WorldWideScience

Sample records for neglected disease research

  1. Neglected infectious diseases: are push and pull incentive mechanisms suitable for promoting drug development research?

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    Mueller-Langer, Frank

    2013-04-01

    Infectious diseases are among the main causes of death and disability in developing countries, and they are a major reason for the health disparity between rich and poor countries. One of the reasons for this public health tragedy is a lack of lifesaving essential medicines, which either do not exist or badly need improvements. In this article, we analyse which of the push and pull mechanisms proposed in the recent literature may serve to promote research into neglected infectious diseases. A combination of push programmes that subsidise research inputs through direct funding and pull programmes that reward research output rather than research input may be the appropriate strategy to stimulate research into neglected diseases. On the one hand, early-stage (basic) research should be supported through push mechanisms, such as research grants or publicly financed research institutions. On the other hand, pull mechanisms, such as prize funds that link reward payments to the health impacts of effective medicines, have the potential to stimulate research into neglected diseases.

  2. Social sciences research in neglected tropical diseases 3: Investment in social science research in neglected diseases of poverty: a case study of Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

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    Pokhrel, Subhash; Reidpath, Daniel; Allotey, Pascale

    2011-01-06

    The level of funding provides a good proxy for the level of commitment or prioritisation given to a particular issue. While the need for research relevant to social, economic, cultural and behavioural aspects of neglected tropical diseases (NTD) control has been acknowledged, there is limited data on the level of funding that supports NTD social science research. A case study was carried out in which the spending of a major independent funder, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) - was analysed. A total of 67 projects funded between October 1998 and November 2008 were identified from the BMGF database. With the help of keywords within the titles of 67 grantees, they were categorised as social science or non-social science research based on available definition of social science. A descriptive analysis was conducted. Of 67 projects analysed, 26 projects (39%) were social science related while 41 projects (61%) were basic science or other translational research including drug development. A total of US$ 697 million was spent to fund the projects, of which 35% ((US$ 241 million) went to social science research. Although the level of funding for social science research has generally been lower than that for non-social science research over 10 year period, social science research attracted more funding in 2004 and 2008. The evidence presented in this case study indicates that funding on NTD social science research compared to basic and translational research is not as low as it is perceived to be. However, as there is the acute need for improved delivery and utilisation of current NTD drugs/technologies, informed by research from social science approaches, funding priorities need to reflect the need to invest significantly more in NTD social science research.

  3. Social sciences research in neglected tropical diseases 3: Investment in social science research in neglected diseases of poverty: a case study of Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reidpath Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The level of funding provides a good proxy for the level of commitment or prioritisation given to a particular issue. While the need for research relevant to social, economic, cultural and behavioural aspects of neglected tropical diseases (NTD control has been acknowledged, there is limited data on the level of funding that supports NTD social science research. Method A case study was carried out in which the spending of a major independent funder, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF - was analysed. A total of 67 projects funded between October 1998 and November 2008 were identified from the BMGF database. With the help of keywords within the titles of 67 grantees, they were categorised as social science or non-social science research based on available definition of social science. A descriptive analysis was conducted. Results Of 67 projects analysed, 26 projects (39% were social science related while 41 projects (61% were basic science or other translational research including drug development. A total of US$ 697 million was spent to fund the projects, of which 35% ((US$ 241 million went to social science research. Although the level of funding for social science research has generally been lower than that for non-social science research over 10 year period, social science research attracted more funding in 2004 and 2008. Conclusion The evidence presented in this case study indicates that funding on NTD social science research compared to basic and translational research is not as low as it is perceived to be. However, as there is the acute need for improved delivery and utilisation of current NTD drugs/technologies, informed by research from social science approaches, funding priorities need to reflect the need to invest significantly more in NTD social science research.

  4. Global aspirations, local realities: the role of social science research in controlling neglected tropical diseases.

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    Bardosh, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are both drivers and manifestations of poverty and social inequality. Increased advocacy efforts since the mid-2000s have led to ambitious new control and elimination targets set for 2020 by the World Health Organisation. While these global aspirations represent significant policy momentum, there are multifaceted challenges in controlling infectious diseases in resource-poor local contexts that need to be acknowledged, understood and engaged. However a number of recent publications have emphasised the "neglected" status of applied social science research on NTDs. In light of the 2020 targets, this paper explores the social science/NTD literature and unpacks some of the ways in which social inquiry can help support effective and sustainable interventions. Five priority areas are discussed, including on policy processes, health systems capacity, compliance and resistance to interventions, education and behaviour change, and community participation. The paper shows that despite the multifaceted value of having anthropological and sociological perspectives integrated into NTD programmes, contemporary efforts underutilise this potential. This is reflective of the dominance of top-down information flows and technocratic approaches in global health. To counter this tendency, social research needs to be more than an afterthought; integrating social inquiry into the planning, monitoring and evaluating process will help ensure that flexibility and adaptability to local realities are built into interventions. More emphasis on social science perspectives can also help link NTD control to broader social determinants of health, especially important given the major social and economic inequalities that continue to underpin transmission in endemic countries.

  5. The German government's global health strategy--a strategy also to support research and development for neglected diseases?

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    Fehr, Angela; Razum, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Neglected tropical infectious diseases as well as rare diseases are characterized by structural research and development (R&D) deficits. The market fails for these disease groups. Consequently, to meet public health and individual patient needs, political decision makers have to develop strategies at national and international levels to make up for this R&D deficit. The German government recently published its first global health strategy. The strategy underlines the German government's commitment to strengthening global health governance. We find, however, that the strategy lacks behind the international public health endeavors for neglected diseases. It fails to make reference to the ongoing debate on a global health agreement. Neither does it outline a comprehensive national strategy to promote R&D into neglected diseases, which would integrate existing R&D activities in Germany and link up to the international debate on sustainable, needs-based R&D and affordable access. This despite the fact that only recently, in a consensus-building process, a National Plan of Action for rare diseases was successfully developed in Germany which could serve as a blueprint for a similar course of action for neglected diseases. We recommend that, without delay, a structured process be initiated in Germany to explore all options to promote R&D for neglected diseases, including a global health agreement.

  6. Intersectoral approaches to neglected diseases.

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    Ault, Steven K

    2008-01-01

    The neglected diseases are a diverse group of communicable diseases that affect principally the world's poorest people. They are linked to poverty, as both a cause and a consequence of same, and affect community security and family productivity. The neglected diseases cause acute and chronic illness, disability, and sometimes death, and they may carry stigma for those infected. Current interventions for neglected diseases emphasize the health sector, but to achieve sustainability and simultaneously combat poverty, an intersectoral approach to their prevention and control is needed. This chapter outlines some concepts for an intersectoral approach, including interventions from the nutrition and food security, education, and environmental sectors.

  7. Canada's neglected tropical disease research network: who's in the core-who's on the periphery?

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    Kaye Phillips

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study designed and applied accessible yet systematic methods to generate baseline information about the patterns and structure of Canada's neglected tropical disease (NTD research network; a network that, until recently, was formed and functioned on the periphery of strategic Canadian research funding. METHODOLOGY: MULTIPLE METHODS WERE USED TO CONDUCT THIS STUDY, INCLUDING: (1 a systematic bibliometric procedure to capture archival NTD publications and co-authorship data; (2 a country-level "core-periphery" network analysis to measure and map the structure of Canada's NTD co-authorship network including its size, density, cliques, and centralization; and (3 a statistical analysis to test the correlation between the position of countries in Canada's NTD network ("k-core measure" and the quantity and quality of research produced. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Over the past sixty years (1950-2010, Canadian researchers have contributed to 1,079 NTD publications, specializing in Leishmania, African sleeping sickness, and leprosy. Of this work, 70% of all first authors and co-authors (n = 4,145 have been Canadian. Since the 1990s, however, a network of international co-authorship activity has been emerging, with representation of researchers from 62 different countries; largely researchers from OECD countries (e.g. United States and United Kingdom and some non-OECD countries (e.g. Brazil and Iran. Canada has a core-periphery NTD international research structure, with a densely connected group of OECD countries and some African nations, such as Uganda and Kenya. Sitting predominantly on the periphery of this research network is a cluster of 16 non-OECD nations that fall within the lowest GDP percentile of the network. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The publication specialties, composition, and position of NTD researchers within Canada's NTD country network provide evidence that while Canadian researchers currently remain the overall gatekeepers

  8. Current pipelines for neglected diseases.

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    Paolo di Procolo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper scrutinises pipelines for Neglected Diseases (NDs, through freely accessible and at-least-weekly updated trials databases. It updates to 2012 data provided by recent publications, and integrates these analyses with information on location of trials coordinators and patients recruitment status. Additionally, it provides (i disease-specific information to better understand the rational of investments in NDs, (ii yearly data, to understand the investment trends. The search identified 650 clinical studies. Leishmaniasis, Arbovirus infection, and Dengue are the top three diseases by number of clinical studies. Disease diffusion risk seems to be the most important driver of the clinical trials target choice, whereas the role played by disease prevalence and unmet need is controversial. Number of trials is stable between 2005 and 2010, with an increase in the last two years. Patient recruitment was completed for most studies (57.6%, and Phases II and III account for 35% and 28% of trials, respectively. The primary purpose of clinical investigations is prevention (49.3%, especially for infectious diseases with mosquitoes and sand flies as the vector, and treatment (43.2%, which is the primary target for parasitic diseases Research centres and public organisations are the most important clinical studies sponsors (58.9%, followed by the pharmaceutical industry (24.1%, foundations and non-governmental organisations (9.3%. Many coordinator centres are located in less affluent countries (43.7%, whereas OECD countries and BRICS account for 34.7% and 17.5% of trials, respectively. Information was partially missing for some parameters. Notwithstanding, and despite its descriptive nature, this research has enhanced the evidence of the literature on pipelines for NDs. Future contributions may further investigate whether trials metrics are consistent with the characteristics of the interested countries and the explicative variables of trials location

  9. Current pipelines for neglected diseases.

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    di Procolo, Paolo; Jommi, Claudio

    2014-09-01

    This paper scrutinises pipelines for Neglected Diseases (NDs), through freely accessible and at-least-weekly updated trials databases. It updates to 2012 data provided by recent publications, and integrates these analyses with information on location of trials coordinators and patients recruitment status. Additionally, it provides (i) disease-specific information to better understand the rational of investments in NDs, (ii) yearly data, to understand the investment trends. The search identified 650 clinical studies. Leishmaniasis, Arbovirus infection, and Dengue are the top three diseases by number of clinical studies. Disease diffusion risk seems to be the most important driver of the clinical trials target choice, whereas the role played by disease prevalence and unmet need is controversial. Number of trials is stable between 2005 and 2010, with an increase in the last two years. Patient recruitment was completed for most studies (57.6%), and Phases II and III account for 35% and 28% of trials, respectively. The primary purpose of clinical investigations is prevention (49.3%), especially for infectious diseases with mosquitoes and sand flies as the vector, and treatment (43.2%), which is the primary target for parasitic diseases Research centres and public organisations are the most important clinical studies sponsors (58.9%), followed by the pharmaceutical industry (24.1%), foundations and non-governmental organisations (9.3%). Many coordinator centres are located in less affluent countries (43.7%), whereas OECD countries and BRICS account for 34.7% and 17.5% of trials, respectively. Information was partially missing for some parameters. Notwithstanding, and despite its descriptive nature, this research has enhanced the evidence of the literature on pipelines for NDs. Future contributions may further investigate whether trials metrics are consistent with the characteristics of the interested countries and the explicative variables of trials location, target

  10. Building local research and development capacity for the prevention and cure of neglected diseases: the case of India.

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    Kettler, H E; Modi, R

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the proposal to build research and development (R&D) capabilities for dealing with neglected infectious and tropical diseases in countries where they are endemic, as a potentially cost- and time-effective way to fill the gap between the supply of and need for new medicines. With reference to the situation in India, we consider the competencies and incentives needed by companies so that their strategy can be shifted from reverse engineering of existing products to investment in R&D for new products. This requires complex reforms, of which the intellectual property rights agreement is only one. We also consider whether Indian companies capable of conducting research and development are likely to target neglected diseases. Patterns of patenting and of R&D, together with evidence from interviews we have conducted, suggest that Indian companies, like multinational corporations, are likely to target global diseases because of the prospect of much greater returns. Further studies are required on how Indian companies would respond to push and pull incentives originally designed to persuade multinational corporations to do more R&D on neglected diseases.

  11. Prodrugs for the Treatment of Neglected Diseases

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    Lorena Blau

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, World Health Organization (WHO and Medicins San Frontieres (MSF proposed a classification of diseases as global, neglected and extremely neglected. Global diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular and mental (CNS diseases represent the targets of the majority of the R&D efforts of pharmaceutical companies. Neglected diseases affect millions of people in the world yet existing drug therapy is limited and often inappropriate. Furthermore, extremely neglected diseases affect people living under miserable conditions who barely have access to the bare necessities for survival. Most of these diseases are excluded from the goals of the R&D programs in the pharmaceutical industry and therefore fall outside the pharmaceutical market. About 14 million people, mainly in developing countries, die each year from infectious diseases. From 1975 to 1999, 1393 new drugs were approved yet only 1% were for the treatment of neglected diseases [3]. These numbers have not changed until now, so in those countries there is an urgent need for the design and synthesis of new drugs and in this area the prodrug approach is a very interesting field. It provides, among other effects, activity improvements and toxicity decreases for current and new drugs, improving market availability. It is worth noting that it is essential in drug design to save time and money, and prodrug approaches can be considered of high interest in this respect. The present review covers 20 years of research on the design of prodrugs for the treatment of neglected and extremely neglected diseases such as Chagas’ disease (American trypanosomiasis, sleeping sickness (African trypanosomiasis, malaria, sickle cell disease, tuberculosis, leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis.

  12. Coordinating research on neglected parasitic diseases in Southeast Asia through networking.

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    Olveda, Remigio; Leonardo, Lydia; Zheng, Feng; Sripa, Banchob; Bergquist, Robert; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2010-01-01

    The new dialogue between stakeholders, that is, scientists, research administrators and donors as well as the populations victimized by endemic infections, is initiating a virtuous circle leading to lower disease-burdens, improved public health and the mitigation of poverty. There is now general agreement that control activities need research collaboration to advance, while surveillance plays an increasingly important role in sustaining long-term relief. On the part of the Regional Network on Asian Schistosomiasis and Other Helminth Zoonoses (RNAS(+)), this has led to a new vision not only focused on general strengthening of research capabilities but also on furthering efforts to close the gap between research and control and bridge different branches of science. From its original, exclusive focus on schistosomiasis, RNAS(+) has expanded to include food-borne and soil-transmitted helminth infections as well. Its current repository of data on the distribution, prevalence and severity of these diseases is increasingly utilised by decision makers charged with epidemiological control in the endemic countries. Thanks to a more rapid translation of research results into control applications and the dissemination of data and new technology through networking, the overall situation is improving. Working as a virtual organisation of researchers and control officers in the endemic countries of Southeast Asia, RNAS(+) is playing an important role in this conversion. Its responsibilities are divided along disease lines into five main areas, but no serious, endemic disease is considered to be outside the network's sphere of interest. This chapter recounts some of the more important RNAS(+) accomplishments, pinpoints potential directions for future operations and highlights areas where research is most needed.

  13. RRR for NNN-a rapid research response for the Neglected Tropical Disease NGDO Network: a novel framework to challenges faced by the global programs targeting neglected tropical diseases.

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    Toledo, Chelsea E; Jacobson, Julie; Wainwright, Emily C; Ottesen, Eric A; Lammie, Patrick J

    2016-03-01

    While global programs targeting the control or elimination of five of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs)-lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis, schistosomiasis and trachoma-are well underway, they still face many operational challenges. Because of the urgency of 2020 program targets, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the U.S. Agency for International Development devised a novel rapid research response (RRR) framework to engage national programs, researchers, implementers and WHO in a Coalition for Operational Research on NTDs. After 2 years, this effort has succeeded as an important basis for the research response to programmatic challenges facing NTD programs.

  14. Human Echinococcosis: A Neglected Disease

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    António Menezes da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcosis is among the most neglected parasitic diseases. Development of new drugs and other treatment modalities receives very little attention, if any. In most developed countries, Cystic Echinococcosis (CE is an imported disease of very low incidence and prevalence and is found almost exclusively in migrants from endemic regions. In endemic regions, predominantly settings with limited resources, patient numbers are high. Whole communities do not have access to appropriate treatment. The choice of treatment modalities is limited because of poor infrastructure and shortage of equipment and drugs. In this context, CE meets the criteria for a neglected disease. Furthermore, the terminology related to the designations around the parasite, its evolution and some therapeutic procedures is not uniform and sometimes inappropriate terms and wrong designations are used based on incorrect concepts. Although all of us know the different aspects of the disease it is pertinent to remember some important points and, above all, to clarify some aspects concerning the hydatid cyst's nomenclature in order to understand better the therapeutic options in the liver locations, particularly the different surgical approaches.

  15. Trypanosomatid parasites causing neglected diseases.

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    Nussbaum, K; Honek, J; Cadmus, C M C v C; Efferth, T

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic diseases such as Kala azar (visceral leishmaniasis), Chagas disease human (American trypanosomiasis) and African sleeping sickness (African trypanosomiasis) are affecting more than 27 million people worldwide. They are categorized amongst the most important neglected diseases causing approximately 150,000 deaths annually. As no vaccination is available, treatment is solely dependent on chemotherapeutic drugs. This review provides a comprehensive insight into the treatment of Kala azar, Chagas disease and African sleeping sickness. In addition to established drugs, novel small molecule- based therapeutic approaches are discussed. Drugs currently used for the treatment of Kala azar include pentavalent antimonials, Amphotericin B, Miltefosine, and Paromomycin. Liposomal formulations such as AmBisome provide promising alternatives. Furthermore, antiproliferative compounds might open new avenues in Kala azar treatment. Regarding Chagas disease, chemotherapy is based on two drugs, Nifurtimox and Benznidazole. However, sequencing of T. cruzi genome in the year 2005 raises a hope for new drug targets. Proteases, sterols and sialic acids are potential promising drug targets. Suramin, Pentamidine, Melarsporol and Eflornithine are well-established drugs to treat African sleeping sickness. New treatment options include combination therapy of Eflornithine and Nifurtimox, a Chagas disease therapeutic.. However, all approved chemotherapeutic compounds for trypanosomatid diseases suffer from high toxicity. Further, increasing resistance limits their efficacy and compliance.

  16. Using Co-authorship Networks to Map and Analyse Global Neglected Tropical Disease Research with an Affiliation to Germany.

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    Max Ernst Bender

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs has increased in recent decades, and significant need-gaps in diagnostic and treatment tools remain. Analysing bibliometric data from published research is a powerful method for revealing research efforts, partnerships and expertise. We aim to identify and map NTD research networks in Germany and their partners abroad to enable an informed and transparent evaluation of German contributions to NTD research.A SCOPUS database search for articles with German author affiliations that were published between 2002 and 2012 was conducted for kinetoplastid and helminth diseases. Open-access tools were used for data cleaning and scientometrics (OpenRefine, geocoding (OpenStreetMaps and to create (Table2Net, visualise and analyse co-authorship networks (Gephi. From 26,833 publications from around the world that addressed 11 diseases, we identified 1,187 (4.4% with at least one German author affiliation, and we processed 972 publications for the five most published-about diseases. Of those, we extracted 4,007 individual authors and 863 research institutions to construct co-author networks. The majority of co-authors outside Germany were from high-income countries and Brazil. Collaborations with partners on the African continent remain scattered. NTD research within Germany was distributed among 220 research institutions. We identified strong performers on an individual level by using classic parameters (number of publications, h-index and social network analysis parameters (betweenness centrality. The research network characteristics varied strongly between diseases.The share of NTD publications with German affiliations is approximately half of its share in other fields of medical research. This finding underlines the need to identify barriers and expand Germany's otherwise strong research activities towards NTDs. A geospatial analysis of research collaborations with partners abroad can support decisions to

  17. Tabanids: neglected subjects of research, but important vectors of disease agents!

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    Baldacchino, Frédéric; Desquesnes, Marc; Mihok, Steve; Foil, Lane D; Duvallet, Gérard; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn

    2014-12-01

    Tabanids are nuisance pests for people and livestock because of their painful and irritating bite, persistent biting behavior, and blood ingestion. About 4400 tabanid species have been described; they are seasonally present in all kinds of landscapes, latitudes, and altitudes. High populations have a significant economic impact on outdoor activities, tourism, and livestock production. Tabanids are also vectors of animal disease agents, including viruses, bacteria and parasites. However, tabanids have received little attention in comparison with other hematophagous Diptera. Here, we highlight the many direct and indirect impacts of tabanids and provide a brief summary of tabanid morphology, biology, and life cycle. Impacts include pathogen transmission, parasite transportation (Dermatobia hominis), biological transmission (Loa loa), and mechanical transmission of viruses, such as equine infectious anemia virus, protozoa, such as Trypanosoma evansi and Besnotia besnoiti, and bacteria, such as Bacillus anthracis and Anaplasma marginale. We discuss parameters of mechanical transmission and its mathematical modeling. Control methods for tabanid populations are also summarized; these include trapping, the use of insecticides, repellents, and livestock protection. Lastly recommendations are provided for the direction of future research.

  18. Vaccines to combat the neglected tropical diseases

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    Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Cole, Rhea N.; Guo, Xiaoti; Kamhawi, Shaden; Lightowlers, Marshall W.; Loukas, Alex; Petri, William; Reed, Steven; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Hotez, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) represent a group of parasitic and related infectious diseases such as amebiasis, Chagas disease, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, hookworm, leishmaniasis, and schistosomiasis. Together, these conditions are considered the most common infections in low- and middle-income countries, where they produce a level of global disability and human suffering equivalent to better known conditions such as human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and malaria. Despite their global public health importance, progress on developing vaccines for NTD pathogens has lagged because of some key technical hurdles and the fact that these infections occur almost exclusively in the world’s poorest people living below the World Bank poverty line. In the absence of financial incentives for new products, the multinational pharmaceutical companies have not embarked on substantive research and development programs for the neglected tropical disease vaccines. Here, we review the current status of scientific and technical progress in the development of new neglected tropical disease vaccines, highlighting the successes that have been achieved (cysticercosis and echinococcosis) and identifying the challenges and opportunities for development of new vaccines for NTDs. Also highlighted are the contributions being made by non-profit product development partnerships that are working to overcome some of the economic challenges in vaccine manufacture, clinical testing, and global access. PMID:21198676

  19. Vaccines to combat the neglected tropical diseases.

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    Bethony, Jeffrey M; Cole, Rhea N; Guo, Xiaoti; Kamhawi, Shaden; Lightowlers, Marshall W; Loukas, Alex; Petri, William; Reed, Steven; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Hotez, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) represent a group of parasitic and related infectious diseases such as amebiasis, Chagas disease, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, hookworm, leishmaniasis, and schistosomiasis. Together, these conditions are considered the most common infections in low- and middle-income countries, where they produce a level of global disability and human suffering equivalent to better known conditions such as human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and malaria. Despite their global public health importance, progress on developing vaccines for NTD pathogens has lagged because of some key technical hurdles and the fact that these infections occur almost exclusively in the world's poorest people living below the World Bank poverty line. In the absence of financial incentives for new products, the multinational pharmaceutical companies have not embarked on substantive research and development programs for the neglected tropical disease vaccines. Here, we review the current status of scientific and technical progress in the development of new neglected tropical disease vaccines, highlighting the successes that have been achieved (cysticercosis and echinococcosis) and identifying the challenges and opportunities for development of new vaccines for NTDs. Also highlighted are the contributions being made by non-profit product development partnerships that are working to overcome some of the economic challenges in vaccine manufacture, clinical testing, and global access. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Computational models for neglected diseases: gaps and opportunities.

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    Ponder, Elizabeth L; Freundlich, Joel S; Sarker, Malabika; Ekins, Sean

    2014-02-01

    Neglected diseases, such as Chagas disease, African sleeping sickness, and intestinal worms, affect millions of the world's poor. They disproportionately affect marginalized populations, lack effective treatments or vaccines, or existing products are not accessible to the populations affected. Computational approaches have been used across many of these diseases for various aspects of research or development, and yet data produced by computational approaches are not integrated and widely accessible to others. Here, we identify gaps in which computational approaches have been used for some neglected diseases and not others. We also make recommendations for the broad-spectrum integration of these techniques into a neglected disease drug discovery and development workflow.

  1. Elder self-neglect: research and practice

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    Dong XQ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available XinQi Dong Rush Institute for Healthy Aging, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Elder self-neglect is a global public health and human rights issue that threatens older people’s health and safety. It commonly refers to refusal or failure to provide oneself with care and protection in areas of food, water, clothing, hygiene, medication, living environments, and safety precautions. While prevalent, the status of self-neglecting individuals remains largely unclear, in particular within community-dwelling populations. By reviewing the epidemiology of elder self-neglect (definition, prevalence, risk factors, and consequences to date, the present paper identifies key research gaps such as methodological inconsistency in case identification and measurement, and study designs that are inadequate to determine risk factors of self-neglect. More importantly, in light of the rapidly growing older population, relevant stakeholders (researchers, healthcare providers, social service providers, legal professionals, community organizations, and policymakers must be prepared for an expected increasing number of self-neglect cases and enlarging scope of the problem. Hence, in this article, I present an overview regarding the management issues of elderly self-neglect related to the detection, assessment, reporting and referral, and decision-making capacity. Based on the current literature, the paper is aimed to explore the present knowledge and challenges, and how they can pave the way for solutions to self-neglect research, practice, and policy. Keywords: elderly self-neglect, elder abuse, self-neglect future directions 

  2. Therapeutics for Rare and Neglected Diseases

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    Federal Laboratory Consortium — There are more than 6,500 identified rare and neglected diseases, yet only about 250 treatments are available for these conditions. The limited numbers of patients...

  3. Chemistry and pharmacology of neglected helminthic diseases.

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    Müllner, A; Helfer, A; Kotlyar, D; Oswald, J; Efferth, T

    2011-01-01

    Neglected helminthic diseases cause many social, economic and health care challenges in developing countries. The high number of patients suffering from these parasitic infections and the lack of sufficient treatment options represent severe problems. Research on new drugs and therapies to meet this urgent requirement has to be intensified. This review focuses on infections caused by four helminthic parasites, which have been declared as neglected diseases by the World Health Organization: namely drancunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchoceriasis, and schistosomiasis. They show a considerable overlap in their world-wide prevalence and treatment strategies. Nevertheless, treatment is not without complications. The most efficient lymphatic filariasis drug, diethylcarbamazine, causes severe adverse effects in onchocerciasis patients and completely fails in the treatment of drancunculiasis. In this review, we discuss these incongruities at the molecular and cellular level. Furthermore, established or investigational drug combination regimens are highlighted. In the past years, progress has been made in the area of schistosomiasis and onchocerciasis. The molecular biology of underlying mechanisms, signalling pathways and related targets affected by drug therapy are discussed in detail. Finally, successful treatment strategies and remaining future challenges are summarized.

  4. Staphylococcal disease in Africa: another neglected 'tropical' disease.

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    Herrmann, Mathias; Abdullah, Salim; Alabi, Abraham; Alonso, Pedro; Friedrich, Alexander W; Fuhr, Günther; Germann, Anja; Kern, Winfried V; Kremsner, Peter G; Mandomando, Inacio; Mellmann, Alexander C; Pluschke, Gerd; Rieg, Siegbert; Ruffing, Ulla; Schaumburg, Frieder; Tanner, Marcel; Peters, Georg; von Briesen, Hagen; von Eiff, Christof; von Müller, Lutz; Grobusch, Martin P

    2013-01-01

    The term 'neglected tropical diseases' predominantly refers to single-entity, mostly parasitic diseases. However, a considerable morbidity and mortality burden is carried by patients infected with Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative bacilli that are prevalent all over the world, yet have impact in tropical and developing countries, particularly in children, with much higher incidence rates than those reported from developed countries. Staphylococcus aureus is among these pathogens. The African-German StaphNet consortium uses microbiological characterization of African S. aureus isolates, including identification of virulence factors, alongside the gathering of epidemiological and clinical data in an innovative research network between a European country (Germany) and several African partners. By creating an accessible strain repository and by implementing personnel training and capacity building, this network aims to put staphylococcal disease on the international agenda as a truly neglected condition with a major global impact on public health.

  5. Raynaud's Syndrome: a neglected disease.

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    Poredos, Pavel; Poredos, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Raynaud's Syndrome is a frequent manifestation of digital ischemia which occurs or is aggravated upon exposure to cold temperatures or emotional distress. Primary Raynaud is a benign disease which predominantly affects younger women and is transient without serious sequelae. In contrast, secondary Raynaud is usually one of the manifestations of systemic disease and is, in addition to symptoms of the basic disease, associated with ischemic lesions. The diagnosis of primary Raynaud is mostly based on the clinical presentation. In secondary Raynaud, additional investigating techniques including imaging investigations and laboratory tests for the detection of underline disease are needed. Treatment is based on lifestyle modification, which includes smoking cessation, avoiding low outside temperatures, avoiding the use of vibrating tools and limiting repeated hand actions. Drug treatment consists of calcium-channel blockers, nitroglycerine ointments, prostacyclins and various new drugs such as endothelin receptor antagonists, phosphodiesterase inhibitors and serotonin receptor antagonists. Most of these drugs are effective in less than 50% of treated patients and do not completely abolish vasospastic attacks, but reduce the severity and frequency of attacks. The prostacyclin derivate iloprost is the most promising drug in the management of secondary Raynaud's disease. Other therapeutic procedures including chemical or surgical sympathectomy are obsolete and without any long-term positive effects.

  6. Research misconduct: A neglected plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Manjiri A; Dodamani, Arun S; Khairnar, Mahesh R; Naik, Rahul G

    2017-01-01

    Truthfulness and honesty are absolute essentials of research. But to sustain in the not-so-pleasant "publish-or-perish" environment and "cut-throat" competition to increase the credibility associated with one's name, many individual researchers as well as research groups are turning towards research misconduct and this plague is gradually reaching epidemic and pandemic proportions. This overview highlights the various types and means of research misconduct and gives suggestions aiming to curb this academic menace so that research sanctity and integrity can be preserved and scientific research does not get polluted by the dirt of misreported or fabricated data.

  7. Reviewing dengue: still a neglected tropical disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Horstick

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is currently listed as a "neglected tropical disease" (NTD. But is dengue still an NTD or not? Classifying dengue as an NTD may carry advantages, but is it justified? This review considers the criteria for the definition of an NTD, the current diverse lists of NTDs by different stakeholders, and the commonalities and differences of dengue with other NTDs. We also review the current research gaps and research activities and the adequacy of funding for dengue research and development (R&D (2003-2013. NTD definitions have been developed to a higher precision since the early 2000s, with the following main features: NTDs are characterised as a poverty related, b endemic to the tropics and subtropics, c lacking public health attention, d having poor research funding and shortcomings in R&D, e usually associated with high morbidity but low mortality, and f often having no specific treatment available. Dengue meets most of these criteria, but not all. Although dengue predominantly affects resource-limited countries, it does not necessarily only target the poor and marginalised in those countries. Dengue increasingly attracts public health attention, and in some affected countries it is now a high profile disease. Research funding for dengue has increased exponentially in the past two decades, in particular in the area of dengue vaccine development. However, despite advances in dengue research, dengue epidemics are increasing in frequency and magnitude, and dengue is expanding to new areas. Specific treatment and a highly effective vaccine remain elusive. Major research gaps exist in the area of integrated surveillance and vector control. Hence, although dengue differs from many of the NTDs, it still meets important criteria commonly used for NTDs. The current need for increased R&D spending, shared by dengue and other NTDs, is perhaps the key reason why dengue should continue to be considered an NTD.

  8. The control of neglected zoonotic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abela-Ridder, Bernadette; Welburn, Sue; Johansen, Maria Vang

    on accelerating work to overcome the global impact of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) and Resolution WHA66.12 on NTDs adopted by the World Health Assembly in May 2013 have enhanced visibility of zoonotic NTDs¬ – notably rabies, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, human African trypanosomiasis, foodborne...

  9. The control of neglected zoonotic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abela-Ridder, Bernadette; Welburn, Sue; Johansen, Maria Vang;

    on accelerating work to overcome the global impact of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) and Resolution WHA66.12 on NTDs adopted by the World Health Assembly in May 2013 have enhanced visibility of zoonotic NTDs¬ – notably rabies, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, human African trypanosomiasis, foodborne...

  10. Drug discovery and development for neglected diseases: the DNDi model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Chatelain

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Eric Chatelain, Jean-Robert IosetDrugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative (DNDi, Geneva, SwitzerlandAbstract: New models of drug discovery have been developed to overcome the lack of modern and effective drugs for neglected diseases such as human African trypanosomiasis (HAT; sleeping sickness, leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease, which have no financial viability for the pharmaceutical industry. With the purpose of combining the skills and research capacity in academia, pharmaceutical industry, and contract researchers, public–private partnerships or product development partnerships aim to create focused research consortia that address all aspects of drug discovery and development. These consortia not only emulate the projects within pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, eg, identification and screening of libraries, medicinal chemistry, pharmacology and pharmacodynamics, formulation development, and manufacturing, but also use and strengthen existing capacity in disease-endemic countries, particularly for the conduct of clinical trials. The Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (DNDi has adopted a model closely related to that of a virtual biotechnology company for the identification and optimization of drug leads. The application of this model to the development of drug candidates for the kinetoplastid infections of HAT, Chagas disease, and leishmaniasis has already led to the identification of new candidates issued from DNDi’s own discovery pipeline. This demonstrates that the model DNDi has been implementing is working but its DNDi, neglected diseases sustainability remains to be proven.Keywords: R&D, screening, lead optimization, human African trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, product development partnerships

  11. Development of and access to products for neglected diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Cohen

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Prior research on neglected disease drug development suggested inadequate funding was responsible for relatively few new approvals. In response, significantly more resources have been allocated towards development of drugs targeting neglected diseases. Our objective was to reassess drug development between 1975 and 1999, evaluate progress in neglected disease drug development since 2000, and explain how increased numbers of approvals are a necessary but insufficient condition to improving access. METHODS: To assess numbers of approvals targeting neglected diseases, we employed two distinct methodologies: First, to revisit numbers published in Trouiller et al. (2002 we used their method to count marketed new chemical entities (NCEs between 1975 and 1999. Second, using the G-Finder report as a benchmark, we identified which diseases are currently considered "neglected" to tally approvals in the 1975-1999 and 2000-2009 periods. Searching PharmaProjects and IMS R&D Focus databases as well as websites from numerous drug regulatory agencies, we identified new drug approvals and indications. Also, we examined the World Health Organization's (WHO Essential Drug List (EDL to see which drugs and indications were on the list. FINDINGS: Upon recount, using Trouiller et al. methodology, we found that between 1975 and 1999 more NCEs (n = 32 targeting tropical diseases and tuberculosis were approved than reported in Trouiller et al. (n = 16. Using the G-Finder method of defining neglected diseases, we found 46 new drug approvals between 1975 and 1999. WHO included 85% of these drugs on the EDL. In the period 2000 to May 2009, despite much greater funding, only 26 new drugs and vaccines for neglected diseases were marketed. Of these, WHO placed 50% on the EDL. CONCLUSIONS: Product approvals for neglected diseases have increased, though progress has been uneven, with malaria appearing to benefit most in the short run from increased funding, while

  12. Integrated Healthcare Delivery: A Qualitative Research Approach to Identifying and Harmonizing Perspectives of Integrated Neglected Tropical Disease Programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Rubin Means

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available While some evidence supports the beneficial effects of integrating neglected tropical disease (NTD programs to optimize coverage and reduce costs, there is minimal information regarding when or how to effectively operationalize program integration. The lack of systematic analyses of integration experiences and of integration processes may act as an impediment to achieving more effective NTD programming. We aimed to learn about the experiences of NTD stakeholders and their perceptions of integration.We evaluated differences in the definitions, roles, perceived effectiveness, and implementation experiences of integrated NTD programs among a variety of NTD stakeholder groups, including multilateral organizations, funding partners, implementation partners, national Ministry of Health (MOH teams, district MOH teams, volunteer rural health workers, and community members participating in NTD campaigns. Semi-structured key informant interviews were conducted. Coding of themes involved a mix of applying in-vivo open coding and a priori thematic coding from a start list.In total, 41 interviews were conducted. Salient themes varied by stakeholder, however dominant themes on integration included: significant variations in definitions, differential effectiveness of specific integrated NTD activities, community member perceptions of NTD programs, the influence of funders, perceived facilitators, perceived barriers, and the effects of integration on health system strength. In general, stakeholder groups provided unique perspectives, rather than contrarian points of view, on the same topics. The stakeholders identified more advantages to integration than disadvantages, however there are a number of both unique facilitators and challenges to integration from the perspective of each stakeholder group.Qualitative data suggest several structural, process, and technical opportunities that could be addressed to promote more effective and efficient integrated NTD

  13. Snakebite envenomation turns again into a neglected tropical disease!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippaux, Jean-Philippe

    2017-01-01

    On June 9(th), 2017 WHO categorized snakebite envenomation into the Category A of the Neglected Tropical Diseases. This new situation will allow access to new funding, paving the way for wider and deeper researches. It should also expand the accessibility of antivenoms. Let us hope that it also leads to cooperation among stakeholders, aiming at improving the management of snakebites in developing countries.

  14. Neglected tropical diseases outside the tropics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca F Norman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Due to the growth in international travel and immigration, NTDs may be diagnosed in countries of the western world, but there has been no specific focus in the literature on imported NTDs. METHODS: Retrospective study of a cohort of immigrants and travelers diagnosed with one of the 13 core NTDs at a Tropical Medicine Referral Unit in Spain during the period April 1989-December 2007. Area of origin or travel was recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: There were 6168 patients (2634 immigrants, 3277 travelers and 257 VFR travelers in the cohort. NTDs occurred more frequently in immigrants, followed by VFR travelers and then by other travelers (p<0.001 for trend. The main NTDs diagnosed in immigrants were onchocerciasis (n = 240, 9.1% acquired mainly in sub-Saharan Africa, Chagas disease (n = 95, 3.6% in immigrants from South America, and ascariasis (n = 86, 3.3% found mainly in immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa. Most frequent NTDs in travelers were: schistosomiasis (n = 43, 1.3%, onchocerciasis (n = 17, 0.5% and ascariasis (n = 16, 0.5%, and all were mainly acquired in sub-Saharan Africa. The main NTDs diagnosed in VFR travelers were onchocerciasis (n = 14, 5.4%, and schistosomiasis (n = 2, 0.8%. CONCLUSIONS: The concept of imported NTDs is emerging as these infections acquire a more public profile. Specific issues such as the possibility of non-vectorial transmission outside endemic areas and how some eradication programmes in endemic countries may have an impact even in non-tropical western countries are addressed. Recognising NTDs even outside tropical settings would allow specific prevention and control measures to be implemented and may create unique opportunities for research in future.

  15. Mansonelliasis, a neglected parasitic disease in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raccurt, Christian Pierre; Brasseur, Philippe; Boncy, Jacques

    2014-09-01

    Reported in Haiti as early as 1923, Mansonella ozzardi is still a neglected disease ignored by the health authorities of the country. This review is an update on the geographic distribution of the coastal foci of mansonelliasis in Haiti, the epidemiological profile and prevalence rates of microfilariae in people living in endemic areas, the clinical impact of the parasite on health and the efficiency of the transmission of the parasite among three Culicoides biting-midge species identified as vectors in Haiti. Additionally, interest in establishing a treatment programme to combat this parasite using a single dose of ivermectin is emphasised.

  16. Drug discovery and development for neglected diseases: the DNDi model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, Eric; Ioset, Jean-Robert

    2011-03-16

    New models of drug discovery have been developed to overcome the lack of modern and effective drugs for neglected diseases such as human African trypanosomiasis (HAT; sleeping sickness), leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease, which have no financial viability for the pharmaceutical industry. With the purpose of combining the skills and research capacity in academia, pharmaceutical industry, and contract researchers, public-private partnerships or product development partnerships aim to create focused research consortia that address all aspects of drug discovery and development. These consortia not only emulate the projects within pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, eg, identification and screening of libraries, medicinal chemistry, pharmacology and pharmacodynamics, formulation development, and manufacturing, but also use and strengthen existing capacity in disease-endemic countries, particularly for the conduct of clinical trials. The Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (DNDi) has adopted a model closely related to that of a virtual biotechnology company for the identification and optimization of drug leads. The application of this model to the development of drug candidates for the kinetoplastid infections of HAT, Chagas disease, and leishmaniasis has already led to the identification of new candidates issued from DNDi's own discovery pipeline. This demonstrates that the model DNDi has been implementing is working but its DNDi, neglected diseases sustainability remains to be proven.

  17. Co-authorship network analysis: a powerful tool for strategic planning of research, development and capacity building programs on neglected diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Medicis Morel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New approaches and tools were needed to support the strategic planning, implementation and management of a Program launched by the Brazilian Government to fund research, development and capacity building on neglected tropical diseases with strong focus on the North, Northeast and Center-West regions of the country where these diseases are prevalent. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Based on demographic, epidemiological and burden of disease data, seven diseases were selected by the Ministry of Health as targets of the initiative. Publications on these diseases by Brazilian researchers were retrieved from international databases, analyzed and processed with text-mining tools in order to standardize author- and institution's names and addresses. Co-authorship networks based on these publications were assembled, visualized and analyzed with social network analysis software packages. Network visualization and analysis generated new information, allowing better design and strategic planning of the Program, enabling decision makers to characterize network components by area of work, identify institutions as well as authors playing major roles as central hubs or located at critical network cut-points and readily detect authors or institutions participating in large international scientific collaborating networks. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Traditional criteria used to monitor and evaluate research proposals or R&D Programs, such as researchers' productivity and impact factor of scientific publications, are of limited value when addressing research areas of low productivity or involving institutions from endemic regions where human resources are limited. Network analysis was found to generate new and valuable information relevant to the strategic planning, implementation and monitoring of the Program. It afforded a more proactive role of the funding agencies in relation to public health and equity goals, to scientific capacity building

  18. Co-authorship Network Analysis: A Powerful Tool for Strategic Planning of Research, Development and Capacity Building Programs on Neglected Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Carlos Medicis; Serruya, Suzanne Jacob; Penna, Gerson Oliveira; Guimarães, Reinaldo

    2009-01-01

    Background New approaches and tools were needed to support the strategic planning, implementation and management of a Program launched by the Brazilian Government to fund research, development and capacity building on neglected tropical diseases with strong focus on the North, Northeast and Center-West regions of the country where these diseases are prevalent. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on demographic, epidemiological and burden of disease data, seven diseases were selected by the Ministry of Health as targets of the initiative. Publications on these diseases by Brazilian researchers were retrieved from international databases, analyzed and processed with text-mining tools in order to standardize author- and institution's names and addresses. Co-authorship networks based on these publications were assembled, visualized and analyzed with social network analysis software packages. Network visualization and analysis generated new information, allowing better design and strategic planning of the Program, enabling decision makers to characterize network components by area of work, identify institutions as well as authors playing major roles as central hubs or located at critical network cut-points and readily detect authors or institutions participating in large international scientific collaborating networks. Conclusions/Significance Traditional criteria used to monitor and evaluate research proposals or R&D Programs, such as researchers' productivity and impact factor of scientific publications, are of limited value when addressing research areas of low productivity or involving institutions from endemic regions where human resources are limited. Network analysis was found to generate new and valuable information relevant to the strategic planning, implementation and monitoring of the Program. It afforded a more proactive role of the funding agencies in relation to public health and equity goals, to scientific capacity building objectives and a more

  19. Priority setting and the 'neglected' tropical diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, David

    2006-06-01

    In this paper David Canning argues that interventions against 'neglected' tropical diseases should be thought of as investments in human capital and form an integral part of global poverty reduction. He argues that overall burden of disease should not be the criterion for priority setting; if the goal is to maximize health benefits from a fixed health budget then cost-effective interventions should be prioritized. Whilst many people find objectionable the assignment of a monetary value to health, a cost-benefit approach, combining health and economic benefits, would allow the health sector to present arguments to policy makers, based on the rate of return on investment. Since many health interventions in low-income countries have exceptionally high rankings in terms of cost-benefit ratios, this should result in large flows from other sectors to the health sector.

  20. [Human hantavirus diseases - still neglected zoonoses?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrbovská, V; Chalupa, P; Straková, P; Hubálek, Z; Rudolf, I

    2015-10-01

    Hantavirus disease is the most common rodent-borne viral infection in the Czech Republic, with a mean annual incidence of 0.02 cases per 100 000 population and specific antibodies detected in 1% of the human population. Four hantaviruses (Puumala, Dobrava-Belgrade, Tula, and Seewis) circulate in this country, of which Puumala virus (responsible for a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome called nephropathia epidemica) and Dobrava-Belgrade virus (causing haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome) have been proven to cause human disease. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive review of the hantaviruses occurring in the Czech Republic, based on the literature published during the past three decades, including their geographical distribution and clinical symptoms. The recent detection of Tula virus in an immunocompromised person as well as reports of Seoul virus infections in Europe highlight the possible emergence of neglected hantavirus infections in the foreseeable future.

  1. Staphylococcal disease in Africa : another neglected 'tropical' disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrmann, Mathias; Abdullah, Salim; Alabi, Abraham; Alonso, Pedro; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Fuhr, Guenther; Germann, Anja; Kern, Winfried V.; Kremsner, Peter G.; Mandomando, Inacio; Mellmann, Alexander C.; Pluschke, Gerd; Rieg, Siegbert; Ruffing, Ulla; Schaumburg, Frieder; Tanner, Marcel; von Briesen, Hagen; von Eiff, Christof; von Mueller, Lutz; Grobusch, Martin P.; Peters, Georg

    The term 'neglected tropical diseases' predominantly refers to single-entity, mostly parasitic diseases. However, a considerable morbidity and mortality burden is carried by patients infected with Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative bacilli that are prevalent all over the world, yet have impact in

  2. Staphylococcal disease in Africa : another neglected 'tropical' disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrmann, Mathias; Abdullah, Salim; Alabi, Abraham; Alonso, Pedro; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Fuhr, Guenther; Germann, Anja; Kern, Winfried V.; Kremsner, Peter G.; Mandomando, Inacio; Mellmann, Alexander C.; Pluschke, Gerd; Rieg, Siegbert; Ruffing, Ulla; Schaumburg, Frieder; Tanner, Marcel; von Briesen, Hagen; von Eiff, Christof; von Mueller, Lutz; Grobusch, Martin P.; Peters, Georg

    2013-01-01

    The term 'neglected tropical diseases' predominantly refers to single-entity, mostly parasitic diseases. However, a considerable morbidity and mortality burden is carried by patients infected with Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative bacilli that are prevalent all over the world, yet have impact in

  3. Development of Novel Therapeutics for Neglected Tropical Disease Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    developmental need of lead optimization in the context of drug potency and specificity. Solubility and stability, key parameters in the development of... research team from CIDEIM in Colombia has established a robust assay to estimate the susceptibility of Leishmania spp parasites to various drugs used in...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0169 TITLE: Development of Novel Therapeutics for Neglected Tropical Disease Leishmaniasis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR

  4. Bibliometric Assessment of European and Sub-Saharan African Research Output on Poverty-Related and Neglected Infectious Diseases from 2003 to 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gabrielle Breugelmans

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The European & Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP is a partnership of European and sub-Saharan African countries that aims to accelerate the development of medical interventions against poverty-related diseases (PRDs. A bibliometric analysis was conducted to 1 measure research output from European and African researchers on PRDs, 2 describe collaboration patterns, and 3 assess the citation impact of clinical research funded by EDCTP.Disease-specific research publications were identified in Thomson Reuters Web of Science using search terms in titles, abstracts and keywords. Publication data, including citation counts, were extracted for 2003-2011. Analyses including output, share of global papers, normalised citation impact (NCI, and geographical distribution are presented. Data are presented as five-year moving averages. European EDCTP member countries accounted for ~33% of global research output in PRDs and sub-Saharan African countries for ~10% (2007-2011. Both regions contributed more to the global research output in malaria (43.4% and 22.2%, respectively. The overall number of PRD papers from sub-Saharan Africa increased markedly (>47% since 2003, particularly for HIV/AIDS (102% and tuberculosis (TB (81%, and principally involving Southern and East Africa. For 2007-2011, European and sub-Saharan African research collaboration on PRDs was highly cited compared with the world average (NCI in brackets: HIV/AIDS 1.62 (NCI: 1.16, TB 2.11 (NCI: 1.06, malaria 1.81 (NCI: 1.22, and neglected infectious diseases 1.34 (NCI: 0.97. The NCI of EDCTP-funded papers for 2003-2011 was exceptionally high for HIV/AIDS (3.24, TB (4.08 and HIV/TB co-infection (5.10 compared with global research benchmarks (1.14, 1.05 and 1.35, respectively.The volume and citation impact of papers from sub-Saharan Africa has increased since 2003, as has collaborative research between Europe and sub-Saharan Africa. >90% of publications from EDCTP

  5. Medical Imaging of Neglected Tropical Diseases of the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patrick; Mazal, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Neglected tropical diseases are a group of protozoan, parasitic, bacterial, and viral diseases endemic in 149 countries causing substantial illness globally. Extreme poverty and warm tropical climates are the 2 most potent forces promoting the spread of neglected tropical diseases. These forces are prevalent in Central and South America, as well as the U.S. Gulf Coast. Advanced cases often require specialized medical imaging for diagnosis, disease staging, and follow-up. This article offers a review of epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis (with special attention to medical imaging), and treatment of neglected tropical diseases specific to the Americas.

  6. Immunity against HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis during co-infections with neglected infectious diseases: recommendations for the European Union research priorities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Boraschi

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases remain a major health and socioeconomic problem in many low-income countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. For many years, the three most devastating diseases, HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis (TB have received most of the world's attention. However, in rural and impoverished urban areas, a number of infectious diseases remain neglected and cause massive suffering. It has been calculated that a group of 13 neglected infectious diseases affects over one billion people, corresponding to a sixth of the world's population. These diseases include infections with different types of worms and parasites, cholera, and sleeping sickness, and can cause significant mortality and severe disabilities in low-income countries. For most of these diseases, vaccines are either not available, poorly effective, or too expensive. Moreover, these neglected diseases often occur in individuals who are also affected by HIV/AIDS, malaria, or TB, making the problem even more serious and indicating that co-infections are the rule rather than the exception in many geographical areas. To address the importance of combating co-infections, scientists from 14 different countries in Africa and Europe met in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, on September 9-11, 2007. The message coming from these scientists is that the only possibility for winning the fight against infections in low-income countries is by studying, in the most global way possible, the complex interaction between different infections and conditions of malnourishment. The new scientific and technical tools of the post-genomic era can allow us to reach this goal. However, a concomitant effort in improving education and social conditions will be needed to make the scientific findings effective.

  7. Brazil's neglected tropical diseases: an overview and a report card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J; Fujiwara, Ricardo T

    2014-08-01

    Today, the nation of Brazil leads the Western Hemisphere in terms of the number of its citizens living with neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). These diseases continue to trap Brazil's "bottom 20 million" in extreme poverty.

  8. Neglected diseases amid wealth in the United States and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Neglected tropical diseases are not exclusive to low-income countries. In the United States, such infections account for a sizable but largely hidden disease burden among minority populations living in poverty and among people of African descent in particular. Similar infections also occur in Europe. As efforts to control neglected tropical diseases expand throughout Africa, parallel efforts should also target poor and forgotten people in wealthy nations.

  9. Integrated dataset of screening hits against multiple neglected disease pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Nwaka

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available New chemical entities are desperately needed that overcome the limitations of existing drugs for neglected diseases. Screening a diverse library of 10,000 drug-like compounds against 7 neglected disease pathogens resulted in an integrated dataset of 744 hits. We discuss the prioritization of these hits for each pathogen and the strong correlation observed between compounds active against more than two pathogens and mammalian cell toxicity. Our work suggests that the efficiency of early drug discovery for neglected diseases can be enhanced through a collaborative, multi-pathogen approach.

  10. First Universities Allied for Essential Medicines (UAEM) Neglected Diseases and Innovation Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musselwhite, Laura W; Maciag, Karolina; Lankowski, Alex; Gretes, Michael C; Wellems, Thomas E; Tavera, Gloria; Goulding, Rebecca E; Guillen, Ethan

    2012-01-01

    Universities Allied for Essential Medicines organized its first Neglected Diseases and Innovation Symposium to address expanding roles of public sector research institutions in innovation in research and development of biomedical technologies for treatment of diseases, particularly neglected tropical diseases. Universities and other public research institutions are increasingly integrated into the pharmaceutical innovation system. Academic entities now routinely undertake robust high-throughput screening and medicinal chemistry research programs to identify lead compounds for small molecule drugs and novel drug targets. Furthermore, product development partnerships are emerging between academic institutions, non-profit entities, and biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies to create diagnostics, therapies, and vaccines for diseases of the poor. With not for profit mission statements, open access publishing standards, open source platforms for data sharing and collaboration, and a shift in focus to more translational research, universities and other public research institutions are well-placed to accelerate development of medical technologies, particularly for neglected tropical diseases.

  11. First Universities Allied for Essential Medicines (UAEM) Neglected Diseases and Innovation Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musselwhite, Laura W.; Maciag, Karolina; Lankowski, Alex; Gretes, Michael C.; Wellems, Thomas E.; Tavera, Gloria; Goulding, Rebecca E.; Guillen, Ethan

    2012-01-01

    Universities Allied for Essential Medicines organized its first Neglected Diseases and Innovation Symposium to address expanding roles of public sector research institutions in innovation in research and development of biomedical technologies for treatment of diseases, particularly neglected tropical diseases. Universities and other public research institutions are increasingly integrated into the pharmaceutical innovation system. Academic entities now routinely undertake robust high-throughput screening and medicinal chemistry research programs to identify lead compounds for small molecule drugs and novel drug targets. Furthermore, product development partnerships are emerging between academic institutions, non-profit entities, and biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies to create diagnostics, therapies, and vaccines for diseases of the poor. With not for profit mission statements, open access publishing standards, open source platforms for data sharing and collaboration, and a shift in focus to more translational research, universities and other public research institutions are well-placed to accelerate development of medical technologies, particularly for neglected tropical diseases. PMID:22232453

  12. Brainstem: neglected locus in neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea T Grinberg

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The most frequent neurodegenerative diseases (NDs are Alzheimer’s disease (AD, Parkinson’s disease (PD, and frontotemporal lobar degeneration associated with protein TDP-43 (FTLD-TDP. Neuropathologically, NDs are characterized by abnormal intracellular and extracellular protein deposits and by disease-specific neuronal death. Practically all terminal stages of NDs are clinically associated with dementia. Therefore, major attention was directed to protein deposits and neuron loss in supratentorial (telencephalic brain regions in the course of NDs. This was also true for PD, although the pathological hallmark of PD is degeneration of pigmented neurons of the brainstem’s substantia nigra. However, PD pathophysiology was explained by dopamine depletion in the telencephalic basal ganglia due to insufficiency and degeneration of the projection neurons located in substantia nigra. In a similar line of argumentation AD- and FTLD-related clinical deficits were exclusively explained by supratentorial allo- and neocortical laminar neuronal necrosis. Recent comprehensive studies in AD and PD early stages found considerable and unexpected involvement of brainstem nuclei, which could have the potential to profoundly change our present concepts on origin, spread, and early clinical diagnosis of these diseases. In contrast with PD and AD, few studies addressed brainstem involvement in the course of the different types of FTLD-TDP. Some of the results, including ours, disclosed a higher and more widespread pathology than anticipated. The present review will focus mainly on the impact of brainstem changes during the course of the most frequent NDs including PD, AD, and FTLD-TDP, with special emphasis on the need for more comprehensive research on FTLDs.

  13. Tailoring mass drug administration to context: implementation research is critical in achieving equitable progress in the control and elimination of helminth neglected tropical diseases in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Laura; Page, Samantha; Hawkins, Kate; Stothard, Russell; Thomson, Rachael; Wanji, Samuel; Gyapong, Margaret; Anagbogu, Ifeoma; Molyneux, David; Theobald, Sally

    2016-07-01

    The concept of a technological quick fix or 'magic-bullet' for control and elimination of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) is flawed. NTDs are embedded within complex biological and social systems that are shaped by ecological and political contexts. This commentary emphasises the need for implementation research to address implementation gaps in the control of NTDs. With a specific focus on sub-Saharan Africa and helminth diseases amenable to preventive chemotherapy through mass drug administration, we explore the important role of context, programme partnerships and community in achieving equitable and effective NTD control.

  14. Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative model of drug development for neglected diseases: current status and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioset, Jean-Robert; Chang, Shing

    2011-09-01

    The Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (DNDi) is a patients' needs-driven organization committed to the development of new treatments for neglected diseases. Created in 2003, DNDi has delivered four improved treatments for malaria, sleeping sickness and visceral leishmaniasis. A main DNDi challenge is to build a solid R&D portfolio for neglected diseases and to deliver preclinical candidates in a timely manner using an original model based on partnership. To address this challenge DNDi has remodeled its discovery activities from a project-based academic-bound network to a fully integrated process-oriented platform in close collaboration with pharmaceutical companies. This discovery platform relies on dedicated screening capacity and lead-optimization consortia supported by a pragmatic, structured and pharmaceutical-focused compound sourcing strategy.

  15. Rift Valley fever: A neglected zoonotic disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a serious viral disease of animals and humans in Africa and the Middle East that is transmitted by mosquitoes. First isolated in Kenya during an outbreak in 1930, subsequent outbreaks have had a significant impact on animal and human health, as well as national economies. ...

  16. [Noma/Cancrum oris: a neglected disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Moro, Maria; García-Merino, Enrique; Martín-Del-Rey, Angel; García-Sánchez, Enrique; García-Sánchez, José Elías

    2015-10-01

    Noma is an aggressive orofacial gangrenous pathology that damages hard and soft tissues of the mouth and the face. Throughout the centuries it has been present around the globe, but nowadays it has practically disappeared from developed countries and mainly affects children from the most disadvantaged places, especially in Africa. Noma disease is a multifactorial process; malnutrition, debilitating diseases (bacterial or viral systemic diseases, HIV-associated immunosuppression, etc.) and intraoral infections are some of the factors implied. The characteristic tissue necrosis is produced by a polymicrobial infection. Fusobacterium necrophorum, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella melaninogenica, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Bacteroides fragilis, Bacillus cereus, Trueperella pyogenes, spyrochetes, etc, are some of the species that have been isolated from the affected areas. Without treatment, noma is lethal in a short period of time, and the patients that survive show severe sequelae that hinder their life and interpersonal relationships. The aim of this paper is to unify the existing information and to promote wider knowledge and awareness among the population.

  17. Benznidazole Shortage Makes Chagas Disease a Neglected Tropical Disease in Developed Countries: Data from Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Miriam; Norman, Francesca F.; Pérez-Molina, José Antonio; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2012-01-01

    Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease endemic in Latin America. The first-line treatment option is benznidazole, but stocks are expected to run out in the coming months. Spain would need around 5 million benznidazole tablets. This drug shortage could make Chagas disease a neglected tropical disease also in developed countries. PMID:22826485

  18. Novelties on amoebiasis: A neglected tropical disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Ximénez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with the 1997 documents of the World Health Organization (WHO, amoebiasis is defined as the infection by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica with or without clinical manifestations. The only known natural host of E. histolytica is the human with the large intestine as major target organ. This parasite has a very simple life cycle in which the infective form is the cyst, considered a resistant form of parasite: The asymptomatic cyst passers and the intestinal amoebiasis patients are the transmitters; they excrete cysts in their feces, which can contaminate food and water sources. E. histolytica sensu stricto is the potentially pathogenic species and E. dispar is a commensal non-pathogenic Entamoeba. Both species are biochemical, immunological and genetically distinct. The knowledge of both species with different pathogenic phenotypes comes from a large scientific debate during the second half of the 20 th century, which gave place to the rapid development of diagnostics technology based on molecular and immunological strategies. During the last ten years, knowledge of the new epidemiology of amoebiasis in different geographic endemic and non-endemic areas has been obtained by applying mostly molecular techniques. In the present work we highlight novelties on human infection and the disease that can help the general physician from both endemic and non-endemic countries in their medical practice, particularly, now that emigration is undoubtedly a global phenomenon that is modifying the previous geography of infectious diseases worldwide.

  19. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Neglected Tropical Diseases: a Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Houweling (Tanja); H.E. Karim-Kos (Henrike); M.C. Kulik (Margarete); W.A. Stolk (Wilma); J.A. Haagsma (Juanita); E.J. Lenk (Edeltraud J.); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik); S.J. de Vlas (Sake)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are generally assumed to be concentrated in poor populations, but evidence on this remains scattered. We describe within-country socioeconomic inequalities in nine NTDs listed in the London Declaration for intensified control and/or

  20. Neglected diseases of neglected populations: Thinking to reshape the determinants of health in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ault Steven K

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People living in poverty throughout the developing world are heavily burdened with neglected communicable diseases and often marginalized by the health sector. These diseases are currently referred to as Neglected Diseases of Neglected Populations. The neglected diseases create social and financial burdens to the individual, the family, the community, and the nation. Discussion Numerous studies of successful individual interventions to manage communicable disease determinants in various types of communities have been published, but few have applied multiple interventions in an integrated, coordinated manner. We have identified a series of successful interventions and developed three hypothetical scenarios where such interventions could be applied in an integrated, multi-disease, inter-programmatic, and/or inter-sectoral approach for prevention and control of neglected diseases in three different populations: a slum, an indigenous community, and a city with a mix of populations. Summary The objective of this paper is to identify new opportunities to address neglected diseases, improve community health and promote sustainable development in neglected populations by highlighting examples of key risk and protective factors for neglected diseases which can be managed and implemented through multi-disease-based, integrated, inter-programmatic, and/or inter-sectoral approaches. Based on a literature review, analysis and development of scenarios we visualize how multiple interventions could manage multiple disease problems and propose these as possible strategies to be tested. We seek to stimulate intra- and inter-sectoral dialogue which will help in the construction of new strategies for neglected diseases (particularly for the parasitic diseases which could benefit the poor and marginalized based on the principle of sustainability and understanding of key determinants of health, and lead to the establishment of pilot projects and

  1. Researchers warn of neglect to basic science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Russia is losing its standing as a scientific powerhouse and its science is in a state of decline, according to a new report by the information-services provider Thomson Reuters. Entitled "The New Geography of Science: Research and Collaboration in Russia", the report warns that the country's research base "has a problem, and it shows little sign of a solution".

  2. NEOFLAVONOIDS WITH IMPLICATIONS IN NEGLECTED DISEASES: AN TECNOLOGICA FORECASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Laylson Da Silva Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to make a technological forecasting about the neoflavonoids and its implications in treatment of neglected diseases (NDs. Thus, this research was carried out through a comprehensive and systematic bibliographic search in articles and patents. The articles were searched in the database of the Periodical of CAPES, Science Direct, Scopus, Pub Med, Web of Science and ACS Publications. The patent research was performed in bases of the INPI, EPO, WIPO, USPTO and SIPO. According to the results obtained, it was possible to observe that the neoflavonoids may be a new source of medications for the treatment of NDs, since were found studies that attributed activity for the treatment of malaria, trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis. Large part of published documents was in the form of scientific articles and a small part in the form of deposit of record of patent applications. In this way, this work can serve as an incentive of technological innovation for the development of new research involving neoflavonoids, seen that the record number of deposits of patent applications is still relatively insufficient to meet the current demand for technological and scientific innovation with relation to NDs.

  3. Toward an open-access global database for mapping, control, and surveillance of neglected tropical diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hürlimann, Eveline; Schur, Nadine; Boutsika, Konstantina;

    2011-01-01

    After many years of general neglect, interest has grown and efforts came under way for the mapping, control, surveillance, and eventual elimination of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Disease risk estimates are a key feature to target control interventions, and serve as a benchmark...... for monitoring and evaluation. What is currently missing is a georeferenced global database for NTDs providing open-access to the available survey data that is constantly updated and can be utilized by researchers and disease control managers to support other relevant stakeholders. We describe the steps taken...

  4. Neglected tropical diseases: progress towards addressing the chronic pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux, David H; Savioli, Lorenzo; Engels, Dirk

    2017-01-21

    The concept of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) emerged more than a decade ago and has been recognised as a valid way to categorise diseases that affect the poorest individuals. Substantial progress in control and elimination has been achieved and policy momentum has been generated through continued bilateral, philanthropic, and non-governmental development organisation (NGDO) support, and donations of drugs from pharmaceutical companies. WHO has defined a Roadmap to reach 2020 targets, which was endorsed by member states in a World Health Assembly Resolution in 2013. NTDs have been included within the Sustainable Development Goal targets and are a crucial component of universal health coverage, conceptualised as "leaving no one behind". WHO reported that more than 1 billion people in 88 countries have benefited from preventive chemotherapy in 2014. The research agenda has defined the need for affordable products (diagnostics, drugs and insecticides). However challenges such as insecurity and weak health systems continue to prevail in the poorest countries, inhibiting progress in scaling up and also in achieving Roadmap goals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Social stigma towards neglected tropical diseases: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstraat, Karlijn; van Brakel, Wim H

    2016-03-01

    People affected by neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are frequently the target of social stigmatization. To date not much attention has been given to stigma in relation to NTDs. The objective of this review is to identify the extent of social stigma and the similarities and differences in the causes, manifestations, impact of stigma and interventions used between the NTDs. A systematic review was conducted in Pubmed, ScienceDirect, PsycINFO and Web of Knowledge. The search encompassed 17 NTDs, including podoconiosis, but not leprosy as this NTD has recently been reviewed. However, leprosy was included in the discussion. The 52 selected articles provided evidence on stigma related to lymphatic filariasis (LF), podoconiosis, Buruli ulcer, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, trachoma, soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) and human African trypanosomiasis. The similarities predominated in stigma related to the various NTDs; only minimal differences in stigma reasons and measures were found. These similarities suggest that joint approaches to reduce stigmatization may be feasible. Lessons from leprosy and other stigmatized health conditions can be used to plan such joint approaches. Further research will be necessary to study the efficacy of joint interventions and to investigate stigma related to NTDs for which no evidence is available yet. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Earth Observation, Spatial Data Quality, and Neglected Tropical Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Nicholas A. S.; Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J.; Clements, Archie C. A.

    2015-01-01

    Earth observation (EO) is the use of remote sensing and in situ observations to gather data on the environment. It finds increasing application in the study of environmentally modulated neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Obtaining and assuring the quality of the relevant spatially and temporally indexed EO data remain challenges. Our objective was to review the Earth observation products currently used in studies of NTD epidemiology and to discuss fundamental issues relating to spatial data quality (SDQ), which limit the utilization of EO and pose challenges for its more effective use. We searched Web of Science and PubMed for studies related to EO and echinococossis, leptospirosis, schistosomiasis, and soil-transmitted helminth infections. Relevant literature was also identified from the bibliographies of those papers. We found that extensive use is made of EO products in the study of NTD epidemiology; however, the quality of these products is usually given little explicit attention. We review key issues in SDQ concerning spatial and temporal scale, uncertainty, and the documentation and use of quality information. We give examples of how these issues may interact with uncertainty in NTD data to affect the output of an epidemiological analysis. We conclude that researchers should give careful attention to SDQ when designing NTD spatial-epidemiological studies. This should be used to inform uncertainty analysis in the epidemiological study. SDQ should be documented and made available to other researchers. PMID:26678393

  7. Earth Observation, Spatial Data Quality, and Neglected Tropical Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Nicholas A S; Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J; Clements, Archie C A

    2015-12-01

    Earth observation (EO) is the use of remote sensing and in situ observations to gather data on the environment. It finds increasing application in the study of environmentally modulated neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Obtaining and assuring the quality of the relevant spatially and temporally indexed EO data remain challenges. Our objective was to review the Earth observation products currently used in studies of NTD epidemiology and to discuss fundamental issues relating to spatial data quality (SDQ), which limit the utilization of EO and pose challenges for its more effective use. We searched Web of Science and PubMed for studies related to EO and echinococossis, leptospirosis, schistosomiasis, and soil-transmitted helminth infections. Relevant literature was also identified from the bibliographies of those papers. We found that extensive use is made of EO products in the study of NTD epidemiology; however, the quality of these products is usually given little explicit attention. We review key issues in SDQ concerning spatial and temporal scale, uncertainty, and the documentation and use of quality information. We give examples of how these issues may interact with uncertainty in NTD data to affect the output of an epidemiological analysis. We conclude that researchers should give careful attention to SDQ when designing NTD spatial-epidemiological studies. This should be used to inform uncertainty analysis in the epidemiological study. SDQ should be documented and made available to other researchers.

  8. Evaluating Multidisciplinary Child Abuse and Neglect Teams: A Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalayants, Marina; Epstein, Irwin

    2005-01-01

    A review of child welfare research literature reveals that although multidisciplinary teams are increasingly used to investigate and intervene in child abuse and neglect cases, the field does not know enough about their structural variations, implementation processes, or effectiveness. Moreover, although articles advocating multidisciplinary teams…

  9. Which new approaches to tackling neglected tropical diseases show promise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Jerry M; Dharamsi, Shafik; Wasan, Kishor M; Yassi, Annalee; Singer, Burton; Hotez, Peter J; Hanson, Christy; Bundy, Donald A P

    2010-05-18

    This PLoS Medicine Debate examines the different approaches that can be taken to tackle neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Some commentators, like Jerry Spiegel and colleagues from the University of British Columbia, feel there has been too much focus on the biomedical mechanisms and drug development for NTDs, at the expense of attention to the social determinants of disease. Burton Singer argues that this represents another example of the inappropriate "overmedicalization" of contemporary tropical disease control. Peter Hotez and colleagues, in contrast, argue that the best return on investment will continue to be mass drug administration for NTDs.

  10. Which new approaches to tackling neglected tropical diseases show promise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry M Spiegel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This PLoS Medicine Debate examines the different approaches that can be taken to tackle neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. Some commentators, like Jerry Spiegel and colleagues from the University of British Columbia, feel there has been too much focus on the biomedical mechanisms and drug development for NTDs, at the expense of attention to the social determinants of disease. Burton Singer argues that this represents another example of the inappropriate "overmedicalization" of contemporary tropical disease control. Peter Hotez and colleagues, in contrast, argue that the best return on investment will continue to be mass drug administration for NTDs.

  11. [To overcome neglected tropical diseases by global health governance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jia-Wen; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2013-04-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are common infections of the poorest people of the world. The WHO publication of a roadmap that lays out the vision for ending the misery caused by NTDs has inspired the London Declaration on NTDs, which demonstrates that the global public-health agenda now embraces NTDs. This review discusses the advantages of global health governance in overcoming NTDs, and points out the potential ways of the involvement of China in global health through international collaboration.

  12. Hookworm infection: A neglected tropical disease of mankind

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammed Hossain; Jamal Uddin Bhuiyan

    2016-01-01

    Hookworm infection, a global problem of human, is caused by both Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus. These parasites are considered as important blood feeding nematodes. Hookworm is usually prevalent among the people who live with low socio-economic status. However, this tropical disease is neglected in most cases. This review was aimed at investigating the insights of hookworm infection of human considering its epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, treatmen...

  13. Spatial analysis of neglected diseases in Brazil, 2007 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Mendes de Andrade Schramm

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe a set of epidemiological information regarding the spatial distribution of selected neglected diseases in Brazil from 2007 to 2009 and health care infrastructure and socio-economic indicators 2010. An ecological study of the spatial analysis, based on the incidence of tuberculosis, visceral leishmaniasis, American cutaneous leishmaniasis, malaria and prevalence of leprosy and schistosomiasis. Maps with the spatial distribution of the prevalence and incidence rates were drawn, as well as cluster detection maps, applying spatial statistical analysis techniques. A thematic map with the total distribution of priority municipalities was developed for each disease. Malaria and schistosomiasis had the highest incidence and prevalence rates respectively. All diseases analyzed showed dependence in the spatial correlation measure. A total of 1,630 Brazilians municipalities (29% were considered by the Ministry of Health as a priority to receive control actions for at least one of the studied diseases. North and Northeast regions concentrate municipalities with at least three simultaneous diseases, which overlap with the lowest socio-economic indicators. Spatial analysis studies may contribute to a better planning and organizing health care and services, aiming to reduce the existent gap regarding scientific knowledge on neglected diseases.

  14. ADVANZ - Neglected zoonotc disease control through a One Health approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saarnak, Christopher; Johansen, Maria Vang; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2013-01-01

    them especially at community level are very similar. Furthermore many of the endemic zoonoses are closely linked to poverty and the lack of basic infrastructure such as related to water and sanitation. Interventions that include engaging communities, creating public awareness and enhancing basic...... of the day-to-day practice (most). The need for political will and resources are further requirements to control endemic zoonotic diseases. Neglected zoonotic diseases are definitely not negligible as can be witnessed by their considerable impact on the lives and livelihoods especially for poor...

  15. Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers: neglected tropical diseases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam MacNeil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF and Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF are rare viral diseases, endemic to central Africa. The overall burden of EHF and MHF is small in comparison to the more common protozoan, helminth, and bacterial diseases typically referred to as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. However, EHF and MHF outbreaks typically occur in resource-limited settings, and many aspects of these outbreaks are a direct consequence of impoverished conditions. We will discuss aspects of EHF and MHF disease, in comparison to the "classic" NTDs, and examine potential ways forward in the prevention and control of EHF and MHF in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as examine the potential for application of novel vaccines or antiviral drugs for prevention or control of EHF and MHF among populations at highest risk for disease.

  16. Ebola and Marburg Hemorrhagic Fevers: Neglected Tropical Diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, Adam; Rollin, Pierre E.

    2012-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) and Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF) are rare viral diseases, endemic to central Africa. The overall burden of EHF and MHF is small in comparison to the more common protozoan, helminth, and bacterial diseases typically referred to as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). However, EHF and MHF outbreaks typically occur in resource-limited settings, and many aspects of these outbreaks are a direct consequence of impoverished conditions. We will discuss aspects of EHF and MHF disease, in comparison to the “classic” NTDs, and examine potential ways forward in the prevention and control of EHF and MHF in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as examine the potential for application of novel vaccines or antiviral drugs for prevention or control of EHF and MHF among populations at highest risk for disease. PMID:22761967

  17. Leprosy-related mortality in Brazil: a neglected condition of a neglected disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Assunção-Ramos, Adriana Valéria; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Montenegro, Renan Magalhães; Wand-Del-Rey de Oliveira, Maria Leide; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2015-10-01

    Leprosy is a public health problem and a neglected condition of morbidity and mortality in several countries of the world. We analysed time trends and spatiotemporal patterns of leprosy-related mortality in Brazil. We performed a nationwide population-based study using secondary mortality data. We included all deaths that occurred in Brazil between 2000 and 2011, in which leprosy was mentioned in any field of death certificates. Leprosy was identified in 7732/12 491 280 deaths (0.1%). Average annual age-adjusted mortality rate was 0.43 deaths/100 000 inhabitants (95% CI 0.40-0.46). The burden of leprosy deaths was higher among males, elderly, black race/colour and in leprosy-endemic regions. Lepromatous leprosy was the most common clinical form mentioned. Mortality rates showed a significant nationwide decrease over the period (annual percent change [APC]: -2.8%; 95% CI -4.2 to -2.4). We observed decreasing mortality rates in the South, Southeast and Central-West regions, while the rates remained stable in North and Northeast regions. Spatial and spatiotemporal high-risk clusters for leprosy-related deaths were distributed mainly in highly endemic and socio-economically deprived regions. Leprosy is a neglected cause of death in Brazil since the disease is preventable, and a cost-effective treatment is available. Sustainable control measures should include appropriate management and systematic monitoring of leprosy-related complications, such as severe leprosy reactions and adverse effects to multidrug therapy. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Neglected tropical diseases in Africa: a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Adrian D

    2016-03-01

    Programmes to control onchocerciasis have been ongoing for over 40 years. What was once a devastating blinding and disabling disease, particularly in West Africa, has largely been eliminated at least as a public health problem. Efforts continue to eliminate the transmission of the disease. However, as the elimination agenda has developed so have efforts to control/eliminate other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control will close at the end of 2015. There has been considerable discussion as to what should replace it and the World Health Organization Africa Region has been consulting widely during the first part of 2015 and has established a new project framework that will be presented to a wider group of stakeholders to mobilise support with the aim of the coordination of NTD activities in the region. This will be called the Expanded Special Project for Elimination of Neglected Tropical Diseases (ESPEN). This will put the countries in the driving seat but offer technical advice, capacity building and financial support, where needed, to enable countries to implement their NTD Master Plans, and also to implement recommendations of the Regional Programme Review Group. An NTD forum will be held periodically to consult with stakeholders.

  19. The untapped cell biology of neglected tropical diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, William

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization lists a constellation of 17 tropical diseases that afflict approximately one in six individuals on the planet and, until recently, few resources have been devoted to the treatment and eradication of those diseases. They are often referred to as the diseases of the “bottom billion,” because they are most prevalent among the poorest individuals in impoverished tropical nations. However, the few studies that have been performed reveal an extraordinary world of molecular and cellular adaptations that facilitate the pathogens’ survival in hosts ranging from insects to humans. A compelling case can be made that even a modest investment toward understanding the basic molecular and cell biology of these neglected pathogens has a high probability of yielding exciting new cellular mechanisms and insights into novel ways of combating these diseases. PMID:26915691

  20. Immunity against HIV/AIDS, Malaria, and Tuberculosis during Co-Infections with Neglected Infectious Diseases: Recommendations for the European Union Research Priorities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boraschi, D.; Alemayehu, M. Abebe; Aseffa, A.; Chiodi, F.; Chisi, J.; Prete, G. Del; Doherty, T.M.; Elhassan, I.; Engers, H.; Gyan, B.; Harandi, A.M.; Kariuki, T.; Kironde, F.; Kouriba, B.; Langhorne, J.; Laskay, T.; Medaglini, D.; Olesen, O.; Onyebujoh, P.; Palma, C.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Sibanda, E.; Steinhoff, U.; Tagliabue, A.; Thiel, A.; Vahedi, M.; Troye-Blomberg, M.

    2008-01-01

    Author SummaryInfectious diseases remain a major health and socioeconomic problem in many low-income countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. For many years, the three most devastating diseases, HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis (TB) have received most of the world's attention. However, in r

  1. Eliminating the Neglected Tropical Diseases: Translational Science and New Technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Hotez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, the World Health Organization recognizes 17 major parasitic and related infections as the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. Despite recent gains in the understanding of the nature and prevalence of NTDs, as well as successes in recent scaled-up preventive chemotherapy strategies and other health interventions, the NTDs continue to rank among the world's greatest global health problems. For virtually all of the NTDs (including those slated for elimination under the auspices of a 2012 London Declaration for NTDs and a 2013 World Health Assembly resolution [WHA 66.12], additional control mechanisms and tools are needed, including new NTD drugs, vaccines, diagnostics, and vector control agents and strategies. Elimination will not be possible without these new tools. Here we summarize some of the key challenges in translational science to develop and introduce these new technologies in order to ensure success in global NTD elimination efforts.

  2. Hookworm infection: A neglected tropical disease of mankind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Hossain

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hookworm infection, a global problem of human, is caused by both Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus. These parasites are considered as important blood feeding nematodes. Hookworm is usually prevalent among the people who live with low socio-economic status. However, this tropical disease is neglected in most cases. This review was aimed at investigating the insights of hookworm infection of human considering its epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, treatment, immune mechanism, prevention, and control. This study showed how hookworm infection poses a global burden and infects 438.9 million people around the word annualy, and causes significant morbidity among the children and adult in endemic countries. Also, this review discussed how hookworm infection threatens the mankind causing serious health hazards. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(4.000: 297-320

  3. THE ASPIRATION OF THE PATENT SYSTEM AND THE CASE OF THERAPEUTIC PRODUCTS FOR NEGLECTED DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinício Chein Feres

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate whether the morality of a duty imposed by the current patent system is appropriate to its aspiration to promote innovation, especially in the case of research and development (R&D of new therapeutic products for neglected diseases. Stemming from an analytical and empirical approach, this investigation is based on descriptive inferences, which are built in accordance with indirect data collection and guided by Epstein and King’s rules of inference. The theoretical framework applied to interpret the data collection was extracted from Bankowski’s distinction between the morality of a duty and the morality of aspiration in the act of interpreting a rule. Firstly, it is possible to infer the insufficiency in following the duties imposed by the current patent legal system in order to promote innovation in the case of neglected diseases. Secondly, it is inferable from the collected data that, even within the multiple groups of neglected diseases, there is a hierarchy among those maladies, which emphasize the importance of considering their particularities in the process of elaborating public polices and interpreting the current patent legal system. Finally, it is also possible to conclude that the research and development of new therapeutic products for all kinds of diseases have not mirrored real public health needs.

  4. [Current situation of endemic status, prevention and control of neglected zoonotic diseases in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Zhu, Hong-Run; Yang, Guo-Jing

    2013-06-01

    Neglected zoonotic diseases not only threaten the health of human, especially to the livestock keepers in poverty-stricken areas but also cause great economic losses to the animal husbandry. This paper reviews the current situation of the endemic status, prevention and control of neglected zoonotic diseases existing in China including rabies, bovine tuberculosis, brucellosis, anthrax, leptospirosis, echinococcosis, cysticercosis, leishmaniasis and fascioliasis, so as to provide the basic information for better controlling, even eliminating, the neglected zoonotic diseases in China.

  5. Medical and veterinary doctors, social scientists and agricultural researchers meet to carry forward the fight against cysticercosis, a neglected and fatal disease of the poor : to the editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukaratirwa

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The fifth general assembly meeting on cysticercosis/taeniosis was held at the Faculty of Medicine, Eduardo Mondlane University, in Maputo, Mozambique, from 11-13 October 2007. The meeting was organised by the Cysticercosis Working Group in Eastern and Southern Africa (CWGESA in cooperation with the Medical and Veterinary Faculties of Eduardo Mondlane University in Mozambique and the WHO/FAO Collaborating Centre for Parasitic Zoonoses in Denmark with support from DBL - Centre for Health Research and Development, Denmark, and the Global Alliance for Livestock Veterinary Medicines (GALVmed based in Edinburgh, Scotland. Local support in Maputo was provided by Nestle, Medis Farmaceutica, Mcel and the Golden Travel Agency.

  6. Ebola outbreak in West Africa: a neglected tropical disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alcides; Troncoso

    2015-01-01

    Neglected tropical diseases(NTDs) are remediable injustices of our times. Poverty is the starting point, and the ultimate outcome, of NTD. Ebola is just one of many NTDs that badly need attention. Ebola exacerbates West Africa’s poverty crisis. The virus spreading in Guinea,Liberia and Sierra Leone has led to food shortages and neglect of other devastating tropical illnesses. A health crisis that was ignored for months until it was out of control is now beginning to get the attention required, if not the resources. So far, the world′s nations have contributed far less than the $ 1 billion. The U.N. estimates would need to control the epidemic before it becomes endemic. Past outbreaks of Ebola have flared up in remote, forested communities, disconnected from much of the outside world. But the outbreak in West Africa has not slowed yet, and it worsens there the chances of it spreading to other countries. Ebola draws attention to NTD. Ebola is not only a health emergency, but also it′s a poverty crisis.The current Global Ebola crisis presents a multitude of challenges in terms of our capacity to respond; the future is even less predictable. Ebola outbreak represents inequity in health as the occurrence of health differences considered unnecessary, avoidable, unfair, and unjust, thus adding a moral and ethical dimension to health inequalities. Health equity does not refer only to the fairness in the distribution of health or the provision of health care; rather, it is linked with the larger issues of fairness and justice in social arrangements.

  7. Ebola outbreak in West Africa: a neglected tropical disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Troncoso

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs are remediable injustices of our times. Poverty is the starting point, and the ultimate outcome, of NTD. Ebola is just one of many NTDs that badly need attention. Ebola exacerbates West Africa's poverty crisis. The virus spreading in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone has led to food shortages and neglect of other devastating tropical illnesses. A health crisis that was ignored for months until it was out of control is now beginning to get the attention required, if not the resources. So far, the world´s nations have contributed far less than the $ 1 billion. The U.N. estimates would need to control the epidemic before it becomes endemic. Past outbreaks of Ebola have flared up in remote, forested communities, disconnected from much of the outside world. But the outbreak in West Africa has not slowed yet, and it worsens there the chances of it spreading to other countries. Ebola draws attention to NTD. Ebola is not only a health emergency, but also it´s a poverty crisis. The current Global Ebola crisis presents a multitude of challenges in terms of our capacity to respond; the future is even less predictable. Ebola outbreak represents inequity in health as the occurrence of health differences considered unnecessary, avoidable, unfair, and unjust, thus adding a moral and ethical dimension to health inequalities. Health equity does not refer only to the fairness in the distribution of health or the provision of health care; rather, it is linked with the larger issues of fairness and justice in social arrangements.

  8. AWARENESS REGARDING BLASTOCYSTOSIS DISEASE; A NEGLECTED ZOONOTIC DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safila Naveed

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate awareness regarding blastocystosis, its cause, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment. Blastocystis hominis is a microscopic parasite found in the stools of healthy people as well as in the stools of those who have diarrhea, abdominal pain or other GI gastrointestinal problems. Infection which is caused by blastocystosis is called blastocystosis. Method: The survey is conducted which is based on questionnaire, in which students of pharm D and microbiologist were questioned regarding blastocystosis disease. Results: At t-test reveal a statistically reliable difference between the mean number of awareness percentage that the microbiologist has (M=4.12, s=1.995 and that the pharmacist has (M=2.76,s=2.42,t(94=3.084 ,p=1.66, ,∞=0.05. Conclusions: From this survey we found that awareness regarding blastocystosis disease microbiologist have more awareness than pharmacist about blastocystosis.

  9. Neglected diseases and ethnic minorities in the Western Pacific Region exploring the links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schratz, Alexander; Pineda, Martha Fernanda; Reforma, Liberty G; Fox, Nicole M; Le Anh, Tuan; Tommaso Cavalli-Sforza, L; Henderson, Mackenzie K; Mendoza, Raymond; Utzinger, Jürg; Ehrenberg, John P; Tee, Ah Sian

    2010-01-01

    Ethnic minority groups (EMGs) are often subject to exclusion, marginalization and poverty. These characteristics render them particularly vulnerable to neglected diseases, a diverse group of diseases that comprise bacteria, ecto-parasites, fungi, helminths and viruses. Despite the health policy relevance, only little is known of the epidemiological profile of neglected diseases among EMGs. We reviewed country data from Australia, Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam and found several overlaps between regions with high proportions of EMG population and high prevalence rates of neglected diseases (infections with soil-transmitted helminths, filarial worms, schistosomes, food-borne trematodes and cestodes). While the links are not always clearly evident and it is impossible to establish correlations among highly aggregated data without control variables-such as environmental factors-there appear indeed to be important linkages between EMGs, socio-economic status and prevalence of neglected diseases. Some determinants under consideration are lack of access to health care and general health status, poverty and social marginalization, as well as education and literacy. Further research is needed to deepen the understanding of these linkages and to determine their public health and socio-economic significance. In particular, there is a need for more data from all countries in the Western Pacific Region that is disaggregated below the provincial level. Selected case studies that incorporate other control variables-such as risk factors from the physical environment-might be useful to inform policy makers about the feasibility of prevention and control interventions that are targeted at high-risk EMGs.

  10. New vaccines for neglected parasitic diseases and dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumier, Coreen M; Gillespie, Portia M; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2013-09-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a significant source of morbidity and socioeconomic burden among the world's poor. Virtually all of the 2.4 billion people who live on less than $2 per d, more than a third of the world's population, are at risk for these debilitating NTDs. Although chemotherapeutic measures exist for many of these pathogens, they are not sustainable countermeasures on their own because of rates of reinfection, risk of drug resistance, and inconsistent maintenance of drug treatment programs. Preventative and therapeutic NTD vaccines are needed as long-term solutions. Because there is no market in the for-profit sector of vaccine development for these pathogens, much of the effort to develop vaccines is driven by nonprofit entities, mostly through product development partnerships. This review describes the progress of vaccines under development for many of the NTDs, with a specific focus on those about to enter or that are currently in human clinical trials. Specifically, we report on the progress on dengue, hookworm, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, Chagas disease, and onchocerciasis vaccines. These products will be some of the first with specific objectives to aid the world's poorest populations. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Development assistance for neglected tropical diseases: progress since 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Bernhard H; Houghton, Natalia; Teplitskaya, Lyubov

    2014-09-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) is an umbrella term for a diverse group of debilitating infections that represent the most common afflictions for 2.7 billion people living on less than US$2 per day. Major efforts have recently re-focused attention on NTDs, including structured advocacy by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, technical and political support by WHO and large-scale drug donation programs by pharmaceutical companies. An analysis of the Official Development Assistance (ODA) for NTDs in 2009 showed that Development Assistance Committee members and multilateral donors had largely ignored funding NTD control projects. This study reviews the changes since 2009 and finds an increased engagement by pharmaceutical manufacturers through drug donation programs substantially increased by the 'London Declaration' in 2012, a focused effort of 77 public and private partners on control or elimination of the 10 most common NTDs, but no increase in ODA for NTDs between 2008 and 2012. The allocation of ODA still does not reflect the respective importance of these diseases.

  12. Measuring the burden of neglected tropical diseases: the global burden of disease framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin D Mathers

    Full Text Available Reliable, comparable information about the main causes of disease and injury in populations, and how these are changing, is a critical input for debates about priorities in the health sector. Traditional sources of information about the descriptive epidemiology of diseases, injuries, and risk factors are generally incomplete, fragmented, and of uncertain reliability and comparability. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD study has provided a conceptual and methodological framework to quantify and compare the health of populations using a summary measure of both mortality and disability, the disability-adjusted life year (DALY.This paper describes key features of the Global Burden of Disease analytic approach, which provides a standardized measurement framework to permit comparisons across diseases and injuries, as well as risk factors, and a systematic approach to the evaluation of data. The paper describes the evolution of the GBD, starting from the first study for the year 1990, summarizes the methodological improvements incorporated into GBD revisions for the years 2000-2004 carried out by the World Health Organization, and examines priorities and issues for the next major GBD study, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and commencing in 2007.The paper presents an overview of summary results from the Global Burden of Disease study 2002, with a particular focus on the neglected tropical diseases, and also an overview of the comparative risk assessment for 26 global risk factors. Taken together, trypanosomiasis, Chagas disease, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, intestinal nematode infections, Japanese encephalitis, dengue, and leprosy accounted for an estimated 177,000 deaths worldwide in 2002, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, and about 20 million DALYs, or 1.3% of the global burden of disease and injuries. Further research is currently underway to revise and update these estimates.

  13. Self-neglect and adult safeguarding: findings from research

    OpenAIRE

    Braye, Suzy; Orr, David; Preston-Shoot, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This report was commissioned by the Department of Health (DH) and examines the concept of self-neglect. The relationship between self-neglect and safeguarding in the UK is a difficult one, partly because the current definition of abuse specifies harmful actions by someone other than the individual at risk. Safeguarding Adults Boards’ policies and procedures commonly contain no reference to self-neglect; occasionally they explicitly exclude it or set criteria for its inclusion\\ud \\ud The perce...

  14. 76 FR 52958 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Neglected Tropical Diseases of the Developing World: Developing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Neglected Tropical Diseases of the Developing World: Developing Drugs for Treatment or Prevention.'' The purpose of this guidance is to assist sponsors in the clinical development of drugs for the treatment or prevention of neglected diseases of the developing world. Specifically,......

  15. Exploring the interface between diagnostics and maps of neglected parasitic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Laura; Cringoli, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Although not new, the 'One Health' concept is gaining progressively more importance in parasitology. Now more than ever, veterinary and human perspectives should be closely joined in diagnosis and surveillance of neglected parasitic diseases. We argue that concerted, standardized and harmonized diagnostic and surveillance strategies are needed for the control and/or elimination of animal and human neglected parasitic infections. A key challenge is to integrate parasitological data with available geospatial methods in an accessible and user-friendly framework. We discuss the capability of new diagnostic devices (e.g. Mini-FLOTAC) and geospatial technologies supported by mobile- and electronic-based approaches as one of the research priorities of the new millennium.

  16. Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States: Chagas Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Susan P.; Starr, Michelle C.; Cantey, Paul T.; Edwards, Morven S.; Meymandi, Sheba K.

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease, which is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, can lead to severe cardiac and gastrointestinal disease. Most persons acquire this infection through contact with vector bugs carrying T. cruzi in endemic areas of Latin America. Infection can also be acquired by congenital, transfusion, transplantation, and foodborne transmission. Although an estimated 300,000 persons with Chagas disease live in the United States, little is known about the burden of chagasic heart disease. It is not known how often congenital or vector-borne transmission of T. cruzi occurs in the United States, although it is known that infected mothers and infected vector bugs are found in this country. Better diagnostic tests and treatment drugs are needed to improve patient care, and research is needed to define transmission risks and develop strategies to prevent new infections and reduce the burden of disease. PMID:24808250

  17. Toward an open-access global database for mapping, control, and surveillance of neglected tropical diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Hürlimann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: After many years of general neglect, interest has grown and efforts came under way for the mapping, control, surveillance, and eventual elimination of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. Disease risk estimates are a key feature to target control interventions, and serve as a benchmark for monitoring and evaluation. What is currently missing is a georeferenced global database for NTDs providing open-access to the available survey data that is constantly updated and can be utilized by researchers and disease control managers to support other relevant stakeholders. We describe the steps taken toward the development of such a database that can be employed for spatial disease risk modeling and control of NTDs. METHODOLOGY: With an emphasis on schistosomiasis in Africa, we systematically searched the literature (peer-reviewed journals and 'grey literature', contacted Ministries of Health and research institutions in schistosomiasis-endemic countries for location-specific prevalence data and survey details (e.g., study population, year of survey and diagnostic techniques. The data were extracted, georeferenced, and stored in a MySQL database with a web interface allowing free database access and data management. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: At the beginning of 2011, our database contained more than 12,000 georeferenced schistosomiasis survey locations from 35 African countries available under http://www.gntd.org. Currently, the database is expanded to a global repository, including a host of other NTDs, e.g. soil-transmitted helminthiasis and leishmaniasis. CONCLUSIONS: An open-access, spatially explicit NTD database offers unique opportunities for disease risk modeling, targeting control interventions, disease monitoring, and surveillance. Moreover, it allows for detailed geostatistical analyses of disease distribution in space and time. With an initial focus on schistosomiasis in Africa, we demonstrate the proof-of-concept that the establishment

  18. Elimination of neglected diseases in latin america and the Caribbean: a mapping of selected diseases.

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    Maria Cristina Schneider

    Full Text Available In Latin America and the Caribbean, around 195 million people live in poverty, a situation that increases the burden of some infectious diseases. Neglected diseases, in particular, are often restricted to poor, marginalized sections of the population. Tools exist to combat these diseases, making it imperative to work towards their elimination. In 2009, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO received a mandate to support the countries in the Region in eliminating neglected diseases and other poverty-related infections. The objective of this study is to analyze the presence of selected diseases using geo-processing techniques. Five diseases with information available at the first sub-national level (states were mapped, showing the presence of the disease ("hotspots" and overlap of diseases ("major hotspots". In the 45 countries/territories (approximately 570 states of the Region, there is: lymphatic filariasis in four countries (29 states, onchocerciasis in six countries (25 states, schistosomiasis in four countries (39 states, trachoma in three countries (29 states, and human rabies transmitted by dogs in ten countries (20 states. Of the 108 states with one or more of the selected diseases, 36 states present the diseases in overlapping areas ("major hotspots". Additional information about soil-transmitted helminths was included. The analysis suggests a majority of the selected diseases are not widespread and can be considered part of an unfinished agenda with elimination as a goal. Integrated plans and a comprehensive approach, ensuring access to existing diagnostic and treatment methods, and establishing a multi-sectoral agenda that addresses social determinants, including access to adequate water and sanitation, are required. Future studies can include additional diseases, socio-economic and environmental variables.

  19. The Case for Live Attenuated Vaccines against the Neglected Zoonotic Diseases Brucellosis and Bovine Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Aseem; Cabello, Ana; Akoolo, Lavoisier; Rice-Ficht, Allison; Arenas-Gamboa, Angela; McMurray, David; Ficht, Thomas A.; de Figueiredo, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination of humans and animals with live attenuated organisms has proven to be an effective means of combatting some important infectious diseases. In fact, the 20th century witnessed tremendous improvements in human and animal health worldwide as a consequence of large-scale vaccination programs with live attenuated vaccines (LAVs). Here, we use the neglected zoonotic diseases brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis (BTb) caused by Brucella spp. and Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), respectively, as comparative models to outline the merits of LAV platforms with emphasis on molecular strategies that have been pursued to generate LAVs with enhanced vaccine safety and efficacy profiles. Finally, we discuss the prospects of LAV platforms in the fight against brucellosis and BTb and outline new avenues for future research towards developing effective vaccines using LAV platforms. PMID:27537413

  20. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental changes affecting circulation of neglected tropical diseases in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-El-Naga, Iman F

    2015-11-01

    Egypt has been plagued by many neglected tropical diseases since Pharaonic time. These diseases are Schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis, lymphatic filariasis, leishmaniasis and fascioliasis beside the epidermal parasitic skin diseases. Indeed, theses diseases still persist as public health problem in the country by the influence of demographic, socioeconomic and environmental obstacles. This study seeks for understanding the contribution of each factor in each obstacle in neglected tropical diseases perpetuation which in turn could help the governorate in planning integrated control strategies. It was found that poverty, unregulated urbanization and inadequate sanitation are important socioeconomic factors that have great effect on the transmission dynamics of the diseases. The environmental factors which affect the epidemiology of these diseases in the country are scarcity of water, construction of dams, land reclamation for agriculture beside the climate factors. Unfortunately, the panic increase in the population growth rate minimizes the efforts done by the governorate to elevate the public health services. These conditions also affect the transmission of epidermal parasitic skin diseases including scabies, head lice and hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans. The control programs and the recommendations to combat the diseases were discussed. The present study showed that the ecological factors affecting each neglected tropical disease in Egypt are somewhat similar which makes it worthy to develop an integrated control approaches aiming at improving the leading factors of neglected tropical diseases circulation in the country.

  1. Disregard of neurological impairments associated with neglected tropical diseases in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quansah, Emmanuel; Sarpong, Esther; Karikari, Thomas K

    2016-06-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) affect people in the bottom billion poorest in the world. These diseases are concentrated in rural areas, conflict zones and urban slums in Africa and other tropical areas. While the World Health Organization recognizes seventeen priority NTDs, the list of conditions present in Africa and elsewhere that are eligible to be classified as NTDs is much longer. Although NTDs are generally marginalized, their associated neurological burden has been almost completely disregarded. However, reports indicate that trichuriasis, schistosomiasis and hookworm infection, among others, cause impairments in memory and cognition, negatively affecting school attendance rates and educational performance particularly among children, as well as agricultural productivity among adults. Consequently, the neurological impairments have substantial influence on education and economic productivity, thus aggravating and perpetuating poverty in affected societies. However, inadequate research, policy and public health attention has been paid to the neurological burdens associated with NTDs. In order to appropriately address these burdens, we recommend the development of policy interventions that focus on the following areas: (i) the introduction of training programs to develop the capacity of scientists and clinicians in research, diagnostic and treatment approaches (ii) the establishment of competitive research grant schemes to fund cutting-edge research into these neurological impairments, and (iii) the development of public health interventions to improve community awareness of the NTD-associated neurological problems, possibly enhancing disease prevention and expediting treatment.

  2. Neglected diseases in the news: a content analysis of recent international media coverage focussing on leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangai Balasegaram

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the pharmaceutical industry's "neglect" of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs has been investigated, no study evaluating media coverage of NTDs has been published. Poor media coverage exacerbates the neglect. This study aimed to investigate, describe, and analyse international media coverage of "neglected diseases" in general and three specific NTDs--African trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease--from 1 January 2003 to 1 June 2007. METHODS: Archives of 11 leading international, English-language media were searched. A content analysis was done, coding for media organisation, date, author, type of report, slant, themes, and "frames". Semi-structured interviews with journalists and key informants were conducted for further insight. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Only 113 articles in a 53-month time period met the inclusion criteria, with no strong trends or increases in coverage. Overall, the BBC had the highest coverage with 20 results, followed by the Financial Times and Agence France Presse. CNN had the least coverage with one result. The term "neglected diseases" had good media currency and "sleeping sickness" was far more widely used than trypanosomiasis. The disease most covered was leishmaniasis and the least covered was Chagas. Academic researchers were most commonly quoted as a main source, while the World Health Organization (WHO and pharmaceutical industry were the least quoted. Journalists generally agreed NTDs had not been adequately covered, but said a lack of real news development and the need to cater to domestic audiences were major obstacles for NTD reporting. All journalists said health agencies, particularly WHO, were not communicating adequately about the burden of NTDs. CONCLUSIONS: Public health agencies need to raise priority for NTD advocacy. Innovative strategies, such as reporting grants or creating a network of voices, may be needed.

  3. De-politicizing parasites: reflections on attempts to control the control of neglected tropical diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Melissa; Allen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Large amounts of funding are being allocated to the control of neglected tropical diseases. Strategies primarily rely on the mass distribution of drugs to adults and children living in endemic areas. The approach is presented as morally appropriate, technically effective, and context-free. Drawing on research undertaken in East Africa, we discuss ways in which normative ideas about global health programs are used to set aside social and biological evidence. In particular, there is a tendency to ignore local details, including information about actual drug take up. Ferguson's 'anti-politics' thesis is a useful starting point for analyzing why this happens, but is overly deterministic. Anti-politics discourse about healing the suffering poor may shape thinking and help explain cognitive dissonance. However, use of such discourse is also a means of strategically promoting vested interests and securing funding. Whatever the underlying motivations, rhetoric and realities are conflated, with potentially counterproductive consequences.

  4. De-Politicizing Parasites: Reflections on Attempts to Control the Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Melissa; Allen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Large amounts of funding are being allocated to the control of neglected tropical diseases. Strategies primarily rely on the mass distribution of drugs to adults and children living in endemic areas. The approach is presented as morally appropriate, technically effective, and context-free. Drawing on research undertaken in East Africa, we discuss ways in which normative ideas about global health programs are used to set aside social and biological evidence. In particular, there is a tendency to ignore local details, including information about actual drug take up. Ferguson’s ‘anti-politics’ thesis is a useful starting point for analyzing why this happens, but is overly deterministic. Anti-politics discourse about healing the suffering poor may shape thinking and help explain cognitive dissonance. However, use of such discourse is also a means of strategically promoting vested interests and securing funding. Whatever the underlying motivations, rhetoric and realities are conflated, with potentially counterproductive consequences. PMID:24761976

  5. Neglected Zoonotic Diseases (NZD) in a One Health context: exchanging experiences between continents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saarnak, Christopher; de Balogh, Katinka; Welburn, Sue

    2013-01-01

    As quoted in the Lancet in December 2012, endemic and enzootic zoonoses cause about a billion cases of illness and millions of death in people every year. Diseases such as anthrax, bovine tuberculosis, brucellosis, cysticercosis, echinococcosis (hydatid disease) and rabies are considered ”neglected...

  6. Coeliac disease and reproductive disorders: a neglected association.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rostami, K.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Wong, W.Y.; Braat, D.D.M.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2001-01-01

    Coeliac disease is a chronic disease caused by a permanent intolerance to ingested gluten resulting in immunologically mediated inflammatory damage of the small-intestinal mucosa. The wide spectrum of clinical symptoms is partly due to the malnourished state caused by the malabsorption of macro- and

  7. Coeliac disease and reproductive disorders: a neglected association.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rostami, K.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Wong, W.Y.; Braat, D.D.M.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2001-01-01

    Coeliac disease is a chronic disease caused by a permanent intolerance to ingested gluten resulting in immunologically mediated inflammatory damage of the small-intestinal mucosa. The wide spectrum of clinical symptoms is partly due to the malnourished state caused by the malabsorption of macro- and

  8. Incentives for Starting Small Companies Focused on Rare and Neglected Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekins, Sean; Wood, Jill

    2016-04-01

    Starting biotech or pharmaceutical companies is traditionally thought to be based around a scientist, their technology platform or a clinical candidate spun out from another company. Between us we have taken a different approach and formed two small early stage companies after initially leveraging the perspective of a parent with a child with a life-threatening rare disease. Phoenix Nest ( http://www.phoenixnestbiotech.com/ ) was co-founded to work on treatments for Sanfilippo syndrome a devastating neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder. In the space of just over 3 years we have built up collaborations with leading scientists in academia and industry and been awarded multiple NIH small business grants. The second company, Collaborations Pharmaceuticals Inc. ( http://www.collaborationspharma.com/ ) was founded to address some of the other 7000 or so rare diseases as well as neglected infectious diseases. The Rare Pediatric Disease Priority Review Voucher is likely the most important incentive for companies working on rare diseases with very small populations. This may also be partially responsible for the recent acquisitions of rare disease companies with late stage candidates. Lessons learned in the process of starting our companies are that rare disease parents or patients can readily partner with a scientist and fund research through NIH grants rather than venture capital or angel investors initially. This process may be slow so patience and perseverance is key. We would encourage other pharmaceutical scientists to meet rare disease parents, patients or advocates and work with them to further the science on their diseases and create a source of future drugs.

  9. Asymmetries of poverty: why global burden of disease valuations underestimate the burden of neglected tropical diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles H King

    Full Text Available The disability-adjusted life year (DALY initially appeared attractive as a health metric in the Global Burden of Disease (GBD program, as it purports to be a comprehensive health assessment that encompassed premature mortality, morbidity, impairment, and disability. It was originally thought that the DALY would be useful in policy settings, reflecting normative valuations as a standardized unit of ill health. However, the design of the DALY and its use in policy estimates contain inherent flaws that result in systematic undervaluation of the importance of chronic diseases, such as many of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs, in world health. The conceptual design of the DALY comes out of a perspective largely focused on the individual risk rather than the ecology of disease, thus failing to acknowledge the implications of context on the burden of disease for the poor. It is nonrepresentative of the impact of poverty on disability, which results in the significant underestimation of disability weights for chronic diseases such as the NTDs. Finally, the application of the DALY in policy estimates does not account for the nonlinear effects of poverty in the cost-utility analysis of disease control, effectively discounting the utility of comprehensively treating NTDs. The present DALY framework needs to be substantially revised if the GBD is to become a valid and useful system for determining health priorities.

  10. SCRUTINIZING THE BIOMARKERS FOR THE NEGLECTED CHAGAS DISEASE: HOW REMARKABLE!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Pinho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biomarkers or biosignature profiles have become accessible over time in population-based studies for Chagas disease. Thus, the identification of consistent and reliable indicators of the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with heart failure might facilitate the prioritization of therapeutic management to those with the highest chance contracting this disease. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent state and the upcoming trends in biomarkers for human Chagas disease. As an emerging concept, we propose a classification of biomarkers based on plasmatic-, phenotype-, antigenic-, genetic- and management-related candidates. The available data revisited here reveal the lessons learned thus far and the existing challenges that still lie ahead to enable biomarkers to be employed consistently in risk evaluation for this disease. There is a strong need for biomarker validation, particularly for biomarkers that are specific to the clinical forms of Chagas disease. The current failure to achieve the eradication of the transmission of this disease has produced determination to solve this validation issue. Finally, it would be strategic to develop a wide variety of biomarkers and to test them in both preclinical and clinical trials.

  11. Scrutinizing the Biomarkers for the Neglected Chagas Disease: How Remarkable!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Rosa T.; Waghabi, Mariana C.; Cardillo, Fabíola; Mengel, José; Antas, Paulo R. Z.

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers or biosignature profiles have become accessible over time in population-based studies for Chagas disease. Thus, the identification of consistent and reliable indicators of the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with heart failure might facilitate the prioritization of therapeutic management to those with the highest chance of contracting this disease. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent state and the upcoming trends in biomarkers for human Chagas disease. As an emerging concept, we propose a classification of biomarkers based on plasmatic-, phenotype-, antigenic-, genetic-, and management-related candidates. The available data revisited here reveal the lessons learned thus far and the existing challenges that still lie ahead to enable biomarkers to be employed consistently in risk evaluation for this disease. There is a strong need for biomarker validation, particularly for biomarkers that are specific to the clinical forms of Chagas disease. The current failure to achieve the eradication of the transmission of this disease has produced determination to solve this validation issue. Finally, it would be strategic to develop a wide variety of biomarkers and to test them in both preclinical and clinical trials. PMID:27563302

  12. Search for Antiprotozoal Activity in Herbal Medicinal Preparations; New Natural Leads against Neglected Tropical Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Llurba Montesino

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sleeping sickness, Chagas disease, Leishmaniasis, and Malaria are infectious diseases caused by unicellular eukaryotic parasites (“protozoans”. The three first mentioned are classified as Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs by the World Health Organization and together threaten more than one billion lives worldwide. Due to the lack of research interest and the high increase of resistance against the existing treatments, the search for effective and safe new therapies is urgently required. In view of the large tradition of natural products as sources against infectious diseases [1,2], the aim of the present study is to investigate the potential of legally approved and marketed herbal medicinal products (HMPs as antiprotozoal agents. Fifty-eight extracts from 53 HMPs on the German market were tested by a Multiple-Target-Screening (MTS against parasites of the genera Leishmania, Trypanosoma, and Plasmodium. Sixteen HMPs showed in vitro activity against at least one of the pathogens (IC50 < 10 µg/mL. Six extracts from preparations of Salvia, Valeriana, Hypericum, Silybum, Arnica, and Curcuma exhibited high activity (IC50 < 2.5 µg/mL. They were analytically characterized by UHPLC/ESI-QqTOF-MSMS and the activity-guided fractionation of the extracts with the aim to isolate and identify the active compounds is in progress.

  13. Search for Antiprotozoal Activity in Herbal Medicinal Preparations; New Natural Leads against Neglected Tropical Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llurba Montesino, Núria; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto; Schmidt, Thomas J

    2015-08-04

    Sleeping sickness, Chagas disease, Leishmaniasis, and Malaria are infectious diseases caused by unicellular eukaryotic parasites ("protozoans"). The three first mentioned are classified as Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) by the World Health Organization and together threaten more than one billion lives worldwide. Due to the lack of research interest and the high increase of resistance against the existing treatments, the search for effective and safe new therapies is urgently required. In view of the large tradition of natural products as sources against infectious diseases [1,2], the aim of the present study is to investigate the potential of legally approved and marketed herbal medicinal products (HMPs) as antiprotozoal agents. Fifty-eight extracts from 53 HMPs on the German market were tested by a Multiple-Target-Screening (MTS) against parasites of the genera Leishmania, Trypanosoma, and Plasmodium. Sixteen HMPs showed in vitro activity against at least one of the pathogens (IC50 Arnica, and Curcuma exhibited high activity (IC50 < 2.5 µg/mL). They were analytically characterized by UHPLC/ESI-QqTOF-MSMS and the activity-guided fractionation of the extracts with the aim to isolate and identify the active compounds is in progress.

  14. An ounce of prevention on a budget: a nonprofit approach to developing vaccines against neglected diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Miles, Aaron P; Diemert, David; Hotez, Peter J

    2006-04-01

    This article provides a perspective on vaccine development for neglected tropical diseases in the nonprofit setting, with particular emphasis on recombinant protein vaccines. The Human Hookworm Vaccine Initiative is discussed as a model product development public-private partnership, and the major challenges are covered that accompany antigen selection, gene cloning, fermentation and purification process development, assay development, vaccine formulation and testing and clinical evaluation for those developing vaccines, especially against neglected tropical diseases, in the nonprofit sector. Throughout this perspective, special emphasis is placed on the growing promise that product development public-private partnerships hold for developing vaccines for the world's poorest people.

  15. One health - an ecological and evolutionary framework for tackling Neglected Zoonotic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Joanne P; Gower, Charlotte M; Knowles, Sarah C L; Molyneux, David H; Fenton, Andy

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the complex population biology and transmission ecology of multihost parasites has been declared as one of the major challenges of biomedical sciences for the 21st century and the Neglected Zoonotic Diseases (NZDs) are perhaps the most neglected of all the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs). Here we consider how multihost parasite transmission and evolutionary dynamics may affect the success of human and animal disease control programmes, particularly neglected diseases of the developing world. We review the different types of zoonotic interactions that occur, both ecological and evolutionary, their potential relevance for current human control activities, and make suggestions for the development of an empirical evidence base and theoretical framework to better understand and predict the outcome of such interactions. In particular, we consider whether preventive chemotherapy, the current mainstay of NTD control, can be successful without a One Health approach. Transmission within and between animal reservoirs and humans can have important ecological and evolutionary consequences, driving the evolution and establishment of drug resistance, as well as providing selective pressures for spill-over, host switching, hybridizations and introgressions between animal and human parasites. Our aim here is to highlight the importance of both elucidating disease ecology, including identifying key hosts and tailoring control effort accordingly, and understanding parasite evolution, such as precisely how infectious agents may respond and adapt to anthropogenic change. Both elements are essential if we are to alleviate disease risks from NZDs in humans, domestic animals and wildlife.

  16. Dynamics of socioeconomic risk factors for neglected tropical diseases and malaria in an armed conflict.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Fürst

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Armed conflict and war are among the leading causes of disability and premature death, and there is a growing share of civilians killed or injured during armed conflicts. A major part of the civilian suffering stems from indirect effects or collateral impact such as changing risk profiles for infectious diseases. We focused on rural communities in the western part of Côte d'Ivoire, where fighting took place during the Ivorian civil war in 2002/2003, and assessed the dynamics of socioeconomic risk factors for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs and malaria. METHODOLOGY: The same standardized and pre-tested questionnaires were administered to the heads of 182 randomly selected households in 25 villages in the region of Man, western Côte d'Ivoire, shortly before and after the 2002/2003 armed conflict. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: There was no difference in crowding as measured by the number of individuals per sleeping room, but the inadequate sanitation infrastructure prior to the conflict further worsened, and the availability and use of protective measures against mosquito bites and accessibility to health care infrastructure deteriorated. Although the direct causal chain between these findings and the conflict are incomplete, partially explained by the very nature of working in conflict areas, the timing and procedures of the survey, other sources and anecdotal evidence point toward a relationship between an increased risk of suffering from NTDs and malaria and armed conflict. CONCLUSION: New research is needed to deepen our understanding of the often diffuse and neglected indirect effects of armed conflict and war, which may be worse than the more obvious, direct effects.

  17. Lyme disease and post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome: the neglected disease in our own backyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, L A; Yedlin, V A; Weinstein, E R; Kortte, K B; Aucott, J N

    2014-09-01

    A survey was developed to assess experience and opinions about Lyme disease and post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS) among faculties in public health. No previous surveys of public health faculties have been found in the literature. This is a cross sectional study of public health school faculty members designed to measure knowledge and experience with Lyme disease and PTLDS using an internet survey instrument. Participants were recruited using all the publicly available e-mail addresses of faculty members in all the 50 accredited Schools of Public Health in the United States. A 15% response rate was seen for the survey. 50% of respondents were from Lyme endemic states. Less than 5% of faculty members consider themselves expert in Lyme or PTLDS. Many faculty members had known someone with Lyme disease or PTLDS, but few had been diagnosed themselves. Most believe that PTLDS can be severe and chronic, is not easy to treat, and does not resolve on its own, but were uncertain about its aetiology. Most respondents also felt that the incidence of Lyme disease will increase and that more education is needed. The need for further understanding and communication presents an opportunity for public health research and education in Lyme disease and the sequelae of PTLDS. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Podoconiosis, a society and medical community neglected disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Pérez, Laura; Soriano Cea, Juan José; Górgolas Hernández-Mora, Miguel

    2015-11-20

    Podoconiosis, mossy foot or endemic non-filarial elephantiasis, is a geochemical disease that causes lower limb lymphedema; it is directly related to walking barefoot over soils of volcanic origin, in areas with a high pluviometric annual index. It has a specific geographical distribution, affecting around 5% population in areas where it is endemic. It is debilitating and disfiguring disease, which frequently leads to social margination. Podoconiosis is totally preventable and, once a diagnosis is established, it may improve with simple therapeutic measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. ADVANZ - Neglected zoonotc disease control through a One Health approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saarnak, Christopher; Johansen, Maria Vang; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2013-01-01

    conditions such as hygiene and biosecurity can have an important effect on reducing the risks of transmission. In addition some of the endemic zoonotic diseases can be controlled by interventions such as mass vaccination (e.g rabies), treatment (echinococcosis) and/or creating a simple but effective change...

  20. Tick-borne encephalitis: a disease neglected by travel medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haditsch, Martin; Kunze, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a vector-borne disease that is primarily transmitted to humans by infected ticks and causes infection of the central nervous system. Clinical presentations range from meningitis to encephalitis with or without myelitis, and infection may result in death or long-term neurological sequelae. TBE is endemic in regions of at least 27 European as well as in some Asian countries. Infection and disease, however, can be averted successfully by tick-bite prevention and active vaccination. The risk of infection has shifted from daily life and occupational exposure to leisure-time activities, including travelling. Outdoor activities during the tick season with contact with nature increase the risk of tick bites. Although the number of travel-associated cases is unknown, it is certainly under-estimated because there is hardly any awareness of TBE in non-endemic countries. Therefore, the majority of cases remain undiagnosed, also because of the lack of diagnostic serology, as there is no routine screening for TBE in non-endemic regions. Because of the increasing number of travellers from TBE non-endemic to endemic regions, and in view of the fact that TBE was included in the list of notifiable diseases in the European Union in September 2012, this disease needs to become an important issue in travel medicine.

  1. Researchers in Higher Education: A Neglected Focus of Study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, G.; Kubacki, K.

    2007-01-01

    The literature on higher education acknowledges the importance of context to the effective completion of research by postgraduate students but overlooks to study the importance of this factor for academics in higher education. The research reported here explores the extent to which academics in higher education sense that their research engages…

  2. Development of Novel Therapeutics for Neglected Tropical Disease Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    this study (NAMRU-6 component ) was: i) To optimize promastigotes and amastigote in vitro assays to measure the susceptibility of Leishmania clinical... ScM Project Role: Research Manager Researcher Identifier (e.g. ORCID ID): not available Nearest person month worked: 1 Contribution to... component design Team B (Site 1 core facility; fee for service): 1-5 Dr. Satoskar Subtask 1.1.2: Synthesis of DNER

  3. Buerger's Disease and Anaesthesia: The Neglected Cardiac Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shagun Bhatia Shah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Distal limb amputations and respiratory complications are common in patients with Buerger’s disease. Nicotine in cigarette is arrhythmogenic as it blocks cardiac potassium channels. Preoperative Holter ECG monitoring may be useful if preoperative electrocardiogram is normal. If the patient is undergoing major surgery, preservative free lignocaine & amiodarone infusions and a cardioverter defibrillator should be available for the intraoperative cardiac rhythm disturbances.

  4. Mitochondrial dysfunction: a neglected component of skin diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feichtinger, René G; Sperl, Wolfgang; Bauer, Johann W; Kofler, Barbara

    2014-09-01

    Aberrant mitochondrial structure and function influence tissue homeostasis and thereby contribute to multiple human disorders and ageing. Ten per cent of patients with primary mitochondrial disorders present skin manifestations that can be categorized into hair abnormalities, rashes, pigmentation abnormalities and acrocyanosis. Less attention has been paid to the fact that several disorders of the skin are linked to alterations of mitochondrial energy metabolism. This review article summarizes the contribution of mitochondrial pathology to both common and rare skin diseases. We explore the intriguing observation that a wide array of skin disorders presents with primary or secondary mitochondrial pathology and that a variety of molecular defects can cause dysfunctional mitochondria. Among them are mutations in mitochondrial- and nuclear DNA-encoded subunits and assembly factors of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes; mutations in intermediate filament proteins involved in linking, moving and shaping of mitochondria; and disorders of mitochondrial DNA metabolism, fatty acid metabolism and heme synthesis. Thus, we assume that mitochondrial involvement is the rule rather than the exception in skin diseases. We conclude the article by discussing how improving mitochondrial function can be beneficial for aged skin and can be used as an adjunct therapy for certain skin disorders. Consideration of mitochondrial energy metabolism in the skin creates a new perspective for both dermatologists and experts in metabolic disease.

  5. The neglected neglect: auditory neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Sankalp; Lahoti, Sourabh; Caplan, Louis R

    2013-08-01

    Whereas visual and somatosensory forms of neglect are commonly recognized by clinicians, auditory neglect is often not assessed and therefore neglected. The auditory cortical processing system can be functionally classified into 2 distinct pathways. These 2 distinct functional pathways deal with recognition of sound ("what" pathway) and the directional attributes of the sound ("where" pathway). Lesions of higher auditory pathways produce distinct clinical features. Clinical bedside evaluation of auditory neglect is often difficult because of coexisting neurological deficits and the binaural nature of auditory inputs. In addition, auditory neglect and auditory extinction may show varying degrees of overlap, which makes the assessment even harder. Shielding one ear from the other as well as separating the ear from space is therefore critical for accurate assessment of auditory neglect. This can be achieved by use of specialized auditory tests (dichotic tasks and sound localization tests) for accurate interpretation of deficits. Herein, we have reviewed auditory neglect with an emphasis on the functional anatomy, clinical evaluation, and basic principles of specialized auditory tests.

  6. Onchocerciasis in Yemen: Time to take action against a neglected tropical parasitic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Ghani, Rashad; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Beier, John C

    2016-10-01

    Onchocerciasis is a neglected parasitic disease affecting the poorest underserved people in Yemen. A national control programme with goals to eliminate onchocerciasis has yet to be launched due to the current upheaval and social unrest in the country. The disease, locally termed as sowda, is unique in its clinicopathologic pattern, being of the localized, non-blinding, hyperreactive onchocercal skin disease. Although early reports identified endemic foci along seasonal watercourses, there is a need to redefine its epidemiologic patterns as well as health and socioeconomic impacts. Laboratory diagnosis of sowda among Yemeni patients is difficult due to the low load of microfilariae in skin snips and the presence of asymptomatic itching-free microfilaria carriers. Adoption of ivermectin use at three-month intervals as a control strategy has not been evaluated because the drug is mostly used in clinics and distributed to only a few affected communities. This paper addresses key aspects of onchocerciasis in Yemen and highlights the need for screening at-risk populations using highly sensitive techniques and mapping the distributions of the parasite in human and vector populations of blackflies. The new research should be integrated with the launch of a national onchocerciasis control programme to achieve onchocerciasis elimination.

  7. Mesoamerican nephropathy: a neglected tropical disease with an infectious etiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kristy O; Fischer, Rebecca S B; Chavarria, Denis; Duttmann, Christiane; Garcia, Melissa N; Gorchakov, Rodion; Hotez, Peter J; Jiron, William; Leibler, Jessica H; Lopez, Job E; Mandayam, Sreedhar; Marin, Alejandro; Sheleby, Jessica

    2015-10-01

    An outbreak of unexplained and severe kidney disease, "Mesoamerican Nephropathy," in mostly young, male sugar cane workers emerged in Central America in the late 1990's. As a result, an estimated 20,000 individuals have died, to date. Unfortunately, and with great consequence to human life, the etiology of the outbreak has yet to be identified. The sugarcane fields in Chichigalpa, Chinandega, Nicaragua, have been involved in the outbreak, and during our initial investigation, we interviewed case patients who experienced fever, nausea and vomiting, arthralgia, myalgia, headache, neck and back pain, weakness, and paresthesia at the onset of acute kidney disease. We also observed a heavy infestation of rodents, particularly of Sigmodon species, in the sugarcane fields. We hypothesize that infectious pathogens are being shed through the urine and feces of these rodents, and workers are exposed to these pathogens during the process of cultivating and harvesting sugarcane. In this paper, we will discuss the epidemic in the Chichigalpa area, potential pathogens responsible for Mesoamerican Nephropathy, and steps needed in order to diagnose, treat, and prevent future cases from occurring. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. [Gaps on China's Engagement in Global Governance of Neglected Tropical Diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wei; Zhou, Xiao-nong; Guan, Ya-yi; Yao, Jia-wen; Xiao, Ning

    2015-12-01

    In this review, we used gap analysis to find out the inadeqency of China's engagement in global elimination and control of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Meanwhile, important facets on which our work should concentrate and some abilities that need to be improved were proposed, in the aim to stimulate the progress of global prevention and control of NTDs.

  9. Productivity Loss Related to Neglected Tropical Diseases Eligible for Preventive Chemotherapy : A Systematic Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Lenk (Edeltraud); W.K. Redekop (Ken); M. Luyendijk (Marianne); A.J. Rijnsburger (Rian); J.L. Severens (Hans)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractNeglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) not only have impact on health and life expectancy of mostly disadvantaged populations, but can also lead to economic consequences, including reduced ability to work. Investments in health improvement of the populations affected by NTDs would also h

  10. Productivity Loss Related to Neglected Tropical Diseases Eligible for Preventive Chemotherapy : A Systematic Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Lenk (Edeltraud); W.K. Redekop (Ken); M. Luyendijk (Marianne); A.J. Rijnsburger (Rian); J.L. Severens (Hans)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractNeglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) not only have impact on health and life expectancy of mostly disadvantaged populations, but can also lead to economic consequences, including reduced ability to work. Investments in health improvement of the populations affected by NTDs would also

  11. Invasive non-typhoidal salmonella disease: an emerging and neglected tropical disease in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feasey, Nicholas A; Dougan, Gordon; Kingsley, Robert A; Heyderman, Robert S; Gordon, Melita A

    2012-06-30

    Invasive strains of non-typhoidal salmonellae have emerged as a prominent cause of bloodstream infection in African adults and children, with an associated case fatality of 20-25%. The clinical presentation of invasive non-typhoidal salmonella disease in Africa is diverse: fever, hepatosplenomegaly, and respiratory symptoms are common, and features of enterocolitis are often absent. The most important risk factors are HIV infection in adults, and malaria, HIV, and malnutrition in children. A distinct genotype of Salmonella enterica var Typhimurium, ST313, has emerged as a new pathogenic clade in sub-Saharan Africa, and might have adapted to cause invasive disease in human beings. Multidrug-resistant ST313 has caused epidemics in several African countries, and has driven the use of expensive antimicrobial drugs in the poorest health services in the world. Studies of systemic cellular and humoral immune responses in adults infected with HIV have revealed key host immune defects contributing to invasive non-typhoidal salmonella disease. This emerging pathogen might therefore have adapted to occupy an ecological and immunological niche provided by HIV, malaria, and malnutrition in Africa. A good understanding of the epidemiology of this neglected disease will open new avenues for development and implementation of vaccine and public health strategies to prevent infections and interrupt transmission.

  12. Seven challenges for modelling indirect transmission: Vector-borne diseases, macroparasites and neglected tropical diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Déirdre Hollingsworth

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many of the challenges which face modellers of directly transmitted pathogens also arise when modelling the epidemiology of pathogens with indirect transmission – whether through environmental stages, vectors, intermediate hosts or multiple hosts. In particular, understanding the roles of different hosts, how to measure contact and infection patterns, heterogeneities in contact rates, and the dynamics close to elimination are all relevant challenges, regardless of the mode of transmission. However, there remain a number of challenges that are specific and unique to modelling vector-borne diseases and macroparasites. Moreover, many of the neglected tropical diseases which are currently targeted for control and elimination are vector-borne, macroparasitic, or both, and so this article includes challenges which will assist in accelerating the control of these high-burden diseases. Here, we discuss the challenges of indirect measures of infection in humans, whether through vectors or transmission life stages and in estimating the contribution of different host groups to transmission. We also discuss the issues of “evolution-proof” interventions against vector-borne disease.

  13. Pauci- and Multibacillary Leprosy: Two Distinct, Genetically Neglected Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaschignard, Jean; Grant, Audrey Virginia; Thuc, Nguyen Van; Orlova, Marianna; Cobat, Aurélie; Huong, Nguyen Thu; Ba, Nguyen Ngoc; Thai, Vu Hong; Abel, Laurent; Schurr, Erwin; Alcaïs, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    After sustained exposure to Mycobacterium leprae, only a subset of exposed individuals develops clinical leprosy. Moreover, leprosy patients show a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations that extend from the paucibacillary (PB) to the multibacillary (MB) form of the disease. This “polarization” of leprosy has long been a major focus of investigation for immunologists because of the different immune response in these two forms. But while leprosy per se has been shown to be under tight human genetic control, few epidemiological or genetic studies have focused on leprosy subtypes. Using PubMed, we collected available data in English on the epidemiology of leprosy polarization and the possible role of human genetics in its pathophysiology until September 2015. At the genetic level, we assembled a list of 28 genes from the literature that are associated with leprosy subtypes or implicated in the polarization process. Our bibliographical search revealed that improved study designs are needed to identify genes associated with leprosy polarization. Future investigations should not be restricted to a subanalysis of leprosy per se studies but should instead contrast MB to PB individuals. We show the latter approach to be the most powerful design for the identification of genetic polarization determinants. Finally, we bring to light the important resource represented by the nine-banded armadillo model, a unique animal model for leprosy. PMID:27219008

  14. Non-academic L2 Users: A Neglected Research Pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talebinezhad, Mohammad Reza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available English Language Teaching (ELT articles are published and their results are relied on without delving into their methodological credibility. A research study cannot be considered valid unless its population is precisely determined and defined. This article shows the considerable size of non-academic English learners in Iran and argues that the population in ELT research should not be limited only to university and school students who are easily accessible but it should also include the sizeable non-academic sector. To do this, 170 PhD dissertations and MA theses in TEFL were randomly selected. The result showed that only less than 9% of the participants belonged to non-academic sector. The article also argues that there is wrong overgeneralization of even the existing ELT academic researches to non-academic situation. Finally it compares academic and non-academic English learners to show how the latter are highly motivated to learn.

  15. SLA Research in Postmethod Era: Neglects, Misunderstandings and Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidinia, Hossein; Eghtesadi, Ahmad Reza

    2009-01-01

    Much of the recent literature in the field of Second Language Acquisition (SLA) research has a primary reliance on experimental design and quantitative analysis. Since SLA is so complex and multidimensional, it is difficult to study in an unnatural experimental design. In such a setting, some of the variables that affect the very nature of…

  16. Stepwise innovation adoption : a neglected concept in innovation research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizingh, K.R.E.; Brand, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Most innovation researchers tend to consider innovation adoption as a binary process, implying that companies have either adopted an innovation or not. In this paper we focus on e-commerce as an innovation that can be adopted stepwise. We distinguish between two levels of e-commerce, basic and advan

  17. Stepwise innovation adoption : a neglected concept in innovation research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizingh, K.R.E.; Brand, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Most innovation researchers tend to consider innovation adoption as a binary process, implying that companies have either adopted an innovation or not. In this paper we focus on e-commerce as an innovation that can be adopted stepwise. We distinguish between two levels of e-commerce, basic and advan

  18. SLA Research in Postmethod Era: Neglects, Misunderstandings and Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidinia, Hossein; Eghtesadi, Ahmad Reza

    2009-01-01

    Much of the recent literature in the field of Second Language Acquisition (SLA) research has a primary reliance on experimental design and quantitative analysis. Since SLA is so complex and multidimensional, it is difficult to study in an unnatural experimental design. In such a setting, some of the variables that affect the very nature of…

  19. Neglected tropical diseases in sub-saharan Africa: review of their prevalence, distribution, and disease burden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Hotez

    Full Text Available The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs are the most common conditions affecting the poorest 500 million people living in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, and together produce a burden of disease that may be equivalent to up to one-half of SSA's malaria disease burden and more than double that caused by tuberculosis. Approximately 85% of the NTD disease burden results from helminth infections. Hookworm infection occurs in almost half of SSA's poorest people, including 40-50 million school-aged children and 7 million pregnant women in whom it is a leading cause of anemia. Schistosomiasis is the second most prevalent NTD after hookworm (192 million cases, accounting for 93% of the world's number of cases and possibly associated with increased horizontal transmission of HIV/AIDS. Lymphatic filariasis (46-51 million cases and onchocerciasis (37 million cases are also widespread in SSA, each disease representing a significant cause of disability and reduction in the region's agricultural productivity. There is a dearth of information on Africa's non-helminth NTDs. The protozoan infections, human African trypanosomiasis and visceral leishmaniasis, affect almost 100,000 people, primarily in areas of conflict in SSA where they cause high mortality, and where trachoma is the most prevalent bacterial NTD (30 million cases. However, there are little or no data on some very important protozoan infections, e.g., amebiasis and toxoplasmosis; bacterial infections, e.g., typhoid fever and non-typhoidal salmonellosis, the tick-borne bacterial zoonoses, and non-tuberculosis mycobaterial infections; and arboviral infections. Thus, the overall burden of Africa's NTDs may be severely underestimated. A full assessment is an important step for disease control priorities, particularly in Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo, where the greatest number of NTDs may occur.

  20. Aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages of Ghana, West Africa: understanding the ecology of a neglected tropical disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Benbow, M; Kimbirauskas, Ryan; McIntosh, Mollie D; Williamson, Heather; Quaye, Charles; Boakye, Daniel; Small, Pamela L C; Merritt, Richard W

    2014-06-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is an emerging, but neglected tropical disease, where there has been a reported association with disturbed aquatic habitats and proposed aquatic macroinvertebrate vectors such as biting Hemiptera. An initial step in understanding the potential role of macroinvertebrates in the ecology of BU is to better understand the entire community, not just one or two taxa, in relation to the pathogen, Mycobacterium ulcerans, at a large spatial scale. For the first time at a country-wide scale this research documents that M. ulcerans was frequently detected from environmental samples taken from BU endemic regions, but was not present in 30 waterbodies of a non-endemic region. There were significant differences in macroinvertebrate community structure and identified potential indicator taxa in relation to pathogen presence. These results suggest that specific macroinvertebrate taxa or functional metrics may potentially be used as aquatic biological indicators of M. ulcerans. Developing ecological indicators of this pathogen is a first step for understanding the disease ecology of BU and should assist future studies of transmission.

  1. Preventing Suicide: A Neglected Social Work Research Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Social workers encounter suicidal clients; however, little is known about social work’s empirical knowledge base for suicide assessment and treatment. In the first comprehensive study of social work’s contribution to the suicide literature, the authors conducted systematic electronic and manual searches for suicide research published in peer-reviewed journals by social work investigators for the period 1980–2006, with the purpose of ascertaining the state of clinical knowledge related to suic...

  2. Neglect of a Neglected Disease in Italy: The Challenge of Access-to-Care for Chagas Disease in Bergamo Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestina Carla Repetto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease (CD represents a growing problem in Europe; Italy is one of the most affected countries but there is no national framework for CD and access-to-care is challenging. In 2012 Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF started an intervention in Bergamo province, where many people of Latin American origin (PLAO are resident. A new model-of-care for CD, initiated by Centre for Tropical Diseases of Sacro Cuore Hospital, Negrar (CTD, the NGO OIKOS and the Bolivian community since 2009 in the same area, was endorsed. Hereby, we aim to describe the prevalence of CD and the treatment management outcomes among PLAO screened from 1st June 2012 to 30th June 2013.Retrospective cohort study using routine program data. Screening sessions were done in Bergamo at OIKOS outpatient service and serological confirmation, staging and treatment for CD was offered at the CTD. MSF provided health education on CD, awareness generation prior to screening days, pre-test and post-test counselling through cultural mediators of Latin American origin.Of 1305 PLAO screened, 223(17% had CD. Among 210 patients eligible for treatment, 102(49% were lost-to-follow-up before treatment. The median delay from diagnosis to treatment was 4 months (range 0.7-16.6 months. Among 108 started on treatment, 63(58% completed treatment, 36(33% interrupted treatment, (33 for drug side-effects, two for patients decision and one due to pregnancy, 6(6% were lost-to-follow-up and 3(3% were on treatment at study censuring.In this first study focusing on process of care for CD in Italy, less than 30% of patients completed treatment with drop-outs along the cascade of care. There is an urgent need to involve affected communities and local regional health authorities to take part to this model-of-care, adapting it to the local epidemiology. The Italian health authorities should take steps in advocating for a change in the current paradigm.

  3. [A neglected research topic: powerlessness of old people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braam, G P A

    2010-02-01

    There is much research into problems of the elderly in The Netherlands. It seems however that studies from a macro-sociological perspective are scarce. This is discussed in greater detail focusing on the concept of power. Using a well-known definition of Max Weber, it is assumed that the dependency of many older people gives rise to serious powerlessness. Firstly this is reflected in the usual problem representation, with shows a heavy emphasis on "dangers" of the burden of the babyboom-generation and on the "leisure class-life" of old people. Second, considering the policy measures with the pensions and the care system, the question can be raised if a countervailing power is actually present. In most cases a comparison with younger cohorts is lacking, and there is not much insight in the processes underlying the decision making processes and the networks involved.

  4. Weather conditions: a neglected factor in human salivary cortisol research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milas, Goran; Šupe-Domić, Daniela; Drmić-Hofman, Irena; Rumora, Lada; Klarić, Irena Martinović

    2017-09-01

    There is ample evidence that environmental stressors such as extreme weather conditions affect animal behavior and that this process is in part mediated through the elevated activity of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis which results in an increase in cortisol secretion. This relationship has not been extensively researched in humans, and weather conditions have not been analyzed as a potential confounder in human studies of stress. Consequently, the goal of this paper was to assess the relationship between salivary cortisol and weather conditions in the course of everyday life and to test a possible moderating effect of two weather-related variables, the climate region and timing of exposure to outdoors conditions. The sample consisted of 903 secondary school students aged 18 to 21 years from Mediterranean and Continental regions. Cortisol from saliva was sampled in naturalistic settings at three time points over the course of a single day. We found that weather conditions are related to salivary cortisol concentration and that this relationship may be moderated by both the specific climate and the anticipation of immediate exposure to outdoors conditions. Unpleasant weather conditions are predictive for the level of salivary cortisol, but only among individuals who anticipate being exposed to it in the immediate future (e.g., in students attending school in the morning shift). We also demonstrated that isolated weather conditions or their patterns may be relevant in one climate area (e.g., Continental) while less relevant in the other (e.g., Mediterranean). Results of this study draw attention to the importance of controlling weather conditions in human salivary cortisol research.

  5. Adverse event management in mass drug administration for neglected tropical diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Arthur; Zink, Amanda

    2014-03-01

    The ethical challenges of reporting and managing adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs (SAEs) in the context of mass drug administration (MDA) for the treatment of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) require reassessment of domestic and international policies on a global scale. Although the World Health Organization has set forth AE/SAE guidelines specifically for NTD MDA that incorporate suspected causality, and recommends that only SAEs get reported in this setting, most regulatory agencies continue to require the reporting of all SAEs exhibiting even a merely temporal relationship to activities associated with an MDA program. This greatly increases the potential for excess "noise" and undue risk aversion and is not only impractical but arguably unethical where huge proportions of populations are being treated for devastating diseases, and no good baseline exists against which to compare possible AE/SAE reports. Other population-specific variables that might change the way drug safety ought to be assessed include differing efficacy rates of a drug, background morbidity/mortality rates of the target disease in question, the growth rate of the incidence of disease, the availability of rescue or salvage therapies, and the willingness of local populations to take risks that other populations might not. The fact that NTDs are controllable and potentially eradicable with well-tolerated, effective, existing drugs might further alter our assessment of MDA safety and AE/SAE tolerability. At the same time, diffuseness of population, communication barriers, lack of resources, and other difficult surveillance challenges may present in NTD-affected settings. These limitations could impair the ability to monitor an MDA program's success, as well as hinder efforts to obtain informed consent or provide rescue therapy. Denying beneficial research interventions and MDA programs intended to benefit millions requires sound ethical justification based on more than the identification of

  6. The burden of neglected tropical diseases in Ethiopia, and opportunities for integrated control and elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deribe Kebede

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs are a group of chronic parasitic diseases and related conditions that are the most common diseases among the 2·7 billion people globally living on less than US$2 per day. In response to the growing challenge of NTDs, Ethiopia is preparing to launch a NTD Master Plan. The purpose of this review is to underscore the burden of NTDs in Ethiopia, highlight the state of current interventions, and suggest ways forward. Results This review indicates that NTDs are significant public health problems in Ethiopia. From the analysis reported here, Ethiopia stands out for having the largest number of NTD cases following Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Ethiopia is estimated to have the highest burden of trachoma, podoconiosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, the second highest burden in terms of ascariasis, leprosy and visceral leishmaniasis, and the third highest burden of hookworm. Infections such as schistosomiasis, trichuriasis, lymphatic filariasis and rabies are also common. A third of Ethiopians are infected with ascariasis, one quarter is infected with trichuriasis and one in eight Ethiopians lives with hookworm or is infected with trachoma. However, despite these high burdens of infection, the control of most NTDs in Ethiopia is in its infancy. In terms of NTD control achievements, Ethiopia reached the leprosy elimination target of 1 case/10,000 population in 1999. No cases of human African trypanosomiasis have been reported since 1984. Guinea worm eradication is in its final phase. The Onchocerciasis Control Program has been making steady progress since 2001. A national blindness survey was conducted in 2006 and the trachoma program has kicked off in some regions. Lymphatic Filariasis, podoconiosis and rabies mapping are underway. Conclusion Ethiopia bears a significant burden of NTDs compared to other SSA countries. To achieve success in integrated control of

  7. Can mobile phones help control neglected tropical diseases? Experiences from Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madon, Shirin; Amaguru, Jackline Olanya; Malecela, Mwele Ntuli; Michael, Edwin

    2014-02-01

    The increasing proliferation of mobiles offers possibilities for improving health systems in developing countries. A case in point is Tanzania which has piloted a mobile phone-based Management Information System (MIS) for the control of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) where village health workers (VHWs) were given mobile phones with web-based software to test the feasibility of using frontline health workers to capture data at point of source. Based on qualitative case study research carried out in 2011, we found that providing mobile phones to VHWs has helped to increase the efficiency of routine work boosting the motivation and self-esteem of VHWs. However, despite these advantages, the information generated from the mobile phone-based NTD MIS has yet to be used to support decentralised decision-making. Even with improved technology and political will, the biggest hindrance to local usage of information for health planning is the lack of synthesised and analysed health information from the district and national levels to the villages. Without inculcating a culture of providing health information feedback to frontline workers and community organisations, the benefits of the intervention will be limited. If not addressed, this will mean that mobiles have maintained the one-way upward flow of information for NTD control and simply made reporting more hi-tech. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Introduction of European priority review vouchers to encourage development of new medicines for neglected diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, David B; Sánchez, Alfonso Calles

    2010-09-11

    Every year 1 billion people worldwide are affected by traditionally neglected diseases, such as malaria, tuberculosis, leishmaniasis, and lymphatic filariasis, which impose tremendous public health burdens. Governments, foundations, and drug manufacturers have, however, started to support development of new treatments. European Union Member States have been leaders in implementing so-called push mechanisms (payment for drug development) and pull funding (reward for output), such as the advance market commitment, which creates a market for vaccines by guaranteeing prices. We propose an additional step that could be taken to encourage development of medicines for neglected diseases. A priority review voucher scheme, as is already in place in the USA, would reward a manufacturer that developed a new medicine for neglected diseases with a voucher that could be redeemed for priority review of a future medicine, probably a potential blockbuster drug. Unlike the US system a European voucher would also accelerate pricing and reimbursement decisions. This scheme would be likely to provide substantial benefits to voucher holders, society, and public health organisations.

  9. Neglect, abuse and violence against older women: Definitions and research frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Brownell

    2015-12-01

    Disease Control. Each focuses on a different aspect of abuse of older women: active ageing, old age dependency, and domestic violence in later life. A fourth conceptual framework, the human rights perspective, shows promise for addressing abuse of older women in a more holistic manner than the other definitions, but Is not fully developed as a way of understanding neglect, abuse and violence against older women. This is the first of a four-part series on older women and abuse.

  10. Model for product development of vaccines against neglected tropical diseases: a vaccine against human hookworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Brown, Ami Shah

    2008-12-01

    This article provides an overview of the advances in product development and technology transfer of the vaccine against human hookworm, with particular emphasis on the lessons learned and the challenges of developing a vaccine in the nonprofit sector. The comprehensive approach to vaccine development established by the Human Hookworm Vaccine Initiative (HHVI) identifies key operational and technical aspects that are essential for a successful partnership with a developing country vaccine manufacturer. This article also highlights the importance of a global access roadmap to guide the vaccine development program. The advancement of new products for the control of neglected tropical diseases portends great challenges for global access, including aspects related to vaccine design, product development and manufacture, vaccine introduction and distribution, financing, knowledge dissemination and intellectual property management. With only three vaccines for neglected tropical diseases in clinical trials - hookworm, leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis - we are at the nascent stages of developing vaccines for neglected populations. Product development public-private partnerships, such as the HHVI, continue to show great promise on this front and will eventually provide significant control tools for achieving millennium development goals related to poverty reduction, as well as child and maternal health.

  11. Threats from emerging and re-emerging neglected tropical diseases (NTDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim K. Mackey

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neglected tropical diseases impact over 1 billion of the world's poorest populations and require special attention. However, within the NTDs recognized by the World Health Organization, some are also dually categorized as emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases requiring more detailed examination on potential global health risks. Methods: We reviewed the 17 NTDs classified by the WHO to determine if those NTDs were also categorized by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases (‘‘EReNTDs’’. We then identified common characteristics and risks associated with EReNTDs. Results: Identified EReNTDs of dengue, rabies, Chagas Disease, and cysticercosis disproportionately impact resource-poor settings with poor social determinants of health, spread through globalization, are impacted by vector control, lack available treatments, and threaten global health security. This traditionally neglected subset of diseases requires urgent attention and unique incentive structures to encourage investment in innovation and coordination. Discussion: Multi-sectorial efforts and targeted public–private partnerships would spur needed R&D for effective and accessible EReNTD treatments, improvement of social determinants of health, crucial low-income country development, and health system strengthening efforts. Utilization of One Health principles is essential for enhancing knowledge to efficaciously address public health aspects of these EReNTDs globally.

  12. Haiti: Neglected Infectious Diseases infographic Title: Haití: Infografía enfermedades olvidadas infecciosas

    OpenAIRE

    Agustin Cáceres

    2012-01-01

    In Haiti, the IDB and its partners integrate health, water and sanitation to fight intestinal parasites and other Neglected Infectious Diseases. This Infographic promotes the IDB's activities in Haiti and provides general information related to these diseases.Abstract: En Haití, el BID y sus socios integran la salud, agua y saneamiento para combatir los parásitos intestinales y otras enfermedades infecciosas desatendidas. Esta Infografía promueve las actividades del BID en Haití y ofrece info...

  13. A business plan to help the 'global South' in its fight against neglected diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, Sarah E; Liu, Victor Y; Singer, Peter A

    2009-01-01

    Although neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) threaten the health of those living in the developing world, innovation directed toward addressing NTDs is comparatively meager. Health biotechnology firms in rapidly growing economies in the global South are developing and selling vaccines, diagnostics, and therapeutics for these diseases to local markets. In this paper we identify a pipeline of sixty-two NTD products from seventy-eight "Southern" companies. We also propose creation of a Global Health Accelerator-a new nonprofit organization whose mission would be to support and help grow this Southern source of affordable innovation for NTDs.

  14. Transition-state-guided drug design for treatment of parasitic neglected tropical diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murkin, A S; Moynihan, M M

    2014-01-01

    Many of the deadliest neglected tropical diseases are caused by protozoan and helminthic parasites. These organisms have evolved several enzymes to exploit their host's metabolic resources and evade immune responses. Because these essential proteins are absent in humans, they are targets for antiparasitic drug development. Despite decades of investigation, no therapy has been successful in the eradication of these diseases, so new approaches are desired. Chemically stable analogues of the transition states of enzymatic reactions are often potent inhibitors, and several examples of clinically effective compounds are known for other diseases. The design of transition-state analogues is aided by structural models of the transition state, which are obtained by complementing experimental measurement of kinetic isotope effects with theoretical calculations. Such transition-state-guided inhibitor design has been demonstrated for human, bovine, malarial, and trypanosomal enzymes of the purine salvage pathway, including purine nucleoside phosphorylase, nucleoside hydrolases, and adenosine deaminase. Cysteine proteases, trans-sialidase, 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase, and trypanothione synthetase are presented as additional candidates for application of transition-state analysis with the goal of identifying new leads for the treatment of parasitic neglected tropical diseases.

  15. Historical Perspective and Risk of Multiple Neglected Tropical Diseases in Coastal Tanzania: Compositional and Contextual Determinants of Disease Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Ato Armah

    Full Text Available In the past decade, research on neglected tropical diseases (NTDs has intensified in response to the need to enhance community participation in health delivery, establish monitoring and surveillance systems, and integrate existing disease-specific treatment programs to control overlapping NTD burdens and detrimental effects. In this paper, we evaluated the geographical distribution of NTDs in coastal Tanzania.We also assessed the collective (compositional and contextual factors that currently determine risks to multiple NTDs using a cross sectional survey of 1253 individuals in coastal Tanzania. The results show that the effect size in decreasing order of magnitude for non-binary predictors of NTD risks is as follows: NTD comorbidities > poverty > educational attainment > self-reported household quality of life > ethnicity. The multivariate analysis explained 95% of the variance in the relationship between NTD risks and the theoretically-relevant covariates. Compositional (biosocial and sociocultural factors explained more variance at the neighbourhood level than at the regional level, whereas contextual factors, such as access to health services and household quality, in districts explained a large proportion of variance at the regional level but individually had modest statistical significance, demonstrating the complex interactions between compositional and contextual factors in generating NTD risks.NTD risks were inequitably distributed over geographic space, which has several important policy implications. First, it suggests that localities of high burden of NTDs are likely to diminish within statistical averages at higher (regional or national levels. Second, it indicates that curative or preventive interventions will become more efficient provided they can be focused on the localities, particularly as populations in these localities are likely to be burdened by several NTDs simultaneously, further increasing the imperative of multi-disease

  16. Developing a CASPER Survey to Assess the Prevalence of Risk Factors for Neglected Tropical Diseases in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, Seth; Hammond, Tracy; Goldberg, Daniel; Horney, Jennifer

    While more than a billion people live at risk of neglected tropical diseases in areas of Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and Latin America, the degree to which such diseases burden countries like the United States is currently unclear. Even though many neglected tropical diseases such as dengue, leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease are not endemic to the United States, the possibility of their emergence is noteworthy, especially in states like Texas, which has high levels of poverty, a large immigrant population, and a climate amenable to the vectors for these diseases and is geographically proximate to endemic areas. Despite the health threat that emerging neglected tropical diseases may pose, little is known about the prevalence of risk factors for them in the United States. Texas House Bill 2055, enacted on September 1, 2015, mandated the establishment of a surveillance program for neglected tropical diseases in Texas. After reviewing the potential risk factors for transmission in Texas, we developed a 41-question survey that could be implemented using the Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) method. In concert with public health surveillance and vector population monitoring, data from CASPERs could be used to quickly and cost-effectively assess the prevalence of risk factors for 10 neglected tropical diseases in Texas or elsewhere in the United States. The data generated by future CASPERs conducted using this survey could be immediately actionable, guiding public health priority setting and decision making.

  17. Neglected zoonotic diseases-the long and winding road to advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mableson, Hayley E; Okello, Anna; Picozzi, Kim; Welburn, Susan Christina

    2014-06-01

    Years of advocacy for the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) have focused the world's attention on these diseases of the poor, resulting most recently in the 2012 "London Declaration" and the recent World Health Assembly Resolution WHA66.12 on NTDs in May 2013. Control of the endemic neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs) would benefit from a similar campaign, which needs the support of a global community. The resolutions from all 66 World Health Assembly (WHA) meetings held between 1948 and 2013 were examined to determine how many contain a specific focus on any of the following eight NZDs as defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO): anthrax, bovine tuberculosis (TB), brucellosis, Taenia solium cysticercosis, cystic echinococcosis (hydatidosis), leishmaniasis, rabies, and zoonotic human African trypanosomiasis (HAT or sleeping sickness). Twenty-one resolutions adopted in the 16 assemblies between 1948 and 2013 targeted one or more of these eight NZDs, representing 4% of the total resolutions on infectious diseases passed to date. The 2013 adoption of Resolution WHA66.12 targeting all 17 NTDs marks a change in approach by the WHA. Whereas previous resolutions have targeted the NTDs as separate entities, the new approach of the combined resolution will help increase the overall momentum to target these ancient diseases as coendemic clusters in endemic countries. However, three major NZDs remain outside this recent resolution: anthrax, brucellosis, and bovine TB. The recent adoption of a specific resolution at the WHA in 2013 that emphasises a One Health approach for the successful control of 17 NTDs is a major development in advocacy. However, recognition of the importance of three major NZDs to public health in endemic countries-anthrax, brucellosis, and bovine tuberculosis-is still lacking despite being prioritised by the WHA as early as the 1950s. Global advocacy for control of the NZDs as a whole would similarly benefit from adoption of a One Health approach

  18. Under seize: neurocysticercosis in an immigrant woman and review of a growing neglected disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Meredith; Garcia, Hector H; Chin-Hong, Peter; Baxi, Sanjiv M

    2015-12-18

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a significantly neglected tropical disease and, with increasing globalisation, a notable emerging infection in the developed world. We describe a case of ventricular NCC in a 22-year-old Mexican-American woman with a history of seizures, who presented with 2 weeks of headaches and intermittent fevers progressing to altered mental status and vomiting. Initial imaging revealed a cystic mass at the posteroinferior aspect of the third ventricle superior to the aqueduct of Sylvius, calcifications scattered throughout the parenchyma, and enlargement of the lateral and third ventricles. Initial laboratories were unrevealing and serum investigations for Taenia solium antibody were negative, but T. solium antibody was subsequently returned positive from cerebrospinal fluid. This case highlights important issues regarding the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation and treatment of NCC relevant to providers not only in areas with endemic disease but, importantly, in locales with diverse immigrant populations.

  19. Uncommon and Neglected Venezuelan Viral Diseases: Etiologic Agents, Physiopathological, Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Gabaldon-Figueira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract (english Viral infectious diseases are common in Venezuela, influenza, dengue, yellow fever, HIV infection, viral Hepatitis, chikungunya fever and many others represent public health problems in the country and therefore, have been well documented. However, other rarer and even unique or lethal viral illnesses present in Venezuela are usually poorly understood or even unknown. This review described Venezuelan Hemorrhagic Fever, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis, Hantavirus Infections and Mayaro fever, named as neglected diseases, emphasizing the etiologic agents and their most relevant pathogenic mechanisms, clinical and epidemiological characteristics. Although there is not an official report about the re-emergence of these diseases, falling living standards and unsanitary conditions, together with limited accessibility to hygiene products and medical supplies, put us on alert about the re-emergence of these neglected diseases. Resumen (español Las enfermedades infecciosas virales son comunes en Venezuela, influenza, dengue, fiebre amarilla, infección por VIH, hepatitis viral, fiebre chikungunya y muchas otras representan problemas de salud pública en el país y por lo tanto, han sido bien documentadas. Sin embargo, otras enfermedades virales más raras e incluso únicas y letales presentes en Venezuela son generalmente poco estudiadas y hasta desconocidas. Esta revisión describe alguna de estas enfermedades olvidadas tales como la fiebre hemorrágica venezolana, la encefalitis equina venezolana, las infecciones por hantavirus y la fiebre de Mayaro, haciendo hincapié en los agentes etiológicos y en sus mecanismos patogénicos más relevantes, características clínicas y epidemiológicas. Aunque no hay informes oficiales sobre el resurgimiento de estas enfermedades, la caída de los niveles de vida y las condiciones insalubres, junto con el acceso limitado a los productos de higiene y suministros médicos, debe alertar sobre el

  20. Quantitative analyses and modelling to support achievement of the 2020 goals for nine neglected tropical diseases Quantitative analysis of strategies to achieve the 2020 goals for neglected tropical diseases: Where are we now?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.D. Hollingsworth (T. Déirdre); E.R. Adams (Emily R.); R.M. Anderson (Roy M.); K. Atkins (Katherine); S. Bartsch (Sarah); M-G. Basáñez (María-Gloria); M. Behrend (Matthew); D.J. Blok (David); L.A.C. Chapman (Lloyd A. C.); L.E. Coffeng (Luc); O. Courtenay (Orin); R.E. Crump (Ron E.); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); A.P. Dobson (Andrew); L. Dyson (Louise); H. Farkas (Hajnal); A.P. Galvani (Alison P.); M. Gambhir (Manoj); D. Gurarie (David); M.A. Irvine (Michael A.); S. Jervis (Sarah); M.J. Keeling (Matt J.); L. Kelly-Hope (Louise); C. King (Charles); B.Y. Lee (Bruce Y.); E.A. le Rutte (Epke A.); T.M. Lietman (Thomas M.); M. Ndeffo-Mbah (Martial); G.F. Medley (Graham F.); E. Michael (Edwin); A. Pandey (Abhishek); J.K. Peterson (Jennifer K.); A. Pinsent (Amy); T.C. Porco (Travis C.); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik); L. Reimer (Lisa); K.S. Rock (Kat S.); B.K. Singh (Brajendra K.); W.A. Stolk (Wilma); S. Swaminathan (Subramanian); S.J. Torr (Steve J.); J. Townsend (Jeffrey); J. Truscott (James); M. Walker (Martin); A. Zoueva (Alexandra)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractQuantitative analysis and mathematical models are useful tools in informing strategies to control or eliminate disease. Currently, there is an urgent need to develop these tools to inform policy to achieve the 2020 goals for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). In this paper we give an ov

  1. Quantitative analyses and modelling to support achievement of the 2020 goals for nine neglected tropical diseases Quantitative analysis of strategies to achieve the 2020 goals for neglected tropical diseases: Where are we now?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.D. Hollingsworth (T. Déirdre); E.R. Adams (Emily R.); R.M. Anderson (Roy M.); K. Atkins (Katherine); S. Bartsch (Sarah); M-G. Basáñez (María-Gloria); M. Behrend (Matthew); D.J. Blok (David); L.A.C. Chapman (Lloyd A. C.); L.E. Coffeng (Luc); O. Courtenay (Orin); R.E. Crump (Ron E.); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); A.P. Dobson (Andrew); L. Dyson (Louise); H. Farkas (Hajnal); A.P. Galvani (Alison P.); M. Gambhir (Manoj); D. Gurarie (David); M.A. Irvine (Michael A.); S. Jervis (Sarah); M.J. Keeling (Matt J.); L. Kelly-Hope (Louise); C. King (Charles); B.Y. Lee (Bruce Y.); E.A. le Rutte (Epke); T.M. Lietman (Thomas M.); M. Ndeffo-Mbah (Martial); G.F. Medley (Graham F.); E. Michael (Edwin); A. Pandey (Abhishek); J.K. Peterson (Jennifer K.); A. Pinsent (Amy); T.C. Porco (Travis C.); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik); L. Reimer (Lisa); K.S. Rock (Kat S.); B.K. Singh (Brajendra K.); W.A. Stolk (Wilma); S. Swaminathan (Subramanian); S.J. Torr (Steve J.); J. Townsend (Jeffrey); J. Truscott (James); M. Walker (Martin); A. Zoueva (Alexandra)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractQuantitative analysis and mathematical models are useful tools in informing strategies to control or eliminate disease. Currently, there is an urgent need to develop these tools to inform policy to achieve the 2020 goals for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). In this paper we give an ov

  2. The role of nutrition in integrated programs to control neglected tropical diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Andrew

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are strong and direct relationships between undernutrition and the disease caused by infectious organisms, including the diverse pathogens labeled as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. Undernutrition increases the risk of infection, the severity of disease and the risk that children will die, while the physical damage, loss of appetite, and host responses during chronic infection can contribute substantially to undernutrition. These relationships are often synergistic. This opinion article examines the role of nutrition in controlling NTDs and makes the point that mass drug treatment - the major strategy currently proposed to control several diseases - is crucial to controlling disease and transmission, but is only the start of the process of physical recovery. Without adequate energy and nutrients to repair damaged tissues or recover lost growth and development, the benefits of treatment may not be evident quickly; the effects of control programs may be not appreciated by beneficiaries; while vulnerability to reinfection and disease may not be reduced. There is substantial potential for nutritional interventions to be added to large-scale programs to deliver drug treatments and thereby contribute, within a broad strategy of public health interventions and behavior change activities, to controlling and preventing NTDs in populations, and to restoring their health.

  3. [Neglected infectious diseases: an ongoing challenge for public health and equity in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas-Sánchez, César

    2014-04-01

    Neglected Infectious Diseases (NID) affect more than one billion people worldwide, and are associated with poverty, geographic isolation of populations, social stigma, lack of precise data on estimates on both the global and local burden of disease (underreporting of the diseases), inadequate financial and political resources to effective control measures, lack of lobbying on behalf of the most vulnerable population, as well as scarce drug and diagnostic methods development. In this article we describe the relationship between NID, poverty and inequality, we propose a new concept of disease in the tropics, expanding the list of diseases that share characteristics with NID in the Peruvian context, discuss the limited availability of drugs and diagnostic tests to properly deal with these diseases, as well as highlight the contributions by the Peruvian National Institute of Health, and as final thoughts, we state that the solution for the prevention and control of NID must include an integrated approach, including the social determinants of health in the context of the fight against poverty and inequality.

  4. Neglected tropical diseases in Central America and Panama: review of their prevalence, populations at risk and impact on regional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2014-08-01

    A review of the literature since 2009 reveals a staggering health and economic burden resulting from neglected tropical diseases in Panama and the six countries of Central America (referred to collectively here as 'Central America'). Particularly at risk are the 10.2million people in the region who live on less than $2 per day, mostly in Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and El Salvador. Indigenous populations are especially vulnerable to neglected tropical diseases. Currently, more than 8million Central American children require mass drug treatments annually (or more frequently) for their intestinal helminth infections, while vector-borne diseases are widespread. Among the vector-borne parasitic infections, almost 40% of the population is at risk for malaria (mostly Plasmodium vivax infection), more than 800,000 people live with Chagas disease, and up to 39,000 people have cutaneous leishmaniasis. In contrast, an important recent success story is the elimination of onchocerciasis from Central America. Dengue is the leading arbovirus infection with 4-5million people affected annually and hantavirus is an important rodent-borne viral neglected tropical disease. The leading bacterial neglected tropical diseases include leptospirosis and trachoma, for which there are no disease burden estimates. Overall there is an extreme dearth of epidemiological data on neglected tropical diseases based on active surveillance as well as estimates of their economic impact. Limited information to date, however, suggests that neglected tropical diseases are a major hindrance to the region's economic development, in both the most impoverished Central American countries listed above, as well as for Panama and Costa Rica where a substantial (but largely hidden) minority of people live in extreme poverty.

  5. Neglected tropical diseases among the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN): overview and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Strych, Ulrich; Chang, Li-Yen; Lim, Yvonne A L; Goodenow, Maureen M; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2015-04-01

    The ten member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) constitute an economic powerhouse, yet these countries also harbor a mostly hidden burden of poverty and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Almost 200 million people live in extreme poverty in ASEAN countries, mostly in the low or lower middle-income countries of Indonesia, the Philippines, Myanmar, Viet Nam, and Cambodia, and many of them are affected by at least one NTD. However, NTDs are prevalent even among upper middle-income ASEAN countries such as Malaysia and Thailand, especially among the indigenous populations. The three major intestinal helminth infections are the most common NTDs; each helminthiasis is associated with approximately 100 million infections in the region. In addition, more than 10 million people suffer from either liver or intestinal fluke infections, as well as schistosomiasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF). Intestinal protozoan infections are widespread, while leishmaniasis has emerged in Thailand, and zoonotic malaria (Plasmodium knowlesi infection) causes severe morbidity in Malaysia. Melioidosis has emerged as an important bacterial NTD, as have selected rickettsial infections, and leptospirosis. Leprosy, yaws, and trachoma are still endemic in focal areas. Almost 70 million cases of dengue fever occur annually in ASEAN countries, such that this arboviral infection is now one of the most common and economically important NTDs in the region. A number of other arboviral and zoonotic viral infections have also emerged, including Japanese encephalitis; tick-borne viral infections; Nipah virus, a zoonosis present in fruit bats; and enterovirus 71 infection. There are urgent needs to expand surveillance activities in ASEAN countries, as well as to ensure mass drug administration is provided to populations at risk for intestinal helminth and fluke infections, LF, trachoma, and yaws. An ASEAN Network for Drugs, Diagnostics, Vaccines, and Traditional Medicines

  6. Neglected tropical diseases among the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN: overview and update.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Hotez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The ten member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN constitute an economic powerhouse, yet these countries also harbor a mostly hidden burden of poverty and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. Almost 200 million people live in extreme poverty in ASEAN countries, mostly in the low or lower middle-income countries of Indonesia, the Philippines, Myanmar, Viet Nam, and Cambodia, and many of them are affected by at least one NTD. However, NTDs are prevalent even among upper middle-income ASEAN countries such as Malaysia and Thailand, especially among the indigenous populations. The three major intestinal helminth infections are the most common NTDs; each helminthiasis is associated with approximately 100 million infections in the region. In addition, more than 10 million people suffer from either liver or intestinal fluke infections, as well as schistosomiasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF. Intestinal protozoan infections are widespread, while leishmaniasis has emerged in Thailand, and zoonotic malaria (Plasmodium knowlesi infection causes severe morbidity in Malaysia. Melioidosis has emerged as an important bacterial NTD, as have selected rickettsial infections, and leptospirosis. Leprosy, yaws, and trachoma are still endemic in focal areas. Almost 70 million cases of dengue fever occur annually in ASEAN countries, such that this arboviral infection is now one of the most common and economically important NTDs in the region. A number of other arboviral and zoonotic viral infections have also emerged, including Japanese encephalitis; tick-borne viral infections; Nipah virus, a zoonosis present in fruit bats; and enterovirus 71 infection. There are urgent needs to expand surveillance activities in ASEAN countries, as well as to ensure mass drug administration is provided to populations at risk for intestinal helminth and fluke infections, LF, trachoma, and yaws. An ASEAN Network for Drugs, Diagnostics, Vaccines, and Traditional

  7. ADVANZ: Establishing a Pan-African platform for neglected zoonotic disease control through a One Health approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saarnak, Christopher; Johansen, Maria Vang; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2014-01-01

    Advocacy for neglected zoonotic diseases (ADVANZ) is a One Health Neglected Zoonotic Diseases (NZDs) project, funded by the European Commission through its 7th framework programme. The initiative aims at persuading decision makers and empowering stakeholders at local, regional, and international...... with the ultimate aim of eliminating and eradicating these diseases. The platform will serve as a forum for African and international stakeholders, as well as existing One Health and NZD networks and harness and consolidate their efforts in the control and prevention of NZDs. The platform had its first meeting...

  8. Repositioning of an existing drug for the neglected tropical disease Onchocerciasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloeckner, Christian; Garner, Amanda L; Mersha, Fana; Oksov, Yelena; Tricoche, Nancy; Eubanks, Lisa M; Lustigman, Sara; Kaufmann, Gunnar F; Janda, Kim D

    2010-02-23

    Onchocerciasis, or river blindness, is a neglected tropical disease caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus that affects more than 37 million people, mainly in third world countries. Currently, the only approved drug available for mass treatment is ivermectin, however, drug resistance is beginning to emerge, thus, new therapeutic targets and agents are desperately needed to treat and cure this devastating disease. Chitin metabolism plays a central role in invertebrate biology due to the critical structural function of chitin for the organism. Taken together with its absence in mammals, targeting chitin is an appealing therapeutic avenue. Importantly, the chitinase OvCHT1 from O. volvulus was recently discovered, however, its exact role in the worm's metabolism remains unknown. A screening effort against OvCHT1 was conducted using the Johns Hopkins Clinical Compound Library that contains over 1,500 existing drugs. Closantel, a veterinary anthelmintic with known proton ionophore activities, was identified as a potent and specific inhibitor of filarial chitinases, an activity not previously reported for this compound. Notably, closantel was found also to completely inhibit molting of O. volvulus infective L3 stage larvae. Closantel appears to target two important biochemical processes essential to filarial parasites. To begin to unravel closantel's effects, a retro-fragment-based study was used to define structural elements critical for closantel's chitinase inhibitor function. As resources towards the development of new agents that target neglected tropical diseases are scant, the finding of an existing drug with impact against O. volvulus provides promise in the hunt for new therapies against river blindness.

  9. R&D in Vaccines Targeting Neglected Diseases: An Exploratory Case Study Considering Funding for Preventive Tuberculosis Vaccine Development from 2007 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Barbosa Bessa, Theolis; Santos de Aragão, Erika; Medeiros Guimarães, Jane Mary

    2017-01-01

    Based on an exploratory case study regarding the types of institutions funding the research and development to obtain new tuberculosis vaccines, this article intends to provoke discussion regarding the provision of new vaccines targeting neglected disease. Although our findings and discussion are mainly relevant to the case presented here, some aspects are more generally applicable, especially regarding the dynamics of development in vaccines to prevent neglected diseases. Taking into account the dynamics of innovation currently seen at work in the vaccine sector, a highly concentrated market dominated by few multinational pharmaceutical companies, we feel that global PDP models can play an important role throughout the vaccine development cycle. In addition, the authors call attention to issues surrounding the coordination of actors and resources in the research, development, manufacturing, and distribution processes of vaccine products arising from PDP involvement. PMID:28133608

  10. R&D in Vaccines Targeting Neglected Diseases: An Exploratory Case Study Considering Funding for Preventive Tuberculosis Vaccine Development from 2007 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Barbosa Bessa, Theolis; Santos de Aragão, Erika; Medeiros Guimarães, Jane Mary; de Araújo Almeida, Bethânia

    2017-01-01

    Based on an exploratory case study regarding the types of institutions funding the research and development to obtain new tuberculosis vaccines, this article intends to provoke discussion regarding the provision of new vaccines targeting neglected disease. Although our findings and discussion are mainly relevant to the case presented here, some aspects are more generally applicable, especially regarding the dynamics of development in vaccines to prevent neglected diseases. Taking into account the dynamics of innovation currently seen at work in the vaccine sector, a highly concentrated market dominated by few multinational pharmaceutical companies, we feel that global PDP models can play an important role throughout the vaccine development cycle. In addition, the authors call attention to issues surrounding the coordination of actors and resources in the research, development, manufacturing, and distribution processes of vaccine products arising from PDP involvement.

  11. R&D in Vaccines Targeting Neglected Diseases: An Exploratory Case Study Considering Funding for Preventive Tuberculosis Vaccine Development from 2007 to 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theolis Costa Barbosa Bessa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on an exploratory case study regarding the types of institutions funding the research and development to obtain new tuberculosis vaccines, this article intends to provoke discussion regarding the provision of new vaccines targeting neglected disease. Although our findings and discussion are mainly relevant to the case presented here, some aspects are more generally applicable, especially regarding the dynamics of development in vaccines to prevent neglected diseases. Taking into account the dynamics of innovation currently seen at work in the vaccine sector, a highly concentrated market dominated by few multinational pharmaceutical companies, we feel that global PDP models can play an important role throughout the vaccine development cycle. In addition, the authors call attention to issues surrounding the coordination of actors and resources in the research, development, manufacturing, and distribution processes of vaccine products arising from PDP involvement.

  12. Epidemiology of Tropical Neglected Diseases in Ecuador in the Last 20 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Cartelle Gestal

    Full Text Available Tropical and zoonotic diseases are major problems in developing countries like Ecuador. Poorly designed houses, the high proportion of isolated indigenous population and under developed infrastructure represent a fertile environment for vectors to proliferate. Control campaigns in Ecuador over the years have had varying success, depending on the disease and vectors targeted.In our study we analyse the current situation of some neglected diseases in Ecuador and the efficiency of the control campaigns (by measuring changes in numbers of cases reported that the Ecuadorian government has been running to limit the spread of these infectious and parasitic diseases.Our study reveals that Brucellosis, Chagas Disease, Rabies and Onchocerciasis have been controlled, but small outbreaks are still detected in endemic areas. Leptospirosis and Echinococcosis have been increasing steadily in recent years in Ecuador since the first records. The same increase has been reported world-wide also. Better diagnosis has resulted in a higher number of cases being identified, particularly with regard to the linking of outdoor activities and contact with farm animals as contributing vectors. Improvements in diagnosis are due to regular professional training, implementation of automatized systems, establishing diagnosis protocols and the creation of an epidemiological vigilance network that acts as soon as a case is reported.Control campaigns performed in Ecuador have been successful in recent years, although natural phenomena limit their efficiency. Leptospirosis and Echinococcosis infections remain a growing problem in Ecuador as it is worldwide.

  13. Estimating Burdens of Neglected Tropical Zoonotic Diseases on Islands with Introduced Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Luz A; Croll, Donald A; Tershy, Bernie; Newton, Kelly M; Spatz, Dena R; Holmes, Nick D; Kilpatrick, A Marm

    2017-03-01

    AbstractMany neglected tropical zoonotic pathogens are maintained by introduced mammals, and on islands the most common introduced species are rodents, cats, and dogs. Management of introduced mammals, including control or eradication of feral populations, which is frequently done for ecological restoration, could also reduce or eliminate the pathogens these animals carry. Understanding the burden of these zoonotic diseases is crucial for quantifying the potential public health benefits of introduced mammal management. However, epidemiological data are only available from a small subset of islands where these introduced mammals co-occur with people. We examined socioeconomic and climatic variables as predictors for disease burdens of angiostrongyliasis, leptospirosis, toxoplasmosis, toxocariasis, and rabies from 57 islands or island countries. We found strong correlates of disease burden for leptospirosis, Toxoplasma gondii infection, angiostrongyliasis, and toxocariasis with more than 50% of the variance explained, and an average of 57% (range = 32-95%) predictive accuracy on out-of-sample data. We used these relationships to provide estimates of leptospirosis incidence and T. gondii seroprevalence infection on islands where nonnative rodents and cats are present. These predicted estimates of disease burden could be used in an initial assessment of whether the costs of managing introduced mammal reservoirs might be less than the costs of perpetual treatment of these diseases on islands.

  14. Leaving no one behind: a neglected tropical disease indicator and tracers for the Sustainable Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Christopher; Engels, Dirk

    2016-03-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have emerged as a global pledge to 'leave no one behind'. Under SDG 3, 'Ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all', target 3.3 extends the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) beyond HIV, TB and malaria to 'end the epidemic' of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) by 2030. Other targets are also relevant to NTDs, especially 3.8 (Universal Health Coverage), 6.1 (water) and 6.2 (sanitation). This commentary summarises the proposed NTD indicator (3.3) and tracers (3.8 and 6.1/6.2). These will help ensure that the world's poorest and most marginalized people are prioritized at every step on the path towards SDG targets.

  15. Can Neglected Tropical Diseases Compromise Human Wellbeing in Sex-, Age-, and Trait-Specific Ways?

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    David C Geary

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Traits that facilitate competition for reproductive resources or that influence mate choice have evolved to signal resilience to infectious disease and other stressors. As a result, the dynamics of competition and choice can, in theory, be used to generate predictions about sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities for any sexually reproducing species, including humans. These dynamics and associated vulnerabilities are reviewed for nonhuman species, focusing on traits that are compromised by exposure to parasites. Using the same approach, sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities to parasitic disease are illustrated for children's and adolescent's physical growth and fitness. Suggestions are then provided for widening the assessment of human vulnerabilities to include age-appropriate measures of behavioral (e.g., children's play and cognitive (e.g., language fluency traits. These are traits that are likely to be compromised by infection in age- and sex-specific ways. Inclusion of these types of measures in studies of neglected tropic diseases has the potential to provide a more nuanced understanding of how these diseases undermine human wellbeing and may provide a useful means to study the efficacy of associated treatments.

  16. [The road to elimination: an overview of neglected infectious diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Steven Kenyon; Catalá Pascual, Laura; Grados-Zavala, Maria Elena; Gonzálvez García, Guillermo; Castellanos, Luis Gerardo

    2014-04-01

    Neglected infectious diseases (NID) affect mainly isolated populations living in isolation and in poor socioeconomic conditions. These diseases, by their chronic and silent nature, often affect communities with a weak political voice. This translates into very little attention or political priority; which is reflected in minimal and insufficient preventive measures, monitoring and control. However, there is evidence this situation is changing favorably in some countries of the Americas. In recent years, several resolutions (official agreement of the member countries of the Pan American Health Organization / World Health Organization-PAHO / WHO), regional and global agreements on public health; with a greater commitment from the pharmaceutical industry, and other donors and international partners in combination with the development and use of integrated action plans have allowed countries to intensify public interventions to control these diseases and thus achieve target elimination of NID. Onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, Chagas disease, leprosy and trachoma blindness, among others, have been eliminated in several countries and endemic areas, regardless of the level of development of the country or geographical area where they are located. The political decision reflected in adequate financial resources in the next decade will be crucial to achieving the goals of elimination of NID (regional and national).

  17. A handful of 'antipoverty' vaccines exist for neglected diseases, but the world's poorest billion people need more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter

    2011-06-01

    So-called neglected tropical diseases are the most common infections of the world's poor. Almost all of the "bottom billion"--the 1.4 billion people who live below the poverty level defined by the World Bank--suffer from one or more neglected diseases including hookworm infection, sleeping sickness, or Chagas disease. These diseases are actually a cause of poverty because of their adverse effects on child growth and development and worker productivity. Vaccines to combat such diseases have come to be known as "antipoverty vaccines." Unfortunately, the recent surge in the development and delivery of vaccines to combat the major childhood killers--such as pneumococcal pneumonia and measles--has bypassed neglected diseases. Nevertheless, some vaccines for these neglected diseases are now entering the clinical pipeline. In this article I describe how some antipoverty vaccine development is proceeding and offer recommendations for stimulating further development such as through pooled funding for innovation, developing-country manufacturers, and public-private partnerships for product development.

  18. Neglected zoonotic diseases-the long and winding road to advocacy.

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    Hayley E Mableson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Years of advocacy for the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs have focused the world's attention on these diseases of the poor, resulting most recently in the 2012 "London Declaration" and the recent World Health Assembly Resolution WHA66.12 on NTDs in May 2013. Control of the endemic neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs would benefit from a similar campaign, which needs the support of a global community. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The resolutions from all 66 World Health Assembly (WHA meetings held between 1948 and 2013 were examined to determine how many contain a specific focus on any of the following eight NZDs as defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO: anthrax, bovine tuberculosis (TB, brucellosis, Taenia solium cysticercosis, cystic echinococcosis (hydatidosis, leishmaniasis, rabies, and zoonotic human African trypanosomiasis (HAT or sleeping sickness. Twenty-one resolutions adopted in the 16 assemblies between 1948 and 2013 targeted one or more of these eight NZDs, representing 4% of the total resolutions on infectious diseases passed to date. The 2013 adoption of Resolution WHA66.12 targeting all 17 NTDs marks a change in approach by the WHA. Whereas previous resolutions have targeted the NTDs as separate entities, the new approach of the combined resolution will help increase the overall momentum to target these ancient diseases as coendemic clusters in endemic countries. However, three major NZDs remain outside this recent resolution: anthrax, brucellosis, and bovine TB. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The recent adoption of a specific resolution at the WHA in 2013 that emphasises a One Health approach for the successful control of 17 NTDs is a major development in advocacy. However, recognition of the importance of three major NZDs to public health in endemic countries-anthrax, brucellosis, and bovine tuberculosis-is still lacking despite being prioritised by the WHA as early as the 1950s. Global advocacy for control

  19. The Potential Use of Natural and Structural Analogues of Antimicrobial Peptides in the Fight against Neglected Tropical Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewies Angélique

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, research into the development of new antimicrobial agents has been driven by the increase in resistance to traditional antibiotics and Emerging Infectious Diseases. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are promising candidates as alternatives to current antibiotics in the treatment and prevention of microbial infections. AMPs are produced by all known living species, displaying direct antimicrobial killing activity and playing an important role in innate immunity. To date, more than 2000 AMPs have been discovered and many of these exhibit broad-spectrum antibacterial, antiviral and anti-parasitic activity. Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs are caused by a variety of pathogens and are particularly wide-spread in low-income and developing regions of the world. Alternative, cost effective treatments are desperately needed to effectively battle these medically diverse diseases. AMPs have been shown to be effective against a variety of NTDs, including African trypanosomes, leishmaniosis and Chagas disease, trachoma and leprosy. In this review, the potential of selected AMPs to successfully treat a variety of NTD infections will be critically evaluated.

  20. International cooperation and non-profit organizations: re-reading the institutional role in combating neglected diseases

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    Marcos Vinício Chein Feres

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the juridical role of patent rights and the importance of international cooperation concerning the health system, especially those held between the countries of the South, as well as not-for-profit organizations for the prevention and combating neglected diseases. From the theoretical perspective of law as identity, and the methodological approach of qualitative content analysis, some cases of cooperation between states and public and private institutions were collected and analyzed in order to develop new drugs to combat neglected diseases and ensure equity of access to these drugs.

  1. The Rose Bengal Test in human brucellosis: a neglected test for the diagnosis of a neglected disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Ramón; Casanova, Aurora; Ariza, Javier; Moriyón, Ignacio

    2011-04-19

    Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis affecting livestock and human beings. The human disease lacks pathognomonic symptoms and laboratory tests are essential for its diagnosis. However, most tests are difficult to implement in the areas and countries were brucellosis is endemic. Here, we compared the simple and cheap Rose Bengal Test (RBT) with serum agglutination, Coombs, competitive ELISA, Brucellacapt, lateral flow immunochromatography for IgM and IgG detection and immunoprecipitation with Brucella proteins. We tested 208 sera from patients with brucellosis proved by bacteriological isolation, 20 contacts with no brucellosis, and 1559 sera of persons with no recent contact or brucellosis symptoms. RBT was highly sensitive in acute and long evolution brucellosis cases and this related to its ability to detect IgM, IgG and IgA, to the absence of prozones, and to the agglutinating activity of blocking IgA at the pH of the test. RBT was also highly specific in the sera of persons with no contact with Brucella. No test in this study outperformed RBT, and none was fully satisfactory in distinguishing contacts from infected patients. When modified to test serum dilutions, a diagnostic titer >4 in RBT resulted in 87.4% sensitivity (infected patients) and 100% specificity (contacts). We discuss the limitations of serological tests in the diagnosis of human brucellosis, particularly in the more chronic forms, and conclude that simplicity and affordability of RBT make it close to the ideal test for small and understaffed hospitals and laboratories.

  2. Mass Drug Administration and beyond: how can we strengthen health systems to deliver complex interventions to eliminate neglected tropical diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Achieving the 2020 goals for Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) requires scale-up of Mass Drug Administration (MDA) which will require long-term commitment of national and global financing partners, strengthening national capacity and, at the community level, systems to monitor and evaluate activities and impact. For some settings and diseases, MDA is not appropriate and alternative interventions are required. Operational research is necessary to identify how existing MDA networks can deliver this more complex range of interventions equitably. The final stages of the different global programmes to eliminate NTDs require eliminating foci of transmission which are likely to persist in complex and remote rural settings. Operational research is required to identify how current tools and practices might be adapted to locate and eliminate these hard-to-reach foci. Chronic disabilities caused by NTDs will persist after transmission of pathogens ceases. Development and delivery of sustainable services to reduce the NTD-related disability is an urgent public health priority. LSTM and its partners are world leaders in developing and delivering interventions to control vector-borne NTDs and malaria, particularly in hard-to-reach settings in Africa. Our experience, partnerships and research capacity allows us to serve as a hub for developing, supporting, monitoring and evaluating global programmes to eliminate NTDs.

  3. Innovation for the 'bottom 100 million': eliminating neglected tropical diseases in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J; Dumonteil, Eric; Heffernan, Michael J; Bottazzi, Maria E

    2013-01-01

    An estimated 100 million people in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region live on less than US$2 per day, while another 46 million people in the US live below that nation's poverty line. Almost all of the 'bottom 100 million' people suffer from at least one neglected tropical disease (NTD), including one-half of the poorest people in the region infected with hookworms, 10% with Chagas disease, and up to 1-2% with dengue, schistosomiasis, and/or leishmaniasis. In the US, NTDs such as Chagas disease, cysticercosis, toxocariasis, and trichomoniasis are also common among poor populations. These NTDs trap the poorest people in the region in poverty, because of their impact on maternal and child health, and occupational productivity. Through mass drug administration (MDA), several NTDs are on the verge of elimination in the Americas, including lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, trachoma, and possibly leprosy. In addition, schistosomiasis may soon be eliminated in the Caribbean. However, for other NTDs including hookworm infection, Chagas disease, dengue, schistosomiasis, and leishmaniasis, a new generation of 'anti-poverty vaccines' will be required. Several vaccines for dengue are under development by multinational pharmaceutical companies, whereas others are being pursued through non-profit product development partnerships (PDPs), in collaboration with developing country manufacturers in Brazil and Mexico. The Sabin Vaccine Institute PDP is developing a primarily preventive bivalent recombinant human hookworm vaccine, which is about to enter phase 1 clinical testing in Brazil, as well as a new therapeutic Chagas disease vaccine in collaboration with several Mexican institutions. The Chagas disease vaccine would be administered to seropositive patients to delay or prevent the onset of Chagasic cardiomyopathy (secondary prevention). Together, MDA and the development of new anti-poverty vaccines afford an opportunity to implement effective control and

  4. Peripheral arterial disease: A high risk – but neglecteddisease population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lip Gregory YH

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is a common, progressive manifestation of atherothrombotic vascular disease, which should be managed no different to cardiac disease. Indeed, there is growing evidence that PAD patients are a high risk group, although still relatively under-detected and under treated. This is despite the fact that PAD patients are an increased mortality rate comparable to those with pre-existing or established cardiovascular disease [myocardial infarction, stroke]. With a holistic approach to atherothrombotic vascular disease, our management of PAD can only get better.

  5. Acute Chagas Disease: New Global Challenges for an Old Neglected Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Daniela V.; Gollob, Kenneth J.; Dutra, Walderez O.

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease is caused by infection with the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, and although over 100 years have passed since the discovery of Chagas disease, it still presents an increasing problem for global public health. A plethora of information concerning the chronic phase of human Chagas disease, particularly the severe cardiac form, is available in the literature. However, information concerning events during the acute phase of the disease is scarce. In this review, we will discuss (1) the current status of acute Chagas disease cases globally, (2) the immunological findings related to the acute phase and their possible influence in disease outcome, and (3) reactivation of Chagas disease in immunocompromised individuals, a key point for transplantation and HIV infection management. PMID:25077613

  6. Globalisation and the prevention and control of non-communicable disease: the neglected chronic diseases of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaglehole, R; Yach, D

    2003-09-13

    The growing global burden of non-communicable diseases in poor countries and poor populations has been neglected by policy makers, major multilateral and bilateral aid donors, and academics. Despite strong evidence for the magnitude of this burden, the preventability of its causes, and the threat it poses to already strained health care systems, national and global actions have been inadequate. Globalisation is an important determinant of non-communicable disease epidemics since it has direct effects on risks to populations and indirect effects on national economies and health systems. The globalisation of the production and marketing campaigns of the tobacco and alcohol industries exemplify the challenges to policy makers and public health practitioners. A full range of policy responses is required from government and non-governmental agencies; unfortunately the capacity and resources for this response are insufficient, and governments need to respond appropriately. The progress made in controlling the tobacco industry is a modest cause for optimism.

  7. Medical Student Knowledge of Neglected Tropical Diseases in Peru: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errea, Renato A; Vasquez-Rios, George; Machicado, Jorge D; Gallardo, Maria Susana; Cornejo, Marilhia; Urquiaga, Jorge F; Montoya, Diego; Zamudio, Rodrigo; Terashima, Angelica; Marcos, Luis A; Samalvides, Frine

    2015-11-01

    In developing countries, education to health-care professionals is a cornerstone in the battle against neglected tropical diseases (NTD). Studies evaluating the level of knowledge of medical students in clinical and socio-demographic aspects of NTD are lacking. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted among students from a 7 year-curriculum medical school in Peru to assess their knowledge of NTD by using a pilot survey comprised by two blocks of 10 short questions. Block I consisted of socio-demographic and epidemiological questions whereas block II included clinical vignettes. Each correct answer had the value of 1 point. Out of 597 responders (response rate: 68.4%), 583 were considered to have valid surveys (male:female ratio: 1:1.01; mean age 21 years, SD ± 2.42). Total knowledge showed a raising trend through the 7-year curriculum. Clinical knowledge seemed to improve towards the end of medical school whereas socio-demographic and epidemiological concepts only showed progress the first 4 years of medical school, remaining static for the rest of the curricular years (p = 0.66). Higher mean scores in socio-demographic and epidemiological knowledge compared to clinical knowledge were seen in the first two years (pPeru where many people are affected by these preventable and treatable diseases.

  8. The Role of Natural Products in Drug Discovery and Development against Neglected Tropical Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Mubanga Cheuka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Endemic in 149 tropical and subtropical countries, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs affect more than 1 billion people annually, including 875 million children in developing economies. These diseases are also responsible for over 500,000 deaths per year and are characterized by long-term disability and severe pain. The impact of the combined NTDs closely rivals that of malaria and tuberculosis. Current treatment options are associated with various limitations including widespread drug resistance, severe adverse effects, lengthy treatment duration, unfavorable toxicity profiles, and complicated drug administration procedures. Natural products have been a valuable source of drug regimens that form the cornerstone of modern pharmaceutical care. In this review, we highlight the potential that remains untapped in natural products as drug leads for NTDs. We cover natural products from plant, marine, and microbial sources including natural-product-inspired semi-synthetic derivatives which have been evaluated against the various causative agents of NTDs. Our coverage is limited to four major NTDs which include human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis and lymphatic filariasis.

  9. Zika virus infection and once again the risk from other neglected diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrino, Pedro

    2016-07-01

    Since the first cases of Zika were identified and reported in Brazil, the magnitude and consequences of the outbreak in the Americas have increased tremendously, leading the World Health Organization to consider Zika and its link with clusters of microcephaly a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Only a previous large outbreak in French Polynesia was known and no neurological anomalies have been reported. Differences in African and Asian lineage and differences in genetic evolution of the Zika virus may possibly provide an explanation for the development of the recent outbreaks and their variable presentation. However, the similar clinical presentation between Zika and other diseases like Dengue and Chikungunya can support that Zika has been circulating and spreading inadvertently. This hypothesis gains strength when rates of laboratory confirmation diagnosis for Dengue are observed in Brazil and Colombia, two of the most affected countries by Zika virus (ZIKV) infection.The lack of attention and resources on neglected diseases supposes a huge risk that new lethal pathogens camouflage themselves to spread into large areas and populations.

  10. The Quest for a Vaccine Against Coccidioidomycosis: A Neglected Disease of the Americas

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    Theo N. Kirkland

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever is a disease caused by inhalation of Coccidioides spp. This neglected disease has substantial public health impact despite its geographic restriction to desert areas of the southwestern U.S., Mexico, Central and South America. The incidence of this infection in California and Arizona has been increasing over the past fifteen years. Several large cities are within the endemic region in the U.S. Coccidioidomycosis accounts for 25,000 hospital admissions per year in California. While most cases of coccidioidomycosis resolve spontaneously, up to 40% are severe enough to require anti-fungal treatment, and a significant number disseminate beyond the lungs. Disseminated infection involving the meninges is fatal without appropriate treatment. Infection with Coccidioides spp. is protective against a second infection, so vaccination seems biologically plausible. This review of efforts to develop a vaccine against coccidioidomycosis focuses on vaccine approaches and the difficulties in identifying protein antigen/adjuvant combinations that protect in experimental mouse models. Although the quest for a vaccine is still in the early stage, scientific efforts for vaccine development may pave the way for future success.

  11. Preventive chemotherapy as a strategy for elimination of neglected tropical parasitic diseases: endgame challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockarie, Moses J; Kelly-Hope, Louise A; Rebollo, Maria; Molyneux, David H

    2013-08-05

    Global efforts to address neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) were stimulated in January 2012 by the London declaration at which 22 partners, including the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, World Bank, World Health Organization (WHO) and major pharmaceutical companies committed to sustaining and expanding NTD programmes to eliminate or eradicate 11 NTDs by 2020 to achieve the goals outlined in the recently published WHO road map. Here, we present the current context of preventive chemotherapy for some NTDs, and discuss the problems faced by programmes as they consider the 'endgame', such as difficulties of access to populations in post-conflict settings, limited human and financial resources, and the need to expand access to clean water and improved sanitation for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis. In the case of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis, ivermectin treatment carries a significant risk owing to serious adverse effects in some patients co-infected with the tropical eye worm Loa loa filariasis. We discuss the challenges of managing complex partnerships, and maintain advocacy messages for the continued support for elimination of these preventable diseases.

  12. Enlarging the "Audacious Goal": elimination of the world's high prevalence neglected tropical diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter

    2011-12-30

    The high prevalence neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) exhibit a global disease burden that exceeds malaria, tuberculosis, and other better known global health conditions; they also represent a potent force in trapping the world's poorest people in poverty. Through extremely low cost national programs of disease mapping and mass drug administration (MDA) for the seven most common NTDs, integrated NTD control and elimination efforts are now in place in more than 14 countries through the support of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the British Department for International Development (DFID), and the Global Network for NTDs and its partners. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that in 2008 some 670 million people in 75 countries received NTD treatments through these and other sponsored programs. With continued successes the next decade could witness the global elimination of blinding trachoma, human Africa trypanosomiasis (HAT), lymphatic filariasis (LF), onchocerciasis, trachoma, and leprosy as public health problems, in addition to the eradication of dracunculiasis. For other high prevalence NTDs, including hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, Chagas disease and leishmaniasis, new drugs and vaccines may still be required. Increasingly it is recognized that the high prevalence NTDs exhibit extensive geographic overlap and polyparasitism is commonly found throughout the world's low income countries. Therefore, global elimination will also require integrated packages of drugs together with vaccine-linked chemotherapy. Ultimately, the global elimination of the high prevalence NTDs will require continued large-scale support from the U.S. Government and selected European governments, however, the emerging market economies, such as Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and Nigeria, and wealthy countries in the Middle East will also have to substantially contribute. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Implementing preventive chemotherapy through an integrated National Neglected Tropical Disease Control Program in Mali.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massitan Dembélé

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mali is endemic for all five targeted major neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. As one of the five 'fast-track' countries supported with the United States Agency for International Development (USAID funds, Mali started to integrate the activities of existing disease-specific national control programs on these diseases in 2007. The ultimate objectives are to eliminate lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis and trachoma as public health problems and to reduce morbidity caused by schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis through regular treatment to eligible populations, and the specific objectives were to achieve 80% program coverage and 100% geographical coverage yearly. The paper reports on the implementation of the integrated mass drug administration and the lessons learned. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The integrated control program was led by the Ministry of Health and coordinated by the national NTD Control Program. The drug packages were designed according to the disease endemicity in each district and delivered through various platforms to eligible populations involving the primary health care system. Treatment data were recorded and reported by the community drug distributors. After a pilot implementation of integrated drug delivery in three regions in 2007, the treatment for all five targeted NTDs was steadily scaled up to 100% geographical coverage by 2009, and program coverage has since been maintained at a high level: over 85% for lymphatic filariasis, over 90% for onchocerciasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis, around 90% in school-age children for schistosomiasis, and 76-97% for trachoma. Around 10 million people have received one or more drug packages each year since 2009. No severe cases of adverse effects were reported. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Mali has scaled up the drug treatment to national coverage through integrated drug delivery involving the primary health care system. The successes and lessons

  14. Socio-ecological dynamics and challenges to the governance of Neglected Tropical Disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Edwin; Madon, Shirin

    2017-02-06

    The current global attempts to control the so-called "Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs)" have the potential to significantly reduce the morbidity suffered by some of the world's poorest communities. However, the governance of these control programmes is driven by a managerial rationality that assumes predictability of proposed interventions, and which thus primarily seeks to improve the cost-effectiveness of implementation by measuring performance in terms of pre-determined outputs. Here, we argue that this approach has reinforced the narrow normal-science model for controlling parasitic diseases, and in doing so fails to address the complex dynamics, uncertainty and socio-ecological context-specificity that invariably underlie parasite transmission. We suggest that a new governance approach is required that draws on a combination of non-equilibrium thinking about the operation of complex, adaptive, systems from the natural sciences and constructivist social science perspectives that view the accumulation of scientific knowledge as contingent on historical interests and norms, if more effective control approaches sufficiently sensitive to local disease contexts are to be devised, applied and managed. At the core of this approach is an emphasis on the need for a process that assists with the inclusion of diverse perspectives, social learning and deliberation, and a reflexive approach to addressing system complexity and incertitude, while balancing this flexibility with stability-focused structures. We derive and discuss a possible governance framework and outline an organizational structure that could be used to effectively deal with the complexity of accomplishing global NTD control. We also point to examples of complexity-based management structures that have been used in parasite control previously, which could serve as practical templates for developing similar governance structures to better manage global NTD control. Our results hold important wider

  15. Emerging and reemerging neglected tropical diseases: a review of key characteristics, risk factors, and the policy and innovation environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A; Cuomo, Raphael; Hafen, Ryan; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Lee, Daniel E

    2014-10-01

    In global health, critical challenges have arisen from infectious diseases, including the emergence and reemergence of old and new infectious diseases. Emergence and reemergence are accelerated by rapid human development, including numerous changes in demographics, populations, and the environment. This has also led to zoonoses in the changing human-animal ecosystem, which are impacted by a growing globalized society where pathogens do not recognize geopolitical borders. Within this context, neglected tropical infectious diseases have historically lacked adequate attention in international public health efforts, leading to insufficient prevention and treatment options. This subset of 17 infectious tropical diseases disproportionately impacts the world's poorest, represents a significant and underappreciated global disease burden, and is a major barrier to development efforts to alleviate poverty and improve human health. Neglected tropical diseases that are also categorized as emerging or reemerging infectious diseases are an even more serious threat and have not been adequately examined or discussed in terms of their unique risk characteristics. This review sets out to identify emerging and reemerging neglected tropical diseases and explore the policy and innovation environment that could hamper or enable control efforts. Through this examination, we hope to raise awareness and guide potential approaches to addressing this global health concern. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. A literature review of economic evaluations for a neglected tropical disease: human African trypanosomiasis ("sleeping sickness").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, C Simone; Yukich, Joshua; Goeree, Ron; Tediosi, Fabrizio

    2015-02-01

    key funders. These analyses would be of use, as HAT is currently being prioritized as a neglected tropical disease (NTD) to reach elimination by 2020.

  17. [Infectious diseases research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carratalà, Jordi; Alcamí, José; Cordero, Elisa; Miró, José M; Ramos, José Manuel

    2008-12-01

    There has been a significant increase in research activity into infectious diseases in Spain in the last few years. The Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) currently has ten study groups, with the cooperation of infectious diseases specialists and microbiologists from different centres, with significant research activity. The program of Redes Temáticas de Investigación Cooperativa en Salud (Special Topics Cooperative Health Research Networks) is an appropriate framework for the strategic coordination of research groups from the Spanish autonomous communities. The Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI) and the Network for Research in AIDS (RIS) integrate investigators in Infectious Diseases from multiple groups, which continuously perform important research projects. Research using different experimental models in infectious diseases, in numerous institutions, is an important activity in our country. The analysis of the recent scientific production in Infectious Diseases shows that Spain has a good position in the context of the European Union. The research activity in Infectious Diseases carried out in our country is a great opportunity for the training of specialists in this area of knowledge.

  18. Costs of Integrated Mass Drug Administration for Neglected Tropical Diseases in Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Ann S.; Brady, Molly A.; Direny, Abdel; Desir, Luccene; Oscard, Roland; Vely, Jean-Francois; Linehan, Mary; Baker, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a cost analysis of Haiti's Ministry of Public Health and Population neglected tropical disease program, Projet des Maladies Tropicales Negligées and collected data for 9 of 55 communes participating in the May 2008–April 2009 mass drug administration (MDA). The Projet des Maladies Tropicales Negligées Program partnered with IMA World Health and Hôpital Ste. Croix to implement MDA for treatment of lymphatic filariasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis by using once a year treatment with albendazole and diethylcarbamazine in a population of approximately 8 million persons. Methods included analyzing partner financial records and conducting retrospective surveys of personnel. In the nine communes, 633,261 persons were treated at a cost of U.S. $0.64 per person, which included the cost of donated drugs, and at a cost of U.S. $0.42 per person treated, when excluding donated drug costs. The MDA for lymphatic filariasis in Haiti began in 2000, with the treatment of 105,750 persons at a cost per person of U.S. $2.23. The decrease in cost per person treated is the result of cumulative implementation experience and economies of scale. PMID:22049035

  19. Ontology patterns for tabular representations of biomedical knowledge on neglected tropical diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Filipe; Schober, Daniel; Medeiros, Zulma; Freitas, Fred; Schulz, Stefan

    2011-07-01

    Ontology-like domain knowledge is frequently published in a tabular format embedded in scientific publications. We explore the re-use of such tabular content in the process of building NTDO, an ontology of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), where the representation of the interdependencies between hosts, pathogens and vectors plays a crucial role. As a proof of concept we analyzed a tabular compilation of knowledge about pathogens, vectors and geographic locations involved in the transmission of NTDs. After a thorough ontological analysis of the domain of interest, we formulated a comprehensive design pattern, rooted in the biomedical domain upper level ontology BioTop. This pattern was implemented in a VBA script which takes cell contents of an Excel spreadsheet and transforms them into OWL-DL. After minor manual post-processing, the correctness and completeness of the ontology was tested using pre-formulated competence questions as description logics (DL) queries. The expected results could be reproduced by the ontology. The proposed approach is recommended for optimizing the acquisition of ontological domain knowledge from tabular representations. Domain examples, source code and ontology are freely available on the web at http://www.cin.ufpe.br/~ntdo. fss3@cin.ufpe.br.

  20. A novel electronic data collection system for large-scale surveys of neglected tropical diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D King

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Large cross-sectional household surveys are common for measuring indicators of neglected tropical disease control programs. As an alternative to standard paper-based data collection, we utilized novel paperless technology to collect data electronically from over 12,000 households in Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a needs assessment to design an Android-based electronic data collection and management system. We then evaluated the system by reporting results of a pilot trial and from comparisons of two, large-scale surveys; one with traditional paper questionnaires and the other with tablet computers, including accuracy, person-time days, and costs incurred. PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: The electronic data collection system met core functions in household surveys and overcame constraints identified in the needs assessment. Pilot data recorders took 264 (standard deviation (SD 152 sec and 260 sec (SD 122 sec per person registered to complete household surveys using paper and tablets, respectively (P = 0.77. Data recorders felt a lack of connection with the interviewee during the first days using electronic devices, but preferred to collect data electronically in future surveys. Electronic data collection saved time by giving results immediately, obviating the need for double data entry and cross-correcting. The proportion of identified data entry errors in disease classification did not differ between the two data collection methods. Geographic coordinates collected using the tablets were more accurate than coordinates transcribed on a paper form. Costs of the equipment required for electronic data collection was approximately the same cost incurred for data entry of questionnaires, whereas repeated use of the electronic equipment may increase cost savings. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Conducting a needs assessment and pilot testing allowed the design to specifically match the functionality required for surveys. Electronic data collection

  1. Correlation of diseased region and area with neglect and other neuropsychological dysfunctions in patients with cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianping Niu; Hongyu Zhang; Bo Liu; Yiwen Zhang; Yehua Song; Lihong Chen

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies reported that frontal-temporal-parietal-occipital pathological changes and diseased range in the right cerbral hemisphere were correlated with neglect.But studies on the correlation of neglect with diseased region and area in patients who suffer from initial attack of single focus of cerebral infarction(CI) in left and right cerebral hemispheres are few.OBJECTIVE: To observe the status of neglect in patients who suffer from single focus of CI in cerebral hemisphere and analyze the correlation of neglect with diseased region and area of CI.DESIGN: Case analysis SETTING: Treatment Center for Cardiocerebrovascular Disease,Second Hospital of Xiamen city;Department of Neurology,First Hospital Affiliated to Baotou Medical College.PARTICIPANTS: All the CI patients hospitalized in the Department of Neurology.First Hospital Affiliated to Baotou Medical College from June 1998 to May 2001 were retrieved.Inclusive criteria:①Patients who suffered from initial attack of CI.which was confirmed by skull CT or MRI within 24 hours after onset and presented single focus in cerebral hemisphere. ②be conscious and could cooperate in the examination. ③did not receive formal education, but could do accounts and some simple writing and reading. ④Patients with homonymous hemianopia were excluded through the examination of perimeter.⑤Informed consents were obtained from all the patients.Among 67 patients who met the inclusive criteria.33 suffered from CI in the left cerebral hemisphere and 34 in the right cerebral hemisphere.METHODS:①Patients received neglect supplement examination and Chinese aphasia examination within 2.5 to 3 months after the attack of CI.The diagnostic criteria of neglect in the tests of line cancellation. 1ine bisection and copying the figures were as follows:In the line cancellation test based on the method of Albert.patients who could not cancel one or more lines were regarded as abnormal.In the line bisection test based on the

  2. Water, sanitation and hygiene for accelerating and sustaining progress on neglected tropical diseases: a new Global Strategy 2015-20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisson, Sophie; Engels, Dirk; Gordon, Bruce A; Medlicott, Kate O; Neira, Maria P; Montresor, Antonio; Solomon, Anthony W; Velleman, Yael

    2016-03-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) affect over 1 billion people. Safe water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) contribute to prevention and management of most NTDs. Linking WASH and NTD interventions has potential to impact on multiple NTDs and can help secure sustainable and equitable progress towards universal access to WASH. The need to address the determinants of NTDs has been acknowledged. In response, WHO has published a new Global Strategy: 'Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for accelerating and sustaining progress on Neglected Tropical Diseases'. The Strategy focuses on cross-cutting actions that benefit disease control and care efforts, and strengthen health systems. Implementation of the strategy and the accompanying action plan can help ensure that the health and development agenda leaves no one behind.

  3. Child Abuse and Neglect Program Evaluation: A Report from a Symposium on Evaluation Questions and Research Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Susan L.

    Presented in the report on the Symposium on Child Abuse and Neglect Program Evaluation are the critical issues regarding evaluation and research needs which were addressed during the 2-day meeting and a brief description of the meeting's format. A child protective services model involving five stages (identification/reporting,…

  4. Parkinson's Disease: Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... toxins, that may trigger the disorder, and study genetic factors to determine how defective genes play a role. Other scientists are working to develop new protective drugs that can delay, prevent, or reverse the disease. Parkinson's Disease Research No breakthroughs, but steady progress The ...

  5. Toward an open-access global database for mapping, control, and surveillance of neglected tropical diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hürlimann, Eveline; Schur, Nadine; Boutsika, Konstantina

    2011-01-01

    for monitoring and evaluation. What is currently missing is a georeferenced global database for NTDs providing open-access to the available survey data that is constantly updated and can be utilized by researchers and disease control managers to support other relevant stakeholders. We describe the steps taken...

  6. Cystic echinococcosis in Sudan and South Sudan: research history of a neglected zoonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, Rihab A; Daugschies, Arwid; Romig, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease affecting mainly various species of livestock and humans. This study aims at highlighting the course of research on cystic echinococcosis in different animals and humans in Sudan (including the recently independent state of South Sudan) since the disease was first reported in 1908. Recent data about the genetic identification of the parasite in the countries in both humans and animals and its importance for future control programs is discussed.

  7. Controlling Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) in Haiti: Implementation Strategies and Evidence of Their Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Jean Frantz; Desormeaux, Anne Marie; Monestime, Franck; Fayette, Carl Renad; Desir, Luccene; Direny, Abdel Nasser; Carciunoiu, Sarah; Miller, Lior; Knipes, Alaine; Lammie, Patrick; Smith, Penelope; Stockton, Melissa; Trofimovich, Lily; Bhandari, Kalpana; Reithinger, Richard; Crowley, Kathryn; Ottesen, Eric; Baker, Margaret

    2016-10-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) and soil-transmitted helminths (STH) have been targeted since 2000 in Haiti, with a strong mass drug administration (MDA) program led by the Ministry of Public Health and Population and its collaborating international partners. By 2012, Haiti's neglected tropical disease (NTD) program had reached full national scale, and with such consistently good epidemiological coverage that it is now able to stop treatment for LF throughout almost all of the country. Essential to this success have been in the detail of how MDAs were implemented. These key programmatic elements included ensuring strong community awareness through an evidence-based, multi-channel communication and education campaign facilitated by voluntary drug distributors; strengthening community trust of the drug distributors by ensuring that respected community members were recruited and received appropriate training, supervision, identification, and motivation; enforcing a "directly observed treatment" strategy; providing easy access to treatment though numerous distribution posts and a strong drug supply chain; and ensuring quality data collection that was used to guide and inform MDA strategies. The evidence that these strategies were effective lies in both the high treatment coverage obtained- 100% geographical coverage reached in 2012, with almost all districts consistently achieving well above the epidemiological coverage targets of 65% for LF and 75% for STH-and the significant reduction in burden of infection- 45 communes having reached the target threshold for stopping treatment for LF. By taking advantage of sustained international financial and technical support, especially during the past eight years, Haiti's very successful MDA campaign resulted in steady progress toward LF elimination and development of a strong foundation for ongoing STH control. These efforts, as described, have not only helped establish the global portfolio of "best practices" for NTD control but

  8. David Barker, Buruli ulcer and the epidemiology of a neglected tropical disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D I W

    2015-10-01

    In 1969, David Barker, his wife and four children moved to Uganda to work at Makerere Medical School in the capital Kampala. During the 1960s, Makerere had become a research and teaching centre with an international reputation based on the work of Trowell, Burkitt, Hutt and many others who had pioneered studies explaining the disease patterns in the West Nile area on the basis of the local climate, nutrition and lifestyle. David Barker was funded by the Medical Research Council to carry out research on a poorly understood disease, Buruli ulcer, joining Scottish surgeon Wilson Carswell, who was later to achieve fame as the role model for Dr Garrigan in Giles Foden's novel The Last King of Scotland.

  9. Addressing the neglected tropical disease podoconiosis in Northern Ethiopia: lessons learned from a new community podoconiosis program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Tomczyk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite its great public health importance, few control initiatives addressing podoconiosis (non-filarial elephantiasis, a geochemical neglected tropical disease exist. In June 2010, the first podoconiosis program in Northern Ethiopia, consisting of prevention, awareness, and care and support activities, began in Debre Markos, Northern Ethiopia. This study aims to document and disseminate the lessons learned from a new community podoconiosis program in Debre Markos. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a content analysis approach to examine and evaluate data from a series of sources. These sources include conducted interview transcripts, a focus group discussion transcript and secondary sources including monitoring and evaluation field reports, observation notes, and research obtained from a literature review. Themes were identified and grouped into matrix tables. Overall, sixteen program steps were identified and grouped into 6 domains: Initial preparation, training and sensitization, foundation building, treatment activity implementation, awareness, and follow-up. Emphasis is placed on the need for baseline data, effective training, local leadership, experience-sharing, mass-awareness, cross-cutting sector issues (i.e., water and waste management, and integration with government health systems. Related successes and challenges are also described, as are stakeholder roles and misconceptions and socio-cultural challenges affecting the program start-up. Many of the identified successes and challenges are relevant to the aim of the podoconiosis program to be sustainable and community-led. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Much of this information has already been used to improve the Debre Markos program. We also anticipate that the domains and steps identified will be useful in guiding new programs in other settings where podoconiosis is highly prevalent. We hope to encourage partnerships and collaboration among podoconiosis stakeholders in

  10. Integration of water, sanitation, and hygiene for the prevention and control of neglected tropical diseases: a rationale for inter-sectoral collaboration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Freeman

    Full Text Available Improvements of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH infrastructure and appropriate health-seeking behavior are necessary for achieving sustained control, elimination, or eradication of many neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. Indeed, the global strategies to fight NTDs include provision of WASH, but few programs have specific WASH targets and approaches. Collaboration between disease control programs and stakeholders in WASH is a critical next step. A group of stakeholders from the NTD control, child health, and WASH sectors convened in late 2012 to discuss opportunities for, and barriers to, collaboration. The group agreed on a common vision, namely "Disease-free communities that have adequate and equitable access to water and sanitation, and that practice good hygiene." Four key areas of collaboration were identified, including (i advocacy, policy, and communication; (ii capacity building and training; (iii mapping, data collection, and monitoring; and (iv research. We discuss strategic opportunities and ways forward for enhanced collaboration between the WASH and the NTD sectors.

  11. Association between footwear use and neglected tropical diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Sara Tomczyk

    Full Text Available The control of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs has primarily focused on preventive chemotherapy and case management. Less attention has been placed on the role of ensuring access to adequate water, sanitation, and hygiene and personal preventive measures in reducing exposure to infection. Our aim was to assess whether footwear use was associated with a lower risk of selected NTDs.We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the association between footwear use and infection or disease for those NTDs for which the route of transmission or occurrence may be through the feet. We included Buruli ulcer, cutaneous larva migrans (CLM, leptospirosis, mycetoma, myiasis, podoconiosis, snakebite, tungiasis, and soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections, particularly hookworm infection and strongyloidiasis. We searched Medline, Embase, Cochrane, Web of Science, CINAHL Plus, and Popline databases, contacted experts, and hand-searched reference lists for eligible studies. The search was conducted in English without language, publication status, or date restrictions up to January 2014. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they reported a measure of the association between footwear use and the risk of each NTD. Publication bias was assessed using funnel plots. Descriptive study characteristics and methodological quality of the included studies were summarized. For each study outcome, both outcome and exposure data were abstracted and crude and adjusted effect estimates presented. Individual and summary odds ratio (OR estimates and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated as a measure of intervention effect, using random effects meta-analyses.Among the 427 studies screened, 53 met our inclusion criteria. Footwear use was significantly associated with a lower odds of infection of Buruli ulcer (OR=0.15; 95% CI: 0.08-0.29, CLM (OR=0.24; 95% CI: 0.06-0.96, tungiasis (OR=0.42; 95% CI: 0.26-0.70, hookworm infection (OR=0.48; 95

  12. Neglected Tropical Diseases and the Millennium Development Goals-why the "other diseases" matter: reality versus rhetoric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molyneux David H

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since 2004 there has been an increased recognition of the importance of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs as impediments to development. These diseases are caused by a variety of infectious agents - viruses, bacteria and parasites - which cause a diversity of clinical conditions throughout the tropics. The World Health Organisation (WHO has defined seventeen of these conditions as core NTDs. The objectives for the control, elimination or eradication of these conditions have been defined in World Health Assembly resolutions whilst the strategies for the control or elimination of individual diseases have been defined in various WHO documents. Since 2005 there has been a drive for the expanded control of these diseases through an integrated approach of mass drug administration referred to as Preventive Chemotherapy via community-based distribution systems and through schools. This has been made possible by donations from major pharmaceutical companies of quality and efficacious drugs which have a proven track record of safety. As a result of the increased commitment of endemic countries, bilateral donors and non-governmental development organisations, there has been a considerable expansion of mass drug administration. In particular, programmes targeting lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, trachoma and soil transmitted helminth infections have expanded to treat 887. 8 million people in 2009. There has been significant progress towards guinea worm eradication, and the control of leprosy and human African trypanosomiasis. This paper responds to what the authors believe are inappropriate criticisms of these programmes and counters accusations of the motives of partners made in recently published papers. We provide a detailed response and update the information on the numbers of global treatments undertaken for NTDs and list the success stories to date. The paper acknowledges that in undertaking any health programme in

  13. Ursolic acid, a natural pentacylcic triterpene from Ochrosia elliptica and its role in the management of certain neglected tropical diseases

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    Rola M Labib

    2016-01-01

    Abbreviations used: AHT: African Human Trypanosomiasis, ATCC: American type cell culture, BuOH: n -butanol, DCM: dichloromethane, DFMO: difluoromethylornithine, EtOAc: ethyl acetate, FCS: fetal calf serum, HMBC: Heteronuclear Multiple Bond Correlation, HMQC: Heteronuclear Multiple-Quantum Correlation, HR-ESI-FTMS: High Resolution Electrospray ionozation Mass Spectrometry, MENA: Middle East and North Africa, MeOH: Methanol, MRSA: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , NTDs: Neglected tropical diseases, TLC: Thin layer chromatography, UA: Ursolic acid, UV: Ultra violet, WHO: World Health Organization.

  14. Neglect and Self-Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paveza, G. Neglect in the elderly patient. (1998). Nursing Clinics of North America. 33(3), 457-467. Rathborn-McCuan, E., & Fabian, D.R. (Eds.). (1992). Self-neglecting elders: A clinical dilemma. Westport, CT: Auburn House Home | About NCPEA | Elder ...

  15. Data base management system for lymphatic filariasis--a neglected tropical disease.

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    Suryanaryana Murty Upadhyayula

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Researchers working in the area of Public Health are being confronted with large volumes of data on various aspects of entomology and epidemiology. To obtain the relevant information out of these data requires particular database management system. In this paper, we have described about the usages of our developed database on lymphatic filariasis. METHODS: This database application is developed using Model View Controller (MVC architecture, with MySQL as database and a web based interface. We have collected and incorporated the data on filariasis in the database from Karimnagar, Chittoor, East and West Godavari districts of Andhra Pradesh, India. CONCLUSION: The importance of this database is to store the collected data, retrieve the information and produce various combinational reports on filarial aspects which in turn will help the public health officials to understand the burden of disease in a particular locality. This information is likely to have an imperative role on decision making for effective control of filarial disease and integrated vector management operations.

  16. The Atlas of human African trypanosomiasis: a contribution to global mapping of neglected tropical diseases

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    Courtin Fabrice

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following World Health Assembly resolutions 50.36 in 1997 and 56.7 in 2003, the World Health Organization (WHO committed itself to supporting human African trypanosomiasis (HAT-endemic countries in their efforts to remove the disease as a public health problem. Mapping the distribution of HAT in time and space has a pivotal role to play if this objective is to be met. For this reason WHO launched the HAT Atlas initiative, jointly implemented with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, in the framework of the Programme Against African Trypanosomosis. Results The distribution of HAT is presented for 23 out of 25 sub-Saharan countries having reported on the status of sleeping sickness in the period 2000 - 2009. For the two remaining countries, i.e. Angola and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, data processing is ongoing. Reports by National Sleeping Sickness Control Programmes (NSSCPs, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs and Research Institutes were collated and the relevant epidemiological data were entered in a database, thus incorporating (i the results of active screening of over 2.2 million people, and (ii cases detected in health care facilities engaged in passive surveillance. A total of over 42 000 cases of HAT and 6 000 different localities were included in the database. Various sources of geographic coordinates were used to locate the villages of epidemiological interest. The resulting average mapping accuracy is estimated at 900 m. Conclusions Full involvement of NSSCPs, NGOs and Research Institutes in building the Atlas of HAT contributes to the efficiency of the mapping process and it assures both the quality of the collated information and the accuracy of the outputs. Although efforts are still needed to reduce the number of undetected and unreported cases, the comprehensive, village-level mapping of HAT control activities over a ten-year period ensures a detailed and reliable

  17. Advance market commitments for vaccines against neglected diseases: estimating costs and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Ernst R; Glennerster, Rachel; Kremer, Michael R; Lee, Jean; Levine, Ruth; Weizsäcker, Georg; Williams, Heidi

    2007-05-01

    The G8 is considering committing to purchase vaccines against diseases concentrated in low-income countries (if and when desirable vaccines are developed) as a way to spur research and development on vaccines for these diseases. Under such an 'advance market commitment,' one or more sponsors would commit to a minimum price to be paid per person immunized for an eligible product, up to a certain number of individuals immunized. For additional purchases, the price would eventually drop to close to marginal cost. If no suitable product were developed, no payments would be made. We estimate the offer size which would make revenues similar to the revenues realized from investments in typical existing commercial pharmaceutical products, as well as the degree to which various model contracts and assumptions would affect the cost-effectiveness of such a commitment. We make adjustments for lower marketing costs under an advance market commitment and the risk that a developer may have to share the market with subsequent developers. We also show how this second risk could be reduced, and money saved, by introducing a superiority clause to a commitment. Under conservative assumptions, we document that a commitment comparable in value to sales earned by the average of a sample of recently launched commercial products (adjusted for lower marketing costs) would be a highly cost-effective way to address HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis. Sensitivity analyses suggest most characteristics of a hypothetical vaccine would have little effect on the cost-effectiveness, but that the duration of protection conferred by a vaccine strongly affects potential cost-effectiveness. Readers can conduct their own sensitivity analyses employing a web-based spreadsheet tool.

  18. Identification of attractive drug targets in neglected-disease pathogens using an in silico approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J Crowther

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The increased sequencing of pathogen genomes and the subsequent availability of genome-scale functional datasets are expected to guide the experimental work necessary for target-based drug discovery. However, a major bottleneck in this has been the difficulty of capturing and integrating relevant information in an easily accessible format for identifying and prioritizing potential targets. The open-access resource TDRtargets.org facilitates drug target prioritization for major tropical disease pathogens such as the mycobacteria Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis; the kinetoplastid protozoans Leishmania major, Trypanosoma brucei, and Trypanosoma cruzi; the apicomplexan protozoans Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, and Toxoplasma gondii; and the helminths Brugia malayi and Schistosoma mansoni. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we present strategies to prioritize pathogen proteins based on whether their properties meet criteria considered desirable in a drug target. These criteria are based upon both sequence-derived information (e.g., molecular mass and functional data on expression, essentiality, phenotypes, metabolic pathways, assayability, and druggability. This approach also highlights the fact that data for many relevant criteria are lacking in less-studied pathogens (e.g., helminths, and we demonstrate how this can be partially overcome by mapping data from homologous genes in well-studied organisms. We also show how individual users can easily upload external datasets and integrate them with existing data in TDRtargets.org to generate highly customized ranked lists of potential targets. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using the datasets and the tools available in TDRtargets.org, we have generated illustrative lists of potential drug targets in seven tropical disease pathogens. While these lists are broadly consistent with the research community's current interest in certain specific proteins, and suggest

  19. NTDs V.2.0: "blue marble health"--neglected tropical disease control and elimination in a shifting health policy landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J

    2013-11-01

    The concept of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) was established in the aftermath of the Millennium Development Goals. Here, we summarize the emergence of several new post-2010 global health documents and policies, and how they may alter the way we frame the world's major NTDs since they were first highlighted. These documents include a new Global Burden of Disease 2010 Study that identifies visceral leishmaniasis and food-borne trematode infections as priority diseases beyond the seven NTDs originally targeted by preventive chemotherapy, a London Declaration for access to essential medicines, and a 2013 World Health Assembly resolution on NTDs. Additional information highlights an emerging dengue fever pandemic. New United Nations resolutions on women and the non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have not yet embraced NTDs, which may actually be the most common afflictions of girls and women and represent a stealth cause of NCDs. NTDs also have important direct and collateral effects on HIV/AIDS and malaria, and there is now a robust evidence base and rationale for incorporating NTDs into the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria. "Blue marble health" is an added concept that recognizes a paradoxical NTD disease burden among the poor living in G20 (Group of Twenty) and other wealthy countries, requiring these nations to take greater ownership for both disease control and research and development. As we advance past the year 2015, it will be essential to incorporate global NTD elimination into newly proposed Sustainable Development Goals.

  20. NTDs V.2.0: "blue marble health"--neglected tropical disease control and elimination in a shifting health policy landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Hotez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs was established in the aftermath of the Millennium Development Goals. Here, we summarize the emergence of several new post-2010 global health documents and policies, and how they may alter the way we frame the world's major NTDs since they were first highlighted. These documents include a new Global Burden of Disease 2010 Study that identifies visceral leishmaniasis and food-borne trematode infections as priority diseases beyond the seven NTDs originally targeted by preventive chemotherapy, a London Declaration for access to essential medicines, and a 2013 World Health Assembly resolution on NTDs. Additional information highlights an emerging dengue fever pandemic. New United Nations resolutions on women and the non-communicable diseases (NCDs have not yet embraced NTDs, which may actually be the most common afflictions of girls and women and represent a stealth cause of NCDs. NTDs also have important direct and collateral effects on HIV/AIDS and malaria, and there is now a robust evidence base and rationale for incorporating NTDs into the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria. "Blue marble health" is an added concept that recognizes a paradoxical NTD disease burden among the poor living in G20 (Group of Twenty and other wealthy countries, requiring these nations to take greater ownership for both disease control and research and development. As we advance past the year 2015, it will be essential to incorporate global NTD elimination into newly proposed Sustainable Development Goals.

  1. Q Fever: current state of knowledge and perspectives of research of a neglected zoonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Sarah Rebecca; Czaplicki, Guy; Mainil, Jacques; Guattéo, Raphaël; Saegerman, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Q fever is an ubiquitous zoonosis caused by an resistant intracellular bacterium, Coxiella burnetii. In certain areas, Q fever can be a severe public health problem, and awareness of the disease must be promoted worldwide. Nevertheless, knowledge of Coxiella burnetii remains limited to this day. Its resistant (intracellular and environmental) and infectious properties have been poorly investigated. Further understanding of the interactions between the infected host and the bacteria is necessary. Domestic ruminants are considered as the main reservoir of bacteria. Infected animals shed highly infectious organisms in milk, feces, urine, vaginal mucus, and, very importantly, birth products. Inhalation is the main route of infection. Frequently asymptomatic in humans and animals, Q fever can cause acute or chronic infections. Financial consequences of infection can be dramatic at herd level. Vaccination with inactive whole-cell bacteria has been performed and proved effective in humans and animals. However, inactive whole-cell vaccines present several defects. Recombinant vaccines have been developed in experimental conditions and have great potential for the future. Q fever is a challenging disease for scientists as significant further investigations are necessary. Great research opportunities are available to reach a better understanding and thus a better prevention and control of the infection.

  2. Q Fever: Current State of Knowledge and Perspectives of Research of a Neglected Zoonosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Rebecca Porter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Q fever is an ubiquitous zoonosis caused by an resistant intracellular bacterium, Coxiella burnetii. In certain areas, Q fever can be a severe public health problem, and awareness of the disease must be promoted worldwide. Nevertheless, knowledge of Coxiella burnetii remains limited to this day. Its resistant (intracellular and environmental and infectious properties have been poorly investigated. Further understanding of the interactions between the infected host and the bacteria is necessary. Domestic ruminants are considered as the main reservoir of bacteria. Infected animals shed highly infectious organisms in milk, feces, urine, vaginal mucus, and, very importantly, birth products. Inhalation is the main route of infection. Frequently asymptomatic in humans and animals, Q fever can cause acute or chronic infections. Financial consequences of infection can be dramatic at herd level. Vaccination with inactive whole-cell bacteria has been performed and proved effective in humans and animals. However, inactive whole-cell vaccines present several defects. Recombinant vaccines have been developed in experimental conditions and have great potential for the future. Q fever is a challenging disease for scientists as significant further investigations are necessary. Great research opportunities are available to reach a better understanding and thus a better prevention and control of the infection.

  3. Neglected Parasitic Infections: Toxocariasis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-05

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States. Neglected Parasitic Infections are a group of diseases that afflict vulnerable populations and are often not well studied or diagnosed. A subject matter expert from CDC's Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria describes the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of toxocariasis.  Created: 1/5/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria (DPDM); Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC), Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 1/9/2012.

  4. Recombinant snakebite antivenoms: A cost-competitive solution to a neglected tropical disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Kristoffer H.; Engmark, Mikael; Andersen, Mikael R.

    2017-01-01

    Snakebite envenoming is a major public health burden in tropical parts of the developing world. In sub-Saharan Africa, neglect has led to a scarcity of antivenoms threatening the lives and limbs of snakebite victims. Technological advances within antivenom are warranted, but should be evaluated not only on their possible therapeutic impact, but also on their cost-competitiveness. Recombinant antivenoms based on oligoclonal mixtures of human IgG antibodies produced by CHO cell cultivation may be the key to obtaining better snakebite envenoming therapies. Based on industry data, the cost of treatment for a snakebite envenoming with a recombinant antivenom is estimated to be in the range USD 60–250 for the Final Drug Product. One of the effective antivenoms (SAIMR Snake Polyvalent Antivenom from the South African Vaccine Producers) currently on the market has been reported to have a wholesale price of USD 640 per treatment for an average snakebite. Recombinant antivenoms may therefore in the future be a cost-competitive alternative to existing serum-based antivenoms. PMID:28158193

  5. Detecting diseases of neglected seminal vesicles using imaging modalities: A review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagur, Gautam; Warren, Kelly; Suh, Yiji; Singh, Navjot; Khan, Sardar A

    2016-05-01

    Seminal vesicles (SVs) are sex accessory organs and part of male genitourinary system. They play a critical role in male fertility. Diseases of the SVs, usually results in infertility. Diseases of the SVs are extremely rare and are infrequently reported in the literature. We address the current literature of SV pathologies, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. We review the clinical importance of SVs from PubMed. The current imaging modalities and instrumentation that help diagnose SV diseases are reviewed. Common pathologies including, infection, cysts, tumors, and congenital diseases of the SVs are addressed. Many times symptoms of hematospermia, pain, irritative and obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms, and infertility are presented in patients with SV diseases.

  6. The global burden of childhood coeliac disease: a neglected component of diarrhoeal mortality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Byass

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Coeliac disease has emerged as an increasingly recognised public health problem over the last half-century, and is now coming to be seen as a global phenomenon, despite a profound lack of globally representative epidemiological data. Since children with coeliac disease commonly present with chronic diarrhoea and malnutrition, diagnosis is often overlooked, particularly in poorer settings where children often fail to thrive and water-borne infectious diarrhoeas are common. This is the first attempt to make global estimates of the burden of coeliac disease in childhood. METHODS: We built a relatively crude model of childhood coeliac disease, incorporating estimates of population prevalence, probability of non-diagnosis, and likelihood of mortality among the undiagnosed across all countries from 1970 to 2010, based around the few available data. All our assumptions are stated in the paper and the model is available as a supplementary file. FINDINGS: Our model suggests that in 2010 there were around 2.2 million children under 5 years of age living with coeliac disease. Among these children there could be 42,000 deaths related to coeliac disease annually. In 2008, deaths related to coeliac disease probably accounted for approximately 4% of all childhood diarrhoeal mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Although coeliac disease may only account for a small proportion of diarrhoeal mortality, these deaths are not preventable by applying normal diarrhoea treatment guidelines, which may even involve gluten-based food supplements. As other causes of diarrhoeal mortality decline, coeliac disease will become a proportionately increasing problem unless consideration is given to trying gluten-free diets for children with chronic diarrhoea and malnutrition.

  7. Editorial: Chemistry: A key science to fight neglected diseases/Química: Ciência central para combater doenças negligenciadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Beatriz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past century, chemical and pharmaceutical industries have made substantial strides in the development of new pharmaceuticals for a range of human diseases. Discovering and developing new drugs are part of a costly process that involves not only the search for new drug candidates, but also the performance of clinical trials. It is not uncommon to find reports of costs reaching US$ 500 million—and even US$ 1 billion—engaging multidisciplinary teams for periods of 10 or 15 years. To a large extent, these costs are borne by consumers in richer countries. In contrast, diseases that predominantly affect residents of poorer nations tend to be left out of the modern process of drug discovery. Moreover, most of the world population stricken by these illnesses is incapable of supporting the costs involved in developing the drugs they need. Because these infirmities, with few exceptions, have been ignored by those in charge of research programs, both in the public and private sectors, they have been referred to as neglected diseases. On its website, the World Health Organization categorizes 14 health conditions as “tropical diseases,”.......................

  8. Annual Research Review: Enduring neurobiological effects of childhood abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teicher, Martin H; Samson, Jacqueline A

    2016-03-01

    Childhood maltreatment is the most important preventable cause of psychopathology accounting for about 45% of the population attributable risk for childhood onset psychiatric disorders. A key breakthrough has been the discovery that maltreatment alters trajectories of brain development. This review aims to synthesize neuroimaging findings in children who experienced caregiver neglect as well as from studies in children, adolescents and adults who experienced physical, sexual and emotional abuse. In doing so, we provide preliminary answers to questions regarding the importance of type and timing of exposure, gender differences, reversibility and the relationship between brain changes and psychopathology. We also discuss whether these changes represent adaptive modifications or stress-induced damage. Parental verbal abuse, witnessing domestic violence and sexual abuse appear to specifically target brain regions (auditory, visual and somatosensory cortex) and pathways that process and convey the aversive experience. Maltreatment is associated with reliable morphological alterations in anterior cingulate, dorsal lateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex, corpus callosum and adult hippocampus, and with enhanced amygdala response to emotional faces and diminished striatal response to anticipated rewards. Evidence is emerging that these regions and interconnecting pathways have sensitive exposure periods when they are most vulnerable. Early deprivation and later abuse may have opposite effects on amygdala volume. Structural and functional abnormalities initially attributed to psychiatric illness may be a more direct consequence of abuse. Childhood maltreatment exerts a prepotent influence on brain development and has been an unrecognized confound in almost all psychiatric neuroimaging studies. These brain changes may be best understood as adaptive responses to facilitate survival and reproduction in the face of adversity. Their relationship to psychopathology is complex

  9. Mining SNPs in extracellular vesicular transcriptome of Trypanosoma cruzi: a step closer to early diagnosis of neglected Chagas disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Anoop

    2016-01-01

    One of the newest and strongest members of intercellular communicators, the Extracellular vesicles (EVs) and their enclosed RNAs; Extracellular RNAs (exRNAs) have been acknowledged as putative biomarkers and therapeutic targets for various diseases. Although a very deep insight has not been possible into the physiology of these vesicles, they are believed to be involved in cell-to-cell communication and host-pathogen interactions. EVs might be significantly helpful in discovering biomarkers for possible target identification as well as prognostics, diagnostics and developing vaccines. In recent studies, highly bioactive EVs have drawn attention of parasitologists for being able to communicate between different cells and having likeliness of reflecting both source and target environments. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has eased the way to have a deeper insight into these vesicles and their roles in various diseases. This article arises from bioinformatics-based analysis and predictive data mining of transcriptomic (RNA-Seq) data of EVs, derived from different life stages of Trypanosoma cruzi; a causing agent of neglected Chagas disease. Variants (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs)) were mined from Extracellular vesicular transcriptomic data and functionally analyzed using different bioinformatics based approaches. Functional analysis showed the association of these variants with various important factors like Trans-Sialidase (TS), Alpha Tubulin, P-Type H+-ATPase, etc. which, in turn, are associated with disease in different ways. Some of the ‘candidate SNPs’ were found to be stage-specific, which strengthens the probability of finding stage-specific biomarkers. These results may lead to a better understanding of Chagas disease, and improved knowledge may provide further development of the biomarkers for prognosis, diagnosis and drug development for treating Chagas disease. PMID:27904804

  10. Prevention, control, and elimination of neglected diseases in the Americas: pathways to integrated, inter-programmatic, inter-sectoral action for health and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holveck, John C; Ehrenberg, John P; Ault, Steven K; Rojas, Rocio; Vasquez, Javier; Cerqueira, Maria Teresa; Ippolito-Shepherd, Josefa; Genovese, Miguel A; Periago, Mirta Roses

    2007-01-17

    In the Latin America and Caribbean region over 210 million people live below the poverty line. These impoverished and marginalized populations are heavily burdened with neglected communicable diseases. These diseases continue to enact a toll, not only on families and communities, but on the economically constrained countries themselves. As national public health priorities, neglected communicable diseases typically maintain a low profile and are often left out when public health agendas are formulated. While many of the neglected diseases do not directly cause high rates of mortality, they contribute to an enormous rate of morbidity and a drastic reduction in income for the most poverty-stricken families and communities. The persistence of this "vicious cycle" between poverty and poor health demonstrates the importance of linking the activities of the health sector with those of other sectors such as education, housing, water and sanitation, labor, public works, transportation, agriculture, industry, and economic development. The purpose of this paper is three fold. First, it focuses on a need for integrated "pro-poor" approaches and policies to be developed in order to more adequately address the multi-faceted nature of neglected diseases. This represents a move away from traditional disease-centered approaches to a holistic approach that looks at the overarching causes and mechanisms that influence the health and well being of communities. The second objective of the paper outlines the need for a specific strategy for addressing these diseases and offers several programmatic entry points in the context of broad public health measures involving multiple sectors. Finally, the paper presents several current Pan American Health Organization and other institutional initiatives that already document the importance of integrated, inter-programmatic, and inter-sectoral approaches. They provide the framework for a renewed effort toward the efficient use of resources and

  11. The Role of Nurses and Community Health Workers in Confronting Neglected Tropical Diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Andrew G.; Thornton, Clifton P.; Glass, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Neglected tropical diseases produce an enormous burden on many of the poorest and most disenfranchised populations in sub-Saharan Africa. Similar to other developing areas throughout the world, this region’s dearth of skilled health providers renders Western-style primary care efforts to address such diseases unrealistic. Consequently, many countries rely on their corps of nurses and community health workers to engage with underserved and hard-to-reach populations in order provide interventions against these maladies. This article attempts to cull together recent literature on the impact that nurses and community health workers have had on neglected tropical diseases. Methods A review of the literature was conducted to assess the role nurses and community health workers play in the primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of neglected tropical diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. Articles published between January 2005 and December 2015 were reviewed in order to capture the full scope of nurses’ and community health workers’ responsibilities for neglected tropical disease control within their respective countries’ health systems. Results A total of 59 articles were identified that fit all inclusion criteria. Conclusions Successful disease control requires deep and meaningful engagement with local communities. Expanding the role of nurses and community health workers will be required if sub-Saharan African countries are to meet neglected tropical disease treatment goals and eliminate the possibility future disease transmission. Horizontal or multidisease control programs can create complimentary interactions between their different control activities as well as reduce costs through improved program efficiencies—benefits that vertical programs are not able to attain. PMID:27631980

  12. Prevention, control, and elimination of neglected diseases in the Americas: Pathways to integrated, inter-programmatic, inter-sectoral action for health and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genovese Miguel A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Latin America and Caribbean region over 210 million people live below the poverty line. These impoverished and marginalized populations are heavily burdened with neglected communicable diseases. These diseases continue to enact a toll, not only on families and communities, but on the economically constrained countries themselves. Discussion As national public health priorities, neglected communicable diseases typically maintain a low profile and are often left out when public health agendas are formulated. While many of the neglected diseases do not directly cause high rates of mortality, they contribute to an enormous rate of morbidity and a drastic reduction in income for the most poverty-stricken families and communities. The persistence of this "vicious cycle" between poverty and poor health demonstrates the importance of linking the activities of the health sector with those of other sectors such as education, housing, water and sanitation, labor, public works, transportation, agriculture, industry, and economic development. Summary The purpose of this paper is three fold. First, it focuses on a need for integrated "pro-poor" approaches and policies to be developed in order to more adequately address the multi-faceted nature of neglected diseases. This represents a move away from traditional disease-centered approaches to a holistic approach that looks at the overarching causes and mechanisms that influence the health and well being of communities. The second objective of the paper outlines the need for a specific strategy for addressing these diseases and offers several programmatic entry points in the context of broad public health measures involving multiple sectors. Finally, the paper presents several current Pan American Health Organization and other institutional initiatives that already document the importance of integrated, inter-programmatic, and inter-sectoral approaches. They provide the framework for a

  13. Arthropod borne diseases in Italy: from a neglected matter to an emerging health problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Romi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In medical entomology, "Arthropod Borne Diseases", or "Vector Borne Diseases" (VBD are intended as a group of human and animal infections caused by different pathogen organisms (protozoa, helminthes, bacteria and viruses transmitted by the bite of a bloodsucking insect or arachnid. It is commonly known that the infectious diseases transmitted by Arthropods are mainly affecting tropical and subtropical countries, nevertheless some of them were or are still common also in the northern hemisphere, where they are usually maintained under control. VBD still represent some of the most important public health problems in the endemic areas but are becoming source of concern for developed countries too. Since the last decades of the past century, a number of VBD has been spreading geographically, being recorded for the first time in areas outside their original range. This phenomenon is strictly related to the peculiar epidemiological characteristics of these diseases, that are considered the most susceptible to climatic, environmental and socioeconomic changes. This article is a short overview of the VBD endemic and emerging in Italy. The possibility that some exotic vectors and/or pathogens could be introduced and become established in Italy is also discussed.

  14. Neglected Zoonotic Diseases (NZD) in a One Health context: exchanging experiences between continents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saarnak, Christopher; de Balogh, Katinka; Welburn, Sue

    2013-01-01

    and biosecurity can have an important effect on reducing the risks of transmission. In addition some of the endemic zoonotic diseases can be controlled by interventions such as mass vaccination (e.g rabies), treatment (echinococcosis) and/or changing practices (most). The need for political will and resources...

  15. Dietary sodium restriction : a neglected therapeutic opportunity in chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humalda, Jelmer K.; Navis, Gerjan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Restriction of dietary sodium is recommended at a population level as well as for groups at high cardiovascular risk, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review addresses recent evidence for the protective effect of dietary sodium restriction in CKD patients specifically. Recent

  16. Dietary sodium restriction : a neglected therapeutic opportunity in chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humalda, Jelmer K.; Navis, Gerjan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Restriction of dietary sodium is recommended at a population level as well as for groups at high cardiovascular risk, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review addresses recent evidence for the protective effect of dietary sodium restriction in CKD patients specifically. Recent

  17. Immunotherapy and Immunochemotherapy in Visceral Leishmaniasis: Promising Treatments for this Neglected Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Coura-Vital, Wendel; Ker, Henrique Gama; Moreira, Nádia das Dores; Vitoriano-Souza, Juliana; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis has several clinical forms: self-healing or chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis or post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis; mucosal leishmaniasis; visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which is fatal if left untreated. The epidemiology and clinical features of VL vary greatly due to the interaction of multiple factors including parasite strains, vectors, host genetics, and the environment. Human immunodeficiency virus infection augments the severity of VL increasing the risk of developing active disease by 100–2320 times. An effective vaccine for humans is not yet available. Resistance to chemotherapy is a growing problem in many regions, and the costs associated with drug identification and development, make commercial production for leishmaniasis, unattractive. The toxicity of currently drugs, their long treatment course, and limited efficacy are significant concerns. For cutaneous disease, many studies have shown promising results with immunotherapy/immunochemotherapy, aimed to modulate and activate the immune response to obtain a therapeutic cure. Nowadays, the focus of many groups centers on treating canine VL by using vaccines and immunomodulators with or without chemotherapy. In human disease, the use of cytokines like interferon-γ associated with pentavalent antimonials demonstrated promising results in patients that did not respond to conventional treatment. In mice, immunomodulation based on monoclonal antibodies to remove endogenous immunosuppressive cytokines (interleukin-10) or block their receptors, antigen-pulsed syngeneic dendritic cells, or biological products like Pam3Cys (TLR ligand) has already been shown as a prospective treatment of the disease. This review addresses VL treatment, particularly immunotherapy and/or immunochemotherapy as an alternative to conventional drug treatment in experimental models, canine VL, and human disease. PMID:24982655

  18. Immunotherapy and immunochemotherapy in visceral leishmaniasis: promising treatments for this neglected disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Mendes Roatt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis has several clinical forms: self-healing or chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis or post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis; mucosal leishmaniasis; and visceral leishmaniasis, which is fatal if left untreated. The epidemiology and clinical features of VL vary greatly due to the interaction of multiple factors including parasite strains, vectors, host genetics, and the environment. HIV infection, augments the severity of VL increasing the risk of developing active disease by 100 to 2320 times. An effective vaccine for humans is not yet available. Resistance to chemotherapy is a growing problem in many regions, and the costs associated with drug identification and development, make commercial production for leishmaniasis, unattractive. The toxicity of currently drugs, their long treatment course, and limited efficacy are significant concerns. For cutaneous disease, many studies have shown promising results with immunotherapy/immunochemotherapy, aimed to modulate and activate the immune response to obtain a therapeutic cure. Nowadays, the focus of many groups centers on treating canine VL by using vaccines and immunomodulators with or without chemotherapy. In human disease, the use of cytokines like Interferon-γ associated with pentavalent antimonials demonstrated promising results in patients that did not respond to conventional treatment. In mice, immunomodulation based on monoclonal antibodies to remove endogenous immunosuppressive cytokines (interleukin-10 or block their receptors, antigen-pulsed syngeneic dendritic cells, or biological products like Pam3Cys (TLR ligand has already been shown as a prospective treatment of the disease. This review addresses VL treatment, particularly immunotherapy and/or immunochemotherapy as an alternative to conventional drug treatment in experimental models, canine VL, and human disease.

  19. Research Areas: Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and C, or by genetic mutations. Other liver diseases can be triggered by autoimmune reactions or drug toxicity. The rise in obesity in the United States has led to a rise in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Many liver diseases place individuals at higher risk ...

  20. NTDs V.2.0: “Blue Marble Health”—Neglected Tropical Disease Control and Elimination in a Shifting Health Policy Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The concept of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) was established in the aftermath of the Millennium Development Goals. Here, we summarize the emergence of several new post-2010 global health documents and policies, and how they may alter the way we frame the world's major NTDs since they were first highlighted. These documents include a new Global Burden of Disease 2010 Study that identifies visceral leishmaniasis and food-borne trematode infections as priority diseases beyond the seven ...

  1. Acute schistosomiasis in brazilian traveler: the importance of tourism in the epidemiology of neglected parasitic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiguet Leal, Diego Averaldo; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno; Neves, Maria Francisca; Simões, Luciana Franceschi; Bastos, Letícia Aparecida Duart; Allegretti, Silmara Marques; Zanotti-Magalhães, Eliana Maria; Magalhães, Luiz Augusto

    2012-01-01

    Parasitic infectious diseases acquired in tourist areas may pose a challenge to physicians and to travel medicine practitioners. Acute schistosomiasis may be seen in returning travelers and migrants after primary infection. This form of schistosomiasis is frequently misdiagnosed due to its temporal delay and its nonspecific presentation and might occur even in countries where the disease is endemic, such as in Brazil. The patient developed the acute phase of schistosomiasis with severe clinical manifestations. The quantitative analysis revealed the presence of 240 eggs per gram of stool. The treatment was administered with oxamniquine, and the control of cure of the patient was monitored and was favorable. The present paper aims to emphasize the importance of a detailed clinical history including information regarding travel history.

  2. Acute Schistosomiasis in Brazilian Traveler: The Importance of Tourism in The Epidemiology of Neglected Parasitic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Averaldo Guiguet Leal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infectious diseases acquired in tourist areas may pose a challenge to physicians and to travel medicine practitioners. Acute schistosomiasis may be seen in returning travelers and migrants after primary infection. This form of schistosomiasis is frequently misdiagnosed due to its temporal delay and its nonspecific presentation and might occur even in countries where the disease is endemic, such as in Brazil. The patient developed the acute phase of schistosomiasis with severe clinical manifestations. The quantitative analysis revealed the presence of 240 eggs per gram of stool. The treatment was administered with oxamniquine, and the control of cure of the patient was monitored and was favorable. The present paper aims to emphasize the importance of a detailed clinical history including information regarding travel history.

  3. Nutritional status and eating disorders: neglected risks factor for nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, Karina; Morera, Josep

    2012-01-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease (NTMLD) in immunocompetent patients is an increasingly important epidemiologic concern. However, risk factors associated with susceptibility to NTMLD are not completely known. A prevalence of NTMLD appears to be rising, mainly in some populations such as middle-aged or elderly thin women, (a group including those with Lady Windermere syndrome) with neither remarkable history of respiratory disease nor smoking habit. Right middle lobe (RML) and lingula are often involved. Various predisposing factors and genetic defects have been described as possible causes of development of NTMLD, namely: voluntary suppression of cough, RML anatomical factors, menopause and mutations in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Malnutrition is also an important and common risk factor associated with other mycobacterial disease like tuberculosis (TB) and its probable association with NTMLD as have been pointed out for some authors. However, a real description of all nutritional aspects and eating habits of patients prior to NTMLD diagnosis is lacking. We hypothesized that malnutrition and eating disorders like anorexia nervosa could be risk factors that may promoting NTMLD. From a clinical viewpoint, if this hypothesis proves to be correct, eating habits and nutritional aspects should be taken into account in the diagnosis process of suspected NTMLD, since they are easily identifiable and treatable conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Africa's neglected area of human resources for health research - the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Marais, D L; Becerra-Posada, F; Ghannem, H

    2012-03-07

    Building the skills for doing, managing and delivering health research is essential for every country's development. Yet, human resources for health research (HRHR) are seldom considered in Africa and elsewhere. Africa's health research capacity has grown considerably, with potential to increase this growth. However, a systemic way of defining, co-ordinating and growing the HRHR needed to support health systems development is missing. Reviewing the status of HRHR in Africa, we assert that it consists of uncoordinated, small-scale activities, primarily driven from outside Africa. We present examples of ongoing HRHR capacity building initiatives in Africa. There is no overarching framework, strategy or body for African countries to optimise research support and capacity in HRHR. A simple model is presented to help countries plan and strategise for a comprehensive approach to research capacity strengthening. Everyone engaged with global, regional and national research for health enterprises must proactively address human resource planning for health research in Africa. Unless this is made explicit in global and national agendas, Africa will remain only an interested spectator in the decisions, prioritisation, funding allocations, conduct and interpretation, and in the institutional, economic and social benefits of health research, rather than owning and driving its own health research agendas.

  5. Integration of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene for the Prevention and Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases: A Rationale for Inter-Sectoral Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Julie; Abbott, Daniel; Addiss, David G.; Amnie, Asrat G.; Beckwith, Colin; Cairncross, Sandy; Callejas, Rafael; Colford, Jack M.; Emerson, Paul M.; Fenwick, Alan; Fishman, Rebecca; Gallo, Kerry; Grimes, Jack; Karapetyan, Gagik; Keene, Brooks; Lammie, Patrick J.; MacArthur, Chad; Lochery, Peter; Petach, Helen; Platt, Jennifer; Prabasi, Sarina; Rosenboom, Jan Willem; Roy, Sharon; Saywell, Darren; Schechtman, Lisa; Tantri, Anupama; Velleman, Yael; Utzinger, Jürg

    2013-01-01

    Improvements of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) infrastructure and appropriate health-seeking behavior are necessary for achieving sustained control, elimination, or eradication of many neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Indeed, the global strategies to fight NTDs include provision of WASH, but few programs have specific WASH targets and approaches. Collaboration between disease control programs and stakeholders in WASH is a critical next step. A group of stakeholders from the NTD control, child health, and WASH sectors convened in late 2012 to discuss opportunities for, and barriers to, collaboration. The group agreed on a common vision, namely “Disease-free communities that have adequate and equitable access to water and sanitation, and that practice good hygiene.” Four key areas of collaboration were identified, including (i) advocacy, policy, and communication; (ii) capacity building and training; (iii) mapping, data collection, and monitoring; and (iv) research. We discuss strategic opportunities and ways forward for enhanced collaboration between the WASH and the NTD sectors. PMID:24086781

  6. A perspective on targeting non-structural proteins to combat neglected tropical diseases: Dengue, West Nile and Chikungunya viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakat, Soumendranath; Karubiu, Wilson; Jayaprakash, Venkatesan; Soliman, Mahmoud E S

    2014-11-24

    Neglected tropical diseases are major causes of fatality in poverty stricken regions across Africa, Asia and some part of America. The combined potential health risk associated with arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses); Dengue virus (DENV), West Nile Virus (WNV) and Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV) is immense. These arboviruses are either emerging or re-emerging in many regions with recent documented outbreaks in the United States. Despite several recent evidences of emergence, currently there are no approved drugs or vaccines available to counter these diseases. Non-structural proteins encoded by these RNA viruses are essential for their replication and maturation and thus may offer ideal targets for developing antiviral drugs. In recent years, several protease inhibitors have been sourced from plant extract, synthesis, computer aided drug design and high throughput screening as well as through drug reposition based approaches to target the non-structural proteins. The protease inhibitors have shown different levels of inhibition and may thus provide template to develop selective and potent drugs against these devastating arboviruses. This review seeks to shed light on the design and development of antiviral drugs against DENV, WNV and CHIKV to date. To the best of our knowledge, this review provides the first comprehensive update on the development of protease inhibitors targeting non-structural proteins of three most devastating arboviruses, DENV, WNV and CHIKV.

  7. One World-One Health and neglected zoonotic disease: elimination, emergence and emergency in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James; Taylor, Emma Michelle; Kingsley, Pete

    2015-03-01

    This paper traces the emergence and tensions of an internationally constructed and framed One World-One Health (OWOH) approach to control and attempt to eliminate African Trypanosomiasis in Uganda. In many respects Trypanosomiasis is a disease that an OWOH approach is perfectly designed to treat, requiring an integrated approach built on effective surveillance in animals and humans, quick diagnosis and targeting of the vector. The reality appears to be that the translation of global notions of OWOH down to national and district levels generates problems, primarily due to interactions between: a) international, external actors not engaging with the Ugandan state; b) actors setting up structures and activities parallel to those of the state; c) actors deciding when emergencies begin and end without consultation; d) weak Ugandan state capacity to coordinate its own integrated response to disease; e) limited collaboration between core Ugandan planning activities and a weak, increasingly devolved district health system. These interrelated dynamics result in the global, international interventionalist mode of OWOH undermining the Coordinating Office for Control of Trypanosomiasis in Uganda (COCTU), the body within the Ugandan state mandated expressly with managing a sustainable One Health response to trypanosomiasis outbreaks in Uganda. This does two things, firstly it suggests we need a more grounded, national perspective of OWOH, where states and health systems are acknowledged and engaged with by international actors and initiatives. Secondly, it suggests that more support needs to be given to core coordinating capacity in resource-poor contexts. Supporting national coordinating bodies, focused around One Health, and ensuring that external actors engage with and through those bodies can help develop a sustained, effective OWOH presence in resource-poor countries, where after all most zoonotic disease burden remains.

  8. Neglected bacterial zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikeka, I; Dumler, J S

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial zoonoses comprise a group of diseases in humans or animals acquired by direct contact with or by oral consumption of contaminated animal materials, or via arthropod vectors. Among neglected infections, bacterial zoonoses are among the most neglected given emerging data on incidence and prevalence as causes of acute febrile illness, even in areas where recognized neglected tropical diseases occur frequently. Although many other bacterial infections could also be considered in this neglected category, five distinct infections stand out because they are globally distributed, are acute febrile diseases, have high rates of morbidity and case fatality, and are reported as commonly as malaria, typhoid or dengue virus infections in carefully designed studies in which broad-spectrum diagnoses are actively sought. This review will focus attention on leptospirosis, relapsing fever borreliosis and rickettsioses, including scrub typhus, murine typhus and spotted fever group rickettsiosis. Of greatest interest is the lack of distinguishing clinical features among these infections when in humans, which confounds diagnosis where laboratory confirmation is lacking, and in regions where clinical diagnosis is often attributed to one of several perceived more common threats. As diseases such as malaria come under improved control, the real impact of these common and under-recognized infections will become evident, as will the requirement for the strategies and allocation of resources for their control.

  9. Center for Prostate Disease Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Prostate Disease Research is the only free-standing prostate cancer research center in the U.S. This 20,000 square foot state-of-the-art basic science...

  10. Phytol, a diterpene alcohol from chlorophyll, as a drug against neglected tropical disease Schistosomiasis mansoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué de Moraes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a major endemic disease that affects hundreds of millions worldwide. Since the treatment and control of this parasitic disease rely on a single drug, praziquantel, it is imperative that new effective drugs are developed. Here, we report that phytol, a diterpene alcohol from chlorophyll widely used as a food additive and in medicinal fields, possesses promising antischistosomal properties in vitro and in a mouse model of schistosomiasis mansoni. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In vitro, phytol reduced the motor activity of worms, caused their death and confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis showed extensive tegumental alterations in a concentration-dependent manner (50 to 100 µg/mL. Additionally, phytol at sublethal doses (25 µg/mL reduced the number of Schistosoma mansoni eggs. In vivo, a single dose of phytol (40 mg/kg administered orally to mice infected with adult S. mansoni resulted in total and female worm burden reductions of 51.2% and 70.3%, respectively. Moreover, phytol reduced the number of eggs in faeces (76.6% and the frequency of immature eggs (oogram pattern was significantly reduced. The oogram also showed increases in the proportion of dead eggs. Confocal microcopy studies revealed tegumental damage in adult S. mansoni recovered from mice, especially in female worms. CONCLUSIONS: The significant reduction in parasite burden by this chlorophyll molecule validates phytol as a promising drug and offers the potential of a new direction for chemotherapy of human schistosomiasis. Phytol is a common food additive and nonmutagenic, with satisfactory safety. Thus, phytol has potential as a safe and cost-effective addition to antischistosomal therapy.

  11. Phytol, a Diterpene Alcohol from Chlorophyll, as a Drug against Neglected Tropical Disease Schistosomiasis Mansoni

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Josué; de Oliveira, Rosimeire N.; Costa, Jéssica P.; Junior, Antonio L. G.; de Sousa, Damião P.; Freitas, Rivelilson M.; Allegretti, Silmara M.; Pinto, Pedro L. S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is a major endemic disease that affects hundreds of millions worldwide. Since the treatment and control of this parasitic disease rely on a single drug, praziquantel, it is imperative that new effective drugs are developed. Here, we report that phytol, a diterpene alcohol from chlorophyll widely used as a food additive and in medicinal fields, possesses promising antischistosomal properties in vitro and in a mouse model of schistosomiasis mansoni. Methods and findings In vitro, phytol reduced the motor activity of worms, caused their death and confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis showed extensive tegumental alterations in a concentration-dependent manner (50 to 100 µg/mL). Additionally, phytol at sublethal doses (25 µg/mL) reduced the number of Schistosoma mansoni eggs. In vivo, a single dose of phytol (40 mg/kg) administered orally to mice infected with adult S. mansoni resulted in total and female worm burden reductions of 51.2% and 70.3%, respectively. Moreover, phytol reduced the number of eggs in faeces (76.6%) and the frequency of immature eggs (oogram pattern) was significantly reduced. The oogram also showed increases in the proportion of dead eggs. Confocal microcopy studies revealed tegumental damage in adult S. mansoni recovered from mice, especially in female worms. Conclusions The significant reduction in parasite burden by this chlorophyll molecule validates phytol as a promising drug and offers the potential of a new direction for chemotherapy of human schistosomiasis. Phytol is a common food additive and nonmutagenic, with satisfactory safety. Thus, phytol has potential as a safe and cost-effective addition to antischistosomal therapy. PMID:24392173

  12. Hypertension, a Neglected Disease in Rural and Urban Areas in Moramanga, Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rila Ratovoson

    Full Text Available Hypertension is one of the main risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. In Madagascar, studies on hypertension in urban and rural communities are scarce.The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension and identify associated risk factors in adults living in a health and demographic system in Moramanga, Madagascar.The study included people aged 15 years old and above living in a health and demographic system in Moramanga. A household census was performed in 2012 to enumerate the population in 3 communities in Moramanga. In addition to the questionnaire used in the initial census, a standardized questionnaire and blood pressure were taken twice after 5 and 10 minutes of rest. In urban areas, heights and weights were also measured to calculate the body mass index.There were 3621 and 4010 participants respectively in rural and urban areas. Prevalence of hypertension in rural population was 27.0% (IC95% [25.6-28.5] and 29.7% (IC95% [28.3-31.1] in urban population. Among hypertensive subjects, 1.7% (17/979 and 5.3% (64/1191 were on antihypertensive treatment for at least 1 month before the survey in rural and urban population, respectively. In rural areas, increasing age (65 years and older vs 18-25 years OR = 11.81, IC95% [7.79-18.07], giving more than 3 positive responses to the usual risks factors of hypertension (OR = 1.67, IC95% [1.14-2.42] and singles in comparison with married people (OR = 1.61, IC95% [1.20-2.17] were associated to hypertension in a logistic regression model. In urban areas, increasing age (65 years and older vs 18-25 years OR = 37.54, IC95% [24.81-57.92], more than 3 positive responses to the usual risks of hypertension (OR = 3.47, IC95% [2.58-4.67] and obesity (OR = 2.45, IC95% [1.56-3.87] were found as risk factors.Hypertension is highly prevalent in rural areas although it is significantly less treated. As a result, a major epidemic of cardiovascular diseases is at risk in Madagascar's progressively

  13. The neglected tropical diseases of Latin America and the Caribbean: a review of disease burden and distribution and a roadmap for control and elimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Hotez

    Full Text Available The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs represent some of the most common infections of the poorest people living in the Latin American and Caribbean region (LAC. Because they primarily afflict the disenfranchised poor as well as selected indigenous populations and people of African descent, the NTDs in LAC are largely forgotten diseases even though their collective disease burden may exceed better known conditions such as of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, or malaria. Based on their prevalence and healthy life years lost from disability, hookworm infection, other soil-transmitted helminth infections, and Chagas disease are the most important NTDs in LAC, followed by dengue, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, trachoma, leprosy, and lymphatic filariasis. On the other hand, for some important NTDs, such as leptospirosis and cysticercosis, complete disease burden estimates are not available. The NTDs in LAC geographically concentrate in 11 different sub-regions, each with a distinctive human and environmental ecology. In the coming years, schistosomiasis could be eliminated in the Caribbean and transmission of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis could be eliminated in Latin America. However, the highest disease burden NTDs, such as Chagas disease, soil-transmitted helminth infections, and hookworm and schistosomiasis co-infections, may first require scale-up of existing resources or the development of new control tools in order to achieve control or elimination. Ultimately, the roadmap for the control and elimination of the more widespread NTDs will require an inter-sectoral approach that bridges public health, social services, and environmental interventions.

  14. Energy Drinks: Topical Domain in the Emerging Literature and Neglected Areas of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence statistics indicate that consumption of Energy drinks (EDs), often in combination with alcohol, is quite popular in the younger generation and particularly with college students. As literature on this topic is advancing at a rapid pace, it seemed instructive to examine which topics are emphasized in emerging EDs research. To that end, a…

  15. Energy Drinks: Topical Domain in the Emerging Literature and Neglected Areas of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence statistics indicate that consumption of Energy drinks (EDs), often in combination with alcohol, is quite popular in the younger generation and particularly with college students. As literature on this topic is advancing at a rapid pace, it seemed instructive to examine which topics are emphasized in emerging EDs research. To that end, a…

  16. A Literature Review of Economic Evaluations for a Neglected Tropical Disease: Human African Trypanosomiasis (“Sleeping Sickness”)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, C. Simone; Yukich, Joshua; Goeree, Ron; Tediosi, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    key funders. These analyses would be of use, as HAT is currently being prioritized as a neglected tropical disease (NTD) to reach elimination by 2020. PMID:25654605

  17. Rapid mapping of schistosomiasis and other neglected tropical diseases in the context of integrated control programmes in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, S; Kabatereine, N B; Gyapong, J O; Stothard, J R; Utzinger, J

    2009-11-01

    There is growing interest and commitment to the control of schistosomiasis and other so-called neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Resources for control are inevitably limited, necessitating assessment methods that can rapidly and accurately identify and map high-risk communities so that interventions can be targeted in a spatially-explicit and cost-effective manner. Here, we review progress made with (1) mapping schistosomiasis across Africa using available epidemiological data and, more recently, climate-based risk prediction; (2) the development and use of morbidity questionnaires for rapid identification of high-risk communities of urinary schistosomiasis; and (3) innovative sampling-based approaches for intestinal schistosomiasis, using the lot quality assurance sampling technique. Experiences are also presented for the rapid mapping of other NTDs, including onchocerciasis, loiasis and lymphatic filariasis. Future directions for an integrated rapid mapping approach targeting multiple NTDs simultaneously are outlined, including potential challenges in developing an integrated survey tool. The lessons from the mapping of human helminth infections may also be relevant for the rapid mapping of malaria as its control efforts are intensified.

  18. Integration of water, sanitation and hygiene for the control of neglected tropical diseases: a review of progress and the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Robyn C; Velleman, Yael; Woods, Geordie; Chitty, Alexandra; Freeman, Matthew C

    2016-03-01

    A WHO roadmap to control, eliminate and eradicate neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) proposes a public health approach integrating diverse prevention and treatment interventions. Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) has long been a recognized, yet under-prioritized intervention of global disease control efforts. Through collaboration with the WASH sector, efforts have been made to integrate WASH in NTD control. This article reviews progress made in recent years, explores mechanisms supporting advances, and identifies priorities and next steps for accelerating WASH integration. This paper reveals advances in collaboration between WASH and NTD sectors, resulting in progress made across areas of programming; research; advocacy and policy; training and capacity building; and mapping, data collection and monitoring. Face to face meetings between WASH and NTD sector experts with a clear purpose of informing wider sector discussions, and the development of actionable joint workplans, have been particularly critical in supporting progress. Priority next steps include building capacity for WASH programming among NTD control teams, coordination at the country level, and strengthening the epidemiological evidence and operational learning for joint WASH and NTD interventions. In order to accelerate WASH integration in NTD control through strong collaborations with the WASH sector, the NTD sector could make use of strong data management skills and advocacy opportunities.

  19. Vaccination and antiviral treatment of neglected diseases caused by flaviviral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleich, K; Nürnberger, C; Sobanski, A; Efferth, T

    2011-01-01

    Flaviviral infections have a re-emerging impact on the health situation in developing countries with several billions of people living at risk. In the present review, we focus on three members of the genus Flavivirus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. They are transmitted to humans by mosquito bites, namely those viruses leading to Dengue Fever, Yellow Fever and mosquito-borne Japanese encephalitis. All three virus groups have a spherical structure with a diameter of approximately 50 nm. Although sharing a similar genomic structure and intracellular life cycle, they show different clinical manifestations. Infections are incurable, as there is no antiviral treatment available for either of the three viruses. Thus, prevention and vaccination are the best defenses. The most promising vaccines are live attenuated vaccines (LAVs), such as the YF17D strain against Yellow Fever or the SA-14-14-2 strain against Japanese encephalitis. Additionally, recombinant vaccines for Japanese encephalitis are in development. Although Dengue Fever is the most prevalent arthropode-borne flaviviral infection and a lot of research to develop a vaccine against all four Dengue Fever serotypes was undertaken, no vaccine is available on the market yet. Promising tetravalent vaccine candidates are currently undergoing clinical phase trials, including LAVs, recombinant and chimeric candidates as well as non-replicating vaccine approaches. Additionally, encouraging anti-flaviviral approaches target non-structural proteins, virus-specific proteases essential for cellular maturation of viral particles. Peptide inhibitors against the highly conserved NS2B and NS3 proteases are attractive as pan-flaviviral drug candidates.

  20. Open Source Drug Discovery with the Malaria Box Compound Collection for Neglected Diseases and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Adams, John H.; Adelfio, Roberto; Ahyong, Vida; Akabas, Myles H.; Alano, Pietro; Alday, Aintzane; Alemán Resto, Yesmalie; Alsibaee, Aishah; Alzualde, Ainhoa; Andrews, Katherine T.; Avery, Simon V.; Avery, Vicky M.; Ayong, Lawrence; Baker, Mark; Baker, Stephen; Ben Mamoun, Choukri; Bhatia, Sangeeta; Bickle, Quentin; Bounaadja, Lotfi; Bowling, Tana; Bosch, Jürgen; Boucher, Lauren E.; Boyom, Fabrice F.; Brea, Jose; Brennan, Marian; Burton, Audrey; Caffrey, Conor R.; Camarda, Grazia; Carrasquilla, Manuela; Carter, Dee; Belen Cassera, Maria; Chih-Chien Cheng, Ken; Chindaudomsate, Worathad; Chubb, Anthony; Colon, Beatrice L.; Colón-López, Daisy D.; Corbett, Yolanda; Crowther, Gregory J.; Cowan, Noemi; D’Alessandro, Sarah; Le Dang, Na; Delves, Michael; Du, Alan Y.; Duffy, Sandra; Abd El-Salam El-Sayed, Shimaa; Ferdig, Michael T.; Fernández Robledo, José A.; Fidock, David A.; Florent, Isabelle; Fokou, Patrick V. T.; Galstian, Ani; Gamo, Francisco Javier; Gold, Ben; Golub, Todd; Goldgof, Gregory M.; Guha, Rajarshi; Guiguemde, W. Armand; Gural, Nil; Guy, R. Kiplin; Hansen, Michael A. E.; Hanson, Kirsten K.; Hemphill, Andrew; Hooft van Huijsduijnen, Rob; Horii, Takaaki; Horrocks, Paul; Hughes, Tyler B.; Huston, Christopher; Igarashi, Ikuo; Ingram-Sieber, Katrin; Itoe, Maurice A.; Jadhav, Ajit; Naranuntarat Jensen, Amornrat; Jensen, Laran T.; Jiang, Rays H. Y.; Kaiser, Annette; Keiser, Jennifer; Ketas, Thomas; Kicka, Sebastien; Kim, Sunyoung; Kirk, Kiaran; Kumar, Vidya P.; Kyle, Dennis E.; Lafuente, Maria Jose; Landfear, Scott; Lee, Nathan; Lee, Sukjun; Lehane, Adele M.; Li, Fengwu; Little, David; Liu, Liqiong; Llinás, Manuel; Loza, Maria I.; Lubar, Aristea; Lucantoni, Leonardo; Lucet, Isabelle; Maes, Louis; Mancama, Dalu; Mansour, Nuha R.; March, Sandra; McGowan, Sheena; Medina Vera, Iset; Meister, Stephan; Mercer, Luke; Mestres, Jordi; Mfopa, Alvine N.; Misra, Raj N.; Moon, Seunghyun; Moore, John P.; Morais Rodrigues da Costa, Francielly; Müller, Joachim; Muriana, Arantza; Nakazawa Hewitt, Stephen; Nare, Bakela; Nathan, Carl; Narraidoo, Nathalie; Nawaratna, Sujeevi; Ojo, Kayode K.; Ortiz, Diana; Panic, Gordana; Papadatos, George; Parapini, Silvia; Patra, Kailash; Pham, Ngoc; Prats, Sarah; Plouffe, David M.; Poulsen, Sally-Ann; Pradhan, Anupam; Quevedo, Celia; Quinn, Ronald J.; Rice, Christopher A.; Abdo Rizk, Mohamed; Ruecker, Andrea; St. Onge, Robert; Salgado Ferreira, Rafaela; Samra, Jasmeet; Robinett, Natalie G.; Schlecht, Ulrich; Schmitt, Marjorie; Silva Villela, Filipe; Silvestrini, Francesco; Sinden, Robert; Smith, Dennis A.; Soldati, Thierry; Spitzmüller, Andreas; Stamm, Serge Maximilian; Sullivan, David J.; Sullivan, William; Suresh, Sundari; Suzuki, Brian M.; Suzuki, Yo; Swamidass, S. Joshua; Taramelli, Donatella; Tchokouaha, Lauve R. Y.; Theron, Anjo; Thomas, David; Tonissen, Kathryn F.; Townson, Simon; Tripathi, Abhai K.; Trofimov, Valentin; Udenze, Kenneth O.; Ullah, Imran; Vallieres, Cindy; Vigil, Edgar; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Voong Vinh, Phat; Vu, Hoan; Watanabe, Nao-aki; Weatherby, Kate; White, Pamela M.; Wilks, Andrew F.; Winzeler, Elizabeth A.; Wojcik, Edward; Wree, Melanie; Wu, Wesley; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Zollo, Paul H. A.; Abla, Nada; Blasco, Benjamin; Burrows, Jeremy; Laleu, Benoît; Leroy, Didier; Spangenberg, Thomas; Wells, Timothy; Willis, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    A major cause of the paucity of new starting points for drug discovery is the lack of interaction between academia and industry. Much of the global resource in biology is present in universities, whereas the focus of medicinal chemistry is still largely within industry. Open source drug discovery, with sharing of information, is clearly a first step towards overcoming this gap. But the interface could especially be bridged through a scale-up of open sharing of physical compounds, which would accelerate the finding of new starting points for drug discovery. The Medicines for Malaria Venture Malaria Box is a collection of over 400 compounds representing families of structures identified in phenotypic screens of pharmaceutical and academic libraries against the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite. The set has now been distributed to almost 200 research groups globally in the last two years, with the only stipulation that information from the screens is deposited in the public domain. This paper reports for the first time on 236 screens that have been carried out against the Malaria Box and compares these results with 55 assays that were previously published, in a format that allows a meta-analysis of the combined dataset. The combined biochemical and cellular assays presented here suggest mechanisms of action for 135 (34%) of the compounds active in killing multiple life-cycle stages of the malaria parasite, including asexual blood, liver, gametocyte, gametes and insect ookinete stages. In addition, many compounds demonstrated activity against other pathogens, showing hits in assays with 16 protozoa, 7 helminths, 9 bacterial and mycobacterial species, the dengue fever mosquito vector, and the NCI60 human cancer cell line panel of 60 human tumor cell lines. Toxicological, pharmacokinetic and metabolic properties were collected on all the compounds, assisting in the selection of the most promising candidates for murine proof-of-concept experiments and medicinal

  1. Open Source Drug Discovery with the Malaria Box Compound Collection for Neglected Diseases and Beyond.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley C Van Voorhis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A major cause of the paucity of new starting points for drug discovery is the lack of interaction between academia and industry. Much of the global resource in biology is present in universities, whereas the focus of medicinal chemistry is still largely within industry. Open source drug discovery, with sharing of information, is clearly a first step towards overcoming this gap. But the interface could especially be bridged through a scale-up of open sharing of physical compounds, which would accelerate the finding of new starting points for drug discovery. The Medicines for Malaria Venture Malaria Box is a collection of over 400 compounds representing families of structures identified in phenotypic screens of pharmaceutical and academic libraries against the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite. The set has now been distributed to almost 200 research groups globally in the last two years, with the only stipulation that information from the screens is deposited in the public domain. This paper reports for the first time on 236 screens that have been carried out against the Malaria Box and compares these results with 55 assays that were previously published, in a format that allows a meta-analysis of the combined dataset. The combined biochemical and cellular assays presented here suggest mechanisms of action for 135 (34% of the compounds active in killing multiple life-cycle stages of the malaria parasite, including asexual blood, liver, gametocyte, gametes and insect ookinete stages. In addition, many compounds demonstrated activity against other pathogens, showing hits in assays with 16 protozoa, 7 helminths, 9 bacterial and mycobacterial species, the dengue fever mosquito vector, and the NCI60 human cancer cell line panel of 60 human tumor cell lines. Toxicological, pharmacokinetic and metabolic properties were collected on all the compounds, assisting in the selection of the most promising candidates for murine proof-of-concept experiments

  2. Optimizing the use of breed types in developing country livestock production systems: a neglected research area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, K

    2014-10-01

    Developing country livestock production systems are diverse and dynamic, and include those where existing indigenous breeds are currently optimal and likely to remain so, those where non-indigenous breed types are already in common use, and systems that are changing, such as by intensification, where the introduction of new breed types represents significant opportunities. These include opportunities to improve the livelihood of the world's poor, increase food and nutrition security and enhance environmental sustainability. At present, very little research has focused on this issue, such that significant knowledge gaps in relation to breed-change interventions remain. The purpose of this study is to raise awareness of this issue and suggests strategic research areas to begin filling these knowledge gaps. Such strategic research would include (i) assessing the impact of differing breed types in developing country livestock productions systems, from a range of viewpoints including intrahousehold livelihood benefit, food and nutrition security at different scales, and environmental sustainability; (ii) identification of specific livestock production systems within developing countries, and the type of livestock keepers within these system, that are most likely to benefit from new breed types; and (iii) identification of new breed types as candidates for in-situ testing within these systems, such as through the use of spatial analysis to identify similar production environments combined with community acceptance studies. Results of these studies would primarily assist stakeholders in agriculture, including both policy makers and livestock keepers, to make informed decisions on the potential use of new breed types. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. The Socioeconomic Benefit to Individuals of Achieving the 2020 Targets for Five Preventive Chemotherapy Neglected Tropical Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyendijk, Marianne; Fitzpatrick, Christopher; Niessen, Louis; Stolk, Wilma A.; Tediosi, Fabrizio; Rijnsburger, Adriana J.; Bakker, Roel; Hontelez, Jan A. C.; Richardus, Jan H.; Jacobson, Julie; de Vlas, Sake J.; Severens, Johan L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF), onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and trachoma represent the five most prevalent neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). They can be controlled or eliminated by means of safe and cost-effective interventions delivered through programs of Mass Drug Administration (MDA)—also named Preventive Chemotherapy (PCT). The WHO defined targets for NTD control/elimination by 2020, reinforced by the 2012 London Declaration, which, if achieved, would result in dramatic health gains. We estimated the potential economic benefit of achieving these targets, focusing specifically on productivity and out-of-pocket payments. Methods Productivity loss was calculated by combining disease frequency with productivity loss from the disease, from the perspective of affected individuals. Productivity gain was calculated by deducting the total loss expected in the target achievement scenario from the loss in a counterfactual scenario where it was assumed the pre-intervention situation in 1990 regarding NTDs would continue unabated until 2030. Economic benefits from out-of-pocket payments (OPPs) were calculated similarly. Benefits are reported in 2005 US$ (purchasing power parity-adjusted and discounted at 3% per annum from 2010). Sensitivity analyses were used to assess the influence of changes in input parameters. Results The economic benefit from productivity gain was estimated to be I$251 billion in 2011–2020 and I$313 billion in 2021–2030, considerably greater than the total OPPs averted of I$0.72 billion and I$0.96 billion in the same periods. The net benefit is expected to be US$ 27.4 and US$ 42.8 for every dollar invested during the same periods. Impact varies between NTDs and regions, since it is determined by disease prevalence and extent of disease-related productivity loss. Conclusion Achieving the PCT-NTD targets for 2020 will yield significant economic benefits to affected individuals. Despite large

  4. Extent of Integration of Priority Interventions into General Health Systems: A Case Study of Neglected Tropical Diseases Programme in the Western Region of Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest O Mensah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The global health system has a large arsenal of interventions, medical products and technologies to address current global health challenges. However, identifying the most effective and efficient strategies to deliver these resources to where they are most needed has been a challenge. Targeted and integrated interventions have been the main delivery strategies. However, the health system discourse increasingly favours integrated strategies in the context of functionally merging targeted interventions with multifunctional health care delivery systems with a focus on strengthening country health systems to deliver needed interventions. Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD have been identified to promote and perpetuate poverty hence there has been global effort to combat these diseases. The Neglected Tropical Diseases Programme (NTDP in Ghana has a national programme team and office, however, it depends on the multifunctional health delivery system at the regional and district level to implement interventions. The NTDP seeks further health system integration to accelerate achievement of coverage targets. The study estimated the extent of integration of the NTDP at the national, regional and district levels to provide evidence to guide further integration.The research design was a descriptive case study that interviewed key persons involved in the programme at the three levels of the health system as well as extensive document review. Integration was assessed on two planes-across health system functions-stewardship and governance, financing, planning, service delivery, monitoring and evaluation and demand generation; and across three administrative levels of the health system-national, regional and district. A composite measure of integration designated Cumulative Integration Index (CII with a range of 0.00-1.00 was used to estimate extent of integration at the three levels of the health system. Service delivery was most integrated while financing and

  5. Extent of Integration of Priority Interventions into General Health Systems: A Case Study of Neglected Tropical Diseases Programme in the Western Region of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, Ernest O; Aikins, Moses K; Gyapong, Margaret; Anto, Francis; Bockarie, Moses J; Gyapong, John O

    2016-05-01

    The global health system has a large arsenal of interventions, medical products and technologies to address current global health challenges. However, identifying the most effective and efficient strategies to deliver these resources to where they are most needed has been a challenge. Targeted and integrated interventions have been the main delivery strategies. However, the health system discourse increasingly favours integrated strategies in the context of functionally merging targeted interventions with multifunctional health care delivery systems with a focus on strengthening country health systems to deliver needed interventions. Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD) have been identified to promote and perpetuate poverty hence there has been global effort to combat these diseases. The Neglected Tropical Diseases Programme (NTDP) in Ghana has a national programme team and office, however, it depends on the multifunctional health delivery system at the regional and district level to implement interventions. The NTDP seeks further health system integration to accelerate achievement of coverage targets. The study estimated the extent of integration of the NTDP at the national, regional and district levels to provide evidence to guide further integration. The research design was a descriptive case study that interviewed key persons involved in the programme at the three levels of the health system as well as extensive document review. Integration was assessed on two planes-across health system functions-stewardship and governance, financing, planning, service delivery, monitoring and evaluation and demand generation; and across three administrative levels of the health system-national, regional and district. A composite measure of integration designated Cumulative Integration Index (CII) with a range of 0.00-1.00 was used to estimate extent of integration at the three levels of the health system. Service delivery was most integrated while financing and planning were

  6. Together in the fight against neglected public health problems: worldwide network cooperation on waterborne diseases and emerging parasitic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoying; Song, Langui; Liang, Jinyi; Luo, Shiqi; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Wu, Zhongdao

    2015-05-01

    A symposium held in Guangzhou, China, aimed to become starting point of an international cooperation in the fight against waterborne diseases, which obtain more and more importance in times of global warming and globalization.

  7. Interactions between Global Health Initiatives and country health systems: the case of a neglected tropical diseases control program in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli, Anna; Bamba, Sory I; Traore, Mamadou N; Boelaert, Marleen; Coulibaly, Youssouf; Polman, Katja; Pirard, Marjan; Van Dormael, Monique

    2010-08-17

    Recently, a number of Global Health Initiatives (GHI) have been created to address single disease issues in low-income countries, such as poliomyelitis, trachoma, neonatal tetanus, etc.. Empirical evidence on the effects of such GHIs on local health systems remains scarce. This paper explores positive and negative effects of the Integrated Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) Control Initiative, consisting in mass preventive chemotherapy for five targeted NTDs, on Mali's health system where it was first implemented in 2007. Campaign processes and interactions with the health system were assessed through participant observation in two rural districts (8 health centres each). Information was complemented by interviews with key informants, website search and literature review. Preliminary results were validated during feedback sessions with Malian authorities from national, regional and district levels. We present positive and negative effects of the NTD campaign on the health system using the WHO framework of analysis based on six interrelated elements: health service delivery, health workforce, health information system, drug procurement system, financing and governance. At point of delivery, campaign-related workload severely interfered with routine care delivery which was cut down or totally interrupted during the campaign, as nurses were absent from their health centre for campaign-related activities. Only 2 of the 16 health centres, characterized by a qualified, stable and motivated workforce, were able to keep routine services running and to use the campaign as an opportunity for quality improvement. Increased workload was compensated by allowances, which significantly improved staff income, but also contributed to divert attention away from core routine activities. While the campaign increased the availability of NTD drugs at country level, parallel systems for drug supply and evaluation requested extra efforts burdening local health systems. The campaign budget

  8. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR): A neglected tropical disease in Maghreb region of North Africa and its threat to Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Brian Donald; Ait-Oudhia, Khatima; Khelef, Djamel; Parida, Satya

    2017-01-01

    Background Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a contagious disease listed by the World Organisation for Animal health (OIE) as being a specific hazard. It affects sheep, goats, and wild ungulates, and is prevalent throughout the developing world particularly Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. PPR has been targeted for eradication by 2030 by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the OIE, after the successful eradication of the related disease, rinderpest in cattle. PPR was first reported in 1942 in the Ivory Coast in Western Africa and has since extended its range in Asia, the Middle East, and Africa posing an immediate threat of incursion into Europe, South East Asia and South Africa. Although robust vaccines are available, the use of these vaccines in a systematic and rational manner is not widespread, resulting in this devastating disease becoming an important neglected tropical disease in the developing world. Methodology We isolated and characterized the PPR virus from an outbreak in Cheraga, northern Algeria, during October 2015 by analyzing the partial N-gene sequence in comparison with other viruses from the Maghreb region. As well as sequencing the full length viral genome and performing real-time RT-PCR on clinical samples. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian temporal and phylogeographic analyses were performed to assess the persistence and spread of PPRV circulation from Eastern Africa in the Maghreb region of North Africa. Conclusions Recent PPR outbreaks in Cheraga, in the northern part of Algiers (October 2015) and North-West Morocco (June, 2015) highlight that PPRV has spread to the northern border of North Africa and may pose a threat of introduction to Europe. Phylogeographic analysis suggests that lineage IV PPRV has spread from Eastern Africa, most likely from the Sudan 2000 outbreak, into Northern Africa resulting in the 2008 Moroccan outbreak. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian analysis shows that these North African

  9. Large Historical Tsunamigenic Earthquakes in Italy: The Neglected Tsunami Research Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.; Pagnoni, G.; Zaniboni, F.

    2015-12-01

    It is known that tsunamis are rather rare events, especially when compared to earthquakes, and the Italian coasts are no exception. Nonetheless, a striking evidence is that 6 out of 10 earthquakes occurred in the last thousand years in Italy, and having equivalent moment magnitude equal or larger than 7 where accompanied by destructive or heavily damaging tsunamis. If we extend the lower limit of the equivalent moment magnitude down to 6.5 the percentage decreases (around 40%), but is still significant. Famous events like those occurred on 30 July 1627 in Gargano, on 11 January 1693 in eastern Sicily, and on 28 December 1908 in the Messina Straits are part of this list: they were all characterized by maximum run-ups of several meters (13 m for the 1908 tsunami), significant maximum inundation distances, and large (although not precisely quantifiable) numbers of victims. Further evidences provided in the last decade by paleo-tsunami deposit analyses help to better characterize the tsunami impact and confirm that none of the cited events can be reduced to local or secondary effects. Proper analysis and simulation of available tsunami data would then appear as an obvious part of the correct definition of the sources responsible for the largest Italian tsunamigenic earthquakes, in a process in which different datasets analyzed by different disciplines must be reconciled rather than put into contrast with each other. Unfortunately, macroseismic, seismic and geological/geomorphological observations and data typically are assigned much heavier weights, and in-land faults are often assigned larger credit than the offshore ones, even when evidence is provided by tsunami simulations that they are not at all capable of justifying the observed tsunami effects. Tsunami generation is imputed a-priori to only supposed, and sometimes even non-existing, submarine landslides. We try to summarize the tsunami research point of view on the largest Italian historical tsunamigenic

  10. High-throughput screening platform for natural product-based drug discovery against 3 neglected tropical diseases: human African trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annang, F; Pérez-Moreno, G; García-Hernández, R; Cordon-Obras, C; Martín, J; Tormo, J R; Rodríguez, L; de Pedro, N; Gómez-Pérez, V; Valente, M; Reyes, F; Genilloud, O; Vicente, F; Castanys, S; Ruiz-Pérez, L M; Navarro, M; Gamarro, F; González-Pacanowska, D

    2015-01-01

    African trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease are 3 neglected tropical diseases for which current therapeutic interventions are inadequate or toxic. There is an urgent need to find new lead compounds against these diseases. Most drug discovery strategies rely on high-throughput screening (HTS) of synthetic chemical libraries using phenotypic and target-based approaches. Combinatorial chemistry libraries contain hundreds of thousands of compounds; however, they lack the structural diversity required to find entirely novel chemotypes. Natural products, in contrast, are a highly underexplored pool of unique chemical diversity that can serve as excellent templates for the synthesis of novel, biologically active molecules. We report here a validated HTS platform for the screening of microbial extracts against the 3 diseases. We have used this platform in a pilot project to screen a subset (5976) of microbial extracts from the MEDINA Natural Products library. Tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that 48 extracts contain potentially new compounds that are currently undergoing de-replication for future isolation and characterization. Known active components included actinomycin D, bafilomycin B1, chromomycin A3, echinomycin, hygrolidin, and nonactins, among others. The report here is, to our knowledge, the first HTS of microbial natural product extracts against the above-mentioned kinetoplastid parasites.

  11. Integrated surveys of neglected tropical diseases in southern Sudan: how much do they cost and can they be refined?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H Kolaczinski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increasing emphasis on integrated control of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs requires identification of co-endemic areas. Integrated surveys for lymphatic filariasis (LF, schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth (STH infection have been recommended for this purpose. Integrated survey designs inevitably involve balancing the costs of surveys against accuracy of classifying areas for treatment, so-called implementation units (IUs. This requires an understanding of the main cost drivers and of how operating procedures may affect both cost and accuracy of surveys. Here we report a detailed cost analysis of the first round of integrated NTD surveys in Southern Sudan. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Financial and economic costs were estimated from financial expenditure records and interviews with survey staff using an ingredients approach. The main outcome was cost per IU surveyed. Uncertain variables were subjected to univariate sensitivity analysis and the effects of modifying standard operating procedures were explored. The average economic cost per IU surveyed was USD 40,206 or USD 9,573, depending on the size of the IU. The major cost drivers were two key categories of recurrent costs: i survey consumables, and ii personnel. CONCLUSION: The cost of integrated surveys in Southern Sudan could be reduced by surveying larger administrative areas for LF. If this approach was taken, the estimated economic cost of completing LF, schistosomiasis and STH mapping in Southern Sudan would amount to USD 1.6 million. The methodological detail and costing template provided here could be used to generate cost estimates in other settings and readily compare these to the present study, and may help budget for integrated and single NTDs surveys elsewhere.

  12. Neglected tropical diseases of the Middle East and North Africa: review of their prevalence, distribution, and opportunities for control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J; Savioli, Lorenzo; Fenwick, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are highly endemic but patchily distributed among the 20 countries and almost 400 million people of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, and disproportionately affect an estimated 65 million people living on less than US$2 per day. Egypt has the largest number of people living in poverty of any MENA nation, while Yemen has the highest prevalence of people living in poverty. These two nations stand out for having suffered the highest rates of many NTDs, including the soil-transmitted nematode infections, filarial infections, schistosomiasis, fascioliasis, leprosy, and trachoma, although they should be recognized for recent measures aimed at NTD control. Leishmaniasis, especially cutaneous leishmaniasis, is endemic in Syria, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Morocco, and elsewhere in the region. Both zoonotic (Leishmania major) and anthroponotic (Leishmania tropica) forms are endemic in MENA in rural arid regions and urban regions, respectively. Other endemic zoonotic NTDs include cystic echinococcosis, fascioliasis, and brucellosis. Dengue is endemic in Saudi Arabia, where Rift Valley fever and Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever have also emerged. Great strides have been made towards elimination of several endemic NTDs, including lymphatic filariasis in Egypt and Yemen; schistosomiasis in Iran, Morocco, and Oman; and trachoma in Morocco, Algeria, Iran, Libya, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, and the United Arab Emirates. A particularly noteworthy achievement is the long battle waged against schistosomiasis in Egypt, where prevalence has been brought down by regular praziquantel treatment. Conflict and human and animal migrations are key social determinants in preventing the control or elimination of NTDs in the MENA, while local political will, strengthened international and intersectoral cooperative efforts for surveillance, mass drug administration, and vaccination are essential for elimination.

  13. The cross-cutting contribution of the end of neglected tropical diseases to the sustainable development goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangert, Mathieu; Molyneux, David H; Lindsay, Steve W; Fitzpatrick, Christopher; Engels, Dirk

    2017-04-04

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) call for an integrated response, the kind that has defined Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) efforts in the past decade.NTD interventions have the greatest relevance for SDG3, the health goal, where the focus on equity, and its commitment to reaching people in need of health services, wherever they may live and whatever their circumstances, is fundamentally aligned with the target of Universal Health Coverage. NTD interventions, however, also affect and are affected by many of the other development areas covered under the 2030 Agenda. Strategies such as mass drug administration or the programmatic integration of NTD and WASH activities (SDG6) are driven by effective global partnerships (SDG17). Intervention against the NTDs can also have an impact on poverty (SDG1) and hunger (SDG2), can improve education (SDG4), work and economic growth (SDG8), thereby reducing inequalities (SDG10). The community-led distribution of donated medicines to more than 1 billion people reinforces women's empowerment (SDG5), logistics infrastructure (SDG9) and non-discrimination against disability (SDG16). Interventions to curb mosquito-borne NTDs contribute to the goals of urban sustainability (SDG11) and resilience to climate change (SDG13), while the safe use of insecticides supports the goal of sustainable ecosystems (SDG15). Although indirectly, interventions to control water- and animal-related NTDs can facilitate the goals of small-scale fishing (SDG14) and sustainable hydroelectricity and biofuels (SDG7).NTDs proliferate in less developed areas in countries across the income spectrum, areas where large numbers of people have little or no access to adequate health care, clean water, sanitation, housing, education, transport and information. This scoping review assesses how in this context, ending the epidemic of the NTDs can impact and improve our prospects of attaining the SDGs.

  14. Genome-wide identification of microRNA targets in the neglected disease pathogens of the genus Echinococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchiaroli, Natalia; Maldonado, Lucas L; Zarowiecki, Magdalena; Cucher, Marcela; Gismondi, María Inés; Kamenetzky, Laura; Rosenzvit, Mara Cecilia

    2017-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs, are key regulators of gene expression at post-transcriptional level and play essential roles in biological processes such as development. MiRNAs silence target mRNAs by binding to complementary sequences in the 3'untranslated regions (3'UTRs). The parasitic helminths of the genus Echinococcus are the causative agents of echinococcosis, a zoonotic neglected disease. In previous work, we performed a comprehensive identification and characterization of Echinococcus miRNAs. However, current knowledge about their targets is limited. Since target prediction algorithms rely on complementarity between 3'UTRs and miRNA sequences, a major limitation is the lack of accurate sequence information of 3'UTR for most species including parasitic helminths. We performed RNA-seq and developed a pipeline that integrates the transcriptomic data with available genomic data of this parasite in order to identify 3'UTRs of Echinococcus canadensis. The high confidence set of 3'UTRs obtained allowed the prediction of miRNA targets in Echinococcus through a bioinformatic approach. We performed for the first time a comparative analysis of miRNA targets in Echinococcus and Taenia. We found that many evolutionarily conserved target sites in Echinococcus and Taenia may be functional and under selective pressure. Signaling pathways such as MAPK and Wnt were among the most represented pathways indicating miRNA roles in parasite growth and development. Genome-wide identification and characterization of miRNA target genes in Echinococcus provide valuable information to guide experimental studies in order to understand miRNA functions in the parasites biology. miRNAs involved in essential functions, especially those being absent in the host or showing sequence divergence with respect to host orthologs, might be considered as novel therapeutic targets for echinococcosis control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Neglected tropical diseases of the Middle East and North Africa: review of their prevalence, distribution, and opportunities for control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Hotez

    Full Text Available The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs are highly endemic but patchily distributed among the 20 countries and almost 400 million people of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region, and disproportionately affect an estimated 65 million people living on less than US$2 per day. Egypt has the largest number of people living in poverty of any MENA nation, while Yemen has the highest prevalence of people living in poverty. These two nations stand out for having suffered the highest rates of many NTDs, including the soil-transmitted nematode infections, filarial infections, schistosomiasis, fascioliasis, leprosy, and trachoma, although they should be recognized for recent measures aimed at NTD control. Leishmaniasis, especially cutaneous leishmaniasis, is endemic in Syria, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Morocco, and elsewhere in the region. Both zoonotic (Leishmania major and anthroponotic (Leishmania tropica forms are endemic in MENA in rural arid regions and urban regions, respectively. Other endemic zoonotic NTDs include cystic echinococcosis, fascioliasis, and brucellosis. Dengue is endemic in Saudi Arabia, where Rift Valley fever and Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever have also emerged. Great strides have been made towards elimination of several endemic NTDs, including lymphatic filariasis in Egypt and Yemen; schistosomiasis in Iran, Morocco, and Oman; and trachoma in Morocco, Algeria, Iran, Libya, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, and the United Arab Emirates. A particularly noteworthy achievement is the long battle waged against schistosomiasis in Egypt, where prevalence has been brought down by regular praziquantel treatment. Conflict and human and animal migrations are key social determinants in preventing the control or elimination of NTDs in the MENA, while local political will, strengthened international and intersectoral cooperative efforts for surveillance, mass drug administration, and vaccination are essential for elimination.

  16. Other Safety Concerns and Self-Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center (NAPSRC) Training Research Exploitation Resources Technical Assistance Other Safety Concerns and Self-Neglect Other safety concerns ... APS office for additional information. When To Report Other Safety Concerns and Self-Neglect? If you witness ...

  17. Prospects and challenges of CRISPR/Cas genome editing for the study and control of neglected vector-borne nematode diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamanian, Mostafa; Andersen, Erik C

    2016-09-01

    Neglected tropical diseases caused by parasitic nematodes inflict an immense health and socioeconomic burden throughout much of the developing world. Current estimates indicate that more than two billion people are infected with nematodes, resulting in the loss of 14 million disability-adjusted life years per annum. Although these parasites cause significant mortality, they primarily cause chronic morbidity through a wide range of severe clinical ailments. Treatment options for nematode infections are restricted to a small number of anthelmintic drugs, and the rapid expansion of anthelmintic mass drug administration raises concerns of drug resistance. Preservation of existing drugs is necessary, as well as the development of new treatment options and methods of control. We focus this review on how the democratization of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology can be enlisted to improve our understanding of the biology of nematode parasites and our ability to treat the infections they cause. We will first explore how this robust method of genome manipulation can be used to newly exploit the powerful model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans for parasitology research. We will then discuss potential avenues to develop CRISPR/Cas9 editing protocols in filarial nematodes. Lastly, we will propose potential ways in which CRISPR/Cas9 can be used to engineer gene drives that target the transmission of mosquito-borne filarial nematodes. © 2016 The Authors. The FEBS Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  18. Towards effective prevention and control of helminth neglected tropical diseases in the Western Pacific Region through multi-disease and multi-sectoral interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Jun; Ehrenberg, John P; Nealon, Joshua; Fürst, Thomas; Aratchige, Padmasiri; Gonzales, Glenda; Chanthavisouk, Chitsavang; Hernandez, Leda M; Fengthong, Tayphasavanh; Utzinger, Jürg; Steinmann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) cause serious health, social and economic burdens in the countries of the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region. Among the NTDs, helminth infections are particularly prominent with regard to the number of infected individuals and health impact. Co-endemicity is common among impoverished and marginalized populations. To achieve effective and sustainable control of helminth NTDs, a deeper understanding of the social-ecological systems governing their endemicity and strategies beyond preventive chemotherapy are required to tackle the multiple causes of infection and re-infection. We discuss the feasibility of implementing multi-disease, multi-sectoral intervention packages for helminth NTDs in the Western Pacific Region. After reviewing the main determinants for helminth NTD endemicity and current control strategies, key control activities that involve or concern other programmes within and beyond the health sector are discussed. A considerable number of activities that have an impact on more than one helminth NTD are identified in a variety of sectors, suggesting an untapped potential for synergies. We also highlight the challenges of multi-sectoral collaboration, particularly of involving non-health sectors. We conclude that multi-sectoral collaboration for helminth NTD control is feasible if the target diseases and sectors are carefully selected. To do so, an incentive analysis covering key stakeholders in the sectors is crucial, and the disease-control strategies need to be well understood. The benefits of multi-disease, multi-sectoral approaches could go beyond immediate health impacts by contributing to sustainable development, raising educational attainment, increasing productivity and reducing health inequities.

  19. Heterocyclic-2-carboxylic Acid (3-Cyano-1,4-di-N-oxidequinoxalin-2-ylamide Derivatives as Hits for the Development of Neglected Disease Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Monge

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Neglected diseases represent a major health problem. It is estimated that one third of the world population is infected with tuberculosis (TB. Besides TB, Chagas disease, affects approximately 20 million people. Quinoxalines display great activities against TB and Chagas. Forty new quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives have been prepared and tested against M. tuberculosis and T. cruzi. Carboxylic acid quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides (CAQDOs 5 and 17 showed MIC values on the same order as the reference antituberculosis drug, rifampicin. Meanwhile, CAQDOs 12 and 22 presented IC50 values in the same order as the anti-chagasic drug, nifurtimox.

  20. Exploring Self-neglect in Older Adults: Preliminary Findings of the Self-Neglect Severity Scale and Next Steps

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, P Adam; Dyer, Carmel B.; Pavlik, Valory; Doody, Rachelle; Jogerst, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    Despite the public health implications of self-neglect, no tool exists for characterizing this condition. Self-neglecters often have no caregivers or surrogates to interview regarding the neglect, and are often too cognitively impaired to provide valid self-reports. In response to this need, researchers from the Consortium for Research in Elder Self-neglect of Texas (CREST), collaborated with other experts in the field of elder self-neglect to design the Self-neglect Severity Scale (SSS). The...

  1. Neglecting Results?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Jarlbæk

    2016-01-01

    Much research has been undertaken to cast light on to the role of interest groups in the European Union and elsewhere. However, only a few researchers have focused their energy on the practical effects of involvement – effects on the legal output of the political process. Thus, we have a good kno...... as this organisation is often said to be much dependent on the effective and efficient functioning of its rules – its output legitimacy....

  2. Theory synthesis for self-neglect: a health and social phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Susanne W

    2009-01-01

    Self-neglect, best known for its prominent place in the elder mistreatment framework, is a phenomenon associated with a variety of health and social conditions. However, a second, less worrisome group of older adults with chronic disease exhibits similar patterns of nonadherence and inadequate self-care practices and has the potential for progression. The purpose of this theory-validating research was to describe characteristics and behaviors of self-neglect in adults (aged 55 years and older) who reside in the community. This research described characteristics and behaviors of self-neglect in early stages of this phenomenon and described the influence of several variables of significance in the clinical evolution and course of self-neglect in identified cases. A descriptive, exploratory mixed-method design was employed for a comprehensive analysis of the research questions. A convenience sample of seven healthcare providers identified a purposive sample of 20 patient participants. Demographic information, geriatric assessments, and structured interview data were analyzed using content analysis and descriptive statistics. Characteristics and behaviors of self-neglect, before significant deterioration, are described in intentional (n = 9) and nonintentional (n = 11) self-neglect study participants. Fourteen themes emerged and were grouped into five categories. Coping problems appeared to affect operable self-care agency of each self-neglect study participant. The results validate a framework for self-neglect research and practice and indicate a need to consider coping abilities of all patients exhibiting self-neglect.

  3. Ursolic Acid, a Natural Pentacylcic Triterpene from Ochrosia elliptica and Its Role in The Management of Certain Neglected Tropical Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, Rola M.; Ebada, Sherif S.; Youssef, Fadia S.; Ashour, Mohamed L.; Ross, Samir A.

    2016-01-01

    parasitic enzymes. SUMMARY The fresh leaves of Ochrosia elleptica Labill., family Apocyanaceae are a reliable source of ursolic acid.Ursolic acid displayed considerable antitrypanosomal and antileishmanial activities. It showed superior antitrypanosomal activity as compared to difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), potent antitrypanosomal reference drug.In silico molecular modeling studies revealed that the antileishmanial and antitrypanosomal activities of ursolic acid could be partially explained in view of its multiple inhibitory effects on vital parasitic enzymes with the highest potency exerted in the inhibition of pteridine reductase 1 and trypanothione reductase. Abbreviations used: AHT: African Human Trypanosomiasis, ATCC: American type cell culture, BuOH: n-butanol, DCM: dichloromethane, DFMO: difluoromethylornithine, EtOAc: ethyl acetate, FCS: fetal calf serum, HMBC: Heteronuclear Multiple Bond Correlation, HMQC: Heteronuclear Multiple-Quantum Correlation, HR-ESI-FTMS: High Resolution Electrospray ionozation Mass Spectrometry, MENA: Middle East and North Africa, MeOH: Methanol, MRSA: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, NTDs: Neglected tropical diseases, TLC: Thin layer chromatography, UA: Ursolic acid, UV: Ultra violet, WHO: World Health Organization. PMID:27867276

  4. The Pan American Health Organization's role and perspectives on the mapping and modeling of the neglected tropical diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Steven K; Nicholls, Ruben Santiago; Saboya, Martha IdaIí

    2012-09-01

    The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), which functions as the regional office for the Americas of the World Health Organization, is committed to provide technical cooperation to countries to update the epidemiological information available for mapping and modelling of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), a set of diseases mainly caused by parasites affecting people living in low socioeconomic and favourable environmental conditions. This communication discusses PAHO's role and perspectives in the use of mapping and modelling of these diseases with a view to promote its use in the development and implementation of integrated, inter-programmatic and inter-sectoral plans for the prevention, control or elimination of the NTDs and other infectious diseases related to poverty.

  5. The Pan American Health Organization’s role and perspectives on the mapping and modeling of the neglected tropical diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven K. Ault

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO, which functions as the regional office for the Americas of the World Health Organization, is committed to provide technical cooperation to countries to update the epidemiological information available for mapping and modelling of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs, a set of diseases mainly caused by parasites affecting people living in low socioeconomic and favourable environmental conditions. This communication discusses PAHO’s role and perspectives in the use of mapping and modelling of these diseases with a view to promote its use in the development and implementation of integrated, inter-programmatic and inter-sectoral plans for the prevention, control or elimination of the NTDs and other infectious diseases related to poverty.

  6. Self-Neglect: Ethical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Mary Rose; Leahy-Warren, Patricia; McCarthy, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Self-neglect is a significant international public health issue. Estimates suggest that there may be over one million cases per year in the United States. Aging populations will put more people at risk of self-neglect. This chapter presents background literature, self-neglect definitions and policy context, risk factors, and a brief overview of research on perspectives of self-neglect from both clients and community health and social care professionals. A case study is presented from the perspective of an individual and is used to explore ethical issues therein. A person-centered assessment within a multidisciplinary team approach is required for building a therapeutic relationship with clients. Capacity is a central issue in the management of responses to self-neglect. Ethical considerations of importance for community health and social care professionals include beneficence and nonmaleficence, autonomy and capacity, and respect for people's rights and dignity. A model of ethical justification is presented to explain dilemmas, challenges, and actions. Competence of professionals, multidisciplinary team working, informed consent, privacy, confidentiality, and best interest are also critical considerations. Effective decision making by an interdisciplinary team of professionals needs to be person-centered and give due consideration to the best interest of self-neglecting clients. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an in-depth discussion and examination of ethical issues and challenges relating to self-neglecting clients.

  7. Does mass drug administration for the integrated treatment of neglected tropical diseases really work? Assessing evidence for the control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Tim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Less is known about mass drug administration [MDA] for neglected tropical diseases [NTDs] than is suggested by those so vigorously promoting expansion of the approach. This paper fills an important gap: it draws upon local level research to examine the roll out of treatment for two NTDs, schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths, in Uganda. Methods Ethnographic research was undertaken over a period of four years between 2005-2009 in north-west and south-east Uganda. In addition to participant observation, survey data recording self-reported take-up of drugs for schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminths and, where relevant, lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis was collected from a random sample of at least 10% of households at study locations. Data recording the take-up of drugs in Ministry of Health registers for NTDs were analysed in the light of these ethnographic and social survey data. Results The comparative analysis of the take-up of drugs among adults revealed that although most long term residents have been offered treatment at least once since 2004, the actual take up of drugs for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths varies considerably from one district to another and often also within districts. The specific reasons why MDA succeeds in some locations and falters in others relates to local dynamics. Issues such as population movement across borders, changing food supply, relations between drug distributors and targeted groups, rumours and conspiracy theories about the 'real' purpose of treatment, subjective experiences of side effects from treatment, alternative understandings of affliction, responses to social control measures and historical experiences of public health control measures, can all make a huge difference. The paper highlights the need to adapt MDA to local circumstances. It also points to specific generalisable issues, notably with respect to health education, drug distribution and

  8. Child neglect identification: The health visitor's role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akehurst, Rachel

    2015-11-01

    Child neglect is a significant public health issue, with impact often persisting into adulthood. However, neglect is not easily identifiable and may go undetected for many years. This library-based literature review critically analyses the research to uncover effective practices to aid neglect identification. The literature identifies that professionals may observe particular risk factors in a child's life that make neglect more probable. Additionally, children who suffer neglect, and parents who neglect their children, may display signs that practitioners can be alert to. However, a number of barriers exist that make identification difficult. The literature highlights that health visitors have a significant role to play in identifying neglect. Final conclusions relate to the need for professional supervision, use of assessment tools and frameworks, multi-agency training, and timely interventions to safeguard children.

  9. Brain responses to detection of right or left somatic targets are symmetrical in unilateral Parkinson's disease: a case against the concept of "parkinsonian neglect'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Larrea, L; Brousolle, E; Gravejat, M F; Chazot, G; Mauguière, F

    1996-12-01

    Signs of attentional dysfunction mimicking spatial neglect have been described both in humans with lateralised Parkinson's Disease (PD) and in animals with MPTP-related hemiparkinsonism. Such deficits have been attributed to dopamine loss in basal ganglia and cortical targets. However, in previous studies the existence of neglect was assumed from behavioural tests which needed a motor output, thus entailing interpretation ambiguities due to effects of directional hypokinesia. We recorded brain event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by the presentation of target somatic stimuli to the affected and non-affected sides in 44 patients with unilateral or asymmetrical PD. The N2 and P3 ERP components were specifically analysed, since (a) they are triggered selectively by task-relevant, attended sensory stimuli; (b) their latency reflects stimulus evaluation time, independently from the execution of a motor response, and (c) they have proved to be abnormal in hemineglect syndromes due to focal brain lesions. Irrespective of the side (left or right) of motor symptom predominance there were no significant ERP differences to stimulation of the affected and non-affected limbs, nor was there any correlation between ERP latencies and the degree of dopamine-related motor impairment. The P3 latency was abnormally delayed in 23% of the patients, but there was no trend for abnormalities to concentrate on the affected side. This study does not confirm the existence of a significant attentional impairment toward the affected limb in lateralised PD, and suggests that previous clinical evidence of "neglect' behaviour in PD might be linked to directional hypokinesia, thus reflecting intentional, rather than attentional lateralised deficits.

  10. Attention to neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrieli, John D E; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan

    2007-03-15

    Patients with spatial neglect fail to attend to stimuli in the contralesional visual world. He et al. used fMRI to reveal how disrupted functional connectivity, independent of task-evoked activation, in ventral and dorsal attentional networks may explain behavioral impairment in neglect and recovery from acute neglect.

  11. Cross-border collaboration for neglected tropical disease efforts-Lessons learned from onchocerciasis control and elimination in the Mano River Union (West Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsen, Kenneth; Sodahlon, Yao; Bush, Simon

    2016-08-22

    Diseases don't respect borders, so efforts to control and eliminate diseases must also be flexible and adaptable enough to effectively reach the populations that live in the areas around national frontiers. Onchocerciasis, commonly known as river blindness is a tropical disease that has historically affected millions of people in 35 countries in Africa and Latin America. In Africa, programs and partnerships to address river blindness through mass drug administration have been active for more than 25 years. While in many cases the disease is found in isolated foci that fall entirely within national boundaries, the geographic scope of many affected areas crosses country borders. National river blindness programs are the responsibility of each nation's Ministry of Health, so in cross-border situations there is a need for effective country-country collaboration. Cross-border collaboration for onchocerciasis control efforts in the countries of the Mano River Basin illustrates the positive impact of a creative model, and offers lessons for expanded application for onchocerciasis elimination as well as other neglected tropical disease (NTD) control and elimination programs.

  12. How to become a top model: impact of animal experimentation on human Salmonella disease research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsolis, Renée M; Xavier, Mariana N; Santos, Renato L; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2011-05-01

    Salmonella serotypes are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Over the past decades, a series of animal models have been developed to advance vaccine development, provide insights into immunity to infection, and study the pathogenesis of human Salmonella disease. The successive introduction of new animal models, each suited to interrogate previously neglected aspects of Salmonella disease, has ushered in important conceptual advances that continue to have a strong and sustained influence on the ideas driving research on Salmonella serotypes. This article reviews important milestones in the use of animal models to study human Salmonella disease and identify research needs to guide future work.

  13. 4-(1H-Pyrazol-1-yl Benzenesulfonamide Derivatives: Identifying New Active Antileishmanial Structures for Use against a Neglected Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor L. Leon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease responsible for about 56,000 deaths every year. Despite its importance, there are no effective, safe and proper treatments for leishmaniasis due to strain resistance and/or drug side-effects. In this work we report the synthesis, molecular modeling, cytotoxicity and the antileishmanial profile of a series of 4-(1H-pyrazol-1-ylbenzenesulfonamides. Our experimental data showed an active profile for some compounds against Leishmania infantum and Leishmania amazonensis. The profile of two compounds against L. infantum was similar to that of pentamidine, but with lower cytotoxicity. Molecular modeling evaluation indicated that changes in electronic regions, orientation as well as lipophilicity of the derivatives were areas to improve the interaction with the parasitic target. Overall the compounds represent feasible prototypes for designing new molecules against L. infantum and L. amazonensis.

  14. Neglected infections of poverty in the United States of America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Hotez

    Full Text Available In the United States, there is a largely hidden burden of diseases caused by a group of chronic and debilitating parasitic, bacterial, and congenital infections known as the neglected infections of poverty. Like their neglected tropical disease counterparts in developing countries, the neglected infections of poverty in the US disproportionately affect impoverished and under-represented minority populations. The major neglected infections include the helminth infections, toxocariasis, strongyloidiasis, ascariasis, and cysticercosis; the intestinal protozoan infection trichomoniasis; some zoonotic bacterial infections, including leptospirosis; the vector-borne infections Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, trench fever, and dengue fever; and the congenital infections cytomegalovirus (CMV, toxoplasmosis, and syphilis. These diseases occur predominantly in people of color living in the Mississippi Delta and elsewhere in the American South, in disadvantaged urban areas, and in the US-Mexico borderlands, as well as in certain immigrant populations and disadvantaged white populations living in Appalachia. Preliminary disease burden estimates of the neglected infections of poverty indicate that tens of thousands, or in some cases, hundreds of thousands of poor Americans harbor these chronic infections, which represent some of the greatest health disparities in the United States. Specific policy recommendations include active surveillance (including newborn screening to ascertain accurate population-based estimates of disease burden; epidemiological studies to determine the extent of autochthonous transmission of Chagas disease and other infections; mass or targeted treatments; vector control; and research and development for new control tools including improved diagnostics and accelerated development of a vaccine to prevent congenital CMV infection and congenital toxoplasmosis.

  15. Research Progress of Liver Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Lie-ming; JIA Ji-dong

    2005-01-01

    @@ Liver diseases are widespread in China.The disease mostly includes viral hepatitis,alcoholic or non alcoholic fatty degeneration or steatohepatitis, autoimmune liver disease,hepatic fibrosis/cirrhosis and hepatic cancer.The mechanism of most liver diseases was studied clearly in developed countries.

  16. 单侧空间忽略研究进展%Research progress of unilateral spatial neglect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐莹; 杜晓霞; 王强; 宋鲁平

    2012-01-01

    单侧空间忽略是脑损伤尤其是脑卒中后常见的,也是经常被忽视的一种神经功能障碍,它对患者的功能康复产生不利影响.然而,由于对该症状缺乏专业的认识和临床指南,单侧空间忽略的评价和治疗方法停滞不前.为明确诊断,除了线段两等分测试、星型划销测试以及凯瑟琳-波哥量表(Catherine Bergego Scale,CBS)等临床评价以外,还需要对患者及其家人进行详细的病史询问.近年来,低频重复经颅磁刺激、棱镜适应技术等治疗手段经临床证实可以改善单侧空间忽略的临床症状,但详细作用机制有待阐明.%Unilateral spatial neglect is a common, yet frequently overlooked neurological disorder following brain damages, especially stroke. It has negative influence on patients' functional recovery. However, by the lack of professional awareness and clinical guidelines, the assessment and management of this symptom have no new progress. In addition to the clinical assessment with the line bisection test, the star cancellation test, and the Catherine Bergego Scale, careful history taking from the patient, family is necessary for correct diagnosis. In recent years, some treatments like prism adaptation technology and rTMS have been shown to be benefit on alleviating the clinical symptoms of USN, but the mechanisms need to be clarified.

  17. Narratives about illness and medication: a neglected theme/new methodology within pharmacy practice research. Part II: medication narratives in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Kath; Bissell, Paul; Morecroft, Charles

    2007-08-01

    Part 2 of this paper aims to provide a methodological framework for the study of medication narratives, including a semi-structured interview guide and suggested method of analysis, in an attempt to aid the development of narrative scholarship within pharmacy practice research. Examples of medication narratives are provided to illustrate their diversity and usefulness. The framework is derived from the work of other researchers and adapted for our specific purpose. It comes from social psychology, narrative psychology, narrative anthropology, sociology and critical theory and fits within the social constructionist paradigm. The suggested methods of analysis could broadly be described as narrative analysis and discourse analysis. Examples of medication narratives are chosen from a variety of sources and brief interpretations are presented by way of illustration. Narrative analysis, a neglected area of research in pharmacy practice, has the potential to provide new understanding about how people relate to their medicines, how pharmacists are engaged in producing narratives and the importance of narrative in the education of students. IMPACT OF THE ARTICLE: This article aims to have the following impact on pharmacy practice research: Innovative approach to researching and conceptualising the use of medicines. Introduction of a new theoretical perspective and methodology. Incorporation of social science research methods into pharmacy practice research. Development of narrative scholarship within pharmacy.

  18. NIH Research: Advances in Parkinson's Disease Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of genes that may help dispose of damaged mitochondria—the cell's power plants—that could offer new targets for ... risk factors involved in PD; studying the role mitochondria, oxidative ... disease progression or cause cell death in PD; gaining insight as to how ...

  19. Noncommunicable diseases among urban refugees and asylum-seekers in developing countries: a neglected health care need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara, Ahmed Hassan; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed

    2014-04-03

    With the increasing trend in refugee urbanisation, growing numbers of refugees are diagnosed with chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). However, with few exceptions, the local and international communities prioritise communicable diseases. The aim of this study is to review the literature to determine the prevalence and distribution of chronic NCDs among urban refugees living in developing countries, to report refugee access to health care for NCDs and to compare the prevalence of NCDs among urban refugees with the prevalence in their home countries. Major search engines and refugee agency websites were systematically searched between June and July 2012 for articles and reports on NCD prevalence among urban refugees. Most studies were conducted in the Middle East and indicated a high prevalence of NCDs among urban refugees in this region, but in general, the prevalence varied by refugees' region or country of origin. Hypertension, musculoskeletal disease, diabetes and chronic respiratory disease were the major diseases observed. In general, most urban refugees in developing countries have adequate access to primary health care services. Further investigations are needed to document the burden of NCDs among urban refugees and to identify their need for health care in developing countries.

  20. How to (or not to) integrate vertical programmes for the control of major neglected tropical diseases in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabatereine, Narcis B; Malecela, Mwele; Lado, Mounir; Zaramba, Sam; Amiel, Olga; Kolaczinski, Jan H

    2010-06-29

    Combining the delivery of multiple health interventions has the potential to minimize costs and expand intervention coverage. Integration of mass drug administration is therefore being encouraged for delivery of preventive chemotherapy (PCT) to control onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis, and trachoma in sub-Saharan Africa, as there is considerable geographical overlap of these neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). With only a handful of countries having embarked on integrated NTD control, experience on how to develop and implement an efficient integrated programme is limited. Historically, national and global programmes were focused on the control of only one disease, usually through a comprehensive approach that involved several interventions including PCT. Overcoming the resulting disease-specific structures and thinking, and ensuring that the integrated programme is embedded within the existing health structures, pose considerable challenges to policy makers and implementers wishing to embark on integrated NTD control. By sharing experiences from Uganda, Tanzania, Southern Sudan, and Mozambique, this symposium article aims to outlines key challenges and solutions to assist countries in establishing efficient integrated NTD programmes.

  1. How to (or not to integrate vertical programmes for the control of major neglected tropical diseases in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcis B Kabatereine

    Full Text Available Combining the delivery of multiple health interventions has the potential to minimize costs and expand intervention coverage. Integration of mass drug administration is therefore being encouraged for delivery of preventive chemotherapy (PCT to control onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis, and trachoma in sub-Saharan Africa, as there is considerable geographical overlap of these neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. With only a handful of countries having embarked on integrated NTD control, experience on how to develop and implement an efficient integrated programme is limited. Historically, national and global programmes were focused on the control of only one disease, usually through a comprehensive approach that involved several interventions including PCT. Overcoming the resulting disease-specific structures and thinking, and ensuring that the integrated programme is embedded within the existing health structures, pose considerable challenges to policy makers and implementers wishing to embark on integrated NTD control. By sharing experiences from Uganda, Tanzania, Southern Sudan, and Mozambique, this symposium article aims to outlines key challenges and solutions to assist countries in establishing efficient integrated NTD programmes.

  2. Prisms and neglect: what have we learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newport, Roger; Schenk, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    Since Rossetti et al. (1998) reported that prism adaptation (PA) can lead to a substantial reduction of neglect symptoms PA has become a hot topic in neglect-research. More than 280 articles have been published in this area. Not all of those studies investigated the therapeutic potential of this technique, many studies examined the responsiveness to PA as a way to subdivide neglect into separate subsyndromes, other studies focussed on the process of PA itself in an effort to illuminate its underlying neurobiological mechanisms. In this article we will review research in all of these three areas to determine whether and to what extent research on PA in neglect patients has fulfilled its promise as a new way to improve the treatment of neglect, enhance our understanding of this complex syndrome and provide new insights into the neurobiology of sensorimotor learning.

  3. Prose reading in neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beschin, Nicoletta; Cisari, Carlo; Cubelli, Roberto; Della Sala, Sergio

    2014-02-01

    Prose reading has been shown to be a very sensitive measure of Unilateral Spatial Neglect. However, little is known about the relationship between prose reading and other measures of neglect and its severity, or between prose reading and single word reading. Thirty participants with a first stroke in the right hemisphere and clear symptoms of spatial neglect in everyday life were assessed with tests of prose reading (text in one column book-like, and in two columns magazine-like), single words reading, and a battery of 13 tests investigating neglect. Seventy percent of these participants omitted words at the beginning of the text (left end), showing Prose Reading Neglect (PRN). The participants showing PRN differed from those not showing PRN only for the overall severity of neglect, and had a lesion centred on the insula, putamen and superior temporal gyrus. Double dissociations emerged between PRN and single word reading neglect, suggesting different cognitive requirements between the two tests: parallel processing in single word reading vs. serial analysis in text reading. Notably, the pattern of neglected text varied dramatically across participants presenting with PRN, including dissociations between reading performance of one and two columns text. Prose reading proved a complex and unique task which should be directly investigated to predict the effects of unilateral neglect. The outcome of this study should also inform clinical assessment and advises given to patients and care-givers.

  4. Elder abuse and neglect--"old phenomenon": new directions for research, legislation, and service developments. (2008 Rosalie S. Wolf Memorial Elder Abuse Prevention Award--International Category Lecture).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Ariela

    2009-01-01

    This article poses the question: Is elder abuse and neglect a social problem, showing that it is. Elder abuse, though, is still the most hidden form of mistreatment and a key to governmental responses to an ageing population. It is an important facet as a family violence problem, an intergenerational concern, as well as a health, justice and human rights issue. Because the phenomenon of elder abuse and neglect is so complex and multi-dimensional, it has to be addressed by multi-professional and inter-disciplinary approaches. Raising awareness is a fundamental prevention strategy and an important step in causing changes in attitudes and behaviors. This has been accomplished by INPEA and the article was developed from the lecture given by the author on receiving the International Rosalie Wolf Award from INPEA. The discussion focuses on elder abuse as a product of global ageing, stemming from population ageing, which is consistent with an increased prevalence of abuse of all vulnerable groups, older people among them. It is pointed out that baseline and trend data on the nature and prevalence of senior abuse are crucial to policy responses and the development of appropriate programs and services. Difficulties in assessing the scope of the phenomenon, though, are due to: problems in definitions and methodology, which create difficulties in comparing data from various countries; lack of social and familial awareness; isolation of some elders, especially migrants; elder abuse as a 'hidden issue' that usually occurs in the privacy of the home and is viewed as a family affair; limited access to institutional settings. Difficulties also exist in constructing a unifying research framework in order to study the phenomenon due to a lack of comparison groups, a lack of representative national surveys and difficulties in measurement. There is currently, however, an increase in prevalence and incidence studies from both sides of the Atlantic and especially from Europe. But while

  5. Neglected and endemic zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maudlin, Ian; Eisler, Mark Charles; Welburn, Susan Christina

    2009-09-27

    Endemic zoonoses are found throughout the developing world, wherever people live in close proximity to their animals, affecting not only the health of poor people but often also their livelihoods through the health of their livestock. Unlike newly emerging zoonoses that attract the attention of the developed world, these endemic zoonoses are by comparison neglected. This is, in part, a consequence of under-reporting, resulting in underestimation of their global burden, which in turn artificially downgrades their importance in the eyes of administrators and funding agencies. The development of cheap and effective vaccines is no guarantee that these endemic diseases will be eliminated in the near future. However, simply increasing awareness about their causes and how they may be prevented-often with very simple technologies-could reduce the incidence of many endemic zoonoses. Sustainable control of zoonoses is reliant on surveillance, but, as with other public-sector animal health services, this is rarely implemented in the developing world, not least because of the lack of sufficiently cheap diagnostics. Public-private partnerships have already provided advocacy for human disease control and could be equally effective in addressing endemic zoonoses.

  6. Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program (IDCRP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Our mission is to conduct infectious disease clinical research of importance to the military through a unique, adaptive, and collaborative network, to inform health...

  7. ADVANZ: Establishing a Pan-African platform for neglected zoonotic disease control through a One Health approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saarnak, Christopher; Johansen, Maria Vang; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2014-01-01

    levels towards a coordinated fight against NZDs. ADVANZ is establishing an African platform to share experiences in the prevention and control of NZDs. The platform will compile and package existing knowledge or data on NZDs and generate evidence-based algorithms for improving surveillance and control...... with the ultimate aim of eliminating and eradicating these diseases. The platform will serve as a forum for African and international stakeholders, as well as existing One Health and NZD networks and harness and consolidate their efforts in the control and prevention of NZDs. The platform had its first meeting...

  8. Evolving hybrid approaches: the preservation of the 'neglected' pulmonary valve function in patients with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vida, Vladimiro L; Bacha, Emile; Stellin, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    The involvement of the hemodynamic expertise in the operating room led to the development of new strategies aimed to improve both early and long-term outcome of patients with congenital heart disease. During the last decade, with the aim of preserving the pulmonary valve function, we embarked on a new surgical approach, which combines surgical and interventional techniques, which are performed in the operating room. We believe that the preservation of the pulmonary valve function can be extended to any patients with classic tetralogy of Fallot and other selected patients with congenital pulmonary valve hypoplasia and dysfunction.

  9. Outcomes of Structured Teaching for Children on the Autism Spectrum: Does the Research Evidence Neglect the Bigger Picture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, Marie

    2015-01-01

    The adoption of "structured teaching" is evident in educational settings worldwide and has fast become one of the key "tools" in autism education. As calls for evidence-based practice have increased, research evidence has grown to interrogate the effectiveness of structured teaching components. Previous systematic literature…

  10. Applications of proteomics in hepatic diseases research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Wei; HE; Fuchu

    2004-01-01

    Proteomics has become an important part in the leading research area and been widely used in the disease-associated study. In hepatic research field, proteomics could be applied in study of hepatic diseases including liver cancer, cirrhosis and hepatotoxicities, etc. Significant proteins could be identified as biomarkers, drug targets and clues for pathogenesis illumination.

  11. Choice of providers for treating a neglected tropical disease:an empirical analysis of kala azar in Nepal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShivaRajAdhikari; SiripenSupakankunti; MMahmudKhan

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To examine the choice of healthcare providers for treating kala azar (KA) in Nepal. Methods:Information was collected from clinically diagnosed KA patients seeking care from public hospitals located in KA endemic districts. The survey collected information from more than 25 percent of total KA cases in the country. For empirical estimation of probability of choosing a provider-type as a first contact healthcare provider, a multinomial logit model was defined with five alternative options with self care as the reference category. Results: The empirical model found that price of medical care services, income of households, knowledge of patients on KA and KA treatment, borrowing money, age of patient, perceived quality of provider types, etc. determine the likelihood of seeking care from the alternative options considered in the analysis. All variables have expected signs and are consistent with earlier studies. The price and income elasticity were found to be very high indicating that poorer households are very sensitive to price and income changes, even for a severe disease like KA. Using the empirical models, we have analyzed two policy instruments:demand side financing and interventions to improve the knowledge index about KA. Conclusions:Due to high price elasticity of KA care and high spillover effects of KA on the society, policy makers may consider demand side financing as an instrument to encourage utilization of public hospitals.

  12. Advances in vaccines against neglected tropical diseases: enhancing physical stability of a recombinant hookworm vaccine through biophysical and formulation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plieskatt, Jordan L; Rezende, Wanderson C; Olsen, Chris M; Trefethen, Jared M; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Middaugh, C Russell; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2012-06-01

    A bivalent recombinant vaccine for human hookworm disease is under development. One of the lead candidate antigens in the vaccine is a glutathione S-transferase cloned from the hookworm Necator americanus (Na-GST-1) which is expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Based on preliminary studies demonstrating that the recombinant protein was not stable in an acetate buffer at pH 6, we undertook an extensive stability analysis of the molecule. To improve and optimize stability we complemented traditional methods employed for macromolecule and vaccine stabilization with biophysical techniques that were incorporated into a systematic process based on an eigenvector approach. Large data sets, obtained from a variety of experimental methods were used to establish a color map ("empirical phase diagram") of the physical stability of the vaccine antigen over a wide range of temperature and pH. The resulting map defined "apparent phase boundaries" that were used to develop high throughput screening assays. These assays were then employed to identify excipients that stabilized the antigen against physical degradation that could otherwise result in losses of physicochemical integrity, immunogenicity, and potency of the vaccine. Based on these evaluations, the recombinant Na-GST-1 antigen was reformulated and ultimately produced under Good Manufacturing Practices and with an acceptable stability profile.

  13. Epidemiology, Virology, and Pathogenesis of the Zika Virus: From Neglected Tropical Disease to a Focal Point of International Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, David A; Kawwass, Jennifer Fay

    2016-09-01

    Over the past year, the Zika virus, an arthropod-borne Flavivirus, has transitioned from a relatively unknown tropical disease to the cause of a public health emergency. The Zika virus is transmitted by the Aedes species of mosquito as well as by sexual intercourse. Although the symptoms of acute Zika virus infection are usually mild and self-limited, it causes fetal microcephaly in pregnant women, and is associated with an increased risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome. The risk of microcephaly from Zika virus infection is estimated to be highest in women who are infected during the first trimester of pregnancy. The Zika virus has been shown to have significant neurotrophism in vivo and in vitro, although further study is needed to characterize its mechanisms of pathogenesis. Zika virus has previously caused two known outbreaks in the Pacific region prior to the current epidemic in South and Central America, and the current epidemic has affected at least 440,000 to 1,300,000 people. The population of the vector for the current epidemic, Aedes aegypti, varies seasonally in the United States, however there have been few documented cases of local spread of the Zika infection in the United States and it is unclear whether epidemic spread of Zika will occur within the United States.

  14. The Challenge of Producing Skin Test Antigens with Minimal Resources Suitable for Human Application against a Neglected Tropical Disease; Leprosy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivoire, Becky L.; TerLouw, Stephen; Groathouse, Nathan A.; Brennan, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    True incidence of leprosy and its impact on transmission will not be understood until a tool is available to measure pre-symptomatic infection. Diagnosis of leprosy disease is currently based on clinical symptoms, which on average take 3–10 years to manifest. The fact that incidence, as defined by new case detection, equates with prevalence, i.e., registered cases, suggests that the cycle of transmission has not been fully intercepted by implementation of multiple drug therapy. This is supported by a high incidence of childhood leprosy. Epidemiological screening for pre-symptomatic leprosy in large endemic populations is required to facilitate targeted chemoprophylactic interventions. Such a test must be sensitive, specific, simple to administer, cost-effective, and easy to interpret. The intradermal skin test method that measures cell-mediated immunity was explored as the best option. Prior knowledge on skin testing of healthy subjects and leprosy patients with whole or partially fractionated Mycobacterium leprae bacilli, such as Lepromin or the Rees' or Convit' antigens, has established an acceptable safety and potency profile of these antigens. These data, along with immunoreactivity data, laid the foundation for two new leprosy skin test antigens, MLSA-LAM (M. leprae soluble antigen devoid of mycobacterial lipoglycans, primarily lipoarabinomannan) and MLCwA (M. leprae cell wall antigens). In the absence of commercial interest, the challenge was to develop these antigens under current good manufacturing practices in an acceptable local pilot facility and submit an Investigational New Drug to the Food and Drug Administration to allow a first-in-human phase I clinical trial. PMID:24874086

  15. Using Web Search Query Data to Monitor Dengue Epidemics: A New Model for Neglected Tropical Disease Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Emily H.; Sahai, Vikram; Conrad, Corrie; Brownstein, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Background A variety of obstacles including bureaucracy and lack of resources have interfered with timely detection and reporting of dengue cases in many endemic countries. Surveillance efforts have turned to modern data sources, such as Internet search queries, which have been shown to be effective for monitoring influenza-like illnesses. However, few have evaluated the utility of web search query data for other diseases, especially those of high morbidity and mortality or where a vaccine may not exist. In this study, we aimed to assess whether web search queries are a viable data source for the early detection and monitoring of dengue epidemics. Methodology/Principal Findings Bolivia, Brazil, India, Indonesia and Singapore were chosen for analysis based on available data and adequate search volume. For each country, a univariate linear model was then built by fitting a time series of the fraction of Google search query volume for specific dengue-related queries from that country against a time series of official dengue case counts for a time-frame within 2003–2010. The specific combination of queries used was chosen to maximize model fit. Spurious spikes in the data were also removed prior to model fitting. The final models, fit using a training subset of the data, were cross-validated against both the overall dataset and a holdout subset of the data. All models were found to fit the data quite well, with validation correlations ranging from 0.82 to 0.99. Conclusions/Significance Web search query data were found to be capable of tracking dengue activity in Bolivia, Brazil, India, Indonesia and Singapore. Whereas traditional dengue data from official sources are often not available until after some substantial delay, web search query data are available in near real-time. These data represent valuable complement to assist with traditional dengue surveillance. PMID:21647308

  16. Using web search query data to monitor dengue epidemics: a new model for neglected tropical disease surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily H Chan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A variety of obstacles including bureaucracy and lack of resources have interfered with timely detection and reporting of dengue cases in many endemic countries. Surveillance efforts have turned to modern data sources, such as Internet search queries, which have been shown to be effective for monitoring influenza-like illnesses. However, few have evaluated the utility of web search query data for other diseases, especially those of high morbidity and mortality or where a vaccine may not exist. In this study, we aimed to assess whether web search queries are a viable data source for the early detection and monitoring of dengue epidemics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bolivia, Brazil, India, Indonesia and Singapore were chosen for analysis based on available data and adequate search volume. For each country, a univariate linear model was then built by fitting a time series of the fraction of Google search query volume for specific dengue-related queries from that country against a time series of official dengue case counts for a time-frame within 2003-2010. The specific combination of queries used was chosen to maximize model fit. Spurious spikes in the data were also removed prior to model fitting. The final models, fit using a training subset of the data, were cross-validated against both the overall dataset and a holdout subset of the data. All models were found to fit the data quite well, with validation correlations ranging from 0.82 to 0.99. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Web search query data were found to be capable of tracking dengue activity in Bolivia, Brazil, India, Indonesia and Singapore. Whereas traditional dengue data from official sources are often not available until after some substantial delay, web search query data are available in near real-time. These data represent valuable complement to assist with traditional dengue surveillance.

  17. The challenge of producing skin test antigens with minimal resources suitable for human application against a neglected tropical disease; leprosy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky L Rivoire

    Full Text Available True incidence of leprosy and its impact on transmission will not be understood until a tool is available to measure pre-symptomatic infection. Diagnosis of leprosy disease is currently based on clinical symptoms, which on average take 3-10 years to manifest. The fact that incidence, as defined by new case detection, equates with prevalence, i.e., registered cases, suggests that the cycle of transmission has not been fully intercepted by implementation of multiple drug therapy. This is supported by a high incidence of childhood leprosy. Epidemiological screening for pre-symptomatic leprosy in large endemic populations is required to facilitate targeted chemoprophylactic interventions. Such a test must be sensitive, specific, simple to administer, cost-effective, and easy to interpret. The intradermal skin test method that measures cell-mediated immunity was explored as the best option. Prior knowledge on skin testing of healthy subjects and leprosy patients with whole or partially fractionated Mycobacterium leprae bacilli, such as Lepromin or the Rees' or Convit' antigens, has established an acceptable safety and potency profile of these antigens. These data, along with immunoreactivity data, laid the foundation for two new leprosy skin test antigens, MLSA-LAM (M. leprae soluble antigen devoid of mycobacterial lipoglycans, primarily lipoarabinomannan and MLCwA (M. leprae cell wall antigens. In the absence of commercial interest, the challenge was to develop these antigens under current good manufacturing practices in an acceptable local pilot facility and submit an Investigational New Drug to the Food and Drug Administration to allow a first-in-human phase I clinical trial.

  18. The use of herbs against neglected diseases: Evaluation of in vitro leishmanicidal and trypanocidal activity of Stryphnodendron rotundifolium Mart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivianne C.S. Vandesmet

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the leishmanicidal and trypanocidal activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the bark of Stryphnodendron rotundifolium Mart. (EHCSR was carried out to find an alternative treatment for parasitic diseases. EHCSR was prepared and used at four different concentrations (1000, 500, 250, 125 μg/mL in in vitro assays for activity against Leishmania promastigotes using the species Leishmania brasiliensis and Leishmania infantum and for trypanocidal activity using the epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi. We also tested EHCSR for cytotoxicity against adhered cultured Murine J774 fibroblasts. The tests were performed in triplicate, and the percent mortality of parasites, IC50 and percent toxicity were determined. With regard to anti-leishmania activity against L. infantum, there was a mean mortality of 45% at all concentrations, and against L. brasiliensis, a substantial effect was seen at 1000 μg/mL with 56.38% mortality, where the IC50 values were 1338.76 and 987.35 μg/mL, respectively. Trypanocidal activity was notably high at 1000 μg/mL extract with 82.31% mortality of epimastigotes. Cytotoxicity at the highest extract concentrations of 500 and 1000 μg/mL was respectively 75.12% and 94.14%, with IC50 = 190.24 μg/mL. Despite that the extract has anti-parasitic activity, its substantial cytotoxicity against fibroblasts cells makes its systemic use nonviable as a therapeutic alternative.

  19. Disease and animal research: a meeting review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling V. Sun

    2011-01-01

    @@ Animal models have been playing an important role in disease research.They have advanced our knowledge about the genetics, development, environmental effects, and in turn, the mechanism of diseases.A recent review has pointed out that one-third of the high-impact animal research published in seven leading jourhals has been through clinical trial, and one-tenth of these studies have succeeded and been applied to disease treatment (Hackam and Redelmeier, 2006; van der Worp et al., 2010).

  20. Advocacy and child neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugman, Scott D

    2014-11-01

    Pediatricians have a unique opportunity to intervene in the lives of children to identify and to prevent neglect. While it remains important to care for individual patients affected by neglect, the ecological model of child neglect requires intervention at the parent, family, community, and societal levels. Pediatricians can improve the outcomes for children by advocating for policies and interventions at each level. Effective advocacy principally requires the willingness to tackle broader issues beyond individual clinical care. Working with local, state, and national organizations, pediatricians can contribute a unified voice to promote evidence-based policies and programs that improve the well-being of children.

  1. Elder Abuse and Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muge Gulen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abuse and neglect are preventable societal problems that influence elderly individuals physically, spiritually and socially. Elder abuse is neglected for many years and is a growing problem all over the world. The aim of this article is to review the evaluation of elderly individuals who are exposed to abuse and neglect with systematic detailed history and physical examination and to describe individual, familial, and social measures that should be taken to prevent these abuses. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 393-407

  2. Incremental cost of conducting population-based prevalence surveys for a neglected tropical disease: the example of trachoma in 8 national programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoqun Chen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Trachoma prevalence surveys provide the evidence base for district and community-wide implementation of the SAFE strategy, and are used to evaluate the impact of trachoma control interventions. An economic analysis was performed to estimate the cost of trachoma prevalence surveys conducted between 2006 and 2010 from 8 national trachoma control programs in Africa.Data were collected retrospectively from reports for 165 districts surveyed for trachoma prevalence using a cluster random sampling methodology in Ethiopia, Ghana, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Sudan, Southern Sudan and The Gambia. The median cost per district survey was $4,784 (inter-quartile range [IQR] = $3,508-$6,650 while the median cost per cluster was $311 (IQR = $119-$393. Analysis by cost categories (personnel, transportation, supplies and other and cost activity (training, field work, supervision and data entry revealed that the main cost drivers were personnel and transportation during field work.Population-based cluster random surveys are used to provide the evidence base to set objectives and determine when elimination targets have been reached for several neglected tropical diseases, including trachoma. The cost of conducting epidemiologically rigorous prevalence surveys should not be a barrier to program implementation or evaluation.

  3. A research agenda for helminth diseases of humans: health research and capacity building in disease-endemic countries for helminthiases control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Y Osei-Atweneboana

    Full Text Available Capacity building in health research generally, and helminthiasis research particularly, is pivotal to the implementation of the research and development agenda for the control and elimination of human helminthiases that has been proposed thematically in the preceding reviews of this collection. Since helminth infections affect human populations particularly in marginalised and low-income regions of the world, they belong to the group of poverty-related infectious diseases, and their alleviation through research, policy, and practice is a sine qua non condition for the achievement of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Current efforts supporting research capacity building specifically for the control of helminthiases have been devised and funded, almost in their entirety, by international donor agencies, major funding bodies, and academic institutions from the developed world, contributing to the creation of (not always equitable North-South "partnerships". There is an urgent need to shift this paradigm in disease-endemic countries (DECs by refocusing political will, and harnessing unshakeable commitment by the countries' governments, towards health research and capacity building policies to ensure long-term investment in combating and sustaining the control and eventual elimination of infectious diseases of poverty. The Disease Reference Group on Helminth Infections (DRG4, established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR, was given the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps. This paper discusses the challenges confronting capacity building for parasitic disease research in DECs, describes current capacity building strategies with particular reference to neglected tropical diseases and human helminthiases, and outlines recommendations to redress the balance of alliances and partnerships for health research between the developed countries of

  4. Center for Prostate Disease Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Robert A. Phillips Award and a Navy-wide Academic Research Competition Award by Paula Amann Published in ... BKA winners were LCDR Gabriel Santiago, MC (laboratory medicine), and LT Scott Wagner, MC (clinical medicine). RAP ...

  5. Child neglect: assessment and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornor, Gail

    2014-01-01

    Neglect is often a neglected form of child maltreatment even though it is the most common and deadliest form of child maltreatment. Pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) will most likely encounter neglected children in their practice. It is crucial that PNPs recognize child neglect in a timely manner and intervene appropriately. This continuing education article will help PNPs understand and respond to child neglect. Neglect will be defined and risk factors will be discussed. Children who are neglected can experience serious and lifelong consequences. The medical assessment and plan of care for children with concerns of suspected neglect will be discussed.

  6. Research on Skin Diseases - USSR -

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    group 6, Today Tilth the introduction of mandatory accounting on form 25-v, wre have begun to enter information on the morbidity of the infantile ...34 population. Table 2 illustrates preliminary data on the morbidity of the infantile population in the first half of 1958 for Leningrad but does not...Skin cancer 0.01 16« Acute eczema 5.6 33. Non-malignant tumor 1.9 17. Chronic eczema 2.7 . 39, Other diseases .’. 2.0 18. Eczemotization

  7. Types of Neglected Tropical Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Respond to Pre-Award Requests Manage Your Award Negotiation & Initial Award After Award ... New Trial Launched in West Africa to Evaluate Three Vaccination Strategies , April 6, 2017 Monoclonal Antibody Cures Marburg Infection ...

  8. Rare diseases research: expanding collaborative translational research opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groft, Stephen C

    2013-07-01

    Extensive public-private partnerships, including the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the rare diseases community, which is seeing a renewed industry interest in smaller niche markets, have resulted in an increase of interventions for rare diseases. Significant collaborative efforts are required among the pharmaceutical industry, foundations, patient-advocacy groups, academic and government investigators and funding programs, regulatory scientists, and reimbursement agencies to meet the unmet diagnostic and treatment needs for approximately 25 million people in the United States with 7,000 rare diseases. The expanding role and outreach activities of patient-advocacy groups have increased public awareness. In the United States, a rare disease is defined as a disorder or condition with a prevalence of $3.5 billion for rare diseases research, including $750 million for orphan product development activities, nearly 11.4% of the NIH research budget. Several research institutes and centers of the NIH, including the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, have initiated varied translational research efforts to address the absence of preclinical and clinical data required for regulatory review purposes. Clinicians can expect to see significant increases in requests from patients and their families to participate in patient registries and natural history or observational studies to gather specific information from a larger pool of patients on the progression of the disease or response to treatments. An expanding emphasis on rare diseases provides hope for the millions of patients with rare diseases.

  9. Collaboration for rare disease drug discovery research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litterman, Nadia K.; Rhee, Michele; Swinney, David C.; Ekins, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Rare disease research has reached a tipping point, with the confluence of scientific and technologic developments that if appropriately harnessed, could lead to key breakthroughs and treatments for this set of devastating disorders. Industry-wide trends have revealed that the traditional drug discovery research and development (R&D) model is no longer viable, and drug companies are evolving their approach. Rather than only pursue blockbuster therapeutics for heterogeneous, common diseases, drug companies have increasingly begun to shift their focus to rare diseases. In academia, advances in genetics analyses and disease mechanisms have allowed scientific understanding to mature, but the lack of funding and translational capability severely limits the rare disease research that leads to clinical trials. Simultaneously, there is a movement towards increased research collaboration, more data sharing, and heightened engagement and active involvement by patients, advocates, and foundations. The growth in networks and social networking tools presents an opportunity to help reach other patients but also find researchers and build collaborations. The growth of collaborative software that can enable researchers to share their data could also enable rare disease patients and foundations to manage their portfolio of funded projects for developing new therapeutics and suggest drug repurposing opportunities. Still there are many thousands of diseases without treatments and with only fragmented research efforts. We will describe some recent progress in several rare diseases used as examples and propose how collaborations could be facilitated. We propose that the development of a center of excellence that integrates and shares informatics resources for rare diseases sponsored by all of the stakeholders would help foster these initiatives. PMID:25685324

  10. Collaboration for rare disease drug discovery research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litterman, Nadia K; Rhee, Michele; Swinney, David C; Ekins, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Rare disease research has reached a tipping point, with the confluence of scientific and technologic developments that if appropriately harnessed, could lead to key breakthroughs and treatments for this set of devastating disorders. Industry-wide trends have revealed that the traditional drug discovery research and development (R&D) model is no longer viable, and drug companies are evolving their approach. Rather than only pursue blockbuster therapeutics for heterogeneous, common diseases, drug companies have increasingly begun to shift their focus to rare diseases. In academia, advances in genetics analyses and disease mechanisms have allowed scientific understanding to mature, but the lack of funding and translational capability severely limits the rare disease research that leads to clinical trials. Simultaneously, there is a movement towards increased research collaboration, more data sharing, and heightened engagement and active involvement by patients, advocates, and foundations. The growth in networks and social networking tools presents an opportunity to help reach other patients but also find researchers and build collaborations. The growth of collaborative software that can enable researchers to share their data could also enable rare disease patients and foundations to manage their portfolio of funded projects for developing new therapeutics and suggest drug repurposing opportunities. Still there are many thousands of diseases without treatments and with only fragmented research efforts. We will describe some recent progress in several rare diseases used as examples and propose how collaborations could be facilitated. We propose that the development of a center of excellence that integrates and shares informatics resources for rare diseases sponsored by all of the stakeholders would help foster these initiatives.

  11. 控制被忽视的热带病及其值得重视的问题%Control of neglected tropical diseases and some issues to be strengthened

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱淮民

    2009-01-01

    Most parasitic diseases are endemic in developing countries.The world's poorest people are referred to " neglected population",the infectious diseases they suffer are called "neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) ".These diseases are associated with chronic disabling and stigma,and poverty-promoting.There are some neglected problems in the control of NTDs,which,if not paid attention to,would affect the effects of control strategies.%大多数寄生虫病在发展中国家流行,贫穷人口被称为被忽视的人群,罹患的感染性疾病被称为被忽视的热带病.这些疾病常致慢性丧失劳动力或留有后遗症,并因病致贫.在控制被忽视的热带病中尚有若干的问题会直接影响防治效果,应引起重视.

  12. Advances in neglected tropical disease vaccines: Developing relative potency and functional assays for the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel hookworm vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brelsford, Jill B; Plieskatt, Jordan L; Yakovleva, Anna; Jariwala, Amar; Keegan, Brian P; Peng, Jin; Xia, Pengjun; Li, Guangzhao; Campbell, Doreen; Periago, Maria Victoria; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J; Diemert, David; Bethony, Jeffrey M

    2017-02-01

    A new generation of vaccines for the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) have now advanced into clinical development, with the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel Hookworm Vaccine already being tested in Phase 1 studies in healthy adults. The current manuscript focuses on the often overlooked critical aspects of NTD vaccine product development, more specifically, vaccine stability testing programs. A key measure of vaccine stability testing is "relative potency" or the immunogenicity of the vaccine during storage. As with most NTD vaccines, the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel Hookworm Vaccine was not developed by attenuation or inactivation of the pathogen (Necator americanus), so conventional methods for measuring relative potency are not relevant for this investigational product. Herein, we describe a novel relative potency testing program and report for the first time on the clinical lot of this NTD vaccine during its first 60 months of storage at 2-8°C. We also describe the development of a complementary functional assay that measures the ability of IgG from animals or humans immunized with Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel to neutralize this important hookworm enzyme. While 90% inhibition of the catalytic activity of Na-GST-1 was achieved in animals immunized with Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel, lower levels of inhibition were observed in immunized humans. Moreover, anti-Na-GST-1 antibodies from volunteers in non-hookworm endemic areas were better able to inhibit catalytic activity than anti-Na-GST-1 antibodies from volunteers resident in hookworm endemic areas. The results described herein provide the critical tools for the product development of NTD vaccines.

  13. Genetic research in coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motulsky, A G

    1984-01-01

    Coronary heart disease research along genetic lines is difficult. Studies in molecular genetics of apolipoprotein and receptor variability appear most promising in the near future. However, unexpected discoveries and methodology may turn up that may completely change the field. Exclusive concentration on lipid research therefore should be avoided. It is likely that most advances will come from carefully designed studies that ask specific questions. Such research design is appropriate not only for laboratory studies but also for clinical and epidemiological investigations. The collaboration of clinicians, biochemists, geneticists, epidemiologists, and statisticians is likely to lead to better understanding of coronary heart disease.

  14. Exploring self-neglect in older adults: preliminary findings of the self-neglect severity scale and next steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, P Adam; Dyer, Carmel B; Pavlik, Valory; Doody, Rachelle; Jogerst, Gerald

    2008-11-01

    Despite the public health implications of self-neglect, no tool exists for characterizing this condition. Self-neglecters often have no caregivers or surrogates to interview regarding the neglect and are often too cognitively impaired to provide valid self-reports. In response to this need, researchers from the Consortium for Research in Elder Self-neglect of Texas (CREST) collaborated with other experts in the field of elder self-neglect to design the Self-neglect Severity Scale (SSS). The SSS assesses three domains of self-neglect (hygiene, functioning, and environment) and relies on observational ratings assigned by trained observers. After pilot testing and revision, the SSS was field tested in the homes of subjects who had been reported to and substantiated by Texas Adult Protective Services (APS) as self-neglecting and compared with results of subjects recruited from a local geriatric clinic who were reported to APS but had no history of self-neglect. The first field test demonstrated that the SSS could distinguish elderly self-neglecters from community dwellers who do not self-neglect. The SSS exhibited adequate scale reliability (Cronbach alpha) and correlation with case status. Interrater reliability also appeared adequate, although sensitivity and specificity fell below the conventional acceptable range. Future methods are proposed for refining the SSS to improve its use as the benchmark for identifying elder self-neglect.

  15. Current situation of endemic status, prevention and control of neglected zoonotic diseases in China%被忽视的人畜共患病在我国的流行及防控现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘璐; 朱宏儒; 杨国静

    2013-01-01

    被忽视的人畜共患病不仅严重威胁人类尤其是贫困地区畜禽养殖户的健康,且造成了巨大的经济损失.本文对被忽视的人畜共患病(狂犬病、牛结核病、布鲁氏菌病、炭疽、钩端螺旋体病、棘球蚴病、囊尾蚴病、利什曼病和肝片吸虫病)在我国的流行及防治现状进行了概述,旨在为我国更好地防控乃至消灭上述疾病提供流行病学信息.%Neglected zoonotic diseases not only threaten the health of human,especially to the livestock keepers in povertystricken areas but also cause great economic losses to the animal husbandry.This paper reviews the current situation of the endemic status,prevention and control of neglected zoonotic diseases existing in China including rabies,bovine tuberculosis,brucellosis,anthrax,leptospirosis,echinococcosis,cysticercosis,leishmaniasis and fascioliasis,so as to provide the basic information for better controlling,even eliminating,the neglected zoonotic diseases in China.

  16. Tocopherol in Elder Self-Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, K.; Burnett, J.; Dyer, C.; Smith, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    Although elder self-neglect is the most common form of elder mistreatment, its pathophysiology is not well understood. Alpha-tocopherol is a lipid soluble antioxidant required for the preservation of cell membranes. Since the association between tocopherol and cognitive impairment in older adults has been described, we explored the possibility of its role in elder self-neglect. OBJECTIVE: (1) To determine whether serum tocopherol levels are associated with elder self-neglect, and (2) to assess the association of serum tocopherol levels and cognitive function in elder self-neglect. METHODS: Serum tocopherol levels were measured in a cohort of 67 self-neglecting elders and 67 matched controls, recruited for the Consortium for Research in Elder Self-neglect of Texas. Pearson s correlation tests were performed to assess bivariate associations between serum tocopherol levels and cognitive function. RESULTS: Mean serum alpha-tocopherol levels were 10.8 +/- 4.7 ug/mL in self-neglect group and 13.0 +/- 4.9 ug/mL in control group (p = 0.006, unpaired student s t-test). None of the participants from either group had alpha-tocopherol level lower than the reference range. Mean serum gamma-tocopherol levels were 2.0 +/- 1.0 ug/mL in self-neglect group and 2.0 +/- 1.1 in control group (p=0.83). Proportion of the elders with gamma-tocopherol level lower than the reference range were 4.5% (3/66) in self-neglect group and 10.4% (7/67) in control group (p=0.32, Fisher s Exact Test). Among the self-neglecting elders, no association was found between serum alpha-tocopherol levels and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) or the Wolf-Klein Clock Drawing Test (CDT) scores (r =-0.42, p=0.75 for MMSE; r=0.08, p=0.54 for CDT). No association was found between serum gamma-tocopherol levels and the MMSE or the CDT (r=-0.12, p=0.35 for MMSE; r=0.05, p=0.68 for CDT). CONCLUSION: In our sample, neither alpha-tocopherol nor gamma-tocopherol appears to have a role in pathophysiology of elder

  17. [Kenya Research Station and viral infectious disease research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    The Institute of Tropical Medicine, Kenya Research Station, Nagasaki University was established by a fund of the Ministry of Education (MEXT) in 2005. Currently, the station has been on ''The Clinical and Epidemiological Research Program of Tropical Medicine and Emerging Infectious Diseases-Establishment of Education and Research System between Africa and Japan- ''. The project has been supported by about 20 Japanese staff and 85 Kenyan staff, and in the research station, 10 research teams have worked on their researches for the prevention of tropical medicine and emerging diseases collaborating with other researches and The JICA Grassroots Technical Cooperation Project has also started in 2012. In April 2010, Nagasaki University, Africa Station has been established along with Kenya Research Station, and it made possible for other faculties to join research in Kenya. School of Dentistry has started oral health survey in Mbita, while School of Fishery, School of Engineering and School of Health Science have a plan of a joint project targeting areas by Lake Victoria. Our aim is to develop a foundation which enables all researchers from different fields to carry out their research for improvement health and living standards of the locals.

  18. [Cooperative Cardiovascular Disease Research Network (RECAVA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Dorado, David; Castro-Beiras, Alfonso; Díez, Javier; Gabriel, Rafael; Gimeno-Blanes, Juan R; Ortiz de Landázuri, Manuel; Sánchez, Pedro L; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Today, cardiovascular disease is the principal cause of death and hospitalization in Spain, and accounts for an annual healthcare budget of more than 4000 million euros. Consequently, early diagnosis, effective prevention, and the optimum treatment of cardiovascular disease present a significant social and healthcare challenge for the country. In this context, combining all available resources to increase the efficacy and healthcare benefits of scientific research is a priority. This rationale prompted the establishment of the Spanish Cooperative Cardiovascular Disease Research Network, or RECAVA (Red Temática de Investigación Cooperativa en Enfermedades Cardiovasculares), 5 years ago. Since its foundation, RECAVA's activities have focused on achieving four objectives: a) to facilitate contacts between basic, clinical and epidemiological researchers; b) to promote the shared use of advanced technological facilities; c) to apply research results to clinical practice, and d) to train a new generation of translational cardiovascular researchers in Spain. At present, RECAVA consists of 41 research groups and seven shared technological facilities. RECAVA's research strategy is based on a scientific design matrix centered on the most important cardiovascular processes. The level of RECAVA's research activity is reflected in the fact that 28 co-authored articles were published in international journals during the first six months of 2007, with each involving contributions from at least two groups in the network. Finally, RECAVA also participates in the work of the Spanish National Center for Cardiovascular Research, or CNIC (Centro Nacional de Investigación Cardiovascular), and some established Biomedical Research Network Centers, or CIBER (Centros de Investigación Biomédica en RED), with the aim of consolidating the development of a dynamic multidisciplinary research framework that is capable of meeting the growing challenge that cardiovascular disease will present

  19. The Neglect of Virtue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockett, Hugh

    2013-01-01

    This chapter argues that schooling neglects virtue through the dominant quest for right answers. This is not only intellectually disreputable in presuming the correctness of what is taught, but it undermines the development of necessary intellectual virtues, such as open-mindedness, impartiality, and accuracy in the school curriculum, and it fails…

  20. Educational neglect: Understanding 20 years of child welfare trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wert, Melissa; Fallon, Barbara; Trocmé, Nico; Collin-Vézina, Delphine

    2017-05-18

    Educational neglect is an understudied phenomenon that is difficult to define and also to address. While it is clear that attending to children's academic needs is important to child development, few studies focus on educational neglect and therefore little is known about its associated risk factors and the outcomes following this form of maltreatment. The purpose of this research was to (a) determine the rate at which child welfare service providers investigate educational neglect in Canada and identify any trends in rates over time, (b) better understand educational neglect and its distinction from other types of neglect and truancy, and (c) understand how child welfare services respond to allegations of educational neglect. Data from five cycles of the Ontario Incidence Studies of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect were examined. A trend analysis was conducted followed by a mixed-method examination of educational neglect investigations. Results indicate that rates of investigated educational neglect in Ontario have been consistently low over time. However, these investigations are significantly more likely to be substantiated and to be transferred to ongoing child welfare services compared to investigations of other subtypes of neglect. Educational neglect investigations involving younger children are more likely to note risk factors for caregivers whereas those involving adolescents are more likely to note functioning issues for youth. The findings are discussed in relation to international trends in educational neglect and policy and practice implications are explored. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Standard methods for fungal brood disease research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Bruun; Aronstein, Kathrine; Manuel Flores, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Chalkbrood and stonebrood are two fungal diseases associated with honey bee brood. Chalkbrood, caused by Ascosphaera apis, is a common and widespread disease that can result in severe reduction of emerging worker bees and thus overall colony productivity. Stonebrood is caused by Aspergillus spp. ...... interactions. We give guidelines on the preferred methods used in current research and the application of molecular techniques. We have added photographs, drawings and illustrations to assist bee-extension personnel and bee scientists in the control of these two diseases....... tissues upon inhalation by humans. In the current chapter we describe the honey bee disease symptoms of these fungal pathogens. In addition, we provide research methodologies and protocols for isolating and culturing, in vivo and in vitro assays that are commonly used to study these host pathogen...

  2. Disease management research using event graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allore, H G; Schruben, L W

    2000-08-01

    Event Graphs, conditional representations of stochastic relationships between discrete events, simulate disease dynamics. In this paper, we demonstrate how Event Graphs, at an appropriate abstraction level, also extend and organize scientific knowledge about diseases. They can identify promising treatment strategies and directions for further research and provide enough detail for testing combinations of new medicines and interventions. Event Graphs can be enriched to incorporate and validate data and test new theories to reflect an expanding dynamic scientific knowledge base and establish performance criteria for the economic viability of new treatments. To illustrate, an Event Graph is developed for mastitis, a costly dairy cattle disease, for which extensive scientific literature exists. With only a modest amount of imagination, the methodology presented here can be seen to apply modeling to any disease, human, plant, or animal. The Event Graph simulation presented here is currently being used in research and in a new veterinary epidemiology course. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  3. An online database for brain disease research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richman Sam

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Stanley Medical Research Institute online genomics database (SMRIDB is a comprehensive web-based system for understanding the genetic effects of human brain disease (i.e. bipolar, schizophrenia, and depression. This database contains fully annotated clinical metadata and gene expression patterns generated within 12 controlled studies across 6 different microarray platforms. Description A thorough collection of gene expression summaries are provided, inclusive of patient demographics, disease subclasses, regulated biological pathways, and functional classifications. Conclusion The combination of database content, structure, and query speed offers researchers an efficient tool for data mining of brain disease complete with information such as: cross-platform comparisons, biomarkers elucidation for target discovery, and lifestyle/demographic associations to brain diseases.

  4. Research progress of cerebral small vessel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-dong JIA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral small vessel disease refers to a group of pathological processes with various etiologies that affect small arteries, arterioles, venules, and capillaries of the brain. Recently, the researches of cerebral small vessel disease have got initial progressions, and a definite diagnosis of this disease is comfirmed by biopsy. Given the pathological material is difficult to obtain, clinicians should pay more attention to the imaging features and clinical manifestations. Correct understanding of imaging and clinical manifestations contributes to the early identification of cerebral small vessel disease. Herein, an overview is provided on the present status, common imaging features, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and treatment of cerebral small vessel disease. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.02.003

  5. Disease Advocacy Organizations Catalyze Translational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Fontaine Terry

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Disease advocacy organizations have long played an important role in the continuum from basic science to therapy development in rare disease research. PXE International has sometimes led the field in innovative ways, venturing into specific activities that have traditionally been conducted by scientists. As lay founders, we have engaged in gene discovery, gene patenting, diagnostic development, epidemiological studies, clinical trials and therapy research and development. This article will describe the steps that we took, and the ways in which we have scaled these efforts for the larger community.

  6. Neuroendocrine pancreatic carcinoma after initial diagnosis of acute postpartal coeliac disease in a 37-year old woman - fatal coincidence or result of a neglected disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundling, Felix; Nerlich, Andreas; Heitland, Wolf; Schepp, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    An acute presentation after pregnancy of coeliac disease (CD) in the puerperium is a rare condition which has been described mostly in primigravidae in patients highly suspicious of latent CD. We report the case of a 37-year-old woman who was referred to our Hospital because of refractory watery diarrhea and malnutrition syndrome. Endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract revealed the classic visual features of CD and in addition, some duodenal ulcers negative for Helicobacter pylori, which seems to be another clinical feature in patients with CD. The diagnosis of acute onset of fulminant postpartal CD (Marsh score stage 3c) was confirmed histologically. Remarkably, simultaneous well-differentiated neuroendocrine non-functioning pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma (PNET) was diagnosed on radiological abdominal imaging which was performed since serum gastrin was remarkably high, treated by distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy. This report is, to our knowledge, the first description of the two entities, CD and PNET occurring together. Since results of antral histological studies showed diffuse hyperplasia of G-cells, probably in response to hypergastrinaemia, enterochromaffin cell carcinogenesis might have served as a possible link between both diseases.

  7. MDS research criteria for prodromal Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, D; Postuma, R.B.; Adler, C.H.; Bloem, B.R.; Chan, P.; Dubois, B.; Gasser, T.; Goetz, C.G.; Halliday, G.; Joseph, L.; Lang, A.E.; Liepelt-Scarfone, I.; Litvan, I.; Marek, K.; Obeso, J.; Oertel, W.; Olanow, C.W.; Poewe, W.; Stern, M.; Deuschl, G.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes research criteria and probability methodology for the diagnosis of prodromal PD. Prodromal disease refers to the stage wherein early symptoms or signs of PD neurodegeneration are present, but classic clinical diagnosis based on fully evolved motor parkinsonism is not yet

  8. MDS research criteria for prodromal Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, D; Postuma, R.B.; Adler, C.H.; Bloem, B.R.; Chan, P.; Dubois, B.; Gasser, T.; Goetz, C.G.; Halliday, G.; Joseph, L.; Lang, A.E.; Liepelt-Scarfone, I.; Litvan, I.; Marek, K.; Obeso, J.; Oertel, W.; Olanow, C.W.; Poewe, W.; Stern, M.; Deuschl, G.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes research criteria and probability methodology for the diagnosis of prodromal PD. Prodromal disease refers to the stage wherein early symptoms or signs of PD neurodegeneration are present, but classic clinical diagnosis based on fully evolved motor parkinsonism is not yet possi

  9. The 6th Meeting of the Global Alliance to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis: A half-time review of lymphatic filariasis elimination and its integration with the control of other neglected tropical diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addiss David

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The 6th Meeting of the Global Alliance to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GAELF6 was held 1-3 June, 2010 in Seoul, Korea, with 150 participants from 38 countries. The year 2010 marks the midpoint between the first GAELF meeting, in 2000, and the World Health Organization (WHO 2020 goal of global elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF as a public health problem. The theme of the meeting, "Half-time in LF Elimination: Teaming Up with Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs," reflected significant integration of LF elimination programmes into a comprehensive initiative to control NTDs. Presentations on LF epidemiology, treatment, research, and programmes highlighted both accomplishments and remaining challenges. The WHO strategy to interrupt LF transmission is based on annual mass drug administration (MDA using two-drug combinations. After mapping the geographic distribution of LF, MDA is implemented for ≥ 5 years, followed by a period of post-MDA surveillance, and, ultimately, verification of LF elimination. Morbidity management further reduces disease burden. Of 81 countries considered LF-endemic in 2000, 52 (64.2% have begun MDA; 10 (12.3% others with low-level transmission are unlikely to require MDA. In 2008, ~695 million people were offered treatment (51.7% of the at-risk population; ~496 million participated. Approximately 22 million people have been protected from LF infection and disease, with savings of ~US $24.2 billion. Morbidity management programmes have been implemented in 27 (33.3% countries. Significant challenges to LF elimination remain. These include: initiating MDA in the remaining 19 countries that require it; achieving full geographic coverage in countries where MDA has started; finding alternative strategies to address the problem of Loa loa co-endemicity in Central Africa; developing strategies to treat urban populations; initiating and sustaining MDA in settings of armed conflict; developing refined guidelines and

  10. Neglected and endemic zoonoses

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Endemic zoonoses are found throughout the developing world, wherever people live in close proximity to their animals, affecting not only the health of poor people but often also their livelihoods through the health of their livestock. Unlike newly emerging zoonoses that attract the attention of the developed world, these endemic zoonoses are by comparison neglected. This is, in part, a consequence of under-reporting, resulting in underestimation of their global burden, which in turn artificia...

  11. Neglected vaginal pessary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Jain

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Vaginal pessary may be opted for management of uterine prolapse as a safe option, but to avoid complications regular follow-up is a must. We are reporting a case of neglected vaginal pessary in a 72 year old female which got embedded in vaginal mucosa and required excision of vaginal band for its removal. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(1.000: 291-292

  12. Advances in Biomarker Research in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Shyamal H; Adler, Charles H

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, and the numbers are projected to double in the next two decades with the increase in the aging population. An important focus of current research is to develop interventions to slow the progression of the disease. However, prerequisites to it include the development of reliable biomarkers for early diagnosis which would identify at-risk groups and disease progression. In this review, we present updated evidence of already known clinical biomarkers (such as hyposmia and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD)) and neuroimaging biomarkers, as well as newer possible markers in the blood, CSF, and other tissues. While several promising candidates and methods to assess these biomarkers are on the horizon, it is becoming increasingly clear that no one candidate will clearly fulfill all the roles as a single biomarker. A multimodal and combinatorial approach to develop a battery of biomarkers will likely be necessary in the future.

  13. Rare disease research: Breaking the privacy barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascalzoni, Deborah; Paradiso, Angelo; Hansson, Matts

    2014-06-01

    Due to the few patients affected, rare disease research has to count on international registries to exist in order to produce significant research outputs. Data sharing of registries is therefore a unique resource to allow rare disease research to flourish and any lost data will jeopardize the quality of an already extremely difficult research. The rules usually applied to research such as the right to withdraw or the need for specific consent for every use of data can be detrimental in order to get effective results. Privacy rights regulated through traditional informed consent mechanisms have been regarded as a major barrier in order to effectively share data worldwide. Some authors argue that this barrier hampers results that could be beneficial to the patients so that another right will be overstated: the right to quality healthcare. We argue in this paper that privacy has been often interpreted just one-sided as the right to secrecy but it can entail another meaning: the right to manage one's own private sphere. Managing it pertains, not only to the right to deny access, but also to the right to grant access. At the same time research on patient participation and transparency shows that new forms of IT-based informed consent can provide a good balance between the right of individuals to be in control of their data and the opportunity for science to pursue international research.

  14. Rare disease research: Breaking the privacy barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Mascalzoni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the few patients affected, rare disease research has to count on international registries to exist in order to produce significant research outputs. Data sharing of registries is therefore a unique resource to allow rare disease research to flourish and any lost data will jeopardize the quality of an already extremely difficult research. The rules usually applied to research such as the right to withdraw or the need for specific consent for every use of data can be detrimental in order to get effective results. Privacy rights regulated through traditional informed consent mechanisms have been regarded as a major barrier in order to effectively share data worldwide. Some authors argue that this barrier hampers results that could be beneficial to the patients so that another right will be overstated: the right to quality healthcare. We argue in this paper that privacy has been often interpreted just one-sided as the right to secrecy but it can entail another meaning: the right to manage one's own private sphere. Managing it pertains, not only to the right to deny access, but also to the right to grant access. At the same time research on patient participation and transparency shows that new forms of IT-based informed consent can provide a good balance between the right of individuals to be in control of their data and the opportunity for science to pursue international research.

  15. Biomarkers in translational research of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarawneh, Rawan; Holtzman, David M

    2010-01-01

    The identification and characterization of amyloid-beta (Abeta) and tau as the main pathological substrates of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have driven many efforts in search for suitable biomarkers for AD. In the last decade, research in this area has focused on developing a better understanding of the principles that govern protein deposition, mechanisms that link aggregation to toxicity and neuronal death, and a better understanding of protein dynamics in brain tissue, interstitial fluid and CSF. While Abeta and tau represent the two key pathological mediators of disease, other aspects of this multifaceted disease (e.g. oxidative stress, calcium-mediated toxicity, and neuroinflammation) are being unraveled, with the hope to develop a more comprehensive approach in exploring disease mechanisms. This has not only expanded possible areas for disease-modifying therapies, but has also allowed the introduction of novel, and potentially useful, fluid and radiological markers for the presence and progression of AD pathology. There is no doubt that the identification of several fluid and imaging biomarkers that can reliably detect the early stages of AD will have great implications in the design of clinical trials, in the selection of homogenous research populations, and in the assessment of disease outcomes. Markers with good diagnostic specificity will aid researchers in differentiating individuals with preclinical and probable AD from individuals who do not have AD pathology or have other dementing disorders. Markers that change with disease progression may offer utility in assessing the rates of disease progression and the efficacy of potential therapeutic agents on AD pathology. For both of these purposes, CSF Abeta42, amyloid imaging, and CSF tau appear to be very good markers of the presence of AD pathology as well as predictive of who will progress from MCI to AD. Volumetric MRI is also good at separating individuals with MCI and AD from controls and is predictive of

  16. Semiology of neglect: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, G; Pagliari, C; Huchon, L; Rossetti, Y; Pisella, L

    2017-06-01

    Hemispatial neglect is a common disabling condition following brain damage to the right hemisphere. Generally, it involves behavioral bias directed ipsilaterally to the damaged hemisphere and loss of spatial awareness for the contralesional side. In this syndrome, several clinical subtypes were identified. The objective of this article is to provide a nosological analysis of the recent data from the literature on the different subtypes of neglect (visual, auditory, somatosensory, motor, egocentric, allocentric and representational neglect), associated ipsilesional and contralesional productive manifestations and their anatomical lesion correlates. These different anatomical-clinical subtypes can be associated or dissociated. They reflect the heterogeneity of this unilateral neglect syndrome that cannot be approached or interpreted in a single manner. We propose that these subtypes result from different underlying deficits: exogenous attentional deficit (visual, auditory neglect); representational deficit (personal neglect, representational neglect, hyperschematia); shift of the egocentric reference frame (egocentric neglect); attentional deficit between objects and within objects (allocentric neglect), endogenous attentional deficit (representational neglect) and transsaccadic working memory or spatial remapping deficit (ipsilesional productive manifestations). Taking into account the different facets of the unilateral neglect syndrome should promote the development of more targeted cognitive rehabilitation protocols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. MDS research criteria for prodromal Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Daniela; Postuma, Ronald B; Adler, Charles H; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Chan, Piu; Dubois, Bruno; Gasser, Thomas; Goetz, Christopher G; Halliday, Glenda; Joseph, Lawrence; Lang, Anthony E; Liepelt-Scarfone, Inga; Litvan, Irene; Marek, Kenneth; Obeso, José; Oertel, Wolfgang; Olanow, C Warren; Poewe, Werner; Stern, Matthew; Deuschl, Günther

    2015-10-01

    This article describes research criteria and probability methodology for the diagnosis of prodromal PD. Prodromal disease refers to the stage wherein early symptoms or signs of PD neurodegeneration are present, but classic clinical diagnosis based on fully evolved motor parkinsonism is not yet possible. Given the lack of clear neuroprotective/disease-modifying therapy for prodromal PD, these criteria were developed for research purposes only. The criteria are based upon the likelihood of prodromal disease being present with probable prodromal PD defined as ≥80% certainty. Certainty estimates rely upon calculation of an individual's risk of having prodromal PD, using a Bayesian naïve classifier. In this methodology, a previous probability of prodromal disease is delineated based upon age. Then, the probability of prodromal PD is calculated by adding diagnostic information, expressed as likelihood ratios. This diagnostic information combines estimates of background risk (from environmental risk factors and genetic findings) and results of diagnostic marker testing. In order to be included, diagnostic markers had to have prospective evidence documenting ability to predict clinical PD. They include motor and nonmotor clinical symptoms, clinical signs, and ancillary diagnostic tests. These criteria represent a first step in the formal delineation of early stages of PD and will require constant updating as more information becomes available. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  18. Standard methods for fungal brood disease research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Annette Bruun; Aronstein, Kathrine; Flores, José Manuel; Vojvodic, Svjetlana; Palacio, María Alejandra; Spivak, Marla

    2013-01-01

    Chalkbrood and stonebrood are two fungal diseases associated with honey bee brood. Chalkbrood, caused by Ascosphaera apis, is a common and widespread disease that can result in severe reduction of emerging worker bees and thus overall colony productivity. Stonebrood is caused by Aspergillus spp. that are rarely observed, so the impact on colony health is not very well understood. A major concern with the presence of Aspergillus in honey bees is the production of airborne conidia, which can lead to allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, pulmonary aspergilloma, or even invasive aspergillosis in lung tissues upon inhalation by humans. In the current chapter we describe the honey bee disease symptoms of these fungal pathogens. In addition, we provide research methodologies and protocols for isolating and culturing, in vivo and in vitro assays that are commonly used to study these host pathogen interactions. We give guidelines on the preferred methods used in current research and the application of molecular techniques. We have added photographs, drawings and illustrations to assist bee-extension personnel and bee scientists in the control of these two diseases.

  19. 被忽视的热带病在撒哈拉以南非洲的流行、分布及危害%The prevalence,distribution and hazard of neglected tropical diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 谷俊朝

    2010-01-01

    @@ 被忽视的热带病(Neglected Tropical Diseases,NTD)是一组发生在农村或贫穷地域的慢性、消耗性感染性疾病[1].目前,撒哈拉以南非洲地区(Sub-Saharan Africa,SSA)是全球最不发达地区[2].根据世界银行的统计,生活在这一地域的人群有51%每天生活费用不足1.25美元,73%不足2美元[3].

  20. Novel insights in the rehabilitation of neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasotti, Luciano; van Kessel, Marlies

    2013-11-15

    Visuospatial neglect due to right hemisphere damage, usually a stroke, is a major cause of disability, impairing the ability to perform a whole range of everyday life activities. Conventional and long-established methods for the rehabilitation of neglect like visual scanning training, optokinetic stimulation, or limb activation training have produced positive results, with varying degrees of generalization to (un)trained tasks, lasting from several minutes up to various months after training. Nevertheless, some promising novel approaches to the remediation of left visuospatial neglect have emerged in the last decade. These new therapy methods can be broadly classified into four categories. First, non-invasive brain stimulation techniques by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), after a period of mainly diagnostic utilization, are increasingly applied as neurorehabilitative tools. Second, two classes of drugs, dopaminergic and noradrenergic, have been investigated for their potential effectiveness in rehabilitating neglect. Third, prism adaptation treatment has been shown to improve several neglect symptoms consistently, sometimes during longer periods of time. Finally, virtual reality technologies hold new opportunities for the development of effective training techniques for neglect. They provide realistic, rich, and highly controllable training environments. In this paper the degree of effectiveness and the evidence gathered to support the therapeutic claims of these new approaches is reviewed and discussed. The conclusion is that for all these approaches there still is insufficient unbiased evidence to support their effectiveness. Further neglect rehabilitation research should focus on the maintenance of therapy results over time, on a more functional evaluation of treatment effects, on the design and execution of true replication studies and on the exploration of optimal combinations of treatments.

  1. Novel insights in the rehabilitation of neglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano eFasotti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Visuospatial neglect due to right hemisphere damage, usually a stroke, is a major cause of disability, impairing the ability to perform a whole range of everyday life activities. Conventional and long-established methods for the rehabilitation of neglect like visual scanning training, optokinetic stimulation or limb activation training have produced positive results, with varying degrees of generalisation to (untrained tasks lasting from several minutes up to various months after training. Nevertheless, some promising novel approaches to the remediation of left visuo-spatial neglect have emerged in the last decade. These new therapy methods can be broadly classified into 4 categories. First, non-invasive brain stimulation techniques by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, after a period of mainly diagnostic utilization, are increasingly applied as neurorehabilitative tools. Second, two classes of drugs, dopaminergic and noradrenergic, have been investigated for their potential effectiveness in rehabilitating neglect. Third, prism adaptation treatment has been shown to improve several neglect symptoms consistently, sometimes during longer periods of time. Finally, virtual reality technologies hold new opportunities for the development of effective training techniques for neglect. They provide realistic, rich and highly controllable training environments. In this paper the degree of effectiveness and the evidence gathered to support the therapeutic claims of these new approaches is reviewed and discussed. The conclusion is that for all these approaches there still is insufficient unbiased evidence to support their effectiveness. Further neglect rehabilitation research should focus on the maintenance of therapy results over time, on a more functional evaluation of treatment effects, on the design and execution of true replication studies and on the exploration of optimal combinations of

  2. Chronic neglect and aggression/delinquency: A longitudinal examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan-Greene, Patricia; Semanchin Jones, Annette

    2015-07-01

    Neglect is the most common form of maltreatment in the United States, yet its impact on development remains understudied, especially for chronic neglect. Chronic neglect is also one of the most costly burdens on child welfare systems. This study examines the effects of chronic neglect, including two subtypes (Failure to Provide and Lack of Supervision) on adolescent aggression and delinquency using a diverse longitudinal sample of youth. Chronic neglect and chronic failure to provide (ages 0-12) predicted aggression/delinquency (age 14) even after controlling for the effects of other maltreatment (ages 0-12). Chronic lack of supervision, however, did not. Gender significantly moderated these effects, suggesting that males are more likely to respond to neglect by becoming aggressive/delinquent. Finally, social problems (age 12) partially mediated for boys, and fully mediated for girls, the connections between chronic neglect and aggression/delinquency, bolstering theorizing that neglect impairs social functioning broadly. Implications include the need for further research on chronic neglect, especially in providing guidance for child welfare systems. Interventions for chronically neglected youth should include social skill development.

  3. Research on motor neuron diseases konzo and neurolathyrism: trends from 1990 to 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphin Diasolua Ngudi

    Full Text Available Konzo (caused by consumption of improperly processed cassava, Manihot esculenta and neurolathyrism (caused by prolonged overconsumption of grass pea, Lathyrus sativus are two distinct non-infectious upper motor neurone diseases with identical clinical symptoms of spastic paraparesis of the legs. They affect many thousands of people among the poor in the remote rural areas in the central and southern parts of Africa afflicting them with konzo in Ethiopia and in the Indian sub-continent with neurolathyrism. Both diseases are toxico-nutritional problems due to monotonous consumption of starchy cassava roots or protein-rich grass pea seeds as a staple, especially during drought and famine periods. Both foods contain toxic metabolites (cyanogenic glycosides in cassava and the neuro-excitatory amino acid β-ODAP in grass pea that are blamed for theses diseases. The etiology is also linked to the deficiency in the essential sulfur amino acids that protect against oxidative stress. The two diseases are not considered reportable by the World Health Organization (WHO and only estimated numbers can be found. This paper analyzes research performance and determines scientific interest in konzo and neurolathyrism. A literature search of over 21 years (from 1990 to 2010 shows that in terms of scientific publications there is little interest in these neglected motorneurone diseases konzo and neurolathyrism that paralyze the legs. Comparison is made with HTLV-1/TSP, an infectious disease occurring mainly in Latin America of which the clinical manifestation is similar to konzo and neurolathyrism and requires a differential diagnosis. Our findings emphasize the multidisciplinary nature of studies on these neglected diseases, which however have not really captured the attention of decision makers and project planners, especially when compared with the infectious HTLV-1/TSP. Konzo and neurolathyrism can be prevented by a balanced diet.

  4. Research on Motor Neuron Diseases Konzo and Neurolathyrism: Trends from 1990 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngudi, Delphin Diasolua; Kuo, Yu-Haey; Van Montagu, Marc; Lambein, Fernand

    2012-01-01

    Konzo (caused by consumption of improperly processed cassava, Manihot esculenta) and neurolathyrism (caused by prolonged overconsumption of grass pea, Lathyrus sativus) are two distinct non-infectious upper motor neurone diseases with identical clinical symptoms of spastic paraparesis of the legs. They affect many thousands of people among the poor in the remote rural areas in the central and southern parts of Africa afflicting them with konzo in Ethiopia and in the Indian sub-continent with neurolathyrism. Both diseases are toxico-nutritional problems due to monotonous consumption of starchy cassava roots or protein-rich grass pea seeds as a staple, especially during drought and famine periods. Both foods contain toxic metabolites (cyanogenic glycosides in cassava and the neuro-excitatory amino acid β-ODAP in grass pea) that are blamed for theses diseases. The etiology is also linked to the deficiency in the essential sulfur amino acids that protect against oxidative stress. The two diseases are not considered reportable by the World Health Organization (WHO) and only estimated numbers can be found. This paper analyzes research performance and determines scientific interest in konzo and neurolathyrism. A literature search of over 21 years (from 1990 to 2010) shows that in terms of scientific publications there is little interest in these neglected motorneurone diseases konzo and neurolathyrism that paralyze the legs. Comparison is made with HTLV-1/TSP, an infectious disease occurring mainly in Latin America of which the clinical manifestation is similar to konzo and neurolathyrism and requires a differential diagnosis. Our findings emphasize the multidisciplinary nature of studies on these neglected diseases, which however have not really captured the attention of decision makers and project planners, especially when compared with the infectious HTLV-1/TSP. Konzo and neurolathyrism can be prevented by a balanced diet. PMID:22860149

  5. Strongyloidiasis--the most neglected of the neglected tropical diseases?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, A.; L., van Lieshout; Marti, H.

    2009-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths of the genus Strongyloides (S. fuelleborni and the more prevalent S. stercoralis) are currently believed to infect an estimated 30-100 million people worldwide. The health consequences of S. stercoralis infections range from asymptomatic light infections to chronic symp...

  6. Frontiers in research on biodiversity and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Pieter T J; Ostfeld, Richard S; Keesing, Felicia

    2015-10-01

    Global losses of biodiversity have galvanised efforts to understand how changes to communities affect ecological processes, including transmission of infectious pathogens. Here, we review recent research on diversity-disease relationships and identify future priorities. Growing evidence from experimental, observational and modelling studies indicates that biodiversity changes alter infection for a range of pathogens and through diverse mechanisms. Drawing upon lessons from the community ecology of free-living organisms, we illustrate how recent advances from biodiversity research generally can provide necessary theoretical foundations, inform experimental designs, and guide future research at the interface between infectious disease risk and changing ecological communities. Dilution effects are expected when ecological communities are nested and interactions between the pathogen and the most competent host group(s) persist or increase as biodiversity declines. To move beyond polarising debates about the generality of diversity effects and develop a predictive framework, we emphasise the need to identify how the effects of diversity vary with temporal and spatial scale, to explore how realistic patterns of community assembly affect transmission, and to use experimental studies to consider mechanisms beyond simple changes in host richness, including shifts in trophic structure, functional diversity and symbiont composition. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  7. Research the professional diseases of cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachenko V.S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The pre-pathological and pathological states are exposed at employments by bicycle sport on a highway. In research took part bicyclists from 25 cities of Ukraine (65 sportsmen. Unfavorable influence of loadings of power character is well-proven at a low ambient temperature. The factors of the use of alcohol which can substantially influence on the general picture of morbidity among bicyclists are exposed. The diseases of the cardiovascular system, knee-joint, exchange of matters and digestive system are selected in a separate group (liver and stomach.

  8. Advances in Research of Garlic Virus Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Garlic virus infection is an important disease which affects garlic production,with the increasing years of planting,harm of virus is serious year by year,which seriously affect yield and quality of garlic.In order to know the garlic virus effectively,the paper reviewed the research situation of several important garlic virus in virus species,origin,distribution,host range,symptom,route of transmission,classification,genome and detection technique and the prevention technology of garlic viruses.At the same ...

  9. Dyadic Vulnerability and Risk Profiling for Elder Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Terry; Paveza, Gregory; VandeWeerd, Carla; Fairchild, Susan; Guadagno, Lisa; Bolton-Blatt, Marguarette; Norman, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Neglect of older adults accounts for 60% to 70% of all elder-mistreatment reports made to adult protective services. The purpose of this article is to report data from research, using a risk-and-vulnerability model, that captures the independent contributions of both the elder and the caregiver as they relate to the outcome of neglect.…

  10. FDA Facilitates Research on Earlier Stages of Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Updates FDA Facilitates Research on Earlier Stages of Alzheimer's Disease Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... disease.” back to top New Paths for New Alzheimer’s Drugs FDA’s draft guidance aims to encourage research ...

  11. U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and thank you for your interest in the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID). ... This Web site provides an introduction to the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) ...

  12. Parkinson's Disease Research Web - Information for Patients and Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Page Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research NINDS Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease Strategic Plans NINDS ... Syndrome Information Page Dandy-Walker Syndrome Information Page Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease Information Page Dementia ...

  13. Progress in Research on Neglect Dyslexia: A Review%忽视性阅读障碍的研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭向杰; 郭雪萍; 黄贤军; 马力飞; 翁旭初

    2005-01-01

    首先介绍了忽视性阅读障碍(neglect dyslexia, ND)的概念,随后描述了ND病人在阅读过程中的表现,即衰减效应、词汇效应、词内区分效应、对称效应和词长效应以及保留的语义通达能力.尽管忽视症和ND可以分离,但两者之间有一定联系.文章最后对汉语ND的研究进行了分析和展望,认为其关键问题是阐明汉语ND在多大程度上与拼音文字ND具有可比性.

  14. A scientometric evaluation of the Chagas disease implementation research programme of the PAHO and TDR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Laura Carbajal-de-la-Fuente

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR is an independent global programme of scientific collaboration cosponsored by the United Nations Children's Fund, the United Nations Development Program, the World Bank, and the World Health Organization. TDR's strategy is based on stewardship for research on infectious diseases of poverty, empowerment of endemic countries, research on neglected priority needs, and the promotion of scientific collaboration influencing global efforts to combat major tropical diseases. In 2001, in view of the achievements obtained in the reduction of transmission of Chagas disease through the Southern Cone Initiative and the improvement in Chagas disease control activities in some countries of the Andean and the Central American Initiatives, TDR transferred the Chagas Disease Implementation Research Programme (CIRP to the Communicable Diseases Unit of the Pan American Health Organization (CD/PAHO. This paper presents a scientometric evaluation of the 73 projects from 18 Latin American and European countries that were granted by CIRP/PAHO/TDR between 1997 and 2007. We analyzed all final reports of the funded projects and scientific publications, technical reports, and human resource training activities derived from them. Results about the number of projects funded, countries and institutions involved, gender analysis, number of published papers in indexed scientific journals, main topics funded, patents inscribed, and triatomine species studied are presented and discussed. The results indicate that CIRP/PAHO/TDR initiative has contributed significantly, over the 1997-2007 period, to Chagas disease knowledge as well as to the individual and institutional-building capacity.

  15. Liver Flukes: the Malady Neglected

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Hoon [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    Liver fluke disease is a chronic parasitic inflammatory disease of the bile ducts. Infection occurs through ingestion of fluke-infested, fresh-water raw fish. The most well-known species that cause human infection are Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini and Opisthorchis felineus. Adult flukes settle in the small intrahepatic bile ducts and then they live there for 20-30 years. The long-lived flukes cause long-lasting chronic inflammation of the bile ducts and this produces epithelial hyperplasia, periductal fibrosis and bile duct dilatation. The vast majority of patients are asymptomatic, but the patients with heavy infection suffer from lassitude and nonspecific abdominal complaints. The complications are stone formation, recurrent pyogenic cholangitis and cholangiocarcinoma. Approximately 35 million people are infected with liver flukes throughout the world and the exceptionally high incidence of cholangiocarcinoma in some endemic areas is closely related with a high prevalence of liver fluke infection. Considering the impact of this food-borne malady on public health and the severe possible clinical consequences, liver fluke infection should not be forgotten or neglected.

  16. Neglected hangman fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Kumar Srivastava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute management of hangman fracture is well described; however the surgical management of neglected hangman fracture has not been described in literature. We report the surgical management of an untreated hangman′s fracture. A 30-year-old male had fallen from a tree 12 weeks back. Patient presented with cervical myelopathy and restricted neck movements. Radiographs and computed tomography (CT scan revealed fracture of pars interarticularis of axis with Grade III C2-C3 spondylolisthesis with localized kyphosis of 33°. Gentle reduction under general anesthesia (GA failed to improve the alignment. Patient was operated in three stages in a single setting. In Stage I, release of contracted anterior structures and C2-C3 discectomy was done in supine position followed by C2-C3 posterior fixation and fusion in Stage II. C2-C3 interbody bone grafting and anterior plating completed the third stage. C2-C3 interbody fusion was seen at 5 months and a CT scan at 18 months postoperative confirmed fusion and maintenance of alignment. The satisfactory outcome in our patient leads us to believe that anterior-posterior-anterior is the appropriate surgical approach for treatment of such patients.

  17. A note on neglect defaulting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Margolis

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available I introduce the notion of ``neglect defaulting,'' which labels the propensity to neglect possibilities which are ordinarily sensibly neglected. In familiar contexts we are well-tuned to recognize when to override the default. But outside the range of familiar experience --- here in the artificial context of puzzles --- these ordinarily benign defaults can make it difficult for even sophisticated subjects, such as readers of this note, to avoid responses which on reflection will be seen as obviously mistaken. A detail of particular importance is that, although subjects are easily prompted to take one step in the direction of reaching a sound response, the tendency to then neglect to consider that another step may be needed is remarkably strong. In each of the five examples the needed but usually neglected second step is quite trivial. Concluding remarks point to consequences for larger questions outside the range of familiar experience, in politics and other contexts out of scale with everyday experience.

  18. AIRPALYNOLOGY RESEARCH IMPLICATIONS IN ALLERGIC DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Faur

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a constant increase of the number of mediate IgE diseases worldwide, known as regain or atopic diseases. The inflammable substratum, which stands as their basis, is decoded at the cellular and molecular level, guiding the pharmaceutical research towards finding the most efficient treatments. In recent years, there is also a remarkable evolution of the diagnosis methods. Modern methods of knowing the impact of environment factors, including allergens, hasten to the allergenicity and the sick people’s assistance. One of these methods, extremely valuable in the medical practice is the volumetric method of sampling, identifying and quantifying the airborne pollenm which belongs to the category of inhaling allergens and which brings precious information in choosing the diagnosis and treatment methods of polinosis, diminishing their costs and being able to impose a new prophylactic conduct. The pollination calendar can draw allergologists attention to some plants producing allergen pollen, less known plant, adventives or expanding, as Ambrosia artemisifolia species, common to the South-West area of Romania. The pollination calendar can also be useful to extracts and allergenic vaccines producers, directing their production according to the local presence of some species of plants with allergen pollen.

  19. Stem Cell Research: Unlocking the Mystery of Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues From the Director: Stem Cell Research: Unlocking the Mystery of Disease Past Issues / ... Zerhouni, NIH Director, described the need for expanding stem cell research. Recently, he spoke about stem cell research ...

  20. Elder Abuse and Neglect in Turkey: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Lok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with a growing elderly population in the world and in our country, elder abuse and neglect has been a major problem. The purpose of this study is to identify and systematically review the studies investigating elder abuse and neglect in Turkey. Evaluation of the studies on elder abuse and neglect in Turkey showed that the elderly are often abused by family members and they are often exposed to emotional, physical, economic and psychological abuse. All of the studies reviewed in this paper were descriptive cross-sectional studies investigating elder abuse and neglect. The studies reviewed presented significant results revealing the prevalence of elder abuse and neglect in Turkey. In conclusion, this systematic review revealed that research on this issue in Turkey is insufficient and there is a need for studies conducted with larger samples covering an entire city. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(2: 149-156

  1. Motor Response Deficits of Unilateral Neglect: Assessment, Therapy, and Neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saevarsson, Styrmir

    2013-04-16

    The clinical impact of the motor deficits of unilateral neglect is indisputable. The diagnosis criteria are confusing and complicated, and assessment has been extended and modified gradually during the last few decades, which has led to inconsistency and confusion. Many different attempts have been made to overcome various assessment shortcomings. In this article, different examinations of previous studies and analyses are discussed in a systematic and critical way. Research databases were used to identify 254 reports, including 26 different empirical studies on motor neglect and 44 studies on premotor neglect. Most of the studies address the gross neuroanatomical location of lesions. The main findings indicate that frontal lesions are more common in motor neglect than in premotor neglect, and parietal lesions are more common in premotor neglect than in motor neglect. Few studies have evaluated therapeutic programs for the motor deficits of neglect. Unfortunately, most studies suffer from various diagnostic problems that result in inconsistent and controversial findings. Different assessment issues need to be addressed systematically in future studies in light of current findings to increase our understanding and awareness of these important neuropsychological motor deficits. Implications of and possible solutions to the current assessment shortcomings are discussed.

  2. Perspectives and research challenges in veterinary infectious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Veterinary Infectious Disease specialty section seeks to become an outlet for veterinary research into infectious diseases through the study of the pathogen or its host or the host's environment or by addressing combinations of these aspects of the disease system. We vision research in this are...

  3. Child neglect and emotional abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poor weight gain Emotional issues such as low self-esteem, depression, and anxiety Extreme behavior such as acting ... child was abused The success of therapy and parenting classes Alternative Names Neglect - child; Emotional abuse - child ...

  4. An introduction to neglected disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Wisner

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This theme issue of Jàmbá takes up the question of neglected disasters. It is an important topic because the world is changing, disasters are changing, and theory is changing. All these changes call for a re-assessment of why some human suffering and social disruption receive attention from authorities, donors, researchers and the media, while some does not. Recent progress in both development studies and disaster studies provides tools for answering this question. Development and disaster studies date in their current forms to ways of thinking that were current in academic and policy circles in the late 1950s and 1960s. At that time the world was recovering from world war and former colonies of Europe were gaining independence. It was a world in which (with some exceptions conflict was held in check in an uneasy cold war balance. It was also a world where a growing UN system held the promise of meeting humanitarian needs when they arose. That world is no more. ‘Development’ has changed.

  5. Research Investments in Global Health: A Systematic Analysis of UK Infectious Disease Research Funding and Global Health Metrics, 1997-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Michael G; Fitchett, Joseph R; Nageshwaran, Vaitehi; Kumari, Nina; Hayward, Andrew; Atun, Rifat

    2016-01-01

    Infectious diseases account for a significant global burden of disease and substantial investment in research and development. This paper presents a systematic assessment of research investments awarded to UK institutions and global health metrics assessing disease burden. We systematically sourced research funding data awarded from public and philanthropic organisations between 1997 and 2013. We screened awards for relevance to infection and categorised data by type of science, disease area and specific pathogen. Investments were compared with mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and years lived with disability (YLD) across three time points. Between 1997-2013, there were 7398 awards with a total investment of £3.7 billion. An increase in research funding across 2011-2013 was observed for most disease areas, with notable exceptions being sexually transmitted infections and sepsis research where funding decreased. Most funding remains for pre-clinical research (£2.2 billion, 59.4%). Relative to global mortality, DALYs and YLDs, acute hepatitis C, leishmaniasis and African trypanosomiasis received comparatively high levels of funding. Pneumonia, shigellosis, pertussis, cholera and syphilis were poorly funded across all health metrics. Tuberculosis (TB) consistently attracts relatively less funding than HIV and malaria. Most infections have received increases in research investment, alongside decreases in global burden of disease in 2013. The UK demonstrates research strengths in some neglected tropical diseases such as African trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis, but syphilis, cholera, shigellosis and pneumonia remain poorly funded relative to their global burden. Acute hepatitis C appears well funded but the figures do not adequately take into account projected future chronic burdens for this condition. These findings can help to inform global policymakers on resource allocation for research investment.

  6. Research Investments in Global Health: A Systematic Analysis of UK Infectious Disease Research Funding and Global Health Metrics, 1997–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Michael G.; Fitchett, Joseph R.; Nageshwaran, Vaitehi; Kumari, Nina; Hayward, Andrew; Atun, Rifat

    2015-01-01

    Background Infectious diseases account for a significant global burden of disease and substantial investment in research and development. This paper presents a systematic assessment of research investments awarded to UK institutions and global health metrics assessing disease burden. Methods We systematically sourced research funding data awarded from public and philanthropic organisations between 1997 and 2013. We screened awards for relevance to infection and categorised data by type of science, disease area and specific pathogen. Investments were compared with mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and years lived with disability (YLD) across three time points. Findings Between 1997–2013, there were 7398 awards with a total investment of £3.7 billion. An increase in research funding across 2011–2013 was observed for most disease areas, with notable exceptions being sexually transmitted infections and sepsis research where funding decreased. Most funding remains for pre-clinical research (£2.2 billion, 59.4%). Relative to global mortality, DALYs and YLDs, acute hepatitis C, leishmaniasis and African trypanosomiasis received comparatively high levels of funding. Pneumonia, shigellosis, pertussis, cholera and syphilis were poorly funded across all health metrics. Tuberculosis (TB) consistently attracts relatively less funding than HIV and malaria. Interpretation Most infections have received increases in research investment, alongside decreases in global burden of disease in 2013. The UK demonstrates research strengths in some neglected tropical diseases such as African trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis, but syphilis, cholera, shigellosis and pneumonia remain poorly funded relative to their global burden. Acute hepatitis C appears well funded but the figures do not adequately take into account projected future chronic burdens for this condition. These findings can help to inform global policymakers on resource allocation for research investment

  7. Dental neglect as a marker of broader neglect: a qualitative investigation of public health nurses’ assessments of oral health in preschool children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Child neglect is a pernicious child protection issue with adverse consequences that extend to adulthood. Simultaneously, though it remains prevalent, childhood dental caries is a preventable disease. Public health nurses play a pivotal role in assessing oral health in children as part of general health surveillance. However, little is known about how they assess dental neglect or what their thresholds are for initiating targeted support or instigating child protection measures. Understanding these factors is important to allow improvements to be made in care pathways. Methods We investigated public health nurses’ assessment of oral health in preschool children in relation to dental neglect and any associations they make with child neglect more broadly. A qualitative study was conducted in Scotland during 2011/12. Sixteen public health nurses were recruited purposively from one health region. Individual, semi-structured interviews were undertaken and data were analyzed inductively using a framework approach. Categories were subsequently mapped to the research questions. Results Public health nurses assess oral health through proxy measures, opportunistic observation and through discussion with parents. Dental neglect is rarely an isolated issue that leads on its own to child protection referral. It tends to be other presenting issues that initiate a response. Threshold levels for targeted support were based on two broad indicators: social issues and concerns about child (and parental) dental health. Thresholds for child protection intervention were untreated dental caries or significant dental pain. Barriers to intervention are that dental neglect may be ‘unseen’ and ‘unspoken’. The study revealed a communication gap in the care pathway for children where a significant dental problem is identified. Conclusions Public health nurses take their child protection role seriously, but rarely make a link between dental caries and child neglect. Clear

  8. Noma: neglected, forgotten and a human rights issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leila Srour, M; Marck, Klaas W; Baratti-Mayer, Denise

    2015-05-01

    Noma, an orofacial gangrene and opportunistic infection, affects primarily malnourished children living in extreme poverty. Neglected, forgotten, unknown by most health workers, noma results in death, disfigurement and disability of some of the world's most vulnerable children. Noma is a biological indicator of multiple human rights violations, including the right to food. International support and national attention in countries with noma are lacking. The end of neglect of noma can lead to the elimination of this horrific childhood disease.

  9. Resources, challenges and way forward in rare mitochondrial diseases research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Neeraj Kumar; Singh, Vipin; Bhardwaj, Anshu

    2015-01-01

    Over 300 million people are affected by about 7000 rare diseases globally. There are tremendous resource limitations and challenges in driving research and drug development for rare diseases. Hence, innovative approaches are needed to identify potential solutions. This review focuses on the resources developed over the past years for analysis of genome data towards understanding disease biology especially in the context of mitochondrial diseases, given that mitochondria are central to major cellular pathways and their dysfunction leads to a broad spectrum of diseases. Platforms for collaboration of research groups, clinicians and patients and the advantages of community collaborative efforts in addressing rare diseases are also discussed. The review also describes crowdsourcing and crowdfunding efforts in rare diseases research and how the upcoming initiatives for understanding disease biology including analyses of large number of genomes are also applicable to rare diseases.

  10. Do polypills lead to neglect of lifestyle risk factors? Findings from an individual participant data meta-analysis among 3140 patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selak, Vanessa; Bullen, Chris; Stepien, Sandrine; Arroll, Bruce; Bots, Michiel; Bramley, Dale; Cass, Alan; Grobbee, Diederick; Hillis, Graham S.; Molanus, Barbara; Neal, Bruce; Patel, Anushka; Rafter, Natasha; Rodgers, Anthony; Thom, Simon; Tonkin, Andrew; Usherwood, Tim; Wadham, Angela; Webster, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate whether polypill-based care for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is associated with a change in lifestyle risk factors when compared with usual care, among patients with CVD or high calculated cardiovascular risk. Methods We conducted an ind

  11. Gallstone ileus without bilioenteric fistula years after bypass surgery for Crohn’s disease. Case report and clues to etiology of a neglected cause of obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Pellino

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Physicians dealing with Crohn’s disease patients with bypassed segments should keep in mind, the increased risk of gallstone formation, in order to not overlook gallstone ileus. Early suspect and diagnosis may allow for less aggressive approaches. A diverted segment should always be removed, and long-term follow-up encouraged.

  12. Albert's test: a neglected test of perceptual neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, K J; McSherry, D; Stout, R W

    1986-02-22

    Disorders of perception are thought to be important in predicting the outcome from stroke, but their exact significance is difficult to define because of lack of standardised terminology and diagnostic methods. In a prospective study of 205 unselected stroke patients, perceptual neglect, assessed by a standardised test battery, was found in 49% of patients with lesions of the non-dominant hemisphere and in 25% with lesions of the dominant hemisphere. One component of the test battery was a simple test described by Albert in which patients cross out lines ruled in a standard fashion on a sheet of paper; this was easy to administer and related closely to neglect diagnosed by the test battery as a whole. Results of Albert's test were a significant predictor of both mortality and functional activity six months after the stroke, independent of the influence of other clinical, neurological, laboratory, and social factors. The full test battery for perceptual neglect was of no significant additional predictive value.

  13. Standard methods for fungal brood disease research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Bruun; Aronstein, Kathrine; Manuel Flores, Jose;

    2013-01-01

    Chalkbrood and stonebrood are two fungal diseases associated with honey bee brood. Chalkbrood, caused by Ascosphaera apis, is a common and widespread disease that can result in severe reduction of emerging worker bees and thus overall colony productivity. Stonebrood is caused by Aspergillus spp. ...

  14. Harnessing motivation to alleviate neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte eRussell

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The syndrome of spatial neglect results from the combination of a number of deficits in attention, with patients demonstrating both spatially lateralised and non-lateralised impairments. Previous reports have hinted that there may be a motivational component to neglect and that modulating this might alleviate some of the debilitating symptoms. Additionally, recent work on the effects of reward on attention in healthy participants has revealed improvements across a number of paradigms. As the primary deficit in neglect has been associated with attention, this evidence for reward’s effects is potentially important. However, until very recently there have been few empirical studies addressing this potential therapeutic avenue. Here we review the growing body of evidence that attentional impairments in neglect can be reduced by motivation, for example in the form of preferred music or anticipated monetary reward, and discuss the implications of this for treatments for these patients. Crucially these effects of positive motivation are not observed in all patients with neglect, suggesting that the consequences of motivation may relate to individual lesion anatomy. Given the key role of dopaminergic systems in motivational processes, we suggest that motivational stimulation might act as a surrogate for dopaminergic stimulation. In addition, we consider the relationship between clinical post stroke apathy and lack of response to motivation.

  15. Harnessing motivation to alleviate neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Charlotte; Li, Korina; Malhotra, Paresh A

    2013-01-01

    The syndrome of spatial neglect results from the combination of a number of deficits in attention, with patients demonstrating both spatially lateralized and non-lateralized impairments. Previous reports have hinted that there may be a motivational component to neglect and that modulating this might alleviate some of the debilitating symptoms. Additionally, recent work on the effects of reward on attention in healthy participants has revealed improvements across a number of paradigms. As the primary deficit in neglect has been associated with attention, this evidence for reward's effects is potentially important. However, until very recently there have been few empirical studies addressing this potential therapeutic avenue. Here we review the growing body of evidence that attentional impairments in neglect can be reduced by motivation, for example in the form of preferred music or anticipated monetary reward, and discuss the implications of this for treatments for these patients. Crucially these effects of positive motivation are not observed in all patients with neglect, suggesting that the consequences of motivation may relate to individual lesion anatomy. Given the key role of dopaminergic systems in motivational processes, we suggest that motivational stimulation might act as a surrogate for dopaminergic stimulation. In addition, we consider the relationship between clinical post stroke apathy and lack of response to motivation.

  16. Assessing Lymphatic Filariasis Data Quality in Endemic Communities in Ghana, Using the Neglected Tropical Diseases Data Quality Assessment Tool for Preventive Chemotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziedzom K de Souza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The activities of the Global Programme for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis have been in operation since the year 2000, with Mass Drug Administration (MDA undertaken yearly in disease endemic communities. Information collected during MDA-such as population demographics, age, sex, drugs used and remaining, and therapeutic and geographic coverage-can be used to assess the quality of the data reported. To assist country programmes in evaluating the information reported, the WHO, in collaboration with NTD partners, including ENVISION/RTI, developed an NTD Data Quality Assessment (DQA tool, for use by programmes. This study was undertaken to evaluate the tool and assess the quality of data reported in some endemic communities in Ghana.A cross sectional study, involving review of data registers and interview of drug distributors, disease control officers, and health information officers using the NTD DQA tool, was carried out in selected communities in three LF endemic Districts in Ghana. Data registers for service delivery points were obtained from District health office for assessment. The assessment verified reported results in comparison with recounted values for five indicators: number of tablets received, number of tablets used, number of tablets remaining, MDA coverage, and population treated. Furthermore, drug distributors, disease control officers, and health information officers (at the first data aggregation level, were interviewed, using the DQA tool, to determine the performance of the functional areas of the data management system.The results showed that over 60% of the data reported were inaccurate, and exposed the challenges and limitations of the data management system. The DQA tool is a very useful monitoring and evaluation (M&E tool that can be used to elucidate and address data quality issues in various NTD control programmes.

  17. Endemic Poultry Viral Diseases 2016 Research Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viral infections of the avian gastrointestinal tract negatively impact poultry production; however, determining the complex etiologies of the viral enteric diseases in poultry has been difficult. Project scientists are continuing to investigate the species specificity, molecular phylogenetics, and p...

  18. Fighting Gum Disease: Risk Factors, Treatment and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treat periodontal disease. Read More "Fighting Gum Disease" Articles Keep Gum Disease Away! / Take Care of Your Teeth / Risk Factors, Treatment and Research Fall 2010 Issue: Volume 5 Number 3 Page 11 ... | Viewers & Players Friends of the National Library of Medicine (FNLM)

  19. Animal models for Gaucher disease research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Farfel-Becker

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Gaucher disease (GD, the most common lysosomal storage disorder (LSD, is caused by the defective activity of the lysosomal hydrolase glucocerebrosidase, which is encoded by the GBA gene. Generation of animal models that faithfully recapitulate the three clinical subtypes of GD has proved to be more of a challenge than first anticipated. The first mouse to be produced died within hours after birth owing to skin permeability problems, and mice with point mutations in Gba did not display symptoms correlating with human disease and also died soon after birth. Recently, conditional knockout mice that mimic some features of the human disease have become available. Here, we review the contribution of all currently available animal models to examining pathological pathways underlying GD and to testing the efficacy of new treatment modalities, and propose a number of criteria for the generation of more appropriate animal models of GD.

  20. Research priorities for Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a review and analysis of the research landscape for three diseases - Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis - that disproportionately afflict poor and remote populations with limited access to health services. It represents the work of the disease reference group on Chagas Disease, Human African Trypanosomiasis and Leishmaniasis (DRG3) which was established to identify key research priorities through review of research evidence and input from stakeholders' consultations. The diseases, which are caused by related protozoan parasites, are described in terms of their epidemiology and diseases burden, clinical forms and pathogenesis, HIV coinfection, diagnosis, drugs and drug resistance, vaccines, vector control, and health-care interventions. Priority areas for research are identified based on criteria such as public health relevance, benefit and impact on poor populations and equity, and feasibility. The priorities are found in the areas of diagnostics, drugs, vector control, asymptomatic infection, economic analysis of treatment and vector control methods, and in some specific issues such as surveillance methods or transmission-blocking vaccines for particular diseases. This report will be useful to researchers, policy and decision-makers, funding bodies, implementation organizations, and civil society. This is one of ten disease and thematic reference group reports that have come out of the TDR Think Tank, all of which have contributed to the development of the Global Report for Research on Infectious Diseases of Poverty, available at: www.who.int/tdr/stewardship/global_report/en/index.html.

  1. Avian Disease & Oncology Lab (ADOL) Research Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employing Genomics, Epigenetics, and Immunogenetics to Control Diseases Induced by Avian Tumor Viruses - Gene expression is a major factor accounting for phenotypic variation. Taking advantage of allele-specific expression (ASE) screens, we found the use of genetic markers was superior to traditiona...

  2. Screening for periodontal disease in research dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortegaard, Hanne Ellen; Eriksen, Thomas; Bælum, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundIt has been shown that the prevalence of both clinical attachment loss (CAL) >1 mm and pocket probing depth (PPD) >4 mm is relatively high even in younger dogs, but also that only a minority of the dogs have such clinical signs of periodontal disease (PD) in more than a few teeth. Hence...

  3. Alzheimer disease pharmacologic treatment and treatment research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Lon S

    2013-04-01

    This article reviews marketed pharmacologic treatments for Alzheimer disease as well as their efficacy, effectiveness, adverse effects, and issues involved in their use, including duration of treatment, adverse events, and controversies. Current experimental drug development, including challenges to developing successful drugs for Alzheimer disease, are also reviewed and assessed. Cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine are the available pharmacologic treatment options. They show limited clinical effects over the shorter term for some patients, mild to moderate cholinergic adverse effects in a minority of patients, and potentially underappreciated toxicity over the longer term. No subsequent experimental drug in development has been successful thus far; there has not been a new drug marketed for Alzheimer disease since 2003. Cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine are marketed for the treatment of Alzheimer disease. Drug development programs aimed at new targets, including the amyloid-β cascade, have been unsuccessful thus far despite their designs to detect very small or minimal clinical effects from the experimental drugs. Marked advances in preclinical science nevertheless support a basis for considerable optimism that effective interventions will be found soon.

  4. Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Research Update and Gap Analysis: 3 - Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, L; Knight-Jones, T J D; Charleston, B; Rodriguez, L L; Gay, C G; Sumption, K J; Vosloo, W

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed research knowledge gaps in the field of FMDV (foot-and-mouth disease virus) vaccines. The study took the form of a literature review (2011-15) combined with research updates collected in 2014 from 33 institutes from across the world. Findings were used to identify priority areas for future FMD vaccine research. Vaccines play a vital role in FMD control, used both to limit the spread of the virus during epidemics in FMD-free countries and as the mainstay of disease management in endemic regions, particularly where sanitary controls are difficult to apply. Improvements in the performance or cost-effectiveness of FMD vaccines will allow more widespread and efficient disease control. FMD vaccines have changed little in recent decades, typically produced by inactivation of whole virus, the quantity and stability of the intact viral capsids in the final preparation being key for immunogenicity. However, these are exciting times and several promising novel FMD vaccine candidates have recently been developed. This includes the first FMD vaccine licensed for manufacture and use in the USA; this adenovirus-vectored FMD vaccine causes in vivo expression of viral capsids in vaccinated animals. Another promising vaccine candidate comprises stabilized empty FMDV capsids produced in vitro in a baculovirus expression system. Recombinant technologies are also being developed to improve otherwise conventionally produced inactivated vaccines, for example, by creating a chimeric vaccine virus to increase capsid stability and by inserting sequences into the vaccine virus for desired antigen expression. Other important areas of ongoing research include enhanced adjuvants, vaccine quality control procedures and predicting vaccine protection from immune correlates, thus reducing dependency on animal challenge studies. Globally, the degree of independent vaccine evaluation is highly variable, and this is essential for vaccine quality. Previously neglected, the

  5. [Progress in epigenetic research on Alzheimer disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nannan; Wei, Yang; Xu, Qian; Tang, Beisha

    2016-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder, which features mainly with memory impairment as the initial symptom of progressive loss of cognitive function. Its main pathological changes include senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. The pathogenesis of AD is still unclear, though it may be connected with aging, genetic factors and environmental factors. Among these, aging and environmental factors can be modified by epigenetics. In this paper, advances in the study of epigenetic mechanisms related to the pathogenesis of AD are reviewed.

  6. Research Program in Tropical Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-14

    with sickle cell disease, meningitis, dysentery, or evidence of peritonitis, wound infection, pneumonia, tuberculosis or HIV infection were not...of the following: Glucantime, 15% paromomycin cream and traditional medicine ( herbs , leaf and root extracts, topical acid and/or burns). All BDF...and traditional medicine ( herbs , leaf and root extracts, topical acid or burns). All BDF patient Leishmania cultures were negative. An aspirate from

  7. Example Elaboration as a Neglected Instructional Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girill, T R

    2001-07-18

    Over the last decade an unfolding cognitive-psychology research program on how learners use examples to develop effective problem solving expertise has yielded well-established empirical findings. Chi et al., Renkl, Reimann, and Neubert (in various papers) have confirmed statistically significant differences in how good and poor learners inferentially elaborate (self explain) example steps as they study. Such example elaboration is highly relevant to software documentation and training, yet largely neglected in the current literature. This paper summarizes the neglected research on example use and puts its neglect in a disciplinary perspective. The author then shows that differences in support for example elaboration in commercial software documentation reveal previously over looked usability issues. These issues involve example summaries, using goals and goal structures to reinforce example elaborations, and prompting readers to recognize the role of example parts. Secondly, I show how these same example elaboration techniques can build cognitive maturity among underperforming high school students who study technical writing. Principle based elaborations, condition elaborations, and role recognition of example steps all have their place in innovative, high school level, technical writing exercises, and all promote far transfer problem solving. Finally, I use these studies to clarify the constructivist debate over what writers and readers contribute to text meaning. I argue that writers can influence how readers elaborate on examples, and that because of the great empirical differences in example study effectiveness (and reader choices) writers should do what they can (through within text design features) to encourage readers to elaborate examples in the most successful ways. Example elaboration is a uniquely effective way to learn from worked technical examples. This paper summarizes years of research that clarifies example elaboration. I then show how example

  8. Is pain a significant factor in elder self-neglect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickens, Sabrina; Burnett, Jason; Naik, Aanand D; Holmes, Holly M; Dyer, Carmel Bitondo

    2006-01-01

    Pain is a worldwide health concern leading to cognitive impairments, depression, and decline in activities of daily living when poorly controlled. Self-neglect is also a serious public health issue being the most common allegation reported to Adult Protective Services (APS). The purpose of this analysis is to determine whether self-reported pain is associated with validated cases of self-neglect compared with matched controls. This is a cross-sectional study of 80 (APS) validated cases of self-neglect aged 65 years and older and 80 control participants recruited from a geriatric clinic at Harris County Hospital District. Control participants were matched for age, race, gender, and zip code. Both groups were administered the Wong-Baker FACES rating scale and the Mini-Mental State Examination in their homes by a geriatric nurse practitioner and a research assistant. Self-reported pain was noted in 43% of the self-neglect group compared with only 28% in the control group (X2 = 3.85, df = 1, p = .05). This difference became non-significant after stratifying for MMSE scores of 19 or greater (X2 = 3.38, df = 1, p = .066). The self-neglecting elderly also reported significantly higher levels of pain compared with the matched controls (t = 2.5, df = 143, p = .014). This mean difference remained significant after stratifying by MMSE scores of 19 or greater (t = 2.6, df = 124, p = .009). The data provide preliminary support for the relationship between self-reported pain and elder self-neglect. Research is needed to determine whether pain is a causal or associated factor in self-neglect and whether therapeutic intervention can improve the syndrome of self-neglect.

  9. Biomarker Research in Parkinson's Disease Using Metabolite Profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Jesper F; Heegaard, Niels H H; Færgeman, Nils J K

    2017-01-01

    Biomarker research in Parkinson's disease (PD) has long been dominated by measuring dopamine metabolites or alpha-synuclein in cerebrospinal fluid. However, these markers do not allow early detection, precise prognosis or monitoring of disease progression. Moreover, PD is now considered a multifa......Biomarker research in Parkinson's disease (PD) has long been dominated by measuring dopamine metabolites or alpha-synuclein in cerebrospinal fluid. However, these markers do not allow early detection, precise prognosis or monitoring of disease progression. Moreover, PD is now considered...

  10. Rare lung disease research: strategies for improving identification and recruitment of research participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Samir; Bayoumi, Ahmed M; Faughnan, Marie E

    2011-11-01

    Research in rare lung diseases faces methodologic limitations by virtue of the small number of participants available to be studied. We explored several strategies that may improve researchers' ability to identify and recruit research participants with rare lung diseases. We provide an overview of strategies based on available evidence, previously used approaches, and reasoning. First, disease detection is generally poor and may be improved through strategies targeted at primary care practitioners or directly at patients, thus increasing the pool of patients available for research studies. Next, standardization of case definitions in rare lung diseases is often lacking, hindering research recruitment efforts because of confusion over appropriate recruitment criteria. Expert consensus statements can enhance both clinical care and research recruitment by standardizing definitions. Finally, recruitment strategies using rare lung disease registries, clinical research networks, novel Internet-based direct patient recruitment approaches, and patient organizations may facilitate recruitment of patients with rare lung diseases. In summary, although several strategies for improving the identification and recruitment of research participants with rare lung diseases have been proposed, published examples are few. Objective measurement and reporting of novel recruitment methods and collaboration among researchers facing the same limitations across various rare lung diseases are required. Advancements in this area are vital to the design and performance of much-needed robust clinical studies across the spectrum of rare lung diseases.

  11. Database tools in genetic diseases research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Anna Monica; Marcuzzi, Annalisa; Zanin, Valentina; Girardelli, Martina; Vuch, Josef; Crovella, Sergio

    2013-02-01

    The knowledge of the human genome is in continuous progression: a large number of databases have been developed to make meaningful connections among worldwide scientific discoveries. This paper reviews bioinformatics resources and database tools specialized in disseminating information regarding genetic disorders. The databases described are useful for managing sample sequences, gene expression and post-transcriptional regulation. In relation to data sets available from genome-wide association studies, we describe databases that could be the starting point for developing studies in the field of complex diseases, particularly those in which the causal genes are difficult to identify.

  12. ICT Research Directions in Disease Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mads Ronald; Boye, Niels; Hietala, Henri

    2011-01-01

    Despite long-term awareness that many chronic diseases are the product of unhealthy lifestyles our health promotion responses have not been very effective. One only needs to look at the statistics of OECD Health Data and CDC in USA to note that most countries are “in deep trouble”. Some call health...... the prevention of non-communicable (lifestyle related) diseases. What we have outlined in this report is a Health Outreach activity that is needed to support individuals in managing their lifestyles and where ICT can help individuals to navigate their health journeys. The White Paper is primarily aimed...... at providing a baseline for the planning of R&D activities that could be supported in the 8th Framework Program of the European Commission. In a nutshell, we would like to create a move towards a considered approach to “Engineer AwarenessTM”1 to move the field away from the medical push of “compliant patients...

  13. Research Program In Tropical Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-15

    Rockville, Maryland 20852 REPORT DATE: December 15, 1991 Tic XL rCa - TYPE OF REPORT: Annual Report 5 PREPARED FOR: U.S. ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH AND...used for acute diagnos- tic procedures is located in the hospital. The majority of diagnostic and public health laboratory procedures are performed at...282- 297, 12. Organizacion Panamericana de la Salud (1989). XXXIV Reunion. Situacion de los programas de malaria en las Americas. XXXVII Informe

  14. Mycetoma: a unique neglected tropical disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijlstra, Eduard E; van de Sande, Wendy W J; Welsh, Oliverio; Mahgoub, El Sheikh; Goodfellow, Michael; Fahal, Ahmed H

    2016-01-01

    Mycetoma can be caused by bacteria (actinomycetoma) or fungi (eumycetoma) and typically affects poor communities in remote areas. It is an infection of subcutaneous tissues resulting in mass and sinus formation and a discharge that contains grains. The lesion is usually on the foot but all parts of the body can be affected. The causative microorganisms probably enter the body by a thorn prick or other lesions of the skin. Mycetoma has a worldwide distribution but is restricted to specific climate zones. Microbiological diagnosis and characterisation of the exact organism causing mycetoma is difficult; no reliable serological test exists but molecular techniques to identify relevant antigens have shown promise. Actinomycetoma is treated with courses of antibiotics, which usually include co-trimoxazole and amikacin. Eumycetoma has no acceptable treatment at present; antifungals such as ketoconazole and itraconazole have been used but are unable to eradicate the fungus, need to be given for long periods, and are expensive. Amputations and recurrences in patients with eumycetoma are common. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Neglect subtypes, race, and poverty: individual, family, and service characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Drake, Brett; Zhou, Pan

    2013-02-01

    Recent child maltreatment research has highlighted the very different context of poverty for Black and White children. Neglect is the most common form of maltreatment and strongly associated with poverty. Neglect is, however, not a unitary construct. We lack an understanding of whether reporting of and responding to different types of neglect may vary by poverty, race, or the intersection of the two. Administrative census, child welfare, welfare, health, and education data were used to examine how family and community poverty factors associate with various subtypes of neglect and subsequent case dispositions for Black and White children. Black children reported to child welfare reside in far poorer communities than Whites, even after taking into account family income (Aid to Families with Dependent Children [AFDC]/Temporary Aid to Needy Families [TANF]). Black children were more commonly reported and substantiated for severe and basic needs neglect. Community poverty indicators had a different relationship to report disposition for Black as compared to White children after controlling for neglect subtypes, child and family characteristics. Implications for practice and policy are discussed.

  16. Research progress on the red cell diseases in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Lan-zhu; SHAO Zong-hong

    2012-01-01

    In recent years,there have been lots of progresses in the studies on red cell diseases in China,especially bone marrow failure diseases including immune-related pancytopenia,aplastic anemia,myelodysplastic syndrome,and paroxymal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.Numerous laboratory experiments as well as clinical researches have been carried out by Chinese hematologists,which brought about much clearer pathogenesis,more rational diagnosis methods and more effective therapies for red cell diseases.

  17. Childhood neglect: The role of the paediatrician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeshin, Brooks R; Dubowitz, Howard

    2013-10-01

    Neglect is a pervasive form of child maltreatment. Health care practitioners often struggle with deciding when an action (or lack of action) by a caregiver constitutes inadequate care and is neglectful. The present article discusses the epidemiology, risk factors and outcomes of neglect. In addition, assessment using objective markers, such as harm and potential harm, in the identification of neglect is described, and unique factors that impact assessing and addressing issues of neglect in the clinical setting are discussed. Practical strategies for intervening in cases of neglect are discussed, including how to engage families in which there are concerns for neglect, mandated reporting, working collaboratively with children's services, ongoing monitoring of families, and how health care professionals can effectively engage in neglect prevention and advocacy.

  18. What Is Child Abuse and Neglect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Each State provides its own definitions of child abuse and neglect based on minimum standards set by Federal law. This fact sheet provides the answers to the following questions: (1) How is child abuse and neglect defined in Federal law?; and (2) What are the major types of child abuse and neglect? Additional resources are listed. (Contains 2…

  19. Lyme borreliosis: A neglected zoonosis in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhelw, Rehab A; El-Enbaawy, Mona I; Samir, Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causal organism of Lyme borreliosis. In Egypt, available data about the occurrence of Lyme disease are scarce and no structured studies documented the presence of Lyme borreliosis in Egyptian animals and tick reservoirs verifying its zoonotic evidence. Besides, no successful trials to isolate B. burgdorferi from clinical samples have occurred. This study was conducted to investigate B. burgdorferi infection as an emerging zoonosis neglected in Egypt. A total number of 92 animals, tick and human companion specimens were collected and subjected for culture, PCR and/or serodetection. B. burgdorferi has been detected and isolated from Egyptian animal breeds. We also detected the presence of outer surface protein A gene of B. burgdorferi by PCR as well as anti-B. burgdorferi IgM by ELISA in human contacts who were suffering from fever of unknown origin. This report represents the first systematic study on animals associated with patients suffering from febrile illness to confirm the emerging of such neglected zoonosis in Egypt.

  20. Integrating mental health into cardiovascular disease research in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Gitanjali; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2012-01-01

    Mental health refers to a diverse field where individuals can cope with daily stress, realize their potential and maintain a state of well-being. In recent years, there has been increasing recognition of the influence of mental health on general health, and in particular on cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors. Epidemiological research has focused on several psychosocial components including social determinants, comorbid psychiatric disorders, psychological stress, coping styles, social support, burden on the family, well-being, life satisfaction, personality and cognitive factors in connection with cardiovascular diseases. There is epidemiological research in India that integrates mental health with common cardiovascular diseases such as coronary health disease and stroke. Data from mental health research is sufficiently compelling to highlight the role of chronic stress, socioeconomic status and psychiatric disorders such as depression, substance use, social networks and support in relation to vulnerability to cardiovascular diseases. There are psychosocial consequences of cardiovascular diseases including deficits in the domains of life skills, coping skills and neurocognition, in addition to caregiver burden. The implications of bio-psychosocial models of assessments and interventions that target complex individual and contextual variables simultaneously on cardiovascular treatment outcomes have highlighted the importance of studying mental health in Indian settings. Integration of mental health into mainstream research is the need of the hour. A multidimensional approach to accomplish this is required including at the level of research conceptualization, discussions with key stakeholders, at the policy level, at the institutional level, and at the clinical and community level.

  1. [Research advances in pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Dong-Ling

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased because of the growing prevalence of obesity and overweight in the pediatric population. It has become the most common form of chronic liver diseases in children and the related research on NAFLD is expanded. The "two-hit" and "multiple hit" hypothesis have been widely accepted, and some research has shown that genetic, diet structure and environmental factors appear to play a crucial role in the development of pediatric NAFLD. Though it is expected by researchers, there is not an available satisfactory noninvasive marker for the diagnosis of this disease. Fortunately, some new non-invasive prediction scores for pediatric NAFLD have been developed. There is currently no established special therapy, and lifestyle intervention should be adequate for most cases of NAFLD in children. This article reviews the advances in the current knowledge and ideas concerning pediatric NAFLD, and discusses the diagnosis, perspective therapies and scoring methods for this disease.

  2. Surgical Robotics Research in Cardiovascular Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohost, Gerald M; Guthrie, Barton L; Steiner, Charles

    2008-02-29

    This grant is to support a research in robotics at three major medical centers: the University of Southern California-USC- (Project 1); the University of Alabama at Birmingham-UAB-(Project 2); and the Cleveland Clinic Foundation-CCF-(Project 3). Project 1 is oriented toward cardiovascular applications, while projects 2 and 3 are oriented toward neurosurgical applications. The main objective of Project 1 is to develop an approach to assist patients in maintaining a constant level of stress while undergoing magnetic resonance imaging or spectroscopy. The specific project is to use handgrip to detect the changes in high energy phosphate metabolism between rest and stress. The high energy phosphates, ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr) are responsible for the energy of the heart muscle (myocardium) responsible for its contractile function. If the blood supply to the myocardium in insufficient to support metabolism and contractility during stress, the high energy phosphates, particularly PCr, will decrease in concentration. The high energy phosphates can be tracked using phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 31}P MRS). In Project 2 the UAB Surgical Robotics project focuses on the use of virtual presence to assist with remote surgery and surgical training. The goal of this proposal was to assemble a pilot system for proof of concept. The pilot project was completed successfully and was judged to demonstrate that the concept of remote surgical assistance as applied to surgery and surgical training was feasible and warranted further development. The main objective of Project 3 is to develop a system to allow for the tele-robotic delivery of instrumentation during a functional neurosurgical procedure (Figure 3). Instrumentation such as micro-electrical recording probes or deep brain stimulation leads. Current methods for the delivery of these instruments involve the integration of linear actuators to stereotactic navigation systems. The control of these delivery

  3. Visual neglect in posterior cortical atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Katia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In posterior cortical atrophy (PCA, there is a progressive impairment of high-level visual functions and parietal damage, which might predict the occurrence of visual neglect. However, neglect may pass undetected if not assessed with specific tests, and might therefore be underestimated in PCA. In this prospective study, we aimed at establishing the side, the frequency and the severity of visual neglect, visual extinction, and primary visual field defects in an unselected sample of PCA patients. Methods Twenty-four right-handed PCA patients underwent a standardized battery of neglect tests. Visual fields were examined clinically by the confrontation method. Results Sixteen of the 24 patients (66% had signs of visual neglect on at least one test, and fourteen (58% also had visual extinction or hemianopia. Five patients (21% had neither neglect nor visual field defects. As expected, left-sided neglect was more severe than right-sided neglect. However, right-sided neglect resulted more frequently in this population (29% than in previous studies on focal brain lesions. Conclusion When assessed with specific visuospatial tests, visual neglect is frequent in patients with PCA. Diagnosis of neglect is important because of its negative impact on daily activities. Clinicians should consider the routine use of neglect tests to screen patients with high-level visual deficits. The relatively high frequency of right-sided neglect in neurodegenerative patients supports the hypothesis that bilateral brain damage is necessary for right-sided neglect signs to occur, perhaps because of the presence in the right hemisphere of crucial structures whose damage contributes to neglect.

  4. Self-neglect in older adults: a primer for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlou, Maria P; Lachs, Mark S

    2008-11-01

    Self-neglect in older adults is an increasingly prevalent, poorly understood problem, crossing both the medical and social arenas, with public health implications. Although lacking a standardized definition, self-neglect is characterized by profound inattention to health and hygiene. In light of the aging demographic, physicians of all specialties will increasingly encounter self-neglectors. We outline here practical strategies for the clinician, and suggestions for the researcher. Clinical evaluation should include attention to medical history, cognition, function, social networks, psychiatric screen and environment. The individual's capacity is often questioned, and interventions are case-based. More research is needed in basic epidemiology and risk factors of the problem, so that targeted interventions may be designed and tested. The debate of whether self-neglect is a medical versus societal problem remains unresolved, yet as health sequelae are part of the syndrome, physicians should be part of the solution.

  5. Neglected zoonotic helminths: Hymenolepis nana, Echinococcus canadensis and Ancylostoma ceylanicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R C A

    2015-05-01

    The majority of helminth parasites that are considered by WHO to be the cause of 'neglected diseases' are zoonotic. In terms of their impact on human health, the role of animal reservoirs and polyparasitism are both emerging issues in understanding the epidemiology of a number of these zoonoses. As such, Hymenolepis (Rodentolepis) nana, Echinococcus canadensis and Ancylostoma ceylanicum all qualify for consideration. They have been neglected and there is increasing evidence that all three parasite infections deserve more attention in terms of their impact on public health as well as their control.

  6. Severe self-neglect: an epidemiological and historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poythress, Edward Lee; Burnett, Jason; Naik, Aanand D; Pickens, Sabrina; Dyer, Carmel Bitondo

    2006-01-01

    Older adults with severe self-neglect have multiple deficits in various social, functional and physical domains, and often live insqualor. These individuals often present with poor personal hygiene, domestic squalor and hoarding which results in a threat to their own health as well as personal and public safety. Severe self-neglect occurs along a continuum with older adults often having cognitive and affective disorders compared with younger individuals presenting with psychiatric illnesses. In cases of severe self-neglect with hoarding, evidence has shown this behavior occurs in diverse social strata and not among the wealthy and professionals alone as believed earlier. Due to the multiple conditions associated with severe self-neglect, this population will require an interdisciplinary, multidimensional approach to reduce morbidity and mortality rates including nursing home placement. Research on this group has been limited and is rarely described in the medical and nursing literature. Future research is needed to provide practitioners with effective screening instruments and interventions on cases of severe self-neglect.

  7. Patient neglect in healthcare institutions: a systematic review and conceptual model

    OpenAIRE

    Reader, Tom W; Gillespie, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Background\\ud Patient neglect is an issue of increasing public concern in Europe and North America, yet remains poorly understood. This is the first systematic review on the nature, frequency and causes of patient neglect as distinct from patient safety topics such as medical error.\\ud \\ud Method\\ud The Pubmed, Science Direct, and Medline databases were searched in order to identify research studies investigating patient neglect. Ten articles and four government reports met the inclusion crit...

  8. Homocysteine and Cognitive Performance in Elders with Self-Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Elevated plasma homocysteine has been associated with altered cognitive performance in older adults. Elders referred to Adult Protective Services (APS) for self-neglect have been reported to have elevated plasma homocysteine levels and to suffer from cognitive impairment. This study assesses the association, if any, between plasma homocysteine and cognitive performance among elders with self-neglect. Methods: Sixty-five community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 matched controls (matched for age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS), the Wolf-Klein Clock Drawing Tests (CDT) and a comprehensive nutritional biochemistry panel, which included plasma homocysteine. Student s t tests and Pearson correlations were conducted to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Elders with self-neglect had significantly higher plasma homocysteine levels (M=12.68umol/L, sd=4.4) compared to the controls (M=10.40umol/L, sd=3.61;t=3.21, df=127, p=.002). There were no statistically significant associations between cognitive performance and plasma homocysteine in the self-neglect group, however there was a significant correlation between plasma homocysteine and the CDT among the controls (r=-.296, p=.022). Conclusion: Mean plasma homocysteine levels were significantly higher in elders with self-neglect, however, they do not appear to be related to cognitive performance, indicating that cognitive impairment in elder self-neglect involve mechanisms other than hyperhomocysteinemia. These findings warrant further investigation

  9. Homocysteine and Cognitive Performance in Elders with Self-Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Elevated plasma homocysteine has been associated with altered cognitive performance in older adults. Elders referred to Adult Protective Services (APS) for self-neglect have been reported to have elevated plasma homocysteine levels and to suffer from cognitive impairment. This study assesses the association, if any, between plasma homocysteine and cognitive performance among elders with self-neglect. Methods: Sixty-five community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 matched controls (matched for age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS), the Wolf-Klein Clock Drawing Tests (CDT) and a comprehensive nutritional biochemistry panel, which included plasma homocysteine. Student s t tests and Pearson correlations were conducted to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Elders with self-neglect had significantly higher plasma homocysteine levels (M=12.68umol/L, sd=4.4) compared to the controls (M=10.40umol/L, sd=3.61;t=3.21, df=127, p=.002). There were no statistically significant associations between cognitive performance and plasma homocysteine in the self-neglect group, however there was a significant correlation between plasma homocysteine and the CDT among the controls (r=-.296, p=.022). Conclusion: Mean plasma homocysteine levels were significantly higher in elders with self-neglect, however, they do not appear to be related to cognitive performance, indicating that cognitive impairment in elder self-neglect involve mechanisms other than hyperhomocysteinemia. These findings warrant further investigation

  10. Biofeedback therapy in cardiovascular disease: rationale and research overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Christine S

    2008-03-01

    Biofeedback has much therapeutic potential in cardiovascular diseases, since many of these diseases involve dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system. Studies have clearly demonstrated that patients can use biofeedback techniques to regulate the input of the autonomic nervous system to the heart, but the clinical utility of these techniques has not been well explored in systematic trials. Much biofeedback research to date has focused on patients with hypertension, but outcomes have been inconclusive. Preliminary studies suggest that heart rate variability biofeedback may be useful in improving symptoms and quality of life in patients with cardiac disease, and early studies suggest a possible effect of biofeedback on remodeling of the failing heart. Both of these areas require further research, however. Biofeedback is increasingly used as an adjunct to stress management in cardiac rehabilitation programs, providing the impetus for a large-scale, systematic study of self-regulation in cardiac disease.

  11. Application and Research Development of Ectomycorrhizae on Forest Disease Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGYuan; JIAXiuzhen; LIANGJun; ZHANGXingyao

    2004-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizae (ECM) is becoming the research hotspot because it can improve plant nutrient cycling and storage and strengthen plant resistance to adversity and disease. It is well known that ECM can enhance plant resistance to soil-borne and stem diseases. The mechanisms mainly include: plant tender roots will be protected well by sheath; ECM can facilitate uptake and transport capacity of nutrition and water to roots and increase plants vigor; ECM can control or block pathogens to invade trees; ECM can activate resistance-related enzymes of the hosts; it also can form rhizosphere microbial colony and establish root-rhizosphere micro-ecological environment. So mycorrhizal technology has become one of the most important methods of ecological control and biological control of plant diseases. This paper summarizes the application and development of ECM in forest disease control and also raises some ideas on their theory and application researches in the future.

  12. Research advances in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Hu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has been developing rapidly in recent years and has become one of the most common liver diseases. However, its pathogenesis remains unclear, and there are no widely accepted therapeutic regimens. NAFLD has a complex pathogenesis with multiple factors involved, including insulin resistance, oxidative stress, bile acid metabolic disorders, and autophagy. This article reviews the pathogenesis of NAFLD in order to provide a reference for further research and clinical treatment in the future.

  13. Research progress on animal models of Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen DONG

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a degenerative disease of the central nervous system, and its pathogenesis is complex. Animal models play an important role in study on pathogenesis and treatment of AD. This paper summarized methods of building models, observation on animal models and evaluation index in recent years, so as to provide related evidence for basic and clinical research in future. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.08.003

  14. Less research on tuberculosis than HIV and malaria when research agendas are poorly coordinated: a systematic review of research outputs from Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishal Khan

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: Despite substantial investments, important research areas appear to have been neglected in Cambodia; specifically, studies on TB and studies involving economic, qualitative, interventional, and genomics methods. The inter-disease disparity in published research in Cambodia identified, considered alongside disease burden, suggests that an increase in TB research may be needed to inform control strategies.

  15. [Views for research development of control of parasitic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin-Ping; Dong, Hui-Fen; Jiang, Ming-Sen

    2013-12-01

    With the social and technological development, new understandings have been emerged for the research development of the control of parasitic diseases. The present review argues that: the traditional point of view for the control of parasitic diseases, eliminating parasites/media, should be updated. For the long-term interests of science and human perspective, biological diversity, including the parasite biodiversity, and ecological environment should be paid much more attention during the control of parasitic diseases. The leading role of society, economy and culture should be fully developed in the control of parasitic diseases with the progress of scientific and technology, to find a final way of sustainable development in the control of parasitic diseases.

  16. School Help Professionals' Ideas on Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usakli, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    Method: In this study, a qualitative research has been carried out; there were interviews with 50 school counselors working in Sinop; they stated their ideas on child abuse and neglect. Analysis: Data collected via semi constructed interviews have been subjected to descriptive and content analysis.The participant counselors were asked three…

  17. Self-neglect and neglect of vulnerable older adults: reexamination of etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Namkee G; Kim, Jinseok; Asseff, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Using assessment and investigation data from the reported APS cases in Texas, this study examines the types of elder self-neglect and neglect, including medical neglect. It then examines the association between self-neglect and neglect and individual economic resources as well as health care and social service programs for the poor. The findings show that elder self-neglect/neglect is, in large part, attributable to frail older adults' and their families' lack of resources to pay for essential goods and services and the inadequate healthcare and other formal support programs for the older adults and their caregivers. This inadequate public policy coverage, rather than individual and intrafamily risk factors per se, needs to be considered as a significant cause of elder self-neglect/neglect.

  18. Experimental chemotherapy for Chagas disease: 15 years of research contributions from in vivo and in vitro studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Nazaré C Soeiro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease, which is caused by the intracellular parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is a neglected illness with 12-14 million reported cases in endemic geographic regions of Latin America. While the disease still represents an important public health problem in these affected areas, the available therapy, which was introduced more than four decades ago, is far from ideal due to its substantial toxicity, its limited effects on different parasite stocks, and its poor activity during the chronic phase of the disease. For the past 15 years, our group, in collaboration with research groups focused on medicinal chemistry, has been working on experimental chemotherapies for Chagas disease, investigating the biological activity, toxicity, selectivity and cellular targets of different classes of compounds on T. cruzi. In this report, we present an overview of these in vitro and in vivo studies, focusing on the most promising classes of compounds with the aim of contributing to the current knowledge of the treatment of Chagas disease and aiding in the development of a new arsenal of candidates with anti-T. cruzi efficacy.

  19. ETHICAL, SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL AND MEDICAL ASPECTS OF CHILD NEGLECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Diaconescu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Child neglect was and continues to be a matter of both professional and public interest, thoroughly debated by child protection researchers and specialists, sociologists, psychologists and social workers, specialists in education and health. Drawing on some examples encountered in current medical practice, we tried to identify the causal factors of child neglect from a medical point of view and the attitude that healthcare professionals should adopt towards such situations. The correct and efficient management of medical neglect cases requires an assessment of the child’s needs, the identification of the parents’ resources and guidance of their efforts so as to properly cater to the child’s needs for the purpose of ensuring the optimum health of the latter.

  20. Sequelae of neglected senile cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhany Y

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cataract is the most common cause of blindness in the world. An attack of phacolytic and phacomorphic glaucoma as a result of neglected cataract constitutes a medical emergency that must be addressed immediately. Ocular emergencies such as these is challenging for the surgeon with guarded or poor prognosis. We describe the presentation, management and prognosis of three cases of phacomorphic and phacolytic glaucoma. All three patients underwent aggressive management of intraocular pressure. Despite successful cataract operation with implantation of intraocular lens, there was only mild improvement of the vision. Optic nerve and pupil functions were permanently affected following the insult. Phacomorphic and phacolytic glaucoma present a very challenging problem to the surgeon with poor visual outcome. Public health education and awareness are important and health workers should encourage patients with cataract to seek early treatment for better prognosis.

  1. Participatory Research for Chronic Disease Prevention in Inuit Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Roache, Cindy; Kratzmann, Meredith; Reid, Rhonda; Ogina, Julia; Sharma, Sangita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To develop a community-based chronic disease prevention program for Inuit in Nunavut, Canada. Methods: Stakeholders contributed to intervention development through formative research [in-depth interviews (n = 45), dietary recalls (n = 42)], community workshops, group feedback and implementation training. Results: Key cultural themes…

  2. Flocculation of venereal disease research laboratory reagent by Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, K D; von Recklinghausen, G; Heintschel von Heinegg, E; Ansorg, R

    1991-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori strains flocculated with Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) reagent in a glass slide test. Other pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains were nonreactive. The specific VDRL reaction property of Helicobacter pylori indicates an affinity of the cells for lipoidal substances, and can be used as a diagnostic aid for species identification.

  3. Definition, Measuring and Prevalence of Child Neglect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Else

    group, although at least four per cent of all children under one year of age, is subjected to child abuse and neglect. In her study, Else Christensen has attempted to estimate the extent of the problem among children under the age of one year. Furthermose, she has made a theoetical and practical...... clarification of the concept child abuse and neglect. Excatly which signs is the health nurse to observe in order to employ the serious term child abuse and neglect?...

  4. Definition, Measuring and Prevalence of Child Neglect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Else

    group, although at least four per cent of all children under one year of age, is subjected to child abuse and neglect. In her study, Else Christensen has attempted to estimate the extent of the problem among children under the age of one year. Furthermose, she has made a theoetical and practical...... clarification of the concept child abuse and neglect. Excatly which signs is the health nurse to observe in order to employ the serious term child abuse and neglect?...

  5. An Investigation of the Relationship Between Substance Abuse and Child Abuse and Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Rebecca; Mayer, Joseph

    Research on the role of alcoholism and opiate addiction in child abuse and neglect is reviewed, and a study of the adequacy of child care in families of 200 alcohol or opiate addicted parents is reported. Demographic data is included, and incidence and characteristics of physical and sexual abuse and neglect are reported. Sex of the addicted…

  6. Interdisciplinary communication in inpatient rehabilitation facility: evidence of under-documentation of spatial neglect after stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peii; McKenna, Cristin; Kutlik, Ann M.; Frisina, Pasquale G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Spatial neglect commonly occurs after stroke and predicts poor rehabilitation outcomes. However, this disorder is under-recognized in clinical practices, which may result from the failure to document its presence. This study aimed to identify the predictors for documentation of spatial neglect in inpatient rehabilitation facilities. Method We performed a comprehensive chart review to investigate whether the presence of spatial neglect was documented in 74 neglect patients’ clinical notes recorded by physicians, nurses, or occupational therapists (OTs), or in team conference notes. Independent variables included neglect severity, length of stay, Functional Independence Measure at admission and discharge. Results Of the 74 neglect patients, 75.7% were documented by OTs, 63.5% by physicians, and 17.6% by nurses. Although 93.2% of neglect patients were recognized by at least one clinician group, only 31.1% were discussed in multidisciplinary team conferences. Neglect patients who were documented by physicians were more likely to be documented in team conferences. While no factors predicted whether a neglect patient would be documented by nurses or OTs, we found significant predictors for neglect documentation in physician and team conference notes. The odds of being documented by physicians were increasingly greater with poorer efficiency of cognitive rehabilitation (odds ratio = 0.70). The odds of being discussed in team conferences were increasingly greater with more severe neglect (odds ratio = 0.98), and with longer stay in hospitalization (odds ratio = 1.06). Conclusions Multidisciplinary care may not involve as much interdisciplinary communication as needed to document important disease states. Stroke rehabilitation professionals should be able to recognize spatial neglect independently and document it consistently. PMID:23072734

  7. NMR metabolomics of human blood and urine in disease research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Iola F; Diaz, Sílvia O; Gil, Ana M

    2014-05-01

    This paper reviews the main applications of NMR metabolomics of blood and urine in disease research, over the last 5 years. The broad range of disease types addressed attests the increasing interest within the academic and medical communities to explore the recognised potential of metabolomics to (1) provide insight into underlying disease pathogenesis and (2) unveil new metabolic markers for disease diagnosis and follow up. Importantly, most recent studies reveal an increasing awareness of possible limitations and pitfalls of the metabolomics approach, together with efforts for improved study design and statistical validation, which are crucial requisites for the sound development of NMR metabolomics and its progress into the clinical setting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Correlate of self-care and self-neglect among community-dwelling older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardan, Homa; Hamid, TengkuAizan; Redzuan, Ma’rof; Ibrahim, Rahimah

    2014-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of self-neglect among the elderly is expected to rise with a rapid increase in the growth of the older population. However, self-neglect in the elderly and the factors related to it are not fully understood due to the limited research in the area, lack of consensus in the definition of the concept, and limited instrumentation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between selected socio-demographic factors on self-care and self-neglect among older persons living in the community. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey design with cluster sampling was adopted for the study. Data were gathered from 201 older persons aged 60 years and over in the state of Selangor, Malaysia, through face-to-face interviews in their homes with a team of trained enumerators. A new instrument was developed to measure self-neglect. Results: The internal consistency of the new instrument showed a reliability of 0.90. A significant bivariate relationship was noted between self-care and self-neglect. The socio-demographic factors were also reported between self-care and self-neglect. Conclusions: The new instrument of elder self-neglect (ESN) could be used to measure self-neglect in a community dwelling. The need to increase the self-care skills and the capacity of self-care among older adults is crucial in order to reduce self-neglect and enhance their well-being. PMID:25949256

  9. Three views of child neglect: expanding visions of preventive intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, J R

    1984-01-01

    The failure to address child neglect prevention efforts from a system viewpoint is presented as a major impediment to the generation of truly preventive interventions. Child neglect prevention is discussed at three levels: at the level of the individual, at the level of social systems and at the level of fundamental beliefs and cultural agreements. A process of component selection and placement is suggested with component selection based on components drawn from recent research and clinical work. Interventions would be geared to meet the particular needs of individual settings and at the same time be constructed so that each component would mesh with and build on previous components. An outline of a preventive child neglect intervention strategy is presented. Practices of government, the impact of business and technology and economic theory and practice are shown as plausible areas for preventive intervention. Core beliefs upon which social systems are built are challenged. It is stated that too narrow a view of child neglect often limits problem definition and encourages placement of blame at the family level. This decreases the effectiveness of the clinician who is coping with an individual problem as well as the researcher who is exploring the basic issues.

  10. Dairy and Cardiovascular Disease: A Review of Recent Observational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Beth H

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of dairy, including milk, cheese and yogurt, has been associated with better quality of diet and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death globally. The purpose of this review is to examine recent literature on the relationship between dairy consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality. Eighteen observational studies were reviewed, the results of which indicate that total dairy intake does not contribute to cardiovascular disease incidence or death. Based on available data, it appears that milk, cheese, and yogurt are inversely associated with cardiovascular disease risk. Data pertaining to dairy fat were inconclusive, but point to a potential protective effect of full-fat milk, cheese, and yogurt on risk of cardiovascular disease. Currently, there is a need to study specific well-defined foods, as opposed to calculating nutrients, in order to better understand these relationships. Future research need not replicate the body of literature on total dairy consumption and associated risk of disease, but rather should focus on the effects of individual dairy foods on cardiovascular events in male and female populations.

  11. Novel insights in the rehabilitation of neglect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessel, M.E. van; Fasotti, L.

    2013-01-01

    Visuospatial neglect due to right hemisphere damage, usually a stroke, is a major cause of disability, impairing the ability to perform a whole range of everyday life activities. Conventional and long-established methods for the rehabilitation of neglect like visual scanning training, optokinetic st

  12. Child Dental Neglect: A Short Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazani, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Context: Child dental neglect is a terrible tragedy with a high prevalence. Dealing with this issue is important regarding psychological and physical health policies. The current review was conducted to provide health professionals insight into the different aspects of child dental neglect as reported in previous literature. Evidence Acquisition: Our review was prepared through an electronic search using Pub Med, Science Direct, Medline, Google, Cochran Library, Google Scholar and EMBASE databases. Relevant papers published since 2000 until now in English, discussing child dental neglect were retrieved. Both original and review papers were included. Eligible articles were fully read by the author. A data form was used to record useful findings. Results: Distinguishing the direct and indirect signs of dental neglect is the first step for improvement of this matter. The dental team are the main professionals who can improve parental knowledge about the consequences of child dental neglect. Victims suffer from short and long-term adverse outcomes. Collaborative attempts need to be made by different health professionals to deal with this problem. Conclusions: Child dental neglect has many long-term impacts. The main professionals who are responsible for identification, intervention and treatment of child dental neglect are dental practitioners. However, other professionals cannot ignore this task. Finally, child dental neglect, despite its derivative outcomes, may be a presentation of a broader maltreatment. PMID:25741483

  13. Self-Neglect: Development and Evaluation of a Self-Neglect (SN-37) Measurement Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Mary Rose; McCarthy, Geraldine

    2016-08-01

    Self-neglect (SN) is a global phenomenon, largely hidden, poorly defined, and a serious public health issue. It can be intentional or unintentional and depends on the individual's capacity. Creating a safe living environment for self-neglecting adults can present complex ethical challenges. The purpose of this research was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of an instrument to measure professional's perceptions of self-neglect. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used in this two-stage study. Stage 1 involved the generation of an item pool (90 items), face and content validity; and pilot testing of the instrument. In stage 2, the questionnaire was posted to a national sample of community health and social care professionals (n=566) across Ireland, with a 60% response (n=339). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted using scale development guidelines to identify scales and subscales of the instrument. Construct validity was established using EFA. The result was a 37-item SN instrument, composed of five factors: environment, social networks, emotional and behavioural liability, health avoidance, and self-determinism which explained 55.6% of the total variance. Factor loadings were ≥0.40 for all items on each of the five subscales. Cronbach's alpha (α) for four subscales ranged from 0.83 to 0.89 and one subscale was 0.69. The SN-37 can be used not only to measure SN, but also to develop interventions in practice. Further testing of the SN-37 in primary care settings with diverse populations is recommended.

  14. Funding Infectious Disease Research: A Systematic Analysis of UK Research Investments by Funders 1997–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitchett, Joseph R.; Head, Michael G.; Cooke, Mary K.; Wurie, Fatima B.; Atun, Rifat

    2014-01-01

    Background Research investments are essential to address the burden of disease, however allocation of limited resources is poorly documented. We systematically reviewed the investments awarded by funding organisations to UK institutions and their global partners for infectious disease research. Methodology/Principal Findings Public and philanthropic investments for the period 1997 to 2010 were included. We categorised studies by infectious disease, cross-cutting theme, and by research and development value chain, reflecting the type of science. We identified 6165 funded studies, with a total research investment of UK £2.6 billion. Public organisations provided £1.4 billion (54.0%) of investments compared with £1.1 billion (42.4%) by philanthropic organisations. Global health studies represented an investment of £928 million (35.7%). The Wellcome Trust was the leading investor with £688 million (26.5%), closely followed by the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) with £673 million (25.9%). Funding over time was volatile, ranging from ∼£40 million to ∼£160 million per year for philanthropic organisations and ∼£30 million to ∼£230 million for public funders. Conclusions/Significance Infectious disease research funding requires global coordination and strategic long-term vision. Our analysis demonstrates the diversity and inconsistent patterns in investment, with volatility in annual funding amounts and limited investment for product development and clinical trials. PMID:25162631

  15. Funding infectious disease research: a systematic analysis of UK research investments by funders 1997-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitchett, Joseph R; Head, Michael G; Cooke, Mary K; Wurie, Fatima B; Atun, Rifat

    2014-01-01

    Research investments are essential to address the burden of disease, however allocation of limited resources is poorly documented. We systematically reviewed the investments awarded by funding organisations to UK institutions and their global partners for infectious disease research. Public and philanthropic investments for the period 1997 to 2010 were included. We categorised studies by infectious disease, cross-cutting theme, and by research and development value chain, reflecting the type of science. We identified 6165 funded studies, with a total research investment of UK £2.6 billion. Public organisations provided £1.4 billion (54.0%) of investments compared with £1.1 billion (42.4%) by philanthropic organisations. Global health studies represented an investment of £928 million (35.7%). The Wellcome Trust was the leading investor with £688 million (26.5%), closely followed by the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) with £673 million (25.9%). Funding over time was volatile, ranging from ∼£40 million to ∼£160 million per year for philanthropic organisations and ∼£30 million to ∼£230 million for public funders. Infectious disease research funding requires global coordination and strategic long-term vision. Our analysis demonstrates the diversity and inconsistent patterns in investment, with volatility in annual funding amounts and limited investment for product development and clinical trials.

  16. Emphasizing Knowledge Neglecting Morality:The Research on Internal Unbalance of Primary and Middle Schools Education%重智轻德:中小学教育内部失衡问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑晓坤; 姚玉香

    2012-01-01

    重智轻德是我国中小学教育存在的重要问题,也是中小学教育内部失衡的表现。重智轻德导致青少年道德素质低下,给社会发展和人的发展带来巨大的危害。当前重智轻德主要是受功利主义教育价值取向、人才选拔制度以及"学历社会"倾向的影响。要解决中小学教育重智轻德问题,实现教育均衡发展,可以从以下几个方面着手:树立科学的教育观念;改革考试制度;确定科学的人才观念和社会用人制度。%This is an important questions attaching emphasizing knowledge neglecting morality of primary and middle Schools education.Attaching emphasizing knowledge neglecting morality leads to youngsters the quality of moral decline and brings great harm to the development of society and people.At this time,attaching emphasizing knowledge neglecting morality is affected by utilitarianism education value orientation and talent selection system and the tendency of degree society.Therefore,the problem of attaching emphasizing knowledge neglecting morality will be solved and realized the balanced development we need to begin from the following respects: constructing scientific education;reforming test system and making examination;ensuring scientific talent view and employment system.

  17. 20 YEARS OF PROGRESS IN DIARRHEAL DISEASE RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narain H. Punjabi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available When NAMRU started its collaboration work with the National Institute of Health, Research and Development (NIHRD, it became apparent that diarrheal disease was one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in Indonesia, especially in children. Many of the most important etiologic agents of diarrhea were not known and the percentage of diarrheas with an identifiable etiologic agent was very low. Since these early times NAMRU and NIHRD have worked together in all aspects of diarrheal disease research. Increased capabilities for the identification of bac­tériologie, parasitic and viral enteropathogens, new vaccines, and better treatment via oral rehydration solutions are some of the results of this collaboration.

  18. Electroencephalogram and Alzheimer’s Disease: Clinical and Research Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthoula Tsolaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by cognitive deficits, problems in activities of daily living, and behavioral disturbances. Electroencephalogram (EEG has been demonstrated as a reliable tool in dementia research and diagnosis. The application of EEG in AD has a wide range of interest. EEG contributes to the differential diagnosis and the prognosis of the disease progression. Additionally such recordings can add important information related to the drug effectiveness. This review is prepared to form a knowledge platform for the project entitled “Cognitive Signal Processing Lab,” which is in progress in Information Technology Institute in Thessaloniki. The team tried to focus on the main research fields of AD via EEG and recent published studies.

  19. Research advances in animal models of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Haiyan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has increased gradually along with the rising prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hyperlipidemia, and NAFLD has become one of the most common chronic liver diseases in the world and the second major liver disease after chronic viral hepatitis in China. However, its pathogenesis has not yet been clarified. Animal models are playing an important role in researches on NAFLD due to the facts that the development and progression of NAFLD require a long period of time, and ethical limitations exist in conducting drug trials in patients or collecting liver tissues from patients. The animal models with histopathology similar to that of NAFLD patients are reviewed, and their modeling principle, as well as the advantages and disadvantages, are compared. Animal models provide a powerful tool for further studies of NAFLD pathogenesis and drug screening for prevention and treatment of NAFLD.

  20. Chapter 15. Plant pathology and managing wildland plant disease systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Nelson

    2004-01-01

    Obtaining specific, reliable knowledge on plant diseases is essential in wildland shrub resource management. However, plant disease is one of the most neglected areas of wildland resources experimental research. This section is a discussion of plant pathology and how to use it in managing plant disease systems.

  1. Teen birth rates in sexually abused and neglected females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Jennie G; Shenk, Chad E

    2013-04-01

    Prospectively track teen childbirths in maltreated and nonmaltreated females and test the hypothesis that child maltreatment is an independent predictor of subsequent teen childbirth over and above demographic characteristics and other risk factors. Nulliparous adolescent females (N = 435) aged 14 to 17 years were assessed annually through age 19 years. Maltreated females were referred by Child Protective Services agencies for having experienced substantiated sexual abuse, physical abuse, or neglect within the preceding 12 months. Comparison females were matched on race, family income, age and family constellation. Teen childbirth was assessed via self-report during annual interviews. Births were confirmed using hospital delivery records. Seventy participants gave birth during the study, 54 in the maltreated group and 16 in the comparison group. Maltreated females were twice as likely to experience teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds and known risk factors (odds ratio = 2.17, P = 0.01). Birth rates were highest for sexually abused and neglected females. Sexual abuse and neglect were both independent predictors of teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds, other risk factors and alternative forms of maltreatment occurring earlier in development. Results provide evidence that sexual abuse and neglect are unique predictors of subsequent teen childbirth. Partnerships between protective service providers and teen childbirth prevention strategists hold the best promise for further reducing the US teen birth rate. Additional research illuminating the pathways to teen childbirth for differing forms of maltreatment is needed so that tailored interventions can be realized.

  2. Cortical and subcortical anatomy of chronic spatial neglect following vascular damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnider Armin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL and superior temporal gyrus (STG or subcortical pathways as possible anatomical correlates of spatial neglect is currently intensely discussed. Some of the conflicting results might have arisen because patients were examined in the acute stage of disease. Methods We examined the anatomical basis of spatial neglect in a sample of patients examined in the post-acute stage following right-hemispheric vascular brain damage. Lesions of 28 patients with chronic spatial neglect were contrasted to lesions of 22 control patients without neglect using lesion subtraction techniques and voxel-wise comparisons. Results The comparisons identified the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ with underlying white matter, the supramarginal gyrus, the posterior STG, and the insula as brain regions damaged significantly more often in neglect compared to non-neglect patients. In a subgroup of neglect patients showing particularly large cancellation bias together with small errors on line bisection damage was prevalent deep in the frontal lobe while damage of patients with the reverse pattern was located in the white matter of the TPJ. Conclusion Considering our results and the findings of previous studies, spatial neglect appears to be associated with a network of regions involving the TPJ, inferior IPL, posterior STG, the insular cortex, and posterior-frontal projections. Frontal structures or projections may be of particular relevance for spatial exploration, while the IPL may be important for object-based attention as required for line bisection.

  3. [Immunization for children travelling to the tropics: neglected vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbert, P; Guérin, N; Sorge, F

    2008-06-01

    Each year hundreds of thousands of children leave France to travel to developing countries where they are exposed to infectious agents that can be prevented by vaccination. During the child's pre-travel check-up, practitioners should check that all mandatory immunizations are up-to-date and provide advice on relevant vaccines in function of the epidemiological situation at the chosen destination. However various factors hinder full compliance with this approach and some vaccines are underused. Underused vaccines are referred to as neglected vaccines. In the French vaccination schedule three vaccinations can be considered as neglected. The first is the hepatitis B vaccine that has a low coverage level in France due to strong reluctance to its use despite the fact that the virus is widespread in tropical areas. The second is pneumococcal vaccine that should be administered to all infants less than 2 years of age, especially for travel to areas where pneumonia and meningitis are frequent. The third is BCG vaccine that is now at greater risk of being neglected in child travellers because its use has been downgraded from a general requirement to a recommendation only for children at risk. A serious limitation on the use of travel vaccinations is cost that can lead families to neglect some infectious risk such as hepatitis A that is a major risk for child travellers as well as for their relatives during or after the trip and typhoid fever that is essentially an imported disease. Rabies vaccine is also underused due to its cost and to poor understanding of the risk by many practitioners and families. The purpose of this article is to underline the need to improve information and access to vaccines that are all too often neglected in child travellers.

  4. Dental neglect among children in Chennai

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    Deepa Gurunathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child dental neglect is the failure of a parent or guardian to meet the child′s basic oral health needs such that the child enjoys adequate function and freedom from pain and infection, where reasonable resources are available to family or caregiver. Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the phenomenon of dental neglect among children in Chennai and to associate dental neglect with oral health status of children aged 3-12 years. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study involving 478 pairs of parents and children. Dental neglect scale and a questionnaire were used to assess the dental neglect score among parents of the children involved in the study. Oral health status of children was clinically assessed using oral hygiene index, decayed, extracted, filled teeth (def(t, pulp, ulcers, fistula, abscess (pufa, decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT, PUFA as per the World Health Organization criteria and pufa/PUFA index. Student′s t-test and one-way ANOVA were used appropriately for statistical analysis using SPSS software version 20.0. Results: A significant higher dental neglect score was reported among the parents who reside in the suburban location (P 3 years (P = 0.001. A significant higher DMFT (P = 0.003, deft (P = 0 < 0.001, pufa (P = 0.011, and debris index (P = 0.002 scores were seen in the higher dental neglect group. Conclusion: Child dental neglect is seen among the parents whose educational qualification was secondary, who reside in the suburban location, and who have not utilized the dental services for more than 3 years in Chennai. This dental neglect results in poorer oral health of children.

  5. Recent advances in research on Parkinson disease: synuclein and parkin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Robert E

    2004-03-01

    Until recently, most research effort on Parkinson disease (PD) was focused on possible environmental causes. With the discovery of mutations in two genes, synuclein and parkin, which are responsible for rare familial forms of the disease, there has been a major change in emphasis. The first genetic cause of PD to be identified was in the gene for synuclein, resulting in an alanine to threonine substitution at position 53. The likely pathogenetic significance of this mutation was supported by the discovery of a second mutation, and the presence of synuclein in Lewy bodies in sporadic PD cases. The synuclein protein has a tendency to self aggregate, and this tendency is increased in the mutants, and by oxidative injury to the protein. While there is growing evidence in animal models that overexpression of wildtype or mutant synuclein may lead to intracytoplasmic inclusions, and dysfunction of dopamine neurons, no animal models in rodents have yet replicated all important features of the disease. Deletions or point mutations in the gene for parkin cause an autosomal recessive, early onset form of parkinsonism. The parkin protein functions as an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase, and it is involved in the degradation of cellular proteins by the proteasomal pathway. It is hypothesized that the loss of this function results in the toxic accumulation of its target proteins. Research on these inherited forms of PD is pointing towards a common theme, that disturbances of cellular protein handling can lead to the death of dopamine neurons in PD.

  6. Molecular research and the control of Chagas disease vectors

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    Abad-Franch Fernando

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease control initiatives are yielding promising results. Molecular research has helped successful programs by identifying and characterizing introduced vector populations and by defining intervention targets accurately. However, researchers and health officials are facing new challenges throughout Latin America. Native vectors persistently reinfest insecticide-treated households, and sylvatic triatomines maintain disease transmission in humid forest regions (including Amazonia without colonizing human dwellings. In these scenarios, fine-scale vector studies are essential to define epidemiological risk patterns and clarify the involvement of little-known triatomine taxa in disease transmission. These eco-epidemiological investigations, as well as the planning and monitoring of control interventions, rely by necessity on accurate taxonomic judgments. The problems of cryptic speciation and phenotypic plasticity illustrate this need - and how molecular systematics can provide the fitting answers. Molecular data analyses also illuminate basic aspects of vector evolution and adaptive trends. Here we review the applications of molecular markers (concentrating on allozymes and DNA sequencing to the study of triatomines. We analyze the suitability, strengths and weaknesses of the various techniques for taxonomic, systematic and evolutionary investigations at different levels (populations, species, and higher taxonomic categories.

  7. Transcranial direct current stimulation to the parietal cortex in hemispatial neglect : A feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Miranda; Schutter, Dennis J L G; Nijboer, Tanja C W; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Kant, Neeltje; Penninx, Janne; Dijkerman, H. Chris

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Prior research suggests that dampening neural activity of the intact, presumably overactive hemisphere, combined with increasing neural activity in the damaged hemisphere, might restore cortical interhemispheric balance and reduce neglect. In the present study we repeatedly applied a rel

  8. [Relationship between disease burden and research funding through the Health Research Foundation in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-García, Teresa; Moreno-Casbas, Teresa; González-María, Esther; Fuentelsaz-Gallego, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the relationship between burden of disease during 2007-2009 and public funding of research in health in Spain during 2008-2010. Descriptive cross-sectional study of burden of disease and funding allocated for research in diseases in the Spanish National Health System. A review was made of a total of 6,573 project titles funded for the years 2008, 2009 and 2010. During this period, a total of 472.7 million Euros were assigned as grants for research projects. Malignant tumors and neuropsychiatric diseases were the illnesses with greatest funding support. During the study period, it was estimated that there was a total of 15,253,331.3 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in Spain, with neuropsychiatric diseases being the category representing most DALYs with 4,396,900 (28.8%). The relationship between funding and DALYs was obtained with a Pearson r equal to 0.759 (p<0.001). The study of congenital diseases had higher funding per DALY than any other disease with an investment of 290.4€/DALY. Among these, the study of cleft palate and esophageal atresia, with ratios of 3,432.7€/DALY and 3,387.6€/DALY respectively, obtained the greatest funding. The study shows that the relative distribution of economic resources in the study period is consistent with the burden suffered by the Spanish population. This relationship is altered by the funding of the study of congenital anomalies, because of the low number of projects in this area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. [What Hansen's disease research learned from tuberculosis research: from molecular biological aspect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki; Kim, Hyun; Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Nakajima, Chie

    2014-12-01

    As for the Mycobacterium leprae which is a causative agent of Hansen's disease, many studies had been done since it was identified in 1873. However, those studies, at the same time, experienced many struggles because of the difficulty of culture of M. leprae on the artificial growth media. Hence, the study of Hansen's disease progressed by taking the knowledge from the study of tuberculosis caused by the bacteria belonging to the same genus, genus Mycobacterium. For instance, the knowledge of mutations in specific genes responsible for rifampicin- and quinolone-resistance in M. tuberculosis led the elucidation of drug-resistant acquisition mechanism of M. leprae. Similarly, it is necessary for the researcher of Hansen's disease to get important information from the latest topic of the tuberculosis study and utilize them to the study of the disease.

  10. Unique roles of SPET brain imaging in clinical and research studies. Lessons from Parkinson's disease research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibyl, J; Jennings, D; Tabamo, R; Marek, K

    2005-06-01

    The increasing availability of PET imaging in nuclear medicine expands the armamentarium of clinical and research tools for improving diagnosis and treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. Nonetheless, the role of SPECT imaging remains critical to both research and clinical practice. The development of rational strategies for guiding the selection of imaging modalities flows from primarily the nature of the clinical or research question and the availability of appropriate radiopharmaceuticals. There has been extensive SPECT and PET work in Parkinson's disease (PD) which highlights the value of both these scintigraphic modalities. Three main areas of interest in PD include imaging for improving diagnostic accuracy, for monitoring the progression of disease, and for assessing the therapeutic efficacy of drugs with neuroprotective potential. The demands of the clinical or research question posed to imaging dictates the selection of radiotracer and imaging modality. Diagnosis of PD represents the easiest challenge with many imaging biomarkers showing high sensitivity for detecting abnormal reduction of dopaminergic function based on qualitative review of images. On the other hand, using imaging to evaluate treatments which purportedly slow the rate of disease progression, indicated by the reduction in the rate of loss in a quantitative imaging signal in patients studied over time, represents the most rigorous requirement of the imaging measure. In each of these applications presynaptic markers of dopaminergic function using SPECT and PET have been extremely valuable. Review of neuroimaging studies of PD provides a useful example of optimized approaches to clinical and research studies in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  11. Research Progress of PET Traces for Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANG Cai-hua1,2;HU Kong-zhen1;TANG Gang-hua1

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is unknown cause progressive degenerative diseases of central nervous system. It is a serious threat to the health of the elderly people. The diagnosis is mainly based on pathological examination after death. With the wide application of positron emission tomography (PET imaging in clinic, in vivo noninvasive imaging diagnosis of AD at the early stage become possible. PET imaging mainly depends on the positron-labeled imaging agents. The PET imaging agents can be used in the early diagnosis and differential diagnosis on AD include several kinds: PET traces for glucose metabolic, PET traces combined with amyloid proteinplaques,tau protein, neurotransmitter and receptor, activation of microglia and PET traces for cell apoptosis.The research progress of various PET tracers were reviewed that can be used in the early diagnosis and differential diagnosis on AD in recent years.

  12. [Advances in the researches of lutein and alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianrong; Lin, Xiaoming

    2015-05-01

    Lutein, a kind of oxycarotenoid, can pass the blood brain barrier and preferentially accumulate in the human brain, which is the most abundant carotenoid in human brain. Evidence from multiple studies suggested that lutein was closely related to age-related cognitive decline and risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in human. Dietary, plasma and brain concentrations of lutein were negatively associated with age-related cognitive decline. Lutein concentrations in plasma and brain were significantly lower in AD patients than those of health control. In human brain, lutein was the sole carotenoid which consistently associated with a range of cognitive function measures. In elderly women, lutein supplement can improve the cognitive function. In this article, we systematically reviewed the literature on the role of lutein in age-related cognitive decline and alzheimer's disease and its possible mechanisms. It may prove some benefit information for the advanced research and prevention of AD.

  13. Research on autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Bing; MEI Chang-lin

    2006-01-01

    Objective To review the history and recent development of research on autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in China.Data sources Both Chinese and English literatures were searched in MEDLINE/CD ROM (1979 - 2006) and the Chinese Biomedical Literature Disk (1979 - 2006).Study selection Published articles about ADPKD from mainland of China were selected. Data were mainly extracted from 58 articles which are listed in the reference section of this review.Results Some preliminary reports on cyst decompression surgeries and mutation analysis represent the contribution to the ADPKD research from China in the history. A serial of basic research and clinical studies on ADPKD in recent years also have been summarized. A technique platform for ADPKD research was firstly established. The genomics/proteomics/bioinformatics approach was introduced, which provide a lot of valuable information for understanding the pathogenesis. By denature high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC)technique the entire PKD1 and PKD2 gene sequence screening system for Chinese Han population has been successfully established. Based on the characteristic data of Chinese patients, an integrated therapy protocol was put forward and won an advantage over the traditional therapy. Some novel experimental studies on therapy also were encouraging. Conclusions Remarkable progress of ADPKD research in China have been made recently. Still many works, including the government support, international collaboration and active participation of more Chinese nephrologists, should be enhanced to advance this process in the near future.

  14. Finding a Place for Systems-Based, Collaborative Research in Emerging Disease Research in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Theresa E; Stephen, Craig

    2015-12-01

    The need to adequately predict, prevent and respond to infectious diseases emerging unexpectedly from human-animal-environmental systems has driven interest in multisectoral, socio-economic, systems-based, collaborative (MSC) research approaches such as EcoHealth and One Health. Our goals were to document how MSC research has been used to address EIDs in Asia, and to explore how MSC approaches align with current priorities for EID research in Asia. We gathered priorities for EID research from the peer-reviewed and grey literature, documented organizational descriptions of MCS research approaches, and analysed a series of EID MSC projects. We found that priority areas for EID research in Asia included (1) understanding host-pathogen-environment interactions; (2) improving tools and technologies; (3) changing people's behaviour; and (4) evaluating the effectiveness of interventions. We found that the unifying characteristics of MSC research were that it was action-oriented and sought to inspire change under real-world conditions at the complex interface of human and natural systems. We suggest that MSC research can be considered a type of 'pragmatic research' and might be most useful in describing change in complex human-animal-environmental systems, accelerating research-to-action, and evaluating effectiveness of interventions in 'real world' settings.

  15. Evaluation of Ponseti method in neglected clubfoot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinav Sinha

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Painless, supple, plantigrade, and cosmetically acceptable feet were achieved in neglected clubfeet without any extensive surgery. A fair trial of conservative Ponseti method should be tried before resorting to extensive soft tissue procedure.

  16. Observational measure of elder self-neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iris, Madelyn; Conrad, Kendon J; Ridings, John

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve measurement of elder self-neglect by testing the psychometric properties of the Elder Self-Neglect Assessment (ESNA). Social workers, case managers, and adult protective services providers from 13 Illinois agencies completed a 77-item assessment for 215 clients suffering from self neglect. Analyses used Rasch item response theory and traditional validation approaches to test for dimensionality, model fit, and additional construct validation, resulting in a 62-item assessment. The ESNA met Rasch fit criteria with good internal consistency, item reliability, and construct validity. A 25-item short form also met Rasch criteria. A hierarchy of items associated with severity of abuse was produced by frequency of occurrence. ESNA indicators of self-neglect align into two broad categories: behavioral characteristics and environmental factors, which must be accounted for in a comprehensive evaluation. Theoretical refinements developed using the empirically generated item hierarchy may help to improve assessment and intervention.

  17. Neglected puerperal inversion of the uterus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2012-07-27

    Jul 27, 2012 ... Key words: Inversion of uterus, acute puerperal inversion, shock, post partum bleeding, neglect ... anesthesia, vaginal manual reposition was attempted, which failed due to tight cervical ring. Then, O .... Int J Gynecol Cancer.

  18. Neglect of Solid State Chemistry Scored

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    At a recent symposium concerning the teaching of solid state chemistry in the classroom, many educators indicated that important areas of solid state chemistry were being neglected in college curricula. (RH)

  19. Research statistics in Atopic Eczema: what disease is this?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hon Kam-Lun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atopic eczema is a common and distressing disease. This study aims to review PubMed indexed research statistics on atopic eczema over a-10 year period to investigate the clinical relevance and research interest about this disease. Methods PubMed (a service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine was searched for the terms “atopic dermatitis” and “eczema”, with limits activated (Humans, Clinical Trial, Meta-Analysis, Randomized Controlled Trial, English, published in the last 10 years, and editorials, letters, practice guidelines, reviews, and animal studies excluded. Journal impact factor (IF is in accordance with Journal Citation Report (JCR 2009, a product of Thomson ISI (Institute for Scientific Information. Results A total of 890 articles were retrieved. Taking out publications that were irrelevant and those without an impact factor, 729 articles were obtained. These articles were grouped into dermatology (n = 337, mean IF: 3.01, allergy/immunology (n = 215, mean IF: 4.89, pediatrics (n = 118, mean IF: 2.53 and miscellaneous subject categories (n = 142, mean IF: 5.10. The impact factors were highest in the miscellaneous category (p = 0.0001, which includes such prestigious journals as the New England journal of Medicine (n = 1, IF: 47.05, the Lancet (n = 4, IF: 30.76 and BMJ (n = 6, IF: 13.66. There was no publication in any family medicine or general practice journal. The British Journal of Dermatology (n = 78, Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (n = 49 and Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (n = 46 had the highest number of publications on the subject. Atopic eczema ranked higher in impact factors in allergy/immunology although more publications appeared in the dermatology category. Conclusions Atopic eczema is a multidisciplinary disease. Its clinical relevance and research interests are definitely beyond that of a mere cutaneous disease. Investigators may

  20. Listeriosis in the far South of Brazil: neglected infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum-Menezes, Dulcinéa; Deliberalli, Ivânia; Bittencourt, Najara Carneiro; Couto, Carlus Augustu Tavares do; Barbosa, Liana Nunes; Santos, Alessandro Marques dos; Pinto, Gabriel Godinho

    2013-01-01

    Listeriosis is an under-diagnosed and under-reported infection; however, listeriosis is not a compulsorily notifiable disease in Brazil. We provide an overview of the rates of listeriosis in the United States of America (USA), Europe, Latin America, and Brazil during the past decade. We also report a case of miscarriage caused by listeriosis in which there was no suspicion of this infection. This overview and the case we report serve as reminders of the often-neglected threat of listeriosis and its potential to cause miscarriage while highlighting the necessity of recognizing listeriosis as a compulsorily notifiable disease in Brazil.

  1. Listeriosis in the far South of Brazil: neglected infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulcinea Blum-Menezes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Listeriosis is an under-diagnosed and under-reported infection; however, listeriosis is not a compulsorily notifiable disease in Brazil. We provide an overview of the rates of listeriosis in the United States of America (USA, Europe, Latin America, and Brazil during the past decade. We also report a case of miscarriage caused by listeriosis in which there was no suspicion of this infection. This overview and the case we report serve as reminders of the often-neglected threat of listeriosis and its potential to cause miscarriage while highlighting the necessity of recognizing listeriosis as a compulsorily notifiable disease in Brazil.

  2. Translational research in infectious disease: current paradigms and challenges ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Judith M; Alexander, Elizabeth; Salvatore, Mirella

    2012-06-01

    In recent years, the biomedical community has witnessed a rapid scientific and technologic evolution after the development and refinement of high-throughput methodologies. Concurrently and consequentially, the scientific perspective has changed from the reductionist approach of meticulously analyzing the fine details of a single component of biology to the "holistic" approach of broadmindedly examining the globally interacting elements of biological systems. The emergence of this new way of thinking has brought about a scientific revolution in which genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and other "omics" have become the predominant tools by which large amounts of data are amassed, analyzed, and applied to complex questions of biology that were previously unsolvable. This enormous transformation of basic science research and the ensuing plethora of promising data, especially in the realm of human health and disease, have unfortunately not been followed by a parallel increase in the clinical application of this information. On the contrary, the number of new potential drugs in development has been decreasing steadily, suggesting the existence of roadblocks that prevent the translation of promising research into medically relevant therapeutic or diagnostic application. In this article, we will review, in a noninclusive fashion, several recent scientific advancements in the field of translational research, with a specific focus on how they relate to infectious disease. We will also present a current picture of the limitations and challenges that exist for translational research, as well as ways that have been proposed by the National Institutes of Health to improve the state of this field. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Animal behavioral assessments in current research of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Tetsuya; Fang, Huan; Sugiyama, Kenji; Nozaki, Takao; Hong, Zhen; Yang, Yilin; Hua, Fei; Ding, Guanghong; Chao, Dongman; Fenoy, Albert J; Villarreal, Sebastian J; Onoe, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Mori, Norio; Namba, Hiroki; Xia, Ying

    2016-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder, is traditionally classified as a movement disorder. Patients typically suffer from many motor dysfunctions. Presently, clinicians and scientists recognize that many non-motor symptoms are associated with PD. There is an increasing interest in both motor and non-motor symptoms in clinical studies on PD patients and laboratory research on animal models that imitate the pathophysiologic features and symptoms of PD patients. Therefore, appropriate behavioral assessments are extremely crucial for correctly understanding the mechanisms of PD and accurately evaluating the efficacy and safety of novel therapies. This article systematically reviews the behavioral assessments, for both motor and non-motor symptoms, in various animal models involved in current PD research. We addressed the strengths and weaknesses of these behavioral tests and their appropriate applications. Moreover, we discussed potential mechanisms behind these behavioral tests and cautioned readers against potential experimental bias. Since most of the behavioral assessments currently used for non-motor symptoms are not particularly designed for animals with PD, it is of the utmost importance to greatly improve experimental design and evaluation in PD research with animal models. Indeed, it is essential to develop specific assessments for non-motor symptoms in PD animals based on their characteristics. We concluded with a prospective view for behavioral assessments with real-time assessment with mobile internet and wearable device in future PD research.

  4. Functional assessment of spatial neglect: a review of the Catherine Bergego scale and an introduction of the Kessler foundation neglect assessment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peii; Hreha, Kimberly; Fortis, Paola; Goedert, Kelly M; Barrett, Anna M

    2012-01-01

    Spatial neglect is a debilitating poststroke neurocognitive disorder associated with prolonged hospitalization and poor rehabilitation outcomes. The literature suggests a high prevalence of this disorder, but clinicians have difficulty reliably identifying affected survivors. This discrepancy may result from suboptimal use of validated neglect assessment procedures. In this article, we suggest use of a validated assessment tool that is sensitive to identification of neglect and its functional consequences - the Catherine Bergego Scale (CBS). We provide detailed item-by-item instructions for observation and scoring - the Kessler Foundation Neglect Assessment Process (KF-NAP). Rehabilitation researchers may be able to use the CBS via the KF-NAP to measure ecological outcomes and specific, separable perceptual-attentional and motor-exploratory spatial behaviors.

  5. Current Research Therapeutic Strategies for Alzheimer's Disease Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folch, Jaume; Petrov, Dmitry; Ettcheto, Miren; Abad, Sonia; Sánchez-López, Elena; García, M. Luisa; Olloquequi, Jordi; Beas-Zarate, Carlos; Auladell, Carme; Camins, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) currently presents one of the biggest healthcare issues in the developed countries. There is no effective treatment capable of slowing down disease progression. In recent years the main focus of research on novel pharmacotherapies was based on the amyloidogenic hypothesis of AD, which posits that the beta amyloid (Aβ) peptide is chiefly responsible for cognitive impairment and neuronal death. The goal of such treatments is (a) to reduce Aβ production through the inhibition of β and γ secretase enzymes and (b) to promote dissolution of existing cerebral Aβ plaques. However, this approach has proven to be only modestly effective. Recent studies suggest an alternative strategy centred on the inhibition of the downstream Aβ signalling, particularly at the synapse. Aβ oligomers may cause aberrant N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activation postsynaptically by forming complexes with the cell-surface prion protein (PrPC). PrPC is enriched at the neuronal postsynaptic density, where it interacts with Fyn tyrosine kinase. Fyn activation occurs when Aβ is bound to PrPC-Fyn complex. Fyn causes tyrosine phosphorylation of the NR2B subunit of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5). Fyn kinase blockers masitinib and saracatinib have proven to be efficacious in treating AD symptoms in experimental mouse models of the disease. PMID:26881137

  6. Current Research Therapeutic Strategies for Alzheimer’s Disease Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Folch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD currently presents one of the biggest healthcare issues in the developed countries. There is no effective treatment capable of slowing down disease progression. In recent years the main focus of research on novel pharmacotherapies was based on the amyloidogenic hypothesis of AD, which posits that the beta amyloid (Aβ peptide is chiefly responsible for cognitive impairment and neuronal death. The goal of such treatments is (a to reduce Aβ production through the inhibition of β and γ secretase enzymes and (b to promote dissolution of existing cerebral Aβ plaques. However, this approach has proven to be only modestly effective. Recent studies suggest an alternative strategy centred on the inhibition of the downstream Aβ signalling, particularly at the synapse. Aβ oligomers may cause aberrant N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR activation postsynaptically by forming complexes with the cell-surface prion protein (PrPC. PrPC is enriched at the neuronal postsynaptic density, where it interacts with Fyn tyrosine kinase. Fyn activation occurs when Aβ is bound to PrPC-Fyn complex. Fyn causes tyrosine phosphorylation of the NR2B subunit of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5. Fyn kinase blockers masitinib and saracatinib have proven to be efficacious in treating AD symptoms in experimental mouse models of the disease.

  7. A Neglected Crop in Ghana.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    danger of this legume disappearing from the hands of traditional farmers due to the popularity of the major ... available germplasm in order to prevent extinction and research efforts .... Plate 1 African yam bean: fruited plant in a farmer's field.

  8. Taking Control of Castleman Disease: Leveraging Precision Medicine Technologies to Accelerate Rare Disease Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Samantha Kass; Jayanthan, Raj K; Mitchell, Grant W; Carreras Tartak, Jossie A; Croglio, Michael P; Suarez, Alexander; Liu, Amy Y; Razzo, Beatrice M; Oyeniran, Enny; Ruth, Jason R; Fajgenbaum, David C

    2015-12-01

    Castleman disease (CD) is a rare and heterogeneous disorder characterized by lymphadenopathy that may occur in a single lymph node (unicentric) or multiple lymph nodes (multicentric), the latter typically occurring secondary to excessive proinflammatory hypercytokinemia. While a cohort of multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) cases are caused by Human Herpes Virus-8 (HHV-8), the etiology of HHV-8 negative, idiopathic MCD (iMCD), remains unknown. Breakthroughs in "omics" technologies that have facilitated the development of precision medicine hold promise for elucidating disease pathogenesis and identifying novel therapies for iMCD. However, in order to leverage precision medicine approaches in rare diseases like CD, stakeholders need to overcome several challenges. To address these challenges, the Castleman Disease Collaborative Network (CDCN) was founded in 2012. In the past 3 years, the CDCN has worked to transform the understanding of the pathogenesis of CD, funded and initiated genomics and proteomics research, and united international experts in a collaborative effort to accelerate progress for CD patients. The CDCN's collaborative structure leverages the tools of precision medicine and serves as a model for both scientific discovery and advancing patient care.

  9. Learning lessons from operational research in infectious diseases: can the same model be used for noncommunicable diseases in developing countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosu WK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available William K Bosu Department of Epidemics and Disease Control, West African Health Organisation, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso Abstract: About three-quarters of global deaths from noncommunicable diseases (NCDs occur in developing countries. Nearly a third of these deaths occur before the age of 60 years. These deaths are projected to increase, fueled by such factors as urbanization, nutrition transition, lifestyle changes, and aging. Despite this burden, there is a paucity of research on NCDs, due to the higher priority given to infectious disease research. Less than 10% of research on cardiovascular diseases comes from developing countries. This paper assesses what lessons from operational research on infectious diseases could be applied to NCDs. The lessons are drawn from the priority setting for research, integration of research into programs and routine service delivery, the use of routine data, rapid-assessment survey methods, modeling, chemoprophylaxis, and the translational process of findings into policy and practice. With the lines between infectious diseases and NCDs becoming blurred, it is justifiable to integrate the programs for the two disease groups wherever possible, eg, screening for diabetes in tuberculosis. Applying these lessons will require increased political will, research capacity, ownership, use of local expertise, and research funding. Keywords: infectious diseases, noncommunicable diseases, operational research, developing countries, integration

  10. World scientific collaboration in coronary heart disease research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qi; Shao, Hongfang; He, Peifeng; Duan, Zhiguang

    2013-08-10

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) will continue to exert a heavy burden for countries all over the world. Scientific collaboration has become the only choice for progress in biomedicine. Unfortunately, there is a scarcity of scientific publications about scientific collaboration in CHD research. This study examines collaboration behaviors across multiple collaboration types in the CHD research. 294,756 records about CHD were retrieved from Web of Science. Methods such as co-authorship, social network analysis, connected component, cliques, and betweenness centrality were used in this study. Collaborations have increased at the author, institution and country/region levels in CHD research over the past three decades. 3000 most collaborative authors, 572 most collaborative institutions and 52 countries/regions are extracted from their corresponding collaboration network. 766 cliques are found in the most collaborative authors. 308 cliques are found in the most collaborative institutions. Western countries/regions represent the core of the world's collaboration. The United States ranks first in terms of number of multi-national publications, while Hungary leads in the ranking measured by their proportion of collaborative output. The rate of economic development in the countries/regions also affects the multi-national collaboration behavior. Collaborations among countries/regions need to be encouraged in the CHD research. The visualization of overlapping cliques in the most collaborative authors and institutions are considered "skeleton" of the collaboration network. Eastern countries/regions should strengthen cooperation with western countries/regions in the CHD research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Parkinson's Disease Research at NIH | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Parkinson's Disease Parkinson's Disease Research at NIH Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table ... areas of its research: MedlinePlus . medlineplus.gov . Type "Parkinson's disease" in the Search box. NIHSeniorHealth —Parkinson's Disease http:// ...

  12. Bioinformatics: Tools to accelerate population science and disease control research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Michele R; Greene, Sarah M; Avis, Nancy E; Taplin, Stephen H; Courtney, Paul; Schad, Peter A; Hesse, Bradford W; Winn, Deborah M

    2010-06-01

    Population science and disease control researchers can benefit from a more proactive approach to applying bioinformatics tools for clinical and public health research. Bioinformatics utilizes principles of information sciences and technologies to transform vast, diverse, and complex life sciences data into a more coherent format for wider application. Bioinformatics provides the means to collect and process data, enhance data standardization and harmonization for scientific discovery, and merge disparate data sources. Achieving interoperability (i.e. the development of an informatics system that provides access to and use of data from different systems) will facilitate scientific explorations and careers and opportunities for interventions in population health. The National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) interoperable Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG) is one of a number of illustrative tools in this report that are being mined by population scientists. Tools are not all that is needed for progress. Challenges persist, including a lack of common data standards, proprietary barriers to data access, and difficulties pooling data from studies. Population scientists and informaticists are developing promising and innovative solutions to these barriers. The purpose of this paper is to describe how the application of bioinformatics systems can accelerate population health research across the continuum from prevention to detection, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome.

  13. Adult protective services clients confirmed for self-neglect: characteristics and service use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Joy Swanson; Smith, Charles A

    2011-10-01

    Self-neglect is a complex and inadequately understood phenomenon that accounts for the majority of Adult Protective Services cases. This retrospective, record-based study of the characteristics of 210 older adults who were reported to Adult Protective Services and confirmed for self-neglect revealed that common health problems included nutritional frailty, arthritis, and incontinence. Comparisons based upon length of service showed differences in worker-rated social environment risk, client capacity, and activities of daily living performance. Comparisons of findings with those of other studies of self-neglect underscore the need for systematic research on this population.

  14. Infectious disease research investments: systematic analysis of immunology and vaccine research funding in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitchett, Joseph R; Head, Michael G; Atun, Rifat

    2013-12-05

    Financing for global health is a critical element of research and development. Innovations in new vaccines are critically dependent on research funding given the large sums required, however estimates of global research investments are lacking. We evaluate infectious disease research investments, focusing on immunology and vaccine research by UK research funding organisations. In 1997-2010, £2.6 billion were spent by public and philanthropic organisations, with £590 million allocated to immunology and vaccine research. Preclinical studies received the largest funding amount £505 million accounting for 85.6% of total investment. In terms of specific infection, "the big three" infections dominated funding: HIV received £127 million (21.5% of total), malaria received £59 million (10.0% of total) and tuberculosis received £36 million (6.0% of total). We excluded industry funding from our analysis, as open-access data were unavailable. A global investment surveillance system is needed to map and monitor funding and guide allocation of scarce resources. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Neglect's perspective on the Ponzo illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedda, A; Ferrè, E R; Striemer, C L; Bottini, G

    2013-06-01

    Visual illusions have been used to explore implicit perception in neglect. Previous studies have highlighted differences between length and surface illusion perception in neglect, but much less is known about depth illusion perception. In the Ponzo illusion (a classic depth illusion), two converging oblique lines modulate the perceived length of two horizontal lines. In the current study, we presented modified versions of the Ponzo illusion in which only one of the converging oblique lines was presented (alternatively the right or the left one). This manipulation allowed us to explore (1) how acute patients with neglect process depth illusions, and (2) whether awareness of both converging lines is necessary for the full effect of the illusion. To examine these questions, we had participants (i.e. healthy controls, patients with neglect and right brain-damaged patients) to make a perceptual judgment regarding the perceived length of the upper versus lower horizontal line within the Ponzo frame in four conditions: (1) the classic Ponzo illusion, (2) a "modified left" Ponzo illusion with a single oblique line on the left, (3) a "modified right" Ponzo illusion with a single oblique line on the right and (4) a control condition with parallel lines. The results indicated that all participants perceived the canonical Ponzo illusion and the modified right illusion. Critically, patients with neglect did not perceive the modified left illusion. In addition, for neglect patients, there was no difference in the strength of the perceived illusion when comparing the canonical illusion with the modified right illusion. Importantly, single case analysis revealed a high degree of variability in the neglect group that seemed to be linked with the amount of damage to occipital areas. Overall our results indicate that: (1) the classic Ponzo illusion might be perceived in neglect patients based solely on perception of the right side of the stimulus configuration, and (2) differences

  16. Research update: Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory avian tumor viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomics and Immunogenetics Use of genomics to identify QTL, genes, and proteins associated with resistance to Marek’s disease. Marek’s disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease caused by the highly oncogenic herpesvirus Marek's disease virus (MDV), continues to be a major disease concern to the p...

  17. Neuroimaging of eye position reveals spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Elisabeth; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2010-03-01

    Conjugate eye deviation describes the tonic horizontal deviation of the eyes in acute stroke patients. Here we investigate whether measuring patients' eye-in-head position in clinical magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography scans obtained at admission shows a specific relationship to spatial neglect. We investigated 124 continuously admitted subjects with unilateral, first-ever left- or right-sided stroke. To control for the possibility that the degree of eye deviation is related to lesion size rather than spatial neglect, overall lesion volume was used as a covariate in the statistical analysis. Horizontal eye-in-head deviation on clinical brain scans appeared to be associated with spatial neglect rather than with brain damage per se. In contrast to the subject groups without the disorder, the patients with spatial neglect showed an eye-in-head position that was significantly deviated towards the ipsilesional right. Evaluation of eye-in-head position on clinical scans thus may be an additional helpful tool for diagnosing spatial neglect, particularly in the very early period of the stroke.

  18. Simulating hemispatial neglect with virtual reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshizawa Makoto

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemispatial neglect is a cognitive disorder defined as a lack of attention for stimuli contra-lateral to the brain lesion. The assessment is traditionally done with basic pencil and paper tests and the rehabilitation programs are generally not well adapted. We propose a virtual reality system featuring an eye-tracking device for a better characterization of the neglect that will lead to new rehabilitation techniques. Methods This paper presents a comparison of eye-gaze patterns of healthy subjects, patients and healthy simulated patients on a virtual line bisection test. The task was also executed with a reduced visual field condition hoping that fewer stimuli would limit the neglect. Results We found that patients and healthy simulated patients had similar eye-gaze patterns. However, while the reduced visual field condition had no effect on the healthy simulated patients, it actually had a negative impact on the patients. We discuss the reasons for these differences and how they relate to the limitations of the neglect simulation. Conclusion We argue that with some improvements the technique could be used to determine the potential of new rehabilitation techniques and also help the rehabilitation staff or the patient's relatives to better understand the neglect condition.

  19. Hepcidin modulation in human diseases: From research to clinic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alberto Piperno; Raffaella Mariani; Paola Trombini; Domenico Girelli

    2009-01-01

    By modulating hepcidin production, an organism controls intestinal iron absorption, iron uptake and mobilization from stores to meet body iron need. In recent years there has been important advancement in our knowledge of hepcidin regulation that also has implications for understanding the physiopathology of some human disorders. Since the discovery of hepcidin and the demonstration of its pivotal role in iron homeostasis, there has been a substantial interest in developing a reliable assay of the hormone in biological fluids. Measurement of hepcidin in biological fluids can improve our understanding of iron diseases and be a useful tool for diagnosis and clinical management of these disorders. We reviewed the literature and our own research on hepcidin to give an updated status of the situation in this rapidly evolving field.

  20. Current development of acupuncture research in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Bai-Yun; Salvage, Sarah; Jenner, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is an age-related progressive neurodegenerative disease. The etiology and pathogenetic mechanisms that cause PD are still not fully understood. The available treatments to PD are only symptomatic relief. Acupuncture is used to treat many medical conditions for 1000 years in China and has gained wider and increasing acceptance within both public and medical profession because it has been a very safe and well-tolerated treatment. In this chapter, we reviewed relevant laboratory findings regarding acupuncture mechanism on Parkinson's. We showed that acupuncture stimulation in Parkinson's models had generated valuable mechanistic insight of Parkinson's and showed that acupuncture treatment is in fact a neuroprotective therapy that increase the release of various neuroprotective agents such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, and cyclophilin A. In addition, acupuncture therapy slows cell death process and attenuates oxidative stress to dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Further, acupuncture therapy modulates neuronal activity of the basal ganglia output structures. These results suggest that early application of acupuncture therapy to Parkinson's patients may be helpful for the best efficacy of acupuncture treatment. It is hopeful that translation of achievement in acupuncture research in Parkinson's models will maximize the potentials of acupuncture treatment.