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Sample records for neglecting basic preanalytical

  1. Translating molecular medicine into clinical tools: doomed to fail by neglecting basic preanalytical principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannello Ferdinando

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This commentary discusses a study on measurements of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9 in serum of pseudoxanthoma elasticum patients recently published in Journal of Molecular Medicine. This study can be considered the typical "obstacle" to effective translational medicine as previously documented in JTM journal. Although serum has been frequently proven as inappropriate sample for determining numerous circulating MMPs, among them MMP-9, there are over and over again studies, as in this case, that measure MMP-9 in serum. Comparative measurements in serum and plasma samples demonstrated higher concentrations for MMP-9 in serum due to the additional release from leukocytes and platelets following the coagulation/fibrinolysis process. From this example it can be concluded that translating basic research discoveries into clinical tools needs a more intensive exchange between basic biomedical research and clinical scientists already in an early stage. Otherwise a lost of translation, as discussed in JTM journal, seems to be inevitable.

  2. [Carefully conducted preanalytic and postanalytic procedures for urine samples. Often neglected in urolithiasis treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laube, N; Berg, W

    2014-01-01

    Particularly in the urological consultation sessions collection of 24 h urine samples is required to evaluate the metabolic risk factors for urolith formation. To ensure a yield from urinalysis of sufficiently high quality and to minimize the number of potential error sources, correctly performed preanalytical procedures are required. If certain basic quality criteria for the collection procedures are not being followed false data can be determined and the clinical interpretation based on that analysis will result in a wrong rating of the true metabolic status of patients. This article provides practical, feasible and proven solutions in an encouraging, motivating and clear way to ensure that at least the most important steps for a correct urine collection are being taken. The preanalytical requirements for the determination of other urinary parameters which are not in the direct focus of urolithiasis treatment will not be covered by this article.

  3. Nutritional biology: a neglected basic discipline of nutritional science.

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    Döring, Frank; Ströhle, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    On the basis of a scientific-philosophical analysis, this paper tries to show that the approaches in current nutritional science-including its subdisciplines which focus on molecular aspects-are predominantly application-oriented. This becomes particularly evident through a number of conceptual problems characterized by the triad of 'dearth of theoretical foundation,' 'particularist research questions,' and 'reductionist understanding of nutrition.' The thesis presented here is that an interpretive framework based on nutritional biology is able to shed constructive light on the fundamental problems of nutritional science. In this context, the establishment of 'nutritional biology' as a basic discipline in research and education would be a first step toward recognizing the phenomenon of 'nutrition' as an oecic process as a special case of an organism-environment interaction. Modern nutritional science should be substantively grounded on ecological-and therefore systems biology as well as organismic-principles. The aim of nutritional biology, then, should be to develop near-universal 'law statements' in nutritional science-a task which presents a major challenge for the current science system.

  4. Preanalytical requirements of urinalysis

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    Delanghe, Joris; Speeckaert, Marijn

    2014-01-01

    Urine may be a waste product, but it contains an enormous amount of information. Well-standardized procedures for collection, transport, sample preparation and analysis should become the basis of an effective diagnostic strategy for urinalysis. As reproducibility of urinalysis has been greatly improved due to recent technological progress, preanalytical requirements of urinalysis have gained importance and have become stricter. Since the patients themselves often sample urine specimens, urinalysis is very susceptible to preanalytical issues. Various sampling methods and inappropriate specimen transport can cause important preanalytical errors. The use of preservatives may be helpful for particular analytes. Unfortunately, a universal preservative that allows a complete urinalysis does not (yet) exist. The preanalytical aspects are also of major importance for newer applications (e.g. metabolomics). The present review deals with the current preanalytical problems and requirements for the most common urinary analytes. PMID:24627718

  5. Inpatient preanalytic process improvements.

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    Wagar, Elizabeth A; Phipps, Ron; Del Guidice, Robert; Middleton, Lavinia P; Bingham, John; Prejean, Cheryl; Johnson-Hamilton, Martha; Philip, Pheba; Le, Ngoc Han; Muses, Waheed

    2013-12-01

    Phlebotomy services are a common target for preanalytic improvements. Many new, quality engineering tools have recently been applied in clinical laboratories. However, data on relatively few projects have been published. This example describes a complete application of current, quality engineering tools to improve preanalytic phlebotomy services. To decrease the response time in the preanalytic inpatient laboratory by 25%, to reduce the number of incident reports related to preanalytic phlebotomy, and to make systematic process changes that satisfied the stakeholders. The Department of Laboratory Medicine, General Services Section, at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (Houston) is responsible for inpatient phlebotomy in a 24-hour operation, which serves 689 inpatient beds. The study director was project director of the Division of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine's Quality Improvement Section and was assisted by 2 quality technologists and an industrial engineer from MD Anderson Office of Performance Improvement. After implementing each solution, using well-recognized, quality tools and metrics, the response time for blood collection decreased by 23%, which was close to meeting the original responsiveness goal of 25%. The response time between collection and arrival in the laboratory decreased by 8%. Applicable laboratory-related incident reports were reduced by 43%. Comprehensive application of quality tools, such as statistical control charts, Pareto diagrams, value-stream maps, process failure modes and effects analyses, fishbone diagrams, solution prioritization matrices, and customer satisfaction surveys can significantly improve preset goals for inpatient phlebotomy.

  6. Improving preanalytic processes using the principles of lean production (Toyota Production System).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persoon, Thomas J; Zaleski, Sue; Frerichs, Janice

    2006-01-01

    The basic technologies used in preanalytic processes for chemistry tests have been mature for a long time, and improvements in preanalytic processes have lagged behind improvements in analytic and postanalytic processes. We describe our successful efforts to improve chemistry test turnaround time from a central laboratory by improving preanalytic processes, using existing resources and the principles of lean production. Our goal is to report 80% of chemistry tests in less than 1 hour and to no longer recognize a distinction between expedited and routine testing. We used principles of lean production (the Toyota Production System) to redesign preanalytic processes. The redesigned preanalytic process has fewer steps and uses 1-piece flow to move blood samples through the accessioning, centrifugation, and aliquoting processes. Median preanalytic processing time was reduced from 29 to 19 minutes, and the laboratory met the goal of reporting 80% of chemistry results in less than 1 hour for 11 consecutive months.

  7. Preanalytical quality improvement: in quality we trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Becan-McBride, Kathleen; Behúlová, Darina; Bowen, Raffick A; Church, Stephen; Delanghe, Joris; Grankvist, Kjell; Kitchen, Steve; Nybo, Mads; Nauck, Matthias; Nikolac, Nora; Palicka, Vladimir; Plebani, Mario; Sandberg, Sverre; Simundic, Ana-Maria

    2013-01-01

    Total quality in laboratory medicine should be defined as the guarantee that each activity throughout the total testing process is correctly performed, providing valuable medical decision-making and effective patient care. In the past decades, a 10-fold reduction in the analytical error rate has been achieved thanks to improvements in both reliability and standardization of analytical techniques, reagents, and instrumentation. Notable advances in information technology, quality control and quality assurance methods have also assured a valuable contribution for reducing diagnostic errors. Nevertheless, several lines of evidence still suggest that most errors in laboratory diagnostics fall outside the analytical phase, and the pre- and postanalytical steps have been found to be much more vulnerable. This collective paper, which is the logical continuum of the former already published in this journal 2 years ago, provides additional contribution to risk management in the preanalytical phase and is a synopsis of the lectures of the 2nd European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM)-Becton Dickinson (BD) European Conference on Preanalytical Phase meeting entitled "Preanalytical quality improvement: in quality we trust" (Zagreb, Croatia, 1-2 March 2013). The leading topics that will be discussed include quality indicators for preanalytical phase, phlebotomy practices for collection of blood gas analysis and pediatric samples, lipemia and blood collection tube interferences, preanalytical requirements of urinalysis, molecular biology hemostasis and platelet testing, as well as indications on best practices for safe blood collection. Auditing of the preanalytical phase by ISO assessors and external quality assessment for preanalytical phase are also discussed.

  8. EFLM WG-Preanalytical phase opinion paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Cornes, Michael P; Grankvist, Kjell

    2016-01-01

    , the Working Group for Preanalytical Phase (WG-PRE) of the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) has drafted a consensus document aimed to provide a set of essential requisites, technical criteria (e.g. presence of physical defects, malfunctioning, safety problems...

  9. BASIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Schmidt, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    BPP. Tilgangen består dels af den overordnede proces-model BASIC og dels af et iboende framework, ABCD, der er en model for systematisk adfærdsanalyse, udvikling, test og implementering af adfærdsrettede løsningskoncepter. Den samlede model gør det muligt for forskere såvel som offentligt ansatte...

  10. Pre-analytical phase in clinical chemistry laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Neogi SS; Mehndiratta M; Gupta S; Puri D

    2016-01-01

    The laboratory testing process is divided into the pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical phases. For obtaining reliable test results, the prevention and detection of errors at all steps is required. While analytical standards have been developed by recognized quality control criteria, there is a scarcity in the development of standards for the preanalytical phase. This phase is most prone to errors as the steps involved are directly dependent on humans and are out of dire...

  11. Spatial neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Korina; Malhotra, Paresh A

    2015-01-01

    The syndrome of visuospatial neglect is a common consequence of unilateral brain injury. It is most often associated with stroke and is more severe and persistent following right hemisphere damage, with reported frequencies in the acute stage of up to 80%. Neglect is primarily a disorder of attention whereby patients characteristically fail to orientate, to report or to respond to stimuli located on the contralesional side. Neglect is usually caused by large strokes in the middle cerebral artery territory and is heterogeneous, such that most patients do not manifest every feature of the syndrome. A number of treatments may improve neglect, but there is no widely accepted universal approach to therapy. Although most patients recover spontaneously, the evidence suggests that they continue to have significant cognitive impairments, particularly relating to attention. PMID:26023203

  12. [Peripheral specimen collecting centers. Preanalytical control].

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    Boixés Saña, D; Badia Mallorquí, M

    1998-03-01

    The progressive decentralization in the process of sample drawing and collection of biological samples has produced a socio-economical improvement for the general public and for health systems specifically even though this requires a higher degree of control to avoid pre-analytical errors derived from this procedure by the laboratories receiving these aforementioned samples. This study is based on 372,243 drawings, taken from June 1994 until December 1996 at 74 sample drawing centers and the systematic recording of any errors committed during the drawing, conservation and transportation of the diverse biological samples drawn. The results indicate an overall incident rate of 1.5% broken down by year as 1.3% in 1994, 1.3% in 1995 and 1.9% in 1996 and broken down by type as 0.7% in blood samples, 0.7% in urine samples, and 0.07% due to other errors such as transportation. 1. The incident rate is slightly lower than that obtained in a prior study of similar characteristics. 2. The small increase in the incident rate which occurred in 1996 is attributed to an improvement in the error recording system. 3. We recommend continuing applying strategies which permit one to detect, limit, and if possible, reduce these types of errors. These strategies include periodical meetings and professional development.

  13. 21 CFR 866.4070 - RNA Preanalytical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false RNA Preanalytical Systems. 866.4070 Section 866.4070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... collect, store, and transport patient specimens, and stabilize intracellular RNA from the specimens, for...

  14. Preanalytical Variables Affecting the Integrity of Human Biospecimens in Biobanking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellervik, Christina; Vaught, Jim

    2015-01-01

    medicine for diagnostic or prognostic purposes. CONTENT: The focus of this review is to examine the preanalytical variables that affect human biospecimen integrity in biobanking, with a special focus on blood, saliva, and urine. Cost efficiency is discussed in relation to these issues. SUMMARY: The quality...

  15. [The importance of preanalytics for the coagulation laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endler, Georg; Slavka, G; Perkmann, T; Haushofer, A

    2010-05-01

    Due to their complex preanalytics coagulation tests show a higher rate of rejected samples due to insufficient quality and a higher intra- and inter-individual test variability. In the last years several guidelines addressed this issue in an effort to standardize preanalytic procedures. However, in daily laboratory work, these guidelines frequently cannot be fully executed, due to technical limitations or sample transport logistics. In this manuscript several important issues in sample collection, handling and transportation will be discussed. Since the stability and variability of routine coagulation tests such as prothrombin time and partial prothrombin time are significantly influenced by a number of variables such as tube type, manufacturer, reagents used and analyzer systems, it is recommended that each laboratory develops its own manuals for sample collection, based on published data and internal evaluations.

  16. History of the preanalytical phase: a personal view

    OpenAIRE

    Guder, Walter G.

    2014-01-01

    In the 70ies of the last century, ther term “preanalytical phase” was introduced in the literature. This term describes all actions and aspects of the “brain to brain circle” of the medical laboratory diagnostic procedure happening before the analytical phase. The author describes his personal experiences in the early seventies and the following history of increasing awareness of this phase as the main cause of “laboratory errors”. This includes the definitions of influence and interference f...

  17. Preanalytical quality improvement – in quality we trust

    OpenAIRE

    Lippi, G; Salvagno, GL; Lima-Oliveira, G; Funk-Adcock, DM; Guidi, GC; Favaloro, EJ; Biljak Radišić, V; Božičević, S; Vučić Lovrenčić, M; Milinković, N; Šumarac, Z; Ignjatović, S; Majkić-Singh, N; Trujillo Arribas, E; Camacho Martinez, P

    2013-01-01

    Background The preanalytical phase represents the major source of variability in laboratory diagnostics. Our aim was to assess to what extent underfilling of primary blood tubes may impact upon routine coagulation testing. Materials and methods: Blood was drawn by syringe from 21 healthy volunteers and 6 patients on warfarin therapy, and immediately transferred into 3.6 mL vacuum tubes containing 3.2% sodium citrate (Terumo Europe N.V., Leuven, Belgium). All tubes were filled using standardiz...

  18. History of the preanalytical phase: a personal view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guder, Walter G

    2014-01-01

    In the 70ies of the last century, ther term "preanalytical phase" was introduced in the literature. This term describes all actions and aspects of the "brain to brain circle" of the medical laboratory diagnostic procedure happening before the analytical phase. The author describes his personal experiences in the early seventies and the following history of increasing awareness of this phase as the main cause of "laboratory errors". This includes the definitions of influence and interference factors as well as the first publications in book, internet, CD-Rom and recent App form over the past 40 years. In addition, a short summary of previous developments as prerequesits of laboratory diagnostic actions is described from the middle age matula for urine collection to the blood collection tubes, anticoagulants and centrifuges. The short review gives a personal view on the possible causes of missing awareness of preanalytical causes of error and future aspects of new techniques in regulation of requests to introduction of quality assurance programs for preanalytical factors.

  19. Control of (pre-analytical aspects in immunoassay measurements of metabolic hormones in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Bielohuby

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of circulating hormones by immunoassay remains a cornerstone in preclinical endocrine research. For scientists conducting and interpreting immunoassay measurements of rodent samples, the paramount aim usually is to obtain reliable and meaningful measurement data in order to draw conclusions on biological processes. However, the biological variability between samples is not the only variable affecting the readout of an immunoassay measurement and a considerable amount of unwanted or unintended variability can be quickly introduced during the pre-analytical and analytical phase. This review aims to increase the awareness for the factors ‘pre-analytical’ and ‘analytical’ variability particularly in the context of immunoassay measurement of circulating metabolic hormones in rodent samples. In addition, guidance is provided how to gain control over these variables and how to avoid common pitfalls associated with sample collection, processing, storage and measurement. Furthermore, recommendations are given on how to perform a basic validation of novel single and multiplex immunoassays for the measurement of metabolic hormones in rodents. Finally, practical examples from immunoassay measurements of plasma insulin in mice address the factors ‘sampling site and inhalation anesthesia’ as frequent sources of introducing an unwanted variability during the pre-analytical phase. The knowledge about the influence of both types of variability on the immunoassay measurement of circulating hormones as well as strategies to control these variables are crucial, on the one hand, for planning and realization of metabolic rodent studies and, on the other hand, for the generation and interpretation of meaningful immunoassay data from rodent samples.

  20. How to conduct External Quality Assessment Schemes for the pre-analytical phase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Gunn B B; Aakre, Kristin Moberg; Kristoffersen, Ann Helen; Sandberg, Sverre

    2014-01-01

    In laboratory medicine, several studies have described the most frequent errors in the different phases of the total testing process, and a large proportion of these errors occur in the pre-analytical phase. Schemes for registration of errors and subsequent feedback to the participants have been conducted for decades concerning the analytical phase by External Quality Assessment (EQA) organizations operating in most countries. The aim of the paper is to present an overview of different types of EQA schemes for the pre-analytical phase, and give examples of some existing schemes. So far, very few EQA organizations have focused on the pre-analytical phase, and most EQA organizations do not offer pre-analytical EQA schemes (EQAS). It is more difficult to perform and standardize pre-analytical EQAS and also, accreditation bodies do not ask the laboratories for results from such schemes. However, some ongoing EQA programs for the pre-analytical phase do exist, and some examples are given in this paper. The methods used can be divided into three different types; collecting information about pre-analytical laboratory procedures, circulating real samples to collect information about interferences that might affect the measurement procedure, or register actual laboratory errors and relate these to quality indicators. These three types have different focus and different challenges regarding implementation, and a combination of the three is probably necessary to be able to detect and monitor the wide range of errors occurring in the pre-analytical phase.

  1. The role of European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine Working Group for Preanalytical Phase in standardization and harmonization of the preanalytical phase in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornes, Michael P; Church, Stephen; van Dongen-Lases, Edmée

    2016-01-01

    Patient safety is a leading challenge in healthcare and from the laboratory perspective it is now well established that preanalytical errors are the major contributor to the overall rate of diagnostic and therapeutic errors. To address this, the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Labor......Patient safety is a leading challenge in healthcare and from the laboratory perspective it is now well established that preanalytical errors are the major contributor to the overall rate of diagnostic and therapeutic errors. To address this, the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry...... and Laboratory Medicine Working Group for Preanalytical Phase (EFLM WG-PRE) was established to lead in standardization and harmonization of preanalytical policies and practices at a European level. One of the key activities of the WG-PRE is the organization of the biennial EFLM-BD conference on the preanalytical...... summarises the work that has and will be done in these areas. The goal of this initiative is to ensure the EFLM WG-PRE produces work that meets the needs of the European laboratory medicine community. Progress made in the identified areas will be updated at the next preanalytical phase conference and show...

  2. Pre-analytic process control: projecting a quality image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Mark D

    2006-09-26

    Within the health-care system, the term "ancillary department" often describes the laboratory. Thus, laboratories may find it difficult to define their image and with it, customer perception of department quality. Regulatory requirements give laboratories who so desire an elegant way to address image and perception issues--a comprehensive pre-analytic system solution. Since large laboratories use such systems--laboratory service manuals--I describe and illustrate the process for the benefit of smaller facilities. There exist resources to help even small laboratories produce a professional service manual--an elegant solution to image and customer perception of quality.

  3. Do Neglect Assessments Detect Neglect Differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury, Michelle L.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We determined whether various assessment tools detect neglect differently by administering a battery of assessments to people with stroke. METHOD. We conducted a case series study and administered five neglect assessments (paper-and-pencil, functional, virtual reality) to participants poststroke. RESULTS. Twelve participants (6 men, 6 women) with stroke completed the assessment battery, which required approximately 2 hr to administer (over one to two sessions). All participants demonstrated neglect on three or more assessments. Functional assessments and the virtual reality assessment detected neglect more frequently than the paper-and-pencil assessments. Participants performed differently on the paper-and-pencil assessments and functional assessments. CONCLUSION. Because neglect is complex, detection may depend largely on the assessment administered. PMID:28422631

  4. A Call to Standardize Preanalytic Data Elements for Biospecimens, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, James A; Bry, Lynn; Sluss, Patrick M; Wagar, Elizabeth A; Kennedy, Mary F

    2015-09-01

    Biospecimens must have appropriate clinical annotation (data) to ensure optimal quality for both patient care and research. Additional clinical preanalytic variables are the focus of this continuing study. To complete the identification of the essential preanalytic variables (data fields) that can, and in some instances should, be attached to every collected biospecimen by adding the additional specific variables for clinical chemistry and microbiology to our original 170 variables. The College of American Pathologists Diagnostic Intelligence and Health Information Technology Committee sponsored a second Biorepository Working Group to complete the list of preanalytic variables for annotating biospecimens. Members of the second Biorepository Working Group are experts in clinical pathology and microbiology. Additional preanalytic area-specific variables were identified and ranked along with definitions and potential negative impacts if the variable is not attached to the biospecimen. The draft manuscript was reviewed by additional national and international stakeholders. Four additional required preanalytic variables were identified specifically for clinical chemistry and microbiology biospecimens that can be used as a guide for site-specific implementation into patient care and research biorepository processes. In our collective experience, selecting which of the many preanalytic variables to attach to any specific set of biospecimens used for patient care and/or research is often difficult. The additional ranked list should be of practical benefit when selecting preanalytic variables for a given biospecimen collection.

  5. Ten years of preanalytical monitoring and control: Synthetic Balanced Score Card Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Garrigós, Maite; Flores, Emilio; Santo-Quiles, Ana; Gutierrez, Mercedes; Lugo, Javier; Lillo, Rosa; Leiva-Salinas, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Preanalytical control and monitoring continue to be an important issue for clinical laboratory professionals. The aim of the study was to evaluate a monitoring system of preanalytical errors regarding not suitable samples for analysis, based on different indicators; to compare such indicators in different phlebotomy centres; and finally to evaluate a single synthetic preanalytical indicator that may be included in the balanced scorecard management system (BSC). Materials and methods We collected individual and global preanalytical errors in haematology, coagulation, chemistry, and urine samples analysis. We also analyzed a synthetic indicator that represents the sum of all types of preanalytical errors, expressed in a sigma level. We studied the evolution of those indicators over time and compared indicator results by way of the comparison of proportions and Chi-square. Results There was a decrease in the number of errors along the years (P errors occurred in outpatients, followed by inpatients. Conclusion We present a practical and effective methodology to monitor unsuitable sample preanalytical errors. The synthetic indicator results summarize overall preanalytical sample errors, and can be used as part of BSC management system. PMID:25672466

  6. Ten years of preanalytical monitoring and control: Synthetic Balanced Score Card Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Maria; López-Garrigós, Maite; Flores, Emilio; Santo-Quiles, Ana; Gutierrez, Mercedes; Lugo, Javier; Lillo, Rosa; Leiva-Salinas, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Preanalytical control and monitoring continue to be an important issue for clinical laboratory professionals. The aim of the study was to evaluate a monitoring system of preanalytical errors regarding not suitable samples for analysis, based on different indicators; to compare such indicators in different phlebotomy centres; and finally to evaluate a single synthetic preanalytical indicator that may be included in the balanced scorecard management system (BSC). We collected individual and global preanalytical errors in haematology, coagulation, chemistry, and urine samples analysis. We also analyzed a synthetic indicator that represents the sum of all types of preanalytical errors, expressed in a sigma level. We studied the evolution of those indicators over time and compared indicator results by way of the comparison of proportions and Chi-square. There was a decrease in the number of errors along the years (P<0.001). This pattern was confirmed in primary care patients, inpatients and outpatients. In blood samples, fewer errors occurred in outpatients, followed by inpatients. We present a practical and effective methodology to monitor unsuitable sample preanalytical errors. The synthetic indicator results summarize overall preanalytical sample errors, and can be used as part of BSC management system.

  7. Dental neglect among children in Chennai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunathan, Deepa; Shanmugaavel, Arunachalam Karthikeyan

    2016-01-01

    Child dental neglect is the failure of a parent or guardian to meet the child's basic oral health needs such that the child enjoys adequate function and freedom from pain and infection, where reasonable resources are available to family or caregiver. The aim of the study is to evaluate the phenomenon of dental neglect among children in Chennai and to associate dental neglect with oral health status of children aged 3-12 years. This is a cross-sectional study involving 478 pairs of parents and children. Dental neglect scale and a questionnaire were used to assess the dental neglect score among parents of the children involved in the study. Oral health status of children was clinically assessed using oral hygiene index, decayed, extracted, filled teeth (def(t)), pulp, ulcers, fistula, abscess (pufa), decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT), PUFA as per the World Health Organization criteria and pufa/PUFA index. Student's t-test and one-way ANOVA were used appropriately for statistical analysis using SPSS software version 20.0. A significant higher dental neglect score was reported among the parents who reside in the suburban location (P 3 years (P = 0.001). A significant higher DMFT (P = 0.003), deft (P = 0 neglect group. Child dental neglect is seen among the parents whose educational qualification was secondary, who reside in the suburban location, and who have not utilized the dental services for more than 3 years in Chennai. This dental neglect results in poorer oral health of children.

  8. Recovery of personal neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosa, Marco; Guariglia, Cecilia; Matano, Alessandro; Paolucci, Stefano; Pizzamiglio, Luigi

    2016-12-01

    Extrapersonal unilateral spatial neglect after stroke is associated to a poor rehabilitation outcome. Minor attention has been paid to the recovery of personal neglect, to its relationship with the recovery of extrapersonal neglect and of independency in activities of daily living. The present study aims at evaluating whether there is an association between recovery of extrapersonal and personal neglect. The secondary aim was to investigate if personal neglect may affect the effectiveness of neurorehabilitation in patients with subacute stroke. Observational study. Neurorehabilitation Hospital in Rome, Italy, inpatients. A sample of 49 patients with unilateral spatial neglect resulting from right ischemic cerebral infarction was enrolled in this study, divided into three subgroups according to the presence and the degree of personal neglect, and evaluated pre and postneurorehabilitation. Personal neglect was evaluated using Zoccolotti and Judica's Scale, extrapersonal neglect using Letter Cancellation Test, Barrage Test, Sentence Reading Test and Wundt-Jastrow Area Illusion Test. Barthel Index (BI), Rivermead Mobility Index, and Canadian Neurological Scale were also administered. Results showed the following: 1) recovery of personal neglect was not significantly correlated with that of extrapersonal neglect, despite both the disorders were ameliorated after a "non-specific" rehabilitation treatment; 2) personal neglect per se was not an additional negative prognostic factor in the rehabilitation findings. Our results suggested that the recoveries of the two types of neglect are independent from each other, and that the presence of personal neglect does not imply significant additional problems to the functional outcomes. Our study highlighted the need of novel tools to assess the presence and to improve the recovery of personal neglect.

  9. Quality improvements in the preanalytical phase: focus on urine specimen workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankovic, Ana K; DeLauro, Elizabeth

    2010-03-01

    In the past, laboratories have addressed issues of preanalytical variability in an opportunistic way, addressing discrete parts of the preanalytical process, such as patient identification, specimen rejection, and blood/urine culture contamination. To obtain needed quality improvements and error reduction, it is necessary to look at the preanalytical process as a whole - from test ordering to the moment the specimen is processed by the analyzer and apply process improvement methodologies, such as LEAN and Six Sigma. To achieve this, laboratories should map the preanalytical phase in its entirety, identify steps that are potential causes of unnecessary variability that lead can to laboratory errors, and find ways either to remove them or error proof them. At the same time, by using this approach it is possible to reduce unnecessary waste and obtain needed process efficiencies.

  10. Sources of preanalytical errors and the role of training in error prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Oğuzhan Özcan; A. Semra Güreser

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to analyze the preanalytical errorsand the role of training in the prevention of error insamples sent to the biochemistry and microbiology laboratories.Materials and methods: All samples accepted in thecentral laboratory during eight-month period were evaluatedretrospectively. Distribution of rejected sampleswere classified according to preanalytical error categories(wrong sample, improper sample, incorrect barcode,insufficient volume, exceeded volume, clotted sample,hemo...

  11. Preanalytical errors in medical laboratories: a review of the available methodologies of data collection and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Jamie; Atherton, Jennifer; Costelloe, Seán J; Pourmahram, Ghazaleh; Stretton, Adam; Cornes, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Preanalytical errors have previously been shown to contribute a significant proportion of errors in laboratory processes and contribute to a number of patient safety risks. Accreditation against ISO 15189:2012 requires that laboratory Quality Management Systems consider the impact of preanalytical processes in areas such as the identification and control of non-conformances, continual improvement, internal audit and quality indicators. Previous studies have shown that there is a wide variation in the definition, repertoire and collection methods for preanalytical quality indicators. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry Working Group on Laboratory Errors and Patient Safety has defined a number of quality indicators for the preanalytical stage, and the adoption of harmonized definitions will support interlaboratory comparisons and continual improvement. There are a variety of data collection methods, including audit, manual recording processes, incident reporting mechanisms and laboratory information systems. Quality management processes such as benchmarking, statistical process control, Pareto analysis and failure mode and effect analysis can be used to review data and should be incorporated into clinical governance mechanisms. In this paper, The Association for Clinical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine PreAnalytical Specialist Interest Group review the various data collection methods available. Our recommendation is the use of the laboratory information management systems as a recording mechanism for preanalytical errors as this provides the easiest and most standardized mechanism of data capture.

  12. Preanalytical quality improvement. In pursuit of harmony, on behalf of European Federation for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) Working group for Preanalytical Phase (WG-PRE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippi, G.; Banfi, G.; Church, S.

    2015-01-01

    requirements for blood sampling, influence of physical activity and medical contrast media on in vitro diagnostic testing, recent evidence about the possible lack of necessity of the order of draw, the best practice for monitoring conditions of time and temperature during sample transportation, along...... with description of problems emerging from inappropriate sample centrifugation. In the final part, the article includes recent updates about preanalytical quality indicators, the feasibility of an External Quality Assessment Scheme (EQAS) for the preanalytical phase, the results of the 2nd EFLM WG-PRE survey...

  13. Preanalytical aspects and sample quality assessment in metabolomics studies of human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Peiyuan; Peter, Andreas; Franken, Holger; Zhao, Xinjie; Neukamm, Sabine S; Rosenbaum, Lars; Lucio, Marianna; Zell, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Xu, Guowang; Lehmann, Rainer

    2013-05-01

    Metabolomics is a powerful tool that is increasingly used in clinical research. Although excellent sample quality is essential, it can easily be compromised by undetected preanalytical errors. We set out to identify critical preanalytical steps and biomarkers that reflect preanalytical inaccuracies. We systematically investigated the effects of preanalytical variables (blood collection tubes, hemolysis, temperature and time before further processing, and number of freeze-thaw cycles) on metabolomics studies of clinical blood and plasma samples using a nontargeted LC-MS approach. Serum and heparinate blood collection tubes led to chemical noise in the mass spectra. Distinct, significant changes of 64 features in the EDTA-plasma metabolome were detected when blood was exposed to room temperature for 2, 4, 8, and 24 h. The resulting pattern was characterized by increases in hypoxanthine and sphingosine 1-phosphate (800% and 380%, respectively, at 2 h). In contrast, the plasma metabolome was stable for up to 4 h when EDTA blood samples were immediately placed in iced water. Hemolysis also caused numerous changes in the metabolic profile. Unexpectedly, up to 4 freeze-thaw cycles only slightly changed the EDTA-plasma metabolome, but increased the individual variability. Nontargeted metabolomics investigations led to the following recommendations for the preanalytical phase: test the blood collection tubes, avoid hemolysis, place whole blood immediately in ice water, use EDTA plasma, and preferably use nonrefrozen biobank samples. To exclude outliers due to preanalytical errors, inspect the biomarker signal intensities reflecting systematic as well as accidental and preanalytical inaccuracies before processing the bioinformatics data. © 2013 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  14. The psychobiology of neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bellis, Michael D

    2005-05-01

    Child neglect, the most prevalent form of child maltreatment, is associated with adverse psychological and educational outcomes. It is hypothesized that these outcomes may be caused by adverse brain development. However, there are very few published cross-sectional studies and no prospective studies that examine the neurodevelopmental consequences of neglect. In this article, the author comprehensively outlines the issues involved in the psychobiological research of child neglect. Pre-clinical and clinical studies will be reviewed. Throughout the article, suggestions for future research opportunities and novel ways to address methodological difficulties inherent in this field of study are offered. The results of recent neuroimaging studies of maltreated children may provide a basis for understanding the early effects of neglect on childhood brain development. The author is comprehensively examining these issues as part of the Federal Child Neglect Consortium.

  15. Improving quality in the preanalytical phase through innovation, on behalf of the European Federation for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) Working Group for Preanalytical Phase (WG-PRE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Baird, Geoffrey S.; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    process remain, especially in the preanalytical phase ranging from test ordering to obtaining and managing the biological specimens. The Working Group for the Preanalytical Phase (WG-PRE) of the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) has planned many activities aimed...

  16. [UNE-EN ISO 15189 accreditation of the preanalytical phase of a clinical laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba-Meseguer, N; Martínez-Ollé, X; Alsius-Serra, A; López-Yeste, M L; Caballé-Martín, I

    2015-01-01

    Description of the procedures followed in Catlab's pre-analytical area for UNE-EN ISO 15189 accreditation, and implementation of quality indicators to evaluate the standard requirements in the pre-analytical phase processes. Description of Catlab's 2 self-developed computer applications: Catlab Program Incidents (CPI) and Refrigerator Management Program (RMP). Both of them, among other applications, documentation and quality indicators, had enabled us to achieve UNE-EN ISO 15189 accreditation and have traceability in the pre-analytical phase. Results of 4 quality indicators are shown. In the customers satisfaction measurement indicator, 97.3% clinicians value positively (quite/lot) different aspects of the laboratory. The indicator of pre-analytical incidents went from 7.2% in 2011 down to 4.4% in 2014. In the prompt transport of late arrival samples, 3 of the routes (33%) did not reach the acceptable target. And finally, the indicator of default opening time of sample coolers, 100% of the routes reached the desired objective in the second quarter of 2014. The use of those applications, allowed us to design quality control indicators of the processes in the pre-analytical phase; from sample extraction to its analytical process in the laboratory, enhancing the collaboration with extraction sites, and allowing improvement actions to be established. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Neglecting posture: differences in balance impairments between peripersonal and extrapersonal neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijboer, Tanja C W; Ten Brink, Antonia F; van der Stoep, Nathan; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A

    2014-12-03

    Neglect is a heterogeneous disorder and may be specific for only peripersonal or extrapersonal space. Behavioural consequences at the level of independency in basic activities of daily living differ between patients with peripersonal and those with extrapersonal neglect. One of the most important factors that determine independency in basic activities of daily living is balance. Here, potential differences in postural imbalance between patients with peripersonal and those with extrapersonal neglect were investigated. A total of 81 stroke patients were screened within the first 2 weeks after admission to the rehabilitation centre. Mediolateral (horizontal) and anteroposterior (vertical) displacements of the centre of pressure (CoP) were measured using a Nintendo Wii Balance Board in an eyes-open and eyes-closed condition. Patients with peripersonal neglect showed a significant displacement of mediolateral CoP from the ideal CoP, but not in the anteroposterior dimension or postural sway. Patients with extrapersonal neglect did not differ from the no-neglect patients in terms of displacement of both mediolateral and anteroposterior CoP and postural sway. There were no differences between the eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions in any of the groups. Consequences of region-specific neglect on postural imbalance appear to be very specific and cannot be accounted for by neglecting visual information only. The current findings might directly reflect a relation between body perception and body representation and (actions in) peripersonal space. When diagnosing neglect, it is relevant to distinguish the type of region-specific neglect and, when needed, to adjust the rehabilitation programme accordingly.

  18. Dental neglect among children in Chennai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Gurunathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child dental neglect is the failure of a parent or guardian to meet the child′s basic oral health needs such that the child enjoys adequate function and freedom from pain and infection, where reasonable resources are available to family or caregiver. Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the phenomenon of dental neglect among children in Chennai and to associate dental neglect with oral health status of children aged 3-12 years. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study involving 478 pairs of parents and children. Dental neglect scale and a questionnaire were used to assess the dental neglect score among parents of the children involved in the study. Oral health status of children was clinically assessed using oral hygiene index, decayed, extracted, filled teeth (def(t, pulp, ulcers, fistula, abscess (pufa, decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT, PUFA as per the World Health Organization criteria and pufa/PUFA index. Student′s t-test and one-way ANOVA were used appropriately for statistical analysis using SPSS software version 20.0. Results: A significant higher dental neglect score was reported among the parents who reside in the suburban location (P 3 years (P = 0.001. A significant higher DMFT (P = 0.003, deft (P = 0 < 0.001, pufa (P = 0.011, and debris index (P = 0.002 scores were seen in the higher dental neglect group. Conclusion: Child dental neglect is seen among the parents whose educational qualification was secondary, who reside in the suburban location, and who have not utilized the dental services for more than 3 years in Chennai. This dental neglect results in poorer oral health of children.

  19. Elder Abuse and Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muge Gulen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abuse and neglect are preventable societal problems that influence elderly individuals physically, spiritually and socially. Elder abuse is neglected for many years and is a growing problem all over the world. The aim of this article is to review the evaluation of elderly individuals who are exposed to abuse and neglect with systematic detailed history and physical examination and to describe individual, familial, and social measures that should be taken to prevent these abuses. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 393-407

  20. Functional Assessment of Region-Specific Neglect: Are There Differential Behavioural Consequences of Peripersonal versus Extrapersonal Neglect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijboer, T. C. W.; ten Brink, A. F.; Kouwenhoven, M.; Visser-Meily, J. M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Region-specific types of neglect (peripersonal and extrapersonal) have been dissociated, yet, differential behavioural consequences are unknown. Objective. The aim of the current study was to investigate behavioural consequences at the level of basic activities of daily living of region-specific neglect, using the Catherine Bergego Scale (CBS). Methods. 118 stroke patients were screened within the first two weeks after admission to the rehabilitation center for inpatient rehabilitation. Results. Patients with peripersonal neglect and patients with neglect for both regions had significantly higher total score on the CBS compared to nonneglect patients. Total scores for patients with extrapersonal neglect were comparable to non-neglect patients. ADL impairments were found across activities (e.g., looking towards one side, forgetting body parts, colliding) for both patients with peripersonal neglect and patients with neglect for both regions. Patients with extrapersonal neglect were only impaired on the item on way finding. Conclusions. When diagnosing neglect, it is relevant to distinguish the type of region-specific neglect and, where needed, to adjust the rehabilitation program accordingly. As the CBS is not developed to typically measure ADL in extrapersonal neglect, it would be of importance to add other (instrumental) activities that heavily rely on processing information in farther space. PMID:24825959

  1. The effect of centrifugation speed and time on pre-analytical platelet activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderström, Anna Cecilia; Nybo, Mads; Nielsen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    . METHODS: Citrate- and EDTA-anticoagulated blood from healthy volunteers were centrifuged at 80-10,000 g for 5-15 min to prepare plasma and platelet-rich plasma. Pre-analytical platelet activation was assessed by flow cytometric measurement of platelet P-selectin (CD62p) expression. Blood cell counts, mean......centrifuged. In platelet-rich plasma, increasing centrifugation speed significantly increased platelet yield but decreased contamination from other blood cells......BACKGROUND: The results of laboratory analyses are affected by pre-analytical variables, and in particular can platelets be activated by shear handling stress and secrete granular substances. We therefore evaluated the effect of centrifugation speed and time on pre-analytical platelet activation...

  2. Neglected tropical diseases, neglected data sources, and neglected issues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burton H Singer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis (LF is a so-called neglected tropical disease, currently overshadowed by higher-profile efforts to address malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS. Despite recent successes in arresting transmission, some 40 million people who already have the disease have been largely neglected. This study aims to increase understanding of how this vulnerable, neglected group can be helped. METHODS: We used purposive sampling to select 60 men and women with filarial lymphoedema (45 with filarial elephantiasis and 15 men with filarial hydrocoele from the south of Sri Lanka in 2004-2005. Participants were selected to give a balance of men and women and poor and nonpoor, and a range of stages of the disease. Participants' experiences and the consequences of their disease for the household were explored with in-depth qualitative, semistructured interviews. FINDINGS: LF was extremely debilitating to participants over long periods of time. The stigma attached to the condition caused social isolation and emotional distress, and delayed diagnosis and treatment, resulting in undue advancement of the disease. Free treatment services at government clinics were avoided because the participants' condition would be identifiable in public. Loss of income due to the condition was reported by all households in the sample, not just the poorest. Households that were already on low incomes were pushed into near destitution, from which it was almost impossible to escape. Affected members of low-income households also had less opportunity to obtain appropriate treatment from distant clinics, and had living and working conditions that made hygiene and compliance difficult. SIGNIFICANCE: This highly vulnerable category of patients has low visibility, thus becoming marginalized and forgotten. With an estimated 300,000 total cases of elephantiasis and/or oedema in Sri Lanka, and around 300,000 men with filarial hydrocoele, the affected households will need

  3. Effect of pre-analytical handling on haematological variables in minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, A K; Bladbjerg, E-M; Jensen, A L

    2001-01-01

    Pre-analytical handling may be an important determinant of haematological variables, if analysis is delayed. We investigated the effect of anticoagulants, i.e. tripotassium ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and citric acid, theophylline, adenosine, dipyridamole (CTAD), storage time (0.5, 1...

  4. Pre-Analytical Conditions in Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing of Cell-Free Fetal RHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Frederik Banch; Jakobsen, Tanja Roien; Rieneck, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    D positive fetus. Prophylaxis reduces the risk of immunization that may lead to hemolytic disease of the fetus and the newborn. The reliability of predicting the fetal RhD type depends on pre-analytical factors and assay sensitivity. We evaluated the testing setup in the Capital Region of Denmark, based...

  5. Chasing the Effects of Pre-Analytical Confounders - A Multicenter Study on CSF-AD Biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leitão, Maria João; Baldeiras, Inês; Herukka, Sanna-Kaisa

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Core cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers - Aβ42, Tau, and phosphorylated Tau (pTau) - have been recently incorporated in the revised criteria for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, their widespread clinical application lacks standardization. Pre-analytical sample handling and stora...

  6. Plasma tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 as a biological marker? Pre-analytical considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Anne Fog; Frederiksen, Camilla; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2007-01-01

    Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) may be a valuable biological marker in Colorectal Cancer (CRC). However, prospective validation of TIMP-1 as a biological marker should include a series of pre-analytical considerations. TIMP-1 is stored in platelets, which may degranulate during...

  7. Pre-analytical factors influencing the stability of cerebrospinal fluid proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Anja H; Bahl, Justyna M C; Danborg, Pia B

    2013-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a potential source for new biomarkers due to its proximity to the brain. This study aimed to clarify the stability of the CSF proteome when undergoing pre-analytical factors. We investigated the effects of repeated freeze/thaw cycles, protease inhibitors and delayed...

  8. [Variability of preanalytical errors between decentralized phlebotomy centers: a challenge for patient safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo, Rosa; Salinas, María; López-Garrigós, Maite; Cruz, Loreto; López-Pérez, Jesús; Uris, Joaquín

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to show the most frequent preanalytical sample errors from distinct decentralized phlebotomy centers. The study was conducted from May 2005 to March 2008. In this period 36,2054 requests and 2,880,742 tests were received from the 16 decentralized phlebotomy centers. When an unsuitable sample is received specific coded results are registered as test results to inform the physician that an error had occurred and a new specimen collection is recommended. We used the the request number, which is specific for each phlebotomy center to ascertain where the samples with errors had been drawn, The preanalytical errors were identified by looking for coded results and were collected automatically from the LIS using a software program based on OLAP's cube (Omnium Roche Diagnostic), obtaining number and type of preanalytical error for each sample. The errors are calculated as number per million samples requested. Analysis of data was carried out using Microsoft Excel 2003. Categorical variables were expressed as frequency and percentage. The highest number of incidences occurred in urine samples (52%), followed by coagulation (21%), haematology (17%) and biochemistry (10%). With regard to the type of error, the largest proportion of errors was due to failures of process (62%). The high incidence of preanalytical errors and variability between centers suggests that there is a need to standardize the drawing practice.

  9. The knowledge and understanding of preanalytical phase among biomedicine students at the University of Zagreb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukic, Lora; Jokic, Anja; Kules, Josipa; Pasalic, Daria

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The educational program for health care personnel is important for reducing preanalytical errors and improving quality of laboratory test results. The aim of our study was to assess the level of knowledge on preanalytical phase in population of biomedicine students through a cross-sectional survey. Materials and methods A survey was sent to students on penultimate and final year of Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry – study of medical biochemistry (FPB), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (FVM) and School of Medicine (SM), University of Zagreb, Croatia, using the web tool SurveyMonkey. Survey was composed of demographics and 14 statements regarding the preanalytical phase of laboratory testing. Comparison of frequencies and proportions of correct answers was done with Fisher’s exact test and test of comparison of proportions, respectively. Results Study included 135 participants, median age 24 (23-40) years. Students from FPB had higher proportion of correct answers (86%) compared to students from other biomedical faculties 62%, P sample (P order of draw during blood specimen collection (P < 0.001), in comparison with students from SM and FVM. Conclusions Students from FPB are more conscious of the importance of preanalytical phase of testing in comparison with their colleagues from other biomedical faculties. No difference in knowledge between penultimate and final year of the same faculty was found. PMID:26981023

  10. [Quality assessment for preanalytical phase in clinical laboratory: a multicentric study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, M; López-Garrigós, M; Yago, M; Ortuño, M; Carratala, A; Aguado, C; Díaz, J; Rodriguez-Borja, E; Chinchilla, V; Esteban, A; Laíz, B; Lorente, M Á; Uris, J

    2011-01-01

    To show the number of preanalytical sample errors in seven laboratories attending seven health departments of Valencian Community (Spain). Cross-sectional study of the number of preanlytical errors in samples obtained in primary care centers. An error is defined as a rejected specimen: any blood or urine sample, which cannot be successfully tested as it does not meet the acceptability criteria of the laboratory or if the sample is not received. We collected preanalytical errors from the tests requested for hematology, coagulation, chemistry, and urine samples. Registers were collected and indicators calculated automatically through a data warehouse and OLAP cubes software. Large differences in the results of preanalytical errors were observed between health departments. The highest percentage of errors occurred in coagulation samples, followed by urine, hematology and biochemistry. With regard to the type of error, the largest proportion of errors was due to failures of process. The high incidence of preanalytical errors and variability between health departments suggests that there is a need to standardize the drawing practice. Copyright © 2010 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Neglected Parasitic Infections: Toxocariasis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-05

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States. Neglected Parasitic Infections are a group of diseases that afflict vulnerable populations and are often not well studied or diagnosed. A subject matter expert from CDC's Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria describes the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of toxocariasis.  Created: 1/5/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria (DPDM); Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC), Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 1/9/2012.

  12. Evaluation of Preanalytical Quality Indicators by Six Sigma and Pareto`s Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Sweta; Ramesh, R; Srinivasan, A R; Silvia, C R Wilma Delphine

    2018-01-01

    Preanalytical steps are the major sources of error in clinical laboratory. The analytical errors can be corrected by quality control procedures but there is a need for stringent quality checks in preanalytical area as these processes are done outside the laboratory. Sigma value depicts the performance of laboratory and its quality measures. Hence in the present study six sigma and Pareto principle was applied to preanalytical quality indicators to evaluate the clinical biochemistry laboratory performance. This observational study was carried out for a period of 1 year from November 2015-2016. A total of 1,44,208 samples and 54,265 test requisition forms were screened for preanalytical errors like missing patient information, sample collection details in forms and hemolysed, lipemic, inappropriate, insufficient samples and total number of errors were calculated and converted into defects per million and sigma scale. Pareto`s chart was drawn using total number of errors and cumulative percentage. In 75% test requisition forms diagnosis was not mentioned and sigma value of 0.9 was obtained and for other errors like sample receiving time, stat and type of sample sigma values were 2.9, 2.6, and 2.8 respectively. For insufficient sample and improper ratio of blood to anticoagulant sigma value was 4.3. Pareto`s chart depicts out of 80% of errors in requisition forms, 20% is contributed by missing information like diagnosis. The development of quality indicators, application of six sigma and Pareto`s principle are quality measures by which not only preanalytical, the total testing process can be improved.

  13. Pre-analytic phase in molecular biology: criticism and non-compliance management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catia Sias

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: During workflow in Laboratories the most delicate and important step is pre-analytic sample treatment because it involves more than one operator of the same structure and often different health services. In fact, the biological materials used for the diagnosis should be collected, sent and properly treated before the analytic phase. Correct methods for collecting and handling biological materials, including guidelines to users of laboratory services, improve performance of Laboratory testing activity. In the pre-analytic phase the operators check sample integrity, and prepare the sample for the subsequent analytic phase: in all these steps monitoring and control of “non- compliance” is crucial. Methods: During 2007-2008 we created a “non- compliance” check-list, to monitor errors which occurred in different sectors of the preanalytic phase, particularly in the nucleic acid extraction step. These “non-compliances” are analysed to identify and to remove errors, adopting preventive and corrective proceedings. Since 2008 we have been using DNA/RNA internal controls synthesized in our Laboratory. They can be amplified by the same primers and recognized by different probes. Results: Examination of the “non compliance” check-list for molecular biology investigations shows that the percentage of urine repeat samples decreased from 17% to 2% and the percentage of stool repeat samples from 27% to 2%. Regarding use of internal controls, they allow the assessment of inhibitory factors that can prevent gene amplification. Conclusions: Monitoring “non-compliance” cases and dividing them by typology allow us identifying the most frequent causes of incorrect sample handling, as a non optimal procedure of pre-treatment, thus improving the pre-analytic phase. Therefore by monitoring the preanalytic phase we can prevent the introduction of confounding factors that may negatively influence the accuracy of results and their

  14. Spanish Preanalytical Quality Monitoring Program (SEQC), an overview of 12 years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llopis, María Antonia; Bauça, Josep Miquel; Barba, Nuria; Álvarez, Virtudes; Ventura, Montserrat; Ibarz, Mercè; Gómez-Rioja, Rubén; Marzana, Itziar; Puente, Juan Jose; Segovia, Marta; Martinez, Debora; Alsina, María Jesús

    2017-03-01

    Preanalytical variables, such as sample collection, handling and transport, may affect patient results. Preanalytical phase quality monitoring should be established in order to minimize laboratory errors and improve patient safety. A retrospective study (2001-2013) of the results obtained through the Spanish Society of Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Pathology (SEQC) External quality assessment (preanalytical phase) was performed to summarize data regarding the main factors affecting preanalytical phase quality. Our aim was to compare data from 2006 to 2013 with a previously published manuscript assessing the 2001-2005 period. A significant decrease in rejection rates was observed both for blood and urine samples. For serum samples, the most frequent rejection causes in the first period were non-received samples (37.5%), hemolysis (29.3%) and clotted samples (14.4%). Conversely, in the second period, hemolysis was the main rejection cause (36.2%), followed by non-received samples (34.5%) and clotted samples (11.1%). For urine samples, the main rejection cause overall was a non-received sample (up to 86.1% of cases in the second period, and 81.6% in the first). For blood samples with anticoagulant, the number of rejections also decreased. While plasma-citrate-ESR still showed the highest percentages of rejections (0.980% vs. 1.473%, ppreanalytical errors was confirmed. Improvements in organization, implementation of standardized procedures in the preanalytical phase, and participation in a Spanish external quality assessment scheme may have notably contributed to error reduction in this phase.

  15. The Neglect of Virtue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockett, Hugh

    2013-01-01

    This chapter argues that schooling neglects virtue through the dominant quest for right answers. This is not only intellectually disreputable in presuming the correctness of what is taught, but it undermines the development of necessary intellectual virtues, such as open-mindedness, impartiality, and accuracy in the school curriculum, and it fails…

  16. Neglected bacterial zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikeka, I; Dumler, J S

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial zoonoses comprise a group of diseases in humans or animals acquired by direct contact with or by oral consumption of contaminated animal materials, or via arthropod vectors. Among neglected infections, bacterial zoonoses are among the most neglected given emerging data on incidence and prevalence as causes of acute febrile illness, even in areas where recognized neglected tropical diseases occur frequently. Although many other bacterial infections could also be considered in this neglected category, five distinct infections stand out because they are globally distributed, are acute febrile diseases, have high rates of morbidity and case fatality, and are reported as commonly as malaria, typhoid or dengue virus infections in carefully designed studies in which broad-spectrum diagnoses are actively sought. This review will focus attention on leptospirosis, relapsing fever borreliosis and rickettsioses, including scrub typhus, murine typhus and spotted fever group rickettsiosis. Of greatest interest is the lack of distinguishing clinical features among these infections when in humans, which confounds diagnosis where laboratory confirmation is lacking, and in regions where clinical diagnosis is often attributed to one of several perceived more common threats. As diseases such as malaria come under improved control, the real impact of these common and under-recognized infections will become evident, as will the requirement for the strategies and allocation of resources for their control. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Simulating hemispatial neglect with virtual reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshizawa Makoto

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemispatial neglect is a cognitive disorder defined as a lack of attention for stimuli contra-lateral to the brain lesion. The assessment is traditionally done with basic pencil and paper tests and the rehabilitation programs are generally not well adapted. We propose a virtual reality system featuring an eye-tracking device for a better characterization of the neglect that will lead to new rehabilitation techniques. Methods This paper presents a comparison of eye-gaze patterns of healthy subjects, patients and healthy simulated patients on a virtual line bisection test. The task was also executed with a reduced visual field condition hoping that fewer stimuli would limit the neglect. Results We found that patients and healthy simulated patients had similar eye-gaze patterns. However, while the reduced visual field condition had no effect on the healthy simulated patients, it actually had a negative impact on the patients. We discuss the reasons for these differences and how they relate to the limitations of the neglect simulation. Conclusion We argue that with some improvements the technique could be used to determine the potential of new rehabilitation techniques and also help the rehabilitation staff or the patient's relatives to better understand the neglect condition.

  18. Pre-analytical issues in the haemostasis laboratory: guidance for the clinical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnette, A; Chatelain, M; Chatelain, B; Ten Cate, H; Mullier, F

    2016-01-01

    Ensuring quality has become a daily requirement in laboratories. In haemostasis, even more than in other disciplines of biology, quality is determined by a pre-analytical step that encompasses all procedures, starting with the formulation of the medical question, and includes patient preparation, sample collection, handling, transportation, processing, and storage until time of analysis. This step, based on a variety of manual activities, is the most vulnerable part of the total testing process and is a major component of the reliability and validity of results in haemostasis and constitutes the most important source of erroneous or un-interpretable results. Pre-analytical errors may occur throughout the testing process and arise from unsuitable, inappropriate or wrongly handled procedures. Problems may arise during the collection of blood specimens such as misidentification of the sample, use of inadequate devices or needles, incorrect order of draw, prolonged tourniquet placing, unsuccessful attempts to locate the vein, incorrect use of additive tubes, collection of unsuitable samples for quality or quantity, inappropriate mixing of a sample, etc. Some factors can alter the result of a sample constituent after collection during transportation, preparation and storage. Laboratory errors can often have serious adverse consequences. Lack of standardized procedures for sample collection accounts for most of the errors encountered within the total testing process. They can also have clinical consequences as well as a significant impact on patient care, especially those related to specialized tests as these are often considered as "diagnostic". Controlling pre-analytical variables is critical since this has a direct influence on the quality of results and on their clinical reliability. The accurate standardization of the pre-analytical phase is of pivotal importance for achieving reliable results of coagulation tests and should reduce the side effects of the influence

  19. Using clinical signs of neglect to identify elder neglect cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Lee S; Avila, Susan; Liu, Elaine; Dixon, Kimberly; Patch, Olivia; Partida, Renee; Zielke, Holly; Giloth, Barbara; Friedman, Daniel; Moorman, Lois; Meltzer, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    Elder neglect is the one of the most pervasive forms of mistreatment, and often the only place outside of the individual's residence to identify and assist neglected individuals is in a medical setting. However, elder neglect cases treated in hospitals do not present with a single diagnosis or clinical sign, but rather involve a complex constellation of clinical signs. Currently, there is a lack of comprehensive guidelines on which clinical signs to use in screening tools for neglect among patients treated in hospitals. Using the DELPHI method, a group of experts developed and tested a scale to be used as a pre-screener that conceptually could be integrated into electronic health record systems so that it could identify potential neglect cases in an automated manner. By applying the scale as a pre-screener for neglect, the tool would reduce the pool of at-risk patients who would benefit from in-depth screening for elder neglect by 95%.

  20. Pre-analytic phase in molecular biology: criticism and non-compliance management

    OpenAIRE

    Catia Sias; Loredana Aleo; Stefania Di Filippo; Marco Paterno; Anna Rosa Garbuglia; Maria Rosaria Capobianchi

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: During workflow in Laboratories the most delicate and important step is pre-analytic sample treatment because it involves more than one operator of the same structure and often different health services. In fact, the biological materials used for the diagnosis should be collected, sent and properly treated before the analytic phase. Correct methods for collecting and handling biological materials, including guidelines to users of laboratory services, improve performance of Labor...

  1. Semiology of neglect: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, G; Pagliari, C; Huchon, L; Rossetti, Y; Pisella, L

    2017-06-01

    Hemispatial neglect is a common disabling condition following brain damage to the right hemisphere. Generally, it involves behavioral bias directed ipsilaterally to the damaged hemisphere and loss of spatial awareness for the contralesional side. In this syndrome, several clinical subtypes were identified. The objective of this article is to provide a nosological analysis of the recent data from the literature on the different subtypes of neglect (visual, auditory, somatosensory, motor, egocentric, allocentric and representational neglect), associated ipsilesional and contralesional productive manifestations and their anatomical lesion correlates. These different anatomical-clinical subtypes can be associated or dissociated. They reflect the heterogeneity of this unilateral neglect syndrome that cannot be approached or interpreted in a single manner. We propose that these subtypes result from different underlying deficits: exogenous attentional deficit (visual, auditory neglect); representational deficit (personal neglect, representational neglect, hyperschematia); shift of the egocentric reference frame (egocentric neglect); attentional deficit between objects and within objects (allocentric neglect), endogenous attentional deficit (representational neglect) and transsaccadic working memory or spatial remapping deficit (ipsilesional productive manifestations). Taking into account the different facets of the unilateral neglect syndrome should promote the development of more targeted cognitive rehabilitation protocols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Pre-Analytical Parameters Affecting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Measurement in Plasma: Identifying Confounders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M Walz

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A is intensively investigated in various medical fields. However, comparing VEGF-A measurements is difficult because sample acquisition and pre-analytic procedures differ between studies. We therefore investigated which variables act as confounders of VEGF-A measurements.Following a standardized protocol, blood was taken at three clinical sites from six healthy participants (one male and one female participant at each center twice one week apart. The following pre-analytical parameters were varied in order to analyze their impact on VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant (EDTA vs. PECT / CTAD, cannula (butterfly vs. neonatal, type of centrifuge (swing-out vs. fixed-angle, time before and after centrifugation, filling level (completely filled vs. half-filled tubes and analyzing method (ELISA vs. multiplex bead array. Additionally, intrapersonal variations over time and sex differences were explored. Statistical analysis was performed using a linear regression model.The following parameters were identified as statistically significant independent confounders of VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant, centrifuge, analyzing method and sex of the proband. The following parameters were no significant confounders in our data set: intrapersonal variation over one week, cannula, time before and after centrifugation and filling level of collection tubes.VEGF-A measurement results can be affected significantly by the identified pre-analytical parameters. We recommend the use of CTAD anticoagulant, a standardized type of centrifuge and one central laboratory using the same analyzing method for all samples.

  3. Standard PREanalytical Codes: A New Paradigm for Environmental Biobanking Sectors Explored in Algal Culture Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Erica E; Betsou, Fotini; Amaral, Raquel; Santos, Lília M A; Harding, Keith

    2011-12-01

    The Standard PREanalytical Code (SPREC) was developed by the medical/clinical biobanking sector motivated by the need to harmonize biospecimen traceability in preanalytical processes and enable interconnectivity and interoperability between different biobanks, research consortia, and infrastructures. The clinical SPREC (01) consists of standard preanalytical variable options (7-code elements), which comprise published and (ideally) validated methodologies. Although the SPREC has been designed to facilitate clinical research, the concept could have utility in biorepositories and culture collections that service environmental and biodiversity communities. The SPREC paradigm can be applied to different storage regimes across all types of biorepository. The objective of this article is to investigate adapting the code in nonclinical biobanks using algal culture collections and their cryostorage as a case study. The SPREC (01) is recalibrated as a putative code that might be adopted for biobanks holding different types of biodiversity; it is extended to include optional coding from the point of sample collection to postcryostorage manipulations, with the caveat that the processes are undertaken by biorepository personnel.

  4. Novel Opportunities for Improving the Quality of Preanalytical Phase. A Glimpse to the Future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lippi Giuseppe

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The preanalytical phase is crucial for assuring the quality of in vitro diagnostics. The leading aspects which contribute to enhance the vulnerability of this part of the total testing process include the lack of standardization of different practices for collecting, managing, transporting and processing biological specimens, the insufficient compliance with available guidelines and the still considerable number of preventable human errors. As in heavy industry, road traffic and aeronautics, technological advancement holds great promise for decreasing the risk of medical and diagnostic errors, thus including those occurring in the extra-analytical phases of the total testing process. The aim of this article is to discuss some potentially useful technological advances, which are not yet routine practice, but may be especially suited for improving the quality of the preanalytical phase in the future. These are mainly represented by introduction of needlewielding robotic phlebotomy devices, active blood tubes, drones for biological samples transportation, innovative approaches for detecting spurious hemolysis and preanalytical errors recording software products.

  5. Pre-Analytical Parameters Affecting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Measurement in Plasma: Identifying Confounders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Johanna M; Boehringer, Daniel; Deissler, Heidrun L; Faerber, Lothar; Goepfert, Jens C; Heiduschka, Peter; Kleeberger, Susannah M; Klettner, Alexa; Krohne, Tim U; Schneiderhan-Marra, Nicole; Ziemssen, Focke; Stahl, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is intensively investigated in various medical fields. However, comparing VEGF-A measurements is difficult because sample acquisition and pre-analytic procedures differ between studies. We therefore investigated which variables act as confounders of VEGF-A measurements. Following a standardized protocol, blood was taken at three clinical sites from six healthy participants (one male and one female participant at each center) twice one week apart. The following pre-analytical parameters were varied in order to analyze their impact on VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant (EDTA vs. PECT / CTAD), cannula (butterfly vs. neonatal), type of centrifuge (swing-out vs. fixed-angle), time before and after centrifugation, filling level (completely filled vs. half-filled tubes) and analyzing method (ELISA vs. multiplex bead array). Additionally, intrapersonal variations over time and sex differences were explored. Statistical analysis was performed using a linear regression model. The following parameters were identified as statistically significant independent confounders of VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant, centrifuge, analyzing method and sex of the proband. The following parameters were no significant confounders in our data set: intrapersonal variation over one week, cannula, time before and after centrifugation and filling level of collection tubes. VEGF-A measurement results can be affected significantly by the identified pre-analytical parameters. We recommend the use of CTAD anticoagulant, a standardized type of centrifuge and one central laboratory using the same analyzing method for all samples.

  6. Preanalytical external quality assessment of the Croatian Society of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine and CROQALM: finding undetected weak spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolac, Nora; Krleza, Jasna Lenicek; Simundic, Ana-Maria

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this paper is to present results of first two years of preanalytical external quality assessment (EQA) in Croatia. Materials and methods This paper summarizes results from 6 rounds of preanalytical EQA during 2014-2016 in 161-175 Croatian laboratories (number ranged between cycles). EQA was designed as an online survey of the compliance with National recommendations for phlebotomy (NRP). Forty-seven questions in 5 categories are analyzed (materials and equipment, patient identification, patient preparation, sampling and storage). Additionally, preanalytical cases are presented. Overall performance scores (Question score (Qscore) for compliance with NRP and Case score (Cscore) for preanalytical cases) are calculated for each question/case as a proportion of laboratories with satisfactory procedure (x 100). Qscores and Cscores ≥ 70 were classified as acceptable (maximal score = 100). Results In investigation of compliance with NRP, acceptable Qscores were obtained for 34/47 questions. The lowest scores were observed for the availability of sterile disposable tourniquets (Qscore = 15) and safe-sharp needles (Qscore = 34), obtaining patients address as an identifier (Qscore = 21), using glycolysis inhibitor tubes for glucose concentration measurement (Qscore = 21) and verification of manufacturers declarations on temperature and time of storage (Qscore = 31). There was no statistically significant difference in overall Qscore according to different categories of phlebotomy procedures (P = 0.284). The results of preanalytical cases showed acceptable Cscore values for all cases (89-96). Conclusion First two years of preanalytical EQA showed good compliance with the NRP and excellent expertise in resolving complex preanalytical issues. Major critical spots are lack of availability of safe-sharp needles, disposable tourniquets and glucose inhibitor tubes. PMID:28392736

  7. When Is Neglect, Neglect?: It Depends on Who You Ask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Kelli L; Lindner, Sonia; Scurich, Nicholas; Quas, Jodi A

    2017-08-01

    In order to identify victims of child neglect, social service workers rely heavily on referrals from concerned friends, neighbors, and others in the community. Little is known, however, about how lay individuals perceive child neglect and what factors influence their decision to make a referral. This study explored the effects of child, parent, and participant gender on laypersons' evaluations of child neglect. Participants read a case of neglect of a child by a custodial and absent parent and then rated the parents' culpability and intentionality and decided whether the parents' behavior met the legal definition of neglect. When evaluating the custodial parent, men but not women viewed fathers as more culpable than mothers for the neglect of their son and viewed mothers as somewhat more culpable for the neglect of their daughter. Men also perceived absent mothers as more intentionally harmful than absent fathers. Finally, both men and women were more likely to qualify parental behavior as legally neglectful when the genders of the custodial parent and child matched. Results, which suggest that gender bias may exist in laypersons' perceptions of child neglect and may influence their decisions to report, have implications for identification of and intervention for vulnerable children and families.

  8. SPATIAL NEGLECT AND ATTENTION NETWORKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbetta, Maurizio; Shulman, Gordon L.

    2013-01-01

    Unilateral spatial neglect is a common neurological syndrome following predominantly right hemisphere injuries to ventral fronto-parietal cortex. We propose that neglect reflects deficits in the coding of saliency, control of spatial attention, and representation within an egocentric frame of reference, in conjunction with non-spatial deficits of reorienting, target detection, and arousal/vigilance. In contrast to theories that link spatial neglect to structural damage of specific brain regions, we argue that neglect is better explained by the physiological dysfunction of distributed cortical networks. The ventral lesions in right parietal, temporal, and frontal cortex that cause neglect directly impair non-spatial functions and hypoactivate the right hemisphere, inducing abnormalities in task-evoked activity and functional connectivity of a dorsal frontal-parietal network that controls spatial attention. The anatomy and right hemisphere dominance of neglect follows from the anatomy and laterality of the ventral regions that interact with the dorsal attention network. PMID:21692662

  9. Prevalence of Pre-Analytical Errors in Clinical Chemistry Diagnostic Labs in Sulaimani City of Iraqi Kurdistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dereen Najat

    Full Text Available Laboratory testing is roughly divided into three phases: a pre-analytical phase, an analytical phase and a post-analytical phase. Most analytical errors have been attributed to the analytical phase. However, recent studies have shown that up to 70% of analytical errors reflect the pre-analytical phase. The pre-analytical phase comprises all processes from the time a laboratory request is made by a physician until the specimen is analyzed at the lab. Generally, the pre-analytical phase includes patient preparation, specimen transportation, specimen collection and storage. In the present study, we report the first comprehensive assessment of the frequency and types of pre-analytical errors at the Sulaimani diagnostic labs in Iraqi Kurdistan.Over 2 months, 5500 venous blood samples were observed in 10 public diagnostic labs of Sulaimani City. The percentages of rejected samples and types of sample inappropriateness were evaluated. The percentage of each of the following pre-analytical errors were recorded: delay in sample transportation, clotted samples, expired reagents, hemolyzed samples, samples not on ice, incorrect sample identification, insufficient sample, tube broken in centrifuge, request procedure errors, sample mix-ups, communication conflicts, misinterpreted orders, lipemic samples, contaminated samples and missed physician's request orders. The difference between the relative frequencies of errors observed in the hospitals considered was tested using a proportional Z test. In particular, the survey aimed to discover whether analytical errors were recorded and examine the types of platforms used in the selected diagnostic labs.The analysis showed a high prevalence of improper sample handling during the pre-analytical phase. In appropriate samples, the percentage error was as high as 39%. The major reasons for rejection were hemolyzed samples (9%, incorrect sample identification (8% and clotted samples (6%. Most quality control schemes

  10. Prevalence of Pre-Analytical Errors in Clinical Chemistry Diagnostic Labs in Sulaimani City of Iraqi Kurdistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najat, Dereen

    2017-01-01

    Laboratory testing is roughly divided into three phases: a pre-analytical phase, an analytical phase and a post-analytical phase. Most analytical errors have been attributed to the analytical phase. However, recent studies have shown that up to 70% of analytical errors reflect the pre-analytical phase. The pre-analytical phase comprises all processes from the time a laboratory request is made by a physician until the specimen is analyzed at the lab. Generally, the pre-analytical phase includes patient preparation, specimen transportation, specimen collection and storage. In the present study, we report the first comprehensive assessment of the frequency and types of pre-analytical errors at the Sulaimani diagnostic labs in Iraqi Kurdistan. Over 2 months, 5500 venous blood samples were observed in 10 public diagnostic labs of Sulaimani City. The percentages of rejected samples and types of sample inappropriateness were evaluated. The percentage of each of the following pre-analytical errors were recorded: delay in sample transportation, clotted samples, expired reagents, hemolyzed samples, samples not on ice, incorrect sample identification, insufficient sample, tube broken in centrifuge, request procedure errors, sample mix-ups, communication conflicts, misinterpreted orders, lipemic samples, contaminated samples and missed physician's request orders. The difference between the relative frequencies of errors observed in the hospitals considered was tested using a proportional Z test. In particular, the survey aimed to discover whether analytical errors were recorded and examine the types of platforms used in the selected diagnostic labs. The analysis showed a high prevalence of improper sample handling during the pre-analytical phase. In appropriate samples, the percentage error was as high as 39%. The major reasons for rejection were hemolyzed samples (9%), incorrect sample identification (8%) and clotted samples (6%). Most quality control schemes at Sulaimani

  11. Hypnosis: useful, neglected, available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, D B

    1999-01-01

    Hypnosis is presented as a valuable and frequently neglected resource for many patients with chronic and terminal illness. Particular attention is given herein to the use of hypnosis in attaining relaxation, overcoming insomnia, helping the patient achieve pain relief, and, most particularly, teaching the patient to work with relatives and other persons close to them, as caregivers in a special relationship that can be a very important source of relief to the patient. A brief overview of indications, contraindications, errors, and safeguards is given. Sources of education and training are briefly reviewed and a bibliography is included to identify the nature of professional societies, three in the United States and one international, together with some standard publications. The purpose of this article is to affirm the value of hypnosis as a complementary or alternative therapy for hospice patients, to summarize its clinical applications, and to list the most standard and best known professional societies and publications.

  12. Intensive educational efforts combined with external quality assessment improve the preanalytical phase in general practitioner offices and nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sølvik, Una Ørvim; Bjelkarøy, Wenche Iren; Berg, Kari van den; Saga, Anne Lise; Hager, Helle Borgstrøm; Sandberg, Sverre

    2017-10-26

    Errors in the preanalytical phase in clinical laboratories affect patient safety. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of intensive educational efforts together with external quality assessment (EQA) of the preanalytical phase from 2013 to 2015 to improve patient identification in primary health care in Norway. In addition, routines for venous and capillary blood sampling were investigated. A preanalytical EQA was circulated in 2013 by the Norwegian Quality Improvement of Laboratory Examinations (Noklus) to general practitioner offices and nursing homes (n=2000) to obtain information about important issues to focus on before launching an intensive educational program with courses, posters and visits in 2013-2015. Preanalytical EQA surveys were further circulated in 2014 and 2015. The response rate varied between 42% and 55%. The percentages of participants asking for the patients' name and the Norwegian identification number increased from about 8% in 2013 to about 35% in 2015. The increase was similar for those participating in only one EQA survey and for those who participated in EQA surveys both in 2013 and 2015. Guidelines for venous and capillary blood sampling were not always followed. Educational efforts more than the preanalytical EQA influenced the actions and resulted in an increase in the percentages of participants that followed the guidelines for patient identification. Some aspects of blood sampling routines need improvement.

  13. Pre-analytical and analytical variation of drug determination in segmented hair using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marie Katrine Klose; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Linnet, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    the dominant component in the total variation (29-70%). The present study demonstrated the importance of including the pre-analytical variation in the assessment of the total uncertainty budget and in the setting of the 95%-uncertainty interval (±2CVT). Excluding the pre-analytical sampling variation could...

  14. Examination of a conceptual model of child neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Howard; Newton, Rae R; Litrownik, Alan J; Lewis, Terri; Briggs, Ernestine C; Thompson, Richard; English, Diana; Lee, Li-Ching; Feerick, Margaret M

    2005-05-01

    This study attempted to provide empirical support for conceptual definitions of child neglect. We identified 12 types of needs, conceptualizing neglect as occurring when children's basic needs are not adequately met. We examined measures administered to 377 children and caregivers at ages 4 and 6 years participating in longitudinal studies on child mal-treatment to identify potential indicators of these needs. Indicators were found for latent constructs, operationalizing three of the basic needs (emotional support and/or affection, protection from family conflict and/or violence, and from community violence). These latent constructs were used in a measurement model; this supported the conceptual definitions of neglect. A structural equation model then assessed whether the latent constructs were associated with child adjustment at age 8 years. Low level of perceived support from mother was associated with internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Exposure to family conflict was also linked to these problems, and to social difficulties. Finally, children's sense of experiencing little early affection was associated with subsequent externalizing behavior and social problems. The approach of conceptualizing neglect in terms of unmet child needs, developing a measurement model to define latent neglect constructs, and relating these constructs to subsequent adjustment can build our understanding of neglect.

  15. A note on neglect defaulting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Margolis

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available I introduce the notion of ``neglect defaulting,'' which labels the propensity to neglect possibilities which are ordinarily sensibly neglected. In familiar contexts we are well-tuned to recognize when to override the default. But outside the range of familiar experience --- here in the artificial context of puzzles --- these ordinarily benign defaults can make it difficult for even sophisticated subjects, such as readers of this note, to avoid responses which on reflection will be seen as obviously mistaken. A detail of particular importance is that, although subjects are easily prompted to take one step in the direction of reaching a sound response, the tendency to then neglect to consider that another step may be needed is remarkably strong. In each of the five examples the needed but usually neglected second step is quite trivial. Concluding remarks point to consequences for larger questions outside the range of familiar experience, in politics and other contexts out of scale with everyday experience.

  16. Neglected and endemic zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maudlin, Ian; Eisler, Mark Charles; Welburn, Susan Christina

    2009-09-27

    Endemic zoonoses are found throughout the developing world, wherever people live in close proximity to their animals, affecting not only the health of poor people but often also their livelihoods through the health of their livestock. Unlike newly emerging zoonoses that attract the attention of the developed world, these endemic zoonoses are by comparison neglected. This is, in part, a consequence of under-reporting, resulting in underestimation of their global burden, which in turn artificially downgrades their importance in the eyes of administrators and funding agencies. The development of cheap and effective vaccines is no guarantee that these endemic diseases will be eliminated in the near future. However, simply increasing awareness about their causes and how they may be prevented-often with very simple technologies-could reduce the incidence of many endemic zoonoses. Sustainable control of zoonoses is reliant on surveillance, but, as with other public-sector animal health services, this is rarely implemented in the developing world, not least because of the lack of sufficiently cheap diagnostics. Public-private partnerships have already provided advocacy for human disease control and could be equally effective in addressing endemic zoonoses.

  17. Neglected hangman fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Kumar Srivastava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute management of hangman fracture is well described; however the surgical management of neglected hangman fracture has not been described in literature. We report the surgical management of an untreated hangman′s fracture. A 30-year-old male had fallen from a tree 12 weeks back. Patient presented with cervical myelopathy and restricted neck movements. Radiographs and computed tomography (CT scan revealed fracture of pars interarticularis of axis with Grade III C2-C3 spondylolisthesis with localized kyphosis of 33°. Gentle reduction under general anesthesia (GA failed to improve the alignment. Patient was operated in three stages in a single setting. In Stage I, release of contracted anterior structures and C2-C3 discectomy was done in supine position followed by C2-C3 posterior fixation and fusion in Stage II. C2-C3 interbody bone grafting and anterior plating completed the third stage. C2-C3 interbody fusion was seen at 5 months and a CT scan at 18 months postoperative confirmed fusion and maintenance of alignment. The satisfactory outcome in our patient leads us to believe that anterior-posterior-anterior is the appropriate surgical approach for treatment of such patients.

  18. The effect of centrifugation speed and time on pre-analytical platelet activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderström, Anna C; Nybo, Mads; Nielsen, Christian; Vinholt, Pernille J

    2016-12-01

    The results of laboratory analyses are affected by pre-analytical variables, and in particular can platelets be activated by shear handling stress and secrete granular substances. We therefore evaluated the effect of centrifugation speed and time on pre-analytical platelet activation. Citrate- and EDTA-anticoagulated blood from healthy volunteers were centrifuged at 80-10,000 g for 5-15 min to prepare plasma and platelet-rich plasma. Pre-analytical platelet activation was assessed by flow cytometric measurement of platelet P-selectin (CD62p) expression. Blood cell counts, mean platelet volume (MPV), immature platelet fraction (IPF), and platelet distribution width (PDW) were measured. Platelet aggregation in platelet-rich plasma induced by arachidonic acid (AA), ADP or thrombin receptor activator peptide-6 (TRAP) was tested by 96-well aggregometry. The median percentage of platelets expressing P-selectin in citrate- and EDTA-plasma centrifuged at 2000 g for 10 min were 43% [interquartile range (IQR), 38%-53%] and 56% (IQR, 31%-78%), respectively (p=0.82). Platelet-rich plasma prepared at 100-250 g for 10 min had significantly lower platelet P-selectin expression (11%-15%), pcentrifuged. In platelet-rich plasma, increasing centrifugation speed significantly increased platelet yield but decreased contamination from other blood cells, platelet composition was altered as platelet parameters (MPV, IPF, and PDW) was lowered. Platelet aggregation was not affected by the centrifugation speed platelet-rich plasma was prepared. Proportional to centrifugation speed, platelets in plasma and platelet-rich plasma were activated with centrifugation speed, cell content and composition changed while platelet aggregation was unaltered.

  19. Identification of clinical biomarkers for pre-analytical quality control of blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun Ju; Jeon, Soon Young; Park, Jae-Sun; Yun, Ji Young; Kil, Han Na; Hong, Won Kyung; Lee, Mee-Hee; Kim, Jun-Woo; Jeon, Jae-Pil; Han, Bok Ghee

    2013-04-01

    Pre-analytical conditions are key factors in maintaining the high quality of biospecimens. They are necessary for accurate reproducibility of experiments in the field of biomarker discovery as well as achieving optimal specificity of laboratory tests for clinical diagnosis. In research at the National Biobank of Korea, we evaluated the impact of pre-analytical conditions on the stability of biobanked blood samples by measuring biochemical analytes commonly used in clinical laboratory tests. We measured 10 routine laboratory analytes in serum and plasma samples from healthy donors (n = 50) with a chemistry autoanalyzer (Hitachi 7600-110). The analyte measurements were made at different time courses based on delay of blood fractionation, freezing delay of fractionated serum and plasma samples, and at different cycles (0, 1, 3, 6, 9) of freeze-thawing. Statistically significant changes from the reference sample mean were determined using the repeated-measures ANOVA and the significant change limit (SCL). The serum levels of GGT and LDH were changed significantly depending on both the time interval between blood collection and fractionation and the time interval between fractionation and freezing of serum and plasma samples. The glucose level was most sensitive only to the elapsed time between blood collection and centrifugation for blood fractionation. Based on these findings, a simple formula (glucose decrease by 1.387 mg/dL per hour) was derived to estimate the length of time delay after blood collection. In addition, AST, BUN, GGT, and LDH showed sensitive responses to repeated freeze-thaw cycles of serum and plasma samples. These results suggest that GGT and LDH measurements can be used as quality control markers for certain pre-analytical conditions (eg, delayed processing or repeated freeze-thawing) of blood samples which are either directly used in the laboratory tests or stored for future research in the biobank.

  20. Preanalytical conditions of point-of-care testing in the intensive care unit are decisive for analysis reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvet, Adrien; Espitalier, Fabien; Grammatico-Guillon, Leslie; Nay, Mai-Anh; Elaroussi, Djilali; Laffon, Marc; Andres, Christian R; Legras, Annick; Ehrmann, Stephan; Dequin, Pierre-François; Gendrot, Chantal; Guillon, Antoine

    2016-12-01

    Point-of-care testing (POCT) systems enable a wide range of tests to be rapidly performed at the bedside and have attracted increasing interest in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, previous studies comparing the concordance of POCT with central laboratory testing have reported divergent findings. Most reported studies on POCT reliability have focused on analyzer performance rather than the preanalytical phase. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of results provided by point-of-care analyzers according to the organization of the care units and the preanalytical process. In three adult critical care units, 491 paired blood samples were analyzed for hemoglobin, potassium, and sodium concentrations by blood gas analyzers (identical reference) and the central laboratory. The clinical significance of agreement was assessed using Bland-Altman plots. A quality improvement program was then implemented to improve the preanalytical POCT process for one ICU where there was poor agreement. A second comparison was performed on 278 paired blood samples in this unit. Biases were clinically nonsignificant for potassium and sodium concentrations for all tested critical care units, relative to the reference method. However, biases [limits of agreements] for hemoglobin analyses were clearly affected by the preanalytical process: -3 [-6; 1] g/L in the operating room, -5 [-28; 17] g/L in a 10-bed ICU, and -19 [-64; 27] g/L in a 37-bed ICU. The quality approach was implemented in the 37-bed ICU and led to corrective actions that: (1) reduced the time for the POCT preanalytical phase; (2) implemented a checklist to validate the preanalytical conditions; (3) used technical innovations. The improvement of the preanalytical process resulted in a substantial decrease of the bias for hemoglobin concentration measurements: -3 [-10; 5] g/L in the 37-bed ICU. We clearly demonstrate that an identical analyzer can provide results of varying quality depending on the local

  1. Influence of common preanalytical variations on the metabolic profile of serum samples in biobanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliniaux, Ophelie [University of Picardie Jules Verne, Laboratoire de Phytotechnologie EA 3900-BioPI (France); Gaillard, Gwenaelle [Biobanque de Picardie (France); Lion, Antoine [University of Picardie Jules Verne, Laboratoire de Phytotechnologie EA 3900-BioPI (France); Cailleu, Dominique [Batiment Serres-Transfert, rue de Mai/rue Dallery, Plateforme Analytique (France); Mesnard, Francois, E-mail: francois.mesnard@u-picardie.fr [University of Picardie Jules Verne, Laboratoire de Phytotechnologie EA 3900-BioPI (France); Betsou, Fotini [Integrated Biobank of Luxembourg (Luxembourg)

    2011-12-15

    A blood pre-centrifugation delay of 24 h at room temperature influenced the proton NMR spectroscopic profiles of human serum. A blood pre-centrifugation delay of 24 h at 4 Degree-Sign C did not influence the spectroscopic profile as compared with 4 h delays at either room temperature or 4 Degree-Sign C. Five or ten serum freeze-thaw cycles also influenced the proton NMR spectroscopic profiles. Certain common in vitro preanalytical variations occurring in biobanks may impact the metabolic profile of human serum.

  2. Influence of common preanalytical variations on the metabolic profile of serum samples in biobanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliniaux, Ophélie; Gaillard, Gwenaelle; Lion, Antoine; Cailleu, Dominique; Mesnard, François; Betsou, Fotini

    2011-01-01

    A blood pre-centrifugation delay of 24 h at room temperature influenced the proton NMR spectroscopic profiles of human serum. A blood pre-centrifugation delay of 24 h at 4°C did not influence the spectroscopic profile as compared with 4 h delays at either room temperature or 4°C. Five or ten serum freeze–thaw cycles also influenced the proton NMR spectroscopic profiles. Certain common in vitro preanalytical variations occurring in biobanks may impact the metabolic profile of human serum.

  3. Centre for Educational Technology: The Neglected Basic in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In view of the significance of centre for educational technology as the basis for teacher training programme in the colleges of education, precise understanding of the purpose of establishing the centre and its functions needs to be brought to the knowledge of the concern group. Therefore, this paper discusses the functions ...

  4. Functional assessment of region-specific neglect: are there differential behavioural consequences of peripersonal versus extrapersonal neglect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, T.C.W.; Ten Brink, A.F.; Kouwenhoven, M.; Visser-Meily, J.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Region-specific types of neglect (peripersonal and extrapersonal) have been dissociated, yet, differential behavioural consequences are unknown. Objective. The aim of the current study was to investigate behavioural consequences at the level of basic activities of daily living of

  5. Novel bone metabolism-associated hormones: the importance of the pre-analytical phase for understanding their physiological roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Giovanni; Barbaro, Mosè; Locatelli, Massimo; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2017-06-01

    The endocrine function of bone is now a recognized feature of this tissue. Bone-derived hormones that modulate whole-body homeostasis, are being discovered as for the effects on bone of novel and classic hormones produced by other tissues become known. Often, however, the data regarding these last generation bone-derived or bone-targeting hormones do not give about a clear picture of their physiological roles or concentration ranges. A certain degree of uncertainty could stem from differences in the pre-analytical management of biological samples. The pre-analytical phase comprises a series of decisions and actions (i.e., choice of sample matrix, methods of collection, transportation, treatment and storage) preceding analysis. Errors arising in this phase will inevitably be carried over to the analytical phase where they can reduce the measurement accuracy, ultimately, leading discrepant results. While the pre-analytical phase is all important, in routine laboratory medicine, it is often not given due consideration in research and clinical trials. This is particularly true for novel molecules, such as the hormones regulating the endocrine function of bone. In this review we discuss the importance of the pre-analytical variables affecting the measurement of last generation bone-associated hormones and describe their, often debated and rarely clear physiological roles.

  6. Pre-Analytical Sample Quality : Metabolite Ratios as an Intrinsic Marker for Prolonged Room Temperature Exposure of Serum Samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anton, Gabriele; Wilson, Rory; Yu, Zhong-hao; Prehn, Cornelia; Zukunft, Sven; Adamski, Jerzy; Heier, Margit; Meisinger, Christa; Roemisch-Margl, Werner; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Hveem, Kristian; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce; Peters, Annette; Kastenmueller, Gabi; Waldenberger, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Advances in the "omics" field bring about the need for a high number of good quality samples. Many omics studies take advantage of biobanked samples to meet this need. Most of the laboratory errors occur in the pre-analytical phase. Therefore evidence-based standard operating procedures for the

  7. Combining language and space: sentence bisection in unilateral spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronelli, Laura; Guasti, Maria T; Arduino, Lisa S; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    In line bisection right-brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect show a rightward deviation, with respect to the line's physical center. In word bisection ortho-phonological features of the stimulus' final (right-sided) part modulate performance of both patients and healthy participants (Veronelli, Vallar, Marinelli, Primativo, & Arduino, 2014). We investigated the role of linguistic factors in sentence bisection, in patients with and without neglect, and control participants. The effects of information in the right-sided part of the sentence (Experiment #1), and of lexical and syntactic violations (Experiment #2) were assessed. Neglect patients showed an overall rightward bias, larger than those of patients without neglect and controls. The neglect patients' bias was modulated by stimulus type, decreasing from lines, to letter strings and to all types of sentences. In sum, in visuo-manual sentence bisection a basic linguistic mechanism, such as sentence readability, brings about a more leftward appreciation of the stimulus, reducing the neglect patients' rightward bias. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Neglect Subtypes, Race, and Poverty: Individual, Family, and Service Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Drake, Brett; Zhou, Pan

    2013-01-01

    Recent child maltreatment research has highlighted the very different context of poverty for Black and White children. Neglect is the most common form of maltreatment and strongly associated with poverty. Neglect is, however, not a unitary construct. We lack an understanding of whether reporting of and responding to different types of neglect may vary by poverty, race, or the intersection of the two. Administrative census, child welfare, welfare, health, and education data were used to examine how family and community poverty factors associate with various subtypes of neglect and subsequent case dispositions for Black and White children. Black children reported to child welfare reside in far poorer communities than Whites, even after taking into account family income (Aid to Families with Dependent Children [AFDC]/Temporary Aid to Needy Families [TANF]). Black children were more commonly reported and substantiated for severe and basic needs neglect. Community poverty indicators had a different relationship to report disposition for Black as compared to White children after controlling for neglect subtypes, child and family characteristics. Implications for practice and policy are discussed. PMID:23109353

  9. Harnessing motivation to alleviate neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte eRussell

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The syndrome of spatial neglect results from the combination of a number of deficits in attention, with patients demonstrating both spatially lateralised and non-lateralised impairments. Previous reports have hinted that there may be a motivational component to neglect and that modulating this might alleviate some of the debilitating symptoms. Additionally, recent work on the effects of reward on attention in healthy participants has revealed improvements across a number of paradigms. As the primary deficit in neglect has been associated with attention, this evidence for reward’s effects is potentially important. However, until very recently there have been few empirical studies addressing this potential therapeutic avenue. Here we review the growing body of evidence that attentional impairments in neglect can be reduced by motivation, for example in the form of preferred music or anticipated monetary reward, and discuss the implications of this for treatments for these patients. Crucially these effects of positive motivation are not observed in all patients with neglect, suggesting that the consequences of motivation may relate to individual lesion anatomy. Given the key role of dopaminergic systems in motivational processes, we suggest that motivational stimulation might act as a surrogate for dopaminergic stimulation. In addition, we consider the relationship between clinical post stroke apathy and lack of response to motivation.

  10. FOOD NEGLECT AND INFANT DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helton, Jesse J; Cross, Theodore P; Vaughn, Michael G; Gochez-Kerr, Tatiana

    2018-03-01

    The impact of food insecurity on child development in the general U.S. population is well-established, yet little is known about the harm of food neglect relative to other types of maltreatment. Due to the harmful physiological impact of inadequate nutrients and the social impact of food-related stress, it was hypothesized that food neglect would be more likely to impair infant cognitive and language development than physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other forms of neglect. Families of infants (N = 1,951) investigated by Child Protective Services were studied using the second cohort of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW II; NSCAW Research Group, 2002). Results from multivariable logistic regression models that controlled for likely confounding variables showed that the odds of impairment in cognition and language were significantly greater when food neglect was the most serious form of maltreatment. Considering that both food insecurity and child neglect are associated with poverty and parental mental health problems, it will be important for child welfare and mental health professionals to work collaboratively to better the health of these vulnerable children. © 2018 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  11. Neglect Patients Exhibit Egocentric or Allocentric Neglect for the Same Stimulus Contingent upon Task Demands

    OpenAIRE

    Leyland, Louise-Ann; Godwin, Hayward J.; Benson, Valerie; Liversedge, Simon P.

    2017-01-01

    Hemispatial Neglect (HN) is a failure to allocate attention to a region of space opposite to where damage has occurred in the brain, usually the left side of space. It is widely documented that there are two types of neglect: egocentric neglect (neglect of information falling on the individual's left side) and allocentric neglect (neglect of the left side of each object, regardless of the position of that object in relation to the individual). We set out to address whether neglect presentatio...

  12. De behandeling van neglect, een aandachtstoornis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Brink, A. F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413640248; Nijboer, Tanja C W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304832421; Visser-Meily, J. M A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/180428047

    2017-01-01

    Neglect occurs in 30-50% of patients in the subacute phase post-stroke. Patients with neglect ignore one side of their body or one part of the space around them. Treatment of neglect is important, as patients with neglect recover more slowly and are less independent compared to patients without

  13. Neglected locked vertical patellar dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patellar dislocations occurring about the vertical and horizontal axis are rare and irreducible. The neglected patellar dislocation is still rarer. We describe the clinical presentation and management of a case of neglected vertical patellar dislocation in a 6 year-old boy who sustained an external rotational strain with a laterally directed force to his knee. Initially the diagnosis was missed and 2 months later open reduction was done. The increased tension generated by the rotation of the lateral extensor retinaculum kept the patella locked in the lateral gutter even with the knee in full extension. Traumatic patellar dislocation with rotation around a vertical axis has been described earlier, but no such neglected case has been reported to the best of our knowledge.

  14. Preanalytical considerations in detection of colorectal cancer in blood serum using Raman molecular imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treado, Patrick J.; Stewart, Shona D.; Smith, Aaron; Kirschner, Heather; Post, Christopher; Overholt, Bergein F.

    2016-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and women in the United States. Raman Molecular Imaging (RMI) is an effective technique to evaluate human tissue, cells and bodily fluids, including blood serum for disease diagnosis. ChemImage Corporation, in collaboration with clinicians, has been engaged in development of an in vitro diagnostic Raman assay focused on CRC detection. The Raman Assay for Colorectal Cancer (RACC) exploits the high specificity of Raman imaging to distinguish diseased from normal dried blood serum droplets without additional reagents. Pilot Study results from testing of hundreds of biobank patient samples have demonstrated that RACC detects CRC with high sensitivity and specificity. However, expanded clinical trials, which are ongoing, are revealing a host of important preanalytical considerations associated with sample collection, sample storage and stability, sample shipping, sample preparation and sample interferents, which impact detection performance. Results from recent clinical studies will be presented.

  15. The influence of preanalytical conditions on the DJ-1 concentration in human cerebrospinal fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvesen, Lisette; Tanassi, Julia T; Bech, Sara

    2014-01-01

    concentration was blood contaminated samples centrifuged at 2000 × g. When a protease inhibitor cocktail was added to the CSF prior to centrifugation, the DJ-1 concentration was significantly higher. CONCLUSION: Preanalytical factors such as centrifugation and protease inhibition must...... be carefully controlled when handling CSF for analysis of DJ-1 and other biomarkers, as DJ-1 was influenced by blood contamination, centrifugation and protease activity.......AIM: The purpose of this study was to establish the influence of centrifugation and protease activity on the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of DJ-1 and hemoglobin. MATERIALS & METHODS: The concentrations of DJ-1 and hemoglobin were determined in 12 (DJ-1) and six (hemoglobin) pairs of CSF...

  16. [Pre-analytical stability before centrifugation of 7 biochemical analytes in whole blood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier-Cornet, Andreas; Moineau, Marie-Pierre; Narbonne, Valérie; Plee-Gautier, Emmanuelle; Le Saos, Fabienne; Carre, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The pre-analytical stability of 7 biochemical parameters (parathyroid hormone -PTH-, vitamins A, C E and D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and insulin) at +4 °C, was studied on whole blood samples before centrifugation. The impact of freezing at -20°C was also analyzed/performed for PTH and vitamin D. The differences in the results of assays for whole blood samples, being kept for different times between sampling time and analysis, from 9 healthy adults, were compaired by using a Student t test. The 7 analytes investigated remained stable up to 4 hours at +4°C in whole blood. This study showed that it is possible to accept uncentrifuged whole blood specimens kept at +4°C before analysis. PTH is affected by freezing whereas vitamin D is not.

  17. Biomarker Analysis of Stored Blood Products: Emphasis on Pre-Analytical Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Lion

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Millions of blood products are transfused every year; many lives are thus directly concerned by transfusion. The three main labile blood products used in transfusion are erythrocyte concentrates, platelet concentrates and fresh frozen plasma. Each of these products has to be stored according to its particular components. However, during storage, modifications or degradation of those components may occur, and are known as storage lesions. Thus, biomarker discovery of in vivo blood aging as well as in vitro labile blood products storage lesions is of high interest for the transfusion medicine community. Pre-analytical issues are of major importance in analyzing the various blood products during storage conditions as well as according to various protocols that are currently used in blood banks for their preparations. This paper will review key elements that have to be taken into account in the context of proteomic-based biomarker discovery applied to blood banking.

  18. Biomarker Analysis of Stored Blood Products: Emphasis on Pre-Analytical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delobel, Julien; Rubin, Olivier; Prudent, Michel; Crettaz, David; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Lion, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Millions of blood products are transfused every year; many lives are thus directly concerned by transfusion. The three main labile blood products used in transfusion are erythrocyte concentrates, platelet concentrates and fresh frozen plasma. Each of these products has to be stored according to its particular components. However, during storage, modifications or degradation of those components may occur, and are known as storage lesions. Thus, biomarker discovery of in vivo blood aging as well as in vitro labile blood products storage lesions is of high interest for the transfusion medicine community. Pre-analytical issues are of major importance in analyzing the various blood products during storage conditions as well as according to various protocols that are currently used in blood banks for their preparations. This paper will review key elements that have to be taken into account in the context of proteomic-based biomarker discovery applied to blood banking. PMID:21151459

  19. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain Brain ... called the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life— ...

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video Welcome. Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses ...

  1. Strongyloidiasis--the most neglected of the neglected tropical diseases?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, A.; L., van Lieshout; Marti, H.

    2009-01-01

    in relation to diagnostic methods for detecting the infection, the morbidity caused by the infection and the recommended treatment. It further discusses some of the reasons why this infection is so neglected and the consequence of this for the estimated global prevalence. The paper finally points to the gaps...

  2. Informatics for neglected diseases collaborations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bost, Frederic; Jacobs, Robert T; Kowalczyk, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Many different public and private organizations from across the globe are collaborating on neglected diseases drug-discovery and development projects with the aim of identifying a cure for tropical infectious diseases. These neglected diseases collaborations require a global, secure, multi-organization data-management solution, combined with a platform that facilitates communication and supports collaborative work. This review discusses the solutions offered by 'Software as a Service' (SaaS) web-based platforms, despite notable challenges, and the evolution of these platforms required to foster efficient virtual research efforts by geographically dispersed scientists.

  3. Effects of fecal sampling on preanalytical and analytical phases in quantitative fecal immunochemical tests for hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapi, Stefano; Berardi, Margherita; Cellai, Filippo; Ciattini, Samuele; Chelazzi, Laura; Ognibene, Agostino; Rubeca, Tiziana

    2017-07-24

    Information on preanalytical variability is mandatory to bring laboratories up to ISO 15189 requirements. Fecal sampling is greatly affected by lack of harmonization in laboratory medicine. The aims of this study were to obtain information on the devices used for fecal sampling and to explore the effect of different amounts of feces on the results from the fecal immunochemical test for hemoglobin (FIT-Hb). Four commercial sample collection devices for quantitative FIT-Hb measurements were investigated. The volume of interest (VOI) of the probes was measured from diameter and geometry. Quantitative measurements of the mass of feces were carried out by gravimetry. The effects of an increased amount of feces on the analytical environment were investigated measuring the Hb values with a single analytical method. VOI was 8.22, 7.1 and 9.44 mm3 for probes that collected a target of 10 mg of feces, and 3.08 mm3 for one probe that targeted 2 mg of feces. The ratio between recovered and target amounts of devices ranged from 56% to 121%. Different changes in the measured Hb values were observed, in adding increasing amounts of feces in commercial buffers. The amounts of collected materials are related to the design of probes. Three out 4 manufacturers declare the same target amount using different sampling volumes and obtaining different amounts of collected materials. The introduction of a standard probes to reduce preanalytical variability could be an useful step for fecal test harmonization and to fulfill the ISO 15189 requirements.

  4. Quantitative assessment of effect of preanalytic cold ischemic time on protein expression in breast cancer tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumeister, Veronique M; Anagnostou, Valsamo; Siddiqui, Summar; England, Allison Michal; Zarrella, Elizabeth R; Vassilakopoulou, Maria; Parisi, Fabio; Kluger, Yuval; Hicks, David G; Rimm, David L

    2012-12-05

    Companion diagnostic tests can depend on accurate measurement of protein expression in tissues. Preanalytic variables, especially cold ischemic time (time from tissue removal to fixation in formalin) can affect the measurement and may cause false-negative results. We examined 23 proteins, including four commonly used breast cancer biomarker proteins, to quantify their sensitivity to cold ischemia in breast cancer tissues. A series of 93 breast cancer specimens with known time-to-fixation represented in a tissue microarray and a second series of 25 matched pairs of core needle biopsies and breast cancer resections were used to evaluate changes in antigenicity as a function of cold ischemic time. Estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), HER2 or Ki67, and 19 other antigens were tested. Each antigen was measured using the AQUA method of quantitative immunofluorescence on at least one series. All statistical tests were two-sided. We found no evidence for loss of antigenicity with time-to-fixation for ER, PgR, HER2, or Ki67 in a 4-hour time window. However, with a bootstrapping analysis, we observed a trend toward loss for ER and PgR, a statistically significant loss of antigenicity for phosphorylated tyrosine (P = .0048), and trends toward loss for other proteins. There was evidence of increased antigenicity in acetylated lysine, AKAP13 (P = .009), and HIF1A (P = .046), which are proteins known to be expressed in conditions of hypoxia. The loss of antigenicity for phosphorylated tyrosine and increase in expression of AKAP13, and HIF1A were confirmed in the biopsy/resection series. Key breast cancer biomarkers show no evidence of loss of antigenicity, although this dataset assesses the relatively short time beyond the 1-hour limit in recent guidelines. Other proteins show changes in antigenicity in both directions. Future studies that extend the time range and normalize for heterogeneity will provide more comprehensive information on preanalytic variation due

  5. Be careful for neglected diseases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... INTRODUCTION. According to a piece of Nature news, many neglected diseases boost especially in tropical regions (Butler,. 2009a, b). In my opinion, it is the inherent result of ... (2009) pointed out that bamboo is one of best candidates ... When Equation (1) is used for brain cells, fifth dimension of life can ...

  6. Walking trajectory in neglect patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huitema, RB; Brouwer, WH; Hof, AL; Dekker, R; Mulder, T; Postema, K

    A lateral deviation of the walking trajectory is often observed in stroke patients with unilateral spatial neglect. However, existing research appears to be contradictory regarding the direction of this deviation. The aim of the present study was to gain more insight into the walking trajectory of

  7. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at NIMH News & Events About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video ...

  8. Dominance of pre-analytical over analytical variation for measurement of methadone and its main metabolite in postmortem femoral blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Kristian; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Buchard, Anders

    2008-01-01

    -6% for EDDP enantiomers. The total measurement uncertainty (CV(T)) was estimated from the pre-analytical variation (CV(PA)), analytical variation proper (CV(A)), and variation related to calibration (traceability) (CV(Cal)) according to the relationship CV(T) = [CV(2)(PA) + CV(2)(A) + CV(2)(cal)](0...... of the analytical component. The pre-analytical variation amounted to a CV% of 19-21% for R- and S-methadone and 30-38% for R- and S-EDDP, i.e. considerably larger than the other components. Due to the squared addition principle, the resulting total uncertainty (CV(T)) became largely identical to the CV(PA), i.......e. 19-21% for R- and S-methadone and 31-38% for R- and S-EDDP enantiomers. Accordingly, CV(T) exceeded CV(A) by a factor 5 or more. Dominance of the pre-analytical component of variation may also be likely for other compounds measured in postmortem blood samples. Thus, the width of the 95%-uncertainty...

  9. Preanalytical errors in primary healthcare: a questionnaire study of information search procedures, test request management and test tube labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderberg, Johan; Brulin, Christine; Grankvist, Kjell; Wallin, Olof

    2009-01-01

    Most errors in laboratory medicine occur in the preanalytical phase and are the result of human mistakes. This study investigated information search procedures, test request management and test tube labelling in primary healthcare compared to the same procedures amongst clinical laboratory staff. A questionnaire was completed by 317 venous blood sampling staff in 70 primary healthcare centres and in two clinical laboratories (response rate = 94%). Correct procedures were not always followed. Only 60% of the primary healthcare staff reported that they always sought information in the updated, online laboratory manual. Only 12% reported that they always labelled the test tubes prior to drawing blood samples. No major differences between primary healthcare centres and clinical laboratories were found, except for test tube labelling, whereby the laboratory staff reported better practices. Re-education and access to documented routines were not clearly associated with better practices. The preanalytical procedure in the surveyed primary healthcare centres was associated with a risk of errors which could affect patient safety. To improve patient safety in laboratory testing, all healthcare providers should survey their preanalytical procedures and improve the total testing process with a systems perspective.

  10. Other Safety Concerns and Self-Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Asked Questions DONATE Other Safety Concerns and Self-Neglect Other safety concerns focus on instances of seniors ... When To Report Other Safety Concerns and Self-Neglect? If you witness a life-threatening situation involving ...

  11. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the brain ... specialized for the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes ...

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in Real Life Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video ... and epigenetic changes can be passed on to future generations. Further understanding of genes and epigenetics may ...

  13. Chasing the effects of Pre-analytical Confounders - a Multicentre Study on CSF-AD biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Joao Leitao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Core cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarkers-Aβ42, Tau and pTau–have been recently incorporated in the revised criteria for Alzheimer’s disease (AD. However, their widespread clinical application lacks standardization. Pre-analytical sample handling and storage play an important role in the reliable measurement of these biomarkers across laboratories. In this study, we aim to surpass the efforts from previous studies, by employing a multicentre approach to assess the impact of less studied CSF pre-analytical confounders in AD-biomarkers quantification. Four different centres participated in this study and followed the same established protocol. CSF samples were analysed for three biomarkers (Aβ42, Tau and pTau and tested for different spinning conditions (temperature: Room temperature (RT vs. 4oC; speed: 500g vs. 2000g vs. 3000g, storage volume variations (25%, 50% and 75% of tube total volume as well as freezing-thaw cycles (up to 5 cyles. The influence of sample routine parameters, inter-centre variability and relative value of each biomarker (reported as normal/abnormal, was analysed. Centrifugation conditions did not influence biomarkers levels, except for samples with a high CSF total protein content, where either non centrifugation or centrifugation at RT, compared to 4ºC, led to higher Aβ42 levels. Reducing CSF storage volume from 75% to 50% of total tube capacity, decreased Aβ42 concentration (within analytical CV of the assay, whereas no change in Tau or pTau was observed. Moreover, the concentration of Tau and pTau appears to be stable up to 5 freeze-thaw cycles, whereas Aβ42 levels decrease if CSF is freeze-thawed more than 3 times. This systematic study reinforces the need for CSF centrifugation at 4ºC prior to storage and highlights the influence of storage conditions in Aβ42 levels. This study contributes to the establishment of harmonized standard operating procedures that will help reducing inter-lab variability of CSF

  14. Dominance of pre-analytical over analytical variation for measurement of methadone and its main metabolite in postmortem femoral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnet, Kristian; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Buchard, Anders; Munkholm, Julie; Morling, Niels

    2008-07-18

    On the basis of simultaneously sampled postmortem blood specimens from the left and right femoral veins the pre-analytical variation of methadone measurements was evaluated and compared to the analytical variation. The material consisted of a series of 27 duplicate samples from routine autopsy cases comprising mainly drug addicts. A chiral LC-MS/MS method was used for measurement of the R- and S-enantiomers of methadone and its main metabolite 2-ethyl-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolinium (EDDP). The analytical CV% was determined to be in the range 3-4% for methadone enantiomers and 4-6% for EDDP enantiomers. The total measurement uncertainty (CV(T)) was estimated from the pre-analytical variation (CV(PA)), analytical variation proper (CV(A)), and variation related to calibration (traceability) (CV(Cal)) according to the relationship CV(T) = [CV(2)(PA) + CV(2)(A) + CV(2)(cal)](0.5). Uncertainty related to calibration concerned a component related to the purity of drug reference compound and a contribution from the production of calibrator solutions (CV(Cal)analytical sampling variation was estimated from the duplicate measurements of blood samples after subtraction of the analytical component. The pre-analytical variation amounted to a CV% of 19-21% for R- and S-methadone and 30-38% for R- and S-EDDP, i.e. considerably larger than the other components. Due to the squared addition principle, the resulting total uncertainty (CV(T)) became largely identical to the CV(PA), i.e. 19-21% for R- and S-methadone and 31-38% for R- and S-EDDP enantiomers. Accordingly, CV(T) exceeded CV(A) by a factor 5 or more. Dominance of the pre-analytical component of variation may also be likely for other compounds measured in postmortem blood samples. Thus, the width of the 95%-uncertainty interval (+/-2CV(T)) for a postmortem measurement is largely determined by the pre-analytical component of variation. This should be kept in mind when judging on the uncertainty of postmortem

  15. What Is Child Abuse and Neglect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Each State provides its own definitions of child abuse and neglect based on minimum standards set by Federal law. This fact sheet provides the answers to the following questions: (1) How is child abuse and neglect defined in Federal law?; and (2) What are the major types of child abuse and neglect? Additional resources are listed. (Contains 2…

  16. Visual neglect in posterior cortical atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Katia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In posterior cortical atrophy (PCA, there is a progressive impairment of high-level visual functions and parietal damage, which might predict the occurrence of visual neglect. However, neglect may pass undetected if not assessed with specific tests, and might therefore be underestimated in PCA. In this prospective study, we aimed at establishing the side, the frequency and the severity of visual neglect, visual extinction, and primary visual field defects in an unselected sample of PCA patients. Methods Twenty-four right-handed PCA patients underwent a standardized battery of neglect tests. Visual fields were examined clinically by the confrontation method. Results Sixteen of the 24 patients (66% had signs of visual neglect on at least one test, and fourteen (58% also had visual extinction or hemianopia. Five patients (21% had neither neglect nor visual field defects. As expected, left-sided neglect was more severe than right-sided neglect. However, right-sided neglect resulted more frequently in this population (29% than in previous studies on focal brain lesions. Conclusion When assessed with specific visuospatial tests, visual neglect is frequent in patients with PCA. Diagnosis of neglect is important because of its negative impact on daily activities. Clinicians should consider the routine use of neglect tests to screen patients with high-level visual deficits. The relatively high frequency of right-sided neglect in neurodegenerative patients supports the hypothesis that bilateral brain damage is necessary for right-sided neglect signs to occur, perhaps because of the presence in the right hemisphere of crucial structures whose damage contributes to neglect.

  17. Does Type of Harm Matter? a Factorial Survey Examining the Influence of Child Neglect on Child Protection Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Jackie; Taylor, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Child maltreatment remains a serious social problem, with neglect arguably the most pernicious manifestation. Neglect is characterised by a chronic failure to provide for a child's basic needs and often co-exists with other forms of maltreatment. It usually occurs in a complex social environment where socio-economic disadvantage is rife and the…

  18. [Preanalytical phase and accreditation: acceptance criteria for samples of multisite laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dialma, Pascale; Piaulenne, Stéphane; Baty, Sonia; Zeitoun, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Performing high quality analyses in order to help physicians in their diagnoses and to ensure better patient care: this represents our routine mission for clinical lab. To achieve this goal, all steps from sampling to the final data transfer must be controlled. The preanalytical phase is one of the most crucial, but also one of the most complicated, especially in the context of a consolidated laboratory network. Transport conditions, delays, temperature, regulatory constraints are all criteria that we need to take into consideration in order to comply to ISO 15189, section 5.4. In this context, our laboratory would like to address the following issues: to control the transport conditions in order to guarantee optimal preservation of the samples, and to define an internal process and identify non-conforming situations linked to delay in sample delivery. An original study dealing with the stability in whole blood of common clinical chemistry and immunochemistry tests in defined transport conditions (delays, temperature, tube position) was performed on a panel of 100 patients' samples. This panel is intended to be a good reflection of the patients usually seen in multi-site laboratory. We observed that most of the analytes (35 of 41) were stable in whole blood; however, some of them demonstrated instability over time. All these results were integrated into our collection manual.

  19. National Cancer Institute Biospecimen Evidence-Based Practices: a novel approach to pre-analytical standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Kelly B; Vaught, Jim; Moore, Helen M

    2014-04-01

    Variable biospecimen collection, processing, and storage practices may introduce variability in biospecimen quality and analytical results. This risk can be minimized within a facility through the use of standardized procedures; however, analysis of biospecimens from different facilities may be confounded by differences in procedures and inferred biospecimen quality. Thus, a global approach to standardization of biospecimen handling procedures and their validation is needed. Here we present the first in a series of procedural guidelines that were developed and annotated with published findings in the field of human biospecimen science. The series of documents will be known as NCI Biospecimen Evidence-Based Practices, or BEBPs. Pertinent literature was identified via the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Biospecimen Research Database ( brd.nci.nih.gov ) and findings were organized by specific biospecimen pre-analytical factors and analytes of interest (DNA, RNA, protein, morphology). Meta-analysis results were presented as annotated summaries, which highlight concordant and discordant findings and the threshold and magnitude of effects when applicable. The detailed and adaptable format of the document is intended to support the development and execution of evidence-based standard operating procedures (SOPs) for human biospecimen collection, processing, and storage operations.

  20. A Systematic Evaluation of Blood Serum and Plasma Pre-Analytics for Metabolomics Cohort Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Jobard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent thriving development of biobanks and associated high-throughput phenotyping studies requires the elaboration of large-scale approaches for monitoring biological sample quality and compliance with standard protocols. We present a metabolomic investigation of human blood samples that delineates pitfalls and guidelines for the collection, storage and handling procedures for serum and plasma. A series of eight pre-processing technical parameters is systematically investigated along variable ranges commonly encountered across clinical studies. While metabolic fingerprints, as assessed by nuclear magnetic resonance, are not significantly affected by altered centrifugation parameters or delays between sample pre-processing (blood centrifugation and storage, our metabolomic investigation highlights that both the delay and storage temperature between blood draw and centrifugation are the primary parameters impacting serum and plasma metabolic profiles. Storing the blood drawn at 4 °C is shown to be a reliable routine to confine variability associated with idle time prior to sample pre-processing. Based on their fine sensitivity to pre-analytical parameters and protocol variations, metabolic fingerprints could be exploited as valuable ways to determine compliance with standard procedures and quality assessment of blood samples within large multi-omic clinical and translational cohort studies.

  1. The Impact of Pre-Analytical Conditions on Human Serum Peptidome Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padoan, Andrea

    2018-02-24

    The successful use of proteomic technology for the discovery of clinically relevant, new candidate biomarkers, especially in the low molecular weight range (peptidome), calls for a careful consideration of standardized operating procedures (SOP) for pre-analytical variables, including samples handling and storage. The current lack of standardization, widely considered a relevant source of random and systematic errors, underlies the uncertainty of analytical results and poor comparability, especially in multi-centric or inter-laboratory studies. In their recent study, Tsuchida et al. used the MALDI-TOF/MS technique to investigate the effect of long-term storage at -20 °C, -80 °C, and in liquid nitrogen on serum samples obtained for peptidomic analyses. The authors have also evaluated the effects of different sample thawing modalities. By including results from the same series as that reported on in a previous publication, they have effectively defined some important requirements for the peptidomic analysis of serum samples (e.g., maximum time intervals between venepuncture and serum separation [1 h], minimum temperature for long-term sera storage temperature [-80 °C], ideal conditions for sample thawing). © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Fusion of time and space in Hans Roosenschoon’s music: A pre-analytical strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha M. Spies

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available n order to promote access to non-tonal music, the fusion of musical time and space may be considered as a point of departure. As a pre-analytical strategy, it relies on direct experience of the music as it is heard instead of on specialised music theoretical knowledge. The music of Hans Roosenschoon is used to illustrate five ways in which the fusion of time and space manifests itself on a metaphorical level, namely the integration of Western and African cultural spaces through music as a temporal art form, the blending of time and space in the music itself and the fusion of art music from the past with everyday life by electronic means. A true story from the South African past that combines with a visual image associated with Cape Town represents another version of fusing time and space, while on a metaphysical level past and present coalesce as melodic references to Schubert’s music are used to signify abstract ideas. Listening to music directly rather than through the filter of a rational analytical system helps to develop an appreciation of non-tonal music, a kind of music that is often regarded as inaccessible.

  3. Blood Sampling Seasonality as an Important Preanalytical Factor for Assessment of Vitamin D Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, Patrizia; Buonocore, Ruggero; Aloe, Rosalia; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    The measurement of vitamin D is now commonplace for preventing osteoporosis and restoring an appropriate concentration that would be effective to counteract the occurrence of other human disorders. The aim of this study was to establish whether blood sampling seasonality may influence total vitamin D concentration in a general population of Italian unselected outpatients. We performed a retrospective search in the laboratory information system of the University Hospital of Parma (Italy, temperate climate), to identify the values of total serum vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D) measured in outpatients aged 18 years and older, who were referred for routine health check-up during the entire year 2014. The study population consisted in 11,150 outpatients (median age 62 years; 8592 women and 2558 men). The concentration of vitamin D was consistently lower in samples collected in Winter than in the other three seasons. The frequency of subjects with vitamin D deficiency was approximately double in samples drawn in Winter and Spring than in Summer and Autumn. In the multivariate analysis, the concentration of total vitamin D was found to be independently associated with sex and season of blood testing, but not with the age of the patients. According to these findings, blood sampling seasonality should be regarded as an important preanalytical factor in vitamin D assessment. It is also reasonable to suggest that the amount of total vitamin D synthesized during the summer should be high enough to maintain the levels > 50 nmol/L throughout the remaining part of the year.

  4. Children neglected: Where cumulative risk theory fails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Mandy; Legano, Lori; Homel, Peter; Walker-Descartes, Ingrid; Rojas, Mary; Laraque, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    Neglected children, by far the majority of children maltreated, experience an environment most deficient in cognitive stimulation and language exchange. When physical abuse co-occurs with neglect, there is more stimulation through negative parent-child interaction, which may lead to better cognitive outcomes, contrary to Cumulative Risk Theory. The purpose of the current study was to assess whether children only neglected perform worse on cognitive tasks than children neglected and physically abused. Utilizing LONGSCAN archived data, 271 children only neglected and 101 children neglected and physically abused in the first four years of life were compared. The two groups were assessed at age 6 on the WPPSI-R vocabulary and block design subtests, correlates of cognitive intelligence. Regression analyses were performed, controlling for additional predictors of poor cognitive outcome, including socioeconomic variables and caregiver depression. Children only neglected scored significantly worse than children neglected and abused on the WPPSI-R vocabulary subtest (p=0.03). The groups did not differ on the block design subtest (p=0.4). This study shows that for neglected children, additional abuse may not additively accumulate risk when considering intelligence outcomes. Children experiencing only neglect may need to be referred for services that address cognitive development, with emphasis on the linguistic environment, in order to best support the developmental challenges of neglected children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Basic electrotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Ashen, R A

    2013-01-01

    BASIC Electrotechnology discusses the applications of Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) in engineering, particularly in solving electrotechnology-related problems. The book is comprised of six chapters that cover several topics relevant to BASIC and electrotechnology. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to BASIC, and Chapter 2 talks about the use of complex numbers in a.c. circuit analysis. Chapter 3 covers linear circuit analysis with d.c. and sinusoidal a.c. supplies. The book also discusses the elementary magnetic circuit theory. The theory and performance of two windi

  6. Anesthesia Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Anesthesia Basics KidsHealth / For Teens / Anesthesia Basics What's in ... español Conceptos básicos sobre la anestesia What Is Anesthesia? No doubt about it, getting an operation can ...

  7. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah ... having trouble coping with the stresses in her life. She began to think of suicide because she ...

  8. Pre-analytical sample quality: metabolite ratios as an intrinsic marker for prolonged room temperature exposure of serum samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Anton

    Full Text Available Advances in the "omics" field bring about the need for a high number of good quality samples. Many omics studies take advantage of biobanked samples to meet this need. Most of the laboratory errors occur in the pre-analytical phase. Therefore evidence-based standard operating procedures for the pre-analytical phase as well as markers to distinguish between 'good' and 'bad' quality samples taking into account the desired downstream analysis are urgently needed. We studied concentration changes of metabolites in serum samples due to pre-storage handling conditions as well as due to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. We collected fasting serum samples and subjected aliquots to up to four freeze-thaw cycles and to pre-storage handling delays of 12, 24 and 36 hours at room temperature (RT and on wet and dry ice. For each treated aliquot, we quantified 127 metabolites through a targeted metabolomics approach. We found a clear signature of degradation in samples kept at RT. Storage on wet ice led to less pronounced concentration changes. 24 metabolites showed significant concentration changes at RT. In 22 of these, changes were already visible after only 12 hours of storage delay. Especially pronounced were increases in lysophosphatidylcholines and decreases in phosphatidylcholines. We showed that the ratio between the concentrations of these molecule classes could serve as a measure to distinguish between 'good' and 'bad' quality samples in our study. In contrast, we found quite stable metabolite concentrations during up to four freeze-thaw cycles. We concluded that pre-analytical RT handling of serum samples should be strictly avoided and serum samples should always be handled on wet ice or in cooling devices after centrifugation. Moreover, serum samples should be frozen at or below -80°C as soon as possible after centrifugation.

  9. Bias due to Preanalytical Dilution of Rodent Serum for Biochemical Analysis on the Siemens Dimension Xpand Plus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Jennifer L; Moorhead, Kaitlin A; Hu, Jing; Moorhead, Roberta C

    2018-01-01

    Clinical pathology testing of rodents is often challenging due to insufficient sample volume. One solution in clinical veterinary and exploratory research environments is dilution of samples prior to analysis. However, published information on the impact of preanalytical sample dilution on rodent biochemical data is incomplete. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of preanalytical sample dilution on biochemical analysis of mouse and rat serum samples utilizing the Siemens Dimension Xpand Plus. Rats were obtained from end of study research projects. Mice were obtained from sentinel testing programs. For both, whole blood was collected via terminal cardiocentesis into empty tubes and serum was harvested. Biochemical parameters were measured on fresh and thawed frozen samples run straight and at dilution factors 2-10. Dilutions were performed manually, utilizing either ultrapure water or enzyme diluent per manufacturer recommendations. All diluted samples were generated directly from the undiluted sample. Preanalytical dilution caused clinically unacceptable bias in most analytes at dilution factors four and above. Dilution-induced bias in total calcium, creatinine, total bilirubin, and uric acid was considered unacceptable with any degree of dilution, based on the more conservative of two definitions of acceptability. Dilution often caused electrolyte values to fall below assay range precluding evaluation of bias. Dilution-induced bias occurred in most biochemical parameters to varying degrees and may render dilution unacceptable in the exploratory research and clinical veterinary environments. Additionally, differences between results obtained at different dilution factors may confound statistical comparisons in research settings. Comparison of data obtained at a single dilution factor is highly recommended.

  10. Bias due to Preanalytical Dilution of Rodent Serum for Biochemical Analysis on the Siemens Dimension Xpand Plus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Johns

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Clinical pathology testing of rodents is often challenging due to insufficient sample volume. One solution in clinical veterinary and exploratory research environments is dilution of samples prior to analysis. However, published information on the impact of preanalytical sample dilution on rodent biochemical data is incomplete. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of preanalytical sample dilution on biochemical analysis of mouse and rat serum samples utilizing the Siemens Dimension Xpand Plus. Rats were obtained from end of study research projects. Mice were obtained from sentinel testing programs. For both, whole blood was collected via terminal cardiocentesis into empty tubes and serum was harvested. Biochemical parameters were measured on fresh and thawed frozen samples run straight and at dilution factors 2–10. Dilutions were performed manually, utilizing either ultrapure water or enzyme diluent per manufacturer recommendations. All diluted samples were generated directly from the undiluted sample. Preanalytical dilution caused clinically unacceptable bias in most analytes at dilution factors four and above. Dilution-induced bias in total calcium, creatinine, total bilirubin, and uric acid was considered unacceptable with any degree of dilution, based on the more conservative of two definitions of acceptability. Dilution often caused electrolyte values to fall below assay range precluding evaluation of bias. Dilution-induced bias occurred in most biochemical parameters to varying degrees and may render dilution unacceptable in the exploratory research and clinical veterinary environments. Additionally, differences between results obtained at different dilution factors may confound statistical comparisons in research settings. Comparison of data obtained at a single dilution factor is highly recommended.

  11. Speech neglect: A strange educational blind spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Katherine Safford

    2005-09-01

    Speaking is universally acknowledged as an important human talent, yet as a topic of educated common knowledge, it is peculiarly neglected. Partly, this is a consequence of the relatively recent growth of research on speech perception, production, and development, but also a function of the way that information is sliced up by undergraduate colleges. Although the basic acoustic mechanism of vowel production was known to Helmholtz, the ability to view speech production as a physiological event is evolving even now with such techniques as fMRI. Intensive research on speech perception emerged only in the early 1930s as Fletcher and the engineers at Bell Telephone Laboratories developed the transmission of speech over telephone lines. The study of speech development was revolutionized by the papers of Eimas and his colleagues on speech perception in infants in the 1970s. Dissemination of knowledge in these fields is the responsibility of no single academic discipline. It forms a center for two departments, Linguistics, and Speech and Hearing, but in the former, there is a heavy emphasis on other aspects of language than speech and, in the latter, a focus on clinical practice. For psychologists, it is a rather minor component of a very diverse assembly of topics. I will focus on these three fields in proposing possible remedies.

  12. Preanalytical and analytical variation of surface-enhanced laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of human serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrethsen, Jakob; Bøgebo, Rikke; Olsen, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Surface-enhanced laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight (SELDI-TOF) mass spectrometry of human serum is a potential diagnostic tool in human diseases. In the present study, the preanalytical and analytical variation of SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry of serum was assessed in healthy...... was 18% (6%-34%, n=4) for 16 peaks, and inter-individual CV was 38% (16%-56%, n=16) for 20 peaks. CONCLUSIONS: The pre-analytical and analytical conditions of SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry of serum have a significant impact on the protein peaks, with the number of peaks low and the assay variation high...

  13. Types and frequency of preanalytical mistakes in the first Thai ISO 9002:1994 certified clinical laboratory, a 6 – month monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwanitkit Viroj

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliability cannot be achieved in a clinical laboratory through the control of accuracy in the analytical phase of the testing process alone. Indeed a "mistake" can be defined as any defect occuring during the testing process. In the analysis of clinical specimens, there are many possible preanalytical sources of error. Therefore, the application of quality system to laboratory testing requires total quality management throughout the laboratory process, including the preanalytical and postanalytical phases. ISO 9002:1994 is a model for quality assurance in production, installation, and servicing, which includes a number of clauses providing guidance for implementation in clinical laboratories. Our laboratory at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, the largest Thai Red Cross Society hospital, is the first clinical laboratory in Thailand with ISO 9002:1994 certified for the whole unit. Method In this study, we evaluated the frequency and types of preanalytical mistakes found in our laboratory, by monitoring specimens requested for laboratory analyses from both in-patient and out-patient divisions for 6 months. Result Among a total of 935,896 specimens for 941,902 analyses, 1,048 findings were confirmed as preanalytical mistakes; this was a relative frequency of 0.11 % (1,048/935,896. A total of 1,240 mistakes were identified during the study period. Comparing the preanalytical mistakes to other mistakes in the laboratory process monitored in the same setting and period, the distribution of mistakes was: preanalytical 84.52 % (1,048 mistakes, analytical 4.35 % (54 mistakes, and postanalytical 11.13 % (138 mistakes. Of 1,048 preanalytical mistakes, 998 (95.2% originated in the care units. All preanalytical mistakes, except for 12 (1.15 % relating to the laboratory barcode reading machine, were due to human error. Conclusion Most mistakes occurred before samples were analysed, either during sampling or preparation for analysis

  14. Oxidation of PTH: in vivo feature or effect of preanalytical conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursem, Stan R; Vervloet, Marc G; Hillebrand, Jacquelien J G; de Jongh, Renate T; Heijboer, Annemieke C

    2018-01-26

    Posttranslational oxidation of parathyroid hormone (PTH) modifies its biological activity. Measurement of non-oxidized PTH (n-oxPTH) could be an improvement in assessing PTH status, as intact PTH may rather reflect oxidative stress. However, it is debated whether oxidation of PTH occurs in vivo, or whether it is mainly an in vitro artifact. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different preanalytical conditions on the oxidation of PTH within a wide range of plasma PTH concentrations and oxidation propensity. n-oxPTH was separated from its oxidized form using an affinity column capturing the oxidized PTH. n-oxPTH was measured in eluate using commercially available PTH assays. The study included ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid plasma samples from 17 patients undergoing hemodialysis and 32 healthy subjects. We determined effects of storage temperature, time until centrifugation and freeze-thaw cycles. PTH and n-oxPTH concentrations were measured in each sample using six different immunoassays. n-oxPTH concentrations remained unchanged up to 180 min until centrifugation, two freeze-thaw cycles or after storage at -20°C or -80°C up to 79 days. Various methods for n-oxPTH and PTH measurements yielded highly comparable results, apart from standardization differences between various PTH and n-oxPTH assays. n-oxPTH concentrations were stable under our study conditions, indicating negligible ex vivo oxidation of PTH. In addition, PTH immunoassays have a different sensitivity for n-oxPTH than for total PTH. For this reason, the n-oxPTH/total PTH ratio cannot be used in absence of a n-oxPTH standard. Clinical implications of determining n-oxPTH require additional study.

  15. Preanalytic specimen triage: Smears, cell blocks, cytospin preparations, transport media, and cytobanking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha Santos, Gilda; Saieg, Mauro A

    2017-06-01

    With increasing requests for the evaluation of prognostic and predictive molecular biomarkers, great attention must be paid to the preanalytical issues regarding sample quality and DNA/RNA yield from all different types of cytological preparations. The objectives of this review were: 1) to provide an update regarding the importance of specimen triage as well as specimen handling and collection; 2) to discuss the different cell preparations that can be used for molecular testing, their advantages and limitations; and 3) to highlight the strategies for biobanking cytology samples. Good-quality DNA/RNA can be harvested from fresh cells in cell suspensions, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cell blocks, archival stained smears, archival unstained cytospin preparations, liquid-based cytology slides, FTA cards, and cryopreserved cells. In contrast to formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens (small biopsies and surgical resections), the multitude of types of sample preparations as well as the diversity in sample collection and processing procedures make cytology an ideal specimen for most genomic platforms, with less DNA and RNA degradation and a purer sample, usually with a higher concentration of tumor cells. The broad incorporation of cytological specimens into clinical practice. A should increase the number of samples potentially available for molecular tests and avoid repeat invasive procedures for tissue procurement, thereby increasing patient safety. In this context, it is of utmost importance that cytopathologists become familiar with the variables that can affect test results and embrace the goal of excellence in sample quality. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125(6 suppl):455-64. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  16. Object-based neglect in number processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that neglect patients seem to have particular problems representing relatively smaller numbers corresponding to the left part of the mental number line. However, while this indicates space-based neglect for representational number space little is known about whether and - if so - how object-based neglect influences number processing. To evaluate influences of object-based neglect in numerical cognition, a group of neglect patients and two control groups had to compare two-digit numbers to an internally represented standard. Conceptualizing two-digit numbers as objects of which the left part (i.e., the tens digit should be specifically neglected) we were able to evaluate object-based neglect for number magnitude processing. Object-based neglect was indicated by a larger unit-decade compatibility effect actually reflecting impaired processing of the leftward tens digits. Additionally, faster processing of within- as compared to between-decade items provided further evidence suggesting particular difficulties in integrating tens and units into the place-value structure of the Arabic number system. In summary, the present study indicates that, in addition to the spatial representation of number magnitude, also the processing of place-value information of multi-digit numbers seems specifically impaired in neglect patients. PMID:23343126

  17. Open Source Intelligence - Doctrine's Neglected Child

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pham, Tuan

    2003-01-01

    .... The causes of this neglect are many, ranging from previously mentioned predisposition toward classified intelligence sources to the technical challenge of information excess that overloads the users...

  18. Elder self-neglect: research and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong XQ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available XinQi Dong Rush Institute for Healthy Aging, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Elder self-neglect is a global public health and human rights issue that threatens older people’s health and safety. It commonly refers to refusal or failure to provide oneself with care and protection in areas of food, water, clothing, hygiene, medication, living environments, and safety precautions. While prevalent, the status of self-neglecting individuals remains largely unclear, in particular within community-dwelling populations. By reviewing the epidemiology of elder self-neglect (definition, prevalence, risk factors, and consequences to date, the present paper identifies key research gaps such as methodological inconsistency in case identification and measurement, and study designs that are inadequate to determine risk factors of self-neglect. More importantly, in light of the rapidly growing older population, relevant stakeholders (researchers, healthcare providers, social service providers, legal professionals, community organizations, and policymakers must be prepared for an expected increasing number of self-neglect cases and enlarging scope of the problem. Hence, in this article, I present an overview regarding the management issues of elderly self-neglect related to the detection, assessment, reporting and referral, and decision-making capacity. Based on the current literature, the paper is aimed to explore the present knowledge and challenges, and how they can pave the way for solutions to self-neglect research, practice, and policy. Keywords: elderly self-neglect, elder abuse, self-neglect future directions 

  19. Reporting Fatal Neglect in Child Death Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Debbie

    2018-01-01

    Child death reviews are conducted with the aim of preventing child deaths however, definitions, inclusion criteria for the review of child deaths and reporting practices vary across Child Death Review Teams (CDRTs). This article aims to identify a common context and understanding of fatal neglect reporting by reviewing definitional issues of fatal neglect and comparing reporting practice across a number of CDRTs. Providing a consistent context for identifying and reporting neglect-related deaths may improve the understanding of the impact of fatal neglect and the risk factors associated with it and therefore, improve the potential of CDRT review to inform prevention programs, policies, and procedures.

  20. Basic hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, P D

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Hydraulics aims to help students both to become proficient in the BASIC programming language by actually using the language in an important field of engineering and to use computing as a means of mastering the subject of hydraulics. The book begins with a summary of the technique of computing in BASIC together with comments and listing of the main commands and statements. Subsequent chapters introduce the fundamental concepts and appropriate governing equations. Topics covered include principles of fluid mechanics; flow in pipes, pipe networks and open channels; hydraulic machinery;

  1. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental illnesses. Brain Basics will introduce you ... of DNA. Sometimes this copying process is imperfect, leading to a gene mutation that causes the gene ...

  2. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... in controlling movement, managing the release of various hormones, and aiding the flow of information to the ...

  3. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Events About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  4. Basic Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittek, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A discussion of the basic measures of corporate financial strength, and the sources of the information is reported. Considered are: balance sheet, income statement, funds and cash flow, and financial ratios.

  5. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... effectively coordinate the billions of cells in the body, the results can affect many aspects of life. ... messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes the nucleus, cytoplasm, and cell organelles. ...

  6. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... brain. DNA —The "recipe of life," containing inherited genetic information that helps to define physical and some ...

  7. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development ...

  8. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic ... that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct this ...

  9. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... blues" from time to time. In contrast, major depression is a serious disorder that lasts for weeks. ...

  10. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the ... inside contents of the cell from its surrounding environment and controls what enters and leaves the cell, ...

  11. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of ... but sometimes give rise to disabilities or diseases. neural circuit —A network of neurons and their interconnections. ...

  12. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... the basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  13. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  14. Filarial hydrocele: a neglected condition of a neglected tropical disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otabil, Kenneth Bentum; Tenkorang, Seth Boateng

    2015-03-18

    Filarial hydrocele is the most common chronic manifestation of lymphatic filariasis (LF) and poses a major public health burden to several filarial endemic countries. This review highlights the socio-economic impact of the disease, the role of the immune system in hydrocele development, current diagnostic approaches, and the control and management of filarial hydrocele. In the quest to facilitate the global effort to eliminate filarial hydrocele as a neglected tropical disease, a more comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis and development of the condition is important. In general, success has been achieved using annual treatment with ivermectin, but much remains to be done, particularly with late-stage infected individuals where surgery remains the only option. Studies have successfully demonstrated that inhibition of embryogenesis in adult female worms occurs after weeks of tetracycline treatment. Even more intriguing was the observation that the Wolbachia endosymbionts potently induce proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factors (TNFs) and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs), which are crucial for the development of filarial hydrocele. Furthermore, reports from human studies show that doxycycline treatment significantly ameliorates filarial hydrocele and markedly reverses early-stage filarial hydrocele. However, with the enormous challenges that face LF elimination such as global funding, logistics, civil wars, and drug resistance, a more relentless and collective approach from local governments as well as other stakeholders is needed to accelerate the fight against filarial hydrocele if the goal to eliminate it by 2020 is be to achieved.

  15. Standard operating procedures for pre-analytical handling of blood and urine for metabolomic studies and biobanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernini, Patrizia; Bertini, Ivano; Luchinat, Claudio; Nincheri, Paola; Staderini, Samuele; Turano, Paola

    2011-01-01

    1 H NMR metabolic profiling of urine, serum and plasma has been used to monitor the impact of the pre-analytical steps on the sample quality and stability in order to propose standard operating procedures (SOPs) for deposition in biobanks. We analyzed the quality of serum and plasma samples as a function of the elapsed time (t = 0−4 h) between blood collection and processing and of the time from processing to freezing (up to 24 h). The stability of the urine metabolic profile over time (up to 24 h) at various storage temperatures was monitored as a function of the different pre-analytical treatments like pre-storage centrifugation, filtration, and addition of the bacteriostatic preservative sodium azide. Appreciable changes in the profiles, reflecting changes in the concentration of a number of metabolites, were detected and discussed in terms of chemical and enzymatic reactions for both blood and urine samples. Appropriate procedures for blood derivatives collection and urine preservation/storage that allow maintaining as much as possible the original metabolic profile of the fresh samples emerge, and are proposed as SOPs for biobanking.

  16. Standard operating procedures for pre-analytical handling of blood and urine for metabolomic studies and biobanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernini, Patrizia; Bertini, Ivano, E-mail: bertini@cerm.unifi.it; Luchinat, Claudio [University of Florence, Magnetic Resonance Center (CERM) (Italy); Nincheri, Paola; Staderini, Samuele [FiorGen Foundation (Italy); Turano, Paola [University of Florence, Magnetic Resonance Center (CERM) (Italy)

    2011-04-15

    {sup 1}H NMR metabolic profiling of urine, serum and plasma has been used to monitor the impact of the pre-analytical steps on the sample quality and stability in order to propose standard operating procedures (SOPs) for deposition in biobanks. We analyzed the quality of serum and plasma samples as a function of the elapsed time (t = 0-4 h) between blood collection and processing and of the time from processing to freezing (up to 24 h). The stability of the urine metabolic profile over time (up to 24 h) at various storage temperatures was monitored as a function of the different pre-analytical treatments like pre-storage centrifugation, filtration, and addition of the bacteriostatic preservative sodium azide. Appreciable changes in the profiles, reflecting changes in the concentration of a number of metabolites, were detected and discussed in terms of chemical and enzymatic reactions for both blood and urine samples. Appropriate procedures for blood derivatives collection and urine preservation/storage that allow maintaining as much as possible the original metabolic profile of the fresh samples emerge, and are proposed as SOPs for biobanking.

  17. Thyroglobulin assay in fluids from lymph node fine needle-aspiration washout: influence of pre-analytical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casson, Florence Boux de; Moal, Valérie; Gauchez, Anne-Sophie; Moineau, Marie-Pierre; Sault, Corinne; Schlageter, Marie-Hélène; Massart, Catherine

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the pre-analytical factors contributing to uncertainty in thyroglobulin measurement in fluids from fine-needle aspiration (FNA) washout of cervical lymph nodes. We studied pre-analytical stability, in different conditions, of 41 samples prepared with concentrated solutions of thyroglobulin (FNA washout or certified standard) diluted in physiological saline solution or buffer containing 6% albumin. In this buffer, over time, no changes in thyroglobulin concentrations were observed in all storage conditions tested. In albumin free saline solution, thyroglobulin recovery rates depended on initial sample concentrations and on modalities of their conservation (in conventional storage tubes, recovery mean was 56% after 3 hours-storage at room temperature and 19% after 24 hours-storage for concentrations ranged from 2 to 183 μg/L; recovery was 95%, after 3 hours or 24 hours-storage at room temperature, for a concentration of 5,656 μg/L). We show here that these results are due to non-specific adsorption of thyroglobulin in storage tubes, which depends on sample protein concentrations. We also show that possible contamination of fluids from FNA washout by plasma proteins do not always adequately prevent this adsorption. In conclusion, non-specific adsorption in storage tubes strongly contributes to uncertainty in thyroglobulin measurement in physiological saline solution. It is therefore recommended, for FNA washout, to use a buffer containing proteins provided by the laboratory.

  18. Impact of pre-analytical factors on the proteomic analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Seonaid M; Craven, Rachel A; Nirmalan, Niroshini J; Harnden, Patricia; Selby, Peter J; Banks, Rosamonde E

    2013-04-01

    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples represent a tremendous potential resource for biomarker discovery, with large numbers of samples in hospital pathology departments and links to clinical information. However, the cross-linking of proteins and nucleic acids by formalin fixation has hampered analysis and proteomic studies have been restricted to using frozen tissue, which is more limited in availability as it needs to be collected specifically for research. This means that rare disease subtypes cannot be studied easily. Recently, improved extraction techniques have enabled analysis of FFPE tissue by a number of proteomic techniques. As with all clinical samples, pre-analytical factors are likely to impact on the results obtained, although overlooked in many studies. The aim of this review is to discuss the various pre-analytical factors, which include warm and cold ischaemic time, size of sample, fixation duration and temperature, tissue processing conditions, length of storage of archival tissue and storage conditions, and to review the studies that have considered these factors in more detail. In those areas where investigations are few or non-existent, illustrative examples of the possible importance of specific factors have been drawn from studies using frozen tissue or from immunohistochemical studies of FFPE tissue. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Analysis of Pre-Analytic Factors Affecting the Success of Clinical Next-Generation Sequencing of Solid Organ Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Application of next-generation sequencing (NGS technology to routine clinical practice has enabled characterization of personalized cancer genomes to identify patients likely to have a response to targeted therapy. The proper selection of tumor sample for downstream NGS based mutational analysis is critical to generate accurate results and to guide therapeutic intervention. However, multiple pre-analytic factors come into play in determining the success of NGS testing. In this review, we discuss pre-analytic requirements for AmpliSeq PCR-based sequencing using Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM (Life Technologies, a NGS sequencing platform that is often used by clinical laboratories for sequencing solid tumors because of its low input DNA requirement from formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissue. The success of NGS mutational analysis is affected not only by the input DNA quantity but also by several other factors, including the specimen type, the DNA quality, and the tumor cellularity. Here, we review tissue requirements for solid tumor NGS based mutational analysis, including procedure types, tissue types, tumor volume and fraction, decalcification, and treatment effects.

  20. Neglecting Neglect: Some Thoughts about Children Who Have Lacked Good Input, and Are "Undrawn" and "Unenjoyed"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music, Graham

    2009-01-01

    This paper looks at emotional neglect in the early years of life, and postulates some probable long-term sequelae of such neglect. It argues that there is a continuum of neglect; ranging from the severest form, as seen in institutional orphanages, to milder variations. A range of theoretical and research traditions, including developmental…

  1. Neglect Patients Exhibit Egocentric or Allocentric Neglect for the Same Stimulus Contingent upon Task Demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyland, Louise-Ann; Godwin, Hayward J; Benson, Valerie; Liversedge, Simon P

    2017-05-16

    Hemispatial Neglect (HN) is a failure to allocate attention to a region of space opposite to where damage has occurred in the brain, usually the left side of space. It is widely documented that there are two types of neglect: egocentric neglect (neglect of information falling on the individual's left side) and allocentric neglect (neglect of the left side of each object, regardless of the position of that object in relation to the individual). We set out to address whether neglect presentation could be modified from egocentric to allocentric through manipulating the task demands whilst keeping the physical stimulus constant by measuring the eye movement behaviour of a single group of neglect patients engaged in two different tasks (copying and tracing). Eye movements and behavioural data demonstrated that patients exhibited symptoms consistent with egocentric neglect in one task (tracing), and allocentric neglect in another task (copying), suggesting that task requirements may influence the nature of the neglect symptoms produced by the same individual. Different task demands may be able to explain differential neglect symptoms in some individuals.

  2. Risk factor of visuospatial neglect: a study of association between visuospatial neglect and anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho Jeong; Yoon, Tae Sik; Han, Soo Jeong

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the correlation between visuospatial neglect and anemia in patients with right cerebral infarction, as well as to identify the risk factor of neglect and furnish preliminary data on rehabilitation management. The line bisection test and Albert test were conducted on subjects with right cerebral infarction in order to analyze neglect severity. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to investigate correlation between neglect severity and hemoglobin and hematocrit level. Logistic regression analysis was applied to identify the risk factor of neglect. Visuospatial neglect was observed in 33 subjects out of 124. Hemoglobin and hematocrit were not directly correlated with visuospatial neglect severity, whereas infarct size was directly correlated. Subjects with visuospatial neglect were characterized by a large infarct size, a low score in the Mini-Mental State Examination and long hospital stay. In this study, visuospatial neglect was found to be uncorrelated with anemia. It implies that emphasis should be placed on the early detection of anemia and neglect in patients with left hemiplegia, the formulation of respective therapeutic plans and improvement of prognosis. The study found that the possibility of a visuospatial neglect occurrence increases with infarct size. In this regard, it is required that visuospatial neglect was detected and treated in the earliest possible stage, notwithstanding the difficulty that lies in the precise measurement of the severity.

  3. Novel insights in the rehabilitation of neglect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessel, M.E. van; Fasotti, L.

    2013-01-01

    Visuospatial neglect due to right hemisphere damage, usually a stroke, is a major cause of disability, impairing the ability to perform a whole range of everyday life activities. Conventional and long-established methods for the rehabilitation of neglect like visual scanning training, optokinetic

  4. Base Rates: Both Neglected and Intuitive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennycook, Gordon; Trippas, Dries; Handley, Simon J.; Thompson, Valerie A.

    2014-01-01

    Base-rate neglect refers to the tendency for people to underweight base-rate probabilities in favor of diagnostic information. It is commonly held that base-rate neglect occurs because effortful (Type 2) reasoning is required to process base-rate information, whereas diagnostic information is accessible to fast, intuitive (Type 1) processing…

  5. The Computational Anatomy of Visual Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Thomas; Friston, Karl J

    2018-02-01

    Visual neglect is a debilitating neuropsychological phenomenon that has many clinical implications and-in cognitive neuroscience-offers an important lesion deficit model. In this article, we describe a computational model of visual neglect based upon active inference. Our objective is to establish a computational and neurophysiological process theory that can be used to disambiguate among the various causes of this important syndrome; namely, a computational neuropsychology of visual neglect. We introduce a Bayes optimal model based upon Markov decision processes that reproduces the visual searches induced by the line cancellation task (used to characterize visual neglect at the bedside). We then consider 3 distinct ways in which the model could be lesioned to reproduce neuropsychological (visual search) deficits. Crucially, these 3 levels of pathology map nicely onto the neuroanatomy of saccadic eye movements and the systems implicated in visual neglect. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. Liver Flukes: the Malady Neglected

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Hoon [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    Liver fluke disease is a chronic parasitic inflammatory disease of the bile ducts. Infection occurs through ingestion of fluke-infested, fresh-water raw fish. The most well-known species that cause human infection are Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini and Opisthorchis felineus. Adult flukes settle in the small intrahepatic bile ducts and then they live there for 20-30 years. The long-lived flukes cause long-lasting chronic inflammation of the bile ducts and this produces epithelial hyperplasia, periductal fibrosis and bile duct dilatation. The vast majority of patients are asymptomatic, but the patients with heavy infection suffer from lassitude and nonspecific abdominal complaints. The complications are stone formation, recurrent pyogenic cholangitis and cholangiocarcinoma. Approximately 35 million people are infected with liver flukes throughout the world and the exceptionally high incidence of cholangiocarcinoma in some endemic areas is closely related with a high prevalence of liver fluke infection. Considering the impact of this food-borne malady on public health and the severe possible clinical consequences, liver fluke infection should not be forgotten or neglected.

  7. An introduction to neglected disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Wisner

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This theme issue of Jàmbá takes up the question of neglected disasters. It is an important topic because the world is changing, disasters are changing, and theory is changing. All these changes call for a re-assessment of why some human suffering and social disruption receive attention from authorities, donors, researchers and the media, while some does not. Recent progress in both development studies and disaster studies provides tools for answering this question. Development and disaster studies date in their current forms to ways of thinking that were current in academic and policy circles in the late 1950s and 1960s. At that time the world was recovering from world war and former colonies of Europe were gaining independence. It was a world in which (with some exceptions conflict was held in check in an uneasy cold war balance. It was also a world where a growing UN system held the promise of meeting humanitarian needs when they arose. That world is no more. ‘Development’ has changed.

  8. Circulating VEGF as a biological marker in patients with rheumatoid arthritis? Preanalytical and biological variability in healthy persons and in patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetland, Merete Lund; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Lottenburger, Tine

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a promising biomarker in monitoring rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but studies of pre-analytical and biologic variability are few. METHODS: VEGF was measured by ELISA methods in serum and plasma from healthy persons and RA patients. Pre...

  9. SPIDIA-DNA: An External Quality Assessment for the pre-analytical phase of blood samples used for DNA-based analyses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malentacchi, F.; Pazzagli, M.; Simi, L.; Orlando, C.; Wyrich, R.; Hartmann, C.C.; Verderio, P.; Pizzamiglio, S.; Ciniselli, C.M.; Tichopád, Aleš; Kubista, Mikael; Gelmini, S.

    -, č. 424 (2013), s. 274-286 ISSN 0009-8981 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Pre-analytical phase * DNA quality * Blood samples Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.764, year: 2013

  10. SPIDIA-RNA: First external quality assessment for the pre-analytical phase of blood samples used for RNA based analyses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pazzagli, M.; Malentacchi, F.; Simi, L.; Wyrich, R.; Guenther, K.; Hartmann, C.; Verderio, P.; Pizzamiglio, S.; Ciniselli, C.M.; Tichopád, Aleš; Kubista, Mikael; Gelmini, S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 1 (2013), s. 20-31 ISSN 1046-2023 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Pre-analytical phase * RNA quality * Blood samples Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.221, year: 2013

  11. Pre-analytical conditions in non-invasive prenatal testing of cell-free fetal RHD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Banch Clausen

    Full Text Available Non-invasive prenatal testing of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA in maternal plasma can predict the fetal RhD type in D negative pregnant women. In Denmark, routine antenatal screening for the fetal RhD gene (RHD directs the administration of antenatal anti-D prophylaxis only to women who carry an RhD positive fetus. Prophylaxis reduces the risk of immunization that may lead to hemolytic disease of the fetus and the newborn. The reliability of predicting the fetal RhD type depends on pre-analytical factors and assay sensitivity. We evaluated the testing setup in the Capital Region of Denmark, based on data from routine antenatal RHD screening.Blood samples were drawn at gestational age 25 weeks. DNA extracted from 1 mL of plasma was analyzed for fetal RHD using a duplex method for exon 7/10. We investigated the effect of blood sample transportation time (n = 110 and ambient outdoor temperatures (n = 1539 on the levels of cffDNA and total DNA. We compared two different quantification methods, the delta Ct method and a universal standard curve. PCR pipetting was compared on two systems (n = 104.The cffDNA level was unaffected by blood sample transportation for up to 9 days and by ambient outdoor temperatures ranging from -10 °C to 28 °C during transport. The universal standard curve was applicable for cffDNA quantification. Identical levels of cffDNA were observed using the two automated PCR pipetting systems. We detected a mean of 100 fetal DNA copies/mL at a median gestational age of 25 weeks (range 10-39, n = 1317.The setup for real-time PCR-based, non-invasive prenatal testing of cffDNA in the Capital Region of Denmark is very robust. Our findings regarding the transportation of blood samples demonstrate the high stability of cffDNA. The applicability of a universal standard curve facilitates easy cffDNA quantification.

  12. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  13. Basic conceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    In this part of book author presents the basic conceptions of minerals studying. The course of minerals deposits is the most important branch of geology science and studying the geology, material constitution, formation conditions and regularity of distribution in earth crust different types of mineral raw materials

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... mental illnesses. Search the NIMH Website: Home Health & Education Mental Health Information Statistics Consumer Health Publications Help for Mental Illnesses Clinical Trials Outreach Research Priorities Funding Labs at ... Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain ...

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... MSC 9663 Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS ...

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by which the cell sends information to receiving neurons. cell body —Contains the nucleus and cytoplasm of a ... circuit —A network of neurons and their interconnections. neuron —A nerve cell that is the basic, working unit of the ...

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Join A Study News & Events News & Events Home Science News Events Multimedia Social Media Press Resources Newsletters NIMH News Feeds About Us About Us Home About the Director Advisory Boards and ... Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How genes ...

  18. Ethanol Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  19. Current pipelines for neglected diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Procolo, Paolo; Jommi, Claudio

    2014-09-01

    This paper scrutinises pipelines for Neglected Diseases (NDs), through freely accessible and at-least-weekly updated trials databases. It updates to 2012 data provided by recent publications, and integrates these analyses with information on location of trials coordinators and patients recruitment status. Additionally, it provides (i) disease-specific information to better understand the rational of investments in NDs, (ii) yearly data, to understand the investment trends. The search identified 650 clinical studies. Leishmaniasis, Arbovirus infection, and Dengue are the top three diseases by number of clinical studies. Disease diffusion risk seems to be the most important driver of the clinical trials target choice, whereas the role played by disease prevalence and unmet need is controversial. Number of trials is stable between 2005 and 2010, with an increase in the last two years. Patient recruitment was completed for most studies (57.6%), and Phases II and III account for 35% and 28% of trials, respectively. The primary purpose of clinical investigations is prevention (49.3%), especially for infectious diseases with mosquitoes and sand flies as the vector, and treatment (43.2%), which is the primary target for parasitic diseases Research centres and public organisations are the most important clinical studies sponsors (58.9%), followed by the pharmaceutical industry (24.1%), foundations and non-governmental organisations (9.3%). Many coordinator centres are located in less affluent countries (43.7%), whereas OECD countries and BRICS account for 34.7% and 17.5% of trials, respectively. Information was partially missing for some parameters. Notwithstanding, and despite its descriptive nature, this research has enhanced the evidence of the literature on pipelines for NDs. Future contributions may further investigate whether trials metrics are consistent with the characteristics of the interested countries and the explicative variables of trials location, target

  20. The ecological assessment of unilateral neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azouvi, Philippe

    2017-06-01

    Conventional paper-and-pencil tests of unilateral neglect are of limited ecological validity. To address this issue, a number of assessment procedures have been proposed to provide clinicians and researchers with more ecologically valid assessments of unilateral neglect, which may be useful to plan rehabilitation and to measure the generalization of the effects of rehabilitation to daily life. We present here an overview of the different assessment measures available in the literature. The most widely used scales are the Behavioural Inattention Test (BIT), the semi-structured scales for assessment of personal and extra-personal neglect, the Subjective Neglect Questionnaire, the Baking Tray Task, the wheelchair obstacle course, the ADL-based neglect battery, and the Catherine Bergego Scale (CBS). The CBS is probably, to date, the most widely used behavioural assessment instrument for unilateral neglect. It has been found to be reliable, valid, and sensitive to change during rehabilitation. It also enables the assessment of awareness of the consequences of unilateral neglect in daily life skills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Unilateral spatial neglect after posterior parietal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallar, Giuseppe; Calzolari, Elena

    2018-01-01

    Unilateral spatial neglect is a disabling neurologic deficit, most frequent and severe after right-hemispheric lesions. In most patients neglect involves the left side of space, contralateral to a right-hemispheric lesion. About 50% of stroke patients exhibit neglect in the acute phase. Patients fail to orient, respond to, and report sensory events occurring in the contralateral sides of space and of the body, to explore these portions of space through movements by action effectors (eye, limbs), and to move the contralateral limbs. Neglect is a multicomponent higher-level disorder of spatial awareness, cognition, and attention. Spatial neglect may occur independently of elementary sensory and motor neurologic deficits, but it can mimic and make them more severe. Diagnostic tests include: motor exploratory target cancellation; setting the midpoint of a horizontal line (bisection), that requires the estimation of lateral extent; drawing by copy and from memory; reading, assessing neglect dyslexia; and exploring the side of the body contralateral to the lesion. Activities of daily living scales are also used. Patients are typically not aware of neglect, although they may exhibit varying degrees of awareness toward different components of the deficit. The neural correlates include lesions to the inferior parietal lobule of the posterior parietal cortex, which was long considered the unique neuropathologic correlate of neglect, to the premotor and to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, to the posterior superior temporal gyrus, at the temporoparietal junction, to subcortical gray nuclei (thalamus, basal ganglia), and to parietofrontal white-matter fiber tracts, such as the superior longitudinal fascicle. Damage to the inferior parietal lobule of the posterior parietal cortex is specifically associated with the mainly egocentric, perceptual, and exploratory extrapersonal, and with the personal, bodily components of neglect. Productive manifestations, such as

  2. Medical neglect at a tertiary paediatric hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmeter, Julia; Tzioumi, Dimitra; Woolfenden, Susan

    2018-03-01

    Medical neglect is under-researched and the extent of the problem in Australia is unknown. We conducted a review of the referrals for medical neglect to the Child Protection Unit (CPU) at a tertiary children's hospital in Sydney over a 5 years period, from 2011 to 2016, to determine what medical conditions are being referred, the reason for the medical neglect concern and whether cases are managed in line with American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guideline on medical neglect. 61 cases of medical neglect were identified, constituting 4.1% of all referrals to the Child Protection Unit for physical abuse and neglect. There was a wide variety of medical conditions. Most were chronic medical conditions (87%). The top two medical conditions were chronic and complex multi-system disorders (37.7%) and endocrine disorders (18%). The majority of medical neglect were related to concerns that the caregivers were unwilling to follow medical advice (45.9%) or unable to provide necessary medical care (26.2%). In line with the AAP guideline on medical neglect, all cases were managed by addressing communication difficulties (100%) and resource issues were addressed in 80% of cases. A report to statutory child protection agencies was made in 50% of cases. Directly observed therapy and medical contracts were used in 30% and 26% of cases. We conclude that children with chronic medical conditions may be at risk of medical neglect. Communication difficulties were a factor in all cases. Statutory agency intervention is often required. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Tocopherol in Elder Self-Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, K.; Burnett, J.; Dyer, C.; Smith, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    Although elder self-neglect is the most common form of elder mistreatment, its pathophysiology is not well understood. Alpha-tocopherol is a lipid soluble antioxidant required for the preservation of cell membranes. Since the association between tocopherol and cognitive impairment in older adults has been described, we explored the possibility of its role in elder self-neglect. OBJECTIVE: (1) To determine whether serum tocopherol levels are associated with elder self-neglect, and (2) to assess the association of serum tocopherol levels and cognitive function in elder self-neglect. METHODS: Serum tocopherol levels were measured in a cohort of 67 self-neglecting elders and 67 matched controls, recruited for the Consortium for Research in Elder Self-neglect of Texas. Pearson s correlation tests were performed to assess bivariate associations between serum tocopherol levels and cognitive function. RESULTS: Mean serum alpha-tocopherol levels were 10.8 +/- 4.7 ug/mL in self-neglect group and 13.0 +/- 4.9 ug/mL in control group (p = 0.006, unpaired student s t-test). None of the participants from either group had alpha-tocopherol level lower than the reference range. Mean serum gamma-tocopherol levels were 2.0 +/- 1.0 ug/mL in self-neglect group and 2.0 +/- 1.1 in control group (p=0.83). Proportion of the elders with gamma-tocopherol level lower than the reference range were 4.5% (3/66) in self-neglect group and 10.4% (7/67) in control group (p=0.32, Fisher s Exact Test). Among the self-neglecting elders, no association was found between serum alpha-tocopherol levels and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) or the Wolf-Klein Clock Drawing Test (CDT) scores (r =-0.42, p=0.75 for MMSE; r=0.08, p=0.54 for CDT). No association was found between serum gamma-tocopherol levels and the MMSE or the CDT (r=-0.12, p=0.35 for MMSE; r=0.05, p=0.68 for CDT). CONCLUSION: In our sample, neither alpha-tocopherol nor gamma-tocopherol appears to have a role in pathophysiology of elder

  4. Wavelet basics

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Y T

    1995-01-01

    Since the study of wavelets is a relatively new area, much of the research coming from mathematicians, most of the literature uses terminology, concepts and proofs that may, at times, be difficult and intimidating for the engineer. Wavelet Basics has therefore been written as an introductory book for scientists and engineers. The mathematical presentation has been kept simple, the concepts being presented in elaborate detail in a terminology that engineers will find familiar. Difficult ideas are illustrated with examples which will also aid in the development of an intuitive insight. Chapter 1 reviews the basics of signal transformation and discusses the concepts of duals and frames. Chapter 2 introduces the wavelet transform, contrasts it with the short-time Fourier transform and clarifies the names of the different types of wavelet transforms. Chapter 3 links multiresolution analysis, orthonormal wavelets and the design of digital filters. Chapter 4 gives a tour d'horizon of topics of current interest: wave...

  5. Evaluation of Ponseti method in neglected clubfoot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinav Sinha

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Painless, supple, plantigrade, and cosmetically acceptable feet were achieved in neglected clubfeet without any extensive surgery. A fair trial of conservative Ponseti method should be tried before resorting to extensive soft tissue procedure.

  6. Therapeutics for Rare and Neglected Diseases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — There are more than 6,500 identified rare and neglected diseases, yet only about 250 treatments are available for these conditions. The limited numbers of patients...

  7. Ipsilesional Neglect: Behavioral and Anatomical Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchetti, Daniela L.; Goedert, Kelly M.; Foundas, Anne L.; Barrett, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The sparse existing research on ipsilesional neglect supports an association of this disorder with damage to the right frontal and subcortical brain networks. It is believed that dysfunction in these networks may result in primarily “aiming”, motor-intentional spatial errors. The purpose of this study was to confirm whether frontal-subcortical circuits are indeed commonly affected in ipsilesional neglect and to determine the relative presence of “aiming”, motor-intentional versus “where”, perceptual-attentional spatial errors in these individuals. Methods We identified 12 participants with ipsilesional neglect based on a computerized line bisection task and used the line bisection data to quantify participants' perceptual-attentional and motor-intentional errors. We were able to discriminate between these two biases using the algebraic solutions for two separate equations, one for “aiming” and one for “where” biases. Lesion mapping was conducted for all participants using MRICroN® software; lesion checklist and overlap analysis were created from these images. Results A greater percentage of participants with ipsilesional neglect had frontal/subcortical damage (83%) compared to the expected percentage (27%) observed in published patient samples with contralesional neglect. We observed the greatest area of lesion overlap in frontal lobe white matter pathways. Nevertheless, participants with ipsilesional neglect made primarily “where” rather than “aiming” spatial errors. Conclusion Our data confirms previous research suggesting that ipsilesional neglect may result from lesions to the right frontal-subcortical networks. Furthermore, in our group, ipsilesional neglect was also strongly associated with primarily “where”, perceptual-attentional bias, and less so with “aiming” motor-intentional spatial bias. PMID:25180980

  8. Neglect dyslexia: a matter of "good looking".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primativo, Silvia; Arduino, Lisa S; De Luca, Maria; Daini, Roberta; Martelli, Marialuisa

    2013-09-01

    Brain-damaged patients with right-sided unilateral spatial neglect (USN) often make left-sided errors in reading single words or pseudowords (neglect dyslexia, ND). We propose that both left neglect and low fixation accuracy account for reading errors in neglect dyslexia. Eye movements were recorded in USN patients with (ND+) and without (ND-) neglect dyslexia and in a matched control group of right brain-damaged patients without neglect (USN-). Unlike ND- and controls, ND+ patients showed left lateralized omission errors and a distorted eye movement pattern in both a reading aloud task and a non-verbal saccadic task. During reading, the total number of fixations was larger in these patients independent of visual hemispace, and most fixations were inaccurate. Similarly, in the saccadic task only ND+ patients were unable to reach the moving dot. A third experiment addressed the nature of the left lateralization in reading error distribution by simulating neglect dyslexia in ND- patients. ND- and USN- patients had to perform a speeded reading-at-threshold task that did not allow for eye movements. When stimulus exploration was prevented, ND- patients, but not controls, produced a pattern of errors similar to that of ND+ with unlimited exposure time (e.g., left-sided errors). We conclude that neglect dyslexia reading errors may arise in USN patients as a consequence of an additional and independent deficit unrelated to the orthographic material. In particular, the presence of an altered oculo-motor pattern, preventing the automatic execution of the fine saccadic eye movements involved in reading, uncovers, in USN patients, the attentional bias also in reading single centrally presented words. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cognitive processes associated with child neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildyard, Kathryn; Wolfe, David

    2007-08-01

    To compare neglectful and non-neglectful mothers on information processing tasks related to child emotions, behaviors, the caregiving relationship, and recall of child-related information. A natural group design was used. Neglectful mothers (N=34) were chosen from active, chronic caseloads; non-neglectful comparison mothers (N=33) were obtained from community agencies serving families. Participants were administered the IFEEL Picture task to assess maternal perceptions of infant emotions, eight vignettes of young children's behavior to assess attributions for child behavior across different scenarios, and a passage recall task to assess information processing problems. A measure of depression was used as a covariate to control for this variable. Neglectful mothers were significantly less likely to recognize infants' feelings of interest, more likely to see sadness and shame, more inaccurate at labeling infants' emotions, and had a more limited emotion vocabulary. They also made more internal and stable attributions for children's behaviors in situations where it was not clear whether a child was at risk of harm, and had poor recall of information. Depressive symptoms had little effect on these findings with the exception of information recall. Neglectful mothers show significant problems in information processing concerning their child's emotions and behaviors, which may affect their childrearing behavior. Cognitive-behavioral interventions to improve parents' abilities to recognize their child's emotions and to address maladaptive attributions may be of value.

  10. Empathy and child neglect: a theoretical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paul, Joaquín; Guibert, María

    2008-11-01

    To present an explanatory theory-based model of child neglect. This model does not address neglectful behaviors of parents with mental retardation, alcohol or drug abuse, or severe mental health problems. In this model parental behavior aimed to satisfy a child's need is considered a helping behavior and, as a consequence, child neglect is considered as a specific type of non-helping behavior. The central hypothesis of the theoretical model presented here suggests that neglectful parents cannot develop the helping response set to care for their children because the observation of a child's signal of need does not lead to the experience of emotions that motivate helping or because the parents experience these emotions, but specific cognitions modify the motivation to help. The present theoretical model suggests that different typologies of neglectful parents could be developed based on different reasons that parents might not to experience emotions that motivate helping behaviors. The model can be helpful to promote new empirical studies about the etiology of different groups of neglectful families.

  11. Prediction and modeling of pre-analytical sampling errors as a strategy to improve plasma NMR metabolomics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunius, Carl; Pedersen, Anders; Malmodin, Daniel; Karlsson, B Göran; Andersson, Lars I; Tybring, Gunnel; Landberg, Rikard

    2017-11-15

    Biobanks are important infrastructures for life science research. Optimal sample handling regarding e.g. collection and processing of biological samples is highly complex, with many variables that could alter sample integrity and even more complex when considering multiple study centers or using legacy samples with limited documentation on sample management. Novel means to understand and take into account such variability would enable high-quality research on archived samples. This study investigated whether pre-analytical sample variability could be predicted and reduced by modeling alterations in the plasma metabolome, measured by NMR, as a function of pre-centrifugation conditions (1-36 h pre-centrifugation delay time at 4 °C and 22 °C) in 16 individuals. Pre-centrifugation temperature and delay times were predicted using random forest modeling and performance was validated on independent samples. Alterations in the metabolome were modeled at each temperature using a cluster-based approach, revealing reproducible effects of delay time on energy metabolism intermediates at both temperatures, but more pronounced at 22 °C. Moreover, pre-centrifugation delay at 4 °C resulted in large, specific variability at 3 h, predominantly of lipids. Pre-analytical sample handling error correction resulted in significant improvement of data quality, particularly at 22 °C. This approach offers the possibility to predict pre-centrifugation delay temperature and time in biobanked samples before use in costly downstream applications. Moreover, the results suggest potential to decrease the impact of undesired, delay-induced variability. However, these findings need to be validated in multiple, large sample sets and with analytical techniques covering a wider range of the metabolome, such as LC-MS. The sampleDrift R package is available at https://gitlab.com/CarlBrunius/sampleDrift. carl.brunius@chalmers.se. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online

  12. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayal, DC

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book

  13. Basic principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    Some basic explanations are given of the principles underlying the nuclear fuel cycle, starting with the physics of atomic and nuclear structure and continuing with nuclear energy and reactors, fuel and waste management and finally a discussion of economics and the future. An important aspect of the fuel cycle concerns the possibility of ''closing the back end'' i.e. reprocessing the waste or unused fuel in order to re-use it in reactors of various kinds. The alternative, the ''oncethrough'' cycle, discards the discharged fuel completely. An interim measure involves the prolonged storage of highly radioactive waste fuel. (UK)

  14. Raynaud's Syndrome: a neglected disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poredos, Pavel; Poredos, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Raynaud's Syndrome is a frequent manifestation of digital ischemia which occurs or is aggravated upon exposure to cold temperatures or emotional distress. Primary Raynaud is a benign disease which predominantly affects younger women and is transient without serious sequelae. In contrast, secondary Raynaud is usually one of the manifestations of systemic disease and is, in addition to symptoms of the basic disease, associated with ischemic lesions. The diagnosis of primary Raynaud is mostly based on the clinical presentation. In secondary Raynaud, additional investigating techniques including imaging investigations and laboratory tests for the detection of underline disease are needed. Treatment is based on lifestyle modification, which includes smoking cessation, avoiding low outside temperatures, avoiding the use of vibrating tools and limiting repeated hand actions. Drug treatment consists of calcium-channel blockers, nitroglycerine ointments, prostacyclins and various new drugs such as endothelin receptor antagonists, phosphodiesterase inhibitors and serotonin receptor antagonists. Most of these drugs are effective in less than 50% of treated patients and do not completely abolish vasospastic attacks, but reduce the severity and frequency of attacks. The prostacyclin derivate iloprost is the most promising drug in the management of secondary Raynaud's disease. Other therapeutic procedures including chemical or surgical sympathectomy are obsolete and without any long-term positive effects.

  15. Prodrugs for the Treatment of Neglected Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Blau

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, World Health Organization (WHO and Medicins San Frontieres (MSF proposed a classification of diseases as global, neglected and extremely neglected. Global diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular and mental (CNS diseases represent the targets of the majority of the R&D efforts of pharmaceutical companies. Neglected diseases affect millions of people in the world yet existing drug therapy is limited and often inappropriate. Furthermore, extremely neglected diseases affect people living under miserable conditions who barely have access to the bare necessities for survival. Most of these diseases are excluded from the goals of the R&D programs in the pharmaceutical industry and therefore fall outside the pharmaceutical market. About 14 million people, mainly in developing countries, die each year from infectious diseases. From 1975 to 1999, 1393 new drugs were approved yet only 1% were for the treatment of neglected diseases [3]. These numbers have not changed until now, so in those countries there is an urgent need for the design and synthesis of new drugs and in this area the prodrug approach is a very interesting field. It provides, among other effects, activity improvements and toxicity decreases for current and new drugs, improving market availability. It is worth noting that it is essential in drug design to save time and money, and prodrug approaches can be considered of high interest in this respect. The present review covers 20 years of research on the design of prodrugs for the treatment of neglected and extremely neglected diseases such as Chagas’ disease (American trypanosomiasis, sleeping sickness (African trypanosomiasis, malaria, sickle cell disease, tuberculosis, leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis.

  16. Novel insights in the rehabilitation of neglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano eFasotti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Visuospatial neglect due to right hemisphere damage, usually a stroke, is a major cause of disability, impairing the ability to perform a whole range of everyday life activities. Conventional and long-established methods for the rehabilitation of neglect like visual scanning training, optokinetic stimulation or limb activation training have produced positive results, with varying degrees of generalisation to (untrained tasks lasting from several minutes up to various months after training. Nevertheless, some promising novel approaches to the remediation of left visuo-spatial neglect have emerged in the last decade. These new therapy methods can be broadly classified into 4 categories. First, non-invasive brain stimulation techniques by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, after a period of mainly diagnostic utilization, are increasingly applied as neurorehabilitative tools. Second, two classes of drugs, dopaminergic and noradrenergic, have been investigated for their potential effectiveness in rehabilitating neglect. Third, prism adaptation treatment has been shown to improve several neglect symptoms consistently, sometimes during longer periods of time. Finally, virtual reality technologies hold new opportunities for the development of effective training techniques for neglect. They provide realistic, rich and highly controllable training environments. In this paper the degree of effectiveness and the evidence gathered to support the therapeutic claims of these new approaches is reviewed and discussed. The conclusion is that for all these approaches there still is insufficient unbiased evidence to support their effectiveness. Further neglect rehabilitation research should focus on the maintenance of therapy results over time, on a more functional evaluation of treatment effects, on the design and execution of true replication studies and on the exploration of optimal combinations of

  17. Spatial attention systems in spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2015-08-01

    It has been established that processes relating to 'spatial attention' are implemented at cortical level by goal-directed (top-down) and stimulus-driven (bottom-up) networks. Spatial neglect in brain-damaged individuals has been interpreted as a distinguished exemplar for a disturbance of these processes. The present paper elaborates this assumption. Functioning of the two attentional networks seem to dissociate in spatial neglect; behavioral studies of patients' orienting and exploration behavior point to a disturbed stimulus-driven but preserved goal-directed attention system. When a target suddenly appears somewhere in space, neglect patients demonstrate disturbed detection and orienting if it is located in contralesional direction. In contrast, if neglect patients explore a scene with voluntarily, top-down controlled shifts of spatial attention, they perform movements that are oriented into all spatial directions without any direction-specific disturbances. The paper thus argues that not the top-down control of spatial attention itself, rather a body-related matrix on top of which this process is executed, seems affected. In that sense, the traditional role of spatial neglect as a stroke model for 'spatial attention' requires adjustment. Beyond its insights into the human stimulus-driven attentional system, the disorder most notably provides vistas in how our brain encodes topographical information and organizes spatially oriented action - including the top-down control of spatial attention - in relation to body position. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Error Types and Error Positions in Neglect Dyslexia: Comparative Analyses in Neglect Patients and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinzierl, Christiane; Kerkhoff, Georg; van Eimeren, Lucia; Keller, Ingo; Stenneken, Prisca

    2012-01-01

    Unilateral spatial neglect frequently involves a lateralised reading disorder, neglect dyslexia (ND). Reading of single words in ND is characterised by left-sided omissions and substitutions of letters. However, it is unclear whether the distribution of error types and positions within a word shows a unique pattern of ND when directly compared to…

  19. Neglect Dyslexia: Frequency, Association with Other Hemispatial Neglects, and Lesion Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Hwa; Suh, Mee Kyung; Kim, Eun-Joo; Seo, Sang Won; Choi, Kyung Mook; Kim, Gyeong-Moon; Chung, Chin-Sang; Heilman, Kenneth M.; Na, Duk L.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with right hemisphere injury often omit or misread words on the left side of a page or the beginning letters of single words (neglect dyslexia). Our study involving a large sample of acute right hemisphere stroke investigated (1) the frequency of neglect dyslexia (ND), (2) the association between ND and other types of contralesional…

  20. Definition, Measuring and Prevalence of Child Neglect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Else

    Ten per cent of Danish children under one year of age live in families with serious problems. Their parents are subjected to psychological and/or social strains to such a dergree that public authorities, typically the visiting health nurse, are concerned about the welfare of the childre. A smaller...... group, although at least four per cent of all children under one year of age, is subjected to child abuse and neglect. In her study, Else Christensen has attempted to estimate the extent of the problem among children under the age of one year. Furthermose, she has made a theoetical and practical...... clarification of the concept child abuse and neglect. Excatly which signs is the health nurse to observe in order to employ the serious term child abuse and neglect?...

  1. Optimised Pre-Analytical Methods Improve KRAS Mutation Detection in Circulating Tumour DNA (ctDNA) from Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, James L.; Corcoran, Claire; Brown, Helen; Sharpe, Alan D.; Musilova, Milena; Kohlmann, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Non-invasive mutation testing using circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) is an attractive premise. This could enable patients without available tumour sample to access more treatment options. Materials & Methods Peripheral blood and matched tumours were analysed from 45 NSCLC patients. We investigated the impact of pre-analytical variables on DNA yield and/or KRAS mutation detection: sample collection tube type, incubation time, centrifugation steps, plasma input volume and DNA extraction kits. Results 2 hr incubation time and double plasma centrifugation (2000 x g) reduced overall DNA yield resulting in lowered levels of contaminating genomic DNA (gDNA). Reduced “contamination” and increased KRAS mutation detection was observed using cell-free DNA Blood Collection Tubes (cfDNA BCT) (Streck), after 72 hrs following blood draw compared to EDTA tubes. Plasma input volume and use of different DNA extraction kits impacted DNA yield. Conclusion This study demonstrated that successful ctDNA recovery for mutation detection in NSCLC is dependent on pre-analytical steps. Development of standardised methods for the detection of KRAS mutations from ctDNA specimens is recommended to minimise the impact of pre-analytical steps on mutation detection rates. Where rapid sample processing is not possible the use of cfDNA BCT tubes would be advantageous. PMID:26918901

  2. Optimised Pre-Analytical Methods Improve KRAS Mutation Detection in Circulating Tumour DNA (ctDNA from Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L Sherwood

    Full Text Available Non-invasive mutation testing using circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA is an attractive premise. This could enable patients without available tumour sample to access more treatment options.Peripheral blood and matched tumours were analysed from 45 NSCLC patients. We investigated the impact of pre-analytical variables on DNA yield and/or KRAS mutation detection: sample collection tube type, incubation time, centrifugation steps, plasma input volume and DNA extraction kits.2 hr incubation time and double plasma centrifugation (2000 x g reduced overall DNA yield resulting in lowered levels of contaminating genomic DNA (gDNA. Reduced "contamination" and increased KRAS mutation detection was observed using cell-free DNA Blood Collection Tubes (cfDNA BCT (Streck, after 72 hrs following blood draw compared to EDTA tubes. Plasma input volume and use of different DNA extraction kits impacted DNA yield.This study demonstrated that successful ctDNA recovery for mutation detection in NSCLC is dependent on pre-analytical steps. Development of standardised methods for the detection of KRAS mutations from ctDNA specimens is recommended to minimise the impact of pre-analytical steps on mutation detection rates. Where rapid sample processing is not possible the use of cfDNA BCT tubes would be advantageous.

  3. Pre-analytical variables of circulating cell-free nucleosomes containing 5-methylcytosine DNA or histone modification H3K9Me3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Louise; Herzog, Marielle; Rømer, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate pre-analytical variables of circulating cell-free nucleosomes containing 5-methylcytosine DNA (5mC) or histone modification H3K9Me3 (H3K9Me3). Materials and methods: Six studies were designed to assess the possible influence of pre-analytical variables. Study 1: influence of stas...... significantly lower levels of 5mC or H3K9Me3 compared to levels in healthy individuals. Conclusion: Levels of 5mC or H3K9Me3 appear stable in most pre-analytical settings if blood samples are stored at room temperature until centrifugation.......3K9Me3 measurements were performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results: Stasis, white-cell and platelet contamination, within-day variations, varying storage time before centrifugation, colonoscopy, and surgical trauma had no significant influence on levels of 5mC or H3K9Me3. Day......-to-day variations of 12.7% and 11.5% (intra-individual) and 98.1% and 60.8% (inter-individual) were shown for 5mC and H3K9Me3, respectively. Levels of 5mC or H3K9Me3 were significantly higher in samples stored at room temperature until centrifugation compared to samples stored on ice. Patients with cancer had...

  4. Second SPIDIA-DNA External Quality Assessment (EQA): Influence of pre-analytical phase of blood samples on genomic DNA quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malentacchi, Francesca; Pizzamiglio, Sara; Ibrahim-Gawel, Hady; Pazzagli, Mario; Verderio, Paolo; Ciniselli, Chiara Maura; Wyrich, Ralf; Gelmini, Stefania

    2016-02-15

    In order to develop evidence-based quality guidelines for the pre-analytical phase of blood samples used for DNA molecular testing, two pan-European External Quality Assessments (EQAs) were implemented within the European Commission funded project SPIDIA. Here we report the results of the 2nd SPIDIA EQA that has been implemented on the basis of the 1st DNA EQA with the inclusion of some stringent conditions related to blood storage temperature and time. SPIDIA facility sent to all the participants the same blood sample to be processed by their own procedure following SPIDIA suggestion for time and temperature storage. Evaluated genomic DNA (gDNA) quality parameters were: purity and yield by UV spectrophotometric analysis, PCR interferences by Kineret software and integrity by a dedicated algorithm. 188 applications have been collected from 26 European countries. A high variability of gDNA integrity was observed whereas purity, yield and PCR interferences had a narrow distribution within laboratories. A dedicated analysis on pre-analytical variables and the evaluated gDNA quality parameters showed that blood storage and DNA extraction procedures influence gDNA integrity. The performances of the participants were improved in comparison with the 1st SPIDIA-DNA EQA, probably due to adopted more stringent pre-analytical conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased Patient Satisfaction and a Reduction in Pre-Analytical Errors Following Implementation of an Electronic Specimen Collection Module in Outpatient Phlebotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantartjis, Michalis; Melanson, Stacy E F; Petrides, Athena K; Landman, Adam B; Bates, David W; Rosner, Bernard A; Goonan, Ellen; Bixho, Ida; Tanasijevic, Milenko J

    2017-08-01

    Patient satisfaction in outpatient phlebotomy settings typically depends on wait time and venipuncture experience, and many patients equate their experiences with their overall satisfaction with the hospital. We compared patient service times and preanalytical errors pre- and postimplementation of an integrated electronic health record (EHR)-laboratory information system (LIS) and electronic specimen collection module. We also measured patient wait time and assessed patient satisfaction using a 5-question survey. The percentage of patients waiting less than 10 minutes increased from 86% preimplementation to 93% postimplementation of the EHR-LIS (P ≤.001). The median total service time decreased significantly, from 6 minutes (IQR, 4-8 minutes), to 5 minutes (IQR, 3-6 minutes) (P = .005). The preanalytical errors decreased significantly, from 3.20 to 1.93 errors per 1000 specimens (P ≤.001). Overall patient satisfaction improved, with an increase in excellent responses for all 5 questions (P ≤.001). We found several benefits of implementing an electronic specimen collection module, including decreased wait and service times, improved patient satisfaction, and a reduction in preanalytical errors. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. Neglected dorsal dislocation of the scaphoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaravati Rajkumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated dislocation of the scaphoid is very rare. A 45-year old male, industrial worker reported two and half months after injury with wrist pain and swelling on the dorsum of left wrist. He was diagnosed as neglected dorsal dislocation of scaphoid. Proximal row carpectomy with capsular interposition was done stabilizing the distal carpus on the radius using Kirschner wires. At-12 months follow-up the patient had good wrist function and was satisfied with the outcome of the treatment. We hereby report this neglected dorsal dislocation of scaphoid in view of rarity and discuss the various options for management.

  7. EDITORIAL Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr.Kofi-Tsekpo

    organisation with headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland. Founded by six research institutions and an international humanitarian organisation*, DNDi addresses the need for new field-adapted, effective, and affordable drugs for patients suffering from neglected diseases. DNDi harnesses knowledge and cutting-edge science.

  8. Child Abuse and Neglect. Data Snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    DC Action for Children, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The number of substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect in the District rose by 27 percent in FY 2009. This dramatic spike came after two consecutive years of decline in the number of substantiated cases reported the D.C. Child and Family Services Agency (CFSA). In FY 2010, the number of closed, substantiated cases dropped back down to 1,691,…

  9. Social capital, family violence, and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotor, Adam J; Runyan, Desmond K

    2006-06-01

    Social capital includes collective efficacy, psychological sense of community, neighborhood cohesion, and parental investment in the child. It has been shown to be associated with a variety of health and welfare outcomes and may be useful in understanding and preventing parenting behaviors on the continuum of child abuse and neglect. The purpose of this research was to evaluate low social capital as a risk factor for harsh physical punishment, neglectful parenting, psychologically harsh parenting, and domestic violence. This study is an analysis of cross-sectional telephone survey data of mothers in North and South Carolina (n = 1435). We constructed a 4-point social capital index reflecting survey responses to items ascertaining neighborhood characteristics, willingness to take personal action, the presence of 2 adults in the household, and regular religious service participation. We assessed the relationship of social capital to inventories of self-reported parenting behaviors and in-home violence. In adjusted analysis, we found that each 1 point increase in a 4-point social capital index was associated with a 30% reduction in the odds of neglectful parenting, psychologically harsh parenting, and domestic violence. There was no relationship between social capital and harsh physical punishment. This study demonstrates that increasing social capital decreases the odds of neglectful parenting, psychologically harsh parenting, and domestic violence but not harsh physical punishment. This supports further investigation into developing social capital as a resource for families.

  10. How Neglect and Punitiveness Influence Emotion Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Carmody, Dennis P.; Lewis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    To explore whether punitive parenting styles contribute to early-acquired emotion knowledge deficits observable in neglected children, we observed 42 preschool children's emotion knowledge, expression recognition time, and IQ. The children's mothers completed the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales to assess the recent use of three types of…

  11. EDITORIAL Neglected Diseases: Burden and attention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Neglected diseases are largely infectious diseases that have burdened humanity for centuries, but currently receiving little attention. Infectious diseases in their long histories have resulted in considerable morbidities, disabilities and deformities, often subjecting to stigma. The magnitude of their impact on health and labor.

  12. Performance management: the neglected imperative of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of the qualitative research design, the individual interview was selected for use in this research. Fifteen participants drawn randomly from 24 schools were interviewed. The findings revealed the weakness of integrating development with appraisal since it leads to the neglect of development in favour of appraisal ...

  13. Analysis of trauma severity and the impact of abuse and neglect on personality traits in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujičić Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Abuse and neglect might cause multiple and long-term consequences on physical and mental health, development and future life of children. The consequences that abuse and neglect cause on a child’s personality and functioning in adult life have particular importance. The aim: Determining the level of trauma, as well as differences in personality traits of adolescents who are on psychiatric treatment and has been registered in Department for the protection of children against abuse and neglect, comparing with children who are on psychiatric treatment but not abused, and control group of adolescents. Materials and methods: The study analysed three groups: abused group on psychiatric treatment, group on psychiatric treatment and not abused, and control healthy population. All subjects filled out General questionnaire with basic socio-demographical data, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, and Temperament and Character Adolescent Inventory (ATCI – 46. Results: There is statistically significant difference between groups in all types of abuse: physical, emotional, sexual, as well as emotional and physical neglect (p<0.001. Psychiatric group has significantly lower scores on Persistence (P (p<0.01, while abused group has lower scores on Harm avoidance (HA (p<0.05. Negative correlation between abuse and Self-transcendence (ST, and negative correlation between physical abuse and Self-directedness (SD has been shown. Conclusion: Abuse and neglect in children and adolescents are a significant cause of trauma and can cause different psychopathology, as well as changes on character and temperament traits.

  14. The protective effect of neighborhood social cohesion in child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire-Jack, Kathryn; Showalter, Kathryn

    2016-02-01

    Relations between parents within a neighborhood have the potential to provide a supportive environment for healthy and positive parenting. Neighborhood social cohesion, or the mutual trust and support among neighbors, is one process through which parenting may be improved. The current study investigates the association between neighborhood social cohesion and abuse and neglect, as well as specific types of abuse and neglect. The sample for the study is comprised of 896 parents in one urban Midwestern County in the United States. Participants were recruited from Women, Infants, and Children clinics. Negative binomial regression is used to examine the association between neighborhood social cohesion and child maltreatment behaviors, as measured by the Conflict Tactics Scale, Parent-to-Child Version (Straus et al., 1998). In this sample of families, neighborhood social cohesion is associated with child neglect, but not abuse. In examining the relationship with specific types of abuse and neglect, it was found that neighborhood social cohesion may have a protective role in some acts of neglect, such as meeting a child's basic needs, but not potentially more complex needs like parental substance abuse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Child Abuse and Neglect in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Rajeev

    2015-08-01

    India is home to the largest child population in the world, with almost 41 % of the total population under 18 y of age. The health and security of the country's children is integral to any vision for its progress and development. Doctors and health care professionals are often the first point of contact for abused and neglected children. They play a key role in detecting child abuse and neglect, provide immediate and longer term care and support to children. Despite being important stakeholders, often physicians have a limited understanding on how to protect these vulnerable groups. There is an urgent need for systematic training for physicians to prevent, detect and respond to cases of child abuse and neglect in the clinical setting. The purpose of the present article is to provide an overview of child abuse and neglect from a medical assessment to a socio-legal perspective in India, in order to ensure a prompt and comprehensive multidisciplinary response to victims of child abuse and neglect. During their busy clinical practice, medical professionals can also use the telephone help line (CHILDLINE telephone 1098) to refer cases of child abuse, thus connecting them to socio-legal services. The physicians should be aware of the new legislation, Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012, which requires mandatory reporting of cases of child sexual abuse, failing which they can be penalized. Moreover, doctors and allied medical professionals can help prevent child sexual abuse by delivering the message of personal space and privacy to their young patients and parents.

  16. Preanalytical confounding factors in the analysis of cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease: the issue of diurnal variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eCicognola

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the growing use of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF beta-amyloid (Aβ and tau as biomarkers for early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, it is essential that the diagnostic procedures are standardized and the results comparable across different laboratories. Preanalytical factors are reported to be the cause of at least 50% of the total variability. Among them, diurnal variability is a key issue and may have an impact on the comparability of the values obtained. The available studies on this issue are not conclusive so far. Fluctuations of CSF biomarkers in young healthy volunteers have been previously reported, while subsequent studies have not confirmed those observations in older subjects, the ones most likely to receive this test. The observed differences in circadian rhythms need to be further assessed not only in classical CSF biomarkers but also in novel forthcoming biomarkers. In this review the existing data on the issue of diurnal variations of CSF classical biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease will be analyzed, also evaluating the available data on new possible biomarkers.

  17. Pre-analytical and Analytical Variables Affecting the Measurement of Plasma-Derived Microparticle Tissue Factor Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, RD; Barcel, DA; Williams, JC; Wang, JG; Boles, JC; Manly, DA; Key, NS; Mackman, N

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Elevated levels of tissue factor positive (TF+) microparticles (MPs) are observed in plasma from a variety of patients with an increased risk of thrombosis. We and others have described the measurement of TF activity in MPs isolated from plasma. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-analytical and analytical variables on TF activity of MPs isolated from blood of healthy volunteers treated ex vivo with or without bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Materials and Methods We evaluated the following parameters: use of different centrifugation speeds to isolate the MPs; comparison of TF activity of MPs isolated from platelet poor plasma versus platelet free plasma; effect of freeze/thaw on MP TF activity; and comparison of the MP TF activity assay with the measurement of TF protein by ELISA or flow cytometry. Results MPs prepared from platelet poor plasma by centrifugation at 20,000 × g or 100,000 × g for 15 minutes had similar levels of TF activity. However, significantly less TF activity was found in MPs isolated from platelet free plasma compared with platelet poor plasma. Interestingly, freeze/thawing of the plasma showed donor to donor variation in MP TF activity, with a moderate increase in some individuals. Conclusion TF+ MPs can be quantitatively isolated from platelet poor or platelet free plasma by centrifugation at 20,000 × g for 15 minutes. Measurement of MP TF activity in plasma can be used to detect a prothrombotic state in patients with various diseases. PMID:21737126

  18. ASVCP quality assurance guidelines: control of preanalytical, analytical, and postanalytical factors for urinalysis, cytology, and clinical chemistry in veterinary laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn-Christie, Rebekah G; Flatland, Bente; Friedrichs, Kristen R; Szladovits, Balazs; Harr, Kendal E; Ruotsalo, Kristiina; Knoll, Joyce S; Wamsley, Heather L; Freeman, Kathy P

    2012-03-01

    In December 2009, the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standards committee published the updated and peer-reviewed ASVCP Quality Assurance Guidelines on the Society's website. These guidelines are intended for use by veterinary diagnostic laboratories and veterinary research laboratories that are not covered by the US Food and Drug Administration Good Laboratory Practice standards (Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Chapter 58). The guidelines have been divided into 3 reports: (1) general analytical factors for veterinary laboratory performance and comparisons; (2) hematology, hemostasis, and crossmatching; and (3) clinical chemistry, cytology, and urinalysis. This particular report is one of 3 reports and documents recommendations for control of preanalytical, analytical, and postanalytical factors related to urinalysis, cytology, and clinical chemistry in veterinary laboratories and is adapted from sections 1.1 and 2.2 (clinical chemistry), 1.3 and 2.5 (urinalysis), 1.4 and 2.6 (cytology), and 3 (postanalytical factors important in veterinary clinical pathology) of these guidelines. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather, they provide minimal guidelines for quality assurance and quality control for veterinary laboratory testing and a basis for laboratories to assess their current practices, determine areas for improvement, and guide continuing professional development and education efforts. © 2012 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  19. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction molecular testing of cytology specimens: Pre-analytic and analytic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Julia A

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of molecular testing into cytopathology laboratory practice has expanded the types of samples considered feasible for identifying genetic alterations that play an essential role in cancer diagnosis and treatment. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), a sensitive and specific technical approach for amplifying a defined segment of RNA after it has been reverse-transcribed into its DNA complement, is commonly used in clinical practice for the identification of recurrent or tumor-specific fusion gene events. Real-time RT-PCR (quantitative RT-PCR), a technical variation, also permits the quantitation of products generated during each cycle of the polymerase chain reaction process. This review addresses qualitative and quantitative pre-analytic and analytic considerations of RT-PCR as they relate to various cytologic specimens. An understanding of these aspects of genetic testing is central to attaining optimal results in the face of the challenges that cytology specimens may present. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:11-19. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  20. National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search « Back to Search National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System Glossary Published: March 31, 2000 Types: ... the glossary for the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS), including terms from both the ...

  1. National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... navigation Search form Search « Back to Search National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System Glossary Published: March 31, ... This document is the glossary for the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS), including terms from ...

  2. Clothing and dementia: A neglected dimension?

    OpenAIRE

    Twigg, Julia

    2010-01-01

    The article explores the neglected subject of clothing and dementia. Addressing questions of the body, identity and selfhood, it argues – against the dominant understanding – that clothes continue to be significant in the lives and wellbeing of people with dementia. Drawing on new theorising that emphasises the embodied nature of selfhood, the article explores the role of clothing in the maintenance of identity; its nature as the ‘environment closest in’; its significance in social interactio...

  3. Child Abuse-Neglect and Forensic Odontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehtiye Fusun Yasar

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The battered child syndrome, a behavioral deviation exposing children to harmful, non-accidental and preventable physical treatment of person or people who are responsible to look after them which prevents their physical and psycosocial development and conflicts with the cultural values of the society, is style of great importance today as an undissolved humanity problem. Child abuse is considered among the most severe forms of chidhood trauma due to its repeatability, and to its being performed by those closest to the victim. Its diagnosis is very difficult, and therefore so is its treatment. Its physical, psychological and social consequences appear in the long run. The awereness, experience and motivation of the physician are extremely important for diagnosis. Forensic deontologists have a very important role to describe the child abuse and neglect. When they examine the child they can find many evidence about abuse and neglect in oral cavity. Therefore when a child has oral injuries or dental neglect is suspected, the child will benefit from the physician's consultation with a pediatric dentist or a dentist with formal training in forensic odontology. Multidisciplinary teams for identifying and evaluating cases of child abuse and neglect present one option for collaboration. In that case physicians, dentists and child care workers working together can assist each other in the detection and of the effects of child abuse. This article is planned, to underline the seriousness and importance of the law, to clarify deficiencies of the law and to take attention of related people. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 389-394

  4. Child Abuse-Neglect and Forensic Odontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehtiye Fusun Yasar

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The battered child syndrome, a behavioral deviation exposing children to harmful, non-accidental and preventable physical treatment of person or people who are responsible to look after them which prevents their physical and psycosocial development and conflicts with the cultural values of the society, is style of great importance today as an undissolved humanity problem. Child abuse is considered among the most severe forms of chidhood trauma due to its repeatability, and to its being performed by those closest to the victim. Its diagnosis is very difficult, and therefore so is its treatment. Its physical, psychological and social consequences appear in the long run. The awereness, experience and motivation of the physician are extremely important for diagnosis. Forensic deontologists have a very important role to describe the child abuse and neglect. When they examine the child they can find many evidence about abuse and neglect in oral cavity. Therefore when a child has oral injuries or dental neglect is suspected, the child will benefit from the physician's consultation with a pediatric dentist or a dentist with formal training in forensic odontology. Multidisciplinary teams for identifying and evaluating cases of child abuse and neglect present one option for collaboration. In that case physicians, dentists and child care workers working together can assist each other in the detection and of the effects of child abuse. This article is planned, to underline the seriousness and importance of the law, to clarify deficiencies of the law and to take attention of related people. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(5: 389-394

  5. Vaccines to combat the neglected tropical diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Cole, Rhea N.; Guo, Xiaoti; Kamhawi, Shaden; Lightowlers, Marshall W.; Loukas, Alex; Petri, William; Reed, Steven; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Hotez, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) represent a group of parasitic and related infectious diseases such as amebiasis, Chagas disease, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, hookworm, leishmaniasis, and schistosomiasis. Together, these conditions are considered the most common infections in low- and middle-income countries, where they produce a level of global disability and human suffering equivalent to better known conditions such as human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and malaria. Despite their global public health importance, progress on developing vaccines for NTD pathogens has lagged because of some key technical hurdles and the fact that these infections occur almost exclusively in the world’s poorest people living below the World Bank poverty line. In the absence of financial incentives for new products, the multinational pharmaceutical companies have not embarked on substantive research and development programs for the neglected tropical disease vaccines. Here, we review the current status of scientific and technical progress in the development of new neglected tropical disease vaccines, highlighting the successes that have been achieved (cysticercosis and echinococcosis) and identifying the challenges and opportunities for development of new vaccines for NTDs. Also highlighted are the contributions being made by non-profit product development partnerships that are working to overcome some of the economic challenges in vaccine manufacture, clinical testing, and global access. PMID:21198676

  6. Appalachian Citizens for Children's Rights: A Rural Community Self-Help Approach to the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, Ron, Ed.; And Others

    The report describes the design of a community development model for child abuse and neglect which used resources already existing in a rural area. The first section presents basic generalizations about rural areas, services, and rural human services professionals. Section II presents working papers, definitions, and concepts used in the project.…

  7. Visuospatial neglect after stroke : Heterogeneity, diagnosis and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Brink, A.F.

    2018-01-01

    The general objective of this thesis was to better understand and treat visuospatial neglect, a frequent and disabling disorder in lateralized attention. The first aim was to further unravel visuospatial neglect by focusing on several subtypes. In neglect research, mostly patients with left-sided

  8. The Effect of Syntax on Reading in Neglect Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, Naama; Tzailer-Gross, Lital; Gvion, Aviah

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with text-based neglect dyslexia omit words on the neglected side of the sentence or text, usually on the left side. This study tested whether the syntactic structure of the target sentence affects reading in this type of neglect dyslexia. Because Hebrew is read from right to left, it enables testing whether the beginning of the…

  9. Perceptions and Attitudes of Mothers about Child Neglect in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Selda; Tasar, Aysin; Ozkan, Secil; Yeltekin, Sevinc; Cakir, Bahar Cuhac; Akbaba, Sevil; Sahin, Figen; Camurdan, Aysu Duyan; Beyazova, Ufuk

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perceptions and attitudes about child neglect of a group of mothers, in Ankara, Turkey, and to determine the factors affecting perception and attitudes of these mothers about child neglect. A questionnaire consisting of 15 scenarios about perception of child neglect and 12 behavioral descriptions about…

  10. 25 CFR 11.424 - Neglect of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neglect of children. 11.424 Section 11.424 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.424 Neglect of children. (a) A parent, guardian, or other person... supervising the welfare of a child under 18 commits a violation if he or she neglects or refuses to send the...

  11. Is "Object-Centred Neglect" a Homogeneous Entity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainotti, Guido; Ciaraffa, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The nature of object-centred (allocentric) neglect and the possibility of dissociating it from egocentric (subject-centred) forms of neglect are controversial. Originally, allocentric neglect was described by and in patients who reproduced all the elements of a multi-object scene, but left unfinished the left side of one or more of them. More…

  12. Educational neglect: Understanding 20 years of child welfare trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wert, Melissa; Fallon, Barbara; Trocmé, Nico; Collin-Vézina, Delphine

    2018-01-01

    Educational neglect is an understudied phenomenon that is difficult to define and also to address. While it is clear that attending to children's academic needs is important to child development, few studies focus on educational neglect and therefore little is known about its associated risk factors and the outcomes following this form of maltreatment. The purpose of this research was to (a) determine the rate at which child welfare service providers investigate educational neglect in Canada and identify any trends in rates over time, (b) better understand educational neglect and its distinction from other types of neglect and truancy, and (c) understand how child welfare services respond to allegations of educational neglect. Data from five cycles of the Ontario Incidence Studies of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect were examined. A trend analysis was conducted followed by a mixed-method examination of educational neglect investigations. Results indicate that rates of investigated educational neglect in Ontario have been consistently low over time. However, these investigations are significantly more likely to be substantiated and to be transferred to ongoing child welfare services compared to investigations of other subtypes of neglect. Educational neglect investigations involving younger children are more likely to note risk factors for caregivers whereas those involving adolescents are more likely to note functioning issues for youth. The findings are discussed in relation to international trends in educational neglect and policy and practice implications are explored. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 45 CFR 1357.20 - Child abuse and neglect programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child abuse and neglect programs. 1357.20 Section... APPLICABLE TO TITLE IV-B § 1357.20 Child abuse and neglect programs. The State agency must assure that, with regard to any child abuse and neglect programs or projects funded under title IV-B of the Act, the...

  14. Pre-analytical and analytical validations and clinical applications of a miniaturized, simple and cost-effective solid phase extraction combined with LC-MS/MS for the simultaneous determination of catecholamines and metanephrines in spot urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoguang Sunny; Li, Shu; Kellermann, Gottfried

    2016-10-01

    It remains a challenge to simultaneously quantify catecholamines and metanephrines in a simple, sensitive and cost-effective manner due to pre-analytical and analytical constraints. Herein, we describe such a method consisting of a miniaturized sample preparation and selective LC-MS/MS detection by the use of second morning spot urine samples. Ten microliters of second morning urine sample were subjected to solid phase extraction on an Oasis HLB microplate upon complexation with phenylboronic acid. The analytes were well-resolved on a Luna PFP column followed by tandem mass spectrometric detection. Full validation and suitability of spot urine sampling and biological variation were investigated. The extraction recovery and matrix effect are 74.1-97.3% and 84.1-119.0%, respectively. The linearity range is 2.5-500, 0.5-500, 2.5-1250, 2.5-1250 and 0.5-1250ng/mL for norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine, normetanephrine and metanephrine, respectively. The intra- and inter-assay imprecisions are ≤9.4% for spiked quality control samples, and the respective recoveries are 97.2-112.5% and 95.9-104.0%. The Deming regression slope is 0.90-1.08, and the mean Bland-Altman percentage difference is from -3.29 to 11.85 between a published and proposed method (n=50). A correlation observed for the spot and 24h urine collections is significant (n=20, p<0.0001, r: 0.84-0.95, slope: 0.61-0.98). No statistical differences are found in day-to-day biological variability (n=20). Reference intervals are established for an apparently healthy population (n=88). The developed method, being practical, sensitive, reliable and cost-effective, is expected to set a new stage for routine testing, basic research and clinical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Child neglect and abuse: a global glimpse within the framework of evidence perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız, E; Tanrıverdi, D

    2018-03-01

    This systematic review was conducted in order to integrate evidence-based knowledge and experience related to child neglect and abuse into the nursing literature. The negative and intense effects of neglect and abuse on an individual can last into adulthood. Nurses who are in close contact with such cases have an important role to play in detecting child neglect and abuse and supporting the families involved. When nurses fulfil this role, it is important that evidence-based information and interventions are known to ensure that the process is a healthy one. Medline/Pubmed and Cochrane Library databases, from 2012 to 2016. The PRISMA guide, a basic search algorithm, was used as a basis for the review. This systematic research involved 32 articles that met the criteria. When the characteristics of the studies were examined, it was found that one study dealt with physical abuse, seven studies dealt with sexual abuse, 21 studies with neglect and abuse and three studies with all abuse types. It was also found that 16% addressed intervention, 22% addressed the relationship between abuse and other factors, 31% addressed prevention and 31% addressed the defining dimension. It has been found that, in general, all types of negligence and abuse are studied together and that nurses lack the knowledge and skills needed to assess childhood neglect and abuse. Nurses have a critical role to play in identifying the dark spots and associated factors in the story of individuals because they are health professionals who are in close contact with patients. It is recommended that guidelines be developed and used in the diagnosis and treatment of abuse and neglect. Thus, in these cases, the standardization of care will be achieved. © 2018 International Council of Nurses.

  16. Pre-analytical and post-analytical evaluation in the era of molecular diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases: cellularity control and internal control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loria Bianchi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Increase of molecular tests performed on DNA extracted from various biological materials should not be carried out without an adequate standardization of the pre-analytical and post-analytical phase. Materials and Methods. Aim of this study was to evaluate the role of internal control (IC to standardize pre-analytical phase and the role of cellularity control (CC in the suitability evaluation of biological matrices, and their influence on false negative results. 120 cervical swabs (CS were pre-treated and extracted following 3 different protocols. Extraction performance was evaluated by amplification of: IC, added in each mix extraction; human gene HPRT1 (CC with RT-PCR to quantify sample cellularity; L1 region of HPV with SPF10 primers. 135 urine, 135 urethral swabs, 553 CS and 332 ThinPrep swabs (TP were tested for C. trachomatis (CT and U. parvum (UP with RT-PCR and for HPV by endpoint-PCR. Samples were also tested for cellularity. Results. Extraction protocol with highest average cellularity (Ac/sample showed lowest number of samples with inhibitors; highest HPV positivity was achieved by protocol with greatest Ac/PCR. CS and TP under 300.000 cells/sample showed a significant decrease of UP (P<0.01 and HPV (P<0.005 positivity. Female urine under 40.000 cells/mL were inadequate to detect UP (P<0.05. Conclusions. Our data show that IC and CC allow optimization of pre-analytical phase, with an increase of analytical quality. Cellularity/sample allows better sample adequacy evaluation, crucial to avoid false negative results, while cellularity/PCR allows better optimization of PCR amplification. Further data are required to define the optimal cut-off for result normalization.

  17. A Tissue Quality Index – an Intrinsic Control for Measurement of Effects of Pre-analytical Variables on FFPE Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumeister, Veronique M.; Parisi, Fabio; England, Allison M.; Siddiqui, Summar; Anagnostou, Valsamo; Zarrella, Elizabeth; Vassilakopolou, Maria; Bai, Yalai; Saylor, Sasha; Sapino, Anna; Kluger, Yuval; Hicks, David G.; Bussolati, Gianni; Kwei, Stephanie; Rimm, David L.

    2014-01-01

    While efforts are made to improve tissue quality and control pre-analytical variables, pathologists are often confronted with the challenge of molecular analysis of patient samples of unknown quality. Here we describe a first attempt to construct a Tissue Quality Index (TQI) or an intrinsic control that would allow a global assessment of protein status based on quantitative measurement of a small number of selected, informative epitopes. Quantitative Immunofluorescence (QIF) of a number of proteins was performed on a series of 93 breast cancer cases where levels of expression were assessed as a function of delayed time to formalin fixation. A TQI was constructed based on the combination of proteins that most accurately reflect increased and decreased levels of expression in proportion to delay time. The TQI, defined by combinations of measurements of cytokeratin, pERK1/2 and pHSP-27 and their relationship to cold ischemic time were validated on a second build of the training series and on 2 independent breast tissue cohorts with recorded time to formalin fixation. We show an association of negative TQI values (an indicator for loss of tissue quality) with increasing cold ischemic time on both validation cohorts, as well as an association with loss of ER expression levels on all 3 breast cohorts. Using expression levels of 3 epitopes, we can begin to assess the likelihood of delayed time to fixation or decreased tissue quality. This TQI represents a proof of concept for the use of epitope expression to provide a mechanism for monitoring tissue quality. PMID:24535259

  18. Comparison of Pre-Analytical FFPE Sample Preparation Methods and Their Impact on Massively Parallel Sequencing in Routine Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydt, Carina; Fassunke, Jana; Künstlinger, Helen; Ihle, Michaela Angelika; König, Katharina; Heukamp, Lukas Carl; Schildhaus, Hans-Ulrich; Odenthal, Margarete; Büttner, Reinhard; Merkelbach-Bruse, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Over the last years, massively parallel sequencing has rapidly evolved and has now transitioned into molecular pathology routine laboratories. It is an attractive platform for analysing multiple genes at the same time with very little input material. Therefore, the need for high quality DNA obtained from automated DNA extraction systems has increased, especially to those laboratories which are dealing with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) material and high sample throughput. This study evaluated five automated FFPE DNA extraction systems as well as five DNA quantification systems using the three most common techniques, UV spectrophotometry, fluorescent dye-based quantification and quantitative PCR, on 26 FFPE tissue samples. Additionally, the effects on downstream applications were analysed to find the most suitable pre-analytical methods for massively parallel sequencing in routine diagnostics. The results revealed that the Maxwell 16 from Promega (Mannheim, Germany) seems to be the superior system for DNA extraction from FFPE material. The extracts had a 1.3–24.6-fold higher DNA concentration in comparison to the other extraction systems, a higher quality and were most suitable for downstream applications. The comparison of the five quantification methods showed intermethod variations but all methods could be used to estimate the right amount for PCR amplification and for massively parallel sequencing. Interestingly, the best results in massively parallel sequencing were obtained with a DNA input of 15 ng determined by the NanoDrop 2000c spectrophotometer (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA). No difference could be detected in mutation analysis based on the results of the quantification methods. These findings emphasise, that it is particularly important to choose the most reliable and constant DNA extraction system, especially when using small biopsies and low elution volumes, and that all common DNA quantification techniques can be used for

  19. Comparison of pre-analytical FFPE sample preparation methods and their impact on massively parallel sequencing in routine diagnostics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Heydt

    Full Text Available Over the last years, massively parallel sequencing has rapidly evolved and has now transitioned into molecular pathology routine laboratories. It is an attractive platform for analysing multiple genes at the same time with very little input material. Therefore, the need for high quality DNA obtained from automated DNA extraction systems has increased, especially to those laboratories which are dealing with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE material and high sample throughput. This study evaluated five automated FFPE DNA extraction systems as well as five DNA quantification systems using the three most common techniques, UV spectrophotometry, fluorescent dye-based quantification and quantitative PCR, on 26 FFPE tissue samples. Additionally, the effects on downstream applications were analysed to find the most suitable pre-analytical methods for massively parallel sequencing in routine diagnostics. The results revealed that the Maxwell 16 from Promega (Mannheim, Germany seems to be the superior system for DNA extraction from FFPE material. The extracts had a 1.3-24.6-fold higher DNA concentration in comparison to the other extraction systems, a higher quality and were most suitable for downstream applications. The comparison of the five quantification methods showed intermethod variations but all methods could be used to estimate the right amount for PCR amplification and for massively parallel sequencing. Interestingly, the best results in massively parallel sequencing were obtained with a DNA input of 15 ng determined by the NanoDrop 2000c spectrophotometer (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA. No difference could be detected in mutation analysis based on the results of the quantification methods. These findings emphasise, that it is particularly important to choose the most reliable and constant DNA extraction system, especially when using small biopsies and low elution volumes, and that all common DNA quantification techniques can

  20. Flow cytometry for feline lymphoma: a retrospective study about pre-analytical factors possibly affecting the quality of samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Bernardi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Flow cytometry (FC is an increasingly required technique on which veterinary oncologists rely to have an accurate, fast, minimally invasive lymphoma or leukemia diagnosis. FC has been studied and applied with great results in canine oncology, whereas in feline oncology the use of this technique is still to be experienced. This is mainly due to a supposed discomfort in sampling, because of the high prevalence of intra-abdominal lymphomas. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether any pre-analytical factor might affect the quality of suspected feline lymphoma samples for FC analysis. Methods 97 consecutive samples of suspected feline lymphoma were retrospectively selected from the authors’ institution FC database. The referring veterinarians were recalled and interrogated about several different variables, including signalling, features of the lesion, features of the sampling procedure and the experience of veterinarians performing the sampling. Statistical analyses were performed to assess the possible influence of these variables on the cellularity of the samples and the likelihood of being finally processed for FC. Results None of the investigated variables significantly influenced the quality of the submitted samples, but the needle size, with 21G needles providing the highest cellularity (Table 1. Notably, the samples quality did not vary between peripheral and intra-abdominal lesions. Sample cellularity alone influenced the likelihood of being processed. About a half of the cats required pharmacological restraint. Side effects were reported in one case only (transient swelling after peripheral lymph node sampling. Conclusions FC can be safely applied to cases of suspected feline lymphomas, even for intra-abdominal lesions. 21G needle should be preferred for sampling. This study provides the bases for the spread of this minimally invasive, fast and cost-effective technique in feline medicine.

  1. Preanalytical blood sample workup for cell-free DNA analysis using Droplet Digital PCR for future molecular cancer diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ginkel, Joost H; van den Broek, Daan A; van Kuik, Joyce; Linders, Dorothé; de Weger, Roel; Willems, Stefan M; Huibers, Manon M H

    2017-10-01

    In current molecular cancer diagnostics, using blood samples of cancer patients for the detection of genetic alterations in plasma (cell-free) circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is an emerging practice. Since ctDNA levels in blood are low, highly sensitive Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR) can be used for detecting rare mutational targets. In order to perform ddPCR on blood samples, a standardized procedure for processing and analyzing blood samples is necessary to facilitate implementation into clinical practice. Therefore, we assessed the technical sample workup procedure for ddPCR on blood plasma samples. Blood samples from healthy individuals, as well as lung cancer patients were analyzed. We compared different methods and protocols for sample collection, storage, centrifugation, isolation, and quantification. Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) concentrations of several wild-type targets and BRAF and EGFR-mutant ctDNA concentrations quantified by ddPCR were primary outcome measurements. Highest cfDNA concentrations were measured in blood collected in serum tubes. No significant differences in cfDNA concentrations were detected between various time points of up to 24 h until centrifugation. Highest cfDNA concentrations were detected after DNA isolation with the Quick cfDNA Serum & Plasma Kit, while plasma isolation using the QIAamp Circulating Nucleic Acid Kit yielded the most consistent results. DdPCR results on cfDNA are highly dependent on multiple factors during preanalytical sample workup, which need to be addressed during the development of this diagnostic tool for cancer diagnostics in the future. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Personal neglect-a disorder of body representation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, Ulrike; de Haan, Bianca; Grässli, Tanja; Karnath, Hans-Otto; Mueri, René; Perrig, Walter J; Wurtz, Pascal; Gutbrod, Klemens

    2011-04-01

    The cognitive mechanisms underlying personal neglect are not well known. One theory postulates that personal neglect is due to a disorder of contralesional body representation. In the present study, we have investigated whether personal neglect is best explained by impairments in the representation of the contralesional side of the body, in particular, or a dysfunction of the mental representation of the contralesional space in general. For this, 22 patients with right hemisphere cerebral lesions (7 with personal neglect, 15 without personal neglect) and 13 healthy controls have been studied using two experimental tasks measuring representation of the body and extrapersonal space. In the tasks, photographs of left and right hands as well as left and right rear-view mirrors presented from the front and the back had to be judged as left or right. Our results show that patients with personal neglect made more errors when asked to judge stimuli of left hands and left rear-view mirrors than either patients without personal neglect or healthy controls. Furthermore, regression analyses indicated that errors in interpreting left hands were the best predictor of personal neglect, while other variables such as extrapersonal neglect, somatosensory or motor impairments, or deficits in left extrapersonal space representation had no predictive value of personal neglect. These findings suggest that deficient body representation is the major mechanism underlying personal neglect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Unilateral neglect and perceptual parsing: a large-group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neppi-Mòdona, Marco; Savazzi, Silvia; Ricci, Raffaella; Genero, Rosanna; Berruti, Giuseppina; Pepi, Riccardo

    2002-01-01

    Array-centred and subarray-centred neglect were disambiguated in a group of 116 patients with left neglect by means of a modified version of the Albert test in which the central column of segments was deleted so as to create two separate sets of targets grouped by proximity. The results indicated that neglect was more frequent in array- than subarray-centred coordinates and that, in a minority of cases, neglect co-occurred in both coordinate-systems. The two types of neglect were functionally but not anatomically dissociated. Presence of visual field defects was not prevalent in one type of neglect with respect to the other. These data contribute further evidence to previous single-case and small-group studies by showing that neglect can occur in single or multiple reference frames simultaneously, in agreement with current neuropsychological, neurophysiological and computational concepts of space representation.

  4. Case Study: Neglected Health Issues in Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Neylon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The project “Problemes négligés du système de santé au Niger” focusses on a core set of often-neglected issues that nevertheless have an overall negative impact on health system effectiveness in Niger. For example, poor quality maternal health services result from challenges related to the midwifery profession and from pressures from addressing the effects of illegal termination of pregnancy. Overall health system governance is undermined by weak management of human resources and health information systems as well as problems related to decentralisation of health care provision and dependence on external funding for health projects. LASDEL applies a rapid assessment and qualitative research approach to working with patients and health care professionals to identify the scale and characteristics of these problems. The project goal is to develop an evidence base to support tackling these neglected issues. Développer des recherches sur les « problèmes négligés » dans la gouvernance de la santé, et sur cette base contribuer à des réformes des systèmes de santé permettant une meilleure qualité des soins pour les populations vulnérables. "Develop research on "neglected problems" in the provision of health systems, and through this work, contribute to health system reforms, that provide better quality of care for vulnerable populations." As can be seen above, many of these issues relate to reproductive health and more generally to health issues of disadvantaged groups. Some issues are neglected for political or social reasons meaning that they are not recognised or acknowledged and in some cases are criminalised. Therefore there are profound issues of participant privacy, protection and even safety for this project. Data sharing therefore requires thoughtful anonymisation and selection. The project group is Francophone with limited English language knowledge and the researchers and the context is largely in French. In common with

  5. Neglected giant scalp Basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne Kristine; El-Charnoubi, Waseem-Asim Ghulam; Gehl, Julie

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local...... control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence...

  6. Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kristine Larsen, MD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence 1 year postoperatively.

  7. Neglect: failure to thrive and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Nancy S

    2014-10-01

    Medical providers need to monitor growth at every visit. Weight status is influenced by genetics, medical conditions, socioeconomic status, and family environment. Screening for food security and psychosocial risk factors is an integral tool to identify families at risk for nutritional deficits and child maltreatment. Nutritional rehabilitation is best accomplished in an outpatient, multidisciplinary setting. Medical neglect should be considered in failure to thrive and obesity when there is a serious risk of harm from identified medical complications, additional or worsening medical complications occurring despite a multidisciplinary approach, and/or non-adherence with the treatment plan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Care neglect, supervisory neglect, and harsh parenting in the development of children's aggression: a replication and extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, John F; DeGarmo, David; Koeppl, Gina; Reid, John B

    2005-05-01

    To understand the effects of neglectful parenting, poor supervision, and punitive parenting in the development of children's aggression, 218 children ages 4 to 8 years who were disadvantaged and their mothers were recruited from two states to develop a sample that was diverse with respect to degree of urbanization and ethnicity. Multimethod and multisource indices of the predictive constructs (Social Disadvantage, Denial of Care Neglect, Supervisory Neglect, and Punitive Discipline) and the criterion construct (Aggression) were used in a test of a theoretical model using structural equation modeling. The results established the role of care neglect, supervisory neglect, and punitive parenting as mediators of the role of social disadvantage in the development of children's aggression, the importance of distinguishing between two subtypes of neglect, and the need to consider the role of discipline in concert with neglect when attempting to understand the parenting in the development of aggression.

  9. Default neglect in attempts at social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatev, Julian J; Daniels, David P; Kim, Hajin; Neale, Margaret A

    2017-12-26

    Current theories suggest that people understand how to exploit common biases to influence others. However, these predictions have received little empirical attention. We consider a widely studied bias with special policy relevance: the default effect, which is the tendency to choose whichever option is the status quo. We asked participants (including managers, law/business/medical students, and US adults) to nudge others toward selecting a target option by choosing whether to present that target option as the default. In contrast to theoretical predictions, we find that people often fail to understand and/or use defaults to influence others, i.e., they show "default neglect." First, in one-shot default-setting games, we find that only 50.8% of participants set the target option as the default across 11 samples ( n = 2,844), consistent with people not systematically using defaults at all. Second, when participants have multiple opportunities for experience and feedback, they still do not systematically use defaults. Third, we investigate beliefs related to the default effect. People seem to anticipate some mechanisms that drive default effects, yet most people do not believe in the default effect on average, even in cases where they do use defaults. We discuss implications of default neglect for decision making, social influence, and evidence-based policy.

  10. Lyme borreliosis: A neglected zoonosis in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhelw, Rehab A; El-Enbaawy, Mona I; Samir, Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causal organism of Lyme borreliosis. In Egypt, available data about the occurrence of Lyme disease are scarce and no structured studies documented the presence of Lyme borreliosis in Egyptian animals and tick reservoirs verifying its zoonotic evidence. Besides, no successful trials to isolate B. burgdorferi from clinical samples have occurred. This study was conducted to investigate B. burgdorferi infection as an emerging zoonosis neglected in Egypt. A total number of 92 animals, tick and human companion specimens were collected and subjected for culture, PCR and/or serodetection. B. burgdorferi has been detected and isolated from Egyptian animal breeds. We also detected the presence of outer surface protein A gene of B. burgdorferi by PCR as well as anti-B. burgdorferi IgM by ELISA in human contacts who were suffering from fever of unknown origin. This report represents the first systematic study on animals associated with patients suffering from febrile illness to confirm the emerging of such neglected zoonosis in Egypt. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Duckneglect: video-games based neglect rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainetti, R; Sedda, A; Ronchetti, M; Bottini, G; Borghese, N A

    2013-01-01

    Video-games are becoming a common tool to guide patients through rehabilitation because of their power of motivating and engaging their users. Video-games may also be integrated into an infrastructure that allows patients, discharged from the hospital, to continue intensive rehabilitation at home under remote monitoring by the hospital itself, as suggested by the recently funded Rewire project. Goal of this work is to describe a novel low cost platform, based on video-games, targeted to neglect rehabilitation. The patient is guided to explore his neglected hemispace by a set of specifically designed games that ask him to reach targets, with an increasing level of difficulties. Visual and auditory cues helped the patient in the task and are progressively removed. A controlled randomization of scenarios, targets and distractors, a balanced reward system and music played in the background, all contribute to make rehabilitation more attractive, thus enabling intensive prolonged treatment. Results from our first patient, who underwent rehabilitation for half an hour, for five days a week for one month, showed on one side a very positive attitude of the patient towards the platform for the whole period, on the other side a significant improvement was obtained. Importantly, this amelioration was confirmed at a follow up evaluation five months after the last rehabilitation session and generalized to everyday life activities. Such a system could well be integrated into a home based rehabilitation system.

  12. The analytic impact of a reduced centrifugation step on chemistry and immunochemistry assays: an evaluation of the Modular Pre-Analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenders, Mieke M J F; van Hurne, Marco E J F; Glasmacher-Van Zijl, Monique; van der Linde, Geesje; Westerhuis, Bert W J J M

    2012-09-01

    The COBAS 6000 system can be completed by a Modular Pre-Analytics (MPA), an integrated laboratory automation system that streamlines preanalysis. For an optimal throughput, the MPA centrifuges blood collection tubes for 5 min at 1885 × g - a centrifugation time that is not in concordance with the World Health Organization guidelines which suggest centrifugation for 10/15 min at 2000-3000 × g. In this study, the analytical outcome of 50 serum and 50 plasma samples centrifuged for 5 or 10 min at 1885 × g was investigated. The study included routine chemistry and immunochemistry assays on the COBAS 6000 and the Minicap capillary electrophoresis. Deming-fit and Bland-Altman plots of the 5-min and 10-min centrifugation steps indicated a significant correlation in serum samples. The lipaemia index in plasma samples centrifuged for 5 min displayed a statistically significant variation when compared with the 10-min centrifugation. Preanalytical centrifugation can be successfully down-scaled to a duration of 5 min for most routine chemistry and immunochemistry assays in serum and plasma samples. To prevent inaccurate results in plasma samples with an increased lipaemia index from being reported, the laboratory information system was programmed to withhold results above certain lipaemia indices. The presented data support the use of a 5-min centrifugation step to improve turnaround times, thereby meeting one of the desires of the requesting clinicians.

  13. Pre-Analytical Considerations for Successful Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS: Challenges and Opportunities for Formalin-Fixed and Paraffin-Embedded Tumor Tissue (FFPE Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Arreaza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In cancer drug discovery, it is important to investigate the genetic determinants of response or resistance to cancer therapy as well as factors that contribute to adverse events in the course of clinical trials. Despite the emergence of new technologies and the ability to measure more diverse analytes (e.g., circulating tumor cell (CTC, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA, etc., tumor tissue is still the most common and reliable source for biomarker investigation. Because of its worldwide use and ability to preserve samples for many decades at ambient temperature, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue (FFPE is likely to be the preferred choice for tissue preservation in clinical practice for the foreseeable future. Multiple analyses are routinely performed on the same FFPE samples (such as Immunohistochemistry (IHC, in situ hybridization, RNAseq, DNAseq, TILseq, Methyl-Seq, etc.. Thus, specimen prioritization and optimization of the isolation of analytes is critical to ensure successful completion of each assay. FFPE is notorious for producing suboptimal DNA quality and low DNA yield. However, commercial vendors tend to request higher DNA sample mass than what is actually required for downstream assays, which restricts the breadth of biomarker work that can be performed. We evaluated multiple genomics service laboratories to assess the current state of NGS pre-analytical processing of FFPE. Significant differences in pre-analytical capabilities were observed. Key aspects are highlighted and recommendations are made to improve the current practice in translational research.

  14. Characterization of extracellular vesicles in whole blood: Influence of pre-analytical parameters and visualization of vesicle-cell interactions using imaging flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendl, Birgit; Weiss, René; Fischer, Michael B; Spittler, Andreas; Weber, Viktoria

    2016-09-09

    Extracellular vesicles are central players in intercellular communication and are released from the plasma membrane under tightly regulated conditions, depending on the physiological and pathophysiological state of the producing cell. Their heterogeneity requires a spectrum of methods for isolation and characterization, where pre-analytical parameters have profound impact on vesicle analysis, particularly in blood, since sampling, addition of anticoagulants, as well as post-sampling vesicle generation may influence the outcome. Here, we characterized microvesicles directly in whole blood using a combination of flow cytometry and imaging flow cytometry. We assessed the influence of sample agitation, anticoagulation, and temperature on post-sampling vesicle generation, and show that vesicle counts remained stable over time in samples stored without agitation. Storage with gentle rolling mimicking agitation, in contrast, resulted in strong release of platelet-derived vesicles in blood anticoagulated with citrate or heparin, whereas vesicle counts remained stable upon anticoagulation with EDTA. Using imaging flow cytometry, we could visualize microvesicles adhering to blood cells and revealed an anticoagulant-dependent increase in vesicle-cell aggregates over time. We demonstrate that vesicles adhere preferentially to monocytes and granulocytes in whole blood, while no microvesicles could be visualized on lymphocytes. Our data underscore the relevance of pre-analytical parameters in vesicle analysis and demonstrate that imaging flow cytometry is a suitable tool to study the interaction of extracellular vesicles with their target cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Susceptibility of A. fumigatus specific T-cell assays to pre-analytic blood storage and PBMC cryopreservation greatly depends on readout platform and analytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauruschkat, Chris D; Wurster, Sebastian; Page, Lukas; Lazariotou, Maria; Dragan, Mariola; Weis, Philipp; Ullmann, Andrew J; Einsele, Hermann; Löffler, Jürgen

    2018-04-03

    Mould specific T-cells detectable by flow cytometry or ELISPOT were proposed as a novel biomarker in invasive aspergillosis. To define protocols facilitating sample shipment and longitudinal analysis, this study evaluated the susceptibility of different functional assays for A. fumigatus specific T-cell quantification and characterisation to pre-analytic delays. PBMCs from six healthy donors were analysed after immediate isolation, after 6 hours whole blood storage or after cryopreservation using three different common media. Functional responses to A. fumigatus lysate stimulation were comparatively assessed by flow cytometry, ELISPOT, and 14-plex cytokine assay. After 6 hours pre-analytic storage, all functional assays showed reduced detection rates, higher coefficients of variation (CV), and widely varying individual recovery indices of specific T-cell response. While cryopreservation resulted in sufficient yields and largely unaltered cellular composition, outcomes of functional readouts significantly differed from freshly processed samples. For CD154-based flow cytometry, only cryopreservation in RPMI supplemented with autologous serum resulted in satisfactory detection rates and CVs. For ELISPOT and cytokine secretion assays none of the cryopreservation protocols provided sufficient concordance with immediately processed samples. Even using the same readout platform, individual analytes widely varied in their susceptibility to cryopreservation, highlighting that distinct optimisation is required depending on the downstream assay. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. The Computerized Table Setting Test for Detecting Unilateral Neglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok Jong Chung

    Full Text Available Patients with unilateral neglect fail to respond normally to stimuli on the left side. To facilitate the evaluation of unilateral spatial neglect, we developed a new application that runs on a tablet device and investigated its feasibility in stroke patients.We made the computerized table setting test (CTST to run on the tablet computer. Forty acute ischemic stroke patients (20 patients with right hemispheric infarction with neglect, 10 patients with right hemispheric infarction without neglect, and 10 patients with left hemispheric infarction and 10 healthy controls were prospectively enrolled to validate the CTST. The test requires subjects to set a table by dragging 12 dishes located below the table on the tablet screen. The horizontal deviation of the 12 dishes from the midline of the table, the selection tendency measured by the sequence of the dish selection, and the elapsed time for table setting were calculated automatically.Parameters measured by the CTST were correlated with the results of conventional neglect tests. The horizontal deviation was significantly higher in patients with right hemispheric infarction with neglect compared with the other groups. The selection tendency and elapsed time also were significantly different in patients with right hemispheric infarction with neglect compared with the left hemispheric infarction and control groups, but were similar to those with right hemispheric infarction without neglect.The CTST is feasible to administer and comparable with conventional neglect tests. This new application may be useful for the initial diagnosis and follow-up of neglect patients.

  17. The Computerized Table Setting Test for Detecting Unilateral Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Byoung Seok; Lee, Hye Sun; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Song, Dongbeom; Kim, Young Dae; Heo, Ji Hoe; Nam, Hyo Suk

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with unilateral neglect fail to respond normally to stimuli on the left side. To facilitate the evaluation of unilateral spatial neglect, we developed a new application that runs on a tablet device and investigated its feasibility in stroke patients. Methods We made the computerized table setting test (CTST) to run on the tablet computer. Forty acute ischemic stroke patients (20 patients with right hemispheric infarction with neglect, 10 patients with right hemispheric infarction without neglect, and 10 patients with left hemispheric infarction) and 10 healthy controls were prospectively enrolled to validate the CTST. The test requires subjects to set a table by dragging 12 dishes located below the table on the tablet screen. The horizontal deviation of the 12 dishes from the midline of the table, the selection tendency measured by the sequence of the dish selection, and the elapsed time for table setting were calculated automatically. Results Parameters measured by the CTST were correlated with the results of conventional neglect tests. The horizontal deviation was significantly higher in patients with right hemispheric infarction with neglect compared with the other groups. The selection tendency and elapsed time also were significantly different in patients with right hemispheric infarction with neglect compared with the left hemispheric infarction and control groups, but were similar to those with right hemispheric infarction without neglect. Conclusions The CTST is feasible to administer and comparable with conventional neglect tests. This new application may be useful for the initial diagnosis and follow-up of neglect patients. PMID:26771512

  18. Chronic neglect and aggression/delinquency: A longitudinal examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan-Greene, Patricia; Semanchin Jones, Annette

    2015-07-01

    Neglect is the most common form of maltreatment in the United States, yet its impact on development remains understudied, especially for chronic neglect. Chronic neglect is also one of the most costly burdens on child welfare systems. This study examines the effects of chronic neglect, including two subtypes (Failure to Provide and Lack of Supervision) on adolescent aggression and delinquency using a diverse longitudinal sample of youth. Chronic neglect and chronic failure to provide (ages 0-12) predicted aggression/delinquency (age 14) even after controlling for the effects of other maltreatment (ages 0-12). Chronic lack of supervision, however, did not. Gender significantly moderated these effects, suggesting that males are more likely to respond to neglect by becoming aggressive/delinquent. Finally, social problems (age 12) partially mediated for boys, and fully mediated for girls, the connections between chronic neglect and aggression/delinquency, bolstering theorizing that neglect impairs social functioning broadly. Implications include the need for further research on chronic neglect, especially in providing guidance for child welfare systems. Interventions for chronically neglected youth should include social skill development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Image of a line is not shrunk but neglected. Absence of crossover in unilateral spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiai, Sumio; Koyama, Yasumasa; Nakano, Naomi; Seki, Keiko; Nishida, Yoichiro; Hayashi, Kazuko

    2004-01-01

    Patients with left unilateral spatial neglect following right hemisphere lesions usually err rightward when bisecting a horizontal line. For very short lines (e.g. 25 mm), however, leftward errors or seemingly 'right' neglect is often observed. To explain this paradox of crossover in the direction of errors, rather complicated models have been introduced as to the distribution of attention. Neglect may be hypothesized to occur in representational process of a line or estimation of the midpoint on the formed image, or both. We devised a line image task using a computer display with a touch panel and approached the representational image of a line to be bisected. Three patients with typical left neglect were presented with a line and forced to see its whole extent with cueing to the left endpoint. After disappearance of the line, they pointed to the right endpoint, the left endpoint, or the subjective midpoint according to their representational image. The line image between the reproduced right and left endpoints was appropriately formed for the 200 mm lines. However, the images for the shorter 25 and 100 mm lines were longer than the physical lengths with overextension to the left side. These results proved the context effect that short lines may be perceived longer when they are presented in combination with longer lines. One of our patients had an extensive lesion that involved the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes, and the other two had a lesion restricted to the posterior right hemisphere. The image for a fully perceived line may be represented far enough into left space even when left neglect occurs after a lesion that involves the right parietal lobe. The patients with neglect placed the subjective midpoint rightward from the centre of the stimulus line for the 100 and 200 mm lines and leftward for the 25 mm lines. This crossover of bisection errors disappeared when the displacement of the subjective midpoint was measured from the centre of the

  20. Compliance of blood sampling procedures with the CLSI H3-A6 guidelines: An observational study by the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) working group for the preanalytical phase (WG-PRE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simundic, Ana-Maria; Church, Stephen; Cornes, Michael P.; Grankvist, Kjell; Lippi, Giuseppe; Nybo, Mads; Nikolac, Nora; van Dongen-Lases, Edmee; Eker, Pinar; Kovalevskaya, Svjetlana; Kristensen, Gunn B. B.; Sprongl, Ludek; Sumarac, Zorica

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: An observational study was conducted in 12 European countries by the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine Working Group for the Preanalytical Phase (EFLM WG-PRE) to assess the level of compliance with the CLSI H3-A6 guidelines. Methods: A structured

  1. Trauma adapted family connections: reducing developmental and complex trauma symptomatology to prevent child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Kathryn S; Strieder, Frederick H; DePanfilis, Diane; Tabor, Maureen; Freeman, Pamela A Clarkson; Linde, Linnea; Greenberg, Patty

    2011-01-01

    Families living in urban poverty, enduring chronic and complex traumatic stress, and having difficulty meeting their children's basic needs have significant child maltreatment risk factors. There is a paucity of family focused, trauma-informed evidence-based interventions aimed to alleviate trauma symptomatology, strengthen family functioning, and prevent child abuse and neglect. Trauma Adapted Family Connections (TA-FC) is a manualized trauma-focused practice rooted in the principles of Family Connections (FC), an evidence supported preventive intervention developed to address the glaring gap in services for this specific, growing, and underserved population. This paper describes the science based development of TA-FC, its phases and essential components, which are based on theories of attachment, neglect, trauma, and family interaction within a comprehensive community-based family focused intervention framework.

  2. The Dental Neglect Scale in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Elissa K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental neglect has been found to be related to poor oral health, a tendency not to have had routine check-ups, and a longer period of time since the last dental appointment in samples of children and adults. The Dental Neglect Scale (DNS has been found to be a valid measure of dental neglect in samples of children and adults, and may be valid for adolescents as well. We administered the DNS to a sample of adolescents and report on the relationships between the DNS and oral health status, whether or not the adolescent has been to the dentist recently for routine check-ups, and whether or not the adolescent currently goes to a dentist. We also report the internal and test-retest reliabilities of the DNS in this sample, as well as the results of an exploratory factor analysis. Methods One hundred seventeen adolescents from seven youth groups in the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area (Washington State, U.S. completed the DNS and indicated whether they currently go to a dentist, while parents indicated whether the adolescent had a check-up in the previous three years. Adolescents also received a dental screening. Sixty six adolescents completed the questionnaire twice. T-tests were used to compare DNS scores of adolescents who have visible caries or not, adolescents who have had a check-up in the past three years or not, and adolescents who currently go to a dentist or not. Internal reliability was measured by Cronbach's alpha, and test-rest reliability was measured by intra-class correlation. Factor analysis (Varimax rotation was used to examine the factor structure. Results In each comparison, significantly higher DNS scores were observed in adolescents with visible caries, who have not had a check-up in the past three years, or who do not go to a dentist (all p values Conclusion The DNS appears to operate similarly in this sample of adolescents as it has in other samples of children and adults.

  3. Causes of child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, P G; Fung, T; Wickett, A R

    1992-08-01

    This paper is a study of child abuse and neglect from the perspective of the child. Generally, the mistreatment of children was associated with "poor care" from parents, attributed mainly to immaturity, marital problems, alcohol abuse, unemployment, drug abuse and lack of money. Differences in attribution are noted between males and females, and some differences are noted by the age of the child. When factors other than the causes given by the children were taken into account, mistreatment was significantly related to family break-up, as well as long-term disinterest and lack of affection from the parents. When the children were asked for their "worst experience in life," the most common responses were "abuse" "family break-up," and for the juvenile offenders "getting charged with a crime."

  4. Neglected Side Effects After Radical Prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Anders Ullmann; Sønksen, Jens; Fode, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    been shown to double the risk of OAP. PS occurs in 15-68% of RP patients. Nerve sparing and preservation of erectile function may help preserve penile length. With regard to all side effects, studies indicate that they are reduced over time. CONCLUSIONS: The sexually related side effects summarized......INTRODUCTION: A series of previously neglected sexually related side effects to radical prostatectomy (RP) has been identified over the recent years. These include orgasm-associated incontinence (OAI), urinary incontinence in relation to sexual stimulation (UISS), altered perception of orgasm......, orgasm-associated pain (OAP), penile shortening (PS), and penile deformity. AIM: The aim of this article is to conduct a systematic review of the literature regarding the above-mentioned side effects. METHODS: A predefined search strategy was applied in a thorough search of Medline, Web of science...

  5. [Human hantavirus diseases - still neglected zoonoses?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrbovská, V; Chalupa, P; Straková, P; Hubálek, Z; Rudolf, I

    2015-10-01

    Hantavirus disease is the most common rodent-borne viral infection in the Czech Republic, with a mean annual incidence of 0.02 cases per 100 000 population and specific antibodies detected in 1% of the human population. Four hantaviruses (Puumala, Dobrava-Belgrade, Tula, and Seewis) circulate in this country, of which Puumala virus (responsible for a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome called nephropathia epidemica) and Dobrava-Belgrade virus (causing haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome) have been proven to cause human disease. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive review of the hantaviruses occurring in the Czech Republic, based on the literature published during the past three decades, including their geographical distribution and clinical symptoms. The recent detection of Tula virus in an immunocompromised person as well as reports of Seoul virus infections in Europe highlight the possible emergence of neglected hantavirus infections in the foreseeable future.

  6. Hyperglycemia, a Neglected Factor during Cancer Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanxing Duan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence from large cohort studies suggests that there exists a higher cancer incidence in people with type 2 diabetes (DM2. However, to date, the potential reasons for this association remain unclear. Hyperglycemia, the most important feature of diabetes, may be responsible for the excess glucose supply for these glucose-hungry cells, and it contributes to apoptosis resistance, oncogenesis, and tumor cell resistance to chemotherapy. Considering associations between diabetes and malignancies, the effect of hyperglycemia on cancer progression in cancer patients with abnormal blood glucose should not be neglected. In this paper, we describe the role that hyperglycemia plays in cancer progression and treatment and illustrate that hyperglycemia may contribute to a more malignant phenotype of cancer cells and lead to drug resistance. Therefore, controlling hyperglycemia may have important therapeutic implications in cancer patients.

  7. The assessment of visuo-spatial neglect after acute stroke.

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, S P; Wilson, B; Wroot, A; Halligan, P W; Lange, L S; Marshall, J C; Greenwood, R J

    1991-01-01

    Forty four consecutive patients with acute hemispheric stroke and forty seven elderly controls with no neurological disease were assessed for visuo-spatial neglect, using a modified neglect test battery. Neglect was found to be equally common in patients with right hemisphere and left hemisphere stroke three days after stroke (72% versus 62%). It was more severe in those with a right hemisphere stroke and resolved more frequently in those with a left hemisphere stroke. The battery was validat...

  8. Left neglect dyslexia: Perseveration and reading error types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchi, Roberta; Algeri, Lorella; Chiapella, Laura; Gallucci, Marcello; Spada, Maria Simonetta; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Right-brain-damaged patients may show a reading disorder termed neglect dyslexia. Patients with left neglect dyslexia omit letters on the left-hand-side (the beginning, when reading left-to-right) part of the letter string, substitute them with other letters, and add letters to the left of the string. The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of association, if any, between error types in patients with left neglect dyslexia and recurrent perseveration (a productive visuo-motor deficit characterized by addition of marks) in target cancellation. Specifically, we aimed at assessing whether different productive symptoms (relative to the reading and the visuo-motor domains) could be associated in patients with left spatial neglect. Fifty-four right-brain-damaged patients took part in the study: 50 out of the 54 patients showed left spatial neglect, with 27 of them also exhibiting left neglect dyslexia. Neglect dyslexic patients who showed perseveration produced mainly substitution neglect errors in reading. Conversely, omissions were the prevailing reading error pattern in neglect dyslexic patients without perseveration. Addition reading errors were much infrequent. Different functional pathological mechanisms may underlie omission and substitution reading errors committed by right-brain-damaged patients with left neglect dyslexia. One such mechanism, involving the defective stopping of inappropriate responses, may contribute to both recurrent perseveration in target cancellation, and substitution errors in reading. Productive pathological phenomena, together with deficits of spatial attention to events taking place on the left-hand-side of space, shape the manifestations of neglect dyslexia, and, more generally, of spatial neglect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Capgras syndrome and unilateral spatial neglect in nonconvulsive status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turtzo, L Christine; Kleinman, Jonathan T; Llinas, Rafael H

    2008-01-01

    Nonconvulsive status epilepticus can manifest as personality changes and psychosis. We report an 87-year-old right-handed male presenting with both Capgras syndrome and severe unilateral spatial neglect during nonconvulsive status epilepticus. After treatment of his seizures, his Capgras syndrome and hemispatial neglect resolved. This case illustrates a report of the confluence of Capgras syndrome and documented hemispatial neglect in nonconvulsive status epilepticus only reported once previously [1].

  10. Capgras Syndrome and Unilateral Spatial Neglect in Nonconvulsive Status Epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Christine Turtzo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonconvulsive status epilepticus can manifest as personality changes and psychosis. We report an 87-year-old right-handed male presenting with both Capgras syndrome and severe unilateral spatial neglect during nonconvulsive status epilepticus. After treatment of his seizures, his Capgras syndrome and hemispatial neglect resolved. This case illustrates a report of the confluence of Capgras syndrome and documented hemispatial neglect in nonconvulsive status epilepticus only reported once previously [1].

  11. Representational neglect for words as revealed by bisection tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduino, Lisa S; Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; Pasotti, Fabrizio; Ferrè, Elisa Raffaella; Bottini, Gabriella

    2012-03-01

    In the present study, we showed that a representational disorder for words can dissociate from both representational neglect for objects and neglect dyslexia. This study involved 14 brain-damaged patients with left unilateral spatial neglect and a group of normal subjects. Patients were divided into four groups based on presence of left neglect dyslexia and representational neglect for non-verbal material, as evaluated by the Clock Drawing test. The patients were presented with bisection tasks for words and lines. The word bisection tasks (with words of five and seven letters) comprised the following: (1) representational bisection: the experimenter pronounced a word and then asked the patient to name the letter in the middle position; (2) visual bisection: same as (1) with stimuli presented visually; and (3) motor bisection: the patient was asked to cross out the letter in the middle position. The standard line bisection task was presented using lines of different length. Consistent with the literature, long lines were bisected to the right and short lines, rendered comparable in length to the words of the word bisection test, deviated to the left (crossover effect). Both patients and controls showed the same leftward bias on words in the visual and motor bisection conditions. A significant difference emerged between the groups only in the case of the representational bisection task, whereas the group exhibiting neglect dyslexia associated with representational neglect for objects showed a significant rightward bias, while the other three patient groups and the controls showed a leftward bisection bias. Neither the presence of neglect alone nor the presence of visual neglect dyslexia was sufficient to produce a specific disorder in mental imagery. These results demonstrate a specific representational neglect for words independent of both representational neglect and neglect dyslexia. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  12. A virtual reality assessment and training system for unilateral neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwanguk; Kim, Jaehun; Ku, Jeonghun; Kim, Deog Young; Chang, Won Hyek; Shin, Dong Ik; Lee, Jang Han; Kim, In Young; Kim, Sun I

    2004-12-01

    Patients with unilateral neglect have problems reporting, responding, or orienting to novel or meaningful stimuli that is presented to the side opposite to that of a brain lesion. This creates a serous problem in regards to daily living activities. However, the established methods for assessing and training of unilateral neglect patients have several deficits. Recently, virtual reality (VR) technologies have been used as an assessment and treatment tool for rehabilitation. Hence, this study designed a VR system to assess and train unilateral neglect patients. In addition, the suitability and feasibility of our VR system for unilateral neglect patients was verified.

  13. Are drawing perseverations part of the neglect syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pia, Lorenzo; Folegatti, Alessia; Guagliardo, Marilena; Genero, Rosanna; Gindri, Patrizia

    2009-03-01

    Unilateral neglect patients typically omit to cancel contralesional targets. Moreover, they can repeatedly cancel ipsilesional stimuli exhibiting what is termed 'perseverative behavior'. Two alternative accounts of this behavior have been proposed. According to one of them, it is considered as integral to neglect and due either to a perceptual (allochiria), or a premotor (directional hypokinesia) pathological mechanism leading to the ipsilesional displacement of contralesional responses. According to the other one, perseverations are interpreted as the consequence of motor-control-disinhibition co-occurring with, although independent of, spatial neglect. We compared some crucial predictions of these two hypotheses on a group of 10 right-brain-damaged patients, eight with neglect and two without neglect, showing a perseverative behavior in both conventional and experimental cancellation tasks. In our experiment, the spatial location and the numerosity of targets were manipulated to obtain different degrees of horizontal alignment between targets on the left and on the right of the central vertical axis of the sheet. We found that ipsilesional perseverations were not influenced by left neglected targets and were not correlated to neglect severity. Additionally, perseverative errors were associated with right basal ganglia lesions rather than with presence of neglect. These findings support the view that two different pathological mechanisms might be involved in left spatial neglect and ipsilesional perseverative behavior.

  14. Use of CTX-I and PINP as bone turnover markers: National Bone Health Alliance recommendations to standardize sample handling and patient preparation to reduce pre-analytical variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulc, P; Naylor, K; Hoyle, N R; Eastell, R; Leary, E T

    2017-09-01

    The National Bone Health Alliance (NBHA) recommends standardized sample handling and patient preparation for C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I) and N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP) measurements to reduce pre-analytical variability. Controllable and uncontrollable patient-related factors are reviewed to facilitate interpretation and minimize pre-analytical variability. The IOF and the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) Bone Marker Standards Working Group have identified PINP and CTX-I in blood to be the reference markers of bone turnover for the fracture risk prediction and monitoring of osteoporosis treatment. Although used in clinical research for many years, bone turnover markers (BTM) have not been widely adopted in clinical practice primarily due to their poor within-subject and between-lab reproducibility. The NBHA Bone Turnover Marker Project team aim to reduce pre-analytical variability of CTX-I and PINP measurements through standardized sample handling and patient preparation. Recommendations for sample handling and patient preparations were made based on review of available publications and pragmatic considerations to reduce pre-analytical variability. Controllable and un-controllable patient-related factors were reviewed to facilitate interpretation and sample collection. Samples for CTX-I must be collected consistently in the morning hours in the fasted state. EDTA plasma is preferred for CTX-I for its greater sample stability. Sample collection conditions for PINP are less critical as PINP has minimal circadian variability and is not affected by food intake. Sample stability limits should be observed. The uncontrollable aspects (age, sex, pregnancy, immobility, recent fracture, co-morbidities, anti-osteoporotic drugs, other medications) should be considered in BTM interpretation. Adopting standardized sample handling and patient preparation procedures will significantly reduce controllable pre-analytical

  15. pH Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunelli, Bruno; Scagnolari, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    The exposition of the pervasive concept of pH, of its foundations and implementation as a meaningful quantitative measurement, in nonspecialist university texts is often not easy to follow because too many of its theoretical and operative underpinnings are neglected. To help the inquiring student we provide a concise introduction to the depth just…

  16. Effects of attentional and cognitive variables on unilateral spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Raffaella; Salatino, Adriana; Garbarini, Francesca; Ronga, Irene; Genero, Rosanna; Berti, Anna; Neppi-Mòdona, Marco

    2016-11-01

    Patients with visuospatial neglect when asked to cancel targets partially or totally omit to cancel contralesional stimuli. It has been shown that increasing the attentional demands of the cancellation task aggravates neglect contralesionally. However, some preliminary evidence also suggests that neglect might be worsened by engaging the patient in a demanding, non-spatial, cognitive activity (i.e. a mathematical task). We studied cancellation performance of 16 patients with right-hemisphere lesions, 8 with neglect, 8 without neglect, and 8 age-matched healthy control participants by means of five cancellation tasks which varied for the degree of attentional and/or high level cognitive demands (preattentive and attentive search of a visual target, searching for numbers containing the digit 3, even numbers, and multiples of 3). Results showed that attentive search of visual targets, relative to the preattentive search condition, aggravated neglect patients' performance. Moreover, searching for multiples not only worsened spatial neglect contralesionally, but also slowed down performance of patients with right-hemisphere lesions without neglect. Our findings further demonstrate the presence of specific deficits of attention in neglect. In addition, the worse performance of patients without neglect in the 'multiples of 3' task is consistent with the evidence that right-hemisphere lesions per se impair the ability to maintain attention (i.e. sustained attention). This suggests that the exacerbation of neglect during execution of a demanding, non-spatial, cognitive task might be explained by a deficit of sustained attention in addition to a selective deficit of spatial attention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Prism Adaptation in Rehabilitation? No Additional Effects of Prism Adaptation on Neglect Recovery in the Subacute Phase Poststroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Brink, Antonia F; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A; Schut, Martijn J; Kouwenhoven, Mirjam; Eijsackers, Anja L H; Nijboer, Tanja C W

    2017-12-01

    Patients with neglect ignore or respond slower to contralesional stimuli. Neglect negatively influences independence in activities of daily living (ADL). Prism adaptation (PA) is one of the most frequently studied treatments, yet there is little evidence regarding positive effects on neglect behavior in ADL. To assess whether PA in the subacute phase ameliorates neglect in situations of varying complexity. A total of 70 neglect patients admitted for inpatient stroke rehabilitation received either PA or sham adaptation (SA) for 2 weeks, with full access to standard treatment. There were 7 time-dependent measurements (baseline and 1-4, 6, and 14 weeks after start of treatment). The primary outcome was change of neglect as observed during basic ADL with the Catherine Bergego Scale (CBS). Secondary outcomes were changes in performance on a dynamic multitask (ie, the Mobility Assessment Course [MAC]) and a static paper-and-pencil task (ie, a shape cancellation task [SC]). In all, 34 patients received PA and 35 SA. There were significant time-dependent improvements in performance as measured with the CBS, MAC, and SC (all F > 15.57; P .113]. No beneficial effects of PA over SA in the subacute phase poststroke were observed, which was comparable for situations of varying complexity. Heterogeneity of the syndrome, time post-stroke onset, and the content of treatment as usual are discussed. Basic knowledge on subtypes and recovery patterns would aid the development of tailored treatment.

  18. Childhood Abuse and Neglect in Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didie, Elizabeth R.; Tortolani, Christina C.; Pope, Courtney G.; Menard, William; Fay, Christina; Phillips, Katharine A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: No published studies have examined childhood abuse and neglect in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). This study examined the prevalence and clinical correlates of abuse and neglect in individuals with this disorder. Methods: Seventy-five subjects (69.3% female, mean age = 35.4 +/- 12.0) with DSM-IV BDD completed the Childhood Trauma…

  19. School Performance and Disciplinary Problems among Abused and Neglected Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckenrode, John; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Neglected, or physically or sexually abused, children performed poorer on standardized tests, received lower grades, were more likely to repeat a grade and had more discipline referrals than nonmaltreated children. Among maltreated children, neglected children showed the poorest academic performance, and physically abused children had the most…

  20. 24 CFR 203.379 - Adjustment for damage or neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustment for damage or neglect. 203.379 Section 203.379 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Adjustment for damage or neglect. (a) If the property has been damaged by fire, flood, earthquake, hurricane...

  1. Adolescent Neglect, Juvenile Delinquency and the Risk of Recidivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph P.; Williams, Abigail B.; Courtney, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    Victims of child abuse and neglect are at an increased risk of involvement with the juvenile justice and adult correctional systems. Yet, little is known about the continuation and trajectories of offending beyond initial contact with law enforcement. Neglect likely plays a critical role in continued offending as parental monitoring, parental…

  2. What shall we do about: Preventing child abuse and neglect

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angel_D

    The aim of this article is to raise the issue of child abuse and neglect and to start a dialogue on how healthcare ... orphans and disabled children are particularly vulnerable. Consequences. Abuse and neglect can lead to: ▫ Death, disability and disease including. AIDS/HIV. ... Early marriages and early teenage pregnancy,.

  3. Results of open reduction for neglected elbow dislocations in adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To present the results of open reduction of neglected elbow dislocations using a consistent surgical protocol. Patients and methods: Between 2000 and 2005 eight patients with neglected elbow dislocations were operated on using the Speed\\'s posterior approach with lengthening of the triceps by V-Y ...

  4. A community survey on the knowledge of neglected tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The neglected tropical diseases are a group of 13 infections that affect more than one billion people worldwide, especially those who live in extreme poverty. Aim: This study was conducted to determine community knowledge of these neglected tropical diseases (NTD) in Cameroon. Materials and Methods: A ...

  5. Greek Teachers' Experience and Perceptions of Child Abuse/Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibou-Nakou, I.; Markos, A.

    2017-01-01

    The present paper focuses on teachers' experiences of child abuse/neglect cases, teachers' awareness of reporting or discounting, and their ways of responding to a hypothetical disclosure of abuse/neglect. A total of 1877 teachers in Greek public schools participated from a national teacher in-service training across the country; of them, 306…

  6. Dyadic Vulnerability and Risk Profiling for Elder Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Terry; Paveza, Gregory; VandeWeerd, Carla; Fairchild, Susan; Guadagno, Lisa; Bolton-Blatt, Marguarette; Norman, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Neglect of older adults accounts for 60% to 70% of all elder-mistreatment reports made to adult protective services. The purpose of this article is to report data from research, using a risk-and-vulnerability model, that captures the independent contributions of both the elder and the caregiver as they relate to the outcome of neglect.…

  7. Children's Perceptions of Parental Emotional Neglect and Control and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert; Lennie, Susan; Minnis, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Background: Parental emotional neglect is linked to psychiatric disorder. This study explores the associations between children's perceptions of parental emotional neglect and future psychopathology. Methods: In a school-based longitudinal study of nearly 1,700 children aged 11-15 we explored children's perceptions of parenting, as measured by the…

  8. Similarities in Siblings' Experiences of Neglectful Parenting Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Denise A.; Kantor, Glenda Kaufman; Holt, Melissa K.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Researchers and policymakers typically assume that within families, individual children are at an equivalent risk of neglectful behaviors. There is evidence that siblings experience differential parental treatment, and some research suggests that parents may maltreat their children to differing degrees. However, because neglect is…

  9. Neglected distal humeral epiphyseal injury - Two Case Reports ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present two cases of neglected distal humeral epiphyseal injury in children that resulted in cubitus varus deformity in one case. Full range of movements was achieved in both cases after proper management. Keywords: Neglected epiphyseal injury; Cubitus varus; Diagnosis; Treatment Internet Journal of Medical Update ...

  10. The Control of Neglected Zoonotic Diseases in Nigeria through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zoonoses are a major cause of morbidity and mortality across the world and particularly in Nigeria; however, they are often neglected by primary healthcare managers and policy makers. The neglected zoonotic diseases endemic in Nigeria include Anthrax, brucellosis, Bovine Tuberculosis, Rabies, Lassa Fever, Animal ...

  11. Attachment Styles and Aggression in Physically Abused and Neglected Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finzi, Ricky; Ram, Anca; Har-Even, Dov; Shnit, Dan; Weizman, Abraham

    2001-01-01

    Compared physically abused (n=41) and neglected (n=38) children with nonabused, nonneglected children (n=35) aged 6 to 12 years in terms of their attachment styles and their levels of aggression. Findings show that physically abused children are at risk of antisocial behavior and suspicion toward others, and neglected children are at risk of…

  12. Neglected Children: Understanding, Identifying and Working with Their Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, Bruce

    Children who experience neglect require immediate help because severe deprivation can affect all aspects of children's development. Parental behaviors indicative of child neglect include failure to (1) feed children adequately, (2) insure adequate medical care, (3) maintain good personal hygiene, (4) clothe children appropriately, (5) supervise…

  13. Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD) service availability at health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    availability of services for neglected tropical diseases management at health facilities in Ethiopia. Method: The assessment is ... Conclusion and recommendation: Even though, the availability of service for neglected tropical disease in health facilities is ..... generous financial, logistics and technical support for the success of ...

  14. Health Insurance Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Health Insurance Basics KidsHealth / For Teens / Health Insurance Basics What's ... advanced calculus was confusing. What Exactly Is Health Insurance? Health insurance is a plan that people buy ...

  15. PASCAL vs BASIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundie, David A.

    1978-01-01

    A comparison between PASCAL and BASIC as general purpose microprocessor languages rates PASCAL above BASIC in such points as program structure, data types, structuring methods, control structures, procedures and functions, and ease in learning. (CMV)

  16. Basic Research Firing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Basic Research Firing Facility is an indoor ballistic test facility that has recently transitioned from a customer-based facility to a dedicated basic research...

  17. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Adult Injuries Spinal ... Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions ...

  18. Sulfoximines: a neglected opportunity in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lücking, Ulrich

    2013-09-02

    Innovation has frequently been described as the key to drug discovery. However, in the daily routine, medicinal chemists often tend to stick to the functional groups and structural elements they know and love. Blockbuster cancer drug Velcade (bortezomib), for example, was rejected by more than 50 companies, supposedly because of its unusual boronic acid function (as often repeated: "only a moron would put boron in a drug!"). Similarly, in the discovery process of the pan-CDK inhibitor BAY 1000394, the unconventional proposal to introduce a sulfoximine group into the lead series also led to sneers and raised eyebrows, since sulfoximines have seldom been used in medicinal chemistry. However, it was the introduction of the sulfoximine group that finally allowed the fundamental issues of the project to be overcome, culminating in the identification of the clinical sulfoximine pan-CDK inhibitor BAY 1000394. This Minireview provides an overview of a widely neglected opportunity in medicinal chemistry--the sulfoximine group. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Denial technology, the neglected security element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauney, C.H.

    1982-01-01

    Even though there has been an increased concern over providing adequate security during the past decade, and even though some aspects of existing security systems have been enhanced during this period, much remains to be done to provide that balance which is so necessary to have all elements function as an effective unit. The area that primarily has been neglected is the delay element - the part of the system which makes possible the needed time for the security force to respond after an intrustion is detected and prior to the adversary attaining his desired goal. The purpose of this paper is to address the vulnerabilities of a security system which exist without the proper delay elements and to suggest how current technology can provide, through the use of activated barriers, that needed delay time to bring the system into balance. Security managers desire reliability and effectiveness; plant managers require safety, non-interference with operations, cost considerate capability, and aesthetic application - these characteristics will be addressed in the context of providing the required delay. This paper, hopefully, will set the stage for dialogue between developer and user, yielding a mutally acceptable approach to balanced security protection

  20. Basic Cake Decorating Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdany, Mel

    Included in this student workbook for basic cake decorating are the following: (1) Drawings of steps in a basic way to ice a layer cake, how to make a paper cone, various sizes of flower nails, various sizes and types of tin pastry tubes, and special rose tubes; (2) recipes for basic decorating icings (buttercream, rose paste, and royal icing);…

  1. Programming Visual Basic 2005

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2005-01-01

    This information-packed guide helps you understand Visual Basic 2005, the next-generation release of the popular Visual Basic programming language. This book aims to make you immediately productive in creating Windows and web applications using Visual Basic 2005 and all of its tools. Perfect for experienced VB6 and novice programmers

  2. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Child Neglect Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Chris; Kirisci, Levent; Long, Abigail L; Giancola, Peter R

    2015-11-01

    Neglect poses a significant risk for children throughout their development and is often linked with serious consequences that reach into adulthood. The Child Neglect Questionnaire (CNQ) fills existing gaps by incorporating multiple perspectives from both parents and the child, as well as measuring the complex phenomenon of neglect multidimensionally. Furthermore, this measure addresses the need for an instrument specifically developed for late childhood (ages 10-12), as much of the extant evidence and corresponding measures focus on young children and their mothers. A panel of three psychologists, using Cicchetti's model of child neglect as a theoretical guide, began by selecting items from an existing database. Results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and item response theory demonstrated the unidimensionality of physical, emotional, educational, and supervision neglect as well as a second-order construct of child neglect. Analyses controlling for risk status due to father's substance use disorder, socioeconomic status, and child's ethnicity demonstrated that father's and mother's (parental) neglect, particularly in the child's versions, had sound concurrent and predictive validity. Concurrently, at age 10-12, the child's version of both parents' neglect correlated with their parenting behaviors evaluated by other available measures. Prospectively, from 10-12 years of age to 11-13 years of age, parental neglect predicted child's drug use frequency with coexisting psychological dysregulation, psychiatric symptoms, antisocial behavior, non-normative sexual behavior, involvement with deviant peers and leisure activities thus demonstrating sound predictive validity. Also, internal consistency and inter-rater reliability were excellent. The CNQ, particularly the child's version, may thus be useful for detecting children at high risk for parental neglect. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Disentangling input and output-related components of spatial neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loetscher, Tobias; Nicholls, Michael E. R.; Brodtmann, Amy; Thomas, Nicole A.; Brugger, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Spatial neglect is a heterogeneous disorder with a multitude of manifestations and subtypes. Common clinical paper and pencil neglect tests fail to differentiate between these subtypes. For example, neglect patients typically bisect lines to the right. This bias can be caused by an underestimation of the left half of the line (input-related deficit), by the failure to direct actions toward the left side of space (output-related deficit), or by a mixture of these impairments. To disentangle these impairments, we used a test consisting of a line bisection task on a touch screen monitor (manual motor task) and the subsequent judgment of one's own bisection performance (visual perceptual task). It was hypothesized that patients with mainly output-related neglect should be better able to recognize their misbisected lines than patients with purely input-related neglect. In a group of 16 patients suffering from spatial neglect after right brain damage, we found that patients were three times more likely to suffer from a predominantly input-related than from an output-related subtype. The results thus suggest that neglect is typically an input-related impairment. Additional analysis of the line bisection task revealed that temporal (slowness in initiation and execution of contralateral movements) and spatial (insufficient movement amplitude toward the contralesional side) aspects of output-related neglect were mutually unrelated. This independence raises the possibility that a fine-grained differentiation of output-related neglect is required. That is, impairments in lateralized temporal and spatial aspects of movements may underlie different neglect subtypes. PMID:22707937

  4. SPIDIA-RNA: second external quality assessment for the pre-analytical phase of blood samples used for RNA based analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Malentacchi

    Full Text Available One purpose of the EC funded project, SPIDIA, is to develop evidence-based quality guidelines for the pre-analytical handling of blood samples for RNA molecular testing. To this end, two pan-European External Quality Assessments (EQAs were implemented. Here we report the results of the second SPIDIA-RNA EQA. This second study included modifications in the protocol related to the blood collection process, the shipping conditions and pre-analytical specimen handling for participants. Participating laboratories received two identical proficiency blood specimens collected in tubes with or without an RNA stabilizer. For pre-defined specimen storage times and temperatures, laboratories were asked to perform RNA extraction from whole blood according to their usual procedure and to return extracted RNA to the SPIDIA facility for further analysis. These RNA samples were evaluated for purity, yield, integrity, stability, presence of interfering substances, and gene expression levels for the validated markers of RNA stability: FOS, IL1B, IL8, GAPDH, FOSB and TNFRSF10c. Analysis of the gene expression results of FOS, IL8, FOSB, and TNFRSF10c, however, indicated that the levels of these transcripts were significantly affected by blood collection tube type and storage temperature. These results demonstrated that only blood collection tubes containing a cellular RNA stabilizer allowed reliable gene expression analysis within 48 h from blood collection for all the genes investigated. The results of these two EQAs have been proposed for use in the development of a Technical Specification by the European Committee for Standardization.

  5. The impact of pre-analytical variables on the stability of neurofilament proteins in CSF, determined by a novel validated SinglePlex Luminex assay and ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koel-Simmelink, Marleen J A; Vennegoor, Anke; Killestein, Joep; Blankenstein, Marinus A; Norgren, Niklas; Korth, Carsten; Teunissen, Charlotte E

    2014-01-15

    Neurofilament (Nf) proteins have been shown to be promising biomarkers for monitoring and predicting disease progression for various neurological diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of pre-analytical variables on the concentration of neurofilament heavy (NfH) and neurofilament light (NfL) proteins. For NfH an in-house newly-developed and validated SinglePlex Luminex assay was used; ELISA was used to analyze NfL. For the NfL ELISA assay, the intra- and inter-assay variation was respectively, 1.5% and 16.7%. Analytical performance of the NfH SinglePlex Luminex assay in terms of sensitivity (6.6pg/mL), recovery in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (between 90 and 104%), linearity (from 6.6-1250pg/mL), and inter- and intra-assay variation (<8%) were good. Concentrations of both NfL and NfH appeared not negatively affected by blood contamination, repeated freeze-thaw cycles (up to 4), delayed processing (up to 24hours) and during long-term storage at -20°C, 4°C, and room temperature. A decrease in concentration was observed during storage of both neurofilament proteins up to 21days at 37°C, which was significant by day 5. The newly developed NfH SinglePlex Luminex assay has a good sensitivity and is robust. Moreover, both NfH and NfL are stable under the most prevalent pre-analytical variations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sources of Pre-Analytical Variations in Yield of DNA Extracted from Blood Samples: Analysis of 50,000 DNA Samples in EPIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboux, Elodie; Lallemand, Christophe; Ferro, Gilles; Hémon, Bertrand; Mendy, Maimuna; Biessy, Carine; Sims, Matt; Wareham, Nick; Britten, Abigail; Boland, Anne; Hutchinson, Amy; Siddiq, Afshan; Vineis, Paolo; Riboli, Elio; Romieu, Isabelle; Rinaldi, Sabina; Gunter, Marc J.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Travis, Ruth; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Canzian, Federico; Sánchez, Maria-José; Skeie, Guri; Olsen, Karina Standahl; Lund, Eiliv; Bilbao, Roberto; Sala, Núria; Barricarte, Aurelio; Palli, Domenico; Navarro, Carmen; Panico, Salvatore; Redondo, Maria Luisa; Polidoro, Silvia; Dossus, Laure; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Lagiou, Pagona; Boeing, Heiner; Fisher, Eva; Tumino, Rosario; Agnoli, Claudia; Hainaut, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) is a long-term, multi-centric prospective study in Europe investigating the relationships between cancer and nutrition. This study has served as a basis for a number of Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) and other types of genetic analyses. Over a period of 5 years, 52,256 EPIC DNA samples have been extracted using an automated DNA extraction platform. Here we have evaluated the pre-analytical factors affecting DNA yield, including anthropometric, epidemiological and technical factors such as center of subject recruitment, age, gender, body-mass index, disease case or control status, tobacco consumption, number of aliquots of buffy coat used for DNA extraction, extraction machine or procedure, DNA quantification method, degree of haemolysis and variations in the timing of sample processing. We show that the largest significant variations in DNA yield were observed with degree of haemolysis and with center of subject recruitment. Age, gender, body-mass index, cancer case or control status and tobacco consumption also significantly impacted DNA yield. Feedback from laboratories which have analyzed DNA with different SNP genotyping technologies demonstrate that the vast majority of samples (approximately 88%) performed adequately in different types of assays. To our knowledge this study is the largest to date to evaluate the sources of pre-analytical variations in DNA extracted from peripheral leucocytes. The results provide a strong evidence-based rationale for standardized recommendations on blood collection and processing protocols for large-scale genetic studies. PMID:22808065

  7. Sources of pre-analytical variations in yield of DNA extracted from blood samples: analysis of 50,000 DNA samples in EPIC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Caboux

    Full Text Available The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC is a long-term, multi-centric prospective study in Europe investigating the relationships between cancer and nutrition. This study has served as a basis for a number of Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS and other types of genetic analyses. Over a period of 5 years, 52,256 EPIC DNA samples have been extracted using an automated DNA extraction platform. Here we have evaluated the pre-analytical factors affecting DNA yield, including anthropometric, epidemiological and technical factors such as center of subject recruitment, age, gender, body-mass index, disease case or control status, tobacco consumption, number of aliquots of buffy coat used for DNA extraction, extraction machine or procedure, DNA quantification method, degree of haemolysis and variations in the timing of sample processing. We show that the largest significant variations in DNA yield were observed with degree of haemolysis and with center of subject recruitment. Age, gender, body-mass index, cancer case or control status and tobacco consumption also significantly impacted DNA yield. Feedback from laboratories which have analyzed DNA with different SNP genotyping technologies demonstrate that the vast majority of samples (approximately 88% performed adequately in different types of assays. To our knowledge this study is the largest to date to evaluate the sources of pre-analytical variations in DNA extracted from peripheral leucocytes. The results provide a strong evidence-based rationale for standardized recommendations on blood collection and processing protocols for large-scale genetic studies.

  8. Diversity of the Neglected and Underutilized Crop Species of Importance in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dansi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many of the plant species that are cultivated for food across the world are neglected and underutilized. To assess their diversity in Benin and identify the priority species and establish their research needs, a survey was conducted in 50 villages distributed throughout the country. The study revealed 41 neglected and underutilized crop species (NUCS among which 19 were identified as of priority base on 10 criteria among which included their extent and degree of consumption. Reasons for neglect vary with the producers and the agricultural technicians. Market surveys revealed that NUCS are important source of household incomes and substantially contribute to poverty reduction. Review of the literature available revealed that most of the species are rich in nutrients and have some proven medicinal values and the promotion of their use would help in combating malnutrition and improving the health status of the local populations. The knowledge gaps and research needs are immense on most of the species identified as no concrete scientific data is nationally available. In terms of research, almost all has to be done starting from basic ethnobotanical investigation. The results will help the scientists and students willing to conduct research on NUCS in Benin to better orient their research programs.

  9. Unintentional child neglect: literature review and observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Emily; Billick, Stephen B

    2015-06-01

    Child abuse is a problem that affects over six million children in the United States each year. Child neglect accounts for 78% of those cases. Despite this, the issue of child neglect is still not well understood, partially because child neglect does not have a consistent, universally accepted definition. Some researchers consider child neglect and child abuse to be one in the same, while other researchers consider them to be conceptually different. Factors that make child neglect difficult to define include: (1) Cultural differences; motives must be taken into account because parents may believe they are acting in the child's best interests based on cultural beliefs (2) the fact that the effect of child abuse is not always immediately visible; the effects of emotional neglect specifically may not be apparent until later in the child's development, and (3) the large spectrum of actions that fall under the category of child abuse. Some of the risk factors for increased child neglect and maltreatment have been identified. These risk factors include socioeconomic status, education level, family composition, and the presence of dysfunction family characteristics. Studies have found that children from poorer families and children of less educated parents are more likely to sustain fatal unintentional injuries than children of wealthier, better educated parents. Studies have also found that children living with adults unrelated to them are at increased risk for unintentional injuries and maltreatment. Dysfunctional family characteristics may even be more indicative of child neglect. Parental alcohol or drug abuse, parental personal history of neglect, and parental stress greatly increase the odds of neglect. Parental depression doubles the odds of child neglect. However, more research needs to be done to better understand these risk factors and to identify others. Having a clearer understanding of the risk factors could lead to prevention and treatment, as it would allow

  10. Reviewing dengue: still a neglected tropical disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstick, Olaf; Tozan, Yesim; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2015-04-01

    Dengue is currently listed as a "neglected tropical disease" (NTD). But is dengue still an NTD or not? Classifying dengue as an NTD may carry advantages, but is it justified? This review considers the criteria for the definition of an NTD, the current diverse lists of NTDs by different stakeholders, and the commonalities and differences of dengue with other NTDs. We also review the current research gaps and research activities and the adequacy of funding for dengue research and development (R&D) (2003-2013). NTD definitions have been developed to a higher precision since the early 2000s, with the following main features: NTDs are characterised as a) poverty related, b) endemic to the tropics and subtropics, c) lacking public health attention, d) having poor research funding and shortcomings in R&D, e) usually associated with high morbidity but low mortality, and f) often having no specific treatment available. Dengue meets most of these criteria, but not all. Although dengue predominantly affects resource-limited countries, it does not necessarily only target the poor and marginalised in those countries. Dengue increasingly attracts public health attention, and in some affected countries it is now a high profile disease. Research funding for dengue has increased exponentially in the past two decades, in particular in the area of dengue vaccine development. However, despite advances in dengue research, dengue epidemics are increasing in frequency and magnitude, and dengue is expanding to new areas. Specific treatment and a highly effective vaccine remain elusive. Major research gaps exist in the area of integrated surveillance and vector control. Hence, although dengue differs from many of the NTDs, it still meets important criteria commonly used for NTDs. The current need for increased R&D spending, shared by dengue and other NTDs, is perhaps the key reason why dengue should continue to be considered an NTD.

  11. Reviewing dengue: still a neglected tropical disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Horstick

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is currently listed as a "neglected tropical disease" (NTD. But is dengue still an NTD or not? Classifying dengue as an NTD may carry advantages, but is it justified? This review considers the criteria for the definition of an NTD, the current diverse lists of NTDs by different stakeholders, and the commonalities and differences of dengue with other NTDs. We also review the current research gaps and research activities and the adequacy of funding for dengue research and development (R&D (2003-2013. NTD definitions have been developed to a higher precision since the early 2000s, with the following main features: NTDs are characterised as a poverty related, b endemic to the tropics and subtropics, c lacking public health attention, d having poor research funding and shortcomings in R&D, e usually associated with high morbidity but low mortality, and f often having no specific treatment available. Dengue meets most of these criteria, but not all. Although dengue predominantly affects resource-limited countries, it does not necessarily only target the poor and marginalised in those countries. Dengue increasingly attracts public health attention, and in some affected countries it is now a high profile disease. Research funding for dengue has increased exponentially in the past two decades, in particular in the area of dengue vaccine development. However, despite advances in dengue research, dengue epidemics are increasing in frequency and magnitude, and dengue is expanding to new areas. Specific treatment and a highly effective vaccine remain elusive. Major research gaps exist in the area of integrated surveillance and vector control. Hence, although dengue differs from many of the NTDs, it still meets important criteria commonly used for NTDs. The current need for increased R&D spending, shared by dengue and other NTDs, is perhaps the key reason why dengue should continue to be considered an NTD.

  12. Nursing students' knowledge of child abuse and neglect in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Pashapu, Dharma Reddy; Kathyayani, B V; Gandhi, SaiLaxmi; El-Arousy, Wafaa; Math, Suresh Bada

    Child abuse and neglect are global phenomena. Research on knowledge of and attitudes towards child abuse and neglect among nursing students in India is limited. To investigate undergraduate nursing students' knowledge of and attitudes towards child abuse and neglect. A descriptive design was adopted for the study, in which 158 nursing students participated by responding to a standardised questionnaire. The findings revealed that students' knowledge of child abuse and neglect is inadequate, as the total mean (M) score was 13.84±4.35 (M±standard deviation (SD)). The total attitude score of 50.37±6.196 (M±SD) indicated participants' positive attitudes towards prevention of child abuse and neglect. However, there was a negative relation between age and attitudes towards and knowledge of child abuse. Older students scored higher on the total attitude and knowledge scale compared with younger students. The study findings support the hypothesis that nursing education programmes need to improve the curricular content related to the assessment and reporting of suspected child abuse and neglect, and prevention strategies to improve the wellbeing of children. Curricular changes have the potential to provide nurses with an opportunity to reduce the prevalence of child abuse and neglect in India.

  13. Neural correlates of somatosensory processing in patients with neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassa, Thomas; Schoenfeld, Mircea Ariel; Dettmers, Christian; Stoppel, Christian Michael; Weiller, Cornelius; Lange, Rüdiger

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence from neuroimaging studies using visual tasks suggests that the right superior parietal cortex plays a pivotal role for the recovery of neglect. Importantly, neglect-related deficits are not limited to the visual system and have a rather multimodal nature. We employed somatosensory stimulation in patients with neglect in order to analyze activity changes in networks that are presumably associated with this condition. Eleven chronic neglect patients with right hemispherical stroke were investigated with a fMRI paradigm in which the affected and unaffected hand were passively moved. Brain activation was correlated with the performance in clinical neglect tests. Significant positive correlations with brain activation were found for the lesion duration, the performance in bells and letter cancellation tests and the line bisection test. These activated areas formed a distributed pattern in the right superior parietal cortex. The results suggest a shared representation of visual and somatosensory networks in the right superior parietal cortex in patients with right hemispherical strokes and neglect. The spatial pattern of activity in the superior parietal cortex points out to a different representation of changes related to lesion duration and neglect.

  14. Factors Affecting the Clinical Measurement of Visuo-Spatial Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pizzamiglio

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined a battery of tests to evaluate unilateral spatial neglect; the tests included different tasks involving several modalities of spatial exploration mapping perceptual, motor, attentional and personal or extrapersonal space dimensions. The subjects, 121 right-brain-damaged patients with unilateral neglect, were studied in seven laboratories in four European countries. Relationships among the various tests were examined by correlations, a cluster analysis and by an analysis of individual cases. Different sensitivity was found among various tests for detecting neglect performances. Both the cluster analysis and the single case analysis clearly showed a segregation between personal and extrapersonal neglect. Analysis of the large cluster, including a variety of tests of extra personal neglect, together with the study of single cases, suggests the possibility of differentiating the various manifestations of spatial neglect which can be interpreted on the basis of the descriptions of other individual cases previously reported in the literature. Finally, the present study indicated the relative stability of neglect following the acute phase and its independence from age.

  15. Some Basic Principles of Fish processing in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    J.F.N. Abowei; C.C. Tawari

    2011-01-01

    Some basic principles offish processing in Nigeria is reviewed to provide information for fish culturist to effectively manage the processing of their products. Processing of fish into forms for human consumption or suitable to be used as a supplement in animal food has been neglected in fish culture practices. This may be due to the high technology required in some of the processes and the fact that those involved in actual fish production are ignorant of the different processing methods. In...

  16. Unilateral spatial neglect due to right frontal lobe haematoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Maeshima, S; Funahashi, K; Ogura, M; Itakura, T; Komai, N

    1994-01-01

    Two patients with unilateral spatial neglect caused by right frontal lobe lesions underwent cerebral blood flow studies. A 54-year-old, right-handed woman developed left hemiplegia and frontal lobe neglect associated with cerebral haemorrhage after surgical excision of a frontal tumour. A 66-year-old, right-handed woman developed a haemorrhage in the right frontal lobe caused by rupture of an aneurysm. This was followed by left hemiplegia and frontal lobe neglect. In both cases, 123I-iodoamph...

  17. Statistical Learning as a Tool for Rehabilitation in Spatial Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaqiri, Albulena; Anderson, Britt; Danckert, James

    2013-01-01

    We propose that neglect includes a disorder of representational updating. Representational updating refers to our ability to build mental models and adapt those models to changing experience. This updating ability depends on the processes of priming, working memory, and statistical learning. These processes in turn interact with our capabilities for sustained attention and precise temporal processing. We review evidence showing that all these non-spatial abilities are impaired in neglect, and we discuss how recognition of such deficits can lead to novel approaches for rehabilitating neglect. PMID:23754998

  18. Integrated dataset of screening hits against multiple neglected disease pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Nwaka

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available New chemical entities are desperately needed that overcome the limitations of existing drugs for neglected diseases. Screening a diverse library of 10,000 drug-like compounds against 7 neglected disease pathogens resulted in an integrated dataset of 744 hits. We discuss the prioritization of these hits for each pathogen and the strong correlation observed between compounds active against more than two pathogens and mammalian cell toxicity. Our work suggests that the efficiency of early drug discovery for neglected diseases can be enhanced through a collaborative, multi-pathogen approach.

  19. Modulation and rehabilitation of spatial neglect by sensory stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhoff, Georg

    2003-01-01

    After unilateral cortical or subcortical, often parieto-temporal lesions, patients exhibit a marked neglect of their contralateral space and/or body side. These patients are severely disabled in all daily activities, have a poor rehabilitation outcome and therefore require professional treatment. Unfortunately, effective treatments for neglect are just in the process of development. The present chapter reviews three aspects related to the rehabilitation of neglect. The first part summarizes findings about spontaneous recovery in patients and experimental animals with neglect. The second part deals with techniques and studies evaluating short-term sensory modulation effects in neglect. In contrast to many other neurological syndromes spatial neglect may be modulated transiently but dramatically in its severity by sensory (optokinetic, neck proprioceptive, vestibular, attentional, somatosensory-magnetic) stimulation. In part three, current treatment approaches are summarized, with a focus on three novel techniques: repetitive optokinetic stimulation, neck vibration training and peripheral somatosensory-magnetic stimulation. Recent studies of repetitive optokinetic as well as neck vibratory treatment both indicate significantly greater as well as multimodal improvements in neglect symptomatology as compared to the standard treatment of neglect. This clear superiority might result from the partial (re)activation of a distributed, multisensory vestibular network in the lesioned hemisphere. Somatosensory-magnetic stimulation of the neglected or extinguishing hand provides another feasible, non-invasive stimulation technique. It may be particularly suited for the rehabilitation of somatosensory extinction and unawareness of the contralesional body side. Finally, pharmacological approaches for the treatment of neglect are shortly addressed. Isolated drug treatment of neglect is currently no successful rehabilitation strategy due to inconsistent results as well as possible

  20. Statistical learning as a tool for rehabilitation in spatial neglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albulena eShaqiri

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose that neglect includes a disorder of representational updating. Representational updating refers to our ability to build mental models and adapt those models to changing experience. This updating ability depends on the processes of priming, working memory, and statistical learning. These processes in turn interact with our capabilities for sustained attention and precise temporal processing. We review evidence showing that all these non-spatial abilities are impaired in neglect, and we discuss how recognition of such deficits can lead to novel approaches for rehabilitating neglect.

  1. Missed cases of multiple forms of child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Feyza; Oral, Resmiye; Butteris, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect is a public health problem and usually associated with family dysfunction due to multiple psychosocial, individual, and environmental factors. The diagnosis of child abuse may be difficult and require a high index of suspicion on the part of the practitioners encountering the child and the family. System-related factors may also enable abuse or prevent the early recognition of abuse. Child abuse and neglect that goes undiagnosed may give rise to chronic abuse and increased morbidity-mortality. In this report, we present two siblings who missed early diagnosis and we emphasize the importance of systems issues to allow early recognition of child abuse and neglect.

  2. Electrodiffusion phenomena in neuroscience: a neglected companion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savtchenko, Leonid P; Poo, Mu Ming; Rusakov, Dmitri A

    2017-09-19

    The emerging technological revolution in genetically encoded molecular sensors and super-resolution imaging provides neuroscientists with a pass to the real-time nano-world. On this small scale, however, classical principles of electrophysiology do not always apply. This is in large part because the nanoscopic heterogeneities in ionic concentrations and the local electric fields associated with individual ions and their movement can no longer be ignored. Here, we review basic principles of molecular electrodiffusion in the cellular environment of organized brain tissue. We argue that accurate interpretation of physiological observations on the nanoscale requires a better understanding of the underlying electrodiffusion phenomena.

  3. Contraversive neglect? A modulation of visuospatial neglect in association with contraversive pushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaes, Nathalie; Lafosse, Christophe; Hemelsoet, Dimitri; Van Tichelt, Els; Oostra, Kristine; Vingerhoets, Guy

    2015-11-01

    Contraversive pushing (CP) is a neurologic disorder characterized by a lateral postural imbalance. Pusher patients actively push toward their contralesional side due to a misperception of the body's orientation in relation to gravity. Although not every patient with CP suffers from spatial neglect (SN), both phenomena are highly correlated in right-hemispheric patients. The present study investigates whether peripersonal visuospatial functioning differs in neglect patients with versus without CP (NP+ vs. NP- patients). Eighteen right-hemispheric stroke patients with SN were included, of which 17 in a double-blind case-control study and 1 single case with posterior pushing to supplement the discourse. A computer-based visuospatial navigation task, in which lateralized deviation can freely emerge, was used to quantify visuospatial behavior. In addition, visuospatial orienting was monitored using line bisection. Significant intergroup differences were found. The NP+ patients demonstrated a smaller ipsilesional navigational deviation and more cross-over (contralesional instead of ipsilesional deviation) in long line bisection. As such, they demonstrated a contraversive (contralesionally directed) shift in comparison with the NP- patients. These findings highlight the similarity between 2 systems of space representation. They are consistent with a coherence between the neural processing system that mainly provides for postural control, and the one responsible for nonpredominantly postural, visuospatial behavior. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Basic digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Gordon B

    1985-01-01

    Basic Digital Signal Processing describes the principles of digital signal processing and experiments with BASIC programs involving the fast Fourier theorem (FFT). The book reviews the fundamentals of the BASIC program, continuous and discrete time signals including analog signals, Fourier analysis, discrete Fourier transform, signal energy, power. The text also explains digital signal processing involving digital filters, linear time-variant systems, discrete time unit impulse, discrete-time convolution, and the alternative structure for second order infinite impulse response (IIR) sections.

  5. Basic algebraic topology

    CERN Document Server

    Shastri, Anant R

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Basic Problem Fundamental Group Function Spaces and Quotient Spaces Relative Homotopy Some Typical Constructions Cofibrations Fibrations Categories and Functors Cell Complexes and Simplicial Complexes Basics of Convex Polytopes Cell Complexes Product of Cell Complexes Homotopical Aspects Cellular Maps Abstract Simplicial Complexes Geometric Realization of Simplicial Complexes Barycentric Subdivision Simplicial Approximation Links and Stars Covering Spaces and Fundamental Group Basic Definitions Lifting Properties Relation with the Fundamental Group Classification of Covering P

  6. Hydromechanics - basic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Tak; Lee, Je Geun

    1987-03-01

    This book tells of hydromechanics, which is about basic properties of hydromechanics such as conception, definition, mass, power and weight, and perfect fluid and perfect gas, hydrostatics with summary, basic equation of hydrostatics, relative balance of hydrostatics, and kinematics of hydromechanics, description method of floating, hydromechanics about basic knowledge, equation of moment, energy equation and application of Bernoulli equation, application of momentum theory, inviscid flow and fluid measuring.

  7. Basic molecular spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Gorry, PA

    1985-01-01

    BASIC Molecular Spectroscopy discusses the utilization of the Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) programming language in molecular spectroscopy. The book is comprised of five chapters that provide an introduction to molecular spectroscopy through programs written in BASIC. The coverage of the text includes rotational spectra, vibrational spectra, and Raman and electronic spectra. The book will be of great use to students who are currently taking a course in molecular spectroscopy.

  8. Physical Activity Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity Basics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir How much physical activity do you need? Regular physical activity helps ...

  9. Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD) service availability at health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diseases recognized as neglected tropical diseases by the World Health Organization (WHO) are: Chagas disease, Cysticercosis and taeniasis, Dengue fever, Dracunculiasis, Echinococcosis, Human African trypanosomiasis, Leishmaniasis, Leprosy, Lymphatic filariasis, Onchocerciasis, Rabies, Schistosomiasis, ...

  10. Developing countries and neglected diseases: challenges and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutayeb Abdesslam

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is now commonly admitted that the so-called (most neglected tropical diseases have been given little attention. According to World Health Organization, neglected diseases are hidden diseases as they affect almost exclusively extremely poor populations living in remote areas beyond the reach of health service. The European Parliament recognised that, to our shame, Neglected Diseases have not received the attention they deserve from EU actions. In the Millennium Development Goals they were given very little attention and mentioned just as other disease. Investing in drugs for these diseases is thought to be not marketable or profitable. However, despite their low mortality, neglected diseases are causing severe and permanent disabilities and deformities affecting approximately 1 billion people in the world, yielding more than 20 millions of Disability Adjusted Life Years (56.6 million according to Lancet's revised estimates and important socio-economic losses. Urgent pragmatic and efficient measures are needed both at international and national levels.

  11. A study on the independence of egocentric and allocentric neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Nergiz; Mödden, Claudia; Brumund, Tanja; Eling, Paul; Hildebrandt, Helmut

    2017-11-01

    Currently there seems to be consensus that visuospatial neglect may involve egocentric and allocentric symptoms. However, the relation between the two is still discussed and models have been proposed based on the high correlation between allocentric and egocentric neglect symptoms. To analyze the relation between these two kinds of symptoms we developed a new paradigm. In contrast to previous paradigms, we varied the extension of the search field and we added centered reference targets to evaluate egocentric effects independent from allocentric effects. Patients with exclusively left-sided neglect (n = 15) and left-sided visual field deficit (VFD) (n = 9) were included. Right brain damaged patients (n = 15) and a healthy control (n = 15) acted as control groups. The results revealed egocentric inattention in VFD patients. Neglect patients suffered from egocentric and allocentric neglect, but we found no interaction between both kinds of impairments in the sense of a monotonous additive or multiplicative increase going from right to left in terms of egocentric and allocentric coordinates. On the contrary, at the outmost left allocentric and egocentric positions, the number of omissions did not increase, unlike in outmost right and centered positions. In conclusion, our experiment shows that egocentric and allocentric neglect can be clearly dissociated in neglect patients and do not interact. Inclusion of neglect patients with a VFD may lead to an artificial interaction between egocentric and allocentric symptoms and this may explain the differences with results of previous studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Designing and Determining Psychometric Properties of the Elder Neglect Checklist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majideh Heravi-Karimooi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to design and determine the psychometric properties of a checklist for assessing domestic elder neglect. Methods & Materials: This study was conducted in four phases. In the first phase, the meaning of domestic elder neglect explored using the qualitative method of phenomenology. In the second phase, a checklist was created, based on the results obtained in the first phase, in conjunction with the inductions from the expert panel. In the third and fourth phases, the psychometric properties including face validity, content validity, construct validity, convergent validity, internal consistency, and Inter- rater reliability were measured. 110 elderly people participated in the this study. Results: The initial 26 item checklist designed using the results of first and second phases of study, reduced to 11 items and 2 factors including the health and care needs neglect, and neglect in providing healthy environment in the process of determining the face and content validity. Acceptable convergent validity was identified in the elder neglect checklist and care neglect scale of the domestic elder abuse questionnaire (r=0.862. The results of known groups' comparisons showed that this checklist could successfully discriminate between subgroups of elderly people in the index of re-hospitalization. The internal consistency (Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 was 0.824. Inter- rater reliability of the checklist was 0.850. Conclusion: The elder neglect checklist with 11 items appears to be a promising tool, providing reliable and valid data helping to detect neglect among elders in different settings such as clinical settings, homes and research environments by health care providers and researchers.

  13. Beauty: neglected, but alive and kicking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redies, Christoph

    2014-11-01

    This article is a commentary on 'Ten years of a model of aesthetic appreciation and aesthetic judgments: The aesthetic episode - developments and challenges in empirical aesthetics' (Leder & Nadal, 2014, this issue). It focuses on the importance of beauty in aesthetic appreciation and aesthetic judgments. Beauty is considered as a formal inherent property of visual stimuli that has the potential to elicit visual pleasure by direct sensory stimulation. It is argued that any comprehensive model of aesthetic experience must account fully for cognitive aspects of aesthetics (cultural, conceptual, psychological, and individual factors) as well as intrinsic properties of beautiful visual stimuli and how they relate to basic mechanisms of visual perception, which are universal among humans. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  14. The attenuation of auditory neglect by implicit cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, A Rand; Williams, J Michael

    2006-09-01

    This study examined implicit semantic and rhyming cues on perception of auditory stimuli among nonaphasic participants who suffered a lesion of the right cerebral hemisphere and auditory neglect of sound perceived by the left ear. Because language represents an elaborate processing of auditory stimuli and the language centers were intact among these patients, it was hypothesized that interactive verbal stimuli presented in a dichotic manner would attenuate neglect. The selected participants were administered an experimental dichotic listening test composed of six types of word pairs: unrelated words, synonyms, antonyms, categorically related words, compound words, and rhyming words. Presentation of word pairs that were semantically related resulted in a dramatic reduction of auditory neglect. Dichotic presentations of rhyming words exacerbated auditory neglect. These findings suggest that the perception of auditory information is strongly affected by the specific content conveyed by the auditory system. Language centers will process a degraded stimulus that contains salient language content. A degraded auditory stimulus is neglected if it is devoid of content that activates the language centers or other cognitive systems. In general, these findings suggest that auditory neglect involves a complex interaction of intact and impaired cerebral processing centers with content that is selectively processed by these centers.

  15. BASIC Beats PASCAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ever, Jacob

    1981-01-01

    Features of two versions of the BASIC programing language are compared with the features of the PASCAL programing language. The application chosen for comparison was a word processor. The conclusion was that PASCAL had the best language features, but BASIC had better systems capabilities. (MP)

  16. Basic Electronics I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, L. Paul

    Designed for use in basic electronics programs, this curriculum guide is comprised of twenty-nine units of instruction in five major content areas: Orientation, Basic Principles of Electricity/Electronics, Fundamentals of Direct Current, Fundamentals of Alternating Current, and Applying for a Job. Each instructional unit includes some or all of…

  17. Finding Basic Writing's Place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan-Rabideau, Mary P.; Brossell, Gordon

    1995-01-01

    Posits that basic writing serves a vital function by providing writing support for at-risk students and serves the needs of a growing student population that universities accept yet feel needs additional writing instruction. Concludes that the basic writing classroom is the most effective educational support for at-risk students and their writing.…

  18. Basic Cancer Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... basics of cancer . Carcinoma Cancer that starts in skin or tissues that line the inside or cover the outside of internal organs. Cells The basic units that make up the human body. Chemoprevention The use of natural, synthetic (made in a laboratory), or biologic (from a ...

  19. Nuclear multifragmentation: Basic concepts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-05-02

    May 2, 2014 ... Abstract. We present a brief overview of nuclear multifragmentation reaction. Basic formalism of canonical thermodynamical model based on equilibrium statistical mechanics is described. This model is used to calculate basic observables of nuclear multifragmentation like mass distribution, fragment ...

  20. Basic rocks in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piirainen, T.; Gehoer, S.; Iljina, M.; Kaerki, A.; Paakkola, J.; Vuollo, J.

    1992-10-01

    Basic igneous rocks, containing less than 52% SiO 2 , constitute an important part of the Finnish Archaean and Proterozoic crust. In the Archaean crust exist two units which contain the majority of the basic rocks. The Arcaean basic rocks are metavolcanics and situated in the Greenstone Belts of Eastern Finland. They are divided into two units. The greenstones of the lower one are tholeiites, komatiites and basaltic komatiites. The upper consists of bimodal series of volcanics and the basic rocks of which are Fe-tholeiites, basaltic komatiites and komatiites. Proterozoic basic rocks are divided into seven groups according to their ages. The Proterozoic igneous activity started by the volominous basic magmatism 2.44 Ga ago. During this stage formed the layered intrusions and related dykes in the Northern Finland. 2.2 Ga old basic rocks are situated at the margins of Karelian formations. 2.1 Ga aged Fe-tholeiitic magmatic activity is widespread in Eastern and Northern Finland. The basic rocks of 1.97 Ga age group are met within the Karelian Schist Belts as obducted ophiolite complexes but they occur also as tholeiitic diabase dykes cutting the Karelian schists and Archean basement. The intrusions and the volcanics of the 1.9 Ga old basic igneous activity are mostly encountered around the Granitoid Complex of Central Finland. Subjotnian, 1.6 Ga aged tholeiitic diabases are situated around the Rapakivi massifs of Southern Finland, and postjotnian, 1.2 Ga diabases in Western Finland where they form dykes cutting Svecofennian rocks

  1. From basic needs to basic rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facio, A

    1995-06-01

    After arriving at an understanding that basic rights refer to all human needs, it is clear that a recognition of the basic needs of female humans must precede the realization of their rights. The old Women in Development (WID) framework only understood women's needs from an androcentric perspective which was limited to practical interests. Instead, women's primary need is to be free from their subordination to men. Such an understanding places all of women's immediate needs in a new light. A human rights approach to development would see women not as beneficiaries but as people entitled to enjoy the benefits of development. Discussion of what equality before the law should mean to women began at the Third World Conference on Women in Nairobi where the issue of violence against women was first linked to development. While debate continues about the distinction between civil and political rights and economic, social, and cultural rights, the realities of women's lives do not permit such a distinction. The concept of the universality of human rights did not become codified until the UN proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. The declaration has been criticized by feminists because the view of human rights it embodies has been too strongly influenced by a liberal Western philosophy which stresses individual rights and because it is ambiguous on the distinction between human rights and the rights of a citizen. The protection of rights afforded by the Declaration, however, should not be viewed as a final achievement but as an ongoing struggle. International conferences have led to an analysis of the human-rights approach to sustainable development which concludes that women continue to face the routine denial of their rights. Each human right must be redefined from the perspective of women's needs, which must also be redefined. Women must forego challenging the concept of the universality of human rights in order to overcome the argument of cultural

  2. Basic stress analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Iremonger, M J

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Stress Analysis aims to help students to become proficient at BASIC programming by actually using it in an important engineering subject. It also enables the student to use computing as a means of learning stress analysis because writing a program is analogous to teaching-it is necessary to understand the subject matter. The book begins by introducing the BASIC approach and the concept of stress analysis at first- and second-year undergraduate level. Subsequent chapters contain a summary of relevant theory, worked examples containing computer programs, and a set of problems. Topics c

  3. Quantum electronics basic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fain, V M; Sanders, J H

    1969-01-01

    Quantum Electronics, Volume 1: Basic Theory is a condensed and generalized description of the many research and rapid progress done on the subject. It is translated from the Russian language. The volume describes the basic theory of quantum electronics, and shows how the concepts and equations followed in quantum electronics arise from the basic principles of theoretical physics. The book then briefly discusses the interaction of an electromagnetic field with matter. The text also covers the quantum theory of relaxation process when a quantum system approaches an equilibrium state, and explai

  4. Online and offline awareness deficits: Anosognosia for spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peii; Toglia, Joan

    2018-04-12

    Anosognosia for spatial neglect (ASN) can be offline or online. Offline ASN is general unawareness of having experienced spatial deficits. Online ASN is an awareness deficit of underestimating spatial difficulties that likely to occur in an upcoming task (anticipatory ASN) or have just occurred during the task (emergent ASN). We explored the relationships among spatial neglect, offline ASN, anticipatory ASN, and emergent ASN. Research Method/Design: Forty-four survivors of stroke answered questionnaires assessing offline and online self-awareness of spatial problems. The online questionnaire was asked immediately before and after each of 4 tests for spatial neglect, including shape cancellation, address and sentence copying, telephone dialing, and indented paragraph reading. Participants were certain they had difficulties in daily spatial tasks (offline awareness), in the task they were about to perform (anticipatory awareness) and had just performed (emergent awareness). Nonetheless, they consistently overestimated their spatial abilities, indicating ASN. Offline and online ASN appeared independent. Online ASN improved after task execution. Neglect severity was not positively correlated with offline ASN. Greater neglect severity correlated with both greater anticipatory and emergent ASN. Regardless of neglect severity, we found task-specific differences in emergent ASN but not in anticipatory ASN. Individuals with spatial neglect acknowledge their spatial difficulty (certainty of error occurrence) but may not necessarily recognize the extent of their difficulty (accuracy of error estimation). Our findings suggest that offline and online ASN are independent. A potential implication from the study is that familiar and challenging tasks may facilitate emergence of self-awareness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Homocysteine and Cognitive Performance in Elders with Self-Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Elevated plasma homocysteine has been associated with altered cognitive performance in older adults. Elders referred to Adult Protective Services (APS) for self-neglect have been reported to have elevated plasma homocysteine levels and to suffer from cognitive impairment. This study assesses the association, if any, between plasma homocysteine and cognitive performance among elders with self-neglect. Methods: Sixty-five community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 matched controls (matched for age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS), the Wolf-Klein Clock Drawing Tests (CDT) and a comprehensive nutritional biochemistry panel, which included plasma homocysteine. Student s t tests and Pearson correlations were conducted to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Elders with self-neglect had significantly higher plasma homocysteine levels (M=12.68umol/L, sd=4.4) compared to the controls (M=10.40umol/L, sd=3.61;t=3.21, df=127, p=.002). There were no statistically significant associations between cognitive performance and plasma homocysteine in the self-neglect group, however there was a significant correlation between plasma homocysteine and the CDT among the controls (r=-.296, p=.022). Conclusion: Mean plasma homocysteine levels were significantly higher in elders with self-neglect, however, they do not appear to be related to cognitive performance, indicating that cognitive impairment in elder self-neglect involve mechanisms other than hyperhomocysteinemia. These findings warrant further investigation

  6. Neglect Impairs Explicit Processing of the Mental Number Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Marco; Bonato, Mario; Treccani, Barbara; Scalambrin, Giovanni; Marenzi, Roberto; Priftis, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Converging evidence suggests that visuospatial attention plays a pivotal role in numerical processing, especially when the task involves the manipulation of numerical magnitudes. Visuospatial neglect impairs contralesional attentional orienting not only in perceptual but also in numerical space. Indeed, patients with left neglect show a bias toward larger numbers when mentally bisecting a numerical interval, as if they were neglecting its leftmost part. In contrast, their performance in parity judgments is unbiased, suggesting a dissociation between explicit and implicit processing of numerical magnitude. Here we further investigate the consequences of these visuospatial attention impairments on numerical processing and their interaction with task demands. Patients with right hemisphere damage, with and without left neglect, were administered both a number comparison and a parity judgment task that had identical stimuli and response requirements. Neglect patients’ performance was normal in the parity task, when processing of numerical magnitude was implicit, whereas they showed characteristic biases in the number comparison task, when access to numerical magnitude was explicit. Compared to patients without neglect, they showed an asymmetric distance effect, with slowing of the number immediately smaller than (i.e., to the left of) the reference and a stronger SNARC effect, particularly for large numbers. The latter might index an exaggerated effect of number-space compatibility after ipsilesional (i.e., rightward) orienting in number space. Thus, the effect of neglect on the explicit processing of numerical magnitude can be understood in terms of both a failure to orient to smaller (i.e., contralesional) magnitudes and a difficulty to disengage from larger (i.e., ipsilesional) magnitudes on the number line, which resembles the disrupted pattern of attention orienting in visual space. PMID:22661935

  7. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Treatment Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV Treatment: The Basics Last Reviewed: March 22, 2018 ...

  8. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  9. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  10. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics The Basics of Spinal Cord ... LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert Videos Contact Us Personal Experience Videos Blog Videos By ...

  11. Noise Radar Technology Basics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thayaparan, T; Wernik, C

    2006-01-01

    .... In this report, the basic theory of noise radar design is treated. The theory supports the use of noise waveforms for radar detection and imaging in such applications as covert military surveillance and reconnaissance...

  12. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics The Basics of ... injury? What is a Spinal Cord Injury? SCI Medical Experts People Living With SCI Personal Experiences By ...

  13. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 ...

  14. Video Screen Capture Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  15. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation ... Rogers, PT Recreational Therapy after Spinal Cord Injury Jennifer Piatt, PhD Kristine Cichowski, MS Read Bio Founding ...

  16. Basic Information about Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Environment Contact Us Share Basic Information about Mercury On this page: What is mercury? Emissions of ... Consumer products that traditionally contain mercury What is Mercury? Mercury is a naturally-occurring chemical element found ...

  17. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children ...

  18. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW Rehabilitation ...

  19. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Adult Injuries ... Therapy-Lokomat T. George Hornby, PhD, PT Empowering the Patient After Spinal Cord Injury Guy W. Fried, ...

  20. Radionuclide Basics: Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Radiation Protection Contact Us Share Radionuclide Basics: Iodine Iodine (chemical symbol I) is a chemical element. ... in the environment Iodine sources Iodine and health Iodine in the Environment All 37 isotopes of iodine ...

  1. Basic Concurrency Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvengreen, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    In this set of notes, we present some of the basic theory underlying the discipline of programming with concurrent processes/threads. The notes are intended to supplement a standard textbook on concurrent programming.......In this set of notes, we present some of the basic theory underlying the discipline of programming with concurrent processes/threads. The notes are intended to supplement a standard textbook on concurrent programming....

  2. Transportation Emissions: some basics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontovas, Christos A.; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2016-01-01

    . The main purpose of this chapter is to introduce some basic concepts that are relevant in the quest of green transportation logistics. First, we present the basics of estimating emissions from transportation activities, the current statistics and future trends, as well as the total impact of air emissions...... of the energy efficiency gap and examines why governments and companies may forego cost-effective investments in energy efficiency, even though they could significantly reduce energy consumption at a lower cost....

  3. Basic Finite Element Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byeong Hae

    1992-02-01

    This book gives descriptions of basic finite element method, which includes basic finite element method and data, black box, writing of data, definition of VECTOR, definition of matrix, matrix and multiplication of matrix, addition of matrix, and unit matrix, conception of hardness matrix like spring power and displacement, governed equation of an elastic body, finite element method, Fortran method and programming such as composition of computer, order of programming and data card and Fortran card, finite element program and application of nonelastic problem.

  4. Basic Monetary Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Farm, Ante

    2017-01-01

    This is an introduction to money and the workings of the financial system. The creation of money is discussed in detail in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 explains how international payments can add to money creation but also generate a new type of money, usually called Eurodollars. Basic securities are defined and characterized in Chapter 3, namely bills, bonds and shares, but basic derivatives, like futures, swaps, and options, are also discussed. Chapter 4 deals with pricing by banks when extending l...

  5. Catalyst in Basic Oleochemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Suyenty; Herlina Sentosa; Mariani Agustine; Sandy Anwar; Abun Lie; Erwin Sutanto

    2007-01-01

    Currently Indonesia is the world largest palm oil producer with production volume reaching 16 million tones per annum. The high crude oil and ethylene prices in the last 3 – 4 years contribute to the healthy demand growth for basic oleochemicals: fatty acids and fatty alcohols. Oleochemicals are starting to replace crude oil derived products in various applications. As widely practiced in petrochemical industry, catalyst plays a very important role in the production of basic oleochemic...

  6. The Great Recession and risk for child abuse and neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, William; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the association between the Great Recession and four measures of the risk for maternal child abuse and neglect: (1) maternal physical aggression; (2) maternal psychological aggression; (3) physical neglect by mothers; and (4) supervisory/exposure neglect by mothers. It draws on rich longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a longitudinal birth cohort study of families in 20 U.S. cities (N = 3,177; 50% African American, 25% Hispanic; 22% non-Hispanic white; 3% other). The study collected information for the 9-year follow-up survey before, during, and after the Great Recession (2007-2010). Interview dates were linked to two macroeconomic measures of the Great Recession: the national Consumer Sentiment Index and the local unemployment rate. Also included are a wide range of socio-demographic controls, as well as city fixed effects and controls for prior parenting. Results indicate that the Great Recession was associated with increased risk of child abuse but decreased risk of child neglect. Households with social fathers present may have been particularly adversely affected. Results also indicate that economic uncertainty during the Great Recession, as measured by the Consumer Sentiment Index and the unemployment rate, had direct effects on the risk of abuse or neglect, which were not mediated by individual-level measures of economic hardship or poor mental health. PMID:28461713

  7. The Impact of Neglect on Initial Adaptation to School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manly, Jody Todd; Lynch, Michael; Oshri, Assaf; Herzog, Margaret; Wortel, Sanne N.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of child neglect during the first four years of life on adaptation to school during kindergarten and first grade in the context of neighborhood poverty. Processes related to the development of school competencies were examined, including the mediational role of cognitive functioning and ego-resiliency in shaping children’s school outcomes. 170 low-income urban children were followed prospectively for two years (ages four to six). Results indicated that neglected children had significantly lower scores on kindergarten classroom behavior and first grade academic performance than nonneglected children. Children’s cognitive performance at age four, controlling for maternal IQ, mediated the relation between severity of neglect and children’s behavior in kindergarten as well as their academic performance in first grade. Moreover, severity of neglect was related to children’s ego-resiliency at age four. However, additional ecological adversity in the form of neighborhood poverty moderated the link between ego-resiliency and classroom behavior such that at lower levels of poverty, ego-resiliency mediated the relation between severity of neglect and school adaptation. Conversely, when neighborhood poverty was extreme, the effects of ego-resiliency were attenuated and ego-resiliency ceased to predict behavioral performance in kindergarten. The implications of these findings for prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:23843472

  8. The Great Recession and risk for child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, William; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the association between the Great Recession and four measures of the risk for maternal child abuse and neglect: (1) maternal physical aggression; (2) maternal psychological aggression; (3) physical neglect by mothers; and (4) supervisory/exposure neglect by mothers. It draws on rich longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a longitudinal birth cohort study of families in 20 U.S. cities (N = 3,177; 50% African American, 25% Hispanic; 22% non-Hispanic white; 3% other). The study collected information for the 9-year follow-up survey before, during, and after the Great Recession (2007-2010). Interview dates were linked to two macroeconomic measures of the Great Recession: the national Consumer Sentiment Index and the local unemployment rate. Also included are a wide range of socio-demographic controls, as well as city fixed effects and controls for prior parenting. Results indicate that the Great Recession was associated with increased risk of child abuse but decreased risk of child neglect. Households with social fathers present may have been particularly adversely affected. Results also indicate that economic uncertainty during the Great Recession, as measured by the Consumer Sentiment Index and the unemployment rate, had direct effects on the risk of abuse or neglect, which were not mediated by individual-level measures of economic hardship or poor mental health.

  9. Neglected Basal Cell Carcinomas in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Varga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although tumors on the surface of the skin are considered to be easily recognizable, neglected advanced skin neoplasms are encountered even in the 21st century. There can be numerous causes of the delay in the diagnosis: fear of the diagnosis and the treatment, becoming accustomed to a slowly growing tumor, old age, a low social milieu, and an inadequate hygienic culture are among the factors leading some people not to seek medical advice. The treatment of such advanced neoplasms is usually challenging. The therapy of neglected cases demands an individual multidisciplinary approach and teamwork. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC, the most common cutaneous tumor, usually develops in the elderly, grows slowly, and has an extremely low metastatic potential; these factors are suggesting that BCCs might well be the “ideal candidates” for neglected tumors. Five neglected advanced cases of BCC were diagnosed in our dermatological institute between 2000 and 2009. The clinical characteristics and treatment modalities of these neoplasms are discussed, together with the possible causes of the neglect.

  10. Is Persistent Visual Neglect Associated with Poor Survival?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jehkonen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The association of visual neglect with survival after right hemisphere (RH stroke has received only limited attention. Objective This study explores the relationship of visual neglect and its spontaneous recovery to survival in a homogenous patient group with first-ever RH stroke. Methods Fifty-one RH stroke patients who suffered an infarct between 1994 and 1997 were retrospectively followed for survival until August 31, 2009. Acute-phase neurological, neuropsychological and neuroradiological data were studied to identify predictors of survival. Results Twenty-eight patients died during the follow-up. Age, education, and poor recovery of visual neglect emerged as significant single predictors of death. The best set of predictors for poor survival in the multivariate model was poor recovery of visual neglect and low education. Conclusions Poor recovery of visual neglect is associated with long-term mortality in RH infarct patients. The follow-up of RH patients’ neuropsychological performance gives additional information about the prognosis.

  11. Neglected Basal Cell Carcinomas in the 21st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, E.; Korom, I.; Kis, E.; Varga, J.; Olah, J.; Kemeny, L.; Rasko, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Although tumors on the surface of the skin are considered to be easily recognizable, neglected advanced skin neoplasms are encountered even in the 21st century. There can be numerous causes of the delay in the diagnosis: fear of the diagnosis and the treatment, becoming accustomed to a slowly growing tumor, old age, a low social milieu, and an inadequate hygienic culture are among the factors leading some people not to seek medical advice. The treatment of such advanced neoplasms is usually challenging. The therapy of neglected cases demands an individual multidisciplinary approach and teamwork. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most common cutaneous tumor, usually develops in the elderly, grows slowly, and has an extremely low metastatic potential; these factors are suggesting that BCCs might well be the i deal candidates f or neglected tumors. Five neglected advanced cases of BCC were diagnosed in our dermatological institute between 2000 and 2009. The clinical characteristics and treatment modalities of these neoplasms are discussed, together with the possible causes of the neglect.

  12. Pharmacological Treatment of Visuospatial Neglect: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kemp, Jet; Dorresteijn, Marit; Ten Brink, Antonia F; Nijboer, Tanja C W; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A

    2017-04-01

    The aims of the current review were (1) to give an overview of human studies investigating pharmacotherapy to ameliorate visuospatial neglect and (2) to evaluate the quality of those studies. A systematic literature search using PubMed, Scopus, and ResearchGate was conducted in regard to studies that evaluated pharmacological interventions aiming to ameliorate poststroke visuospatial neglect. The search was limited in the following features: species (human), adults (≥18 years of age), language (English), and type of neglect (visuospatial). Two independent authors extracted data on study content and effectiveness and evaluated the quality of studies and methods. A total of 11 studies were identified. Three studies were considered to be of moderate quality, the others of low quality. Seven studies represented dopaminergic treatment; 3 studies represented cholinergic treatment; and 1 study represented noradrenergic treatment. Three dopaminergic studies showed primarily positive effects of dopaminergic stimulation on visuospatial neglect, whereas three others showed adverse effects. All 3 cholinergic studies found positive effects in some outcome measures concerning visuospatial neglect. Noradrenergic stimulation improved maintenance of attention when exploring space. Currently, cholinergic therapy might be the best option for future research. However, we must emphasize the explorative nature and the limited quality of the reviewed studies. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Timing of Academic Difficulties for Neglected and Nonmaltreated Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen

    1997-01-01

    Neglected or abused/neglected children (N=420) were compared with matched, nonmal-treated children on measures of school performance. Differences between the sexes in timing of academic difficulties was found for both math and English. Grades of neglected and abused/neglected students paralleled that of nonmal-treated students but were lower at…

  14. Neglected Population, Neglected Right: Children Living with HIV and the Right to Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Michael L; MacNaughton, Gillian; Sprague, Courtenay

    2017-12-01

    The laws, language, and tools of human rights have been instrumental in expanding access to lifesaving treatment for people living with HIV. Children, however, remain a neglected population, as evidenced by inadequate child-specific and child-friendly HIV treatment options. In this article, we explore the right to science, a potentially powerful but underdeveloped right in international law, and its application to research and development for pediatric HIV treatment. Drawing on reports of human rights bodies and scholars and applying the human rights typology of state obligations to respect, protect, and fulfill, we argue that states have five core obligations related to research and development for child-specific and child-friendly treatment: (1) adopting a public goods approach to science and science policy; (2) including and protecting children in research activities; (3) adopting legal and policy frameworks to support research and development through public funding and private sector incentives; (4) promoting international cooperation and assistance; and (5) ensuring the participation of marginalized communities in decision-making processes. In concluding, we make a number of recommendations for states, human rights bodies, international organizations, civil society, and private industry to further develop and implement the right to science.

  15. Non-invasive brain stimulation in neglect rehabilitation: An update.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Martin Müri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Here, we review the effects of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS in the rehabilitation of neglect. We found 12 studies including 172 patients (10 TMS studies and 2 tDCS studies fulfilling our search criteria. Activity of daily living (ADL measures such as the Barthel Index or more specifically for neglect, the Catherine Bergego Scale were the outcome measure in 3 studies. Five studies were randomized controlled trials with a follow-up time after intervention of up to 6 weeks. One TMS study fulfilled criteria for Class I and one for Class III evidence.The studies are heterogeneous concerning their methodology, outcome measures, and stimulation parameters making firm comparisons and conclusions difficult. Overall, there are however promising results for theta burst stimulation, suggesting that TMS is a powerful add-on therapy in the rehabilitation of neglect patients.

  16. Measuring and diagnosing unilateral neglect: a standardized statistical procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toraldo, Alessio; Romaniello, Cristian; Sommaruga, Paolo

    Unilateral neglect is usually investigated by adminstering stimuli (targets) in different positions, with targets being responded to by the patient (Hit) or omitted. In spite of this homogeneity of data type, neglect indices and diagnostic criteria vary considerably, causing inconsistencies in both clinical and experimental settings. We aimed at deriving a standard analysis which would apply to all tasks sharing this data form. A-priori theoretical reasoning demonstrated that the mean position of Hits in space (MPH) is an optimal index for correctly diagnosing and quantifying neglect. Crucially MPH eliminates the confounding effects of deficits that are different from neglect (non-lateral) but which decrease Hit rate. We ran a Monte Carlo study to assess MPH's (so far overlooked) statistical behavior as a function of numbers of targets and Hits. While average MPH was indeed insensitive to non-lateral deficits, MPH's variance (like that of all other neglect indices) increased dramatically with increasing non-lateral deficits. This instability would lead to alarmingly high false-positive rates (FPRs) when applying a classical diagnostic procedure that compares one patient with a control sample. We solved the problem by developing an equation that takes into account MPH instability and provides correct cut-offs and close-to-nominal FPRs, even without control subjects. We developed a computerized program which, given the raw data, yields the MPH, a z-score and a p-value. We provided a standard method that allows clinical and experimental neuropsychologists to diagnose and measure neglect in a consistent way across the vast majority of tasks.

  17. Right hemispatial ipsilesional neglect with chronic right hemisphere strokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, John B; Lamb, Damon G; Burtis, D Brandon; Haque, Salsabil; M Zilli, Eduardo; Kesayan, Tigran; Harciarek, Michal; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2018-05-01

    Patients who present with spatial neglect after stroke often perform normally on tests for neglect after a few weeks. Whereas tests for neglect are often performed directly in front of a patient, in their actual environments many important stimuli may be present within their left or right hemispace. The presence and severity of neglect often depends on the hemisphere injured. It is possible, in chronic stroke, for spatial judgments to be influenced by an interaction of stroke laterality and the spatial location of stimuli. The objective of this study was to learn if unilateral hemispheric chronic strokes contribute to a spatial bias with laterally presented stimuli. There were 70 participants, 62 with unilateral chronic strokes (>6 months post onset) including 35 with left hemisphere damage (LHD), 27 with right hemisphere damage (RHD), and 8 demographically similar people without history of stroke. Participants were asked to bisect 300 lines presented with distractors on the left, right, or both sides of the line, or no distractor, on a touch-screen monitor in right, center or left hemispace. There was a significant interaction between the side of the hemispheric lesion and the side of the body where these lines were presented. Specifically, in right space, patients with RHD deviated leftward in comparison to the other groups. Furthermore, there was an interaction between group and distractor induced bias. All three groups approached the left distractor, and the patients with LHD also approached the right distractor. Although spatial neglect is more severe in contralesional than ipsilesional hemispace in the period immediately following a stroke, over time patients with RHD may develop ipsilesional neglect that is more severe in ipsilesional than contralesional space. The mechanism underlying this bias is not known and may be related to attempted compensation or the development of a contralateral attentional/intentional grasp.

  18. Relationship between visuospatial neglect and kinesthetic deficits after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrau, Jennifer A; Wang, Jeffery C; Herter, Troy M; Scott, Stephen H; Dukelow, Sean P

    2015-05-01

    After stroke, visuospatial and kinesthetic (sense of limb motion) deficits are common, occurring in approximately 30% and 60% of individuals, respectively. Although both types of deficits affect aspects of spatial processing necessary for daily function, few studies have investigated the relationship between these 2 deficits after stroke. We aimed to characterize the relationship between visuospatial and kinesthetic deficits after stroke using the Behavioral Inattention Test (BIT) and a robotic measure of kinesthetic function. Visuospatial attention (using the BIT) and kinesthesia (using robotics) were measured in 158 individuals an average of 18 days after stroke. In the kinesthetic matching task, the robot moved the participant's stroke-affected arm at a preset direction, speed, and magnitude. Participants mirror-matched the robotic movement with the less/unaffected arm as soon as they felt movement in their stroke affected arm. We found that participants with visuospatial inattention (neglect) had impaired kinesthesia 100% of the time, whereas only 59% of participants without neglect were impaired. For those without neglect, we observed that a higher percentage of participants with lower but passing BIT scores displayed impaired kinesthetic behavior (78%) compared with those participants who scored perfect or nearly perfect on the BIT (49%). The presence of visuospatial neglect after stroke is highly predictive of the presence of kinesthetic deficits. However, the presence of kinesthetic deficits does not necessarily always indicate the presence of visuospatial neglect. Our findings highlight the importance of assessment and treatment of kinesthetic deficits after stroke, especially in patients with visuospatial neglect. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Psychosocial Determinants of Nutritional Neglect in a Developing Country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisha Mehnaz, A.; Mala, A.; Rai, K.; Arif, F.; Raj, R.; Shah, N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the demographic features and psycho-social and economic determinants of nutritional neglect in order to suggest interventional strategies. Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Paediatrics, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS) and Civil Hospital Karachi (CHK), from January 2009 to December 2010. Methodology: All children suffering from nutritional neglect suggested by weight and height less than the third centile for age, and their mothers were recruited in the study through non-probability consecutive sampling. A team comprising of paediatrician, psychologist, medical social worker and social motivator interviewed the mothers and children suffering from nutritional neglect. Information about demographic, social, economic and psychological factors was obtained. The results were analyzed and described as frequency distribution and percentage. Results: A total of 658 children suffering from nutritional neglect were inducted. Around 75% of children were below 5 years of age, 51% were females. Other determinants of nutritional neglect were, large family size (family of > 5 members (84%), young mother (60%), uneducated parents (67% father and 77% mothers being illiterate), low income (77% earning less than Rs. 7000/month), addiction (23%), tobacco smoking (50%) and non-nutritive substance use (51%). Psychological indicators identified in mothers were depression (70%), anxiety (73%), helplessness (70%), displaced aggression (50%) and insecurity (36%). Psychological factors identified in children as a secondary outcome were aggression (80%), rebellious behaviour (75%), lack of confidence (70%), lack of social interaction (70%) and paranoid tendencies (60%). Conclusion: Psycho-social and economic factors are important determinants of neglect. A holistic approach and intervention at multiple levels is required to address these issues. (author)

  20. Patient neglect in healthcare institutions: a systematic review and conceptual model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient neglect is an issue of increasing public concern in Europe and North America, yet remains poorly understood. This is the first systematic review on the nature, frequency and causes of patient neglect as distinct from patient safety topics such as medical error. Method The Pubmed, Science Direct, and Medline databases were searched in order to identify research studies investigating patient neglect. Ten articles and four government reports met the inclusion criteria of reporting primary data on the occurrence or causes of patient neglect. Qualitative and quantitative data extraction investigated (1) the definition of patient neglect, (2) the forms of behaviour associated with neglect, (3) the reported frequency of neglect, and (4) the causes of neglect. Results Patient neglect is found to have two aspects. First, procedure neglect, which refers to failures of healthcare staff to achieve objective standards of care. Second, caring neglect, which refers to behaviours that lead patients and observers to believe that staff have uncaring attitudes. The perceived frequency of neglectful behaviour varies by observer. Patients and their family members are more likely to report neglect than healthcare staff, and nurses are more likely to report on the neglectful behaviours of other nurses than on their own behaviour. The causes of patient neglect frequently relate to organisational factors (e.g. high workloads that constrain the behaviours of healthcare staff, burnout), and the relationship between carers and patients. Conclusion A social psychology-based conceptual model is developed to explain the occurrence and nature of patient neglect. This model will facilitate investigations of i) differences between patients and healthcare staff in how they perceive neglect, ii) the association with patient neglect and health outcomes, iii) the relative importance of system and organisational factors in causing neglect, and iv) the design of interventions and

  1. Neglected Distal Humeral Epiphyseal Injury - Two Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Pankaj Kumar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Distal humeral epiphyseal separation is an uncommon injury in children, which can be missed or misdiagnosed at initial presentation. Awareness of this injury and appropriate radiological assessment helps in proper management. Neglected cases because of inappropriate diagnosis can result in cubitus varus deformity. Full range of movements of elbow can be achieved if properly diagnosed and managed. We present two cases of neglected distal humeral epiphyseal injury in children that resulted in cubitus varus deformity in one case. Full range of movements was achieved in both cases after proper management.

  2. Using VizieR to Measure Neglected Double Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshaw, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The VizierR service of the Centres de Donnes Astronomiques de Strasbourg (France) offers amateur astronomers a treasure trove of resources, including access to the most current version of the Washington Double Star Catalog (WDS) and links to tens of thousands of digitized sky survey plates. These plates allow the amateur to make accurate measurements of position angle and separation for many neglected pairs that fall within reasonable tolerances for the use of Aladin, the digitized sky survey add-in called by VizieR. This paper presents 221 measurements of 102 neglected pairs from the WDS.

  3. Using VizieR/Aladin to Measure Neglected Double Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshaw, Richard

    2013-04-01

    The VizierR service of the Centres de Donnes Astronomiques de Strasbourg (France) offers amateur astronomers a treasure trove of resources, including access to the most current version of the Washington Double Star Catalog (WDS) and links to tens of thousands of digitized sky survey plates via the Aladin Java applet. These plates allow the amateur to make accurate measurements of position angle and separation for many neglected pairs that fall within reasonable tolerances for the use of Aladin. This paper presents 428 measurements of 251 neglected pairs from the WDS.

  4. Severe Neglect and Computer-based Home Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Cognitive rehabilitation from a functional perspective often requires intensive training over a longer period of time. In the case of rehabilitation of unilateral neglect, the frequency and intensity needed is expensive and difficult to implement both for the therapists and the patients....... For this reason, this case study tests the possibility of using computer-based training in the rehabilitation efforts for a patient with severe neglect who had no previous skills in computer usage. The article describes the results of the training both in terms of neuro-psychological tests and the reading ability...

  5. Noma: neglected, forgotten and a human rights issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leila Srour, M; Marck, Klaas W; Baratti-Mayer, Denise

    2015-05-01

    Noma, an orofacial gangrene and opportunistic infection, affects primarily malnourished children living in extreme poverty. Neglected, forgotten, unknown by most health workers, noma results in death, disfigurement and disability of some of the world's most vulnerable children. Noma is a biological indicator of multiple human rights violations, including the right to food. International support and national attention in countries with noma are lacking. The end of neglect of noma can lead to the elimination of this horrific childhood disease. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Basic Electromagnetism and Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Moliton, André

    2007-01-01

    Basic Electromagnetism and Materials is the product of many years of teaching basic and applied electromagnetism. This textbook can be used to teach electromagnetism to a wide range of undergraduate science majors in physics, electrical engineering or materials science. However, by making lesser demands on mathematical knowledge than competing texts, and by emphasizing electromagnetic properties of materials and their applications, this textbook is uniquely suited to students of materials science. Many competing texts focus on the study of propagation waves either in the microwave or optical domain, whereas Basic Electromagnetism and Materials covers the entire electromagnetic domain and the physical response of materials to these waves. Professor André Moliton is Director of the Unité de Microélectronique, Optoélectronique et Polymères (Université de Limoges, France), which brings together three groups studying the optoelectronics of molecular and polymer layers, micro-optoelectronic systems for teleco...

  7. Comprehensive basic mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Veena, GR

    2005-01-01

    Salient Features As per II PUC Basic Mathematics syllabus of Karnataka. Provides an introduction to various basic mathematical techniques and the situations where these could be usefully employed. The language is simple and the material is self-explanatory with a large number of illustrations. Assists the reader in gaining proficiency to solve diverse variety of problems. A special capsule containing a gist and list of formulae titled ''REMEMBER! Additional chapterwise arranged question bank and 3 model papers in a separate section---''EXAMINATION CORNER''.

  8. Basic Financial Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, Karsten

    This textbook on Basic Financial Accounting is targeted students in the economics studies at universities and business colleges having an introductory subject in the external dimension of the company's economic reporting, including bookkeeping, etc. The book includes the following subjects: busin......: business entities, the transformation process, types of businesses, stakeholders, legislation, the annual report, the VAT system, double-entry bookkeeping, inventories, and year-end cast flow analysis.......This textbook on Basic Financial Accounting is targeted students in the economics studies at universities and business colleges having an introductory subject in the external dimension of the company's economic reporting, including bookkeeping, etc. The book includes the following subjects...

  9. Ecology and basic laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer-Tasch, P.C.

    1980-01-01

    The author sketches the critical relation between ecology and basic law - critical in more than one sense. He points out the incompatibility of constitutional states and atomic states which is due to constitutional order being jeopardised by nuclear policy. He traces back the continuously rising awareness of pollution and the modern youth movement to their common root i.e. the awakening, the youth movement of the turn of the century. Eventually, he considers an economical, political, and social decentralization as a feasible alternative which would considerably relieve our basic living conditions from the threatening forms of civilization prevailing. (HSCH) [de

  10. Basic set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Levy, Azriel

    2002-01-01

    An advanced-level treatment of the basics of set theory, this text offers students a firm foundation, stopping just short of the areas employing model-theoretic methods. Geared toward upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, it consists of two parts: the first covers pure set theory, including the basic motions, order and well-foundedness, cardinal numbers, the ordinals, and the axiom of choice and some of it consequences; the second deals with applications and advanced topics such as point set topology, real spaces, Boolean algebras, and infinite combinatorics and large cardinals. An

  11. Basic properties of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Landsberg, PT

    2013-01-01

    Since Volume 1 was published in 1982, the centres of interest in the basic physics of semiconductors have shifted. Volume 1 was called Band Theory and Transport Properties in the first edition, but the subject has broadened to such an extent that Basic Properties is now a more suitable title. Seven chapters have been rewritten by the original authors. However, twelve chapters are essentially new, with the bulk of this work being devoted to important current topics which give this volume an almost encyclopaedic form. The first three chapters discuss various aspects of modern band theory and the

  12. The Barrie Jones Lecture—Eye care for the neglected population: challenges and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, G N

    2015-01-01

    Globally, pockets of ‘neglected populations' do not have access to basic health-care services and carry a much greater risk of blindness and visual impairment. While large-scale public health approaches to control blindness due to vitamin A deficiency, onchocerciasis, and trachoma are successful, other causes of blindness still take a heavy toll in the population. High-quality comprehensive eye care that is equitable is the approach that needs wide-scale application to alleviate this inequity. L V Prasad Eye Institute of India developed a multi-tier pyramidal model of eye care delivery that encompasses all levels from primary to advanced tertiary (quaternary). This has demonstrated the feasibility of ‘Universal Eye Health Coverage' covering promotive, preventive, corrective, and rehabilitative aspects of eye care. Using human resources with competency-based training, effective and cost-effective care could be provided to many disadvantaged people. PMID:25567375

  13. The Barrie Jones Lecture-Eye care for the neglected population: challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, G N

    2015-01-01

    Globally, pockets of 'neglected populations' do not have access to basic health-care services and carry a much greater risk of blindness and visual impairment. While large-scale public health approaches to control blindness due to vitamin A deficiency, onchocerciasis, and trachoma are successful, other causes of blindness still take a heavy toll in the population. High-quality comprehensive eye care that is equitable is the approach that needs wide-scale application to alleviate this inequity. L V Prasad Eye Institute of India developed a multi-tier pyramidal model of eye care delivery that encompasses all levels from primary to advanced tertiary (quaternary). This has demonstrated the feasibility of 'Universal Eye Health Coverage' covering promotive, preventive, corrective, and rehabilitative aspects of eye care. Using human resources with competency-based training, effective and cost-effective care could be provided to many disadvantaged people.

  14. Poverty-related and neglected diseases - an economic and epidemiological analysis of poverty relatedness and neglect in research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Philipsborn, Peter; Steinbeis, Fridolin; Bender, Max E; Regmi, Sadie; Tinnemann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Economic growth in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) has raised interest in how disease burden patterns are related to economic development. Meanwhile, poverty-related diseases are considered to be neglected in terms of research and development (R&D). Developing intuitive and meaningful metrics to measure how different diseases are related to poverty and neglected in the current R&D system. We measured how diseases are related to economic development with the income relation factor (IRF), defined by the ratio of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) per 100,000 inhabitants in LMIC versus that in high-income countries. We calculated the IRF for 291 diseases and injuries and 67 risk factors included in the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. We measured neglect in R&D with the neglect factor (NF), defined by the ratio of disease burden in DALYs (as percentage of the total global disease burden) and R&D expenditure (as percentage of total global health-related R&D expenditure) for 26 diseases. The disease burden varies considerably with the level of economic development, shown by the IRF (median: 1.38; interquartile range (IQR): 0.79-6.3). Comparison of IRFs from 1990 to 2010 highlights general patterns of the global epidemiological transition. The 26 poverty-related diseases included in our analysis of neglect in R&D are responsible for 13.8% of the global disease burden, but receive only 1.34% of global health-related R&D expenditure. Within this group, the NF varies considerably (median: 19; IQR: 6-52). The IRF is an intuitive and meaningful metric to highlight shifts in global disease burden patterns. A large shortfall exists in global R&D spending for poverty-related and neglected diseases, with strong variations between diseases.

  15. Metaphorical Competence: A Neglected Component of Communicative Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabet, Masoud Khalili; Tavakoli, Marjaneh

    2016-01-01

    The ability to comprehend and use metaphors in L2 which is referred to as metaphorical competence is an important issue in second language acquisition. Metaphors are so pervasive in our life that we might not realize their presence and simply neglect them even in our first language. Different models of communicative competence have been suggested…

  16. The management of neglected trauma | Jellis | East and Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East and Central African Journal of Surgery. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 2 (1999) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. The management of neglected trauma. John E ...

  17. Neglected Issues Relating to African Health Systems: An Incentive ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Several issues that affect access to and quality of health care for the poor and vulnerable in West Africa are neglected because of systemic "blind spots" - issues that are not covered by regular investigative protocols, are not questioned because they are part of well-established routines, or conflict with other interests.

  18. The home care team approach to self-neglecting elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, Ellen W; Sonstegard-Gamm, Janel

    2006-04-01

    Elderly patients who neglect their own health present special challenges. This article describes techniques for establishing rapport, understanding the patient's world, using a team approach to care, and achieving closure. At each step the clinician must find a balance between respecting the elder's rights and meeting his or her healthcare needs.

  19. Dysconnection of right parietal and frontal cortex in neglect syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, Martin; Nielsen, Jørgen Feldbæk; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    network, rather than a disruption of computation in any particular brain region. To test this hypothesis, we used Bayesian analysis of effective connectivity based on electroencephalographic recordings in patients with left-sided neglect after a right-hemisphere lesion. While age-matched healthy controls...

  20. The neglect of global oral health: symptoms and solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benzian, H.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents a sequence of papers to illustrate selected aspects of the neglect of global oral health, highlights new approaches to describing the extent and impact of dental caries, explains the difficulties related to quality assurance of fluoride toothpastes; and, finally, describes a

  1. Prism adaptation improves postural imbalance in neglect patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, Tanja C W; Olthoff, Liselot; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Visser-Meily, Johanna M a

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have found a negative relation between neglect and postural imbalance. The aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of a single session of prism adaptation on balance [i.e. mediolateral and anteroposterior center of pressure (CoP)] and postural sway (i.e. mean

  2. Goal-neglect links Stroop interference with working memory capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morey, C.C.; Elliott, E.M.; Wiggers, J.; Eaves, S.L.; Shelton, J.T.; Mall, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Relationships between Stroop interference and working memory capacity may reflect individual differences in resolving conflict, susceptibility to goal neglect, or both of these factors. We compared relationships between working memory capacity and three Stroop tasks: a classic, printed color-word

  3. Unilateral neglect syndrome after stroke: the role of Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Pereira de Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral Neglect Syndrome is one of the consequences of cerebral vascular accident (CVA generally following right parietal lobe lesion, leading to the impairment of perceptive visual, spatial and attention functions. The patient affected does not realize the environmental stimuli on the contralesional hemibody. Occupational therapy plays an important role in caring for this patient, seeking the recovery of perception, attention and social engagement. This study aimed to describe and evaluate the results of occupational therapy intervention and treatment in a single Unilateral Neglect Syndrome post CVA patient. Data were obtained from a survey of the patient’s medical records and interviews of his therapist and caretaker. The analysis of the patient’s medical records and his therapist’s report showed that the patient responded satisfactorily to treatment, presenting a decrease of the left unilateral neglect at the end of the study period. The favorable outcome of the patient outlined the relevance of evaluating the effects of Occupational Therapy interventions for clinical unilateral neglect syndrome.

  4. "Where Is the Sun" for Hemi-Neglect Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Montalembert, M.; Auclair, L.; Mamassian, P.

    2010-01-01

    Human observers use prior constraints to disambiguate a scene; in particular, light is preferentially seen as coming from above but also slightly from the left. One explanation of this lateral bias could be a cerebral hemispheric difference. The aim of the present study was to determine the preferred light source position for neglect patients. For…

  5. Neglecting the 'majority': An overview of the economic plight of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women remain vulnerable to structural and social marginalization in spite of advances made since Beijing 1995 which has seen more women mainstreamed into public spaces. Although as a broad group, the marginalization of women is cross-cutting, the plight of girls and young women is often neglected in research and ...

  6. The Neglected Situation: Assessment Performance and Interaction in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Informed by Goffman's influential essay on "The neglected situation" this paper examines the contextual and interactive dimensions of performance in large-scale educational assessments. The paper applies Goffman's participation framework and associated theory in linguistic anthropology to examine how testing situations are framed and…

  7. Road traffic accident: The neglected health problem in Amhara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Road traffic accident is a major but neglected public health challenge. There is a paucity of published data on road traffic crashes in Amhara National Regional State. Objective: This study attempts to describe the main causes and consequences of road traffic accidents in the Amhara Region. Methods: This ...

  8. Vulnerability to Elder Abuse and Neglect in Assisted Living Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Stacey; Stephens, Mary

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the decision-making abilities of residents in assisted living regarding abuse and neglect. Design and Methods: Twenty-seven residents in assisted living facilities were recruited for this descriptive study. Participants were administered an interview to assess baseline knowledge of support…

  9. Colonial Inheritance, Postcolonial Neglect, and the Management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colonial Inheritance, Postcolonial Neglect, and the Management of Nigerian Railway by Rail India Technical and Economic Services (RITES) ... This was because RITES got a limited brief of simply rehabilitating NR‟s operations and infrastructure. Nonetheless, had the government built on the reforms carried out, the ...

  10. A community survey on the knowledge of neglected tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    http://www.who.int/neglected_diseases/e. 2007. 8. National Office for Population and Housing. Census. 3rd Population and Housing Census. Ministry of Economy, Planning and Reginal Development. Cameroon, 2010. 9. Médard JF. Décentralisation du système de santé publique et ressources humaines au Cameroun»,.

  11. An overview of neglected tropical diseases in Ethiopia | Erko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, the review attempts to identify gaps in information and the way forward. Thirteen poverty-promoting diseases have recently been designated as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). These diseases include visceral leishmaniasis (VL), human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), Chagas disease, hookworm infection, ...

  12. Perceived Threat and Perceived Neglect: Couples' Underlying Concerns during Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Keith

    2010-01-01

    The Couples Underlying Concern Inventory assesses 2 fundamental types of distress that couples experience during interpersonal conflict. "Perceived threat" involves a perception that one's partner is blaming and controlling the self. "Perceived neglect" involves a perception that one's partner is failing to make desired contributions or…

  13. A School Counselor's Guide to Reporting Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikes, April

    2008-01-01

    The process of reporting abuse can be challenging, traumatic, and at times, overwhelming. In order for school counselors to be effective helpers for children, it is essential that they know how to recognize and prevent child abuse and neglect. The purpose of this article is to provide professional school counselors with information they can use to…

  14. Oral and Dental Aspects of Child Abuse and Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher-Owens, Susan A; Lukefahr, James L; Tate, Anupama Rao

    2017-08-01

    In all 50 states, health care providers (including dentists) are mandated to report suspected cases of abuse and neglect to social service or law enforcement agencies. The purpose of this report is to review the oral and dental aspects of physical and sexual abuse and dental neglect in children and the role of pediatric care providers and dental providers in evaluating such conditions. This report addresses the evaluation of bite marks as well as perioral and intraoral injuries, infections, and diseases that may raise suspicion for child abuse or neglect. Oral health issues can also be associated with bullying and are commonly seen in human trafficking victims. Some medical providers may receive less education pertaining to oral health and dental injury and disease and may not detect the mouth and gum findings that are related to abuse or neglect as readily as they detect those involving other areas of the body. Therefore, pediatric care providers and dental providers are encouraged to collaborate to increase the prevention, detection, and treatment of these conditions in children. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics and American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry.

  15. Brazil's neglected tropical diseases: an overview and a report card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J; Fujiwara, Ricardo T

    2014-08-01

    Today, the nation of Brazil leads the Western Hemisphere in terms of the number of its citizens living with neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). These diseases continue to trap Brazil's "bottom 20 million" in extreme poverty. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Short Communication: Be careful for neglected diseases | He ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neglected diseases boost (Nature, 457: 772, 2009), which will become greater threat to human health especially in tropical regions. In my opinion, it is the inherent result of climate warming. An allometrical scaling is suggested to support my opinion, this can also explain why swine flu does not affect pigs very much, but ...

  17. Loa loa and Mansonella perstans : Neglected human infections that ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is shown that, based on available literature, the clinical symptoms of the infections could be seriously debilitating with grave negative socio-economic impacts, especially among the rural populace who contribute immensely to agriculture in Nigeria. We opined that it is inhumane and deceptive to neglect these infectious ...

  18. Evidence for Opportunity Cost Neglect in the Poor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, Arnoud; Krijnen, Job M.T.; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Breugelmans, Seger M.

    2018-01-01

    People often neglect opportunity costs: They do not fully take into account forgone alternatives outside of a particular choice set. Several scholars have suggested that poor people should be more likely to spontaneously consider opportunity costs, because budget constraints should lead to an

  19. Child Abuse and Neglect: Training Needs of Student Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Bronagh E.; Dillenburger, Karola

    2009-01-01

    Increasing awareness of child abuse and neglect (CAN) raises questions about how well teachers are prepared for their role in child protection. This paper assesses and differentiates training needs of first-year students (n = 216) in Northern Ireland. Multiple-choice tests were used to assess knowledge of CAN statistics; recognising and reporting;…

  20. Evaluating Multidisciplinary Child Abuse and Neglect Teams: A Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalayants, Marina; Epstein, Irwin

    2005-01-01

    A review of child welfare research literature reveals that although multidisciplinary teams are increasingly used to investigate and intervene in child abuse and neglect cases, the field does not know enough about their structural variations, implementation processes, or effectiveness. Moreover, although articles advocating multidisciplinary teams…

  1. A Case-Comparison Analysis of Elder Abuse and Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godkin, Michael A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Compared 59 abused and 49 non-abused elders to identify factors contributing to elder abuse and neglect by caregivers in domestic setting. Found that members of abusive families often had emotional problems. Abused elders and caregivers had become increasingly interdependent because of loss of other family members, social isolation, and financial…

  2. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Neglected Tropical Diseases: a Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Houweling (Tanja); H.E. Karim-Kos (Henrike); M.C. Kulik (Margarete); W.A. Stolk (Wilma); J.A. Haagsma (Juanita); E.J. Lenk (Edeltraud J.); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik); S.J. de Vlas (Sake)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are generally assumed to be concentrated in poor populations, but evidence on this remains scattered. We describe within-country socioeconomic inequalities in nine NTDs listed in the London Declaration for intensified control and/or

  3. School Help Professionals' Ideas on Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usakli, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    Method: In this study, a qualitative research has been carried out; there were interviews with 50 school counselors working in Sinop; they stated their ideas on child abuse and neglect. Analysis: Data collected via semi constructed interviews have been subjected to descriptive and content analysis.The participant counselors were asked three…

  4. Addressing the social determinants of neglected tropical diseases to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... work brings to focus the determinants, which have been found to be particularly important for the perpetuation of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) in endemic communities: water and sanitation, housing and clustering, environment, migration, disasters and conflicts, socio-cultural factors and gender, and finally poverty.

  5. Teen birth rates in sexually abused and neglected females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Jennie G; Shenk, Chad E

    2013-04-01

    Prospectively track teen childbirths in maltreated and nonmaltreated females and test the hypothesis that child maltreatment is an independent predictor of subsequent teen childbirth over and above demographic characteristics and other risk factors. Nulliparous adolescent females (N = 435) aged 14 to 17 years were assessed annually through age 19 years. Maltreated females were referred by Child Protective Services agencies for having experienced substantiated sexual abuse, physical abuse, or neglect within the preceding 12 months. Comparison females were matched on race, family income, age and family constellation. Teen childbirth was assessed via self-report during annual interviews. Births were confirmed using hospital delivery records. Seventy participants gave birth during the study, 54 in the maltreated group and 16 in the comparison group. Maltreated females were twice as likely to experience teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds and known risk factors (odds ratio = 2.17, P = 0.01). Birth rates were highest for sexually abused and neglected females. Sexual abuse and neglect were both independent predictors of teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds, other risk factors and alternative forms of maltreatment occurring earlier in development. Results provide evidence that sexual abuse and neglect are unique predictors of subsequent teen childbirth. Partnerships between protective service providers and teen childbirth prevention strategists hold the best promise for further reducing the US teen birth rate. Additional research illuminating the pathways to teen childbirth for differing forms of maltreatment is needed so that tailored interventions can be realized.

  6. The Neglected 95%, a Challenge to Psychology's Philosophy of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen

    2009-01-01

    Responds to the comments of LoSchiavo F. M. and Shatz M. A.; Webster G. D., Nichols A. L., and Schember T. O.; Stroebe W. and Nijstad B.; and Haeffel et al. on the author's original article regarding the assertion that American psychology focuses too narrowly on Americans while neglecting the other 95% of the world's population. The author…

  7. Working With Abusive/Neglectful Indian Parents. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Indian Child Abuse and Neglect Resource Center, Tulsa, OK.

    Considering such factors as disruption of Indian families caused by Anglo educational programs (missionary schools, BIA boarding schools), by Indian relocation programs, and other non-Indian institutions, many of today's abusive and neglectful Indian parents were victims as children in these same institutions. The 9-page information sheet offers a…

  8. The neglected health needs of older Syrian refugees in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid Lupieri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Older refugees are often a neglected population, particularly when it comes to health. In Jordan, the specific health needs of older Syrian refugees tend to be overlooked, due in part to a lack of data, institutional biases and the nature of the humanitarian response.

  9. Touching Base with Parents--Neglected ICP Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linney, Grant

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author introduces another key and, to-date, largely neglected stakeholder in high-school integrated curriculum programs (ICPs). If one wishes to have a deeper understanding of the unique, powerful, and lasting impacts of these programs, the author suggests to include the perspective and input of participants' parents. The…

  10. What shall we do about: Preventing child abuse and neglect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Like doctors and other healthcare professionals worldwide, many of us see children with injuries caused by physical violence and girls who have been raped. Sometimes we know that a child is malnourished, sick or traumatised because of abuse or neglect. The aim of this article is to raise the issue of child abuse ...

  11. Does Childhood Disability Increase Risk for Child Abuse and Neglect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeb, Rebecca T.; Bitsko, Rebecca H.; Merrick, Melissa T.; Armour, Brian S.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we review the empirical evidence for the presumptions that children with disabilities are at increased risk for child maltreatment, and parents with disabilities are more likely to perpetrate child abuse and neglect. Challenges to the epidemiological examination of the prevalence of child maltreatment and disabilities are…

  12. Hypnosis meets neuropsychology: simulating visuospatial neglect in healthy participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priftis, Konstantinos; Schiff, Sami; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Giordano, Nunzia; Amodio, Piero; Umiltà, Carlo; Casiglia, Edoardo

    2011-10-01

    Neglect patients are not aware of stimuli in the contralesional space. We aimed to simulate neglect-like behaviour in healthy participants, by asking them to orient their visuospatial attention in two conditions: non-hypnotic suggestion and post-hypnotic suggestion. Results showed that directing visuospatial attention to one side of space caused neglect of stimuli in the opposite side of space, but only when participants were under post-hypnotic suggestion. Furthermore, directing visuospatial attention to the right side of space caused more neglect of left-sided stimuli than directing visuospatial attention to the left side of space did for right-sided stimuli. We propose that post-hypnotic suggestion can be a useful tool for (de)activating neurocognitive mechanisms underlying visuospatial awareness, a function that is fundamental for our survival. The use of post-hypnotic suggestion could be applied to the study of many domains of cognitive neurosciences (e.g., neurocognitive rehabilitation). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pharmacological Treatment of Visuospatial Neglect : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kemp, Jet; Dorresteijn, Marit; Ten Brink, Antonia F.; Nijboer, Tanja C W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304832421; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/180428047

    Objectives: The aims of the current review were (1) to give an overview of human studies investigating pharmacotherapy to ameliorate visuospatial neglect and (2) to evaluate the quality of those studies. Methods: A systematic literature search using PubMed, Scopus, and ResearchGate was conducted in

  14. Pharmacological Treatment of Visuospatial Neglect : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kemp, Jet; Dorresteijn, Marit; Ten Brink, Antonia F.; Nijboer, Tanja C.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304832421; Visser-Meily, Johanna M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aims of the current review were (1) to give an overview of human studies investigating pharmacotherapy to ameliorate visuospatial neglect and (2) to evaluate the quality of those studies. Methods A systematic literature search using PubMed, Scopus, and ResearchGate was conducted in

  15. Foundation of Basic Arithmetic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 2. Foundation of Basic Arithmetic. Jasbir S Chahal. General Article Volume 11 Issue 2 February 2006 pp 6-16. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/011/02/0006-0016. Keywords. Different ...

  16. Basic Tuberculosis Facts

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-12

    In this podcast, Dr. Kenneth Castro, Director of the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, discusses basic TB prevention, testing, and treatment information.  Created: 3/12/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/12/2012.

  17. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Heather Taylor, PhD Michelle Meade, PhD Jonathon Rose, PhD The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Kristine Cichowski, ... Cord Injury Katie Powell, OT Mary Jane Mulcahey, PhD, OTR/L Sarah Harrison, OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord ...

  18. Basic radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyzadeoglu, M. M.; Ebruli, C.

    2008-01-01

    Basic Radiation Oncology is an all-in-one book. It is an up-to-date bedside oriented book integrating the radiation physics, radiobiology and clinical radiation oncology. It includes the essentials of all aspects of radiation oncology with more than 300 practical illustrations, black and white and color figures. The layout and presentation is very practical and enriched with many pearl boxes. Key studies particularly randomized ones are also included at the end of each clinical chapter. Basic knowledge of all high-tech radiation teletherapy units such as tomotherapy, cyberknife, and proton therapy are also given. The first 2 sections review concepts that are crucial in radiation physics and radiobiology. The remaining 11 chapters describe treatment regimens for main cancer sites and tumor types. Basic Radiation Oncology will greatly help meeting the needs for a practical and bedside oriented oncology book for residents, fellows, and clinicians of Radiation, Medical and Surgical Oncology as well as medical students, physicians and medical physicists interested in Clinical Oncology. English Edition of the book Temel Radyasyon Onkolojisi is being published by Springer Heidelberg this year with updated 2009 AJCC Staging as Basic Radiation Oncology

  19. Basic physics for all

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, B N

    2012-01-01

    This is a simple, concise book for both student and non-physics students, presenting basic facts in straightforward form and conveying fundamental principles and theories of physics. This book will be helpful as a supplement to class teaching and to aid those who have difficulty in mastering concepts and principles.

  20. Basic Electronics II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willison, Neal A.; Shelton, James K.

    Designed for use in basic electronics programs, this curriculum guide is comprised of 15 units of instruction. Unit titles are Review of the Nature of Matter and the P-N Junction, Rectifiers, Filters, Special Semiconductor Diodes, Bipolar-Junction Diodes, Bipolar Transistor Circuits, Transistor Amplifiers, Operational Amplifiers, Logic Devices,…

  1. Greek Basic Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This course in Modern Greek, consisting of 100 lesson units in 13 volumes, is one of the Defense Language Institute's Basic Course Series. The course is designed to train native English language speakers to Level 3 proficiency in comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing Modern Greek. (Level 5 is native-speaker proficiency.) Lesson units…

  2. Basic Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeter, Margaret

    1993-01-01

    Training employees in basic skills necessitates sensitivity to their self-esteem. This can be achieved if the organizational culture supports training, the program is voluntary, it uses the group's strengths, it challenges them on an adult level, it does not resemble traditional schooling, and it builds in quick success. (SK)

  3. Basic Exchange Rate Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis four-chapter overview of basic exchange rate theories discusses (i) the elasticity and absorption approach, (ii) the (long-run) implications of the monetary approach, (iii) the short-run effects of monetary and fiscal policy under various economic conditions, and (iv) the transition

  4. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  5. Basic Soils. Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana State Univ., Bozeman. Dept. of Agricultural and Industrial Education.

    This curriculum guide is designed for use in teaching a course in basic soils that is intended for college freshmen. Addressed in the individual lessons of the unit are the following topics: the way in which soil is formed, the physical properties of soil, the chemical properties of soil, the biotic properties of soil, plant-soil-water…

  6. The Role of Parental Distress in Moderating the Influence of Child Neglect on Maladjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, David S.; Marini, Victoria A.; Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Lewis, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Despite pervasive evidence of the harmful impact of neglect on children’s adjustment, individual differences in adaptation persist. This study examines parental distress as a contextual factor that may moderate the relation between neglect and child adjustment, while considering the specificity of the relation between neglect and internalizing versus externalizing problems. In a sample of 66 children (33 with a documented child protective services history of neglect prior to age six), neglect predicted internalizing, and to a lesser extent externalizing, problems as rated by teachers at age seven. Parental distress moderated the relation between neglect and internalizing, but not externalizing, problems. Specifically, higher levels of neglect predicted more internalizing problems only among children of distressed parents. These findings indicate that parent-level variables are important to consider in evaluating the consequences of neglect, and point to the importance of considering contextual factors when identifying those children most at risk following neglect. PMID:25346589

  7. Neglected infections of poverty in the United States of America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Hotez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, there is a largely hidden burden of diseases caused by a group of chronic and debilitating parasitic, bacterial, and congenital infections known as the neglected infections of poverty. Like their neglected tropical disease counterparts in developing countries, the neglected infections of poverty in the US disproportionately affect impoverished and under-represented minority populations. The major neglected infections include the helminth infections, toxocariasis, strongyloidiasis, ascariasis, and cysticercosis; the intestinal protozoan infection trichomoniasis; some zoonotic bacterial infections, including leptospirosis; the vector-borne infections Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, trench fever, and dengue fever; and the congenital infections cytomegalovirus (CMV, toxoplasmosis, and syphilis. These diseases occur predominantly in people of color living in the Mississippi Delta and elsewhere in the American South, in disadvantaged urban areas, and in the US-Mexico borderlands, as well as in certain immigrant populations and disadvantaged white populations living in Appalachia. Preliminary disease burden estimates of the neglected infections of poverty indicate that tens of thousands, or in some cases, hundreds of thousands of poor Americans harbor these chronic infections, which represent some of the greatest health disparities in the United States. Specific policy recommendations include active surveillance (including newborn screening to ascertain accurate population-based estimates of disease burden; epidemiological studies to determine the extent of autochthonous transmission of Chagas disease and other infections; mass or targeted treatments; vector control; and research and development for new control tools including improved diagnostics and accelerated development of a vaccine to prevent congenital CMV infection and congenital toxoplasmosis.

  8. Improving left spatial neglect through music scale playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Nicolò Francesco; Cioffi, Maria Cristina; Ronchi, Roberta; Maravita, Angelo; Bricolo, Emanuela; Zigiotto, Luca; Perucca, Laura; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2017-03-01

    The study assessed whether the auditory reference provided by a music scale could improve spatial exploration of a standard musical instrument keyboard in right-brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect. As performing music scales involves the production of predictable successive pitches, the expectation of the subsequent note may facilitate patients to explore a larger extension of space in the left affected side, during the production of music scales from right to left. Eleven right-brain-damaged stroke patients with left spatial neglect, 12 patients without neglect, and 12 age-matched healthy participants played descending scales on a music keyboard. In a counterbalanced design, the participants' exploratory performance was assessed while producing scales in three feedback conditions: With congruent sound, no-sound, or random sound feedback provided by the keyboard. The number of keys played and the timing of key press were recorded. Spatial exploration by patients with left neglect was superior with congruent sound feedback, compared to both Silence and Random sound conditions. Both the congruent and incongruent sound conditions were associated with a greater deceleration in all groups. The frame provided by the music scale improves exploration of the left side of space, contralateral to the right hemisphere, damaged in patients with left neglect. Performing a scale with congruent sounds may trigger at some extent preserved auditory and spatial multisensory representations of successive sounds, thus influencing the time course of space scanning, and ultimately resulting in a more extensive spatial exploration. These findings offer new perspectives also for the rehabilitation of the disorder. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Effectiveness of Preanalytic Practices on Contamination and Diagnostic Accuracy of Urine Cultures: a Laboratory Medicine Best Practices Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franek, Jacob; Leibach, Elizabeth K.; Weissfeld, Alice S.; Kraft, Colleen S.; Sautter, Robert L.; Baselski, Vickie; Rodahl, Debra; Peterson, Edward J.; Cornish, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Background. Urinary tract infection (UTI) in the United States is the most common bacterial infection, and urine cultures often make up the largest portion of workload for a hospital-based microbiology laboratory. Appropriately managing the factors affecting the preanalytic phase of urine culture contributes significantly to the generation of meaningful culture results that ultimately affect patient diagnosis and management. Urine culture contamination can be reduced with proper techniques for urine collection, preservation, storage, and transport, the major factors affecting the preanalytic phase of urine culture. Objectives. The purposes of this review were to identify and evaluate preanalytic practices associated with urine specimens and to assess their impact on the accuracy of urine culture microbiology. Specific practices included collection methods for men, women, and children; preservation of urine samples in boric acid solutions; and the effect of refrigeration on stored urine. Practice efficacy and effectiveness were measured by two parameters: reduction of urine culture contamination and increased accuracy of patient diagnosis. The CDC Laboratory Medicine Best Practices (LMBP) initiative's systematic review method for assessment of quality improvement (QI) practices was employed. Results were then translated into evidence-based practice guidelines. Search strategy. A search of three electronic bibliographic databases (PubMed, SCOPUS, and CINAHL), as well as hand searching of bibliographies from relevant information sources, for English-language articles published between 1965 and 2014 was conducted. Selection criteria. The search contained the following medical subject headings and key text words: urinary tract infections, UTI, urine/analysis, urine/microbiology, urinalysis, specimen handling, preservation, biological, preservation, boric acid, boric acid/borate, refrigeration, storage, time factors, transportation, transport time, time delay

  10. Effectiveness of Preanalytic Practices on Contamination and Diagnostic Accuracy of Urine Cultures: a Laboratory Medicine Best Practices Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRocco, Mark T; Franek, Jacob; Leibach, Elizabeth K; Weissfeld, Alice S; Kraft, Colleen S; Sautter, Robert L; Baselski, Vickie; Rodahl, Debra; Peterson, Edward J; Cornish, Nancy E

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) in the United States is the most common bacterial infection, and urine cultures often make up the largest portion of workload for a hospital-based microbiology laboratory. Appropriately managing the factors affecting the preanalytic phase of urine culture contributes significantly to the generation of meaningful culture results that ultimately affect patient diagnosis and management. Urine culture contamination can be reduced with proper techniques for urine collection, preservation, storage, and transport, the major factors affecting the preanalytic phase of urine culture. The purposes of this review were to identify and evaluate preanalytic practices associated with urine specimens and to assess their impact on the accuracy of urine culture microbiology. Specific practices included collection methods for men, women, and children; preservation of urine samples in boric acid solutions; and the effect of refrigeration on stored urine. Practice efficacy and effectiveness were measured by two parameters: reduction of urine culture contamination and increased accuracy of patient diagnosis. The CDC Laboratory Medicine Best Practices (LMBP) initiative's systematic review method for assessment of quality improvement (QI) practices was employed. Results were then translated into evidence-based practice guidelines. A search of three electronic bibliographic databases (PubMed, SCOPUS, and CINAHL), as well as hand searching of bibliographies from relevant information sources, for English-language articles published between 1965 and 2014 was conducted. The search contained the following medical subject headings and key text words: urinary tract infections, UTI, urine/analysis, urine/microbiology, urinalysis, specimen handling, preservation, biological, preservation, boric acid, boric acid/borate, refrigeration, storage, time factors, transportation, transport time, time delay, time factor, timing, urine specimen collection, catheters, indwelling

  11. Basics of statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller-Kirsten, Harald J W

    2013-01-01

    Statistics links microscopic and macroscopic phenomena, and requires for this reason a large number of microscopic elements like atoms. The results are values of maximum probability or of averaging. This introduction to statistical physics concentrates on the basic principles, and attempts to explain these in simple terms supplemented by numerous examples. These basic principles include the difference between classical and quantum statistics, a priori probabilities as related to degeneracies, the vital aspect of indistinguishability as compared with distinguishability in classical physics, the differences between conserved and non-conserved elements, the different ways of counting arrangements in the three statistics (Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, Bose-Einstein), the difference between maximization of the number of arrangements of elements, and averaging in the Darwin-Fowler method. Significant applications to solids, radiation and electrons in metals are treated in separate chapters, as well as Bose-Eins...

  12. Basics of RF electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Gallo, A

    2011-01-01

    RF electronics deals with the generation, acquisition and manipulation of high-frequency signals. In particle accelerators signals of this kind are abundant, especially in the RF and beam diagnostics systems. In modern machines the complexity of the electronics assemblies dedicated to RF manipulation, beam diagnostics, and feedbacks is continuously increasing, following the demands for improvement of accelerator performance. However, these systems, and in particular their front-ends and back-ends, still rely on well-established basic hardware components and techniques, while down-converted and acquired signals are digitally processed exploiting the rapidly growing computational capability offered by the available technology. This lecture reviews the operational principles of the basic building blocks used for the treatment of high-frequency signals. Devices such as mixers, phase and amplitude detectors, modulators, filters, switches, directional couplers, oscillators, amplifiers, attenuators, and others are d...

  13. Basic electronic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Buckley, P M

    1980-01-01

    In the past, the teaching of electricity and electronics has more often than not been carried out from a theoretical and often highly academic standpoint. Fundamentals and basic concepts have often been presented with no indication of their practical appli­ cations, and all too frequently they have been illustrated by artificially contrived laboratory experiments bearing little relationship to the outside world. The course comes in the form of fourteen fairly open-ended constructional experiments or projects. Each experiment has associated with it a construction exercise and an explanation. The basic idea behind this dual presentation is that the student can embark on each circuit following only the briefest possible instructions and that an open-ended approach is thereby not prejudiced by an initial lengthy encounter with the theory behind the project; this being a sure way to dampen enthusiasm at the outset. As the investigation progresses, questions inevitably arise. Descriptions of the phenomena encounte...

  14. Basic linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S

    2002-01-01

    Basic Linear Algebra is a text for first year students leading from concrete examples to abstract theorems, via tutorial-type exercises. More exercises (of the kind a student may expect in examination papers) are grouped at the end of each section. The book covers the most important basics of any first course on linear algebra, explaining the algebra of matrices with applications to analytic geometry, systems of linear equations, difference equations and complex numbers. Linear equations are treated via Hermite normal forms which provides a successful and concrete explanation of the notion of linear independence. Another important highlight is the connection between linear mappings and matrices leading to the change of basis theorem which opens the door to the notion of similarity. This new and revised edition features additional exercises and coverage of Cramer's rule (omitted from the first edition). However, it is the new, extra chapter on computer assistance that will be of particular interest to readers:...

  15. Basic ergodic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Nadkarni, M G

    2013-01-01

    This is an introductory book on Ergodic Theory. The presentation has a slow pace and the book can be read by any person with a background in basic measure theory and metric topology. A new feature of the book is that the basic topics of Ergodic Theory such as the Poincare recurrence lemma, induced automorphisms and Kakutani towers, compressibility and E. Hopf's theorem, the theorem of Ambrose on representation of flows are treated at the descriptive set-theoretic level before their measure-theoretic or topological versions are presented. In addition, topics around the Glimm-Effros theorem are discussed. In the third edition a chapter entitled 'Additional Topics' has been added. It gives Liouville's Theorem on the existence of invariant measure, entropy theory leading up to Kolmogorov-Sinai Theorem, and the topological dynamics proof of van der Waerden's theorem on arithmetical progressions.

  16. Basic Emotions: A Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, William A.; Capitanio, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Emotionality is a basic feature of behavior. The argument over whether the expression of emotions is based primarily on culture (constructivism, nurture) or biology (natural forms, nature) will never be resolved because both alternatives are untenable. The evidence is overwhelming that at all ages and all levels of organization, the development of emotionality is epigenetic: The organism is an active participant in its own development. To ascribe these effects to “experience” was the best that could be done for many years. With the rapid acceleration of information on how changes in organization are actually brought about, it is a good time to review, update, and revitalize our views of experience in relation to the concept of basic emotion. PMID:27110280

  17. Emulsion Science Basic Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Leal-Calderon, Fernando; Schmitt, Véronique

    2007-01-01

    Emulsions are generally made out of two immiscible fluids like oil and water, one being dispersed in the second in the presence of surface-active compounds.They are used as intermediate or end products in a huge range of areas including the food, chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, paint, and coating industries. Besides the broad domain of technological interest, emulsions are raising a variety of fundamental questions at the frontier between physics and chemistry. This book aims to give an overview of the most recent advances in emulsion science. The basic principles, covering aspects of emulsions from their preparation to their destruction, are presented in close relation to both the fundamental physics and the applications of these materials. The book is intended to help scientists and engineers in formulating new materials by giving them the basics of emulsion science.

  18. Basic Semiconductor Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hamaguchi, Chihiro

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a detailed description of the basic semiconductor physics. The reader is assumed to have a basic command of mathematics and some elementary knowledge of solid state physics. The text covers a wide range of important phenomena in semiconductors, from the simple to the advanced. The reader can understand three different methods of energy band calculations, empirical pseudo-potential, k.p perturbation and tight-binding methods. The effective mass approximation and electron motion in a periodic potential, Boltzmann transport equation and deformation potentials used for full band Monte Carlo simulation are discussed. Experiments and theoretical analysis of cyclotron resonance are discussed in detail because the results are essential to the understanding of semiconductor physics. Optical and transport properties, magneto-transport, two dimensional electron gas transport (HEMT and MOSFET), and quantum transport are reviewed, explaining optical transition, electron phonon interactions, electron mob...

  19. Basic Financial Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, Karsten

    This textbook on Basic Financial Accounting is targeted students in the economics studies at universities and business colleges having an introductory subject in the external dimension of the company's economic reporting, including bookkeeping, etc. The book includes the following subjects......: business entities, the transformation process, types of businesses, stakeholders, legislation, the annual report, the VAT system, double-entry bookkeeping, inventories, and year-end cast flow analysis....

  20. Basic of Neutron NDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trahan, Alexis Chanel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-15

    The objectives of this presentation are to introduce the basic physics of neutron production, interactions and detection; identify the processes that generate neutrons; explain the most common neutron mechanism, spontaneous and induced fission and (a,n) reactions; describe the properties of neutron from different sources; recognize advantages of neutron measurements techniques; recognize common neutrons interactions; explain neutron cross section measurements; describe the fundamental of 3He detector function and designs; and differentiate between passive and active assay techniques.

  1. Basic concepts in oceanography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    Basic concepts in oceanography include major wind patterns that drive ocean currents, and the effects that the earth's rotation, positions of land masses, and temperature and salinity have on oceanic circulation and hence global distribution of radioactivity. Special attention is given to coastal and near-coastal processes such as upwelling, tidal effects, and small-scale processes, as radionuclide distributions are currently most associated with coastal regions. (author)

  2. Basics of Computer Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Robertazzi, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Springer Brief Basics of Computer Networking provides a non-mathematical introduction to the world of networks. This book covers both technology for wired and wireless networks. Coverage includes transmission media, local area networks, wide area networks, and network security. Written in a very accessible style for the interested layman by the author of a widely used textbook with many years of experience explaining concepts to the beginner.

  3. Risk communication basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corrado, P.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In low-trust, high-concern situations, 50% of your credibility comes from perceived empathy and caring, demonstrated in the first 30 s you come in contact with someone. There is no second chance for a first impression. These and other principles contained in this paper provide you with a basic level of understanding of risk communication. The principles identified are time-tested caveats and will assist you in effectively communicating technical information.

  4. Risk communication basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrado, P.G.

    1995-01-01

    In low-trust, high-concern situations, 50% of your credibility comes from perceived empathy and caring, demonstrated in the first 30 s you come in contact with someone. There is no second chance for a first impression. These and other principles contained in this paper provide you with a basic level of understanding of risk communication. The principles identified are time-tested caveats and will assist you in effectively communicating technical information

  5. Basic nucleonics. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    This book is oriented mainly towards professionals who are not physicists or experts in nuclear sciences, physicians planning to specialize in nuclear medicine or radiotherapy and technicians involved in nuclear applications. The book covers the fundamental concepts of nuclear science and technology in a simple and ordered fashion. Theory is illustrated with appropriate exercises and answers. With 17 chapters plus 3 appendices on mathematics, basic concepts are covered in: nuclear science, radioactivity, radiation and matter, nuclear reactions, X rays, shielding and radioprotection

  6. Basic Microfluidics Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2015-01-01

    ,000 m−1, which is a huge difference and has a large impact on flow behavior. In this chapter the basic microfluidic theory will be presented, enabling the reader to gain a comprehensive understanding of how liquids behave at the microscale, enough to be able to engage in design of micro systems...... and to support the theory used in other chapters in the book, but without going into the deep underlying theoretical approach....

  7. Classifying basic research designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, G L

    1990-01-01

    Considerable confusion over terminology for classifying basic types of research design in family medicine stems from the rich variety of substantive topics studied by family medicine researchers, differences in research terminology among the disciplines that family medicine research draws from, and lack of uniform research design terminology within these disciplines themselves. Many research design textbooks themselves fail to specify the dimensions on which research designs are classified or the logic underlying the classification systems proposed. This paper describes a typology based on three dimensions that may be used to characterize the basic design qualities of any study. These dimensions are: 1) the nature of the research objective (exploratory, descriptive, or analytic); 2) the time frame under investigation (retrospective, cross-sectional, or prospective); and 3) whether the investigator intervenes in the events under study (observational or interventional). This three-dimensional typology may be helpful for teaching basic research design concepts, for contemplating research design decisions in planning a study, and as a basis for further consideration of a more detailed, uniform research design classification system.

  8. Neglecting the left side of a city square but not the left side of its clock: prevalence and characteristics of representational neglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Guariglia

    Full Text Available Representational neglect, which is characterized by the failure to report left-sided details of a mental image from memory, can occur after a right hemisphere lesion. In this study, we set out to verify the hypothesis that two distinct forms of representational neglect exist, one involving object representation and the other environmental representation. As representational neglect is considered rare, we also evaluated the prevalence and frequency of its association with perceptual neglect. We submitted a group of 96 unselected, consecutive, chronic, right brain-damaged patients to an extensive neuropsychological evaluation that included two representational neglect tests: the Familiar Square Description Test and the O'Clock Test. Representational neglect, as well as perceptual neglect, was present in about one-third of the sample. Most patients neglected the left side of imagined familiar squares but not the left side of imagined clocks. The present data show that representational neglect is not a rare disorder and also support the hypothesis that two different types of mental representations (i.e. topological and non-topological images may be selectively damaged in representational neglect.

  9. Lexical Processes and Eye Movements in Neglect Dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe di Pellegrino

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Neglect dyslexia is a disturbance in the allocation of spatial attention over a letter string following unilateral brain damage. Patients with this condition may fail to read letters on the contralesional side of an orthographic string. In some of these cases, reading is better with words than with non-words. This word superiority effect has received a variety of explanations that differ, among other things, with regard to the spatial distribution of attention across the letter string during reading. The primary goal of the present study was to explore the interaction between attention and lexical processes by recording eye movements in a patient (F.C. with severe left neglect dyslexia who was required to read isolated word and non-word stimuli of various length.

  10. Evidence for Opportunity Cost Neglect in the Poor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krijnen, Job M.T.; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Breugelmans, Seger M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract People often neglect opportunity costs: They do not fully take into account forgone alternatives outside of a particular choice set. Several scholars have suggested that poor people should be more likely to spontaneously consider opportunity costs, because budget constraints should lead to an increased focus on trade‐offs. We did not find support for this hypothesis in five high‐powered experiments (total N = 2325). The experiments used different products (both material and experiential) with both high and low prices (from $8.50 to $249.99) and different methods of reminding participants of opportunity costs. High‐income and low‐income participants showed an equally strong decrease in willingness to buy when reminded of opportunity costs, implying that both the rich and the poor neglect opportunity costs. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Behavioral Decision Making Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:29353963

  11. Prism adaptation improves egocentric but not allocentric unilateral neglect: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Mauro; Damora, Alessio; Abbruzzese, Laura; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi

    2018-02-01

    Rehabilitation of unilateral neglect has focused on the ego-centric form of the disturbance. However, allocentric neglect is known to predict failure in the activities of daily life even more than egocentric neglect. We submitted a patient with severe egocentric and allocentric left-sided neglect to an extensive prism adaptation training. After treatment, the patient persisted in errors on the left side of targets (allocentric neglect) and actually it increased in parallel with her increased exploration of left space (egocentric neglect). Despite the improvement in a number of cognitive and motor areas, the patient showed limited improvement in activities of daily living (ADL). These observations confirm the dissociation between egocentric and allocentric neglect and the selective efficacy of the prism adaptation method on the former form. There is a need to develop new rehabilitation methods for allocentric neglect as this limits the complete recovery of patients particularly in terms of ADL.

  12. Child abuse and neglect in the Arab Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mahroos, Fadheela T

    2007-02-01

    To provide an overview of the problem and patterns of child abuse and neglect in the 7 countries of the Arab Peninsula, and to highlight some of the difficulties and shortcomings. This study was conducted by reviewing medical literature, published between January 1987 and May 2005. In addition, reports were obtained from regional meetings and professional organizations. Each study or report was reviewed, assessed, and summarized. Three studies from Kuwait identified 27 children; 22 with physical abuse, 3 with sexual abuse, and 2 with Munchausen's syndrome by proxy (MSP), and 3 deaths. Eleven case reports from Saudi Arabia identified 40 abused children; 24 with physical abuse, 6 with sexual abuse, 4 with MSP, and 6 with neglect. Fatal outcome was documented in 5 children. In Oman, 5 cases of MSP were reported. A total of 150 hospital-based cases were reported from Bahrain; 50 with physical abuse, 87 with sexual abuse, and 10 with both forms of abuse. In Yemen, population based surveys revealed a wide spread use of corporal punishments and cruelty to children at homes, schools, and juvenile centers, which ranged from 51-81%. Children in the Arab Peninsula are subjected to all forms of child abuse and neglect. Child abuse is ignored or may even be tolerated and accepted as a form of discipline, abused children continue to suffer and most abusers go free, unpunished and untreated. Confronting these realities is a necessary step in the long and hard road to break silence, respond to and prevent child abuse and neglect in the Arab Peninsula.

  13. Catalyst in Basic Oleochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Suyenty

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently Indonesia is the world largest palm oil producer with production volume reaching 16 million tones per annum. The high crude oil and ethylene prices in the last 3 – 4 years contribute to the healthy demand growth for basic oleochemicals: fatty acids and fatty alcohols. Oleochemicals are starting to replace crude oil derived products in various applications. As widely practiced in petrochemical industry, catalyst plays a very important role in the production of basic oleochemicals. Catalytic reactions are abound in the production of oleochemicals: Nickel based catalysts are used in the hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids; sodium methylate catalyst in the transesterification of triglycerides; sulfonic based polystyrene resin catalyst in esterification of fatty acids; and copper chromite/copper zinc catalyst in the high pressure hydrogenation of methyl esters or fatty acids to produce fatty alcohols. To maintain long catalyst life, it is crucial to ensure the absence of catalyst poisons and inhibitors in the feed. The preparation methods of nickel and copper chromite catalysts are as follows: precipitation, filtration, drying, and calcinations. Sodium methylate is derived from direct reaction of sodium metal and methanol under inert gas. The sulfonic based polystyrene resin is derived from sulfonation of polystyrene crosslinked with di-vinyl-benzene. © 2007 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.[Presented at Symposium and Congress of MKICS 2007, 18-19 April 2007, Semarang, Indonesia][How to Cite: E. Suyenty, H. Sentosa, M. Agustine, S. Anwar, A. Lie, E. Sutanto. (2007. Catalyst in Basic Oleochemicals. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 2 (2-3: 22-31.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.2.2-3.6.22-31][How to Link/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.2.2-3.6.22-31 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/6

  14. Neglect of the elderly: forensic entomology cases and considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benecke, Mark; Josephi, Eberhard; Zweihoff, Ralf

    2004-12-02

    Wounds of living persons are a potential target for the same flies that live, or feed early on corpses. This can lead to complications in estimation of PMI but also allows to determine additional information that might be valuable in a trial, or during the investigations [e.g., M. Benecke, R. Lessig, Child neglect and forensic entomology, Forensic Sci. Int. 120 (2001) 155-159]. With forensic entomology, and forensic entomologists being more and more present, even lower profile cases like the neglect of elderly people (without violence being used against them; i.e., natural death) comes to our attention. Furthermore, much more people grow older than in the past years which leads to increased awareness of malpractice of caregivers in the professional, and personal environment [DPA (German Press Agency), Studie an 17000 Leichen: Jeder Siebte vor Tod falsch gepflegt (Every seventh elderly person not cared for sufficiently), German Press Agency dpa # 051402, Jan 3, Jan 5, 2003] . We briefly sketch three cases in which forensic entomology helped to better understand the circumstances of death, and the type and intensity of neglect before death.

  15. Neglect and Extinction Depend Greatly on Task Demands: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonato, Mario

    2012-01-01

    This review illustrates how, after unilateral brain damage, the presence and severity of spatial awareness deficits for the contralesional hemispace depend greatly on the quantity of attentional resources available for performance. After a brief description of neglect and extinction, different frameworks accounting for spatial and non-spatial attentional processes will be outlined. The central part of the review describes how the performance of brain-damaged patients is negatively affected by increased task demands, which can result in the emergence of severe awareness deficits for contralesional space even in patients who perform normally on paper-and-pencil tests. Throughout the review neglect is described as a spatial syndrome that can be exacerbated in the presence and severity by both spatial and non-spatial tasks. The take-home message is that the presence and degree of contralesional neglect and extinction can be dramatically overlooked based on standard clinical (paper-and-pencil) testing, where patients can easily compensate for their deficits. Only tasks where compensation is made impossible represent an appropriate approach to detect these disabling contralesional deficits of awareness when they become subtle in post-acute stroke phases. PMID:22822394

  16. The rise of neglected tropical diseases in the "new Texas"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Within the last five years, the State of Texas has experienced either transmission or outbreaks of Ebola, chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus infections. Autochthonous transmission of neglected parasitic and bacterial diseases has also become increasingly reported. The rise of such emerging and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) has not occurred by accident but instead reflects rapidly evolving changes and shifts in a “new” Texas beset by modern and globalizing forces that include rapid expansions in population together with urbanization and human migrations, altered transportation patterns, climate change, steeply declining vaccination rates, and a new paradigm of poverty known as “blue marble health.” Summarized here are the major NTDs now affecting Texas. In addition to the vector-borne viral diseases highlighted above, there also is a high level of parasitic infections, including Chagas disease, trichomoniasis, and possibly leishmaniasis and toxocariasis, as well as typhus-group rickettsiosis, a vector-borne bacterial infection. I also highlight some of the key shifts in emerging and neglected disease patterns, partly due to an altered and evolving economic and ecological landscape in the new Texas, and provide some preliminary disease burden estimates for the major prevalent and incident NTDs. PMID:29346369

  17. Association Between Severe Dental Caries and Child Abuse and Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillevis Smitt, Henk; de Leeuw, Jenny; de Vries, Tjalling

    2017-11-01

    In their maxillofacial practice, the authors have encountered some children with severe dental caries whose teeth had to be removed; many later appeared to be abused children. The authors hypothesized that in the group of children who underwent multiple tooth extractions for caries under general anesthesia, a larger percentage would be found to be abused compared with the normal population. The authors identified children who underwent multiple tooth extractions under general anesthesia in a well-defined region in the Netherlands in 2005 and 2006. Subsequently, they sought these children in the database of the Dutch national organization against domestic violence and child abuse (Veilig Thuis) in 2015. Of the total group of 376 children, 205 (55%) underwent the procedure because of caries during this period. Child abuse and neglect was established by Veilig Thuis in 47 of these children (23%; 95% confidence interval, 20-26), whereas the procedure occurred before the child abuse was established in 27. There appears to be a strong association between severe dental caries and child abuse and neglect. Hence, severe dental caries could be regarded as an early symptom of child abuse and neglect. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The rise of neglected tropical diseases in the "new Texas".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J

    2018-01-01

    Within the last five years, the State of Texas has experienced either transmission or outbreaks of Ebola, chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus infections. Autochthonous transmission of neglected parasitic and bacterial diseases has also become increasingly reported. The rise of such emerging and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) has not occurred by accident but instead reflects rapidly evolving changes and shifts in a "new" Texas beset by modern and globalizing forces that include rapid expansions in population together with urbanization and human migrations, altered transportation patterns, climate change, steeply declining vaccination rates, and a new paradigm of poverty known as "blue marble health." Summarized here are the major NTDs now affecting Texas. In addition to the vector-borne viral diseases highlighted above, there also is a high level of parasitic infections, including Chagas disease, trichomoniasis, and possibly leishmaniasis and toxocariasis, as well as typhus-group rickettsiosis, a vector-borne bacterial infection. I also highlight some of the key shifts in emerging and neglected disease patterns, partly due to an altered and evolving economic and ecological landscape in the new Texas, and provide some preliminary disease burden estimates for the major prevalent and incident NTDs.

  19. The rise of neglected tropical diseases in the "new Texas".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Hotez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the last five years, the State of Texas has experienced either transmission or outbreaks of Ebola, chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus infections. Autochthonous transmission of neglected parasitic and bacterial diseases has also become increasingly reported. The rise of such emerging and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs has not occurred by accident but instead reflects rapidly evolving changes and shifts in a "new" Texas beset by modern and globalizing forces that include rapid expansions in population together with urbanization and human migrations, altered transportation patterns, climate change, steeply declining vaccination rates, and a new paradigm of poverty known as "blue marble health." Summarized here are the major NTDs now affecting Texas. In addition to the vector-borne viral diseases highlighted above, there also is a high level of parasitic infections, including Chagas disease, trichomoniasis, and possibly leishmaniasis and toxocariasis, as well as typhus-group rickettsiosis, a vector-borne bacterial infection. I also highlight some of the key shifts in emerging and neglected disease patterns, partly due to an altered and evolving economic and ecological landscape in the new Texas, and provide some preliminary disease burden estimates for the major prevalent and incident NTDs.

  20. Electrical installation calculations basic

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    All the essential calculations required for basic electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practice. A step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3Fo

  1. Machine shop basics

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rex

    2004-01-01

    Use the right tool the right wayHere, fully updated to include new machines and electronic/digital controls, is the ultimate guide to basic machine shop equipment and how to use it. Whether you're a professional machinist, an apprentice, a trade student, or a handy homeowner, this fully illustrated volume helps you define tools and use them properly and safely. It's packed with review questions for students, and loaded with answers you need on the job.Mark Richard Miller is a Professor and Chairman of the Industrial Technology Department at Texas A&M University in Kingsville, T

  2. Back to basics audio

    CERN Document Server

    Nathan, Julian

    1998-01-01

    Back to Basics Audio is a thorough, yet approachable handbook on audio electronics theory and equipment. The first part of the book discusses electrical and audio principles. Those principles form a basis for understanding the operation of equipment and systems, covered in the second section. Finally, the author addresses planning and installation of a home audio system.Julian Nathan joined the audio service and manufacturing industry in 1954 and moved into motion picture engineering and production in 1960. He installed and operated recording theaters in Sydney, Austra

  3. C# Database Basics

    CERN Document Server

    Schmalz, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Working with data and databases in C# certainly can be daunting if you're coming from VB6, VBA, or Access. With this hands-on guide, you'll shorten the learning curve considerably as you master accessing, adding, updating, and deleting data with C#-basic skills you need if you intend to program with this language. No previous knowledge of C# is necessary. By following the examples in this book, you'll learn how to tackle several database tasks in C#, such as working with SQL Server, building data entry forms, and using data in a web service. The book's code samples will help you get started

  4. Basic heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bacon, D H

    2013-01-01

    Basic Heat Transfer aims to help readers use a computer to solve heat transfer problems and to promote greater understanding by changing data values and observing the effects, which are necessary in design and optimization calculations.The book is concerned with applications including insulation and heating in buildings and pipes, temperature distributions in solids for steady state and transient conditions, the determination of surface heat transfer coefficients for convection in various situations, radiation heat transfer in grey body problems, the use of finned surfaces, and simple heat exc

  5. Basic bladder neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, J Quentin

    2010-11-01

    Maintenance of normal lower urinary tract function is a complex process that requires coordination between the central nervous system and the autonomic and somatic components of the peripheral nervous system. This article provides an overview of the basic principles that are recognized to regulate normal urine storage and micturition, including bladder biomechanics, relevant neuroanatomy, neural control of lower urinary tract function, and the pharmacologic processes that translate the neural signals into functional results. Finally, the emerging role of the urothelium as a sensory structure is discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Frequency control modelling - basics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Zeni, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an introduction on how the system balance in an island system can be maintained by controlling the frequency. The power balance differential equation, which is fundamental in understanding the effect on the system frequency of the unbalance between...... generation and consumption, is addressed. Basic topics on the main components of a generating unit, such generators, prime movers and governors are presented. A simple dynamic model for an island power system, containing realistic dynamic representations of generators, loads, prime movers, governors...

  7. Basic genetics for dermatologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthu Sendhil Kumaran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past few decades, advances in the field of molecular genetics have enriched us in understanding the pathogenesis of diseases, their identification, and appropriate therapeutic interventions. In the last 20 years, genetic basis of more than 350 monogenic skin diseases have been elucidated and is counting. The widespread use of molecular genetics as a tool in diagnosis is not practiced routinely due to genetic heterogenicity, limited access and low sensitivity. In this review, we have presented the very basics of genetics so as to enable dermatologists to have working understanding of medical genetics.

  8. Basic structural dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, James C

    2012-01-01

    A concise introduction to structural dynamics and earthquake engineering Basic Structural Dynamics serves as a fundamental introduction to the topic of structural dynamics. Covering single and multiple-degree-of-freedom systems while providing an introduction to earthquake engineering, the book keeps the coverage succinct and on topic at a level that is appropriate for undergraduate and graduate students. Through dozens of worked examples based on actual structures, it also introduces readers to MATLAB, a powerful software for solving both simple and complex structural d

  9. Social sciences research in neglected tropical diseases 3: Investment in social science research in neglected diseases of poverty: a case study of Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reidpath Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The level of funding provides a good proxy for the level of commitment or prioritisation given to a particular issue. While the need for research relevant to social, economic, cultural and behavioural aspects of neglected tropical diseases (NTD control has been acknowledged, there is limited data on the level of funding that supports NTD social science research. Method A case study was carried out in which the spending of a major independent funder, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF - was analysed. A total of 67 projects funded between October 1998 and November 2008 were identified from the BMGF database. With the help of keywords within the titles of 67 grantees, they were categorised as social science or non-social science research based on available definition of social science. A descriptive analysis was conducted. Results Of 67 projects analysed, 26 projects (39% were social science related while 41 projects (61% were basic science or other translational research including drug development. A total of US$ 697 million was spent to fund the projects, of which 35% ((US$ 241 million went to social science research. Although the level of funding for social science research has generally been lower than that for non-social science research over 10 year period, social science research attracted more funding in 2004 and 2008. Conclusion The evidence presented in this case study indicates that funding on NTD social science research compared to basic and translational research is not as low as it is perceived to be. However, as there is the acute need for improved delivery and utilisation of current NTD drugs/technologies, informed by research from social science approaches, funding priorities need to reflect the need to invest significantly more in NTD social science research.

  10. Social sciences research in neglected tropical diseases 3: Investment in social science research in neglected diseases of poverty: a case study of Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Subhash; Reidpath, Daniel; Allotey, Pascale

    2011-01-06

    The level of funding provides a good proxy for the level of commitment or prioritisation given to a particular issue. While the need for research relevant to social, economic, cultural and behavioural aspects of neglected tropical diseases (NTD) control has been acknowledged, there is limited data on the level of funding that supports NTD social science research. A case study was carried out in which the spending of a major independent funder, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) - was analysed. A total of 67 projects funded between October 1998 and November 2008 were identified from the BMGF database. With the help of keywords within the titles of 67 grantees, they were categorised as social science or non-social science research based on available definition of social science. A descriptive analysis was conducted. Of 67 projects analysed, 26 projects (39%) were social science related while 41 projects (61%) were basic science or other translational research including drug development. A total of US$ 697 million was spent to fund the projects, of which 35% ((US$ 241 million) went to social science research. Although the level of funding for social science research has generally been lower than that for non-social science research over 10 year period, social science research attracted more funding in 2004 and 2008. The evidence presented in this case study indicates that funding on NTD social science research compared to basic and translational research is not as low as it is perceived to be. However, as there is the acute need for improved delivery and utilisation of current NTD drugs/technologies, informed by research from social science approaches, funding priorities need to reflect the need to invest significantly more in NTD social science research.

  11. [Self-neglect in the elderly--the homeless and the Diogenes syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robben, P B

    1991-10-01

    In the health service we sometimes have to deal with patients, who have neglected themselves seriously. It is necessary to know the complex psychological and social background of self-neglect in diagnosing and treating these patients. Psychiatric disorders occur frequently. Self-neglect can cause severe bodily damage. Two situations, characterized by self-neglect, are discussed: the homeless and the Diogenes-syndrome or house-filthiness. These patients may deny their bad health and resist treatment.

  12. Basic research projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    The research programs under the cognizance of the Office of Energy Research (OER) are directed toward discovery of natural laws and new knowledge, and to improved understanding of the physical and biological sciences as related to the development, use, and control of energy. The ultimate goal is to develop a scientific underlay for the overall DOE effort and the fundamental principles of natural phenomena so that these phenomena may be understood, and new principles, formulated. The DOE-OER outlay activities include three major programs: High Energy Physics, Nuclear Physics, and Basic Energy Sciences. Taken together, these programs represent some 30 percent of the Nation's Federal support of basic research in the energy sciences. The research activities of OER involve more than 6,000 scientists and engineers working in some 17 major Federal Research Centers and at more than 135 different universities and industrial firms throughout the United States. Contract holders in the areas of high-energy physics, nuclear physics, materials sciences, nuclear science, chemical sciences, engineering, mathematics geosciences, advanced energy projects, and biological energy research are listed. Funding trends for recent years are outlined

  13. Basic research projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    The research programs under the cognizance of the Office of Energy Research (OER) are directed toward discovery of natural laws and new knowledge, and to improved understanding of the physical and biological sciences as related to the development, use, and control of energy. The ultimate goal is to develop a scientific underlay for the overall DOE effort and the fundamental principles of natural phenomena so that these phenomena may be understood, and new principles, formulated. The DOE-OER outlay activities include three major programs: High Energy Physics, Nuclear Physics, and Basic Energy Sciences. Taken together, these programs represent some 30 percent of the Nation's Federal support of basic research in the energy sciences. The research activities of OER involve more than 6,000 scientists and engineers working in some 17 major Federal Research Centers and at more than 135 different universities and industrial firms throughout the United States. Contract holders in the areas of high-energy physics, nuclear physics, materials sciences, nuclear science, chemical sciences, engineering, mathematics geosciences, advanced energy projects, and biological energy research are listed. Funding trends for recent years are outlined. (RWR)

  14. Basic and clinical immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Javier; Shearer, William T.

    2003-01-01

    Progress in immunology continues to grow exponentially every year. New applications of this knowledge are being developed for a broad range of clinical conditions. Conversely, the study of primary and secondary immunodeficiencies is helping to elucidate the intricate mechanisms of the immune system. We have selected a few of the most significant contributions to the fields of basic and clinical immunology published between October 2001 and October 2002. Our choice of topics in basic immunology included the description of T-bet as a determinant factor for T(H)1 differentiation, the role of the activation-induced cytosine deaminase gene in B-cell development, the characterization of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells, and the use of dynamic imaging to study MHC class II transport and T-cell and dendritic cell membrane interactions. Articles related to clinical immunology that were selected for review include the description of immunodeficiency caused by caspase 8 deficiency; a case series report on X-linked agammaglobulinemia; the mechanism of action, efficacy, and complications of intravenous immunoglobulin; mechanisms of autoimmunity diseases; and advances in HIV pathogenesis and vaccine development. We also reviewed two articles that explore the possible alterations of the immune system caused by spaceflights, a new field with increasing importance as human space expeditions become a reality in the 21st century.

  15. Basic scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queen, N.M.

    1978-01-01

    This series of lectures on basic scattering theory were given as part of a course for postgraduate high energy physicists and were designed to acquaint the student with some of the basic language and formalism used for the phenomenological description of nuclear reactions and decay processes used for the study of elementary particle interactions. Well established and model independent aspects of scattering theory, which are the basis of S-matrix theory, are considered. The subject is considered under the following headings; the S-matrix, cross sections and decay rates, phase space, relativistic kinematics, the Mandelstam variables, the flux factor, two-body phase space, Dalitz plots, other kinematic plots, two-particle reactions, unitarity, the partial-wave expansion, resonances (single-channel case), multi-channel resonances, analyticity and crossing, dispersion relations, the one-particle exchange model, the density matrix, mathematical properties of the density matrix, the density matrix in scattering processes, the density matrix in decay processes, and the helicity formalism. Some exercises for the students are included. (U.K.)

  16. Transportation Emissions: some basics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontovas, Christos A.; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2016-01-01

    Transportation is the backbone of international trade and a key engine driving globalization. However, there is growing concern that the Earth’s atmospheric composition is being altered by human activities, including transportation, which can lead to climate change. Air pollution from transportat...... of the energy efficiency gap and examines why governments and companies may forego cost-effective investments in energy efficiency, even though they could significantly reduce energy consumption at a lower cost....... transportation and especially carbon dioxide emissions are at the center stage of discussion by the world community through various international treaties, such as the Kyoto Protocol. The transportation sector also emits non-CO2 pollutants that have important effects on air quality, climate, and public health....... The main purpose of this chapter is to introduce some basic concepts that are relevant in the quest of green transportation logistics. First, we present the basics of estimating emissions from transportation activities, the current statistics and future trends, as well as the total impact of air emissions...

  17. Deployment Status and Child Neglect Types in the U.S. Army.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozza, Stephen J; Whaley, Gloria L; Fisher, Joscelyn E; Zhou, Jing; Ortiz, Claudio D; McCarroll, James E; Fullerton, Carol S; Ursano, Robert J

    2018-02-01

    Increases in combat deployments have been associated with rises in rates of child neglect in U.S. military families. Although various types of child neglect have been described in military families, it is unknown whether deployment status is associated with specific types of child neglect and whether other factors, such as substance misuse, play a role. To determine the contribution of service member deployment status to the risk of specific child neglect types, data were collected from 390 substantiated U.S. Army child neglect case files. The contributions of deployment status at the time of the neglect incident and parental alcohol or drug-related misuse to risk of neglect types were examined controlling for military family rank and child age. Compared to never deployed families, families with a service member concurrently deployed at the time of the neglect incident were at higher risk for failure to provide physical needs, lack of supervision, and educational neglect, but at lower risk for emotional neglect. Being previously deployed incurred risk for moral-legal neglect. Substance misuse added risk for moral-legal and educational neglect. Findings indicate the need for tailored prevention strategies to target different periods within the deployment cycle.

  18. The Neural Correlates of Object-Centered Processing in Reading: A Lesion Study of Neglect Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptak, Radek; Di Pietro, Marie; Schnider, Armin

    2012-01-01

    Neglect dyslexia--a peripheral reading disorder generally associated with left spatial neglect--is characterized by omissions or substitutions of the initial letters of words. Several observations suggest that neglect dyslexia errors are independent of viewer-centered coordinates; the disorder is therefore thought to reflect impairment at the…

  19. Assessment of Visuospatial Neglect in Stroke Patients Using Virtual Reality: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannink, Michiel J. A.; Aznar, Miguel; de Kort, Alexander Cornelis; van de Vis, Wim; Veltink, Peter; van der Kooij, Herman

    2009-01-01

    One of the neuropsychological deficits that can result from a stroke is the neglect phenomenon. Neglect has traditionally been assessed with paper-and-pencil tasks, which are administered within the reaching space of a person. The purpose of this explorative study is to investigate whether it is possible to assess neglect in the extrapersonal…

  20. Preventing and Reporting Child Abuse and Neglect: Guidance for School Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Cindy

    This guide for Colorado educators and other school personnel is intended to help define child abuse and neglect and develop appropriate policy and training programs. Sections address the following topics: identifying child abuse and neglect; identifying physical abuse; identifying neglect and emotional abuse; identifying sexual abuse; responding…