with clients. Other findings indicated that sex workers who exerted more control and choice in the circumstances of their work reported greater satisfaction. In addition, we found that although many sex workers insisted on condom use with clients, several noted that they would sometimes have unprotected sex for additional money. Specific characteristics affecting the experience of sex work among the transgender women were also discussed.

  5. The influence of power, poverty and agency in the negotiation of condom use for female sex workers in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Susanne Y P; Holroyd, Eleanor

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses barriers to consistent condom use in the context of transactional sex among female sex workers in mainland China. It reveals how differences in socioeconomic profile and organisational hierarchies amongst different groups of sex workers create different barriers to condom use. Data was collected by means of field observation of entertainment venues and in-depth interviews. Findings suggest that, compared with other sex workers, street-walkers are less likely to use condoms with their clients, hold highly disadvantaged socioeconomic profiles and work in isolation. Major barriers to condom use link to economic deprivation and threats of violence from clients. For the women working in entertainment venues, drunkenness of clients, pricing mechanisms and familiarity with clients pose barriers to condom use. Yet within all these constraints women are not powerless and instead find ways to exercise agency and gain personal protection and economic advantage. In the newly emerging China, both structural hierarchies of work and individual agency inform condom use by female sex workers. Future HIV intervention programmes need to take these factors into account in order to meet the needs of different groups of women sex workers.

  6. Negotiating the city: Exploring the intersecting vulnerabilities of non-national migrant mothers who sell sex in Johannesburg, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, Becky; Vearey, Jo; Nencel, L.S.

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the intersecting vulnerabilities of non-national migrant mothers who sell sex in Johannesburg, South Africa – one of the most unequal cities in the world. Migrants who struggle to access the benefits of the city live and work in precarious peripheral spaces where they

  7. "Anything from making out to having sex": men's negotiations of hooking up and friends with benefits scripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Marina; Calzo, Jerel P; Smiler, Andrew P; Ward, L Monique

    2009-01-01

    Popular media and academic literature often portray men as happy beneficiaries of nonrelational or casual sex--a view that is consistent with traditional notions of masculinity. This study examined the validity of this notion, using semistructured interviews to explore ways that 19 college-age men defined and enacted "hooking up" and "friends with benefits" scripts. Men's definitions reflected both standard and alternate conceptions of these scripts, and their experiences indicated variability in intentions and outcomes. Whereas a few men embraced the no-strings-attached nonrelational scripts, most rejected the script or enacted an amended version that allowed for greater relational connection. Further, their experiences were not all positive and were not all devoid of emotional connection. These alternative enactments challenge the pro-masculine, universally positive conceptualization of nonrelational sex portrayed in the media and in some empirical research.

  8. Security negotiation

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović, Miroslav M.; Ivaniš, Željko

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary security challenges, risks and threats represent a resultant of the achieved level of interaction between various entities within the paradigm of global security relations. Asymmetry and nonlinearity are main features of contemporary challenges in the field of global security. Negotiation in the area of security, namely the security negotiation, thus goes beyond just the domain of negotiation in conflicts and takes into consideration particularly asymmetric forms of possible sour...

  9. Correlates of self-efficacy for condom use among male clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmann, Tyson; Wagner, Karla D; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Semple, Shirley J; Ompad, Danielle C; Chavarin, Claudia V; Patterson, Thomas L

    2014-05-01

    Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana, Mexico engage in high levels of unprotected sex. While behavioral change theories posit that self-efficacy predicts condom use, correlates of self-efficacy for condom use remain largely unstudied. We examined these correlates among male clients of FSWs in Tijuana. Eligible male clients were at least 18 years of age, HIV-negative, lived in Tijuana or San Diego, reported unprotected sex with a Tijuana FSW at least once in the past 4 months, and agreed to be treated for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire including demographics, substance use, psychosocial and psychosexual characteristics (e.g., outcome expectancies for negotiation of safer sex, social support, and sexual sensation seeking), and sexual behaviors. Participants also underwent HIV/STI testing. A stepwise hierarchical multiple regression analysis identified correlates of self-efficacy for condom use. Of 393 male clients, median age was 37 years. Participants were mostly Spanish-speaking and employed. Factors independently associated with higher self-efficacy for condom use were higher positive outcome expectancies for negotiation of safer sex, lower sexual sensation seeking scores, and higher social support scores. Both psychosocial and psychosexual factors may influence self-efficacy for condom use among male clients of FSWs. These factors represent central constructs in sociocognitive models that explain behavioral change and could be intervention targets for improving self-efficacy for condom use and, ultimately, safer sex behavior.

  10. Parental Influence, Gay Youths, and Safer Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaSala, Michael C.

    2007-01-01

    To begin to understand the role that family relationships and interactions play in young gay men's decisions to avoid unsafe sexual practices, parents and sons (ages 16 to 25) in 30 families were qualitatively interviewed about issues and concerns related to HIV risk. Most of the youths reported feeling obliged to their parents to stay healthy,…

  11. Safer sex: Passionate escapism versus rational thought

    OpenAIRE

    Bird, S.

    2010-01-01

    Current social marketing practice emphasises the use of theory, this being one of the benchmark criteria used by the UK’s National Social Marketing Centre to define good social marketing practice. Such theories include the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1991), the Health Belief Model (Hochbaum et al., 1952; Rosenstock, 1966; Rosenstock et al. 1988) or the Transtheoretical Model of Change (Prochaska et al., 1991). These first two theories suggest that man acts as Homo economicus, using ra...

  12. Efficacy of a Clinic-Based Safer Sex Program for Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Uninfected and Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Young Black Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard A; Mena, Leandro; Salazar, Laura F; Hardin, James W; Brown, Tim; Vickers Smith, Rachel

    2018-03-01

    To test the efficacy of a single-session, clinic-based intervention designed to promote condom use among young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM). Six hundred YBMSM were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial, using a 12-month observation period. An intent-to-treat analysis was performed, with multiple imputation for missing data. Compared with the reference group, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men in the intervention group had 64% greater odds of reporting consistent condom use for anal receptive sex over 12 months (estimated odds ratio, 1.64; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-2.17, P = 0.001). Also, compared with the reference group, HIV-uninfected men in the intervention group had more than twice the odds of reporting consistent condom use for anal receptive sex over 12 months (estimated odds ratio, 2.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.74-2.63, P < 0.001). Significant intervention effects relative to incident sexually transmitted diseases were not observed. A single-session, clinic-based, intervention may help protect HIV-uninfected YBMSM against HIV acquisition and HIV-infected YBMSM from transmitting the virus to insertive partners.

  13. Negotiating Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Fraser, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a new analytical approach to the study of aid negotiations. Building on existing approaches but trying to overcome their limitations, it argues that factors outside of individual negotiations (or the `game' in game-theoretic approaches) significantly affect the preferences...

  14. Piloting a Savings-Led Microfinance Intervention with Women Engaging in Sex Work in Mongolia: Further Innovation for HIV Risk Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Laura Cordisco; Witte, Susan S; Aira, Toivgoo; Altantsetseg, Batsukh; Riedel, Marion

    2011-12-30

    This paper describes a pilot study testing the feasibility of an innovative savings-led microfinance intervention in increasing the economic empowerment and reducing the sexual risk behavior of women engaging in sex work in Mongolia. Women's economic vulnerability may increase their risk for HIV by compromising their ability to negotiate safer sex with partners and heightening the likelihood they will exchange sex for survival. Microfinance has been considered a potentially powerful structural HIV prevention strategy with women conducting sex work, as diversification of income sources may increase women's capacity to negotiate safer transactional sex. With 50% of all reported female HIV cases in Mongolia detected among women engaging in sex work, direct prevention intervention with women conducting sex work represents an opportunity to prevent a potentially rapid increase in HIV infection in urban Mongolia. The piloted intervention consisted of a matched savings program in which matched savings could be used for business development or vocational education, combined with financial literacy and business development training for women engaging in sex work. Results of the pilot demonstrate participants' increased confidence in their ability to manage finances, greater hope for pursuing vocational goals, moderate knowledge gains regarding financial literacy, and an initial transition from sex work to alternative income generation for five out of nine participants. The pilot findings highlight the potential for such an intervention and the need for a clinical trial testing the efficacy of savings-led microfinance programs in reducing HIV risk for women engaging in sex work in Mongolia.

  15. Email Negotiation

    OpenAIRE

    Bülow, Anne Marie

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates a set of email negotiations in order to explain a high number of deadlocks. The paper argues that one reason is the combination of cognitive effort characteristic of the e-mail genre, and the argumentative pattern found when two parties simultaneously try to persuade the other of the justice of their cause. For a negotiation involving the wording of a contract, the evidence suggests that, while there is a distinct advantage in the features of reviewability and revis...

  16. Support for safer behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujari, S

    1994-01-01

    Counseling persons about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing and safe sex practices is performed in India at acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) counseling centers, such as the one in Pune. The center provides counseling to clients, primarily men, before and after HIV testing. Support groups are offered for HIV-positive persons. Clients are referred by doctors, sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics, and health care institutions. Advertising is by word of mouth. Previously, when blood banks were sending HIV-positive persons for counseling, confirmatory testing had not been performed, and 30% were actually HIV negative. Now the center, in cooperation with the blood banks, contacts all HIV-positive patients. After counseling, a confirmatory test is performed, if the patient agrees. HIV-positive persons are encouraged, but not pressured, to contact partners. Breaking confidentially is avoided. The center also counsels patients at the local government STD clinic. Again, these are mainly men. All patients have a follow up session after diagnosis to discuss sexual practices, risk reduction practices, disease prevention, and condom use. In India, culture constrains open discussion about sex. However, if counselors begin with neutral topics, such as work or children, men are more willing to speak about sexual practices and lifestyles. Counselors discuss the possible reasons for unsafe behavior and offer practical solutions. Counseling men in STD clinics also indirectly reaches their partners, the wives and sex workers who are in less of a position to protect themselves.

  17. Military men and sexual practices: Discourses of 'othering' in safer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Military men and sexual practices: Discourses of 'othering' in safer sex in the light of HIV/AIDS. ... Military men are particularly vulnerable to HIV because of their working conditions; for example, working far from home and being among communities where they have greater economic and political power, as well as in relation ...

  18. Negotiating Lean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek Pedersen, Esben; Muniche, Mahad

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse how negotiations between the constituencies affect the processes and outcomes of lean projects in Danish public sector organisations. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a qualitative analysis of interviews with managers...... projects in the Danish public sector. It cannot be concluded that the findings can be generalised to reflect all types of lean projects across organisational and geographical settings. Originality/value – The paper adds value to the relatively scarce literature on lean management in the public sector...... and employees who have participated in lean projects in the Danish public sector. Negotiated order theory serves as the overarching theoretical framework for the analysis. Findings – The paper concludes that the processes and outcomes of lean depend not only on the technology itself, but also the negotiation...

  19. Extreme negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jeff; Donigian, Aram; Hughes, Jonathan

    2010-11-01

    CEOs and other senior executives must make countless complex, high-stakes deals across functional areas and divisions, with alliance partners and critical suppliers, and with customers and regulators. The pressure of such negotiations may make them feel a lot like U.S. military officers in an Afghan village, fending off enemy fire while trying to win trust and get intelligence from the local populace. Both civilian and military leaders face what the authors call "dangerous negotiations," in which the traps are many and good advice is scarce. Although the sources of danger are quite different for executives and officers, they resort to the same kinds of behaviors. Both feel pressure to make quick progress, project strength and control (particularly when they have neither), rely on force rather than collaboration, trade resources for cooperation rather than build trust, and make unwanted compromises to minimize potential damage. The authors outline five core strategies that "in extremis" military negotiators use to resolve conflicts and influence others: maintaining a big-picture perspective; uncovering hidden agendas to improve collaboration; using facts and fairness to get buy-in; building trust; and focusing on process as well as outcomes. These strategies provide an effective framework that business executives can use to prepare for a negotiation and guide their moves at the bargaining table.

  20. Negotiating action

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    After years of working towards a climate accord, the Paris Agreement of 2015 marked the shift from negotiating to reach consensus on climate action to implementation of such action. The challenge now is to ensure transparency in the processes and identify the details of what is required.

  1. Negotiating choices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lawrence

    As a child in an academic family, I always had a lot of books around and read ... Overall, though, when I look back, I can see that the dominant influence in shaping my .... many others working in India, I have often felt that one's pub- lished work tends to ... The complexities of negotiating gender and professional roles tend to ...

  2. Email Negotiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Anne Marie

    the other of the justice of their cause. For a negotiation involving the wording of a contract, the evidence suggests that, while there is a distinct advantage in the features of reviewability and revisablity, the email format allows selective attention to the other party’s arguments, which can be shown...

  3. Negotiations 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bruce; And Others

    Reflecting the management advocacy position taken by school boards in collective bargaining procedures, this report analyzes New Jersey school labor negotiations laws and practices as of 1978. Terms and issues of special interest are defined and explained. Topics include contract language, good faith bargaining, past practice, negotiations…

  4. Does Negotiation Training Improve Negotiators' Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElShenawy, Eman

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper's objective is to test the main effect of negotiation training-level on acquiring negotiation skills. Training level refers to the time a trainee spends in a negotiation training course receiving the standard style and methods of training. Negotiation skills are manifested through trainees' performance after receiving training.…

  5. Shopping for a safer car

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This brochure provides some helpful tips on what to look for when shopping for a safer car. Automakers are increasingly advertising the safety features of their cars. The problem is sorting out their claims and zeroing in on the safety features that ...

  6. SAFERE: Southern African Feminist Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feminism and Masculinity in an African Capitalist Context: · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Mwenda G. Ntarangwi, 19-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/safere.v3i1.23948 ...

  7. Negotiation time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    Markets in the Pacific have been relatively stable throughout 1999 compared to its Atlantic counterparts. As a result, the outcome of annual negotiations between Australian suppliers and Japanese steel mills (JSM) and utilities will not be so easy to predict this year. The article discusses factors that will affect the prices of coking coal and thermal coal. The outlook for thermal coal prices in the Pacific market looks much more promising than for coking coal. 2 photos.

  8. Coalitional negotiation

    OpenAIRE

    Mauleon, Ana; Vannetelbosch, Vincent

    1999-01-01

    We develop a two-stage negotiation model to study the impact of costly inspections on both the coalition formation outcome and the per-member payoffs. In the first stage, the players are forming coalitions and inside each coalition formed the members share the coalition benefits. We adopt the largest consistent set (LCS) to predict which coalition structures are possibly stable. We also introduce a refinement,the largest cautious consistent set (LCCS). In the second stage, the inspection game...

  9. Sibling negotiation

    OpenAIRE

    Rufus A. Johnstone; Alexandre Roulin

    2003-01-01

    Current discussions of offspring begging typically assume either that it is a signal directed at parents or that it represents a form of scramble competition to gain access to them. However, offspring might also display to inform nest mates that they will contest the next food item to be delivered; in other words, begging (possibly in the absence of parents) might serve purely as a form of negotiation among siblings. Here, we develop a game-theoretical model of this possibility. We assume tha...

  10. Safer v. Estate of Pack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-11

    The Superior Court of New Jersey, Appellate Division, recognized "a physician's duty to warn those known to be at risk of avoidable harm from a genetically transmissible condition." During the 1950s, Dr. George Pack treated Donna Shafer's father for a cancerous blockage of the colon and multiple polyposis. In 1990, Safer was diagnosed with the same condition, which she claims is inherited, and, if not diagnosed and treated, invariably will lead to metastic colorectal cancer. Safer alleged that Dr. Pack knew the hereditary nature of the disease, yet failed to warn the immediate family, thus breaching his professional duty to warn. The court did not follow the analysis of the trial court, that a physician has no legal duty to warn the child of a patient of the genetic risk of disease because no physician and patient relationship exists between the doctor and the child.

  11. Negotiating Marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Sniezek

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on data from qualitative interviews with 40 engaged heterosexual couples, this paper examines how couples transform their relationship from “serious” to being “engaged to be married.” Social Scientists have developed relationship models designed to explain the transformation, but these models fail to adequately capture how couples transform their relationship and the context in which this behavior occurs. Using a constructionist framework, an alternative process model is offered. The five-process model captures the ongoing and fluid work couples perform to negotiate a redefinition of the relationship. Couples reflexively use a host of complex symbolic interaction including talk, rituals, relationships with others, testing, and use of time to construct their relationship in a new way. By examining the underlying reality construction process, rather than merely looking at the outcome, the social processes and human actions that shape relationships are revealed.

  12. A qualitative exploration of female sex work in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucardo, Jesus; Semple, Shirley J; Fraga-Vallejo, Miguel; Davila, Wendy; Patterson, Thomas L

    2004-08-01

    Previous research has documented high rates of STDs and increased risk of HIV infection among female sex workers (FSWs) in Mexico; however, little is known about the sexual risk behaviors of this population. The purpose of this study was to explore work history, context of sex work, sexual risk practices, client characteristics, attitudes toward condoms, and potential barriers to condom use in a sample of FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. Analysis of qualitative data from 25 FSWs revealed that most women entered the sex trade at a young age ( M = 23 years), primarily as a result of financial need. Forty percent were single mothers supporting children. Women worked an average of 6-7 days per week; work shifts ranged from 4 to 13 hr per day. Clients were both Mexican and foreign (mostly American and Asian), and ranged in age from 18 to 80 years. Positive aspects of the job included flexible work hours and good income. Negative aspects of sex work included risks associated with physical assault, diseases, and unwanted pregnancies. Most clients did not want to use a condom and many offered additional money for unprotected sex. FSWs did not like to use condoms because they were perceived as uncomfortable. Most FSWs did not negotiate the use of condoms, had a low knowledge regarding the proper use of condoms, and were reticent to report their own unsafe sex practices. These results suggest the need to develop culturally appropriate safer sex interventions for FSWs in Mexican border cities.

  13. Safer sexual practices among African American women: intersectional socialisation and sexual assertiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Danice L; Blackmon, Sha'Kema; Shiflett, Alexandra

    2018-06-01

    Scholars have posited that childhood socialisation experiences may play a key role in influencing behaviours and attitudes that contribute to the acquisition of HIV. This study examined the links between past ethnic-racial and gender socialisation, sexual assertiveness and the safe sexual practices of African American college women utilising a cluster analytic approach. After identifying separate racial-gender and ethnic-gender socialisation profiles, results indicated that ethnic-gender socialisation cluster profiles were directly associated with sexual assertiveness and safer sex behaviour. Greater levels of ethnic socialisation and low traditional gender role socialisation were found to be associated with greater sexual assertiveness and safer sex behaviour. Further analysis showed that sexual assertiveness mediated the links between the identified ethnic-gender socialisation profiles and safer sex behaviour. Implications for policy and programme development are discussed.

  14. BUSINESS NEGOTIATION IN MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Trajković

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Every day we are faced with some form of negotiation. Negotiation is a means of communication between two or more persons with the aim of achieving an adequate agreement that will be acceptable to both sides. Successful business negotiation in management is used in organizations of all types and sizes, at all organizational levels and in all sectors of business throughout the world. Management shall in all circumstances to plan, organize, lead and control in different ways according to their managerial position as well as the knowledge, abilities and skills that they possessed. Negotiation is an important part of communication which results should contribute to increasing the efficiency of business organizations. Any experienced negotiator in negotiation process has consciously and deliberately, and has a strategy of negotiation. The strategy represents a proactive approach to the negotiations, and the approach aims to influence the course of negotiations.

  15. Piloting a Savings-Led Microfinance Intervention with Women Engaging in Sex Work in Mongolia: Further Innovation for HIV Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Laura Cordisco; Witte, Susan S.; Aira, Toivgoo; Altantsetseg, Batsukh; Riedel, Marion

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a pilot study testing the feasibility of an innovative savings-led microfinance intervention in increasing the economic empowerment and reducing the sexual risk behavior of women engaging in sex work in Mongolia. Women’s economic vulnerability may increase their risk for HIV by compromising their ability to negotiate safer sex with partners and heightening the likelihood they will exchange sex for survival. Microfinance has been considered a potentially powerful structural HIV prevention strategy with women conducting sex work, as diversification of income sources may increase women’s capacity to negotiate safer transactional sex. With 50% of all reported female HIV cases in Mongolia detected among women engaging in sex work, direct prevention intervention with women conducting sex work represents an opportunity to prevent a potentially rapid increase in HIV infection in urban Mongolia. The piloted intervention consisted of a matched savings program in which matched savings could be used for business development or vocational education, combined with financial literacy and business development training for women engaging in sex work. Results of the pilot demonstrate participants’ increased confidence in their ability to manage finances, greater hope for pursuing vocational goals, moderate knowledge gains regarding financial literacy, and an initial transition from sex work to alternative income generation for five out of nine participants. The pilot findings highlight the potential for such an intervention and the need for a clinical trial testing the efficacy of savings-led microfinance programs in reducing HIV risk for women engaging in sex work in Mongolia. PMID:24900163

  16. Sex and Prevention Concerns for Positive People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with any comments or concerns. February 17, 2011 Sex and prevention concerns for positive people Facebook Twitter ... partner, and vice versa. The reality of safer sex You put yourself at risk for infections through ...

  17. Consensus statement: Supporting Safer Conception and Pregnancy For Men And Women Living with and Affected by HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Lynn T; Beyeza-Kashesya, Jolly; Cooke, Ian; Davies, Natasha; Heffron, Renee; Kaida, Angela; Kinuthia, John; Mmeje, Okeoma; Semprini, Augusto E; Weber, Shannon

    2017-05-13

    Safer conception interventions reduce HIV incidence while supporting the reproductive goals of people living with or affected by HIV. We developed a consensus statement to address demand, summarize science, identify information gaps, outline research and policy priorities, and advocate for safer conception services. This statement emerged from a process incorporating consultation from meetings, literature, and key stakeholders. Three co-authors developed an outline which was discussed and modified with co-authors, working group members, and additional clinical, policy, and community experts in safer conception, HIV, and fertility. Co-authors and working group members developed and approved the final manuscript. Consensus across themes of demand, safer conception strategies, and implementation were identified. There is demand for safer conception services. Access is limited by stigma towards PLWH having children and limits to provider knowledge. Efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and acceptability data support a range of safer conception strategies including ART, PrEP, limiting condomless sex to peak fertility, home insemination, male circumcision, STI treatment, couples-based HIV testing, semen processing, and fertility care. Lack of guidelines and training limit implementation. Key outstanding questions within each theme are identified. Consumer demand, scientific data, and global goals to reduce HIV incidence support safer conception service implementation. We recommend that providers offer services to HIV-affected men and women, and program administrators integrate safer conception care into HIV and reproductive health programs. Answers to outstanding questions will refine services but should not hinder steps to empower people to adopt safer conception strategies to meet reproductive goals.

  18. Successful international negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerry, G.

    1997-01-01

    These remarks on successful international trade negotiations deal with the following topics: culture and differences in psychology; building friendly relationships and letting both sides appear to win; well written proposals; security of negotiating information; the complexity and length of nuclear negotiations

  19. Negotiation Skill Development Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Gregory E.; Chau, Ngan N.

    2017-01-01

    Conflict occurs naturally in all marketing related activities. When such conflict is handled well through proper negotiation, it helps solve problems and build stronger, deeper relationships between the negotiating parties. Nevertheless, many students feel uneasy about negotiating, yet they know it is a crucial skill that needs to be developed.…

  20. Minority College Women's Views on Condom Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaurin-Jones, TyWanda; Lashley, Maudry-Beverly; Marshall, Vanessa

    2015-12-22

    This study utilized quantitative and qualitative methods to (1) investigate the relationship between frequency of condom use and negotiation strategies and (2) evaluate experiences with condom negotiations among sexually active, heterosexual, African American college women. One hundred female students from a Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) completed a questionnaire that included the Condom Influence Strategies Scale (CIS) and participated in a focus group. An ANOVA was conducted to compare differences between never, inconsistent, and consistent condom users. Consistent condom users scored higher than never users on the "withholding sex" subscale of the CIS (4.88 vs. 3.55; p negotiation included deciding the "right timing" of discussion and having a previous history of sexual intercourse without a condom with their partner. Other key concepts that contribute to condom negotiation are the views that condoms are a male's responsibility and stigma of women who carry condoms.

  1. Sex work, reform initiatives and HIV/AIDS in inner-city Johannesburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Marlise

    2008-11-01

    The on-going criminalisation of sex work in South Africa, concurrent sexual partnerships, socio-economic vulnerability, migrant status and gender-based violence intensify sex workers' risk of contracting HIV. These factors combine to restrict the skills, ability and resources of sex workers to negotiate safer sex and to access HIV prevention, treatment and healthcare services. The paper situates the living and working conditions of sex workers in Hillbrow, an inner-city area of Johannesburg, within the South African legal context, especially in regard to current law reform initiatives regarding sex work, as well as the increasing anxiety about the influx of (sex) tourists during the 2010 FIFA World Cup. In addition, the paper describes an intervention by the Reproductive Health & HIV Research Unit at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, an innovator in providing mobile healthcare services and education to hotel-based sex workers in Hillbrow. The paper contends that a legal-rights-approach to HIV risk and vulnerability, together with powerful public health considerations, render decriminalisation an imperative response to sex workers' material conditions.

  2. The Antenarrative of Negotiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Anne Marie; Boje, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Within organizations, there are occasions where a contract negotiation is recognizable, e.g. a job offer. However, that situation is already embedded in other structures and negotiations. This article explores the nature of such embeddedness. We extend negotiation theory by adding an analysis...... of argumentation that underlie negotiation. We study a case of New Public Management in a university, as an organization with several layers of decision-makers and distributed responsibility for resource allocation. By examining the dynamic development of antenarrative, we contribute a theory of embeddedness...... that helps to develop strategic ‘bets on the future’ that practitioners can use as a preparation tool before negotiations....

  3. Justice and Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druckman, Daniel; Wagner, Lynn M

    2016-01-01

    This review article examines the literature regarding the role played by principles of justice in negotiation. Laboratory experiments and high-stakes negotiations reveal that justice is a complex concept, both in relation to attaining just outcomes and to establishing just processes. We focus on how justice preferences guide the process and outcome of negotiated exchanges. Focusing primarily on the two types of principles that have received the most attention, distributive justice (outcomes of negotiation) and procedural justice (process of negotiation), we introduce the topic by reviewing the most relevant experimental and field or archival research on the roles played by these justice principles in negotiation. A discussion of the methods used in these studies precedes a review organized in terms of a framework that highlights the concept of negotiating stages. We also develop hypotheses based on the existing literature to point the way forward for further research on this topic.

  4. CDC Vital Signs: Making Health Care Safer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Page What Can Be Done The Federal government is Implementing activities across all government agencies to ... Making Health Care Safer [PSA – 0:60 seconds] Digital Press Kit: CDC Modeling Predicts Growth of Drug- ...

  5. Feminism, Anthropology and Androcentrism | Ntarangwi | SAFERE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAFERE: Southern African Feminist Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 1 (2000) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. All Sexed Up: a resposta de mulheres lésbicas negras jovens ao sexo (mais seguro em Johannesburg, África do Sul All Sexed Up: young black lesbian women's responses to safe(r sex in Johannesburg, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zethu Matebeni

    2009-01-01

    unfamiliar and sometimes unsympathetic health-related service providers. Furthermore, limited research on lesbians and lesbian health in South Africa makes it difficult for lesbian women to know what sexual health issues affect them specifically, where and how to address these issues. There is a general misconception that safe sex issues do not affect lesbian women as much as they affect heterosexual women. The paper presents views of a group of young self-identified lesbian women in South Africa between the ages of 18 and 35. Through self-administered questionnaires and discussions these women share their experiences and thoughts of lesbian (safe sex and how they have related and continue to relate sexually with other women in the time of HIV and Aids.

  7. Patterns of Negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Suresh; Pattinson, Hugh

    Traditionally, face-to-face negotiations in the real world have not been looked at as a complex systems interaction of actors resulting in a dynamic and potentially emergent system. If indeed negotiations are an outcome of a dynamic interaction of simpler behavior just as with a complex system, we should be able to see the patterns contributing to the complexities of a negotiation under study. This paper and the supporting research sets out to show B2B (business-to-business) negotiations as complex systems of interacting actors exhibiting dynamic and emergent behavior. This paper discusses the exploratory research based on negotiation simulations in which a large number of business students participate as buyers and sellers. The student interactions are captured on video and a purpose built research method attempts to look for patterns of interactions between actors using visualization techniques traditionally reserved to observe the algorithmic complexity of complex systems. Students are videoed negotiating with partners. Each video is tagged according to a recognized classification and coding scheme for negotiations. The classification relates to the phases through which any particular negotiation might pass, such as laughter, aggression, compromise, and so forth — through some 30 possible categories. Were negotiations more or less successful if they progressed through the categories in different ways? Furthermore, does the data depict emergent pathway segments considered to be more or less successful? This focus on emergence within the data provides further strong support for face-to-face (F2F) negotiations to be construed as complex systems.

  8. World championship in negotiation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolinski, Remigiusz; Kesting, Peter

    2013-01-01

    for negotiation pedagogy.These benefits include: the high level of student commitment generated by participation in a competition, which enhances the quality of negotiation; the opportunity that the competitions give students to experience authentic cultural diversity; and the networking opportunities......The last decade has seen the emergence of several new negotiation competitions around the world.We think the two major drivers of this development are a general trend toward the increasing internationalization of higher education and a recognition of the specific benefits of competitions...... for students and instructors that the competitions create.This article focuses on the role that negotiation competitions can play in negotiation pedagogy. We first present an overview of the currently most important international negotiation competitions.This is followed by an outline of the specific benefits...

  9. Negotiation and management

    OpenAIRE

    Ademi, Nermin

    2010-01-01

    Negotiations are a means of how to solve conflicts and differences through direct communication. It is a structured process through which parties overcome their differences and conflicts trying to reach an agreement about which solution will be acceptable to all. The basic meaning of negotiations is to obtain what you want from others. In this work the principal aspects of negotiations are being discussed, as one of the key business processes and an essential source of competitive advanta...

  10. Negotiation within labor relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia BĂDOI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Negotiation is the process we use in order to obtain things that we want and are controlled by others. Any desire we intend to fulfill, any need that we are obliged to meet is a potential bargaining situations. Between groups and individuals, negotiation occurs naturally, as some have one thing that the other wants and is willing to bargain to get it. More or less we are all involved in negotiations: closing a contract, buying a thing, obtaining sponsorships, collective decision making, conflict resolution, agreement on work plans. Within the field of labor relations, negotiation can occur on the occasion of closing / amending employment contracts or in order to regulate employment or work relations. Moreover, used properly, the negotiation can be an effective tool for solving labor disputes, with benefits for both involved parties. This paper aims to present negotiating principles and steps to follow in planning and preparing negotiations and the negotiating techniques that can lead to a successful negotiation based on a well-developed plan.

  11. RISKY HEALTH ENVIRONMENTS:WOMEN SEX WORKERS’ STRUGGLES TO FIND SAFE, SECURE AND NON-EXPLOITATIVE HOUSING IN CANADA’S POOREST POSTAL CODE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, L; Chettiar, J; Deering, K; Nabess, R; Shannon, K

    2011-01-01

    This study explored low-income and transitional housing environments of women sex workers and their role in shaping agency and power in negotiating safety and sexual risk reduction in Vancouver, Canada. A series of 12 focus group discussions were conducted with 73 women currently involved in street-based sex work. These women were purposively sampled for a range of experiences living in low-income housing environments, including homeless shelters, transitional housing, and co-ed and women-only single room occupancy (SRO) hotels. Drawing on the risk environment framework and theoretical constructs of gender, agency and power, analyses demonstrate that women continue to be vulnerable to violence and sexual and economic exploitation and have reduced ability to negotiate risk reduction resulting from the physical, structural and social environments of current dominant male-centred housing models. Within the physical environment, women described inhabitable housing conditions in SROs with infestations of bedbugs and rats, leading women to even more transitional housing options such as shelters and couch-surfing. In many cases, this resulted in their economic exploitation and increased sexual risk. Within the structural environment, enforcement of curfews and guest policies forced women to accept risky clients to meet curfew, or work outdoors where their ability to negotiate safety and condom use were limited. Certain policies promoted women’s agency and mitigated their ability to reduce risks when selling sex. These included flexible curfews and being able to bring clients home. The social environments of co-ed single-room occupancy hotels resulted in repeated violence by male residents and discrimination by male building staff. Women-only shelters and SROs facilitated ‘enabling environments’ where women developed support systems with other working women that resulted in safer work practices. The narratives expressed in this study reveal the critical need for

  12. Risky health environments: women sex workers' struggles to find safe, secure and non-exploitative housing in Canada's poorest postal code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, L; Chettiar, J; Deering, K; Nabess, R; Shannon, K

    2011-12-01

    This study explored low-income and transitional housing environments of women sex workers and their role in shaping agency and power in negotiating safety and sexual risk reduction in Vancouver, Canada. A series of 12 focus group discussions were conducted with 73 women currently involved in street-based sex work. These women were purposively sampled for a range of experiences living in low-income housing environments, including homeless shelters, transitional housing, and co-ed and women-only single-room occupancy (SRO) hotels. Drawing on the risk environment framework and theoretical constructs of gender, agency and power, analyses demonstrate that women continue to be vulnerable to violence and sexual and economic exploitation and have reduced ability to negotiate risk reduction resulting from the physical, structural and social environments of current dominant male-centred housing models. Within the physical environment, women described inhabitable housing conditions in SROs with infestations of bedbugs and rats, leading women to even more transitional housing options such as shelters and couch-surfing. In many cases, this resulted in their economic exploitation and increased sexual risk. Within the structural environment, enforcement of curfews and guest policies forced women to accept risky clients to meet curfew, or work outdoors where their ability to negotiate safety and condom use were limited. Certain policies promoted women's agency and mitigated their ability to reduce risks when selling sex. These included flexible curfews and being able to bring clients home. The social environments of co-ed single-room occupancy hotels resulted in repeated violence by male residents and discrimination by male building staff. Women-only shelters and SROs facilitated 'enabling environments' where women developed support systems with other working women that resulted in safer work practices. The narratives expressed in this study reveal the critical need for public

  13. Male sex workers in Córdoba, Argentina: sociodemographic characteristics and sex work experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariño Rodrigo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report on the sociodemographic characteristics and work experiences of 31 male sex workers (MSWs in the city of Córdoba, Argentina. METHODS: Information on each of the MSWs was collected using a questionnaire that covered his personal characteristics and his work background, self-assessed general health status, and use of health and social services. Scales were included in order to assess attitudes towards condom use, knowledge about safe sex, perceptions about the risk of getting HIV, individual self-efficacy, and locus of control. The questionnaire also asked each respondent to rank his level of agreement with interactive strategies for gaining client compliance with safe sex practices. RESULTS: In terms of their self-identity, out of the 30 MSWs who answered the question, 10 of them (33.3% self-identified as heterosexual and 9 (30% as bisexual. Alcohol and drug consumption and unsafe sexual practices were relatively low among the MSWs. Of the 31 MSWs responding, 21 of them (67.7% reported that they had been tested for HIV, but only 13 of them (41.9% said they had been vaccinated for either hepatitis A or hepatitis B. A variety of differences were found between the study's 17 street sex workers (sex workers who offer their services in public places such as streets and parks and the 14 independent sex workers (sex workers who are self-employed, advertise and manage their own business, and have an exclusive location for their commercial sex work. The street MSWs were younger and had less formal education. Independent MSWs were economically more settled, had been working longer in the sex industry, and were more comfortable about having sex with men. Independent MSWs were also more likely to report a gay sexual orientation and less likely to report using alcohol, marijuana, or other substances. CONCLUSIONS: The differences between street MSWs and independent MSWs are important since they could influence the negotiating of safer sex

  14. Intelligence and negotiating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of US intelligence during arms control negotiations between 1982 and 1987. It also covers : the orchestration of intelligence projects; an evaluation of the performance of intelligence activities; the effect intelligence work had on actual arms negotiations; and suggestions for improvements in the future

  15. Preparing for Negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Larry

    The school board's negotiating team is all-important in the collective bargaining process, especially in light of the unity and organization of teacher association teams. Upper echelon administrative personnel, not the board members themselves, should compose the board's negotiating team. A board inexperienced in collective bargaining can hire a…

  16. Negotiating with payers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Joel M

    2010-05-01

    Negotiating with payers for better reimbursement, contract language, support for practice enhancement, or changes in policies and procedures is a critical function that may greatly enhance a practice's success over time. This article discusses keys to successful negotiating and several specific areas beyond reimbursement that deserve the reader's attention. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Women who sell sex in a Ugandan trading town: life histories, survival strategies and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gysels, Marjolein; Pool, Robert; Nnalusiba, Betty

    2002-01-01

    Little is known about the background of commercial sex workers in Africa. This study investigated how women in a trading town on the trans-Africa highway in southwest Uganda become involved in commercial sex work, which factors contribute to their economic success or lack of success, and what effect life trajectories and economic success have on negotiating power and risk behaviour. Over the course of two years detailed life histories of 34 women were collected through recording open, in-depth interviews, the collection of sexual and income and expenditure diaries, visits to the women's native villages, and participant observation. The women share similar disadvantaged backgrounds and this has played a role in their move into commercial sex. They have divergent experiences, however, in their utilisation of opportunities and in the level of success they achieve. They have developed different life styles and a variety of ways of dealing with sexual relationships. Three groups of women were identified: (1) women who work in the back-street bars, have no capital of their own and are almost entirely dependent on selling sex for their livelihood; (2) waitresses in the bars along the main road who engage in a more institutionalised kind of commercial sex, often mediated by middlemen and (3) the more successful entrepreneurs who earn money from their own bars as well as from commercial sex. The three groups had different risk profiles. Due partly to their financial independence from men, women in the latter group have taken control of sexual relationships and can negotiate good sexual deals for themselves, both financially and in terms of safe sex. The poorer women were more vulnerable and less able to negotiate safer sex. A disadvantaged background and restricted access to economic resources are the major reasons for women gravitating to commercial sex work. Various aspects of personality play a role in utilising income from commercial sex to set up an economic basis that

  18. Culture and Negotiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Anne Marie; Kumar, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    The literature on cross-cultural negotiation has expanded considerably over the past few decades, but the findings are often ambiguous and sometimes even contradictory. This introduction highlights the critical areas where objections are commonly raised about the relevance of national culture......, the applicability of typologies that treat cultures as static, and the problem of ambiguous terminology. It may not be surprising that studies contradict each other given the ambiguity of the national cultural construct and variations in the context of the negotiating situations that are studied. The articles...... in this issue contribute to deepening our understanding about cross-cultural negotiation processes....

  19. Negotiating through conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormick, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    There are several major causes of conflict over the nuclear waste disposal siting process but conflict should not be ended or avoided merely to have peace. A number of issues are listed that should be addressed to ensure that negotiations can be performed in a manner that will result in agreements. During the negotiation process, participants should not reveal all secrets, but must not appear to be holding things back. The agreements reached as a result of negotiations should be spelled out clearly, in writing. The agreement should tell how to implement the decision and state how all parties will be involved. The agreement should also contain provisions for continued interaction among parties

  20. Business Negotiations Idioms

    OpenAIRE

    Юрченко, С.О.

    2013-01-01

    English idioms or idiomatic expressions have always been one of the trickiest topics. This is because the real meanings of English idioms are so far off their literal meanings. To make things more complicated, idioms are used in business negotiations.

  1. Intelligence and negotiating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper gives some background on how people from the INF went about their jobs during the last two years of negotiations, and also relates some of the goals the INF had in mind and some of their concerns

  2. Complex Business Negotiation

    OpenAIRE

    Lindholst, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Most scholars agree that engaging in preparation and planning is key to a negotiation’s effectiveness but research has largely focused solely on what happens at the negotiation table, rather than in preparation for it. This thesis addresses the balance by clarifying which preparation and planning activities are undertaken to conduct a complex business negotiation. It examines not only what activities are conducted, but also by whom, and when. One important question for both pra...

  3. Safer childbirth: a rights-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boama, Vincent; Arulkumaran, Sabaratnam

    2009-08-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) set very high targets for women's reproductive health through reductions in maternal and infant mortality, among other things. Reductions in maternal mortality and morbidity can be achieved through various different approaches, such as the confidential review of maternal deaths, use of evidence-based treatments and interventions, using a health systems approach, use of information technology, global and regional partnerships, and making pregnancy safer through initiatives that increase the focus on human rights. A combination of these and other approaches can have a synergistic impact on reductions in maternal mortality. This paper highlights some of the current global efforts on safer pregnancy with a focus on reproductive rights. We encourage readers to do more in every corner of the world to advocate for women's reproductive rights and, in this way, we may achieve the MDGs by 2015.

  4. Interaction as Negotiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jannie Friis; Nielsen, Christina

    In this paper we discuss recent developments in interaction design principles for ubiquitous computing environments, specifically implications related to situated and mobile aspects of work. We present 'Interaction through Negotiation' as a general Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) paradigm, aimed...... at ubiquitous/pervasive technology and environments, with focus on facilitating negotiation in and between webs of different artifacts, humans and places. This approach is concerned with the way technology presents itself to us, both as physical entities and as conceptual entities, as well as the relations...... on several extensive empirical case studies, as well as co-operative design-sessions, we present a reflective analysis providing insights into results of the "Interaction through Negotiation" design approach in action. A very promising area of application is exception handling in pervasive computing...

  5. Negotiating Life Chances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    to and negotiate both educational and labour mobility - both of which are associated with the chance of a better life. This thesis is about young people (aged 16-31): How they negotiate their life chances and how they contribute to transformations of the socio-political space of their communities in two villages...... becoming. Aspirations prevail over political interests: young people navigate and negotiate their engagement in party and community politics by making calculations concerning their own mobility, life strategies and obligations to kin. In this way, young men engage in, but also balance and shift......, conversely, can only aspire to educational mobility due to gender norms. Furthermore, many of their hopes of ‘becoming somebody’ collapse upon marriage. Women find that they cannot continue their education, nor use the skills they have acquired in local politics, as they need to follow traditional...

  6. AIDS prevention in the sex industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-thomas, R; Overs, C

    1992-01-01

    Most sex work research examines the impact of HIV on prostitutes and on society and involves testing prostitutes for HIV antibodies, but it does not examine the role of others in the sex industry. Sex industry workers include female prostitutes, transvestites, transsexuals, and male prostitutes, bar and brothel owners, taxi drivers, sex workers' partners, and sex business managers. Since sex workers provide sexual services to clients, they are in a perfect position to teach them about sexual health. Society must recognize that we cannot wish the sex industry away and that we need an effective health promotion strategy now. Some successful relevant AIDS education campaigns provide us some guidelines on how to develop campaigns. Any campaign targeting the sex industry should also target the public. Sex workers should participate in developing health messages and educational activities. They should also participate in the project. Any campaign must deal with major obstacles to safer sexual practices of which sex workers are aware and be consulted. Common obstacles are client demand for unprotected sex and irregular and inadequate supply of inexpensive condoms. A health promotion strategy cannot be effective, however, if sex workers do not have access to social support and health care services. Health promotion workers should also encourage local authorities to end discrimination of sex workers so they can freely obtain needed services. In some countries, sex workers operate fantasy workshops providing peers with ideas to sell sex services which reduce the risk of HIV transmission. Other campaigns distribute safer sex messages on small cards, cigarette lighters, key rings, condom packages, and T shirts. Training of sex workers other than prostitutes to reinforce safer sex messages to clients is also effective, e.g., taxi drivers can say they will take a client to a woman who uses condoms rather than to a clean girl. Street theater and puppets have also successfully

  7. Safer Systems: A NextGen Aviation Safety Strategic Goal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darr, Stephen T.; Ricks, Wendell R.; Lemos, Katherine A.

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO), is charged by Congress with developing the concepts and plans for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The National Aviation Safety Strategic Plan (NASSP), developed by the Safety Working Group of the JPDO, focuses on establishing the goals, objectives, and strategies needed to realize the safety objectives of the NextGen Integrated Plan. The three goal areas of the NASSP are Safer Practices, Safer Systems, and Safer Worldwide. Safer Practices emphasizes an integrated, systematic approach to safety risk management through implementation of formalized Safety Management Systems (SMS) that incorporate safety data analysis processes, and the enhancement of methods for ensuring safety is an inherent characteristic of NextGen. Safer Systems emphasizes implementation of safety-enhancing technologies, which will improve safety for human-centered interfaces and enhance the safety of airborne and ground-based systems. Safer Worldwide encourages coordinating the adoption of the safer practices and safer systems technologies, policies and procedures worldwide, such that the maximum level of safety is achieved across air transportation system boundaries. This paper introduces the NASSP and its development, and focuses on the Safer Systems elements of the NASSP, which incorporates three objectives for NextGen systems: 1) provide risk reducing system interfaces, 2) provide safety enhancements for airborne systems, and 3) provide safety enhancements for ground-based systems. The goal of this paper is to expose avionics and air traffic management system developers to NASSP objectives and Safer Systems strategies.

  8. How employees negotiate : job autonomy and negotiation self-efficacy related to integrative negotiation and negotiation results in employment relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.

    2006-01-01

    To assess whether satisfaction with psychological contract breach does more depend on good negotiation skills or on a well-designed job, we first investigated the effect of negotiation self-efficacy and task autonomy on integrative negotiation with survey data from employees of a telecom company. We

  9. Negotiations in Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Frederik

    2008-01-01

    negotiation literature. Subsequently, an empirical case study is presented, which explicitly aims at exploring the role of negotiations between members of a supply chain. Based on the findings, the paper concludes on specific, normative guidelines for negotiations for improved supply chain competitiveness...

  10. Acceptance conditions in automated negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarslag, T.; Hindriks, K.V.; Jonker, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    In every negotiation with a deadline, one of the negotiating parties has to accept an offer to avoid a break off. A break off is usually an undesirable outcome for both parties, therefore it is important that a negotiator employs a proficient mechanism to decide under which conditions to accept.

  11. Negotiation for Strategic Video Games

    OpenAIRE

    Afiouni, Einar Nour; Øvrelid, Leif Julian

    2013-01-01

    This project aims to examine the possibilities of using game theoretic concepts and multi-agent systems in modern video games with real time demands. We have implemented a multi-issue negotiation system for the strategic video game Civilization IV, evaluating different negotiation techniques with a focus on the use of opponent modeling to improve negotiation results.

  12. Sex Education Knowledge Differences between Freshmen and Senior College Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Ruth M.; Dotger, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Abstinence sexuality education (sex ed) is the only federally funded sex ed in the United States. The strict curriculum of this education does not educate American adolescents about safer sex practices and leaves a knowledge gap in these adolescents that follows them into college. The Problem: This project aimed to identify sex knowledge…

  13. Moments of Negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Jurgen

    2001-01-01

    'Moments of Negotiation' offers the first book-length and indepth analysis of the New Historicist reading method, which the American Shakespeare-scolar Stephen Greenblatt introduced at the beginning of the 1980s. Ever since, Greenblatt has been hailed as the prime representative of this movement,

  14. Climate negotiators' and scientists' assessments of the climate negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, Astrid; Zitzelsberger, Sonja; Tavoni, Alessandro

    2017-06-01

    Climate negotiation outcomes are difficult to evaluate objectively because there are no clear reference scenarios. Subjective assessments from those directly involved in the negotiations are particularly important, as this may influence strategy and future negotiation participation. Here we analyse the perceived success of the climate negotiations in a sample of 656 experts involved in international climate policy. Respondents were pessimistic when asked for specific assessments of the current approach centred on voluntary pledges, but were more optimistic when asked for general assessments of the outcomes and usefulness of the climate negotiations. Individuals who were more involved in the negotiation process tended to be more optimistic, especially in terms of general assessments. Our results indicate that two reinforcing effects are at work: a high degree of involvement changes individuals' perceptions and more optimistic individuals are more inclined to remain involved in the negotiations.

  15. Beyond HIV-serodiscordance: Partnership communication dynamics that affect engagement in safer conception care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Lynn T; Burns, Bridget F; Bajunirwe, Francis; Kabakyenga, Jerome; Bwana, Mwebesa; Ng, Courtney; Kastner, Jasmine; Kembabazi, Annet; Sanyu, Naomi; Kusasira, Adrine; Haberer, Jessica E; Bangsberg, David R; Kaida, Angela

    2017-01-01

    We explored acceptability and feasibility of safer conception methods among HIV-affected couples in Uganda. We recruited HIV-positive men and women on antiretroviral therapy (ART) ('index') from the Uganda Antiretroviral Rural Treatment Outcomes cohort who reported an HIV-negative or unknown-serostatus partner ('partner'), HIV-serostatus disclosure to partner, and personal or partner desire for a child within two years. We conducted in-depth interviews with 40 individuals from 20 couples, using a narrative approach with tailored images to assess acceptability of five safer conception strategies: ART for the infected partner, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for the uninfected partner, condomless sex timed to peak fertility, manual insemination, and male circumcision. Translated and transcribed data were analyzed using thematic analysis. 11/20 index participants were women, median age of 32.5 years, median of 2 living children, and 80% had HIV-RNA perception: Participants had disparate understandings of HIV transmission and disagreed on the acceptable level of HIV risk to meet reproductive goals. (4) Partnership commitment: Participants revealed significant discord in perceptions of partnership commitment. All four types of partnership miscommunication introduced constraints to autonomous reproductive decision-making, particularly for women. Such miscommunication was common, as only 2 of 20 partnerships in our sample were mutually-disclosed with agreement across all four communication themes. Enthusiasm for safer conception programming is growing. Our findings highlight the importance of addressing gendered partnership communication regarding HIV disclosure, reproductive goals, acceptable HIV risk, and commitment, alongside technical safer conception advice. Failing to consider partnership dynamics across these domains risks limiting reach, uptake, adherence to, and retention in safer conception programming.

  16. Beyond HIV-serodiscordance: Partnership communication dynamics that affect engagement in safer conception care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn T Matthews

    Full Text Available We explored acceptability and feasibility of safer conception methods among HIV-affected couples in Uganda.We recruited HIV-positive men and women on antiretroviral therapy (ART ('index' from the Uganda Antiretroviral Rural Treatment Outcomes cohort who reported an HIV-negative or unknown-serostatus partner ('partner', HIV-serostatus disclosure to partner, and personal or partner desire for a child within two years. We conducted in-depth interviews with 40 individuals from 20 couples, using a narrative approach with tailored images to assess acceptability of five safer conception strategies: ART for the infected partner, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP for the uninfected partner, condomless sex timed to peak fertility, manual insemination, and male circumcision. Translated and transcribed data were analyzed using thematic analysis.11/20 index participants were women, median age of 32.5 years, median of 2 living children, and 80% had HIV-RNA <400 copies/mL. Awareness of HIV prevention strategies beyond condoms and abstinence was limited and precluded opportunity to explore or validly assess acceptability or feasibility of safer conception methods. Four key partnership communication challenges emerged as primary barriers to engagement in safer conception care, including: (1 HIV-serostatus disclosure: Although disclosure was an inclusion criterion, partners commonly reported not knowing the index partner's HIV status. Similarly, the partner's HIV-serostatus, as reported by the index, was frequently inaccurate. (2 Childbearing intention: Many couples had divergent childbearing intentions and made incorrect assumptions about their partner's desires. (3 HIV risk perception: Participants had disparate understandings of HIV transmission and disagreed on the acceptable level of HIV risk to meet reproductive goals. (4 Partnership commitment: Participants revealed significant discord in perceptions of partnership commitment. All four types of partnership

  17. The Waste Negotiator's mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bataille, Christian

    1993-01-01

    The mission of the Waste Negotiator is to seek out sites for deep underground laboratories to study their potential for disposal of high level radioactive waste. Although appointed by the government, he acts independently. In 1990, faced by severe public criticism at the way that the waste disposal was being handled, and under increasing pressure to find an acceptable solution, the government stopped the work being carried out by ANDRA (Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs) and initiated a full review of the issues involved. At the same time, parliament also started its own extensive investigation to find a way forward. These efforts finally led to the provision of a detailed framework for the management of long lived radioactive waste, including the construction of two laboratories to investigate possible repository sites. The Waste Negotiator was appointed to carry out a full consultative process in the communities which are considering accepting an underground laboratory. (Author)

  18. Negotiating meaning through artefacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This research contributes to the domain of strategy making, specifically to unpacking the complexity of sociomateriality in strategy discourse. Scholars have emphasized the potential of artefacts to enhance sensemaking during strategizing. However there is a lack of insight into how artefacts...... and conversational aspects are linked at the micro‑level of discourse, also how artefacts and sensemaking shape one another. This research addresses this gap by empirically analyzing strategy discourse within a facilitated modelling workshop. Considering strategizing as a socially constructed activity, the author...... analyzes a workshop transcript to assess the extent to which stakeholders’ appropriation of artefacts supports them in engaging in negotiation of meaning with action implications. Moreover, how artefacts and negotiation of meaning shape one another is identified. The data suggest that appropriating...

  19. Negotiating Efficient PPP Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvarnø, Christina D.

    . An opportunity the member states should consider using when procuring a PPP. This paper looks at the negotiation and contracting of a PPP in an economic theoretical and EU public procurement perspective and discusses how to establish an efficient PPP contract under a strong public law doctrine. Governments......This paper concerns Public Private Partnership (PPP) contracts in concern to the coming new 2014/24IEU public procurement directive. The new EU public procurement directive gives the public authority the opportunity to negotiate PPPs much more when they are implemented in national law...... procurement law. Furthermore, the paper seeks to establish a connection between public law, private law and the efficient PPP contract by drawing upon economic theory and empirical contract data from UK, US and Danish partnering contracts from the construction industry and the aim of contracting joint utility...

  20. Negotiating Family Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Bøge, Ask Risom; Sonne Damkjær, Maja

    This presentation explores the question: What motivates the use of tracking technologies in families, and how does the use transform the relations between parent and child? The purpose is to investigate why tracking technologies are used in families and how these technologies potentially change...... the relation between parents and children. The use of tracking technologies in families implicate negotiations about the boundaries of trust and intimacy in parent-child relations which can lead to strategies of resistance or modification (Fotel and Thomsen, 2004; Rooney, 2010; Steeves and Jones, 2010......). In the presentation, we report from a qualitative study that focuses on intergenerational relations. The study draws on empirical data from workshops with Danish families as well as individual and group interviews. We aim to gain insights about the sharing habits and negotiations in intimate family relations...

  1. Learning as Negotiating Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kenneth Mølbjerg; Keller, Hanne Dauer

    The paper explores the contribution of Communities of Practice (COP) to Human Resource Development (HRD). Learning as negotiating identities captures the contribution of COP to HRD. In COP the development of practice happens through negotiation of meaning. The learning process also involves modes...... of belonging constitutive of our identities. We suggest that COP makes a significant contribution by linking learning and identification. This means that learning becomes much less instrumental and much more linked to fundamental questions of being. We argue that the COP-framework links learning with the issue...... of time - caught in the notion of trajectories of learning - that integrate past, present and future. Working with the learners' notion of time is significant because it is here that new learning possibilities become visible and meaningful for individuals. Further, we argue that the concept of identity...

  2. Suffering Beyond Negotiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav W.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we argue that design in therapeutic domains (in a broad sense) depends on an understanding of the background for the engagement of the various users involved. It is specifically argued that an understanding of the life transforming process, or trajectory as opposed to design process...... center stage that is not based in the negotiation between rationalities. The paper draws examples from design based research projects over the last 5 years....

  3. Persuasion through negotiation

    OpenAIRE

    Elosua, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    A building about to be demolished near the ancient town of Ciqikou (磁器口). The process of expropriation forces authorities to negotiate with the residents on a case-by-case basis. In this photo, some residents have already left apartments vacant, while others still remain in their homes wishing to better their compensation package. The gentrification of the neighbourhood is guaranteed since high prices will force most, if not all, former residents to move out of the community.

  4. Meeting competition through negotiated pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith, D.M.; Raper, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    A fundamental premise of negotiated pricing as a demand-side management (DSM) tool is that price determines cost. As the ultimate objective of energy efficiency is to increase electromotive work while conserving resources, negotiated prices can have a significant impact as a DSM tool to force costs down. Three examples are offered of the effect of negotiated pricing as a DSM tool. The examples are a small hydroelectric company and an electric utility authority owned, a utility-to-customer example of negotiated pricing with the Public Service Company of Oklahoma's (PSO) system, and a large paper mill on PSO's system. Some of the major problems associated with negotiated pricing, outside of the human effort of finding and training knowledgeable and skilled negotiators, are: obtaining enough information about the customer or potential customer to be able to determine that in negotiating prices the utility is not giving away more benefits than the utility will gain; developing a pricing plan that fits both the customer's and utility's existing and potential future mode of operation; assuring that other customers who cannot negotiate on their own behalf are not adversely affected by utility revenue shortfalls; making such negotiated prices available to all similarly situated customers, so as not to inadvertently create unfair competitive advantages among them; and defining the shared benefits before and after the fact as a result of having negotiated prices in the first place

  5. A framework for safer driving in Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bassoo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the National Transport Authority (NTA, there were 493,081 registered vehicles in Mauritius in April 2016, which represents a 1.4% annual increase compared to 2015. Despite the sensitization campaigns and the series of measures setup by the Minister of Public Infrastructure and Land Transport, the number of road accidents continues to rise. The three main elements that contribute to accidents are: road infrastructure, vehicle and driver. The driver has the highest contribution in collisions. If the driver is given the right information (e.g. driving behaviour, accident-prone areas and vehicle status at the right time, he/she can make better driving decisions and react promptly to critical situations. This paper proposes a framework for safer driving in Mauritius that uses an on-board car diagnostic module (OBDII to collect data such as vehicle average speed, engine revolution and acceleration. This module relays the data to a cloud environment where an adaptive algorithm analyses the data and predicts driver behaviour in real-time. Based on driving behaviour, mobile alerts can be sent to the driver in the form of messages, voice commands or beeps. A survey was also carried out to evaluate the acceptance rate of such a framework by people of different age groups in Mauritius.

  6. Sexually active older Australian's knowledge of sexually transmitted infections and safer sexual practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Anthony; Heywood, Wendy; Fileborn, Bianca; Minichiello, Victor; Barrett, Catherine; Brown, Graham; Hinchliff, Sharron; Malta, Sue; Crameri, Pauline

    2017-06-01

    Rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are rising among older Australians. We conducted a large survey of older people's knowledge of STIs and safer sexual practices. A total of 2,137 Australians aged 60 years and older completed the survey, which included 15 questions assessing knowledge of STIs and safer sexual practices. We examined both levels of knowledge and factors associated with an overall knowledge score. In total, 1,652 respondents reported having sex in the past five years and answered all knowledge questions. This group had good general knowledge but poorer knowledge in areas such as the protection offered by condoms and potential transmission modes for specific STIs. Women had better knowledge than men. Men in their 60s, men with higher education levels, and men who thought they were at risk of STIs reported better knowledge than other men. Knowledge was also better among men and women who had been tested for STIs or reported 'other' sources of knowledge on STIs. Many older Australians lack knowledge of STIs and safer sexual practices. Implications for public health: To reverse current trends toward increasing STI diagnoses in this population, policies and education campaigns aimed at improving knowledge levels may need to be considered. © 2017 The Authors.

  7. 1988 coal price negotiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senmura, Akira

    1988-12-01

    In the negotiation on raw coal price for 1988, which began at the end of 1987, Australia requested price rise of 4 - 5 dollars for the reason of rise of Australian dollars, conditions of mines, price drop in the past five years, and world supply/demand of coal. Japan insisted to maintain the price of preceding year. The talk ended in a dead lock which could last a long time. Negotiation on the Canadian coal price also encountered difficulties but an agreement was obtained in March as Japan accepted the increased price. After which, Japan and Australia agreed to raise the price by 2.90 dollars and an increase over last year. Producing countries also requested a wide price rise as 7.50 dollars for general coal, making in this area very difficult to progress. Finally, they agreed to raise the price by 6.30 dollars and the electric power utility in Japan responded by importing of U.S. coal, which has a lower heat output but is also cheaper. It depends on Australia for 70% of coal supply but started to diversify the source. 3 tabs.

  8. Dynamic Communication Resource Negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Edward; Vatan, Farrokh; Paloulian, George; Frisbie, Steve; Srostlik, Zuzana; Kalomiris, Vasilios; Apgar, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Today's advanced network management systems can automate many aspects of the tactical networking operations within a military domain. However, automation of joint and coalition tactical networking across multiple domains remains challenging. Due to potentially conflicting goals and priorities, human agreement is often required before implementation into the network operations. This is further complicated by incompatible network management systems and security policies, rendering it difficult to implement automatic network management, thus requiring manual human intervention to the communication protocols used at various network routers and endpoints. This process of manual human intervention is tedious, error-prone, and slow. In order to facilitate a better solution, we are pursuing a technology which makes network management automated, reliable, and fast. Automating the negotiation of the common network communication parameters between different parties is the subject of this paper. We present the technology that enables inter-force dynamic communication resource negotiations to enable ad-hoc inter-operation in the field between force domains, without pre-planning. It also will enable a dynamic response to changing conditions within the area of operations. Our solution enables the rapid blending of intra-domain policies so that the forces involved are able to inter-operate effectively without overwhelming each other's networks with in-appropriate or un-warranted traffic. It will evaluate the policy rules and configuration data for each of the domains, then generate a compatible inter-domain policy and configuration that will update the gateway systems between the two domains.

  9. Introduction: Negotiation in intergroup conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demoulin, S.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2010-01-01

    Although conflicts most often occur between groups, research and theory on conflict management and negotiation have largely focused on the interpersonal system and ignored how groups negotiate a solution to their intergroup conflict. Thus we have a thorough understanding of the motivational,

  10. Small modular reactors: Simpler, safer, cheaper?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujić, Jasmina; Bergmann, Ryan M.; Škoda, Radek; Miletić, Marija

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear energy can play a very significant long-term role for meeting the world’s increasing energy demands, while simultaneously addressing challenges associated with global climate and environmental impact. Many nations of the world, particularly the Asia/Pacific Rim countries, are actively engaged in a major expansion of their nuclear energy complex. The degree to which nuclear energy can address long-term energy needs, either globally or regionally, will be dictated by the pace and adequacy of technical and policy solutions for waste, safety, security, and non-proliferation issues, as well as the capital cost of construction. Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) could successfully address several of these issues. SMRs offer simpler, standardized, and safer modular design by being factory built, requiring smaller initial capital investment, and having shorter construction times. The SMRs could be small enough to be transportable, could be used in isolated locations without advanced infrastructure and without power grid, or could be clustered in a single site to provide a multi-module, large capacity power plant. This paper summarizes some of the basic features of SMRs for early deployment, several advanced SMR concepts, and points out the benefits and challenges in regulatory, economical, safety and security issues. -- Highlights: ► We held a summer forum on SMR technologies at UC Berkeley in July 2010. ► Advantages and disadvantages, technical and economic, of each design were discussed. ► Further literature searches were also done and this paper summarizes prominent designs. ► We conclude SMRs have no large problems preventing their introduction into the nuclear market.

  11. A Multi-Agent Environment for Negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindriks, Koen V.; Jonker, Catholijn M.; Tykhonov, Dmytro

    In this chapter we introduce the System for Analysis of Multi-Issue Negotiation (SAMIN). SAMIN offers a negotiation environment that supports and facilitates the setup of various negotiation setups. The environment has been designed to analyse negotiation processes between human negotiators, between human and software agents, and between software agents. It offers a range of different agents, different domains, and other options useful to define a negotiation setup. The environment has been used to test and evaluate a range of negotiation strategies in various domains playing against other negotiating agents as well as humans. We discuss some of the results obtained by means of these experiments.

  12. Documentary shows how public employment is making cities safer ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-10

    Jun 10, 2016 ... In an engaging new documentary film, researchers from the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation share their insights of how a public employment program in South Africa is making cities safer and more inclusive.

  13. A Safer Way to Fight Malaria in Mexico | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-18

    supported malaria-control strategy in Mexico. The key is working together. Scientists pinpoint sources of malaria; communities destroy mosquito breeding grounds, such as algae in rivers, and spray homes with a safer pesticide.

  14. System Hardening Architecture for Safer Access to Critical Business ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    System Hardening Architecture for Safer Access to Critical Business Data. ... and the threat is growing faster than the potential victims can deal with. ... in this architecture are applied to the host, application, operating system, user, and the ...

  15. Negotiating Cluster Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacomin, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    Palm oil was introduced to Malay(si)a as an alternative to natural rubber, inheriting its cluster organizational structure. In the late 1960s, Malaysia became the world’s largest palm oil exporter. Based on archival material from British colonial institutions and agency houses, this paper focuses...... on the governance dynamics that drove institutional change within this cluster during decolonization. The analysis presents three main findings: (i) cluster boundaries are defined by continuous tug-of-war style negotiations between public and private actors; (ii) this interaction produces institutional change...... within the cluster, in the form of cumulative ‘institutional rounds’ – the correction or disruption of existing institutions or the creation of new ones; and (iii) this process leads to a broader inclusion of local actors in the original cluster configuration. The paper challenges the prevalent argument...

  16. Prescribing safety, negotiating expertise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolina, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Owing to their presumed impact on the safety of high-risk installations, the interactions between regulators and the regulated are a major but seldom explored subject of research in risk management. A study by experts on human and organizational factors in nuclear safety sheds light on the various phases (and their effects) of the process whereby experts produce assessments. Light is shed on a 'negotiated expertise' typical of the French style of safety regulations in nuclear installations. It is based on an ongoing technical dialog between experts and operators ('French cooking' for Anglo-Saxons). This analysis of 'expertise' and thus of the 'logics of action' implemented by experts proposes a typology of actions that can be transposed to other sorts of risk or other fields of activity. It hands us the keys for understanding a very contemporary activity. (author)

  17. Identity negotiations in meetings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmuß, Birte; Oshima, Sae

    of the company, and all members know (and display) that he holds some information that the rest don’t have access to. Our analysis shows that the participants evoke various identities of the manager, sometimes orienting to the structure of the organization, and other times orienting to wider social categories......Meetings are places, where identity negotiation is a central activity and where members’ local practices recurrently inform and are informed by larger categories (Antaki and Widdicombe 1998). Correspondingly, the approach to understanding organization (macro) by way of identity work (micro) has...... company, and in the data recorded over 10 days, the employees frequently complain about the many changes that have taken place. Our focus lies in a unique occasion where one of the managers makes an unusual appearance at the lunchroom. In this situation, he is the only one that is on the business side...

  18. Negotiation Decision Support Systems: Analysing Negotiations under the Conditions of Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Nipun Agarwal

    2014-01-01

    Negotiation Theory is a research area with emphasis from three different research streams being game theory, psychology and negotiation analysis. Recently, negotiation theory research has moved towards the combination of game theory and psychology negotiation theory models that could be called Integrated Negotiation Theory (INT). As, negotiations are often impacted by external factors, there is risk associated with achieving the expected outcomes. Prospect theory and Negotiation theory are co...

  19. Acceptability and preferences for safer conception HIV prevention strategies: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sheree R; West, Nora; Phofa, Rebecca; Yende, Nompumelelo; Sanne, Ian; Bassett, Jean; Van Rie, Annelies

    2016-10-01

    Safer conception strategies to reduce the HIV transmission risk include antiretroviral therapy for HIV-positive partners, pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-negative partners, condomless sex limited to fertile periods, and home-based self-insemination. Resistance to taking treatment or cultural concerns may limit uptake of strategies and intervention success. Understanding the acceptability and preferences between different approaches is important to optimise service delivery. Between February and July 2013, 42 adults (21 HIV-positive and 21 HIV-negative) receiving primary care at Witkoppen Health and Welfare Centre in Johannesburg, South Africa, participated in focus group discussions or in-depth interviews. Themes were analysed using a grounded theory approach. Acceptability of antiretroviral-based strategies varied. Concerns over side effects, antiretroviral treatment duration and beliefs that treatment is only for the sick were common barriers; however, desperation for a child was noted as a facilitator for uptake. HIV-negative men and HIV-positive women had favourable attitudes towards self-insemination, though paternity and safety concerns were raised. Self-insemination was generally preferred over pre-exposure prophylaxis by HIV-negative men, and antiretroviral-based strategies were preferred by couples with HIV-negative female partners, despite concerns raised about condomless sex while virally suppressed. Knowledge about the fertile window was low. A strong counselling component will be required for effective uptake and adherence to safer conception services. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Stereotype threat in salary negotiations is mediated by reservation salary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellhed, Una; Björklund, Fredrik

    2011-04-01

    Women are stereotypically perceived as worse negotiators than men, which may make them ask for less salary than men when under stereotype threat (Kray et al., 2001). However, the mechanisms of stereotype threat are not yet properly understood. The current study investigated whether stereotype threat effects in salary negotiations can be explained by motivational factors. A total of 116 business students negotiated salary with a confederate and were either told that this was diagnostic of negotiating ability (threat manipulation) or not. Measures of minimum (reservation) and ideal (aspiration) salary goals and regulatory focus were collected. The finding (Kray et al., 2001) that women make lower salary requests than men when under stereotype threat was replicated. Women in the threat condition further reported lower aspiration salary, marginally significantly lower reservation salary and less eagerness/more vigilance than men. Reservation salary mediated the stereotype threat effect, and there was a trend for regulatory focus to mediate the effect. Thus, reservation salary partly explains why women ask for less salary than men under stereotype threat. Female negotiators may benefit from learning that stereotype threat causes sex-differences in motivation. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2010 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  1. Modeling and Negotiating Service Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbernou, Salima; Brandic, Ivona; Cappiello, Cinzia; Carro, Manuel; Comuzzi, Marco; Kertész, Attila; Kritikos, Kyriakos; Parkin, Michael; Pernici, Barbara; Plebani, Pierluigi

    In this chapter the research problems of specifying and negotiating QoS and its corresponding quality documents are analyzed. For this reason, this chapter is separated into two main sections, Section 6.1 and 6.2, with each dedicated to one of the two problems, i.e., QoS specification and negotiation, respectively. Each section has a similar structure: they first introduce the problem and then, in the remaining subsections, review related work. Finally, the chapter ends with Section 6.3, which identifies research gaps and presents potential research challenges in QoS modelling, specification and negotiation.

  2. Multilateral Mediated Negotiation Protocols with Feedback (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aydogan, R.; Hindriks, K.V.; Jonker, C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to bilateral negotiation in which the dispute is between only two parties. However, automated multilateral negotiation in which more than two negotiating parties need to reach a joint agreement, has received relatively less attention, even though such negotiations are

  3. 48 CFR 15.405 - Price negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Price negotiation. 15.405... AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.405 Price negotiation. (a) The purpose of performing cost or price analysis is to develop a negotiation position that permits the...

  4. 32 CFR 644.544 - Negotiated sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Negotiated sales. 644.544 Section 644.544... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Sale Procedure § 644.544 Negotiated sales. (a) To private parties. Negotiated sales to private parties are not viewed with favor. Generally, such negotiated sales will be approved...

  5. "I do what I have to do to survive": An investigation into the perceptions, experiences and economic considerations of women engaged in sex work in Northern Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martiniuk Alexandra LC

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little published research investigating sex work in Namibia, particularly in rural areas. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to determine the views of women engaged in sex work in the Oshakati area of Namibia concerning the main factors influencing their use, or non-use, of male condoms during transactional sexual exchanges. Methods Qualitative interviews were used to better understand the perceptions, experiences and economic considerations of female sex workers in Namibia who were involved in a Behavior Change Communication Program encouraging safer sex practices among high-risk populations in 2006 and 2007. Results While the Behavior Change Communication Program has made significant strides in educating and empowering young women to negotiate more consistent condom use with sexual partners, the gendered economic inequalities and power imbalances within rural and semi-urban Namibian society that favor men hinder further advancement towards positive behavioral change for HIV prevention and also hinder the development of the loving relationships sought by some sex workers. Conclusion This study found that sex workers and transactional sex encounters are heterogeneous entities dependent upon the characteristics of the man (known, stranger, wealthy, attractive to the woman and the woman (in financial need, desiring love. These features all influence condom use. The 3 E's 'education, empowerment and economic independence' are critical factors needed to encourage and facilitate consistent condom use to prevent HIV transmission. Without financial independence and occupational alternatives building on their health education and empowerment, women who engage in sex work-and transactional sex more generally-will remain largely marginalized from Namibian society, and will continue engaging in risky sexual practices that facilitate HIV acquisition and transmission throughout the community.

  6. EFL Learners’ Negotiation of Meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Saeed Rashid Al Hosni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating EFL learners’ frequency of negotiation of meaning when performing focused and unfocused communication tasks. The sample consists of thirty learners divided into ten groups. Three research instruments were used to collect data; communication tasks, field notes and interviews. Data analysis revealed that there is no significant difference in the frequency of negotiation of meaning between the two task types. This is due to the fact that, learners performed both task types as unfocused tasks and they were able to use some communication strategies to keep communication flowing and to go round the target structure. Amazingly, despite the existence of the trigger of negotiation, the indicator of misunderstanding, an important negotiation phase, was absent in many cases from the conversations in both task types. Subsequently, the research findings suggest providing learners with opportunities that urge them to perform as language users rather than language learners.

  7. Negotiation platform for personalised advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Luís Ventura de; Malheiro, Benedita; Foss, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a multi-agent brokerage platform for near real time advertising personalisation organised in three layers: user interface, agency and marketplace. The personalisation is based on the classification of viewer profiles and advertisements (ads). The goal is to provide viewers with a personalised advertising alignment during programme intervals. The enterprise interface agents upload new ads and negotiation profiles to producer agents and new user and negotiation profiles to ...

  8. Negotiation without Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Hoyos

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:El artículo propone una reflexión filosófica inspirada en la actual situación de fragilidad institucional colombiana. Se arguye en él: (1 Que hay un elemento pragmático y uno normativo en la idea de que las instituciones políticas y sociales establecen y aseguran la vida humana y la hacen duradera. (2 Que la tradición de la negociación con agentes armados en Colombia en los últimos años se ha caracterizado por la ruptura del equilibrio entre este elemento pragmático y el normativo.Abstract:The paper presents a philosophical reflection inspired by Colombia’s ongoing institutional fragility. It argues: (1 that the idea of political and social institutions for establishing and safeguarding human life contains both a pragmatic and a normative element, and (2 that Colombia’s tradition of negotiation with armed actors has been characterized in the last years by a breakdown in the balance between these pragmatic and normative elements.

  9. Safe sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sex; Sexually transmitted - safe sex; GC - safe sex; Gonorrhea - safe sex; Herpes - safe sex; HIV - safe sex; ... contact. STIs include: Chlamydia Genital herpes Genital warts Gonorrhea Hepatitis HIV HPV Syphilis STIs are also called ...

  10. Experiences Using Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for Safer Conception Among HIV Serodiscordant Heterosexual Couples in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Angela R; Leech, Ashley A; Biancarelli, Dea L; Sullivan, Meg; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn

    2017-08-01

    Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising HIV prevention strategy for HIV serodiscordant couples (HIV-infected male, uninfected female) seeking safer conception. However, most research on PrEP for safer conception has focused on couples in sub-Saharan Africa; little is known about the perspectives or experiences of heterosexual couples in the United States. We conducted qualitative interviews with six couples (six women and five of their male partners) receiving PrEP for conception services at an urban safety net hospital in the US Northeast. In-depth interview guides explored couple relationships and contextual factors and attitudes, perceptions, and decision-making processes surrounding PrEP for safer conception. Thematic analyses focused on identifying the following emergent themes. We found that couple relationships were situated within broader social and cultural contexts of immigration, family, and community that shaped their experiences with HIV and serodiscordant relationship status. Despite strong partner support within relationships, HIV stigma and disapproval of serodiscordant relationships contributed to couples' feelings of social isolation and subsequent aspirations to have "normal" families. By enabling "natural" conception through condomless sex, PrEP for safer conception provided a sense of enhanced relationship intimacy. Couples called for increasing public awareness of PrEP through positive messaging as a way to combat HIV stigma. Findings suggest that relationship dynamics and broader social contexts appear to shape HIV serodiscordant couples' fertility desires and motivations to use PrEP. However, increased public awareness of PrEP for safer conception may be needed to combat HIV stigma at the community level.

  11. The business case for transitioning to safer chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Roger D

    2011-01-01

    Emerging domestic and international chemical regulations and a heightened consumer awareness of chemicals of concern in products is challenging American businesses to reevaluate and reconsider their approaches to supply chain management and product design. Some of these companies recognize business opportunities and are responding proactively with innovative strategies and tactics. This article describes steps that Staples Inc., the world's largest office products provider, is taking to meet demand for products that are safer and more sustainable. In trying to meet the demand for safer products, Staples faces significant barriers, including the complexity of supply chains, data gaps, and confidential business information. New collaborations between companies, government, and advocates, and improved tools and criteria for defining safer products enhance the ability of businesses, like Staples, to meet new consumer demands.

  12. Optimization of Multiple Related Negotiation through Multi-Negotiation Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fenghui; Zhang, Minjie; Miao, Chunyan; Shen, Zhiqi

    In this paper, a Multi-Negotiation Network (MNN) and a Multi- Negotiation Influence Diagram (MNID) are proposed to optimally handle Multiple Related Negotiations (MRN) in a multi-agent system. Most popular, state-of-the-art approaches perform MRN sequentially. However, a sequential procedure may not optimally execute MRN in terms of maximizing the global outcome, and may even lead to unnecessary losses in some situations. The motivation of this research is to use a MNN to handle MRN concurrently so as to maximize the expected utility of MRN. Firstly, both the joint success rate and the joint utility by considering all related negotiations are dynamically calculated based on a MNN. Secondly, by employing a MNID, an agent's possible decision on each related negotiation is reflected by the value of expected utility. Lastly, through comparing expected utilities between all possible policies to conduct MRN, an optimal policy is generated to optimize the global outcome of MRN. The experimental results indicate that the proposed approach can improve the global outcome of MRN in a successful end scenario, and avoid unnecessary losses in an unsuccessful end scenario.

  13. ADSLANF: A negotiation framework for cloud management systems using a bulk negotiation behavioral learning approach

    OpenAIRE

    RAJAVEL, RAJKUMAR; THANGARATHINAM, MALA

    2017-01-01

    One of the major challenges in cloud computing is the development of a service-level agreement (SLA) negotiation framework using an intelligent third-party broker negotiation strategy. Current frameworks exploit various negotiation strategies using game theoretic, heuristic, and argumentation-based approaches for obtaining optimal negotiation with a better success rate (negotiation commitment). However, these approaches fail to optimize the negotiation round (NR), total negotiatio...

  14. Negotiation skills for clinical research professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Hake

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Negotiation as a skill is a key requirement for each and every job profile where dealing with multiple parties is involved. The important focus while negotiating should be on the interest then position. Key to every successful negotiation is advance planning, preparation, and patience as the objective is to create value and establish the terms on which parties with differing and often conflicting aims will co-operate. While preparing one should collect facts, know priorities, principles, identify common ground, decide on walk-away position, and try and identify the next best alternative. Negotiation is a set of skills that can be learned and practiced so that your ability to utilize relationship, knowledge, money, power, time, and personality to negotiate improves with each negotiation. In a successful negotiation, all parties win. Important thing to note is that not every negotiation involves money. Anytime you want something from someone else and anytime someone wants something from you, you are negotiating. Everything is negotiable and every day you negotiate with customers, suppliers, colleagues, your wife, and even your children. Negotiation is a game, and like any game it has its rules and tactics. Clinical Research professionals deal with various parties for different purposes at the same time; hence, they require excellent negotiation skills. Project Mangers and Clinical Research Associates are the two most important roles in clinical research industry who require negotiation skills as they deal with various internal and external customers and vendors.

  15. Negotiation skills for clinical research professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hake, Sanjay; Shah, Tapankumar

    2011-01-01

    Negotiation as a skill is a key requirement for each and every job profile where dealing with multiple parties is involved. The important focus while negotiating should be on the interest then position. Key to every successful negotiation is advance planning, preparation, and patience as the objective is to create value and establish the terms on which parties with differing and often conflicting aims will co-operate. While preparing one should collect facts, know priorities, principles, identify common ground, decide on walk-away position, and try and identify the next best alternative. Negotiation is a set of skills that can be learned and practiced so that your ability to utilize relationship, knowledge, money, power, time, and personality to negotiate improves with each negotiation. In a successful negotiation, all parties win. Important thing to note is that not every negotiation involves money. Anytime you want something from someone else and anytime someone wants something from you, you are negotiating. Everything is negotiable and every day you negotiate with customers, suppliers, colleagues, your wife, and even your children. Negotiation is a game, and like any game it has its rules and tactics. Clinical Research professionals deal with various parties for different purposes at the same time; hence, they require excellent negotiation skills. Project Mangers and Clinical Research Associates are the two most important roles in clinical research industry who require negotiation skills as they deal with various internal and external customers and vendors. PMID:21897886

  16. Safer electronic health records safety assurance factors for EHR resilience

    CERN Document Server

    Sittig, Dean F

    2015-01-01

    This important volume provide a one-stop resource on the SAFER Guides along with the guides themselves and information on their use, development, and evaluation. The Safety Assurance Factors for EHR Resilience (SAFER) guides, developed by the editors of this book, identify recommended practices to optimize the safety and safe use of electronic health records (EHRs). These guides are designed to help organizations self-assess the safety and effectiveness of their EHR implementations, identify specific areas of vulnerability, and change their cultures and practices to mitigate risks.This book pr

  17. Volume reduction, a safer and cheaper way of radwaste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mergan, L.M.; Cordier, J.P.; Storrer, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Development of 'Volume Reduction' has demonstrated that it is a safer and cheaper radwaste management method. Safer, because of several advantages: decrease of solidified product volume, satisfactory product properties, absence of free water, better control of process parameters, increased encapsulation efficiency ... The corresponding impact on the waste management costs, results in important savings on different factors, as well as regards the operational costs as the investment expenses. Economy in the range of BF 35.000 per m 3 of incoming waste is achievable. The main volume reduction techniques readily available are briefly reviewed

  18. Negotiation: How to Be Effective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Arnold-Peter C

    2017-01-01

    The art of successful negotiation is not as random or difficult as it might seem at first glance. Most negotiations end up with both sides receiving something of value as well as giving up something valuable in return. It has been said that the best negotiated outcomes occur when both parties walk away a bit disappointed or just a little bit happy. The goal of this short primer is to give some hints as to how to get a slightly better deal than the other party most of the time. There are several points to remember to be able to achieve such an outcome frequently. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Consumers want safer meat - but not at all costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Christensen, Tove; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte

    2008-01-01

    Consumers, the public authorities, and the food industry are all concerned with the safety of meat. The increasing demand for safer food from the consumers and the public authorities puts pressure on producers to identify efficient methods to reduce risks. Earlier studies have shown that consumer...

  20. AIDS in Zimbabwe: | Sibanda | SAFERE: Southern African Feminist ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAFERE: Southern African Feminist Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 1 (1999) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access ...

  1. Multi-level Correlates of Safer Conception Methods Awareness and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many people living with HIV desire childbearing, but low cost safer conception methods (SCM) such as timed unprotected intercourse (TUI) and manual ... including perceived willingness to use SCM, knowledge of respondent's HIV status, HIV-seropositivity, marriage and equality in decision making within the relationship.

  2. Mass-Produced, Buffer | Masitera | SAFERE: Southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAFERE: Southern African Feminist Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 2 (1999) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access ...

  3. SAFERE: Southern African Feminist Review - Vol 3, No 1 (1999)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feminism and Masculinity in an African Capitalist Context: · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Mwenda G. Ntarangwi, 19-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/safere.v3i1.23948 ...

  4. Designing safer living environments support for local government

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, K

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the built environment, the opportunities it presents for crime and the role city planners and urban designers have to play in the design of safer cities and towns. City planners and urban designers can play a role...

  5. One being White | Newman | SAFERE: Southern African Feminist ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAFERE: Southern African Feminist Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 2 (1999) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access ...

  6. The urban dilemma: how to make cities safer | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-10-01

    Oct 1, 2015 ... ... and inequalities, and identify which programs work – and which don't – to prevent and reduce violence in cities. Read the blog post. Learn more from the baseline study, Researching the Urban Dilemma. Find out more about how IDRC supports research to make cities safer through our partnership – Safe ...

  7. Sex workers talk about sex work: six contradictory characteristics of legalised sex work in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Sufia; Hocking, Jane S; Groves, Jan; Fairley, Christopher K; Keogh, Louise A

    2013-01-01

    Despite research suggesting that legal sex work is safe and that emotional risks and social stigma are of greater concern than health risks, much research on sex work has focused on health risks. Given the legalisation of sex work in Victoria, Australia, it is timely to look beyond health. Three focus groups were conducted with a total of 14 female sex workers on their experience of legal sex work, both positive and negative, and the social acceptability of their profession. Thematic analysis was used to identify the key ways that sex workers described sex work. Women saw legal sex work as safer than illegal sex work, but still not socially acceptable. However, they also described six contradictory elements of sex work, which was seen as: financially rewarding and entrapping; empowering and demeaning; increasing some opportunities while reducing others; flexible and demanding; offering both intimacy and competition; and leading to a 'double life'. While legalisation has improved the safety of sex work, stigma and discrimination persist.

  8. Virtual reality negotiation training increases negotiation knowledge and skill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekens, J.; Harbers, M.; Brinkman W.; Jonker, C.; Bosch, K. van den; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we experimentally investigate learning effects of a rigourously set up virtual reality (VR) negotiation training. We discuss the design of the system in detail. Further, we present results of an experiment (between subject; three experimental conditions: control, training once,

  9. Sex tourism in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kerkwijk, C

    1992-01-01

    Many foreigners visit Thailand in search of sex. While long-distance tourism was long enjoyed by members of more privileged social classes, even the lower economical classes of Japan, Malaysia, Europe, America, and Australia can now afford to travel over long distances. This relatively new breed of tourist is more likely to be of lower socioeconomic and educational status and less likely to use condoms when having sex. An estimated 30,000 sex workers are active in Bangkok, of whom 7000/10,000 are females who work specifically in the tourism sector. 1/2-1/3 of the 600 commercial sex establishments in the city are visited by foreigners. Phuket, Pattaya, Koh Samui, and Chiangmai are also well-frequented by sex tourists. Overall, a large, diverse, inexpensive, and accessible commercial sex market exists in Thailand. One may meet sex workers quasi-ubiquitously and be assured to find someone capable of meeting one's sexual needs. With these attributes, Thailand strongly attracts tourists in search of sex. A certain degree of recklessness also prevails among those on vacation. Away from the peers and social mores of their native lands, tourists may engage in sexually activities without criticism. Likewise, Thai sex workers who cater to foreigners, especially females, enjoy more freedom and control in sexual relations than their peers who work among nationals. Neither single nor married women in Thailand are allowed much sexual freedom and are traditionally expected to be obliging docile, and submissive. The greater than normal personal latitude enjoyed by both sex worker and foreigner lead to more negotiation on condom use and overall lower use. As such, Thailand's commercial sex market with foreigners' involvement therein threatens to spread HIV to many other countries throughout the world.

  10. Commercial negotiations in the foundry engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wojtynek

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the process of commercial negotiations paying attention to the negotiation itself as well as to its basic elements. The specificity of the Polish foundries’ main negotiation partners from The European Union, who are the deliverers of diverse casting range, was specified. The most important cultural factors, which determine the process of negotiations conducted by the representatives of various cultural groups, were analysed. The understanding of cultural differences and adapting to them while negotiating are important factors which constitute the parties’ negotiation process. The meaning of price in the commercial negotiation process was described. The elements of sale process and the factors which influence the casts price were enumerated. What is more, the main methods of determining price were characterized. The essential problems connected with conducting the price negotiations in foundries were indicated.

  11. The science of culture and negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunia, Brian C; Brett, Jeanne M; Gelfand, Michele J

    2016-04-01

    Recent negotiation research has produced a groundswell of insights about the effects of culture on negotiation. Yet, few frameworks exist to organize the findings. This review integrates recent research using a two-dimensional framework: The first dimension organizes the research into that which has taken: (1) a comparative intracultural approach, versus (2) an intercultural approach. The second dimension organizes the research by its emphasis on: (1) inputs into negotiation, (2) processes of negotiating, and (3) outcomes of negotiation. This framework helps to organize extant research and produces novel insights about the connections between disparate research streams, revealing both commonalities and culture-specificities in negotiation strategy and outcomes and suggesting that intercultural negotiations are difficult but not insurmountable. We conclude by discussing several areas in which more research on culture and negotiation is urgently needed in today's globalizing world. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. International negotiations in the foundry engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wojtynek

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce the essence of negotiations in general, which could find it’s application in foundry engineering. The paper is the result of long cooperation of the authors with foundry engineering and their participation in negotiations between the domestic and foreign companies. In this paper the essence and the rules of negotiations have been introduced. It presents also the skills and abilities of the negotiators. The cycle of negotiations and the following stages of negotiations have been also described. The authors have presented the characteristics of negotiations led by the partners from different parts of the world with particular emphasize on Asian and European countries as with these partners the negotiations in Polish foundries are mainly led.

  13. Core competencies for natural resource negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, S.C.; Lamb, B.L.

    2005-01-01

    Natural resource negotiation often involves multiple parties with overlapping interests and issues that can provide opportunities for mutually beneficial solutions. These opportunities can be missed, however, if negotiators are unable to comprehend the facts of a negotiation, understand the interests of other parties, or accurately evaluate the options that increase the size of the negotiation pie. Through structured personal interviews with more than 60 representatives from seven different hydropower negotiations, respondents identified core competencies that help negotiators succeed at accurately comprehending the facts of a negotiation, comprehending the interests of other parties, and fully understanding the available options and alternatives. We categorized those core competencies into three dimensions of negotiation - interpersonal, organizational, and operational.

  14. 48 CFR 19.808 - Contract negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract negotiation. 19.808 Section 19.808 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC....808 Contract negotiation. ...

  15. Enhancing Negotiation Skills Using Foreign Service Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opt, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Conflict communication, negotiation, small group. Objective: This activity will enhance students' awareness and critique of their own negotiation behaviors. A list of references and suggested readings is included.

  16. Cultural Differences in International Business Negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹悦

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the relationship of cultural differences on international business negotiations. And also, it emphases on the importance of understanding and mastering cultural differences in international business negotiations.

  17. "There is no other option; we have to feed our families…who else would do it?": The financial lives of women engaging in sex work in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Laura Cordisco; Witte, Susan S; Aira, Toivgoo; Riedel, Marion; Hwang, Hyesung Grace; Ssewamala, Fred

    2013-05-24

    This article provides an overview of the financial lives of women (n = 204) engaging in sex work in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. This paper presents findings from a computer-based, interviewer-administered baseline assessment administered with women recruited for participation in a randomized controlled trial testing the feasibility of a combined HIV risk reduction and savings-led microfinance intervention for women engaging in sex work in Mongolia. Findings demonstrate that most women are the primary financial providers for their households, using an array of earning strategies to provide for themselves and other dependents, with sex work often constituting the primary household income source. Financial instability in the lives of people engaging in sex work may increase their risk for HIV and STIs due to a compromised ability to negotiate safer sex with partners in times of economic crisis or need. High levels of financial responsibility for household welfare, when combined with low reported savings, the presence of debt, higher premiums offered for sex without a condom, and high levels of harmful alcohol use, may heighten women's risk for HIV and other STIs. Further research that documents the financial lives of people working in sex work is needed in order to understand the complex relationship between financial stability and engagement in sex work, and to inform the development and testing of structural HIV prevention interventions which target the economic determinants of risk. These findings highlight the importance of economic support programming for women engaged in sex work in Mongolia at a time of rapid economic change in Mongolia.

  18. "Money talks, bullshit walks" interrogating notions of consumption and survival sex among young women engaging in transactional sex in post-apartheid South Africa: a qualitative enquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembe, Yanga Z; Townsend, Loraine; Thorson, Anna; Ekström, Anna Mia

    2013-07-18

    Transactional sex is believed to be a significant driver of the HIV epidemic among young women in South Africa. This sexual risk behaviour is commonly associated with age mixing, concurrency and unsafe sex. It is often described as a survival- or consumption-driven behaviour. South Africa's history of political oppression as well as the globalization-related economic policies adopted post-apartheid, are suggested as the underlying contexts within which high risk behaviours occur among Black populations. What remains unclear is how these factors combine to affect the particular ways in which transactional sex is used to negotiate life among young Black women in the country.In this paper we explore the drivers of transactional sex among young women aged 16-24, who reside in a peri-urban community in South Africa. We also interrogate prevailing constructions of the risk behaviour in the context of modernity, widespread availability of commodities, and wealth inequalities in the country. Data were collected through 5 focus group discussions and 6 individual interviews amongst young women, men, and community members of various age groups in a township in the Western Cape, South Africa. Young women engaged in transactional sex to meet various needs: some related to survival and others to consumption. In this poverty-stricken community, factors that created a high demand for transactional sex among young women included the pursuit of fashionable images, popular culture, the increased availability of commodities, widespread use of global technologies, poverty and wealth inequalities. Transactional sex encounters were characterized by sexual risk, a casual attitude towards HIV, and male dominance. However, the risk behaviour also allowed women opportunities to adopt new social roles as benefactors in sexual relationships with younger men. Transactional sex allows poor, young women to access what young people in many parts of the world also prioritize: fashionable clothing

  19. Interdependence in negotiation : Effects of exit options and social motive on distributive and integrative negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giebels, E.; de Dreu, C.K W; Van de Vliert, E.

    2000-01-01

    This study extends past research on the impact of alternatives in dyadic negotiation by (a) providing negotiators with the mere possibility to negotiate with an outside party and (b) examining the moderating role of the negotiators' social motive. Business students engaged in face-to-face

  20. A Framework on Impression Management in Negotiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Ditte Dahl; Esbjerg, Lars

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we develop a dramaturgical framework to provide us with a new understanding of how negotiators use impression management behaviour during the negotiation process to position themselves in an endeavour to reach a desirable outcome.......In this paper we develop a dramaturgical framework to provide us with a new understanding of how negotiators use impression management behaviour during the negotiation process to position themselves in an endeavour to reach a desirable outcome....

  1. UNICEF and automobile CO2 negotiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Seok Hun [Korea Energy Management Corporation, Yongin (Korea)

    2000-06-01

    The EU automobile negotiation was very suggestive since it was the first international trade negotiation related with UNFCCC. It generated considerable reactions in association with {sup v}oluntary negotiation{sup i}n semiconductor sector. Most of all, such a new car negotiation shows well that it is hard to free from global environmental responsibilities even for a company in a developing country in UNFCCC.

  2. 48 CFR 1615.070 - Negotiation authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Negotiation authority. 1615.070 Section 1615.070 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION 1615.070 Negotiation authority. Th...

  3. Innovation in international negotiation: content and style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulijn, J.M.; Tjosvold, D.

    2004-01-01

    This special issue of International Negotiation is the second in a series on innovation and negotiation. The first issue (Vol. 9, no. 1, 2004) considered innovations in the conduct and process of negotiation, whereas the present issue considers how innovation in the content, style, and strategy of

  4. 48 CFR 2115.070 - Negotiation authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Negotiation authority. 2115.070 Section 2115.070 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION 2115.070 Negotiation...

  5. 46 CFR 502.56 - Negotiated rulemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Negotiated rulemaking. 502.56 Section 502.56 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE... its own motion, may establish a negotiated rulemaking committee to negotiate and develop consensus on...

  6. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Culture, Conflict, and Negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-28

    negotiator cognition: Judgement accuracy and negotiation processes in individualistic and collectivistic cultures ", Organizational Behavior and Human...2004, Adair, Okumura, and Brett, 2001). Communication sequences are also affected by culture . Negotiators from collectivistic cultures use more... individualistic cultures (Adail and Brett, 2005; Adair, Okumura, and Brett, 2001). Research in DB/psychology has increasingly examined situational factors that

  7. Face and identity management in negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Planken, Brigitte Chantal

    2002-01-01

    This dissertation reports on a comparative study of the verbal behaviour of experienced negotiators (professionals) and inexperienced negotiators (students), negotiating in a lingua franca (English). The study centred around two corpora of speech data generated in a series of intercultural sales

  8. Complexity in electronic negotiation support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griessmair, Michele; Strunk, Guido; Vetschera, Rudolf; Koeszegi, Sabine T

    2011-10-01

    It is generally acknowledged that the medium influences the way we communicate and negotiation research directs considerable attention to the impact of different electronic communication modes on the negotiation process and outcomes. Complexity theories offer models and methods that allow the investigation of how pattern and temporal sequences unfold over time in negotiation interactions. By focusing on the dynamic and interactive quality of negotiations as well as the information, choice, and uncertainty contained in the negotiation process, the complexity perspective addresses several issues of central interest in classical negotiation research. In the present study we compare the complexity of the negotiation communication process among synchronous and asynchronous negotiations (IM vs. e-mail) as well as an electronic negotiation support system including a decision support system (DSS). For this purpose, transcripts of 145 negotiations have been coded and analyzed with the Shannon entropy and the grammar complexity. Our results show that negotiating asynchronically via e-mail as well as including a DSS significantly reduces the complexity of the negotiation process. Furthermore, a reduction of the complexity increases the probability of reaching an agreement.

  9. 24 CFR 290.13 - Negotiated sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Negotiated sales. 290.13 Section... DEVELOPMENT HUD-OWNED PROPERTIES DISPOSITION OF MULTIFAMILY PROJECTS AND SALE OF HUD-HELD MULTIFAMILY MORTGAGES Disposition of Multifamily Projects § 290.13 Negotiated sales. When HUD conducts a negotiated sale...

  10. Step 4: Award Negotiation & Issuance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Before a grant can be awarded and accepted, several pre-award activities must happen to formalize the partnership. Ensuring compliance with federal laws, a review of costs and a negotiation of the appropriate funding level must all happen in order to rece

  11. Teacher Negotiations of Sexual Subjectivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferfolja, Tania

    2007-01-01

    Discrimination often silences and marginalizes those who do not conform to the dominant gender and (hetero)sexual discourses that operate in broader society. This discussion addresses the ways that seventeen self-identified lesbian teachers working in New South Wales (NSW) Australia negotiate their sexual subjectivities at work in order to pass or…

  12. Negotiations on climate in deadlock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mary, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the reasons of the failure of the negotiations on climate which took place in Warsaw in November 2013. Despite some agreements on projects (notably to avoid deforestation), evolutions are being blocked by financial issues. Besides, emerging countries and NGOs largely disagree with the posture of big countries. The future of the carbon market is also put into question again

  13. Negotiating Conventions and Creating Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cole, Alexander Sasha; Barberá-Tomás, David

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the processes of negotiation and institution building through which transnational networks of learning are fashioned. It does so by examining the case of the European animation industry and the activity of an association, Cartoon, which facilitated the development of common ...

  14. Ontolology Negotiation Between Scientific Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailin, Sidney C.; Truszkowski, Walt; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to ontology negotiation between information agents. Ontologies are declarative (data driven) expressions of an agent's "world": the objects, operations, facts, and rules that constitute the logical space within which an agent performs. Ontology negotiation enables agents to cooperate in performing a task, even if they are based on different ontologies. 'Me process allows agents to discover ontology conflicts and then, though incremental interpretation, clarification, and explanation, establish a common basis for communicating with each other. The need for ontology negotiation stems from the proliferation of information sources and of agents with widely varying specialty expertise. The unmanageability of massive amounts of web-based information is already becoming apparent. It is starting to have an impact on professions that rely on distributed archived information. If the expansion continues at its present rate without an ontology negotiation process being introduced, there will soon be no way to ensure the accuracy and completeness of information that scientists obtain from sources other than their own experiments. Ontology negotiation is becoming increasingly recognized as a crucial element of scalable agent technology. This is because agents, by their very nature, are supposed to operate with a fair amount of autonomy and independence from their end-users. Part of this independence is the ability to enlist other agents for help in performing a task (such as locating information on the web). The agents enlisted for help may be "owned" by a different end-user or organization (such as a document archive), and there is no guarantee that they will use the same terminology or understand the same concepts (objects, operators, theorems, rules) as the recruiting agent. For NASA, the need for ontology negotiation arises at the boundaries between scientific disciplines. For example: modeling the effects of global warming might involve

  15. Constructions of masculinity and femininity and sexual risk negotiation practices among women in urban Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiaveh, Daniel Y; Izugbara, Chimaraoke O; Okyerefo, Michael P K; Reysoo, Fenneke; Fayorsey, Clara K

    2015-01-01

    Using qualitative data gathered through in-depth interviews with women in Accra, Ghana, this paper explores narratives of masculinity and femininity and sexual risk negotiation practices among women. While women framed 'proper' masculinity in terms of stereotypical reproductive norms, they also acknowledged the fluidity and multiplicity of masculinities. Femininity was more uniformly characterised in terms of physical attractiveness and beauty, responsibility and reproduction. These features, especially those related to adherence to morally and socially appropriate sexual norms (e.g., menstrual and bodily hygiene, unplanned pregnancy etc.), influenced women's approach to sexual negotiation. Work aiming to support women to negotiate sex safely needs to pay attention to their notions of gender and practices of sexual negotiation.

  16. Handbook of Global and Multicultural Negotiation

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Christopher W

    2010-01-01

    Handbook of Global and Multicultural Negotiation provides advice and strategies for effective cross-cultural negotiations. Written from a multicultural perspective, this guidebook explores cross-cultural communication for problem solving and negotiations. This resource includes real-life stories and examples compiled from over thirty years of domestic and global experience from both authors, including Chris Moore, a well-known international negotiator and best selling author. This step-by-step guide to negotiation provides practical recommendations, advice, and globally proven strategies to pr

  17. Safer handling practice: influence of staff education on older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Christine Brown

    The purpose of this small-scale survey was to explore the level of moving and handling training undertaken by nurses within private sector continuing care environments and the potential this training had to influence the care of older people. This study uses a definition of safer handling practice derived from existing literature to examine how nurses report the application of this training and whether they observe changes to the mobility of older people within their care. The limitations of this study indicate that generalizations must be made cautiously. However, this study tentatively suggests that potential exists to influence positively the use of safer handling practice as defined within this study. Recommendations for further study are made.

  18. Turning negotiation into a corporate capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertel, D

    1999-01-01

    Every company today exists in a complex web of relationships formed, one at a time, through negotiation. Purchasing and outsourcing contracts are negotiated with vendors. Marketing arrangements are negotiated with distributors. Product development agreements are negotiated with joint-venture partners. Taken together, the thousands of negotiations a typical company engages in have an enormous effect on both its strategy and its bottom line. But few companies think systematically about their negotiating activities as a whole. Instead they take a situational view, perceiving each negotiation to be a separate event with its own goals, tactics, and measures of success. Coordinating them all seems an overwhelming and impracticable job. In reality, the author argues, it is neither. A number of companies are successfully building coordinated negotiation capabilities by applying four broad changes in practice and perspective. First, they've established a company-wide negotiation infrastructure to apply the knowledge gained from forging past agreements to improve future ones. Second, they've broadened the measures they use to evaluate negotiators' performance beyond matters of cost and price. Third, they draw a clear distinction between the elements of an individual deal and the nature of the ongoing relationship between the parties. Fourth, they make their negotiators feel comfortable walking away from a deal when it's not in the company's best interests. These changes aren't radical steps. But taken together, they will let companies establish closer, more creative relationships with suppliers, customers, and other partners.

  19. Institutional dynamics and the negotiation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Worm, Verner

    2004-01-01

    The paper develops the argument for analyzing negotiations from an institutional perspective. A major theme of the argument being advanced in the paper is that the institutional perspective provides a more comprehensive understanding of the negotiation process in its entirety. The negotiation...... process can be broken down into three distinct components, namely (a) the pre negotiation phase; (b) the negotiating phase; and (c) the post negotiation evaluation. Each of these phases is critically influenced by a specific component or components of the institutional environment. Scott's distinction...... and their implications for negotiating processes in these countries. Choosing India and China to illustrate the utility of this framework is justified by the fact that India and China are both in the process of transforming their economies and although confronted with similar challenges they have dealt with them in very...

  20. Multilateral negotiations over climate change policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Pinto, L.M.; Harrison, G.W. [Universidade do Minho, Braga (Portugal). Nucleo de Investigacao em Microeconomia Aplicada, Departmento de Economia

    2000-07-01

    Negotiations in the real world have many features that tend to be ignored in policy modelling. They are often multilateral, involving many negotiating parties with preferences over outcomes that can differ substantially. They are also often multi-dimensional, in the sense that several policies are negotiated over simultaneously. Trade negotiations are a prime example, as are negotiations over environmental policies to abate CO{sub 2}. The authors demonstrate how one can formally model this type of negotiation process. They use a policy-oriented computable general equilibrium model to generate preference functions which are then used in a formal multilateral bargaining game. The case study is on climate change policy, but the main contribution is to demonstrate how one can integrate formal economic models of the impacts of policies with formal bargaining models of the negotiations over those policies. 8 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Agents That Negotiate Proficiently with People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Sarit

    Negotiation is a process by which interested parties confer with the aim of reaching agreements. The dissemination of technologies such as the Internet has created opportunities for computer agents to negotiate with people, despite being distributed geographically and in time. The inclusion of people presents novel problems for the design of autonomous agent negotiation strategies. People do not adhere to the optimal, monolithic strategies that can be derived analytically, as is the case in settings comprising computer agents alone. Their negotiation behavior is affected by a multitude of social and psychological factors, such as social attributes that influence negotiation deals (e.g., social welfare, inequity aversion) and traits of individual negotiators (e.g., altruism, trustworthiness, helpfulness). Furthermore, culture plays an important role in their decision making and people of varying cultures differ in the way they make offers and fulfill their commitments in negotiation.

  2. A Concurrent Multiple Negotiation Protocol Based on Colored Petri Nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Lei; Ren, Fenghui; Zhang, Minjie; Bai, Quan

    2017-11-01

    Concurrent multiple negotiation (CMN) provides a mechanism for an agent to simultaneously conduct more than one negotiation. There may exist different interdependency relationships among these negotiations and these interdependency relationships can impact the outcomes of these negotiations. The outcomes of these concurrent negotiations contribute together for the agent to achieve an overall negotiation goal. Handling a CMN while considering interdependency relationships among multiple negotiations is a challenging research problem. This paper: 1) comprehensively highlights research problems of negotiations at concurrent negotiation level; 2) provides a graph-based CMN model with consideration of the interdependency relationships; and 3) proposes a colored Petri net-based negotiation protocol for conducting CMNs. With the proposed protocol, a CMN can be efficiently and concurrently processed and negotiation agreements can be efficiently achieved. Experimental results indicate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed protocol in terms of the negotiation success rate, the negotiation time and the negotiation outcome.

  3. Floodplain conflicts: regulation and negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardoe, J.; Penning-Rowsell, E.; Tunstall, S.

    2011-10-01

    In the continuing shift from engineered solutions towards more holistic methods of managing flood risk, spatial planning has become the primary focus of a conflict between land and water, water and people. In attempting to strike a balance between making space for water and making space for people, compromises are required. Through five case studies in the UK, this paper analyses the effectiveness of Planning Policy Statement 25 (PPS 25) and the processes of negotiation that it promotes. This assessment allows us to draw conclusions on the nature of the compromises this kind of negotiation can achieve and the implications of this for flood risk management. What emerges is that the beneficial impacts of decisions to develop floodplain areas are given a proper hearing and sensible conditions imposed, rather than arguments to prevent such development remaining unchallenged.

  4. Floodplain conflicts: regulation and negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pardoe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the continuing shift from engineered solutions towards more holistic methods of managing flood risk, spatial planning has become the primary focus of a conflict between land and water, water and people. In attempting to strike a balance between making space for water and making space for people, compromises are required. Through five case studies in the UK, this paper analyses the effectiveness of Planning Policy Statement 25 (PPS 25 and the processes of negotiation that it promotes. This assessment allows us to draw conclusions on the nature of the compromises this kind of negotiation can achieve and the implications of this for flood risk management. What emerges is that the beneficial impacts of decisions to develop floodplain areas are given a proper hearing and sensible conditions imposed, rather than arguments to prevent such development remaining unchallenged.

  5. North Korean nuclear negotiation drama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jai Bok

    1995-06-01

    This book reports negotiation on North Korean nuclear among South Korea, North Korea and U. S. It includes an account about international issues on North Korean nuclear activities, a new aspect on the problems of North Korean nuclear, pressure on North Korea and startup for dialogue trying to solve problems by communication, investigation by IAEA, IAEA resolution and high tension on Korean peninsula with North Korean nuclear.

  6. North Korean nuclear negotiation drama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jai Bok

    1995-06-15

    This book reports negotiation on North Korean nuclear among South Korea, North Korea and U. S. It includes an account about international issues on North Korean nuclear activities, a new aspect on the problems of North Korean nuclear, pressure on North Korea and startup for dialogue trying to solve problems by communication, investigation by IAEA, IAEA resolution and high tension on Korean peninsula with North Korean nuclear.

  7. The Negotiation of Basel III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Just, Sine Nørholm

    2015-01-01

    While the Basel Accords of 1988 and 2004 (Basel I and Basel II) ostensibly set out to regulate bank risk at the international level, they were effectively in the grip of neoliberal beliefs in the self-regulating potential of free markets. In 2009–2011, the Basel Accords were revised once more wit...... agency, the empirical argument is substantiated through textual–intertextual analysis of the rhetorical circulation of affective signs in the Basel III negotiations....

  8. Negotiating a deal in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    The legal and diplomatic environment surrounding oil production negotiations in Iraq was discussed with reference to the essential terms generally negotiated for upstream contracts between oil companies and the Iraqi Ministry of Oil. Legal considerations were discussed for the following upstream contracts: production sharing contracts, a risk service contract, a modified buy-back contract, a technical service contract, and a joint venture company. It was noted that negotiations in Iraq require a great amount of diplomacy as projects are very high profile and attract significant international attention. Information sharing is critical in gaining valuable government support. The main problem for interested investors in Iraq is predicting when the UN sanctions will be lifted. Once lifted, the Ministry of Oil's Development Plan is to increase oil production through the co-operative assistance of foreign oil companies. While the sanctions remain in place, Iraq is allowed to sell oil on a renewable basis every 6 months under the oil-for-food programme, which permits Iraq to spend US$600 million every 6 months for spare parts to upgrade its oil industry. 9 figs

  9. Climate geopolitics. Negotiations, strategies, impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemenne, Francois

    2015-01-01

    As countries are not equal in front of the climate change issue (some contribute more than the others, some will be more heavily impacted, some are more dependent on fossil energies, some could be affected by population movements related to the degradation of their environment), and as countries are to adopt measures for a more sustainable development while facing huge geopolitical challenges which affect international negotiations, this book aims at describing and analysing these issues which illustrate serious imbalances between countries. These issues relate to the development of energy policies, to geographical and demographic constraints. The author describes how the climate has become an international political issue, and a field of complex interactions with international relationships. After having recalled the origins of greenhouse gas emissions and their main expected impacts, he analyses the various responsibilities, describes these different impacts, outlines how global warming is basically unfair: the less responsible countries will be more impacted than the responsible ones. He also discusses mechanisms of international cooperation which have been implemented to address this issue: adaptation and mitigation policies, associated negotiations. He notices that the strongest mitigation efforts are, the least necessary adaptation efforts will be. He discusses the issue of financing and necessary financial and technological transfers to help southern countries in reducing their emissions without compromising their development. He highlights the current status of negotiations, their organisation, the present actors and forces, and their main point of tension

  10. Sex, sexuality and negotiating Africanness among young professionals in Nairobi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spronk, R.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents two themes: how young professionals personally experience sexuality and issues of cultural belonging or identification; and how these issues are interrelated in their lives. I identify ways in which ‘young professionals’ as a social group are in the vanguard in respect of

  11. Optimizing Negotiation Conflict in the Cloud Service Negotiation Framework Using Probabilistic Decision Making Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar Rajavel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of negotiation conflict in the cloud service negotiation framework is identified as one of the major challenging issues. This negotiation conflict occurs during the bilateral negotiation process between the participants due to the misperception, aggressive behavior, and uncertain preferences and goals about their opponents. Existing research work focuses on the prerequest context of negotiation conflict optimization by grouping similar negotiation pairs using distance, binary, context-dependent, and fuzzy similarity approaches. For some extent, these approaches can maximize the success rate and minimize the communication overhead among the participants. To further optimize the success rate and communication overhead, the proposed research work introduces a novel probabilistic decision making model for optimizing the negotiation conflict in the long-term negotiation context. This decision model formulates the problem of managing different types of negotiation conflict that occurs during negotiation process as a multistage Markov decision problem. At each stage of negotiation process, the proposed decision model generates the heuristic decision based on the past negotiation state information without causing any break-off among the participants. In addition, this heuristic decision using the stochastic decision tree scenario can maximize the revenue among the participants available in the cloud service negotiation framework.

  12. Optimizing Negotiation Conflict in the Cloud Service Negotiation Framework Using Probabilistic Decision Making Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajavel, Rajkumar; Thangarathinam, Mala

    2015-01-01

    Optimization of negotiation conflict in the cloud service negotiation framework is identified as one of the major challenging issues. This negotiation conflict occurs during the bilateral negotiation process between the participants due to the misperception, aggressive behavior, and uncertain preferences and goals about their opponents. Existing research work focuses on the prerequest context of negotiation conflict optimization by grouping similar negotiation pairs using distance, binary, context-dependent, and fuzzy similarity approaches. For some extent, these approaches can maximize the success rate and minimize the communication overhead among the participants. To further optimize the success rate and communication overhead, the proposed research work introduces a novel probabilistic decision making model for optimizing the negotiation conflict in the long-term negotiation context. This decision model formulates the problem of managing different types of negotiation conflict that occurs during negotiation process as a multistage Markov decision problem. At each stage of negotiation process, the proposed decision model generates the heuristic decision based on the past negotiation state information without causing any break-off among the participants. In addition, this heuristic decision using the stochastic decision tree scenario can maximize the revenue among the participants available in the cloud service negotiation framework.

  13. AN EDUCATIONAL GAME IN CONSTRUCTION PROCUREMENT NEGOTIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-Jye Dzeng

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Project managers are frequently required to negotiate during the procurement of construction materials and drawing up of contractual agreements. Training in negotiation training requires hands-on experience and interaction with multiple parties. However, in the conventional curriculum on construction management, negotiation is taught merely through lectures and case studies. This study addressed that shortcoming by developing a portfolio negotiation game in which students play different roles and actively make decisions while proceeding through a simulated negotiation process in a competitive context. The proposed game would be the first negotiation game within the domain of the construction industry. During the pilot study, 46 students (with or without industrial working experience played the game; the results showed an increase in learning interest, satisfaction, and effectiveness.

  14. Negotiated risks. International talks on hazardous issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avenhaus, Rudolf; Sjoestedt, Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    This book fills a major gap in the risk literature, as it brings together two research strands: risks, to which IIASA's research programs have contributed significantly over the years, culminating in the Risk and Vulnerability Program, and international negotiations, on which there is an abundance of published work, much of it resulting from the work of IIASA's Processes of International Negotiations Program. Throughout the book, it is pointed out that there are actor-driven risks, namely those posed by international negotiations themselves, and issue-driven risks which are caused by large-scale human activities. In fact, negotiated risks deal with some of the most serious risks facing humanity: climate change, nuclear activities, and weapons of mass destruction. The book contains both scientific analyses on the nature of internationally negotiated risks and analyses of concrete risks, both of which are of immense practical relevance in the larger context of international negotiations. (orig.)

  15. Automated Bilateral Negotiation and Bargaining Impasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Fernando; Novais, A. Q.; Coelho, Helder

    The design and implementation of autonomous negotiating agents involve the consideration of insights from multiple relevant research areas to integrate different perspectives on negotiation. As a starting point for an interdisciplinary research effort, this paper employs game-theoretic techniques to define equilibrium strategies for the bargaining game of alternating offers and formalizes a set of negotiation strategies studied in the social sciences. This paper also shifts the emphasis to negotiations that are "difficult" to resolve and can hit an impasse. Specifically, it analyses a situation where two agents bargain over the division of the surplus of several distinct issues to demonstrate how a procedure to avoid impasses can be utilized in a specific negotiation setting. The procedure is based on the addition of new issues to the agenda during the course of negotiation and the exploration of the differences in the valuation of these issues to capitalize on Pareto optimal agreements.

  16. Office of the US Nuclear Waste Negotiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    The Office of the US Nuclear Waste Negotiator was created as an independent federal agency by the US Congress pursuant to the 1987 amendments to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The office, which was authorized by Congress for 5 years following the enactment of the 1987 amendments, is headquartered in Boise, Idaho, and maintains a liaison office in Washington DC. The negotiator is charged with the responsibility of attempting to find a state or Indian tribe willing to host a repository or monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility at a technically qualified site on reasonable terms. The negotiator is instructed to negotiate with any state or Indian tribe that expresses an interest in hosting a repository or MRS facility. The negotiator will formally submit the negotiated agreement and environmental assessment to Congress, and the agreement will become effective when acted on by Congress and signed by the President into law

  17. Condom negotiation: findings and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peasant, Courtney; Parra, Gilbert R; Okwumabua, Theresa M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to summarize factors associated with condom negotiation among heterosexual men. Literature searches were conducted using multiple databases spanning several disciplines. Studies examining psychological, demographic, relational, communication, and environmental factors related to condom negotiation are described, and a three-dimensional framework of condom negotiation is proposed. This framework of condom negotiation may aid researchers in operationalizing this construct, organizing this literature, and facilitating measurement development. We used this three-dimensional framework to articulate the influence of gender, ethnicity, relationship type, partner characteristics, trauma history, post-traumatic stress, and alcohol use on condom negotiation. Areas for future research are outlined. More research is needed to understand how these factors interact to influence condom negotiation, as well as the interaction between gender and the identified factors.

  18. The polarizing effect of arousal on negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ashley D; Curhan, Jared R

    2013-10-01

    In this research, we examined the impact of physiological arousal on negotiation outcomes. Conventional wisdom and the prescriptive literature suggest that arousal should be minimized given its negative effect on negotiations, whereas prior research on misattribution of arousal suggests that arousal might polarize outcomes, either negatively or positively. In two experiments, we manipulated arousal and measured its effect on subjective and objective negotiation outcomes. Our results support the polarization effect. When participants had negative prior attitudes toward negotiation, arousal had a detrimental effect on outcomes, whereas when participants had positive prior attitudes toward negotiation, arousal had a beneficial effect on outcomes. These effects occurred because of the construal of arousal as negative or positive affect, respectively. Our findings have important implications not only for negotiation, but also for research on misattribution of arousal, which previously has focused on the target of evaluation, in contrast to the current research, which focused on the critical role of the perceiver.

  19. Friendship, sexual intimacy and young people's negotiations of sexual health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron, Paul

    2017-04-01

    This paper examines how young people's friendships influence safer sexual practices. Through a thematic discourse analysis, interviews with Sydney-based young people (aged 18-25 years) and Australian-based sexual health websites for young people are considered. Interview data illustrate how friendships can support young people's sexual experiences, concerns and safeties beyond the practice of 'safe sex' (condom use). This is evident in friends' practices of sex and relationship advice, open dialogue, trust and sharing experiential knowledge, as well as friend-based sex. Meanwhile, friendship discourse from selected Australian sexual health websites fails to engage with the support offered by friendship, or its value to a sexual health agenda. Foucault's account of friendship as a space of self-invention is considered in light of these data, along with his argument that friendship poses a threat to formal systems of knowing and regulating sex. Whether sexual or not, many close friendships are sexually intimate given the knowledge, support and influence these offer to one's sexual practices and relations. This paper argues that greater attention to friendship among sexual health promoters and researchers would improve professional engagements with young people's contemporary sexual cultures, and better inform their attempts to engage young people through social media.

  20. Unsafe sex in regular partnerships among heterosexual persons living with HIV: evidence from a large representative sample of individuals attending outpatients services in France (ANRS-EN12-VESPA Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhnik, Anne-Déborah; Préau, Marie; Lert, France; Peretti-Watel, Patrick; Schiltz, Marie-Ange; Obadia, Yolande; Spire, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Risky sexual behaviour remains frequent among people living with HIV. We analysed factors associated with unsafe sex within serodiscordant couples among heterosexual individuals living with HIV in France. In 2003, a face-to-face survey was conducted among individuals selected in a random stratified sample of 102 French hospital departments delivering HIV care. This analysis included adults heterosexual participants in a regular partnership for at least 12 months with a seronegative/unknown serostatus partner, HIV-diagnosed for at least 12 months. Unsafe sex was defined as reporting inconsistent condom use in the prior 12 months. Among men and women, participants who reported unsafe sex were compared with those who did not. 663 heterosexual adults reported being in a serodiscordant regular partnership. Women accounted for 41% of participants and 26% of the sample were immigrants. Unsafe sex with the steady partner was reported by 26% of men and 34% of women (p=0.024). For men, factors independently associated with unsafe sex were being in a relationship for more than 10 years, being in a difficult financial situation and reporting regular consumption of alcohol to excess. Among women, having a history of drug use, not being aware of partner's serostatus, and reporting a difficult financial situation were independently associated with unsafe sex. In addition, immigrant women were associated with safer sex. A high number of serodiscordant couples continue to report risky sexual behaviour, and related factors are gender-specific. Couple-level interventions are essential in order to prevent HIV-transmission and to encourage negotiation within couples.

  1. Negotiation strategies in Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Frederik

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - This paper seeks to explore the impact of different negotiation strategies on then negotiation setting in different buyer-supplier relationships. So far, the extant supply chain management (SCM) literature has only briefly touched this subject, though such a study has been advocated...... to reject or confirm the reached conclusions. Originality/value - The paper is the first to specifically investigate the role of negotiation strategies in the academic discipline of SCM from a qualitative angle using participant observations and interviews....

  2. Electronic cigarettes: a safer alternative or potential poison?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Janet E

    2014-10-01

    Electronic cigarettes have been marketed as a safer alternative to cigarettes, and their use is expanding exponentially. However, there is a severe lack of scientific data about the ingredients in the liquid used in the device and the health consequences of using electronic cigarettes. As technology has outpaced regulations, the production and sale of electronic cigarettes are, as yet, unregulated and do not fall under the purview of the Food and Drug Administration. This article will review the mechanism of action and what is currently known about the safety of electronic cigarettes. The risk of poisoning for children will also be identified, as well as the implications for home healthcare clinicians.

  3. Modeling Negotiation Using "Narrative Grammar": Exploring the Evolution of Meaning in a Simulated Negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobb, S.; Laws, D.; Sluzki, C.

    2013-01-01

    Negotiation research, drawing on rational choice theory, provides a wealth of findings about how people negotiate successfully, as well as descriptions of some of the many pitfalls associated to negotiation failures. Building on narrative theory, this paper attempts to expand the theoretical base of

  4. Beach or Office? Where shall we negotiate? : The impact of location on negotiation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wijst, Per; Hong, Alain

    2017-01-01

    The central question in this study was to what extent the formality of the location where the negotiation takes place influences the negotiation strategies used. We studied the role of formality in an experimental setting, where a negotiation simulation took place either in an office room or at the

  5. Condom negotiation strategies as a mediator of the relationship between self-efficacy and condom use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Sabine Elizabeth; Holland, Kathryn J

    2013-01-01

    College students are a group at high risk of sexually transmitted infections due to inconsistent condom use and engaging in other risky sexual behaviors. This study examined whether condom use self-efficacy predicted the use of condom negotiation strategies (i.e., condom influence strategies) and whether condom influence strategies mediated the relationship between condom use self-efficacy and condom use within this population, as well as whether gender moderated the mediation model. Results showed a strong relationship between condom use self-efficacy and condom influence strategies. Additionally, condom influence strategies completely mediated the relationship between condom use self-efficacy and condom use. Although condom use self-efficacy was related to condom use, the ability to use condom negotiation strategies was the most important factor predicting condom use. The mediation model held across genders, except for the condom influence strategy withholding sex, where it was not significant for men. For women, condom use self-efficacy promoted the use of a very assertive negotiation strategy, withholding sex, and was consequently related to increased condom use. Overall, using assertive condom negotiation strategies (e.g., withholding sex and direct request) were found to be the most important aspects of increasing condom use for both women and men. Implications and suggestions for prevention programming are discussed.

  6. A social negotiation of hope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ungruhe, Christian; Esson, James

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the present-day perception among boys and young men in West Africa that migration through football offers a way of achieving social standing and improving their life chances. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork among footballers in urban southern Ghana between 2010 and 2016, we...... argue that young people’s efforts to make it abroad and “become a somebody” through football is not merely an individual fantasy; it is rather a social negotiation of hope to overcome widespread social immobility in the region. It is this collective practice among a large cohort of young males...

  7. The effects of safer-sex stories on college students' attitudes toward condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S S; Kyes, K B

    1996-01-01

    Social learning theory predicts that reading non-erotic stories involving condom use will be as effective as reading erotic stories with condom use in producing positive attitudes toward condoms. Werner's orthogenetic principle, however, predicts that reading erotic condom stories will be most effective because of the link created between sexual arousal and cognitive information about condoms. 168 male and 149 female undergraduates enrolled in Introductory Psychology at a small, private, southern university participated in a study to test the validity of these two theories. The students read one of the following types of stories: erotic with condom placement described, erotic without condom use, or non-erotic with a model for discussing condoms. The men and women who read the non-erotic stories were most positive about condoms and reported the strongest intentions to use condoms in the future. These findings suggest that erotica is not necessary to produce positive attitudes toward condoms.

  8. A Pilot Intervention to Promote Safer Sex in Heterosexual Puerto Rican Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Seal, David Wyatt; Ronis, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Although the sexual transmission of HIV occurs in the context of an intimate relationship, preventive interventions with couples are scarce, particularly those designed for Hispanics. In this article, we present the effect of a pilot intervention directed to prevent HIV/AIDS in heterosexual couples in Puerto Rico. The intervention was theory-based and consisted of five three-hour group sessions. Primary goals included increasing male condom use and the practice of mutual masturbation as a saf...

  9. Cartoons and AIDS: safer sex, HIV, and AIDS in Ralf König's comics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James W

    2013-01-01

    Ralf König is the best-selling author of comic book novels, and his stories of gay men coming to terms with contemporary society have resonated with hundreds of thousands of German readers and film-goers. König's characters, like the author himself, have great difficulty adhering to the demand that condoms be used. The article describes how König develops this theme through a variety of works from 1985 through 1999, and analyzes the intertwined relationships among the author, his characters, and the society that is both portrayed in his works and that reads his works.

  10. Effect of Physical Violence on Sexually Transmitted Infections and Treatment Seeking Behaviour among Female Sex Workers in Thane District, Maharashtra, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Prakash

    Full Text Available Violence against sex workers can heighten their vulnerability to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Evidence suggests the risk of acquiring STI/HIV infections among female sex workers (FSWs who have experienced violence to be almost three-times higher than FSWs, who have not experienced violence. Moreover, an experience of physical and sexual violence makes it difficult for them to negotiate safer sex with their partners and often act as a barrier to utilization of prevention services.This study utilizes data from 2785 FSWs aged 18 years and above who participated in a cross-sectional behavioural study conducted during 2013-14 in Thane district, Maharashtra. A probability-based two-stage cluster sampling method was used for data collection. This study assesses the effect of physical violence on self-reported STI symptoms (any STI and multiple STIs and treatment seeking for the last STI symptom using propensity score matching method.About 18% of sampled FSWs reported physical violence at the time of the survey. The likelihood of experiencing such violence was significantly higher among FSWs who solicited clients at public places, engaged in other economic activities apart from sex work, had savings, and reported high client volume per week. FSWs experiencing violence were also inconsistent condom users while engaging in sex with regular partners and clients. The average adjusted effect of violence clearly depicted an increase in the risk of any STI (11%, p<0.05 and multiple STIs (8%, p<0.10 and reduction in treatment seeking (10%, p<0.05.This study demonstrates a significant effect of physical violence on reporting of any STI symptom and treatment seeking. Findings call for the immediate inclusion of strategies aimed to address violence related challenges in HIV prevention program currently being provided at Thane district. Such strategies would further help in enhancing the access to tailored STI prevention and care services

  11. A safer alternative: Cannabis substitution as harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Nicholas; Sales, Paloma; Averill, Sheigla; Murphy, Fiona; Sato, Sye-Ok; Murphy, Sheigla

    2015-11-01

    Substitution is operationalised as a conscious choice made by users to use one drug instead of, or in conjunction with another based on: perceived safety, level of addiction potential, effectiveness in relieving symptoms, access and level of acceptance. Harm reduction is a set of strategies that aim to minimise problems associated with drug use while recognising that for some users, abstinence may be neither a realistic nor a desirable goal. In this paper, we aim for deeper understandings of older adult cannabis users' beliefs and substitution practices as part of the harm reduction framework. We present selected findings from our qualitative study of Baby Boomer (born 1946-1964) marijuana users in the San Francisco Bay Area. Although the sample consisted of primary cannabis users, many had personal experience with other drugs throughout their lifetimes. Data collection consisted of an audio-recorded, semi-structured in-depth life history interview followed by a questionnaire and health survey. Qualitative interviews were analysed to discover users' harm reduction beliefs and cannabis substitution practices. Study participants described using cannabis as a safer alternative for alcohol, illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals based on their perceptions of less adverse side effects, low-risk for addiction and greater effectiveness at relieving symptoms, such as chronic pain. Cannabis substitution can be an effective harm reduction method for those who are unable or unwilling to stop using drugs completely. More research is needed on cannabis as a safer alternative. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  12. SAFER vehicle inspection: a multimodal robotic sensing platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, David L.; Fougerolle, Yohan; Koschan, Andreas F.; Gribok, Andrei; Abidi, Mongi A.; Gorsich, David J.; Gerhart, Grant R.

    2004-09-01

    The current threats to U.S. security both military and civilian have led to an increased interest in the development of technologies to safeguard national facilities such as military bases, federal buildings, nuclear power plants, and national laboratories. As a result, the Imaging, Robotics, and Intelligent Systems (IRIS) Laboratory at The University of Tennessee (UT) has established a research consortium, known as SAFER (Security Automation and Future Electromotive Robotics), to develop, test, and deploy sensing and imaging systems for unmanned ground vehicles (UGV). The targeted missions for these UGV systems include -- but are not limited to --under vehicle threat assessment, stand-off check-point inspections, scout surveillance, intruder detection, obstacle-breach situations, and render-safe scenarios. This paper presents a general overview of the SAFER project. Beyond this general overview, we further focus on a specific problem where we collect 3D range scans of under vehicle carriages. These scans require appropriate segmentation and representation algorithms to facilitate the vehicle inspection process. We discuss the theory for these algorithms and present results from applying them to actual vehicle scans.

  13. Negotiating

    CERN Document Server

    O'Connor, Philip; Scott-Barrett, Fiona

    1993-01-01

    This is part of a series of books, which gives training in key business communication skills. Emphasis is placed on building awareness of language appropriateness and fluency in typical business interactions. This new edition is in full colour.

  14. “Money talks, bullshit walks” interrogating notions of consumption and survival sex among young women engaging in transactional sex in post-apartheid South Africa: a qualitative enquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Transactional sex is believed to be a significant driver of the HIV epidemic among young women in South Africa. This sexual risk behaviour is commonly associated with age mixing, concurrency and unsafe sex. It is often described as a survival- or consumption-driven behaviour. South Africa’s history of political oppression as well as the globalization-related economic policies adopted post-apartheid, are suggested as the underlying contexts within which high risk behaviours occur among Black populations. What remains unclear is how these factors combine to affect the particular ways in which transactional sex is used to negotiate life among young Black women in the country. In this paper we explore the drivers of transactional sex among young women aged 16–24, who reside in a peri-urban community in South Africa. We also interrogate prevailing constructions of the risk behaviour in the context of modernity, widespread availability of commodities, and wealth inequalities in the country. Methods Data were collected through 5 focus group discussions and 6 individual interviews amongst young women, men, and community members of various age groups in a township in the Western Cape, South Africa. Findings Young women engaged in transactional sex to meet various needs: some related to survival and others to consumption. In this poverty-stricken community, factors that created a high demand for transactional sex among young women included the pursuit of fashionable images, popular culture, the increased availability of commodities, widespread use of global technologies, poverty and wealth inequalities. Transactional sex encounters were characterized by sexual risk, a casual attitude towards HIV, and male dominance. However, the risk behaviour also allowed women opportunities to adopt new social roles as benefactors in sexual relationships with younger men. Conclusion Transactional sex allows poor, young women to access what young people in many parts of the

  15. Predictors of unprotected sexual intercourse among female commercial sex workers in Kano, North-Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U M Lawan

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Sex workers engage in unhealthy sex for social and economic reasons. They should be empowered through vocational training to acquire sustainable sources of income. Regulatory authorities should also work with development partners/Non-governmental organisations (NGOs to package and implement a formidable health strategy/intervention for the control of substance abuse and promotion of safer sex among both the sex workers and their clients.

  16. Sex Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex therapy Overview Sex therapy is a type of psychotherapy — a general term for treating mental health problems by talking with a mental health professional. Through sex therapy, you can address concerns about sexual function, ...

  17. 48 CFR 619.808 - Contract negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract negotiation. 619.808 Section 619.808 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Contracting with the Small Business Administration (The 8(a) Program) 619.808 Contract negotiation...

  18. Supply Chain Sourcing Game: A Negotiation Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, Mehmet; Love, Ernie C.

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces an exercise that simulates the negotiation process in a dynamic supply chain. The retailer and wholesaler roles are assigned to student groups who negotiate supply contracts in a number of rounds during a class period. Each group makes pricing, inventory, and ordering decision concurrently, and competes with others to…

  19. 49 CFR 1144.1 - Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Negotiation. 1144.1 Section 1144.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE INTRAMODAL RAIL COMPETITION § 1144.1 Negotiation. (a) Timing. At least 5 days prior to seeking the prescription of ...

  20. Intercultural Negotiation: The “Nomadic” Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra E. WALKER

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization has a strong impact on international negotiation. Negotiators must manage situationswhere they may have to deal with several people coming from many different cultures. It is thusnecessary to manage diversity during the negotiation processes and interactions to achieve asufficiently high level of performance to be competitive in world markets.Researchers have tended to focus on the importance of cultural knowledge to internationalnegotiators. Many articles describe different styles of negotiations according to countries, regionsor even cultural groupings, such as for Anglo-Saxon or Arab negotiating partners.However, researchers have given less attention to the notion of intercultural competence and howcompanies could develop the ability to adapt to any culture, even if a negotiator has little priorinformation concerning their partners. This skill is universal across all cultures and could be addedto the profile of a successful negotiator. It is an attitude based on openness towards people comingfrom a different culture. This paper describes negotiators who adopt this attitude: the way of a‘nomad’.

  1. 32 CFR 756.6 - Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Negotiation. 756.6 Section 756.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS PROCEDURES FOR PROCESSING CLAIMS INVOLVING NON-APPROPRIATED FUND ACTIVITIES AND THEIR EMPLOYEES § 756.6 Negotiation. (a) General. Claims from NAFIs should be processed primarily...

  2. The mind and heart of the negotiator

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Leigh L

    2015-01-01

    For undergraduate and graduate-level business courses that cover the skills of negotiation. Delve into the mind and heart of the negotiator in order to enhance negotiation skills. The Mind and Heart of the Negotiator is dedicated to negotiators who want to improve their ability to negotiate-whether in multimillion-dollar business deals or personal interactions. This text provides an integrated view of what to do and what to avoid at the bargaining table, facilitated by an integration of theory, scientific research, and practical examples. This program will provide a better teaching and learning experience-for you and your students. Here's how: *Provide Students with Practical Real-World Examples: Each chapter opens with a case study that illustrates a real business situation.*Offer In-Depth Information on Business Negotiation Skills: This text provides practical take-away points for the manager and executive on integrative negotiation and contains a series of hands-on principles that have been proven to incre...

  3. 28 CFR 552.31 - Negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Negotiations. 552.31 Section 552.31 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Hostage... negotiation process. Instead, this responsibility is ordinarily assigned to a team of individuals specifically...

  4. CONTEXTUAL STRATEGIES FOR CONDUCTING EFFECTIVE NEGOTIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia\tBĂEȘU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Within this paper we try to argue the development of contextual strategies for conducting effective negotiation. Throughout the paper we present that the first motivation which we manage to identify is that we negotiate to improve whatever situation we are involved in. It is of great relevance to identify a few reasons for what we negotiate. Another motivation is that negotiation is an opportunity for creativity and it does allow you to fashion a solution according to, usually different kinds of facts, different fact situation so you may get to express some creativity. Negotiation is perceived as an opportunity where we can also build relationship with the other person. We can also communicate better with the other side about where they are, what they want and where they want to go. Next, we try to identify what makes for successful negotiation during each stage of the negotiation process. According to this paper there are five things which are the essence of business negotiation.

  5. Negotiations in the EU Council of Ministers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smeets, Sandrino

    Insiders and outsiders agree; there is something particular about negotiating in Brussels. This book analyses ten years of continuous negotiations about EU enlargement to the Western Balkans, answering questions such as When and how are decisions typically reached in the European Union? What is t...

  6. Using Cognitive Agents to Train Negotiation Skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Christopher A; Daamen, Jeroen; Gaudrain, Emma; Renkema, Tom; Top, Jakob Dirk; Cnossen, Fokie; Taatgen, Niels A

    2018-01-01

    Training negotiation is difficult because it is a complex, dynamic activity that involves multiple parties. It is often not clear how to create situations in which students can practice negotiation or how to measure students' progress. Some have begun to address these issues by creating artificial

  7. Negotiation Strategies in Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Frederik

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of this paper This paper seeks to explore the impact of different negotiation strategies on the negotiation setting in different buyer-supplier relationships. So far, the extant SCM literature has only briefly touched this subject, though such a study has been advocated for on previous no...

  8. 40 CFR 35.937-5 - Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... procurement including negotiation may be performed by the grantee directly or by another non-Federal governmental body, person or firm retained for the purpose. Contract negotiations may include the services of... be conducted by the grantee under procedures it adopts based upon Public Law 92-582, 40 U.S.C. 541...

  9. 4 CFR 28.122 - Negotiability issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Negotiability issues. 28.122 Section 28.122 Accounts... Special Procedures; Unfair Labor Practices § 28.122 Negotiability issues. Where the GAO and an exclusive... shall review the arguments, hold a hearing if the administrative judge deems it necessary, and issue a...

  10. The mind and heart (literally) of the negotiator: personality and contextual determinants of experiential reactions and economic outcomes in negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimotakis, Nikolaos; Conlon, Donald E; Ilies, Remus

    2012-01-01

    The authors developed and tested a model proposing that negotiator personality interacts with the negotiation situation to influence negotiation processes and outcomes. In 2 studies, the authors found that negotiators high in agreeableness were best suited to integrative negotiations and that negotiators low in agreeableness were best suited to distributive negotiations. Consistent with this person-situation fit argument, in Study 1 the authors found that negotiators whose dispositions were a good fit to their negotiation context had higher levels of physiological (cardiac) arousal at the end of the negotiation compared with negotiators who were "misplaced" in situations inconsistent with their level of agreeableness, and this arousal was in turn related to increased economic outcomes. Study 2 replicated and extended the findings of Study 1, finding that person-situation fit was related to physiological (heart rate), psychological (positive affect), and behavioral activation (persistence) demonstrated during the negotiation, and these measures in turn were related to the economic outcomes achieved by participants.

  11. Determinants of Complexity of Sovereign Debt Negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Mesjasz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The situation on all kinds of financial markets is determined by their increasing complexity. Negotiation of sovereign debt is also a complex endeavor. Its complexity results both from structural characteristics - number of actors, problems of coordination, communication, cooperation and conflict and from cognitive limitations. The survey of literature on sovereign debt management shows that no research has been done on complexity of sovereign debt management, and sovereign debt negotiation in particular. The aim of the paper is to provide initial framework concepts of complexity of sovereign debt restructuring negotiation referring to a universal collection of characteristics of negotiation. A model of debt restructuring negotiation is elaborated and a set of its complexity- related characteristics is proposed.

  12. Helping UN negotiators protect the poorest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeysinghe, Achala Chandani

    2011-07-15

    UN climate change negotiations are beehives of intense activity. Parallel negotiating sessions, contact groups, drafting sessions and side events all contribute to the complexity. During high-stake conferences like the one held in Copenhagen in 2009, negotiators labour through deadlocked all-night meetings. Adaptation, mitigation, technology transfer and finance are just a few of the controversial and technically challenging issues on the table. The UNFCCC process itself imposes an additional labyrinth that participants must learn. To meet these demands and participate in the negotiations effectively, countries need talented teams of negotiators and expert advisors. The most powerful countries send dozens of delegates: Japan's team has 114 members, and the United States has 155. But Gambia, which leads the 48 countries in the least developed countries (LDC) group, has only four. For the poorest countries, the UN provides funds to support just two delegates.

  13. Handbook of group decision and negotiation

    CERN Document Server

    Eden, Colin

    2010-01-01

    The growing field of Group Decision and Negotiation is best described as the empirical, formal, computational, and strategic analysis of group decision-making and negotiation, especially from the viewpoints of Management Science and Operations Research. The topic crosses many traditional disciplinary boundaries. It has connections to business administration and business strategy, management science, systems engineering, computer science, mathematics, and law, as well as economics, psychology, and other social sciences. This defining handbook provides an up-to-date reference on new approaches to the principles and practice of negotiation, group decision-making, and collaboration, including the origins, development, and prospects of electronic negotiation, as well as the associated development of on-line or computer-based arbitration systems. It also provides a current and comprehensive reference on how traditional issues in negotiation, such as knowledge, language, strategy, fairness and justice, have been tra...

  14. Gender Contrasts in Negotiation Impasse Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Cotter

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study contrasts the rate of impasse in genders in face-to-face negotiations for newly trained women and men. The empirical study analyzed negotiators’ negotiation impasse rates based on gender using a two-tailed t-test. The bargainers were involved in a series of ten high-stakes, zero-sum game negotiations. A total of 4,855 separate negotiations were examined. Overall, there were no statistically significant differences in the impasse rates of men and women The female rate of impasse was lower than the male rate of impasse, but without any significant differences, the results indicate that there are no gender differences in the abilities of negotiators to arrive at a deal.

  15. THE COST OF POSITIONAL NEGOTIATIONS VERSUS COLLABORATIVE OR RELATIONAL NEGOTIATIONS FOR NEGOTIATING COMPLIANCE MILESTONES AT HANFORD WA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOPKINS, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The Hanford site is subject to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO), an order on consent signed by the DOE, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA) and the Washington Department of Ecology (WDOE). Under the HFFCCO, negotiations for transition milestones begin within six months after the issuance of a shutdown order. In the case of the PFP, the Nuclear Materials disposition and stabilization activities, a DOE responsibility, were necessary as precursor activities to Transition. This situation precipitated a crisis in the negotiations between the agencies, and formal negotiations initiated in 1997 ended in failure. The negotiations reached impasse on several key regulatory and operational issues. The 1997 negotiation was characterized by a strongly positional style. DOE and the regulatory personnel took hard lines early in the negotiations and were unable to move to resolution of key issues after a year and a half. This resulted in unhappy stakeholders, poor publicity, and work delays as well as wounded relationships between DOE and the regulatory community. The PFP is a former plutonium metal production facility. The operating mission of the PFP ended with a DOE Headquarters shutdown letter in October of 1996. Generally, the receipt of a shutdown letter initiates the start of Transition (as the first step of Decommissioning) of a facility. In the 2000-2001 PFP negotiations, a completely different approach was suggested and eventually initiated: Collaborative or Relational Negotiations. The relational negotiation style resulted in agreement between the agencies on all key issues within 6 months of initiation. All parties were very pleased with the results and all parties were relieved that protracted negotiations sessions were not needed with the new style of working together collaboratively to serve each other's interests without compromising each party's needs. The characteristics of collaborative negotiations included building

  16. Sex-work harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekart, Michael L

    2005-12-17

    Sex work is an extremely dangerous profession. The use of harm-reduction principles can help to safeguard sex workers' lives in the same way that drug users have benefited from drug-use harm reduction. Sex workers are exposed to serious harms: drug use, disease, violence, discrimination, debt, criminalisation, and exploitation (child prostitution, trafficking for sex work, and exploitation of migrants). Successful and promising harm-reduction strategies are available: education, empowerment, prevention, care, occupational health and safety, decriminalisation of sex workers, and human-rights-based approaches. Successful interventions include peer education, training in condom-negotiating skills, safety tips for street-based sex workers, male and female condoms, the prevention-care synergy, occupational health and safety guidelines for brothels, self-help organisations, and community-based child protection networks. Straightforward and achievable steps are available to improve the day-to-day lives of sex workers while they continue to work. Conceptualising and debating sex-work harm reduction as a new paradigm can hasten this process.

  17. Are nuclear ships environmentally safer than conventionally powered ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone, C.A.; Molgaard, C.A.; Helmkamp, J.C.; Golbeck, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    An epidemiologic analysis was conducted to determine if risk of hospitalization varied by age, ship type, or occupation between nuclear and conventional powered ship crews in the U.S. Navy. Study cohorts consisted of all male enlisted personnel who served exclusively aboard conventional or nuclear powered aircraft carriers and cruisers during the years 1975-1979; cases were those men hospitalized during this period (N = 48,242). Conventional ship personnel showed significantly elevated rates of injury and disease when compared to nuclear ship personnel. The largest relative risks by age occurred for conventional ship crewmen less than 30 years old. Seaman, logistics (supply), and healthcare personnel serving aboard conventional ships comprised the occupational groups exhibiting the highest hospitalization rate differentials. The results strongly suggest that nuclear ships provide a healthier, safer working and living environment than conventional ships

  18. SaferNanoDesign Summer School | 13-18 June

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    A bioHC Summer School - 13-18 June 2016 - European Scientific Institute, Archamps, Haute-Savoie.   How can industrial innovation in nanotechnologies be reconciled with the legitimate concerns of citizens regarding environmental protection and public health? Tomorrow’s researchers and engineers will require skills in risk evaluation using computational methods of modelling and simulation relevant to nanomaterials. An intensive one-week specialist school, SaferNanoDesign will examine the analytical tools and methodologies required to rise to the challenge of the ecodesign of nanomaterial-enabled technology. The School combines an intensive programme of lecture presentations, followed up by practical sessions (experiments, computer simulation and modelling) and interdisciplinary group work. Courses will be given by international experts from France, Scotland, the US, the Netherlands and Switzerland and representatives from industry and regulatory bodies. For more information: www....

  19. Towards safer surgery in patients with sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshikhes, Abdul-Wahed N.

    2007-01-01

    Surgery in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) has been associated with high morbidity and mortality. In recent years, a marked improvement in the safety of surgery and anesthesia in this high-risk group of patients has been witnessed; owing to the improvements in surgical and anesthetic care, greater awareness of pathophysiology of disease, proper perioperative preparation and attention to factors predisposing to vasoocclusive crises. However, this is not paralleled by similar improvement in countries where the disease is not prevalent. Greater population mobility in recent years makes recognition of surgical manifestations of the disease and awareness of perioperative management of sickle cell patients undergoing surgical interventions of paramount importance. This article aims to summarize steps towards safer surgery in patients with SCD. (author)

  20. Negotiating a Systems Development Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Hedström, Karin

    Systems development methods (or methods) are often applied in tailored version to fit the actual situation. Method tailoring is in most the existing literature viewed as either (a) a highly rational process with the method engineer as the driver where the project members are passive information providers or (b) an unstructured process where the systems developer makes individual choices, a selection process without any driver. The purpose of this chapter is to illustrate that important design decisions during method tailoring are made by project members through negotiation. The study has been carried out using the perspective of actor-network theory. Our narratives depict method tailoring as more complex than (a) and (b) show the driver role rotates between the project members, and design decisions are based on influences from several project members. However, these design decisions are not consensus decisions.

  1. Recommendations for safer radiotherapy: what’s the message?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunscombe, Peter, E-mail: peter.dunscombe@albertahealthservices.ca [Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2012-09-28

    Radiotherapy, with close to a million courses delivered per year in North America, is a very safe and effective intervention for a devastating disease. However, although rare, several deeply regrettable incidents have occurred in radiotherapy and have rightly been the subject of considerable public interest. Partly in response to reports of these incidents a variety of authoritative organizations across the globe has harnessed the expertise amongst their members in attempts to identify the measures that will make radiotherapy safer. While the intentions of all these organizations are clearly good it is challenging for the health care providers in the clinic to know where to start with so much advice coming from so many directions. Through a mapping exercise we have identified commonalities between recommendations made in seven authoritative documents and identified those issues most frequently cited. The documents reviewed contain a total of 117 recommendations. Using the 37 recommendations in “Towards Safer Radiotherapy” as the initial base layer, recommendations in the other documents were mapped, adding to the base layer to accommodate all the recommendations from the additional six documents as necessary. This mapping exercise resulted in the distillation of the original 117 recommendations down to 61 unique recommendations. Twelve topics were identified in three or more of the documents as being pertinent to the improvement of patient safety in radiotherapy. They are, in order of most to least cited: training, staffing, documentation, incident learning, communication, check lists, quality control and preventive maintenance, dosimetric audit, accreditation, minimizing interruptions, prospective risk assessment, and safety culture. This analysis provides guidance for the selection of those activities most likely to enhance safety and quality in radiotherapy based on the frequency of citation in selected recent authoritative literature.

  2. Recommendations for safer radiotherapy: what’s the message?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunscombe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Radiotherapy, with close to a million courses delivered per year in North America, is a very safe and effective intervention for a devastating disease. However, although rare, several deeply regrettable incidents have occurred in radiotherapy and have rightly been the subject of considerable public interest. Partly in response to reports of these incidents a variety of authoritative organizations across the globe has harnessed the expertise amongst their members in attempts to identify the measures that will make radiotherapy safer. While the intentions of all these organizations are clearly good it is challenging for the health care providers in the clinic to know where to start with so much advice coming from so many directions. Through a mapping exercise we have identified commonalities between recommendations made in seven authoritative documents and identified those issues most frequently cited. The documents reviewed contain a total of 117 recommendations. Using the 37 recommendations in “Towards Safer Radiotherapy” as the initial base layer, recommendations in the other documents were mapped, adding to the base layer to accommodate all the recommendations from the additional six documents as necessary. This mapping exercise resulted in the distillation of the original 117 recommendations down to 61 unique recommendations. Twelve topics were identified in three or more of the documents as being pertinent to the improvement of patient safety in radiotherapy. They are, in order of most to least cited: training, staffing, documentation, incident learning, communication, check lists, quality control and preventive maintenance, dosimetric audit, accreditation, minimizing interruptions, prospective risk assessment, and safety culture. This analysis provides guidance for the selection of those activities most likely to enhance safety and quality in radiotherapy based on the frequency of citation in selected recent authoritative literature.

  3. Recommendations for safer radiotherapy: what’s the message?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eDunscombe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy, with close to a million courses delivered per year in North America, is a very safe and effective intervention for a devastating disease. However, although rare, several deeply regrettable incidents have occurred in radiotherapy and have rightly been the subject of considerable public interest. Partly in response to reports of these incidents a variety of authoritative organizations across the globe has harnessed the expertise amongst their members in attempts to identify the measures that will make radiotherapy safer. While the intentions of all these organizations are clearly good it is challenging for the health care providers in the clinic to know where to start with so much advice coming from so many directions. Through a mapping exercise we have identified commonalities between recommendations made in seven authoritative documents and identified those issues most frequently cited. The documents reviewed contain a total of 117 recommendations. Using the 37 recommendations in Towards Safer Radiotherapy as the initial base layer, recommendations in the other documents were mapped, adding to the base layer to accommodate all the recommendations from the additional six documents as necessary. This mapping exercise resulted in the distillation of the original 117 recommendations down to 61 unique recommendations. Twelve topics were identified in three or more of the documents as being pertinent to the improvement of patient safety in radiotherapy. They are, in order of most to least cited: training, staffing, documentation, incident learning, communication, check lists, quality control and preventive maintenance, dosimetric audit, accreditation, minimizing interruptions, prospective risk assessment and safety culture. This analysis provides guidance for the selection of those activities most likely to enhance safety and quality in radiotherapy based on the frequency of citation in selected recent authoritative literature.

  4. Complex Automated Negotiations Theories, Models, and Software Competitions

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Minjie; Robu, Valentin; Matsuo, Tokuro

    2013-01-01

    Complex Automated Negotiations are a widely studied, emerging area in the field of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. In general, automated negotiations can be complex, since there are a lot of factors that characterize such negotiations. For this book, we solicited papers on all aspects of such complex automated negotiations, which are studied in the field of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. This book includes two parts, which are Part I: Agent-based Complex Automated Negotiations and Part II: Automated Negotiation Agents Competition. Each chapter in Part I is an extended version of ACAN 2011 papers after peer reviews by three PC members. Part II includes ANAC 2011 (The Second Automated Negotiating Agents Competition), in which automated agents who have different negotiation strategies and implemented by different developers are automatically negotiate in the several negotiation domains. ANAC is an international competition in which automated negotiation strategies, submitted by a number of...

  5. Safer Conception for Couples Affected by HIV: Structural and Cultural Considerations in the Delivery of Safer Conception Care in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindry, Deborah; Wanyenze, Rhoda K; Beyeza-Kashesya, Jolly; Woldetsadik, Mahlet A; Finocchario-Kessler, Sarah; Goggin, Kathy; Wagner, Glenn

    2017-08-01

    In countries with high HIV prevalence and high fertility desires, the rights of HIV-affected couples to have children are a pressing issue. Conception among people living with HIV carries risks for both horizontal and vertical HIV transmission. In Uganda ~100,000 HIV-infected women become pregnant annually. Providers face a number of challenges to preventing HIV transmission, reducing unplanned pregnancies, and ensuring safer conception. We report findings from interviews with 27 HIV-affected couples (54 individuals) in Uganda. We explored key cultural and structural factors shaping couples' childbearing decisions. Our data reveal a complex intersection of gender norms, familial expectations, relationship dynamics, and HIV stigma influencing their decisions. Participants provided insights regarding provider bias, stigma, and the gendering of reproductive healthcare. To reduce horizontal transmission HIV and family planning clinics must address men's and women's concerns regarding childbearing with specific attention to cultural and structural challenges.

  6. Pair Negotiation When Developing English Speaking Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Liliana Bohórquez Suárez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes what characterizes the negotiations of seventh graders at a public school in Bogotá when working in pairs to develop speaking tasks in EFL classes. The inquiry is a descriptive case study that follows the qualitative paradigm. As a result of analyzing the data, we obtained four consecutive steps that characterize students’ negotiations: Establishing a connection with a partner to work with, proposing practical alternatives, refusing mates’ propositions, and making practical decisions. Moreover, we found that the constant performance of the process of negotiation provokes students to construct a sociolinguistic identity that allows agreements to emerge.

  7. First formal ITER negotiations make excellent progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, P.

    2001-01-01

    November 8 and 9 2001 marked the historic beginning of formal negotiations meetings on the ITER project. Delegations from Canada, the European Union, Japan and the Russian Federation met in Toronto, Canada, for the first in a series of Negotiations that is expected to lead, by the end of 2002, to an agreement on the joint implementation of ITER. This agreement will govern, under international law, the construction, operation and decommissioning of ITER. The Negotiations concluded by issuing a joint news release, reflecting a commitment to share the progress reports on the efforts to implement ITER

  8. Negotiation Training Courses for Natural Resource Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkardt, Nina; Swann, M. Earlene; Walters, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    FORT's Policy Analysis and Science Assistance Branch (PASA) has been conducting and publishing research on multi-party natural resource negotiation since the 1980s. This research has led to the development of basic and advanced negotiation training courses. Each course is two-and-a-half days. Both courses are a mix of lecture, hands-on training, and discussion. Please join us and other natural resource professionals facing similar problems and share your experiences. Come prepared to candidly discuss examples of successes to embrace, stalemates to recognize, and pitfalls to avoid in natural resource negotiations.

  9. Learning How to Ask: Women and Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Lauren H; Bajaj, Anureet K

    2017-03-01

    Women are less likely to reach top-level leadership positions, and more likely to leave academic positions, than men, and are likely to earn less money than men. Women are also less likely to initiate a negotiation-a process that is crucial for professional advancement. This reluctance to ask hinders their advancement and can have long-lasting consequences-both financial and professional. The reasons that women do not ask are multifactorial. In this article, we will explore reasons why women are less likely to negotiate, the barriers they face when they do, and strategies that women can apply to improve their negotiation skills.

  10. The SAFER Latinos Project: Addressing a Community Ecology Underlying Latino Youth Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edberg, Mark; Cleary, Sean D.; Collins, Elizabeth; Klevens, Joanne; Leiva, Rodrigo; Bazurto, Martha; Rivera, Ivonne; del Cid, Alex Taylor; Montero, Luisa; Calderon, Melba

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the intervention model, early implementation experience, and challenges for the "Seguridad, Apoyo, Familia, Educacion, y Recursos" (SAFER) Latinos project. The SAFER Latinos project is an attempt to build the evidence for a multilevel participatory youth violence prevention model tailored to the specific circumstances of…

  11. NREL, NASA, and UCL Team Up to Make Lithium-Ion Batteries Safer on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    (NASA) and University College London (UCL) for a cutting-edge study on lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery and in Space | News | NREL NREL, NASA, and UCL Team Up to Make Lithium-Ion Batteries Safer on Earth and in Space NREL, NASA, and UCL Team Up to Make Lithium-Ion Batteries Safer on Earth and in Space

  12. Access management in Safer Transportation Network Planning : safety principles, planning framework, and library information.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, T.

    2001-01-01

    This report is one in a series of publications, used in the development of the network planning tool ‘Safer Transportation Network Planning’ (Safer-TNP). The publications were used to guide the development of planning structures, diagnostic tools, planning recommendations, and research information

  13. Intersection planning in Safer Transportation Network Planning : safety principles, planning framework, and library information.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, T.

    2001-01-01

    This report is one in a series of publications, used in the development of the network planning tool ‘Safer Transportation Network Planning’ (Safer-TNP). The publications were used to guide the development of planning structures, diagnostic tools, planning recommendations, and research information

  14. Route management in Safer Transportation Network Planning : safety principles, planning framework, and library information.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, T.

    2001-01-01

    This report is one in a series of publications, used in the development of the network planning tool ‘Safer Transportation Network Planning’ (Safer-TNP). The publications were used to guide the development of planning structures, diagnostic tools, planning recommendations, and research information

  15. Land use planning in Safer Transportation Network Planning : safety principles, planning framework, and library information.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, T.

    2001-01-01

    This report is one in a series of publications, used in the development of the network planning tool ‘Safer Transportation Network Planning’ (Safer-TNP). The publications were used to guide the development of planning structures, diagnostic tools, planning recommendations, and research information

  16. A new public health context to understand male sex work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minichiello, Victor; Scott, John; Callander, Denton

    2015-03-24

    Researching male sex work offers insight into the sexual lives of men and women while developing a more realistic appreciation for the changing issues associated with male sex work. This type of research is important because it not only reflects a growing and diversifying consumer demand for male sex work, but also because it enables the construction of knowledge that is up-to-date with changing ideas around sex and sexualities. This paper discusses a range of issues emerging in the male sex industry. Notably, globalisation and technology have contributed to the normalisation of male sex work and reshaped the landscape in which the male sex industry operates. As part of this discussion, we review STI and HIV rates among male sex workers at a global level, which are widely disparate and geographically contextual, with rates of HIV among male sex workers ranging from 0% in some areas to 50% in others. The Internet has reshaped the way that male sex workers and clients connect and has been identified as a useful space for safer sex messages and research that seeks out hidden or commonly excluded populations. We argue for a public health context that recognises the emerging and changing nature of male sex work, which means programs and policies that are appropriate for this population group. Online communities relating to male sex work are important avenues for safer sexual messages and unique opportunities to reach often excluded sub-populations of both clients and male sex workers. The changing structure and organisation of male sex work alongside rapidly changing cultural, academic and medical discourses provide new insight but also new challenges to how we conceive the sexualities of men and male sex workers. Public health initiatives must reflect upon and incorporate this knowledge.

  17. Interaction patterns in crisis negotiations: Persuasive arguments and cultural differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giebels, Ellen; Taylor, Paul J; Taylor, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    This research examines cultural differences in negotiators' responses to persuasive arguments in crisis (hostage) negotiations over time. Using a new method of examining cue-response patterns, the authors examined 25 crisis negotiations in which police negotiators interacted with perpetrators from

  18. Virtual reality negotiation training system with virtual cognitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ding, D.; Burger, F.; Brinkman, W.P.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    A number of negotiation training systems have been developed to improve people’s performance in negotiation. They mainly focus on the skills development, and less on negotiation understanding and improving self-efficacy. We propose a virtual reality negotiation training system that exposes users to

  19. 48 CFR 49.110 - Settlement negotiation memorandum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement negotiation... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.110 Settlement negotiation memorandum. (a) The TCO shall, at the conclusion of negotiations, prepare a settlement negotiation memorandum...

  20. Paying a Price: Culture, Trust, and Negotiation Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunia, Brian C.; Brett, Jeanne M.; Nandkeolyar, Amit K.; Kamdar, Dishan

    2011-01-01

    Three studies contrasting Indian and American negotiators tested hypotheses derived from theory proposing why there are cultural differences in trust and how cultural differences in trust influence negotiation strategy. Study 1 (a survey) documented that Indian negotiators trust their counterparts less than American negotiators. Study 2 (a…

  1. Negotiating the Lack of Intimacy in Assisted Living: Resident Desires, Barriers, and Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Alexis A; Burgess, Elisabeth O; Barmon, Christina

    2017-12-01

    Despite continuity in the desire for sex and partnership, many older adults experience a lack of intimacy in late life. The use of assisted living is a complicating factor for understanding issues of partnership, sex, and intimacy for older adults. Using in-depth interviews with 23 assisted living residents and grounded theory methods, we examined how residents negotiate a lack of intimacy in assisted living. The process of negotiation entailed three factors: desire, barriers, and strategies. Although some residents continued to desire intimacy, there was a marked absence of dating or intimacy in our study sites. Findings highlight unique barriers to acting on desire and the strategies residents used as aligning actions between desire and barriers. This research expands previous studies of sexuality and older adults by examining the complex ways in which they balanced desire and barriers through the use of strategies within the assisted living environment.

  2. Love, or negotiation, is in the air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, A. [McCloskey Coal Information Services (Australia)

    2001-10-01

    The columnist considers the issues of whether there will be any Japanese/Australian benchmark price negotiations at all this year, and if so whether Japan will continue to set the world price for coking and steam coal.

  3. Territorial stigmatisation and the negotiation of place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft; Christensen, Jørgen Riber

    2018-01-01

    The article addresses the negotiated meaning of notorious places through a consideration of a recent tendency in Danish TV documentaries where marginalized, often peripheral, places are portrayed and debated. Based partly on sociological research about territorial stigmatisation, partly on location...

  4. Negotiate way out of siting dilemmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, D.H.; Nadler, T.S.

    1993-01-01

    Can America negotiate itself out of its high-level radioactive waste dilemma by finding communities willing to volunteer as host sites? The authors think such a possibility exists. In fact, they see little other way to successfully locate controversial facilities in the future. A decide-announce-defend strategy only sparks community anger, solidifies opposition, and leads to expensive court battles without achieving results. The Office of Nuclear Waste Negotiator was established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to negotiate with states an Indian tribes about hosting a permanent nuclear waste repository and an interim Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. Twenty communities and Indian tribes submitted applications for grants to study the possibility of hosting an MRS facility. Whether or not one of these potential hosts decides to make a commitment, the efficacy of negotiation has been demonstrated. Neither courtroom procedures nor administrative flats have engendered similar success

  5. Expressing Intervals in Automated Service Negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kassidy P.; Warnier, Martijn; van Splunter, Sander; Brazier, Frances M. T.

    During automated negotiation of services between autonomous agents, utility functions are used to evaluate the terms of negotiation. These terms often include intervals of values which are prone to misinterpretation. It is often unclear if an interval embodies a continuum of real numbers or a subset of natural numbers. Furthermore, it is often unclear if an agent is expected to choose only one value, multiple values, a sub-interval or even multiple sub-intervals. Additional semantics are needed to clarify these issues. Normally, these semantics are stored in a domain ontology. However, ontologies are typically domain specific and static in nature. For dynamic environments, in which autonomous agents negotiate resources whose attributes and relationships change rapidly, semantics should be made explicit in the service negotiation. This paper identifies issues that are prone to misinterpretation and proposes a notation for expressing intervals. This notation is illustrated using an example in WS-Agreement.

  6. Negotiating Rights : Building Coalitions for Improving Maternal ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Negotiating Rights : Building Coalitions for Improving Maternal Health Services ... the state of maternal health in the country reflects poorly on public health priorities. ... A number of international agencies and civil society organizations are ...

  7. Research and International Trade Policy Negotiations: Knowledge ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-10-07

    Oct 7, 2009 ... ... pillar of Latin America's development strategy into the 21st century. ... and policy advisors involved in trade negotiations and the formulation of trade policy. ... Expanding women's financial inclusion: A win-win for women and ...

  8. 32 CFR 644.83 - Negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... be available. He should furnish the landowner a copy of a map indicating the boundaries of that... negotiating patterns, and keeping in mind that counteroffers must be justified as being just and reasonable...

  9. 78 FR 17234 - Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... (DFS) Negotiated Service Agreement (NSA) to the market dominant product list.\\1\\ After a [[Page 17235... dominant product list.\\2\\ On March 8, 2013, the Postal Service filed an amendment to the DFS NSA with the...

  10. Analysis of international negotiations and trade agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Górriz Gonzalo, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to analyze international trade agreements and negotiations. For that purpose, two agreements made by the United States are chosen to be analyzed. In the first place, the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) agreement, that was signed by the United States, Canada and Mexico in 1994 in order to create a free trade area. In addition, the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) will be analyze, an agreement that is still being negotiated between the United Stat...

  11. Do Not Shoot, a Personal Negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    purpose and job with us. The negotiation in this example was forced and physical in nature. Once the elder arrived with an interpreter, things were...Having worked with law enforcement, I was taught that removing the immediate threat, while utilizing the element of surprise with limited physical ...Studies AY10 Coursebook , (Maxwell AFB, AL: Air University Press, August 2009), 130-131. 2 William Zartman, "Negotiation and Conflict Resolution

  12. A Framework for Argumentation-Based Negotiation

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra, C.; Jennings, N. R.; Noriega, P.; Parsons, S.

    1997-01-01

    Many autonomous agents operate in domains in which the cooperation of their fellow agents cannot be guaranteed. In such domains negotiation is essential to persuade others of the value of co-operation. This paper describes a general framework for negotiation in which agents exchange proposals backed by arguments which summarise the reasons why the proposals should be accepted.The argumentation is persuasive because the exchanges are able to alter the mental state of the agents involved. The f...

  13. Modern approaches to agent-based complex automated negotiation

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Quan; Ito, Takayuki; Zhang, Minjie; Ren, Fenghui; Aydoğan, Reyhan; Hadfi, Rafik

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses several important aspects of complex automated negotiations and introduces a number of modern approaches for facilitating agents to conduct complex negotiations. It demonstrates that autonomous negotiation is one of the most important areas in the field of autonomous agents and multi-agent systems. Further, it presents complex automated negotiation scenarios that involve negotiation encounters that may have, for instance, a large number of agents, a large number of issues with strong interdependencies and/or real-time constraints.

  14. Multilateral negotiations in foreign investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Orlando Ruiz Castro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Direct foreign investment is one of the most important economic variables in the world. Aspects related to international investment agreements are reaching an outstanding place in economic international diplomacy. Nowadays, in the multilateral level there is not an agreement regarding investment and therefore this study is focused on this particular type of agreement. In order to reach this objective this study shows, first of all, how different attempts have been developed to get a multicultural a agreement regarding investment, and to refuse the general opinion that says that exponential growth of foreign investment flows in recent years has given impulse to launch a multilateral investment agreement. Secondly, this study discusses about regulations related to foreign investment under current WTO regulations, such as investment, measure agreements, and service agreement. Then, it analyzes what has happened inside the WTO from the creation of the investment team at the Singapore Conference to the failed Conference in Cancun. Finally, it analyzes the main arguments against the multilateral agreement and the effects of future possible multilateral negotiations in investment and it ends with some recommendations and conclusions.

  15. Using Cognitive Agents to Train Negotiation Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Stevens

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Training negotiation is difficult because it is a complex, dynamic activity that involves multiple parties. It is often not clear how to create situations in which students can practice negotiation or how to measure students' progress. Some have begun to address these issues by creating artificial software agents with which students can train. These agents have the advantage that they can be “reset,” and played against multiple times. This allows students to learn from their mistakes and try different strategies. However, these agents are often based on normative theories of how negotiators should conduct themselves, not necessarily how people actually behave in negotiations. Here, we take a step toward addressing this gap by developing an agent grounded in a cognitive architecture, ACT-R. This agent contains a model of theory-of-mind, the ability of humans to reason about the mental states of others. It uses this model to try to infer the strategy of the opponent and respond accordingly. In a series of experiments, we show that this agent replicates some aspects of human performance, is plausible to human negotiators, and can lead to learning gains in a small-scale negotiation task.

  16. Managerial Roles and Functions in Negotiation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Kozina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on negotiation processes performed in a company and presents author’s concept of the description of the roles and functions accomplished by managers within those processes and being of significant importance from the point of view of negotiations’ outcomes. Such a concept aims at providing the analysis and conducting of business negotiations with effective support. Firstly (following introduction, the concept, types, and comprehensive model of such negotiations is presented as a useful methodological framework for specifying managerial roles and functions. Secondly, some classic concepts of those roles are reviewed, drawing special attention to the ones that concern negotiation process. Thirdly, general managerial functions within that process are described. Fourthly, those functions are precised by relating them to typical hierarchical levels. Fifthly, peculiar managerial functions within negotiating team are discussed. Finally, specific issue of the role of manager as a mediator is addressed. Summing up the paper, the crucial areas for subsequent research were pointed out. In order to elaborate the presented concept the author carried out the comparative study of negotiation literature as well as developed his original ideas.

  17. Using Cognitive Agents to Train Negotiation Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Christopher A; Daamen, Jeroen; Gaudrain, Emma; Renkema, Tom; Top, Jakob Dirk; Cnossen, Fokie; Taatgen, Niels A

    2018-01-01

    Training negotiation is difficult because it is a complex, dynamic activity that involves multiple parties. It is often not clear how to create situations in which students can practice negotiation or how to measure students' progress. Some have begun to address these issues by creating artificial software agents with which students can train. These agents have the advantage that they can be "reset," and played against multiple times. This allows students to learn from their mistakes and try different strategies. However, these agents are often based on normative theories of how negotiators should conduct themselves, not necessarily how people actually behave in negotiations. Here, we take a step toward addressing this gap by developing an agent grounded in a cognitive architecture, ACT-R. This agent contains a model of theory-of-mind, the ability of humans to reason about the mental states of others. It uses this model to try to infer the strategy of the opponent and respond accordingly. In a series of experiments, we show that this agent replicates some aspects of human performance, is plausible to human negotiators, and can lead to learning gains in a small-scale negotiation task.

  18. The WIPP transportation system -- ''Safer than any other''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, T.R.; Spooner, R.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed an integrated transportation system to transport transuranic (TRU) waste from ten widely dispersed generator sites to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The system consists of a Type B container, a specially designed trailer, a lightweight tractor, the DOE TRANSCOM satellite-based vehicle tracking system, and uniquely qualified and highly trained drivers. The DOE has demonstrated that this system is ready to transport the TRU waste to the WIPP site efficiently and safely. Since the system was put in place in November 1988, it has been repeatedly upgraded and enhanced to incorporate additional safety measures. In June of 1989, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) reviewed the transportation system and concluded that ''the system proposed for transportation of TRU waste to WIPP is safer than that employed for any other hazardous material in the United States today and will reduce risk to very low levels'' (emphasis added). The NAS conclusion was made before the DOE implemented the Enhanced Driver Training Course for carrier drivers. The challenge facing the DOE was to examine the transportation system objectively and determine what additional improvements could be made to further enhance safety

  19. Traditional gender roles, forced sex and HIV in Zimbabwean marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugweni, Esther; Pearson, Stephen; Omar, Mayeh

    2012-01-01

    Little is known on how forced sex contributes to the sexual transmission of HIV in marriage. This paper describes traditional gender norms surrounding forced sex in Zimbabwean marriage. Data were collected from 4 focus group discussions and 36 in-depth interviews with married women and men in Harare. Results indicate that hegemonic masculinity characterised by a perceived entitlement to sex, male dominance and being a provider contributed to forced sex in marriage. A femininity characterised by a tolerance of marital rape, the desire to please the husband and submission contributed to women experiencing forced sex. An alternative femininity characterised by sexual pleasure-seeking contributed to women forcing their spouses to have sex. Future HIV interventions must go beyond narrowly advocating for safer sex within marriage and instead address practices that increase risk as well as promote positive marital relationship needs such as mutual respect, love and friendship.

  20. Sex Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex headaches Overview Sex headaches are brought on by sexual activity — especially an orgasm. You may notice a dull ache in your head ... severe headache just before or during orgasm. Most sex headaches are nothing to worry about. But some ...

  1. Hostage (crisis) negotiation: the potential role of negotiator personality, decision-making style, coping style and emotional intelligence on negotiator success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Amy; Brown, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the potential role of hostage negotiator characteristics and the impact of psychological constructs on negotiator success. It explores the role of Personality, Decision-Making Style, Coping Style, Cognitive Coping Style and Emotion Regulation and Emotional Intelligence within high stress environments and occupations. The findings suggest that certain individual traits and characteristics may play a role in negotiator success, via the mediation of specific styles, which are conducive to effective crisis negotiation skills. It is proposed that these findings have application within the field of hostage/crisis negotiation in the format of guidance regarding the recruitment and selection of hostage negotiators and the identification of potential training needs within individual negotiators in order to maximize their efficacy within the field. In line with this, it is argued that a psychometric tool that assesses these constructs is developed in order to aid the process of hostage negotiation selection.

  2. Negotiating power: agenda ordering and the willingness to negotiate in asymmetric intergroup conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kteily, Nour; Saguy, Tamar; Sidanius, James; Taylor, Donald M

    2013-12-01

    In this research, we investigated how group power influences the way members of groups in asymmetrical conflict approach intergroup negotiations. Drawing on theories of negotiations and of intergroup power, we predicted that group power would interact with features of the proposed negotiating agenda to influence willingness to come to the table. Based on the negotiation literature, we focused on 2 types of sequential negotiation agendas: 1 beginning with the discussion of consequential issues before less consequential issues (consequential first) and 1 leaving the discussion of consequential issues until after less consequential issues are discussed (consequential later). Because they are motivated to advance changes to their disadvantaged status quo, we expected low-power group members to favor consequential first over consequential later invitations to negotiate. High-power group members, motivated to protect their advantage, were expected to show the reverse preference. Converging evidence from 5 experiments involving real-world and experimental groups supported these predictions. Across studies, participants received an invitation to negotiate from the other group involving either a consequential first or consequential later agenda. Low-power group members preferred consequential first invitations because these implied less stalling of change to the status quo, and high-power group members preferred consequential later invitations because these invitations seemed to pose less threat to their position. Theoretical and practical implications for negotiations research and conflict resolution are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. 78 FR 57571 - Negotiated Rulemaking Committee, Negotiator Nominations and Schedule of Committee Meetings-Title...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... and security reporting requirements in the Jeanne Clery Disclosure of Campus Security Policy and... negotiators who represent key stakeholder constituencies for the issues to be negotiated to serve on the... conversion, gainful employment, changes to the campus safety and security reporting requirements in the Clery...

  4. The Social Negotiation of Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouzounian, Gerard [ANDRA, Chatenay-Malabry (France); Gaston, Didier; Vindimian, Eric [INERIS, Vemeuil-en-Halatte (France); Brugnot, Gerard [CEMAGREF, St-Martin-d' Heres (France); Masure, Philippe [BRGM, Orleans (France)

    2001-07-01

    The prevention of risk and the necessary protection against its consequences require a sound scientific and technical approach that may only be achieved once all stakeholders mutually agree on the means to be used. Those means depend on a social structure that relies on their accessibility and on the nature of the risks that society is ready to assume. Such a structure raises a series of different questions, all with various connotations: Technical: Do we have solutions to prevent risk and limit its consequences? Scientific: What do we know about risk and to what extent is it possible to foresee an event and its potential consequences? Economical: What financial means can we allocate to risk prevention? Insurance: What types of risk may be covered? Political and ethical: What is the significance of the community concerned? What types of risk are acceptable? Legal: What liabilities stand with regard to risk prevention and protection? Societal and political: What process needs to be adopted? In a democracy, who may hold the responsibility to decide on behalf of the population? Any approach that would restrict unduly any of those parameters would lead inevitably to a series of contentions resulting from neglected aspects - and eventually to failure. That explains why several projects had to be abandoned or rejected in recent decades, simply because of insufficient consultation or interaction. The third phase involves qualitative and quantitative predictions of impacts on relevant targets (human beings, ecosystem, industrial or capital goods). After adopting a probabilistic approach (hierarchisation of causes according to more or less probabilistic scenarios) and rating effects on a severity scale, the assessment may proceed with the fourth phase where risks are evaluated, rated and categorised based on acceptable thresholds that lie at the core of the social negotiation. Once the risk assessment is over, the risk manager is able to take preventive, protective and

  5. The Social Negotiation of Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouzounian, Gerard; Gaston, Didier; Vindimian, Eric; Brugnot, Gerard; Masure, Philippe

    2001-01-01

    The prevention of risk and the necessary protection against its consequences require a sound scientific and technical approach that may only be achieved once all stakeholders mutually agree on the means to be used. Those means depend on a social structure that relies on their accessibility and on the nature of the risks that society is ready to assume. Such a structure raises a series of different questions, all with various connotations: Technical: Do we have solutions to prevent risk and limit its consequences? Scientific: What do we know about risk and to what extent is it possible to foresee an event and its potential consequences? Economical: What financial means can we allocate to risk prevention? Insurance: What types of risk may be covered? Political and ethical: What is the significance of the community concerned? What types of risk are acceptable? Legal: What liabilities stand with regard to risk prevention and protection? Societal and political: What process needs to be adopted? In a democracy, who may hold the responsibility to decide on behalf of the population? Any approach that would restrict unduly any of those parameters would lead inevitably to a series of contentions resulting from neglected aspects - and eventually to failure. That explains why several projects had to be abandoned or rejected in recent decades, simply because of insufficient consultation or interaction. The third phase involves qualitative and quantitative predictions of impacts on relevant targets (human beings, ecosystem, industrial or capital goods). After adopting a probabilistic approach (hierarchisation of causes according to more or less probabilistic scenarios) and rating effects on a severity scale, the assessment may proceed with the fourth phase where risks are evaluated, rated and categorised based on acceptable thresholds that lie at the core of the social negotiation. Once the risk assessment is over, the risk manager is able to take preventive, protective and

  6. A negociação do sexo seguro na TV: discursos de gênero nas falas de agentes comunitárias de saúde do Programa Saúde da Família de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Safe sex negotiation on TV: gender discourses among female community health workers under the Family Health Program in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Lúcia Leidens Correa de Oliveira

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa, com base numa pesquisa realizada no ano de 2003, o entendimento de agentes comunitárias de saúde do Programa Saúde da Família de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, sobre a noção de "negociação de sexo seguro" veiculada nas campanhas de prevenção à AIDS que são endereçados às mulheres. A pesquisa tinha como foco de análise alguns dos anúncios televisivos que integraram as campanhas implementadas pelo Ministério da Saúde no Brasil, no período de 1994 a 2000. A análise foi informada pelas vertentes dos estudos feministas e culturais que se aproximam da perspectiva pós-estruturalista de Michel Foucault e tinha como objetivo produzir subsídios para uma leitura crítica desse tipo de estratégia educativa para a prevenção da AIDS, em especial no que se refere às relações de gênero ali representadas. A análise das informações sugere que os conhecimentos e práticas que circunscrevem o discurso da negociação do sexo seguro incorporam, re-produzem ou veiculam representações hegemônicas de masculinidade e feminilidade e que estas diferenciam e hierarquizam mulheres em relação aos homens e/ou diferenciam mulheres de outras mulheres, produzindo e/ou reforçando preconceitos e desigualdades.This paper analyzes the understanding among female community health workers in the Family Health Program in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, concerning the notion of safe sex negotiation promoted by the Brazilian government in AIDS prevention campaigns targeting women. The paper is based on empirical data gathered in 2003. The study focused on TV advertisements used in campaigns by the Brazilian Ministry of Health from 1994 to 2000. The analytical approach was informed by feminist and cultural studies, taken from a post-structuralist and Foucauldian perspective. The research aimed to produce knowledge to support a critical reading of such education for HIV/AIDS prevention, especially concerning

  7. Novel insights in agent-based complex automated negotiation

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Carmona, Miguel; Ito, Takayuki; Zhang, Minjie; Bai, Quan; Fujita, Katsuhide

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on all aspects of complex automated negotiations, which are studied in the field of autonomous agents and multi-agent systems. This book consists of two parts. I: Agent-Based Complex Automated Negotiations, and II: Automated Negotiation Agents Competition. The chapters in Part I are extended versions of papers presented at the 2012 international workshop on Agent-Based Complex Automated Negotiation (ACAN), after peer reviews by three Program Committee members. Part II examines in detail ANAC 2012 (The Third Automated Negotiating Agents Competition), in which automated agents that have different negotiation strategies and are implemented by different developers are automatically negotiated in the several negotiation domains. ANAC is an international competition in which automated negotiation strategies, submitted by a number of universities and research institutes across the world, are evaluated in tournament style. The purpose of the competition is to steer the research in the area of bilate...

  8. Culture and Negotiator Cognition: Judgment Accuracy and Negotiation Processes in Individualistic and Collectivistic Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand; Christakopoulou

    1999-09-01

    In this paper, we argue that judgment biases in negotiation are perpetuated by underlying cultural values and ideals, and therefore, certain judgment biases will be more prevalent in certain cultural contexts. Based on theory in cultural psychology (Markus & Kitayama, 1991; Triandis, 1989), we considered the notion that fixed pie error, a judgment bias in which negotiators fail to accurately understand their counterparts' interests (Pruitt & Lewis, 1975; Thompson & Hastie, 1990), would be more prevalent at the end of negotiations in the United States, an individualistic culture, than Greece, a collectivistic culture. The results of a 2-week computer-mediated intercultural negotiation experiment, which took place between American students in Illinois and Greek students in Athens, supported this view. Theoretical implications of culture and cognition in negotiation are also discussed. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  9. Instruments for public environment policies: The negotiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, S.; Squillacioti, M.T.

    1990-12-01

    The negotiation starts from the postulate that environmental conflicts are a standing datum in the future of our societies. Environmental instance is based in deep and not reversible manner inside the attitude and value changes and, consequently, inside the quality of life. The different hopes about the environmental consequences constitute an internal element of democratic development and it is not thinkable to ignore or neglect these diversities. With regard to this last point the inadequacy of the present legal systems must be underlined. They are constructed to settle a controversy about 'the facts' and not about 'the values'. Often some environmental disputes may last quite a few years without facing the real essence of the question. The environmental negotiation intends as a 'consensual approach' that should give more possibilities for the conflict solution. It is based on the presupposition to create the terms for final result. In comparison with the legislative acts, the direct negotiation table permits a best exploration of options and a best mobilization of technical competencies. At last, because the negotiators should live together on the basis of obtained agreement, they will have more sensibility for the problems attached to the application than the laymen, for which the process ends with the publication of the law. The strongest argumentation in favor of environmental negotiation is that it is more difficult to avoid the substantial questions as well as often happens inside the legislative acts. (author)

  10. Negotiations at all Points? Interaction and Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Nadai

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A criticism frequently leveled at interactionism—the theoretical basis of much of qualitative research—is that it neglects social structure and is limited to micro-social analysis. Anselm STRAUSS' concept of "negotiated order" is an attempt to overcome these alleged weaknesses and to address the connection between interaction and structure, and between micro-, meso- and macro-level analysis. In his view, negotiations between units of any potential scale, from small groups to nation states, are at the heart of social order and social change. The concept of "negotiated order" has been particularly influential in organization studies. However, it has also met with criticism. In this paper, we explore the potential of the approach for connecting different levels of analysis in qualitative research. We use the example of negotiations on "performance" in businesses to discuss the relationship between micro-level negotiations and organizations and societal discourse respectively. The empirical data were collected in an ethnographic research project which we conducted in three large businesses in Switzerland. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0801327

  11. Oral sex, oral health and orogenital infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Saini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection and safer sex precautions. There are various methods of preventing infection during oral sex such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues and oral hygiene and dental issues. The lesions or unhealthy periodontal status of oral cavity accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex.

  12. kNOw Fear: Making rural public spaces safer for women and girls ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-05-01

    May 1, 2018 ... kNOw Fear: Making rural public spaces safer for women and girls ... The International Centre for Research on Women (ICRW) conducts research ... Poonam Kathuria's 17 years of experience as a women's rights advocate is ...

  13. Advanced and safer lithium-ion battery based on sustainable electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Xiang; Huang, Xiaobing; Jin, Junling; Ming, Hai; Wang, Limin; Ming, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Seeking advanced and safer lithium-ion battery with sustainable characteristic is significant for the development of electronic devices and electric vehicles. Herein, a new porous TiO nanobundles (PTNBs) is synthesized though a scalable and green

  14. NEGOTIATING PECUNIARY GAINS AND ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dacinia Crina PETRESCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The initiation and development of the negotiation process is the result of the interaction between stimulating and hindering factors, among which there are perceived winning chances and perceived risk of projecting a negative image of himself/ herself. The objectives of the research were to observe the strength of people’s perception regarding these two variables and if they were influenced by the negotiation objective: a pecuniary one vs. an environmental one (both involving self-advocacy: aiming at personal benefits. From the point of view of the analyzed variables, people are good negotiators – they have high trust in winning chances and low fear of negative image, but they do not hold strong environmental concerns. The perceived winning chances were significantly higher (p0.05.

  15. Conflicting Perspectives in Trade and Environmental Negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchner, B.K.; Roson, R.

    2002-09-01

    International trade negotiations have recently tackled the issue of possible free trade restrictions, justified - among others - on the basis of environmental concerns. Also, some analyses of international environmental agreements (especially in the field of climate change) have highlighted the key role played by changes in the terms of trade in determining the cost of environmental policies. Yet, secondary effects of international trade remain disregarded in many environmental policies, whereas the introduction of environmental trade barriers has been resisted, arguing that this may hide a Trojan horse of a renewed protectionism. This paper reviews the debate on trade and the environment in the two fields of environmental and trade negotiations, highlighting the different and somewhat conflicting approach adopted in the two cases. A numerical general equilibrium model is used to illustrate how different 'perceptions' (translated in terms of alternative model closures) affect the use of instruments, the distributional impact of the various policies, and the strategic interplay between negotiators in international agreements

  16. Behavioral aspects of negotiations on mutual security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druckman, D.; Hopmann, P.T.

    1989-01-01

    This article surveys theory and research about the process of international negotiation. The goal, of this paper is to apply behavioral science research to find ways to negotiate an improved mutual security regime between the nuclear superpowers that would make nuclear war less likely in the years ahead. When President John F. Kennedy presented the first nuclear arms control agreement, the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, to the U.S. public in 1963 he noted the ancient Chinese proverb: A journey of a thousand miles must begin with a single step. Just as the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty represented for Kennedy the first step on the road to nuclear arms control, so the research reviewed here represents at best the first few steps in a long journey to a better understanding of how to negotiate a regime of mutual security between the nuclear superpowers

  17. An Attempt of Shaping a Framework of Negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Galita

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The term negotiation is more and more frequently used nowadays not only in trade or business activities, but also in many other fields of activity. People negotiate in all areas of social life (in the family, at work, in the street, in shops, in a company, in a political party, between states, etc. whenever they seek to resolve differences of opinion or to get what they want. Any kind of negotiation starts from a series of basic conditions (the interdependence of the parties engaged in negotiations, the existence of some differences of opinion, the parties’ joint work to achieve a mutually beneficial agreement. At the same time, any negotiation takes place in a certain setting, bordered by the object of negotiation, its aims and stakes, the place and time of its deployment. Depending on the areas where the process of negotiation appears, one can speak of three general types: the economic negotiation, the political negotiation and the social one. At this level, other classifications can be identified, according to the participants in the negotiations, the parties' interests, the negotiating environment, the time and duration of negotiations and themanner of completion, all in the limits of two extreme poles, the conflict and the cooperation between the parties involved.Keywords: negotiation, participants, conflict, cooperation, communication.

  18. Desire to bargain and negotiation success: Lessons about the need to negotiate from six hydropower disputes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkardt, N.; Lamb, B.L.; Taylor, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    The authors investigated the notion that successful licensing negotiations require that all parties to the dispute must have a desire to bargain. This desire is most likely to be present when the dispute exhibits ripeness and each party believes a bargained solution is the most cost-effective way to resolve differences. Structured interviews of participants in six Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hydropower licensing consultations were conducted to determine the level of need to negotiate for each party. The findings indicate that a need to negotiate is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for success. Several factors were associated with a need to negotiate: a weak BATNA (best alternative to a negotiated agreement); a salient issue; participants' sense of efficacy; a sense of inevitability; professional roles encouraging negotiation; and disputes about facts as opposed to disputes about values. Participants' need to negotiate fluctuated throughout the process and intensified when questions were ripe: i.e., critical issues were debated or the regulatory process required action

  19. Sex ratios

    OpenAIRE

    West, Stuart A; Reece, S E; Sheldon, Ben C

    2002-01-01

    Sex ratio theory attempts to explain variation at all levels (species, population, individual, brood) in the proportion of offspring that are male (the sex ratio). In many cases this work has been extremely successful, providing qualitative and even quantitative explanations of sex ratio variation. However, this is not always the situation, and one of the greatest remaining problems is explaining broad taxonomic patterns. Specifically, why do different organisms show so ...

  20. A real-life example of choosing an inherently safer process option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study, Karen

    2007-01-01

    While choosing an inherently safer alternative may seem straightforward, sometimes what seems to be the most obvious alternative may not provide the best risk reduction. The process designer must maintain a broad perspective to be able to recognize all potential hazards when evaluating design options. All aspects of operation such as start-up, shut-down, utility failure, as well as normal operation should be considered. Choosing the inherently safer option is best accomplished early in the option selection phase of a project; however, recycle back to the option selection phase may be needed if an option is not thoroughly evaluated early in the process. In this paper, a project to supply ammonia to a catalytic reactor will be reviewed. During the course of the project, an 'inherently safer' alternative was selected and later discarded due to issues uncovered during the detail design phase. The final option chosen will be compared to (1) the original design and (2) the initial 'inherently safer' alternative. The final option was inherently safer than both the original design and the initial 'inherently safer' alternative even though the design team initially believed that it would not be

  1. Client retention and health among sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izugbara, Chimaraoke O

    2012-12-01

    It is still a small body of research that directly addresses female sex workers' relationships with their regular commercial male partners. I used ethnographic data from Nairobi, Kenya to interrogate motivations and strategies for recruiting and retaining regular male clients among female sex workers (FSWs). Regular commercial male partners, popularly called customer care, wera or wesh by Nairobi's FSWs, played diverse roles in their lives. Client retention enabled sex workers to manage the risk of reduced marriage prospects, guaranteed them steady work, livelihoods, and incomes, and prevented their victimization and harassment. To retain clients, sex workers obliged them a great deal, pretended they had quit prostitution, and sometimes resorted to magical practices. However, these strategies were also accompanied by risks that reinforced the vulnerability of sex workers. Lack of critical attention to sex workers' practices for managing perceived risks in their particular type of work may hamper current programmatic efforts to make their job safer.

  2. Negotiation and Monitoring of Service Level Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillinan, Thomas B.; Clark, Kassidy P.; Warnier, Martijn; Brazier, Frances M. T.; Rana, Omer

    Service level agreements (SLAs) provide a means to define specific Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees between providers and consumers of services. Negotiation and definition of these QoS characteristics is an area of significant research. However, defining the actions that take place when an agreement is violated is a topic of more recent focus. This paper discusses recent advances in this field and propose some additional features that can help both consumers and producers during the enactment of services. These features include the ability to (re)negotiate penalties in an agreement, and specifically focuses on the renegotiation of penalties during enactment to reflect ongoing violations.

  3. Communication & Negotiation Skills Workshop for Women I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This workshop is designed to provide women physics students and postdocs with the professional skills they need to effectively perform research, including: negotiating a position in academia, industry or at a national lab, interacting positively on teams and with a mentor or advisor, thinking tactically, articulating goals, enhancing their personal presence, and developing alliances. We will discuss negotiation strategies and tactics that are useful for achieving professional goals. This is a highly interactive workshop where participants are invited to bring examples of difficult professional situations to discuss.

  4. Communication & Negotiation Skills Workshop for Women II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This workshop is designed to provide women physics students and postdocs with the professional skills they need to effectively perform research, including: negotiating a position in academia, industry or at a national lab, interacting positively on teams and with a mentor or advisor, thinking tactically, articulating goals, enhancing their personal presence, and developing alliances. We will discuss negotiation strategies and tactics that are useful for achieving professional goals. This is a highly interactive workshop where participants are invited to bring examples of difficult professional situations to discuss.

  5. The art of negotiation. A delicate balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehberg, C; Sullivan, G

    1997-01-01

    Successful negotiation is the art of gentle persuasion, not a "winner-take-all" showdown. Accordingly, it is essential to begin the process with a positive outlook and with the goal of reaching an agreement that is acceptable to all parties involved. Although the term "opponent" is used in this article to describe the person or group with whom you are negotiating, it is not used in the adversarial context. It is important to maintain a non-adversarial relationship, to the extent possible.

  6. Negotiation techniques to resolve western water disputes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Berton L.; Taylor, Jonathan G.

    1990-01-01

    There is a growing literature on the resolution of natural resources conflicts. Much of it is practical, focusing on guidelines for hands-on negotiation. This literature can be a guide in water conflicts. This is especially true for negotiations over new environmental values such as instream flow. The concepts of competitive, cooperative, and integrative styles of conflict resolution are applied to three cases of water resource bargaining. Lessons for the effective use of these ideas include: break a large number of parties into small working groups, approach value differences in small steps, be cautious in the presence of an attentive public, keeps decisions at the local level, and understand the opponent's interests.

  7. Toetsing van het gehalte duurzame veiligheid met Safer Transportation Network Planning : integratie van de ‘DV-gehaltemeter’ in het ontwerpprogramma ‘Safer-TNP’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, T.

    2001-01-01

    Testing the sustainable-safety contents with Safer Transportation Network Planning. In the publication entitled “Developing a sustainable-safety meter (DV-meter) for measuring the sustainable-safety contents” (Van der Kooi & Dijkstra, 2000), the development of and a pilot measurement with a

  8. World Trade Organization Negotiations: The Doha Development Agenda

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fergusson, Ian F

    2008-01-01

    The World Trade Organization's (WTO) Doha Development Round of multilateral trade negotiations resumed in 2007 after being suspended in July 2006 after key negotiating groups failed to break a deadlock on agricultural tariffs and subsidies...

  9. 24 CFR 982.506 - Negotiating rent to owner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Rent and Housing Assistance Payment § 982.506 Negotiating rent to owner. The owner and the family negotiate the rent to owner. At the...

  10. New Trends in Agent-Based Complex Automated Negotiations

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Minjie; Robu, Valentin; Fatima, Shaheen; Matsuo, Tokuro

    2012-01-01

    Complex Automated Negotiations represent an important, emerging area in the field of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. Automated negotiations can be complex, since there are a lot of factors that characterize such negotiations. These factors include the number of issues, dependencies between these issues,  representation of utilities, the negotiation protocol, the number of parties in the negotiation (bilateral or multi-party), time constraints, etc. Software agents can support automation or simulation of such complex negotiations on the behalf of their owners, and can provide them with efficient bargaining strategies. To realize such a complex automated negotiation, we have to incorporate advanced Artificial Intelligence technologies includes search, CSP, graphical utility models, Bayes nets, auctions, utility graphs, predicting and learning methods. Applications could include e-commerce tools, decision-making support tools, negotiation support tools, collaboration tools, etc. This book aims to pro...

  11. Implementation of resource-negotiating agents in telemanufacturing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, TL

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available the negotiations should be stored to allow future agents to benefit from previous negotiations. The components that are needed to implement the above and the results of the implementation are discussed in this paper....

  12. Next frontier in agent-based complex automated negotiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Takayuki; Zhang, Minjie; Robu, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on automated negotiations based on multi-agent systems. It is intended for researchers and students in various fields involving autonomous agents and multi-agent systems, such as e-commerce tools, decision-making and negotiation support systems, and collaboration tools. The contents will help them to understand the concept of automated negotiations, negotiation protocols, negotiating agents’ strategies, and the applications of those strategies. In this book, some negotiation protocols focusing on the multiple interdependent issues in negotiations are presented, making it possible to find high-quality solutions for the complex agents’ utility functions. This book is a compilation of the extended versions of the very best papers selected from the many that were presented at the International Workshop on Agent-Based Complex Automated Negotiations.

  13. Australian men's sexual practices in saunas, sex clubs and other male sex on premises venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Anthony; Smith, Anthony M A; Grierson, Jeffrey W; von Doussa, Henry

    2010-06-01

    Sex on premises venues (SOPVs) where men have sex with men have been implicated in the spread of sexually transmissible infections, but few studies have described men's sexual encounters in SOPVs, particularly the degree to which men from different backgrounds engage in risky sexual practices. Interviewer administered surveys were conducted with 186 Australian men who have sex with men (MSM) within 48 h of visiting an SOPV. They reported their sexual practices, the characteristics of their partners and other circumstances surrounding their sexual encounters. All analyses were based on the number of sexual encounters (n = 430). Oral sex was the most common practice, occurring in 74.9% of encounters, followed by massage, frottage or kissing (53.7%), solo or mutual masturbation (36.3%), and anal sex (32.1%). Multivariate analyses revealed age as a significant factor for having protected anal sex (P = 0.001), insertive anal sex (P = 0.004) and receptive anal sex (P practices were more frequent in encounters among younger men, while masturbation (P = 0.03) was more frequent among older men. When men's sexual partners were affected by alcohol, encounters were less likely to involve unprotected anal intercourse (P = 0.006) and more likely to involve massage, frottage or kissing (P = 0.009). Men disclosed their HIV status in only 7.7% of encounters. With the likelihood of risky sexual practices varying according to background, results from this study should be used to guide interventions aiming to promote safer sex in SOPVs.

  14. Struggling to care: A discursive-material analysis of negotiating agency among HIV-positive MSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canoy, Nico A; Ofreneo, Mira Alexis P

    2017-11-01

    A discursive-materialist framework of agency asserts the mutual constitution of agency within cultural discursive, economic, and embodied material structures. Understanding how HIV-positive men who have sex with men in the Philippines negotiate agency vis-a-vis wider social structures, we utilized Foucault's care of the self to locate agency in relationships with the self, others, and the broader world. Using data from narratives of 20 Filipino HIV-positive men who have sex with men, we analyzed the negotiation of agency as HIV-positive as embedded in the unique discursive terrain of Roman Catholicism and the economic materiality of a developing country. Three main processes of negotiating agency are elaborated: (1) questioning the spiritual self and the sexual body in the relationship with the self, (2) navigating interpersonal limits to care giving in the relationship with others, and (3) reclaiming human dignity in health care in the relationship with the broader world. Theoretical insights on the discursive and material constitution of healing in light of discursive and material challenges are discussed.

  15. High rates of Unintended Pregnancies among Young Women Sex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Key words: sex work, reproductive health, HIV, Uganda, post-conflict. Résumé. Cette étude ..... managers who are supportive of HIV prevention, and having managers ..... and Shannon K. Negotiating safety and sexual risk reduction with clients ...

  16. The Doha Negotiations on Trade in Goods: An European Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Messerlin , Patrick

    2006-01-01

    The note reviews the basic market access issues in the Doha negotiations on trade in goods from an European perspective. First, it shows that some European negotiators are demanding more concessions in manufacturing (NAMA) that the European business community is asking for - adding strong tensions in a context already marked by severe problems in farm talks. Second, the note reveals the European interests really at stake in the agricultural negotiations, before addressing the negotiating issu...

  17. Creating Sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cahana, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Laqueur’s influential yet controversial study Making Sex has, in many ways, revolutionized our understanding of sexuality in antiquity. Yet, most of Laqueur’s critics and supporters stressed the one-sex body, while the crux of his argument is the primacy of gender. Moreover, a systematic...

  18. Sex determination

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The sex-determining system differs considerably among organisms. Even among insect species, the genetic system for sex-determination is highly diversified. In Drosophila melanogaster, somatic sexual differentiation is regulated by a well characterized genetic hierarchy X : A > Sxl > tra/tra2 > dsx and fru. This cascade ...

  19. Children of Same-Sex Parents: In and out of the Closet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Juliet E.; Mourot, Jon E.; Aros, Megan

    2012-01-01

    An estimated 14 million children are parented by gay or lesbian couples. Research indicates that children of same-sex parents are as well adjusted as their peers of opposite-sex parents. However, previous research has yet to examine how these youth negotiate their own process of coming out about their families to others. We sought to identify the…

  20. 48 CFR 570.105-1 - Contracting by negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracting by negotiation. 570.105-1 Section 570.105-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL CONTRACTING PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY General 570.105-1 Contracting by negotiation. Contracting by negotiation...

  1. 48 CFR 970.1504-2 - Price negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Price negotiation. 970.1504-2 Section 970.1504-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Contracting by Negotiation 970.1504-2 Price negotiation. (a) Management and operating contract...

  2. 48 CFR 315.372 - Preparation of negotiation memorandum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preparation of negotiation memorandum. 315.372 Section 315.372 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection 315.372 Preparation of negotiation memorandum. The Contracting...

  3. Strategies and tactics of the negotiation for powerplant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakatani, Yoshifumi; Yamanaka, Yoshiro; Yamamoto, Kimio

    1983-01-01

    Recently, the negotiation with local inhabitants in powerplant siting area is apt to drag on and is becoming more intricate. The purpose of this study is to present strategies and tactics for stepping up the negotiation more smoothly, taking the case of the negotiation with a fishermen's union. In this report, a case study is made for ten cases regarding negotiation with local fishermen's unions in order to find out how the negotiations were carried out. The results of the study are summarized as follows. 1) The negotiations were classified into four types in accordance with the characteristics of each case (e.g. historical background, type of project). 2) An analysis was made about the relationship between the degree of difficulty of negotiation (e.g. period of time of the negotiation for fishery compensation) and the characteristics of the case. As a result, it was found that the degree of difficulty of negotiation has a close relationship to the historical background and the fishery productivity. 3) Persons concerned with the negotiation were classified into three groups. The interested party, the mediators and the supporters, according to the relationship among these persons and the roles played by them. 4) External events haveing an effect on the development of the negotiation were extracted and pigeonholed. 5) The behavior of the persons concerned was analyzed and thirty-eight measures were figured out which were considered to be effective to negotiate smoothly. (author)

  4. 33 CFR 1.05-60 - Negotiated rulemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Negotiated rulemaking. 1.05-60... committee members will negotiate in good faith; (4) There is a likelihood of a committee consensus in a... Coast Guard has resources to do negotiated rulemaking; and (7) The Coast Guard can use the consensus of...

  5. 48 CFR 2515.215-70 - NSF negotiation authorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Negotiation Authorities 2515.215-70 NSF negotiation authorities. (a) Authorities. Citation: 42 U.S.C. 1870(c). (b) Application. When an NSF contract... international cooperation or national security.” Contracts or their modifications entered into under this...

  6. The medium as an innovation in international negotiation : an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulijn, J.M.; Kersten, G.E.

    2004-01-01

    This issue of International Negotiation addresses a new research perspective on cross-cultural and international negotiation processes – the effects of innovation. This research examines the process of negotiation in terms of the elemental human decision-making and communication acts that are

  7. 50 CFR 600.760 - Fishery Negotiation Panel lifetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fishery Negotiation Panel lifetime. 600... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Fishery Negotiation Panels § 600.760 Fishery Negotiation Panel lifetime. (a) An FNP shall terminate upon either: (1) Submission of...

  8. 32 CFR 644.85 - General negotiation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true General negotiation procedures. 644.85 Section... negotiation procedures. (a) Provisions of Military Construction Appropriation Act. (1) Section 108 of the... of Pub. L. 91-646 and this chapter. (c) Negotiations on the basis of ownership; “Package-Deal...

  9. 37 CFR 351.2 - Voluntary negotiation period; settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voluntary negotiation period... CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ROYALTY JUDGES RULES AND PROCEDURES PROCEEDINGS § 351.2 Voluntary negotiation period..., the Copyright Royalty Judges will announce the beginning of a voluntary negotiation period and will...

  10. 48 CFR 36.520 - Contracting by negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracting by negotiation... by negotiation. The contracting officer shall insert in solicitations for construction the provision at 52.236-28, Preparation of Offers—Construction, when contracting by negotiation. [62 FR 51258, Sept...

  11. Examining Classroom Negotiation Strategies of International Teaching Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gwendolyn M.

    2011-01-01

    From a constructivist point of view teacher identity evolves as the teacher interacts and negotiates with others. However, before negotiation can occur, instructors must establish their own teacher identity as a starting position. This narrative study analyzes how international teaching assistants negotiated with their American undergraduate…

  12. 48 CFR 15.406-3 - Documenting the negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... negotiation. 15.406-3 Section 15.406-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.406-3 Documenting the negotiation. (a) The contracting officer shall document in the contract file the principal elements of the...

  13. International business: Raising cultural awareness in global negotiating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Gardašević

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The global marketplace is a fast-growing and rapidly changing field. Global negotiation is a process where each party from two or more different countries involved in negotiating tries to gain an advantage for itself by the end of the process. The process of global negotiating differs from culture to culture in terms of language, different types of communication (verbal and nonverbal, negotiating style, approaches to problem – solving, etc. The aspects of culture that are of vital importance for global negotiating are attitudes and beliefs, religion, material culture, and language. This paper should encourage better understanding of the process of negotiation: it defines the negotiation process, identifies the issues that are subject to negotiation and mentions the stages of negotiation. It discusses the importance of developing cultural awareness prior to negotiating internationally through descriptive overview of all aspects of culture. It gives examples of differences in global negotiating and doing business worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to show theoretically the connection between these terms and provide information that will prevent business people from making mistakes and pitfalls in international negotiation process.

  14. Collaborative Negotiations: A Successful Approach for Negotiation Compliance Milestones for the transition of the PFP Hanford Nuclear Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOPKINS, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The new approach to negotiations was termed collaborative (win-win) rather than positional (win-lose). Collaborative negotiations were conducted to establish milestones for the decommissioning of the Plutonium Finishing Plant, PFP

  15. Fuzzy Constraint-Based Agent Negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Menq-Wen Lin; K. Robert Lai; Ting-Jung Yu

    2005-01-01

    Conflicts between two or more parties arise for various reasons and perspectives. Thus, resolution of conflicts frequently relies on some form of negotiation. This paper presents a general problem-solving framework for modeling multi-issue multilateral negotiation using fuzzy constraints. Agent negotiation is formulated as a distributed fuzzy constraint satisfaction problem (DFCSP). Fuzzy constrains are thus used to naturally represent each agent's desires involving imprecision and human conceptualization, particularly when lexical imprecision and subjective matters are concerned. On the other hand, based on fuzzy constraint-based problem-solving, our approach enables an agent not only to systematically relax fuzzy constraints to generate a proposal, but also to employ fuzzy similarity to select the alternative that is subject to its acceptability by the opponents. This task of problem-solving is to reach an agreement that benefits all agents with a high satisfaction degree of fuzzy constraints, and move towards the deal more quickly since their search focuses only on the feasible solution space. An application to multilateral negotiation of a travel planning is provided to demonstrate the usefulness and effectiveness of our framework.

  16. The Cultural Negotiations of Korean Immigrant Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Christine J.; Ma, Pei-Wen; Madan-Bahel, Anvita; Hunter, Carla D.; Jung, Sunna; Kim, Angela B.; Akitaya, Kyoko; Sasaki, Kiyoko

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated the process of cultural adjustment among 13 Korean immigrant youths using consensual qualitative research (C. E. Hill, B. J. Thompson, & E. N. Williams, 1997). Results indicate that Korean youth are expected to negotiate and shift their identities to meet differing expectations across various interpersonal contexts.…

  17. Pair Negotiation When Developing English Speaking Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohórquez Suárez, Ingrid Liliana; Gómez Sará, Mary Mily; Medina Mosquera, Sindy Lorena

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes what characterizes the negotiations of seventh graders at a public school in Bogotá when working in pairs to develop speaking tasks in EFL classes. The inquiry is a descriptive case study that follows the qualitative paradigm. As a result of analyzing the data, we obtained four consecutive steps that characterize students'…

  18. 77 FR 59343 - Contracting by Negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 3415 Contracting by Negotiation CFR Correction In Title 48 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Chapter 29 to End, revised as of October 1, 2011, on page 150, in section 3415.605, paragraph (d) is correctly revised, and section 3415.606 is added to read as follows: 3415.605...

  19. 5 CFR 9701.519 - Negotiation impasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Negotiation impasses. 9701.519 Section 9701.519 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Labor-Management...

  20. The hostage experience: implications for negotiation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giebels, Ellen; Noelanders, Sigrid; Vervaeke, Geert

    2005-01-01

    From a clinical and social psychological perspective, this exploratory study aims at relating the hostage experience to hostage negotiation strategies. Therefore, we conducted 11 semi-structured and in-depth interviews with victims of two types of hostage-taking: sieges and kidnappings. The results

  1. The hostage experience : Implications for negotiation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giebels, E; Noelanders, S; Vervaeke, G

    2005-01-01

    From a clinical and social psychological perspective, this exploratory study aims at relating the hostage experience to hostage negotiation strategies. Therefore, we conducted 11 semi-structured and in-depth interviews with victims of two types of hostage-taking: sieges and kidnappings. The results

  2. From Informed Consent to Negotiated Consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Harry R.

    1988-01-01

    Considers informed consent standard inadequate for insuring autonomy in long term care. Argues for complex standard of "negotiated consent." Illuminates philosophical argument by qualitative data from interviews with physicians, nurses, and social workers in nursing homes, which demonstrated continuum of interventions ranging from…

  3. Licensing and negotiating: exploring unfamiliar ground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, N.; Stone, G.; Anderson, R.; Feinstein, J.

    2006-01-01

    Over the last decade the scene in which librarians have had to operate has completely changed. Librarians have migrated from book-buyers to licence-negotiators, from circulation experts to providers of digital services. This chapter tries to map some of the fields that they have entered and to

  4. Formula Approaches for Market Access Negotiations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. François (Joseph); W. Martin (William)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractMost of the large tariff reductions achieved in multilateral trade negotiations have involved tariff-cutting formulas such as the "Swiss" formula. However, wide variations in initial tariff rates between active participants call for new approaches under the Doha Development Agenda. This

  5. Negotiating Your Syllabus: Building a Collaborative Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, David M.; Renard, Monika K.

    2015-01-01

    We provide instruction for engaging students in negotiating their course syllabus. In contrast to the common conceptualization of the syllabus as an instructor-determined contract, we involve our students in developing the collaborative contract under which they will be evaluated. We discuss our successful facilitation of this activity and how to…

  6. How to manage your negotiating team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Jeanne M; Friedman, Ray; Behfar, Kristin

    2009-09-01

    You are leading a negotiating team for your company. When you sit down with the other party, someone on your side of the table blurts out: "Just tell us--what do we need to do to get more of your business?" And in that moment, you know you've lost the upper hand. Gaffes like this are more common than most businesspeople would care to admit, management professors Brett, Friedman, and Behfar have found in their research. Even though team members are all technically on the same side, they often have different priorities and imagine different ideal outcomes: Business development just wants to close the deal. Finance is most concerned about costs. Legal is focused on patents and intellectual property. The authors recommend taking four steps, either singly or in tandem, to align those goals: Map out each person's priorities, work out conflicts directly with departments, employ a mediator if that doesn't work, and use data to resolve differences. Once you are all on the same page, you can take steps to make sure everyone is coordinated during the negotiations themselves. Try simulating the negotiation beforehand, assigning roles to team members that take advantage of their strengths, and establishing the signals you will use to communicate with one another during the session. The payoff from working as a cohesive group is clear. With access to greater expertise and the ability to assign members to specialized roles, teams can implement more-complex strategies than a sole negotiator could ever pull off.

  7. Governing climate? 20 years of international negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aykut, Stefan; Dahan, Amy

    2015-01-01

    As greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere have reached a record level in 2013, the authors propose an analysis and an assessment of international negotiations and governance on the climate issue since the Kyoto protocol. They precisely describe the mechanics of these negotiations, recall their different steps (the IPCC creation, the Rio conference, the UN Convention, the Kyoto protocol), describe the emergence of the different concepts which have been used to define the negotiation framework, comment the definition of the three main structuring principles of the struggle against climate change (precautionary principle, principle of common but differentiated responsibility, right to development), and outline the role of adaptation. They discuss the negotiation context, the emergence of a European leadership, the failure of the Copenhagen conference, and the importance of domestic policies. They also address other related concerns: the maintenance of the prevailing model of economic growth, national sovereignty, the postures of some companies and sectors. The authors present and analyse the situation and posture of different countries: USA, China, emerging powers like Brazil and India, Europe, Germany and France. They make some propositions to build up a new type of international climate governance, and outline the need of a convergence of international energy, commercial and development agendas, and of the development of a bottom-up approach

  8. Negotiating School Conflicts to Prevent Student Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cecco, John P.; Roberts, John K.

    One of 52 theoretical papers on school crime and its relation to poverty, this chapter presents a model of negotiation as a means to resolve school conflict. The assumption is that school conflict is inevitable, but student delinquency is not. Delinquent behavior results from the way that the school deals with conflict. Students resort to…

  9. Order and Mystery in Negotiation Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Linda L.; Bullis, Connie

    A preliminary study investigating the perceptions of intergroup relations in the bargaining process supports Kenneth Burke's concepts of order and mystery. Questionnaires, interviews, and direct observations of teachers' and school boards' teams involved in contract negotiations show that people closest to the bargaining saw more order in the…

  10. Shifting Selves: Constructing and Negotiating Academic Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeyar, S.

    2010-01-01

    This study set out to explore how academics construct and negotiate their identities within the world of the academe. Identity construction involves different forms of community participation and identification. Utilising the research methodology of narrative inquiry, this article explores how academics came to see themselves across those…

  11. Designing an International Joint Venture Negotiation Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenkel, Phil; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Evaluates a simulation game that models management problems encountered in negotiating and managing international joint ventures. Designed to instruct executives of state-owned agribusinesses in Indonesia in abstract concepts such as partner rapport, transfer price conflicts, and marketing disagreements, its success suggests that simulation games…

  12. Essence and resolution of international climate negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Wan Du

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In essence, international climate negotiation is a serious and responsible global effort, despite various conflicts, to establish a rational international climate regime. In essence, tackling climate changes is leading the globe to actualize sustainable development of all humankind along the low-carbon, green, and cyclic-development path. Thus, climate negotiation should be driving all parties to achieve a global climate regime arrangement in a constructive way. Therefore, this paper suggests focusing on the following three major recommendations: early developed countries take the lead in committing positively to absolute emission reduction; the developing countries contribute according to their abilities and stages of development; the developed countries perform real deeds using their funds and technology. Based on substantial breakthrough that would be made, progressive supplement and improvement could be accomplished through the mechanism of review and adjustment under the Convention framework. This path represents a combination of bottom-up and top-down. The ultimate way out of international climate negotiation lies in win-win cooperation. Profound reasons for China to participate proactively and practically in international climate negotiation, based on its actual conditions, are the internal wants and needs of its scientific and sustainable development, as well as the undertaking of international responsibilities as a responsible, large, developing country.

  13. An Intimate Encounter: Negotiating Subtitled Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niall Flynn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The question of subtitling has received little attention in Film Studies, despite being the primary means by which foreign-language cinema is experienced. Current literature focuses on important matters of language and translation, but there are other aspects that exceed these matters when we watch subtitled films, aspects which are able to affect and move viewers without relying on explanation through translation. My paper shows how viewers have to negotiate these affective elements in order to apprehend foreign-language films, with special attention on their indeterminate characteristics that escape representation. It considers the negotiation of subtitled cinema from numerous theoretical perspectives. Gilles Deleuze’s film-philosophy is popular in Film Studies for its theoretical flows and lines of flight, but this paper engages another Deleuzian thread—one of gaps and fissure—in order to explore the indeterminate negotiations of subtitled films. But in thinking about subtitling, we also have to reconsider the constitution of media. Cinema is not just made up of individual parts; rather, it is made of many interacting media, which cannot be separated. I argue that subtitled cinema consists of multiple affective elements that go beyond the interpretive methods of language and translation, and that the practice of negotiation is one way to apprehend them. In conclusion, this article, by exploring non-linguistic issues, argues that subtitling is not simply supplementary to cinema.

  14. 47 CFR 27.1251 - Mandatory Negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... incumbent. In evaluating claims that a party has not negotiated in good faith, the FCC will consider, inter..., reliability is measured by the percent of time the bit error rate (BER) exceeds a desired value, and for analog or digital video transmission, it is measured by whether the end-to-end transmission delay is...

  15. 47 CFR 101.73 - Mandatory negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... relocation process. In evaluating claims that a party has not negotiated in good faith, the FCC will consider... overall reliability of the FMS system. For digital systems, reliability is measured by the percent of time... measured by the percent of time that audio signal quality meets an established threshold. If an analog...

  16. COLLECTIVE NEGOTIATIONS--IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OHM, ROBERT E.

    THE AUTHOR STATES THAT CONFLICT, CONTROL, AND BARGAINING ARE PRIMARY ELEMENTS FOR RELEVANT THEORY AND RESEARCH ON COLLECTIVE TEACHER NEGOTIATION. COLLECTIVE ACTIVITY BY TEACHERS IS ATTRIBUTED TO THEIR INCREASED PROFESSIONALIZATION AND IS REGARDED AS AN ORGANIZATIONAL RESPONSE GENERATED BY AN EMERGING MANAGERIAL-PROFESSIONAL-BUREAUCRATIC…

  17. Negotiated economic opportunity and power: perspectives and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is least acknowledged in daily discourses that street vending is a very important phenomenon. Little wonder that street vending involves negotiating for space in all its manifestations: physical space, economic opportunity and power. The vendors are coerced by both local urban and national authorities and sometimes the ...

  18. Administration by negotiation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, O.J.D.M.L.

    2002-01-01

    The legal literature in the Netherlands has been paying a considerable amount of attention for some time now to horizontal administration or administration by negotiation., voluntary agreements, mediation, Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) and dispute settlement. The issue is still of continued

  19. Stair negotiation in women with fibromyalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Mateo, Daniel; Domínguez-Muñoz, Francisco J.; Olivares, Pedro R.; Adsuar, José C.; Gusi, Narcis

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Walking up and down stairs is a common and important activity of daily living. Women with fibromyalgia often show a reduced ability to perform this task. The objective of this study was to evaluate the test–retest reliability of stair negotiation tasks and to assess the impact of fibromyalgia symptoms on the ability to negotiate stairs. Forty-two women with fibromyalgia participated in this descriptive correlational study. The relevance of the stair negotiation (both walking up and down) was evaluated by assessing its association with the revised version of the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ-R) and other health-related variables. Test–retest reliability was also analyzed. The main outcome measures were time spent walking up and down stairs and impact of fibromyalgia, quality of life, number of falls, weight, and lower limb strength and endurance. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for stair descent was 0.929 whereas that for ascent was 0.972. The score in these tests correlated significantly with the total score for the FIQ-R and the score for many of dimensions and symptoms: that is, physical function, overall impact of fibromyalgia, pain, energy, stiffness, restorative sleep, tenderness, self-perceived balance problems, and sensitivity. Given the importance of the stair negotiation as activity of daily living and the high reliability, both stair ascent and descent tasks may be useful as outcome measures in studies on patients with fibromyalgia. PMID:29069023

  20. Safer-drinking strategies used by chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazioli, Véronique S; Hicks, Jennifer; Kaese, Greta; Lenert, James; Collins, Susan E

    2015-07-01

    Chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence experience severe alcohol-related consequences. It is therefore important to identify factors that might be associated with reduced alcohol-related harm, such as the use of safer-drinking strategies. Whereas effectiveness of safer-drinking strategies has been well-documented among young adults, no studies have explored this topic among more severely affected populations, such as chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence. The aims of this study were thus to qualitatively and quantitatively document safer-drinking strategies used in this population. Participants (N=31) were currently or formerly chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence participating in a pilot study of extended-release naltrexone and harm-reduction counseling. At weeks 0 and 8, research staff provided a list of safer-drinking strategies for participants to endorse. Implementation of endorsed safer-drinking strategies was recorded at the next appointment. At both time points, strategies to buffer the effects of alcohol on the body (e.g., eating prior to and during drinking) were most highly endorsed, followed by changing the manner in which one drinks (e.g., spacing drinks), and reducing alcohol consumption. Quantitative analyses indicated that all participants endorsed safer-drinking strategies, and nearly all strategies were implemented (80-90% at weeks 0 and 8, respectively). These preliminary findings indicate that chronically homeless people with alcohol dependence use strategies to reduce harm associated with their drinking. Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to test whether interventions that teach safer-drinking strategies may reduce overall alcohol-related harm in this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Piroxicam-β-cyclodextrin: a GI safer piroxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpignato, C

    2013-01-01

    more rapid onset of action after oral administration and improved GI tolerability because of minimization of the drug gastric effects. One such drug, piroxicam-β-cyclodextrin (PBC), has been used in Europe for 25 years. Preclinical and clinical pharmacology of PBC do show that the β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex of piroxicam is better tolerated from the upper GI tract than free piroxicam, while retaining all the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of the parent compound. In addition, the drug is endowed with a quick absorption rate, which translates into a faster onset of analgesic activity, an effect confirmed in several clinical studies. An analysis of the available trials show that PBC has a GI safety profile, which is better than that displayed by uncomplexed piroxicam. Being an inclusion complex of piroxicam, whose CV safety has been pointed out by several observational studies, PBC should be viewed as a CV safe anti-inflmmatory compound and a GI safer alternative to piroxicam. As a consequence, it should be considered as a useful addition to our therapeutic armamentarium.

  2. The negotiation of collective agreements in France: Challenges and characteristics of negotiating gender equality

    OpenAIRE

    Coron , Clotilde

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The negotiation of corporate agreements in France, the cornerstone of labor relations, has been the subject of much research. However, few address the issue of the process of the negotiation of a company agreement on gender equality, a theme that has been mandatory since the Génisson 2001 Act. This issue presents certain particularities (the transversal nature of gender equality across various Human Resource areas, legal framework obligations, etc.) that may affect the...

  3. Offer and Acceptance and the Dynamics of Negotiations: Arguments for Contract Theory from Negotiation Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Pannebakker, Ekaterina

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe doctrine of offer and acceptance forms the basis of the rules of contract formation in most western legal systems. However, if parties enter into elaborate negotiations, these rules may become difficult to apply. This paper addresses the application of the doctrine of offer and acceptance to the formation of contract in the context of negotiations. The paper argues that while the doctrine of offer and acceptance is designed to assess the issues related to the substance of the ...

  4. An integrated theoretical approach to substance use and risky sexual behavior among men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Brooke E; Golub, Sarit A; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2011-04-01

    Research demonstrates a consistent association between substance use and sexual risk, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM). The present study builds upon two existing theories (Cognitive Escape Theory and Expectancy Theory) to examine the synergistic role of sexual conflict (surrounding unsafe sex) and expectancies in sexual behavior among 135 MSM. Two conflicts were examined: (1) The conflict between motivation to practice safer sex and temptation for unprotected sex; and (2) The conflict between motivation to practice safer sex and perceived benefits of unprotected sex. Factorial ANOVAs (2 × 2; high versus low expectancies and conflict versus no conflict) revealed a significant interaction between conflict and expectancies-individuals who reported high levels of conflict were more sensitive to the effect of expectancies than were those experiencing low levels of sexual conflict. Results demonstrate the synergistic effects of conflict and expectancies and highlight the importance of integrating existing theories to more fully consider the intrapsychic operation and experience of sexual conflicts.

  5. When does taking a break help in negotiations? The influence of breaks and social motivation on negotiation processes and outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harinck, F.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2011-01-01

    Most negotiations are interrupted from time to time to reflect on the negotiation or to do other pressing tasks. This study investigated how these breaks and the thoughts during these breaks influence subsequent negotiation behavior. Prosocially motivated dyads, with a tendency to think

  6. Strategies and tactics of the negotiation for powerplant siting, model analysis of negotiation with the local fishermen's union, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakatani, Yoshifumi; Yamanaka, Yoshiro

    1983-01-01

    Recently, the negotiation with local inhabitants in powerplant siting area is apt to drag on and is becoming more intricate. The purpose of this study is to present strategies and tactics for stepping up the negotiation more smoothly, taking the case of the negotiation with a fishermen's union. In this report, we obtained knowledge about the negotiation regarding compensation by the process as follows. (1) A gaming simulation model of the negotiation was built from the case study. This model reenacted the negotiation by having role-players represent the role of a power industry and fishermen's union. (2) Applying this model, 16 cases of simulated negotiations were carried out. As a result, similarities to actual negotiations were observed in the development of the negotiations and in the behavior of the interested party. We confirmed the model's ability to reproduce the negotiations. (3) Knowledge and information was also obtained by this simulation, concerning the developmental pattern of the negotiations, the effectiveness of measures for the promotion of fishery, the role of mediation, the utilization of preliminary negotiation, and so on. (author)

  7. Getting to Yes at the Beach or in the Office? : The Role of Location Formality and Negotiation Type on Negotiation Process and Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, Alain; van der Wijst, Per

    2017-01-01

    The negotiation location plays an important role in negotiations. The present study examined to what extent the negotiation process and outcomes are influenced by the formality of the location and negotiation type. It was hypothesized that negotiations in a beach setting would yield better

  8. Personality determinants of manipulative behavior in the negotiation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila V. Matveeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Negotiations are an inalienable component of human society in the modernworld, so studying those personal characteristics of negotiators that infl uencetheir choice of negotiating strategy, tactics, and style is relevant and signifi cant.Knowledge of the patterns of a partner’s choice of one strategy of behavior or anotherinfl uences on successful negotiation process and assists in achieving goals.We did research on the connections among level of anxiety, motivation to succeedand to avoid failure, and self-esteem to the level of Machiavellianism. This articlediscusses the personal characteristics that infl uence the choice of manipulativetactics of behavior in negotiations.

  9. Second negotiation meeting on the joint implementation of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Y.

    2002-01-01

    The second negotiation meeting on the joint implementation of ITER was held in Tokyo(Japan) on 22-23 January 2002 to continue formal negotiations on the joint implementation of the ITER project. The delegations from Japan, European Union, Canada and Russia reached common understanding on some of the Joint Implementation Agreement (JIA) related issues. The delegations requested the Negotiators' Standing Subgroup (NSSG) to further elaborate the draft JIA and to submit second draft to the third Negotiation Meeting. The delegations accepted the revised Work Plan and Milestones for the negotiations process

  10. Constraints and triggers: situational mechanics of gender in negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Hannah Riley; Babcock, Linda; McGinn, Kathleen L

    2005-12-01

    The authors propose 2 categories of situational moderators of gender in negotiation: situational ambiguity and gender triggers. Reducing the degree of situational ambiguity constrains the influence of gender on negotiation. Gender triggers prompt divergent behavioral responses as a function of gender. Field and lab studies (1 and 2) demonstrated that decreased ambiguity in the economic structure of a negotiation (structural ambiguity) reduces gender effects on negotiation performance. Study 3 showed that representation role (negotiating for self or other) functions as a gender trigger by producing a greater effect on female than male negotiation performance. Study 4 showed that decreased structural ambiguity constrains gender effects of representation role, suggesting that situational ambiguity and gender triggers work in interaction to moderate gender effects on negotiation performance. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. STRATEGIES FOR SMALL ENTERPRISES NEGOTIATING WITH LARGE FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Anca Stan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available All around the world business is changing. All traditional business practices have been called into question as markets, customers competitors, problems and solutions have changed. As a result, business practices we once took for granted, like traditional negotiating approaches are falling by the wayside in favor of more collaborative, equally beneficial, win-win strategies. A new negotiation paradigm away from negotiating a deal and toward negotiating a relationship is needed for the twenty first century. Business can no longer stay on top by negotiating short term victories. The key to winning unbeatable, long term results is to negotiate solid, long term relationship. Smart business owners are trying to find ways to leverage their assets, and one important way is to negotiate for long - term relationships. Traditional knowledge and skills remain important. Yet global managers can better respond to global demands by learning continuously managing diversity, and developing a global mindset.

  12. Multi-issue Agent Negotiation Based on Fairness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Baohe; Zheng, Sue; Wu, Hong

    Agent-based e-commerce service has become a hotspot now. How to make the agent negotiation process quickly and high-efficiently is the main research direction of this area. In the multi-issue model, MAUT(Multi-attribute Utility Theory) or its derived theory usually consider little about the fairness of both negotiators. This work presents a general model of agent negotiation which considered the satisfaction of both negotiators via autonomous learning. The model can evaluate offers from the opponent agent based on the satisfaction degree, learn online to get the opponent's knowledge from interactive instances of history and negotiation of this time, make concessions dynamically based on fair object. Through building the optimal negotiation model, the bilateral negotiation achieved a higher efficiency and fairer deal.

  13. Oral sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-04-05

    The Gay and Lesbian Medical Association urges HIV prevention specialists to regard male-to-male oral-genital sex as a low-risk activity and concentrate instead on the danger of unprotected anal intercourse. According to the association, the confusion and mixed messages surrounding oral sex are harming efforts to encourage gay men to make rational choices about truly risky behavior. The recommendations appear in the association's position paper issued March 19, 1996.

  14. Why Sex?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    It is assumed that most organisms have sex because the resulting genetic recombination allows Darwinian selection to work better. It is now shown that in water fleas, recombination does lead to fewer deleterious mutations.......It is assumed that most organisms have sex because the resulting genetic recombination allows Darwinian selection to work better. It is now shown that in water fleas, recombination does lead to fewer deleterious mutations....

  15. Expediting Groundwater Sampling at Hanford and Making It Safer - 13158

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connell, Carl W. Jr.; Conley, S.F.; Carr, Jennifer S.; Schatz, Aaron L.; Brown, W.L.; Hildebrand, R. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    documents, the system saves three-to-four man days each month for the field personnel taking the measurements and the scientists and administrators managing the data and the documentation. After the information has received technical review, FLEDG automatically updates the database for water-level measurements and loads the document management system with the completed sampling report. Due to safety considerations, access to wells is conditional. A spreadsheet with appropriate data not only lists the wells that are cleared for work, but also the safety personnel who must be present before work can start. This spreadsheet is used in planning daily activities. Daily plans are structured to ensure that the wells to be sampled are cleared for work and the appropriate safety personnel have been assigned and are present before the work starts. Historically, the spreadsheets have been prepared manually, and as a result, are potentially subject to human error. However, a companion database application has been developed to work with FLEDG - making the entire sampling process more efficient and safer for personnel. The Well Access List - Electronic, WAL-E, is a database that contains much the same information that was previously manually loaded into the spread sheet. In addition, WAL-E contains a managed work-flow application that shows the access requirements and allows for appropriate reviews of the compiled well. Various CHPRC organizations, including Industrial Hygiene, RADCON, and Well Maintenance and Sample Administration are able to enter and review the wells added or deleted from the WAL-E database. The FLEDG system then accesses this database information to identify appropriate support personnel and provide safety requirements to field personnel. In addition, WAL-E offers the assurance that wells have appropriate locks and are correctly labeled and electrically grounded as required, before well activities begin. This feature is an extremely important aspect of the FLEDG

  16. Expediting Groundwater Sampling at Hanford and Making It Safer - 13158

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connell, Carl W. Jr.; Conley, S.F.; Carr, Jennifer S.; Schatz, Aaron L. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, P.O. Box 1600, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Brown, W.L. [Lockheed Martin Systems Information, P.O. Box 950, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Hildebrand, R. Douglas [Department of Energy - Richland Operations Office, 825 Jadwin Ave., Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    eliminating the need to print out documents, the system saves three-to-four man days each month for the field personnel taking the measurements and the scientists and administrators managing the data and the documentation. After the information has received technical review, FLEDG automatically updates the database for water-level measurements and loads the document management system with the completed sampling report. Due to safety considerations, access to wells is conditional. A spreadsheet with appropriate data not only lists the wells that are cleared for work, but also the safety personnel who must be present before work can start. This spreadsheet is used in planning daily activities. Daily plans are structured to ensure that the wells to be sampled are cleared for work and the appropriate safety personnel have been assigned and are present before the work starts. Historically, the spreadsheets have been prepared manually, and as a result, are potentially subject to human error. However, a companion database application has been developed to work with FLEDG - making the entire sampling process more efficient and safer for personnel. The Well Access List - Electronic, WAL-E, is a database that contains much the same information that was previously manually loaded into the spread sheet. In addition, WAL-E contains a managed work-flow application that shows the access requirements and allows for appropriate reviews of the compiled well. Various CHPRC organizations, including Industrial Hygiene, RADCON, and Well Maintenance and Sample Administration are able to enter and review the wells added or deleted from the WAL-E database. The FLEDG system then accesses this database information to identify appropriate support personnel and provide safety requirements to field personnel. In addition, WAL-E offers the assurance that wells have appropriate locks and are correctly labeled and electrically grounded as required, before well activities begin. This feature is an extremely

  17. Differences between E-negotiation and face-to-face negotiation by professional buyers: Analysis of role plays

    OpenAIRE

    Soroush, Negin

    2011-01-01

    In this research, we tried to find out the differences between face-to-face negotiation and E-negotiation. We have done so by examining hypotheses based on the existing literature on negotiations and communication, using a database on negotiations performed by professional buyers in training sessions. Part of the obtained results was based on a face-to-face setting, part of them on an e-mail negotiation setting. We have assessed the obtained results to find out the differences between face-t...

  18. A model of negotiation scenarios based on time, relevance andcontrol used to define advantageous positions in a negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Guillermo Rojas Altamirano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Models that apply to negotiation are based on different perspectives that range from the relationship between the actors, game theory or the steps in a procedure. This research proposes a model of negotiation scenarios that considers three factors (time, relevance and control, which are displayed as the most important in a negotiation. These factors interact with each other and create different scenarios for each of the actors involved in a negotiation. The proposed model not only facilitates the creation of a negotiation strategy but also an ideal choice of effective tactics.

  19. Graphene Based Ultra-Capacitors for Safer, More Efficient Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Luke B.; Mackey, Paul J.; Zide, Carson J.

    2016-01-01

    Current power storage methods must be continuously improved in order to keep up with the increasingly competitive electronics industry. This technological advancement is also essential for the continuation of deep space exploration. Today's energy storage industry relies heavily on the use of dangerous and corrosive chemicals such as lithium and phosphoric acid. These chemicals can prove hazardous to the user if the device is ruptured. Similarly they can damage the environment if they are disposed of improperly. A safer, more efficient alternative is needed across a wide range of NASA missions. One solution would a solid-state carbon based energy storage device. Carbon is a safer, less environmentally hazardous alternative to current energy storage materials. Using the amorphous carbon nanostructure, graphene, this idea of a safer portable energy is possible. Graphene was electrochemically produced in the lab and several coin cell devices were built this summer to create a working prototype of a solid-state graphene battery.

  20. Dynamic SLA Negotiation in Autonomic Federated Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubach, Pawel; Sobolewski, Michael

    Federated computing environments offer requestors the ability to dynamically invoke services offered by collaborating providers in the virtual service network. Without an efficient resource management that includes Dynamic SLA Negotiation, however, the assignment of providers to customer's requests cannot be optimized and cannot offer high reliability without relevant SLA guarantees. We propose a new SLA-based SERViceable Metacomputing Environment (SERVME) capable of matching providers based on QoS requirements and performing autonomic provisioning and deprovisioning of services according to dynamic requestor needs. This paper presents the SLA negotiation process that includes on-demand provisioning and uses an object-oriented SLA model for large-scale service-oriented systems supported by SERVME. An initial reference implementation in the SORCER environment is also described.

  1. Consultation and IBA negotiations in wind projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merle, Alexander [Bull Housser and Tupper LLP (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This presentation aimed at providing more information on consultation and IBA negotiations in wind energy projects, it was given by a law firm Bull, Housser and Tupper LLP. The subjects tackled by this paper are: the duty to consult, what First Nations are expecting from IBAs, if IBAs will differ from one wind project to another, if templates assist in achieving equity, who should be responsible for financing IBAs, and whether benefits or payments of money can achieve equity. The presentation emphasised that it is important to cooperate and share information in determining what the role of the Crown should be. In addition, the authors believe that an innovative resolution table should be established and that legal certainty should be obtained. This presentation provided First Nations with useful information on consultation and IBA negotiations in wind energy projects.

  2. Status of Iran's nuclear program and negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, David

    2014-01-01

    Iran's nuclear program poses immense challenges to international security. Its gas centrifuge program has grown dramatically in the last several years, bringing Iran close to a point where it could produce highly enriched uranium in secret or declared gas centrifuge plants before its breakout would be discovered and stopped. To reduce the risk posed by Iran's nuclear program, the P5+1 have negotiated with Iran short term limits on the most dangerous aspects of its nuclear programs and is negotiating long-term arrangements that can provide assurance that Iran will not build nuclear weapons. These long-term arrangements need to include a far more limited and transparent Iranian nuclear program. In advance of arriving at a long-term arrangement, the IAEA will need to resolve its concerns about the alleged past and possibly on-going military dimensions of Iran's nuclear program

  3. Negotiating Collaborative Governance Designs: A Discursive Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plotnikof, Mie

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the design and implementation issues of collaborative governance, a public-management practice aimed at involving stakeholders in problem solving and public innovation. Although aspects of for example stakeholder inclusion and power are conceptualized in the literature......, these issues remain challenging in practice. Therefore, the interest in understanding the emerging processes of collaborative governance is growing. This article contributes to theorizing discursive aspects of such processes by conceptualizing and exploring the meaning negotiations through which collaborative...... governance designs emerge and change. The findings of a case study of local governments’ efforts to innovate quality management in education through collaborative governance suggest that such form of governance is continuingly negotiated in communication during both design and implementation phases. Through...

  4. Eighth ITER negotiations meeting (N-8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korzhavin, V.

    2003-01-01

    The eighth ITER Negotiations meeting was held on 18-19 February, 2003 in St. Petersburg, Russia. The delegations of People's Republic of China and the USA joined those from Canada, The European Union, Japan and the Russian federation in their efforts to reach agreement on the implementation of the ITER project. The delegations took note of the progress of discussions on procurement allocations, ITER decommissioning issues, management structure and intellectual property rights. The Negotiators approved the report on the Joint Assessment of Specific Sites and noted the report on the start of the ITER Transitional Arrangements (ITA). The delegations also noted that China has stated its willingness to participate in ITA and that the USA is considering participation

  5. GATS Mode 4 Negotiation and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kil-Sang Yoo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews the characteristics and issues of GATS Mode 4 and guesses the effects of Mode 4 liberalization on Korean economy and labor market to suggest policy options to Korea. Mode 4 negotiation started from the trade perspective, however, since Mode 4 involves international labor migration, it also has migration perspective. Thus developed countries, that have competitiveness in service sector, are interested in free movement of skilled workers such as intra-company transferees and business visitors. On the other hand, developing countries, that have little competitiveness in service sector, are interested in free movement of low-skilled workers. Empirical studies predict that the benefits of Mode 4 liberalization will be focused on developed countries rather than developing countries. The latter may suffer from brain drain and reduction of labor supply. Nevertheless developed countries are reluctant to Mode 4 negotiation because they can utilize skilled workers from developing countries by use of their own temporary visa programs. They are interested in Mode 4 related with Mode 3 in order to ease direct investment and movement of natural persons to developing countries. Regardless of the direction of a single undertaking of Mode 4 negotiation, the net effects of Mode 4 liberalization on Korean economy and labor market may be negative. The Korean initial offer on Mode 4 is the same as the UR offer. Since Korean position on Mode 4 is most defensive, it is hard to expect that Korean position will be accepted as the single undertaking of Mode 4 negotiation. Thus Korea has to prepare strategic package measures to minimize the costs of Mode 4 liberalization and improve competitiveness of service sector.

  6. Negotiation Performance: Antecedents, Outcomes, and Training Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    informational processing system. One consequence of this fact, according to their model, is that any cognitive activity that taps this pool, such as...training these skills (Burke & Day, 1986; Falcone, 105 1985; Taylor, Russ- Eft , & Chan, 2005). In their recent meta-analysis of BMT, Taylor, Russ- Eft ...Gender differences in negotiation outcome: A meta- analysis. Personnel Psychology, 52, 653-677. Taylor, P.J., Russ- Eft , D.F., & Chan, D.W.L. (2005

  7. Merger negotiations with stock market feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Betton, Sandra; Eckbo, B. Espen; Thompson, Rex; Thorburn, Karin S.

    2011-01-01

    Merger negotiations routinely occur amidst economically significant a target stock price runups. Since the source of the runup is unobservable (is it a target stand-alone value change and/or deal anticipation?), feeding the runup back into the offer price risks "paying twice" for the target shares. We present a novel structural empirical analysis of this runup feedback hypothesis. We show that rational deal anticipation implies a nonlinear relationship between the runup and the offer price ma...

  8. Tangoing All the Way: Is Everything Negotiable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Bonfield

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available “Negotiation seems like dancing the Tango, two steps forward, two steps back and suddenly three surprising steps forward.” — Margot Wallström Smart, well-intentioned people often have good reasons for saying stupid things. Who hasn’t been swept up in an election, worried that there will be terrible consequences if we put the wrong person in the [...

  9. An intimate encounter: negotiating subtitled cinema

    OpenAIRE

    Flynn, Niall

    2016-01-01

    The question of subtitling has received little attention in Film Studies, despite being the primary means by which foreign-language cinema is experienced. Current literature focuses on important matters of language and translation, but there are other aspects that exceed these matters when we watch subtitled films, aspects which are able to affect and move viewers without relying on explanation through translation. My paper shows how viewers have to negotiate these affective elements in order...

  10. New deal under negotiation with petrochemical sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1997-08-04

    Development of a strong petrochemicals industry is the cornerstone of Alberta`s economic diversification policy. According to the Vice-President for Business Strategy for Nova Corporation, developments have now reached the critical mass that lure new investments and employment by its sheer scale. A tall hurdle still to clear is to secure the source of raw materials from the natural gas production sector and the Alberta government. Negotiations have been underway over supplies of ethane to be extracted from gas streams for proposed new plants. These negotiations are crucial in testing whether Canadian industry can fulfill its potential. The Alliance Pipeline Project is a key component in settling this complex issue in view of the crucial importance of the proposed pipeline to Chicago for export of gas and liquid by-products, including ethane. Nova has made an offer to Alliance which represents a major change in buying methods. Nova is now ready to recognize ethane as a separate commodity that requires it to be listed with its own selling price. Nova offers prices `on a Gulf Coast-dominated basis` which is generally agreed to yield about the same economic upside to producers as if they actually exported the ethane. Nova hopes for a conclusion of negotiations by year end. Meanwhile the Alberta government also hopes for a settlement, if only to avoid the necessity of rationing ethane between Alberta petrochemical plants and exports.

  11. [Teamwork and negotiation with family in pediatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Mendes, Maria Goreti; Rodrigues Araújo, Beatriz; Pereira Martins, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Analyze the negotiation and interaction process within nurses' practice with mothers of hospitalized children in pediatric unit from the teamwork perspective. A qualitative approach was used in this study, based on the Grounded Theory from the symbolic interaction perspective. The study included 12 nurses of the pediatric unit and 18 mothers who stayed in the hospital with their hospitalized children. The number of participants was defined according to data saturation. Participant observation and semi-structured interviews were chosen as data collection techniques and it was analyzed using the program NVivo8. From the analysis performed, the central category identified was «weaknesses in the negotiation process», within the interactions between nurses and mothers. Nurses revealed difficulties in the communication process, they did not include roles definition with mothers in order to establish their participation in the care process and a power imbalance was also evidenced. Within the studied settings, an important lack of collaborative work with hospitalized children's mothers was observed. The weaknesses in the negotiation process and specifically the difficulties found in communication; the lack of roles and tasks clarification and the perceived power imbalance regarding relationships, prevent mothers involvement in their children care process, considered a basic component to achieve a greater mother implication, better results in terms of health and a lower impact of hospitalization in the children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Conflicting Perspectives in Trade and Environmental Negotiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchner, B.K. [Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei FEEM, Milan (Italy); Roson, R. [Economics Department, Ca' Foscari University, Venice (Italy)

    2002-09-01

    International trade negotiations have recently tackled the issue of possible free trade restrictions, justified - among others - on the basis of environmental concerns. Also, some analyses of international environmental agreements (especially in the field of climate change) have highlighted the key role played by changes in the terms of trade in determining the cost of environmental policies. Yet, secondary effects of international trade remain disregarded in many environmental policies, whereas the introduction of environmental trade barriers has been resisted, arguing that this may hide a Trojan horse of a renewed protectionism. This paper reviews the debate on trade and the environment in the two fields of environmental and trade negotiations, highlighting the different and somewhat conflicting approach adopted in the two cases. A numerical general equilibrium model is used to illustrate how different 'perceptions' (translated in terms of alternative model closures) affect the use of instruments, the distributional impact of the various policies, and the strategic interplay between negotiators in international agreements.

  13. The Alliance Negotiation Scale: A psychometric investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Jennifer M; Safran, Jeremy D; Muran, J Christopher

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the utility and psychometric properties of a new measure of psychotherapy process, the Alliance Negotiation Scale (ANS; Doran, Safran, Waizmann, Bolger, & Muran, 2012). The ANS was designed to operationalize the theoretical construct of negotiation (Safran & Muran, 2000), and to extend our current understanding of the working alliance concept (Bordin, 1979). The ANS was also intended to improve upon existing measures such as the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI; Horvath & Greenberg, 1986, 1989) and its short form (WAI-S; Tracey & Kokotovic, 1989) by expanding the emphasis on negative therapy process. The present study investigates the psychometric validity of the ANS test scores and interpretation-including confirming its original factor structure and evaluating its internal consistency and construct validity. Construct validity was examined through the ANS' convergence and divergence with several existing scales that measure theoretically related constructs. The results bolster and extend previous findings about the psychometric integrity of the ANS, and begin to illuminate the relationship between negotiation and other important variables in psychotherapy research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Negotiation of identities in intercultural communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janík Zdeněk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Negotiation of identities in communication entails affirming the identities we want others to recognize in us and ascription of identities we mutually assign to each other in communication. The study of intercultural communication focuses on cultural identity as the principal identity component that defines intercultural communication. In this article, the assumption that cultural group membership factors determine the context of intercultural communication is questioned. The article examines how intercultural interlocutors negotiate their identities in various intercultural interactions. The aims of the research presented in this paper are: 1 to examine which identities - cultural, personal, or social - intercultural interlocutors activate in intercultural communication; 2 to determine whether interlocutors’ intercultural communication is largely influenced by their cultural identities; 3 and to identify situations in which they activate their cultural identities (3. The research data were collected from 263 international students studying at Masaryk University in Brno in the years 2010 - 2016. Although the research results are not conclusive, they indicate that cultural identities predominate in the students’ ethnocentric views and that stereotypes constrain the students’ cultural identities and affect the negotiation of identities in intercultural communication.

  15. Evolving fuzzy rules for relaxed-criteria negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Kwang Mong

    2008-12-01

    In the literature on automated negotiation, very few negotiation agents are designed with the flexibility to slightly relax their negotiation criteria to reach a consensus more rapidly and with more certainty. Furthermore, these relaxed-criteria negotiation agents were not equipped with the ability to enhance their performance by learning and evolving their relaxed-criteria negotiation rules. The impetus of this work is designing market-driven negotiation agents (MDAs) that not only have the flexibility of relaxing bargaining criteria using fuzzy rules, but can also evolve their structures by learning new relaxed-criteria fuzzy rules to improve their negotiation outcomes as they participate in negotiations in more e-markets. To this end, an evolutionary algorithm for adapting and evolving relaxed-criteria fuzzy rules was developed. Implementing the idea in a testbed, two kinds of experiments for evaluating and comparing EvEMDAs (MDAs with relaxed-criteria rules that are evolved using the evolutionary algorithm) and EMDAs (MDAs with relaxed-criteria rules that are manually constructed) were carried out through stochastic simulations. Empirical results show that: 1) EvEMDAs generally outperformed EMDAs in different types of e-markets and 2) the negotiation outcomes of EvEMDAs generally improved as they negotiated in more e-markets.

  16. The Function of Negotiation in Iranian EFL Students’ Vocabulary Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Soleimani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Negotiation is believed to play a key role in language learning in general and vocabulary learning in particular. The present study aimed at investigating the effect of types of instructions (negotiation, non-negotiation, or in isolation on learning and recalling of new words by Iranian learners. Using a quasi-experimental research design, 39 EFL students of a secondary school were sampled and assigned into three experimental groups: the input plus negotiated group (IPN, the input without negotiated group (IWN, and the elaborative, un-instructed input group (EUI. The first group had the chance for negotiated interaction; the second one received the input without any negotiation with their instructor and the last group received elaborative input without any interaction with their teachers. The groups were rated on their degree of comprehension and the acquisition of vocabulary items. The results revealed that negotiation had a non-significant effect over non-negotiation tasks. However, the results indicated that negotiation was significantly effective against un-instruction task. Thus, in acquisition and retention of new vocabulary, IPN group was not significantly different than IWN group, but they outperformed those learners who used their own strategy to learn new words (EUI.

  17. Evaluation of a safer male circumcision training programme for traditional surgeons and nurses in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Nqeketo, Ayanda; Petros, George; Kanta, Xola

    2008-06-18

    Training designed to improve circumcision knowledge, attitude and practice was delivered over 5 days to 34 traditional surgeons and 49 traditional nurses in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Training included the following topics: initiation rites; statutory regulation of traditional male circumcision and initiation into Manhood (TCIM); structure and function of the male sex organs; procedure of safe circumcision, infection control; sexually transmitted infections (STIs); HIV/AIDS; infection control measures; aftercare of the initiate including after care of the circumcision wound and initiate as a whole; detection and early management of common complications of circumcision; nutrition and fluid management; code of conduct and ethics; and sexual health education. The evaluation of the training consisted of a prospective assessment of knowledge and attitude immediately prior to and after training. Significant improvement in knowledge and/or attitudes was observed in legal aspects, STI, HIV and environmental aspects, attitudes in terms of improved collaboration with biomedical health care providers, normal and abnormal anatomy and physiology, sexually transmitted infections and including HIV, circumcision practice and aftercare of initiates. We concluded that safer circumcision training can be successfully delivered to traditional surgeons and nurses.

  18. Eleventh ITER negotiations meeting (N-11) and twelfth negotiators' standing sub-group meeting (NSSG-12)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Delong

    2005-01-01

    The Eleventh ITER Negotiations Meeting (N-11) and the Twelfth Negotiators' Standing Sub-Group (NSSG-12 convened on October 19-25, 2005 at the Kempinski Hotel Chengdu, Sichuan Province. China was the host of this meeting. Delegations from China, the European Union, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation and the United States of America, as well as members from the International Team, met there to continue their work to reach agreement on the joint implementation of the ITER international fusion energy R and D project. The delegations accepted the Vice Minister of Science and Technology, Mr. LIU Yanhua, and State Councillor, Mr. SHI Dinghuan as Moderators for N-11 and NSSG-12, respectively, and Mr. LUO Delong as Secretary for both meetings. At the Meeting, delegates discussed and made substantial progress on a full range of legal, technical, and administrative topics, including staffing for ITER, policies for managing the project and its procurements, and the continuing joint drafting of the agreement on establishing the international ITER Organization to implement the project. Delegates also explored the possibility of India joining the Negotiations. In the light of the reports presented to the Meeting from the recent joint exploratory mission to India, delegates identified a series of steps for the near future leading towards a possible agreement among all the Parties to India's accession. The Negotiations Meeting also discussed the progress report of NSSG and forward planning and future tasks. The Negotiators agreed that substantial progress was made on all topics, and delegations are optimistic that the Joint Implementation Agreement and related Annexes and instruments could be initialed in spring of 2006. As decided by all delegations, the next Twelfth ITER Negotiations Meeting will be held in Korea on 6 December, 2005

  19. How negotiators get to yes: predicting the constellation of strategies used across cultures to negotiate conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsley, C H

    2001-08-01

    Individualism, hierarchy, polychronicity, and explicit-contracting values explain why managers from Germany, Japan, and the United States use a different mix of strategies to negotiate workplace conflict. Hypotheses extend prior research in showing that conflict behavior is multiply determined and that each culture uses a variety of interests, regulations, and power-based conflict management strategies. Results of actual (rather than survey-based) conflict resolution behavior suggest several fruitful avenues for future research, including examining the inferred meaning of negotiation arguments, analyzing interaction effects of cultural value dimensions, studying the effectiveness of different strategies across cultures, and examining whether strategic adjustments are made during intercultural conflict management.

  20. Interaction patterns in crisis negotiations: persuasive arguments and cultural differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebels, Ellen; Taylor, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    This research examines cultural differences in negotiators' responses to persuasive arguments in crisis (hostage) negotiations over time. Using a new method of examining cue-response patterns, the authors examined 25 crisis negotiations in which police negotiators interacted with perpetrators from low-context (LC) or high-context (HC) cultures. Compared with HC perpetrators, LC perpetrators were found to use more persuasive arguments, to reciprocate persuasive arguments in the second half of negotiations, and to respond to persuasive arguments in a compromising way. Further analyses found that LC perpetrators were more likely to communicate threats, especially in the first half of the negotiations, but that HC perpetrators were more likely to reciprocate them. The implications of these findings for our understanding of intercultural interaction are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. An Information Technology Tool to Support Negotiating Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Montanana

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses computer-supported large-scale negotiation, in particular, negotiation with advisers. It is claimed that better communication within negotiating teams should lead to longer, more productive sessions than the current ones. To this end, an information technology environment should be provided for the negotiation. The paper introduces SHINE, a collaborative software system developed at the University of Chile. This software has many features to allow rich interactions among advisers belonging to the same team, among negotiators and also between a negotiator and his advisers. Emphasis is placed on the design features to enable and ease these interactions. The facilities include WYSIWIS windows, enhanced electronic mail to send and receive text or video messages with several urgency levels, an evaluation procedure and various ways to state comments and ideas. SHINE has been implemented as a prototype on Sun Sparc workstations.

  2. Expanding Rational Molecular Design beyond Pharma: Metrics to Guide Safer Chemical Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    The demand for safer, healthier and sustainable products, materials and processes has been increasing over the past several years. Differentiating which chemicals are relatively less hazardous than others, often referred to as “greener” or “sustainable, demands a comprehensive, h...

  3. TNO moving forward ... to a safer, cleaner and more efficient mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenberg, A.N.

    2008-01-01

    This book provides an impression of how we are contributing to cleaner, safer and more efficient mobility in Europe, helping our customers from concept to implementation and from engineering solutions to strategic advice. Our knowledge is derived to a significant extent from European research

  4. 75 FR 71123 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Safer Detergent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ..., cleaners, airplane deicers, and fire-fighting foams. Safer surfactants are those that break down quickly to... protected through regulations.gov or e- mail. The regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system... technology and systems for the purposes of collecting, validating, and verifying information, processing and...

  5. A Safer and Convenient Synthesis of Sulfathiazole for Undergraduate Organic and Medicinal Chemistry Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Jeff; Otty, Sandra; Sarojini, Vijayalekshmi

    2012-01-01

    A safer method for the synthesis of the sulfonamide drug sulfathiazole, for undergraduate classes, is described. This method improves upon procedures currently followed in several undergraduate teaching laboratories for the synthesis of sulfathiazole. Key features of this procedure include the total exclusion of pyridine, which has potential…

  6. Short-Term Impact of Safer Choices: A Multicomponent, School-Based HIV, Other STD, and Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Karin; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Kirby, Douglas; Parcel, Guy; Banspach, Stephen; Harrist, Ronald; Baumler, Elizabeth; Weil, Marsha

    1999-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of the first year of "Safer Choices," a two-year, multicomponent HIV, STD, and pregnancy-prevention program for high school students based on social theory. Student self-report surveys indicated that "Safer Choices" succeeded in reducing selected risk behaviors and in enhancing selected protective…

  7. AGENT-BASED NEGOTIATION PLATFORM IN COLLABORATIVE NETWORKED ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina-Georgeta CREȚAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an agent-based platform to model and support parallel and concurrent negotiations among organizations acting in the same industrial market. The underlying complexity is to model the dynamic environment where multi-attribute and multi-participant negotiations are racing over a set of heterogeneous resources. The metaphor Interaction Abstract Machines (IAMs is used to model the parallelism and the non-deterministic aspects of the negotiation processes that occur in Collaborative Networked Environment.

  8. 25 CFR 162.605 - Negotiation of leases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Negotiation of leases. 162.605 Section 162.605 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS Non-Agricultural Leases § 162.605 Negotiation of leases. (a) Leases of individually owned land or tribal land may be negotiated by those owners or their...

  9. Optimal linguistic expression in negotiations depends on visual appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Maki; Kwon, Jinhwan; Tamada, Hikaru; Hirahara, Yumi

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the influence of the visual appearance of a negotiator on persuasiveness within the context of negotiations. Psychological experiments were conducted to quantitatively analyze the relationship between visual appearance and the use of language. Male and female participants were shown three female and male photographs, respectively. They were asked to report how they felt about each photograph using a seven-point semantic differential (SD) scale for six affective factors (positive impression, extraversion, intelligence, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and agreeableness). Participants then answered how they felt about each negotiation scenario (they were presented with pictures and a situation combined with negotiation sentences) using a seven-point SD scale for seven affective factors (positive impression, extraversion, intelligence, conscientiousness, emotional stability, agreeableness, and degree of persuasion). Two experiments were conducted using different participant groups depending on the negotiation situations. Photographs with good or bad appearances were found to show high or low degrees of persuasion, respectively. A multiple regression equation was obtained, indicating the importance of the three language factors (euphemistic, honorific, and sympathy expressions) to impressions made during negotiation. The result shows that there are optimal negotiation sentences based on various negotiation factors, such as visual appearance and use of language. For example, persons with good appearance might worsen their impression during negotiations by using certain language, although their initial impression was positive, and persons with bad appearance could effectively improve their impressions in negotiations through their use of language, although the final impressions of their negotiation counterpart might still be more negative than those for persons with good appearance. In contrast, the impressions made by persons of normal appearance

  10. THE ROLE OF MINDFULNESS IN UNETHICAL PURCHASING NEGOTIATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Yi-Hui; Lin, Chieh-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Purpose- Negotiation occurs all the time in purchasing practices ofbusinesses, and is inevitable for purchasing professionals when encounteringpurchasing conflict. Ethical negotiation is considered the vital requirement inmaintaining long-term and close buyer-supplier relationships. This study aimsto explore the relationship between mindfulness and unethical negotiation. Methodology- This study will take purchasing professionals inTaiwan as research subjects to investigate the relationship be...

  11. The relationship between negotiations success and leadership style

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    D.Phil. Both leadership and negotiations constitute key success factors for organisations. Previous studies on leadership suggest that leadership effectiveness differentiates successful organisations from others. Equally, negotiations success constitutes a key distinguishing factor separating developed countries from the developing and the under-developed ones. A perusal of available literature and previous research on leadership and negotiations reveals a historical tendency by writers an...

  12. The alternative negotiator as the invisible third at the table : The impact of potency information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giebels, E.; De Dreu, C.K.W.; Van de Vliert, E.

    This study explores the impact of person information about an alternative negotiator in dyadic negotiation in which one of two individuals is able to exit the negotiation to further negotiate with the alternative party. Individualistic negotiators were expected to be influenced more by information

  13. Teaching Negotiation Skills through Practice and Reflection with Virtual Humans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Core, Mark; Traum, David; Lane, H. Chad; Swartout, William; Gratch, Jonathan; van Lent, Michael; Marsella, Stacy

    2006-01-01

    .... The motivation for such simulations is training soft skills such as leadership, cultural awareness, and negotiation, where the majority of actions are conversational, and the problem solving involves...

  14. Power distribution in complex environmental negotiations: Does balance matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkardt, N.; Lamb, B.L.; Taylor, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    We studied six interagency negotiations covering Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) hydroelectric power licenses. Negotiations occurred between state and federal resource agencies and developers over project operations and natural resource mitigation. We postulated that a balance of power among parties was necessary for successful negotiations. We found a complex relationship between balanced power and success and conclude that a balance of power was associated with success in these negotiations. Power played a dynamic role in the bargaining and illuminates important considerations for regulatory design.

  15. Types of unethical tactics in negotiation between buyer and supplier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božidar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: This article researches the kinds of unethical tactics, which can use customers or suppliers to achieve better negotiating outcome. Purpose: Determine which tactics they used, from where they rise from and what the other authors about resulting of using unethical tactics. Method: Analysis of articles from Ebsco and ProQuest databases. Results: Getting of ethical knowledge, types of unethical negotiation tactics and awareness of the limits of ethics in the negotiations process between suppliers and customers. Organization: Managers can gain the recognition of unethical tactics, their using in the negotiation process and the construction of negotiating temperament or even competence. The research contributes to a better achievement of the performance of the organization. The results of this article can contribute to the negotiators decision-making on the use of unethical tactics. Society: Ethical negotiation helps to improve the reputation and respect of the organization, which represents the negotiator. Originality: In a review of existing articles and searches we have not found similar studies to investigate the unethical negotiating tactics. Limitations/Future Research: The article is limited to fifteen articles and three books.

  16. Stigma and sex work from the perspective of female sex workers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, William C W; Holroyd, Eleanor; Bingham, Amie

    2011-01-01

    While the stigma surrounding sex work is both well documented and easily recognised, few studies examine stigma in this context from the perspective of the sex workers themselves. In this article we report on a study using a modified grounded theory approach to analyse a series of semi-structured interviews with 49 female sex workers in Hong Kong, in order to examine the ways in which this group experiences and negotiates the stigma which arises from their employment in the sex industry. Sex workers in Hong Kong were subject to various stigmatising forces in their daily lives in their interactions with the public, the police and their families. These processes could have a negative impact on the sex workers' health, both through obvious manifestations such as physical or verbal abuse and through more subtle processes such as those which generated or perpetuated vulnerability and those which compelled the sex workers to conceal their identities and withdraw themselves from social networks. These findings are situated in the context of broader research surrounding sex work, drawing attention to the consequences of stigma on health and their interaction with health-service providers, before briefly discussing possible means of overcoming stigma-related barriers to providing adequate healthcare for this marginalised group. © 2010 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2010 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Leadership, Communication, and Negotiation Across a Diverse Workforce*: An AOA Critical Issues Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clohisy, Denis R; Yaszemski, Michael J; Lipman, Joanne

    2017-06-21

    The current workforce in the United States is rapidly changing and is increasingly inclusive of individuals from a broad range of ages, ethnicities, and cultural backgrounds. Engaging and leading a diverse workforce creates great opportunities for innovation and adaptation in our evolving medical economic and clinical care delivery environment. For optimal engagement of employees and partners, orthopaedic surgeons must develop the necessary skills for executing change inside complex organizations and across teams composed of a variety of providers and skilled workers. Important skills include leadership, effective communication, and negotiation within an ever-changing employee milieu. Understanding generalizable differences between age-based generations can increase the effectiveness of one's strategies to execute change and increase organizational performance. One of the greatest impediments to effective communication and negotiations that all leaders face is unconscious bias. For leaders, even the tiniest unconscious biases have an outsized impact. Common domains that harbor unconscious bias include sex, race, and ethnicity. Addressing unconscious bias begins with developing awareness and then deploying various tactics that might include equity in compensation, promotion, and "being heard." Effective negotiation skills also are essential to lead a diverse workforce and develop a successful organization. The most basic goal in any negotiation should be to establish a relationship (or deepen an existing relationship) while seeking an agreement that provides win-win opportunities for all parties. To effectively achieve a win-win scenario, leaders must recognize and address their tendency to interpret others' behaviors, values, and beliefs through the lens of their own beliefs and experiences. Finally, and fortunately, there is a set of leader attributes that transcends the generational differences and diversity that is encountered in the workplace. These attributes

  18. A Brief Study of the Potential Problems in Cross-cultural Business Nego-tiations and Recommendations for Chinese Negotiators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    明瑞强

    2013-01-01

    Globalization has become a hot topic in the world economy realm. As international trade booms worldwide, especially in China, it requires negotiators despite their genders, regions, ethics or ages to sit together around the table and achieve their goals. Various problems do occur in this process. This paper is going to study the potential problems in cross-culture business ne-gotiations and put forward some workable suggestions and recommendations for Chinese negotiators with the view to clearing the situation up.

  19. Offer and Acceptance and the Dynamics of Negotiations: Arguments for Contract Theory from Negotiation Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Pannebakker (Ekaterina)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe doctrine of offer and acceptance forms the basis of the rules of contract formation in most western legal systems. However, if parties enter into elaborate negotiations, these rules may become difficult to apply. This paper addresses the application of the doctrine of offer and

  20. Trend of UNFCCC negotiation and its countermeasure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Gun [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-06-01

    It has been eight years since UNFCCC was adopted in 1992 Rio environmental commission. Through five Conference of the Parties (COP) and twelve subcommittee meetings, there are still disagreements and controversies on major issues such as compensation to the developing countries, technology transfer, and Kyoto mechanism (clean development system, emission permit trade, cooperative implementation). On the other hand, each country demands that Kyoto protocol should go into effect by the 10th anniversary of Rio commission. In this study, based on the 12th subcommittee meeting held in June 2000, it is discussed recent trend of negotiation and prospect.

  1. Agent-Based Negotiation in Uncertain Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debenham, John; Sierra, Carles

    An agent aims to secure his projected needs by attempting to build a set of (business) relationships with other agents. A relationship is built by exchanging private information, and is characterised by its intimacy — degree of closeness — and balance — degree of fairness. Each argumentative interaction between two agents then has two goals: to satisfy some immediate need, and to do so in a way that develops the relationship in a desired direction. An agent's desire to develop each relationship in a particular way then places constraints on the argumentative utterances. The form of negotiation described is argumentative interaction constrained by a desire to develop such relationships.

  2. Technology development for meeting with automobiles negotiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Il [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-06-01

    The direction of technology development for meeting with automobiles negotiation is to establish a development and supply policy of automobile with the minimum mileage. Furthermore the development policy of diesel car should be promoted with the same level of gasoline engine emission and a new concept of developing clean diesel engine is needed to achieve this goal. Therefore a smoke-filtering device, developed in Korea, should be promoted for supplying and post-process technology development such as SCR and DeNox catalyzer should be promoted.

  3. WTO negotiations on agriculture and developing countries:

    OpenAIRE

    Hoda, Anwarul; Gulati, Ashok

    2008-01-01

    The World Trade Organization’s Doha Round of trade talks has been plagued by a lack of concrete progress toward establishing a fair and harmonious agricultural trading system. Because the results of the Doha Round could have far-reaching implications for the trade and economic prospects of developing countries in the twenty-first century, it is critical for these countries to fully understand the issues involved in the negotiations on agriculture. However, there has been no authoritative an...

  4. Advocacy Coalition for Safer Sex in the Adult Film Industry: The Case of Los Angeles County's Measure B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Adam Carl; Tavrow, Paula; McGrath, Mark Roy

    2018-05-01

    Performers in the adult film industry are routinely exposed to bloodborne pathogens. In 2012, public health advocates in Los Angeles County convinced voters to pass a ballot initiative-Measure B-to mandate condom use on adult film sets. This article presents a case study of the advocacy coalition's strategies used to achieve greater workplace safety using the advocacy coalition framework. The authors were given access to all memoranda, market research, and campaign tools used to promote Measure B. To reconstruct adult film industry counterefforts, the authors reviewed trade publications, social media, and blog posts. When legislative efforts failed, advocates engaged in a step-by-step strategy built around voters to achieve passage of a ballot initiative mandating condom use for all adult films produced in Los Angeles County. Although the industry immediately filed a lawsuit after passage of Measure B, its constitutionality has been upheld. Measure B passed because public health advocates were able to assemble scientific evidence, build public support, counter false claims, and maintain consistent messages throughout the campaign. The adult film industry lacked social capital, cohesion, and nimbleness. To bolster regulatory efforts, appealing to voters to favor safe workplaces may be an effective advocacy strategy for other industries.

  5. Digital health promotion in sexual health clinics: results of a feasibility trial of the Men’s Safer Sex website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia V Bailey

    2015-10-01

    The best way to assess the impact of the MenSS website was by recording STI diagnoses from clinical records. Response rates for the online questionnaire were poor despite offers of incentives. There were many challenges to conducting an online trial of a sexual health website including ethical committee concerns about email content, poor reliability of trial-related software, balancing data protection and security protocols against ease of access for participants, barriers to patient access to IT in NHS clinics, and trying to ensure that participants engage with a digital intervention for long enough. Whilst digital interventions have great potential for health promotion, we encountered significant obstacles to online research, and to implementation of an IDI in an NHS clinical setting.

  6. Advertising vs. Public Service Announcements: The Role of Message Type in Safer-Sex Campaigns and Third-Person Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, John

    Fifteen years ago, W. Davison introduced the third-person effect hypothesis, that individuals believe they are less influenced than others by media messages. Although third-person effect is a perceptual bias, Davison believed that individuals act on such misperceptions. Few studies since have tested the behavioral aspect of the third-person…

  7. Sex. Dev.

    OpenAIRE

    Jakubiczka, S.; Schröder, C.; Ullmann, R.; Volleth, M.; Ledig, S.; Gilberg, E.; Kroisel, P.; P. Wieacker, P.

    2010-01-01

    Campomelic dysplasia (MIM 114290) is a severe malformation syndrome frequently accompanied by male-to-female sex reversal. Causative are mutations within the SOX9 gene on 17q24.3 as well as chromosomal aberrations (translocations, inversions or deletions) in the vicinity of SOX9 . Here, we report on a patient with muscular hypotonia, craniofacial dysmorphism, cleft palate, brachydactyly, malformations of thoracic spine, and gonadal dysgenesis with female external genitalia and müllerian duct ...

  8. Getting past yes: negotiating as if implementation mattered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertel, Danny

    2004-11-01

    Many deals that look good on paper never materialize into value-creating endeavors. Often, the problem begins at the negotiating table. In fact, the very person everyone thinks is pivotal to a deal's success--the negotiator--is often the one who undermines it. That's because most negotiators have a deal maker mind-set: They see the signed contract as the final destination rather than the start of a cooperative venture. What's worse, most companies reward negotiators on the basis of the number and size of the deals they're signing, giving them no incentive to change. The author asserts that organizations and negotiators must transition from a deal maker mentality--which involves squeezing your counterpart for everything you can get--to an implementation mind-set--which sets the stage for a healthy working relationship long after the ink has dried. Achieving an implementation mind-set demands five new approaches. First, start with the end in mind: Negotiation teams should carry out a "benefit of hindsight" exercise to imagine what sorts of problems they'll have encountered 12 months down the road. Second, help your counterpart prepare. Surprise confers advantage only because the other side has no time to think through all the implications of a proposal. If they agree to something they can't deliver, it will affect you both. Third, treat alignment as a shared responsibility. After all, if the other side's interests aren't aligned, it's your problem, too. Fourth, send one unified message. Negotiators should brief implementation teams on both sides together so everyone has the same information. And fifth, manage the negotiation like a business exercise: Combine disciplined negotiation preparation with post-negotiation reviews. Above all, companies must remember that the best deals don't end at the negotiating table--they begin there.

  9. Condom negotiation, HIV testing, and HIV risks among women from alcohol serving venues in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen V Pitpitan

    Full Text Available Women in South Africa are at particularly high-risk for HIV infection and are dependent on their male partners' use of condoms for sexual risk reduction. However, many women are afraid to discuss condoms with male partners, placing them at higher risk of HIV infection.To examine the association between fear of condom negotiation with HIV testing and transmission risk behaviors, including alcohol use and sexual risks among South African women.Women (N = 1333 residing in a primarily Xhosa-speaking African township in Cape Town and attending informal alcohol-serving venues (shebeens completed anonymous surveys. Logistic regression was used to test the hypothesis that fear of condom negotiation would be associated with increased risk for HIV.Compared to women who did not fear condom negotiation, those who did were significantly less likely to have been tested for HIV, were more likely to have experienced relationship abuse, and to report more alcohol use and more unprotected sex.For women in South Africa, fear of condom negotiation is related to higher risk of HIV. HIV prevention efforts, including targeted HIV counseling and testing, must directly address gender issues.

  10. The Impact of Team Characteristics on the Course and Outcome of Intergroup Price Negotiations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backhaus, K.; van Doorn, J.; Wilken, R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose and Methodology. Both academic research and managerial practice devote attention to the topic of negotiation, and price negotiations have particular salience in business relations. Despite frequent negotiations between buying and selling centers in practice, the impact of team

  11. Your gain my pain? The effects of accounting information in uncertain negotiations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essa, Samy A.G.; Dekker, Henri C.; Groot, Tom L.C.M.

    2018-01-01

    Prior studies on buyer-supplier negotiations show that refined accounting information can enhance negotiation processes and outcomes. We extend these studies by considering the influence of payoff uncertainty, which is commonly present in negotiations. Payoff uncertainty can increase friction

  12. Teaching business plan negotiation : fostering entrepreneurship among business and engineering students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulijn, J.M.; O'Duill, M.; Robertson, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    FROM PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS to complex business dealings, negotiations are essential forms of communication. But negotiation skills are often neglected in university courses. One reason for this neglect is the difficulty of teaching negotiations effectively. Such teaching requires both an underlying

  13. United Nations negotiations on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Street, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    Climate change is a global environmental issue which is the subject of intergovernmental negotiations in the United Nations system. The World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) recommended to the UN General Assembly a four-track strategy relating to climate change: improved monitoring and assessment; increased research; development of internationally agreed policies to reduce greenhouse gases; and adoption of strategies to minimize impacts of climate change. The UN hosted a Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in June 1992 to attempt to find a common basis for action to protect the Earth's future and to secure a sustainable and equitable process of development. The focal point for UNCED efforts related to climate change is the Protection of the Atmosphere chapter of Agenda 21. Program A of this agenda contains responses to the WCED recommendations and Program B includes promotion of sustainable development in energy development, transportation, industry, and resource development. A framework convention on climate change was developed by an Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee established in 1990 and adopted by 130-140 countries. This convention includes general and specific obligations such as stabilization and control of greenhouse gas concentrations, development of emission inventories, and provision of financial resources to aid developing countries in responding to the climate change problem. 3 refs

  14. The process of negotiating settlements at FERC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlechild, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Interstate gas pipelines and their customers presently settle about 90% of the rate cases set for hearing before the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). The conventional regulatory litigation process is now only an occasional means of dispute resolution. This paper explains the settlement process, illustrating with the 12 section 4 rate cases brought by pipelines from 2008 and 2009. The paper also discusses and illustrates why parties prefer settlement to litigation, what difference it makes, which cases tend to settle, what might account for the increasing frequency of settlements over time, the recent phenomenon of pre-filing settlements and the recent settlement of section 5 cases brought by FERC. In contrast to many other regulatory jurisdictions, FERC Trial Staff play an active role in facilitating negotiation and settlement. They make an initial analysis 3 months after a pipeline files for a tariff rate increase. Thereafter, the regulatory aim is to bring the parties into agreement, not to determine an outcome and impose it upon them. This is a different role for the regulatory body than was previously apparent. - Highlights: ► About 90% of FERC rate cases are settled, not litigated. ► FERC Trial Staff play an active role in facilitating negotiation and settlement. ► Conventional regulation is now only an occasional means of dispute resolution. ► The paper also discusses which cases settle and what difference it makes.

  15. Negotiating a regime to control global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebenius, J.K.

    1991-01-01

    For purposes of analysis, this paper has uncritically maintained that the prospect of a serious climate problem exists and has only lightly examined the broader advantages and drawbacks of various proposed policy and institutional responses. Crucial as they are to a full treatment of the issues, these underlying substantive and policy questions enter the analysis primarily insofar as they affect the likely outcomes of pending and potential negotiations. To an advocate of a new greenhouse control regime, the fundamental negotiating task is to craft and sustain a meaningful winning coalition of countries backing such a regime. Two centrally necessary conditions for the fundamental task are: (1) that each member of the coalition see enough gain in the regime relative to the alternatives to adhere and (2) the potential and actual blocking coalitions of interests opposed to the regime be prevented from forming and from being acceptably accommodated or otherwise neutralized. The analysis of this paper is organized around key questions whose answers will influence whether and how these two necessary conditions might (or might not) be met

  16. Adversarial life testing: A Bayesian negotiation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rufo, M.J.; Martín, J.; Pérez, C.J.

    2014-01-01

    Life testing is a procedure intended for facilitating the process of making decisions in the context of industrial reliability. On the other hand, negotiation is a process of making joint decisions that has one of its main foundations in decision theory. A Bayesian sequential model of negotiation in the context of adversarial life testing is proposed. This model considers a general setting for which a manufacturer offers a product batch to a consumer. It is assumed that the reliability of the product is measured in terms of its lifetime. Furthermore, both the manufacturer and the consumer have to use their own information with respect to the quality of the product. Under these assumptions, two situations can be analyzed. For both of them, the main aim is to accept or reject the product batch based on the product reliability. This topic is related to a reliability demonstration problem. The procedure is applied to a class of distributions that belong to the exponential family. Thus, a unified framework addressing the main topics in the considered Bayesian model is presented. An illustrative example shows that the proposed technique can be easily applied in practice

  17. IPPSO raises Hydro exports in smog negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The Independent Power Producers of Ontario (IPPSO) requested federal and provincial committees negotiating atmospheric emission standards to review Ontario Hydro's export wheeling plans. IPPSO alleges that Ontario Hydro is preparing to apply pressure on the Canadian export approval process, and is building up a major effort that will increase emissions, contrary to the objectives embodied in a number of environment protection projects such as the Ontario Smog Plan, The Federal-Provincial NOx Management Plan, the Strategic Options Plan, or the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Draft NOx Protocol Negotiations. IPPSO alleges further that while Ontario Hydro is one of Canada's largest single emitter of greenhouse gases NOx, and SO 2 , and as a public sector corporation it should be the most amenable to serving the public good, the Corporation is doing exactly the opposite: it actively prevents production of electricity from less polluting sources. It is IPPSO's contention that Ontario Hydro's desire to control the Ontario market could come at significant cost to the environment

  18. Communication and Negotiations as an Ssential Prerequisite for the Development of International Business

    OpenAIRE

    Maciukevičienė, Liuda; Pipirienė, Vida

    2011-01-01

    In today's global markets it is very important to understand how to communicate effectively with partners from various cultures in order to be successful in the business world. Negotiating success largely depends on: pre-negotiation of a negotiating strategy and tactics of choice and flexibility in the negotiations and the ability to make influence. The article examines the concept of negotiation in international business, makes consistent analysis of the phases of the negotiations. Negotiati...

  19. Exploring the Roles of Intermediaries in Collective Memory-Supported Electronic Negotiation: A Theoretical Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Nongkran Lertpittayapoom; Souren Paul

    2006-01-01

    Following the emergence of the Internet, electronic negotiation has become an alternative to face-to-face negotiation. The current forms of negotiation support systems (NSS) used to support many electronic negotiations offer very little support for historical negotiation data. In order to address this issue, the idea of a collective memory support in negotiations has been proposed in recent years. This article highlights the use of an online intermediary as an effective location from which co...

  20. Negotiating over bundles and prices using aggregate knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somefun, D.J.A.; Klos, T.B.; Poutré, la J.A.; Bauknecht, K.; Bichler, M.; Pröll, B.

    2004-01-01

    Combining two or more items and selling them as one good, a practice called bundling, can be a very effective strategy for reducing the costs of producing, marketing, and selling goods. In this paper, we consider a form of multi-issue negotiation where a shop negotiates both the contents and the