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Sample records for negatively regulates expression

  1. Expression of Androgen Receptor Is Negatively Regulated By p53

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    Fatouma Alimirah

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased expression of androgen receptor (AR in prostate cancer (PC is associated with transition to androgen independence. Because the progression of PC to advanced stages is often associated with the loss of p53 function, we tested whether the p53 could regulate the expression of AR gene. Here we report that p53 negatively regulates the expression of AR in prostate epithelial cells (PrECs. We found that in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells that express the wild-type p53 and AR and in human normal PrECs, the activation of p53 by genotoxic stress or by inhibition of p53 nuclear export downregulated the expression of AR. Furthermore, forced expression of p53 in LNCaP cells decreased the expression of AR. Conversely, knockdown of p53 expression in LNCaP cells increased the AR expression. Consistent with the negative regulation of AR expression by p53, the p53-null HCT116 cells expressed higher levels of AR compared with the isogenic HCT116 cells that express the wildtype p53. Moreover, we noted that in etoposide treated LNCaP cells p53 bound to the promoter region of the AR gene, which contains a potential p53 DNA-binding consensus sequence, in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Together, our observations provide support for the idea that the loss of p53 function in prostate cancer cells contributes to increased expression of AR.

  2. Facial expression primes and implicit regulation of negative emotion.

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    Yoon, HeungSik; Kim, Shin Ah; Kim, Sang Hee

    2015-06-17

    An individual's responses to emotional information are influenced not only by the emotional quality of the information, but also by the context in which the information is presented. We hypothesized that facial expressions of happiness and anger would serve as primes to modulate subjective and neural responses to subsequently presented negative information. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a functional MRI study in which the brains of healthy adults were scanned while they performed an emotion-rating task. During the task, participants viewed a series of negative and neutral photos, one at a time; each photo was presented after a picture showing a face expressing a happy, angry, or neutral emotion. Brain imaging results showed that compared with neutral primes, happy facial primes increased activation during negative emotion in the dorsal anterior cingulated cortex and the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, which are typically implicated in conflict detection and implicit emotion control, respectively. Conversely, relative to neutral primes, angry primes activated the right middle temporal gyrus and the left supramarginal gyrus during the experience of negative emotion. Activity in the amygdala in response to negative emotion was marginally reduced after exposure to happy primes compared with angry primes. Relative to neutral primes, angry facial primes increased the subjectively experienced intensity of negative emotion. The current study results suggest that prior exposure to facial expressions of emotions modulates the subsequent experience of negative emotion by implicitly activating the emotion-regulation system.

  3. Spo0A positively regulates epr expression by negating the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-03-07

    Mar 7, 2013 ... ly regulate the epr expression by the process of co-repression. (Kodgire et al. 2006). ... Bacterial strains and plasmids used in this study are listed in table 1. E. coli DH5α ... Wherever necessary, antibiotics were added to the ...

  4. Inhibitory PAS domain protein is a negative regulator of hypoxia-inducible gene expression

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    Makino, Yuichi; Cao, Renhai; Svensson, Kristian; Bertilsson, Göran; Asman, Mikael; Tanaka, Hirotoshi; Cao, Yihai; Berkenstam, Anders; Poellinger, Lorenz

    2001-11-01

    Alteration of gene expression is a crucial component of adaptive responses to hypoxia. These responses are mediated by hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs). Here we describe an inhibitory PAS (Per/Arnt/Sim) domain protein, IPAS, which is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)/PAS protein structurally related to HIFs. IPAS contains no endogenous transactivation function but demonstrates dominant negative regulation of HIF-mediated control of gene expression. Ectopic expression of IPAS in hepatoma cells selectively impairs induction of genes involved in adaptation to a hypoxic environment, notably the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene, and results in retarded tumour growth and tumour vascular density in vivo. In mice, IPAS was predominantly expressed in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum and in corneal epithelium of the eye. Expression of IPAS in the cornea correlates with low levels of expression of the VEGF gene under hypoxic conditions. Application of an IPAS antisense oligonucleotide to the mouse cornea induced angiogenesis under normal oxygen conditions, and demonstrated hypoxia-dependent induction of VEGF gene expression in hypoxic corneal cells. These results indicate a previously unknown mechanism for negative regulation of angiogenesis and maintenance of an avascular phenotype.

  5. Role of NeuroD1 on the negative regulation of Pomc expression by glucocorticoid.

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    Rehana Parvin

    Full Text Available The mechanism of the negative regulation of proopiomelanocortin gene (Pomc by glucocorticoids (Gcs is still unclear in many points. Here, we demonstrated the involvement of neurogenic differentiation factor 1 (NeuroD1 in the Gc-mediated negative regulation of Pomc. Murine pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH producing corticotroph tumor-derived AtT20 cells were treated with dexamethasone (DEX (1-100 nM and cultured for 24 hrs. Thereafter, Pomc mRNA expression was studied by quantitative real-time PCR and rat Pomc promoter (-703/+58 activity was examined by luciferase assay. Both Pomc mRNA expression and Pomc promoter activity were inhibited by DEX in a dose-dependent manner. Deletion and point mutant analyses of Pomc promoter suggested that the DEX-mediated transcriptional repression was mediated via E-box that exists at -376/-371 in the promoter. Since NeuroD1 is known to bind to and activate E-box of the Pomc promoter, we next examined the effect of DEX on NeuroD1 expression. Interestingly, DEX dose-dependently inhibited NeuroD1 mRNA expression, mouse NeuroD1 promoter (-2.2-kb activity, and NeuroD1 protein expression in AtT20 cells. In addition, we confirmed the inhibitory effect of DEX on the interaction of NeuroD1 and E-box on Pomc promoter by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assay. Finally, overexpression of mouse NeuroD1 could rescue the DEX-mediated inhibition of Pomc mRNA expression and Pomc promoter activity. Taken together, it is suggested that the suppression of NeuroD1 expression and the inhibition of NeuroD1/E-box interaction may play an important role in the Gc-mediated negative regulation of Pomc.

  6. Negative regulation of parathyroid hormone-related protein expression by steroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajitani, Takashi; Tamamori-Adachi, Mimi; Okinaga, Hiroko; Chikamori, Minoru; Iizuka, Masayoshi; Okazaki, Tomoki

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Steroid hormones repress expression of PTHrP in the cell lines where the corresponding nuclear receptors are expressed. → Nuclear receptors are required for suppression of PTHrP expression by steroid hormones, except for androgen receptor. → Androgen-induced suppression of PTHrP expression appears to be mediated by estrogen receptor. -- Abstract: Elevated parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is responsible for humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM), which is of clinical significance in treatment of terminal patients with malignancies. Steroid hormones were known to cause suppression of PTHrP expression. However, detailed studies linking multiple steroid hormones to PTHrP expression are lacking. Here we studied PTHrP expression in response to steroid hormones in four cell lines with excessive PTHrP production. Our study established that steroid hormones negatively regulate PTHrP expression. Vitamin D receptor, estrogen receptor α, glucocorticoid receptor, and progesterone receptor, were required for repression of PTHrP expression by the cognate ligands. A notable exception was the androgen receptor, which was dispensable for suppression of PTHrP expression in androgen-treated cells. We propose a pathway(s) involving nuclear receptors to suppress PTHrP expression.

  7. Evidence for the negative regulation of phytase gene expression in Streptomyces lividans and Streptomyces coelicolor.

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    Boukhris, Ines; Dulermo, Thierry; Chouayekh, Hichem; Virolle, Marie-Joëlle

    2016-01-01

    Sco7697, a gene encoding a phytase, enzyme able to degrade phytate (myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis phosphate), the most abundant phosphorus storing compound in plants is present in the genome of S. coelicolor, a soil born bacteria with a saprophytic lifestyle. The expression of this gene was previously shown to be induced in conditions of Pi limitation by the response regulator PhoP binding to an operator sequence, the PHO box, located upstream of the -35 promoter sequence. A close examination of the promoter region of sco7697 revealed the presence of another putative operator site, a Direct Repeat (DR), located downstream of the -10 promoter sequence. In order to determine whether this DR played a role in regulation of sco7697 expression, different variants of the phytase gene promoter region were transcriptionally fused to the ß-glucuronidase reporter gene (GUS). As expected, deletion of the PHO box led to abolition of sco7697 induction in conditions of Pi limitation. Interestingly, alteration of the DR correlated with a dramatic increase of GUS expression but only when PhoP was present. These results demonstrated that this DR is the site of strong negative regulation by an unknown repressor. The latter would impede the necessary activation of phytase expression by PhoP. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. NKG2H-Expressing T Cells Negatively Regulate Immune Responses

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    Daniela Dukovska

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The biology and function of NKG2H receptor, unlike the better characterized members of the NKG2 family NKG2A, NKG2C, and NKG2D, remains largely unclear. Here, we show that NKG2H is able to associate with the signaling adapter molecules DAP12 and DAP10 suggesting that this receptor can signal for cell activation. Using a recently described NKG2H-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb, we have characterized the expression and function of lymphocytes that express this receptor. NKG2H is expressed at the cell surface of a small percentage of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC and is found more frequently on T cells, rather than NK cells. Moreover, although NKG2H is likely to trigger activation, co-cross-linking of this receptor with an NKG2H-specific mAb led to decreased T cell activation and proliferation in polyclonal PBMC cultures stimulated by anti-CD3 mAbs. This negative regulatory activity was seen only after cross-linking with NKG2H, but not NKG2A- or NKG2C-specific monoclonal antibodies. The mechanism underlying this negative effect is as yet unclear, but did not depend on the release of soluble factors or recognition of MHC class I molecules. These observations raise the intriguing possibility that NKG2H may be a novel marker for T cells able to negatively regulate T cell responses.

  9. amiA is a negative regulator of acetamidase expression in Mycobacterium smegmatis

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    Turner Jane

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The acetamidase of Mycobacterium smegmatis is a highly inducible enzyme. Expression of this enzyme is increased 100-fold when the substrate acetamide is present. The acetamidase gene is found immediately downstream of three open reading frames. Two of these are proposed to be involved in regulation. Results We constructed a deletion mutant in one of the upstream ORFs (amiA. This mutant (Mad1 showed a constitutively high level of acetamidase expression. We identified four promoters in the upstream region using a β-galactosidase reporter gene. One of these (P2 was inducible in the wild-type, but was constitutively active in Mad1. Conclusions These results demonstrate that amiA encodes a negative regulatory protein which interacts with P2. Since amiA has homology to DNA-binding proteins, it is likely that it exerts the regulatory effect by binding to the promoter to prevent transcription.

  10. Branched-Chain Amino Acid Negatively Regulates KLF15 Expression via PI3K-AKT Pathway

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    Yunxia Liu; Weibing Dong; Jing Shao; Yibin Wang; Meiyi Zhou; Haipeng Sun

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have linked branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) with numerous metabolic diseases. However, the molecular basis of BCAA's roles in metabolic regulation remains to be established. KLF15 (Krüppel-like factor 15) is a transcription factor and master regulator of glycemic, lipid, and amino acids metabolism. In the present study, we found high concentrations of BCAA suppressed KLF15 expression while BCAA starvation induced KLF15 expression, suggesting KLF15 expression is negatively cont...

  11. Integrated expression analysis of muscle hypertrophy identifies Asb2 as a negative regulator of muscle mass

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    Davey, Jonathan R.; Watt, Kevin I.; Parker, Benjamin L.; Chaudhuri, Rima; Ryall, James G.; Cunningham, Louise; Qian, Hongwei; Sartorelli, Vittorio; Chamberlain, Jeffrey; James, David E.

    2016-01-01

    The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling network is a critical regulator of skeletal muscle mass and function and, thus, is an attractive therapeutic target for combating muscle disease, but the underlying mechanisms of action remain undetermined. We report that follistatin-based interventions (which modulate TGF-β network activity) can promote muscle hypertrophy that ameliorates aging-associated muscle wasting. However, the muscles of old sarcopenic mice demonstrate reduced response to follistatin compared with healthy young-adult musculature. Quantitative proteomic and transcriptomic analyses of young-adult muscles identified a transcription/translation signature elicited by follistatin exposure, which included repression of ankyrin repeat and SOCS box protein 2 (Asb2). Increasing expression of ASB2 reduced muscle mass, thereby demonstrating that Asb2 is a TGF-β network–responsive negative regulator of muscle mass. In contrast to young-adult muscles, sarcopenic muscles do not exhibit reduced ASB2 abundance with follistatin exposure. Moreover, preventing repression of ASB2 in young-adult muscles diminished follistatin-induced muscle hypertrophy. These findings provide insight into the program of transcription and translation events governing follistatin-mediated adaptation of skeletal muscle attributes and identify Asb2 as a regulator of muscle mass implicated in the potential mechanistic dysfunction between follistatin-mediated muscle growth in young and old muscles. PMID:27182554

  12. Strong negative self regulation of Prokaryotic transcription factors increases the intrinsic noise of protein expression

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    Jenkins Dafyd J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many prokaryotic transcription factors repress their own transcription. It is often asserted that such regulation enables a cell to homeostatically maintain protein abundance. We explore the role of negative self regulation of transcription in regulating the variability of protein abundance using a variety of stochastic modeling techniques. Results We undertake a novel analysis of a classic model for negative self regulation. We demonstrate that, with standard approximations, protein variance relative to its mean should be independent of repressor strength in a physiological range. Consequently, in that range, the coefficient of variation would increase with repressor strength. However, stochastic computer simulations demonstrate that there is a greater increase in noise associated with strong repressors than predicted by theory. The discrepancies between the mathematical analysis and computer simulations arise because with strong repressors the approximation that leads to Michaelis-Menten-like hyperbolic repression terms ceases to be valid. Because we observe that strong negative feedback increases variability and so is unlikely to be a mechanism for noise control, we suggest instead that negative feedback is evolutionarily favoured because it allows the cell to minimize mRNA usage. To test this, we used in silico evolution to demonstrate that while negative feedback can achieve only a modest improvement in protein noise reduction compared with the unregulated system, it can achieve good improvement in protein response times and very substantial improvement in reducing mRNA levels. Conclusion Strong negative self regulation of transcription may not always be a mechanism for homeostatic control of protein abundance, but instead might be evolutionarily favoured as a mechanism to limit the use of mRNA. The use of hyperbolic terms derived from quasi-steady-state approximation should also be avoided in the analysis of stochastic

  13. Branched-Chain Amino Acid Negatively Regulates KLF15 Expression via PI3K-AKT Pathway.

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    Liu, Yunxia; Dong, Weibing; Shao, Jing; Wang, Yibin; Zhou, Meiyi; Sun, Haipeng

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have linked branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) with numerous metabolic diseases. However, the molecular basis of BCAA's roles in metabolic regulation remains to be established. KLF15 (Krüppel-like factor 15) is a transcription factor and master regulator of glycemic, lipid, and amino acids metabolism. In the present study, we found high concentrations of BCAA suppressed KLF15 expression while BCAA starvation induced KLF15 expression, suggesting KLF15 expression is negatively controlled by BCAA.Interestingly, BCAA starvation induced PI3K-AKT signaling. KLF15 induction by BCAA starvation was blocked by PI3K and AKT inhibitors, indicating the activation of PI3K-AKT signaling pathway mediated the KLF15 induction. BCAA regulated KLF15 expression at transcriptional level but not post-transcriptional level. However, BCAA starvation failed to increase the KLF15-promoter-driven luciferase expression, suggesting KLF15 promoter activity was not directly controlled by BCAA. Finally, fasting reduced BCAA abundance in mice and KLF15 expression was dramatically induced in muscle and white adipose tissue, but not in liver. Together, these data demonstrated BCAA negatively regulated KLF15 expression, suggesting a novel molecular mechanism underlying BCAA's multiple functions in metabolic regulation.

  14. Branched-Chain Amino Acid Negatively Regulates KLF15 Expression via PI3K-AKT Pathway

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    Yunxia Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have linked branched-chain amino acid (BCAA with numerous metabolic diseases. However, the molecular basis of BCAA's roles in metabolic regulation remains to be established. KLF15 (Krüppel-like factor 15 is a transcription factor and master regulator of glycemic, lipid, and amino acids metabolism. In the present study, we found high concentrations of BCAA suppressed KLF15 expression while BCAA starvation induced KLF15 expression, suggesting KLF15 expression is negatively controlled by BCAA.Interestingly, BCAA starvation induced PI3K-AKT signaling. KLF15 induction by BCAA starvation was blocked by PI3K and AKT inhibitors, indicating the activation of PI3K-AKT signaling pathway mediated the KLF15 induction. BCAA regulated KLF15 expression at transcriptional level but not post-transcriptional level. However, BCAA starvation failed to increase the KLF15-promoter-driven luciferase expression, suggesting KLF15 promoter activity was not directly controlled by BCAA. Finally, fasting reduced BCAA abundance in mice and KLF15 expression was dramatically induced in muscle and white adipose tissue, but not in liver. Together, these data demonstrated BCAA negatively regulated KLF15 expression, suggesting a novel molecular mechanism underlying BCAA's multiple functions in metabolic regulation.

  15. Fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO expression is regulated negatively by the transcription factor Foxa2.

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    Jianjin Guo

    Full Text Available Fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO is the first gene associated with body mass index (BMI and risk for diabetes. FTO is highly expressed in the brain and pancreas, and is involved in regulating dietary intake and energy expenditure. To investigate the transcriptional regulation of FTO expression, we created 5'-deletion constructs of the FTO promoter to determine which transcription factors are most relevant to FTO expression. The presence of an activation region at -201/+34 was confirmed by luciferase activity analysis. A potential Foxa2 (called HNF-3β binding site and an upstream stimulatory factor (USF-binding site was identified in the -100 bp fragment upstream of the transcription start site (TSS. Furthermore, using mutagenesis, we identified the Foxa2 binding sequence (-26/-14 as a negative regulatory element to the activity of the human FTO promoter. The USF binding site did not affect the FTO promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays were performed to confirm Foxa2 binding to the FTO promoter. Overexpression of Foxa2 in HEK 293 cells significantly down-regulated FTO promoter activity and expression. Conversely, knockdown of Foxa2 by siRNA significantly up-regulated FTO expression. These findings suggest that Foxa2 negatively regulates the basal transcription and expression of the human FTO gene.

  16. Negative regulation of neuromedin U mRNA expression in the rat pars tuberalis by melatonin.

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    Sayaka Aizawa

    Full Text Available The pars tuberalis (PT is part of the anterior pituitary gland surrounding the median eminence as a thin cell layer. The characteristics of PT differ from those of the pars distalis (PD, such as cell composition and gene expression, suggesting that the PT has a unique physiological function compared to the PD. Because the PT highly expresses melatonin receptor type 1, it is considered a mediator of seasonal and/or circadian signals of melatonin. Expression of neuromedin U (NMU that is known to regulate energy balance has been previously reported in the rat PT; however, the regulatory mechanism of NMU mRNA expression and secretion in the PT are still obscure. In this study, we examined both the diurnal change of NMU mRNA expression in the rat PT and the effects of melatonin on NMU in vivo. In situ hybridization and quantitative PCR analysis of laser microdissected PT samples revealed that NMU mRNA expression in the PT has diurnal variation that is high during the light phase and low during the dark phase. Furthermore, melatonin administration significantly suppressed NMU mRNA expression in the PT in vivo. On the other hand, 48 h fasting did not have an effect on PT-NMU mRNA expression, and the diurnal change of NMU mRNA expression was maintained. We also found the highest expression of neuromedin U receptor type 2 (NMUR2 mRNA in the third ventricle ependymal cell layer, followed by the arcuate nucleus and the spinal cord. These results suggest that NMU mRNA expression in the PT is downregulated by melatonin during the dark phase and shows diurnal change. Considering that NMU mRNA in the PT showed the highest expression level in the brain, PT-NMU may act on NMUR2 in the brain, especially in the third ventricle ependymal cell layer, with a circadian rhythm.

  17. Orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 is a novel negative regulator of endothelin-1 expression in vascular endothelial cells.

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    Qin, Qing; Chen, Ming; Yi, Bing; You, Xiaohua; Yang, Ping; Sun, Jianxin

    2014-12-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) produced by vascular endothelial cells plays essential roles in the regulation of vascular tone and development of cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study is to identify novel regulators implicated in the regulation of ET-1 expression in vascular endothelial cells (ECs). By using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we show that either ectopic expression of orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 or pharmacological activation of Nur77 by 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) substantially inhibits ET-1 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), under both basal and thrombin-stimulated conditions. Furthermore, thrombin-stimulated ET expression is significantly augmented in both Nur77 knockdown ECs and aort from Nur77 knockout mice, suggesting that Nur77 is a negative regulator of ET-1 expression. Inhibition of ET-1 expression by Nur77 occurs at gene transcriptional levels, since Nur77 potently inhibits ET-1 promoter activity, without affecting ET-1 mRNA stability. As shown in electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), Nur77 overexpression markedly inhibits both basal and thrombin-stimulated transcriptional activity of AP-1. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that Nur77 specially interacts with c-Jun and inhibits AP-1 dependent c-Jun promoter activity, which leads to a decreased expression of c-Jun, a critical component involved in both AP-1 transcriptional activity and ET-1 expression in ECs. These findings demonstrate that Nur77 is a novel negative regulator of ET-1 expression in vascular ECs through an inhibitory interaction with the c-Jun/AP-1 pathway. Activation of Nur77 may represent a useful therapeutic strategy for preventing certain cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis and pulmonary artery hypertension. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Liver X Receptor (LXR) activation negatively regulates visfatin expression in macrophages

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    Mayi, Therese Hervee; Rigamonti, Elena [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); INSERM UR1011, F-59000 Lille (France); UDSL, F-59000 Lille (France); Institut Pasteur de Lille, F-59019 Lille (France); Pattou, Francois [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Department of Endocrine Surgery, University Hospital, Lille (France); U859 Biotherapies for Diabetes, INSERM, Lille (France); Staels, Bart, E-mail: bart.staels@pasteur-lille.fr [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); INSERM UR1011, F-59000 Lille (France); UDSL, F-59000 Lille (France); Institut Pasteur de Lille, F-59019 Lille (France); Chinetti-Gbaguidi, Giulia [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); INSERM UR1011, F-59000 Lille (France); UDSL, F-59000 Lille (France); Institut Pasteur de Lille, F-59019 Lille (France)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Synthetic LXR ligands decreased visfatin expression in human macrophages. {yields} LXR activation leads to a modest and transient decrease of NAD{sup +} concentration. {yields} LXR activation decreased PPAR{gamma}-induced visfatin in human macrophages. -- Abstract: Adipose tissue macrophages (ATM) are the major source of visfatin, a visceral fat adipokine upregulated during obesity. Also known to play a role in B cell differentiation (pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF)) and NAD biosynthesis (nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (NAMPT)), visfatin has been suggested to play a role in inflammation. Liver X Receptor (LXR) and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR){gamma} are nuclear receptors expressed in macrophages controlling the inflammatory response. Recently, we reported visfatin as a PPAR{gamma} target gene in human macrophages. In this study, we examined whether LXR regulates macrophage visfatin expression. Synthetic LXR ligands decreased visfatin gene expression in a LXR-dependent manner in human and murine macrophages. The decrease of visfatin mRNA was paralleled by a decrease of protein secretion. Consequently, a modest and transient decrease of NAD{sup +} concentration was observed. Interestingly, LXR activation decreased the PPAR{gamma}-induced visfatin gene and protein secretion in human macrophages. Our results identify visfatin as a gene oppositely regulated by the LXR and PPAR{gamma} pathways in human macrophages.

  19. Negative regulation of retrovirus expression in embryonal carcinoma cells mediated by an intragenic domain.

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    Loh, T P; Sievert, L L; Scott, R W

    1988-11-01

    An intragenic region spanning the tRNA primer binding site of a Moloney murine leukemia virus recombinant retrovirus was found to restrict expression specifically in embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells. When the inhibitory domain was present, the levels of steady-state RNA synthesized from integrated recombinant templates in stable cotransformation assays were reduced 20-fold in EC cells but not in C2 myoblast cells. Transient-cotransfection assays showed that repression of a template containing the EC-specific inhibitory component was relieved by an excess of specific competitor DNA. In addition, repression mediated by the inhibitory component was orientation independent. This evidence demonstrates the presence of a saturable, trans-acting negative regulatory factor(s) in EC cells and suggests that the interaction of the factor(s) with the intragenic inhibitory component occurs at the DNA level.

  20. Gli3 is a negative regulator of Tas1r3-expressing taste cells

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    Jyotaki, Masafumi; Redding, Kevin; Jiang, Peihua

    2018-01-01

    Mouse taste receptor cells survive from 3–24 days, necessitating their regeneration throughout adulthood. In anterior tongue, sonic hedgehog (SHH), released by a subpopulation of basal taste cells, regulates transcription factors Gli2 and Gli3 in stem cells to control taste cell regeneration. Using single-cell RNA-Seq we found that Gli3 is highly expressed in Tas1r3-expressing taste receptor cells and Lgr5+ taste stem cells in posterior tongue. By PCR and immunohistochemistry we found that Gli3 was expressed in taste buds in all taste fields. Conditional knockout mice lacking Gli3 in the posterior tongue (Gli3CKO) had larger taste buds containing more taste cells than did control wild-type (Gli3WT) mice. In comparison to wild-type mice, Gli3CKO mice had more Lgr5+ and Tas1r3+ cells, but fewer type III cells. Similar changes were observed ex vivo in Gli3CKO taste organoids cultured from Lgr5+ taste stem cells. Further, the expression of several taste marker and Gli3 target genes was altered in Gli3CKO mice and/or organoids. Mirroring these changes, Gli3CKO mice had increased lick responses to sweet and umami stimuli, decreased lick responses to bitter and sour taste stimuli, and increased glossopharyngeal taste nerve responses to sweet and bitter compounds. Our results indicate that Gli3 is a suppressor of stem cell proliferation that affects the number and function of mature taste cells, especially Tas1r3+ cells, in adult posterior tongue. Our findings shed light on the role of the Shh pathway in adult taste cell regeneration and may help devise strategies for treating taste distortions from chemotherapy and aging. PMID:29415007

  1. Elongated Hypocotyl 5-Homolog (HYH Negatively Regulates Expression of the Ambient Temperature-Responsive MicroRNA Gene MIR169

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    Phanu T. Serivichyaswat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis microRNA169 (miR169 is an ambient temperature-responsive microRNA that plays an important role in stress responses and the floral transition. However, the transcription factors that regulate the expression of MIR169 have remained unknown. In this study, we show that Elongated Hypocotyl 5-Homolog (HYH directly binds to the promoter of MIR169a and negatively regulates its expression. Absolute quantification identified MIR169a as the major locus producing miR169. GUS reporter assays revealed that the deletion of a 498-bp fragment (–1,505 to –1,007, relative to the major transcriptional start site of MIR169a abolished its ambient temperature-responsive expression. DNA-affinity chromatography followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis identified transcription factor HYH as a trans-acting factor that binds to the 498-bp promoter fragment of pri-miR169a. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation–quantitative PCR demonstrated that the HYH.2 protein, a predominant isoform of HYH, directly associated with a G-box-like motif in the 498-bp fragment of pri-miR169a. Higher enrichment of HYH.2 protein on the promoter region of MIR169a was seen at 23°C, consistent with the presence of more HYH.2 protein in the cell at the temperature. Transcript levels of pri-miR169a increased in hyh mutants and decreased in transgenic plants overexpressing HYH. Consistent with the negative regulation of MIR169a by HYH, the diurnal levels of HYH mRNA and pri-miR169a showed opposite patterns. Taken together, our results suggest that HYH is a transcription factor that binds to a G-box-like motif in the MIR169a promoter and negatively regulates ambient temperature-responsive expression of MIR169a at higher temperatures in Arabidopsis.

  2. Response and binding elements for ligand-dependent positive transcription factors integrate positive and negative regulation of gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenfeld, M.G.; Glass, C.K.; Adler, S.; Crenshaw, E.B. III; He, X.; Lira, S.A.; Elsholtz, H.P.; Mangalam, H.J.; Holloway, J.M.; Nelson, C.; Albert, V.R.; Ingraham, H.A.

    1988-01-01

    Accurate, regulated initiation of mRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II is dependent on the actions of a variety of positive and negative trans-acting factors that bind cis-acting promoter and enhancer elements. These transcription factors may exert their actions in a tissue-specific manner or function under control of plasma membrane or intracellular ligand-dependent receptors. A major goal in the authors' laboratory has been to identify the molecular mechanisms responsible for the serial activation of hormone-encoding genes in the pituitary during development and the positive and negative regulation of their transcription. The anterior pituitary gland contains phenotypically distinct cell types, each of which expresses unique trophic hormones: adrenocorticotropic hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, growth hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone. The structurally related prolactin and growth hormone genes are expressed in lactotrophs and somatotrophs, respectively, with their expression virtually limited to the pituitary gland. The reported transient coexpression of these two structurally related neuroendocrine genes raises the possibility that the prolactin and growth hormone genes are developmentally controlled by a common factor(s)

  3. Plasmid Negative Regulation of CPAF Expression Is Pgp4 Independent and Restricted to Invasive Chlamydia trachomatis Biovars

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    Michael John Patton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes blinding trachoma and sexually transmitted disease. C. trachomatis isolates are classified into 2 biovars—lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV and trachoma—which are distinguished biologically by their natural host cell infection tropism. LGV biovars infect macrophages and are invasive, whereas trachoma biovars infect oculo-urogenital epithelial cells and are noninvasive. The C. trachomatis plasmid is an important virulence factor in the pathogenesis of these infections. Central to its pathogenic role is the transcriptional regulatory function of the plasmid protein Pgp4, which regulates the expression of plasmid and chromosomal virulence genes. As many gene regulatory functions are post-transcriptional, we employed a comparative proteomic study of cells infected with plasmid-cured C. trachomatis serovars A and D (trachoma biovar, a L2 serovar (LGV biovar, and the L2 serovar transformed with a plasmid containing a nonsense mutation in pgp4 to more completely elucidate the effects of the plasmid on chlamydial infection biology. Our results show that the Pgp4-dependent elevations in the levels of Pgp3 and a conserved core set of chromosomally encoded proteins are remarkably similar for serovars within both C. trachomatis biovars. Conversely, we found a plasmid-dependent, Pgp4-independent, negative regulation in the expression of the chlamydial protease-like activity factor (CPAF for the L2 serovar but not the A and D serovars. The molecular mechanism of plasmid-dependent negative regulation of CPAF expression in the LGV serovar is not understood but is likely important to understanding its macrophage infection tropism and invasive infection nature.

  4. Root-Expressed Maize Lipoxygenase 3 Negatively Regulates Induced Systemic Resistance to Colletotrichum graminicola in Shoots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasie eConstantino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that disruption of a maize root-expressed 9-lipoxygenase (9-LOX gene, ZmLOX3, results in dramatic increase in resistance to diverse leaf and stalk pathogens. Despite evident economic significance of these findings, the mechanism behind this increased resistance remained elusive. In this study, we show that increased resistance of the lox3-4 mutants is due to constitutive activation of induced systemic resistance (ISR signaling. We showed that ZmLOX3 lacked expression in leaves in response to anthracnose leaf blight pathogen Colletotrichum graminicola, but was expressed constitutively in the roots, thus prompting our hypothesis: the roots of lox3-4 mutants are the source of increased resistance in leaves. Supporting this hypothesis, treatment of wild-type plants (WT with xylem sap of lox3-4 mutant induced resistance to C. graminicola to the levels comparable to those observed in lox3-4 mutant. Moreover, treating mutants with the sap collected from WT plants partially restored the susceptibility to C. graminicola. lox3-4 mutants showed primed defense responses upon infection, which included earlier and greater induction of defense-related PAL and GST genes compared to WT. In addition to the greater expression of the octadecanoid pathway genes, lox3-4 mutant responded earlier and with a greater accumulation of H2O2 in response to C. graminicola infection or treatment with alamethicin. These findings suggest that lox3-4 mutants display constitutive ISR-like signaling. In support of this idea, root colonization by Trichoderma virens strain GV29-8 induced the same level of disease resistance in WT as the treatment with the mutant sap, but had no additional resistance effect in lox3-4 mutant. While treatment with T. virens GV29 strongly and rapidly suppressed ZmLOX3 expression in hydroponically grown WT roots, T. virens Δsml mutant, which is deficient in ISR induction, was unable to suppress expression of ZmLOX3, thus

  5. The cellular prion protein negatively regulates phagocytosis and cytokine expression in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wang

    Full Text Available The cellular prion protein (PrP(C is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI-anchored glycoprotein on the cell surface. Previous studies have demonstrated contradictory roles for PrP(C in connection with the phagocytic ability of macrophages. In the present work, we investigated the function of PrP(C in phagocytosis and cytokine expression in bone marrow-derived macrophages infected with Escherichia coli. E. coli infection induced an increase in the PRNP mRNA level. Knockout of PrP(C promoted bacterial uptake; upregulated Rab5, Rab7, and Eea1 mRNA expression; and increased the recruitment of lysosomal-associated membrane protein-2 to phagosomes, suggesting enhanced microbicidal activity. Remarkably, knockout of PrP(C suppressed the proliferation of internalized bacteria and increased the expression of cytokines such as interleukin-1β. Collectively, our data reveal an important role of PrP(C as a negative regulator for phagocytosis, phagosome maturation, cytokine expression, and macrophage microbicidal activity.

  6. Keratin-6 driven ODC expression to hair follicle keratinocytes enhances stemness and tumorigenesis by negatively regulating Notch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arumugam, Aadithya; Weng, Zhiping; Chaudhary, Sandeep C.; Afaq, Farrukh [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Elmets, Craig A. [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Athar, Mohammad, E-mail: mathar@uab.edu [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States)

    2014-08-29

    Highlights: • Targeting ODC to hair follicle augments skin carcinogenesis and invasive SCCs. • Hair follicle ODC expands stem cell compartment carrying CD34{sup +}/K15{sup +}/p63{sup +} keratinocytes. • Negatively regulated Notch1 is associated with expansion of stem cell compartment. - Abstract: Over-expression of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is known to be involved in the epidermal carcinogenesis. However, the mechanism by which it enhances skin carcinogenesis remains undefined. Recently, role of stem cells localized in various epidermal compartments has been shown in the pathogenesis of skin cancer. To direct ODC expression in distinct epidermal compartments, we have developed keratin 6 (K6)-ODC/SKH-1 and keratin 14 (K14)-ODC/SKH-1 mice and employed them to investigate the role of ODC directed to these epidermal compartments on UVB-induced carcinogenesis. K6-driven ODC over-expression directed to outer root sheath (ORS) of hair follicle was more effective in augmenting tumorigenesis as compared to mice where K14-driven ODC expression was directed to inter-follicular epidermal keratinocytes. Chronically UVB-irradiated K6-ODC/SKH-1 developed 15 ± 2.5 tumors/mouse whereas K14-ODC/SKH-1 developed only 6.8 ± 1.5 tumors/mouse. K6-ODC/SKH-1 showed augmented UVB-induced proliferation and much higher pro-inflammatory responses than K14-ODC/SKH-1 mice. Tumors induced in K6-ODC/SKH-1 were rapidly growing, invasive and ulcerative squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) showing decreased expression of epidermal polarity marker E-cadherin and enhanced mesenchymal marker, fibronectin. Interestingly, the number of CD34/CK15/p63 positive stem-like cells was significantly higher in chronically UVB-irradiated K6-ODC/SKH-1 as compared to K14-ODC/SKH-1 mice. Reduced Notch1 expression was correlated with the expansion of stem cell compartment in these animals. However, other signaling pathways such as DNA damage response or mTOR signaling pathways were not significantly different in

  7. Keratin-6 driven ODC expression to hair follicle keratinocytes enhances stemness and tumorigenesis by negatively regulating Notch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arumugam, Aadithya; Weng, Zhiping; Chaudhary, Sandeep C.; Afaq, Farrukh; Elmets, Craig A.; Athar, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Targeting ODC to hair follicle augments skin carcinogenesis and invasive SCCs. • Hair follicle ODC expands stem cell compartment carrying CD34 + /K15 + /p63 + keratinocytes. • Negatively regulated Notch1 is associated with expansion of stem cell compartment. - Abstract: Over-expression of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is known to be involved in the epidermal carcinogenesis. However, the mechanism by which it enhances skin carcinogenesis remains undefined. Recently, role of stem cells localized in various epidermal compartments has been shown in the pathogenesis of skin cancer. To direct ODC expression in distinct epidermal compartments, we have developed keratin 6 (K6)-ODC/SKH-1 and keratin 14 (K14)-ODC/SKH-1 mice and employed them to investigate the role of ODC directed to these epidermal compartments on UVB-induced carcinogenesis. K6-driven ODC over-expression directed to outer root sheath (ORS) of hair follicle was more effective in augmenting tumorigenesis as compared to mice where K14-driven ODC expression was directed to inter-follicular epidermal keratinocytes. Chronically UVB-irradiated K6-ODC/SKH-1 developed 15 ± 2.5 tumors/mouse whereas K14-ODC/SKH-1 developed only 6.8 ± 1.5 tumors/mouse. K6-ODC/SKH-1 showed augmented UVB-induced proliferation and much higher pro-inflammatory responses than K14-ODC/SKH-1 mice. Tumors induced in K6-ODC/SKH-1 were rapidly growing, invasive and ulcerative squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) showing decreased expression of epidermal polarity marker E-cadherin and enhanced mesenchymal marker, fibronectin. Interestingly, the number of CD34/CK15/p63 positive stem-like cells was significantly higher in chronically UVB-irradiated K6-ODC/SKH-1 as compared to K14-ODC/SKH-1 mice. Reduced Notch1 expression was correlated with the expansion of stem cell compartment in these animals. However, other signaling pathways such as DNA damage response or mTOR signaling pathways were not significantly different in tumors induced

  8. Orphan Nuclear Receptor Nur77 Is a Novel Negative Regulator of Endothelin-1 Expression In Vascular Endothelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Qing; Chen, Ming; Yi, Bing; You, Xiaohua; Yang, Ping; Sun, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) produced by vascular endothelial cells plays essential roles in the regulation of vascular tone and development of cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study is to identify novel regulators implicated in the regulation of ET-1 expression in vascular endothelial cells (ECs). By using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we show that either ectopic expression of orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 or pharmacological activati...

  9. Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH) is predominantly expressed in the brain and negatively regulates hepatopancreatic vitellogenin (VTG) gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Zhang, Lv-Ping; Wong, Nai-Kei; Zhong, Ming; Ren, Chun-Hua; Hu, Chao-Qun

    2014-03-01

    Ovarian maturation in crustaceans is temporally orchestrated by two processes: oogenesis and vitellogenesis. The peptide hormone vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH), by far the most potent negative regulator of crustacean reproduction known, critically modulates crustacean ovarian maturation by suppressing vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis. In this study, cDNA encoding VIH was cloned from the eyestalk of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, a highly significant commercial culture species. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that L. vannamei VIH (lvVIH) can be classified as a member of the type II crustacean hyperglycemic hormone family. Northern blot and RT-PCR results reveal that both the brain and eyestalk were the major sources for lvVIH mRNA expression. In in vitro experiments on primary culture of shrimp hepatopancreatic cells, it was confirmed that some endogenous inhibitory factors existed in L. vannamei hemolymph, brain, and eyestalk that suppressed hepatopancreatic VTG gene expression. Purified recombinant lvVIH protein was effective in inhibiting VTG mRNA expression in both in vitro primary hepatopancreatic cell culture and in vivo injection experiments. Injection of recombinant VIH could also reverse ovarian growth induced by eyestalk ablation. Furthermore, unilateral eyestalk ablation reduced the mRNA level of lvVIH in the brain but not in the remaining contralateral eyestalk. Our study, as a whole, provides new insights on VIH regulation of shrimp reproduction: 1) the brain and eyestalk are both important sites of VIH expression and therefore possible coregulators of hepatopancreatic VTG mRNA expression and 2) eyestalk ablation could increase hepatopancreatic VTG expression by transcriptionally abolishing eyestalk-derived VIH and diminishing brain-derived VIH.

  10. Transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 negatively regulates interleukin-1α-induced stromal-derived factor-1 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Bin [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huangzhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Li, Wei [Department of Gerontology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huangzhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Zheng, Qichang [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huangzhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Qin, Tao [Department of Hepatobiliary Pancreatic Surgery, People' s Hospital of Zhengzhou University, School of Medicine, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450003 (China); Wang, Kun; Li, Jinjin; Guo, Bing; Yu, Qihong; Wu, Yuzhe; Gao, Yang; Cheng, Xiang; Hu, Shaobo; Kumar, Stanley Naveen [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huangzhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Liu, Sanguang, E-mail: sanguang1998@sina.com [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The Second Hospital, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050000 (China); Song, Zifang, E-mail: zsong@hust.edu.cn [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huangzhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China)

    2015-07-17

    Stromal-derived Factor-1 (SDF-1) derived from vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contributes to vascular repair and remodeling in various vascular diseases. In this study, the mechanism underlying regulation of SDF-1 expression by interleukin-1α (IL-1α) was investigated in primary rat VSMCs. We found IL-1α promotes SDF-1 expression by up-regulating CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) in an IκB kinase β (IKKβ) signaling-dependent manner. Moreover, IL-1α-induced expression of C/EBPβ and SDF-1 was significantly potentiated by knockdown of transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), an upstream activator of IKKβ signaling. In addition, we also demonstrated that TAK1/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling exerted negative effect on IL-1α-induced expression of C/EBPβ and SDF-1 through counteracting ROS-dependent up-regulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2). In conclusion, TAK1 acts as an important regulator of IL-1α-induced SDF-1 expression in VSMCs, and modulating activity of TAK1 may serve as a potential strategy for modulating vascular repair and remodeling. - Highlights: • IL-1α induces IKKβ signaling-dependent SDF-1 expression by up-regulating C/EBPβ. • Activation of TAK1 by IL-1α negatively regulates C/EBPβ-dependent SDF-1 expression. • IL-1α-induced TAK1/p38 MAPK signaling counteracts ROS-dependent SDF-1 expression. • TAK1 counteracts IL-1α-induced SDF-1 expression by attenuating NRF2 up-regulation.

  11. Transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 negatively regulates interleukin-1α-induced stromal-derived factor-1 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Bin; Li, Wei; Zheng, Qichang; Qin, Tao; Wang, Kun; Li, Jinjin; Guo, Bing; Yu, Qihong; Wu, Yuzhe; Gao, Yang; Cheng, Xiang; Hu, Shaobo; Kumar, Stanley Naveen; Liu, Sanguang; Song, Zifang

    2015-01-01

    Stromal-derived Factor-1 (SDF-1) derived from vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contributes to vascular repair and remodeling in various vascular diseases. In this study, the mechanism underlying regulation of SDF-1 expression by interleukin-1α (IL-1α) was investigated in primary rat VSMCs. We found IL-1α promotes SDF-1 expression by up-regulating CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) in an IκB kinase β (IKKβ) signaling-dependent manner. Moreover, IL-1α-induced expression of C/EBPβ and SDF-1 was significantly potentiated by knockdown of transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), an upstream activator of IKKβ signaling. In addition, we also demonstrated that TAK1/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling exerted negative effect on IL-1α-induced expression of C/EBPβ and SDF-1 through counteracting ROS-dependent up-regulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2). In conclusion, TAK1 acts as an important regulator of IL-1α-induced SDF-1 expression in VSMCs, and modulating activity of TAK1 may serve as a potential strategy for modulating vascular repair and remodeling. - Highlights: • IL-1α induces IKKβ signaling-dependent SDF-1 expression by up-regulating C/EBPβ. • Activation of TAK1 by IL-1α negatively regulates C/EBPβ-dependent SDF-1 expression. • IL-1α-induced TAK1/p38 MAPK signaling counteracts ROS-dependent SDF-1 expression. • TAK1 counteracts IL-1α-induced SDF-1 expression by attenuating NRF2 up-regulation

  12. Orphan Nuclear Receptor ERRα Controls Macrophage Metabolic Signaling and A20 Expression to Negatively Regulate TLR-Induced Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuk, Jae-Min; Kim, Tae Sung; Kim, Soo Yeon; Lee, Hye-Mi; Han, Jeongsu; Dufour, Catherine Rosa; Kim, Jin Kyung; Jin, Hyo Sun; Yang, Chul-Su; Park, Ki-Sun; Lee, Chul-Ho; Kim, Jin-Man; Kweon, Gi Ryang; Choi, Hueng-Sik; Vanacker, Jean-Marc; Moore, David D; Giguère, Vincent; Jo, Eun-Kyeong

    2015-07-21

    The orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα; NR3B1) is a key metabolic regulator, but its function in regulating inflammation remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that ERRα negatively regulates Toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced inflammation by promoting Tnfaip3 transcription and fine-tuning of metabolic reprogramming in macrophages. ERRα-deficient (Esrra(-/-)) mice showed increased susceptibility to endotoxin-induced septic shock, leading to more severe pro-inflammatory responses than control mice. ERRα regulated macrophage inflammatory responses by directly binding the promoter region of Tnfaip3, a deubiquitinating enzyme in TLR signaling. In addition, Esrra(-/-) macrophages showed an increased glycolysis, but impaired mitochondrial respiratory function and biogenesis. Further, ERRα was required for the regulation of NF-κB signaling by controlling p65 acetylation via maintenance of NAD(+) levels and sirtuin 1 activation. These findings unravel a previously unappreciated role for ERRα as a negative regulator of TLR-induced inflammatory responses through inducing Tnfaip3 transcription and controlling the metabolic reprogramming. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Critical role of types 2 and 3 deiodinases in the negative regulation of gene expression by T₃in the mouse cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Arturo; Morte, Beatriz; Belinchón, Mónica M; Ceballos, Ainhoa; Bernal, Juan

    2012-06-01

    Thyroid hormones regulate brain development and function through the control of gene expression, mediated by binding of T(3) to nuclear receptors. Brain T(3) concentration is tightly controlled by homeostatic mechanisms regulating transport and metabolism of T(4) and T(3). We have examined the role of the inactivating enzyme type 3 deiodinase (D3) in the regulation of 43 thyroid hormone-dependent genes in the cerebral cortex of 30-d-old mice. D3 inactivation increased slightly the expression of two of 22 positively regulated genes and significantly decreased the expression of seven of 21 negatively regulated genes. Administration of high doses of T(3) led to significant changes in the expression of 12 positive genes and three negative genes in wild-type mice. The response to T(3) treatment was enhanced in D3-deficient mice, both in the number of genes and in the amplitude of the response, demonstrating the role of D3 in modulating T(3) action. Comparison of the effects on gene expression observed in D3 deficiency with those in hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and type 2 deiodinase (D2) deficiency revealed that the negative genes are more sensitive to D2 and D3 deficiencies than the positive genes. This observation indicates that, in normal physiological conditions, D2 and D3 play critical roles in maintaining local T(3) concentrations within a very narrow range. It also suggests that negatively and positively regulated genes do not have the same physiological significance or that their regulation by thyroid hormone obeys different paradigms at the molecular or cellular levels.

  14. Sustained Expression of Negative Regulators of Myelination Protects Schwann Cells from Dysmyelination in a Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1B Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, Francesca; Ferri, Cinzia; Scapin, Cristina; Feltri, M Laura; Wrabetz, Lawrence; D'Antonio, Maurizio

    2018-05-02

    Schwann cell differentiation and myelination in the PNS are the result of fine-tuning of positive and negative transcriptional regulators. As myelination starts, negative regulators are downregulated, whereas positive ones are upregulated. Fully differentiated Schwann cells maintain an extraordinary plasticity and can transdifferentiate into "repair" Schwann cells after nerve injury. Reactivation of negative regulators of myelination is essential to generate repair Schwann cells. Negative regulators have also been implicated in demyelinating neuropathies, although their role in disease remains elusive. Here, we used a mouse model of Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type 1B (CMT1B), the P0S63del mouse characterized by ER stress and the activation of the unfolded protein response, to show that adult Schwann cells are in a partial differentiation state because they overexpress transcription factors that are normally expressed only before myelination. We provide evidence that two of these factors, Sox2 and Id2, act as negative regulators of myelination in vivo However, their sustained expression in neuropathy is protective because ablation of Sox2 or/and Id2 from S63del mice of both sexes results in worsening of the dysmyelinating phenotype. This is accompanied by increased levels of mutant P0 expression and exacerbation of ER stress, suggesting that limited differentiation may represent a novel adaptive mechanism through which Schwann cells counter the toxic effect of a mutant terminal differentiation protein. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In many neuropathies, Schwann cells express high levels of early differentiation genes, but the significance of these altered expression remained unclear. Because many of these factors may act as negative regulators of myelination, it was suggested that their misexpression could contribute to dysmyelination. Here, we show that the transcription factors Sox2 and Id2 act as negative regulators of myelination in vivo , but that their sustained

  15. Thyroid hormone negatively regulates CDX2 and SOAT2 mRNA expression via induction of miRNA-181d in hepatic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yap, Chui Sun; Sinha, Rohit Anthony [Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disorders, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, 8, College Road, Singapore 169857 (Singapore); Ota, Sho; Katsuki, Masahito [Department of Molecular Endocrinology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Yen, Paul Michael, E-mail: paul.yen@duke-nus.edu.sg [Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disorders, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, 8, College Road, Singapore 169857 (Singapore)

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •Thyroid hormone induces miR-181d expression in human hepatic cells and mouse livers. •Thyroid hormone downregulates CDX2 and SOAT2 (or ACAT2) via miR-181d. •miR-181d reduces cholesterol output from human hepatic cells. -- Abstract: Thyroid hormones (THs) regulate transcription of many metabolic genes in the liver through its nuclear receptors (TRs). Although the molecular mechanisms for positive regulation of hepatic genes by TH are well understood, much less is known about TH-mediated negative regulation. Recently, several nuclear hormone receptors were shown to downregulate gene expression via miRNAs. To further examine the potential role of miRNAs in TH-mediated negative regulation, we used a miRNA microarray to identify miRNAs that were directly regulated by TH in a human hepatic cell line. In our screen, we discovered that miRNA-181d is a novel hepatic miRNA that was regulated by TH in hepatic cell culture and in vivo. Furthermore, we identified and characterized two novel TH-regulated target genes that were downstream of miR-181d signaling: caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2) and sterol O-acyltransferase 2 (SOAT2 or ACAT2). CDX2, a known positive regulator of hepatocyte differentiation, was regulated by miR-181d and directly activated SOAT2 gene expression. Since SOAT2 is an enzyme that generates cholesteryl esters that are packaged into lipoproteins, our results suggest miR-181d plays a significant role in the negative regulation of key metabolic genes by TH in the liver.

  16. Effect of Negative Pressure on Proliferation, Virulence Factor Secretion, Biofilm Formation, and Virulence-Regulated Gene Expression of Pseudomonas aeruginosa In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Qi Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the effect of negative pressure conditions induced by NPWT on P. aeruginosa. Methods. P. aeruginosa was cultured in a Luria–Bertani medium at negative pressure of −125 mmHg for 24 h in the experimental group and at atmospheric pressure in the control group. The diameters of the colonies of P. aeruginosa were measured after 24 h. ELISA kit, orcinol method, and elastin-Congo red assay were used to quantify the virulence factors. Biofilm formation was observed by staining with Alexa Fluor® 647 conjugate of concanavalin A (Con A. Virulence-regulated genes were determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Results. As compared with the control group, growth of P. aeruginosa was inhibited by negative pressure. The colony size under negative pressure was significantly smaller in the experimental group than that in the controls (p<0.01. Besides, reductions in the total amount of virulence factors were observed in the negative pressure group, including exotoxin A, rhamnolipid, and elastase. RT-PCR results revealed a significant inhibition in the expression level of virulence-regulated genes. Conclusion. Negative pressure could significantly inhibit the growth of P. aeruginosa. It led to a decrease in the virulence factor secretion, biofilm formation, and a reduction in the expression level of virulence-regulated genes.

  17. Defective interleukin-4/Stat6 activity correlates with increased constitutive expression of negative regulators SOCS-3, SOCS-7, and CISH in colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao Hong; Xu, Shuang Bing; Yuan, Jia; Li, Ben Hui; Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Qin; Li, Pin Dong; Li, Feng; Zhang, Wen Jie

    2009-12-01

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4)-induced Stat6 activities (phenotypes) vary among human cancer cells, of which the HT-29 cell line carries an active Stat6(high) phenotype, while Caco-2 carries a defective Stat6(null) phenotype, respectively. Cancer cells with Stat6(high) show resistance to apoptosis and exaggerated metastasis, suggesting the clinical significance of Stat6 phenotypes. We previously showed that Stat6(high) HT-29 cells exhibited low constitutive expression of Stat6-negative regulators SOCS-1 and SHP-1 because of gene hypermethylation. This study further examined the constitutive expression of other closely related SOCS family numbers including SOCS-3, SOCS-5, SOCS-7, and CISH using RT-PCR. Similar to SOCS-1 and SHP-1, Stat6(high) HT-29 cells expressed low constitutive mRNA of SOCS-3, SOCS-7, and CISH than Stat6(null) Caco-2 cells. Interestingly, DNA demethylation using 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine in HT-29 cells up-regulated mRNA expression of the above genes, indicating a hypermethylation status, which was confirmed by methylation-specific sequencing in selected SOCS-3 gene. Furthermore, defective Stat6(null) Caco-2 exhibited impaired phosphorylation of Stat6 after IL-4 stimulation by flow cytometry, in keeping with the notion of an over-performed negative regulation. The findings that IL-4/Stat6 phenotypes show differential expression of multiple negative regulators suggest a model that a collective force of powerful negative regulators, directly and indirectly, acts on Stat6 activation, which may result in differential Stat6 phenotypes.

  18. Expression of alkyl hydroperoxide reductase is regulated negatively by OxyR1 and positively by RpoE2 sigma factor in Azospirillum brasilense Sp7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sudhir; Dwivedi, Susheel Kumar; Singh, Vijay Shankar; Tripathi, Anil Kumar

    2016-10-01

    OxyR proteins are LysR-type transcriptional regulators, which play an important role in responding to oxidative stress in bacteria. Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 harbours two copies of OxyR. The inactivation of the oxyR1, the gene organized divergently to ahpC in A. brasilense Sp7, led to an increased tolerance to alkyl hydroperoxides, which was corroborated by an increase in alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (AhpC) activity, enhanced expression of ahpC :lacZ fusion and increased synthesis of AhpC protein in the oxyR1::km mutant. The upstream region of ahpC promoter harboured a putative OxyR binding site, T-N11-A. Mutation of T, A or both in the T-N11-Amotif caused derepression of ahpC in A. brasilense suggesting that T-N11-A might be the binding site for a negative regulator. Retardation of the electrophoretic mobility of the T-N11-A motif harbouring oxyR1-ahpC intergenic DNA by recombinant OxyR1, under reducing as well as oxidizing conditions, indicated that OxyR1 acts as a negative regulator of ahpC in A. brasilense. Sequence of the promoter of ahpC, predicted on the basis of transcriptional start site, and an enhanced expression of ahpC:lacZ fusion in chrR2::km mutant background suggested that ahpC promoter was RpoE2 dependent. Thus, this study shows that in A. brasilense Sp7, ahpC expression is regulated negatively by OxyR1 but is regulated positively by RpoE2, an oxidative-stress-responsive sigma factor. It also shows that OxyR1 regulates the expression RpoE1, which is known to play an important role during photooxidative stress in A. brasilense.

  19. The FasX Small Regulatory RNA Negatively Regulates the Expression of Two Fibronectin-Binding Proteins in Group A Streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danger, Jessica L; Makthal, Nishanth; Kumaraswami, Muthiah; Sumby, Paul

    2015-12-01

    The group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) causes more than 700 million human infections each year. The success of this pathogen can be traced in part to the extensive arsenal of virulence factors that are available for expression in temporally and spatially specific manners. To modify the expression of these virulence factors, GAS use both protein- and RNA-based regulators, with the best-characterized RNA-based regulator being the small regulatory RNA (sRNA) FasX. FasX is a 205-nucleotide sRNA that contributes to GAS virulence by enhancing the expression of the thrombolytic secreted virulence factor streptokinase and by repressing the expression of the collagen-binding cell surface pili. Here, we have expanded the FasX regulon, showing that this sRNA also negatively regulates the expression of the adhesion- and internalization-promoting, fibronectin-binding proteins PrtF1 and PrtF2. FasX posttranscriptionally regulates the expression of PrtF1/2 through a mechanism that involves base pairing to the prtF1 and prtF2 mRNAs within their 5' untranslated regions, overlapping the mRNA ribosome-binding sites. Thus, duplex formation between FasX and the prtF1 and prtF2 mRNAs blocks ribosome access, leading to an inhibition of mRNA translation. Given that FasX positively regulates the expression of the spreading factor streptokinase and negatively regulates the expression of the collagen-binding pili and of the fibronectin-binding PrtF1/2, our data are consistent with FasX functioning as a molecular switch that governs the transition of GAS between the colonization and dissemination stages of infection. More than half a million deaths each year are a consequence of infections caused by GAS. Insights into how this pathogen regulates the production of proteins during infection may facilitate the development of novel therapeutic or preventative regimens aimed at inhibiting this activity. Here, we have expanded insight into the regulatory activity of the GAS small

  20. Leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor-1 is expressed on human megakaryocytes and negatively regulates the maturation of primary megakaryocytic progenitors and cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Jiangnan; Zhang, Xiaoshu; Zhao, Haiya; Fu, Qiang; Cao, Yanning; Wang, Yuesi; Feng, Xiaoying; Fu, Aili

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → LAIR-1 is expressed on human megakaryocytes from an early stage. → Up-regulation of LAIR-1 negatively regulates megakaryocytic differentiation of cell line. → LAIR-1 negatively regulates the differentiation of primary megakaryocytic progenitors. -- Abstract: Leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor-1 (LAIR-1) is an inhibitory collagen receptor which belongs to the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily. Although the inhibitory function of LAIR-1 has been extensively described in multiple leukocytes, its role in megakaryocyte (MK) has not been explored so far. Here, we show that LAIR-1 is expressed on human bone marrow CD34 + CD41a + and CD41a + CD42b + cells. LAIR-1 is also detectable in a fraction of human cord blood CD34 + cell-derived MK that has morphological characteristics of immature MK. In megakaryoblastic cell line Dami, the membrane protein expression of LAIR-1 is up-regulated significantly when cells are treated with phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Furthermore, cross-linking of LAIR-1 in Dami cells with its natural ligand or anti-LAIR-1 antibody leads to the inhibition of cell proliferation and PMA-promoted differentiation when examined by the MK lineage-specific markers (CD41a and CD42b) and polyploidization. In addition, we also observed that cross-linking of LAIR-1 results in decreased MK generation from primary human CD34 + cells cultured in a cytokines cocktail that contains TPO. These results suggest that LAIR-1 is a likely candidate for an early marker of MK differentiation, and provide initial evidence indicating that LAIR-1 serves as a negative regulator of megakaryocytopoiesis.

  1. Neopterin negatively regulates expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1 by the LXRα signaling pathway in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jin-quan; Tan, Chun-zhi; Wu, Jin-hua; Zhang, Dong-cui; Chen, Ji-ling; Zeng, Bin-yuan; Jiang, Yu-ping; Nie, Jin; Liu, Wei; Liu, Qin; Dai, Hao

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the effects of neopterin on ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux in human THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells, and to explore the role of the liver X receptor alpha (LXRα) involved. In the present study, THP-1 cells were pre-incubated with ox-LDL to become foam cells. The protein and mRNA expression were examined by Western blot assays and real-time quantitative PCR, respectively. Liquid scintillation counting and high performance liquid chromatography assays were used to test cellular cholesterol efflux and cholesterol content. Neopterin decreased ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells, and the LXRα siRNA can reverse the inhibitory effects induced by neopterin. Neoterin has a negative regulation on ABCA1 expression via the LXRα signaling pathway, which suggests the aggravated effects of neopterin on atherosclerosis.

  2. WRKY2/34–VQ20 Modules in Arabidopsis thaliana Negatively Regulate Expression of a Trio of Related MYB Transcription Factors During Pollen Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rihua Lei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Male gametogenesis in plants is tightly controlled and involves the complex and precise regulation of transcriptional reprogramming. Interactions between WRKY proteins and VQ motif-containing proteins are required to control these complicated transcriptional networks. However, our understanding of the mechanisms by which these complexes affect downstream gene expression is quite limited. In this study, we found that WRKY2 and WKRY34 repress MYB97, MYB101, and MYB120 expression during male gametogenesis. MYB expression was up-regulated in the wrky2-1 wrky34-1 vq20-1 triple mutant during male gametogenesis. The expression levels of six potential targets of the three MYBs increased the most in the wrky2-1 wrky34-1 vq20-1 triple mutant, followed by the wrky2-1 wrky34-1 double mutant, compared with in wild-type. Yeast one-hybrid and dual luciferase reporter assays indicated that WRKY2 and WRKY34 recognized the MYB97 promoter by binding to its W-boxes. MYB97 overexpression caused defects in pollen germination and pollen tube length, which impacted male fertility. Thus, WRKY2/34–VQ20 complexes appear to negatively regulate the expression of certain MYBs during plant male gametogenesis.

  3. Human apolipoprotein CIII gene expression is regulated by positive and negative cis-acting elements and tissue-specific protein factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reue, K.; Leff, T.; Breslow, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Apolipoprotein CIII (apoCIII) is a major protein constituent of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and is synthesized primarily in the liver. Cis-acting DNA elements required for liver-specific apoCIII gene transcription were identified with transient expression assays in the human hepatoma (HepG2) and epithelial carcinoma (HeLa) cell lines. In liver cells, 821 nucleotides of the human apoCIII gene 5'-flanking sequence were required for maximum levels of gene expression, while the proximal 110 nucleotides alone were sufficient. No expression was observed in similar studies with HeLa cells. The level of expression was modulated by a combination of positive and negative cis-acting sequences, which interact with distinct sets of proteins from liver and HeLa cell nuclear extracts. The proximal positive regulatory region shares homology with similarly located sequences of other genes strongly expressed in the liver, including α 1 -antitrypsin and other apolipoprotein genes. The negative regulatory region is striking homologous to the human β-interferon gene regulatory element. The distal positive region shares homology with some viral enhancers and has properties of a tissue-specific enhancer. The regulation of the apoCIII gene is complex but shares features with other genes, suggesting shuffling of regulatory elements as a common mechanism for cell type-specific gene expression

  4. TmCactin plays an important role in Gram-negative and -positive bacterial infection by regulating expression of 7 AMP genes in Tenebrio molitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yong Hun; Jung Kim, Yu; Beom Park, Ki; Hwan Seong, Jeong; Gon Kim, Soo; Park, Soyi; Young Noh, Mi; Seok Lee, Yong; Soo Han, Yeon

    2017-01-01

    Cactin was originally identified as an interactor of the Drosophila IκB factor Cactus and shown to play a role in controlling embryonic polarity and regulating the NF-κB signaling pathway. While subsequent studies have identified the roles for Cactin in the mammalian immune response, the immune function of Cactin in insects has not been described yet. Here, we identified a Cactin gene from the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (TmCactin) and characterized its functional role in innate immunity. TmCactin was highly expressed in prepupa to last instar stages, and its expression was high in the integument and Malpighian tubules of last instar larvae and adults. TmCactin was induced in larvae after infection with different pathogens and detectable within 3 hours of infection. The highest levels of TmCactin expression were detected at 9 hours post infection. TmCactin RNAi significantly decreased the survival rates of larvae after challenge with Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, but had no significant effect after challenge with Candida albicans. Furthermore, TmCactin RNAi significantly reduced the expression of seven antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs) after bacterial challenge. Our results suggest that TmCactin may serve as an important regulator of innate immunity, mediating AMP responses against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in T. molitor. PMID:28418029

  5. Transglutaminase 2 expression is increased as a function of malignancy grade and negatively regulates cell growth in meningioma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Cheng Huang

    Full Text Available Most meningiomas are benign, but some clinical-aggressive tumors exhibit brain invasion and cannot be resected without significant complications. To identify molecular markers for these clinically-aggressive meningiomas, we performed microarray analyses on 24 primary cultures from 21 meningiomas and 3 arachnoid membranes. Using this approach, increased transglutaminase 2 (TGM2 expression was observed, which was subsequently validated in an independent set of 82 meningiomas by immunohistochemistry. Importantly, the TGM2 expression level was associated with increasing WHO malignancy grade as well as meningioma recurrence. Inhibition of TGM2 function by siRNA or cystamine induced meningioma cell death, which was associated with reduced AKT phosphorylation and caspase-3 activation. Collectively, these findings suggest that TGM2 expression increases as a function of malignancy grade and tumor recurrence and that inhibition of TGM2 reduces meningioma cell growth.

  6. miR-375-3p negatively regulates osteogenesis by targeting and decreasing the expression levels of LRP5 and β-catenin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhao Sun

    Full Text Available Wnt signaling pathways are essential for bone formation. Previous studies showed that Wnt signaling pathways were regulated by miR-375. Thus, we aim to explore whether miR-375 could affect osteogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the roles of miR-375 and its downstream targets. Firstly, we revealed that miR-375-3p negatively modulated osteogenesis by suppressing positive regulators of osteogenesis and promoting negative regulators of osteogenesis. In addition, the results of TUNEL cell apoptosis assay showed that miR-375-3p induced MC3T3-E1 cell apoptosis. Secondly, miR-375-3p targeted low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5, a co-receptor of the Wnt signaling pathways, and β-catenin as determined by luciferase activity assay, and it decreased the expression levels of LRP5 and β-catenin. Thirdly, the decline of protein levels of β-catenin was determined by immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence. Finally, silence of LRP5 in osteoblast precursor cells resulted in diminished cell viability and cell proliferation as detected by WST-1-based colorimetric assay. Additionally, all the parameters including the relative bone volume from μCT measurement suggested that LRP5 knockout in mice resulted in a looser and worse-connected trabeculae. The mRNA levels of important negative modulators relating to osteogenesis increased after the functions of LRP5 were blocked in mice. Last but not least, the expression levels of LRP5 increased during the osteogenesis of MC3T3-E1, while the levels of β-catenin decreased in bone tissues from osteoporotic patients with vertebral compression fractures. In conclusion, we revealed miR-375-3p negatively regulated osteogenesis by targeting LRP5 and β-catenin. In addition, loss of functions of LRP5 damaged bone formation in vivo. Clinically, miR-375-3p and its targets might be used as diagnostic biomarkers for osteoporosis and might be also as novel therapeutic agents in osteoporosis

  7. The Small Heal Shock Protein αA-Crystallin Is Expressed In Pancreas and Acts as Negative Regulator of Carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Deng , Mi; Chen , Pei-Chao; Xie , Sisi; Zhao , Junqiong; Gong , Lili; Liu , Jinping; Zhang , Lan; Sun , Shuming; Liu , Jiao; Ma , Haili; Batra , Surinder; Li , David Wan-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The small heat shock protein ?A-crystallin is a structural protein in the ocular lens. In addition, recent studies have also revealed that it is a molecular chaperone, an autokinase and a strong anti-apoptotic regulator. Besides its lenticular distribution, a previous study demonstrates that a detectable level of ?A-crystallin is found in other tissues including thymus and spleen. In the present study, we have re-examined the distribution of ?A-crystallin in various normal...

  8. Global regulator SoxR is a negative regulator of efflux pump gene expression and affects antibiotic resistance and fitness in Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Henan; Wang, Qi; Wang, Ruobing; Zhang, Yawei; Wang, Xiaojuan; Wang, Hui

    2017-06-01

    SoxR is a global regulator contributing to multidrug resistance in Enterobacteriaceae. However, the contribution of SoxR to antibiotic resistance and fitness in Acinetobacter baumannii has not yet been studied. Comparisons of molecular characteristics were performed between 32 multidrug-resistant A. baumannii isolates and 11 susceptible isolates. A soxR overexpression mutant was constructed, and its resistance phenotype was analyzed. The impact of SoxR on efflux pump gene expression was measured at the transcription level. The effect of SoxR on the growth and fitness of A. baumannii was analyzed using a growth rate assay and an in vitro competition assay. The frequency of the Gly39Ser mutation in soxR was higher in multidrug-resistant A. baumannii, whereas the soxS gene was absent in all strains analyzed. SoxR overexpression led to increased susceptibility to chloramphenicol (4-fold), tetracycline (2-fold), tigecycline (2-fold), ciprofloxacin (2-fold), amikacin (2-fold), and trimethoprim (2-fold), but it did not influence imipenem susceptibility. Decreased expression of abeS (3.8-fold), abeM (1.3-fold), adeJ (2.4-fold), and adeG (2.5-fold) were correlated with soxR overexpression (P baumannii.

  9. CTCF-KDM4A complex correlates with histone modifications that negatively regulate CHD5 gene expression in cancer cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Calderas, Lissania; González-Barrios, Rodrigo; Patiño, Carlos César; Alcaraz, Nicolás; Salgado-Albarrán, Marisol; de León, David Cantú; Hernández, Clementina Castro; Sánchez-Pérez, Yesennia; Maldonado-Martínez, Héctor Aquiles; De la Rosa-Velazquez, Inti A.; Vargas-Romero, Fernanda; Herrera, Luis A.; García-Carrancá, Alejandro; Soto-Reyes, Ernesto

    2018-01-01

    Histone demethylase KDM4A is involved in H3K9me3 and H3K36me3 demethylation, which are epigenetic modifications associated with gene silencing and RNA Polymerase II elongation, respectively. KDM4A is abnormally expressed in cancer, affecting the expression of multiple targets, such as the CHD5 gene. This enzyme localizes at the first intron of CHD5, and the dissociation of KDM4A increases gene expression. In vitro assays showed that KDM4A-mediated demethylation is enhanced in the presence of CTCF, suggesting that CTCF could increase its enzymatic activity in vivo, however the specific mechanism by which CTCF and KDM4A might be involved in the CHD5 gene repression is poorly understood. Here, we show that CTCF and KDM4A form a protein complex, which is recruited into the first intron of CHD5. This is related to a decrease in H3K36me3/2 histone marks and is associated with its transcriptional downregulation. Depletion of CTCF or KDM4A by siRNA, triggered the reactivation of CHD5 expression, suggesting that both proteins are involved in the negative regulation of this gene. Furthermore, the knockout of KDM4A restored the CHD5 expression and H3K36me3 and H3K36me2 histone marks. Such mechanism acts independently of CHD5 promoter DNA methylation. Our findings support a novel mechanism of epigenetic repression at the gene body that does not involve promoter silencing. PMID:29682202

  10. HMBA Enhances Prostratin-Induced Activation of Latent HIV-1 via Suppressing the Expression of Negative Feedback Regulator A20/TNFAIP3 in NF-κB Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duchu Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, much emphasis has been put on the transcriptional activation of HIV-1, which is proposed as a promised strategy for eradicating latent HIV-1 provirus. Two drugs, prostratin and hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA, have shown potent effects as inducers for releasing HIV-1 latency when used alone or in combination, although their cellular target(s are currently not well understood, especially under drug combination. Here, we have shown that HMBA and prostratin synergistically release HIV-1 latency via different mechanisms. While prostratin strongly stimulates HMBA-induced HIV-1 transcription via improved P-TEFb activation, HMBA is capable of boosting NF-κB-dependent transcription initiation by suppressing prostratin-induced expression of the deubiquitinase A20, a negative feedback regulator in the NF-κB signaling pathway. In addition, HMBA was able to increase prostratin-induced phosphorylation and degradation of NF-κB inhibitor IκBα, thereby enhancing and prolonging prostratin-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB, a prerequisite for stimulation of transcription initiation. Thus, by blocking the negative feedback circuit, HMBA functions as a signaling enhancer of the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  11. Gibberellin Application at Pre-Bloom in Grapevines Down-Regulates the Expressions of VvIAA9 and VvARF7, Negative Regulators of Fruit Set Initiation, during Parthenocarpic Fruit Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chan Jin; Hur, Youn Young; Yu, Hee-Ju; Noh, Jung-Ho; Park, Kyo-Sun; Lee, Hee Jae

    2014-01-01

    Fruit set is initiated only after fertilization and is tightly regulated primarily by gibberellins (GAs) and auxins. The application of either of these hormones induces parthenocarpy, fruit set without fertilization, but the molecular mechanism underlying this induction is poorly understood. In the present study, we have shown that the parthenocarpic fruits induced by GA application at pre-bloom result from the interaction of GA with auxin signaling. The transcriptional levels of the putative negative regulators of fruit set initiation, including Vitis auxin/indole-3-acetic acid transcription factor 9 (VvIAA9), Vitis auxin response factor 7 (VvARF7), and VvARF8 were monitored during inflorescence development in seeded diploid ‘Tamnara’ grapevines with or without GA application. Without GA application, VvIAA9, VvARF7, and VvARF8 were expressed at a relatively high level before full bloom, but decreased thereafter following pollination. After GA application at 14 days before full bloom (DBF); however, the expression levels of VvIAA9 and VvARF7 declined at 5 DBF prior to pollination. The effects of GA application on auxin levels or auxin signaling were also analyzed by monitoring the expression patterns of auxin biosynthesis genes and auxin-responsive genes with or without GA application. Transcription levels of the auxin biosynthesis genes Vitis anthranilate synthase β subunit (VvASB1-like), Vitis YUCCA2 (VvYUC2), and VvYUC6 were not significantly changed by GA application. However, the expressions of Vitis Gretchen Hagen3.2 (VvGH3.2) and VvGH3.3, auxin-responsive genes, were up-regulated from 2 DBF to full bloom with GA application. Furthermore, the Vitis GA signaling gene, VvDELLA was up-regulated by GA application during 12 DBF to 7 DBF, prior to down-regulation of VvIAA9 and VvARF7. These results suggest that VvIAA9 and VvARF7 are negative regulators of fruit set initiation in grapevines, and GA signaling is integrated with auxin signaling via VvDELLA during

  12. sarA negatively regulates Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation by modulating expression of 1 MDa extracellular matrix binding protein and autolysis‐dependent release of eDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christner, Martin; Heinze, Constanze; Busch, Michael

    2012-01-01

    to biofilm formation in mutant 1585ΔsarA. Increased eDNA amounts indirectly resulted from upregulation of metalloprotease SepA, leading to boosted processing of autolysin AtlE, in turn inducing augmented autolysis and release of eDNA. Hence, this study identifies sarA as a negative regulator of Embp‐ and e...

  13. MicroRNA-101 negatively regulates Ezh2 and its expression is modulated by androgen receptor and HIF-1α/HIF-1β

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jianfeng

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In prostate cancer (PCa, the common treatment involving androgen ablation alleviates the disease temporarily, but results in the recurrence of highly aggressive and androgen-independent metastatic cancer. Therefore, more effective therapeutic approaches are needed. It is known that aberrant epigenetics contributes to prostate malignancy. Unlike genetic changes, these epigenetic alterations are reversible, which makes them attractive targets in PCa therapy to impede cancer progression. As a histone methyltransferease, Ezh2 plays an essential role in epigenetic regulation. Since Ezh2 is overexpressed and acts as an oncogene in PCa, it has been proposed as a bona fide target of PCa therapy. MicroRNAs (miRNAs regulate gene expression through modulating protein translation. Recently, the contribution of miRNAs in cancer development is increasingly appreciated. In this report, we present our study showing that microRNA-101 (miR-101 inhibits Ezh2 expression and differentially regulates prostate cancer cells. In addition, the expression of miR-101 alters upon androgen treatment and HIF-1α/HIF-1β induction. Result In our reporter assays, both miR-101 and miR-26a inhibit the expression of a reporter construct containing the 3'-UTR of Ezh2. When ectopically expressed in PC-3, DU145 and LNCaP cells, miR-101 inhibits endogenous Ezh2 expression in all three cell lines, while miR-26a only decreases Ezh2 in DU145. Ectopic miR-101 reduces the invasion ability of PC-3 cells, while restored Ezh2 expression rescues the invasiveness of PC-3 cells. Similarly, miR-101 also inhibits cell invasion and migration of DU145 and LNCaP cells, respectively. Interestingly, ectopic miR-101 exhibits differential effects on the proliferation of PC-3, DU-145 and LNCaP cells and also causes morphological changes of LNCaP cells. In addition, the expression of miR-101 is regulated by androgen receptor and HIF-1α/HIF-1β. While HIF-1α/HIF-1β induced by

  14. MicroRNA-433 negatively regulates the expression of thymidylate synthase (TYMS) responsible for 5-fluorouracil sensitivity in HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotanda, Keisuke; Hirota, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Nozomi; Ieiri, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Thymidylate synthase (TYMS) is an important folate-dependent enzyme in DNA synthesis and an important target for cancer chemotherapy. High TYMS expression levels in tumors are generally associated with resistance to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The cause of the variability in TYMS expression is still not fully understood, however, only a small proportion of the TYMS expression can be explained by TYMS genetic polymorphisms. The purpose of this study is to identify novel microRNAs (miRNAs) which regulate the expression of TYMS and to determine whether miRNAs binding to the 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of TYMS mRNA affect the proliferation of HeLa cells treated with 5-FU. An in silico search was performed to find potential binding sites of miRNAs in TYMS mRNA. The efficacy of predicted miRNAs at the 3′-UTR of TYMS mRNA was evaluated using a dual-luciferase reporter assay. TYMS mRNA and protein expression in HeLa cells was quantified with real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The effects of miR-433 on cell proliferative activity were determined by WST-8 assay. The overexpression of miR-433 was associated with significantly decreased reporter activity in the plasmid containing the 3′-UTR of TYMS mRNA (P < 0.01). The levels of TYMS mRNA and protein in HeLa cells were significantly decreased by the overexpression of miR-433 (P < 0.05). Furthermore, miR-433 increased inhibition of cell proliferation in HeLa cells treated with 5-FU at over 2.0 μM. The results indicate that miR-433 post-transcriptionally regulates the expression of TYMS mRNA and protein, and increases sensitivity to 5-FU in HeLa cells. This is the first report showing that a miRNA regulating TYMS expression has a significant impact on sensitivity to 5-FU treatment

  15. Escin Ia suppresses the metastasis of triple-negative breast cancer by inhibiting epithelial-mesenchymal transition via down-regulating LOXL2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhui; Xu, Xiaotian; Zhao, Peng; Tong, Bei; Wei, Zhifeng; Dai, Yue

    2016-04-26

    The saponin fraction of Aesculus chinensis Bunge fruits (SFAC) could inhibit the invasion and migration of MDA-MB-231 cells. Among which, escin Ia showed more potent inhibition of the invasion than other five main saponin constituents. It selectively reduced the expression of LOXL2 mRNA and promoted the expression of E-cadherin mRNA, and prevented the EMT process of MDA-MB-231 cells and TNF-α/TGF-β-stimulated MCF-7 cells. Moreover, it reduced the LOXL2 level in MDA-MB-231 cells but not in MCF-7 cells. When MCF-7 cells were stimulated with TNF-α/TGF-β, transfected with LOXL2 or treated with hypoxia, escin Ia down-regulated the level of LOXL2 in MCF-7 cells. Meanwhile, escin Ia suppressed the EMT process in LOXL2-transfected or hypoxia-treated MCF-7 cells. Of interest, escin Ia did not alter the level of HIF-1α in hypoxia-induced MCF-7 cells. In TNBC xenograft mice, the metastasis and EMT of MDA-MB-231 cells were suppressed by escin Ia. In conclusion, escin Ia was the main active ingredient of SFAC for the anti-TNBC metastasis activity, and its action mechanisms involved inhibition of EMT process by down-regulating LOXL2 expression.

  16. Acquisition of negative complement regulators by the saprophyte Leptospira biflexa expressing LigA or LigB confers enhanced survival in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiblanco-Valencia, Mónica M; Fraga, Tatiana R; Breda, Leandro C D; Vasconcellos, Sílvio A; Figueira, Cláudio P; Picardeau, Mathieu; Wunder, Elsio; Ko, Albert I; Barbosa, Angela S; Isaac, Lourdes

    2016-05-01

    Leptospiral immunoglobulin-like (Lig) proteins are surface exposed molecules present in pathogenic but not in saprophytic Leptospira species. We have previously shown that Lig proteins interact with the soluble complement regulators Factor H (FH), FH like-1 (FHL-1), FH related-1 (FHR-1) and C4b Binding Protein (C4BP). In this study, we used the saprophyte L. biflexa serovar Patoc as a surrogate host to address the specific role of LigA and LigB proteins in leptospiral complement evasion. L. biflexa expressing LigA or LigB was able to acquire FH and C4BP. Bound complement regulators retained their cofactor activities of FI in the proteolytic cleavage of C3b and C4b. Moreover, heterologous expression of ligA and ligB genes in the saprophyte L. biflexa enhanced bacterial survival in human serum. Complement deposition on lig-transformed L. biflexa was assessed by flow cytometry analysis. With regard to MAC deposition, L. biflexa expressing LigA or LigB presented an intermediate profile: MAC deposition levels were greater than those found in the pathogenic L. interrogans, but lower than those observed for L. biflexa wildtype. In conclusion, Lig proteins contribute to in vitro control of complement activation on the leptospiral surface, promoting an increased bacterial survival in human serum. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Immunological Societies. All rights reserved.

  17. Negative regulators of brown adipose tissue (BAT)-mediated thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bal Krishan; Patil, Mallikarjun; Satyanarayana, Ande

    2014-12-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for energy expenditure, a process called adaptive thermogenesis. PET-CT scans recently demonstrated the existence of metabolically active BAT in adult humans, which revitalized our interest in BAT. Increasing the amount and/or activity of BAT holds tremendous promise for the treatment of obesity and its associated diseases. PGC1α is the master regulator of UCP1-mediated thermogenesis in BAT. A number of proteins have been identified to influence thermogenesis either positively or negatively through regulating the expression or transcriptional activity of PGC1α. Therefore, BAT activation can be achieved by either inducing the expression of positive regulators of PGC1α or by inhibiting the repressors of the PGC1α/UCP1 pathway. Here, we review the most important negative regulators of PGC1α/UCP1 signaling and their mechanism of action in BAT-mediated thermogenesis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The Relations of Mothers' Negative Expressivity to Children's Experience and Expression of Negative Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; Shepard, Stephanie A.; Fabes, Richard A.; Cumberland, Amanda J.; Losoya, Sandra H.; Spinrad, Tracy L.

    2004-01-01

    Guided by the heuristic model proposed by Eisenberg et al. [Psychol. Inq. 9 (1998) 241], we examined the relations of mothers' reported and observed negative expressivity to children's (N = 159; 74 girls; M age = 7.67 years) experience and expression of emotion. Children's experience and/or expression of emotion in response to a distressing film…

  19. The C-terminal domain of Nrf1 negatively regulates the full-length CNC-bZIP factor and its shorter isoform LCR-F1/Nrf1β; both are also inhibited by the small dominant-negative Nrf1γ/δ isoforms that down-regulate ARE-battery gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiguo; Qiu, Lu; Li, Shaojun; Xiang, Yuancai; Chen, Jiayu; Ren, Yonggang

    2014-01-01

    The C-terminal domain (CTD, aa 686-741) of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 1 (Nrf1) shares 53% amino acid sequence identity with the equivalent Neh3 domain of Nrf2, a homologous transcription factor. The Neh3 positively regulates Nrf2, but whether the Neh3-like (Neh3L) CTD of Nrf1 has a similar role in regulating Nrf1-target gene expression is unknown. Herein, we report that CTD negatively regulates the full-length Nrf1 (i.e. 120-kDa glycoprotein and 95-kDa deglycoprotein) and its shorter isoform LCR-F1/Nrf1β (55-kDa). Attachment of its CTD-adjoining 112-aa to the C-terminus of Nrf2 yields the chimaeric Nrf2-C112Nrf1 factor with a markedly decreased activity. Live-cell imaging of GFP-CTD reveals that the extra-nuclear portion of the fusion protein is allowed to associate with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane through the amphipathic Neh3L region of Nrf1 and its basic c-tail. Thus removal of either the entire CTD or the essential Neh3L portion within CTD from Nrf1, LCR-F1/Nrf1β and Nrf2-C112Nrf1, results in an increase in their transcriptional ability to regulate antioxidant response element (ARE)-driven reporter genes. Further examinations unravel that two smaller isoforms, 36-kDa Nrf1γ and 25-kDa Nrf1δ, act as dominant-negative inhibitors to compete against Nrf1, LCR-F1/Nrf1β and Nrf2. Relative to Nrf1, LCR-F1/Nrf1β is a weak activator, that is positively regulated by its Asn/Ser/Thr-rich (NST) domain and acidic domain 2 (AD2). Like AD1 of Nrf1, both AD2 and NST domain of LCR-F1/Nrf1β fused within two different chimaeric contexts to yield Gal4D:Nrf1β607 and Nrf1β:C270Nrf2, positively regulate their transactivation activity of cognate Gal4- and Nrf2-target reporter genes. More importantly, differential expression of endogenous ARE-battery genes is attributable to up-regulation by Nrf1 and LCR-F1/Nrf1β and down-regulation by Nrf1γ and Nrf1δ.

  20. Spearmint R2R3-MYB transcription factor MsMYB negatively regulates monoterpene production and suppresses the expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit (MsGPPS.LSU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Vaishnavi Amarr; Wang, Qian; Dhar, Niha; Kumar, Nadimuthu; Venkatesh, Prasanna Nori; Rajan, Chakravarthy; Panicker, Deepa; Sridhar, Vishweshwaran; Mao, Hui-Zhu; Sarojam, Rajani

    2017-09-01

    Many aromatic plants, such as spearmint, produce valuable essential oils in specialized structures called peltate glandular trichomes (PGTs). Understanding the regulatory mechanisms behind the production of these important secondary metabolites will help design new approaches to engineer them. Here, we identified a PGT-specific R2R3-MYB gene, MsMYB, from comparative RNA-Seq data of spearmint and functionally characterized it. Analysis of MsMYB-RNAi transgenic lines showed increased levels of monoterpenes, and MsMYB-overexpressing lines exhibited decreased levels of monoterpenes. These results suggest that MsMYB is a novel negative regulator of monoterpene biosynthesis. Ectopic expression of MsMYB, in sweet basil and tobacco, perturbed sesquiterpene- and diterpene-derived metabolite production. In addition, we found that MsMYB binds to cis-elements of MsGPPS.LSU and suppresses its expression. Phylogenetic analysis placed MsMYB in subgroup 7 of R2R3-MYBs whose members govern phenylpropanoid pathway and are regulated by miR858. Analysis of transgenic lines showed that MsMYB is more specific to terpene biosynthesis as it did not affect metabolites derived from phenylpropanoid pathway. Further, our results indicate that MsMYB is probably not regulated by miR858, like other members of subgroup 7. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Cyclin D1 negatively regulates the expression of differentiation genes in HT-29 M6 mucus-secreting colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Clara; Mayol, Xavier

    2009-08-28

    HT-29 M6 colon cancer cells differentiate to a mucus-secreting phenotype in culture. We found that the pattern of cyclin D1 expression in HT-29 M6 cells did not correlate with instances of cell proliferation but was specifically induced during a dedifferentiation process following disaggregation of epithelial cell layers, even under conditions that did not allow cell cycle reentrance. Interestingly, ectopic expression of cyclin D1 in differentiated cells led to the inhibition of the transcriptional activity of differentiation gene promoters, such as the mucin MUC1. We thus propose that the overexpression of cyclin D1 found in colon cancer favours tumour dedifferentiation as one mechanism of tumour progression.

  2. Regulation of eucaryotic gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent, R.; Ptashne, M.S

    1989-05-23

    This patent describes a method of regulating the expression of a gene in a eucaryotic cell. The method consists of: providing in the eucaryotic cell, a peptide, derived from or substantially similar to a peptide of a procaryotic cell able to bind to DNA upstream from or within the gene, the amount of the peptide being sufficient to bind to the gene and thereby control expression of the gene.

  3. GATA3 expression in triple-negative breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, David J; Deb, Siddhartha; Takano, Elena A; Fox, Stephen B

    2017-07-01

    GATA-binding protein 3 (GATA3) is a well-studied transcription factor found to be essential in the development of luminal breast epithelium and has been identified in a variety of tumour types, including breast and urothelial carcinomas, making it a useful immunohistochemistry marker in the diagnosis of both primary and metastatic disease. We investigated GATA3 protein expression in a 106 primary triple-negative breast carcinomas (100 basal-like, six non-basal-like) using Cell Marque mouse monoclonal anti-GATA3 (L50-823). Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to quantify mRNA expression in 22 triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) (20 primary and two cell lines), four luminal (three primary and one cell line) and five human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) (four primary and one cell line) amplified tumours. In 98 TNBCs where IHC was assessable, 47 (48%) had a 1+ or greater staining with 20 (21%) having high GATA3 expression when using a weighted scoring. Our study has demonstrated that GATA3 expression is common in primary triple-negative breast carcinomas. It also suggests that although GATA3 is an oestrogen receptor (ER) regulated gene, it still proves useful in differentiating between primary and metastatic tumours in patients with a history of breast cancer regardless of its molecular subtype. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The Long Intron 1 of Growth Hormone Gene from Reeves’ Turtle (Chinemys reevesii Correlates with Negatively Regulated GH Expression in Four Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Sheng Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Turtles grow slowly and have a long lifespan. Ultrastructural studies of the pituitary gland in Reeves’ turtle (Chinemys reevesii have revealed that the species possesses a higher nucleoplasmic ratio and fewer secretory granules in growth hormone (GH cells than other animal species in summer and winter. C. reevesii GH gene was cloned and species-specific similarities and differences were investigated. The full GH gene sequence in C. reevesii contains 8517 base pairs (bp, comprising five exons and four introns. Intron 1 was found to be much longer in C. reevesii than in other species. The coding sequence (CDS of the turtle’s GH gene, with and without the inclusion of intron 1, was transfected into four cell lines, including DF-1 chicken embryo fibroblasts, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells, human embryonic kidney 293FT cells, and GH4C1 rat pituitary cells; the turtle growth hormone (tGH gene mRNA and protein expression levels decreased significantly in the intron-containing CDS in these cell lines, compared with that of the corresponding intronless CDS. Thus, the long intron 1 of GH gene in Reeves’ turtle might correlate with downregulated gene expression.

  5. Epigenetic-based combinatorial resveratrol and pterostilbene alters DNA damage response by affecting SIRT1 and DNMT enzyme expression, including SIRT1-dependent γ-H2AX and telomerase regulation in triple-negative breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kala, Rishabh; Shah, Harsh N.; Martin, Samantha L.; Tollefsbol, Trygve O.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition is believed to be a primary contributor in regulating gene expression by affecting epigenetic pathways such as DNA methylation and histone modification. Resveratrol and pterostilbene are phytoalexins produced by plants as part of their defense system. These two bioactive compounds when used alone have been shown to alter genetic and epigenetic profiles of tumor cells, but the concentrations employed in various studies often far exceed physiologically achievable doses. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an often fatal condition that may be prevented or treated through novel dietary-based approaches. HCC1806 and MDA-MB-157 breast cancer cells were used as TNBC cell lines in this study. MCF10A cells were used as control breast epithelial cells to determine the safety of this dietary regimen. CompuSyn software was used to determine the combination index (CI) for drug combinations. Combinatorial resveratrol and pterostilbene administered at close to physiologically relevant doses resulted in synergistic (CI <1) growth inhibition of TNBCs. SIRT1, a type III histone deacetylase (HDAC), was down-regulated in response to this combinatorial treatment. We further explored the effects of this novel combinatorial approach on DNA damage response by monitoring γ-H2AX and telomerase expression. With combination of these two compounds there was a significant decrease in these two proteins which might further resulted in significant growth inhibition, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in HCC1806 and MDA-MB-157 breast cancer cells, while there was no significant effect on cellular viability, colony forming potential, morphology or apoptosis in control MCF10A breast epithelial cells. SIRT1 knockdown reproduced the effects of combinatorial resveratrol and pterostilbene-induced SIRT1 down-regulation through inhibition of both telomerase activity and γ-H2AX expression in HCC1806 breast cancer cells. As a part of the repair mechanisms and role of SIRT1 in recruiting DNMTs

  6. Wolbachia-induced aae-miR-12 miRNA negatively regulates the expression of MCT1 and MCM6 genes in Wolbachia-infected mosquito cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Osei-Amo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Best recognized for its role in manipulating host reproduction, the parasitic gram-negative Wolbachia pipientis is known to colonize a wide range of invertebrates. The endosymbiotic bacterium has recently been shown to cause a life-shortening effect as well as inhibiting replication of arboviruses in Aedes aegypti; although the molecular mechanisms behind these effects are largely unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs have been determined to have a wide range of roles in regulating gene expression in eukaryotes. A recent study showed that several A. aegypti mosquito miRNAs are differentially expressed when infected with Wolbachia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Based on the prior knowledge that one of these miRNAs, aae-miR-12, is differentially expressed in mosquitoes infected with Wolbachia, we aimed to determine any significance of this mediation. We also set out to characterize the target genes of this miRNA in the A. aegpyti genome. Bioinformatic approaches predicted a list of potential target genes and subsequent functional analyses confirmed that two of these, DNA replication licensing (MCM6 and monocarboxylate transporter (MCT1, are under the regulative control of aae-miR-12. We also demonstrated that aae-miR-12 is critical in the persistence of Wolbachia in the host cell. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study has identified two target genes of aae-miR-12, a differentially expressed mosquito miRNA in Wolbachia-infected cells, and determined that the miRNA affects Wolbachia density in the host cells.

  7. AtMyb7, a subgroup 4 R2R3 Myb, negatively regulates ABA-induced inhibition of seed germination by blocking the expression of the bZIP transcription factor ABI5

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Junhyeok; Hyun, Wooyoung; Nguyen, Hoai Nguyen; Jeong, Chanyoung; Xiong, Liming; Hong, Sukwhan; Lee, Hojoung

    2014-01-01

    Various Myb proteins have been shown to play crucial roles in plants, including primary and secondary metabolism, determination of cell fate and identity, regulation of development and involvement in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The 126 R2R3 Myb proteins (with two Myb repeats) have been found in Arabidopsis; however, the functions of most of these proteins remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we characterized the function of AtMyb7 using molecular biological and genetic analyses. We used qRT-PCR to determine the levels of stress-response gene transcripts in wild-type and atmyb7 plants. We showed that ArabidopsisAtMyb7 plays a critical role in seed germination. Under abscisic acid (ABA) and high-salt stress conditions, atmyb7 plants showed a lower germination rate than did wild-type plants. Furthermore, AtMyb7 promoter:GUS seeds exhibited different expression patterns in response to variations in the seed imbibition period. AtMyb7 negatively controls the expression of the gene encoding bZIP transcription factor, ABI5, which is a key transcription factor in ABA signalling and serves as a crucial regulator of germination inhibition in Arabidopsis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. AtMyb7, a subgroup 4 R2R3 Myb, negatively regulates ABA-induced inhibition of seed germination by blocking the expression of the bZIP transcription factor ABI5

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Junhyeok

    2014-08-27

    Various Myb proteins have been shown to play crucial roles in plants, including primary and secondary metabolism, determination of cell fate and identity, regulation of development and involvement in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The 126 R2R3 Myb proteins (with two Myb repeats) have been found in Arabidopsis; however, the functions of most of these proteins remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we characterized the function of AtMyb7 using molecular biological and genetic analyses. We used qRT-PCR to determine the levels of stress-response gene transcripts in wild-type and atmyb7 plants. We showed that ArabidopsisAtMyb7 plays a critical role in seed germination. Under abscisic acid (ABA) and high-salt stress conditions, atmyb7 plants showed a lower germination rate than did wild-type plants. Furthermore, AtMyb7 promoter:GUS seeds exhibited different expression patterns in response to variations in the seed imbibition period. AtMyb7 negatively controls the expression of the gene encoding bZIP transcription factor, ABI5, which is a key transcription factor in ABA signalling and serves as a crucial regulator of germination inhibition in Arabidopsis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Drug-induced regulation of target expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iskar, Murat; Campillos, Monica; Kuhn, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Drug perturbations of human cells lead to complex responses upon target binding. One of the known mechanisms is a (positive or negative) feedback loop that adjusts the expression level of the respective target protein. To quantify this mechanism systems-wide in an unbiased way, drug......-induced differential expression of drug target mRNA was examined in three cell lines using the Connectivity Map. To overcome various biases in this valuable resource, we have developed a computational normalization and scoring procedure that is applicable to gene expression recording upon heterogeneous drug treatments....... In 1290 drug-target relations, corresponding to 466 drugs acting on 167 drug targets studied, 8% of the targets are subject to regulation at the mRNA level. We confirmed systematically that in particular G-protein coupled receptors, when serving as known targets, are regulated upon drug treatment. We...

  10. Leptin Reduces the Expression and Increases the Phosphorylation of the Negative Regulators of GLUT4 Traffic TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 in Muscle of ob/ob Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáinz, Neira; Rodríguez, Amaia; Catalán, Victoria; Becerril, Sara; Ramírez, Beatriz; Lancha, Andoni; Burgos-Ramos, Emma; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema

    2012-01-01

    Leptin improves insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. Our goal was to determine whether proteins controlling GLUT4 traffic are altered by leptin deficiency and in vivo leptin administration in skeletal muscle of wild type and ob/ob mice. Leptin-deficient ob/ob mice were divided in three groups: control, leptin-treated (1 mg/kg/d) and leptin pair-fed ob/ob mice. Microarray analysis revealed that 1,546 and 1,127 genes were regulated by leptin deficiency and leptin treatment, respectively. Among these, we identified 24 genes involved in intracellular vesicle-mediated transport in ob/ob mice. TBC1 domain family, member 1 (Tbc1d1), a negative regulator of GLUT4 translocation, was up-regulated (P = 0.001) in ob/ob mice as compared to wild types. Importantly, leptin treatment reduced the transcript levels of Tbc1d1 (P<0.001) and Tbc1d4 (P = 0.004) in the leptin-treated ob/ob as compared to pair-fed ob/ob animals. In addition, phosphorylation levels of TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 were enhanced in leptin-treated ob/ob as compared to control ob/ob (P = 0.015 and P = 0.023, respectively) and pair-fed ob/ob (P = 0.036 and P = 0.034, respectively) mice. Despite similar GLUT4 protein expression in wild type and ob/ob groups a different immunolocalization of this protein was evidenced in muscle sections. Leptin treatment increased GLUT4 immunoreactivity in gastrocnemius and extensor digitorum longus sections of leptin-treated ob/ob mice. Moreover, GLUT4 protein detected in immunoprecipitates from TBC1D4 was reduced by leptin replacement compared to control ob/ob (P = 0.013) and pair-fed ob/ob (P = 0.037) mice. Our findings suggest that leptin enhances the intracellular GLUT4 transport in skeletal muscle of ob/ob animals by reducing the expression and activity of the negative regulators of GLUT4 traffic TBC1D1 and TBC1D4. PMID:22253718

  11. RAGE, receptor of advanced glycation endoproducts, negatively regulates chondrocytes differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Kosaka

    Full Text Available RAGE, receptor for advanced glycation endoproducts (AGE, has been characterized as an activator of osteoclastgenesis. However, whether RAGE directly regulates chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation is unclear. Here, we show that RAGE has an inhibitory role in chondrocyte differentiation. RAGE expression was observed in chondrocytes from the prehypertrophic to hypertrophic regions. In cultured cells, overexpression of RAGE or dominant-negative-RAGE (DN-RAGE demonstrated that RAGE inhibited cartilaginous matrix production, while DN-RAGE promoted production. Additionally, RAGE regulated Ihh and Col10a1 negatively but upregulated PTHrP receptor. Ihh promoter analysis and real-time PCR analysis suggested that downregulation of Cdxs was the key for RAGE-induced inhibition of chondrocyte differentiation. Overexpression of the NF-κB inhibitor I-κB-SR inhibited RAGE-induced NF-κB activation, but did not influence inhibition of cartilaginous matrix production by RAGE. The inhibitory action of RAGE was restored by the Rho family GTPases inhibitor Toxin B. Furthermore, inhibitory action on Ihh, Col10a1 and Cdxs was reproduced by constitutively active forms, L63RhoA, L61Rac, and L61Cdc42, but not by I-κB-SR. Cdx1 induced Ihh and Col10a1 expressions and directly interacted with Ihh promoter. Retinoic acid (RA partially rescued the inhibitory action of RAGE. These data combined suggests that RAGE negatively regulates chondrocyte differentiation at the prehypertrophic stage by modulating NF-κB-independent and Rho family GTPases-dependent mechanisms.

  12. Flg22-Triggered Immunity Negatively Regulates Key BR Biosynthetic Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Góngora, Tamara; Kim, Seong-Ki; Lozano-Durán, Rosa; Zipfel, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    In plants, activation of growth and activation of immunity are opposing processes that define a trade-off. In the past few years, the growth-promoting hormones brassinosteroids (BR) have emerged as negative regulators of pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI), promoting growth at the expense of defense. The crosstalk between BR and PTI signaling was described as negative and unidirectional, since activation of PTI does not affect several analyzed steps in the BR signaling pathway. In this work, we describe that activation of PTI by the bacterial PAMP flg22 results in the reduced expression of BR biosynthetic genes. This effect does not require BR perception or signaling, and occurs within 15 min of flg22 treatment. Since the described PTI-induced repression of gene expression may result in a reduction in BR biosynthesis, the crosstalk between PTI and BR could actually be negative and bidirectional, a possibility that should be taken into account when considering the interaction between these two pathways.

  13. Regulation of positive and negative emotion: Effects of sociocultural context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara A. Snyder

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has demonstrated that the use of emotion regulation strategies can vary by sociocultural context. In a previous study, we reported changes in the use of two different emotion regulation strategies at an annual alternative cultural event, Burning Man (McRae, Heller, John, & Gross, 2011. In this sociocultural context, as compared to home, participants reported less use of expressive suppression (a strategy generally associated with maladaptive outcomes, and greater use of cognitive reappraisal (a strategy associated with adaptive outcomes. What remained unclear was whether these changes in self-reported emotion regulation strategy use were characterized by changes in the regulation of positive emotion, negative emotion, or both. We addressed this issue in the current study by asking Burning Man participants separate questions about positive and negative emotion. Using multiple datasets, we not only replicated our previous findings, but also found that the decreased use of suppression is primarily driven by reports of decreased suppression of positive emotion at Burning Man. By contrast, the reported increased use of reappraisal is not characterized by differential reappraisal of positive and negative emotion at Burning Man. Moreover, we observed novel individual differences in the magnitude of these effects. The contextual changes in self-reported suppression that we report are strongest for men and younger participants. For those who had previously attended Burning Man, we observed lower levels of self-reported suppression in both sociocultural contexts: Burning Man and home. These findings have implications for understanding the ways in which certain sociocultural contexts may decrease suppression, and possibly minimize its associated maladaptive effects.

  14. Lymphocyte gene expression signatures from patients and mouse models of hereditary hemochromatosis reveal a function of HFE as a negative regulator of CD8+ T-lymphocyte activation and differentiation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Mónica; Cruz, Eugénia; Oliveira, Susana; Benes, Vladimir; Ivacevic, Tomi; Silva, Maria João; Vieira, Inês; Dias, Francisco; Fonseca, Sónia; Gonçalves, Marta; Lima, Margarida; Leitão, Catarina; Muckenthaler, Martina U; Pinto, Jorge; Porto, Graça

    2015-01-01

    Abnormally low CD8+ T-lymphocyte numbers is characteristic of some patients with hereditary hemochromatosis (HH), a MHC-linked disorder of iron overload. Both environmental and genetic components are known to influence CD8+ T-lymphocyte homeostasis but the role of the HH associated protein HFE is still insufficiently understood. Genome-wide expression profiling was performed in peripheral blood CD8+ T lymphocytes from HH patients selected according to CD8+ T-lymphocyte numbers and from Hfe-/- mice maintained either under normal or high iron diet conditions. In addition, T-lymphocyte apoptosis and cell cycle progression were analyzed by flow cytometry in HH patients. HH patients with low CD8+ T-lymphocyte numbers show a differential expression of genes related to lymphocyte differentiation and maturation namely CCR7, LEF1, ACTN1, NAA50, P2RY8 and FOSL2, whose expression correlates with the relative proportions of naïve, central and effector memory subsets. In addition, expression levels of LEF1 and P2RY8 in memory cells as well as the proportions of CD8+ T cells in G2/M cell cycle phase are significantly different in HH patients compared to controls. Hfe-/- mice do not show alterations in CD8+ T-lymphocyte numbers but differential gene response patterns. We found an increased expression of S100a8 and S100a9 that is most pronounced in high iron diet conditions. Similarly, CD8+ T lymphocytes from HH patients display higher S100a9 expression both at the mRNA and protein level. Altogether, our results support a role for HFE as a negative regulator of CD8+ T-lymphocyte activation. While the activation markers S100a8 and S100a9 are strongly increased in CD8+ T cells from both, Hfe-/- mice and HH patients, a differential profile of genes related to differentiation/maturation of CD8+ T memory cells is evident in HH patients only. This supports the notion that HFE contributes, at least in part, to the generation of low peripheral blood CD8+ T lymphocytes in HH.

  15. Cultural differences in hedonic emotion regulation after a negative event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yuri; Ma, Xiaoming; Petermann, Amelia G

    2014-08-01

    Beliefs about emotions can influence how people regulate their emotions. The present research examined whether Eastern dialectical beliefs about negative emotions lead to cultural differences in how people regulate their emotions after experiencing a negative event. We hypothesized that, because of dialectical beliefs about negative emotions prevalent in Eastern culture, Easterners are less motivated than Westerners to engage in hedonic emotion regulation-up-regulation of positive emotions and down-regulation of negative emotions. By assessing online reactions to a recent negative event, Study 1 found that European Americans are more motivated to engage in hedonic emotion regulation. Furthermore, consistent with the reported motivation to regulate emotion hedonically, European Americans show a steeper decline in negative emotions 1 day later than do Asians. By examining retrospective memory of reactions to a past negative event, Study 2 further showed that cultural differences in hedonic emotion regulation are mediated by cultural differences in dialectical beliefs about motivational and cognitive utility of negative emotions, but not by personal deservingness or self-efficacy beliefs. These findings demonstrate the role of cultural beliefs in shaping emotion regulation and emotional experiences.

  16. The positives of negative emotions: willingness to express negative emotions promotes relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Steven M; Huang, Julie Y; Clark, Margaret S; Helgeson, Vicki S

    2008-03-01

    Four studies support the hypothesis that expressing negative emotion is associated with positive relationship outcomes, including elicitation of support, building of new close relationships, and heightening of intimacy in the closest of those relationships. In Study 1, participants read vignettes in which another person was experiencing a negative emotion. Participants reported they would provide more help when the person chose to express the negative emotion. In Study 2, participants watched a confederate preparing for a speech. Participants provided more help to her when she expressed nervousness. In Study 3, self-reports of willingness to express negative emotions predicted having more friends, controlling for demographic variables and extraversion. In Study 4, self-reports of willingness to express negative emotion measured prior to arrival at college predicted formation of more relationships, greater intimacy in the closest of those relationships, and greater received support from roommates across participants' first semester of college.

  17. Focusing on the negative: cultural differences in expressions of sympathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmann-Holm, Birgit; Tsai, Jeanne L

    2014-12-01

    Feeling concern about the suffering of others is considered a basic human response, and yet we know surprisingly little about the cultural factors that shape how people respond to the suffering of another person. To this end, we conducted 4 studies that tested the hypothesis that American expressions of sympathy focus on the negative less and positive more than German expressions of sympathy, in part because Americans want to avoid negative states more than Germans do. In Study 1, we demonstrate that American sympathy cards contain less negative and more positive content than German sympathy cards. In Study 2, we show that European Americans want to avoid negative states more than Germans do. In Study 3, we demonstrate that these cultural differences in "avoided negative affect" mediate cultural differences in how comfortable Americans and Germans feel focusing on the negative (vs. positive) when expressing sympathy for the hypothetical death of an acquaintance's father. To examine whether greater avoided negative affect results in lesser focus on the negative and greater focus on the positive when responding to another person's suffering, in Study 4, American and German participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions: (a) to "push negative images away" (i.e., increasing desire to avoid negative affect) from or (b) to "pull negative images closer" (i.e., decreasing desire to avoid negative affect) to themselves. Participants were then asked to pick a card to send to an acquaintance whose father had hypothetically just died. Across cultures, participants in the "push negative away" condition were less likely to choose sympathy cards with negative (vs. positive) content than were those in the "pull negative closer" condition. Together, these studies suggest that cultures differ in their desire to avoid negative affect and that these differences influence the degree to which expressions of sympathy focus on the negative (vs. positive). We discuss the

  18. Equanimity to Excess: Inhibiting the Expression of Negative Emotion is Associated with Depression Symptoms in Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison; Hinze, Amanda; Babinski, Dara

    2009-01-01

    Emotion dysregulation is often invoked as an important construct for understanding risk for psychopathology, but specificity of domains of emotion regulation in clinically relevant research is often lacking. In the present study Gross’ (2001) model of emotion regulation is used to generate hypotheses regarding the relative contribution of two specific types of deficits in emotion regulation, inhibited and disinhibited expression of negative emotion, to individual differences in depressive sym...

  19. Adult Perceptions of Positive and Negative Infant Emotional Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzani Dinehart, Laura H.; Messinger, Daniel S.; Acosta, Susan I.; Cassel, Tricia; Ambadar, Zara; Cohn, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    Adults' perceptions provide information about the emotional meaning of infant facial expressions. This study asks whether similar facial movements influence adult perceptions of emotional intensity in both infant positive (smile) and negative (cry face) facial expressions. Ninety-five college students rated a series of naturally occurring and…

  20. Expressive Suppression Tendencies, Projection Bias in Memory of Negative Emotions, and Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Valerie T; Overall, Nickola C; Madden, Helen; Low, Rachel S T

    2018-02-01

    The current research extends prior research linking negative emotions and emotion regulation tendencies to memory by investigating whether (a) naturally occurring negative emotions during routine weekly life are associated with more negatively biased memories of prior emotional experiences-a bias called projection; (b) tendencies to regulate emotions via expressive suppression are associated with greater projection bias in memory of negative emotions; and (c) greater projection bias in memory is associated with poorer future well-being. Participants (N = 308) completed a questionnaire assessing their general tendencies to engage in expressive suppression. Then, every week for 7 weeks, participants reported on (a) the negative emotions they experienced across the current week (e.g., "This week, I felt 'sad'"), (b) their memories of the negative emotions they experienced the prior week (e.g., "Last week, I felt 'sad'"), and (c) their well-being. First, participants demonstrated significant projection bias in memory: Greater negative emotions in a given week were associated with remembering emotions in the prior week more negatively than those prior emotions were originally reported. Second, projection bias in memory of negative emotions was greater for individuals who reported greater tendencies to regulate emotions via expressive suppression. Third, greater projection bias in memory of negative emotions was associated with reductions in well-being across weeks. These 3 novel findings indicate that (a) current negative emotions bias memory of past emotions, (b) this memory bias is magnified for people who habitually use expressive suppression to regulate emotions, and (c) this memory bias may undermine well-being over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Focusing on the Negative: Cultural Differences in Expressions of Sympathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmann-Holm, Birgit; Tsai, Jeanne L.

    2014-01-01

    Feeling concern about the suffering of others is considered a basic human response, and yet, we know surprisingly little about the cultural factors that shape how people respond to the suffering of another person. To this end, we conducted four studies that tested the hypothesis that American expressions of sympathy focus on the negative less and positive more than German expressions of sympathy, in part because Americans want to avoid negative states more than Germans do. In Study 1, we demonstrate that American sympathy cards contained less negative and more positive content than German sympathy cards. In Study 2, we show that European Americans want to avoid negative states more than Germans do. In Study 3, we demonstrate that these cultural differences in “avoided negative affect” mediate cultural differences in how comfortable Americans and Germans felt focusing on the negative (vs. positive) when expressing sympathy for the hypothetical death of an acquaintance's father. To examine whether greater avoided negative affect results in lesser focus on the negative and greater focus on the positive when responding to another person's suffering, in Study 4, American and German participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: (1) to “push negative images away” (i.e., increasing desire to avoid negative affect), or (2) to “pull negative images closer” to themselves (i.e., decreasing desire to avoid negative affect). Participants were then asked to pick a card to send to an acquaintance whose father had hypothetically just died. Across cultures, participants in the “push negative away” condition were less likely to choose sympathy cards with negative (vs. positive) content than were those in the “pull negative closer” condition. Together, these studies suggest that cultures differ in their desire to avoid negative affect, and that these differences influence the degree to which expressions of sympathy focus on the negative (vs

  2. Expressing negative emotions to children: Mothers' aversion sensitivity and children's adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moed, Anat; Dix, Theodore; Anderson, Edward R; Greene, Shannon M

    2017-03-01

    Research is unclear about when expressing negative emotions to children performs valuable socialization and regulatory functions and when, instead, it undermines children's adjustment. In this study, we isolated 1 kind of negative expression to test the aversion sensitivity hypothesis: that rapid increases in mothers' negativity as a function of increases in the aversiveness of children's behavior are uniquely problematic for children. During multiple assessments of a divorcing sample over 2 years (N = 284), 12-min interactions between mothers and their 4- to 11-year-old children were recorded. Forty-seven observed child behaviors were ranked from low to high aversive. Within-dyad changes demonstrated that mothers' general negativity-their tendency to express negative emotion at high rates-was unrelated to children's adjustment. In contrast, mothers' aversion-focused negativity-their tendency to increase negative emotional expression rapidly as the aversiveness of children's behavior increased-predicted children's poor social competence, poor emotion regulation, and externalizing behavior problems at the next assessment. The findings suggest that negative expression that reflects mothers' affective sensitivity to aversive child behavior may promote interaction patterns and adaptations in children that are particularly likely to place children at risk for adjustment problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Regulation of SFRP-1 expression in the rat dental follicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dawen; Yao, Shaomian; Wise, Gary E

    2012-01-01

    Tooth eruption requires osteoclastogenesis and subsequent bone resorption. Secreted frizzled-related protein-1 (SFRP-1) negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. Our previous studies indicated that SFRP-1 is expressed in the rat dental follicle (DF), with reduced expression at days 3 and 9 close to the times for the major and minor bursts of osteoclastogenesis, respectively; but it remains unclear as to what molecules contribute to its reduced expression at these critical times. Thus, it was the aim of this study to determine which molecules regulate the expression of SFRP-1 in the DF. To that end, the DF cells were treated with cytokines that are maximally expressed at days 3 or 9, and SFRP-1 expression was determined. Our study indicated that colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1), a molecule maximally expressed in the DF at day 3, down-regulated SFRP-1 expression. As to endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide II (EMAP-II), a highly expressed molecule in the DF at day 3, it had no effect on the expression of SFRP-1. However, when EMAP-II was knocked down by siRNA, the expression of SFRP-1 was elevated, and this elevated SFRP-1 expression could be reduced by adding recombinant EMAP-II protein. This suggests that EMAP-II maintained a lower level of SFRP-1 in the DF. TNF-α is a molecule maximally expressed at day 9, and this study indicated that it also down-regulated the expression of SFRP-1 in the DF cells. In conclusion, CSF-1 and EMAP-II may contribute to the reduced SFRP-1 expression seen on day 3, while TNF-α may contribute to the reduced SFRP-1 expression at day 9.

  4. The power of extraverts: testing positive and negative mood regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Hervas

    Full Text Available Extraversion is a personality trait which has been systematically related to positive affect and well-being. One of the mechanisms that may account for these positive outcomes is the ability to regulate the responses to positive, as well as negative, moods. Prior research has found that extraverts' higher positive mood maintenance could explain their higher levels of positive affect. However, research exploring differences between extraverts and introverts in negative mood regulation has yielded mixed results. The aim of the current study was explore the role of different facets of mood regulation displayed by extraverts, ambiverts, and introverts. After been exposed to a sad vs. happy mood induction, participants underwent a mood regulation task. Extraverts and ambiverts exhibited higher positive mood regulation than introverts, but similar mood repair. Thus, this research highlights the importance of positive mood regulation in the psychological functioning of extraverts, and opens new conceptualizations for developing interventions for introverts to improve their positive mood regulation and, hence, overall positive affect and well-being.

  5. Negative regulation of quorum-sensing systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by ATP-dependent Lon protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaya, Akiko; Tabuchi, Fumiaki; Tsuchiya, Hiroko; Isogai, Emiko; Yamamoto, Tomoko

    2008-06-01

    Lon protease, a member of the ATP-dependent protease family, regulates numerous cellular systems by degrading specific substrates. Here, we demonstrate that Lon is involved in the regulation of quorum-sensing (QS) signaling systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic human pathogen. The organism has two acyl-homoserine lactone (HSL)-mediated QS systems, LasR/LasI and RhlR/RhlI. Many reports have demonstrated that these two systems are regulated and interconnected by global regulators. We found that lon-disrupted cells overproduce pyocyanin, the biosynthesis of which depends on the RhlR/RhlI system, and show increased levels of a transcriptional regulator, RhlR. The QS systems are organized hierarchically: the RhlR/RhlI system is subordinate to LasR/LasI. To elucidate the mechanism by which Lon negatively regulates RhlR/RhlI, we examined the effect of lon disruption on the LasR/LasI system. We found that Lon represses the expression of LasR/LasI by degrading LasI, an HSL synthase, leading to negative regulation of the RhlR/RhlI system. RhlR/RhlI was also shown to be regulated by Lon independently of LasR/LasI via regulation of RhlI, an HSL synthase. In view of these findings, it is suggested that Lon protease is a powerful negative regulator of both HSL-mediated QS systems in P. aeruginosa.

  6. Socializing infants towards a cultural understanding of expressing negative affect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the socialization of emotion expression in infancy. It argues that in order to adequately understand emotion development we need to consider the appraisal of emotion expression through caregivers in mundane, everyday interactions. Drawing on sociocultural and Bakhtinian...... theorizing, it claims that caregivers’ appraisals of infants’ emotion expression are dialogically intertwined with broader speech genres or “communicative genres” of a community and the emotional-volitional tone and normative orientations embedded in them. It aims to investigate how communicative genres......’ expression of negative affect. We found distinct patterns of coconstructing the interaction that point to different normative ori- entations and communicative genres that can be considered to be specific to the two sociocultural contexts. These communicative genres were found to be in line with broader...

  7. Negative regulation of neuronal cell differentiation by INHAT subunit SET/TAF-Iβ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Wook; Kim, Kee-Beom; Kim, Ji-Young; Lee, Kyu-Sun; Seo, Sang-Beom

    2010-09-24

    Epigenetic modification plays an important role in transcriptional regulation. As a subunit of the INHAT (inhibitor of histone acetyltransferases) complex, SET/TAF-Iβ evidences transcriptional repression activity. In this study, we demonstrate that SET/TAF-Iβ is abundantly expressed in neuronal tissues of Drosophila embryos. It is expressed at high levels prior to and in early stages of neuronal development, and gradually reduced as differentiation proceeds. SET/TAF-Iβ binds to the promoters of a subset of neuronal development markers and negatively regulates the transcription of these genes. The results of this study show that the knockdown of SET/TAF-Iβ by si-RNA induces neuronal cell differentiation, thus implicating SET/TAF-Iβ as a negative regulator of neuronal development. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. NFIL3 is a negative regulator of hepatic gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Geon; Han, Hye-Sook; Koo, Seung-Hoi

    2017-12-01

    Nuclear factor interleukin-3 regulated (NFIL3) has been known as an important transcriptional regulator of the development and the differentiation of immune cells. Although expression of NFIL3 is regulated by nutritional cues in the liver, the role of NFIL3 in the glucose metabolism has not been extensively studied. Thus, we wanted to explore the potential role of NFIL3 in the control of hepatic glucose metabolism. Mouse primary hepatocytes were cultured to perform western blot analysis, Q-PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. 293T cells were cultured to perform luciferase assay. Male C57BL/6 mice (fed a normal chow diet or high fat diet for 27weeks) as well as ob/ob mice were used for experiments with adenoviral delivery. We observed that NFIL3 reduced glucose production in hepatocytes by reducing expression of gluconeogenic gene transcription. The repression by NFIL3 required its basic leucine zipper DNA binding domain, and it competed with CREB onto the binding of cAMP response element in the gluconeogenic promoters. The protein levels of hepatic NFIL3 were decreased in the mouse models of genetic- and diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance, and ectopic expression of NFIL3 in the livers of insulin resistant mice ameliorated hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance, with concomitant reduction in expression of hepatic gluconeogenic genes. Finally, we witnessed that knockdown of NFIL3 in the livers of normal chow-fed mice promoted elevations in the glucose levels and expression of hepatic gluconeogenic genes. In this study, we showed that NFIL3 functions as an important regulator of glucose homeostasis in the liver by limiting CREB-mediated hepatic gluconeogenesis. Thus, enhancement of hepatic NFIL3 activity in insulin resistant state could be potentially beneficial in relieving glycemic symptoms in the metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Emotion regulation strategies mediate the associations of positive and negative affect to upper extremity physical function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaei-Khoei, Mojtaba; Nemati-Rezvani, Hora; Fischerauer, Stefan F; Ring, David; Chen, Neal; Vranceanu, Ana-Maria

    2017-05-01

    The Gross process model of emotion regulation holds that emotion-eliciting situations (e.g. musculoskeletal illness) can be strategically regulated to determine the final emotional and behavioral response. Also, there is some evidence that innate emotional traits may predispose an individual to a particular regulating coping style. We enrolled 107 patients with upper extremity musculoskeletal illness in this cross-sectional study. They completed self-report measures of positive and negative affect, emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression), upper extremity physical function, pain intensity, and demographics. We used Preacher and Hayes' bootstrapping approach to process analysis to infer the direct effect of positive and negative affect on physical function as well as their indirect effects through activation of emotion regulation strategies. Negative affect was associated with decreased physical function. The association was partly mediated by expressive suppression (b (SE)=-.10 (.05), 95% BCa CI [-.21, -.02]). Positive affect was associated with increased physical function. Cognitive reappraisal partially mediated this association (b (SE)=.11 (.05), 95% BCa CI [.03, .24]). After controlling for pain intensity, the ratio of the mediated effect to total effect grew even larger in controlled model comparing to uncontrolled model (33% vs. 26% for expressive suppression and 32% vs. 30% for cognitive reappraisal). The relationships between affect, emotion regulation strategies and physical function appear to be more dependent on the emotional response to an orthopedic condition rather than the intensity of the nociceptive stimulation of the pain. Findings support integration of emotion regulation training in skill-based psychotherapy in this population to mitigate the effect of negative affect and enhance the influence of positive affect on physical function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Wheat CBL-interacting protein kinase 25 negatively regulates salt tolerance in transgenic wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Xia; Sun, Tao; Wang, Xiatian; Su, Peipei; Ma, Jingfei; He, Guangyuan; Yang, Guangxiao

    2016-01-01

    CBL-interacting protein kinases are involved in plant responses to abiotic stresses, including salt stress. However, the negative regulating mechanism of this gene family in response to salinity is less reported. In this study, we evaluated the role of TaCIPK25 in regulating salt response in wheat. Under conditions of high salinity, TaCIPK25 expression was markedly down-regulated in roots. Overexpression of TaCIPK25 resulted in hypersensitivity to Na+ and superfluous accumulation of Na+ in tr...

  11. PhERF6, interacting with EOBI, negatively regulates fragrance biosynthesis in petunia flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Xiao, Zhina; Yang, Li; Chen, Qian; Shao, Lu; Liu, Juanxu; Yu, Yixun

    2017-09-01

    In petunia, the production of volatile benzenoids/phenylpropanoids determines floral aroma, highly regulated by development, rhythm and ethylene. Previous studies identified several R2R3-type MYB trans-factors as positive regulators of scent biosynthesis in petunia flowers. Ethylene response factors (ERFs) have been shown to take part in the signal transduction of hormones, and regulation of metabolism and development processes in various plant species. Using virus-induced gene silencing technology, a negative regulator of volatile benzenoid biosynthesis, PhERF6, was identified by a screen for regulators of the expression of genes related to scent production. PhERF6 expression was temporally and spatially connected with scent production and was upregulated by exogenous ethylene. Up-/downregulation of the mRNA level of PhERF6 affected the expression of ODO1 and several floral scent-related genes. PhERF6 silencing led to a significant increase in the concentrations of volatiles emitted by flowers. Yeast two-hybrid, bimolecular fluorescence complementation and co-immunoprecipitation assays indicated that PhERF6 interacted with the N-terminus of EOBI, which includes two DNA binding domains. Our results show that PhERF6 negatively regulates volatile production in petunia flowers by competing for the binding of the c-myb domains of the EOBI protein with the promoters of genes related to floral scent. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. CBL-interacting protein kinase 6 negatively regulates immune response to Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardar, Atish; Nandi, Ashis Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Debasis

    2017-06-15

    Cytosolic calcium ion (Ca2+) is an essential mediator of the plant innate immune response. Here, we report that a calcium-regulated protein kinase Calcineurin B-like protein (CBL)-interacting protein kinase 6 (CIPK6) functions as a negative regulator of immunity against the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis lines with compromised expression of CIPK6 exhibited enhanced disease resistance to the bacterial pathogen and to P. syringae harboring certain but not all avirulent effectors, while restoration of CIPK6 expression resulted in abolition of resistance. Plants overexpressing CIPK6 were more susceptible to P. syringae. Enhanced resistance in the absence of CIPK6 was accompanied by increased accumulation of salicylic acid and elevated expression of defense marker genes. Salicylic acid accumulation was essential for improved immunity in the absence of CIPK6. CIPK6 negatively regulated the oxidative burst associated with perception of pathogen-associated microbial patterns (PAMPs) and bacterial effectors. Accelerated and enhanced activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in response to bacterial and fungal elicitors was observed in the absence of CIPK6. The results of this study suggested that CIPK6 negatively regulates effector-triggered and PAMP-triggered immunity in Arabidopsis. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  13. Transcription Factor Foxo1 Is a Negative Regulator of NK Cell Maturation and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Youcai; Kerdiles, Yann; Chu, Jianhong; Yuan, Shunzong; Wang, Youwei; Chen, Xilin; Mao, Hsiaoyin; Zhang, Lingling; Zhang, Jianying; Hughes, Tiffany; Deng, Yafei; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Fangjie; Zou, Xianghong; Liu, Chang-Gong; Freud, Aharon G.; Li, Xiaohui; Caligiuri, Michael A; Vivier, Eric; Yu, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Little is known about the role of negative regulators in controlling natural killer (NK) cell development and effector functions. Foxo1 is a multifunctional transcription factor of the forkhead family. Using a mouse model of conditional deletion in NK cells, we found that Foxo1 negatively controlled NK cell differentiation and function. Immature NK cells expressed abundant Foxo1 and little Tbx21 relative to mature NK cells, but these two transcription factors reversed their expression as NK cells proceeded through development. Foxo1 promoted NK cell homing to lymph nodes through upregulating CD62L expression, and impaired late-stage maturation and effector functions by repressing Tbx21 expression. Loss of Foxo1 rescued the defect in late-stage NK cell maturation in heterozygous Tbx21+/− mice. Collectively, our data reveal a regulatory pathway by which the negative regulator Foxo1 and the positive regulator Tbx21 play opposing roles in controlling NK cell development and effector functions. PMID:25769609

  14. Negative feedback regulation of Homer 1a on norepinephrine-dependent cardiac hypertrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarello, Carmelina; Bortoloso, Elena; Carpi, Andrea; Furlan, Sandra; Volpe, Pompeo, E-mail: pompeo.volpe@unipd.it

    2013-07-15

    Homers are scaffolding proteins that modulate diverse cell functions being able to assemble signalling complexes. In this study, the presence, sub-cellular distribution and function of Homer 1 was investigated. Homer 1a and Homer 1b/c are constitutively expressed in cardiac muscle of both mouse and rat and in HL-1 cells, a cardiac cell line. As judged by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, Homer 1a displays sarcomeric and peri-nuclear localization. In cardiomyocytes and cultured HL-1 cells, the hypertrophic agonist norepinephrine (NE) induces α{sub 1}-adrenergic specific Homer 1a over-expression, with a two-to-three-fold increase within 1 h, and no up-regulation of Homer 1b/c, as judged by Western blot and qPCR. In HL-1 cells, plasmid-driven over-expression of Homer 1a partially antagonizes activation of ERK phosphorylation and ANF up-regulation, two well-established, early markers of hypertrophy. At the morphometric level, NE-induced increase of cell size is likewise and partially counteracted by exogenous Homer 1a. Under the same experimental conditions, Homer 1b/c does not have any effect on ANF up-regulation nor on cell hypertrophy. Thus, Homer 1a up-regulation is associated to early stages of cardiac hypertrophy and appears to play a negative feedback regulation on molecular transducers of hypertrophy. -- Highlights: • Homer 1a is constitutively expressed in cardiac tissue. • In HL-1 cells, norepinephrine activates signaling pathways leading to hypertrophy. • Homer 1a up-regulation is an early event of norepinephrine-induced hypertrophy. • Homer 1a plays a negative feedback regulation modulating pathological hypertrophy. • Over-expression of Homer 1a per se does not induce hypertrophy.

  15. Negative feedback regulation of Homer 1a on norepinephrine-dependent cardiac hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiarello, Carmelina; Bortoloso, Elena; Carpi, Andrea; Furlan, Sandra; Volpe, Pompeo

    2013-01-01

    Homers are scaffolding proteins that modulate diverse cell functions being able to assemble signalling complexes. In this study, the presence, sub-cellular distribution and function of Homer 1 was investigated. Homer 1a and Homer 1b/c are constitutively expressed in cardiac muscle of both mouse and rat and in HL-1 cells, a cardiac cell line. As judged by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, Homer 1a displays sarcomeric and peri-nuclear localization. In cardiomyocytes and cultured HL-1 cells, the hypertrophic agonist norepinephrine (NE) induces α 1 -adrenergic specific Homer 1a over-expression, with a two-to-three-fold increase within 1 h, and no up-regulation of Homer 1b/c, as judged by Western blot and qPCR. In HL-1 cells, plasmid-driven over-expression of Homer 1a partially antagonizes activation of ERK phosphorylation and ANF up-regulation, two well-established, early markers of hypertrophy. At the morphometric level, NE-induced increase of cell size is likewise and partially counteracted by exogenous Homer 1a. Under the same experimental conditions, Homer 1b/c does not have any effect on ANF up-regulation nor on cell hypertrophy. Thus, Homer 1a up-regulation is associated to early stages of cardiac hypertrophy and appears to play a negative feedback regulation on molecular transducers of hypertrophy. -- Highlights: • Homer 1a is constitutively expressed in cardiac tissue. • In HL-1 cells, norepinephrine activates signaling pathways leading to hypertrophy. • Homer 1a up-regulation is an early event of norepinephrine-induced hypertrophy. • Homer 1a plays a negative feedback regulation modulating pathological hypertrophy. • Over-expression of Homer 1a per se does not induce hypertrophy

  16. Regulation of meiotic gene expression in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele eZhou

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With the recent advances in genomics and sequencing technologies, databases of transcriptomes representing many cellular processes have been built. Meiotic transcriptomes in plants have been studied in Arabidopsis thaliana, rice (Oryza sativa, wheat (Triticum aestivum, petunia (Petunia hybrida, sunflower (Helianthus annuus, and maize (Zea mays. Studies in all organisms, but particularly in plants, indicate that a very large number of genes are expressed during meiosis, though relatively few of them seem to be required for the completion of meiosis. In this review, we focus on gene expression at the RNA level and analyze the meiotic transcriptome datasets and explore expression patterns of known meiotic genes to elucidate how gene expression could be regulated during meiosis. We also discuss mechanisms, such as chromatin organization and non-coding RNAs, that might be involved in the regulation of meiotic transcription patterns.

  17. Podoplanin is a negative regulator of Th17 inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylander, Alyssa N; Ponath, Gerald D; Axisa, Pierre-Paul; Mubarak, Mayyan; Tomayko, Mary; Kuchroo, Vijay K; Pitt, David; Hafler, David A

    2017-09-07

    Recent data indicate that there are different subpopulations of Th17 cells that can express a regulatory as opposed to an inflammatory gene signature. The transmembrane glycoprotein PDPN is critical in the development of multiple organs including the lymphatic system and has been described on T cells in mouse models of autoimmune Th17 inflammation. Here, we demonstrate that unlike in mice, PDPN+ T cells induced under classic Th17-polarizing conditions express transcription factors associated with Th17 cells but do not produce IL-17. Moreover, these cells express a transcriptional profile enriched for immunosuppressive and regulatory pathways and express a distinct cytokine profile compared with potentially pathogenic PDPN- Th17 cells. Ligation of PDPN by its ligand CLEC-2 ameliorates the Th17 inflammatory response. IL-17 secretion is restored with shRNA gene silencing of PDPN. Furthermore, PDPN expression is reduced via an Sgk1-mediated pathway under proinflammatory, high sodium chloride conditions. Finally, CD3+PDPN+ T cells are devoid of IL-17 in skin biopsies from patients with candidiasis, a prototypical Th17-driven skin disease. Thus, our data support the hypothesis that PDPN may serve as a marker of a nonpathogenic Th17 cell subset and may also functionally regulate pathogenic Th17 inflammation.

  18. Expression and subcellular localization of antiporter regulating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We examined the expression and subcellular localization of antiporter regulating protein OsARP in a submergence tolerant rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar FR13A. In the public databases, this protein was designated as putative Os02g0465900 protein. The cDNA containing the full-length sequence of OsARP gene was ...

  19. Teachers' Negative Experiences and Expressions of Emotion: Being True to Yourself or Keeping You in Your Place?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitching, Karl

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines teachers' experiences and displays of negative emotion as a means of partially exploring how identities at work might be formed and regulated. It uses the concepts of emotional labour and subjectivation to interrogate the negative emotions teachers may experience and/or express at work. It suggests that emotion display rules…

  20. dRYBP contributes to the negative regulation of the Drosophila Imd pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Aparicio

    Full Text Available The Drosophila humoral innate immune response fights infection by producing antimicrobial peptides (AMPs through the microbe-specific activation of the Toll or the Imd signaling pathway. Upon systemic infection, the production of AMPs is both positively and negatively regulated to reach a balanced immune response required for survival. Here, we report the function of the dRYBP (drosophila Ring and YY1 Binding Protein protein, which contains a ubiquitin-binding domain, in the Imd pathway. We have found that dRYBP contributes to the negative regulation of AMP production: upon systemic infection with Gram-negative bacteria, Diptericin expression is up-regulated in the absence of dRYBP and down-regulated in the presence of high levels of dRYBP. Epistatic analyses using gain and loss of function alleles of imd, Relish, or skpA and dRYBP suggest that dRYBP functions upstream or together with SKPA, a member of the SCF-E3-ubiquitin ligase complex, to repress the Imd signaling cascade. We propose that the role of dRYBP in the regulation of the Imd signaling pathway is to function as a ubiquitin adaptor protein together with SKPA to promote SCF-dependent proteasomal degradation of Relish. Beyond the identification of dRYBP as a novel component of Imd pathway regulation, our results also suggest that the evolutionarily conserved RYBP protein may be involved in the human innate immune response.

  1. HapX positively and negatively regulates the transcriptional response to iron deprivation in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Hee Jung

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans is a major cause of illness in immunocompromised individuals such as AIDS patients. The ability of the fungus to acquire nutrients during proliferation in host tissue and the ability to elaborate a polysaccharide capsule are critical determinants of disease outcome. We previously showed that the GATA factor, Cir1, is a major regulator both of the iron uptake functions needed for growth in host tissue and the key virulence factors such as capsule, melanin and growth at 37°C. We are interested in further defining the mechanisms of iron acquisition from inorganic and host-derived iron sources with the goal of understanding the nutritional adaptation of C. neoformans to the host environment. In this study, we investigated the roles of the HAP3 and HAPX genes in iron utilization and virulence. As in other fungi, the C. neoformans Hap proteins negatively influence the expression of genes encoding respiratory and TCA cycle functions under low-iron conditions. However, we also found that HapX plays both positive and negative roles in the regulation of gene expression, including a positive regulatory role in siderophore transporter expression. In addition, HapX also positively regulated the expression of the CIR1 transcript. This situation is in contrast to the negative regulation by HapX of genes encoding GATA iron regulatory factors in Aspergillus nidulans and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Although both hapX and hap3 mutants were defective in heme utilization in culture, only HapX made a contribution to virulence, and loss of HapX in a strain lacking the high-affinity iron uptake system did not cause further attenuation of disease. Therefore, HapX appears to have a minimal role during infection of mammalian hosts and instead may be an important regulator of environmental iron uptake functions. Overall, these results indicated that C. neoformans employs multiple strategies for iron acquisition during infection.

  2. [Regulation of Positive and Negative Emotions as Mediator between Maternal Emotion Socialization and Child Problem Behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fäsche, Anika; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; Friedlmeier, Wolfgang; von Suchodoletz, Antje

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated five to six year old children's ability to regulate negative and positive emotions in relation to psychosocial problem behavior (N=53). It was explored, whether mothers' supportive and nonsupportive strategies of emotion socialization influence children's problem behavior by shaping their emotion regulation ability. Mothers reported on children's emotion regulation and internalizing and externalizing problem behavior via questionnaire, and were interviewed about their preferences for socialization strategies in response to children's expression of negative affect. Results showed that children with more adaptive expression of adequate positive emotions had less internalizing behavior problems. When children showed more control of inadequate negative emotions, children were less internalizing as well as externalizing in their behavior. Furthermore, results indicated indirect relations of mothers' socialization strategies with children's problem behavior. Control of inadequate negative emotions mediated the link between non-supportive strategies on externalizing problem behavior. Results suggest that emotion regulatory processes should be part of interventions to reduce the development of problematic behavior in young children. Parents should be trained in dealing with children's emotions in a constructive way.

  3. Cra negatively regulates acid survival in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yangbo; Lu, Pei; Zhang, Yong; Li, Yunlong; Li, Lamei; Huang, Li; Chen, Shiyun

    2011-04-01

    Survival in acidic environments is important for successful infection of gastrointestinal pathogens. Many bacteria have evolved elaborate mechanisms by inducing or repressing gene expression, which subsequently provide pH homeostasis and enable acid survival. In this study, we employed comparative proteomic analysis to identify the acid-responsive proteins of a food-borne enteric bacterium, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. The expression level of eight proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism was up- or downregulated over twofold at pH 4.5 compared with pH 7.0. The role of a global transcriptional regulator catabolite repressor/activator Cra was further studied in this acid survival process. lacZ-fusion analysis showed that expression of cra was repressed under acidic pH. Deletion of the cra gene increased acid survival by 10-fold, whereas complementation restored the wild-type phenotype. These results lead us to propose that, in response to acidic pH, the expression of cra gene is downregulated to increase acid survival. This is the first study to demonstrate the regulatory role of Cra in acid survival in an enteric bacterium. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Quorum sensing negatively regulates chitinase in Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defoirdt, Tom; Darshanee Ruwandeepika, H A; Karunasagar, Indrani; Boon, Nico; Bossier, Peter

    2010-02-01

    Quorum sensing, bacterial cell-to-cell communication, regulates the virulence of Vibrio harveyi towards different hosts. Chitinase can be considered as a virulence factor because it helps pathogenic bacteria to attach to the host and to penetrate its tissues (e.g. in case of shrimp). Here, we show that quorum sensing negatively regulates chitinase in V. harveyi. Chitinolytic activity towards natural chitin from crab shells, the synthetic chitin derivative chitin azure, and fluorogenic chitin oligomers was significantly higher in a mutant in which the quorum-sensing system is completely inactivated when compared with a mutant in which the system is maximally active. Furthermore, the addition of signal molecule containing cell-free culture fluids decreased chitinase activity in a Harveyi Autoinducer 1 and Autoinducer 2-deficient double mutant. Finally, chitinase A mRNA levels were fivefold lower in the mutant in which the quorum-sensing system is maximally active when compared with the mutant in which the system is completely inactivated. [Correction added on 25 September 2009, after first online publication: the preceding sentence was corrected from 'Finally, chitinase A mRNA levels were fivefold lower in the mutant in which the quorum-sensing system is completely inactivated when compared with the mutant in which the system is maximally active.'] We argue that this regulation might help the vibrios to switch between host-associated and free-living life styles. © 2009 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Regulation of Gene Expression in Protozoa Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Gomez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections with protozoa parasites are associated with high burdens of morbidity and mortality across the developing world. Despite extensive efforts to control the transmission of these parasites, the spread of populations resistant to drugs and the lack of effective vaccines against them contribute to their persistence as major public health problems. Parasites should perform a strict control on the expression of genes involved in their pathogenicity, differentiation, immune evasion, or drug resistance, and the comprehension of the mechanisms implicated in that control could help to develop novel therapeutic strategies. However, until now these mechanisms are poorly understood in protozoa. Recent investigations into gene expression in protozoa parasites suggest that they possess many of the canonical machineries employed by higher eukaryotes for the control of gene expression at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and epigenetic levels, but they also contain exclusive mechanisms. Here, we review the current understanding about the regulation of gene expression in Plasmodium sp., Trypanosomatids, Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis.

  6. Regulation of gene expression in protozoa parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Consuelo; Esther Ramirez, M; Calixto-Galvez, Mercedes; Medel, Olivia; Rodríguez, Mario A

    2010-01-01

    Infections with protozoa parasites are associated with high burdens of morbidity and mortality across the developing world. Despite extensive efforts to control the transmission of these parasites, the spread of populations resistant to drugs and the lack of effective vaccines against them contribute to their persistence as major public health problems. Parasites should perform a strict control on the expression of genes involved in their pathogenicity, differentiation, immune evasion, or drug resistance, and the comprehension of the mechanisms implicated in that control could help to develop novel therapeutic strategies. However, until now these mechanisms are poorly understood in protozoa. Recent investigations into gene expression in protozoa parasites suggest that they possess many of the canonical machineries employed by higher eukaryotes for the control of gene expression at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and epigenetic levels, but they also contain exclusive mechanisms. Here, we review the current understanding about the regulation of gene expression in Plasmodium sp., Trypanosomatids, Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis.

  7. When death is not a problem: Regulating implicit negative affect under mortality salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdecke, Christina; Baumann, Nicola

    2015-12-01

    Terror management theory assumes that death arouses existential anxiety in humans which is suppressed in focal attention. Whereas most studies provide indirect evidence for negative affect under mortality salience by showing cultural worldview defenses and self-esteem strivings, there is only little direct evidence for implicit negative affect under mortality salience. In the present study, we assume that this implicit affective reaction towards death depends on people's ability to self-regulate negative affect as assessed by the personality dimension of action versus state orientation. Consistent with our expectations, action-oriented participants judged artificial words to express less negative affect under mortality salience compared to control conditions whereas state-oriented participants showed the reversed pattern. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. MEIS1 functions as a potential AR negative regulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Liang; Li, Mingyang; Feng, Fan; Yang, Yutao; Hang, Xingyi; Cui, Jiajun; Gao, Jiangping

    2014-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) plays critical roles in human prostate carcinoma progression and transformation. However, the activation of AR is regulated by co-regulators. MEIS1 protein, the homeodomain transcription factor, exhibited a decreased level in poor-prognosis prostate tumors. In this study, we investigated a potential interaction between MEIS1 and AR. We found that overexpression of MEIS1 inhibited the AR transcriptional activity and reduced the expression of AR target gene. A potential protein–protein interaction between AR and MEIS1 was identified by the immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assays. Furthermore, MEIS1 modulated AR cytoplasm/nucleus translocation and the recruitment to androgen response element in prostate specific antigen (PSA) gene promoter sequences. In addition, MEIS1 promoted the recruitment of NCoR and SMRT in the presence of R1881. Finally, MEIS1 inhibited the proliferation and anchor-independent growth of LNCaP cells. Taken together, our data suggests that MEIS1 functions as a novel AR co-repressor. - Highlights: • A potential interaction was identified between MEIS1 and AR signaling. • Overexpression of MEIS1 reduced the expression of AR target gene. • MEIS1 modulated AR cytoplasm/nucleus translocation. • MEIS1 inhibited the proliferation and anchor-independent growth of LNCaP cells

  9. MEIS1 functions as a potential AR negative regulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Liang [Department of Urology, Chinese PLA Medical School/Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Department of Urology, Civil Aviation General Hospital/Civil Aviation Medical College of Peking University, Beijing 100123 (China); Li, Mingyang [Department of Gastroenterology, Nan Lou Division, Chinese PLA Medical School/Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Feng, Fan [Department of Pharmacy, General Hospital of Shenyang Military Command, Shenyang 110016 (China); Yang, Yutao [Beijing Institute for Neuroscience, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069 (China); Hang, Xingyi [National Scientific Data Sharing Platform for Population and Health, Beijing 100730 (China); Cui, Jiajun, E-mail: cuijn@ucmail.uc.edu [Department of Cancer and Cell Biology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Gao, Jiangping, E-mail: jpgao@163.com [Department of Urology, Chinese PLA Medical School/Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2014-10-15

    The androgen receptor (AR) plays critical roles in human prostate carcinoma progression and transformation. However, the activation of AR is regulated by co-regulators. MEIS1 protein, the homeodomain transcription factor, exhibited a decreased level in poor-prognosis prostate tumors. In this study, we investigated a potential interaction between MEIS1 and AR. We found that overexpression of MEIS1 inhibited the AR transcriptional activity and reduced the expression of AR target gene. A potential protein–protein interaction between AR and MEIS1 was identified by the immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assays. Furthermore, MEIS1 modulated AR cytoplasm/nucleus translocation and the recruitment to androgen response element in prostate specific antigen (PSA) gene promoter sequences. In addition, MEIS1 promoted the recruitment of NCoR and SMRT in the presence of R1881. Finally, MEIS1 inhibited the proliferation and anchor-independent growth of LNCaP cells. Taken together, our data suggests that MEIS1 functions as a novel AR co-repressor. - Highlights: • A potential interaction was identified between MEIS1 and AR signaling. • Overexpression of MEIS1 reduced the expression of AR target gene. • MEIS1 modulated AR cytoplasm/nucleus translocation. • MEIS1 inhibited the proliferation and anchor-independent growth of LNCaP cells.

  10. Glucose transporters: expression, regulation and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODOLFO A. MEDINA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian cells depend on glucose as a major substrate for energy production. Glucose is transported into the cell via facilitative glucose transporters (GLUT present in all cell types. Many GLUT isoforms have been described and their expression is cell-specific and subject to hormonal and environmental control. The kinetic properties and substrate specificities of the different isoforms are specifically suited to the energy requirements of the particular cell types. Due to the ubiquitousness of these transporters, their differential expression is involved in various disease states such as diabetes, ischemia and cancer. The majority of cancers and isolated cancer cell lines over-express the GLUT family members which are present in the respective tissue of origin under non-cancerous conditions. Moreover, due to the requirement of energy to feed uncontrolled proliferation, cancer cells often express GLUTs which under normal conditions would not be present in these tissues. This over-expression is predominantly associated with the likelihood of metastasis and hence poor patient prognosis. This article presents a review of the current literature on the regulation and expression of GLUT family members and has compiled clinical and research data on GLUT expression in human cancers and in isolated human cancer cell lines.

  11. Epigenetic regulation on the gene expression signature in esophagus adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Ting; Zhang, Guizhi

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms represents an important step in the development of diagnostic and therapeutic measures of esophagus adenocarcinoma (NOS). The objective of this study is to identify the epigenetic regulation on gene expression in NOS, shedding light on the molecular mechanisms of NOS. In this study, 78 patients with NOS were included and the data of mRNA, miRNA and DNA methylation of were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Differential analysis between NOS and controls was performed in terms of gene expression, miRNA expression, and DNA methylation. Bioinformatic analysis was followed to explore the regulation mechanisms of miRNA and DNA methylationon gene expression. Totally, up to 1320 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 32 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified. 240 DEGs that were not only the target genes but also negatively correlated with the screened differentially expressed miRNAs. 101 DEGs were found to be highlymethylated in CpG islands. Then, 8 differentially methylated genes (DMGs) were selected, which showed down-regulated expression in NOS. Among of these genes, 6 genes including ADHFE1, DPP6, GRIA4, CNKSR2, RPS6KA6 and ZNF135 were target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs (hsa-mir-335, hsa-mir-18a, hsa-mir-93, hsa-mir-106b and hsa-mir-21). The identified altered miRNA, genes and DNA methylation site may be applied as biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of NOS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Chondroitin-4-sulfation negatively regulates axonal guidance and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hang; Katagiri, Yasuhiro; McCann, Thomas E.; Unsworth, Edward; Goldsmith, Paul; Yu, Zu-Xi; Tan, Fei; Santiago, Lizzie; Mills, Edward M.; Wang, Yu; Symes, Aviva J.; Geller, Herbert M.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains endow extracellular matrix proteoglycans with diversity and complexity based upon the length, composition, and charge distribution of the polysaccharide chain. Using cultured primary neurons, we show that specific sulfation in the GAG chains of chondroitin sulfate (CS) mediates neuronal guidance cues and axonal growth inhibition. Chondroitin-4-sulfate (CS-A), but not chondroitin-6-sulfate (CS-C), exhibits a strong negative guidance cue to mouse cerebellar granule neurons. Enzymatic and gene-based manipulations of 4-sulfation in the GAG side chains alter their ability to direct growing axons. Furthermore, 4-sulfated CS GAG chains are rapidly and significantly increased in regions that do not support axonal regeneration proximal to spinal cord lesions in mice. Thus, our findings provide the evidence showing that specific sulfation along the carbohydrate backbone carries instructions to regulate neuronal function. PMID:18768934

  13. Vitamin a is a negative regulator of osteoblast mineralization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Lind

    Full Text Available An excessive intake of vitamin A has been associated with an increased risk of fractures in humans. In animals, a high vitamin A intake leads to a reduction of long bone diameter and spontaneous fractures. Studies in rodents indicate that the bone thinning is due to increased periosteal bone resorption and reduced radial growth. Whether the latter is a consequence of direct effects on bone or indirect effects on appetite and general growth is unknown. In this study we therefore used pair-feeding and dynamic histomorphometry to investigate the direct effect of a high intake of vitamin A on bone formation in rats. Although there were no differences in body weight or femur length compared to controls, there was an approximately halved bone formation and mineral apposition rate at the femur diaphysis of rats fed vitamin A. To try to clarify the mechanism(s behind this reduction, we treated primary human osteoblasts and a murine preosteoblastic cell line (MC3T3-E1 with the active metabolite of vitamin A; retinoic acid (RA, a retinoic acid receptor (RAR antagonist (AGN194310, and a Cyp26 inhibitor (R115866 which blocks endogenous RA catabolism. We found that RA, via RARs, suppressed in vitro mineralization. This was independent of a negative effect on osteoblast proliferation. Alkaline phosphatase and bone gamma carboxyglutamate protein (Bglap, Osteocalcin were drastically reduced in RA treated cells and RA also reduced the protein levels of Runx2 and Osterix, key transcription factors for progression to a mature osteoblast. Normal osteoblast differentiation involved up regulation of Cyp26b1, the major enzyme responsible for RA degradation, suggesting that a drop in RA signaling is required for osteogenesis analogous to what has been found for chondrogenesis. In addition, RA decreased Phex, an osteoblast/osteocyte protein necessary for mineralization. Taken together, our data indicate that vitamin A is a negative regulator of osteoblast mineralization.

  14. Models of Aire-dependent gene regulation for thymic negative selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina eDanso-Abeam

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE gene lead to Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy Syndrome type 1 (APS1, characterized by the development of multi-organ autoimmune damage. The mechanism by which defects in AIRE result in autoimmunity has been the subject of intense scrutiny. At the cellular level, the working model explains most of the clinical and immunological characteristics of APS1, with AIRE driving the expression of tissue restricted antigens (TRAs in the epithelial cells of the thymic medulla. This TRA expression results in effective negative selection of TRA-reactive thymocytes, preventing autoimmune disease. At the molecular level, the mechanism by which AIRE initiates TRA expression in the thymic medulla remains unclear. Multiple different models for the molecular mechanism have been proposed, ranging from classical transcriptional activity, to random induction of gene expression, to epigenetic tag recognition effect, to altered cell biology. In this review, we evaluate each of these models and discuss their relative strengths and weaknesses.

  15. Negative regulation of RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling by TRK-fused gene (TFG) protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Na-Rae; Shin, Han-Bo; Kim, Hye-In; Choi, Myung-Soo; Inn, Kyung-Soo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •TRK-fused gene product (TFG) interacts with TRIM25 upon viral infection. •TFG negatively regulates RIG-I mediated antiviral signaling. •TFG depletion leads to enhanced viral replication. •TFG act downstream of MAVS. -- Abstract: RIG-I (retinoic acid inducible gene I)-mediated antiviral signaling serves as the first line of defense against viral infection. Upon detection of viral RNA, RIG-I undergoes TRIM25 (tripartite motif protein 25)-mediated K63-linked ubiquitination, leading to type I interferon (IFN) production. In this study, we demonstrate that TRK-fused gene (TFG) protein, previously identified as a TRIM25-interacting protein, binds TRIM25 upon virus infection and negatively regulates RIG-I-mediated type-I IFN signaling. RIG-I-mediated IFN production and nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathways were upregulated by the suppression of TFG expression. Furthermore, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) replication was significantly inhibited by small inhibitory hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of TFG, supporting the suppressive role of TFG in RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling. Interestingly, suppression of TFG expression increased not only RIG-I-mediated signaling but also MAVS (mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein)-induced signaling, suggesting that TFG plays a pivotal role in negative regulation of RNA-sensing, RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) family signaling pathways

  16. HDAC3 Is a Critical Negative Regulator of Long-Term Memory Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuown, Susan C.; Barrett, Ruth M.; Matheos, Dina P.; Post, Rebecca J.; Rogge, George A.; Alenghat, Theresa; Mullican, Shannon E.; Jones, Steven; Rusche, James R.; Lazar, Mitchell A.; Wood, Marcelo A.

    2011-01-01

    Gene expression is dynamically regulated by chromatin modifications on histone tails, such as acetylation. In general, histone acetylation promotes transcription, whereas histone deacetylation negatively regulates transcription. The interplay between histone acetyl-transerases and histone deacetylases (HDACs) is pivotal for the regulation of gene expression required for long-term memory processes. Currently, very little is known about the role of individual HDACs in learning and memory. We examined the role of HDAC3 in long-term memory using a combined genetic and pharmacologic approach. We used HDAC3–FLOX genetically modified mice in combination with adeno-associated virus-expressing Cre recombinase to generate focal homozygous deletions of Hdac3 in area CA1 of the dorsal hippocampus. To complement this approach, we also used a selective inhibitor of HDAC3, RGFP136 [N-(6-(2-amino-4-fluorophenylamino)-6-oxohexyl)-4-methylbenzamide]. Immunohistochemistry showed that focal deletion or intrahippocampal delivery of RGFP136 resulted in increased histone acetylation. Both the focal deletion of HDAC3 as well as HDAC3 inhibition via RGFP136 significantly enhanced long-term memory in a persistent manner. Next we examined expression of genes implicated in long-term memory from dorsal hippocampal punches using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Expression of nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A, member 2 (Nr4a2) and c-fos was significantly increased in the hippocampus of HDAC3–FLOX mice compared with wild-type controls. Memory enhancements observed in HDAC3–FLOX mice were abolished by intrahippocampal delivery of Nr4a2 small interfering RNA, suggesting a mechanism by which HDAC3 negatively regulates memory formation. Together, these findings demonstrate a critical role for HDAC3 in the molecular mechanisms underlying long-term memory formation. PMID:21228185

  17. MYB52 Negatively Regulates Pectin Demethylesterification in Seed Coat Mucilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dachuan; Ren, Angyan; Tang, Xianfeng; Qi, Guang; Xu, Zongchang; Chai, Guohua; Hu, Ruibo; Zhou, Gongke; Kong, Yingzhen

    2018-04-01

    Pectin, which is a major component of the plant primary cell walls, is synthesized and methyl-esterified in the Golgi apparatus and then demethylesterified by pectin methylesterases (PMEs) located in the cell wall. The degree of methylesterification affects the functional properties of pectin, and thereby influences plant growth, development and defense. However, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate pectin demethylesterification. Here, we show that in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) seed coat mucilage, the absence of the MYB52 transcription factor is correlated with an increase in PME activity and a decrease in the degree of pectin methylesterification. Decreased methylesterification in the myb52 mutant is also correlated with an increase in the calcium content of the seed mucilage. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis and molecular genetic studies suggest that MYB52 transcriptionally activates PECTIN METHYLESTERASE INHIBITOR6 ( PMEI6 ), PMEI14 , and SUBTILISIN-LIKE SER PROTEASE1.7 ( SBT1.7 ) by binding to their promoters. PMEI6 and SBT1.7 have previously been shown to be involved in seed coat mucilage demethylesterification. Our characterization of two PMEI14 mutants suggests that PMEI14 has a role in seed coat mucilage demethylesterification, although its activity may be confined to the seed coat in contrast to PMEI6, which functions in the whole seed. Our demonstration that MYB52 negatively regulates pectin demethylesterification in seed coat mucilage, and the identification of components of the molecular network involved, provides new insight into the regulatory mechanism controlling pectin demethylesterification and increases our understanding of the transcriptional regulation network involved in seed coat mucilage formation. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Regulation of Expressive Behavior as Reflecting Affect Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarni, Carolyn

    Regulated expressiveness (the modification of expressive behavior) is a complex phenomenon. Accomplished basically in four ways, regulated expressiveness has developmental dimensions, motivational precursors, and cognitive antecedents, including perspective-taking ability and the growth of self-awareness. Ability to regulate expressiveness appears…

  19. High mobility group protein DSP1 negatively regulates HSP70 transcription in Crassostrea hongkongensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Zongyu; Xu, Delin; Cui, Miao; Zhang, Qizhong, E-mail: zhangqzdr@126.com

    2016-06-10

    HSP70 acts mostly as a molecular chaperone and plays important roles in facilitating the folding of nascent peptides as well as the refolding or degradation of the denatured proteins. Under stressed conditions, the expression level of HSP70 is upregulated significantly and rapidly, as is known to be achieved by various regulatory factors controlling the transcriptional level. In this study, a high mobility group protein DSP1 was identified by DNA-affinity purification from the nuclear extracts of Crassostrea hongkongensis using the ChHSP70 promoter as a bait. The specific interaction between the prokaryotically expressed ChDSP1 and the FITC-labeled ChHSP70 promoter was confirmed by EMSA analysis. ChDSP1 was shown to negatively regulate ChHSP70 promoter expression by Luciferase Reporter Assay in the heterologous HEK293T cells. Both ChHSP70 and ChDSP1 transcriptions were induced by either thermal or CdCl{sub 2} stress, while the accumulated expression peaks of ChDSP1 were always slightly delayed when compared with that of ChHSP70. This indicates that ChDSP1 is involved, very likely to exert its suppressive role, in the recovery of the ChHSP70 expression from the induced level to its original state. This study is the first to report negative regulator of HSP70 gene transcription, and provides novel insights into the mechanisms controlling heat shock protein expression. -- Highlights: •HMG protein ChDSP1 shows affinity to ChHSP70 promoter in Crassostrea hongkongensis. •ChDSP1 negatively regulates ChHSP70 transcription. •ChHSP70 and ChDSP1 transcriptions were coordinately induced by thermal/Cd stress. •ChDSP1 may contribute to the recovery of the induced ChHSP70 to its original state. •This is the first report regarding negative regulator of HSP70 transcription.

  20. Regulation of methane genes and genome expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John N. Reeve

    2009-09-09

    At the start of this project, it was known that methanogens were Archaeabacteria (now Archaea) and were therefore predicted to have gene expression and regulatory systems different from Bacteria, but few of the molecular biology details were established. The goals were then to establish the structures and organizations of genes in methanogens, and to develop the genetic technologies needed to investigate and dissect methanogen gene expression and regulation in vivo. By cloning and sequencing, we established the gene and operon structures of all of the “methane” genes that encode the enzymes that catalyze methane biosynthesis from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. This work identified unique sequences in the methane gene that we designated mcrA, that encodes the largest subunit of methyl-coenzyme M reductase, that could be used to identify methanogen DNA and establish methanogen phylogenetic relationships. McrA sequences are now the accepted standard and used extensively as hybridization probes to identify and quantify methanogens in environmental research. With the methane genes in hand, we used northern blot and then later whole-genome microarray hybridization analyses to establish how growth phase and substrate availability regulated methane gene expression in Methanobacterium thermautotrophicus ΔH (now Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus). Isoenzymes or pairs of functionally equivalent enzymes catalyze several steps in the hydrogen-dependent reduction of carbon dioxide to methane. We established that hydrogen availability determine which of these pairs of methane genes is expressed and therefore which of the alternative enzymes is employed to catalyze methane biosynthesis under different environmental conditions. As were unable to establish a reliable genetic system for M. thermautotrophicus, we developed in vitro transcription as an alternative system to investigate methanogen gene expression and regulation. This led to the discovery that an archaeal protein

  1. Endoglin negatively regulates transforming growth factor beta1-induced profibrotic responses in intestinal fibroblasts.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, J P

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Fibroblasts isolated from strictures in Crohn\\'s disease (CD) exhibit reduced responsiveness to stimulation with transforming growth factor (TGF) beta1. TGF-beta1, acting through the smad pathway, is critical to fibroblast-mediated intestinal fibrosis. The membrane glycoprotein, endoglin, is a negative regulator of TGF-beta1. METHODS: Intestinal fibroblasts were cultured from seromuscular biopsies of patients undergoing intestinal resection for CD strictures or from control patients. Endoglin expression was assessed using confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and western blot. The effect of small interfering (si) RNA-mediated knockdown and plasmid-mediated overexpression of endoglin on fibroblast responsiveness to TGF-beta1 was assessed by examining smad phosphorylation, smad binding element (SBE) promoter activity, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression and ability to contract collagen. RESULTS: Crohn\\'s stricture fibroblasts expressed increased constitutive cell-surface and whole-cell endoglin relative to control cells. Endoglin co-localized with filamentous actin. Fibroblasts treated with siRNA directed against endoglin exhibited enhanced TGF-beta1-mediated smad-3 phosphorylation, and collagen contraction. Cells transfected with an endoglin plasmid did not respond to TGF-beta1 by exhibiting SBE promoter activity or producing CTGF. CONCLUSION: Fibroblasts from strictures in CD express increased constitutive endoglin. Endoglin is a negative regulator of TGF-beta1 signalling in the intestinal fibroblast, modulating smad-3 phosphorylation, SBE promoter activity, CTGF production and collagen contraction.

  2. Maternal depression and anxiety, social synchrony, and infant regulation of negative and positive emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granat, Adi; Gadassi, Reuma; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva; Feldman, Ruth

    2017-02-01

    Maternal postpartum depression (PPD) exerts long-term negative effects on infants; yet the mechanisms by which PPD disrupts emotional development are not fully clear. Utilizing an extreme-case design, 971 women reported symptoms of depression and anxiety following childbirth and 215 high and low on depressive symptomatology reported again at 6 months. Of these, mothers diagnosed with major depressive disorder (n = 22), anxiety disorders (n = 19), and controls (n = 59) were visited at 9 months. Mother-infant interaction was microcoded for maternal and infant's social behavior and synchrony. Infant negative and positive emotional expression and self-regulation were tested in 4 emotion-eliciting paradigms: anger with mother, anger with stranger, joy with mother, and joy with stranger. Infants of depressed mothers displayed less social gaze and more gaze aversion. Gaze and touch synchrony were lowest for depressed mothers, highest for anxious mothers, and midlevel among controls. Infants of control and anxious mothers expressed less negative affect with mother compared with stranger; however, maternal presence failed to buffer negative affect in the depressed group. Maternal depression chronicity predicted increased self-regulatory behavior during joy episodes, and touch synchrony moderated the effects of PPD on infant self-regulation. Findings describe subtle microlevel processes by which maternal depression across the postpartum year disrupts the development of infant emotion regulation and suggest that diminished social synchrony, low differentiation of attachment and nonattachment contexts, and increased self-regulation during positive moments may chart pathways for the cross-generational transfer of emotional maladjustment from depressed mothers to their infants. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. DMPD: Negative regulation of cytoplasmic RNA-mediated antiviral signaling. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18703349 Negative regulation of cytoplasmic RNA-mediated antiviral signaling. Komur...Show Negative regulation of cytoplasmic RNA-mediated antiviral signaling. PubmedID 18703349 Title Negative r...egulation of cytoplasmic RNA-mediated antiviral signaling. Authors Komuro A, Bamm

  4. TRIM65 negatively regulates p53 through ubiquitination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yang [Department of Respiration, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Ma, Chengyuan [Department of Neurosurgery, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Zhou, Tong [Department of Endocrinology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Liu, Ying [Department of Respiration, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Sun, Luyao [Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Yu, Zhenxiang, E-mail: zhenxiangyu2015@gmail.com [Department of Respiration, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China)

    2016-04-22

    Tripartite-motif protein family member 65 (TRIM65) is an important protein involved in white matter lesion. However, the role of TRIM65 in human cancer remains less understood. Through the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) gene alteration database, we found that TRIM65 is upregulated in a significant portion of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients. Our cell growth assay revealed that TRIM65 overexpression promotes cell proliferation, while knockdown of TRIM65 displays opposite effect. Mechanistically, TRIM65 binds to p53, one of the most critical tumor suppressors, and serves as an E3 ligase toward p53. Consequently, TRIM65 inactivates p53 through facilitating p53 poly-ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation. Notably, chemotherapeutic reagent cisplatin induction of p53 is markedly attenuated in response to ectopic expression of TRIM65. Cell growth inhibition by TRIM65 knockdown is more significant in p53 positive H460 than p53 negative H1299 cells, and knockdown of p53 in H460 cells also shows compromised cell growth inhibition by TRIM65 knockdown, indicating that p53 is required, at least in part, for TRIM65 function. Our findings demonstrate TRIM65 as a potential oncogenic protein, highly likely through p53 inactivation, and provide insight into development of novel approaches targeting TRIM65 for NSCLC treatment, and also overcoming chemotherapy resistance. - Highlights: • TRIM65 expression is elevated in NSCLC. • TRIM65 inactivates p53 through mediating p53 ubiquitination and degradation. • TRIM65 attenuates the response of NSCLC cells to cisplatin.

  5. delta-EF1 is a negative regulator of Ihh in the developing growth plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellon, Ellen; Luyten, Frank P; Tylzanowski, Przemko

    2009-11-30

    Indian hedgehog (Ihh) regulates proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes in the growth plate. Although the biology of Ihh is currently well documented, its transcriptional regulation is poorly understood. delta-EF1 is a two-handed zinc finger/homeodomain transcriptional repressor. Targeted inactivation of mouse delta-EF1 leads to skeletal abnormalities including disorganized growth plates, shortening of long bones, and joint fusions, which are reminiscent of defects associated with deregulation of Ihh signaling. Here, we show that the absence of delta-EF1 results in delayed hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes and increased cell proliferation in the growth plate. Further, we demonstrate that delta-EF1 binds to the putative regulatory elements in intron 1 of Ihh in vitro and in vivo, resulting in down-regulation of Ihh expression. Finally, we show that delta-EF1 haploinsufficiency leads to a postnatal increase in trabecular bone mass associated with enhanced Ihh expression. In summary, we have identified delta-EF1 as an in vivo negative regulator of Ihh expression in the growth plate.

  6. Negative transcriptional regulation of mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) by nuclear TFAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Jin; Kang, Young Cheol; Park, Wook-Ha; Jeong, Jae Hoon; Pak, Youngmi Kim

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • TFAM localizes in nuclei and mitochondria of neuronal cells. • Nuclear TFAM does not bind the Tfam promoter. • Nuclear TFAM reduced the Tfam promoter activity via suppressing NRF-1 activity. • A novel self-negative feedback regulation of Tfam gene expression is explored. • FAM may play different roles depending on its subcellular localizations. - Abstract: The nuclear DNA-encoded mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is synthesized in cytoplasm and transported into mitochondria. TFAM enhances both transcription and replication of mitochondrial DNA. It is unclear, however, whether TFAM plays a role in regulating nuclear gene expression. Here, we demonstrated that TFAM was localized to the nucleus and mitochondria by immunostaining, subcellular fractionation, and TFAM-green fluorescent protein hybrid protein studies. In HT22 hippocampal neuronal cells, human TFAM (hTFAM) overexpression suppressed human Tfam promoter-mediated luciferase activity in a dose-dependent manner. The mitochondria targeting sequence-deficient hTFAM also repressed Tfam promoter activity to the same degree as hTFAM. It indicated that nuclear hTFAM suppressed Tfam expression without modulating mitochondrial activity. The repression required for nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1), but hTFAM did not bind to the NRF-1 binding site of its promoter. TFAM was co-immunoprecipitated with NRF-1. Taken together, we suggest that nuclear TFAM down-regulate its own gene expression as a NRF-1 repressor, showing that TFAM may play different roles depending on its subcellular localizations

  7. Bone marrow adipocytes as negative regulators of the hematopoietic microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveiras, Olaia; Nardi, Valentina; Wenzel, Pamela L.; Fahey, Frederic; Daley, George Q.

    2009-01-01

    Osteoblasts and endothelium constitute functional niches that support hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in mammalian bone marrow (BM) 1,2,3 . Adult BM also contains adipocytes, whose numbers correlate inversely with the hematopoietic activity of the marrow. Fatty infiltration of hematopoietic red marrow follows irradiation or chemotherapy and is a diagnostic feature in biopsies from patients with marrow aplasia 4. To explore whether adipocytes influence hematopoiesis or simply fill marrow space, we compared the hematopoietic activity of distinct regions of the mouse skeleton that differ in adiposity. By flow cytometry, colony forming activity, and competitive repopulation assay, HSCs and short-term progenitors are reduced in frequency in the adipocyte-rich vertebrae of the mouse tail relative to the adipocyte-free vertebrae of the thorax. In lipoatrophic A-ZIP/F1 “fatless” mice, which are genetically incapable of forming adipocytes8, and in mice treated with the PPARγ inhibitor Bisphenol-A-DiGlycidyl-Ether (BADGE), which inhibits adipogenesis9, post-irradiation marrow engraftment is accelerated relative to wild type or untreated mice. These data implicate adipocytes as predominantly negative regulators of the bone marrow microenvironment, and suggest that antagonizingmarrow adipogenesis may enhance hematopoietic recovery in clinical bone marrow transplantation. PMID:19516257

  8. Negative regulation of NOD1 mediated angiogenesis by PPARγ-regulated miR-125a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyesoo; Park, Youngsook; Lee, Aram; Seo, Hyemin; Kim, Min Jung; Choi, Jihea; Jo, Ha-neul; Jeong, Ha-neul; Cho, Jin Gu; Chang, Woochul; Lee, Myeong-Sok; Jeon, Raok; Kim, Jongmin

    2017-01-01

    Infection with pathogens activates the endothelial cell and its sustained activation may result in impaired endothelial function. Endothelial dysfunction contributes to the pathologic angiogenesis that is characteristic of infection-induced inflammatory pathway activation. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 (NOD1) is a protein receptor which recognizes bacterial molecules and stimulates an immune reaction in various cells; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms in the regulation of inflammation-triggered angiogenesis are not fully understood. Here we report that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ)-mediated miR-125a serves as an important regulator of NOD1 agonist-mediated angiogenesis in endothelial cells by directly targeting NOD1. Treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells with natural PPARγ ligand, 15-Deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2, led to inhibition of NOD1 expression; contrarily, protein levels of NOD1 were significantly increased by PPARγ knockdown. We report that PPARγ regulation of NOD1 expression is a novel microRNA-mediated regulation in endothelial cells. MiR-125a expression was markedly decreased in human umbilical vein endothelial cells subjected to PPARγ knockdown while 15-Deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 treatment increased the level of miR-125a. In addition, NOD1 is closely regulated by miR-125a, which directly targets the 3′ untranslated region of NOD1. Moreover, both overexpression of miR-125a and PPARγ activation led to inhibition of NOD1 agonist-induced tube formation in endothelial cells. Finally, NOD1 agonist increased the formation of cranial and subintestinal vessel plexus in zebrafish, and this effect was abrogated by concurrent PPARγ activation. Overall, these findings identify a PPARγ-miR-125a-NOD1 signaling axis in endothelial cells that is critical in the regulation of inflammation-mediated angiogenesis. - Highlights: • Expression of NOD1 is regulated by

  9. Mel-18 negatively regulates stem cell-like properties through downregulation of miR-21 in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Hua, Rui-Xi; Du, Yi-Qun; Huang, Ming-Zhu; Liu, Yong; Cheng, Yu Fang; Guo, Wei-Jian

    2016-09-27

    Mel-18, a polycomb group protein, has been reported to act as a tumor suppressor and be down-regulated in several human cancers including gastric cancer. It was also found that Mel-18 negatively regulates self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells and breast cancer stem cells (CSCs). This study aimed to clarify its role in gastric CSCs and explore the mechanisms. We found that low-expression of Mel-18 was correlated with poor prognosis and negatively correlated with overexpression of stem cell markers Oct4, Sox2, and Gli1 in 101 gastric cancer tissues. Mel-18 was down-regulated in cultured spheroid cells, which possess CSCs, and overexpression of Mel-18 inhibits cells sphere-forming ability and tumor growth in vivo. Besides, Mel-18 was lower-expressed in ovary metastatic lesions compared with that in primary lesions of gastric cancer, and Mel-18 overexpression inhibited the migration ability of gastric cancer cells. Interestingly, overexpression of Mel-18 resulted in down-regulation of miR-21 in gastric cancer cells and the expression of Mel-18 was negatively correlated with the expression of miR-21 in gastric cancer tissues. Furthermore, miR-21 overexpression partially restored sphere-forming ability, migration potential and chemo-resistance in Mel-18 overexpressing gastric cancer cells. These results suggests Mel-18 negatively regulates stem cell-like properties through downregulation of miR-21 in gastric cancer cells.

  10. miR-367 promotes proliferation and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells by negatively regulating PTEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Xiangrui, E-mail: mengxiangruibb2008@163.com [Oncology Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Lu, Peng [Gastrointestinal Surgery Department, People' s Hospital of Zhengzhou, Zhengzhou (China); Fan, Qingxia [Oncology Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China)

    2016-01-29

    MicroRNAs play important roles in the carcinogenesis of many types of cancers by inhibiting gene expression at posttranscriptional level. However, the roles of microRNAs in hepatocellular carcinoma, are still unclear. Here, we identified that miR-367 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell proliferation by negatively regulates its target gene PTEN. The expression of miR-367 and PTEN are significantly inverse correlated in 35 HCC patients. In HCC cell line, CCK-8 proliferation assay indicated that the cell proliferation was promoted by miR-367, while miR-367 inhibitor significantly inhibited the cell proliferation. Transwell assay showed that miR-367 mimics significantly promoted the migration and invasion of HCC cells, whereas miR-367 inhibitors significantly reduced cell migration and invasion. Luciferase assays confirmed that miR-367 directly bound to the 3'untranslated region of PTEN, and western blotting showed that miR-367 suppressed the expression of PTEN at the protein levels. This study indicated that miR-367 negatively regulates PTEN and promotes proliferation and invasion of HCC cells. Thus, miR-367 may represent a potential therapeutic target for HCC intervention. - Highlights: • miR-367 mimics promote the proliferation and invasion of HCC cells. • miR-367 inhibitors inhibit the proliferation and invasion of HCC cells. • miR-367 targets 3′UTR of PTEN in HCC cells. • miR-367 negatively regulates PTEN in HCC cells.

  11. BRAFV600E Negatively Regulates the AKT Pathway in Melanoma Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Brenden; Tardell, Christine; Higgins, Brian; Packman, Kathryn; Boylan, John F.; Niu, Huifeng

    2012-01-01

    Cross-feedback activation of MAPK and AKT pathways is implicated as a resistance mechanism for cancer therapeutic agents targeting either RAF/MEK or PI3K/AKT/mTOR. It is thus important to have a better understanding of the molecular resistance mechanisms to improve patient survival benefit from these agents. Here we show that BRAFV600E is a negative regulator of the AKT pathway. Expression of BRAFV600E in NIH3T3 cells significantly suppresses MEK inhibitor (RG7167) or mTORC1 inhibitor (rapamy...

  12. Redox regulation of photosynthetic gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queval, Guillaume; Foyer, Christine H

    2012-12-19

    Redox chemistry and redox regulation are central to the operation of photosynthesis and respiration. However, the roles of different oxidants and antioxidants in the regulation of photosynthetic or respiratory gene expression remain poorly understood. Leaf transcriptome profiles of a range of Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes that are deficient in either hydrogen peroxide processing enzymes or in low molecular weight antioxidant were therefore compared to determine how different antioxidant systems that process hydrogen peroxide influence transcripts encoding proteins targeted to the chloroplasts or mitochondria. Less than 10 per cent overlap was observed in the transcriptome patterns of leaves that are deficient in either photorespiratory (catalase (cat)2) or chloroplastic (thylakoid ascorbate peroxidase (tapx)) hydrogen peroxide processing. Transcripts encoding photosystem II (PSII) repair cycle components were lower in glutathione-deficient leaves, as were the thylakoid NAD(P)H (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate)) dehydrogenases (NDH) mRNAs. Some thylakoid NDH mRNAs were also less abundant in tAPX-deficient and ascorbate-deficient leaves. Transcripts encoding the external and internal respiratory NDHs were increased by low glutathione and low ascorbate. Regulation of transcripts encoding specific components of the photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport chains by hydrogen peroxide, ascorbate and glutathione may serve to balance non-cyclic and cyclic electron flow pathways in relation to oxidant production and reductant availability.

  13. Ethylene response factor AtERF72 negatively regulates Arabidopsis thaliana response to iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Li, Qiwei; Wang, Yi; Wu, Ting; Yang, Yafei; Zhang, Xinzhong; Han, Zhenhai; Xu, Xuefeng

    2017-09-23

    Ethylene regulates the plant's response to stress caused by iron (Fe) deficiency. However, specific roles of ERF proteins in response to Fe deficiency remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of ERF72 in response to iron deficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, the levels of the ethylene response factor AtERF72 increased in leaves and roots induced under the iron deficient conditions. erf72 mutant plants showed increased growth compared to wild type (WT) when grown in iron deficient medium for 5 d. erf72 mutants had increased root H + velocity and the ferric reductase activity, and increase in the expression of the iron deficiency response genes iron-regulated transporter 1 (IRT1) and H + -ATPase (HA2) levels in iron deficient conditions. Compared to WT plants, erf72 mutants retained healthy chloroplast structure with significantly higher Fe and Mg content, and decreased chlorophyll degradation gene pheophorbide a oxygenase (PAO) and chlorophyllase (CLH1) expression when grown in iron deficient media. Yeast one-hybrid analysis showed that ERF72 could directly bind to the promoter regions of iron deficiency responses genes IRT1, HA2 and CLH1. Based on our results, we suggest that ethylene released from plants under iron deficiency stress can activate the expression of ERF72, which responds to iron deficiency in the negative regulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Chondroitin sulfate addition to CD44H negatively regulates hyaluronan binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruffell, Brian; Johnson, Pauline

    2005-01-01

    CD44 is a widely expressed cell adhesion molecule that binds hyaluronan, an extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan, in a tightly regulated manner. This regulated interaction has been implicated in inflammation and tumor metastasis. CD44 exists in the standard form, CD44H, or as higher molecular mass isoforms due to alternative splicing. Here, we identify serine 180 in human CD44H as the site of chondroitin sulfate addition and show that lack of chondroitin sulfate addition at this site enhances hyaluronan binding by CD44. A CD44H-immunoglobulin fusion protein expressed in HEK293 cells, and CD44H expressed in murine L fibroblast cells were modified by chondroitin sulfate, as determined by reduced sulfate incorporation after chondroitinase ABC treatment. Mutation of serine 180 or glycine 181 in CD44H reduced chondroitin sulfate addition and increased hyaluronan binding, indicating that serine 180 is the site for chondroitin sulfate addition in CD44H and that this negatively regulates hyaluronan binding

  15. SALT-RESPONSIVE ERF1 is a negative regulator of grain filling and gibberellin-mediated seedling establishment in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Romy; Schippers, Jos H M; Mieulet, Delphine; Watanabe, Mutsumi; Hoefgen, Rainer; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2014-02-01

    Grain quality is an important agricultural trait that is mainly determined by grain size and composition. Here, we characterize the role of the rice transcription factor (TF) SALT-RESPONSIVE ERF1 (SERF1) during grain development. Through genome-wide expression profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation, we found that SERF1 directly regulates RICE PROLAMIN-BOX BINDING FACTOR (RPBF), a TF that functions as a positive regulator of grain filling. Loss of SERF1 enhances RPBF expression resulting in larger grains with increased starch content, while SERF1 overexpression represses RPBF resulting in smaller grains. Consistently, during grain filling, starch biosynthesis genes such as GRANULE-BOUND STARCH SYNTHASEI (GBSSI), STARCH SYNTHASEI (SSI), SSIIIa, and ADP-GLUCOSE PYROPHOSPHORYLASE LARGE SUBUNIT2 (AGPL2) are up-regulated in SERF1 knockout grains. Moreover, SERF1 is a direct upstream regulator of GBSSI. In addition, SERF1 negatively regulates germination by controlling RPBF expression, which mediates the gibberellic acid (GA)-induced expression of RICE AMYLASE1A (RAmy1A). Loss of SERF1 results in more rapid seedling establishment, while SERF1 overexpression has the opposite effect. Our study reveals that SERF1 represents a negative regulator of grain filling and seedling establishment by timing the expression of RPBF.

  16. Osteoprotegerin expression in triple-negative breast cancer cells promotes metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weichhaus, Michael; Segaran, Prabu; Renaud, Ashleigh; Geerts, Dirk; Connelly, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a secreted member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily that has been well characterized as a negative regulator of bone remodeling. OPG is also expressed in human breast cancer tissues and cell lines. In vitro studies suggest that OPG exerts tumor-promoting effects by binding to TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), thereby preventing induction of apoptosis. However, the in vivo effect of OPG expression by primary breast tumors has not been characterized. We knocked down OPG expression in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-436 human breast cancer cells using shRNA and siRNA to investigate impact on metastasis in the chick embryo model. We observed a reduction in metastasis with OPG knockdown cells. We found that lowering OPG expression did not alter sensitivity to TRAIL-induced apoptosis; however, the OPG knockdown cells had a reduced level of invasion. In association with this we observed reduced expression of the proteases Cathepsin D and Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 upon OPG knockdown, indicating that OPG may promote metastasis via modulation of protease expression and invasion. We conclude that OPG has a metastasis-promoting effect in breast cancer cells

  17. All-trans retinoic acid negatively regulates cytotoxic activities of nature killer cell line 92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ang; He Meilan; Wang Hui; Qiao Bin; Chen Ping; Gu Hua; Zhang Mengjie; He Shengxiang

    2007-01-01

    NK cells are key components of innate immune systems and their activities are regulated by cytokines and hormones. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), as a metabolite of vitamin A and an immunomodulatory hormone, plays an important role in regulating immune responses. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ATRA on human NK cell line NK92. We found that ATRA dose-dependently suppressed cytotoxic activities of NK92 cells without affecting their proliferation. To explore the mechanisms underlying the ATRA influence on NK92 cells, we examined the production of cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ), gene expression of cytotoxic-associated molecules (perforin, granzyme B, nature killer receptors (NCRs), and NKG2D), and the activation of NF-κB pathways related with immune response. Our results demonstrated that ATRA suppressed NF-κB activity and prevented IκBα degradation in a dose-dependent way, inhibited IFN-γ production and gene expression of granzyme B and NKp46. Our findings suggest that ATRA is a negative regulator of NK92 cell activation and may act as a potential regulator of anti-inflammatory functions in vivo

  18. Egr2 induced during DC development acts as an intrinsic negative regulator of DC immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Mohammad Alam; Byeon, Se Eun; Ahmed, Md Selim; Yoon, Cheol-Hee; Ha, Sang-Jun; Bae, Yong-Soo

    2013-09-01

    Early growth response gene 2 (Egr2), which encodes a zinc finger transcription factor, is rapidly and transiently induced in various cell types independently of de novo protein synthesis. Although a role for Egr2 is well established in T-cell development, Egr2 expression and its biological function in dendritic cells (DCs) have not yet been described. Here, we demonstrate Egr2 expression during DC development, and its role in DC-mediated immune responses. Egr2 is expressed in the later stage of DC development from BM precursor cells. Even at steady state, Egr2 is highly expressed in mouse splenic DCs. Egr2-knockdown (Egr2-KD) DCs showed increased levels of major histocompatability complex (MHC) class I and II and co-stimulatory molecules, and enhanced antigen uptake and migratory capacities. Furthermore, Egr2-KD abolished SOCS1 expression and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) activation during DC development, probably resulting in the enhancement of IL-12 expression and Th1 immunogenicity of a DC vaccine. DC-mediated cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activation and antitumor immunity were significantly enhanced by Egr2-KD, and impaired by Egr2 overexpression in antigen-pulsed DC vaccines. These data suggest that Egr2 acts as an intrinsic negative regulator of DC immunogenicity and can be an attractive molecular target for DC vaccine development. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. EGR-1 and DUSP-1 are important negative regulators of pro-allergic responses in airway epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golebski, Korneliusz; van Egmond, Danielle; de Groot, Esther J.; Roschmann, Kristina I. L.; Fokkens, Wytske J.; van Drunen, Cornelis M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Primary nasal epithelium of house dust mite allergic individuals is in a permanently activated inflammatory transcriptional state. Objective: To investigate whether a deregulated expression of EGR-1 and/or DUSP-1, two potential negative regulators of pro-inflammatory responses, could

  20. Functional analysis of Arabidopsis immune-related MAPKs uncovers a role for MPK3 as negative regulator of inducible defences

    KAUST Repository

    Frei dit Frey, Nicolas; Garcia, Ana; Bigeard, Jean; Zaag, Rim; Bueso, Eduardo; Garmier, Marie; Pateyron, Sté phanie; de Tauzia-Moreau, Marie-Ludivine; Brunaud, Vé ronique; Balzergue, Sandrine; Colcombet, Jean; Aubourg, Sé bastien; Martin-Magniette, Marie-Laure; Hirt, Heribert

    2014-01-01

    -induced genes and we identify a negative role for MPK3 in regulating defence gene expression, flg22-induced salicylic acid accumulation and disease resistance to Pseudomonas syringae. Among the MAPK-dependent genes, 27% of flg22-upregulated genes and 76

  1. Retrotransposons as regulators of gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbarbary, Reyad A; Lucas, Bronwyn A; Maquat, Lynne E

    2016-02-12

    Transposable elements (TEs) are both a boon and a bane to eukaryotic organisms, depending on where they integrate into the genome and how their sequences function once integrated. We focus on two types of TEs: long interspersed elements (LINEs) and short interspersed elements (SINEs). LINEs and SINEs are retrotransposons; that is, they transpose via an RNA intermediate. We discuss how LINEs and SINEs have expanded in eukaryotic genomes and contribute to genome evolution. An emerging body of evidence indicates that LINEs and SINEs function to regulate gene expression by affecting chromatin structure, gene transcription, pre-mRNA processing, or aspects of mRNA metabolism. We also describe how adenosine-to-inosine editing influences SINE function and how ongoing retrotransposition is countered by the body's defense mechanisms. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Procyanidin dimer B2-mediated IRAK-M induction negatively regulates TLR4 signaling in macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Nak-Yun [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Mi-So [Department of Microbiology, Infection Signaling Network Research Center, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Du-Sub [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); School of life sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University 5-ka, Anam-Dong, Sungbuk-ku, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Kyung; Park, Jong-Heum; Song, Beom-Seok; Park, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Ju-Woon [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyun-Jin [School of life sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University 5-ka, Anam-Dong, Sungbuk-ku, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Hun [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Eui-Baek, E-mail: ebbyun80@kaeri.re.kr [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Eui-Hong, E-mail: ehbyun80@kongju.ac.k [Department of Food Science and Technology, Kongju National University, Yesan 340-800 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-16

    Highlights: •Pro B2 elevated the expression of IRAK-M, a negative regulator of TLR signaling. •LPS-induced expression of cell surface molecules was inhibited by Pro B2. •LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was inhibited by Pro B2. •Pro B2 inhibited LPS-induced activation of MAPKs and NF-κB through IRAK-M. •Pro B2 inactivated naïve T cells by inhibiting LPS-induced cytokines via IRAK-M. -- Abstract: Polyphenolic compounds have been found to possess a wide range of physiological activities that may contribute to their beneficial effects against inflammation-related diseases; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this anti-inflammatory activity are not completely characterized, and many features remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis for the down-regulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signal transduction by procyanidin dimer B2 (Pro B2) in macrophages. Pro B2 markedly elevated the expression of the interleukin (IL)-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK)-M protein, a negative regulator of TLR signaling. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of cell surface molecules (CD80, CD86, and MHC class I/II) and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12p70) were inhibited by Pro B2, and this action was prevented by IRAK-M silencing. In addition, Pro B2-treated macrophages inhibited LPS-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase and the translocation of nuclear factor κB and p65 through IRAK-M. We also found that Pro B2-treated macrophages inactivated naïve T cells by inhibiting LPS-induced interferon-γ and IL-2 secretion through IRAK-M. These novel findings provide new insights into the understanding of negative regulatory mechanisms of the TLR4 signaling pathway and the immune-pharmacological role of Pro B2 in the immune response against the development

  3. Children's expressions of negative emotions and adults' responses during routine cardiac consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatne, Torun M; Ruland, Cornelia M; Ørnes, Knut; Finset, Arnstein

    2012-03-01

    One function of expressing emotion is to receive support. The aim of this study was to assess how children with heart disease express negative emotions during routine consultations, and examine the interaction between children's expressions and adults' responses. Seventy children, aged 7-13 years, completed measures of anxiety and were videotaped during cardiology visits. Adult-child interactions were analyzed using the Verona Definitions of Emotional Sequences. Children expressed negative emotion, mainly in subtle ways; however, adults rarely recognized and responded to these expressions. The frequency of children's expressions and adults' responses were related to the child's age, level of anxiety, and verbal participation. Children do not openly express negative emotions frequently during routine cardiac consultations; they are more likely to provide subtle cues of negative emotion. When expression of negative emotions does occur, adults may consider using the opportunity to explore the child's emotional experiences.

  4. Arabidopsis MAP kinase 4 negatively regulates systemic acquired resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, M.; Brodersen, P.; Naested, H.

    2000-01-01

    Transposon inactivation of Arabidopsis MAP kinase 4 produced the mpk4 mutant exhibiting constitutive systemic acquired resistance (SAR) including elevated salicylic acid (SA) revels, increased resistance to virulent pathogens, and constitutive pathogenesis-related gene expression shown by Northern...... of NPR1. PDF1.2 and THI2.1 gene induction by jasmonate was blocked in mpk4 expressing NahG, suggesting that MPK4 is required for jasmonic acid-responsive gene expression....

  5. BRAFV600E negatively regulates the AKT pathway in melanoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Brenden; Tardell, Christine; Higgins, Brian; Packman, Kathryn; Boylan, John F; Niu, Huifeng

    2012-01-01

    Cross-feedback activation of MAPK and AKT pathways is implicated as a resistance mechanism for cancer therapeutic agents targeting either RAF/MEK or PI3K/AKT/mTOR. It is thus important to have a better understanding of the molecular resistance mechanisms to improve patient survival benefit from these agents. Here we show that BRAFV600E is a negative regulator of the AKT pathway. Expression of BRAFV600E in NIH3T3 cells significantly suppresses MEK inhibitor (RG7167) or mTORC1 inhibitor (rapamycin) induced AKT phosphorylation (pAKT) and downstream signal activation. Treatment-induced pAKT elevation is found in BRAF wild type melanoma cells but not in a subset of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAFV600E. Knock-down of BRAFV600E in these melanoma cells elevates basal pAKT and downstream signals, whereas knock-down of CRAF, MEK1/2 or ERK1/2 or treatment with a BRAF inhibitor have no impact on pAKT. Mechanistically, we show that BRAFV600E interacts with rictor complex (mTORC2) and regulates pAKT through mTORC2. BRAFV600E is identified in mTORC2 after immunoprecipitation of rictor. Knock-down of rictor abrogates BRAFV600E depletion induced pAKT. Knock-down of BRAFV600E enhances cellular enzyme activity of mTORC2. Aberrant activation of AKT pathway by PTEN loss appears to override the negative impact of BRAFV600E on pAKT. Taken together, our findings suggest that in a subset of BRAFV600E melanoma cells, BRAFV600E negatively regulates AKT pathway in a rictor-dependent, MEK/ERK and BRAF kinase-independent manner. Our study reveals a novel molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of feedback loops between the MAPK and AKT pathways.

  6. BRAFV600E negatively regulates the AKT pathway in melanoma cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenden Chen

    Full Text Available Cross-feedback activation of MAPK and AKT pathways is implicated as a resistance mechanism for cancer therapeutic agents targeting either RAF/MEK or PI3K/AKT/mTOR. It is thus important to have a better understanding of the molecular resistance mechanisms to improve patient survival benefit from these agents. Here we show that BRAFV600E is a negative regulator of the AKT pathway. Expression of BRAFV600E in NIH3T3 cells significantly suppresses MEK inhibitor (RG7167 or mTORC1 inhibitor (rapamycin induced AKT phosphorylation (pAKT and downstream signal activation. Treatment-induced pAKT elevation is found in BRAF wild type melanoma cells but not in a subset of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAFV600E. Knock-down of BRAFV600E in these melanoma cells elevates basal pAKT and downstream signals, whereas knock-down of CRAF, MEK1/2 or ERK1/2 or treatment with a BRAF inhibitor have no impact on pAKT. Mechanistically, we show that BRAFV600E interacts with rictor complex (mTORC2 and regulates pAKT through mTORC2. BRAFV600E is identified in mTORC2 after immunoprecipitation of rictor. Knock-down of rictor abrogates BRAFV600E depletion induced pAKT. Knock-down of BRAFV600E enhances cellular enzyme activity of mTORC2. Aberrant activation of AKT pathway by PTEN loss appears to override the negative impact of BRAFV600E on pAKT. Taken together, our findings suggest that in a subset of BRAFV600E melanoma cells, BRAFV600E negatively regulates AKT pathway in a rictor-dependent, MEK/ERK and BRAF kinase-independent manner. Our study reveals a novel molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of feedback loops between the MAPK and AKT pathways.

  7. Negative regulation of EGFR/MAPK pathway by Pumilio in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Yun Kim

    Full Text Available In Drosophila melanogaster, specification of wing vein cells and sensory organ precursor (SOP cells, which later give rise to a bristle, requires EGFR signaling. Here, we show that Pumilio (Pum, an RNA-binding translational repressor, negatively regulates EGFR signaling in wing vein and bristle development. We observed that loss of Pum function yielded extra wing veins and additional bristles. Conversely, overexpression of Pum eliminated wing veins and bristles. Heterozygotes for Pum produced no phenotype on their own, but greatly enhanced phenotypes caused by the enhancement of EGFR signaling. Conversely, over-expression of Pum suppressed the effects of ectopic EGFR signaling. Components of the EGFR signaling pathway are encoded by mRNAs that have Nanos Response Element (NRE-like sequences in their 3'UTRs; NREs are known to bind Pum to confer regulation in other mRNAs. We show that these NRE-like sequences bind Pum and confer repression on a luciferase reporter in heterologous cells. Taken together, our evidence suggests that Pum functions as a negative regulator of EGFR signaling by directly targeting components of the pathway in Drosophila.

  8. Methylation of the PMEPA1 gene, a negative regulator of the androgen receptor in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharad, Shashwat; Ravindranath, Lakshmi; Haffner, Michael C; Li, Hua; Yan, Wusheng; Sesterhenn, Isabell A; Chen, Yongmei; Ali, Amina; Srinivasan, Alagarsamy; McLeod, David G; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; Srivastava, Shiv; Dobi, Albert; Petrovics, Gyorgy

    2014-06-01

    The prostate transmembrane protein androgen induced 1 (PMEPA1) gene is highly expressed in prostate epithelial cells and is a direct transcriptional target for the androgen receptor (AR). AR protein levels are controlled by the AR-PMEPA1 negative feedback loop through NEDD4-E3 ligase. Reduced expression of PMEPA1 observed in prostate tumors, suggests that loss of PMEPA1 may play critical roles in prostate tumorigenesis. This study focuses on epigenetic mechanisms of reduced PMEPA1 expression in the cancer of the prostate (CaP). Benign (n = 77) and matched malignant (n = 77) prostate epithelial cells were laser capture micro-dissected from optimum cutting temperature embedded frozen prostate sections from 42 Caucasian American (CA) and 35 African American (AA) cases. Purified DNA specimens were analyzed for CpG methylation of the PMEPA1 gene. PMEPA1 mRNA expression levels were evaluated by qRT-PCR. Analysis of PMEPA1 methylation and mRNA expression in the same tumor cell populations indicated a significant inverse correlation between mRNA expression and methylation in CaP (P = 0.0115). We noted higher frequency of CpG methylation within the evaluated first intronic region of the PMEPA1 gene in prostate tumors of CA men as compared with AA. In CaP cell lines, PMEPA1 expression was induced and AR protein levels were diminished in response to treatment with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (decitabine). Cell culture-based studies demonstrated that decitabine restores PMEPA1 expression in AR-positive CaP cell lines. This report reveals the potential role of PMEPA1 gene methylation in the regulation of AR stability. Thus, downregulation of PMEPA1 may result in increased AR protein levels and function in CaP cells, contributing to prostate tumorigenesis.

  9. Suppression of MicroRNA let-7a Expression by Agmatine Regulates Neural Stem Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Juhyun; Oh, Yumi; Kim, Jong Youl; Cho, Kyoung Joo; Lee, Jong Eun

    2016-11-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) effectively reverse some severe central nervous system (CNS) disorders, due to their ability to differentiate into neurons. Agmatine, a biogenic amine, has cellular protective effects and contributes to cellular proliferation and differentiation in the CNS. Recent studies have elucidated the function of microRNA let-7a (let-7a) as a regulator of cell differentiation with roles in regulating genes associated with CNS neurogenesis. This study aimed to investigate whether agmatine modulates the expression of crucial regulators of NSC differentiation including DCX, TLX, c-Myc, and ERK by controlling let-7a expression. Our data suggest that high levels of let-7a promoted the expression of TLX and c-Myc, as well as repressed DCX and ERK expression. In addition, agmatine attenuated expression of TLX and increased expression of ERK by negatively regulating let-7a. Our study therefore enhances the present understanding of the therapeutic potential of NSCs in CNS disorders.

  10. Negative regulation of Ultrabithorax expression by engrailed is ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Present address: European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany. Abstract. In both ... Journal of Genetics, Vol. 79, No. ... Here we present results of a detailed study on the exact nature of ...... Academic Press, San Diego.

  11. Age Differences in the Influence of Induced Negative Emotion on Decision-Making: The Role of Emotion Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xuqun; Ju, Chengting; Wang, Mo; Zhang, Baoshan; Liu, Pei

    2017-11-19

    In this study, we hypothesized that there is an age difference in the influence of negative emotion on decision-making and that this age difference is related to emotion regulation strategies. We carried out two studies. In the first, the older and younger adults completed the ultimatum game (UG) while in either an induced negative emotional or a neutral context. In the second, both the older and younger adults completed the UG while in an induced negative emotion while using either emotion reappraisal or expressive suppression to regulate their emotions during the task. The first study showed that, unlike younger adults, the older adults made similar choices in the neutral and negative induction groups. In addition, the older adults predominantly used a reappraisal strategy in both the negative and neutral emotional states, whereas the younger adults predominantly used a suppression strategy in the negative emotional state. In the second study, after the emotion regulation strategies were experimentally manipulated so that both age groups used the same strategy, we found no age difference in decision-making. Our findings indicated that the influence of negative emotion on decision-making differs between older and younger adults and that this age difference was associated with their different emotion regulation processes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Dissecting specific and global transcriptional regulation of bacterial gene expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerosa, Luca; Kochanowski, Karl; Heinemann, Matthias; Sauer, Uwe

    Gene expression is regulated by specific transcriptional circuits but also by the global expression machinery as a function of growth. Simultaneous specific and global regulation thus constitutes an additional-but often neglected-layer of complexity in gene expression. Here, we develop an

  13. Sequence and function of LuxO, a negative regulator of luminescence in Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassler, B L; Wright, M; Silverman, M R

    1994-05-01

    Density-dependent expression of luminescence in Vibrio harveyi is regulated by the concentration of extracellular signal molecules (autoinducers) in the culture medium. A recombinant clone that restored function to one class of spontaneous dim mutants was found to encode a function required for the density-dependent response. Transposon Tn5 insertions in the recombinant clone were isolated, and the mutations were transferred to the genome of V. harveyi for examination of mutant phenotypes. Expression of luminescence in V. harveyi strains with transposon insertions in one locus, luxO, was independent of the density of the culture and was similar in intensity to the maximal level observed in wild-type bacteria. Sequence analysis of luxO revealed one open reading frame that encoded a protein, LuxO, similar in amino acid sequence to the response regulator domain of the family of two-component, signal transduction proteins. The constitutive phenotype of LuxO- mutants indicates that LuxO acts negatively to control expression of luminescence, and relief of repression by LuxO in the wild type could result from interactions with other components in the Lux signalling system.

  14. Mammary gene expression profiles during an intramammary challenge reveal potential mechanisms linking negative energy balance with impaired immune response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey; Drackley, J K; Morin, D E

    2010-01-01

    Our objective was to compare mammary tissue gene expression profiles during a Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis) mastitis challenge between lactating cows subjected to dietary-induced negative energy balance (NEB; n = 5) and cows fed ad libitum to maintain positive energy balance (PEB; n = 5...... 0.05), with 86 DEG up-regulated and 201 DEG down-regulated. Canonical pathways most affected by NEB were IL-8 Signaling (10 genes), Glucocorticoid Receptor Signaling (13), and NRF2-mediated Oxidative Stress Response (10). Among genes differentially expressed by NEB, Cell Growth and Proliferation (48...

  15. Negative regulation of Toll-like receptor signaling plays an essential role in homeostasis of the intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Amlan; Wilmanski, Jeanette; Forsman, Huamei; Hrncir, Tomas; Hao, Liming; Tlaskalova-Hogenova, Helena; Kobayashi, Koichi S

    2011-01-01

    A healthy intestinal tract is characterized by controlled homeostasis due to the balanced interaction between commensal bacteria and the host mucosal immune system. Human and animal model studies have supported the hypothesis that breakdown of this homeostasis may underlie the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. However, it is not well understood how intestinal microflora stimulate the intestinal mucosal immune system and how such activation is regulated. Using a spontaneous, commensal bacteria-dependent colitis model in IL-10-deficient mice, we investigated the role of TLR and their negative regulation in intestinal homeostasis. In addition to IL-10(-/-) MyD88(-/-) mice, IL-10(-/-) TLR4(-/-) mice exhibited reduced colitis compared to IL-10(-/-) mice, indicating that TLR4 signaling plays an important role in inducing colitis. Interestingly, the expression of IRAK-M, a negative regulator of TLR signaling, is dependent on intestinal commensal flora, as IRAK-M expression was reduced in mice re-derived into a germ-free environment, and introduction of commensal bacteria into germ-free mice induced IRAK-M expression. IL-10(-/-) IRAK-M(-/-) mice exhibited exacerbated colitis with increased inflammatory cytokine gene expression. Therefore, this study indicates that intestinal microflora stimulate the colitogenic immune system through TLR and negative regulation of TLR signaling is essential in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. A Lexical Framework for Semantic Annotation of Positive and Negative Regulation Relations in Biomedical Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambach, Sine; Lassen, Tine

    presented here, we analyze 6 frequently used verbs denoting the regulation relations regulates, positively regulates and negatively regulates through corpus analysis, and propose a formal representation of the acquired knowledge as domain speci¯c semantic frames. The acquired knowledge patterns can thus...

  17. Arabidopsis phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C 4 negatively regulates seedling salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Keke; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Jiewei; Li, Yuan; Yang, Hailian; Ren, Dongtao

    2017-08-01

    Previous physiological and pharmacological studies have suggested that the activity of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) plays an important role in regulating plant salt stress responses by altering the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration. However, the individual members of plant PLCs involved in this process need to be identified. Here, the function of AtPLC4 in the salt stress response of Arabidopsis seedlings was analysed. plc4 mutant seedlings showed hyposensitivity to salt stress compared with Col-0 wild-type seedlings, and the salt hyposensitive phenotype could be complemented by the expression of native promoter-controlled AtPLC4. Transgenic seedlings with AtPLC4 overexpression (AtPLC4 OE) exhibited a salt-hypersensitive phenotype, while transgenic seedlings with its inactive mutant expression (AtPLC4m OE) did not exhibit this phenotype. Using aequorin as a Ca 2+ indicator in plc4 mutant and AtPLC4 OE seedlings, AtPLC4 was shown to positively regulate the salt-induced Ca 2+ increase. The salt-hypersensitive phenotype of AtPLC4 OE seedlings was partially rescued by EGTA. An analysis of salt-responsive genes revealed that the transcription of RD29B, MYB15 and ZAT10 was inversely regulated in plc4 mutant and AtPLC4 OE seedlings. Our findings suggest that AtPLC4 negatively regulates the salt tolerance of Arabidopsis seedlings, and Ca 2+ may be involved in regulating this process. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 fine-tunes inflammatory responses in murine Gram-negative sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt Thøgersen, Mariane; Gawish, Riem; Martins, Rui

    2015-01-01

    During infections, TLR-mediated responses require tight regulation to allow for pathogen removal, while preventing overwhelming inflammation and immunopathology. The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-2 negatively regulates inflammation by macrophages and impacts on phagocytosis...... was followed by an accelerated resolution and ultimately improved survival, associated with the induction of the negative regulator A20. Upon infection with Escherichia coli, the otherwise beneficial effect of an exaggerated early immune response in TREM-2(-/-) animals was counteracted by a 50% reduction...... in bacterial phagocytosis. In line with this, TREM-2(-/-) peritoneal macrophages (PMs) exhibited augmented inflammation following TLR4 stimulation, demonstrating the presence and negative regulatory functionality of TREM-2 on primary PMs. Significantly, we identified a high turnover rate because TREM-2 RNA...

  19. PKC{eta} is a negative regulator of AKT inhibiting the IGF-I induced proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahaf, Galit; Rotem-Dai, Noa; Koifman, Gabriela; Raveh-Amit, Hadas; Frost, Sigal A.; Livneh, Etta, E-mail: etta@bgu.ac.il

    2012-04-15

    The PI3K-AKT pathway is frequently activated in human cancers, including breast cancer, and its activation appears to be critical for tumor maintenance. Some malignant cells are dependent on activated AKT for their survival; tumors exhibiting elevated AKT activity show sensitivity to its inhibition, providing an Achilles heel for their treatment. Here we show that the PKC{eta} isoform is a negative regulator of the AKT signaling pathway. The IGF-I induced phosphorylation on Ser473 of AKT was inhibited by the PKC{eta}-induced expression in MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cancer cells. This was further confirmed in shRNA PKC{eta}-knocked-down MCF-7 cells, demonstrating elevated phosphorylation on AKT Ser473. While PKC{eta} exhibited negative regulation on AKT phosphorylation it did not alter the IGF-I induced ERK phosphorylation. However, it enhanced ERK phosphorylation when stimulated by PDGF. Moreover, its effects on IGF-I/AKT and PDGF/ERK pathways were in correlation with cell proliferation. We further show that both PKC{eta} and IGF-I confer protection against UV-induced apoptosis and cell death having additive effects. Although the protective effect of IGF-I involved activation of AKT, it was not affected by PKC{eta} expression, suggesting that PKC{eta} acts through a different route to increase cell survival. Hence, our studies show that PKC{eta} provides negative control on AKT pathway leading to reduced cell proliferation, and further suggest that its presence/absence in breast cancer cells will affect cell death, which could be of therapeutic value.

  20. PTP1B is a negative regulator of interleukin 4–induced STAT6 signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoqing; Malumbres, Raquel; Shields, Benjamin; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Sarosiek, Kristopher A.; Natkunam, Yasodha

    2008-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a ubiquitously expressed enzyme shown to negatively regulate multiple tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent signaling pathways. PTP1B can modulate cytokine signaling pathways by dephosphorylating JAK2, TYK2, and STAT5a/b. Herein, we report that phosphorylated STAT6 may serve as a cytoplasmic substrate for PTP1B. Overexpression of PTP1B led to STAT6 dephosphorylation and the suppression of STAT6 transcriptional activity, whereas PTP1B knockdown or deficiency augmented IL-4–induced STAT6 signaling. Pretreatment of these cells with the PTK inhibitor staurosporine led to sustained STAT6 phosphorylation consistent with STAT6 serving as a direct substrate of PTP1B. Furthermore, PTP1B-D181A “substrate-trapping” mutants formed stable complexes with phosphorylated STAT6 in a cellular context and endogenous PTP1B and STAT6 interacted in an interleukin 4 (IL-4)–inducible manner. We delineate a new negative regulatory loop of IL-4–JAK-STAT6 signaling. We demonstrate that IL-4 induces PTP1B mRNA expression in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase–dependent manner and enhances PTP1B protein stability to suppress IL-4–induced STAT6 signaling. Finally, we show that PTP1B expression may be preferentially elevated in activated B cell–like diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. These observations identify a novel regulatory loop for the regulation of IL-4–induced STAT6 signaling that may have important implications in both neoplastic and inflammatory processes. PMID:18716132

  1. Characterization of gene expression regulated by human OTK18 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ing regulated by interactions with the Tat protein (Carlson et al. 2004a). In contrast, OTK18 is ubiquitously expressed in all normal human tissues, and OTK18 expression in HIV-1 ..... and Social Sciences and the UNK Biology Department.

  2. Mothering, fathering, and the regulation of negative and positive emotions in high-functioning preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschler-Guttenberg, Yael; Golan, Ofer; Ostfeld-Etzion, Sharon; Feldman, Ruth

    2015-05-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit difficulties in regulating emotions and authors have called to study the specific processes underpinning emotion regulation (ER) in ASD. Yet, little observational research examined the strategies preschoolers with ASD use to regulate negative and positive emotions in the presence of their mothers and fathers. Forty preschoolers with ASD and 40 matched typically developing children and their mothers and fathers participated. Families were visited twice for identical battery of paradigms with mother or father. Parent-child interactions were coded for parent and child behaviors and children engaged in ER paradigms eliciting negative (fear) and positive (joy) emotions with each parent. ER paradigms were microcoded for negative and positive emotionality, ER strategies, and parent regulation facilitation. During free play, mothers' and fathers' sensitivity and warm discipline were comparable across groups; however, children with ASD displayed lower positive engagement and higher withdrawal. During ER paradigms, children with ASD expressed less positive emotionality overall and more negative emotionality during fear with father. Children with ASD used more simple self-regulatory strategies, particularly during fear, but expressed comparable levels of assistance seeking behavior toward mother and father in negative and positive contexts. Parents of children with ASD used less complex regulation facilitation strategies, including cognitive reappraisal and emotional reframing, and employed simple tactics, such as physical comforting to manage fear and social gaze to maintain joy. Findings describe general and parent- and emotion-specific processes of child ER and parent regulation facilitation in preschoolers with ASD. Results underscore the ability of such children to seek parental assistance during moments of high arousal and the parents' sensitive adaptation to their children's needs. Reduced positive emotionality

  3. Unkempt is negatively regulated by mTOR and uncouples neuronal differentiation from growth control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie Avet-Rochex

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal differentiation is exquisitely controlled both spatially and temporally during nervous system development. Defects in the spatiotemporal control of neurogenesis cause incorrect formation of neural networks and lead to neurological disorders such as epilepsy and autism. The mTOR kinase integrates signals from mitogens, nutrients and energy levels to regulate growth, autophagy and metabolism. We previously identified the insulin receptor (InR/mTOR pathway as a critical regulator of the timing of neuronal differentiation in the Drosophila melanogaster eye. Subsequently, this pathway has been shown to play a conserved role in regulating neurogenesis in vertebrates. However, the factors that mediate the neurogenic role of this pathway are completely unknown. To identify downstream effectors of the InR/mTOR pathway we screened transcriptional targets of mTOR for neuronal differentiation phenotypes in photoreceptor neurons. We identified the conserved gene unkempt (unk, which encodes a zinc finger/RING domain containing protein, as a negative regulator of the timing of photoreceptor differentiation. Loss of unk phenocopies InR/mTOR pathway activation and unk acts downstream of this pathway to regulate neurogenesis. In contrast to InR/mTOR signalling, unk does not regulate growth. unk therefore uncouples the role of the InR/mTOR pathway in neurogenesis from its role in growth control. We also identified the gene headcase (hdc as a second downstream regulator of the InR/mTOR pathway controlling the timing of neurogenesis. Unk forms a complex with Hdc, and Hdc expression is regulated by unk and InR/mTOR signalling. Co-overexpression of unk and hdc completely suppresses the precocious neuronal differentiation phenotype caused by loss of Tsc1. Thus, Unk and Hdc are the first neurogenic components of the InR/mTOR pathway to be identified. Finally, we show that Unkempt-like is expressed in the developing mouse retina and in neural stem

  4. Children's Negative Emotionality Combined with Poor Self-Regulation Affects Allostatic Load in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dich, Nadya; Doan, Stacey; Evans, Gary

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the concurrent and prospective, longitudinal effects of childhood negative emotionality and self-regulation on allostatic load (AL), a physiological indicator of chronic stress. We hypothesized that negative emotionality in combination with poor self-regulation would predict elevated AL. Mothers reported on children's…

  5. Negative regulation of human parathyroid hormone gene promoter by vitamin D3 through nuclear factor Y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeaeskelaeinen, T.; Huhtakangas, J.; Maeenpaeae, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    The negative regulation of the human parathyroid hormone (PTH) gene by biologically active vitamin D 3 (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 ; 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 ) was studied in rat pituitary GH4C1 cells, which express factors needed for the negative regulation. We report here that NF-Y binds to sequences downstream of the site previously reported to bind the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Additional binding sites for NF-Y reside in the near vicinity and were shown to be important for full activity of the PTH gene promoter. VDR and NF-Y were shown to exhibit mutually exclusive binding to the VDRE region. According to our results, sequestration of binding partners for NF-Y by VDR also affects transcription through a NF-Y consensus binding element in GH4C1 but not in ROS17/2.8 cells. These results indicate that 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 may affect transcription of the human PTH gene both by competitive binding of VDR and NF-Y, and by modulating transcriptional activity of NF-Y

  6. Wolfram syndrome 1 gene negatively regulates ER stress signaling in rodent and human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Sonya G; Ishigaki, Shinsuke; Oslowski, Christine M; Lu, Simin; Lipson, Kathryn L; Ghosh, Rajarshi; Hayashi, Emiko; Ishihara, Hisamitsu; Oka, Yoshitomo; Permutt, M Alan; Urano, Fumihiko

    2010-03-01

    Wolfram syndrome is an autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, caused by nonautoimmune loss of beta cells, and neurological dysfunctions. We have previously shown that mutations in the Wolfram syndrome 1 (WFS1) gene cause Wolfram syndrome and that WFS1 has a protective function against ER stress. However, it remained to be determined how WFS1 mitigates ER stress. Here we have shown in rodent and human cell lines that WFS1 negatively regulates a key transcription factor involved in ER stress signaling, activating transcription factor 6alpha (ATF6alpha), through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. WFS1 suppressed expression of ATF6alpha target genes and repressed ATF6alpha-mediated activation of the ER stress response element (ERSE) promoter. Moreover, WFS1 stabilized the E3 ubiquitin ligase HRD1, brought ATF6alpha to the proteasome, and enhanced its ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation, leading to suppression of ER stress signaling. Consistent with these data, beta cells from WFS1-deficient mice and lymphocytes from patients with Wolfram syndrome exhibited dysregulated ER stress signaling through upregulation of ATF6alpha and downregulation of HRD1. These results reveal a role for WFS1 in the negative regulation of ER stress signaling and in the pathogenesis of diseases involving chronic, unresolvable ER stress, such as pancreatic beta cell death in diabetes.

  7. Positive, but Not Negative, Facial Expressions Facilitate 3-Month-Olds' Recognition of an Individual Face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenna, Viola; Proietti, Valentina; Montirosso, Rosario; Turati, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined whether and how the presence of a positive or a negative emotional expression may affect the face recognition process at 3 months of age. Using a familiarization procedure, Experiment 1 demonstrated that positive (i.e., happiness), but not negative (i.e., fear and anger) facial expressions facilitate infants' ability to…

  8. BP1, an Isoform of DLX4 Homeoprotein, Negatively Regulates BRCA1 in Sporadic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluk, Brian J.; Fu, Yebo; Formolo, Trina A.; Zhang, Lei; Hindle, Anne K.; Man, Yan-gao; Siegel, Robert S.; Berg, Patricia E.; Deng, Chuxia; McCaffrey, Timothy A.; Fu, Sidney W.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Several lines of evidence point to an important role for BP1, an isoform of DLX4 homeobox gene, in breast carcinogenesis and progression. BRCA1 is a well-known player in the etiology of breast cancer. While familial breast cancer is often marked by BRCA1 mutation and subsequent loss of heterozygosity, sporadic breast cancers exhibit reduced expression of wild type BRCA1, and loss of BRCA1 expression may result in tumor development and progression. Methods: The Cister algorithm and Genomatix program were used to identify potential BP1 binding sites in BRCA1 gene. Real-time PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis were performed to verify the expression of BRCA1 and BP1 in cell lines and breast cancer tissues. Double-stranded siRNA transfection was carried out for silencing BP1 expression. ChIP and EMSA were used to confirm that BP1 specifically binds to BRCA1. Results: A putative BP1 binding site was identified in the first intron of BRCA1, which was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipiation and electrophoresis mobility shift assay. BP1 and BRCA1 expression were inversely correlated in breast cancer cell lines and tissues, suggesting that BP1 may suppress BRCA1 transcription through consensus sequence binding. Conclusions: BP1 homeoprotein represses BRCA1 expression through direct binding to its first intron, which is consistent with a previous study which identified a novel transcriptional repressor element located more than 500 base pairs into the first intron of BRCA1, suggesting that the first intron plays an important role in the negative regulation of BRCA1. Although further functional studies are necessary to confirm its repressor activity towards BRCA1, the elucidation of the role of BP1 in breast tumorigenesis holds great promise in establishing BP1 as a novel target for drug therapy. PMID:20877436

  9. microRNA-124 negatively regulates TLR signaling in alveolar macrophages in response to mycobacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chunyan; Li, Yong; Li, Min; Deng, Guangcun; Wu, Xiaoling; Zeng, Jin; Hao, Xiujing; Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Jing; Cho, William C S; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Yujiong

    2014-11-01

    The emerging roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating immune responses have attracted increasing attention in recent years; and the alveolar macrophages (AMs) are the main targets of mycobacterial infection, which play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. However, the immunoregulatory role of miRNAs in AMs has not been fully demonstrated. In this study, we find that miR-124 is up-regulated in the peripheral leukocytes of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis; furthermore, the expression miR-124 can be induced upon Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) infection in both RAW264.7 AM cells in vitro and murine AMs in vivo. Mechanistically, miR-124 is able to modulate toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling activity in RAW264.7 cells in response to BCG infection. In this regard, multiple components of TLR signaling cascade, including the TLR6, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), TNFR-associated factor 6 and tumor necrosis factor-α are directly targeted by miR-124. In addition, both overexpression of TLR signaling adaptor MyD88 and BCG infection are able to augment miR-124 transcription, while MyD88 expression silenced by small interfering RNA dramatically suppresses miR-124 expression in AMs in vitro. Moreover, the abundance of miR-124 transcript in murine AMs of MyD88 deficient mice is significantly less than that of their wild-type or heterozygous littermates; and the BCG infection fails to induce miR-124 expression in the lung of MyD88 deficient mouse. These results indicate a negative regulatory role of miR-124 in fine-tuning inflammatory response in AMs upon mycobacterial infection, in part through a mechanism by directly targeting TLR signaling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nitric oxide is not a negative regulator of metamorphic induction in the abalone Haliotis asinina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuo eUeda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a second messenger molecule synthesized by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS that requires the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (HSP90 for normal enzymatic activity. Past studies have revealed that both NO and HSP90 act as negative regulators (repressors of metamorphosis in a diverse range of marine invertebrates, including several molluscan species. Here, we test the role of NO in the metamorphic induction of a vetigastropod mollusc, the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina. Specifically, we 1 test the effects of NO-manipulating pharmacological agents, 2 measure the temporal expression of NOS and HSP90 genes through metamorphosis, and 3 assess the spatial expression of NOS and HSP90 in larvae. We find that inhibition of NOS reduces rates of metamorphosis, indicating that NO facilitates, rather than represses, induction of metamorphosis in H. asinina. The marked increase in NOS expression in putative sensory cells localized to the anterior foot of competent larvae is consistent with NO as an inductive molecule for metamorphosis. In contrast to NOS, HSP90 transcript abundance decreases at competence and there is no evidence of NOS and HSP90 transcript co-localization. This study provides the first evidence of NO as an inductive facilitator of molluscan metamorphosis. Our experimental data suggest that NO modulates signals derived from live inductive substrates via the larval foot to regulate metamorphosis. Inter-specific comparisons of spatial NOS expression in molluscs suggest that the localized pattern of NOS or its protein product is related to the regulatory action of NO in metamorphosis.

  11. Adaptor protein Lnk negatively regulates the mutant MPL, MPLW515L associated with myeloproliferative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gery, Sigal; Gueller, Saskia; Chumakova, Katya; Kawamata, Norihiko; Liu, Liqin; Koeffler, H Phillip

    2007-11-01

    Recently, activating myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene (MPL) mutations, MPLW515L/K, were described in myeloproliferative disorder (MPD) patients. MPLW515L leads to activation of downstream signaling pathways and cytokine-independent proliferation in hematopoietic cells. The adaptor protein Lnk is a negative regulator of several cytokine receptors, including MPL. We show that overexpression of Lnk in Ba/F3-MPLW515L cells inhibits cytokine-independent growth, while suppression of Lnk in UT7-MPLW515L cells enhances proliferation. Lnk blocks the activation of Jak2, Stat3, Erk, and Akt in these cells. Furthermore, MPLW515L-expressing cells are more susceptible to Lnk inhibitory functions than their MPL wild-type (MPLWT)-expressing counterparts. Lnk associates with activated MPLWT and MPLW515L and colocalizes with the receptors at the plasma membrane. The SH2 domain of Lnk is essential for its binding and for its down-regulation of MPLWT and MPLW515L. Lnk itself is tyrosine-phosphorylated following thrombopoietin stimulation. Further elucidating the cellular pathways that attenuate MPLW515L will provide insight into the pathogenesis of MPD and could help develop specific therapeutic approaches.

  12. Social consequences of subclinical negative symptoms: An EMG study of facial expressions within a social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle, Marcel; Lincoln, Tania M

    2017-06-01

    The negative symptoms of schizophrenia are related to lower social functioning even in non-clinical samples, but little is known about the distinct social consequences of motivational and expressive negative symptoms. In this study we focused on expressive negative symptoms and examined how these symptoms and varying degrees of pro-social facial expressiveness (smiling and mimicry of smiling) relate to the social evaluations by face-to-face interaction partners and to social support. We examined 30 dyadic interactions within a sample of non-clinical participants (N = 60) who were rated on motivational and expressive negative symptoms with the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS). We collected data on both interaction partners' smiling-muscle (zygomaticus major) activation simultaneously with electromyography and assessed the general amount of smiling and the synchrony of smiling muscle activations between interaction partners (mimicry of smiling). Interaction partners rated their willingness for future interactions with each other after the interactions. Interaction partners of participants scoring higher on expressive negative symptoms expressed less willingness for future interactions with these participants (r = -0.37; p = 0.01). Smiling behavior was negatively related to expressive negative symptoms but also explained by motivational negative symptoms. Mimicry of smiling and both negative symptom domains were also associated with participants' satisfaction with their social support network. Non-clinical sample with (relatively) low levels of symptoms. Expressive negative symptoms have tangible negative interpersonal consequences and directly relate to diminished pro-social behavior and social support, even in non-clinical samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Gdf11 is a negative regulator of chondrogenesis and myogenesis in the developing chick limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamer, L W; Cox, K A; Small, C; Rosen, V

    2001-01-15

    GDF11, a new member of the TGF-beta gene superfamily, regulates anterior/posterior patterning in the axial skeleton during mouse embryogenesis. Gdf11 null mice display skeletal abnormalities that appear to represent anterior homeotic transformations of vertebrae consistent with high levels of Gdf11 expression in the primitive streak, presomitic mesoderm, and tail bud. However, despite strong Gdf11 expression in the limb throughout development, this structure does not appear to be affected in the knockout mice. In order to understand this dichotomy of Gdf11 expression versus Gdf11 function, we identified the chicken Gdf11 gene and studied its role during limb formation. In the early limb bud, Gdf11 transcripts are detected in the subectodermal mesoderm at the distal tip, in a region overlapping the progress zone. At these stages, Gdf11 is excluded from the central core mesenchyme where precartilaginous condensations will form. Later in development, Gdf11 continues to be expressed in the distal most mesenchyme and can also be detected more proximally, in between the forming skeletal elements. When beads incubated in GDF11 protein were implanted into the early wing bud, GDF11 caused severe truncations of the limb that affected both the cartilage elements and the muscle. Limb shortening appeared to be the result of an inhibition of chondrogenesis and myogenesis and using an in vitro micromass assay, we confirmed the negative effects of GDF11 on both myogenic and chondrogenic cell differentiation. Analysis of molecular markers of skeletal patterning revealed that GDF11 induced ectopic expression of Hoxd-11 and Hoxd-13, but not of Hoxa-11, Hoxa-13, or the Msx genes. These data suggest that GDF11 may be involved in controlling the late distal expression of the Hoxd genes during limb development and that misregulation of these Hox genes by excess GDF11 may cause some of the observed alterations in skeletal element shape. In addition, GDF11 induced the expression of its own

  14. SarA is a negative regulator of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Christer; Heinze, C.; Busch, M.

    2012-01-01

    Biofilm formation is essential for Staphylococcus epidermidis pathogenicity in implant-associated infections. Nonetheless, large proportions of invasive S. epidermidis isolates fail to show accumulative biofilm growth in vitro. We here tested the hypothesis that this apparent paradox is related...... virulence. Genetic analysis revealed that inactivation of sarA induced biofilm formation via over-expression of the giant 1 MDa extracellular matrix binding protein (Embp), serving as an intercellular adhesin. In addition to Embp, increased extracellular DNA (eDNA) release significantly contributed...... to biofilm formation in mutant 1585ΔsarA. Increased eDNA amounts indirectly resulted from up-regulation of metalloprotease SepA, leading to boosted processing of major autolysin AtlE, in turn inducing augmented autolysis and release of chromosomal DNA. Hence, this study identifies sarA as a negative...

  15. Preschoolers' Emotion Expression and Regulation: Relations with School Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Kristina J.; Bailey, Craig S.; Shewark, Elizabeth A.; Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.

    2013-01-01

    Children's expression and regulation of emotions are building blocks of their experiences in classrooms. Thus, the authors' primary goal was to investigate whether preschoolers' expression or ability to regulate emotions were associated with teachers' ratings of school adjustment. A secondary goal was to investigate how boys and girls differed…

  16. Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) negatively regulate triple-negative breast cancer growth and epithelial:mesenchymal stem cell signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Ramesh; Ahn, Sunjoo; Cheney, Misty D; Yepuru, Muralimohan; Miller, Duane D; Steiner, Mitchell S; Dalton, James T

    2014-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is the most highly expressed steroid receptor in breast cancer with 75-95% of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and 40-70% of ER-negative breast cancers expressing AR. Though historically breast cancers were treated with steroidal androgens, their use fell from favor because of their virilizing side effects and the emergence of tamoxifen. Nonsteroidal, tissue selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) may provide a novel targeted approach to exploit the therapeutic benefits of androgen therapy in breast cancer. Since MDA-MB-453 triple-negative breast cancer cells express mutated AR, PTEN, and p53, MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer cells stably expressing wildtype AR (MDA-MB-231-AR) were used to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anti-proliferative effects of SARMs. Microarray analysis and epithelial:mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) co-culture signaling studies were performed to understand the mechanisms of action. Dihydrotestosterone and SARMs, but not bicalutamide, inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231-AR. The SARMs reduced the MDA-MB-231-AR tumor growth and tumor weight by greater than 90%, compared to vehicle-treated tumors. SARM treatment inhibited the intratumoral expression of genes and pathways that promote breast cancer development through its actions on the AR. SARM treatment also inhibited the metastasis-promoting paracrine factors, IL6 and MMP13, and subsequent migration and invasion of epithelial:MSC co-cultures. 1. AR stimulation inhibits paracrine factors that are important for MSC interactions and breast cancer invasion and metastasis. 2. SARMs may provide promise as novel targeted therapies to treat AR-positive triple-negative breast cancer.

  17. Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs negatively regulate triple-negative breast cancer growth and epithelial:mesenchymal stem cell signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Narayanan

    Full Text Available The androgen receptor (AR is the most highly expressed steroid receptor in breast cancer with 75-95% of estrogen receptor (ER-positive and 40-70% of ER-negative breast cancers expressing AR. Though historically breast cancers were treated with steroidal androgens, their use fell from favor because of their virilizing side effects and the emergence of tamoxifen. Nonsteroidal, tissue selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs may provide a novel targeted approach to exploit the therapeutic benefits of androgen therapy in breast cancer.Since MDA-MB-453 triple-negative breast cancer cells express mutated AR, PTEN, and p53, MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer cells stably expressing wildtype AR (MDA-MB-231-AR were used to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anti-proliferative effects of SARMs. Microarray analysis and epithelial:mesenchymal stem cell (MSC co-culture signaling studies were performed to understand the mechanisms of action.Dihydrotestosterone and SARMs, but not bicalutamide, inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231-AR. The SARMs reduced the MDA-MB-231-AR tumor growth and tumor weight by greater than 90%, compared to vehicle-treated tumors. SARM treatment inhibited the intratumoral expression of genes and pathways that promote breast cancer development through its actions on the AR. SARM treatment also inhibited the metastasis-promoting paracrine factors, IL6 and MMP13, and subsequent migration and invasion of epithelial:MSC co-cultures.1. AR stimulation inhibits paracrine factors that are important for MSC interactions and breast cancer invasion and metastasis. 2. SARMs may provide promise as novel targeted therapies to treat AR-positive triple-negative breast cancer.

  18. Plexin-B2 negatively regulates macrophage motility, Rac, and Cdc42 activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly E Roney

    Full Text Available Plexins are cell surface receptors widely studied in the nervous system, where they mediate migration and morphogenesis though the Rho family of small GTPases. More recently, plexins have been implicated in immune processes including cell-cell interaction, immune activation, migration, and cytokine production. Plexin-B2 facilitates ligand induced cell guidance and migration in the nervous system, and induces cytoskeletal changes in overexpression assays through RhoGTPase. The function of Plexin-B2 in the immune system is unknown. This report shows that Plexin-B2 is highly expressed on cells of the innate immune system in the mouse, including macrophages, conventional dendritic cells, and plasmacytoid dendritic cells. However, Plexin-B2 does not appear to regulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines, phagocytosis of a variety of targets, or directional migration towards chemoattractants or extracellular matrix in mouse macrophages. Instead, Plxnb2(-/- macrophages have greater cellular motility than wild type in the unstimulated state that is accompanied by more active, GTP-bound Rac and Cdc42. Additionally, Plxnb2(-/- macrophages demonstrate faster in vitro wound closure activity. Studies have shown that a closely related family member, Plexin-B1, binds to active Rac and sequesters it from downstream signaling. The interaction of Plexin-B2 with Rac has only been previously confirmed in yeast and bacterial overexpression assays. The data presented here show that Plexin-B2 functions in mouse macrophages as a negative regulator of the GTPases Rac and Cdc42 and as a negative regulator of basal cell motility and wound healing.

  19. Zebrafish foxo3b negatively regulates canonical Wnt signaling to affect early embryogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun-wei Xie

    Full Text Available FOXO genes are involved in many aspects of development and vascular homeostasis by regulating cell apoptosis, proliferation, and the control of oxidative stress. In addition, FOXO genes have been showed to inhibit Wnt/β-catenin signaling by competing with T cell factor to bind to β-catenin. However, how important of this inhibition in vivo, particularly in embryogenesis is still unknown. To demonstrate the roles of FOXO genes in embryogenesis will help us to further understand their relevant physiological functions. Zebrafish foxo3b gene, an orthologue of mammalian FOXO3, was expressed maternally and distributed ubiquitously during early embryogenesis and later restricted to brain. After morpholino-mediated knockdown of foxo3b, the zebrafish embryos exhibited defects in axis and neuroectoderm formation, suggesting its critical role in early embryogenesis. The embryo-developmental marker gene staining at different stages, phenotype analysis and rescue assays revealed that foxo3b acted its role through negatively regulating both maternal and zygotic Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Moreover, we found that foxo3b could interact with zebrafish β-catenin1 and β-catenin2 to suppress their transactivation in vitro and in vivo, further confirming its role relevant to the inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Taken together, we revealed that foxo3b played a very important role in embryogenesis and negatively regulated maternal and zygotic Wnt/β-catenin signaling by directly interacting with both β-catenin1 and β-catenin2. Our studies provide an in vivo model for illustrating function of FOXO transcription factors in embryogenesis.

  20. Mechanisms of JAK/STAT pathway negative regulation by the short coreceptor Eye Transformer/Latran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Katherine H; Stec, Wojciech; Brown, Stephen; Zeidler, Martin P

    2016-02-01

    Transmembrane receptors interact with extracellular ligands to transduce intracellular signaling cascades, modulate target gene expression, and regulate processes such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and homeostasis. As a consequence, aberrant signaling events often underlie human disease. Whereas the vertebrate JAK/STAT signaling cascade is transduced via multiple receptor combinations, the Drosophila pathway has only one full-length signaling receptor, Domeless (Dome), and a single negatively acting receptor, Eye Transformer/Latran (Et/Lat). Here we investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying Et/Lat activity. We demonstrate that Et/Lat negatively regulates the JAK/STAT pathway activity and can bind to Dome, thus reducing Dome:Dome homodimerization by creating signaling-incompetent Dome:Et/Lat heterodimers. Surprisingly, we find that Et/Lat is able to bind to both JAK and STAT92E but, despite the presence of putative cytokine-binding motifs, does not detectably interact with pathway ligands. We find that Et/Lat is trafficked through the endocytic machinery for lysosomal degradation but at a much slower rate than Dome, a difference that may enhance its ability to sequester Dome into signaling-incompetent complexes. Our data offer new insights into the molecular mechanism and regulation of Et/Lat in Drosophila that may inform our understanding of how short receptors function in other organisms. © 2016 Fisher et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  1. Longitudinal associations between physically abusive parents' emotional expressiveness and children's self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojevich, Helen M; Haskett, Mary E

    2018-03-01

    The present study took a developmental psychopathology approach to examine the longitudinal association between parents' emotional expressiveness and children's self-regulation. Data collection spanned from 2004 to 2008. Ninety-two physically abusive parents completed yearly assessments of their emotional expressiveness, as well as their children's self-regulation abilities. Observational and behavioral measures were also obtained yearly to capture both parents' emotional expressiveness and children's self-regulation. Specifically, parents participated in a parent-child interaction task, which provided insight into their levels of flat affect. A puzzle box task was completed by each child to assess self-regulation. Results indicated, first, that greater parental expression of negative emotions predicted poorer self-regulation in children, both concurrently and across time. Second, parental expressions of positive emotions and parents' flat affect were unrelated to children's self-regulation. Findings inform our understanding of parental socialization of self-regulation and provide insight into the roles of distinct components of emotional expressiveness. Moreover, findings have crucial implications for understanding emotional expressiveness in high-risk samples and increase our understanding of within-group functioning among maltreating families that may serve as a means to direct intervention efforts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. TRAF Family Member-Associated NF-κB Activator (TANK) Induced by RANKL Negatively Regulates Osteoclasts Survival and Function

    OpenAIRE

    Mengrui Wu, Yiping Wang, Lianfu Deng, Wei Chen, Yi-Ping Li

    2012-01-01

    Osteoclasts are the principle bone-resorbing cells. Precise control of balanced osteoclast activity is indispensable for bone homeostasis. Osteoclast activation mediated by RANK-TRAF6 axis has been clearly identified. However, a negative regulation-machinery in osteoclast remains unclear. TRAF family member-associated NF-κB activator (TANK) is induced by about 10 folds during osteoclastogenesis, according to a genome-wide analysis of gene expression before and after osteoclast maturation...

  3. TRAF Family Member-Associated NF-κB Activator (TANK) Induced by RANKL Negatively Regulates Osteoclasts Survival and Function

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Mengrui; Wang, Yiping; Deng, Lianfu; Chen, Wei; Li, Yi-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Osteoclasts are the principle bone-resorbing cells. Precise control of balanced osteoclast activity is indispensable for bone homeostasis. Osteoclast activation mediated by RANK-TRAF6 axis has been clearly identified. However, a negative regulation-machinery in osteoclast remains unclear. TRAF family member-associated NF-κB activator (TANK) is induced by about 10 folds during osteoclastogenesis, according to a genome-wide analysis of gene expression before and after osteoclast maturation, and...

  4. Parental reactions to children's negative emotions: relationships with emotion regulation in children with an anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurrell, Katherine E; Hudson, Jennifer L; Schniering, Carolyn A

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that parental reactions to children's emotions play a significant role in the development of children's emotion regulation (ER) and adjustment. This study compared parent reactions to children's negative emotions between families of anxious and non-anxious children (aged 7-12) and examined associations between parent reactions and children's ER. Results indicated that children diagnosed with an anxiety disorder had significantly greater difficulty regulating a range of negative emotions and were regarded as more emotionally negative and labile by their parents. Results also suggested that mothers of anxious children espoused less supportive parental emotional styles when responding to their children's negative emotions. Supportive and non-supportive parenting reactions to children's negative emotions related to children's emotion regulation skills, with father's non-supportive parenting showing a unique relationship to children's negativity/lability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Somatostatin Negatively Regulates Parasite Burden and Granulomatous Responses in Cysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Khumbatta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is an infection of tissues with the larval cysts of the cestode, Taenia  solium. While live parasites elicit little or no inflammation, dying parasites initiate a granulomatous reaction presenting as painful muscle nodules or seizures when cysts are located in the brain. We previously showed in the T. crassiceps murine model of cysticercosis that substance P (SP, a neuropeptide, was detected in early granulomas and was responsible for promoting granuloma formation, while somatostatin (SOM, another neuropeptide and immunomodulatory hormone, was detected in late granulomas; SOM’s contribution to granuloma formation was not examined. In the current studies, we used somatostatin knockout (SOM−/− mice to examine the hypothesis that SOM downmodulates granulomatous inflammation in cysticercosis, thereby promoting parasite growth. Our results demonstrated that parasite burden was reduced 5.9-fold in SOM−/− mice compared to WT mice (P<0.05. This reduction in parasite burden in SOM−/− mice was accompanied by a 95% increase in size of their granulomas (P<0.05, which contained a 1.5-fold increase in levels of IFN-γ and a 26-fold decrease in levels of IL-1β (P<0.05 for both compared to granulomas from WT mice. Thus, SOM regulates both parasite burden and granulomatous inflammation perhaps through modulating granuloma production of IFN-γ and IL-1β.

  6. Lack of Csk-mediated negative regulation in a unicellular SRC kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheiss, Kira P; Suga, Hiroshi; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki; Miller, W Todd

    2012-10-16

    Phosphotyrosine-based signaling plays a vital role in cellular communication in multicellular organisms. Unexpectedly, unicellular choanoflagellates (the closest phylogenetic group to metazoans) possess numbers of tyrosine kinases that are comparable to those in complex metazoans. Here, we have characterized tyrosine kinases from the filasterean Capsaspora owczarzaki, a unicellular protist representing the sister group to choanoflagellates and metazoans. Two Src-like tyrosine kinases have been identified in C. owczarzaki (CoSrc1 and CoSrc2), both of which have the arrangement of SH3, SH2, and catalytic domains seen in mammalian Src kinases. In Capsaspora cells, CoSrc1 and CoSrc2 localize to punctate structures in filopodia that may represent primordial focal adhesions. We have cloned, expressed, and purified both enzymes. CoSrc1 and CoSrc2 are active tyrosine kinases. Mammalian Src kinases are normally regulated in a reciprocal fashion by autophosphorylation in the activation loop (which increases activity) and by Csk-mediated phosphorylation of the C-terminal tail (which inhibits activity). Similar to mammalian Src kinases, the enzymatic activities of CoSrc1 and CoSrc2 are increased by autophosphorylation in the activation loop. We have identified a Csk-like kinase (CoCsk) in the genome of C. owczarzaki. We cloned, expressed, and purified CoCsk and found that it has no measurable tyrosine kinase activity. Furthermore, CoCsk does not phosphorylate or regulate CoSrc1 or CoSrc2 in cells or in vitro, and CoSrc1 and CoSrc2 are active in Capsaspora cell lysates. Thus, the function of Csk as a negative regulator of Src family kinases appears to have arisen with the emergence of metazoans.

  7. The temporal deployment of emotion regulation strategies during negative emotional episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalokerinos, Elise K; Résibois, Maxime; Verduyn, Philippe; Kuppens, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Time is given a central place in theoretical models of emotion regulation (Gross, 1998, 2015), but key questions regarding the role of time remain unanswered. We investigated 2 such unanswered questions. First, we explored when different emotion regulation strategies were used within the course of an emotional episode in daily life. Second, we investigated the association between the temporal deployment of strategies and negative emotional experience. We conducted a daily diary study in which participants (N = 74) drew an intensity profile depicting the temporal unfolding of their negative emotional experience across daily events (N = 480), and mapped their usage of emotion regulation strategies onto this intensity profile. Strategies varied in their temporal deployment, with suppression and rumination occurring more at the beginning of the episode, and reappraisal and distraction occurring more toward the end of the episode. Strategies also varied in their association with negative emotion: rumination was positively associated with negative emotion, and reappraisal and distraction were negatively associated with negative emotion. Finally, both rumination and reappraisal interacted with time to predict negative emotional experience. Rumination was more strongly positively associated with negative emotions at the end of the episode than the beginning, but reappraisal was more strongly negatively associated with negative emotion at the beginning of the episode than the end. These findings highlight the importance of accounting for timing in the study of emotion regulation, as well as the necessity of studying these temporal processes in daily life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Expression of aurora kinase A is associated with metastasis-free survival in node-negative breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siggelkow Wulf

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhibitors targeting the cell cycle-regulated aurora kinase A (AURKA are currently being developed. Here, we examine the prognostic impact of AURKA in node-negative breast cancer patients without adjuvant systemic therapy (n = 766. Methods AURKA was analyzed using microarray-based gene-expression data from three independent cohorts of node-negative breast cancer patients. In multivariate Cox analyses, the prognostic impact of age, histological grade, tumor size, estrogen receptor (ER, and HER2 were considered. Results Patients with higher AURKA expression had a shorter metastasis-free survival (MFS in the Mainz (HR 1.93; 95% CI 1.34 – 2.78; P Conclusions AURKA is associated with worse prognosis in estrogen receptor positive breast carcinomas. Patients with the highest AURKA expression (>75% percentile have a particularly bad prognosis and may profit from therapy with AURKA inhibitors.

  9. A large family of antivirulence regulators modulates the effects of transcriptional activators in Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli E Santiago

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We have reported that transcription of a hypothetical small open reading frame (orf60 in enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC strain 042 is impaired after mutation of aggR, which encodes a global virulence activator. We have also reported that the cryptic orf60 locus was linked to protection against EAEC diarrhea in two epidemiologic studies. Here, we report that the orf60 product acts as a negative regulator of aggR itself. The orf60 protein product lacks homology to known repressors, but displays 44-100% similarity to at least fifty previously undescribed small (<10 kDa hypothetical proteins found in many gram negative pathogen genomes. Expression of orf60 homologs from enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC repressed the expression of the AraC-transcriptional ETEC regulator CfaD/Rns and its regulon in ETEC strain H10407. Complementation in trans of EAEC 042orf60 by orf60 homologs from ETEC and the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium resulted in dramatic suppression of aggR. A C. rodentium orf60 homolog mutant showed increased levels of activator RegA and increased colonization of the adult mouse. We propose the name Aar (AggR-activated regulator for the clinically and epidemiologically important orf60 product in EAEC, and postulate the existence of a large family of homologs among pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae and Pasteurellaceae. We propose the name ANR (AraC Negative Regulators for this family.

  10. Caregiver Emotional Expressiveness, Child Emotion Regulation, and Child Behavior Problems among Head Start Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Dana Charles; Raver, C. Cybele

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between caregivers' self-reported positive and negative emotional expressiveness, observer assessments of children's emotion regulation, and teachers' reports of children's internalizing and externalizing behaviors in a sample of 97 primarily African American and Hispanic Head Start families. Results…

  11. Correlation of circRNAs’ differential expression to negative- positive symptoms of patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-ming KONG

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the correlation of circRNAs' expression level to the negative- and positive symptoms of patients with schizophrenia (SZ. Methods Gene chip screening was performed with the peripheral blood samples from each five of SZ patients and normal controls. Nine circRNAs showing differentiate expression were confirmed, and further verification was done by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR in 102 SZ patients and 103 normal controls. All the SZ patients were assessed with Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS. Results It was revealed that the expression levels of circRNA_102101, circRNA_102315, circRNA_104597, circRNA_101835 and circRNA_101836 were significantly down-regulated (P<0.01 or P<0.05, and circRNA_103102 and circRNA_103704 were up-regulated in SZ group (P<0.01. The ΔCT value of circRNA_102101 and circRNA_103102 was positively correlated to the positive symptoms (P<0.01 or P<0.05, and the ΔCT value of circRNA_103704 also showed positive correlation with positive symptoms and general psychopathological symptoms (P<0.01 or P<0.05. The ΔCT values of circRNA_102101, circRNA_103102, circRNA_102315, circRNA_103704 and circRNA_102802 were correlated with thinking disorder (P<0.01 or P<0.05, and the ΔCT values of circRNA_102101, circRNA_103102, circRNA_104597, circRNA_103704 and circRNA_102802 were correlated with the activation (P<0.01 or P<0.05. The ΔCT values of circRNA_102101, circRNA_103102, circRNA_103704 and circRNA_102802 were positively correlated with paranoid (P<0.01 or P<0.05, and of circRNA_102101, circRNA_103102, circRNA_103704 and circRNA_102802 were markedly correlated with assault (P<0.01 or P<0.05. Therefore, circRNA_103704 was chosen into regressive equation of positive symptoms (P<0.01, and circRNA_103704 and circRNA_102315 were chosen into regressive equation of general pathological findings (P<0.01 or P<0.05. Conclusion The expression levels of circRNA_103704 and circRNA_103102 are obviously up-regulated

  12. Mutation analysis of the negative regulator cyclin G2 in gastric cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... Key words: Cyclin G2, gastric cancer, negative regulator, mutation screen. INTRODUCTION ... cerebellum, thymus, spleen, prostate, kidney and the immune ..... and B cell antigen receptor-mediated cell cycle arrest. J. Biol.

  13. Attentional deployment is not necessary for successful emotion regulation via cognitive reappraisal or expressive suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebko, Genna M; Franconeri, Steven L; Ochsner, Kevin N; Chiao, Joan Y

    2014-06-01

    According to appraisal theories of emotion, cognitive reappraisal is a successful emotion regulation strategy because it involves cognitively changing our thoughts, which, in turn, change our emotions. However, recent evidence has challenged the importance of cognitive change and, instead, has suggested that attentional deployment may at least partly explain the emotion regulation success of cognitive reappraisal. The purpose of the current study was to examine the causal relationship between attentional deployment and emotion regulation success. We examined 2 commonly used emotion regulation strategies--cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression-because both depend on attention but have divergent behavioral, experiential, and physiological outcomes. Participants were either instructed to regulate emotions during free-viewing (unrestricted image viewing) or gaze-controlled (restricted image viewing) conditions and to self-report negative emotional experience. For both emotion regulation strategies, emotion regulation success was not altered by changes in participant control over the (a) direction of attention (free-viewing vs. gaze-controlled) during image viewing and (b) valence (negative vs. neutral) of visual stimuli viewed when gaze was controlled. Taken together, these findings provide convergent evidence that attentional deployment does not alter subjective negative emotional experience during either cognitive reappraisal or expressive suppression, suggesting that strategy-specific processes, such as cognitive appraisal and response modulation, respectively, may have a greater impact on emotional regulation success than processes common to both strategies, such as attention.

  14. Arabidopsis ETO1 specifically interacts with and negatively regulates type 2 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthases

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    Saito Koji

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Arabidopsis, ETO1 (ETHYLENE-OVERPRODUCER1 is a negative regulator of ethylene evolution by interacting with AtACS5, an isoform of the rate-limiting enzyme, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthases (ACC synthase or ACS, in ethylene biosynthetic pathway. ETO1 directly inhibits the enzymatic activity of AtACS5. In addition, a specific interaction between ETO1 and AtCUL3, a constituent of a new type of E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, suggests the molecular mechanism in promoting AtACS5 degradation by the proteasome-dependent pathway. Because orthologous sequences to ETO1 are found in many plant species including tomato, we transformed tomato with Arabidopsis ETO1 to evaluate its ability to suppress ethylene production in tomato fruits. Results Transgenic tomato lines that overexpress Arabidopsis ETO1 (ETO1-OE did not show a significant delay of fruit ripening. So, we performed yeast two-hybrid assays to investigate potential heterologous interaction between ETO1 and three isozymes of ACC synthases from tomato. In the yeast two-hybrid system, ETO1 interacts with LE-ACS3 as well as AtACS5 but not with LE-ACS2 or LE-ACS4, two major isozymes whose gene expression is induced markedly in ripening fruits. According to the classification of ACC synthases, which is based on the C-terminal amino acid sequences, both LE-ACS3 and AtACS5 are categorized as type 2 isozymes and possess a consensus C-terminal sequence. In contrast, LE-ACS2 and LE-ACS4 are type 1 and type 3 isozymes, respectively, both of which do not possess this specific C-terminal sequence. Yeast two-hybrid analysis using chimeric constructs between LE-ACS2 and LE-ACS3 revealed that the type-2-ACS-specific C-terminal tail is required for interaction with ETO1. When treated with auxin to induce LE-ACS3, seedlings of ETO1-OE produced less ethylene than the wild type, despite comparable expression of the LE-ACS3 gene in the wild type. Conclusion These results suggest that ETO1

  15. BRCA1-IRIS regulates cyclin D1 expression in breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakuci, Enkeleda; Mahner, Sven; DiRenzo, James; ElShamy, Wael M.

    2006-01-01

    The regulator of cell cycle progression, cyclin D1, is up-regulated in breast cancer cells; its expression is, in part, dependent on ERα signaling. However, many ERα-negative tumors and tumor cell lines (e.g., SKBR3) also show over-expression of cyclin D1. This suggests that, in addition to ERα signaling, cyclin D1 expression is under the control of other signaling pathways; these pathways may even be over-expressed in the ERα-negative cells. We previously noticed that both ERα-positive and -negative cell lines over-express BRCA1-IRIS mRNA and protein. Furthermore, the level of over-expression of BRCA1-IRIS in ERα-negative cell lines even exceeded its over-expression level in ERα-positive cell lines. In this study, we show that: (1) BRCA1-IRIS forms complex with two of the nuclear receptor co-activators, namely, SRC1 and SRC3 (AIB1) in an ERα-independent manner. (2) BRCA1-IRIS alone, or in connection with co-activators, is recruited to the cyclin D1 promoter through its binding to c-Jun/AP1 complex; this binding activates the cyclin D1 expression. (3) Over-expression of BRCA1-IRIS in breast cells over-activates JNK/c-Jun; this leads to the induction of cyclin D1 expression and cellular proliferation. (4) BRCA1-IRIS activation of JNK/c-Jun/AP1 appears to account for this, because in cells that were depleted from BRCA1-IRIS, JNK remained inactive. However, depletion of SRC1 or SRC3 instead reduced c-Jun expression. Our data suggest that this novel signaling pathway links BRCA1-IRIS to cellular proliferation through c-Jun/AP1 nuclear pathway; finally, this culminates in the increased expression of the cyclin D1 gene

  16. Lysophosphatidic acid receptor-5 negatively regulates cellular responses in mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Yan; Hirane, Miku; Araki, Mutsumi [Division of Cancer Biology and Bioinformatics, Department of Life Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1, Kowakae, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Fukushima, Nobuyuki [Division of Molecular Neurobiology, Department of Life Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1, Kowakae, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi, E-mail: ttujiuch@life.kindai.ac.jp [Division of Cancer Biology and Bioinformatics, Department of Life Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1, Kowakae, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • LPA{sub 5} inhibits the cell growth and motile activities of 3T3 cells. • LPA{sub 5} suppresses the cell motile activities stimulated by hydrogen peroxide in 3T3 cells. • Enhancement of LPA{sub 5} on the cell motile activities inhibited by LPA{sub 1} in 3T3 cells. • The expression and activation of Mmp-9 were inhibited by LPA{sub 5} in 3T3 cells. • LPA signaling via LPA{sub 5} acts as a negative regulator of cellular responses in 3T3 cells. - Abstract: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling via G protein-coupled LPA receptors (LPA{sub 1}–LPA{sub 6}) mediates a variety of biological functions, including cell migration. Recently, we have reported that LPA{sub 1} inhibited the cell motile activities of mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells. In the present study, to evaluate a role of LPA{sub 5} in cellular responses, Lpar5 knockdown (3T3-L5) cells were generated from 3T3 cells. In cell proliferation assays, LPA markedly stimulated the cell proliferation activities of 3T3-L5 cells, compared with control cells. In cell motility assays with Cell Culture Inserts, the cell motile activities of 3T3-L5 cells were significantly higher than those of control cells. The activity levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were measured by gelatin zymography. 3T3-L5 cells stimulated the activation of Mmp-2, correlating with the expression levels of Mmp-2 gene. Moreover, to assess the co-effects of LPA{sub 1} and LPA{sub 5} on cell motile activities, Lpar5 knockdown (3T3a1-L5) cells were also established from Lpar1 over-expressing (3T3a1) cells. 3T3a1-L5 cells increased the cell motile activities of 3T3a1 cells, while the cell motile activities of 3T3a1 cells were significantly lower than those of control cells. These results suggest that LPA{sub 5} may act as a negative regulator of cellular responses in mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells, similar to the case for LPA{sub 1}.

  17. Lysophosphatidic acid receptor-5 negatively regulates cellular responses in mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Yan; Hirane, Miku; Araki, Mutsumi; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • LPA 5 inhibits the cell growth and motile activities of 3T3 cells. • LPA 5 suppresses the cell motile activities stimulated by hydrogen peroxide in 3T3 cells. • Enhancement of LPA 5 on the cell motile activities inhibited by LPA 1 in 3T3 cells. • The expression and activation of Mmp-9 were inhibited by LPA 5 in 3T3 cells. • LPA signaling via LPA 5 acts as a negative regulator of cellular responses in 3T3 cells. - Abstract: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling via G protein-coupled LPA receptors (LPA 1 –LPA 6 ) mediates a variety of biological functions, including cell migration. Recently, we have reported that LPA 1 inhibited the cell motile activities of mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells. In the present study, to evaluate a role of LPA 5 in cellular responses, Lpar5 knockdown (3T3-L5) cells were generated from 3T3 cells. In cell proliferation assays, LPA markedly stimulated the cell proliferation activities of 3T3-L5 cells, compared with control cells. In cell motility assays with Cell Culture Inserts, the cell motile activities of 3T3-L5 cells were significantly higher than those of control cells. The activity levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were measured by gelatin zymography. 3T3-L5 cells stimulated the activation of Mmp-2, correlating with the expression levels of Mmp-2 gene. Moreover, to assess the co-effects of LPA 1 and LPA 5 on cell motile activities, Lpar5 knockdown (3T3a1-L5) cells were also established from Lpar1 over-expressing (3T3a1) cells. 3T3a1-L5 cells increased the cell motile activities of 3T3a1 cells, while the cell motile activities of 3T3a1 cells were significantly lower than those of control cells. These results suggest that LPA 5 may act as a negative regulator of cellular responses in mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells, similar to the case for LPA 1

  18. proBDNF Negatively Regulates Neuronal Remodeling, Synaptic Transmission, and Synaptic Plasticity in Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Yang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Experience-dependent plasticity shapes postnatal development of neural circuits, but the mechanisms that refine dendritic arbors, remodel spines, and impair synaptic activity are poorly understood. Mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF modulates neuronal morphology and synaptic plasticity, including long-term potentiation (LTP via TrkB activation. BDNF is initially translated as proBDNF, which binds p75NTR. In vitro, recombinant proBDNF modulates neuronal structure and alters hippocampal long-term plasticity, but the actions of endogenously expressed proBDNF are unclear. Therefore, we generated a cleavage-resistant probdnf knockin mouse. Our results demonstrate that proBDNF negatively regulates hippocampal dendritic complexity and spine density through p75NTR. Hippocampal slices from probdnf mice exhibit depressed synaptic transmission, impaired LTP, and enhanced long-term depression (LTD in area CA1. These results suggest that proBDNF acts in vivo as a biologically active factor that regulates hippocampal structure, synaptic transmission, and plasticity, effects that are distinct from those of mature BDNF.

  19. Small leucine zipper protein functions as a negative regulator of estrogen receptor α in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juyeon Jeong

    Full Text Available The nuclear transcription factor estrogen receptor α (ERα plays a critical role in breast cancer progression. ERα acts as an important growth stimulatory protein in breast cancer and the expression level of ERα is tightly related to the prognosis and treatment of patients. Small leucine zipper protein (sLZIP functions as a transcriptional cofactor by binding to various nuclear receptors, including glucocorticoid receptor, androgen receptor, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. However, the role of sLZIP in the regulation of ERα and its involvement in breast cancer progression is unknown. We found that sLZIP binds to ERα and represses the transcriptional activity of ERα in ERα-positive breast cancer cells. sLZIP also suppressed the expression of ERα target genes. sLZIP disrupted the binding of ERα to the estrogen response element of the target gene promoter, resulting in suppression of cell proliferation. sLZIP is a novel co-repressor of ERα, and plays a negative role in ERα-mediated cell proliferation in breast cancer.

  20. TIPE2, a negative regulator of innate and adaptive immunity that maintains immune homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Honghong; Gong, Shunyou; Carmody, Ruaidhri J; Hilliard, Anja; Li, Li; Sun, Jing; Kong, Li; Xu, Lingyun; Hilliard, Brendan; Hu, Shimin; Shen, Hao; Yang, Xiaolu; Chen, Youhai H

    2008-05-02

    Immune homeostasis is essential for the normal functioning of the immune system, and its breakdown leads to fatal inflammatory diseases. We report here the identification of a member of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein-8 (TNFAIP8) family, designated TIPE2, that is required for maintaining immune homeostasis. TIPE2 is preferentially expressed in lymphoid tissues, and its deletion in mice leads to multiorgan inflammation, splenomegaly, and premature death. TIPE2-deficient animals are hypersensitive to septic shock, and TIPE2-deficient cells are hyper-responsive to Toll-like receptor (TLR) and T cell receptor (TCR) activation. Importantly, TIPE2 binds to caspase-8 and inhibits activating protein-1 and nuclear factor-kappaB activation while promoting Fas-induced apoptosis. Inhibiting caspase-8 significantly blocks the hyper-responsiveness of TIPE2-deficient cells. These results establish that TIPE2 is an essential negative regulator of TLR and TCR function, and its selective expression in the immune system prevents hyperresponsiveness and maintains immune homeostasis.

  1. Iro/IRX transcription factors negatively regulate Dpp/TGF-β pathway activity during intestinal tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, Òscar; Barriga, Francisco M; Merlos-Suárez, Anna; Stephan-Otto Attolini, Camille; Casanova, Jordi; Batlle, Eduard; Sancho, Elena; Casali, Andreu

    2014-11-01

    Activating mutations in Wnt and EGFR/Ras signaling pathways are common in colorectal cancer (CRC). Remarkably, clonal co-activation of these pathways in the adult Drosophila midgut induces "tumor-like" overgrowths. Here, we show that, in these clones and in CRC cell lines, Dpp/TGF-β acts as a tumor suppressor. Moreover, we discover that the Iroquois/IRX-family-protein Mirror downregulates the transcription of core components of the Dpp pathway, reducing its tumor suppressor activity. We also show that this genetic interaction is conserved in human CRC cells, where the Iro/IRX proteins IRX3 and IRX5 diminish the response to TGF-β. IRX3 and IRX5 are upregulated in human adenomas, and their levels correlate inversely with the gene expression signature of response to TGF-β. In addition, Irx5 expression confers a growth advantage in the presence of TGF-β, but is selected against in its absence. Together, our results identify a set of Iro/IRX proteins as conserved negative regulators of Dpp/TGF-β activity. We propose that during the characteristic adenoma-to-carcinoma transition of human CRC, the activity of IRX proteins could reduce the sensitivity to the cytostatic effect of TGF-β, conferring a growth advantage to tumor cells prior to the acquisition of mutations in TGF-β pathway components. © 2014 The Authors.

  2. Mothers' responses to children's negative emotions and child emotion regulation: the moderating role of vagal suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Nicole B; Calkins, Susan D; Nelson, Jackie A; Leerkes, Esther M; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2012-07-01

    The current study examined the moderating effect of children's cardiac vagal suppression on the association between maternal socialization of negative emotions (supportive and nonsupportive responses) and children's emotion regulation behaviors. One hundred and ninety-seven 4-year-olds and their mothers participated. Mothers reported on their reactions to children's negative emotions and children's regulatory behaviors. Observed distraction, an adaptive self-regulatory strategy, and vagal suppression were assessed during a laboratory task designed to elicit frustration. Results indicated that children's vagal suppression moderated the association between mothers' nonsupportive emotion socialization and children's emotion regulation behaviors such that nonsupportive reactions to negative emotions predicted lower observed distraction and lower reported emotion regulation behaviors when children displayed lower levels of vagal suppression. No interaction was found between supportive maternal emotion socialization and vagal suppression for children's emotion regulation behaviors. Results suggest physiological regulation may serve as a buffer against nonsupportive emotion socialization. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The Role of Depression and Negative Affect Regulation Expectancies in Tobacco Smoking among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Holly E.; Harris, Kari Jo; Catley, Delwyn; Nazir, Niaman

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Expectancies about nicotine's ability to alleviate negative mood states may play a role in the relationship between smoking and depression. The authors examined the role of negative affect regulation expectancies as a potential mediator of depression (history of depression and depressive symptoms) and smoking among college students.…

  4. Human amygdala response to dynamic facial expressions of positive and negative surprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrticka, Pascal; Lordier, Lara; Bediou, Benoît; Sander, David

    2014-02-01

    Although brain imaging evidence accumulates to suggest that the amygdala plays a key role in the processing of novel stimuli, only little is known about its role in processing expressed novelty conveyed by surprised faces, and even less about possible interactive encoding of novelty and valence. Those investigations that have already probed human amygdala involvement in the processing of surprised facial expressions either used static pictures displaying negative surprise (as contained in fear) or "neutral" surprise, and manipulated valence by contextually priming or subjectively associating static surprise with either negative or positive information. Therefore, it still remains unresolved how the human amygdala differentially processes dynamic surprised facial expressions displaying either positive or negative surprise. Here, we created new artificial dynamic 3-dimensional facial expressions conveying surprise with an intrinsic positive (wonderment) or negative (fear) connotation, but also intrinsic positive (joy) or negative (anxiety) emotions not containing any surprise, in addition to neutral facial displays either containing ("typical surprise" expression) or not containing ("neutral") surprise. Results showed heightened amygdala activity to faces containing positive (vs. negative) surprise, which may either correspond to a specific wonderment effect as such, or to the computation of a negative expected value prediction error. Findings are discussed in the light of data obtained from a closely matched nonsocial lottery task, which revealed overlapping activity within the left amygdala to unexpected positive outcomes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. dlk acts as a negative regulator of Notch1 activation through interactions with specific EGF-like repeats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baladron, Victoriano; Ruiz-Hidalgo, Maria Jose; Nueda, Maria Luisa; Diaz-Guerra, Maria Jose M.; Garcia-Ramirez, Jose Javier; Bonvini, Ezio; Gubina, Elena; Laborda, Jorge

    2005-01-01

    The protein dlk, encoded by the Dlk1 gene, belongs to the Notch epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like family of receptors and ligands, which participate in cell fate decisions during development. The molecular mechanisms by which dlk regulates cell differentiation remain unknown. By using the yeast two-hybrid system, we found that dlk interacts with Notch1 in a specific manner. Moreover, by using luciferase as a reporter gene under the control of a CSL/RBP-Jk/CBF-1-dependent promoter in the dlk-negative, Notch1-positive Balb/c 14 cell line, we found that addition of synthetic dlk EGF-like peptides to the culture medium or forced expression of dlk decreases endogenous Notch activity. Furthermore, the expression of the gene Hes-1, a target for Notch1 activation, diminishes in confluent Balb/c14 cells transfected with an expression construct encoding for the extracellular EGF-like region of dlk. The expression of Dlk1 and Notch1 increases in 3T3-L1 cells maintained in a confluent state for several days, which is associated with a concomitant decrease in Hes-1 expression. On the other hand, the decrease of Dlk1 expression in 3T3-L1 cells by antisense cDNA transfection is associated with an increase in Hes-1 expression. These results suggest that dlk functionally interacts in vivo with Notch1, which may lead to the regulation of differentiation processes modulated by Notch1 activation and signaling, including adipogenesis

  6. Src-family kinases negatively regulate NFAT signaling in resting human T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Baer

    Full Text Available T cell signaling is required for activation of both natural and therapeutic T cells including chimeric antigen receptor (CAR T cells. Identification of novel factors and pathways regulating T cell signaling may aid in development of effective T cell therapies. In resting human T cells, the majority of Src-family of tyrosine kinases (SFKs are inactive due to phosphorylation of a conserved carboxy-terminal tyrosine residue. Recently, a pool of enzymatically active SFKs has been identified in resting T cells; however, the significance of these is incompletely understood. Here, we characterized the role of active SFKs in resting human T cells. Pharmacologic inhibition of active SFKs enhanced distal TCR signaling as measured by IL-2 release and CD25 surface expression following TCR-independent activation. Mechanistically, inhibition of the active pool of SFKs induced nuclear translocation of NFAT1, and enhanced NFAT1-dependent signaling in resting T cells. The negative regulation of NFAT1 signaling was in part mediated by the Src-kinase Lck as human T cells lacking Lck had increased levels of nuclear NFAT1 and demonstrated enhanced NFAT1-dependent gene expression. Inhibition of active SFKs in resting primary human T cells also increased nuclear NFAT1 and enhanced NFAT1-dependent signaling. Finally, the calcineurin inhibitor FK506 and Cyclosporin A reversed the effect of SFKs inhibition on NFAT1. Together, these data identified a novel role of SFKs in preventing aberrant NFAT1 activation in resting T cells, and suggest that maintaining this pool of active SFKs in therapeutic T cells may increase the efficacy of T cell therapies.

  7. Nestin is expressed in HMB-45 negative melanoma cells in dermal parts of nodular melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoh, Maho; Amoh, Yasuyuki; Tanabe, Kenichi; Maejima, Hideki; Takasu, Hiroshi; Katsuoka, Kensei

    2010-06-01

    Nestin, a marker of neural stem cells, is expressed in the stem cells of the mouse hair follicle. The nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells can differentiate into neurons, glia, keratocytes, smooth muscle cells and melanocytes in vitro. These pluripotent nestin-expressing stem cells are keratin 15 (K15)-negative, suggesting that they are in a relatively undifferentiated state. Recent studies suggest that the epithelial stem cells are important in tumorigenesis, and nestin expression is thought to be important in tumorigenesis. In the present study, we examined the expression of the hair follicle and neural stem cell marker nestin, as well as S-100 and HMB-45, in melanoma. Nestin immunoreactivity was observed in the HMB-45-negative melanoma cells in all five cases of amelanotic nodular melanomas. Moreover, nestin immunoreactivity was observed in the dermal parts in seven of 10 cases of melanotic nodular melanomas. Especially, nestin immunoreactivity was observed in the HMB-45-negative melanoma cells in the dermal parts of all 10 cases of HMB-45-negative amelanotic and melanotic nodular melanomas. On the other hand, nestin expression was negative in 10 of 12 cases of superficial spreading melanoma. These results suggest that nestin is an important marker of HMB-45-negative melanoma cells in the dermal parts of patients with nodular melanoma.

  8. Expression of cytochrome P450 regulators in cynomolgus macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Yasuhiro; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2017-09-11

    1. Cytochrome P450 (P450) regulators including nuclear receptors and transcription factors have not been fully investigated in cynomolgus macaques, an important species used in drug metabolism studies. In this study, we analyzed 17 P450 regulators by sequence and phylogenetic analysis, and tissue expression. 2. Gene and genome structures of 17 P450 regulators were similar to the human orthologs, and the deduced amino acid sequences showed high sequence identities (92-95%) and more closely clustered in a phylogenetic tree, with the human orthologs. 3. Many of the P450 regulator mRNAs were preferentially expressed in the liver, kidney, and/or jejunum. Among the P450 regulator mRNAs, PXR was most abundant in the liver and jejunum, and HNF4α in the kidney. In the liver, the expression of most P450 regulator mRNAs did not show significant differential expression (>2.5-fold) between cynomolgus macaques bred in Cambodia, China, and Indonesia, or rhesus macaques. 4. By correlation analysis, most of the P450 regulators were significantly (p < 0.05) correlated to other P450 regulators, and many of them were also significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with P450s. 5. These results suggest that 17 P450 regulators of cynomolgus macaques had similar molecular characteristics to the human orthologs.

  9. Ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolase L1 negatively regulates TNFα-mediated vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation via suppressing ERK activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Tomonaga; Li, Jinqing; Dong, Xiaoyu; Potts, Jay D.; Tang, Dong-Qi; Li, Dong-Sheng; Cui, Taixing

    2010-01-01

    Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) appear to be critical regulators of a multitude of processes such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and inflammation. We have recently demonstrated that a DUB of ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) inhibits vascular lesion formation via suppressing inflammatory responses in vasculature. However, the precise underlying mechanism remains to be defined. Herein, we report that a posttranscriptional up-regulation of UCH-L1 provides a negative feedback to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In rat adult VSMCs, adenoviral over-expression of UCH-L1 inhibited TNFα-induced activation of ERK and DNA synthesis. In contrast, over-expression of UCH-L1 did not affect platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced VSMC proliferation and activation of growth stimulating cascades including ERK. TNFα hardly altered UCH-L1 mRNA expression and stability; however, up-regulated UCH-L1 protein expression via increasing UCH-L1 translation. These results uncover a novel mechanism by which UCH-L1 suppresses vascular inflammation.

  10. mTOR in breast cancer: differential expression in triple-negative and non-triple-negative tumors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, S

    2012-04-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is defined by the absence of estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR) and overexpression of HER2. Targeted therapy is currently unavailable for this subgroup of breast cancer patients. mTOR controls cancer cell growth, survival and invasion and is thus a potential target for the treatment of patients with TNBC. Using immunohistochemistry, mTOR and p-mTOR were measured in 89 TNBCs and 99 non-TNBCs. While mTOR expression was confined to tumor cell cytoplasm, p-mTOR staining was located in the nucleus, perinuclear area and in the cytoplasm. Potentially important, was our finding that nuclear p-mTOR was found more frequently in triple-negative than non triple-negative cancers (p < 0.001). These results suggest that mTOR may play a more important role in the progression of TNBC compared to non-TNBC. Based on these findings, we conclude that mTOR may be a new target for the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer.

  11. Activated Integrin-Linked Kinase Negatively Regulates Muscle Cell Enhancement Factor 2C in C2C12 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenguo Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous study reported that muscle cell enhancement factor 2C (MEF2C was fully activated after inhibition of the phosphorylation activity of integrin-linked kinase (ILK in the skeletal muscle cells of goats. It enhanced the binding of promoter or enhancer of transcription factor related to proliferation of muscle cells and then regulated the expression of these genes. In the present investigation, we explored whether ILK activation depended on PI3K to regulate the phosphorylation and transcriptional activity of MEF2C during C2C12 cell proliferation. We inhibited PI3K activity in C2C12 with LY294002 and then found that ILK phosphorylation levels and MEF2C phosphorylation were decreased and that MCK mRNA expression was suppressed significantly. After inhibiting ILK phosphorylation activity with Cpd22 and ILK-shRNA, we found MEF2C phosphorylation activity and MCK mRNA expression were increased extremely significantly. In the presence of Cpd22, PI3K activity inhibition increased MEF2C phosphorylation and MCK mRNA expression indistinctively. We conclude that ILK negatively and independently of PI3K regulated MEF2C phosphorylation activity and MCK mRNA expression in C2C12 cells. The results provide new ideas for the study of classical signaling pathway of PI3K-ILK-related proteins and transcription factors.

  12. Differential Language Functioning of Monolinguals and Bilinguals on Positive-Negative Emotional Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirzadeh, Shiela; Hajiabed, Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    The present interdisciplinary research investigates the differential emotional expression between Persian monolinguals and Persian-English bilinguals. In other words, the article was an attempt to answer the questions whether bilinguals and monolinguals differ in the expression of positive and negative emotions elicited through sad and happy…

  13. Integrating and differentiating aspects of self-regulation: effortful control, executive functioning, and links to negative affectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgett, David J; Oddi, Kate B; Laake, Lauren M; Murdock, Kyle W; Bachmann, Melissa N

    2013-02-01

    Subdisciplines within psychology frequently examine self-regulation from different frameworks despite conceptually similar definitions of constructs. In the current study, similarities and differences between effortful control, based on the psychobiological model of temperament (Rothbart, Derryberry, & Posner, 1994), and executive functioning are examined and empirically tested in three studies (n = 509). Structural equation modeling indicated that effortful control and executive functioning are strongly associated and overlapping constructs (Study 1). Additionally, results indicated that effortful control is related to the executive function of updating/monitoring information in working memory, but not inhibition (Studies 2 and 3). Study 3 also demonstrates that better updating/monitoring information in working memory and better effortful control were uniquely linked to lower dispositional negative affect, whereas the executive function of low/poor inhibition was uniquely associated with an increased tendency to express negative affect. Furthermore, dispositional negative affect mediated the links between effortful control and, separately, the executive function of updating/monitoring information in working memory and the tendency to express negative affect. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed, and a potential framework for guiding future work directed at integrating and differentiating aspects of self-regulation is suggested. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. The Relationship between Emotion Regulation and Emotion Expression Styles with Bullying Behaviors in Adolescent Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Basharpoor

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Students bullying, especially in the adolescence period, is a prevalent problem in the schools, that emotional dysregulation is posed as a one cause of it. Considering this issue, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between emotion regulation and emotion expression styles with bullying behaviors in adolescent students.   Methods: The method of this study was correlation. Whole male students of secondary and high schools in Ardabil at 90-91 educational year comprised statistical population of this research. Two hundred thirty students, were selected by multistage cluster sampling method, responded to the questionnaires of bullying/victimization, emotion regulation and emotion expression. Gathered data were analyzed by Pearson correlation and multiple regression tests.   Results: The results showed that victimization by bullying has positive relationship with cognitive reappraisal (r= 0.15, p<0.02, emotion suppression (r= 0.47, p<0.001, and positive expression (r= 0.25, p<0.02, but has negative relationship with impulse severity (r= -0.35, p<0.001, and negative emotion expression (r= -0.43, p<0.001. Furthermore bullying has a positive relationship with cognitive reappraisal (r= 0.14, p<0.03, impulse severity (r= 0.31, p<0.003, and negative expression (r= 0.29, p<0.001, but has negative relationship with emotion suppression (r= 0.28, p<0.001, and positive expression (r= 0.24, p<0.001. In sum emotion regulation and emotion expression styles explained 36 percent of the variance of the victimization by bullying and 19 percent of the variance of the bullying.   Conclusion: This research demonstrated that emotion dysregulation at the adolescent period plays important role in bullying and victimization, thus the training of emotion regulation abilities is suggested as the one of interventions methods for this behavioral problems.

  15. Difficulties in emotion regulation mediate negative and positive affects and craving in alcoholic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravani, Vahid; Sharifi Bastan, Farangis; Ghorbani, Fatemeh; Kamali, Zoleikha

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the mediating effects of difficulties in emotion regulation (DER) on the relations of negative and positive affects to craving in alcoholic patients. 205 treatment-seeking alcoholic outpatients were included. DER, positive and negative affects as well as craving were evaluated by the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), the Positive/Negative Affect Scales, and the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) respectively. Clinical factors including depression and severity of alcohol dependence were investigated by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) respectively. Results revealed that both increased negative affect and decreased positive affect indirectly influenced craving through limited access to emotion regulation strategies. It was concluded that limited access to emotion regulation strategies may be important in predicting craving for alcoholics who experience both increased negative affect and decreased positive affect. This suggests that treatment and prevention efforts focused on increasing positive affect, decreasing negative affect and teaching effective regulation strategies may be critical in reducing craving in alcoholic patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Calcium regulates caveolin-1 expression at the transcriptional level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiao-Yan; Huang, Cheng-Cheng; Kan, Qi-Ming; Li, Yan; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Xue-Cheng; Sato, Toshinori; Yamagata, Sadako; Yamagata, Tatsuya

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Caveolin-1 expression is regulated by calcium signaling at the transcriptional level. ► An inhibitor of or siRNA to L-type calcium channel suppressed caveolin-1 expression. ► Cyclosporine A or an NFAT inhibitor markedly reduced caveolin-1 expression. ► Caveolin-1 regulation by calcium signaling is observed in several mouse cell lines. -- Abstract: Caveolin-1, an indispensable component of caveolae serving as a transformation suppressor protein, is highly expressed in poorly metastatic mouse osteosarcoma FBJ-S1 cells while highly metastatic FBJ-LL cells express low levels of caveolin-1. Calcium concentration is higher in FBJ-S1 cells than in FBJ-LL cells; therefore, we investigated the possibility that calcium signaling positively regulates caveolin-1 in mouse FBJ-S1 cells. When cells were treated with the calcium channel blocker nifedipine, cyclosporin A (a calcineurin inhibitor), or INCA-6 (a nuclear factor of activated T-cells [NFAT] inhibitor), caveolin-1 expression at the mRNA and protein levels decreased. RNA silencing of voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1C resulted in suppression of caveolin-1 expression. This novel caveolin-1 regulation pathway was also identified in mouse NIH 3T3 cells and Lewis lung carcinoma cells. These results indicate that caveolin-1 is positively regulated at the transcriptional level through a novel calcium signaling pathway mediated by L-type calcium channel/Ca 2+ /calcineurin/NFAT.

  17. Parent emotional expressiveness and children's self-regulation: Associations with abused children's school functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskett, Mary E.; Stelter, Rebecca; Proffit, Katie; Nice, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Objective Identifying factors associated with school functioning of abused children is important in prevention of long-term negative outcomes associated with school failure. The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which parent emotional expressiveness and children's self-regulation predicted early school behavior of abused children. Methods The sample included 92 physically abused children ages 4-7 and one of their parents (95.7% mothers). Parents completed a measure of their own emotional expressiveness, and parents and teachers provided reports of children's self-regulatory skills. Children's school functioning was measured by observations of playground aggression and teacher reports of aggression and classroom behavior. Results Parents’ expression of positive and negative emotions was associated with various aspects of children's self-regulation and functioning in the school setting. Links between self-regulation and children's school adjustment were robust; poor self-regulation was associated with higher aggression and lower cooperation and self-directed behavior in the classroom. There was minimal support for a mediating role of children's self-regulation in links between parent expressiveness and children's behavior. Practice implications Findings point to the relevance of parent emotional expressivity and children's self-regulatory processes in understanding physically abused children's functioning at the transition to school. Although further research is needed, findings indicate that increasing parental expression of positive emotion should be a focus in treatment along with reduction in negativity of abusive parents. Further, addressing children's self-regulation could be important in efforts to reduce aggression and enhance children's classroom competence. PMID:22565040

  18. Automatic control of negative emotions: evidence that structured practice increases the efficiency of emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou-Champi, Spyros; Farrow, Tom F D; Webb, Thomas L

    2015-01-01

    Emotion regulation (ER) is vital to everyday functioning. However, the effortful nature of many forms of ER may lead to regulation being inefficient and potentially ineffective. The present research examined whether structured practice could increase the efficiency of ER. During three training sessions, comprising a total of 150 training trials, participants were presented with negatively valenced images and asked either to "attend" (control condition) or "reappraise" (ER condition). A further group of participants did not participate in training but only completed follow-up measures. Practice increased the efficiency of ER as indexed by decreased time required to regulate emotions and increased heart rate variability (HRV). Furthermore, participants in the ER condition spontaneously regulated their negative emotions two weeks later and reported being more habitual in their use of ER. These findings indicate that structured practice can facilitate the automatic control of negative emotions and that these effects persist beyond training.

  19. Metacognitive emotion regulation: children's awareness that changing thoughts and goals can alleviate negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elizabeth L; Levine, Linda J; Lench, Heather C; Quas, Jodi A

    2010-08-01

    Metacognitive emotion regulation strategies involve deliberately changing thoughts or goals to alleviate negative emotions. Adults commonly engage in this type of emotion regulation, but little is known about the developmental roots of this ability. Two studies were designed to assess whether 5- and 6-year-old children can generate such strategies and, if so, the types of metacognitive strategies they use. In Study 1, children described how story protagonists could alleviate negative emotions. In Study 2, children recalled times that they personally had felt sad, angry, and scared and described how they had regulated their emotions. In contrast to research suggesting that young children cannot use metacognitive regulation strategies, the majority of children in both studies described such strategies. Children were surprisingly sophisticated in their suggestions for how to cope with negative emotions and tailored their regulatory responses to specific emotional situations. Copyright 2010 APA

  20. P2-31: In-Group Advantage in Negative Facial Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chuan Hsu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available To perceive facial expressions is suggested to be universal. However, studies have shown the in-group advantage (IGA in recognition of facial expressions (e.g., Matsumoto, 1989, 1992 which is that people understand emotions more accurately when these emotions are expressed by members of their own culture group. A balanced design was used to investigate whether this IGA was showed in Western people and as well as in Asian people (Taiwanese. An emotional identification task was adopted to ask participants to identify positive (happy and negative (sadness, fear, and anger faces among Eastern and Western faces. We used Eastern faces from the Taiwanese Facial Expression Image Database (Chen, 2007 and Western faces from Ekman & Frisen (1979. Both reaction times and accuracies of performance were measured. Results showed that even all participants can identify positive and negative faces accurately; Asia participants responded significantly faster to negative Eastern faces than to negative Western faces. The similar IGA effect was also shown in Western participants. However, no such culture difference was found to positive faces. The results revealed the in-group advantage of the perception of facial expressions was specific to negative emotions and question the universality of perceiving facial expressions.

  1. Thrombomodulin expression regulates tumorigenesis in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chun-Te; Chang, Ying-Hsu; Lin, Paul- Yang; Chen, Wen-Cheng; Chen, Miao-Fen

    2014-01-01

    The identification of potential tumor markers will help improve therapeutic planning and patient management. Thrombomodulin (TM) is a sensitive urothelial marker. TM was reported to be one of the endogenous anti-metastatic factors and has diagnostic and prognostic values for the progression of carcinoma. In the present study, we examine the role of TM in bladder cancer. We studied the role of TM in tumor behavior and related signaling pathways in vitro using the human bladder cancer cell lines HT1376, HT1197, J82 and T24, and in vivo using animal models. We also selected clinical specimens from 100 patients with bladder cancer for immunohistochemical staining to evaluate the predictive capacity of TM in tumor invasiveness. The data revealed that positive immunoreactivity for TM was inversely correlated with clinical stage and DNA methyltransferase 1 immunoreactivity. Decreased TM expression could predict the aggressive tumor growth and advanced clinical stage in bladder cancer. When TM was inhibited, tumor growth rate and invasion ability were augmented in vitro and in vivo. The underlying changes included increased cell proliferation, enhanced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis. Moreover, inhibition of NF-κB activation significantly increased TM expression and attenuated tumor aggressiveness in bladder cancer. TM plays an important role in bladder cancer tumor aggressiveness in vitro and in vivo and is a clinically significant predictor that may represent a suitable therapeutic target for bladder cancer

  2. TRAF family member-associated NF-κB activator (TANK) induced by RANKL negatively regulates osteoclasts survival and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mengrui; Wang, Yiping; Deng, Lianfu; Chen, Wei; Li, Yi-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Osteoclasts are the principle bone-resorbing cells. Precise control of balanced osteoclast activity is indispensable for bone homeostasis. Osteoclast activation mediated by RANK-TRAF6 axis has been clearly identified. However, a negative regulation-machinery in osteoclast remains unclear. TRAF family member-associated NF-κB activator (TANK) is induced by about 10 folds during osteoclastogenesis, according to a genome-wide analysis of gene expression before and after osteoclast maturation, and confirmed by western blot and quantitative RT-PCR. Bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) transduced with lentivirus carrying tank-shRNA were induced to form osteoclast in the presence of RANKL and M-CSF. Tank expression was downregulated by 90% by Tank-shRNA, which is confirmed by western blot. Compared with wild-type (WT) cells, osteoclastogenesis of Tank-silenced BMMs was increased, according to tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) stain on day 5 and day 7. Number of bone resorption pits by Tank-silenced osteoclasts was increased by 176% compared with WT cells, as shown by wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) stain and scanning electronic microscope (SEM) analysis. Survival rate of Tank-silenced mature osteoclast is also increased. However, acid production of Tank-knockdown cells was not changed compared with control cells. IκBα phosphorylation is increased in tank-silenced cells, indicating that TANK may negatively regulate NF-κB activity in osteoclast. In conclusion, Tank, whose expression is increased during osteoclastogenesis, inhibits osteoclast formation, activity and survival, by regulating NF-κB activity and c-FLIP expression. Tank enrolls itself in a negative feedback loop in bone resorption. These results may provide means for therapeutic intervention in diseases of excessive bone resorption.

  3. DMPD: The negative regulation of Toll-like receptor and associated pathways. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17621314 The negative regulation of Toll-like receptor and associated pathways. Lan...) Show The negative regulation of Toll-like receptor and associated pathways. PubmedID 17621314 Title The ne...gative regulation of Toll-like receptor and associated pathways. Authors Lang T,

  4. Prostacyclin synthase expression and epigenetic regulation in nonsmall cell lung cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cathcart, Mary-Clare

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostacyclin synthase (PGIS) metabolizes prostaglandin H(2), into prostacyclin. This study aimed to determine the expression profile of PGIS in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and examine potential mechanisms involved in PGIS regulation. METHODS: PGIS expression was examined in human NSCLC and matched controls by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western analysis, and immunohistochemistry. A 204-patient NSCLC tissue microarray was stained for PGIS and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) expression. Staining intensity was correlated with clinical parameters. Epigenetic mechanisms underpinning PGIS promoter expression were examined using RT-PCR, methylation-specific PCR, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis. RESULTS: PGIS expression was reduced\\/absent in human NSCLC protein samples (P < .0001), but not mRNA relative to matched controls. PGIS tissue expression was higher in squamous cell carcinoma (P = .004) and in male patients (P < .05). No significant correlation of PGIS or COX2 expression with overall patient survival was observed, although COX2 was prognostic for short-term (2-year) survival (P < .001). PGIS mRNA expression was regulated by DNA CpG methylation and histone acetylation in NSCLC cell lines, with chromatin remodeling taking place directly at the PGIS gene. PGIS mRNA expression was increased by both demethylation agents and histone deacetylase inhibitors. Protein levels were unaffected by demethylation agents, whereas PGIS protein stability was negatively affected by histone deacetylase inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: PGIS protein expression is reduced in NSCLC, and does not correlate with overall patient survival. PGIS expression is regulated through epigenetic mechanisms. Differences in expression patterns between mRNA and protein levels suggest that PGIS expression and protein stability are regulated post-translationally. PGIS protein stability may have an important therapeutic role in NSCLC.

  5. The effect of arousal on regulation of negative emotions using cognitive reappraisal: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeslag, Sandra J E; Surti, Kruti

    2017-08-01

    Because the effectiveness of the emotion regulation strategy cognitive reappraisal may vary with emotion intensity, we investigated how stimulus arousal affects reappraisal success. Participants up- and down-regulated emotional responses using cognitive reappraisal to low and high arousing unpleasant pictures while the electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. Up-regulation resulted in more negative self-reported valence, while down-regulation resulted in less negative self-reported valence regardless of stimulus arousal, suggesting that subjective reappraisal success does not vary with emotional intensity. Participants felt that down-regulation of emotional responses to low arousing unpleasant pictures was easiest, which is in line with previous findings that participants showed a greater preference for reappraisal in low than high arousing situations. The late positive potential (LPP) amplitude was enhanced by down-regulation of high arousing unpleasant pictures. Even though this effect was unexpected and is opposite to the typical effect of down-regulation on the LPP, it is in line with several previous studies. Potential explanations for LPP regulation effects in the unexpected direction, such as strategy selection and task design, are evaluated. Suggestions and recommendations for future research are discussed, including using trial-by-trial manipulation of regulation instructions and studying the effect of stimulus arousal on up- and down-regulation of positive emotions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Decorin gene expression and its regulation in human keratinocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velez-DelValle, Cristina; Marsch-Moreno, Meytha; Castro-Munozledo, Federico [Department of Cell Biology, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apdo. Postal 14-740, Mexico D.F. 07000 (Mexico); Kuri-Harcuch, Walid, E-mail: walidkuri@gmail.com [Department of Cell Biology, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apdo. Postal 14-740, Mexico D.F. 07000 (Mexico)

    2011-07-22

    Highlights: {yields} We showed that cultured human diploid epidermal keratinocytes express and synthesize decorin. {yields} Decorin is found intracytoplasmic in suprabasal cells of cultures and in human epidermis. {yields} Decorin mRNA expression in cHEK is regulated by pro-inflammatory and proliferative cytokines. {yields} Decorin immunostaining of psoriatic lesions showed a lower intensity and altered intracytoplasmic arrangements. -- Abstract: In various cell types, including cancer cells, decorin is involved in regulation of cell attachment, migration and proliferation. In skin, decorin is seen in dermis, but not in keratinocytes. We show that decorin gene (DCN) is expressed in the cultured keratinocytes, and the protein is found in the cytoplasm of differentiating keratinocytes and in suprabasal layers of human epidermis. RT-PCR experiments showed that DCN expression is regulated by pro-inflammatory and proliferative cytokines. Our data suggest that decorin should play a significant role in keratinocyte terminal differentiation, cutaneous homeostasis and dermatological diseases.

  7. Estrogen regulation of TRPM8 expression in breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chodon, Dechen; Guilbert, Arnaud; Dhennin-Duthille, Isabelle; Gautier, Mathieu; Telliez, Marie-Sophie; Sevestre, Henri; Ouadid-Ahidouch, Halima

    2010-01-01

    The calcium-permeable cation channel TRPM8 (melastatin-related transient receptor potential member 8) is over-expressed in several cancers. The present study aimed at investigating the expression, function and potential regulation of TRPM8 channels by ER alpha (estrogen receptor alpha) in breast cancer. RT-PCR, Western blot, immuno-histochemical, and siRNA techniques were used to investigate TRPM8 expression, its regulation by estrogen receptors, and its expression in breast tissue. To investigate the channel activity in MCF-7 cells, we used the whole cell patch clamp and the calcium imaging techniques. TRPM8 channels are expressed at both mRNA and protein levels in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Bath application of the potent TRPM8 agonist Icilin (20 μM) induced a strong outwardly rectifying current at depolarizing potentials, which is associated with an elevation of cytosolic calcium concentration, consistent with established TRPM8 channel properties. RT-PCR experiments revealed a decrease in TRPM8 mRNA expression following steroid deprivation for 48 and 72 hours. In steroid deprived medium, addition of 17-beta-estradiol (E 2 , 10 nM) increased both TRPM8 mRNA expression and the number of cells which respond to Icilin, but failed to affect the Ca 2+ entry amplitude. Moreover, silencing ERα mRNA expression with small interfering RNA reduced the expression of TRPM8. Immuno-histochemical examination of the expression of TRPM8 channels in human breast tissues revealed an over-expression of TRPM8 in breast adenocarcinomas, which is correlated with estrogen receptor positive (ER + ) status of the tumours. Taken together, these results show that TRPM8 channels are expressed and functional in breast cancer and that their expression is regulated by ER alpha

  8. The relationship of positive and negative expressiveness to the processing of emotion information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazev, Gennady G; Barchard, Kimberly A; Razumnikova, Olga M; Mitrofanova, Larisa G

    2012-06-01

    The tendency to express emotions non-verbally is positively related to perception of emotions in oneself. This study examined its relationship to perception of emotions in others. In 40 healthy adults, EEG theta synchronization was used to indicate emotion processing following presentation of happy, angry, and neutral faces. Both positive and negative expressiveness were associated with higher emotional sensitivity, as shown by cortical responses to facial expressions during the early, unconscious processing stage. At the late, conscious processing stage, positive expressiveness was associated with higher sensitivity to happy faces but lower sensitivity to angry faces. Thus, positive expressiveness predisposes people to allocate fewer attentional resources for conscious perception of angry faces. In contrast, negative expressiveness was consistently associated with higher sensitivity. The effects of positive expressiveness occurred in cortical areas that deal with emotions, but the effects of negative expressiveness occurred in areas engaged in self-referential processes in the context of social relationships. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  9. The maize WRKY transcription factor ZmWRKY17 negatively regulates salt stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ronghao; Dai, Wei; Zhang, Congsheng; Wang, Yan; Wu, Min; Zhao, Yang; Ma, Qing; Xiang, Yan; Cheng, Beijiu

    2017-12-01

    We cloned and characterized the ZmWRKY17 gene from maize. Overexpression of ZmWRKY17 in Arabidopsis led to increased sensitivity to salt stress and decreased ABA sensitivity through regulating the expression of some ABA- and stress-responsive genes. The WRKY transcription factors have been reported to function as positive or negative regulators in many different biological processes including plant development, defense regulation and stress response. This study isolated a maize WRKY gene, ZmWRKY17, and characterized its role in tolerance to salt stress by generating transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Expression of the ZmWRKY17 was up-regulated by drought, salt and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments. ZmWRKY17 was localized in the nucleus with no transcriptional activation in yeast. Yeast one-hybrid assay showed that ZmWRKY17 can specifically bind to W-box, and it can activate W-box-dependent transcription in planta. Heterologous overexpression of ZmWRKY17 in Arabidopsis remarkably reduced plant tolerance to salt stress, as determined through physiological analyses of the cotyledons greening rate, root growth, relative electrical leakage and malondialdehyde content. Additionally, ZmWRKY17 transgenic plants showed decreased sensitivity to ABA during seed germination and early seedling growth. Transgenic plants accumulated higher content of ABA than wild-type (WT) plants under NaCl condition. Transcriptome and quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed that some stress-related genes in transgenic seedlings showed lower expression level than that in the WT when treated with NaCl. Taken together, these results suggest that ZmWRKY17 may act as a negative regulator involved in the salt stress responses through ABA signalling.

  10. Oncologists' negative attitudes towards expressing emotion over patient death and burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granek, Leeat; Ben-David, Merav; Nakash, Ora; Cohen, Michal; Barbera, Lisa; Ariad, Samuel; Krzyzanowska, Monika K

    2017-05-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the relationship between negative attitudes towards expressing emotion following patient death and burnout in oncologists and to explore oncologists' preferences for institutional interventions to deal with patient death. The participants included a convenience sample of 177 oncologists from Israel and Canada. Oncologists completed a questionnaire package that included a sociodemographic survey, a burnout measure, a survey assessing negative attitudes towards expressing emotion, and a survey assessing desired interventions to cope with patient death. To examine the association between burnout and negative attitudes while controlling for the effect of sociodemographic variables, a hierarchical linear regression was computed. Higher burnout scores were related to higher negative attitudes towards perceived expressed emotion (partial r = .25, p training) helpful in coping with patient death. Our findings suggest that high burnout scores are associated with negative attitudes towards expressing emotion and that there is a wide variation in oncologist preferences in coping with patient death. Institutions should promote interventions that are varied and that focus on the needs of oncologists in order to reduce burnout. Interventions that legitimize expression of emotion about patient death may be useful. Another way to reduce stigma would be to require oncologists to "opt out" rather than "opt in" to accessing a selection of social and/or individual interventions.

  11. Del-1 Expression as a Potential Biomarker in Triple-Negative Early Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Jung; Lee, Jeeyeon; Kim, Wan Wook; Jung, Jin Hyang; Park, Ho Yong; Park, Ji-Young; Chae, Yee Soo

    2018-01-01

    A differential diagnostic role for plasma Del-1 was proposed for early breast cancer (EBC) in our previous study. We examined tumoral Del-1 expression and analyzed its prognostic impact among patients with EBC. Del-1 mRNA expression was assessed in breast epithelial and cancer cells. Meanwhile, the tumoral expression of Del-1 was determined based on tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry results from 440 patients. While a high Del-1 mRNA expression was found in all the breast cancer cell lines, the expression was significantly higher in MDA-MB-231. Tumoral expression of Del-1 was also significantly associated with a negative expression of estrogen receptor or progesterone receptor, and low expression of Ki-67, particularly in the case of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) (p breast cancer cell lines exhibited Del-1 expression, the expression rate and intensity were specifically prominent in TNBC. In addition, based on its relationship to an unfavorable histology and worse survival trend, Del-1 could act as a molecular target in TNBC patients. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Rice early flowering1, a CKI, phosphorylates DELLA protein SLR1 to negatively regulate gibberellin signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Cheng; Xue, Hong-Wei

    2010-06-02

    The plant hormone gibberellin (GA) is crucial for multiple aspects of plant growth and development. To study the relevant regulatory mechanisms, we isolated a rice mutant earlier flowering1, el1, which is deficient in a casein kinase I that has critical roles in both plants and animals. el1 had an enhanced GA response, consistent with the suppression of EL1 expression by exogenous GA(3). Biochemical characterization showed that EL1 specifically phosphorylates the rice DELLA protein SLR1, proving a direct evidence for SLR1 phosphorylation. Overexpression of SLR1 in wild-type plants caused a severe dwarf phenotype, which was significantly suppressed by EL1 deficiency, indicating the negative effect of SLR1 on GA signalling requires the EL1 function. Further studies showed that the phosphorylation of SLR1 is important for maintaining its activity and stability, and mutation of the candidate phosphorylation site of SLR1 results in the altered GA signalling. This study shows EL1 a novel and key regulator of the GA response and provided important clues on casein kinase I activities in GA signalling and plant development.

  13. Saturated fatty acid palmitate negatively regulates autophagy by promoting ATG5 protein degradation in meniscus cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Aritra; Yammani, Raghunatha R

    2018-07-20

    Obesity and associated metabolic factors are major risk factors for the development of osteoarthritis. Previously, we have shown that the free fatty acid palmitate induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and induces apoptosis in meniscus cells. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in these effects are not clearly understood. In our current study, we found that palmitate inhibits autophagy by modulating the protein levels of autophagy-related genes-5 (ATG5) that is associated with decreased lipidation of LC3 and increased activation of cleaved caspase 3. Pretreatment of meniscus cells with 4-phenyl butyric acid, a small molecule chemical chaperone that alleviates ER stress, or with MG-132, a proteasome inhibitor, restored normal levels of ATG5 and autophagosome formation, and decreased expression of cleaved caspase 3. Thus, our data suggest that palmitate downregulates autophagy in meniscus cells by degrading ATG5 protein via ER-associated protein degradation, and thus promotes apoptosis. This is the first study to demonstrate that palmitate-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress negatively regulates autophagy. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. β2-adrenergic receptor-mediated negative regulation of group 2 innate lymphoid cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Saya; Brestoff, Jonathan R; Flamar, Anne-Laure; Moeller, Jesper B; Klose, Christoph S N; Rankin, Lucille C; Yudanin, Naomi A; Monticelli, Laurel A; Putzel, Gregory Garbès; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Artis, David

    2018-03-02

    The type 2 inflammatory response is induced by various environmental and infectious stimuli. Although recent studies identified group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) as potent sources of type 2 cytokines, the molecular pathways controlling ILC2 responses are incompletely defined. Here we demonstrate that murine ILC2s express the β 2 -adrenergic receptor (β 2 AR) and colocalize with adrenergic neurons in the intestine. β 2 AR deficiency resulted in exaggerated ILC2 responses and type 2 inflammation in intestinal and lung tissues. Conversely, β 2 AR agonist treatment was associated with impaired ILC2 responses and reduced inflammation in vivo. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that the β 2 AR pathway is a cell-intrinsic negative regulator of ILC2 responses through inhibition of cell proliferation and effector function. Collectively, these data provide the first evidence of a neuronal-derived regulatory circuit that limits ILC2-dependent type 2 inflammation. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  15. G-CSF maintains controlled neutrophil mobilization during acute inflammation by negatively regulating CXCR2 signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajrami, Besnik; Zhu, Haiyan; Zhang, Yu C.

    2016-01-01

    Cytokine-induced neutrophil mobilization from the bone marrow to circulation is a critical event in acute inflammation, but how it is accurately controlled remains poorly understood. In this study, we report that CXCR2 ligands are responsible for rapid neutrophil mobilization during early-stage acute inflammation. Nevertheless, although serum CXCR2 ligand concentrations increased during inflammation, neutrophil mobilization slowed after an initial acute fast phase, suggesting a suppression of neutrophil response to CXCR2 ligands after the acute phase. We demonstrate that granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), usually considered a prototypical neutrophil-mobilizing cytokine, was expressed later in the acute inflammatory response and unexpectedly impeded CXCR2-induced neutrophil mobilization by negatively regulating CXCR2-mediated intracellular signaling. Blocking G-CSF in vivo paradoxically elevated peripheral blood neutrophil counts in mice injected intraperitoneally with Escherichia coli and sequestered large numbers of neutrophils in the lungs, leading to sterile pulmonary inflammation. In a lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury model, the homeostatic imbalance caused by G-CSF blockade enhanced neutrophil accumulation, edema, and inflammation in the lungs and ultimately led to significant lung damage. Thus, physiologically produced G-CSF not only acts as a neutrophil mobilizer at the relatively late stage of acute inflammation, but also prevents exaggerated neutrophil mobilization and the associated inflammation-induced tissue damage during early-phase infection and inflammation. PMID:27551153

  16. Adult-type hypolactasia and regulation of lactase expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsen, Jesper Thorvald

    2005-01-01

    , the main carbohydrate in milk. Individuals with adult-type hypolactasia lose their lactase expression before adulthood and consequently often become lactose intolerant with associated digestive problems (e.g. diarrhoea). In contrast, lactase persistent individuals have a lifelong lactase expression......A common genetically determined polymorphism in the human population leads to two distinct phenotypes in adults, lactase persistence and adult-type hypolactasia (lactase non-persistence). All healthy newborn children express high levels of lactase and are able to digest large quantities of lactose...... and are able to digest lactose as adults. Lactase persistence can be regarded as the mutant phenotype since other mammals down-regulate their lactase expression after weaning (the postweaning decline). This phenomenon does not occur in lactase persistent individuals. The regulation of lactase expression...

  17. Regulation of semaphorin 4D expression and cell proliferation of ovarian cancer by ERalpha and ERbeta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Liu

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women. Semaphorin 4D (sema 4D is involved in the progress of multiple cancers. In the presence of estrogen-like ligands, estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ participate in the progress of breast and ovarian cancers by transcriptional regulation. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of sema 4D and elucidate the regulatory pattern of ERα and ERβ on sema 4D expression in ovarian cancers. Sema 4D levels were up-regulated in ovarian cancer SKOV-3 cells. Patients with malignant ovarian cancers had significantly higher sema 4D levels than controls, suggesting an oncogene role of sema 4D in ovarian cancer. ERα expressions were up-regulated in SKOV-3 cells compared with normal ovarian IOSE80 epithelial cells. Conversely, down-regulation of ERβ was observed in SKOV-3 cells. Forced over-expression of ERα and ERβ in SKOV-3 cells was manipulated to establish ERα+ and ERβ+ SKOV-3 cell lines. Incubation of ERα+ SKOV-3 cells with ERs agonist 17β-estradiol (E2 significantly enhanced sema 4D expression and rate of cell proliferation. Incubated with E2, ERβ+ SKOV-3 cells showed lower sema 4D expression and cell proliferation. Blocking ERα and ERβ activities with ICI182-780 inhibitor, sema 4D expressions and cell proliferation of ERα+ and ERβ+ SKOV-3 cells were recovered to control levels. Taken together, the data showed that sema 4D expression was positively correlated with the progress of ovarian cancer. ERα positively regulated sema 4D expression and accelerated cell proliferation. ERβ negatively regulated sema 4D expression and inhibited cell multiplication.

  18. Type 2C Phosphatase 1 of Artemisia annua L. Is a Negative Regulator of ABA Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangyuan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA plays an important role in plant development and environmental stress response. Additionally, ABA also regulates secondary metabolism such as artemisinin in the medicinal plant Artemisia annua L. Although an earlier study showed that ABA receptor, AaPYL9, plays a positive role in ABA-induced artemisinin content improvement, many components in the ABA signaling pathway remain to be elucidated in Artemisia annua L. To get insight of the function of AaPYL9, we isolated and characterized an AaPYL9-interacting partner, AaPP2C1. The coding sequence of AaPP2C1 encodes a deduced protein of 464 amino acids, with all the features of plant type clade A PP2C. Transcriptional analysis showed that the expression level of AaPP2C1 is increased after ABA, salt, and drought treatments. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays (BiFC showed that AaPYL9 interacted with AaPP2C1. The P89S, H116A substitution in AaPYL9 as well as G199D substitution or deletion of the third phosphorylation site-like motif in AaPP2C1 abolished this interaction. Furthermore, constitutive expression of AaPP2C1 conferred ABA insensitivity compared with the wild type. In summary, our data reveals that AaPP2C1 is an AaPYL9-interacting partner and involved in the negative modulation of the ABA signaling pathway in A. annua L.

  19. Complement receptor-3 negatively regulates the phagocytosis of degenerated myelin through tyrosine kinase Syk and cofilin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadas Smadar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intact myelin, which normally surrounds axons, breaks down in Wallerian degeneration following axonal injury and during neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Clearance of degenerated myelin by phagocytosis is essential since myelin impedes repair and exacerbates damage. CR3 (complement receptor-3 is a principal phagocytic receptor in myelin phagocytosis. We studied how tyrosine kinase Syk (spleen tyrosine kinase and cofilin control phagocytosis of degenerated myelin by CR3 in microglia and macrophages. Syk is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that CR3 recruits to convey cellular functions. Cofilin is an actin-depolymerizing protein that controls F-actin (filamentous actin remodeling (i.e., disassembly and reassembly by shifting between active unphosphorylated and inactive phosphorylated states. Results Syk was continuously activated during prolonged phagocytosis. Phagocytosis increased when Syk activity and expression were reduced, suggesting that normally Syk down regulates CR3-mediated myelin phagocytosis. Levels of inactive p-cofilin (phosphorylated cofilin decreased transiently during prolonged phagocytosis. In contrast, p-cofilin levels decreased continuously when Syk activity and expression were continuously reduced, suggesting that normally Syk advances the inactive state of cofilin. Observations also revealed inverse relationships between levels of phagocytosis and levels of inactive p-cofilin, suggesting that active unphosphorylated cofilin advances phagocytosis. Active cofilin could advance phagocytosis by promoting F-actin remodeling, which supports the production of membrane protrusions (e.g., filopodia, which, as we also revealed, are instrumental in myelin phagocytosis. Conclusions CR3 both activates and downregulates myelin phagocytosis at the same time. Activation was previously documented. We presently demonstrate that downregulation is mediated through Syk, which advances the inactive

  20. Beyond CTLA-4 and PD-1, the generation Z of negative checkpoint regulators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle eLe Mercier

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last two years, clinical trials with blocking antibodies to the negative checkpoint regulators CTLA-4 and PD-1 have rekindled the hope for cancer immunotherapy. Multiple negative checkpoint regulators protect the host against autoimmune reactions but also restrict the ability of T cells to effectively attack tumors. Releasing these brakes has emerged as an exciting strategy for cancer treatment. Conversely, these pathways can be manipulated to achieve durable tolerance for treatment of autoimmune diseases and transplantation. In the future, treatment may involve combination therapy to target multiple cell types and stages of the adaptive immune responses. In this review, we describe the current knowledge on the recently discovered negative checkpoint regulators, future targets for immunotherapy.

  1. Beyond CTLA-4 and PD-1, the Generation Z of Negative Checkpoint Regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Mercier, Isabelle; Lines, J Louise; Noelle, Randolph J

    2015-01-01

    In the last two years, clinical trials with blocking antibodies to the negative checkpoint regulators CTLA-4 and PD-1 have rekindled the hope for cancer immunotherapy. Multiple negative checkpoint regulators protect the host against autoimmune reactions but also restrict the ability of T cells to effectively attack tumors. Releasing these brakes has emerged as an exciting strategy for cancer treatment. Conversely, these pathways can be manipulated to achieve durable tolerance for treatment of autoimmune diseases and transplantation. In the future, treatment may involve combination therapy to target multiple cell types and stages of the adaptive immune responses. In this review, we describe the current knowledge on the recently discovered negative checkpoint regulators, future targets for immunotherapy.

  2. High ALK mRNA expression has a negative prognostic significance in rhabdomyosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvini, P; Zin, A; Alaggio, R; Pawel, B; Bisogno, G; Rosolen, A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase aberrantly expressed in cancer, but its clinical and functional importance remain controversial. Mutation or amplification of ALK, as well as its expression levels assessed by conventional immunohistochemistry methods, has been linked to prognosis in cancer, although with potential bias because of the semi-quantitative approaches. Herein, we measured ALK mRNA expression in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) and determined its clinical impact on patients' stratification and outcome. Methods: Specimens were obtained from RMS patients and cell lines, and ALK expression was analysed by quantitative RT–PCR, western blotting, IHC, and copy number analysis. Results: High ALK mRNA expression was detected in the vast majority of PAX3/7-FOXO1-positive tumours, whereas PAX3/7-FOXO1-negative RMS displayed considerably lower amounts of both mRNA and protein. Notably, ALK mRNA distinguished unfavourable PAX3/7-FOXO1-positive tumours from PAX3/7-FOXO1-negative RMS (Ptumour size (PALK mRNA levels were of prognostic relevance by Cox univariate regression analysis and correlated with increased risk of relapse (P=0.001) and survival (P=0.01), whereas by multivariate analysis elevated ALK mRNA expression resulted a negative prognostic marker when clinical stage was not included. Conclusion: Quantitative assessment of ALK mRNA expression helps to improve risk stratification of RMS patients and identifies tumours with adverse biological characteristics and aggressive behaviour. PMID:24149177

  3. The negative cell cycle regulator, Tob (transducer of ErbB-2), is involved in motor skill learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinming; Gao Xiang; Zhang Xuehan; Tu Yanyang; Jin Meilei; Zhao Guoping; Yu Lei; Jing Naihe; Li Baoming

    2006-01-01

    Tob (transducer of ErbB-2) is a negative cell cycle regulator with anti-proliferative activity in peripheral tissues. Our previous study identified Tob as a protein involved in hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation (M.L. Jin, X.M. Wang, Y.Y. Tu, X.H. Zhang, X. Gao, N. Guo, Z.Q. Xie, G.P. Zhao, N.H. Jing, B.M. Li, Y.Yu, The negative cell cycle regulator, Tob (Transducer of ErbB-2), is a multifunctional protein involved in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory, Neuroscience 131 (2005) 647-659). Here, we provide evidence that Tob in the central nervous system is engaged in acquisition of motor skill. Tob has a relatively high expression in the cerebellum. Tob expression is up-regulated in the cerebellum after rats receive training on a rotarod-running task. Rats infused with Tob antisense oligonucleotides into the 4th ventricle exhibit a severe deficit in running on a rotating rod or walking across a horizontally elevated beam

  4. Clustering gene expression regulators: new approach to disease subtyping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Pyatnitskiy

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges in modern medicine is to stratify different patient groups in terms of underlying disease molecular mechanisms as to develop more personalized approach to therapy. Here we propose novel method for disease subtyping based on analysis of activated expression regulators on a sample-by-sample basis. Our approach relies on Sub-Network Enrichment Analysis algorithm (SNEA which identifies gene subnetworks with significant concordant changes in expression between two conditions. Subnetwork consists of central regulator and downstream genes connected by relations extracted from global literature-extracted regulation database. Regulators found in each patient separately are clustered together and assigned activity scores which are used for final patients grouping. We show that our approach performs well compared to other related methods and at the same time provides researchers with complementary level of understanding of pathway-level biology behind a disease by identification of significant expression regulators. We have observed the reasonable grouping of neuromuscular disorders (triggered by structural damage vs triggered by unknown mechanisms, that was not revealed using standard expression profile clustering. For another experiment we were able to suggest the clusters of regulators, responsible for colorectal carcinoma vs adenoma discrimination and identify frequently genetically changed regulators that could be of specific importance for the individual characteristics of cancer development. Proposed approach can be regarded as biologically meaningful feature selection, reducing tens of thousands of genes down to dozens of clusters of regulators. Obtained clusters of regulators make possible to generate valuable biological hypotheses about molecular mechanisms related to a clinical outcome for individual patient.

  5. Orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1 is a negative regulator of DHT-induced rat preantral follicular growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Kai; Liu, Jia-yin; Murphy, Bruce D; Tsang, Benjamin K

    2012-12-01

    Nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member1 (NR4A1), an orphan nuclear receptor, is involved in the transcriptional regulation of thecal cell androgen biosynthesis and paracrine factor insulin-like 3 (INSL3) expression. Androgens are known to play an important regulatory role in ovarian follicle growth. Using a chronically androgenized rat model, a preantral follicle culture model and virus-mediated gene delivery, we examined the role and regulation of NR4A1 in the androgenic control of preantral follicular growth. In the present study, Ki67 staining was increased in preantral follicles on ovarian sections from 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-treated rats. Preantral follicles from DHT-treated rats cultured for 4 d exhibited increased growth and up-regulation of mRNA abundance of G(1)/S-specific cyclin-D2 (Ccnd2) and FSH receptor (Fshr). Similarly, DHT (1 μm) increased preantral follicular growth and Ccnd2 and Fshr mRNA abundance in vitro. The NR4A1 expression was high in theca cells and was down-regulated by DHT in vivo and in vitro. Forced expression of NR4A1 augmented preantral follicular growth, androstenedione production, and Insl3 expression in vitro. Inhibiting the action of androgen (with androgen receptor antagonist flutamide) or INSL3 (with INSL3 receptor antagonist INSL3 B-chain) reduced NR4A1-induced preantral follicular growth. Furthermore, NR4A1 overexpression enhanced DHT-induced preantral follicular growth, a response attenuated by inhibiting INSL3. In conclusion, DHT promotes preantral follicular growth and attenuates thecal NR4A1 expression in vivo and in vitro. Our findings are consistent with the notion that NR4A1 serves as an important point of negative feedback to minimize the excessive preantral follicle growth in hyperandrogenism.

  6. Maternal negative emotional expression and discipline in Beijing, China: The moderating role of educational attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feng; Wang, Yifang; Wu, Xixian; Su, Zhuqing

    2018-03-01

    The current study shows that parental punitive discipline places children at risk of developing internalizing and externalizing problems. Although some studies have analyzed the reasons for the use of discipline methods, little to no research has analyzed the moderating effects. In this study, we examine the relationship between maternal negative emotional expression and mothers' use of disciplinary methods (psychological aggression, corporal punishment and physical maltreatment) and the moderating effects of educational attainment in Chinese societies. Five hundred and sixteen mothers with preschool-aged children were recruited to participate in this research. The Chinese versions of the Self-Expressiveness in the Family Questionnaire (SEFQ) and the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales (CTSPC) were used to measure the mothers' negative emotional expression and discipline, respectively. The results suggested that the mothers' negative emotional expression was positively related to their disciplinary behaviors. Moreover, maternal educational attainment moderated the association between negative emotional expression and discipline. The findings of the current study highlight the importance of considering how mothers' educational backgrounds may interact with their emotions to influence maternal disciplinary behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A negative regulation loop of long noncoding RNA HOTAIR and p53 in non-small-cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhai N

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nailiang Zhai,1 Yongfu Xia,1 Rui Yin,2 Jinping Liu,3 Fuquan Gao1 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Binzhou Medical University, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, People’s Hospital of Binzhou City, 3Department of Pharmacology, Binzhou Medical University, Binzhou, Shandong, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide, and the 5-year survival rate is still low despite advances in diagnosis and therapeutics. A long noncoding RNA (lncRNA HOX antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR has been revealed to play important roles in NSCLC carcinogenesis but the detailed mechanisms are still unclear. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the regulation between the lncRNA HOTAIR and p53 in the NSCLC patient samples and cell lines. Our results showed that HOTAIR expression was significantly higher in the cancer tissues than that in the adjacent normal tissue, and was negatively correlated with p53 functionality rather than expression. When p53 was overexpressed in A549 cells, the lncRNA HOTAIR expression was downregulated, and the cell proliferation rate and cell invasion capacity decreased as a consequence. We identified two binding sites of p53 on the promoter region of HOTAIR, where the p53 protein would bind to and suppress the HOTAIR mRNA transcription. Inversely, overexpression of lncRNA HOTAIR inhibited the expression of p53 in A549 cells. Mechanistic studies revealed that HOTAIR modified the promoter of p53 and enhanced histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3. These studies identified a specific negative regulation loop of lncRNA HOTAIR and p53 in NSCLC cells, which revealed a new understanding of tumorigenesis in p53 dysfunction NSCLC cells. Keywords: NSCLC, LncRNA HOTAIR, p53, negative loop

  8. Impaired down-regulation of negative emotion in self-referent social situations in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærstad, Hanne L; Vinberg, Maj; Goldin, Philippe R

    2016-01-01

    naturally or dampen their emotional response to positive and negative social scenarios and associated self-beliefs. They were also given an established experimental task for comparison, involving reappraisal of negative affective picture stimuli, as well as a questionnaire of habitual ER strategies. BD...... patients showed reduced ability to down-regulate emotional responses in negative, but not positive, social scenarios relative to healthy controls and UD patients. In contrast, there were no between-group differences in the established ER task or in self-reported habitual reappraisal strategies. Findings...

  9. NDRG2 inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma adhesion, migration and invasion by regulating CD24 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Jin; Guo, Hang; Tao, Yurong; Xue, Yan; Jiang, Ning; Yao, Libo; Liu, Wenchao; Li, Yan; Yang, Jiandong; Liu, Qiang; Shi, Ming; Zhang, Rui; Shi, Hengjun; Ren, Qinyou; Ma, Ji

    2011-01-01

    The prognosis of most hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients is poor due to the high metastatic rate of the disease. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying HCC metastasis is extremely urgent. The role of CD24 and NDRG2 (N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2), a candidate tumor suppressor gene, has not yet been explored in HCC. The mRNA and protein expression of CD24 and NDRG2 was analyzed in MHCC97H, Huh7 and L-02 cells. Changes in cell adhesion, migration and invasion were detected by up- or down-regulating NDRG2 by adenovirus or siRNA. The expression pattern of NDRG2 and CD24 in HCC tissues and the relationship between NDRG2 and HCC clinical features was analyzed by immunohistochemical and western blotting analysis. NDRG2 expression was negatively correlated with malignancy in HCC. NDRG2 exerted anti-tumor activity by regulating CD24, a molecule that mediates cell-cell interaction, tumor proliferation and adhesion. NDRG2 up-regulation decreased CD24 expression and cell adhesion, migration and invasion. By contrast, NDRG2 down-regulation enhanced CD24 expression and cell adhesion, migration and invasion. Immunohistochemical analysis of 50 human HCC clinical specimens showed a strong correlation between NDRG2 down-regulation and CD24 overexpression (P = 0.04). In addition, increased frequency of NDRG2 down-regulation was observed in patients with elevated AFP serum level (P = 0.006), late TNM stage (P = 0.009), poor differentiation grade (P = 0.002), tumor invasion (P = 0.004) and recurrence (P = 0.024). Our findings indicate that NDRG2 and CD24 regulate HCC adhesion, migration and invasion. The expression level of NDRG2 is closely related to the clinical features of HCC. Thus, NDRG2 plays an important physiological role in HCC metastasis

  10. A negative regulator encoded by a rice WRKY gene represses both abscisic acid and gibberellins signaling in aleurone cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhong-Lin; Shin, Margaret; Zou, Xiaolu; Huang, Jianzhi; Ho, Tun-hua David; Shen, Qingxi J

    2009-05-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAs) control several developmental processes including seed maturation, dormancy, and germination. The antagonism of these two hormones is well-documented. However, recent data from transcription profiling studies indicate that they can function as agonists in regulating the expression of many genes although the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here we report a rice WRKY gene, OsWRKY24, which encodes a protein that functions as a negative regulator of both GA and ABA signaling. Overexpression of OsWRKY24 via particle bombardment-mediated transient expression in aleurone cells represses the expression of two reporter constructs: the beta-glucuronidase gene driven by the GA-inducible Amy32b alpha-amylase promoter (Amy32b-GUS) and the ABA-inducible HVA22 promoter (HVA22-GUS). OsWRKY24 is unlikely a general repressor because it has little effect on the expression of the luciferase reporter gene driven by a constitutive ubiquitin promoter (UBI-Luciferase). As to the GA signaling, OsWRKY24 differs from OsWRKY51 and -71, two negative regulators specifically function in the GA signaling pathway, in several ways. First, OsWRKY24 contains two WRKY domains while OsWRKY51 and -71 have only one; both WRKY domains are essential for the full repressing activity of OsWRKY24. Second, binding of OsWRKY24 to the Amy32b promoter appears to involve sequences in addition to the TGAC cores of the W-boxes. Third, unlike OsWRKY71, OsWRKY24 is stable upon GA treatment. Together, these data demonstrate that OsWRKY24 is a novel type of transcriptional repressor that inhibits both GA and ABA signaling.

  11. Expression regulation of design process gene in product design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bo; Fang, Lusheng; Li, Bo

    2011-01-01

    To improve the design process efficiency, this paper proposes the principle and methodology that design process gene controls the characteristics of design process under the framework of design process reuse and optimization based on design process gene. First, the concept of design process gene...... is proposed and analyzed, as well as its three categories i.e., the operator gene, the structural gene and the regulator gene. Second, the trigger mechanism that design objectives and constraints trigger the operator gene is constructed. Third, the expression principle of structural gene is analyzed...... with the example of design management gene. Last, the regulation mode that the regulator gene regulates the expression of the structural gene is established and it is illustrated by taking the design process management gene as an example. © (2011) Trans Tech Publications....

  12. Expression of neuropeptide W in rat stomach mucosa: regulation by nutritional status, glucocorticoids and thyroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminos, Jorge E; Bravo, Susana B; García-Rendueles, María E R; Ruth González, C; Garcés, Maria F; Cepeda, Libia A; Lage, Ricardo; Suárez, Miguel A; López, Miguel; Diéguez, Carlos

    2008-02-07

    Neuropeptide W (NPW) is a recently identified neuropeptide that binds to G-protein-coupled receptor 7 (GPR7) and 8 (GPR8). In rodent brain, NPW mRNA is confined to specific nuclei in hypothalamus, midbrain and brainstem. Expression of NPW mRNA has also been confirmed in peripheral organs such as stomach. Several reports suggested that brain NPW is implicated in the regulation of energy and hormonal homeostasis, namely the adrenal and thyroid axes; however the precise physiological role and regulation of peripheral NPW remains unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of nutritional status on the regulation of NPW in stomach mucosa. Our results show that in this tissue, NPW mRNA and protein expression is negatively regulated by fasting and food restriction, in all the models we studied: males, females and pregnant females. Next, we examined the effect of glucocorticoids and thyroid hormones on NPW mRNA expression in the stomach mucosa. Our data showed that NPW expression is decreased in this tissue after glucocorticoid treatment or hyperthyroidism. Conversely, hypothyroidism induces a marked increase in the expression of NPW in rat stomach. Overall, these data indicate that stomach NPW is regulated by nutritional and hormonal status.

  13. Methylation status regulates lipoprotein lipase expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Cecilia; Moreno, Pilar; Palacios, Florencia; Borge, Mercedes; Morande, Pablo; Landoni, Ana Inés; Gabus, Raul; Dighiero, Guillermo; Giordano, Mirta; Gamberale, Romina; Oppezzo, Pablo

    2013-08-01

    Among different prognostic factors in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), we previously demonstrated that lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is associated with an unmutated immunoglobulin profile and clinical poor outcome. Despite the usefulness of LPL for CLL prognosis, its functional role and the molecular mechanism regulating its expression are still open questions. Interaction of CLL B-cells with the tissue microenvironment favors disease progression by promoting malignant B-cell growth. Since tissue methylation can be altered by environmental factors, we investigated the methylation status of the LPL gene and the possibility that overexpression could be associated with microenvironment signals. Our results show that a demethylated state of the LPL gene is responsible for its anomalous expression in unmutated CLL cases and that this expression is dependent on microenvironment signals. Overall, this work proposes that an epigenetic mechanism, triggered by the microenvironment, regulates LPL expression in CLL disease.

  14. Tropoelastin regulates chemokine expression in fibroblasts in Costello syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatano, Yutaka; Fujinawa, Reiko; Kozutsumi, Yasunori; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Tsuji, Daisuke; Takeuchi, Naohiro; Tsuta, Kohji; Takada, Goro; Sakuraba, Hitoshi; Itoh, Kohji

    2008-01-01

    Costello syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly associated with growth and mental retardation, cardiac and skeletal anomalies, and a predisposition to develop neoplasia. Comprehensive expression analysis revealed remarkable up-regulation of several cytokines and chemokines including Gro family proteins, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-8 and MCP-1 but down-regulation of extracellular matrix components including collagens and proteoglycans of skin fibroblasts derived from a Japanese Costello syndrome patient characterized by significantly reduced tropoelastin mRNA, impaired elastogenesis and enhanced cell proliferation. In contrast, decreases in these chemokines and IL-1β expression were observed in Costello fibroblastic cell lines stably expressing the bovine tropoelastin (btEln) gene and in restored elastic fibers. These results strongly suggest that the human TE gene (ELN) transfer could be applicable for the gene therapy of a group of Costello syndrome patients with reduced ELN gene expression

  15. Trait Affect, Emotion Regulation, and the Generation of Negative and Positive Interpersonal Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jessica L; Burke, Taylor A; Stange, Jonathan P; Kleiman, Evan M; Rubenstein, Liza M; Scopelliti, Kate A; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2017-07-01

    Positive and negative trait affect and emotion regulatory strategies have received considerable attention in the literature as predictors of psychopathology. However, it remains unclear whether individuals' trait affect is associated with responses to state positive affect (positive rumination and dampening) or negative affect (ruminative brooding), or whether these affective experiences contribute to negative or positive interpersonal event generation. Among 304 late adolescents, path analyses indicated that individuals with higher trait negative affect utilized dampening and brooding rumination responses, whereas those with higher trait positive affect engaged in rumination on positive affect. Further, there were indirect relationships between trait negative affect and fewer positive and negative interpersonal events via dampening, and between trait positive affect and greater positive and negative interpersonal events via positive rumination. These findings suggest that individuals' trait negative and positive affect may be associated with increased utilization of emotion regulation strategies for managing these affects, which may contribute to the occurrence of positive and negative events in interpersonal relationships. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Up-Regulation of RFC3 Promotes Triple Negative Breast Cancer Metastasis and is Associated With Poor Prognosis Via EMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Yu He

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC was regarded as the most aggressive and mortal subtype of breast cancer (BC since the molecular subtype system has been established. Abundant studies have revealed that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT played a pivotal role during breast cancer metastasis and progression, especially in TNBC. Herein, we showed that inhibition the expression of replication factor C subunit 3 (RFC3 significantly attenuated TNBC metastasis and progression, which was associated with EMT signal pathway. In TNBC cells, knockdown of RFC3 can down-regulate mesenchymal markers and up-regulate epithelial markers, significantly attenuated cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Additionally, silencing RFC3 expression can decrease nude mice tumor volume, weight and relieve lung metastasis in vivo. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that overexpression of RFC3 in TNBC showed increased metastasis, progression and poor prognosis. We confirmed all of these results by immunohistochemistry analysis in 127 human TNBC tissues and found that RFC3 expression was significantly associated with poor prognosis in TNBC. Taken all these findings into consideration, we can conclude that up-regulation of RFC3 promotes TNBC progression through EMT signal pathway. Therefore, RFC3 could be an independent prognostic factor and therapeutic target for TNBC.

  17. Measuring ability to enhance and suppress emotional expression: The Flexible Regulation of Emotional Expression (FREE) Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Charles L; Bonanno, George A

    2016-08-01

    Flexibility in self-regulatory behaviors has proved to be an important quality for adjusting to stressful life events and requires individuals to have a diverse repertoire of emotion regulation abilities. However, the most commonly used emotion regulation questionnaires assess frequency of behavior rather than ability, with little evidence linking these measures to observable capacity to enact a behavior. The aim of the current investigation was to develop and validate a Flexible Regulation of Emotional Expression (FREE) Scale that measures a person's ability to enhance and suppress displayed emotion across an array of hypothetical contexts. In Studies 1 and 2, a series of confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the FREE Scale consists of 4 first-order factors divided by regulation and emotional valence type that can contribute to 2 higher order factors: expressive enhancement ability and suppression ability. In Study 1, we also compared the FREE Scale to other commonly used emotion regulation measures, which revealed that suppression ability is conceptually distinct from suppression frequency. In Study 3, we compared the FREE Scale with a composite of traditional frequency-based indices of expressive regulation to predict performance in a previously validated emotional modulation paradigm. Participants' enhancement and suppression ability scores on the FREE Scale predicted their corresponding performance on the laboratory task, even when controlling for baseline expressiveness. These studies suggest that the FREE Scale is a valid and flexible measure of expressive regulation ability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Oxygen-dependent regulation of aquaporin-3 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoogewijs D

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available David Hoogewijs,1,2 Melanie Vogler,3 Eveline Zwenger,3 Sabine Krull,3 Anke Zieseniss3 1Institute of Physiology, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany; 2Institute of Physiology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland; 3Institute of Cardiovascular Physiology, University Medical Center Göttingen, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, GermanyAbstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether aquaporin-3 (AQP3 expression is altered in hypoxia and whether hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF-1 regulates the hypoxic expression. AQP3 mRNA expression was studied in L929 fibrosarcoma cells and in several tissues derived from mice that were subjected to hypoxia. Computational analysis of the AQP3 promoter revealed conserved HIF binding sites within close proximity to the translational start site, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed binding of HIF-1 to the endogenous hypoxia response elements. Furthermore, hypoxia resulted in increased expression of AQP3 mRNA in L929 fibrosarcoma cells. Consistently, shRNA-mediated knockdown of HIF-1 greatly reduced the hypoxic induction of AQP3. In addition, mRNA analysis of organs from mice exposed to inspiratory hypoxia demonstrated pronounced hypoxia-inducible expression of AQP3 in the kidney. Overall, our findings suggest that AQP3 expression can be regulated at the transcriptional level and that AQP3 represents a novel HIF-1 target gene. Keywords: transcriptional regulation, oxygen, hypoxia-inducible factor, hypoxia response element

  19. Attachment's Links With Adolescents' Social Emotions: The Roles of Negative Emotionality and Emotion Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Tia Panfile; Laible, Deborah J; Augustine, Mairin; Robeson, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has attempted to explain the mechanisms through which parental attachment affects social and emotional outcomes (e.g., Burnette, Taylor, Worthington, & Forsyth, 2007 ; Panfile & Laible, 2012 ). The authors' goal was to examine negative emotionality and emotion regulation as mediators of the associations that attachment has with empathy, forgiveness, guilt, and jealousy. One hundred forty-eight adolescents reported their parental attachment security, general levels of negative emotionality and abilities to regulate emotional responses, and tendencies to feel empathy, forgiveness, guilt, and jealousy. Results revealed that attachment security was associated with higher levels of empathy, forgiveness, and guilt, but lower levels of jealousy. In addition, emotion regulation mediated the links attachment shared with both empathy and guilt, such that higher levels of attachment security were linked with greater levels of emotion regulation, which led to greater levels of empathy and guilt. Alternatively, negative emotionality mediated the links attachment shared with both forgiveness and jealousy, such that higher levels of attachment security were associated with lower levels of negative emotionality, which in turn was linked to lower levels of forgiveness and higher levels of jealousy. This study provides a general picture of how attachment security may play a role in shaping an individual's levels of social emotions.

  20. CPC, a single-repeat R3 MYB, is a negative regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hui-Fen; Fitzsimmons, Karen; Khandelwal, Abha; Kranz, Robert G

    2009-07-01

    Single-repeat R3 MYB transcription factors like CPC (CAPRICE) are known to play roles in developmental processes such as root hair differentiation and trichome initiation. However, none of the six Arabidopsis single-repeat R3 MYB members has been reported to regulate flavonoid biosynthesis. We show here that CPC is a negative regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis. In the process of using CPC to test GAL4-dependent driver lines, we observed a repression of anthocyanin synthesis upon GAL4-mediated CPC overexpression. We demonstrated that this is not due to an increase in nutrient uptake because of more root hairs. Rather, CPC expression level tightly controls anthocyanin accumulation. Microarray analysis on the whole genome showed that, of 37 000 features tested, 85 genes are repressed greater than three-fold by CPC overexpression. Of these 85, seven are late anthocyanin biosynthesis genes. Also, anthocyanin synthesis genes were shown to be down-regulated in 35S::CPC overexpression plants. Transient expression results suggest that CPC competes with the R2R3-MYB transcription factor PAP1/2, which is an activator of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes. This report adds anthocyanin biosynthesis to the set of programs that are under CPC control, indicating that this regulator is not only for developmental programs (e.g. root hairs, trichomes), but can influence anthocyanin pigment synthesis.

  1. Improved wound management by regulated negative pressure-assisted wound therapy and regulated, oxygen- enriched negative pressure-assisted wound therapy through basic science research and clinical assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moris Topaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulated negative pressure-assisted wound therapy (RNPT should be regarded as a state-of-the-art technology in wound treatment and the most important physical, nonpharmaceutical, platform technology developed and applied for wound healing in the last two decades. RNPT systems maintain the treated wound′s environment as a semi-closed, semi-isolated system applying external physical stimulations to the wound, leading to biological and biochemical effects, with the potential to substantially influence wound-host interactions, and when properly applied may enhance wound healing. RNPT is a simple, safe, and affordable tool that can be utilized in a wide range of acute and chronic conditions, with reduced need for complicated surgical procedures, and antibiotic treatment. This technology has been shown to be effective and safe, saving limbs and lives on a global scale. Regulated, oxygen-enriched negative pressure-assisted wound therapy (RO-NPT is an innovative technology, whereby supplemental oxygen is concurrently administered with RNPT for their synergistic effect on treatment and prophylaxis of anaerobic wound infection and promotion of wound healing. Understanding the basic science, modes of operation and the associated risks of these technologies through their fundamental clinical mechanisms is the main objective of this review.

  2. Regulation of MYCN expression in human neuroblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, Joannes FM; Bokhoven, Hans van; Leeuwen, Frank N van; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Christina A; Vries, I Jolanda M de; Adema, Gosse J; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M; Brouwer, Arjan PM de

    2009-01-01

    Amplification of the MYCN gene in neuroblastoma (NB) is associated with a poor prognosis. However, MYCN-amplification does not automatically result in higher expression of MYCN in children with NB. We hypothesized that the discrepancy between MYCN gene expression and prognosis in these children might be explained by the expression of either MYCN-opposite strand (MYCNOS) or the shortened MYCN-isoform (ΔMYCN) that was recently identified in fetal tissues. Both MYCNOS and ΔMYCN are potential inhibitors of MYCN either at the mRNA or at the protein level. Expression of MYCN, MYCNOS and ΔMYCN was measured in human NB tissues of different stages. Transcript levels were quantified using a real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay (QPCR). In addition, relative expression of these three transcripts was compared to the number of MYCN copies, which was determined by genomic real-time PCR (gQPCR). Both ΔMYCN and MYCNOS are expressed in all NBs examined. In NBs with MYCN-amplification, these transcripts are significantly higher expressed. The ratio of MYCN:ΔMYCN expression was identical in all tested NBs. This indicates that ΔMYCN and MYCN are co-regulated, which suggests that ΔMYCN is not a regulator of MYCN in NB. However, the ratio of MYCNOS:MYCN expression is directly correlated with NB disease stage (p = 0.007). In the more advanced NB stages and NBs with MYCN-amplification, relatively more MYCNOS is present as compared to MYCN. Expression of the antisense gene MYCNOS might be relevant to the progression of NB, potentially by directly inhibiting MYCN transcription by transcriptional interference at the DNA level. The MYCNOS:MYCN-ratio in NBs is significantly correlated with both MYCN-amplification and NB-stage. Our data indicate that in NB, MYCN expression levels might be influenced by MYCNOS but not by ΔMYCN

  3. Mutation analysis of the negative regulator cyclin G2 in gastric cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cyclin G2 is an unconventional cyclin which might have a potential negative role in carcinogenesis. In this study, the effect of cyclin G2 overexpression on gastric cell proliferation and expression levels of cyclin G2 in normal gastric cells and gastric cancer cells were investigated. Moreover, mutation analysis was performed ...

  4. Facial Expression Recognition via Non-Negative Least-Squares Sparse Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sparse coding is an active research subject in signal processing, computer vision, and pattern recognition. A novel method of facial expression recognition via non-negative least squares (NNLS sparse coding is presented in this paper. The NNLS sparse coding is used to form a facial expression classifier. To testify the performance of the presented method, local binary patterns (LBP and the raw pixels are extracted for facial feature representation. Facial expression recognition experiments are conducted on the Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE database. Compared with other widely used methods such as linear support vector machines (SVM, sparse representation-based classifier (SRC, nearest subspace classifier (NSC, K-nearest neighbor (KNN and radial basis function neural networks (RBFNN, the experiment results indicate that the presented NNLS method performs better than other used methods on facial expression recognition tasks.

  5. TLX is an intrinsic regulator of the negative effects of IL-1β on proliferating hippocampal neural progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ó'Léime, Ciarán S; Kozareva, Danka A; Hoban, Alan E; Long-Smith, Caitriona M; Cryan, John F; Nolan, Yvonne M

    2018-02-01

    Hippocampal neurogenesis is a lifelong process whereby new neurons are produced and integrate into the host circuitry within the hippocampus. It is regulated by a multitude of extrinsic and intrinsic regulators and is believed to contribute to certain hippocampal-dependent cognitive tasks. Hippocampal neurogenesis and associated cognition have been demonstrated to be impaired after increases in the levels of proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β in the hippocampus, such as that which occurs in various neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. IL-1β also suppresses the expression of TLX (orphan nuclear receptor tailless homolog), which is an orphan nuclear receptor that functions to promote neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation and suppress neuronal differentiation; therefore, manipulation of TLX represents a potential strategy with which to prevent the antiproliferative effects of IL-1β. In this study, we assessed the mechanism that underlies IL-1β-induced changes in TLX expression and determined the protective capacity of TLX to mitigate the effects of IL-1β on embryonic rat hippocampal neurosphere expansion. We demonstrate that IL-1β activated the NF-κB pathway in proliferating NPCs and that this activation was responsible for IL-1β-induced changes in TLX expression. In addition, we report that enhancing TLX expression prevented the IL-1β-induced suppression of neurosphere expansion. Thus, we highlight TLX as a potential protective regulator of the antiproliferative effects of IL-1β on hippocampal neurogenesis.-Ó'Léime, C. S., Kozareva, D. A., Hoban, A. E., Long-Smith, C. M., Cryan, J. F., Nolan, Y. M. TLX is an intrinsic regulator of the negative effects of IL-1β on proliferating hippocampal neural progenitor cells.

  6. Inhibited expression of negative emotions and interpersonal orientation in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, J; Cockell, S J; Hewitt, P L; Goldner, E M; Flett, G L

    2000-07-01

    This study examined inhibited expression of negative feelings and interpersonal orientation in women with anorexia nervosa. Twenty-one women meeting DSM-IV criteria for anorexia nervosa were compared with 21 psychiatric and 21 normal control women matched on education. Two measures were used to assess inhibited expression of negative feelings and interpersonal orientation: the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory assesses the suppression and expression of anger and the Silencing the Self Scale assesses four cognitive schemas involving the repression of needs and feelings to protect interpersonal relationships. Women with anorexia nervosa reported significantly higher scores on the four Silencing the Self schemas and on suppressed anger after controlling for age. These group differences were maintained for two of the cognitive schemas (Care and Silence) after controlling for depression, self-esteem, and global assessment of functioning. Inhibited expression of negative emotion and interpersonal orientation scores were also significantly related to cognitive and affective components of body image dissatisfaction and to trait and self-presentational dimensions of perfectionism. These findings are reviewed in the context of health psychology, as well as feminist and temperament theories. Implications for treatment are addressed. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  7. Myocardin-related transcription factor regulates Nox4 protein expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rozycki, Matthew; Bialik, Janne Folke; Speight, Pam

    2016-01-01

    translocation of MRTF. Because the Nox4 promoter harbors a serum response factor/MRTF cis-element (CC(A/T)6GG box), we asked if MRTF (and thus cytoskeleton organization) could regulate Nox4 expression. We show that Nox4 protein is robustly induced in kidney tubular cells exclusively by combined application...... TGFβ/contact disruption-provoked Nox4 protein and mRNA expression, Nox4 promoter activation, and reactive oxygen species production. Mutation of the CC(A/T)6GG box eliminates the synergistic activation of the Nox4 promoter. Jasplakinolide-induced actin polymerization synergizes with TGFβ to facilitate...... MRTF-dependent Nox4 mRNA expression/promoter activation. Moreover, MRTF inhibition prevents Nox4 expression during TGFβ-induced fibroblast-myofibroblast transition as well. Although necessary, MRTF is insufficient; Nox4 expression also requires TGFβ-activated Smad3 and TAZ/YAP, two contact...

  8. N-wasp is essential for the negative regulation of B cell receptor signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaohong Liu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Negative regulation of receptor signaling is essential for controlling cell activation and differentiation. In B-lymphocytes, the down-regulation of B-cell antigen receptor (BCR signaling is critical for suppressing the activation of self-reactive B cells; however, the mechanism underlying the negative regulation of signaling remains elusive. Using genetically manipulated mouse models and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we demonstrate that neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP, which is coexpressed with WASP in all immune cells, is a critical negative regulator of B-cell signaling. B-cell-specific N-WASP gene deletion causes enhanced and prolonged BCR signaling and elevated levels of autoantibodies in the mouse serum. The increased signaling in N-WASP knockout B cells is concurrent with increased accumulation of F-actin at the B-cell surface, enhanced B-cell spreading on the antigen-presenting membrane, delayed B-cell contraction, inhibition in the merger of signaling active BCR microclusters into signaling inactive central clusters, and a blockage of BCR internalization. Upon BCR activation, WASP is activated first, followed by N-WASP in mouse and human primary B cells. The activation of N-WASP is suppressed by Bruton's tyrosine kinase-induced WASP activation, and is restored by the activation of SH2 domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase that inhibits WASP activation. Our results reveal a new mechanism for the negative regulation of BCR signaling and broadly suggest an actin-mediated mechanism for signaling down-regulation.

  9. DMBT1 expression is down-regulated in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braidotti, P; Pietra, GG; Nuciforo, PG; Mollenhauer, J; Poustka, A; Pellegrini, C; Moro, A; Bulfamante, G; Coggi, G; Bosari, S

    2004-01-01

    We studied the expression of DMBT1 (deleted in malignant brain tumor 1), a putative tumor suppressor gene, in normal, proliferative, and malignant breast epithelium and its possible relation to cell cycle. Sections from 17 benign lesions and 55 carcinomas were immunostained with anti DMBT1 antibody (DMBTh12) and sections from 36 samples, were double-stained also with anti MCM5, one of the 6 pre-replicative complex proteins with cell proliferation-licensing functions. DMBT1 gene expression at mRNA level was assessed by RT-PCR in frozen tissues samples from 39 patients. Normal glands and hyperplastic epithelium in benign lesions displayed a luminal polarized DMBTh12 immunoreactivity. Normal and hyperplastic epithelium adjacent to carcinomas showed a loss of polarization, with immunostaining present in basal and perinuclear cytoplasmic compartments. DMBT1 protein expression was down-regulated in the cancerous lesions compared to the normal and/or hyperplastic epithelium adjacent to carcinomas (3/55 positive carcinomas versus 33/42 positive normal/hyperplastic epithelia; p = 0.0001). In 72% of cases RT-PCR confirmed immunohistochemical results. Most of normal and hyperplastic mammary cells positive with DMBTh12 were also MCM5-positive. The redistribution and up-regulation of DMBT1 in normal and hyperplastic tissues flanking malignant tumours and its down-regulation in carcinomas suggests a potential role in breast cancer. Moreover, the concomitant expression of DMTB1 and MCM5 suggests its possible association with the cell-cycle regulation

  10. Calcium regulates the expression of a Dictyostelium discoideum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a screen for calcium-regulated gene expression during growth and development of Dictyostelium discoideum we have identified an asparaginyl tRNA synthetase (ddAsnRS) gene, the second tRNA synthetase gene identified in this organism. The ddAsnRS gene shows many unique features. One, it is repressed by ...

  11. Expression of HIF-1{alpha} in irradiated tissue is altered by topical negative-pressure therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, A.; Stange, S.; Labanaris, A.; Horch, R.E. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Plastic and Hand Surgery; Dimmler, A. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Pathology; Sauer, R.; Grabenbauer, G. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2007-03-15

    Background and Purpose: Despite the enormous therapeutic potential of modern radiotherapy, common side effects such as radiation-induced wound healing disorders remain a well-known clinical phenomenon. Topical negative pressure therapy (TNP) is a novel tool to alleviate intraoperative, percutaneous irradiation or brachytherapy. Since TNP has been shown to positively influence the perfusion of chronic, poorly vascularized wounds, the authors applied this therapeutic method to irradiated wounds and investigated the effect on tissue oxygenation in irradiated tissue in five patients. Material and Methods: With informed patients' consent, samples prior to and 4 and 8 days after continuous TNP with -125 mmHg were obtained during routine wound debridements. Granulation tissue was stained with hematoxylin-eosin, and additionally with CD31, HIF-1{alpha} (hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha}), and D2-40 to detect blood vessels, measure indirect signs of hypoxia, and lymph vessel distribution within the pre- and post-TNP samples. Results: In this first series of experiments, a positive influence of TNP onto tissue oxygenation in radiation-induced wounds could be demonstrated. TNP led to a significant decrease of 53% HIF-1{alpha}-positive cell nuclei. At the same time, a slight reduction of CD31-stained capillaries was seen in comparison to samples before TNP. Immunostaining with D2-40 revealed an increased number of lymphatic vessels with distended lumina and an alteration of the parallel orientation within the post-TNP samples. Conclusion: This study is, to the authors' knowledge, the first report on a novel previously not described histological marker to demonstrate the effects of TNP on HIF-1{alpha} expression as an indirect marker of tissue oxygenation in irradiated wounds, as demonstrated by a reduction of HIF-1{alpha} concentration after TNP. Since this observation may be of significant value to develop possible new strategies to treat radiation-induced tissue

  12. Expression of HIF-1α in irradiated tissue is altered by topical negative-pressure therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, A.; Stange, S.; Labanaris, A.; Horch, R.E.; Dimmler, A.; Sauer, R.; Grabenbauer, G.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Despite the enormous therapeutic potential of modern radiotherapy, common side effects such as radiation-induced wound healing disorders remain a well-known clinical phenomenon. Topical negative pressure therapy (TNP) is a novel tool to alleviate intraoperative, percutaneous irradiation or brachytherapy. Since TNP has been shown to positively influence the perfusion of chronic, poorly vascularized wounds, the authors applied this therapeutic method to irradiated wounds and investigated the effect on tissue oxygenation in irradiated tissue in five patients. Material and Methods: With informed patients' consent, samples prior to and 4 and 8 days after continuous TNP with -125 mmHg were obtained during routine wound debridements. Granulation tissue was stained with hematoxylin-eosin, and additionally with CD31, HIF-1α (hypoxia-inducible factor-1α), and D2-40 to detect blood vessels, measure indirect signs of hypoxia, and lymph vessel distribution within the pre- and post-TNP samples. Results: In this first series of experiments, a positive influence of TNP onto tissue oxygenation in radiation-induced wounds could be demonstrated. TNP led to a significant decrease of 53% HIF-1α-positive cell nuclei. At the same time, a slight reduction of CD31-stained capillaries was seen in comparison to samples before TNP. Immunostaining with D2-40 revealed an increased number of lymphatic vessels with distended lumina and an alteration of the parallel orientation within the post-TNP samples. Conclusion: This study is, to the authors' knowledge, the first report on a novel previously not described histological marker to demonstrate the effects of TNP on HIF-1α expression as an indirect marker of tissue oxygenation in irradiated wounds, as demonstrated by a reduction of HIF-1α concentration after TNP. Since this observation may be of significant value to develop possible new strategies to treat radiation-induced tissue injury, further investigations of HIF

  13. Neural activity to a partner's facial expression predicts self-regulation after conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Christine I.; Gyurak, Anett; Verosky, Sara; Miyakawa, Asako; Ayduk, Özlem

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Failure to self-regulate after an interpersonal conflict can result in persistent negative mood and maladaptive behaviors. Research indicates that lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) activity is related to the regulation of emotional experience in response to lab-based affective challenges, such as viewing emotional pictures. This suggests that compromised LPFC function may be a risk-factor for mood and behavior problems after an interpersonal stressor. However, it remains unclear whether LPFC activity to a lab-based affective challenge predicts self-regulation in real-life. Method We investigated whether LPFC activity to a lab-based affective challenge (negative facial expressions of a partner) predicts self-regulation after a real-life affective challenge (interpersonal conflict). During an fMRI scan, healthy, adult participants in committed, dating relationships (N = 27) viewed positive, negative, and neutral facial expressions of their partners. In an online daily-diary, participants reported conflict occurrence, level of negative mood, rumination, and substance-use. Results LPFC activity in response to the lab-based affective challenge predicted self-regulation after an interpersonal conflict in daily life. When there was no interpersonal conflict, LPFC activity was not related to the change in mood or behavior the next day. However, when an interpersonal conflict did occur, ventral LPFC (VLPFC) activity predicted the change in mood and behavior the next day, such that lower VLPFC activity was related to higher levels of negative mood, rumination, and substance-use. Conclusions Low LPFC function may be a vulnerability and high LPFC function may be a protective factor for the development of mood and behavior problems after an interpersonal stressor. PMID:20004365

  14. Neural activity to a partner's facial expression predicts self-regulation after conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Christine I; Gyurak, Anett; Verosky, Sara C; Miyakawa, Asako; Ayduk, Ozlem

    2010-03-01

    Failure to self-regulate after an interpersonal conflict can result in persistent negative mood and maladaptive behaviors. Research indicates that lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) activity is related to emotion regulation in response to laboratory-based affective challenges, such as viewing emotional pictures. This suggests that compromised LPFC function may be a risk factor for mood and behavior problems after an interpersonal conflict. However, it remains unclear whether LPFC activity to a laboratory-based affective challenge predicts self-regulation in real life. We investigated whether LPFC activity to a laboratory-based affective challenge (negative facial expressions of a partner) predicts self-regulation after a real-life affective challenge (interpersonal conflict). During a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan, healthy, adult participants in committed relationships (n = 27) viewed positive, negative, and neutral facial expressions of their partners. In a three-week online daily diary, participants reported conflict occurrence, level of negative mood, rumination, and substance use. LPFC activity in response to the laboratory-based affective challenge predicted self-regulation after an interpersonal conflict in daily life. When there was no interpersonal conflict, LPFC activity was not related to mood or behavior the next day. However, when an interpersonal conflict did occur, ventral LPFC (VLPFC) activity predicted mood and behavior the next day, such that lower VLPFC activity was related to higher levels of negative mood, rumination, and substance use. Low LPFC function may be a vulnerability and high LPFC function may be a protective factor for the development of mood and behavior problems after an interpersonal stressor. Copyright 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The ethylene response factor AtERF4 negatively regulates the iron deficiency response in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe deficiency is one of many conditions that can seriously damage crops. Low levels of photosynthesis can lead to the degradation of chlorophyll content and impaired respiration in affected plants, which together cause poor growth and reduce quality. Although ethylene plays an important role in responses to Fe deficiency, a limited number of studies have been carried out on ethylene response factor (ERFs as components of plant regulation mechanisms. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the role of AtERF4 in plant responses to Fe deficiency. Results collected when Arabidopsis thaliana was grown under Fe deficient conditions as well as in the presence of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC revealed that leaf chlorosis did not occur over short timescales and that chloroplast structural integrity was retained. At the same time, expression of the chlorophyll degradation-related genes AtPAO and AtCLH1 was inhibited and net H+ root flux was amplified. Our results show that chlorophyll content was enhanced in the mutant erf4, while expression of the chlorophyll degradation gene AtCLH1 was reduced. Ferric reductase activity in roots was also significantly higher in the mutant than in wild type plants, while erf4 caused high levels of expression of the genes AtIRT1 and AtHA2 under Fe deficient conditions. We also utilized yeast one-hybrid technology in this study to determine that AtERF4 binds directly to the AtCLH1 and AtITR1 promoter. Observations show that transient over-expression of AtERF4 resulted in rapid chlorophyll degradation in the leaves of Nicotiana tabacum and the up-regulation of gene AtCLH1 expression. In summary, AtERF4 plays an important role as a negative regulator of Fe deficiency responses, we hypothesize that AtERF4 may exert a balancing effect on plants subject to nutrition stress.

  16. BAG3 promotes tumour cell proliferation by regulating EGFR signal transduction pathways in triple negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Sarah; Conroy, Emer; O'Grady, Tony; McGoldrick, Alo; Connor, Kate; Ward, Mark P; Useckaite, Zivile; Dempsey, Eugene; Reilly, Rebecca; Fan, Yue; Chubb, Anthony; Matallanas, David Gomez; Kay, Elaine W; O'Connor, Darran; McCann, Amanda; Gallagher, William M; Coppinger, Judith A

    2018-03-20

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), is a heterogeneous disease characterised by absence of expression of the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and lack of amplification of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). TNBC patients can exhibit poor prognosis and high recurrence stages despite early response to chemotherapy treatment. In this study, we identified a pro-survival signalling protein BCL2- associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) to be highly expressed in a subset of TNBC cell lines and tumour tissues. High mRNA expression of BAG3 in TNBC patient cohorts significantly associated with a lower recurrence free survival. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is amplified in TNBC and EGFR signalling dynamics impinge on cancer cell survival and disease recurrence. We found a correlation between BAG3 and EGFR expression in TNBC cell lines and determined that BAG3 can regulate tumour cell proliferation, migration and invasion in EGFR expressing TNBC cells lines. We identified an interaction between BAG3 and components of the EGFR signalling networks using mass spectrometry. Furthermore, BAG3 contributed to regulation of proliferation in TNBC cell lines by reducing the activation of components of the PI3K/AKT and FAK/Src signalling subnetworks. Finally, we found that combined targeting of BAG3 and EGFR was more effective than inhibition of EGFR with Cetuximab alone in TNBC cell lines. This study demonstrates a role for BAG3 in regulation of distinct EGFR modules and highlights the potential of BAG3 as a therapeutic target in TNBC.

  17. Glucose Regulates the Expression of the Apolipoprotein A5 Gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruchart, Jamila; Nowak, Maxime; Helleboid-Chapman, Audrey; Jakel, Heidelinde; Moitrot, Emmanuelle; Rommens, Corinne; Pennacchio, Len A.; Fruchart-Najib, Jamila; Fruchart, Jean-Charles

    2008-04-07

    The apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) is a key player in determining triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. Since diabetes is often associated with hypertriglyceridemia, this study explores whether APOA5 gene expression is regulated by alteration in glucose homeostasis and the related pathways. D-glucose activates APOA5 gene expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner in hepatocytes, and the glycolytic pathway involved was determined using D-glucose analogs and metabolites. Together, transient transfections, electrophoretic mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays show that this regulation occurs at the transcriptional level through an increase of USF1/2 binding to an E-box in the APOA5 promoter. We show that this phenomenon is not due to an increase of mRNA or protein expression levels of USF. Using protein phosphatases 1 and 2A inhibitor, we demonstrate that D-glucose regulates APOA5 gene via a dephosphorylation mechanism, thereby resulting in an enhanced USF1/2-promoter binding. Last, subsequent suppressions of USF1/2 and phosphatases mRNA through siRNA gene silencing abolished the regulation. We demonstrate that APOA5 gene is up regulated by D-glucose and USF through phosphatase activation. These findings may provide a new cross talk between glucose and lipid metabolism.

  18. Hypercholesterolemia and apolipoprotein B expression: Regulation by selenium status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal Mohinder P

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apolipoprotein B (apoB contains ligand-binding domain for the binding of LDL to LDL-R site, which enables the removal of LDL from circulation. Our recent data showed that selenium (Se is involved in the lipid metabolism. The present study was aimed to understand the effect of Se deficiency (0.02 ppm and selenium supplementation (1 ppm on apoB expression in liver during hypercholesterolemia in male Sprague Dawley rats. Animals were fed with control and high cholesterol diet (2% for 1 and 2 months. ApoB levels by ELISA and protein expression by western blot was done. Hepatic LDL receptor (LDL-R activity (in vivo and mRNA expression by RT-PCR was monitored. Results In selenium deficiency and on high cholesterol diet (HCD feeding apoB levels increased and LDL-R expression decreased significantly after 2 months. On 1 ppm selenium supplementation apoB expression significantly decreased and LDL-R expression increased after 2 months. But after one month of treatment there was no significant change observed in apoB and LDL-R expression. Conclusion So the present study demonstrates that Se deficiency leads to up regulation of apoB expression during experimental hypercholesterolemia. Selenium supplementation upto 1 ppm leads to downregulation of apoB expression. Further, this study will highlight the nutritional value of Se supplementation in lipid metabolism.

  19. Acid Sphingomyelinase (ASM) is a Negative Regulator of Regulatory T Cell (Treg) Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuetao; Salker, Madhuri S; Walker, Britta; Münzer, Patrick; Borst, Oliver; Gawaz, Meinrad; Gulbins, Erich; Singh, Yogesh; Lang, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory T cell (Treg) is required for the maintenance of tolerance to various tissue antigens and to protect the host from autoimmune disorders. However, Treg may, indirectly, support cancer progression and bacterial infections. Therefore, a balance of Treg function is pivotal for adequate immune responses. Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) is a rate limiting enzyme involved in the production of ceramide by breaking down sphingomyelin. Previous studies in T-cells have suggested that ASM is involved in CD28 signalling, T lymphocyte granule secretion, degranulation, and vesicle shedding similar to the formation of phosphatidylserine-exposing microparticles from glial cells. However, whether ASM affects the development of Treg has not yet been described. Splenocytes, isolated Naive T lymphocytes and cultured T cells were characterized for various immune T cell markers by flow cytometery. Cell proliferation was measured by Carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) dye, cell cycle analysis by Propidium Iodide (PI), mRNA transcripts by q-RT PCR and protein expression by Western Blotting respectively. ASM deficient mice have higher number of Treg compared with littermate control mice. In vitro induction of ASM deficient T cells in the presence of TGF-β and IL-2 lead to a significantly higher number of Foxp3+ induced Treg (iTreg) compared with control T-cells. Further, ASM deficient iTreg has less AKT (serine 473) phosphorylation and Rictor levels compared with control iTreg. Ceramide C6 led to significant reduction of iTreg in both ASM deficient and WT mice. The reduction in iTreg leads to induction of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-17 but not IFN-γ mRNA levels. ASM is a negative regulator of natural and iTreg. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Abscisic acid negatively regulates elicitor-induced synthesis of capsidiol in wild tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mialoundama, Alexis Samba; Heintz, Dimitri; Debayle, Delphine; Rahier, Alain; Camara, Bilal; Bouvier, Florence

    2009-07-01

    In the Solanaceae, biotic and abiotic elicitors induce de novo synthesis of sesquiterpenoid stress metabolites known as phytoalexins. Because plant hormones play critical roles in the induction of defense-responsive genes, we have explored the effect of abscisic acid (ABA) on the synthesis of capsidiol, the major wild tobacco (Nicotiana plumbaginifolia) sesquiterpenoid phytoalexin, using wild-type plants versus nonallelic mutants Npaba2 and Npaba1 that are deficient in ABA synthesis. Npaba2 and Npaba1 mutants exhibited a 2-fold higher synthesis of capsidiol than wild-type plants when elicited with either cellulase or arachidonic acid or when infected by Botrytis cinerea. The same trend was observed for the expression of the capsidiol biosynthetic genes 5-epi-aristolochene synthase and 5-epi-aristolochene hydroxylase. Treatment of wild-type plants with fluridone, an inhibitor of the upstream ABA pathway, recapitulated the behavior of Npaba2 and Npaba1 mutants, while the application of exogenous ABA reversed the enhanced synthesis of capsidiol in Npaba2 and Npaba1 mutants. Concomitant with the production of capsidiol, we observed the induction of ABA 8'-hydroxylase in elicited plants. In wild-type plants, the induction of ABA 8'-hydroxylase coincided with a decrease in ABA content and with the accumulation of ABA catabolic products such as phaseic acid and dihydrophaseic acid, suggesting a negative regulation exerted by ABA on capsidiol synthesis. Collectively, our data indicate that ABA is not required per se for the induction of capsidiol synthesis but is essentially implicated in a stress-response checkpoint to fine-tune the amplification of capsidiol synthesis in challenged plants.

  1. Abscisic Acid Negatively Regulates Elicitor-Induced Synthesis of Capsidiol in Wild Tobacco1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mialoundama, Alexis Samba; Heintz, Dimitri; Debayle, Delphine; Rahier, Alain; Camara, Bilal; Bouvier, Florence

    2009-01-01

    In the Solanaceae, biotic and abiotic elicitors induce de novo synthesis of sesquiterpenoid stress metabolites known as phytoalexins. Because plant hormones play critical roles in the induction of defense-responsive genes, we have explored the effect of abscisic acid (ABA) on the synthesis of capsidiol, the major wild tobacco (Nicotiana plumbaginifolia) sesquiterpenoid phytoalexin, using wild-type plants versus nonallelic mutants Npaba2 and Npaba1 that are deficient in ABA synthesis. Npaba2 and Npaba1 mutants exhibited a 2-fold higher synthesis of capsidiol than wild-type plants when elicited with either cellulase or arachidonic acid or when infected by Botrytis cinerea. The same trend was observed for the expression of the capsidiol biosynthetic genes 5-epi-aristolochene synthase and 5-epi-aristolochene hydroxylase. Treatment of wild-type plants with fluridone, an inhibitor of the upstream ABA pathway, recapitulated the behavior of Npaba2 and Npaba1 mutants, while the application of exogenous ABA reversed the enhanced synthesis of capsidiol in Npaba2 and Npaba1 mutants. Concomitant with the production of capsidiol, we observed the induction of ABA 8′-hydroxylase in elicited plants. In wild-type plants, the induction of ABA 8′-hydroxylase coincided with a decrease in ABA content and with the accumulation of ABA catabolic products such as phaseic acid and dihydrophaseic acid, suggesting a negative regulation exerted by ABA on capsidiol synthesis. Collectively, our data indicate that ABA is not required per se for the induction of capsidiol synthesis but is essentially implicated in a stress-response checkpoint to fine-tune the amplification of capsidiol synthesis in challenged plants. PMID:19420326

  2. Thyroid hormones regulate selenoprotein expression and selenium status in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Mittag

    Full Text Available Impaired expression of selenium-containing proteins leads to perturbed thyroid hormone (TH levels, indicating the central importance of selenium for TH homeostasis. Moreover, critically ill patients with declining serum selenium develop a syndrome of low circulating TH and a central downregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. This prompted us to test the reciprocal effect, i.e., if TH status would also regulate selenoprotein expression and selenium levels. To investigate the TH dependency of selenium metabolism, we analyzed mice expressing a mutant TH receptor α1 (TRα1+m that confers a receptor-mediated hypothyroidism. Serum selenium was reduced in these animals, which was a direct consequence of the mutant TRα1 and not related to their metabolic alterations. Accordingly, hyperthyroidism, genetically caused by the inactivation of TRβ or by oral TH treatment of adult mice, increased serum selenium levels in TRα1+m and controls, thus demonstrating a novel and specific role for TRα1 in selenium metabolism. Furthermore, TH affected the mRNA levels for several enzymes involved in selenoprotein biosynthesis as well as serum selenoprotein P concentrations and the expression of other antioxidative selenoproteins. Taken together, our results show that TH positively affects the serum selenium status and regulates the expression of several selenoproteins. This demonstrates that selenium and TH metabolism are interconnected through a feed-forward regulation, which can in part explain the rapid parallel downregulation of both systems in critical illness.

  3. Odor memories regulate olfactory receptor expression in the sensory periphery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudianos, Charles; Lim, Julianne; Young, Melanie; Yan, Shanzhi; Cristino, Alexandre S; Newcomb, Richard D; Gunasekaran, Nivetha; Reinhard, Judith

    2014-05-01

    Odor learning induces structural and functional modifications throughout the olfactory system, but it is currently unknown whether this plasticity extends to the olfactory receptors (Or) in the sensory periphery. Here, we demonstrate that odor learning induces plasticity in olfactory receptor expression in the honeybee, Apis mellifera. Using quantitative RT-PCR analysis, we show that six putative floral scent receptors were differentially expressed in the bee antennae depending on the scent environment that the bees experienced. Or151, which we characterized using an in vitro cell expression system as a broadly tuned receptor binding floral odorants such as linalool, and Or11, the specific receptor for the queen pheromone 9-oxo-decenoic acid, were significantly down-regulated after honeybees were conditioned with the respective odorants in an olfactory learning paradigm. Electroantennogram recordings showed that the neural response of the antenna was similarly reduced after odor learning. Long-term odor memory was essential for inducing these changes, suggesting that the molecular mechanisms involved in olfactory memory also regulate olfactory receptor expression. Our study demonstrates for the first time that olfactory receptor expression is experience-dependent and modulated by scent conditioning, providing novel insight into how molecular regulation at the periphery contributes to plasticity in the olfactory system. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Regulation of catalase expression in healthy and cancerous cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorieux, Christophe; Zamocky, Marcel; Sandoval, Juan Marcelo; Verrax, Julien; Calderon, Pedro Buc

    2015-10-01

    Catalase is an important antioxidant enzyme that dismutates hydrogen peroxide into water and molecular oxygen. The catalase gene has all the characteristics of a housekeeping gene (no TATA box, no initiator element sequence, high GC content in promoter) and a core promoter that is highly conserved among species. We demonstrate in this review that within this core promoter, the presence of DNA binding sites for transcription factors, such as NF-Y and Sp1, plays an essential role in the positive regulation of catalase expression. Additional transcription factors, such as FoxO3a, are also involved in this regulatory process. There is strong evidence that the protein Akt/PKB in the PI3K signaling pathway plays a major role in the expression of catalase by modulating the activity of FoxO3a. Over the past decade, other transcription factors (PPARγ, Oct-1, etc.), as well as genetic, epigenetic, and posttranscriptional processes, have emerged as crucial contributors to the regulation of catalase expression. Altered expression levels of catalase have been reported in cancer tissues compared to their normal counterparts. Deciphering the molecular mechanisms that regulate catalase expression could, therefore, be of crucial importance for the future development of pro-oxidant cancer chemotherapy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Functional analysis of Arabidopsis immune-related MAPKs uncovers a role for MPK3 as negative regulator of inducible defences

    KAUST Repository

    Frei dit Frey, Nicolas

    2014-06-30

    Background Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are key regulators of immune responses in animals and plants. In Arabidopsis, perception of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) activates the MAPKs MPK3, MPK4 and MPK6. Increasing information depicts the molecular events activated by MAMPs in plants, but the specific and cooperative contributions of the MAPKs in these signalling events are largely unclear. Results In this work, we analyse the behaviour of MPK3, MPK4 and MPK6 mutants in early and late immune responses triggered by the MAMP flg22 from bacterial flagellin. A genome-wide transcriptome analysis reveals that 36% of the flg22-upregulated genes and 68% of the flg22-downregulated genes are affected in at least one MAPK mutant. So far MPK4 was considered as a negative regulator of immunity, whereas MPK3 and MPK6 were believed to play partially redundant positive functions in defence. Our work reveals that MPK4 is required for the regulation of approximately 50% of flg22-induced genes and we identify a negative role for MPK3 in regulating defence gene expression, flg22-induced salicylic acid accumulation and disease resistance to Pseudomonas syringae. Among the MAPK-dependent genes, 27% of flg22-upregulated genes and 76% of flg22-downregulated genes require two or three MAPKs for their regulation. The flg22-induced MAPK activities are differentially regulated in MPK3 and MPK6 mutants, both in amplitude and duration, revealing a highly interdependent network. Conclusions These data reveal a new set of distinct functions for MPK3, MPK4 and MPK6 and indicate that the plant immune signalling network is choreographed through the interplay of these three interwoven MAPK pathways.

  6. Regulation of gene expression in Escherichia coli and its bacteriophage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, C.F.

    1986-01-01

    This chapter reviews the study of prokaryotic gene expression beginning with a look at the regulation of the lactose operon and the mechanism of attenuation in the tryptophan operon to the more recent development of recombinant DNA technology. The chapter deals almost entirely with escherichia coli and its bacteriophage. The only experimental technique which the authors explore in some detail is the construction and use of gene and operon fusions which have revolutionized the study of gene expression. Various mechanisms by which E. Coli regulate the cellular levels of individual messenger-RNA species are described. Translational regulation of the cellular levels of messenger-RNA include signals encoded within the messenger-RNA molecule itself and regulatory molecules which interact with the messenger-RNA and alter it translational efficiency

  7. DMBT1 expression is down-regulated in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braidotti, P; Nuciforo, P G; Mollenhauer, J

    2004-01-01

    and hyperplastic mammary cells positive with DMBTh12 were also MCM5-positive. CONCLUSIONS: The redistribution and up-regulation of DMBT1 in normal and hyperplastic tissues flanking malignant tumours and its down-regulation in carcinomas suggests a potential role in breast cancer. Moreover, the concomitant......BACKGROUND: We studied the expression of DMBT1 (deleted in malignant brain tumor 1), a putative tumor suppressor gene, in normal, proliferative, and malignant breast epithelium and its possible relation to cell cycle. METHODS: Sections from 17 benign lesions and 55 carcinomas were immunostained...... expression was down-regulated in the cancerous lesions compared to the normal and/or hyperplastic epithelium adjacent to carcinomas (3/55 positive carcinomas versus 33/42 positive normal/hyperplastic epithelia; p = 0.0001). In 72% of cases RT-PCR confirmed immunohistochemical results. Most of normal...

  8. Measuring children's regulation of emotion-expressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Haim, Yair; Bar-Av, Gali; Sadeh, Avi

    2011-04-01

    Emotion regulation has become a pivotal concept in developmental and clinical research. However, the measurement of regulatory processes has proved extremely difficult, particularly in the context of within-subject designs. Here, we describe a formal conceptualization and a new experimental procedure, the Balloons Game, to measure a regulatory component of emotion-expressive behavior. We present the internal consistency and stability of the indices derived from the Balloons Game in a sample of 121 kindergarten children. External validation against measures that have been associated with emotion regulation processes is also provided. The findings suggest that the Balloons Game provides a reliable tool for the study of regulation of emotion expression in young children. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. INTRINSIC REGULATION OF HEMOGLOBIN EXPRESSION BY VARIABLE SUBUNIT INTERFACE STRENGTHS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, James M.; Popowicz, Anthony M.; Padovan, Julio C.; Chait, Brian T.; Manning, Lois R.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The expression of the six types of human hemoglobin subunits over time is currently considered to be regulated mainly by transcription factors that bind to upstream control regions of the gene (the “extrinsic” component of regulation). Here we describe how subunit pairing and further assembly to tetramers in the liganded state is influenced by the affinity of subunits for one another (the “intrinsic” component of regulation). The adult hemoglobin dimers have the strongest subunit interfaces and the embryonic hemoglobins are the weakest with fetal hemoglobins of intermediate strength, corresponding to the temporal order of their expression. These variable subunit binding strengths and the attenuating effects of acetylation contribute to the differences with which these hemoglobin types form functional O2-binding tetramers consistent with gene switching. PMID:22129306

  10. Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in Yersinia species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea A Schiano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Proper regulation of gene expression is required by bacterial pathogens to respond to continually changing environmental conditions and the host response during the infectious process. While transcriptional regulation is perhaps the most well understood form of controlling gene expression, recent studies have demonstrated the importance of post-transcriptional mechanisms of gene regulation that allow for more refined management of the bacterial response to host conditions. Yersinia species of bacteria are known to use various forms of post-transcriptional regulation for control of many virulence-associated genes. These include regulation by cis- and trans-acting small non-coding RNAs, RNA-binding proteins, RNases, and thermoswitches. The effects of these and other regulatory mechanisms on Yersinia physiology can be profound and have been shown to influence type III secretion, motility, biofilm formation, host cell invasion, intracellular survival and replication, and more. In this review, we will discuss these and other post-transcriptional mechanisms and their influence on virulence gene regulation, with a particular emphasis on how these processes influence the virulence of Yersinia in the host.

  11. MiR-128b is down-regulated in gastric cancer and negatively ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-02-04

    Feb 4, 2016 ... found that miR-128b expression was down-regulated in tissues from 18 GC patients and 3 carcinoma cell lines. ... study reported that miRNA-128 promoted cell proliferation ... ed with 10% fetal bovine serum (Hyclone, Logan,.

  12. Growth Hormone Receptor Signaling Pathways and its Negative Regulation by SOCS2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández Pérez, Leandro; Flores-Morales, Amilcar; Guerra, Borja

    2016-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is a critical regulator of linear body growth during childhood but continues to have important metabolic actions throughout life. The GH receptor (GHR) is ubiquitously expressed, and deficiency of GHR signaling causes a dramatic impact on normal physiology during somatic devel...

  13. Ligand-mediated negative regulation of a chimeric transmembrane receptor tyrosine phosphatase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desai, D M; Sap, J; Schlessinger, J

    1993-01-01

    CD45, a transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase), is required for TCR signaling. Multiple CD45 isoforms, differing in the extracellular domain, are expressed in a tissue- and activation-specific manner, suggesting an important function for this domain. We report that a chimeric protein...... that ligand-mediated regulation of receptor-PTPases may have mechanistic similarities with receptor tyrosine kinases....

  14. Instrumental motives in negative emotion regulation in daily life: Frequency, consistency, and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalokerinos, Elise K; Tamir, Maya; Kuppens, Peter

    2017-06-01

    People regulate their emotions not only for hedonic reasons but also for instrumental reasons, to attain the potential benefits of emotions beyond pleasure and pain. However, such instrumental motives have rarely been examined outside the laboratory as they naturally unfold in daily life. To assess whether and how instrumental motives operate outside the laboratory, it is necessary to examine them in response to real and personally relevant stimuli in ecologically valid contexts. In this research, we assessed the frequency, consistency, and predictors of instrumental motives in negative emotion regulation in daily life. Participants (N = 114) recalled the most negative event of their day each evening for 7 days and reported their instrumental motives and negative emotion goals in that event. Participants endorsed performance motives in approximately 1 in 3 events and social, eudaimonic, and epistemic motives in approximately 1 in 10 events. Instrumental motives had substantially higher within- than between-person variance, indicating that they were context-dependent. Indeed, although we found few associations between instrumental motives and personality traits, relationships between instrumental motives and contextual variables were more extensive. Performance, social, and epistemic motives were each predicted by a unique pattern of contextual appraisals. Our data demonstrate that instrumental motives play a role in daily negative emotion regulation as people encounter situations that pose unique regulatory demands. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. When less is more: Effects of the availability of strategic options on regulating negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigman, Yochanan E; Sheppes, Gal; Tamir, Maya

    2017-09-01

    Research in several domains suggests that having strategic options is not always beneficial. In this paper, we tested whether having strategic options (vs. not) is helpful or harmful for regulating negative emotions. In 5 studies (N = 151) participants were presented with 1 or more strategic options prior to watching aversive images and using the selected strategic option. Across studies, we found that people reported less intense negative emotions when the strategy they used to regulate their emotions was presented as a single option, rather than as 1 of several options. This was regardless of whether people could choose between the options (Studies 3-5) or not (Studies 1, 2, and 4), and specific to negative (but not neutral) images (Study 5). A sixth study addressed an explanation based on demand characteristics, showing that participants expected to feel more positive when having more than 1 option. The findings indicate that having strategic options for regulating negative emotions can sometimes be costly. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Maternal Self-Regulation, Relationship Adjustment, and Home Chaos: Contributions to Infant Negative Emotionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgett, David J.; Burt, Nicole M.; Laake, Lauren M.; Oddi, Kate B.

    2013-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in the direct and indirect effects of parental self-regulation on children’s outcomes. In the present investigation, the effects of maternal self-regulation, home chaos, and inter-parental relationship adjustment on broad and specific indicators of infant negative emotionality (NE) were examined. A sample of maternal caregivers and their 4-month-old infants (N = 85) from a rural community participated. Results demonstrated that better maternal self-regulation was associated with lower infant NE broadly, as well as with lower infant sadness and distress to limitations/frustration and better falling reactivity (i.e. emotion regulation), specifically. Maternal self-regulation also predicted less chaotic home environments and better maternal inter-parental relationship adjustment. Findings also supported the indirect effects of maternal self-regulation on broad and specific indicators of infant NE through home chaos and maternal relationship adjustment. Some differential effects were also identified. Elevated home chaos appeared to specifically affect infant frustration/distress to limitations whereas maternal relationship adjustment affected broad infant NE, as well as several specific indicators of infant NE: frustration/distress to limitations, sadness, and falling reactivity. In conjunction with other recent investigations that have reported the effects of maternal self-regulation on parenting, the findings in the present investigation suggest that parental self-regulation may influence children’s outcomes through several proximal environmental pathways. PMID:23748168

  17. ST2 negatively regulates TLR2 signaling, but is not required for bacterial lipoprotein-induced tolerance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Liu, Jinghua

    2010-05-15

    Activation of TLR signaling is critical for host innate immunity against bacterial infection. Previous studies reported that the ST2 receptor, a member of the Toll\\/IL-1 receptor superfamily, functions as a negative regulator of TLR4 signaling and maintains LPS tolerance. However, it is undetermined whether ST2 negatively regulates TLR2 signaling and furthermore, whether a TLR2 agonist, bacterial lipoprotein (BLP)-induced tolerance is dependent on ST2. In this study, we show that BLP stimulation-induced production of proinflammatory cytokines and immunocomplex formation of TLR2-MyD88 and MyD88-IL-1R-associated kinase (IRAK) were significantly enhanced in ST2-deficient macrophages compared with those in wild-type controls. Furthermore, overexpression of ST2 dose-dependently attenuated BLP-induced NF-kappaB activation, suggesting a negative regulatory role of ST2 in TLR2 signaling. A moderate but significantly attenuated production of TNF-alpha and IL-6 on a second BLP stimulation was observed in BLP-pretreated, ST2-deficient macrophages, which is associated with substantially reduced IRAK-1 protein expression and downregulated TLR2-MyD88 and MyD88-IRAK immunocomplex formation. ST2-deficient mice, when pretreated with a nonlethal dose of BLP, benefitted from an improved survival against a subsequent lethal BLP challenge, indicating BLP tolerance develops in the absence of the ST2 receptor. Taken together, our results demonstrate that ST2 acts as a negative regulator of TLR2 signaling, but is not required for BLP-induced tolerance.

  18. Loss of PTEN expression is associated with aggressive behavior and poor prognosis in Middle Eastern triple-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beg, Shaham; Siraj, Abdul K; Prabhakaran, Sarita; Jehan, Zeenath; Ajarim, Dahish; Al-Dayel, Fouad; Tulbah, Asma; Al-Kuraya, Khawla S

    2015-06-01

    PTEN is a tumor suppressor that negatively regulates the PI3 K-AKT signaling pathway which is involved in the pathogenesis of many different tumor types and serves as a prognostic marker in breast cancer. However, the significance of the role of PTEN in Middle Eastern ethnic breast cancer has not been explored especially with the fact that breast cancer originating from this ethnic population tend to behave more aggressively than breast cancer in the west. In this study, we analyzed PTEN alteration in a tissue microarray format containing more than 1000 primary breast cancers with clinical follow-up data. Tissue Microarray sections were analyzed for protein expression and copy number change using immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Loss of PTEN immunostaining was observed in 77 % of the cases. PTEN loss was significantly associated with large tumor size (p = 0.0030), high grade (p = 0.0281), tumor recurrence (p = 0.0333), and triple-negative breast cancers (p = 0.0086). PTEN loss in triple-negative breast cancers was significantly associated with rapid tumor cell proliferation (p = 0.0396) and poor prognosis (p = 0.0408). PTEN deletion was found only in 60 cases (6.4 %). Loss of PTEN protein expression occurs at high frequency in Middle Eastern breast cancer. PTEN inactivation may potentially lead to an aggressive behavior of tumor cells through stimulation of tumor cell proliferation. Furthermore, PTEN signaling pathway might be used as potential therapeutic target in triple-negative breast cancers since loss of its expression is shown to be significantly associated with this aggressive subtype of breast cancer.

  19. SREBP-1c regulates glucose-stimulated hepatic clusterin expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gukhan [Department of Pharmacology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Geun Hyang; Oh, Gyun-Sik; Yoon, Jin [Department of Pharmacology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Bio-Medical Institute of Technology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hae Won [Department of Pharmacology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min-Seon [Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung-Whan, E-mail: swkim7@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Pharmacology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Bio-Medical Institute of Technology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-20

    Highlights: {yields} This is the first report to show nutrient-regulated clusterin expression. {yields} Clusterin expression in hepatocytes was increased by high glucose concentration. {yields} SREBP-1c is directly involved in the transcriptional activation of clusterin by glucose. {yields} This glucose-stimulated activation process is mediated through tandem E-box motifs. -- Abstract: Clusterin is a stress-response protein that is involved in diverse biological processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, tissue differentiation, inflammation, and lipid transport. Its expression is upregulated in a broad spectrum of diverse pathological states. Clusterin was recently reported to be associated with diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and their sequelae. However, the regulation of clusterin expression by metabolic signals was not addressed. In this study we evaluated the effects of glucose on hepatic clusterin expression. Interestingly, high glucose concentrations significantly increased clusterin expression in primary hepatocytes and hepatoma cell lines, but the conventional promoter region of the clusterin gene did not respond to glucose stimulation. In contrast, the first intronic region was transcriptionally activated by high glucose concentrations. We then defined a glucose response element (GlRE) of the clusterin gene, showing that it consists of two E-box motifs separated by five nucleotides and resembles carbohydrate response element (ChoRE). Unexpectedly, however, these E-box motifs were not activated by ChoRE binding protein (ChREBP), but were activated by sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c). Furthermore, we found that glucose induced recruitment of SREBP-1c to the E-box of the clusterin gene intronic region. Taken together, these results suggest that clusterin expression is increased by glucose stimulation, and SREBP-1c plays a crucial role in the metabolic regulation of clusterin.

  20. The regulation of CD5 expression in murine T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herzenberg Leonard A

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD5 is a pan-T cell surface marker that is also present on a subset of B cells, B-1a cells.Functional and developmental subsets of T cells express characteristic CD5 levels that vary over roughly a 30-fold range. Previous investigators have cloned a 1.7 Kb fragment containing the CD5 promoter and showed that it can confer similar lymphocyte-specific expression pattern as observed for endogenous CD5 expression. Results We further characterize the CD5 promoter and identify minimal and regulatory regions on the CD5 promoter. Using a luciferase reporter system, we show that a 43 bp region on the CD5 promoter regulates CD5 expression in resting mouse thymoma EL4 T cells and that an Ets binding site within the 43 bp region mediates the CD5 expression. In addition, we show that Ets-1, a member of the Ets family of transcription factors, recognizes the Ets binding site in the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA. This Ets binding site is directly responsible for the increase in reporter activity when co-transfected with increasing amounts of Ets-1 expression plasmid. We also identify two additional evolutionarily-conserved regions in the CD5 promoter (CD5X and CD5Y and demonstrate the respective roles of the each region in the regulation of CD5 transcription. Conclusion Our studies define a minimal and regulatory promoter for CD5 and show that the CD5 expression level in T cells is at least partially dependent on the level of Ets-1 protein. Based on the findings in this report, we propose a model of CD5 transcriptional regulation in T cells.

  1. Partial least squares based gene expression analysis in estrogen receptor positive and negative breast tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, W; Zhang, T-F; Lu, P; Lu, S H

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is categorized into two broad groups: estrogen receptor positive (ER+) and ER negative (ER-) groups. Previous study proposed that under trastuzumab-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy, tumor initiating cell (TIC) featured ER- tumors response better than ER+ tumors. Exploration of the molecular difference of these two groups may help developing new therapeutic strategies, especially for ER- patients. With gene expression profile from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, we performed partial least squares (PLS) based analysis, which is more sensitive than common variance/regression analysis. We acquired 512 differentially expressed genes. Four pathways were found to be enriched with differentially expressed genes, involving immune system, metabolism and genetic information processing process. Network analysis identified five hub genes with degrees higher than 10, including APP, ESR1, SMAD3, HDAC2, and PRKAA1. Our findings provide new understanding for the molecular difference between TIC featured ER- and ER+ breast tumors with the hope offer supports for therapeutic studies.

  2. MicroRNA, miR-374b, directly targets Myf6 and negatively regulates C2C12 myoblasts differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhiyuan; Sun, Xiaorui; Xu, Dequan; Xiong, Yuanzhu; Zuo, Bo, E-mail: zuobo@mail.hzau.edu.cn

    2015-11-27

    Myogenesis is a complex process including myoblast proliferation, differentiation and myotube formation and is controlled by myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs), MyoD, MyoG, Myf5 and Myf6 (also known as MRF4). MicroRNA is a kind of ∼22 nt-long non-coding small RNAs, and act as key transcriptional or post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Identification of miRNAs involved in the regulation of muscle genes could improve our understanding of myogenesis process. In this study, we investigated the regulation of Myf6 gene by miRNAs. We showed that miR-374b specifically bound to the 3'untranslated region (UTR) of Myf6 and down-regulated the expression of Myf6 gene at both mRNA and protein level. Furthermore, miR-374b is ubiquitously expressed in the tissues of adult C57BL6 mouse, and the mRNA abundance increases first and then decreases during C2C12 myoblasts differentiation. Over-expression of miR-374b impaired C2C12 cell differentiation, while inhibiting miR-374b expression by 2′-O-methyl antisense oligonucleotides promoted C2C12 cell differentiation. Taken together, our findings identified miR-374b directly targets Myf6 and negatively regulates myogenesis. - Highlights: • MiR-374b directly targets 3′UTR of Myf6. • MiR-374b negatively regulates Myf6 in C2C12 cells. • MiR-374b abundance significiently changes during C2C12 cells differentiation. • MiR-374b negatively regulates C2C12 cells differentiation.

  3. TRIM45 negatively regulates NF-κB-mediated transcription and suppresses cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Mio; Sato, Tomonobu; Nukiwa, Ryota; Ariga, Tadashi; Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► NF-κB plays an important role in cell survival and carcinogenesis. ► TRIM45 negatively regulates TNFα-induced NF-κB-mediated transcription. ► TRIM45 overexpression suppresses cell growth. ► TRIM45 acts as a repressor for the NF-κB signal and regulates cell growth. -- Abstract: The NF-κB signaling pathway plays an important role in cell survival, immunity, inflammation, carcinogenesis, and organogenesis. Activation of NF-κB is regulated by several posttranslational modifications including phosphorylation, neddylation and ubiquitination. The NF-κB signaling pathway is activated by two distinct signaling mechanisms and is strictly modulated by the ubiquitin–proteasome system. It has been reported that overexpression of TRIM45, one of the TRIM family ubiquitin ligases, suppresses transcriptional activities of Elk-1 and AP-1, which are targets of the MAPK signaling pathway. In this study, we showed that TRIM45 also negatively regulates TNFα-induced NF-κB-mediated transcription by a luciferase reporter assay and that TRIM45 lacking a RING domain also has an activity to inhibit the NF-κB signal. Moreover, we found that TRIM45 overexpression suppresses cell growth. These findings suggest that TRIM45 acts as a repressor for the NF-κB signal and regulates cell growth.

  4. Negative regulation of MAP kinase signaling in Drosophila by Ptp61F/PTP1B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchankouo-Nguetcheu, Stéphane; Udinotti, Mario; Durand, Marjorie; Meng, Tzu-Ching; Taouis, Mohammed; Rabinow, Leonard

    2014-10-01

    PTP1B is an important negative regulator of insulin and other signaling pathways in mammals. However, the role of PTP1B in the regulation of RAS-MAPK signaling remains open to deliberation, due to conflicting evidence from different experimental systems. The Drosophila orthologue of mammalian PTP1B, PTP61F, has until recently remained largely uncharacterized. To establish the potential role of PTP61F in the regulation of signaling pathways in Drosophila and particularly to help resolve its fundamental function in RAS-MAPK signaling, we generated a new allele of Ptp61F as well as employed both RNA interference and overexpression alleles. Our results validate recent data showing that the activity of insulin and Abl kinase signaling is increased in Ptp61F mutants and RNA interference lines. Importantly, we establish negative regulation of the RAS/MAPK pathway by Ptp61F activity in whole animals. Of particular interest, our results document the modulation of hyperactive MAP kinase activity by Ptp61F alleles, showing that the phosphatase intervenes to directly or indirectly regulate MAP kinase itself.

  5. Exercise Activates p53 and Negatively Regulates IGF-1 Pathway in Epidermis within a Skin Cancer Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Miao; King, Brenee; Ewert, Emily; Su, Xiaoyu; Mardiyati, Nur; Zhao, Zhihui; Wang, Weiqun

    2016-01-01

    Exercise has been previously reported to lower cancer risk through reducing circulating IGF-1 and IGF-1-dependent signaling in a mouse skin cancer model. This study aims to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which exercise may down-regulate the IGF-1 pathway via p53 and p53-related regulators in the skin epidermis. Female SENCAR mice were pair-fed an AIN-93 diet with or without 10-week treadmill exercise at 20 m/min, 60 min/day and 5 days/week. Animals were topically treated with TPA 2 hours before sacrifice and the target proteins in the epidermis were analyzed by both immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Under TPA or vehicle treatment, MDM2 expression was significantly reduced in exercised mice when compared with sedentary control. Meanwhile, p53 was significantly elevated. In addition, p53-transcriptioned proteins, i.e., p21, IGFBP-3, and PTEN, increased in response to exercise. There was a synergy effect between exercise and TPA on the decreased MDM2 and increased p53, but not p53-transcripted proteins. Taken together, exercise appeared to activate p53, resulting in enhanced expression of p21, IGFBP-3, and PTEN that might induce a negative regulation of IGF-1 pathway and thus contribute to the observed cancer prevention by exercise in this skin cancer model.

  6. Both positive and negative regulatory elements mediate expression of a photoregulated CAB gene from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castresana, C; Garcia-Luque, I; Alonso, E; Malik, V S; Cashmore, A R

    1988-01-01

    We have analyzed promoter regulatory elements from a photoregulated CAB gene (Cab-E) isolated from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. These studies have been performed by introducing chimeric gene constructs into tobacco cells via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Expression studies on the regenerated transgenic plants have allowed us to characterize three positive and one negative cis-acting elements that influence photoregulated expression of the Cab-E gene. Within the upstream sequences we have identified two positive regulatory elements (PRE1 and PRE2) which confer maximum levels of photoregulated expression. These sequences contain multiple repeated elements related to the sequence-ACCGGCCCACTT-. We have also identified within the upstream region a negative regulatory element (NRE) extremely rich in AT sequences, which reduces the level of gene expression in the light. We have defined a light regulatory element (LRE) within the promoter region extending from -396 to -186 bp which confers photoregulated expression when fused to a constitutive nopaline synthase ('nos') promoter. Within this region there is a 132-bp element, extending from -368 to -234 bp, which on deletion from the Cab-E promoter reduces gene expression from high levels to undetectable levels. Finally, we have demonstrated for a full length Cab-E promoter conferring high levels of photoregulated expression, that sequences proximal to the Cab-E TATA box are not replaceable by corresponding sequences from a 'nos' promoter. This contrasts with the apparent equivalence of these Cab-E and 'nos' TATA box-proximal sequences in truncated promoters conferring low levels of photoregulated expression. Images PMID:2901343

  7. Tomato NAC transcription factor SlSRN1 positively regulates defense response against biotic stress but negatively regulates abiotic stress response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liu

    Full Text Available Biotic and abiotic stresses are major unfavorable factors that affect crop productivity worldwide. NAC proteins comprise a large family of transcription factors that play important roles in plant growth and development as well as in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In a virus-induced gene silencing-based screening to identify genes that are involved in defense response against Botrytis cinerea, we identified a tomato NAC gene SlSRN1 (Solanum lycopersicum Stress-related NAC1. SlSRN1 is a plasma membrane-localized protein with transactivation activity in yeast. Expression of SlSRN1 was significantly induced by infection with B. cinerea or Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst DC3000, leading to 6-8 folds higher than that in the mock-inoculated plants. Expression of SlSRN1 was also induced by salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and by drought stress. Silencing of SlSRN1 resulted in increased severity of diseases caused by B. cinerea and Pst DC3000. However, silencing of SlSRN1 resulted in increased tolerance against oxidative and drought stresses. Furthermore, silencing of SlSRN1 accelerated accumulation of reactive oxygen species but attenuated expression of defense genes after infection by B. cinerea. Our results demonstrate that SlSRN1 is a positive regulator of defense response against B. cinerea and Pst DC3000 but is a negative regulator for oxidative and drought stress response in tomato.

  8. Gravity-regulated gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sederoff, Heike; Brown, Christopher S.; Heber, Steffen; Kajla, Jyoti D.; Kumar, Sandeep; Lomax, Terri L.; Wheeler, Benjamin; Yalamanchili, Roopa

    Plant growth and development is regulated by changes in environmental signals. Plants sense environmental changes and respond to them by modifying gene expression programs to ad-just cell growth, differentiation, and metabolism. Functional expression of genes comprises many different processes including transcription, translation, post-transcriptional and post-translational modifications, as well as the degradation of RNA and proteins. Recently, it was discovered that small RNAs (sRNA, 18-24 nucleotides long), which are heritable and systemic, are key elements in regulating gene expression in response to biotic and abiotic changes. Sev-eral different classes of sRNAs have been identified that are part of a non-cell autonomous and phloem-mobile network of regulators affecting transcript stability, translational kinetics, and DNA methylation patterns responsible for heritable transcriptional silencing (epigenetics). Our research has focused on gene expression changes in response to gravistimulation of Arabidopsis roots. Using high-throughput technologies including microarrays and 454 sequencing, we iden-tified rapid changes in transcript abundance of genes as well as differential expression of small RNA in Arabidopsis root apices after minutes of reorientation. Some of the differentially regu-lated transcripts are encoded by genes that are important for the bending response. Functional mutants of those genes respond faster to reorientation than the respective wild type plants, indicating that these proteins are repressors of differential cell elongation. We compared the gravity responsive sRNAs to the changes in transcript abundances of their putative targets and identified several potential miRNA: target pairs. Currently, we are using mutant and transgenic Arabidopsis plants to characterize the function of those miRNAs and their putative targets in gravitropic and phototropic responses in Arabidopsis.

  9. Zfp206 regulates ES cell gene expression and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Walker, Emily; Tamplin, Owen J; Rossant, Janet; Stanford, William L; Hughes, Timothy R

    2006-01-01

    Understanding transcriptional regulation in early developmental stages is fundamental to understanding mammalian development and embryonic stem (ES) cell properties. Expression surveys suggest that the putative SCAN-Zinc finger transcription factor Zfp206 is expressed specifically in ES cells [Zhang,W., Morris,Q.D., Chang,R., Shai,O., Bakowski,M.A., Mitsakakis,N., Mohammad,N., Robinson,M.D., Zirngibl,R., Somogyi,E. et al., (2004) J. Biol., 3, 21; Brandenberger,R., Wei,H., Zhang,S., Lei,S., Murage,J., Fisk,G.J., Li,Y., Xu,C., Fang,R., Guegler,K. et al., (2004) Nat. Biotechnol., 22, 707-716]. Here, we confirm this observation, and we show that ZFP206 expression decreases rapidly upon differentiation of cultured mouse ES cells, and during development of mouse embryos. We find that there are at least six isoforms of the ZFP206 transcript, the longest being predominant. Overexpression and depletion experiments show that Zfp206 promotes formation of undifferentiated ES cell clones, and positively regulates abundance of a very small set of transcripts whose expression is also specific to ES cells and the two- to four-cell stages of preimplantation embryos. This set includes members of the Zscan4, Thoc4, Tcstv1 and eIF-1A gene families, none of which have been functionally characterized in vivo but whose members include apparent transcription factors, RNA-binding proteins and translation factors. Together, these data indicate that Zfp206 is a regulator of ES cell differentiation that controls a set of genes expressed very early in development, most of which themselves appear to be regulators.

  10. Using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) to Define Different Domains of Negative Symptoms: Prediction of Everyday Functioning by Impairments in Emotional Expression and Emotional Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Philip D; Khan, Anzalee; Keefe, Richard S E

    2017-12-01

    Background: Reduced emotional experience and expression are two domains of negative symptoms. The authors assessed these two domains of negative symptoms using previously developed Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) factors. Using an existing dataset, the authors predicted three different elements of everyday functioning (social, vocational, and everyday activities) with these two factors, as well as with performance on measures of functional capacity. Methods: A large (n=630) sample of people with schizophrenia was used as the data source of this study. Using regression analyses, the authors predicted the three different aspects of everyday functioning, first with just the two Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale factors and then with a global negative symptom factor. Finally, we added neurocognitive performance and functional capacity as predictors. Results: The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale reduced emotional experience factor accounted for 21 percent of the variance in everyday social functioning, while reduced emotional expression accounted for no variance. The total Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative symptom factor accounted for less variance (19%) than the reduced experience factor alone. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale expression factor accounted for, at most, one percent of the variance in any of the functional outcomes, with or without the addition of other predictors. Implications: Reduced emotional experience measured with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, often referred to as "avolition and anhedonia," specifically predicted impairments in social outcomes. Further, reduced experience predicted social impairments better than emotional expression or the total Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative symptom factor. In this cross-sectional study, reduced emotional experience was specifically related with social outcomes, accounting for essentially no variance in work or everyday activities, and being the

  11. Using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) to Define Different Domains of Negative Symptoms: Prediction of Everyday Functioning by Impairments in Emotional Expression and Emotional Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, Philip D.; Khan, Anzalee; Keefe, Richard S. E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Reduced emotional experience and expression are two domains of negative symptoms. The authors assessed these two domains of negative symptoms using previously developed Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) factors. Using an existing dataset, the authors predicted three different elements of everyday functioning (social, vocational, and everyday activities) with these two factors, as well as with performance on measures of functional capacity. Methods: A large (n=630) sampl...

  12. Canonical TGF-β Signaling Negatively Regulates Neuronal Morphogenesis through TGIF/Smad Complex-Mediated CRMP2 Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Hideyuki; Tsujimura, Keita; Irie, Koichiro; Ishizu, Masataka; Pan, Miao; Kameda, Tomonori; Nakashima, Kinichi

    2018-05-16

    Functional neuronal connectivity requires proper neuronal morphogenesis and its dysregulation causes neurodevelopmental diseases. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family cytokines play pivotal roles in development, but little is known about their contribution to morphological development of neurons. Here we show that the Smad-dependent canonical signaling of TGF-β family cytokines negatively regulates neuronal morphogenesis during brain development. Mechanistically, activated Smads form a complex with transcriptional repressor TG-interacting factor (TGIF), and downregulate the expression of a neuronal polarity regulator, collapsin response mediator protein 2. We also demonstrate that TGF-β family signaling inhibits neurite elongation of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons. Furthermore, the expression of TGF-β receptor 1, Smad4, or TGIF, which have mutations found in patients with neurodevelopmental disorders, disrupted neuronal morphogenesis in both mouse (male and female) and human (female) neurons. Together, these findings suggest that the regulation of neuronal morphogenesis by an evolutionarily conserved function of TGF-β signaling is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental diseases. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Canonical transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling plays a crucial role in multiple organ development, including brain, and mutations in components of the signaling pathway associated with several human developmental disorders. In this study, we found that Smads/TG-interacting factor-dependent canonical TGF-β signaling regulates neuronal morphogenesis through the suppression of collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP2) expression during brain development, and that function of this signaling is evolutionarily conserved in the mammalian brain. Mutations in canonical TGF-β signaling factors identified in patients with neurodevelopmental disorders disrupt the morphological development of neurons. Thus, our

  13. Androgen-Dependent Regulation of Human MUC1 Mucin Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Mitchell

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available MUC1 mucin is transcriptionally regulated by estrogen, progesterone, and glucocorticoids. Our objective was to determine whether androgen receptor. (20AR activation regulates expression of MUC1. The following breast and prostatic cell lines were phenotyped and grouped according to AR and MUC1protein expression: 1 AR+MUCi + [DAR17+19. (20AR transfectants of DU-145, ZR-75-1, MDA-MB-453, and T47D]; 2 AR-MUCi+ [DZeoi. (20AR- vector control, DU-145, BT20, MDA-MB231, and MCF7]; 3 AIR +MUCi -. (20LNCaP and LNCaP-r. Cell proliferation was determined using the MTT assay in the presence of synthetic androgen R1881, 0.1 pM to 1 µM. Cell surface MUC1expression was determined by flow cytometry in the presence or absence of oestradiol, medroxy progesterone acetate or R1881, with and without 4 hydroxy-flutamide. (204-OH, a nonsteroidal AR antagonist. The functional significance of MUC1expression was investigated with a cell-cell aggregation assay. Only AR+ MUC1 + cell lines showed a significant increase in MUC1expression with AR activation. (20P. (20range =.01 to .0001, reversed in the presence of 4-OHF. Cell proliferation was unaffected. Increased expression of MUC1was associated with a significant. (20P. (20range =.002 to .001 reduction in cell-cell adhesion. To our knowledge, this is the first description of androgen-dependent regulation of MUC1mucin. This is also functionally associated with decreased cell-cell adhesion, a recognised feature of progressive malignancy. These findings have important implications for physiological and pathological processes.

  14. PD-L1 expression in EBV-negative diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: clinicopathologic features and prognostic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wei; Dresser, Karen; Zhang, Rui; Evens, Andrew M; Yu, Hongbo; Woda, Bruce A; Chen, Benjamin J

    2016-09-13

    Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a cell surface glycoprotein that regulates the cellular immune response and serves as a targetable immune checkpoint molecule. PD-L1 is expressed on tumor cells and the immune microenvironment of several human malignancies, including a subset of aggressive lymphomas. We sought to investigate further the clinical and pathologic features of EBV-negative diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cases that express PD-L1. Immunohistochemical staining using an anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody was performed on DLBCL cases from 86 patients. These patients received standard chemotherapy treatment and were followed for up to 175 months. Overall, 14 cases (16%) were considered positive for PD-L1 in tumor cells. In comparison with PD-L1 negative cases, PD-L1 positive cases had a higher rate of non-GCB type (71% vs. 30%, P=0.0060), and higher Ann Arbor stage (II-IV) (100% vs. 73%, P=0.0327). No significant differences were seen in the immunohistochemical expression of BCL2, MYC, or Ki67. Patients with tumors expressing PD-L1 demonstrated inferior overall survival (OS) upon long term follow up (P=0.0447). Both age/sex-adjusted and multivariate analyses identified PD-L1 as an independent predictor for OS (P=0.0101 and P=0.0424). There was no significant difference, however, in terms of remission rates after first treatment, relapse rates, and progression free survival between the groups. Identification of DLBCL cases that express PD-L1 may serve to select a subset of patients that could further benefit from targeted immunotherapy.

  15. miR-342 regulates BRCA1 expression through modulation of ID4 in breast cancer.

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    Elisabetta Crippa

    Full Text Available A miRNAs profiling on a group of familial and sporadic breast cancers showed that miRNA-342 was significantly associated with estrogen receptor (ER levels. To investigate at functional level the role of miR-342 in the pathogenesis of breast cancer, we focused our attention on its "in silico" predicted putative target gene ID4, a transcription factor of the helix-loop-helix protein family whose expression is inversely correlated with that of ER. ID4 is expressed in breast cancer and can negatively regulate BRCA1 expression. Our results showed an inverse correlation between ID4 and miR-342 as well as between ID4 and BRCA1 expression. We functionally validated the interaction between ID4 and miR-342 in a reporter Luciferase system. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that regulation of ID4 mediated by miR-342 could be involved in the pathogenesis of breast cancer by downregulating BRCA1 expression. We functionally demonstrated the interactions between miR-342, ID4 and BRCA1 in a model provided by ER-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line that presented high levels of ID4. Overexpression of miR-342 in these cells reduced ID4 and increased BRCA1 expression, supporting a possible role of this mechanism in breast cancer. In the ER-positive MCF7 and in the BRCA1-mutant HCC1937 cell lines miR-342 over-expression only reduced ID4. In the cohort of patients we studied, a correlation between miR-342 and BRCA1 expression was found in the ER-negative cases. As ER-negative cases were mainly BRCA1-mutant, we speculate that the mechanism we demonstrated could be involved in the decreased expression of BRCA1 frequently observed in non BRCA1-mutant breast cancers and could be implicated as a causal factor in part of the familial cases grouped in the heterogeneous class of non BRCA1 or BRCA2-mutant cases (BRCAx. To validate this hypothesis, the study should be extended to a larger cohort of ER-negative cases, including those belonging to the BRCAx class.

  16. CREB activity in dopamine D1 receptor expressing neurons regulates cocaine-induced behavioral effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao, Ainhoa; Rieker, Claus; Cannella, Nazzareno; Parlato, Rosanna; Golda, Slawomir; Piechota, Marcin; Korostynski, Michal; Engblom, David; Przewlocki, Ryszard; Schütz, Günther; Spanagel, Rainer; Parkitna, Jan R.

    2014-01-01

    It is suggested that striatal cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) regulates sensitivity to psychostimulants. To test the cell-specificity of this hypothesis we examined the effects of a dominant-negative CREB protein variant expressed in dopamine receptor D1 (D1R) neurons on cocaine-induced behaviors. A transgenic mouse strain was generated by pronuclear injection of a BAC-derived transgene harboring the A-CREB sequence under the control of the D1R gene promoter. Compared to wild-type, drug-naïve mutants showed moderate alterations in gene expression, especially a reduction in basal levels of activity-regulated transcripts such as Arc and Egr2. The behavioral responses to cocaine were elevated in mutant mice. Locomotor activity after acute treatment, psychomotor sensitization after intermittent drug injections and the conditioned locomotion after saline treatment were increased compared to wild-type littermates. Transgenic mice had significantly higher cocaine conditioned place preference, displayed normal extinction of the conditioned preference, but showed an augmented cocaine-seeking response following priming-induced reinstatement. This enhanced cocaine-seeking response was associated with increased levels of activity-regulated transcripts and prodynorphin. The primary reinforcing effects of cocaine were not altered in the mutant mice as they did not differ from wild-type in cocaine self-administration under a fixed ratio schedule at the training dose. Collectively, our data indicate that expression of a dominant-negative CREB variant exclusively in neurons expressing D1R is sufficient to recapitulate the previously reported behavioral phenotypes associated with virally expressed dominant-negative CREB. PMID:24966820

  17. Expression microarray identifies the unliganded glucocorticoid receptor as a regulator of gene expression in mammary epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, Heather D; Mueller, Christopher R

    2014-01-01

    While glucocorticoids and the liganded glucocorticoid receptor (GR) have a well-established role in the maintenance of differentiation and suppression of apoptosis in breast tissue, the involvement of unliganded GR in cellular processes is less clear. Our previous studies implicated unliganded GR as a positive regulator of the BRCA1 tumour suppressor gene in the absence of glucocorticoid hormone, which suggested it could play a similar role in the regulation of other genes. An shRNA vector directed against GR was used to create mouse mammary cell lines with depleted endogenous levels of this receptor in order to further characterize the role of GR in breast cells. An expression microarray screen for targets of unliganded GR was performed using our GR-depleted cell lines maintained in the absence of glucocorticoids. Candidate genes positively regulated by unliganded GR were identified, classified by Gene Ontology and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, and validated using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and dual luciferase expression assays were conducted to further investigate the mechanism through which unliganded GR regulates these genes. Expression microarray analysis revealed 260 targets negatively regulated and 343 targets positively regulated by unliganded GR. A number of the positively regulated targets were involved in pro-apoptotic networks, possibly opposing the activity of liganded GR targets. Validation and further analysis of five candidates from the microarray indicated that two of these, Hsd11b1 and Ch25h, were regulated by unliganded GR in a manner similar to Brca1 during glucocorticoid treatment. Furthermore, GR was shown to interact directly with and upregulate the Ch25h promoter in the absence, but not the presence, of hydrocortisone (HC), confirming our previously described model of gene regulation by unliganded GR. This work presents the first identification of targets of unliganded GR. We propose that

  18. Processing and regulation of negative emotions in anorexia nervosa: An fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Seidel

    Full Text Available Theoretical models and recent advances in the treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN have increasingly focused on the role of alterations in the processing and regulation of emotions. To date, however, our understanding of these changes is still limited and reports of emotional dysregulation in AN have been based largely on self-report data, and there is a relative lack of objective experimental evidence or neurobiological data.The current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study investigated the hemodynamic correlates of passive viewing and voluntary downregulation of negative emotions by means of the reappraisal strategy detachment in AN patients. Detachment is regarded as adaptive regulation strategy associated with a reduction in emotion-related amygdala activity and increased recruitment of prefrontal brain regions associated with cognitive control processes. Emotion regulation efficacy was assessed via behavioral arousal ratings and fMRI activation elicited by an established experimental paradigm including negative images. Participants were instructed to either simply view emotional pictures or detach themselves from feelings triggered by the stimuli.The sample consisted of 36 predominantly adolescent female AN patients and a pairwise age-matched healthy control group. Behavioral and neuroimaging data analyses indicated a reduction of arousal and amygdala activity during the regulation condition for both patients and controls. However, compared with controls, individuals with AN showed increased activation in the amygdala as well as in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC during the passive viewing of aversive compared with neutral pictures.These results extend previous findings indicative of altered processing of salient emotional stimuli in AN, but do not point to a general deficit in the voluntary regulation of negative emotions. Increased dlPFC activation in AN during passive viewing of negative stimuli is in line with

  19. Salt Stress Represses Soybean Seed Germination by Negatively Regulating GA Biosynthesis While Positively Mediating ABA Biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Kai Shu; Ying Qi; Feng Chen; Yongjie Meng; Xiaofeng Luo; Haiwei Shuai; Wenguan Zhou; Jun Ding; Junbo Du; Jiang Liu; Feng Yang; Qiang Wang; Weiguo Liu; Taiwen Yong; Xiaochun Wang

    2017-01-01

    Soybean is an important and staple oilseed crop worldwide. Salinity stress has adverse effects on soybean development periods, especially on seed germination and post-germinative growth. Improving seed germination and emergence will have positive effects under salt stress conditions on agricultural production. Here we report that NaCl delays soybean seed germination by negatively regulating gibberellin (GA) while positively mediating abscisic acid (ABA) biogenesis, which leads to a decrease i...

  20. Adaptor protein Lnk negatively regulates the mutant MPL, MPLW515L associated with myeloproliferative disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Gery, Sigal; Gueller, Saskia; Chumakova, Katya; Kawamata, Norihiko; Liu, Liqin; Koeffler, H. Phillip

    2007-01-01

    Recently, activating myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene (MPL) mutations, MPLW515L/K, were described in myeloproliferative disorder (MPD) patients. MPLW515L leads to activation of downstream signaling pathways and cytokine-independent proliferation in hematopoietic cells. The adaptor protein Lnk is a negative regulator of several cytokine receptors, including MPL. We show that overexpression of Lnk in Ba/F3-MPLW515L cells inhibits cytokine-independent growth, while suppression of Lnk i...

  1. Ihh/Gli2 signaling promotes osteoblast differentiation by regulating Runx2 expression and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyama, Atsuko; Wada, Masahiro; Ikeda, Fumiyo; Hata, Kenji; Matsubara, Takuma; Nifuji, Akira; Noda, Masaki; Amano, Katsuhiko; Yamaguchi, Akira; Nishimura, Riko; Yoneda, Toshiyuki

    2007-07-01

    Genetic and cell biological studies have indicated that Indian hedgehog (Ihh) plays an important role in bone development and osteoblast differentiation. However, the molecular mechanism by which Ihh regulates osteoblast differentiation is complex and remains to be fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of Ihh signaling in osteoblast differentiation using mesenchymal cells and primary osteoblasts. We observed that Ihh stimulated alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteocalcin expression, and calcification. Overexpression of Gli2- but not Gli3-induced ALP, osteocalcin expression, and calcification of these cells. In contrast, dominant-negative Gli2 markedly inhibited Ihh-dependent osteoblast differentiation. Ihh treatment or Gli2 overexpression also up-regulated the expression of Runx2, an essential transcription factor for osteoblastogenesis, and enhanced the transcriptional activity and osteogenic action of Runx2. Coimmunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated a physical interaction between Gli2 and Runx2. Moreover, Ihh or Gli2 overexpression failed to increase ALP activity in Runx2-deficient mesenchymal cells. Collectively, these results suggest that Ihh regulates osteoblast differentiation of mesenchymal cells through up-regulation of the expression and function of Runx2 by Gli2.

  2. Modeling the role of negative cooperativity in metabolic regulation and homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliot C Bush

    Full Text Available A significant proportion of enzymes display cooperativity in binding ligand molecules, and such effects have an important impact on metabolic regulation. This is easiest to understand in the case of positive cooperativity. Sharp responses to changes in metabolite concentrations can allow organisms to better respond to environmental changes and maintain metabolic homeostasis. However, despite the fact that negative cooperativity is almost as common as positive, it has been harder to imagine what advantages it provides. Here we use computational models to explore the utility of negative cooperativity in one particular context: that of an inhibitor binding to an enzyme. We identify several factors which may contribute, and show that acting together they can make negative cooperativity advantageous.

  3. Mindfulness in schizophrenia: Associations with self-reported motivation, emotion regulation, dysfunctional attitudes, and negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Naomi T; Horan, William P; Green, Michael F

    2015-10-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions are gaining empirical support as alternative or adjunctive treatments for a variety of mental health conditions, including anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders. Emerging evidence now suggests that mindfulness-based treatments may also improve clinical features of schizophrenia, including negative symptoms. However, no research has examined the construct of mindfulness and its correlates in schizophrenia. In this study, we examined self-reported mindfulness in patients (n=35) and controls (n=25) using the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. We examined correlations among mindfulness, negative symptoms, and psychological constructs associated with negative symptoms and adaptive functioning, including motivation, emotion regulation, and dysfunctional attitudes. As hypothesized, patients endorsed lower levels of mindfulness than controls. In patients, mindfulness was unrelated to negative symptoms, but it was associated with more adaptive emotion regulation (greater reappraisal) and beliefs (lower dysfunctional attitudes). Some facets of mindfulness were also associated with self-reported motivation (behavioral activation and inhibition). These patterns of correlations were similar in patients and controls. Findings from this initial study suggest that schizophrenia patients may benefit from mindfulness-based interventions because they (a) have lower self-reported mindfulness than controls and (b) demonstrate strong relationships between mindfulness and psychological constructs related to adaptive functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of a type-A response regulator differentially expressed during adventitious caulogenesis in Pinus pinaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, José M; Cortizo, Millán; Ordás, Ricardo J

    2012-12-15

    The molecular cloning and characterization of PipsRR1, a type-A response regulator in Pinus pinaster, is reported here. Type-A response regulators mediate downstream responses to cytokinin and act as negative feedback regulators of the signal transduction pathway. Some type-A response regulators in Arabidopsis have been related to de novo meristem formation. However, little information exists in Pinus spp. The PipsRR1 gene contains 5 exons, as do all type-A response regulators in Arabidopsis, and the deduced protein contains a receiver domain with the conserved DDK residues and a short C terminal extension. Expression analysis showed that the PipsRR1 gene is differentially expressed during the first phases of adventitious caulogenesis induced by benzyladenine in P. pinaster cotyledons, suggesting that PipsRR1 plays a role in caulogenesis in conifers. Additionally, a binary vector carrying the PipsRR1 promoter driving GFP:GUS expression was constructed to analyze the promoter activity in P. pinaster somatic embryos. The results of genetic transformation showed GUS activity during somatic embryo mass proliferation and embryo maturation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. MGMT expression: insights into its regulation. 1. Epigenetic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iatsyshyna A. P.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT is the DNA repair enzyme responsible for removing of alkylation adducts from the O6-guanine in DNA. Despite MGMT prevents mutations and cell death, this enzyme can provide resistance of cancer cells to alkylating agents of chemotherapy. The high intra- and inter-individual variations in the human MGMT expression level have been observed indicating to a complicated regulation of this gene. This review is focused on the study of epigenetic factors which could be potentially involved in regulation of the human MGMT gene expression. These include chromatin remodeling via histone modifications and DNA methylation of promoter region and gene body, as well as RNA-based mechanisms, alternative splicing, protein post- translational modifications, and other.

  6. Chrysanthemum WRKY gene CmWRKY17 negatively regulates salt stress tolerance in transgenic chrysanthemum and Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peiling; Song, Aiping; Gao, Chunyan; Wang, Linxiao; Wang, Yinjie; Sun, Jing; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Fadi; Chen, Sumei

    2015-08-01

    CmWRKY17 was induced by salinity in chrysanthemum, and it might negatively regulate salt stress in transgenic plants as a transcriptional repressor. WRKY transcription factors play roles as positive or negative regulators in response to various stresses in plants. In this study, CmWRKY17 was isolated from chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium). The gene encodes a 227-amino acid protein and belongs to the group II WRKY family, but has an atypical WRKY domain with the sequence WKKYGEK. Our data indicated that CmWRKY17 was localized to the nucleus in onion epidermal cells. CmWRKY17 showed no transcriptional activation in yeast; furthermore, luminescence assay clearly suggested that CmWRKY17 functions as a transcriptional repressor. DNA-binding assay showed that CmWRKY17 can bind to W-box. The expression of CmWRKY17 was induced by salinity in chrysanthemum, and a higher expression level was observed in the stem and leaf compared with that in the root, disk florets, and ray florets. Overexpression of CmWRKY17 in chrysanthemum and Arabidopsis increased the sensitivity to salinity stress. The activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase and proline content in the leaf were significantly lower in transgenic chrysanthemum than those in the wild type under salinity stress, whereas electrical conductivity was increased in transgenic plants. Expression of the stress-related genes AtRD29, AtDREB2B, AtSOS1, AtSOS2, AtSOS3, and AtNHX1 was reduced in the CmWRKY17 transgenic Arabidopsis compared with that in the wild-type Col-0. Collectively, these data suggest that CmWRKY17 may increase the salinity sensitivity in plants as a transcriptional repressor.

  7. SACE_3986, a TetR family transcriptional regulator, negatively controls erythromycin biosynthesis in Saccharopolyspora erythraea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Panpan; Pan, Hui; Zhang, Congming; Wu, Hang; Yuan, Li; Huang, Xunduan; Zhou, Ying; Ye, Bang-ce; Weaver, David T; Zhang, Lixin; Zhang, Buchang

    2014-07-01

    Erythromycin, a medically important antibiotic, is produced by Saccharopolyspora erythraea. Unusually, the erythromycin biosynthetic gene cluster lacks a regulatory gene, and the regulation of its biosynthesis remains largely unknown. In this study, through gene deletion, complementation and overexpression experiments, we identified a novel TetR family transcriptional regulator SACE_3986 negatively regulating erythromycin biosynthesis in S. erythraea A226. When SACE_3986 was further inactivated in an industrial strain WB, erythromycin A yield of the mutant was increased by 54.2 % in average compared with that of its parent strain, displaying the universality of SACE_3986 as a repressor for erythromycin production in S. erythraea. qRT-PCR analysis indicated that SACE_3986 repressed the transcription of its adjacent gene SACE_3985 (which encodes a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase), erythromycin biosynthetic gene eryAI and the resistance gene ermE. As determined by EMSA analysis, purified SACE_3986 protein specifically bound to the intergenic region between SACE_3985 and SACE_3986, whereas it did not bind to the promoter regions of eryAI and ermE. Furthermore, overexpression of SACE_3985 in A226 led to enhanced erythromycin A yield by at least 32.6 %. These findings indicate that SACE_3986 is a negative regulator of erythromycin biosynthesis, and the adjacent gene SACE_3985 is one of its target genes. The present study provides a basis to increase erythromycin production by engineering of SACE_3986 and SACE_3985 in S. erythraea.

  8. Gene expression variation to predict 10-year survival in lymph-node-negative breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Elin; Delle, Ulla; Danielsson, Anna; Olsson, Björn; Abel, Frida; Karlsson, Per; Helou, Khalil

    2008-01-01

    It is of great significance to find better markers to correctly distinguish between high-risk and low-risk breast cancer patients since the majority of breast cancer cases are at present being overtreated. 46 tumours from node-negative breast cancer patients were studied with gene expression microarrays. A t-test was carried out in order to find a set of genes where the expression might predict clinical outcome. Two classifiers were used for evaluation of the gene lists, a correlation-based classifier and a Voting Features Interval (VFI) classifier. We then evaluated the predictive accuracy of this expression signature on tumour sets from two similar studies on lymph-node negative patients. They had both developed gene expression signatures superior to current methods in classifying node-negative breast tumours. These two signatures were also tested on our material. A list of 51 genes whose expression profiles could predict clinical outcome with high accuracy in our material (96% or 89% accuracy in cross-validation, depending on type of classifier) was developed. When tested on two independent data sets, the expression signature based on the 51 identified genes had good predictive qualities in one of the data sets (74% accuracy), whereas their predictive value on the other data set were poor, presumably due to the fact that only 23 of the 51 genes were found in that material. We also found that previously developed expression signatures could predict clinical outcome well to moderately well in our material (72% and 61%, respectively). The list of 51 genes derived in this study might have potential for clinical utility as a prognostic gene set, and may include candidate genes of potential relevance for clinical outcome in breast cancer. According to the predictions by this expression signature, 30 of the 46 patients may have benefited from different adjuvant treatment than they recieved. The research on these tumours was approved by the Medical Faculty Research

  9. Social Regulation of Gene Expression in Threespine Sticklebacks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K Greenwood

    Full Text Available Identifying genes that are differentially expressed in response to social interactions is informative for understanding the molecular basis of social behavior. To address this question, we described changes in gene expression as a result of differences in the extent of social interactions. We housed threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus females in either group conditions or individually for one week, then measured levels of gene expression in three brain regions using RNA-sequencing. We found that numerous genes in the hindbrain/cerebellum had altered expression in response to group or individual housing. However, relatively few genes were differentially expressed in either the diencephalon or telencephalon. The list of genes upregulated in fish from social groups included many genes related to neural development and cell adhesion as well as genes with functions in sensory signaling, stress, and social and reproductive behavior. The list of genes expressed at higher levels in individually-housed fish included several genes previously identified as regulated by social interactions in other animals. The identified genes are interesting targets for future research on the molecular mechanisms of normal social interactions.

  10. Regulation of stem cell factor expression in inflammation and asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla A Da Silva

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell factor (SCF is a major mast cell growth factor, which could be involved in the local increase of mast cell number in the asthmatic airways. In vivo, SCF expression increases in asthmatic patients and this is reversed after treatment with glucocorticoids. In vitro in human lung fibroblasts in culture, IL-1beta, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, confirms this increased SCF mRNA and protein expression implying the MAP kinases p38 and ERK1/2 very early post-treatment, and glucocorticoids confirm this decrease. Surprisingly, glucocorticoids potentiate the IL-1beta-enhanced SCF expression at short term treatment, implying increased SCF mRNA stability and SCF gene transcription rate. This potentiation involves p38 and ERK1/2. Transfection experiments with the SCF promoter including intron1 also confirm this increase and decrease of SCF expression by IL-1beta and glucocorticoids, and the potentiation by glucocorticoids of the IL-1beta-induced SCF expression. Deletion of the GRE or kappaB sites abolishes this potentiation, and the effect of IL-1beta or glucocorticoids alone. DNA binding of GR and NF-kappaB are also demonstrated for these effects. In conclusion, this review concerns new mechanisms of regulation of SCF expression in inflammation that could lead to potential therapeutic strategy allowing to control mast cell number in the asthmatic airways.

  11. Vitamin D Receptor Negatively Regulates Bacterial-Stimulated NF-κB Activity in Intestine

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Shaoping; Liao, Anne P.; Xia, Yinglin; Li, Yan Chun; Li, Jian-Dong; Sartor, R. Balfour; Sun, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) plays an essential role in gastrointestinal inflammation. Most investigations have focused on the immune response; however, how bacteria regulate VDR and how VDR modulates the nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway in intestinal epithelial cells remain unexplored. This study investigated the effects of VDR ablation on NF-κB activation in intestinal epithelia and the role of enteric bacteria on VDR expression. We found that VDR−/− mice exhibited a pro-inflammatory bias. After ...

  12. Replicative Stress Induces Intragenic Transcription of the ASE1 Gene that Negatively Regulates Ase1 Activity

    OpenAIRE

    McKnight, Kelly; Liu, Hong; Wang, Yanchang

    2014-01-01

    Intragenic transcripts initiate within the coding region of a gene, thereby producing shorter mRNAs and proteins. Although intragenic transcripts are widely expressed [1], their role in the functional regulation of genes remains largely unknown. In budding yeast, DNA replication stress activates the S-phase checkpoint that stabilizes replication forks and arrests cells in S-phase with a short spindle [2-4]. When yeast cells were treated with hydroxyurea (HU) to block DNA synthesis and induce ...

  13. Expression of aurora kinase A is associated with metastasis-free survival in node-negative breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siggelkow, Wulf; Koelbl, Heinz; Gehrmann, Mathias; Marchan, Rosemarie; Cadenas, Cristina; Hengstler, Jan G; Schmidt, Marcus; Boehm, Daniel; Gebhard, Susanne; Battista, Marco; Sicking, Isabel; Lebrecht, Antje; Solbach, Christine; Hellwig, Birte; Rahnenführer, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Inhibitors targeting the cell cycle-regulated aurora kinase A (AURKA) are currently being developed. Here, we examine the prognostic impact of AURKA in node-negative breast cancer patients without adjuvant systemic therapy (n = 766). AURKA was analyzed using microarray-based gene-expression data from three independent cohorts of node-negative breast cancer patients. In multivariate Cox analyses, the prognostic impact of age, histological grade, tumor size, estrogen receptor (ER), and HER2 were considered. Patients with higher AURKA expression had a shorter metastasis-free survival (MFS) in the Mainz (HR 1.93; 95% CI 1.34 – 2.78; P < 0.001), Rotterdam (HR 1.95; 95% CI 1.45– 2.63; P<0.001) and Transbig (HR 1.52; 95% CI 1.14–2.04; P=0.005) cohorts. AURKA was also associated with MFS in the molecular subtype ER+/HER2- carcinomas (HR 2.10; 95% CI 1.70–2.59; P<0.001), but not in ER-/HER2- nor in HER2+ carcinomas. In the multivariate Cox regression adjusted to age, grade and tumor size, AURKA showed independent prognostic significance in the ER+/HER2- subtype (HR 1.73; 95% CI 1.24–2.42; P=0.001). Prognosis of patients in the highest quartile of AURKA expression was particularly poor. In addition, AURKA correlated with the proliferation metagene (R=0.880; P<0.001), showed a positive association with grade (P<0.001), tumor size (P<0.001) and HER2 (P<0.001), and was inversely associated with ER status (P<0.001). AURKA is associated with worse prognosis in estrogen receptor positive breast carcinomas. Patients with the highest AURKA expression (>75% percentile) have a particularly bad prognosis and may profit from therapy with AURKA inhibitors

  14. Phytochrome-interacting factors PIF4 and PIF5 negatively regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis under red light in Arabidopsis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongjuan; Zhang, Yongqiang; Wang, Jianfeng; Li, Ping; Zhao, Chengzhou; Chen, Yadi; Bi, Yurong

    2015-09-01

    Light is an important environmental factor inducing anthocyanin accumulation in plants. Phytochrome-interacting factors (PIFs) have been shown to be a family of bHLH transcription factors involved in light signaling in Arabidopsis. Red light effectively increased anthocyanin accumulation in wild-type Col-0, whereas the effects were enhanced in pif4 and pif5 mutants but impaired in overexpression lines PIF4OX and PIF5OX, indicating that PIF4 and PIF5 are both negative regulators for red light-induced anthocyanin accumulation. Consistently, transcript levels of several genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and regulatory pathway, including CHS, F3'H, DFR, LDOX, PAP1 and TT8, were significantly enhanced in mutants pif4 and pif5 but decreased in PIF4OX and PIF5OX compared to in Col-0, indicating that PIF4 and PIF5 are transcriptional repressor of these gene. Transient expression assays revealed that PIF4 and PIF5 could repress red light-induced promoter activities of F3'H and DFR in Arabidopsis protoplasts. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR (ChIP-qPCR) test and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that PIF5 could directly bind to G-box motifs present in the promoter of DFR. Taken together, these results suggest that PIF4 and PIF5 negatively regulate red light-induced anthocyanin accumulation through transcriptional repression of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in Arabidopsis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Endothelium derived nitric oxide synthase negatively regulates the PDGF-survivin pathway during flow-dependent vascular remodeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yu

    Full Text Available Chronic alterations in blood flow initiate structural changes in vessel lumen caliber to normalize shear stress. The loss of endothelial derived nitric oxide synthase (eNOS in mice promotes abnormal flow dependent vascular remodeling, thus uncoupling mechanotransduction from adaptive vascular remodeling. However, the mechanisms of how the loss of eNOS promotes abnormal remodeling are not known. Here we show that abnormal flow-dependent remodeling in eNOS knockout mice (eNOS (-/- is associated with activation of the platelet derived growth factor (PDGF signaling pathway leading to the induction of the inhibitor of apoptosis, survivin. Interfering with PDGF signaling or survivin function corrects the abnormal remodeling seen in eNOS (-/- mice. Moreover, nitric oxide (NO negatively regulates PDGF driven survivin expression and cellular proliferation in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. Collectively, our data suggests that eNOS negatively regulates the PDGF-survivin axis to maintain proportional flow-dependent luminal remodeling and vascular quiescence.

  16. The Putative PAX8/PPARγ Fusion Oncoprotein Exhibits Partial Tumor Suppressor Activity through Up-Regulation of Micro-RNA-122 and Dominant-Negative PPARγ Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddi, Honey V; Madde, Pranathi; Milosevic, Dragana; Hackbarth, Jennifer S; Algeciras-Schimnich, Alicia; McIver, Bryan; Grebe, Stefan K G; Eberhardt, Norman L

    2011-01-01

    In vitro studies have demonstrated that the PAX8/PPARγ fusion protein (PPFP), which occurs frequently in follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC), exhibits oncogenic activity. However, paradoxically, a meta-analysis of extant tumor outcome studies indicates that 68% of FTC-expressing PPFP are minimally invasive compared to only 32% of those lacking PPFP (χ(2) = 6.86, P = 0.008), suggesting that PPFP favorably impacts FTC outcomes. In studies designed to distinguish benign thyroid neoplasms from thyroid carcinomas, the previously identified tumor suppressor miR-122, a major liver micro-RNA (miR) that is decreased in hepatocellular carcinoma, was increased 8.9-fold (P negative PPARγ mutant in WRO cells was less effective than PPFP at inhibiting xenograft tumor progression (1.8-fold [P negative PPARγ activity. Up-regulation of miR-122 negatively regulates ADAM-17, a known downstream target, in thyroid cells, suggesting an antiangiogenic mechanism in thyroid carcinoma. This latter inference is directly supported by reduced CD-31 expression in WRO xenografts expressing PPFP, miR-122, and DN-PPARγ. We conclude that, in addition to its apparent oncogenic potential in vitro, PPFP exhibits paradoxical tumor suppressor activity in vivo, mediated by multiple mechanisms including up-regulation of miR-122 and dominant-negative inhibition of PPARγ activity.

  17. Cell adhesion signaling regulates RANK expression in osteoclast precursors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayako Mochizuki

    -adherent condition. These results suggest that cell adhesion signaling regulates RANK expression in osteoclast precursors.

  18. A Comparison of Autonomous Regulation and Negative Self-Evaluative Emotions as Predictors of Smoking Behavior Change among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyoung S.; Catley, Delwyn; Harris, Kari Jo

    2011-01-01

    This study compared autonomous self-regulation and negative self-evaluative emotions as predictors of smoking behavior change in college student smokers (N=303) in a smoking cessation intervention study. Although the two constructs were moderately correlated, latent growth curve modeling revealed that only autonomous regulation, but not negative self-evaluative emotions, was negatively related to the number of days smoked. Results suggest that the two variables tap different aspects of motivation to change smoking behaviors, and that autonomous regulation predicts smoking behavior change better than negative self-evaluative emotions. PMID:21911436

  19. A comparison of autonomous regulation and negative self-evaluative emotions as predictors of smoking behavior change among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyoung S; Catley, Delwyn; Harris, Kari Jo

    2012-05-01

    This study compared autonomous self-regulation and negative self-evaluative emotions as predictors of smoking behavior change in college student smokers (N = 303) in a smoking cessation intervention study. Although the two constructs were moderately correlated, latent growth curve modeling revealed that only autonomous regulation, but not negative self-evaluative emotions, was negatively related to the number of days smoked. Results suggest that the two variables tap different aspects of motivation to change smoking behaviors, and that autonomous regulation predicts smoking behavior change better than negative self-evaluative emotions.

  20. Pseudogenes regulate parental gene expression via ceRNA network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yang; Furber, Kendra L; Ji, Shaoping

    2017-01-01

    The concept of competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) was first proposed by Salmena and colleagues. Evidence suggests that pseudogene RNAs can act as a 'sponge' through competitive binding of common miRNA, releasing or attenuating repression through sequestering miRNAs away from parental mRNA. In theory, ceRNAs refer to all transcripts such as mRNA, tRNA, rRNA, long non-coding RNA, pseudogene RNA and circular RNA, because all of them may become the targets of miRNA depending on spatiotemporal situation. As binding of miRNA to the target RNA is not 100% complementary, it is possible that one miRNA can bind to multiple target RNAs and vice versa. All RNAs crosstalk through competitively binding to miRNAvia miRNA response elements (MREs) contained within the RNA sequences, thus forming a complex regulatory network. The ratio of a subset of miRNAs to the corresponding number of MREs determines repression strength on a given mRNA translation or stability. An increase in pseudogene RNA level can sequester miRNA and release repression on the parental gene, leading to an increase in parental gene expression. A massive number of transcripts constitute a complicated network that regulates each other through this proposed mechanism, though some regulatory significance may be mild or even undetectable. It is possible that the regulation of gene and pseudogene expression occurring in this manor involves all RNAs bearing common MREs. In this review, we will primarily discuss how pseudogene transcripts regulate expression of parental genes via ceRNA network and biological significance of regulation. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  1. miR-335 negatively regulates osteosarcoma stem cell-like properties by targeting POU5F1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaodong; Yu, Ling; Zhang, Zhengpei; Dai, Guo; Gao, Tian; Guo, Weichun

    2017-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating to link cancer stem cells to the pathogenesis and progression of osteosarcoma. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of miR-335 in osteosarcoma stem cells. Tumor spheroid culture and flow cytometry were applied to screen out osteosarcoma stem cells. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to detect the expression level of miR-335 in MG63, U2OS and 143B osteosarcoma stem cells. The relationship of miR-335 expression with osteosarcoma stem cells was then analyzed. Transwell assay and transplantation assay were performed to elucidate biological effects of miR-335 on cell invasion and vivo tumor formation. Western Blot and luciferase assays were executed to investigate the regulation of POU5F1 by miR-335. The expression of miR-335 in osteosarcoma stem cells was lower than their differentiated counterparts. Cells expressing miR-335 possessed decreased stem cell-like properties. Gain or loss of function assays were applied to find that miR-335 antagonist promoted stem cell-like properties as well as invasion. Luciferase report and transfection assay showed that POU5F1 was downregulated by miR-335. Pre-miR-335 resulted in tumor enhanced sensitivity to traditional chemotherapy, whereas anti-miR-335 promoted chemoresistance. Finally, the inhibitory effect of miR-335 on in vivo tumor formation showed that combination of pre-miR-335 with cisplatin further reduced the tumor size, and miR-335 brought down the sphere formation capacity induced by cisplatin. The current study demonstrates that miR-335 negatively regulates osteosarcoma stem cell-like properties by targeting POU5F1, and miR-335 could target CSCs to synergize with traditional chemotherapeutic agents to overcome osteosarcoma.

  2. Protein kinase B/Akt1 inhibits autophagy by down-regulating UVRAG expression

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    Yang, Wonseok; Ju, Ji-hyun; Lee, Kyung-min; Nam, KeeSoo; Oh, Sunhwa [Department of Life Science, College of Natural Science, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Incheol, E-mail: incheol@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Life Science, College of Natural Science, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-01

    Autophagy, or autophagocytosis, is a selective intracellular degradative process involving the cell's own lysosomal apparatus. An essential component in cell development, homeostasis, repair and resistance to stress, autophagy may result in either cell death or survival. The targeted region of the cell is sequestered within a membrane structure, the autophagosome, for regulation of the catabolic process. A key factor in both autophagosome formation and autophagosome maturation is a protein encoded by the ultraviolet irradiation resistance-associated gene (UVRAG). Conversely, the serine/threonine-specific protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt), which regulates survival in various cancers, inhibits autophagy through mTOR activation. We found that Akt1 may also directly inhibit autophagy by down-regulating UVRAG both in a 293T transient transfection system and breast cancer cells stably expressing Akt1. The UVRAG with mutations at putative Akt1-phosphorylation sites were still inhibited by Akt1, and dominant-negative Akt1 also inhibited UVRAG expression, suggesting that Akt1 down-regulates UVRAG by a kinase activity-independent mechanism. We showed that Akt1 overexpression in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells down-regulated UVRAG transcription. Cells over-expressing Akt1 were more resistant than control cells to ultraviolet light-induced autophagy and exhibited the associated reduction in cell viability. Levels of the autophagosome indicator protein LC3B-II and mRFP-GFP-LC3 were reduced in cells that over-expressing Akt1. Inhibiting Akt1 by siRNA or reintroducing UVRAG gene rescued the level of LC3B-II in UV-irradiation. Altogether, these data suggest that Akt1 may inhibit autophagy by decreasing UVRAG expression, which also sensitizes cancer cells to UV irradiation.

  3. Negative correlation of LIV-1 and E-cadherin expression in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongxi Shen

    Full Text Available LIV-1, a zinc transporter, is a mediator downstream of STAT3 both in zebrafish and mammalian cells, and is involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT. Despite LIV-1 participates in cancer growth and metastasis, little is known about the association of LIV-1 with human liver cancer development. Therefore, the expression of LIV-1 mRNA was analyzed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR in 4 cultured cell lines (3 carcinoma and 1 normal liver cell lines, and the localization of LIV-1 protein was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Expression of LIV-1 protein was analyzed by Western blot both in 4 cultured cell lines and 120 liver tissues (100 carcinoma and 20 histologically normal tissues, and the relationship between its expression and clinicopathological finding was investigated in 100 hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC tissues. Then stable siRNA expressing Hep-G2 cells were generated to assess the function of LIV-1 in liver cancer cells. We found that LIV-1 mRNA was more highly expressed in liver cancer cell lines compared to normal liver cell line. Western blot showed the expression of LIV-1 was higher in 61% liver carcinoma tissues than that in normal liver tissues. Down-regulated LIV-1 cells showed significant inhibition of proliferation in vitro and reduction of tumor growth in vivo. Furthermore, E-cadherin expression increased in LIV-1 siRNA expressing Hep-G2. These findings indicated that LIV-1 may induce the EMT in HCC cells.

  4. Amygdala and fusiform gyrus temporal dynamics: Responses to negative facial expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauch Scott L

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amygdala habituates in response to repeated human facial expressions; however, it is unclear whether this brain region habituates to schematic faces (i.e., simple line drawings or caricatures of faces. Using an fMRI block design, 16 healthy participants passively viewed repeated presentations of schematic and human neutral and negative facial expressions. Percent signal changes within anatomic regions-of-interest (amygdala and fusiform gyrus were calculated to examine the temporal dynamics of neural response and any response differences based on face type. Results The amygdala and fusiform gyrus had a within-run "U" response pattern of activity to facial expression blocks. The initial block within each run elicited the greatest activation (relative to baseline and the final block elicited greater activation than the preceding block. No significant differences between schematic and human faces were detected in the amygdala or fusiform gyrus. Conclusion The "U" pattern of response in the amygdala and fusiform gyrus to facial expressions suggests an initial orienting, habituation, and activation recovery in these regions. Furthermore, this study is the first to directly compare brain responses to schematic and human facial expressions, and the similarity in brain responses suggest that schematic faces may be useful in studying amygdala activation.

  5. Hessian regularization based non-negative matrix factorization for gene expression data clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Shi, Jun; Wang, Congzhi

    2015-01-01

    Since a key step in the analysis of gene expression data is to detect groups of genes that have similar expression patterns, clustering technique is then commonly used to analyze gene expression data. Data representation plays an important role in clustering analysis. The non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) is a widely used data representation method with great success in machine learning. Although the traditional manifold regularization method, Laplacian regularization (LR), can improve the performance of NMF, LR still suffers from the problem of its weak extrapolating power. Hessian regularization (HR) is a newly developed manifold regularization method, whose natural properties make it more extrapolating, especially for small sample data. In this work, we propose the HR-based NMF (HR-NMF) algorithm, and then apply it to represent gene expression data for further clustering task. The clustering experiments are conducted on five commonly used gene datasets, and the results indicate that the proposed HR-NMF outperforms LR-based NMM and original NMF, which suggests the potential application of HR-NMF for gene expression data.

  6. Facial expression recognition and emotional regulation in narcolepsy with cataplexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayard, Sophie; Croisier Langenier, Muriel; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2013-04-01

    Cataplexy is pathognomonic of narcolepsy with cataplexy, and defined by a transient loss of muscle tone triggered by strong emotions. Recent researches suggest abnormal amygdala function in narcolepsy with cataplexy. Emotion treatment and emotional regulation strategies are complex functions involving cortical and limbic structures, like the amygdala. As the amygdala has been shown to play a role in facial emotion recognition, we tested the hypothesis that patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy would have impaired recognition of facial emotional expressions compared with patients affected with central hypersomnia without cataplexy and healthy controls. We also aimed to determine whether cataplexy modulates emotional regulation strategies. Emotional intensity, arousal and valence ratings on Ekman faces displaying happiness, surprise, fear, anger, disgust, sadness and neutral expressions of 21 drug-free patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy were compared with 23 drug-free sex-, age- and intellectual level-matched adult patients with hypersomnia without cataplexy and 21 healthy controls. All participants underwent polysomnography recording and multiple sleep latency tests, and completed depression, anxiety and emotional regulation questionnaires. Performance of patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy did not differ from patients with hypersomnia without cataplexy or healthy controls on both intensity rating of each emotion on its prototypical label and mean ratings for valence and arousal. Moreover, patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy did not use different emotional regulation strategies. The level of depressive and anxious symptoms in narcolepsy with cataplexy did not differ from the other groups. Our results demonstrate that narcolepsy with cataplexy accurately perceives and discriminates facial emotions, and regulates emotions normally. The absence of alteration of perceived affective valence remains a major clinical interest in narcolepsy with cataplexy

  7. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α agonist-induced down-regulation of hepatic glucocorticoid receptor expression in SD rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiang; Li Ming; Sun Weiping; Bi Yan; Cai Mengyin; Liang Hua; Yu Qiuqiong; He Xiaoying; Weng Jianping

    2008-01-01

    It was reported that glucocorticoid production was inhibited by fenofibrate through suppression of type-1 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene expression in liver. The inhibition might be a negative-feedback regulation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activity by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), which is quickly induced by glucocorticoid in the liver. However, it is not clear if GR expression is changed by fenofibrate-induced PPARα activation. In this study, we tested this possibility in the liver of Sprague-Dawley rats. GR expression was reduced by fenofibrate in a time- and does-dependent manner. The inhibition was observed in liver, but not in fat and muscle. The corticosterone level in the blood was increased significantly by fenofibrate. These effects of fenofibrate were abolished by PPARα inhibitor MK886, suggesting that fenofibrate activated through PPARα. In conclusion, inhibition of GR expression may represent a new molecular mechanism for the negative feedback regulation of GR activity by PPARα

  8. Automatic Change Detection to Facial Expressions in Adolescents: Evidence from Visual Mismatch Negativity Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongran eLiu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a critical period for the neurodevelopment of social-emotional processing, wherein the automatic detection of changes in facial expressions is crucial for the development of interpersonal communication. Two groups of participants (an adolescent group and an adult group were recruited to complete an emotional oddball task featuring on happy and one fearful condition. The measurement of event-related potential (ERP was carried out via electroencephalography (EEG and electrooculography (EOG recording, to detect visual mismatch negativity (vMMN with regard to the automatic detection of changes in facial expressions between the two age groups. The current findings demonstrated that the adolescent group featured more negative vMMN amplitudes than the adult group in the fronto-central region during the 120-200 ms interval. During the time window of 370-450 ms, only the adult group showed better automatic processing on fearful faces than happy faces. The present study indicated that adolescents posses stronger automatic detection of changes in emotional expression relative to adults, and sheds light on the neurodevelopment of automatic processes concerning social-emotional information.

  9. Androgens regulate gene expression in avian skeletal muscles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Fuxjager

    Full Text Available Circulating androgens in adult reproductively active male vertebrates influence a diversity of organ systems and thus are considered costly. Recently, we obtained evidence that androgen receptors (AR are expressed in several skeletal muscles of three passeriform birds, the golden-collared manakin (Manacus vitellinus, zebra finch (Taenopygia guttata, and ochre-bellied flycatcher (Mionectes oleagieus. Because skeletal muscles that control wing movement make up the bulk of a bird's body mass, evidence for widespread effects of androgen action on these muscles would greatly expand the functional impact of androgens beyond their well-characterized effects on relatively discrete targets throughout the avian body. To investigate this issue, we use quantitative PCR (qPCR to determine if androgens alter gene mRNA expression patterns in wing musculature of wild golden-collared manakins and captive zebra finches. In manakins, the androgen testosterone (T up-regulated expression of parvalbumin (PV and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I, two genes whose products enhance cellular Ca(2+ cycling and hypertrophy of skeletal muscle fibers. In T-treated zebra finches, the anti-androgen flutamide blunted PV and IGF-I expression. These results suggest that certain transcriptional effects of androgen action via AR are conserved in passerine skeletal muscle tissue. When we examined wing muscles of manakins, zebra finches and ochre-bellied flycatchers, we found that expression of PV and IGF-I varied across species and in a manner consistent with a function for AR-dependent gene regulation. Together, these findings imply that androgens have the potential to act on avian muscle in a way that may enhance the physicality required for successful reproduction.

  10. Prion protein expression regulates embryonic stem cell pluripotency and differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Miranda

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cellular prion protein (PRNP is a glycoprotein involved in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs. Although the physiological function of PRNP is largely unknown, its key role in prion infection has been extensively documented. This study examines the functionality of PRNP during the course of embryoid body (EB differentiation in mouse Prnp-null (KO and WT embryonic stem cell (ESC lines. The first feature observed was a new population of EBs that only appeared in the KO line after 5 days of differentiation. These EBs were characterized by their expression of several primordial germ cell (PGC markers until Day 13. In a comparative mRNA expression analysis of genes playing an important developmental role during ESC differentiation to EBs, Prnp was found to participate in the transcription of a key pluripotency marker such as Nanog. A clear switching off of this gene on Day 5 was observed in the KO line as opposed to the WT line, in which maximum Prnp and Nanog mRNA levels appeared at this time. Using a specific antibody against PRNP to block PRNP pathways, reduced Nanog expression was confirmed in the WT line. In addition, antibody-mediated inhibition of ITGB5 (integrin αvβ5 in the KO line rescued the low expression of Nanog on Day 5, suggesting the regulation of Nanog transcription by Prnp via this Itgb5. mRNA expression analysis of the PRNP-related proteins PRND (Doppel and SPRN (Shadoo, whose PRNP function is known to be redundant, revealed their incapacity to compensate for the absence of PRNP during early ESC differentiation. Our findings provide strong evidence for a relationship between Prnp and several key pluripotency genes and attribute Prnp a crucial role in regulating self-renewal/differentiation status of ESC, confirming the participation of PRNP during early embryogenesis.

  11. Caveolin-1 expression as a prognostic marker in triple negative breast cancers of Asian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeong, Joe; Thike, Aye Aye; Ikeda, Murasaki; Lim, Jeffrey Chun Tatt; Lee, Bernett; Nakamura, Seigo; Iqbal, Jabed; Tan, Puay Hoon

    2018-02-01

    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are defined by their lack of oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Although heterogeneous, the majority are aggressive and treatment options are limited. Caveolin acts as tumour suppressor or promoter depending on the cancer type. In this study, we aimed to determine if the expression levels of the candidate biomarker caveolin-1 on stromal or tumour cells were associated with clinicopathological parameters and disease outcomes in TNBCs from an ethnically diverse cohort of Asian women. Tumour specimens from 699 women with TNBC were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis of the frequency and intensity of caveolin-1 expression in tumour and stromal cells. A subset of 141 tumour samples also underwent Nanostring measurement of CAV1 mRNA. Results were correlated with clinicopathological parameters and disease outcomes. Expression of caveolin-1 in stromal cells was observed in 14.4% of TNBC cases. TNBCs of the basal-like phenotype (85% of samples) were significantly more likely to exhibit stromal cell caveolin-1 expression (p=0.028), as were those with a trabecular growth pattern (p=0.007). Lack of stromal caveolin-1 expression in both TNBCs and those with the basal-like phenotype was significantly associated with worse overall survival (p=0.009 and p=0.026, respectively): accordingly, increasing mRNA levels of CAV1 in TNBC samples predicted better overall survival. Caveolin-1 expression on TNBC tumour cells was not associated with clinical outcome. Stromal, but not tumoural, caveolin-1 expression is significantly associated with survival in Asian women with TNBC. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. The Temporal Dynamics of Arc Expression Regulate Cognitive Flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Mark J; Collins, Dawn R; Chery, Samantha L; Allen, Zachary D; Pastuzyn, Elissa D; George, Arlene J; Nikolova, Viktoriya D; Moy, Sheryl S; Philpot, Benjamin D; Shepherd, Jason D; Müller, Jürgen; Ehlers, Michael D; Mabb, Angela M; Corrêa, Sonia A L

    2018-05-24

    Neuronal activity regulates the transcription and translation of the immediate-early gene Arc/Arg3.1, a key mediator of synaptic plasticity. Proteasome-dependent degradation of Arc tightly limits its temporal expression, yet the significance of this regulation remains unknown. We disrupted the temporal control of Arc degradation by creating an Arc knockin mouse (ArcKR) where the predominant Arc ubiquitination sites were mutated. ArcKR mice had intact spatial learning but showed specific deficits in selecting an optimal strategy during reversal learning. This cognitive inflexibility was coupled to changes in Arc mRNA and protein expression resulting in a reduced threshold to induce mGluR-LTD and enhanced mGluR-LTD amplitude. These findings show that the abnormal persistence of Arc protein limits the dynamic range of Arc signaling pathways specifically during reversal learning. Our work illuminates how the precise temporal control of activity-dependent molecules, such as Arc, regulates synaptic plasticity and is crucial for cognition. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Signal Transduction Pathways that Regulate CAB Gene Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chory, Joanne

    2004-12-31

    The process of chloroplast differentiation, involves the coordinate regulation of many nuclear and chloroplast genes. The cues for the initiation of this developmental program are both extrinsic (e.g., light) and intrinsic (cell-type and plastid signals). During this project period, we utilized a molecular genetic approach to select for Arabidopsis mutants that did not respond properly to environmental light conditions, as well as mutants that were unable to perceive plastid damage. These latter mutants, called gun mutants, define two retrograde signaling pathways that regulate nuclear gene expression in response to chloroplasts. A major finding was to identify a signal from chloroplasts that regulates nuclear gene transcription. This signal is the build-up of Mg-Protoporphyrin IX, a key intermediate of the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. The signaling pathways downstream of this signal are currently being studied. Completion of this project has provided an increased understanding of the input signals and retrograde signaling pathways that control nuclear gene expression in response to the functional state of chloroplasts. These studies should ultimately influence our abilities to manipulate plant growth and development, and will aid in the understanding of the developmental control of photosynthesis.

  14. Signal Transduction Pathways that Regulate CAB Gene Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chory, Joanne

    2006-01-16

    The process of chloroplast differentiation, involves the coordinate regulation of many nuclear and chloroplast genes. The cues for the initiation of this developmental program are both extrinsic (e.g., light) and intrinsic (cell-type and plastid signals). During this project period, we utilized a molecular genetic approach to select for Arabidopsis mutants that did not respond properly to environmental light conditions, as well as mutants that were unable to perceive plastid damage. These latter mutants, called gun mutants, define two retrograde signaling pathways that regulate nuclear gene expression in response to chloroplasts. A major finding was to identify a signal from chloroplasts that regulates nuclear gene transcription. This signal is the build-up of Mg-Protoporphyrin IX, a key intermediate of the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. The signaling pathways downstream of this signal are currently being studied. Completion of this project has provided an increased understanding of the input signals and retrograde signaling pathways that control nuclear gene expression in response to the functional state of chloroplasts. These studies should ultimately influence our abilities to manipulate plant growth and development, and will aid in the understanding of the developmental control of photosynthesis.

  15. EGR-1 regulates Ho-1 expression induced by cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Huaqun; Wang, Lijuan; Gong, Tao; Yu, Yang; Zhu, Chunhua; Li, Fen; Wang, Li; Li, Chaojun

    2010-01-01

    As an anti-oxidant molecule, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been implicated in the protection of lung injury by cigarette smoke (CS). The mechanisms regulating its expression have not been defined. In this report, the role of early growth response 1 (EGR-1) in the regulation of Ho-1 expression was investigated. In C57BL/6 mice with CS exposure, HO-1 was greatly increased in bronchial epithelial cells and alveolar inflammatory cells. In primary cultured mouse lung fibroblasts and RAW264.7 cells exposed to cigarette smoke water extract (CSE), an increase in HO-1 protein level was detected. In addition, CSE induced HO-1 expression was decreased in Egr-1 deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts (Egr-1 -/- MEFs). Nuclear localization of EGR-1 was examined in mouse lung fibroblasts after exposure to CSE. Luciferase reporter activity assays showed that the enhancer region of the Ho-1 gene containing a proposed EGR-1 binding site was responsible for the induction of HO-1. A higher increase of alveolar mean linear intercept (Lm) was observed in lung tissues, and a larger increase in the number of total cells and monocytes/macrophages from bronchial alveolar lavage fluid was found in CS-exposed mice by loss of function of EGR-1 treatment. In summary, the present data demonstrate that EGR-1 plays a critical role in HO-1 production induced by CS.

  16. YY1 positively regulates human UBIAD1 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funahashi, Nobuaki, E-mail: nfunahashi@ri.ncgm.go.jp [Department of Hygienic Sciences, Kobe Pharmaceutical University, Kobe (Japan); Department of Metabolic Disorder, Diabetes Research Center, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Hirota, Yoshihisa [Department of Hygienic Sciences, Kobe Pharmaceutical University, Kobe (Japan); Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka (Japan); Nakagawa, Kimie; Sawada, Natumi; Watanabe, Masato [Department of Hygienic Sciences, Kobe Pharmaceutical University, Kobe (Japan); Suhara, Yoshitomo [Department of Bioscience and Engineering, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan); Okano, Toshio [Department of Hygienic Sciences, Kobe Pharmaceutical University, Kobe (Japan)

    2015-05-01

    Vitamin K is involved in bone formation and blood coagulation. Natural vitamin K compounds are composed of the plant form phylloquinone (vitamin K{sub 1}) and a series of bacterial menaquionones (MK-n; vitamin K{sub 2}). Menadione (vitamin K{sub 3}) is an artificial vitamin K compound. MK-4 contains 4-isoprenyl as a side group in the 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone common structure and has various bioactivities. UbiA prenyltransferase domain containing 1 (UBIAD1 or TERE1) is the menaquinone-4 biosynthetic enzyme. UBIAD1 transcript expression significantly decreases in patients with prostate carcinoma and overexpressing UBIAD1 inhibits proliferation of a tumour cell line. UBIAD1 mRNA expression is ubiquitous in mouse tissues, and higher UBIAD1 mRNA expression levels are detected in the brain, heart, kidneys and pancreas. Several functions of UBIAD1 have been reported; however, regulation of the human UBIAD1 gene has not been elucidated. Here we report cloning and characterisation of the human UBIAD1 promoter. A 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends analysis revealed that the main transcriptional start site was 306 nucleotides upstream of the translation initiation codon. Deletion and mutation analyses revealed the functional importance of the YY1 consensus motif. Electrophoretic gel mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that YY1 binds the UBIAD1 promoter in vitro and in vivo. In addition, YY1 small interfering RNA decreased endogenous UBIAD1 mRNA expression and UBIAD1 conversion activity. These results suggest that YY1 up-regulates UBIAD1 expression and UBIAD1 conversion activity through the UBIAD1 promoter. - Highlights: • We cloned the human UBIAD1 promoter. • The functional importance of the YY1 motif was identified in the UBIAD1 promoter. • YY1 binds the UBIAD1 promoter in vitro and in vivo. • Knockdown of YY1 significantly decreased UBIAD1 expression. • YY1 up-regulates UBIAD1 conversion activity through the UBIAD1

  17. YY1 positively regulates human UBIAD1 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funahashi, Nobuaki; Hirota, Yoshihisa; Nakagawa, Kimie; Sawada, Natumi; Watanabe, Masato; Suhara, Yoshitomo; Okano, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin K is involved in bone formation and blood coagulation. Natural vitamin K compounds are composed of the plant form phylloquinone (vitamin K 1 ) and a series of bacterial menaquionones (MK-n; vitamin K 2 ). Menadione (vitamin K 3 ) is an artificial vitamin K compound. MK-4 contains 4-isoprenyl as a side group in the 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone common structure and has various bioactivities. UbiA prenyltransferase domain containing 1 (UBIAD1 or TERE1) is the menaquinone-4 biosynthetic enzyme. UBIAD1 transcript expression significantly decreases in patients with prostate carcinoma and overexpressing UBIAD1 inhibits proliferation of a tumour cell line. UBIAD1 mRNA expression is ubiquitous in mouse tissues, and higher UBIAD1 mRNA expression levels are detected in the brain, heart, kidneys and pancreas. Several functions of UBIAD1 have been reported; however, regulation of the human UBIAD1 gene has not been elucidated. Here we report cloning and characterisation of the human UBIAD1 promoter. A 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends analysis revealed that the main transcriptional start site was 306 nucleotides upstream of the translation initiation codon. Deletion and mutation analyses revealed the functional importance of the YY1 consensus motif. Electrophoretic gel mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that YY1 binds the UBIAD1 promoter in vitro and in vivo. In addition, YY1 small interfering RNA decreased endogenous UBIAD1 mRNA expression and UBIAD1 conversion activity. These results suggest that YY1 up-regulates UBIAD1 expression and UBIAD1 conversion activity through the UBIAD1 promoter. - Highlights: • We cloned the human UBIAD1 promoter. • The functional importance of the YY1 motif was identified in the UBIAD1 promoter. • YY1 binds the UBIAD1 promoter in vitro and in vivo. • Knockdown of YY1 significantly decreased UBIAD1 expression. • YY1 up-regulates UBIAD1 conversion activity through the UBIAD1 promoter

  18. Multiple upstream modules regulate zebrafish myf5 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng Chih-Wei

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myf5 is one member of the basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors, and it functions as a myogenic factor that is important for the specification and differentiation of muscle cells. The expression of myf5 is somite- and stage-dependent during embryogenesis through a delicate regulation. However, this complex regulatory mechanism of myf5 is not clearly understood. Results We isolated a 156-kb bacterial artificial chromosome clone that includes an upstream 80-kb region and a downstream 70-kb region of zebrafish myf5 and generated a transgenic line carrying this 156-kb segment fused to a green fluorescent protein (GFP reporter gene. We find strong GFP expression in the most rostral somite and in the presomitic mesoderm during segmentation stages, similar to endogenous myf5 expression. Later, the GFP signals persist in caudal somites near the tail bud but are down-regulated in the older, rostral somites. During the pharyngula period, we detect GFP signals in pectoral fin buds, dorsal rostral myotomes, hypaxial myotomes, and inferior oblique and superior oblique muscles, a pattern that also corresponds well with endogenous myf5 transcripts. To characterize the specific upstream cis-elements that regulate this complex and dynamic expression pattern, we also generated several transgenic lines that harbor various lengths within the upstream 80-kb segment. We find that (1 the -80 kb/-9977 segment contains a fin and cranial muscle element and a notochord repressor; (2 the -9977/-6213 segment contains a strong repressive element that does not include the notochord-specific repressor; (3 the -6212/-2938 segment contains tissue-specific elements for bone and spinal cord; (4 the -2937/-291 segment contains an eye enhancer, and the -2937/-2457 segment is required for notochord and myocyte expression; and (5 the -290/-1 segment is responsible for basal transcription in somites and the presomitic mesoderm. Conclusion We suggest

  19. Impact of physical maltreatment on the regulation of negative affect and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackman, Jessica E; Pollak, Seth D

    2014-11-01

    Physically maltreated children are at risk for developing externalizing behavioral problems characterized by reactive aggression. The current experiment tested the relationships between individual differences in a neural index of social information processing, histories of child maltreatment, child negative affect, and aggressive behavior. Fifty boys (17 maltreated) performed an emotion recognition task while the P3b component of the event-related potential was recorded to index attention allocation to angry faces. Children then participated in a peer-directed aggression task. Negative affect was measured by recording facial electromyography, and aggression was indexed by the feedback that children provided to a putative peer. Physically maltreated children exhibited greater negative affect and more aggressive behavior, compared to nonmaltreated children, and this relationship was mediated by children's allocation of attention to angry faces. These data suggest that physical maltreatment leads to inappropriate regulation of both negative affect and aggression, which likely place maltreated children at increased risk for the development and maintenance of externalizing behavior disorders.

  20. Role of negative affects in pathophysiology and clinical expression of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Maria Rosaria A; Bruno, Antonio; Scimeca, Giuseppe; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Zoccali, Rocco A

    2014-06-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is regarded as a multifactorial disease in which alterations in the brain-gut axis signaling play a major role. The biopsychosocial model applied to the understanding of IBS pathophysiology assumes that psychosocial factors, interacting with peripheral/central neuroendocrine and immune changes, may induce symptoms of IBS, modulate symptom severity, influence illness experience and quality of life, and affect outcome. The present review focuses on the role of negative affects, including depression, anxiety, and anger, on pathogenesis and clinical expression of IBS. The potential role of the autonomic nervous system, stress-hormone system, and immune system in the pathophysiology of both negative affects and IBS are taken into account. Psychiatric comorbidity and subclinical variations in levels of depression, anxiety, and anger are further discussed in relation to the main pathophysiological and symptomatic correlates of IBS, such as sensorimotor functions, gut microbiota, inflammation/immunity, and symptom reporting.

  1. PGC-1-related coactivator (PRC) negatively regulates endothelial adhesion of monocytes via inhibition of NF κB activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chengye, Zhan; Daixing, Zhou, E-mail: dxzhou7246@hotmail.com; Qiang, Zhong; Shusheng, Li

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •First time to display that LPS downregulate the expression of PRC. •First time to show that PRC inhibits the induction of VCAM-1 and E-selectin. •First time to show that PRC inhibit monocytes attachment to endothelial cells. •First time to display that PRC inhibits transcriptional activity of NF-κB. •PRC protects the respiration rate and suppresses the glycolysis rate against LPS. -- Abstract: PGC-1-related coactivator (PRC) is a growth-regulated transcriptional cofactor known to activate many of the nuclear genes specifying mitochondrial respiratory function. Endothelial dysfunction is a prominent feature found in many inflammatory diseases. Adhesion molecules, such as VCAM-1, mediate the attachment of monocytes to endothelial cells, thereby playing an important role in endothelial inflammation. The effects of PRC in regards to endothelial inflammation remain unknown. In this study, our findings show that PRC can be inhibited by the inflammatory cytokine LPS in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In the presence of LPS, the expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecular, such as VCAM1 and E-selectin, is found to be increased. These effects can be negated by overexpression of PRC. Importantly, monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells caused by LPS is significantly attenuated by PRC. In addition, overexpression of PRC protects mitochondrial metabolic function and suppresses the rate of glycolysis against LPS. It is also found that overexpression of PRC decreases the transcriptional activity of NF-κB. These findings suggest that PRC is a negative regulator of endothelial inflammation.

  2. Evidence for the negative impact of reward on self-regulated learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehe, Hillary S; Rhodes, Matthew G; Seger, Carol A

    2015-01-01

    The undermining effect refers to the detrimental impact rewards can have on intrinsic motivation to engage in a behaviour. The current study tested the hypothesis that participants' self-regulated learning behaviours are susceptible to the undermining effect. Participants were assigned to learn a set of Swahili-English word pairs. Half of the participants were offered a reward for performance, and half were not offered a reward. After the initial study phase, participants were permitted to continue studying the words during a free period. The results were consistent with an undermining effect: Participants who were not offered a reward spent more time studying the words during the free period. The results suggest that rewards may negatively impact self-regulated learning behaviours and provide support for the encouragement of intrinsic motivation.

  3. Surface expression and limited proteolysis of ADAM10 are increased by a dominant negative inhibitor of dynamin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slack Barbara E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amyloid precursor protein (APP is cleaved by β- and γ-secretases to generate toxic amyloid β (Aβ peptides. Alternatively, α-secretases cleave APP within the Aβ domain, precluding Aβ formation and releasing the soluble ectodomain, sAPPα. We previously showed that inhibition of the GTPase dynamin reduced APP internalization and increased release of sAPPα, apparently by prolonging the interaction between APP and α-secretases at the plasma membrane. This was accompanied by a reduction in Aβ generation. In the present study, we investigated whether surface expression of the α-secretase ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease10 is also regulated by dynamin-dependent endocytosis. Results Transfection of human embryonic kidney (HEK cells stably expressing M3 muscarinic receptors with a dominant negative dynamin I mutant (dyn I K44A, increased surface expression of both immature, and mature, catalytically active forms of co-expressed ADAM10. Surface levels of ADAM10 were unaffected by activation of protein kinase C (PKC or M3 receptors, indicating that receptor-coupled shedding of the ADAM substrate APP is unlikely to be mediated by inhibition of ADAM10 endocytosis in this cell line. Dyn I K44A strongly increased the formation of a C-terminal fragment of ADAM10, consistent with earlier reports that the ADAM10 ectodomain is itself a target for sheddases. The abundance of this fragment was increased in the presence of a γ-secretase inhibitor, but was not affected by M3 receptor activation. The dynamin mutant did not affect the distribution of ADAM10 and its C-terminal fragment between raft and non-raft membrane compartments. Conclusions Surface expression and limited proteolysis of ADAM10 are regulated by dynamin-dependent endocytosis, but are unaffected by activation of signaling pathways that upregulate shedding of ADAM substrates such as APP. Modulation of ADAM10 internalization could affect cellular behavior in two

  4. Cloning-free regulated monitoring of reporter and gene expression

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    Demirkaya Omer

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of the promoters, their regulatory elements, and their variations in the human genome remain unknown. Reporter gene technology for transcriptional activity is a widely used tool for the study of promoter structure, gene regulation, and signaling pathways. Construction of transcriptional reporter vectors, including use of cis-acting sequences, requires cloning and time-demanding manipulations, particularly with introduced mutations. Results In this report, we describe a cloning-free strategy to generate transcriptionally-controllable linear reporter constructs. This approach was applied in common transcriptional models of inflammatory response and the interferon system. In addition, it was used to delineate minimal transcriptional activity of selected ribosomal protein promoters. The approach was tested for conversion of genes into TetO-inducible/repressible expression cassettes. Conclusion The simple introduction and tuning of any transcriptional control in the linear DNA product renders promoter activation and regulated gene studies simple and versatile.

  5. MicroRNA miR-328 regulates zonation morphogenesis by targeting CD44 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Hui; Lee, Daniel Y; Deng, Zhaoqun; Jeyapalan, Zina; Lee, Shao-Chen; Kahai, Shireen; Lu, Wei-Yang; Zhang, Yaou; Yang, Burton B

    2008-06-18

    Morphogenesis is crucial to initiate physiological development and tumor invasion. Here we show that a microRNA controls zonation morphogenesis by targeting hyaluronan receptor CD44. We have developed a novel system to study microRNA functions by generating constructs expressing pre-miRNAs and mature miRNAs. Using this system, we have demonstrated that expression of miR-328 reduced cell adhesion, aggregation, and migration, and regulated formation of capillary structure. Protein analysis indicated that miR-328 repressed CD44 expression. Activities of luciferase constructs harboring the target site in CD44, but not the one containing mutation, were repressed by miR-328. Zonation morphogenesis appeared in cells transfected by miR-328: miR-328-transfected cells were present on the surface of zonating structures while the control cells stayed in the middle. MiR-328-mediated CD44 actions was validated by anti-CD44 antibody, hyaluronidase, CD44 siRNA, and CD44 expression constructs. In vivo experiments showed that CD44-silencing cells appeared as layers on the surfaces of nodules or zonating structures. Immuno-histochemistry also exhibited CD44-negative cells on the surface layers of normal rat livers and the internal zones of Portal veins. Our results demonstrate that miR-328 targets CD44, which is essential in regulating zonation morphogenesis: silencing of CD44 expression is essential in sealing the zonation structures to facilitate their extension and to inhibit complex expansion.

  6. NRAGE induces β-catenin/Arm O-GlcNAcylation and negatively regulates Wnt signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yuxin; Jin, Lei; Xue, Bin; Jin, Dong; Sun, Fenyong; Wen, Chuanjun

    2017-01-01

    The Wnt pathway is crucial for animal development, as well as tumor formation. Understanding the regulation of Wnt signaling will help to elucidate the mechanism of the cell cycle, cell differentiation and tumorigenesis. It is generally accepted that in response to Wnt signals, β-catenin accumulates in the cytoplasm and is imported into the nucleus where it recruits LEF/TCF transcription factors to activate the expression of target genes. In this study, we report that human NRAGE, a neurotrophin receptor p75 (p75NTR) binding protein, markedly suppresses the expression of genes activated by the Wnt pathway. Consistent with this finding, loss of function of NRAGE by RNA interference (RNAi) activates the Wnt pathway. Moreover, NRAGE suppresses the induction of axis duplication by microinjected β-catenin in Xenopus embryos. To our surprise, NRAGE induces nuclear localization of β-catenin and increases its DNA binding ability. Further studies reveal that NRAGE leads to the modification of β-catenin/Arm with O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), and failure of the association between β-catenin/Arm and pygopus(pygo) protein, which is required for transcriptional activation of Wnt target genes. Therefore, our findings suggest a novel mechanism for regulating Wnt signaling. - Highlights: • NRAGE suppresses the expressions of Wnt pathway downstream genes. • NRAGE induces nuclear localization of β-catenin and increases its DNA binding ability. • NRAGE activity leads to the O-GlcNAcylation of β-catenin.

  7. Androgen Receptor Expression in Early Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Clinical Significance and Prognostic Associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirco Pistelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC are characterized by aggressive tumour biology resulting in a poor prognosis. Androgen receptor (AR is one of newly emerging biomarker in TNBC. In recent years, ARs have been demonstrated to play an important role in the genesis and in the development of breast cancer, although their prognostic role is still debated. In the present study, we explored the correlation of AR expression with clinical, pathological and molecular features and its impact on prognosis in early TNBC. Patients and Methods: ARs were considered positive in case of tumors with >10% nuclear-stained. Survival distribution was estimated by the Kaplan Meier method. The univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The difference among variables were calculated by chi-square test. Results: 81 TNBC patients diagnosed between January 2006 and December 2011 were included in the analysis. Slides were stained immunohistochemically for estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER-2, Ki-67, ALDH1, e-cadherin and AR. Of the 81 TNBC samples, 18.8% showed positive immunostaining for AR, 23.5% and 44.4% of patients were negative for e-cadherin and ALDH1, respectively. Positive AR immunostaining was inversely correlated with a higher Ki-67 (p < 0.0001 and a lympho-vascular invasion (p = 0.01, but no other variables. Univariate survival analysis revealed that AR expression was not associated with disease-free survival (p = 0.72 or overall survival (p = 0.93. Conclusions: The expression of AR is associated with some biological features of TNBC, such as Ki-67 and lympho-vascular invasion; nevertheless the prognostic significance of AR was not documented in our analysis. However, since ARs are expressed in a significant number of TNBC, prospective studies in order to determine the biological mechanisms and their potential role as novel treatment target.

  8. Androgen Receptor Expression in Early Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Clinical Significance and Prognostic Associations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pistelli, Mirco, E-mail: mirco.pistelli@alice.it; Caramanti, Miriam [Clinica di Oncologia Medica, AO Ospedali Riuniti-Ancona, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona 60020 (Italy); Biscotti, Tommasina; Santinelli, Alfredo [Anatomia Patologica, AO Ospedali Riuniti-Ancona, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona 60020 (Italy); Pagliacci, Alessandra; De Lisa, Mariagrazia; Ballatore, Zelmira; Ridolfi, Francesca; Maccaroni, Elena; Bracci, Raffaella; Berardi, Rossana; Battelli, Nicola; Cascinu, Stefano [Clinica di Oncologia Medica, AO Ospedali Riuniti-Ancona, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona 60020 (Italy)

    2014-06-27

    Background: Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are characterized by aggressive tumour biology resulting in a poor prognosis. Androgen receptor (AR) is one of newly emerging biomarker in TNBC. In recent years, ARs have been demonstrated to play an important role in the genesis and in the development of breast cancer, although their prognostic role is still debated. In the present study, we explored the correlation of AR expression with clinical, pathological and molecular features and its impact on prognosis in early TNBC. Patients and Methods: ARs were considered positive in case of tumors with >10% nuclear-stained. Survival distribution was estimated by the Kaplan Meier method. The univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The difference among variables were calculated by chi-square test. Results: 81 TNBC patients diagnosed between January 2006 and December 2011 were included in the analysis. Slides were stained immunohistochemically for estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER-2, Ki-67, ALDH1, e-cadherin and AR. Of the 81 TNBC samples, 18.8% showed positive immunostaining for AR, 23.5% and 44.4% of patients were negative for e-cadherin and ALDH1, respectively. Positive AR immunostaining was inversely correlated with a higher Ki-67 (p < 0.0001) and a lympho-vascular invasion (p = 0.01), but no other variables. Univariate survival analysis revealed that AR expression was not associated with disease-free survival (p = 0.72) or overall survival (p = 0.93). Conclusions: The expression of AR is associated with some biological features of TNBC, such as Ki-67 and lympho-vascular invasion; nevertheless the prognostic significance of AR was not documented in our analysis. However, since ARs are expressed in a significant number of TNBC, prospective studies in order to determine the biological mechanisms and their potential role as novel treatment target.

  9. How do non-physician clinicians respond to advanced cancer patients' negative expressions of emotions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Stewart C; Pollak, Kathryn I; Morgan, Perri A; Strand, Justine; Abernethy, Amy P; Jeffreys, Amy S; Arnold, Robert M; Olsen, Maren; Rodriguez, Keri L; Garrigues, Sarah K; Manusov, Justin R E; Tulsky, James A

    2011-01-01

    Patients with advanced cancer often experience negative emotion; clinicians' empathic responses can alleviate patient distress. Much is known about how physicians respond to patient emotion; less is known about non-physician clinicians. Given that oncology care is increasingly provided by an interdisciplinary team, it is important to know more about how patients with advanced cancer express emotions to non-physician clinicians (NPCs) and how NPCs respond to those empathic opportunities. We audio recorded conversations between non-physician clinicians and patients with advanced cancer. We analyzed 45 conversations between patients and oncology physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and nurse clinicians in which patients or their loved ones expressed at least one negative emotion to the NPC (i.e., an empathic opportunity). Empathic opportunities were coded three ways: type of emotion (anger, sadness, or fear), severity of emotion (least, moderate, or most severe), and NPC response to emotion (not empathic, on-topic medical response, and empathic response). We identified 103 empathic opportunities presented to 25 different NPCs during 45 visits. Approximately half of the empathic opportunities contained anger (53%), followed by sadness (25%) and fear (21%). The majority of emotions expressed were moderately severe (73%), followed by most severe (16%), and least severe (12%). The severity of emotions presented was not found to be statistically different between types of NPCs. NPCs responded to empathic opportunities with empathic statements 30% of the time. Additionally, 40% of the time, NPCs responded to empathic opportunities with on-topic, medical explanations and 30% of the responses were not empathic. Patients expressed emotional concerns to NPCs typically in the form of anger; most emotions were moderately severe, with no statistical differences among types of NPC. On average, NPCs responded to patient emotion with empathic language only 30% of the time. A

  10. Nuclear Kaiso expression is associated with high grade and triple-negative invasive breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen F Vermeulen

    Full Text Available Kaiso is a BTB/POZ transcription factor that is ubiquitously expressed in multiple cell types and functions as a transcriptional repressor and activator. Little is known about Kaiso expression and localization in breast cancer. Here, we have related pathological features and molecular subtypes to Kaiso expression in 477 cases of human invasive breast cancer. Nuclear Kaiso was predominantly found in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC (p = 0.007, while cytoplasmic Kaiso expression was linked to invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC (p = 0.006. Although cytoplasmic Kaiso did not correlate to clinicopathological features, we found a significant correlation between nuclear Kaiso, high histological grade (p = 0.023, ERα negativity (p = 0.001, and the HER2-driven and basal/triple-negative breast cancers (p = 0.018. Interestingly, nuclear Kaiso was also abundant in BRCA1-associated breast cancer (p<0.001 and invasive breast cancer overexpressing EGFR (p = 0.019. We observed a correlation between nuclear Kaiso and membrane-localized E-cadherin and p120-catenin (p120 (p<0.01. In contrast, cytoplasmic p120 strongly correlated with loss of E-cadherin and low nuclear Kaiso (p = 0.005. We could confirm these findings in human ILC cells and cell lines derived from conditional mouse models of ILC. Moreover, we present functional data that substantiate a mechanism whereby E-cadherin controls p120-mediated relief of Kaiso-dependent gene repression. In conclusion, our data indicate that nuclear Kaiso is common in clinically aggressive ductal breast cancer, while cytoplasmic Kaiso and a p120-mediated relief of Kaiso-dependent transcriptional repression characterize ILC.

  11. Androgen Receptor Expression in Early Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Clinical Significance and Prognostic Associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistelli, Mirco; Caramanti, Miriam; Biscotti, Tommasina; Santinelli, Alfredo; Pagliacci, Alessandra; De Lisa, Mariagrazia; Ballatore, Zelmira; Ridolfi, Francesca; Maccaroni, Elena; Bracci, Raffaella; Berardi, Rossana; Battelli, Nicola; Cascinu, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Background: Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are characterized by aggressive tumour biology resulting in a poor prognosis. Androgen receptor (AR) is one of newly emerging biomarker in TNBC. In recent years, ARs have been demonstrated to play an important role in the genesis and in the development of breast cancer, although their prognostic role is still debated. In the present study, we explored the correlation of AR expression with clinical, pathological and molecular features and its impact on prognosis in early TNBC. Patients and Methods: ARs were considered positive in case of tumors with >10% nuclear-stained. Survival distribution was estimated by the Kaplan Meier method. The univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The difference among variables were calculated by chi-square test. Results: 81 TNBC patients diagnosed between January 2006 and December 2011 were included in the analysis. Slides were stained immunohistochemically for estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER-2, Ki-67, ALDH1, e-cadherin and AR. Of the 81 TNBC samples, 18.8% showed positive immunostaining for AR, 23.5% and 44.4% of patients were negative for e-cadherin and ALDH1, respectively. Positive AR immunostaining was inversely correlated with a higher Ki-67 (p < 0.0001) and a lympho-vascular invasion (p = 0.01), but no other variables. Univariate survival analysis revealed that AR expression was not associated with disease-free survival (p = 0.72) or overall survival (p = 0.93). Conclusions: The expression of AR is associated with some biological features of TNBC, such as Ki-67 and lympho-vascular invasion; nevertheless the prognostic significance of AR was not documented in our analysis. However, since ARs are expressed in a significant number of TNBC, prospective studies in order to determine the biological mechanisms and their potential role as novel treatment target

  12. Mycobacterium tuberculosis maltosyltransferase GlgE, a genetically validated antituberculosis target, is negatively regulated by Ser/Thr phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiba, Jade; Syson, Karl; Baronian, Grégory; Zanella-Cléon, Isabelle; Kalscheuer, Rainer; Kremer, Laurent; Bornemann, Stephen; Molle, Virginie

    2013-06-07

    GlgE is a maltosyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of α-glucans that has been genetically validated as a potential therapeutic target against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Despite also making α-glucan, the GlgC/GlgA glycogen pathway is distinct and allosterically regulated. We have used a combination of genetics and biochemistry to establish how the GlgE pathway is regulated. M. tuberculosis GlgE was phosphorylated specifically by the Ser/Thr protein kinase PknB in vitro on one serine and six threonine residues. Furthermore, GlgE was phosphorylated in vivo when expressed in Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) but not when all seven phosphorylation sites were replaced by Ala residues. The GlgE orthologues from Mycobacterium smegmatis and Streptomyces coelicolor were phosphorylated by the corresponding PknB orthologues in vitro, implying that the phosphorylation of GlgE is widespread among actinomycetes. PknB-dependent phosphorylation of GlgE led to a 2 orders of magnitude reduction in catalytic efficiency in vitro. The activities of phosphoablative and phosphomimetic GlgE derivatives, where each phosphorylation site was substituted with either Ala or Asp residues, respectively, correlated with negative phosphoregulation. Complementation studies of a M. smegmatis glgE mutant strain with these GlgE derivatives, together with both classical and chemical forward genetics, were consistent with flux through the GlgE pathway being correlated with GlgE activity. We conclude that the GlgE pathway appears to be negatively regulated in actinomycetes through the phosphorylation of GlgE by PknB, a mechanism distinct from that known in the classical glycogen pathway. Thus, these findings open new opportunities to target the GlgE pathway therapeutically.

  13. Function and regulation of ATF 3 expression induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Feiyue; Wang, Yong; Du, Liqin; Zhan, Qimin

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Ionizing radiation results in a series of damages of mammalian cells as a genotoxic stress. There are some genes expressed after cells damaged, in which ATF 3, a member of ATF/CREB family of transcription factors, is one of them. In this report, we demonstrate that ATF 3 can be induced by ionizing radiation. The induction of ATF 3 protein requires normal status of p53 function in cells. There are some quantitative relationships between ATF 3 induction and dosages of radiation or time post-irradiation. In another word, ATF 3 expression induced by ionizing radiation present dose- and time-dependent. The regulation of ATF 3 expression refers to program of promoter and transcription. Radiation induces ATF 3 expression by activating the promoter and RNA transcription. In method of tetracycline-inducible system (tet-off), we have found that over-expression of ATF 3 protein brings caspase/PARP proteins into cleavage, which induces cell programmed death, and suppresses cell growth. Meanwhile, it was found that ATF 3 expression could slow down progression of cell from G 1 to S phase. It indicates ATF 3 protein might play a negative role in the control of cell cycle progression. It is very excited that expression of ATF 3 protein did not only suppress cell growth, but also demonstrated protecting effect of cell growth suppression resulting from ionizing radiation. It is suggested that ATF 3 protein might take part in the damage repair process of cells. (author)

  14. Pyruvate dehydrogenase expression is negatively associated with cell stemness and worse clinical outcome in prostate cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yali; Li, Xiaoli; Ji, Yasai; Li, Xiaoran; Li, Yaqing; Yu, Dandan; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Jian; Li, Huixiang; Zhang, Mingzhi; Ji, Zhenyu; Fan, Dandan; Wen, Jianguo; Goscinski, Mariusz Adam; Yuan, Long; Hao, Bin; Nesland, Jahn M; Suo, Zhenhe

    2017-01-01

    Cells generate adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP), the major currency for energy-consuming reactions, through mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and glycolysis. One of the remarkable features of cancer cells is aerobic glycolysis, also known as the “Warburg Effect”, in which cancer cells rely preferentially on glycolysis instead of mitochondrial OXPHOS as the main energy source even in the presence of high oxygen tension. One of the main players in controlling OXPHOS is the mitochondrial gatekeeperpyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc) and its major subunit is E1α (PDHA1). To further analyze the function of PDHA1 in cancer cells, it was knock out (KO) in the human prostate cancer cell line LnCap and a stable KO cell line was established. We demonstrated that PDHA1 gene KO significantly decreased mitochondrial OXPHOS and promoted anaerobic glycolysis, accompanied with higher stemness phenotype including resistance to chemotherapy, enhanced migration ability and increased expression of cancer stem cell markers. We also examined PDHA1 protein expression in prostate cancer tissues by immunohistochemistry and observed that reduced PDHA1 protein expression in clinical prostate carcinomas was significantly correlated with poor prognosis. Collectively, our results show that negative PDHA1 gene expressionis associated with significantly higher cell stemness in prostate cancer cells and reduced protein expression of this gene is associated with shorter clinical outcome in prostate cancers. PMID:28076853

  15. Abscisic Acid (ABA) Regulation of Arabidopsis SR Protein Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Tiago M. D.; Carvalho, Raquel F.; Richardson, Dale N.; Duque, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are major modulators of alternative splicing, a key generator of proteomic diversity and flexible means of regulating gene expression likely to be crucial in plant environmental responses. Indeed, mounting evidence implicates splicing factors in signal transduction of the abscisic acid (ABA) phytohormone, which plays pivotal roles in the response to various abiotic stresses. Using real-time RT-qPCR, we analyzed total steady-state transcript levels of the 18 SR and two SR-like genes from Arabidopsis thaliana in seedlings treated with ABA and in genetic backgrounds with altered expression of the ABA-biosynthesis ABA2 and the ABA-signaling ABI1 and ABI4 genes. We also searched for ABA-responsive cis elements in the upstream regions of the 20 genes. We found that members of the plant-specific SC35-Like (SCL) Arabidopsis SR protein subfamily are distinctively responsive to exogenous ABA, while the expression of seven SR and SR-related genes is affected by alterations in key components of the ABA pathway. Finally, despite pervasiveness of established ABA-responsive promoter elements in Arabidopsis SR and SR-like genes, their expression is likely governed by additional, yet unidentified cis-acting elements. Overall, this study pinpoints SR34, SR34b, SCL30a, SCL28, SCL33, RS40, SR45 and SR45a as promising candidates for involvement in ABA-mediated stress responses. PMID:25268622

  16. Expression profiling of genes regulated by TGF-beta: Differential regulation in normal and tumour cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi Takashi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TGF-beta is one of the key cytokines implicated in various disease processes including cancer. TGF-beta inhibits growth and promotes apoptosis in normal epithelial cells and in contrast, acts as a pro-tumour cytokine by promoting tumour angiogenesis, immune-escape and metastasis. It is not clear if various actions of TGF-beta on normal and tumour cells are due to differential gene regulations. Hence we studied the regulation of gene expression by TGF-beta in normal and cancer cells. Results Using human 19 K cDNA microarrays, we show that 1757 genes are exclusively regulated by TGF-beta in A549 cells in contrast to 733 genes exclusively regulated in HPL1D cells. In addition, 267 genes are commonly regulated in both the cell-lines. Semi-quantitative and real-time qRT-PCR analysis of some genes agrees with the microarray data. In order to identify the signalling pathways that influence TGF-beta mediated gene regulation, we used specific inhibitors of p38 MAP kinase, ERK kinase, JNK kinase and integrin signalling pathways. The data suggest that regulation of majority of the selected genes is dependent on at least one of these pathways and this dependence is cell-type specific. Interestingly, an integrin pathway inhibitor, RGD peptide, significantly affected TGF-beta regulation of Thrombospondin 1 in A549 cells. Conclusion These data suggest major differences with respect to TGF-beta mediated gene regulation in normal and transformed cells and significant role of non-canonical TGF-beta pathways in the regulation of many genes by TGF-beta.

  17. Anger arousal and behavioral anger regulation in everyday life among people with chronic low back pain: Relationships with spouse responses and negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, John W; Gerhart, James I; Bruehl, Stephen; Post, Kristina M; Smith, David A; Porter, Laura S; Schuster, Erik; Buvanendran, Asokumar; Fras, Anne Marie; Keefe, Francis J

    2016-01-01

    To determine the degree to which anger arousal and anger regulation (expression, inhibition) in the daily lives of people with chronic pain were related to spouse support, criticism, and hostility as perceived by patients and as reported by spouses. Married couples (N = 105, 1 spouse with chronic low back pain) completed electronic daily diaries, with assessments 5 times/day for 14 days. On these diaries, patients completed items on their own anger arousal, anger expression, and inhibition, and on perceived spouse support, criticism, and hostility. Spouses reported on their responses toward patients and their negative affect. Hierarchical linear modeling tested concurrent and lagged relationships. Patient-reported increases in anger arousal and anger expression were predominantly related to concurrent decreases in patient-perceived and spouse-reported spouse support, concurrent increases in patient-perceived and spouse-reported spouse criticism and hostility, and increases in spouse-reported negative affect. Relationships for anger expression remained significant with anger arousal controlled. These effects were especially strong for male patients. Spouses reported greater negative affect when patients were present than when they were not. Social support may facilitate adjustment to chronic pain, with declining support and overt criticism and hostility possibly adversely impacting pain and function. Results suggest that patient anger arousal and expression may be related to a negative interpersonal environment for married couples coping with chronic low back pain. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Expression of the central growth regulator BIG BROTHER is regulated by multiple cis-elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breuninger Holger

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much of the organismal variation we observe in nature is due to differences in organ size. The observation that even closely related species can show large, stably inherited differences in organ size indicates a strong genetic component to the control of organ size. Despite recent progress in identifying factors controlling organ growth in plants, our overall understanding of this process remains limited, partly because the individual factors have not yet been connected into larger regulatory pathways or networks. To begin addressing this aim, we have studied the upstream regulation of expression of BIG BROTHER (BB, a central growth-control gene in Arabidopsis thaliana that prevents overgrowth of organs. Final organ size and BB expression levels are tightly correlated, implying the need for precise control of its expression. BB expression mirrors proliferative activity, yet the gene functions to limit proliferation, suggesting that it acts in an incoherent feedforward loop downstream of growth activators to prevent over-proliferation. Results To investigate the upstream regulation of BB we combined a promoter deletion analysis with a phylogenetic footprinting approach. We were able to narrow down important, highly conserved, cis-regulatory elements within the BB promoter. Promoter sequences of other Brassicaceae species were able to partially complement the A. thaliana bb-1 mutant, suggesting that at least within the Brassicaceae family the regulatory pathways are conserved. Conclusions This work underlines the complexity involved in precise quantitative control of gene expression and lays the foundation for identifying important upstream regulators that determine BB expression levels and thus final organ size.

  19. SREB2/GPR85, a schizophrenia risk factor, negatively regulates hippocampal adult neurogenesis and neurogenesis-dependent learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Kogan, Jeffrey H; Gross, Adam K; Zhou, Yuan; Walton, Noah M; Shin, Rick; Heusner, Carrie L; Miyake, Shinichi; Tajinda, Katsunori; Tamura, Kouichi; Matsumoto, Mitsuyuki

    2012-09-01

    SREB2/GPR85, a member of the super-conserved receptor expressed in brain (SREB) family, is the most conserved G-protein-coupled receptor in vertebrate evolution. Previous human and mouse genetic studies have indicated a possible link between SREB2 and schizophrenia. SREB2 is robustly expressed in the hippocampal formation, especially in the dentate gyrus, a structure with an established involvement in psychiatric disorders and cognition. However, the function of SREB2 in the hippocampus remains elusive. Here we show that SREB2 regulates hippocampal adult neurogenesis, which impacts on cognitive function. Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and immunohistochemistry were conducted in SREB2 transgenic (Tg, over-expression) and knockout (KO, null-mutant) mice to quantitatively assay adult neurogenesis and newborn neuron dendritic morphology. Cognitive responses associated with adult neurogenesis alteration were evaluated in SREB2 mutant mice. In SREB2 Tg mice, both new cell proliferation and new neuron survival were decreased in the dentate gyrus, whereas an enhancement of new neuron survival occurred in SREB2 KO mouse dentate gyrus. Doublecortin staining revealed dendritic morphology deficits of newly generated neurons in SREB2 Tg mice. In a spatial pattern separation task, SREB2 Tg mice displayed a decreased ability to discriminate spatial relationships, whereas SREB2 KO mice had enhanced abilities in this task. Additionally, SREB2 Tg and KO mice had reciprocal phenotypes in a Y-maze working memory task. Our results indicate that SREB2 is a negative regulator of adult neurogenesis and consequential cognitive functions. Inhibition of SREB2 function may be a novel approach to enhance hippocampal adult neurogenesis and cognitive abilities to ameliorate core symptoms of psychiatric patients. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. REDD1 induction regulates the skeletal muscle gene expression signature following acute aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Bradley S; Steiner, Jennifer L; Rossetti, Michael L; Qiao, Shuxi; Ellisen, Leif W; Govindarajan, Subramaniam S; Eroshkin, Alexey M; Williamson, David L; Coen, Paul M

    2017-12-01

    The metabolic stress placed on skeletal muscle by aerobic exercise promotes acute and long-term health benefits in part through changes in gene expression. However, the transducers that mediate altered gene expression signatures have not been completely elucidated. Regulated in development and DNA damage 1 (REDD1) is a stress-induced protein whose expression is transiently increased in skeletal muscle following acute aerobic exercise. However, the role of this induction remains unclear. Because REDD1 altered gene expression in other model systems, we sought to determine whether REDD1 induction following acute exercise altered the gene expression signature in muscle. To do this, wild-type and REDD1-null mice were randomized to remain sedentary or undergo a bout of acute treadmill exercise. Exercised mice recovered for 1, 3, or 6 h before euthanization. Acute exercise induced a transient increase in REDD1 protein expression within the plantaris only at 1 h postexercise, and the induction occurred in both cytosolic and nuclear fractions. At this time point, global changes in gene expression were surveyed using microarray. REDD1 induction was required for the exercise-induced change in expression of 24 genes. Validation by RT-PCR confirmed that the exercise-mediated changes in genes related to exercise capacity, muscle protein metabolism, neuromuscular junction remodeling, and Metformin action were negated in REDD1-null mice. Finally, the exercise-mediated induction of REDD1 was partially dependent upon glucocorticoid receptor activation. In all, these data show that REDD1 induction regulates the exercise-mediated change in a distinct set of genes within skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Association of a Network of Interferon-Stimulated Genes with a Locus Encoding a Negative Regulator of Non-conventional IKK Kinases and IFNB1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloua Jeidane

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional genomic analysis of gene expression in mice allowed us to identify a quantitative trait locus (QTL linked in trans to the expression of 190 gene transcripts and in cis to the expression of only two genes, one of which was Ypel5. Most of the trans-expression QTL genes were interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs, and their expression in mouse macrophage cell lines was stimulated in an IFNB1-dependent manner by Ypel5 silencing. In human HEK293T cells, YPEL5 silencing enhanced the induction of IFNB1 by pattern recognition receptors and phosphorylation of TBK1/IKBKE kinases, whereas co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that YPEL5 interacted physically with IKBKE. We thus found that the Ypel5 gene (contained in a locus linked to a network of ISGs in mice is a negative regulator of IFNB1 production and innate immune responses that interacts functionally and physically with TBK1/IKBKE kinases.

  2. Salt Stress Represses Soybean Seed Germination by Negatively Regulating GA Biosynthesis While Positively Mediating ABA Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Shu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is an important and staple oilseed crop worldwide. Salinity stress has adverse effects on soybean development periods, especially on seed germination and post-germinative growth. Improving seed germination and emergence will have positive effects under salt stress conditions on agricultural production. Here we report that NaCl delays soybean seed germination by negatively regulating gibberellin (GA while positively mediating abscisic acid (ABA biogenesis, which leads to a decrease in the GA/ABA ratio. This study suggests that fluridone (FLUN, an ABA biogenesis inhibitor, might be a potential plant growth regulator that can promote soybean seed germination under saline stress. Different soybean cultivars, which possessed distinct genetic backgrounds, showed a similar repressed phenotype during seed germination under exogenous NaCl application. Biochemical analysis revealed that NaCl treatment led to high MDA (malondialdehyde level during germination and the post-germinative growth stages. Furthermore, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidase activities also changed after NaCl treatment. Subsequent quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction analysis showed that the transcription levels of ABA and GA biogenesis and signaling genes were altered after NaCl treatment. In line with this, phytohormone measurement also revealed that NaCl considerably down-regulated active GA1, GA3, and GA4 levels, whereas the ABA content was up-regulated; and therefore ratios, such as GA1/ABA, GA3/ABA, and GA4/ABA, are decreased. Consistent with the hormonal quantification, FLUN partially rescued the delayed-germination phenotype caused by NaCl-treatment. Altogether, these results demonstrate that NaCl stress inhibits soybean seed germination by decreasing the GA/ABA ratio, and that FLUN might be a potential plant growth regulator that could promote soybean seed germination under salinity stress.

  3. Salt Stress Represses Soybean Seed Germination by Negatively Regulating GA Biosynthesis While Positively Mediating ABA Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Kai; Qi, Ying; Chen, Feng; Meng, Yongjie; Luo, Xiaofeng; Shuai, Haiwei; Zhou, Wenguan; Ding, Jun; Du, Junbo; Liu, Jiang; Yang, Feng; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Weiguo; Yong, Taiwen; Wang, Xiaochun; Feng, Yuqi; Yang, Wenyu

    2017-01-01

    Soybean is an important and staple oilseed crop worldwide. Salinity stress has adverse effects on soybean development periods, especially on seed germination and post-germinative growth. Improving seed germination and emergence will have positive effects under salt stress conditions on agricultural production. Here we report that NaCl delays soybean seed germination by negatively regulating gibberellin (GA) while positively mediating abscisic acid (ABA) biogenesis, which leads to a decrease in the GA/ABA ratio. This study suggests that fluridone (FLUN), an ABA biogenesis inhibitor, might be a potential plant growth regulator that can promote soybean seed germination under saline stress. Different soybean cultivars, which possessed distinct genetic backgrounds, showed a similar repressed phenotype during seed germination under exogenous NaCl application. Biochemical analysis revealed that NaCl treatment led to high MDA (malondialdehyde) level during germination and the post-germinative growth stages. Furthermore, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidase activities also changed after NaCl treatment. Subsequent quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction analysis showed that the transcription levels of ABA and GA biogenesis and signaling genes were altered after NaCl treatment. In line with this, phytohormone measurement also revealed that NaCl considerably down-regulated active GA 1 , GA 3 , and GA 4 levels, whereas the ABA content was up-regulated; and therefore ratios, such as GA 1 /ABA, GA 3 /ABA, and GA 4 /ABA, are decreased. Consistent with the hormonal quantification, FLUN partially rescued the delayed-germination phenotype caused by NaCl-treatment. Altogether, these results demonstrate that NaCl stress inhibits soybean seed germination by decreasing the GA/ABA ratio, and that FLUN might be a potential plant growth regulator that could promote soybean seed germination under salinity stress.

  4. Regulation of gene expression and pain states by epigenetic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Géranton, Sandrine M; Tochiki, Keri K

    2015-01-01

    The induction of inflammatory or neuropathic pain states is known to involve molecular activity in the spinal superficial dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglia, including intracellular signaling events which lead to changes in gene expression. These changes ultimately cause alterations in macromolecular synthesis, synaptic transmission, and structural architecture which support central sensitization, a process required for the establishment of long-term pain states. Epigenetic mechanisms are essential for long-term synaptic plasticity and modulation of gene expression. This is because epigenetic modifications are known to regulate gene transcription by aiding the physical relaxation or condensation of chromatin. These processes are therefore potential regulators of the molecular changes underlying permanent pain states. A handful of studies have emerged in the field of pain epigenetics; however, the field is still very much in its infancy. This chapter draws upon other specialities which have extensively investigated epigenetic mechanisms, such as learning and memory and oncology. After defining epigenetics as well as the recent field of "neuroepigenetics" and the main molecular mechanisms involved, this chapter describes the role of these mechanisms in the synaptic plasticity seen in learning and memory, and address those epigenetic mechanisms that have been linked with the development of acute and prolonged pain states. Finally, the idea that long-lasting epigenetic modifications could contribute to the transition from acute to chronic pain states by supporting maladaptive molecular changes is discussed. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hedgehog Signaling Regulates the Survival of Gastric Cancer Cells by Regulating the Expression of Bcl-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Myoung-Eun; Lee, Young-Suk; Baek, Sun-Yong; Kim, Bong-Seon; Kim, Jae-Bong; Oh, Sae-Ock

    2009-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The underlying molecular mechanisms of its carcinogenesis are relatively poorly characterized. Hedgehog (Hh) signaling, which is critical for development of various organs including the gastrointestinal tract, has been associated with gastric cancer. The present study was undertaken to reveal the underlying mechanism by which Hh signaling controls gastric cancer cell proliferation. Treatment of gastric cancer cells with cyclopamine, a specific inhibitor of Hh signaling pathway, reduced proliferation and induced apoptosis of gastric cancer cells. Cyclopamine treatment induced cytochrome c release from mitochondria and cleavage of caspase 9. Moreover, Bcl-2 expression was significantly reduced by cyclopamine treatment. These results suggest that Hh signaling regulates the survival of gastric cancer cells by regulating the expression of Bcl-2. PMID:19742123

  6. Gene expression in triple-negative breast cancer in relation to survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuyang; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Cai, Qiuyin; Cai, Hui; Guo, Xingyi; Shi, Liang; Wu, Jie; Ye, Fei; Qiu, Qingchao; Zheng, Ying; Zheng, Wei; Bao, Ping-Ping; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2018-05-10

    The identification of biomarkers related to the prognosis of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is critically important for improved understanding of the biology that drives TNBC progression. We evaluated gene expression in total RNA isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples using the NanoString nCounter assay for 469 TNBC cases from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study. We used Cox regression to quantify Hazard Ratios (HR) and corresponding confidence intervals (CI) for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in models that included adjustment for breast cancer intrinsic subtype. Of 302 genes in our discovery analysis, 22 were further evaluated in relation to OS among 134 TNBC cases from the Nashville Breast Health Study and the Southern Community Cohort Study; 16 genes were further evaluated in relation to DFS in 335 TNBC cases from four gene expression omnibus datasets. Fixed-effect meta-analysis was used to combine results across data sources. Twofold higher expression of EOMES (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.83-0.97), RASGRP1 (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82-0.97), and SOD2 (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.66-0.96) was associated with better OS. Twofold higher expression of EOMES (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81-0.97) and RASGRP1 (HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.81-0.95) was also associated with better DFS. On the contrary, a doubling of FA2H (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.06-1.22) and GSPT1 (HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.14-1.55) expression was associated with shorter DFS. We identified five genes (EOMES, FA2H, GSPT1, RASGRP1, and SOD2) that may serve as potential prognostic biomarkers and/or therapeutic targets for TNBC.

  7. Peroxiredoxin II is an antioxidant enzyme that negatively regulates collagen-stimulated platelet function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ji Yong; Wang, Su Bin; Min, Ji Hyun; Chae, Yun Hee; Baek, Jin Young; Yu, Dae-Yeul; Chang, Tong-Shin

    2015-05-01

    Collagen-induced platelet signaling is mediated by binding to the primary receptor glycoprotein VI (GPVI). Reactive oxygen species produced in response to collagen have been found to be responsible for the propagation of GPVI signaling pathways in platelets. Therefore, it has been suggested that antioxidant enzymes could down-regulate GPVI-stimulated platelet activation. Although the antioxidant enzyme peroxiredoxin II (PrxII) has emerged as having a role in negatively regulating signaling through various receptors by eliminating H2O2 generated upon receptor stimulation, the function of PrxII in collagen-stimulated platelets is not known. We tested the hypothesis that PrxII negatively regulates collagen-stimulated platelet activation. We analyzed PrxII-deficient murine platelets. PrxII deficiency enhanced GPVI-mediated platelet activation through the defective elimination of H2O2 and the impaired protection of SH2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP-2) against oxidative inactivation, which resulted in increased tyrosine phosphorylation of key components for the GPVI signaling cascade, including Syk, Btk, and phospholipase Cγ2. Interestingly, PrxII-mediated antioxidative protection of SHP-2 appeared to occur in the lipid rafts. PrxII-deficient platelets exhibited increased adhesion and aggregation upon collagen stimulation. Furthermore, in vivo experiments demonstrated that PrxII deficiency facilitated platelet-dependent thrombus formation in injured carotid arteries. This study reveals that PrxII functions as a protective antioxidant enzyme against collagen-stimulated platelet activation and platelet-dependent thrombosis. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. AP-1-mediated chromatin looping regulates ZEB2 transcription: new insights into TNFα-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition in triple-negative breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yichun; Shiue, Chiou-Nan; Zhu, Jian; Zhuang, Ting; Jonsson, Philip; Wright, Anthony P.H.; Zhao, Chunyan; Dahlman-Wright, Karin

    2015-01-01

    The molecular determinants of malignant cell behaviour in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) are poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that regulators of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are potential therapeutic targets for TNBC. In this study, we demonstrate that the inflammatory cytokine TNFα induces EMT in TNBC cells via activation of AP-1 signaling and subsequently induces expression of the EMT regulator ZEB2. We also show that TNFα activates both the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK pathways, which act upstream of AP-1. We further investigated in detail AP-1 regulation of ZEB2 expression. We show that two ZEB2 transcripts derived from distinct promoters are both expressed in breast cancer cell lines and breast tumor samples. Using the chromosome conformation capture assay, we demonstrate that AP-1, when activated by TNFα, binds to a site in promoter 1b of the ZEB2 gene where it regulates the expression of both promoter 1b and 1a, the latter via mediating long range chromatin interactions. Overall, this work provides a plausible mechanism for inflammation-induced metastatic potential in TNBC, involving a novel regulatory mechanism governing ZEB2 isoform expression. PMID:25762639

  9. VH gene expression and regulation in the mutant Alicia rabbit. Rescue of VHa2 allotype expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H T; Alexander, C B; Young-Cooper, G O; Mage, R G

    1993-04-01

    Rabbits of the Alicia strain, derived from rabbits expressing the VHa2 allotype, have a mutation in the H chain locus that has a cis effect upon the expression of VHa2 and VHa- genes. A small deletion at the most J-proximal (3') end of the VH locus leads to low expression of all the genes on the entire chromosome in heterozygous ali mutants and altered relative expression of VH genes in homozygotes. To study VH gene expression and regulation, we used the polymerase chain reaction to amplify the VH genes expressed in spleens of young and adult wild-type and mutant Alicia rabbits. The cDNA from reverse transcription of splenic mRNA was amplified and polymerase chain reaction libraries were constructed and screened with oligonucleotides from framework regions 1 and 3, as well as JH. Thirty-three VH-positive clones were sequenced and analyzed. We found that in mutant Alicia rabbits, products of the first functional VH gene (VH4a2), (or VH4a2-like genes) were expressed in 2- to 8-wk-olds. Expression of both the VHx and VHy types of VHa- genes was also elevated but the relative proportions of VHx and VHy, especially VHx, decreased whereas the relative levels of expression of VH4a2 or VH4a2-like genes increased with age. Our results suggest that the appearance of sequences resembling that of the VH1a2, which is deleted in the mutant ali rabbits, could be caused by alterations of the sequences of the rearranged VH4a2 genes by gene conversions and/or rearrangement of upstream VH1a2-like genes later in development.

  10. Nutlin-3 down-regulates retinoblastoma protein expression and inhibits muscle cell differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Erica M. [Department of Biochemistry, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Niu, MengMeng; Bergholz, Johann [Center of Growth, Metabolism and Aging, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610014 China (China); Jim Xiao, Zhi-Xiong, E-mail: jxiao@bu.edu [Department of Biochemistry, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Center of Growth, Metabolism and Aging, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610014 China (China)

    2015-05-29

    The p53 tumor suppressor gene plays a critical role in regulation of proliferation, cell death and differentiation. The MDM2 oncoprotein is a major negative regulator for p53 by binding to and targeting p53 for proteasome-mediated degradation. The small molecule inhibitor, nutlin-3, disrupts MDM2-p53 interaction resulting in stabilization and activation of p53 protein. We have previously shown that nutlin-3 activates p53, leading to MDM2 accumulation as concomitant of reduced retinoblastoma (Rb) protein stability. It is well known that Rb is important in muscle development and myoblast differentiation and that rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), or cancer of the skeletal muscle, typically harbors MDM2 amplification. In this study, we show that nutlin-3 inhibited myoblast proliferation and effectively prevented myoblast differentiation, as evidenced by lack of expression of muscle differentiation markers including myogenin and myosin heavy chain (MyHC), as well as a failure to form multinucleated myotubes, which were associated with dramatic increases in MDM2 expression and decrease in Rb protein levels. These results indicate that nutlin-3 can effectively inhibit muscle cell differentiation. - Highlights: • Nutlin-3 inhibits myoblast proliferation and prevents differentiation into myotubes. • Nutlin-3 increases MDM2 expression and down-regulates Rb protein levels. • This study has implication in nutlin-3 treatment of rhabdomyosarcomas.

  11. Regulation of connexins expression levels by microRNAs, an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Calderon

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Control of cell-cell coordination and communication is regulated by several factors, including paracrine and autocrine release of biomolecules, and direct exchange of soluble factors between cells through gap junction channels. Additionally, hemichannels also participate in cell-cell coordination through the release of signaling molecules, such as ATP and glutamate. A family of transmembrane proteins named connexins forms both gap junction channels and hemichannels. Because of their importance in cell and tissue coordination, connexins are controlled both by post-translational and post-transcriptional modifications. In recent years, non-coding RNAs have garnered research interest due to their ability to exert post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. One of the most recent, well-documented control mechanisms of protein synthesis is found through the action of small, single-stranded RNA, called micro RNAs (miRNAs or miRs. Put simply, miRNAs are negative regulators of the expression of a myriad proteins involved in many physiological and pathological processes. This mini review will briefly summarize what is currently known about the action of miRNAs over Cxs expression/function in different organs under some relevant physiological and pathological conditions

  12. Differential expression of genes regulated in response to drought stress in diploid cotton (Gossypium arboreum) (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, T.; Majeed, A.; Maqbool, A.; Hussain, S.S.; Ali, T.; Riazuddin, S.

    2005-01-01

    Negative effects on the Water status of plants is one of the most common and deleterious stresses experienced by wild and cultivated plants throughout the World. Our project is designed to identify, clone and characterize gene sequences regulated in response to Water stress (e.g., drought). We used the differential-display reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (DD-RT- PCA) methodology to accomplish our Objectives. Structural and functional characterization of environmental stress-induced genes has contributed to a better understanding of how plants respond and adapt to different abiotic stresses. Differential display was used to compare overall difference in gene expression between draught stressed and unstressed (control) plants of diploid Cotton (Gossypium arboreum). DDRT-PCR product from stressed and unstressed samples resolved side by side on 6% PAGE to compare qualitative and quantitative difference in mRNA expression. A total of 81 primer combinations were tested. DDRT -PCR enabled us to identify differentially expressed transcripts between water stressed and non-stressed cotton seedlings. PAGE revealed a total of 347 DNA transcripts in stressed samples (New Transcripts) while 110 down regulated and 209 up regulated DNA transcripts were also recorded. Similarly. 22 DNA transcripts were identified based on the comparative study of PAGE and Agarose gel electrophoresis. These sequences showed various degree homology With draught tolerant genes in the gene bank. (author)

  13. [Regulation of heat shock gene expression in response to stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbuz, D G

    2017-01-01

    Heat shock (HS) genes, or stress genes, code for a number of proteins that collectively form the most ancient and universal stress defense system. The system determines the cell capability of adaptation to various adverse factors and performs a variety of auxiliary functions in normal physiological conditions. Common stress factors, such as higher temperatures, hypoxia, heavy metals, and others, suppress transcription and translation for the majority of genes, while HS genes are upregulated. Transcription of HS genes is controlled by transcription factors of the HS factor (HSF) family. Certain HSFs are activated on exposure to higher temperatures or other adverse factors to ensure stress-induced HS gene expression, while other HSFs are specifically activated at particular developmental stages. The regulation of the main mammalian stress-inducible factor HSF1 and Drosophila melanogaster HSF includes many components, such as a variety of early warning signals indicative of abnormal cell activity (e.g., increases in intracellular ceramide, cytosolic calcium ions, or partly denatured proteins); protein kinases, which phosphorylate HSFs at various Ser residues; acetyltransferases; and regulatory proteins, such as SUMO and HSBP1. Transcription factors other than HSFs are also involved in activating HS gene transcription; the set includes D. melanogaster GAF, mammalian Sp1 and NF-Y, and other factors. Transcription of several stress genes coding for molecular chaperones of the glucose-regulated protein (GRP) family is predominantly regulated by another stress-detecting system, which is known as the unfolded protein response (UPR) system and is activated in response to massive protein misfolding in the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial matrix. A translational fine tuning of HS protein expression occurs via changing the phosphorylation status of several proteins involved in translation initiation. In addition, specific signal sequences in the 5'-UTRs of some HS

  14. Brassinosteroid-Induced Transcriptional Repression and Dephosphorylation-Dependent Protein Degradation Negatively Regulate BIN2-Interacting AIF2 (a BR Signaling-Negative Regulator) bHLH Transcription Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon; Song, Ji-Hye; Park, Seon-U; Jeong, You-Seung; Kim, Soo-Hwan

    2017-02-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant polyhydroxy-steroids that play important roles in plant growth and development via extensive signal integration through direct interactions between regulatory components of different signaling pathways. Recent studies have shown that diverse helix-loop-helix/basic helix-loop-helix (HLH/bHLH) family proteins are actively involved in control of BR signaling pathways and interact with other signaling pathways. In this study, we show that ATBS1-INTERACTING FACTOR 2 (AIF2), a nuclear-localized atypical bHLH transcription factor, specifically interacts with BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 2 (BIN2) among other BR signaling molecules. Overexpression of AIF2 down-regulated transcript expression of growth-promoting genes, thus resulting in retardation of growth. AIF2 renders plants hyposensitive to BR-induced root growth inhibition, but shows little effects on BR-promoted hypocotyl elongation. Notably, AIF2 was dephosphorylated by BR, and the dephosphorylated AIF2 was subject to proteasome-mediated degradation. AIF2 degradation was greatly induced by BR and ABA, but relatively slightly by other hormones such as auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin and ethylene. Moreover, AIF2 transcription was significantly suppressed by a BRI1/BZR1-mediated BR signaling pathway through a direct binding of BRASSINAZOLE RESISTANT 1 (BZR1) to the BR response element (BRRE) region of the AIF2 promoter. In conclusion, our study suggests that BIN2-driven AIF2 phosphorylation could augment the BIN2/AIF2-mediated negative circuit of BR signaling pathways, and the BR-induced transcriptional repression and protein degradation negatively regulate AIF2 transcription factor, reinforcing the BZR1/BES1-mediated positive BR signaling pathway. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Abscisic acid negatively regulates post-penetration resistance of Arabidopsis to the biotrophic powdery mildew fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiang; Cheng, Xi; Yin, Kangquan; Li, Huali; Qiu, Jin-Long

    2017-08-01

    Pytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays important roles in defense responses. Nonetheless, how ABA regulates plant resistance to biotrophic fungi remains largely unknown. Arabidopsis ABA-deficient mutants, aba2-1 and aba3-1, displayed enhanced resistance to the biotrophic powdery mildew fungus Golovinomyces cichoracearum. Moreover, exogenously administered ABA increased the susceptibility of Arabidopsis to G. cichoracearum. Arabidopsis ABA perception components mutants, abi1-1 and abi2-1, also displayed similar phenotypes to ABA-deficient mutants in resistance to G. cichoracearum. However, the resistance to G. cichoracearum is not changed in downstream ABA signaling transduction mutants, abi3-1, abi4-1, and abi5-1. Microscopic examination revealed that hyphal growth and conidiophore production of G. cichoracearum were compromised in the ABA deficient mutants, even though pre-penetration and penetration growth of the fungus were not affected. In addition, salicylic acid (SA) and MPK3 are found to be involved in ABA-regulated resistance to G. cichoracearum. Our work demonstrates that ABA negatively regulates post-penetration resistance of Arabidopsis to powdery mildew fungus G. cichoracearum, probably through antagonizing the function of SA.

  16. An Arabidopsis SUMO E3 Ligase, SIZ1, Negatively Regulates Photomorphogenesis by Promoting COP1 Activity

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Xiao-Li

    2016-04-29

    COP1 (CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1), a ubiquitin E3 ligase, is a central negative regulator of photomorphogenesis. However, how COP1 activity is regulated by post-translational modifications remains largely unknown. Here we show that SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) modification enhances COP1 activity. Loss-of-function siz1 mutant seedlings exhibit a weak constitutive photomorphogenic phenotype. SIZ1 physically interacts with COP1 and mediates the sumoylation of COP1. A K193R substitution in COP1 blocks its SUMO modification and reduces COP1 activity in vitro and in planta. Consistently, COP1 activity is reduced in siz1 and the level of HY5, a COP1 target protein, is increased in siz1. Sumoylated COP1 may exhibits higher transubiquitination activity than does non-sumoylated COP1, but SIZ1-mediated SUMO modification does not affect COP1 dimerization, COP1-HY5 interaction, and nuclear accumulation of COP1. Interestingly, prolonged light exposure reduces the sumoylation level of COP1, and COP1 mediates the ubiquitination and degradation of SIZ1. These regulatory mechanisms may maintain the homeostasis of COP1 activity, ensuing proper photomorphogenic development in changing light environment. Our genetic and biochemical studies identify a function for SIZ1 in photomorphogenesis and reveal a novel SUMO-regulated ubiquitin ligase, COP1, in plants.

  17. An Arabidopsis SUMO E3 Ligase, SIZ1, Negatively Regulates Photomorphogenesis by Promoting COP1 Activity

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Xiao-Li; Niu, De; Hu, Zi-Liang; Kim, Dae Heon; Jin, Yin Hua; Cai, Bin; Liu, Peng; Miura, Kenji; Yun, Dae-Jin; Kim, Woe-Yeon; Lin, Rongcheng; Jin, Jing Bo

    2016-01-01

    COP1 (CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1), a ubiquitin E3 ligase, is a central negative regulator of photomorphogenesis. However, how COP1 activity is regulated by post-translational modifications remains largely unknown. Here we show that SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) modification enhances COP1 activity. Loss-of-function siz1 mutant seedlings exhibit a weak constitutive photomorphogenic phenotype. SIZ1 physically interacts with COP1 and mediates the sumoylation of COP1. A K193R substitution in COP1 blocks its SUMO modification and reduces COP1 activity in vitro and in planta. Consistently, COP1 activity is reduced in siz1 and the level of HY5, a COP1 target protein, is increased in siz1. Sumoylated COP1 may exhibits higher transubiquitination activity than does non-sumoylated COP1, but SIZ1-mediated SUMO modification does not affect COP1 dimerization, COP1-HY5 interaction, and nuclear accumulation of COP1. Interestingly, prolonged light exposure reduces the sumoylation level of COP1, and COP1 mediates the ubiquitination and degradation of SIZ1. These regulatory mechanisms may maintain the homeostasis of COP1 activity, ensuing proper photomorphogenic development in changing light environment. Our genetic and biochemical studies identify a function for SIZ1 in photomorphogenesis and reveal a novel SUMO-regulated ubiquitin ligase, COP1, in plants.

  18. Regulation of human renin expression in chorion cell primary cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, K.G.; Haidar, M.A.; Baxter, J.D.; Reudelhuber, T.L.

    1990-01-01

    The human renin gene is expressed in the kidney, placenta, and several other sites. The release of renin or its precursor, prorenin, can be affected by several regulatory agents. In this study, primary cultures of human placental cells were used to examine the regulation of prorenin release and renin mRNA levels and of the transfected human renin promoter linked to chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter sequences. Treatment of the cultures with a calcium ionophore alone, calcium ionophore plus forskolin (that activates adenylate cyclase), or forskolin plus a phorbol ester increased prorenin release and renin mRNA levels 1.3 endash to 6 endash fold, but several classes of steroids did not affect prorenin secretion or renin RNA levels. These results suggest that (i) the first 584 base pairs of the renin gene 5'endash flanking DNA do not contain functional glucocorticoid or estrogen response elements, (ii) placental prorenin release and renin mRNA are regulated by calcium ion and by the combinations of cAMP with either C kinase or calcium ion, and (iii) the first 100 base pairs of the human renin 5'endash flanking DNA direct accurate initiation of transcription and can be regulated by cAMP. Thus, some control of renin release in the placenta (and by inference in other tissues) occurs via transcriptional influences on its promoter

  19. Differentially expressed miRNAs in triple negative breast cancer between African-American and non-Hispanic white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Bruna; Gill, Mandeep; Mahajan, Akanskha; Duttargi, Anju; Kirolikar, Saurabh; Almeida, Rodrigo; Regis, Kenny; Oluwasanmi, Olusayo L; Marchi, Fabio; Marian, Catalin; Makambi, Kepher; Kallakury, Bhaskar; Sheahan, Laura; Cavalli, Iglenir J; Ribeiro, Enilze M; Madhavan, Subha; Boca, Simina; Gusev, Yuriy; Cavalli, Luciane R

    2016-11-29

    Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC), a clinically aggressive subtype of breast cancer, disproportionately affects African American (AA) women when compared to non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). MiRNAs(miRNAs) play a critical role in these tumors, through the regulation of cancer driver genes. In this study, our goal was to characterize and compare the patterns of miRNA expression in TNBC of AA (n = 27) and NHW women (n = 30). A total of 256 miRNAs were differentially expressed between these groups, and distinct from the ones observed in their respective non-TNBC subtypes. Fifty-five of these miRNAs were mapped in cytobands carrying copy number alterations (CNAs); 26 of them presented expression levels concordant with the observed CNAs. Receiving operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed a good power (AUC ≥ 0.80; 95% CI) for over 65% of the individual miRNAs and a high combined power with superior sensitivity and specificity (AUC = 0.88 (0.78-0.99); 95% CI) of the 26 miRNA panel in discriminating TNBC between these populations. Subsequent miRNA target analysis revealed their involvement in the interconnected PI3K/AKT, MAPK and insulin signaling pathways. Additionally, three miRNAs of this panel were associated with early age at diagnosis. Altogether, these findings indicated that there are different patterns of miRNA expression between TNBC of AA and NHW women and that their mapping in genomic regions with high levels of CNAs is not merely physical, but biologically relevant to the TNBC phenotype. Once validated in distinct cohorts of AA women, this panel can potentially represent their intrinsic TNBC genome signature.

  20. Xenopus msx-1 regulates dorso-ventral axis formation by suppressing the expression of organizer genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, M; Saito, Y; Sekine, R; Onitsuka, I; Maeda, R; Maéno, M

    2000-06-01

    We demonstrated previously that Xmsx-1 is involved in mesoderm patterning along the dorso-ventral axis, under the regulation of BMP-4 signaling. When Xmsx-1 RNA was injected into the dorsal blastomeres, a mass of muscle tissue formed instead of notochord. This activity was similar to that of Xwnt-8 reported previously. In this study, we investigated whether the activity of Xmsx-1 is related to the ventralizing signal and myogenesis promoting factor, Xwnt-8. Whole-mount in situ hybridization showed that Xmsx-1, Xwnt-8, and XmyoD were expressed in overlapping areas, including the ventro-lateral marginal zone at mid-gastrula stage. The expression of XmyoD was induced by the ectopic expression of either Xmsx-1 or Xwnt-8 in dorsal blastomeres, and Xwnt-8 was induced by the ectopic expression of Xmsx-1. On the other hand, the expression of Xmsx-1 was not affected by the loading of pCSKA-Xwnt-8 or dominant-negative Xwnt-8 (DN-Xwnt-8) RNA. In addition, Xmsx-1 RNA did not abrogate the formation of notochord if coinjected with DN-Xwnt-8 RNA. These results suggest that Xmsx-1 functions upstream of the Xwnt-8 signal. Furthermore, the antagonistic function of Xmsx-1 to the expression of organizer genes, such as Xlim-1 and goosecoid, was shown by in situ hybridization analysis and luciferase reporter assay using the goosecoid promoter construct. Finally if Xmsx-1/VP-16 fusion RNA, which was expected to function as a dominant-negative Xmsx-1, was injected into ventral blastomeres, a partial secondary axis formed in a significant number of embryos. In such embryos, the activity of luciferase, under the control of goosecoid promoter sequence, was significantly elevated at gastrula stage. These results led us to conclude that Xmsx-1 plays a central role in establishing dorso-ventral axis in gastrulating embryo, by suppressing the expression of organizer genes.

  1. VE-Cadherin–Mediated Epigenetic Regulation of Endothelial Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morini, Marco F.; Giampietro, Costanza; Corada, Monica; Pisati, Federica; Lavarone, Elisa; Cunha, Sara I.; Conze, Lei L.; O’Reilly, Nicola; Joshi, Dhira; Kjaer, Svend; George, Roger; Nye, Emma; Ma, Anqi; Jin, Jian; Mitter, Richard; Lupia, Michela; Cavallaro, Ugo; Pasini, Diego; Calado, Dinis P.

    2018-01-01

    levels of claudin-5 and VE-PTP. Conclusions: These data extend the knowledge of polycomb-mediated regulation of gene expression to endothelial cell differentiation and vessel maturation. The identified mechanism opens novel therapeutic opportunities to modulate endothelial gene expression and induce vascular normalization through pharmacological inhibition of the polycomb-mediated repression system. PMID:29233846

  2. VE-Cadherin-Mediated Epigenetic Regulation of Endothelial Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morini, Marco F; Giampietro, Costanza; Corada, Monica; Pisati, Federica; Lavarone, Elisa; Cunha, Sara I; Conze, Lei L; O'Reilly, Nicola; Joshi, Dhira; Kjaer, Svend; George, Roger; Nye, Emma; Ma, Anqi; Jin, Jian; Mitter, Richard; Lupia, Michela; Cavallaro, Ugo; Pasini, Diego; Calado, Dinis P; Dejana, Elisabetta; Taddei, Andrea

    2018-01-19

    data extend the knowledge of polycomb-mediated regulation of gene expression to endothelial cell differentiation and vessel maturation. The identified mechanism opens novel therapeutic opportunities to modulate endothelial gene expression and induce vascular normalization through pharmacological inhibition of the polycomb-mediated repression system. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. Cytomegalovirus replicon-based regulation of gene expression in vitro and in vivo.

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    Hermine Mohr

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence for a connection between DNA replication and the expression of adjacent genes. Therefore, this study addressed the question of whether a herpesvirus origin of replication can be used to activate or increase the expression of adjacent genes. Cell lines carrying an episomal vector, in which reporter genes are linked to the murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV origin of lytic replication (oriLyt, were constructed. Reporter gene expression was silenced by a histone-deacetylase-dependent mechanism, but was resolved upon lytic infection with MCMV. Replication of the episome was observed subsequent to infection, leading to the induction of gene expression by more than 1000-fold. oriLyt-based regulation thus provided a unique opportunity for virus-induced conditional gene expression without the need for an additional induction mechanism. This principle was exploited to show effective late trans-complementation of the toxic viral protein M50 and the glycoprotein gO of MCMV. Moreover, the application of this principle for intracellular immunization against herpesvirus infection was demonstrated. The results of the present study show that viral infection specifically activated the expression of a dominant-negative transgene, which inhibited viral growth. This conditional system was operative in explant cultures of transgenic mice, but not in vivo. Several applications are discussed.

  4. EGR-1 and DUSP-1 are important negative regulators of pro-allergic responses in airway epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golebski, Korneliusz; van Egmond, Danielle; de Groot, Esther J; Roschmann, Kristina I L; Fokkens, Wytske J; van Drunen, Cornelis M

    2015-05-01

    Primary nasal epithelium of house dust mite allergic individuals is in a permanently activated inflammatory transcriptional state. To investigate whether a deregulated expression of EGR-1 and/or DUSP-1, two potential negative regulators of pro-inflammatory responses, could contribute to the activation of the inflammatory state. We silenced the expression of EGR-1 or DUSP-1 in the airway epithelial cell line NCI-H292. The cell lines were stimulated in a 24-h time course with the house dust mite allergen or poly(I:C). RNA expression profiles of cytokines were established using q-PCR and protein levels were determined in supernatants with ELISA. The shRNA-mediated gene silencing reduced expression levels of EGR-1 by 92% (p<0.0001) and of DUSP-1 by 76% (p<0.0001). Both mutant cells lines showed an increased and prolonged response to the HDM allergen. The mRNA induction of IL-6 was 4.6 fold (p=0.02) and 2.4 fold higher (p=0.01) in the EGR-1 and DUSP-1 knock-down, respectively when compared to the induced levels in the control cell line. For IL-8, the induction levels were 4.6 fold (p=0.01) and 13.0 (p=0.001) fold higher. The outcome was largely similar, yet not identical at the secreted protein levels. Furthermore, steroids were able to suppress the poly(I:C) induced cytokine levels by 70-95%. Deregulation of EGR-1 and/or DUSP-1 in nasal epithelium could be responsible for the prolonged activated transcriptional state observed in vivo in allergic disease. This could have clinical consequences as cytokine levels after the steroid treatment in EGR-1 or DUSP-1 knock-down remained higher than in the control cell line. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Calcineurin B homologous protein 3 negatively regulates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3 phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Soushi; Nakamura, Tomoe Y; Wakabayashi, Shigeo

    2015-07-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a leading cause of serious heart diseases. Although many signaling molecules are involved in hypertrophy, the functions of some proteins in this process are still unknown. Calcineurin B homologous protein 3 (CHP3)/tescalcin is an EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding protein that is abundantly expressed in the heart; however, the function of CHP3 is unclear. Here, we aimed to identify the cardiac functions of CHP3. CHP3 was expressed in hearts at a wide range of developmental stages and was specifically detected in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) but not in cardiac fibroblasts in culture. Moreover, knockdown of CHP3 expression using adenoviral-based RNA interference in NRVMs resulted in enlargement of cardiomyocyte size, concomitant with increased expression of a pathological hypertrophy marker ANP. This same treatment elevated glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3α/β) phosphorylation, which is known to inhibit GSK3 function. In contrast, CHP3 overexpression blocked the insulin-induced phosphorylation of GSK3α/β without affecting the phosphorylation of Akt, which is an upstream kinase of GSK3α/β, in HEK293 cells, and it inhibited both IGF-1-induced phosphorylation of GSK3β and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in NRVMs. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that GSK3β interacted with CHP3. However, a Ca(2+)-binding-defective mutation of CHP3 (CHP3-D123A) also interacted with GSK3β and had the same inhibitory effect on GSK3α/β phosphorylation, suggesting that the action of CHP3 was independent of Ca(2+). These findings suggest that CHP3 functions as a novel negative regulator of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via inhibition of GSK3α/β phosphorylation and subsequent enzymatic activation of GSK3α/β. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. High-Throughput Screening to Identify Regulators of Meiosis-Specific Gene Expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassir, Yona

    2017-01-01

    Meiosis and gamete formation are processes that are essential for sexual reproduction in all eukaryotic organisms. Multiple intracellular and extracellular signals feed into pathways that converge on transcription factors that induce the expression of meiosis-specific genes. Once triggered the meiosis-specific gene expression program proceeds in a cascade that drives progress through the events of meiosis and gamete formation. Meiosis-specific gene expression is tightly controlled by a balance of positive and negative regulatory factors that respond to a plethora of signaling pathways. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven to be an outstanding model for the dissection of gametogenesis owing to the sophisticated genetic manipulations that can be performed with the cells. It is possible to use a variety selection and screening methods to identify genes and their functions. High-throughput screening technology has been developed to allow an array of all viable yeast gene deletion mutants to be screened for phenotypes and for regulators of gene expression. This chapter describes a protocol that has been used to screen a library of homozygous diploid yeast deletion strains to identify regulators of the meiosis-specific IME1 gene.

  7. Nidogen-1 regulates laminin-1-dependent mammary-specific gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujuguet, Philippe; Simian, Marina; Liaw, Jane; Timpl, Rupert; Werb, Zena; Bissell, Mina J..

    2000-02-01

    Nidogen-1 (entactin) acts as a bridge between the extracellular matrix molecules laminin-1 and type IV collagen, and thus participates in the assembly of basement membranes. To investigate the role of nidogen-1 in regulating cell-type-specific gene expression in mammary epithelium, we designed a culture microecosystem in which each component, including epithelial cells, mesenchymal cells, lactogenic hormones and extracellular matrix, could be controlled. We found that primary and established mesenchymal and myoepithelial cells synthesized and secreted nidogen-1, whereas expression was absent in primary and established epithelial cells. In an epithelial cell line containing mesenchymal cells, nidogen-1 was produced by the mesenchymal cells but deposited between the epithelial cells. In this mixed culture, mammary epithelial cells express b-casein in the presence of lactogenic hormones. Addition of either laminin-1 plus nidogen-1, or laminin-1 alone to mammary epithelial cells induced b- casein production. We asked whether recombinant nidogen-1 alone could signal directly for b-casein. Nidogen-1 did not induce b-casein synthesis in epithelial cells, but it augmented the inductive capacity of laminin-1. These data suggest that nidogen-1 can cooperate with laminin-1 to regulate b-casein expression. Addition of full length nidogen-1 to the mixed cultures had no effect on b-casein gene expression; however, a nidogen-1 fragment containing the laminin-1 binding domain, but lacking the type IV collagen-binding domain, had a dominant negative effect on b-casein expression. These data point to a physiological role for nidogen-1 in the basement membrane-induced gene expression by epithelial cells.

  8. Small kinetochore associated protein (SKAP promotes UV-induced cell apoptosis through negatively regulating pre-mRNA processing factor 19 (Prp19.

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    Shan Lu

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is a regulated cellular suicide program that is critical for the development and maintenance of healthy tissues. Previous studies have shown that small kinetochore associated protein (SKAP cooperates with kinetochore and mitotic spindle proteins to regulate mitosis. However, the role of SKAP in apoptosis has not been investigated. We have identified a new interaction involving SKAP, and we propose a mechanism through which SKAP regulates cell apoptosis. Our experiments demonstrate that both overexpression and knockdown of SKAP sensitize cells to UV-induced apoptosis. Further study has revealed that SKAP interacts with Pre-mRNA processing Factor 19 (Prp19. We find that UV-induced apoptosis can be inhibited by ectopic expression of Prp19, whereas silencing Prp19 has the opposite effect. Additionally, SKAP negatively regulates the protein levels of Prp19, whereas Prp19 does not alter SKAP expression. Finally, rescue experiments demonstrate that the pro-apoptotic role of SKAP is executed through Prp19. Taken together, these findings suggest that SKAP promotes UV-induced cell apoptosis by negatively regulating the anti-apoptotic protein Prp19.

  9. Enhanced Mucosal Defense and Reduced Tumor Burden in Mice with the Compromised Negative Regulator IRAK-M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E. Rothschild

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant inflammation is a hallmark of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD and colorectal cancer. IRAK-M is a critical negative regulator of TLR signaling and overzealous inflammation. Here we utilize data from human studies and Irak-m−/− mice to elucidate the role of IRAK-M in the modulation of gastrointestinal immune system homeostasis. In human patients, IRAK-M expression is up-regulated during IBD and colorectal cancer. Further functional studies in mice revealed that Irak-m−/− animals are protected against colitis and colitis associated tumorigenesis. Mechanistically, our data revealed that the gastrointestinal immune system of Irak-m−/− mice is highly efficient at eliminating microbial translocation following epithelial barrier damage. This attenuation of pathogenesis is associated with expanded areas of gastrointestinal associated lymphoid tissue (GALT, increased neutrophil migration, and enhanced T-cell recruitment. Further evaluation of Irak-m−/− mice revealed a splice variant that robustly activates NF-κB signaling. Together, these data identify IRAK-M as a potential target for future therapeutic intervention.

  10. Inducible cAMP early repressor acts as a negative regulator for kindling epileptogenesis and long-term fear memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Nobuhiko; Borlikova, Gilyana; Sakamoto, Toshiro; Yamada, Kazuyuki; Ikeda, Toshio; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Niki, Hiroaki; Endo, Shogo

    2008-06-18

    Long-lasting neuronal plasticity as well as long-term memory (LTM) requires de novo synthesis of proteins through dynamic regulation of gene expression. cAMP-responsive element (CRE)-mediated gene transcription occurs in an activity-dependent manner and plays a pivotal role in neuronal plasticity and LTM in a variety of species. To study the physiological role of inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER), a CRE-mediated gene transcription repressor, in neuronal plasticity and LTM, we generated two types of ICER mutant mice: ICER-overexpressing (OE) mice and ICER-specific knock-out (KO) mice. Both ICER-OE and ICER-KO mice show no apparent abnormalities in their development and reproduction. A comprehensive battery of behavioral tests revealed no robust changes in locomotor activity, sensory and motor functions, and emotional responses in the mutant mice. However, long-term conditioned fear memory was attenuated in ICER-OE mice and enhanced in ICER-KO mice without concurrent changes in short-term fear memory. Furthermore, ICER-OE mice exhibited retardation of kindling development, whereas ICER-KO mice exhibited acceleration of kindling. These results strongly suggest that ICER negatively regulates the neuronal processes required for long-term fear memory and neuronal plasticity underlying kindling epileptogenesis, possibly through suppression of CRE-mediated gene transcription.

  11. β-Klotho as a Negative Regulator of the Peptide Transporters PEPT1 and PEPT2

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    Abeer Abousaab

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: β-Klotho, a transmembrane protein expressed in several tissues including the brain and the kidney, is critically important for inhibition of 1,25(OH2D3 formation by FGF23. The extracellular domain of Klotho protein could be cleaved off, thus being released into blood or cerebrospinal fluid. Soluble klotho is a β-glucuronidase participating in the regulation of several ion channels and carriers. The present study explored the effect of β-Klotho protein on the peptide transporters PEPT1 and PEPT2. Methods: cRNA encoding PEPT1 or PEPT2 was injected into Xenopus laevis oocytes and glycine-glycine (2 mM-induced inward current (IGly taken as measure of glycine-glycine transport. Measurements were made without or with prior 24 h treatment with soluble β-Klotho protein (30 ng/ml in the absence and presence of β-glucuronidase inhibitor D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone monohydrate (DSAL,10 µM. Ussing chamber experiments were employed to determine electrogenic peptide transport across intestinal epithelia of klotho deficient (kl-/- and corresponding wild type (kl+/+ mice. Results: IGly was observed in PEPT1 and in PEPT2 expressing oocytes but not in water injected oocytes. In both, PEPT1 and PEPT2 expressing oocytes IGly was significantly decreased by treatment with soluble β-Klotho protein. As shown for PEPT1, β-klotho protein decreased significantly the maximal transport rate without significantly modifying the affinity of the carrier. The effect of β-Klotho on PEPT1 was reversed by DSAL. Intestinal IGly was significantly larger in kl-/- than in kl+/+ mice. Conclusion: β-Klotho participates in the regulation of the peptide transporters PEPT1 and PEPT2.

  12. TAM receptors affect adult brain neurogenesis by negative regulation of microglial cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Rui; Tian, Shifu; Lu, Helen J; Lu, Qingjun; Zheng, Yan; Wang, Xiaomin; Ding, Jixiang; Li, Qiutang; Lu, Qingxian

    2013-12-15

    TAM tyrosine kinases play multiple functional roles, including regulation of the target genes important in homeostatic regulation of cytokine receptors or TLR-mediated signal transduction pathways. In this study, we show that TAM receptors affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis and loss of TAM receptors impairs hippocampal neurogenesis, largely attributed to exaggerated inflammatory responses by microglia characterized by increased MAPK and NF-κB activation and elevated production of proinflammatory cytokines that are detrimental to neuron stem cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation. Injection of LPS causes even more severe inhibition of BrdU incorporation in the Tyro3(-/-)Axl(-/-)Mertk(-/-) triple-knockout (TKO) brains, consistent with the LPS-elicited enhanced expression of proinflammatory mediators, for example, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and inducible NO synthase, and this effect is antagonized by coinjection of the anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin in wild-type but not TKO brains. Conditioned medium from TKO microglia cultures inhibits neuron stem cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation. IL-6 knockout in Axl(-/-)Mertk(-/-) double-knockout mice overcomes the inflammatory inhibition of neurogenesis, suggesting that IL-6 is a major downstream neurotoxic mediator under homeostatic regulation by TAM receptors in microglia. Additionally, autonomous trophic function of the TAM receptors on the proliferating neuronal progenitors may also promote progenitor differentiation into immature neurons.

  13. Reciprocal regulation of annexin A2 and EGFR with Her-2 in Her-2 negative and herceptin-resistant breast cancer.

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    Praveenkumar K Shetty

    Full Text Available Alternative survival pathways are commonly seen to be upregulated upon inhibition of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK, including Her-2. It is established that treatment with Herceptin leads to selective overexpression and activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and Src which further contributes to oncogenesis in Herceptin resistant and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC patients. Here, we show a co-regulated upregulation in the expression of Annexin A2 (AnxA2, a known substrate of Src and one of the regulators of EGFR receptor endocytosis, in Herceptin resistant and Her-2 negative breast cancer. Immunohistochemical expression analysis revealed a reciprocal regulation between Her-2 and AnxA2 in breast cancer clinical samples as well as in cell lines as confirmed by protein and RNA analysis. The siRNA and Herceptin mediated downregulation/inhibition of Her-2 in Her-2 amplified cells induced AnxA2 expression and membrane translocation. In this study we report a possible involvement of AnxA2 in maintaining constitutively activated EGFR downstream signaling intermediates and hence in cell proliferation, migration and viability. This effect was consistent in Herceptin resistant JIMT-1 cells as well as in Her-2 negative breast cancer. The siRNA mediated AnxA2 downregulation leads to increased apoptosis, decreased cell viability and migration. Our studies further indicate the role of AnxA2 in EGFR-Src membrane bound signaling complex and ligand induced activation of downstream signaling pathways. Targeting this AnxA2 dependent positive regulation of EGFR signaling cascade may be of therapeutic value in Her-2 negative breast cancer.

  14. Negative Regulation of the Stability and Tumor Suppressor Function of Fbw7 by the Pin1 Prolyl Isomerase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Sang-Hyun; Lau, Alan W.; Lee, Tae Ho; Inuzuka, Hiroyuki; Wei, Shuo; Huang, Pengyu; Shaik, Shavali; Lee, Daniel Yenhong; Finn, Greg; Balastik, Martin; Chen, Chun-Hau; Luo, Manli; Tron, Adriana E.; DeCaprio, James A.; Zhou, Xiao Zhen; Wei, Wenyi; Lu, Kun Ping

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Fbw7 is the substrate recognition component of the SCF (Skp1-Cullin-F-box)-type E3 ligase complex and a well-characterized tumor suppressor that targets numerous oncoproteins for destruction. Genomic deletion or mutation of FBW7 has been frequently found in various types of human cancers, however, little is known about the upstream signaling pathway(s) governing Fbw7 stability and cellular functions. Here we report that Fbw7 protein destruction and tumor suppressor function are negatively regulated by the prolyl isomerase Pin1. Pin1 interacts with Fbw7 in a phoshorylation-dependent manner and promotes Fbw7 self-ubiquitination and protein degradation by disrupting Fbw7 dimerization. Consequently, over-expressing Pin1 reduces Fbw7 abundance and suppresses Fbw7’s ability to inhibit proliferation and transformation. By contrast, depletion of Pin1 in cancer cells leads to elevated Fbw7 expression, which subsequently reduces Mcl-1 abundance, sensitizing cancer cells to Taxol. Thus, Pin1-mediated inhibition of Fbw7 contributes to oncogenesis and Pin1 may be a promising drug target for anti-cancer therapy. PMID:22608923

  15. Epigenetic Regulation of Inflammatory Gene Expression in Macrophages by Selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Vivek; Ravindra, Kodihalli C.; Liao, Chang; Kaushal, Naveen; Carlson, Bradley A.; Prabhu, K. Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    Acetylation of histone and non-histone proteins by histone acetyltransferases plays a pivotal role in the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Given the importance of dietary selenium in mitigating inflammation, we hypothesized that selenium supplementation may regulate inflammatory gene expression at the epigenetic level. The effect of selenium towards histone acetylation was examined in both in vitro and in vivo models of inflammation by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays and immunoblotting. Our results indicated that selenium supplementation, as selenite, decreased acetylation of histone H4 at K12 and K16 in COX-2 and TNF promoters, and of the p65 subunit of the redox sensitive transcription factor NFκB in primary and immortalized macrophages. On the other hand, selenomethionine had a much weaker effect. Selenite treatment of HIV-1 infected human monocytes also significantly decreased the acetylation of H4 at K12 and K16 on the HIV-1 promoter, supporting the downregulation of proviral expression by selenium. A similar decrease in histone acetylation was also seen in the colonic extracts of mice treated with dextran sodium sulfate that correlated well with the levels of selenium in the diet. Bone marrow-derived macrophages from Trspfl/flCreLysM mice that lack expression of selenoproteins in macrophages confirmed the important role of selenoproteins in the inhibition of histone H4 acetylation. Our studies suggest that the ability of selenoproteins to skew the metabolism of arachidonic acid to contribute, in part, to their ability to inhibit histone acetylation. In summary, our studies suggest a new role for selenoproteins in the epigenetic modulation of pro-inflammatory genes. PMID:25458528

  16. DMPD: When signaling pathways collide: positive and negative regulation of toll-likereceptor signal transduction. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18631453 When signaling pathways collide: positive and negative regulation of toll-...uction. PubmedID 18631453 Title When signaling pathways collide: positive and neg...l) Show When signaling pathways collide: positive and negative regulation of toll-likereceptor signal transd...likereceptor signal transduction. O'Neill LA. Immunity. 2008 Jul 18;29(1):12-20. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csm

  17. Cholesterol negatively regulates IL-9-producing CD8+ T cell differentiation and antitumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xingzhe; Bi, Enguang; Huang, Chunjian; Lu, Yong; Xue, Gang; Guo, Xing; Wang, Aibo; Yang, Maojie; Qian, Jianfei; Dong, Chen; Yi, Qing

    2018-05-09

    CD8 + T cells can be polarized into IL-9-secreting (Tc9) cells. We previously showed that adoptive therapy using tumor-specific Tc9 cells generated stronger antitumor responses in mouse melanoma than classical Tc1 cells. To understand why Tc9 cells exert stronger antitumor responses, we used gene profiling to compare Tc9 and Tc1 cells. Tc9 cells expressed different levels of cholesterol synthesis and efflux genes and possessed significantly lower cholesterol content than Tc1 cells. Unique to Tc9, but not other CD8 + or CD4 + T cell subsets, manipulating cholesterol content in polarizing Tc9 cells significantly affected IL-9 expression and Tc9 differentiation and antitumor response in vivo. Mechanistic studies showed that IL-9 was indispensable for Tc9 cell persistence and antitumor effects, and cholesterol or its derivatives inhibited IL-9 expression by activating liver X receptors (LXRs), leading to LXR Sumoylation and reduced p65 binding to Il9 promoter. Our study identifies cholesterol as a critical regulator of Tc9 cell differentiation and function. © 2018 Ma et al.

  18. Regulation of DNA methylation on EEF1D and RPL8 expression in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Qin; Jiang, Li

    2017-10-01

    Dynamic changes to the epigenome play a critical role in a variety of biology processes and complex traits. Many important candidate genes have been identified through our previous genome wide association study (GWAS) on milk production traits in dairy cattle. However, the underlying mechanism of candidate genes have not yet been clearly understood. In this study, we analyzed the methylation variation of the candidate genes, EEF1D and RPL8, which were identified to be strongly associated with milk production traits in dairy cattle in our previous studies, and its effect on protein and mRNA expression. We compared DNA methylation profiles and gene expression levels of EEF1D and RPL8 in five different tissues (heart, liver, mammary gland, ovary and muscle) of three cows. Both genes showed the highest expression level in mammary gland. For RPL8, there was no difference in the DNA methylation pattern in the five tissues, suggesting no effect of DNA methylation on gene expression. For EEF1D, the DNA methylation levels of its first CpG island differed in the five tissues and were negatively correlated with the gene expression levels. To further investigate the function of DNA methylation on the expression of EEF1D, we collected blood samples of three cows at early stage of lactation and in dry period and analyzed its expression and the methylation status of the first CpG island in blood. As a result, the mRNA expression of EEF1D in the dry period was higher than that at the early stage of lactation, while the DNA methylation level in the dry period was lower than that at the early stage of lactation. Our result suggests that the DNA methylation of EEF1D plays an important role in the spatial and temporal regulation of its expression and possibly have an effect on the milk production traits.

  19. Suppressor of Overexpression of CO 1 Negatively Regulates Dark-Induced Leaf Degreening and Senescence by Directly Repressing Pheophytinase and Other Senescence-Associated Genes in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junyi; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Ren, Jun; Qiu, Kai; Li, Zhongpeng; Xie, Zuokun; Gao, Jiong; Zhou, Xin; Kuai, Benke

    2017-03-01

    Although the biochemical pathway of chlorophyll (Chl) degradation has been largely elucidated, how Chl is rapidly yet coordinately degraded during leaf senescence remains elusive. Pheophytinase (PPH) is the enzyme for catalyzing the removal of the phytol group from pheophytin a , and PPH expression is significantly induced during leaf senescence. To elucidate the transcriptional regulation of PPH , we used a yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) one-hybrid system to screen for its trans-regulators. SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO 1 (SOC1), a key flowering pathway integrator, was initially identified as one of the putative trans-regulators of PPH After dark treatment, leaves of an SOC1 knockdown mutant ( soc1-6 ) showed an accelerated yellowing phenotype, whereas those of SOC1 -overexpressing lines exhibited a partial stay-green phenotype. SOC1 and PPH expression showed a negative correlation during leaf senescence. Substantially, SOC1 protein could bind specifically to the CArG box of the PPH promoter in vitro and in vivo, and overexpression of SOC1 significantly inhibited the transcriptional activity of the PPH promoter in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) protoplasts. Importantly, soc1-6 pph-1 (a PPH knockout mutant) double mutant displayed a stay-green phenotype similar to that of pph-1 during dark treatment. These results demonstrated that SOC1 inhibits Chl degradation via negatively regulating PPH expression. In addition, measurement of the Chl content and the maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II of soc1-6 and SOC1-OE leaves after dark treatment suggested that SOC1 also negatively regulates the general senescence process. Seven SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED GENES ( SAGs ) were thereafter identified as its potential target genes, and NONYELLOWING1 and SAG113 were experimentally confirmed. Together, we reveal that SOC1 represses dark-induced leaf Chl degradation and senescence in general in Arabidopsis. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All

  20. Triple negative breast cancers have a reduced expression of DNA repair genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enilze Ribeiro

    Full Text Available DNA repair is a key determinant in the cellular response to therapy and tumor repair status could play an important role in tailoring patient therapy. Our goal was to evaluate the mRNA of 13 genes involved in different DNA repair pathways (base excision, nucleotide excision, homologous recombination, and Fanconi anemia in paraffin embedded samples of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC compared to luminal A breast cancer (LABC. Most of the genes involved in nucleotide excision repair and Fanconi Anemia pathways, and CHK1 gene were significantly less expressed in TNBC than in LABC. PARP1 levels were higher in TNBC than in LABC. In univariate analysis high level of FANCA correlated with an increased overall survival and event free survival in TNBC; however multivariate analyses using Cox regression did not confirm FANCA as independent prognostic factor. These data support the evidence that TNBCs compared to LABCs harbour DNA repair defects.

  1. Expression profiling of nuclear receptors in breast cancer identifies TLX as a mediator of growth and invasion in triple-negative breast cancer.

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    Lin, Meng-Lay; Patel, Hetal; Remenyi, Judit; Banerji, Christopher R S; Lai, Chun-Fui; Periyasamy, Manikandan; Lombardo, Ylenia; Busonero, Claudia; Ottaviani, Silvia; Passey, Alun; Quinlan, Philip R; Purdie, Colin A; Jordan, Lee B; Thompson, Alastair M; Finn, Richard S; Rueda, Oscar M; Caldas, Carlos; Gil, Jesus; Coombes, R Charles; Fuller-Pace, Frances V; Teschendorff, Andrew E; Buluwela, Laki; Ali, Simak

    2015-08-28

    The Nuclear Receptor (NR) superfamily of transcription factors comprises 48 members, several of which have been implicated in breast cancer. Most important is estrogen receptor-α (ERα), which is a key therapeutic target. ERα action is facilitated by co-operativity with other NR and there is evidence that ERα function may be recapitulated by other NRs in ERα-negative breast cancer. In order to examine the inter-relationships between nuclear receptors, and to obtain evidence for previously unsuspected roles for any NRs, we undertook quantitative RT-PCR and bioinformatics analysis to examine their expression in breast cancer. While most NRs were expressed, bioinformatic analyses differentiated tumours into distinct prognostic groups that were validated by analyzing public microarray data sets. Although ERα and progesterone receptor were dominant in distinguishing prognostic groups, other NR strengthened these groups. Clustering analysis identified several family members with potential importance in breast cancer. Specifically, RORγ is identified as being co-expressed with ERα, whilst several NRs are preferentially expressed in ERα-negative disease, with TLX expression being prognostic in this subtype. Functional studies demonstrated the importance of TLX in regulating growth and invasion in ERα-negative breast cancer cells.

  2. Smart conjugated polymer nanocarrier for healthy weight loss by negative feedback regulation of lipase activity

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    Chen, Yu-Lei; Zhu, Sha; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Pei-Jian; Yao, Xi-Kuang; Qian, Cheng-Gen; Zhang, Can; Jiang, Xi-Qun; Shen, Qun-Dong

    2016-02-01

    Healthy weight loss represents a real challenge when obesity is increasing in prevalence. Herein, we report a conjugated polymer nanocarrier for smart deactivation of lipase and thus balancing calorie intake. After oral administration, the nanocarrier is sensitive to lipase in the digestive tract and releases orlistat, which deactivates the enzyme and inhibits fat digestion. It also creates negative feedback to control the release of itself. The nanocarrier smartly regulates activity of the lipase cyclically varied between high and low levels. In spite of high fat diet intervention, obese mice receiving a single dose of the nanocarrier lose weight over eight days, whereas a control group continues the tendency to gain weight. Daily intragastric administration of the nanocarrier leads to lower weight of livers or fat pads, smaller adipocyte size, and lower total cholesterol level than that of the control group. Near-infrared fluorescence of the nanocarrier reveals its biodistribution.Healthy weight loss represents a real challenge when obesity is increasing in prevalence. Herein, we report a conjugated polymer nanocarrier for smart deactivation of lipase and thus balancing calorie intake. After oral administration, the nanocarrier is sensitive to lipase in the digestive tract and releases orlistat, which deactivates the enzyme and inhibits fat digestion. It also creates negative feedback to control the release of itself. The nanocarrier smartly regulates activity of the lipase cyclically varied between high and low levels. In spite of high fat diet intervention, obese mice receiving a single dose of the nanocarrier lose weight over eight days, whereas a control group continues the tendency to gain weight. Daily intragastric administration of the nanocarrier leads to lower weight of livers or fat pads, smaller adipocyte size, and lower total cholesterol level than that of the control group. Near-infrared fluorescence of the nanocarrier reveals its biodistribution

  3. Osteocalcin as a negative regulator of serum leptin concentration in humans: insight from triathlon competitions.

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    Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia; Ara, Ignacio; Dorado, Cecilia; Vicente-Rodríguez, German; Perez-Gomez, Jorge; Cabrero, Javier Chavarren; Serrano-Sanchez, José A; Santana, Alfredo; Calbet, Jose A L

    2010-10-01

    Osteocalcin is a hormone produced by osteoblasts which acts as a negative regulator of fat mass, protecting against diet induced obesity and insulin resistance in rodents. To determine if an acute increase in osteocalcin concentration is associated with opposed changes in circulating leptin levels and insulin resistance we studied 15 middle and long distance male triathletes, (age 32.1 ± 6.9 years), before and 48 h after an Olympic (OT) or an Ironman (IT) triathlon competition. Muscle power, anaerobic capacity, body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and serum concentrations of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, osteocalcin, leptin, glucose, insulin and insulin resistance (HOMA) were determined pre- and post-race. Pre- and 48 h post-race total and regional lean body mass was not altered, but fat mass was similarly increased (~250 g) 48 h after the competitions. This elicited an increase in plasma leptin of 33% after the IT while it remained unchanged after the OT, likely due to a 25% increase in plasma osteocalcin which occurred only after the OT (all p < 0.05). Post-race HOMA remained unchanged in OT and IT. Performance was normalized 48 h after the competitions, with the exception of a slightly lower jumping capacity after the IT. Serum testosterone concentration tended to decrease by 10% after the IT whilst dihydrotestosterone was reduced by 24% after the IT. In conclusion, an acute increase in serum osteocalcin concentration blunts the expected increase of serum leptin concentration that should occur with fat mass gain. This study provides evidence for osteocalcin as a negative regulator of serum leptin in humans.

  4. Transcriptional regulation of BRD7 expression by Sp1 and c-Myc

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    Li Shufang

    2008-12-01

    regulate its promoter activity. c-Myc binds to this Sp1/Myc-Max overlapping site as well, and negatively regulates the promoter activity and endogenous mRNA expression of BRD7 gene. Knock-down of c-Myc increases the promoter activity and mRNA level of BRD7 gene. The luciferase activity of the mutated promoter constructs showed that Sp1/Myc-Max overlapping site is a positive regulation element of BRD7 promoter. Conclusion These studies provide for the first time the evidence that c-Myc is indeed a negative regulator of BRD7 gene. These findings will help to further understand and uncover the bio-functions of BRD7 gene involved in the pathogenesis of NPC.

  5. Chemical regulation of sex expression in certain olive cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Hegazi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The modifying effect of growth regulators on bud burst, flower bud formation and sex expression in olives varies greatly according to cultivar, concentration and time of application. Cycocel 200, 500 mg/l, ethephon 200 mg/l and SADH 2000 mg/l stimulated bud burst and flower bud formation in the 'Blanquetta' cv. A noticeable increase in the percentage of perfect flowers was obtained by 100 mg/l of kinetin, and 200 mg/l of Cycocel in the cv. 'Picual', Ethephon 200/1, Cycocel 200 mg/l and SADH 2000 mg/l considerably increased the percentage of perfect flowers in the cvs 'Blanquetta', 'Serrana' and 'Picual'. Treatments at green cluster stage were not effective.

  6. Drosha regulates gene expression independently of RNA cleavage function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromak, Natalia; Dienstbier, Martin; Macias, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Drosha is the main RNase III-like enzyme involved in the process of microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis in the nucleus. Using whole-genome ChIP-on-chip analysis, we demonstrate that, in addition to miRNA sequences, Drosha specifically binds promoter-proximal regions of many human genes in a transcription......-dependent manner. This binding is not associated with miRNA production or RNA cleavage. Drosha knockdown in HeLa cells downregulated nascent gene transcription, resulting in a reduction of polyadenylated mRNA produced from these gene regions. Furthermore, we show that this function of Drosha is dependent on its N......-terminal protein-interaction domain, which associates with the RNA-binding protein CBP80 and RNA Polymerase II. Consequently, we uncover a previously unsuspected RNA cleavage-independent function of Drosha in the regulation of human gene expression....

  7. TGIF1 is a negative regulator of MLL-rearranged acute myeloid leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willer, Anton; Jakobsen, Janus Schou; Ohlsson, E

    2015-01-01

    orchestrates a transcriptional program required for the maintenance of MLL-rearranged acute myeloid leukemia (AML). TGIF1/TGIF2 are relatively uncharacterized TALE transcription factors, which, in contrast to the remaining family, have been shown to act as transcriptional repressors. Given the general......Members of the TALE (three-amino-acid loop extension) family of atypical homeodomain-containing transcription factors are important downstream effectors of oncogenic fusion proteins involving the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene. A well-characterized member of this protein family is MEIS1, which...... influence the clinical outcome. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that TALE family members can act both positively and negatively on transcriptional programs responsible for leukemic maintenance and provide novel insights into the regulatory gene expression circuitries in MLL-rearranged AML.Leukemia...

  8. Do Infants Show Distinct Negative Facial Expressions for Fear and Anger? Emotional Expression in 11-Month-Old European American, Chinese, and Japanese Infants

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    Camras, Linda A.; Oster, Harriet; Bakeman, Roger; Meng, Zhaolan; Ujiie, Tatsuo; Campos, Joseph J.

    2007-01-01

    Do infants show distinct negative facial expressions for different negative emotions? To address this question, European American, Chinese, and Japanese 11-month-olds were videotaped during procedures designed to elicit mild anger or frustration and fear. Facial behavior was coded using Baby FACS, an anatomically based scoring system. Infants'…

  9. α5-GABAA receptors negatively regulate MYC-amplified medulloblastoma growth

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    Sengupta, Soma; Weeraratne, Shyamal Dilhan; Sun, Hongyu; Phallen, Jillian; Rallapalli, Sundari K.; Teider, Natalia; Kosaras, Bela; Amani, Vladimir; Pierre-Francois, Jessica; Tang, Yujie; Nguyen, Brian; Yu, Furong; Schubert, Simone; Balansay, Brianna; Mathios, Dimitris; Lechpammer, Mirna; Archer, Tenley C.; Tran, Phuoc; Reimer, Richard J.; Cook, James M.; Lim, Michael; Jensen, Frances E.; Pomeroy, Scott L.; Cho, Yoon-Jae

    2013-01-01

    Neural tumors often express neurotransmitter receptors as markers of their developmental lineage. Although these receptors have been well characterized in electrophysiological, developmental and pharmacological settings, their importance in the maintenance and progression of brain tumors, and importantly, the effect of their targeting in brain cancers remains obscure. Here, we demonstrate high levels of GABR5, which encodes the α-subunit of the GABAA receptor complex, in aggressive MYC-driven, “Group 3” medulloblastomas. We hypothesized that modulation of α-GABAA receptors alters medulloblastoma cell survival and monitored biological and electrophysiological responses of GABR5-expressing medulloblastoma cells upon pharmacological targeting of the GABAA receptor. While antagonists, inverse agonists and non-specific positive allosteric modulators had limited effects on medulloblastoma cells, a highly specific and potent α5-GABAA receptor agonist, QHii066, resulted in marked membrane depolarization and a significant decrease in cell survival. This effect was GABR5 dependent and mediated through the induction of apoptosis as well as accumulation of cells in S and G2 phases of the cell cycle. Chemical genomic profiling of QHii066-treated medulloblastoma cells confirmed inhibition of MYC-related transcriptional activity and revealed an enrichment of HOX5 target gene expression. siRNA-mediated knockdown of HOX5 markedly blunted the response of medulloblastoma cells to QHii066. Furthermore, QHii066 sensitized GABR5 positive medulloblastoma cells to radiation and chemotherapy consistent with the role of HOX5 in directly regulating p53 expression and inducing apoptosis. Thus, our results provide novel insights into the synthetic lethal nature of α5-GABAA receptor activation in MYC-driven/Group 3 medulloblastomas and propose its targeting as a novel strategy for the management of this highly aggressive tumor. PMID:24196163

  10. α5-GABAA receptors negatively regulate MYC-amplified medulloblastoma growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Soma; Weeraratne, Shyamal Dilhan; Sun, Hongyu; Phallen, Jillian; Rallapalli, Sundari K; Teider, Natalia; Kosaras, Bela; Amani, Vladimir; Pierre-Francois, Jessica; Tang, Yujie; Nguyen, Brian; Yu, Furong; Schubert, Simone; Balansay, Brianna; Mathios, Dimitris; Lechpammer, Mirna; Archer, Tenley C; Tran, Phuoc; Reimer, Richard J; Cook, James M; Lim, Michael; Jensen, Frances E; Pomeroy, Scott L; Cho, Yoon-Jae

    2014-04-01

    Neural tumors often express neurotransmitter receptors as markers of their developmental lineage. Although these receptors have been well characterized in electrophysiological, developmental and pharmacological settings, their importance in the maintenance and progression of brain tumors and, importantly, the effect of their targeting in brain cancers remains obscure. Here, we demonstrate high levels of GABRA5, which encodes the α5-subunit of the GABAA receptor complex, in aggressive MYC-driven, "Group 3" medulloblastomas. We hypothesized that modulation of α5-GABAA receptors alters medulloblastoma cell survival and monitored biological and electrophysiological responses of GABRA5-expressing medulloblastoma cells upon pharmacological targeting of the GABAA receptor. While antagonists, inverse agonists and non-specific positive allosteric modulators had limited effects on medulloblastoma cells, a highly specific and potent α5-GABAA receptor agonist, QHii066, resulted in marked membrane depolarization and a significant decrease in cell survival. This effect was GABRA5 dependent and mediated through the induction of apoptosis as well as accumulation of cells in S and G2 phases of the cell cycle. Chemical genomic profiling of QHii066-treated medulloblastoma cells confirmed inhibition of MYC-related transcriptional activity and revealed an enrichment of HOXA5 target gene expression. siRNA-mediated knockdown of HOXA5 markedly blunted the response of medulloblastoma cells to QHii066. Furthermore, QHii066 sensitized GABRA5 positive medulloblastoma cells to radiation and chemotherapy consistent with the role of HOXA5 in directly regulating p53 expression and inducing apoptosis. Thus, our results provide novel insights into the synthetic lethal nature of α5-GABAA receptor activation in MYC-driven/Group 3 medulloblastomas and propose its targeting as a novel strategy for the management of this highly aggressive tumor.

  11. A novel branched chain amino acids responsive transcriptional regulator, BCARR, negatively acts on the proteolytic system in Lactobacillus helveticus.

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    Taketo Wakai

    Full Text Available Transcriptional negative regulation of the proteolytic system of Lactobacillus helveticus CM4 in response to amino acids seems to be very important for the control of antihypertensive peptide production; however, it remains poorly understood. A 26-kDa protein with N-terminal cystathionine β-synthase domains (CBS domain protein, which seems to be involved in the regulatory system, was purified by using a DNA-sepharose bound 300-bp DNA fragment corresponding to the upstream regions of the six proteolytic genes that are down-regulated by amino acids. The CBS domain protein bound to a DNA fragment corresponding to the region upstream of the pepV gene in response to branched chain amino acids (BCAAs. The expression of the pepV gene in Escherichia coli grown in BCAA-enriched medium was repressed when the CBS domain protein was co-expressed. These results reveal that the CBS domain protein acts as a novel type of BCAA-responsive transcriptional regulator (BCARR in L. helveticus. From comparative analysis of the promoter regions of the six proteolysis genes, a palindromic AT-rich motif, 5'-AAAAANNCTWTTATT-3', was predicted as the consensus DNA motif for the BCARR protein binding. Footprint analysis using the pepV promotor region and gel shift analyses with the corresponding short DNA fragments strongly suggested that the BCARR protein binds adjacent to the pepV promoter region and affects the transcription level of the pepV gene in the presence of BCAAs. Homology search analysis of the C-terminal region of the BCARR protein suggested the existence of a unique βαββαβ fold structure that has been reported in a variety of ACT (aspartate kinase-chorismate mutase-tyrA domain proteins for sensing amino acids. These results also suggest that the sensing of BCAAs by the ACT domain might promote the binding of the BCARR to DNA sequences upstream of proteolysis genes, which affects the gene expression of the proteolytic system in L. helveticus.

  12. Testosterone regulates granzyme K expression in rat testes

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    Dutta Dibyendu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Testosterone depletion induces increased germ cell apoptosis in testes. However, limited studies exist on genes that regulate the germ cell apoptosis. Granzymes (GZM are serine proteases that induce apoptosis in various tissues. Multiple granzymes, including GZMA, GZMB and GZMN, are present in testes. Th us, we investigated which granzyme may be testosterone responsive and possibly may have a role in germ cell apoptosis aft er testosterone depletion. Methods. Ethylene dimethane sulfonate (EDS, a toxicant that selectively ablates the Leydig cells, was injected into rats to withdraw the testosterone. The testosterone depletion effects after 7 days post-EDS were verified by replacing the testosterone exogenously into EDS-treated rats. Serum or testicular testosterone was measured by radioimmunoassay. Using qPCR, mRNAs of granzyme variants in testes were quantified. The germ cell apoptosis was identified by TUNEL assay and the localization of GZMK was by immunohistochemistry. Results. EDS treatment eliminated the Leydig cells and depleted serum and testicular testosterone. At 7 days post-EDS, testis weights were reduced 18% with increased germ cell apoptosis plus elevation GZMK expression. GZMK was not associated with TUNEL-positive cells, but was localized to stripped cytoplasm of spermatids. In addition, apoptotic round spermatids were observed in the caput epididymis. Conclusions. GZMK expression in testes is testosterone dependent. GZMK is located adjacent to germ cells in seminiferous tubules and the presence of apoptotic round spermatids in the epididymis suggest its role in the degradation of microtubules in ectoplasmic specializations. Thus, overexpression of GZMK may indirectly regulate germ cell apoptosis by premature release of round spermatids from seminiferous tubule lumen.

  13. Negative Facial Expressions - But Not Visual Scenes - Enhance Human Working Memory in Younger and Older Participants.

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    Belham, Flávia Schechtman; Tavares, Maria Clotilde H; Satler, Corina; Garcia, Ana; Rodrigues, Rosângela C; Canabarro, Soraya L de Sá; Tomaz, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the influence of emotion on memory processes across the human lifespan. Some results have shown older adults (OA) performing better with positive stimuli, some with negative items, whereas some found no impact of emotional valence. Here we tested, in two independent studies, how younger adults (YA) and OA would perform in a visuospatial working memory (VSWM) task with positive, negative, and neutral images. The task consisted of identifying the new location of a stimulus in a crescent set of identical stimuli presented in different locations in a touch-screen monitor. In other words, participants should memorize the locations previously occupied to identify the new location. For each trial, the number of occupied locations increased until 8 or until a mistake was made. In study 1, 56 YA and 38 OA completed the task using images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Results showed that, although YA outperformed OA, no effects of emotion were found. In study 2, 26 YA and 25 OA were tested using facial expressions as stimuli. Data from this study showed that negative faces facilitated performance and this effect did not differ between age groups. No differences were found between men and women. Taken together, our findings suggest that YA and OA's VSWM can be influenced by the emotional valence of the information, though this effect was present only for facial stimuli. Presumably, this may have happened due to the social and biological importance of such stimuli, which are more effective in transmitting emotions than IAPS images. Critically, our results also indicate that the mixed findings in the literature about the influence of aging on the interactions between memory and emotion may be caused by the use of different stimuli and methods. This possibility should be kept in mind in future studies about memory and emotion across the lifespan.

  14. A Longitudinal Study of Emotion Regulation, Emotion Lability-Negativity, and Internalizing Symptomatology in Maltreated and Nonmaltreated Children

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    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2013-01-01

    The longitudinal contributions of emotion regulation and emotion lability-negativity to internalizing symptomatology were examined in a low-income sample (171 maltreated and 151 nonmaltreated children, from age 7 to 10 years). Latent difference score models indicated that for both maltreated and nonmaltreated children, emotion