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Sample records for negative trauma-related cognitions

  1. The sequential pathway between trauma-related symptom severity and cognitive-based smoking processes through perceived stress and negative affect reduction expectancies among trauma exposed smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garey, Lorra; Cheema, Mina K; Otal, Tanveer K; Schmidt, Norman B; Neighbors, Clayton; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    Smoking rates are markedly higher among trauma-exposed individuals relative to non-trauma-exposed individuals. Extant work suggests that both perceived stress and negative affect reduction smoking expectancies are independent mechanisms that link trauma-related symptoms and smoking. Yet, no work has examined perceived stress and negative affect reduction smoking expectancies as potential explanatory variables for the relation between trauma-related symptom severity and smoking in a sequential pathway model. Methods The present study utilized a sample of treatment-seeking, trauma-exposed smokers (n = 363; 49.0% female) to examine perceived stress and negative affect reduction expectancies for smoking as potential sequential explanatory variables linking trauma-related symptom severity and nicotine dependence, perceived barriers to smoking cessation, and severity of withdrawal-related problems and symptoms during past quit attempts. As hypothesized, perceived stress and negative affect reduction expectancies had a significant sequential indirect effect on trauma-related symptom severity and criterion variables. Findings further elucidate the complex pathways through which trauma-related symptoms contribute to smoking behavior and cognitions, and highlight the importance of addressing perceived stress and negative affect reduction expectancies in smoking cessation programs among trauma-exposed individuals. (Am J Addict 2016;25:565-572). © 2016 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  2. [Cognitive therapy of trauma related guilt in patients with PTSD].

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    Popiel, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Various aspects of guilt are frequent problems of patients suffering from PTSD, though they have been included into the diagnostic criteria for PTSD just in the present version DSM-5. Some studies indicate limitation of effectiveness of exposure therapy in PTSD patients with predominant emotions of anger or guilt. The aim of this paper is to present cognitive conceptualization of guilt in PTSD proposed by Kubany, and a treatment protocol resulting from this conceptualization. The clinical application of the protocol is illustrated with preliminary results of systematic observation of 8 patients with moderate to severe PTSD who were treated with cognitive therapy for guilt followed by a standard prolonged exposure protocol. The cognitive therapy of guilt can be a valuable supplement for treatment of PTSD. This protocol can also be an inspiration for therapists working with patients with dysfunctional guilt as a problem in other than PTSD disorders--like depression or adjustment disorders. In discussion the place of guilt in treatment according to different (PE-Foa et al.; CPT-Resick et al.; CT-Ehlers and Clark) trauma focused therapy approaches is addressed, and the need for further studies is underlined.

  3. Event Memory and Suggestibility in Abused and Neglected Children: Trauma-Related Psychopathology and Cognitive Functioning

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    Chae, Yoojin; Goodman, Gail S.; Eisen, Mitchell L.; Qin, Jianjian

    2011-01-01

    This study examined event memory and suggestibility in 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of child maltreatment. A total of 322 children were interviewed about a play activity with an unfamiliar adult. Comprehensive measures of individual differences in trauma-related psychopathology and cognitive functioning were administered.…

  4. "You Blame Me, Therefore I Blame Me": The Importance of First Disclosure Partner Responses on Trauma-Related Cognitions and Distress.

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    Bonnan-White, Jess; Hetzel-Riggin, Melanie D; Diamond-Welch, Bridget K; Tollini, Craig

    2018-04-01

    Trauma recovery processes may be understood within a socioecological model. Individual factors (such as sex of the survivor) and microsystem factors (including trauma characteristics) have been studied extensively. However, there is a paucity of research examining the effects of macrosystem factors on the impact of trauma-especially examining how the response of the first person to whom the survivor disclosed affects trauma-related cognitions and distress. Sixty-three college student participants reported a history of disclosing at least one traumatic event in an online, anonymous survey. Participants also provided information on the first person they told about the trauma, the social reactions of that person, general social reactions to trauma disclosure, the participants' trauma-related cognitions and psychological distress (PTSD, other mental health issues), details about the traumatic event, and basic demographic information. Paired sample t tests showed that participants experienced the responses of the first person they told about their trauma as more favorable than the responses of the all of the people to whom they told about the event. Women and survivors of non-interpersonal trauma reported more supportive responses than men and survivors of interpersonal trauma. Hierarchical linear regressions showed that interpersonal trauma and victim blame on the part of the first person the survivor told were associated with more negative trauma-related cognitions. Interpersonal trauma, emotional support, and victim blame were associated with a greater degree of trauma-related distress. The results suggest that participants perceived the response of the first person they told as more beneficial than the response of the rest of their exosystem. However, the reactions of the first person the survivor told differed based on the sex of the survivor and the type of trauma they experienced. Consistent with previous research, interpersonal trauma and victim blame by the

  5. Emotional suppression in torture survivors: Relationship to posttraumatic stress symptoms and trauma-related negative affect.

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    Nickerson, Angela; Garber, Benjamin; Ahmed, Ola; Asnaani, Anu; Cheung, Jessica; Hofmann, Stefan G; Huynh, Ly; Liddell, Belinda; Litz, Brett T; Pajak, Rosanna; Bryant, Richard A

    2016-08-30

    While clinical reports suggest that torture survivors may try to suppress their emotions during torture, little is known about the use of emotional suppression following torture. In this study, 82 refugees and asylum-seekers (including 33 torture survivors) completed self-report measures of trait suppression, PTSD symptoms and baseline negative affect before being exposed to images depicting scenes of interpersonal trauma. The use of suppression while viewing the images was indexed and negative affect was measured both immediately after viewing the images and following a five minute rest period. Findings indicated that torture survivors did not show higher rates of trait suppression or state emotional suppression during the experimental session compared to non-torture survivors. However, torture survivors who endorsed state suppression higher levels of distress, and this relationship was especially strong for those with more severe PTSD symptoms. In contrast, there was a negative relationship between state suppression and distress for non-torture survivors with high levels of PTSD symptoms. These findings suggest that, while torture exposure does not lead to greater use of suppression, it does influence the impact of suppression on emotional responses to stimuli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Rape survivors' trauma-related beliefs before and after Cognitive processing therapy: associations with PTSD and depression symptoms.

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    Iverson, Katherine M; King, Matthew W; Cunningham, Katherine C; Resick, Patricia A

    2015-03-01

    This study examined whether cognitive distortions (i.e., assimilated and overaccommodated thoughts) and realistic (i.e., accommodated) thoughts assessed from impact statements written 5-10 years after completing cognitive processing therapy (CPT) accurately predicted posttreatment maintenance or decline in treatment gains during the same period. The sample included 50 women diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) secondary to rape who participated in a randomized clinical trial of CPT for PTSD. Cognitions were assessed via coding and analyses of participants' written impact statements at three time points: beginning of treatment, end of treatment, and at 5-10 years follow-up. Primary mental health outcomes were symptoms of PTSD (Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale) and depression (Beck Depression Inventory). Changes in trauma-related beliefs between the end of treatment and long-term follow-up were associated with concomitant changes in PTSD and depression symptoms (effect sizes ranging from r = .35-.54). Declines in accommodated thinking and increases in overaccommodated thinking were associated with elevations in symptomatology. Improvement in accommodated thinking and declines in overaccommodated thinking were associated with lower PTSD and depression symptoms during this same time period. Findings provided support for the role of changes in accommodated and overaccommodated thinking being associated with level of PTSD and depression many years after participating in CPT. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Resolution of trauma-related guilt following treatment of PTSD in female rape victims: a result of cognitive processing therapy targeting comorbid depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishith, Pallavi; Nixon, Reginald D V; Resick, Patricia A

    2005-06-01

    Although Resick et al. [Resick, P.A., Nishith, P., Weaver, T.L., Astin, M.C., Feuer, C.A., 2002. A comparison of cognitive-processing therapy with prolonged exposure and a waiting condition for the treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder in female rape victims. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 70, 867-879.] reported comparable results for treating rape-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using either cognitive-processing therapy (CPT) or prolonged exposure (PE), there was some suggestion that CPT resulted in better outcomes than PE for certain aspects of trauma-related guilt. The present study revisited these findings to examine whether this effect was a function of improvement in a subset of participants with both PTSD and major depressive disorder (MDD). Results indicated that CPT was just as effective in treating "pure" PTSD and PTSD with comorbid MDD in terms of guilt. Clinical significance testing underscored that CPT was more effective in reducing certain trauma-related guilt cognitions than PE. Findings cannot be generalized to men, and only one measure of guilt was used. The observed superiority of CPT over PE for treating certain guilt cognitions was not due to participant comorbidity. Further research is recommended to untangle the relationship between guilt, depression and differential response to treatment in PTSD following sexual assault trauma.

  8. Role of Borderline Personality Disorder in the Treatment of Military Sexual Trauma-related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder with Cognitive Processing Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Nicholas; Holliday, Ryan; Pai, Anushka; Surís, Alina

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) is an effective evidence-based treatment for many, but not all, veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Understanding the factors that contribute to poorer response to CPT is important for providing the best care to veterans diagnosed with PTSD. Researchers investigating the effectiveness of CPT for individuals with comorbid personality symptoms have found that borderline personality disorder (BPD) characteristics do not negatively affect treatment outcome; however, participants in those studies were not diagnosed with BPD. The current pilot study investigated the effect of a BPD diagnosis on CPT dropout and outcomes. Data were compiled from a larger randomized clinical trial. Twenty-seven female veterans with military sexual trauma-related PTSD received CPT. Dropout was evaluated by treatment completion and number of sessions attended. Treatment outcome was assessed by the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and the PTSD Checklist (PCL). No significant differences were observed between veterans with and without BPD comorbidity for number of treatment sessions attended, and there was not a significant relationship between comorbidity status and treatment completion. A hierarchical linear modeling approach was used with BPD entered as a level 2 predictor of outcome. In our sample, veterans with BPD had higher PTSD symptom severity on the CAPS at baseline compared to veterans without BPD comorbidity. CPT was effective in reducing PTSD symptoms; however, BPD diagnosis did not influence treatment response over time on the CAPS or PCL. Our results provide initial support for the use of CPT in female veterans with MST-related PTSD and comorbid BPD.

  9. Changes in negative cognitions mediate PTSD symptom reductions during client-centered therapy and prolonged exposure for adolescents.

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    McLean, Carmen P; Yeh, Rebecca; Rosenfield, David; Foa, Edna B

    2015-05-01

    To assess whether changes in negative trauma-related cognitions play an important role in reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression during prolonged exposure therapy for adolescents (PE-A). Secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial comparing PE-A with client-centered therapy (CCT) for PTSD. Participants were 61 adolescent female sexual assault survivors ages 13-18 who received 8-14 weekly sessions of PE-A or CCT at a community rape crisis center. PTSD severity was assessed at baseline, mid-treatment, post-treatment, and 3-months post-treatment. Participants also completed self-report measures of negative posttraumatic cognitions and depressive symptoms at the same assessment points. Cross lag panel mediation analyses showed that change in negative trauma-related cognitions mediated change in PTSD symptoms and depressive symptoms whereas change in PTSD and depressive symptoms did not mediate change in negative cognitions. Our findings support EPT and suggest that change in negative trauma-related cognitions is a mechanism of both PE-A and CCT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. When Depressive Cognitions Reflect Negative Realities.

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    Krantz, Susan E.

    The cognitive model of depression postulates that the depressed individual's cognitions are not only negative, but erroneous and impervious to information from the environment. However, the valence of that information ultimately determines whether those cognitions are impervious or merely receptive. The actual life circumstances of the depressed…

  11. [Negative symptoms, emotion and cognition in schizophrenia].

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    Fakra, E; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J-M; Adida, M

    2015-12-01

    For a long time, treatment of schizophrenia has been essentially focussed on positive symptoms managing. Yet, even if these symptoms are the most noticeable, negative symptoms are more enduring, resistant to pharmacological treatment and associated with a worse prognosis. In the two last decades, attention has shift towards cognitive deficit, as this deficit is most robustly associated to functional outcome. But it appears that the modest improvement in cognition, obtained in schizophrenia through pharmacological treatment or, more purposely, by cognitive enhancement therapy, has only lead to limited amelioration of functional outcome. Authors have claimed that pure cognitive processes, such as those evaluated and trained in lots of these programs, may be too distant from real-life conditions, as the latter are largely based on social interactions. Consequently, the field of social cognition, at the interface of cognition and emotion, has emerged. In a first part of this article we examined the links, in schizophrenia, between negative symptoms, cognition and emotions from a therapeutic standpoint. Nonetheless, investigation of emotion in schizophrenia may also hold relevant premises for understanding the physiopathology of this disorder. In a second part, we propose to illustrate this research by relying on the heuristic value of an elementary marker of social cognition, facial affect recognition. Facial affect recognition has been repeatedly reported to be impaired in schizophrenia and some authors have argued that this deficit could constitute an endophenotype of the illness. We here examined how facial affect processing has been used to explore broader emotion dysfunction in schizophrenia, through behavioural and imaging studies. In particular, fMRI paradigms using facial affect have shown particular patterns of amygdala engagement in schizophrenia, suggesting an intact potential to elicit the limbic system which may however not be advantageous. Finally, we

  12. Shame versus trauma-related guilt as mediators of the relationship between PTSD symptoms and aggression among returning veterans.

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    Crocker, Laura D; Haller, Moira; Norman, Sonya B; Angkaw, Abigail C

    2016-07-01

    It is well established that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with various forms of aggression, though the mechanisms by which PTSD is related to aggression are not fully understood. Some research suggests that the tendency to experience shame, but not guilt, contributes to aggression in individuals with a history of interpersonal trauma. This study tested the hypothesis that trait shame but not trauma-related guilt would mediate the relationship between PTSD symptoms and verbal and physical aggression in veterans with combat/military-related trauma seeking PTSD treatment. In a sample of 127 returning veterans (95% male, mean age = 32.93), negative binomial path analyses tested multiple mediational models in which shame versus trauma-related guilt (separate models entered the effects of global guilt, guilt cognitions, and guilt distress) were examined as mediators of PTSD symptoms on verbal and physical aggression separately. Results indicated that shame partially mediated the association of PTSD symptoms with verbal aggression but not physical aggression when accounting for trauma-related guilt. Although PTSD symptoms were associated with higher scores on all aspects of trauma-related guilt, guilt did not significantly mediate relations between PTSD symptoms and verbal or physical aggression when accounting for shame. These results indicate that it is worthwhile to examine whether addressing shame in PTSD treatment may also reduce verbal aggression in returning veterans. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Trauma-Related Guilt Mediates the Relationship between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Suicidal Ideation in OEF/OIF/OND Veterans.

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    Tripp, Jessica C; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E

    2017-02-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and trauma-related guilt are risk factors for suicidal ideation (SI) in veterans. Components of trauma-related guilt were examined as serial mediators of the relationship between PTSD and SI. In a sample of 53 OEF/OIF/OND combat veterans, PTSD had an indirect effect on SI through a serial mediation chain of guilt cognitions, distress, and global guilt, suggesting that trauma-related guilt via cognitions, distress, and global guilt is a pathway from PTSD to SI. Attention should be given to assessing and addressing trauma-related guilt in veterans experiencing PTSD to prevent SI. © 2016 The American Association of Suicidology.

  14. Antonyms and Synonyms: Cognitive Aspects of Negation in Positive Sentences

    OpenAIRE

    Arimitsu, Nami

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the cognitive orientation of the negative meaning in antonyms and synonyms. While the negative meaning in antonyms is a reflection of the cognitive mapping of our mental contiguity, the negative images in synonymous words are more closely associated with aspects of subjective semantics and factors related to politeness

  15. No Negative Priming without Cognitive Control

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    de Fockert, Jan W.; Mizon, Guy A.; D'Ubaldo, Mariangela

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence that the efficiency of selective attention depends on the availability of cognitive control mechanisms as distractor processing has been found to increase with high load on working memory or dual task coordination (Lavie, Hirst, de Fockert, & Viding, 2004). We tested the prediction that cognitive control load would also…

  16. Impact of negation salience and cognitive resources on negation during attitude formation.

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    Boucher, Kathryn L; Rydell, Robert J

    2012-10-01

    Because of the increased cognitive resources required to process negations, past research has shown that explicit attitude measures are more sensitive to negations than implicit attitude measures. The current work demonstrated that the differential impact of negations on implicit and explicit attitude measures was moderated by (a) the extent to which the negation was made salient and (b) the amount of cognitive resources available during attitude formation. When negations were less visually salient, explicit but not implicit attitude measures reflected the intended valence of the negations. When negations were more visually salient, both explicit and implicit attitude measures reflected the intended valence of the negations, but only when perceivers had ample cognitive resources during encoding. Competing models of negation processing, schema-plus-tag and fusion, were examined to determine how negation salience impacts the processing of negations.

  17. Cross-Lagged Associations Between Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms and Negative Cognitive Style: The Role of Negative Life Event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kindt, K.C.M.; Kleinjan, M.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has established that cognitive theory-based depression prevention programs aiming change in negative cognitive style in early adolescents do not have strong effects in universal settings. Although theories suggest that a negative cognitive style precedes depressive symptoms,

  18. Negative symptoms and social cognition: identifying targets for psychological interventions.

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    Lincoln, Tania M; Mehl, Stephanie; Kesting, Marie-Luise; Rief, Winfried

    2011-09-01

    How to improve treatment for negative symptoms is a continuing topic of debate. Suggestions have been made to advance psychological understanding of negative symptoms by focusing on the social cognitive processes involved in symptom formation and maintenance. Following the recommendations by the National Institute of Mental Health workshop on social cognition in schizophrenia, this study investigated associations between negative symptoms and various aspects of social cognition including Theory of Mind (ToM), attribution, empathy, self-esteem, and interpersonal self-concepts in 75 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 75 healthy controls. Negative symptoms were significantly associated with difficulties in ToM, less readiness to be empathic, lower self-esteem, less self-serving bias, negative self-concepts related to interpersonal abilities, and dysfunctional acceptance beliefs. Different aspects of social cognition were mildly to moderately correlated and interacted in their impact on negative symptoms: Difficulties in ToM were associated with negative symptoms in persons with low but not in persons with medium or high levels of self-esteem. Taken together, the social cognition variables and their hypothesized interaction explained 39% of the variance in negative symptoms after controlling for neurocognition and depression. The results highlight the relevance of self-concepts related to social abilities, dysfunctional beliefs, and global self-worth alone and in interaction with ToM deficits for negative symptoms and thereby provide a helpful basis for advancing psychosocial interventions.

  19. Negative cognitive errors and positive illusions for negative divorce events: predictors of children's psychological adjustment.

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    Mazur, E; Wolchik, S A; Sandler, I N

    1992-12-01

    This study examined the relations among negative cognitive errors regarding hypothetical negative divorce events, positive illusions about those same events, actual divorce events, and psychological adjustment in 38 8- to 12-year-old children whose parents had divorced within the previous 2 years. Children's scores on a scale of negative cognitive errors (catastrophizing, overgeneralizing, and personalizing) correlated significantly with self-reported symptoms of anxiety and self-esteem, and with maternal reports of behavior problems. Children's scores on a scale measuring positive illusions (high self-regard, illusion of personal control, and optimism for the future) correlated significantly with less self-reported aggression. Both appraisal types accounted for variance in some measures of symptomatology beyond that explained by actual events. There was no significant association between children's negative cognitive errors and positive illusions. The implications of these results for theories of negative cognitive errors and of positive illusions, as well as for future research, are discussed.

  20. Increased Mindfulness Skills as Predictors of Reduced Trauma-Related Guilt in Treatment-Seeking Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Philip; Owens, Gina P; Monroe, J Richard; Chard, Kathleen M

    2017-08-01

    The present study examined the predictive role of increased self-reported mindfulness skills on reduced trauma-related guilt in a sample of veterans over the course of residential treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; N = 128). The residential treatment consisted of seven weeks of intensive cognitive processing therapy (CPT) for PTSD, as well as additional psychoeducational groups, including seven sessions on mindfulness skills. Increased mindfulness skills describing, acting with awareness, and accepting without judgment were significantly associated with reductions in trauma-related guilt over the course of treatment. Increases in the ability to act with awareness and accept without judgment were significantly associated with reductions in global guilt, R 2 = .26, guilt distress, R 2 = .23, guilt cognitions, R 2 = .23, and lack of justification, R 2 = .11. An increase in the ability to accept without judgment was the only self-reported mindfulness skill that was associated with reductions in hindsight bias, β = -.34 and wrongdoing, β = -.44. Increases in self-reported mindfulness skills explained 15.1 to 24.1% of the variance in reductions in trauma-related guilt, suggesting that mindfulness skills may play a key role in reducing the experience of trauma-related guilt during psychotherapy. Our results provide preliminary support for the use of mindfulness groups as an adjunct to traditional evidence-based treatments aimed at reducing trauma-related guilt, though this claim needs to be tested further using experimental designs. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  1. Sex differences in the trauma-related symptoms: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerotić Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: During the year 2014, a part of the population from Serbia was exposed to floods. After natural disasters and other types of extreme trauma, some people will be more affected by trauma than others. How women and men differ, in the symptoms that can manifest after the exposure to extreme trauma, is still an open question. Aim: To evaluate if there are differences in the severity of trauma-related symptom clusters between the sexes (re-experiencing, avoidance, negative cognitions and mood, and arousal; according to DSM V and in experiencing negative emotional states (depression, anxiety, stress. Material and methods: Forty healthy volunteers from Obrenovac (25 women and 15 men were administered with three instruments: The Life Events Checklist - LEC-5, PTSD checklist for DSM V - PCL-5 and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale - DASS. Results: The majority of subjects reported floods as the major lifetime trauma (72.5%. Despite the relatively low level of the post-traumatic symptom intensity (5.02 ±4.99, women exhibited significantly higher total post-traumatic symptom severity scores in comparison to men (p<0.01 and higher severity of trauma re-experiencing symptoms (p<0.01. Sex differences were neither observed in other trauma-related symptoms clusters, nor in the severity of current depression, anxiety and stress symptoms. Conclusion: In the non-clinical sample, with only a sub-threshold level of post-traumatic symptoms, the most prominent difference between sexes was found in relation to re-experiencing and this finding is consistent with the results obtained from clinical samples. Future studies are needed, in order to examine whether trauma-focused treatments can be gender-tailored and to which extent they might prevent the full-blown post-traumatic stress disorder.

  2. Attentional bias for trauma-related words: exaggerated emotional Stroop effect in Afghanistan and Iraq war veterans with PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Victoria; Honzel, Nikki; Larsen, Jary; Justus, Timothy; Swick, Diane

    2013-03-14

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) involves debilitating symptoms that can disrupt cognitive functioning. The emotional Stroop has been commonly used to examine the impact of PTSD on attentional control, but no published study has yet used it with Afghanistan and Iraq war veterans, and only one previous study has compared groups on habituation to trauma-related words. We administered the emotional Stroop, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the PTSD Checklist (PCL) to 30 veterans with PTSD, 30 military controls, and 30 civilian controls. Stroop word types included Combat, Matched-neutral, Neutral, Positive and Negative. Compared to controls, veterans with PTSD were disproportionately slower in responding to Combat words. They were also slower and less accurate overall, did not show interference on Negative or Positive words relative to Neutral, and showed a trend for delayed but successful habituation to Combat words. Higher PCL and BDI scores also correlated with larger interference effects. Because of its specificity in detecting attentional biases to trauma-related words, the emotional Stroop task may serve as a useful pre- and post task with intervention studies of PTSD patients.

  3. The Relationship between Negative Affect and Reported Cognitive Failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabitha W. Payne

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to expand our understanding of the range of negative affect associated with reported problems with everyday functions and activities, measured by the cognitive failures questionnaire (CFQ. Evidence from previous research indicates that individuals meeting criteria for mood disorders, such as major depression or seasonal affective disorder, experience cognitive deficits in memory and attention that can lead to problems with everyday activities reported in the CFQ. The Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS was used to assess potential correlations with a wider range of negative emotions. Findings for a sample of 129 college students revealed that negative affective experiences were significantly correlated with failures of memory and attention on the CFQ (fear = .41, hostility = .38, sadness = .28, and guilt = .43. Conversely, positive affect was negatively correlated with distractibility (r=−.21. Additional affective scales on the PANAS (e.g., shyness and fatigue were also associated with higher reports of cognitive failures. The results provide converging evidence of a relationship between negative affective experiences and reported frequency of problems on the cognitive failures questionnaire.

  4. The developmental origins of cognitive vulnerability to depression: temperament, parenting, and negative life events in childhood as contributors to negative cognitive style.

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    Mezulis, Amy H; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Abramson, Lyn Y

    2006-11-01

    Cognitive models of depression have been well supported with adults, but the developmental origins of cognitive vulnerability are not well understood. The authors hypothesized that temperament, parenting, and negative life events in childhood would contribute to the development of cognitive style, with withdrawal negativity and negative parental feedback moderating the effects of negative life events to predict more depressogenic cognitive styles. These constructs were assessed in 289 children and their parents followed longitudinally from infancy to 5th grade; a subsample (n = 120) also participated in a behavioral task in which maternal feedback to child failure was observed. Results indicated that greater withdrawal negativity in interaction with negative life events was associated with more negative cognitive styles. Self-reported maternal anger expression and observed negative maternal feedback to child's failure significantly interacted with child's negative events to predict greater cognitive vulnerability. There was little evidence of paternal parenting predicting child negative cognitive style.

  5. Cognitive conflict increases processing of negative, task-irrelevant stimuli.

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    Ligeza, Tomasz S; Wyczesany, Miroslaw

    2017-10-01

    The detection of cognitive conflict is thought to trigger adjustments in executive control. It has been recently shown that cognitive conflict increases processing of stimuli that are relevant to the ongoing task and that these modulations are exerted by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). However, it is still unclear whether such control influences are unspecific and might also affect the processing of task-irrelevant stimuli. The aim of the study was to examine if cognitive conflict affects processing of neutral and negative, task-irrelevant pictures. Participants responded to congruent (non-conflict) or to incongruent (conflict-eliciting) trials of a modified flanker task. Each response was followed by a presentation of a neutral or negative picture. The late positive potential (LPP) in response to picture presentation was used to assess the level of picture processing after conflict vs non-conflict trials. Connectivity between the DLPFC and attentional and perceptual areas during picture presentation was analysed to check if the DLPFC might be a source of these modulations. ERP results showed an effect of cognitive conflict only on processing of negative pictures: LPP in response to negative pictures was increased after conflict trials, whereas LPP in response to neutral pictures remained unchanged. Cortical connectivity analysis showed that conflict trials intensified information flow from the DLPFC towards attentional and perceptual regions. Results suggest that cognitive conflict increases processing of task-irrelevant stimuli; however, they must display high biological salience. Increase in cognitive control exerted by the DLPFC over attentional and perceptual regions is a probable mechanism of the effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A case of trauma related Acanthamoeba keratitis.

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    Kamel, A G M; Faridah, H; Yusof, S; Norazah, A; Nakisah, M A

    2004-12-01

    Acanthamoeba is an uncommon cause of keratitis but one of the most severe because of the prolonged and painful course of the disease and poor visual outcome. Although contact lens use is the principal risk factor, about 10% of cases occur following trauma and exposure to contaminated soil or water. Two cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis involving women contact lens wearers have previously been reported in Malaysia but this is the first time, a non contact lens related Acanthamoeba keratitis is reported. The case involved a 28 year old Indonesian male construction worker who had a trauma of the right eye during work. His eye was struck by sand and dust particles after which he quickly washed with water from an open tank at the construction site. He experienced pain, redness, glaring and blurring of vision of the right eye three days later. The diagnosis was missed at initial presentation but culture of the corneal scraping had proven Acanthamoeba as the aetiological agent. The history and clinical findings of this trauma related Acanthamoeba keratitis are briefly discussed.

  7. Cross-Lagged Associations Between Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms and Negative Cognitive Style: The Role of Negative Life Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindt, Karlijn C M; Kleinjan, Marloes; Janssens, Jan M A M; Scholte, Ron H J

    2015-11-01

    Previous research has established that cognitive theory-based depression prevention programs aiming change in negative cognitive style in early adolescents do not have strong effects in universal settings. Although theories suggest that a negative cognitive style precedes depressive symptoms, empirical findings are mixed. We hypothesized that negative cognitive style may not predict depressive symptoms in adolescents with normative depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms, negative cognitive style and dependent negative life events were assessed in young adolescents (N = 1343; mean age = 13.4 years, SD = 0.77; 52.3 % girls) at four time points over an 18-month period. Using a cross-lagged panel design, results revealed that depressive symptoms predicted a negative cognitive style but not vice versa. However, when including dependent negative life events as a variable, depressive symptoms did not prospect a negative cognitive style consistently. When dependent negative life events were used as a time-varying covariate, depressive symptoms and a negative cognitive style were not related. We concluded that negative cognitive style is not predictive of depressive symptoms in a community sample of young adolescents. Moreover, the findings suggest that longitudinal relationships between depressive symptoms and a negative cognitive style are not meaningful when dependent negative life events are not considered.

  8. The relationship between interpersonal problems, negative cognitions, and outcomes from cognitive behavioral group therapy for depression.

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    McEvoy, Peter M; Burgess, Melissa M; Nathan, Paula

    2013-09-05

    Interpersonal functioning is a key determinant of psychological well-being, and interpersonal problems (IPs) are common among individuals with psychiatric disorders. However, IPs are rarely formally assessed in clinical practice or within cognitive behavior therapy research trials as predictors of treatment attrition and outcome. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between IPs, depressogenic cognitions, and treatment outcome in a large clinical sample receiving cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) for depression in a community clinic. Patients (N=144) referred for treatment completed measures of IPs, negative cognitions, depression symptoms, and quality of life (QoL) before and at the completion of a 12-week manualized CBGT protocol. Two IPs at pre-treatment, 'finding it hard to be supportive of others' and 'not being open about problems,' were associated with higher attrition. Pre-treatment IPs also predicted higher post-treatment depression symptoms (but not QoL) after controlling for pre-treatment symptoms, negative cognitions, demographics, and comorbidity. In particular, 'difficulty being assertive' and a 'tendency to subjugate one's needs' were associated with higher post-treatment depression symptoms. Changes in IPs did not predict post-treatment depression symptoms or QoL when controlling for changes in negative cognitions, pre-treatment symptoms, demographics, and comorbidity. In contrast, changes in negative cognitions predicted both post-treatment depression and QoL, even after controlling for changes in IPs and the other covariates. Correlational design, potential attrition bias, generalizability to other disorders and treatments needs to be evaluated. Pre-treatment IPs may increase risk of dropout and predict poorer outcomes, but changes in negative cognitions during treatment were most strongly associated with improvement in symptoms and QoL during CBGT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Ethical issues in trauma-related research: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Elana; Risch, Elizabeth; Kassam-Adams, Nancy

    2006-09-01

    ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING ABOUT TRAUMA-RELATED STUDIES requires a flexible approach that counters assumptions and biases about victims, assures a favorable ethical cost-benefit ratio, and promotes advancement of knowledge that can benefit survivors of traumatic stress. This paper reviews several ethical issues in the field of traumatic stress: benefit and risks in trauma-related research, whether trauma-related research poses unique risks and if so what those might be, informed consent and mandatory reporting, and supervision of trauma-related research. For each topic, we review potential ethical issues, summarize the research conducted thus far to inform ethical practice, and recommend future practice, research questions and policies to advance the field so that research on trauma can continue to be a win-win situation for all stakeholders in the research enterprise.

  10. Inhibition of eating behavior: negative cognitive effects of dieting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, K E; Chiovari, P

    1998-06-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that dieters would score higher than nondieters in terms of food rumination. Two hundred and thirty one college undergraduates completed the Eating Obsessive-Compulsiveness Scale (EOCS) and responded to a questionnaire that inquired about dieting status. Subjects also completed measures that tapped neuroticism and social desirability. Results showed that current dieters were significantly more obsessed with thoughts of eating and food than were nondieters. Neither dieting status nor EOCS scale scores were related to neuroticism or social desirability. These results are consistent with previous theory and research suggesting that inhibition of appetitive behaviors can have negative cognitive effects. Moreover, they indicate a potential target for therapeutic intervention.

  11. Trauma Related Guilt Inventory - psychometric properties of the Polish adaptation (TRGI-PL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popiel, Agnieszka; Zawadzki, Bogdan

    2015-01-01

    AIM : Although various aspects of guilt are frequent problems of patients suffering from PTSD, they have been included into the diagnostic criteria for PTSD just in the present version DSM-5. Kubany proposed a cognitive conceptualization of guilt in PTSD followed by development of the Trauma Related Guilt Inventory (TRGI). The aim of the paper is to present psychometric properties of the Polish version of the inventory - the TRGI-PL. A Polish adaptation of the Trauma-Related Guilt Inventory was applied to a sample of 280 motor vehicle (MVA) participants (147 females, 133 males of age from 18 to 80 (M=34,93, SD=13,71) within 1-24 months after a MVA (M=10,18, SD=6,23). Validation of the Polish version was done by analyzing the internal structure of the instrument and comparing the emotional and cognitive aspects of guilt assessed by the TRGI with PTSD symptoms, post-traumatic cognitions and responsibility for MVA and subjective agreement with the judgment. The model with four latent factors: Distress, Hindsight-Bias/Responsibility, Wrongdoing and Insufficient Justification scales showed acceptable fit (Satorra-Bentler chi2=518,62, df=203, pguilt, obtained in the studies on original TRGI version. Reliability coefficients are similar to original version. Correlations with other PTSD measures showed satisfactory convergent and discriminative validity. The Polish adaptation of the Trauma-Related Guilt Inventory is a reliable and valid tool for assessing guilt as a multidimensional phenomenon, comprising emotional and several cognitive characteristics, in trauma survivors.

  12. Predictors of Trauma-Related Symptoms among Runaway Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Michael D.; Thompson, Sanna J.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about trauma-related symptoms among runaway adolescents. Precocious departure from familial homes often exposes youth to traumatic victimization. This study examined the extent to which runaway adolescents present trauma symptomotology and assessed factors that predict trauma symptoms. Participants (N = 350) were 12-18 years of age…

  13. A model comparison approach to trauma-related guilt as a mediator of the relationship between PTSD symptoms and suicidal ideation among veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Katherine C; Farmer, Chloe; LoSavio, Stefanie T; Dennis, Paul A; Clancy, Carolina P; Hertzberg, Michael A; Collie, Claire F; Calhoun, Patrick S; Beckham, Jean C

    2017-10-15

    Suicidal ideation (SI) is a serious issue affecting U.S. veterans, and those with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at an especially high risk of SI. Guilt has been associated with both PTSD and SI and may therefore be an important link between these constructs. The present study compared models of trauma-related guilt and used path analysis to examine the direct and indirect effects of PTSD and trauma-related guilt on SI among a sample of 988 veterans receiving outpatient PTSD treatment at a Veterans Affairs (VA) specialty clinic. Results showed that a model of trauma-related guilt including guilt-cognitions and global guilt (but not distress) provided the best model fit for the data. PTSD and trauma-related guilt had direct effects on SI, and PTSD exhibited indirect effects on SI via trauma-related guilt. The use of cross-sectional data limits the ability to make causal inferences. A treatment-seeking sample composed primarily of Vietnam veterans limits generalizability to other populations. Trauma-related guilt, particularly guilt cognitions, may be an effective point of intervention to help reduce SI among veterans with PTSD. This is an important area of inquiry, and suggestions for future research are discussed. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Beyond negative thinking: illness cognitions and demographics as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite ample research evidence suggesting a strong link between illness cognitions and patients\\' psychological health, research in this direction in Nigeria is rather scanty, especially in a chronic condition like HIV/AIDS. This study explored the relationship between illness cognitions (helplessness, acceptance and ...

  15. Fronto-temporal connectivity predicts cognitive empathy deficits and experiential negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, Samantha V; Wisner, Krista M; Fox, Jaclyn M; Barch, Deanna M; Wang, Lei; Csernansky, John G; MacDonald, Angus W; Smith, Matthew J

    2017-03-01

    Impaired cognitive empathy is a core social cognitive deficit in schizophrenia associated with negative symptoms and social functioning. Cognitive empathy and negative symptoms have also been linked to medial prefrontal and temporal brain networks. While shared behavioral and neural underpinnings are suspected for cognitive empathy and negative symptoms, research is needed to test these hypotheses. In two studies, we evaluated whether resting-state functional connectivity between data-driven networks, or components (referred to as, inter-component connectivity), predicted cognitive empathy and experiential and expressive negative symptoms in schizophrenia subjects. Study 1: We examined associations between cognitive empathy and medial prefrontal and temporal inter-component connectivity at rest using a group-matched schizophrenia and control sample. We then assessed whether inter-component connectivity metrics associated with cognitive empathy were also related to negative symptoms. Study 2: We sought to replicate the connectivity-symptom associations observed in Study 1 using an independent schizophrenia sample. Study 1 results revealed that while the groups did not differ in average inter-component connectivity, a medial-fronto-temporal metric and an orbito-fronto-temporal metric were related to cognitive empathy. Moreover, the medial-fronto-temporal metric was associated with experiential negative symptoms in both schizophrenia samples. These findings support recent models that link social cognition and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1111-1124, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Attentional bias for trauma-related words: exaggerated emotional Stroop effect in Afghanistan and Iraq war veterans with PTSD

    OpenAIRE

    Ashley, Victoria; Honzel, Nikki; Larsen, Jary; Justus, Timothy; Swick, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Background Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) involves debilitating symptoms that can disrupt cognitive functioning. The emotional Stroop has been commonly used to examine the impact of PTSD on attentional control, but no published study has yet used it with Afghanistan and Iraq war veterans, and only one previous study has compared groups on habituation to trauma-related words. Methods We administered the emotional Stroop, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the PTSD Checklist (PCL) ...

  17. Cognitive Moderators of Children's Adjustment to Stressful Divorce Events: The Role of Negative Cognitive Errors and Positive Illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Elizabeth; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Virdin, Lynn; Sandler, Irwin N.; West, Stephen G.

    1999-01-01

    Examined whether children's cognitive biases moderated impact of stressful divorce-related events on adjustment in 9- to 12-year olds. Found that endorsing negative cognitive errors for hypothetical divorce events moderated relations between stressful divorce events and self- and maternal-reports of internalizing and externalizing symptoms for…

  18. Memory biases in remitted depression: the role of negative cognitions at explicit and automatic processing levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Nuria; Sanchez, Alvaro; Vazquez, Carmelo

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive models propose that depression is caused by dysfunctional schemas that endure beyond the depressive episode, representing vulnerability factors for recurrence. However, research testing negative cognitions linked to dysfunctional schemas in formerly depressed individuals is still scarce. Furthermore, negative cognitions are presumed to be linked to biases in recalling negative self-referent information in formerly depressed individuals, but no studies have directly tested this association. In the present study, we evaluated differences between formerly and never-depressed individuals in several experimental indices of negative cognitions and their associations with the recall of emotional self-referent material. Formerly (n = 30) and never depressed individuals (n = 40) completed measures of explicit (i.e., scrambled sentence test) and automatic (i.e., lexical decision task) processing to evaluate negative cognitions. Furthermore participants completed a self-referent incidental recall task to evaluate memory biases. Formerly compared to never depressed individuals showed greater negative cognitions at both explicit and automatic levels of processing. Results also showed greater recall of negative self-referent information in formerly compared to never-depressed individuals. Finally, individual differences in negative cognitions at both explicit and automatic levels of processing predicted greater recall of negative self-referent material in formerly depressed individuals. Analyses of the relationship between explicit and automatic processing indices and memory biases were correlational and the majority of participants in both groups were women. Our findings provide evidence of negative cognitions in formerly depressed individuals at both automatic and explicit levels of processing that may confer a cognitive vulnerability to depression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Complex Trauma-related Disorders in Research and Practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzner, Franka; Pahlke, Stephanie; Diesing, Alice; Marin, Nina; Klasen, Fionna; Pawils, Silke; Schulte-Markwort, Michael; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

    2018-03-01

    Complex Trauma-related Disorders in Research and Practice Frequent traumata in childhood and adolescence are long-term or repeated interpersonal traumata caused by perpetrators in the close environment of the minors. For the description of the extensive symptoms after interpersonal Type II traumata, the complex trauma-related disorders Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (CPTSD) or Disorder of Extreme Stress Not Otherwise Specified (DESNOS) and the Developmental Trauma Disorder (DTD) are being discussed for inclusion in the classification systems for mental disorders. Scientific knowledge and practical experiences regarding CPTSD, DESNOS and DTD in children and adolescents up to 18 years were examined by 1) a Systematic Review of 1,070 publications identified by database research and additional search strategies, and 2) a nationwide online survey of 374 psychotherapists and psychiatrists for children and adolescents in Germany. Of 13 included empirical studies (8 CPTSD or DESNOS, 5 DTD), 9 were conducted in the USA, 4 based on file coding and 3 on secondary data analysis and only 7 reported diagnosis rates (range: 0-78 %). Of the interviewed therapists, 100 % considered the CPTSD as being met with at least one patient with interpersonal traumata up to 18 years of age in 2014 and 99 % gave this estimate for the DTD. Two thirds of therapists rated the diagnostic option CPTSD and DTD as "very often" or "often" helpful for their therapeutic work with children and adolescents. While empirical data available is to be considered insufficient and characterized by methodological limitations, the relevance of complex trauma-related disorders is perceived as high by practitioners.

  20. Negative probabilities and counter-factual reasoning in quantum cognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J Acacio de Barros; G Oas

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss quantum-like decision-making experiments using negative probabilities. We do so by showing how the two-slit experiment, in the simplified version of the Mach–Zehnder interferometer, can be described by this formalism. We show that negative probabilities impose constraints to what types of counter-factual reasoning we can make with respect to (quantum) internal representations of the decision maker. (paper)

  1. Trauma-related guilt: conceptual development and relationship with posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Kendall C; Trim, Ryan S; Myers, Ursula S; Norman, Sonya B

    2015-04-01

    Despite high prevalence and concerning associated problems, little effort has been made to conceptualize the construct of posttraumatic guilt. This investigation examined the theoretical model of trauma-related guilt proposed by Kubany and Watson (2003). This model hypothesizes that emotional and physical distress related to trauma memories partially mediates the relationship between guilt cognitions and posttraumatic guilt. Using path analysis, this investigation (a) empirically evaluated relationships hypothesized in Kubany and Watson's model, and (b) extended this conceptualization by evaluating models whereby guilt cognitions, distress, and posttraumatic guilt were related to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms depression symptom severity. Participants were male U.S. Iraq and Afghanistan veterans (N = 149). Results yielded a significant indirect effect from guilt cognitions to posttraumatic guilt via distress, providing support for Kubany and Watson's model (β = .14). Findings suggested distress may be the strongest correlate of PTSD symptoms (β = .47) and depression symptoms (β = .40), and that guilt cognitions may serve to intensify the relationship between distress and posttraumatic psychopathology. Research is needed to evaluate whether distress specific to guilt cognitions operates differentially on posttraumatic guilt when compared to distress more broadly related to trauma memories. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Negative cognitive style and cortisol recovery accentuate the relationship between life stress and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Meghan E; Grant, Kathryn E; Adam, Emma K

    2018-03-01

    When exposed to stressful life events, a significant number of adolescents will experience depressive symptoms. One model of depression suggests that individuals with a negative cognitive style are most vulnerable to depression following life stress. Alternatively, altered activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may explain vulnerability to depression following life stress. Each of these models plausibly explains the emergence of depressive symptoms during adolescence and have been investigated largely independently. The current study recruited a sample of urban adolescents (N = 179) to evaluate whether cortisol response to a laboratory stress induction and negative cognitive style are related and whether they independently interact with exposure to stressful life events to predict symptoms of depression. Negative cognitive style was not associated with cortisol response to the laboratory stressor. Rather, negative cognitive style and cortisol recovery independently interacted with stressful life events to predict current symptoms of depression. Results support a heterogeneous etiology of depression.

  3. Cognitive deficits after aneurysmal and angiographically negative subarachnoid hemorrhage : Memory, attention, executive functioning, and emotion recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Anne M; Groen, Rob J M; Veenstra, Wencke S; Metzemaekers, Joannes; van der Hoeven, Johannes H; van Dijk, J Marc C; Spikman, Jacoba M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors' aim was to investigate cognitive outcome in patients with aneurysmal and angiographically negative subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH and anSAH), by comparing them to healthy controls and to each other. Besides investigating cognitive functions as memory and attention, they

  4. Relations of Parenting and Negative Life Events to Cognitive Diatheses for Depression in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Alanna E.; Cole, David A.; Dallaire, Danielle H.; Jacquez, Farrah M.; Pineda, Ashley Q.; LaGrange, Beth

    2006-01-01

    In a sample of 299 children (grades 2, 4, and 6), we examined parenting and negative life events as predictors of depressive cognitions, specifically low self-perceived competence, depressive cognitive schemas, and depressogenic attributional style. We also examined developmental trends in these relations. Children completed measures of parenting,…

  5. Reduced cognitive capacity impairs the malleability of older adults' negative attitudes to stigmatized individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krendl, Anne C

    2018-05-21

    Although engaging explicit regulatory strategies may reduce negative bias toward outgroup members, these strategies are cognitively demanding and thus may not be effective for older adults (OA) who have reduced cognitive resources. The current study therefore examines whether individual differences in cognitive capacity disrupt OA' ability to explicitly regulate their bias to stigmatized individuals. Young and OA were instructed to explicitly regulate their negative bias toward stigmatized individuals by using an explicit reappraisal strategy. Regulatory success was assessed as a function of age and individual differences in cognitive capacity (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2, the role of executive function in implementing cognitive reappraisal strategies was examined by using a divided attention manipulation. Results from Experiment 1 revealed that individual differences in OA' cognitive capacity disrupted their ability to regulate their negative emotional response to stigma. In Experiment 2, it was found that dividing attention in young adults (YA) significantly reduced their regulatory success as compared to YA' regulatory capacity in the full attention condition. As expected, dividing YA' attention made their performance similar to OA with relatively preserved cognitive capacity. Together, the results from this study demonstrated that individual differences in cognitive capacity predicted OA' ability to explicitly regulate their negative bias to a range of stigmatized individuals.

  6. Harsh Parenting and Adolescent Depression: Mediation by Negative Self-Cognition and Moderation by Peer Acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ai-Min; Deng, Xue-Li; Du, Xiu-Xiu; Wang, Ming-Zhong

    2018-01-01

    Guided by Beck's cognitive model of depression, this study examined the mediating role of negative self-cognition in the association between harsh parenting and adolescent depression and whether peer acceptance moderated this indirect relationship. Eight hundred and fifty-nine seventh to ninth graders (379 girls and 480 boys, mean age = 13.58…

  7. Cognitive dissonance, social comparison, and disseminating untruthful or negative truthful eWOM messages

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Y-L; Keng, Ching-Jui

    2014-01-01

    In this research we explored consumers' intentions to provide untruthful or negative truthful electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) messages when undergoing conflicting cognitive dissonance and after experiencing social comparison. We recruited 480 Taiwanese Internet users to participate in a scenario-based experiment. The findings show that after making downward comparisons on the Internet, consumers with high cognitive dissonance were more inclined to disseminate negative truthful eWOM messages c...

  8. Education attenuates the negative impact of traumatic brain injury on cognitive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumowski, James F; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; Krch, Denise; Paxton, Jessica; Deluca, John

    2013-12-01

    To investigate whether the cognitive reserve hypothesis helps to explain differential cognitive impairment among survivors of traumatic brain injury (TBI), whereby survivors with greater intellectual enrichment (estimated with education) are less vulnerable to cognitive impairment. Cross-sectional study. Medical rehabilitation research center. Survivors of moderate or severe TBI (n=44) and healthy controls (n=36). Not applicable. Intellectual enrichment was estimated with educational attainment. Group was defined as TBI or healthy control. Current cognitive status (processing speed, working memory, episodic memory) was evaluated with neuropsychological tasks. TBI survivors exhibited worse cognitive status than healthy persons (Peducation was positively correlated with cognitive status in TBI survivors (r=.54, Peducation (R(2) change=.036, P=.004), whereas higher education attenuated the negative impact of TBI on cognitive status. TBI survivors with lower education performed much worse than matched healthy persons, but this TBI-related performance discrepancy was attenuated at higher levels of education. Higher intellectual enrichment (estimated with education) reduces the negative effect of TBI on cognitive outcomes, thereby supporting the cognitive reserve hypothesis in persons with TBI. Future work is necessary to investigate whether intellectual enrichment can build cognitive reserve as a rehabilitative intervention in survivors of TBI. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The structural model of pain, cognitive strategies, and negative emotions in functional gastrointestinal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Mazaheri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs may use specific coping strategies. We intend to provide a mediating role of the relationship between pain (intensity and acceptance, cognitive emotion regulation strategies, and negative emotions in patients with FGIDs. Materials and Methods: Participants were 176 inpatients, all experiencing significant FGIDs symptomatology as confirmed by gastroenterologists. Patients completed data on cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire, short form of depression, anxiety, stress scale, chronic pain acceptance questionnaire-revised, and pain intensity scale. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling method. Results: The pain intensity had significantly direct effect on cognitive emotion regulation strategies and indirect effect on negative emotions. Besides, the mediating role of negative emotions in the relationship between the strategies and pain acceptance were supported, whereas indirect relationships between pain intensity and acceptance through cognitive strategies were not confirmed. Conclusion: The results of the study emphasize the role of pain intensity in the development of negative emotions through cognitive strategies and the role of the strategies in pain acceptance through negative emotions. In fact, cognitive strategies to be related to pain and emotions.

  10. A negative association between video game experience and proactive cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kira; West, Robert; Anderson, Craig A

    2010-01-01

    Some evidence demonstrates that video game experience has a beneficial effect on visuospatial cognition. In contrast, other evidence indicates that video game experience may be negatively related to cognitive control. In this study we examined the specificity of the influence of video game experience on cognitive control. Participants with high and low video game experience performed the Stroop task while event-related brain potentials were recorded. The behavioral data revealed no difference between high and low gamers for the Stroop interference effect and a reduction in the conflict adaptation effect in high gamers. The amplitude of the medial frontal negativity and a frontal slow wave was attenuated in high gamers, and there was no effect of gaming status on the conflict slow potential. These data lead to the suggestion that video game experience has a negative influence on proactive, but not reactive, cognitive control.

  11. Effects of cognitive remediation on negative symptoms dimensions: exploring the role of working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cella, M; Stahl, D; Morris, S; Keefe, R S E; Bell, M D; Wykes, T

    2017-09-04

    Recent theories suggest that poor working memory (WM) may be the cognitive underpinning of negative symptoms in people with schizophrenia. In this study, we first explore the effect of cognitive remediation (CR) on two clusters of negative symptoms (i.e. expressive and social amotivation), and then assess the relevance of WM gains as a possible mediator of symptom improvement. Data were accessed for 309 people with schizophrenia from the NIMH Database of Cognitive Training and Remediation Studies and a separate study. Approximately half the participants received CR and the rest were allocated to a control condition. All participants were assessed before and after therapy and at follow-up. Expressive negative symptoms and social amotivation symptoms scores were calculated from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. WM was assessed with digit span and letter-number span tests. Participants who received CR had a significant improvement in WM scores (d = 0.27) compared with those in the control condition. Improvements in social amotivation levels approached statistical significance (d = -0.19), but change in expressive negative symptoms did not differ between groups. WM change did not mediate the effect of CR on social amotivation. The results suggest that a course of CR may benefit behavioural negative symptoms. Despite hypotheses linking memory problems with negative symptoms, the current findings do not support the role of this cognitive domain as a significant mediator. The results indicate that WM improves independently from negative symptoms reduction.

  12. Emotion, working memory task demands and individual differences predict behavior, cognitive effort and negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storbeck, Justin; Davidson, Nicole A; Dahl, Chelsea F; Blass, Sara; Yung, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether positive and negative affect motivates verbal and spatial working memory processes, respectively, which have implications for the expenditure of mental effort. We argue that when emotion promotes cognitive tendencies that are goal incompatible with task demands, greater cognitive effort is required to perform well. We sought to investigate whether this increase in cognitive effort impairs behavioural control over a broad domain of self-control tasks. Moreover, we predicted that individuals with higher behavioural inhibition system (BIS) sensitivities would report more negative affect within the goal incompatible conditions because such individuals report higher negative affect during cognitive challenge. Positive or negative affective states were induced followed by completing a verbal or spatial 2-back working memory task. All participants then completed one of three self-control tasks. Overall, we observed that conditions of emotion and working memory incompatibility (positive/spatial and negative/verbal) performed worse on the self-control tasks, and within the incompatible conditions individuals with higher BIS sensitivities reported more negative affect at the end of the study. The combination of findings suggests that emotion and working memory compatibility reduces cognitive effort and impairs behavioural control.

  13. Enhanced association between perceptual stimuli and trauma-related information in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Muyu; Hofmann, Stefan G; Qian, Mingyi; Li, Songwei

    2015-03-01

    Intrusive memories in traumatized individuals are often triggered by stimuli that are perceptually (rather than conceptually) similar to those present just before or during the trauma. The present study examined whether those individuals with high levels of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms show a memory bias recall to perceptual cues and trauma target words compared to those with low levels of PTSD. The sample consisted of 30 adult participants who were involved in motor-vehicle or work-related accidents; 15 of the participants endorsed clinically elevated symptoms of PTSD, while a comparison group of 15 participants reported low levels of symptoms. Participants performed an associative recognition task with conceptual or perceptual cue words and trauma-related or neutral target words. Participants were tested for their recognition accuracy by reporting the corresponding target when a cue was given. Both groups performed better for the perceptual word pairs than for the conceptual word pairs, irrespective of the target word type. However, only the high PTSD symptoms group exhibited an additional enhancement in performance for the perceptual word pairs with trauma-related target words. A nonclinical sample was utilized for this study; although PTSD was assessed, diagnoses were not confirmed. In addition, there was lack of a healthy non-traumatized control group. These results provide partial support for the cognitive model and the notion that intrusive memories are specific to the trauma-related event rather than to a general associative learning bias.

  14. The Influence of Negative Emotion on Cognitive and Emotional Control Remains Intact in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artyom Zinchenko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Healthy aging is characterized by a gradual decline in cognitive control and inhibition of interferences, while emotional control is either preserved or facilitated. Emotional control regulates the processing of emotional conflicts such as in irony in speech, and cognitive control resolves conflict between non-affective tendencies. While negative emotion can trigger control processes and speed up resolution of both cognitive and emotional conflicts, we know little about how aging affects the interaction of emotion and control. In two EEG experiments, we compared the influence of negative emotion on cognitive and emotional conflict processing in groups of younger adults (mean age = 25.2 years and older adults (69.4 years. Participants viewed short video clips and either categorized spoken vowels (cognitive conflict or their emotional valence (emotional conflict, while the visual facial information was congruent or incongruent. Results show that negative emotion modulates both cognitive and emotional conflict processing in younger and older adults as indicated in reduced response times and/or enhanced event-related potentials (ERPs. In emotional conflict processing, we observed a valence-specific N100 ERP component in both age groups. In cognitive conflict processing, we observed an interaction of emotion by congruence in the N100 responses in both age groups, and a main effect of congruence in the P200 and N200. Thus, the influence of emotion on conflict processing remains intact in aging, despite a marked decline in cognitive control. Older adults may prioritize emotional wellbeing and preserve the role of emotion in cognitive and emotional control.

  15. Trauma-related infections due to cluster munitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, Youssef; El-Zaatari, Mohamad; Fares, Jawad; Bedrosian, Nora; Yared, Nadine

    2013-12-01

    Trauma-related infections remain a concerning and potentially avoidable complication of conflict-related injuries. During the Israeli conflict in South Lebanon, more than four million sub-munitions were dropped over South Lebanese soil. In this study, we will explore the different types of infection caused by sub-munitions and penetrating agents. This prospective study took place from 2006 to 2012 at the Lebanese University within the Faculty of Medical Sciences' departments. This study sample consisted of 350 injured casualties. Patients suffered from blast injuries with fragmentations targeting the head, face, torso, abdomen, pelvis and extremities. Of the 350 causalities studied, 326 (93.1%) were males, and 24 (6.9%) were females. Ages varied between 10 and 70 years, with the average age being 27 years. Of the 350 patients studied, 68 (19.4%) developed infections. Infections varied between pseudomonas, Escherichia coli, Candida and fungus and sometimes led to necrosis. Vaccinations, antibiotic therapies and proper wound irrigation must be performed at appropriate emergency units. Excision and complete debridement of necrotic and contaminated tissue should also be performed. The Convention on Cluster Munitions of 2008 should be adhered to, as these weapons indiscriminately and disproportionately harm civilians, thereby violating the well-established international principles governing conflict. Copyright © 2013 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Residual Negative Symptoms Differentiate Cognitive Performance in Clinically Stable Patients with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Krishnadas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficits in various domains have been shown in patients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. The purpose of the present study was to examine if residual psychopathology explained the difference in cognitive function between clinically stable patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We compared the performance on tests of attention, visual and verbal memory, and executive function of 25 patients with schizophrenia in remission and 25 euthymic bipolar disorder patients with that of 25 healthy controls. Mediation analysis was used to see if residual psychopathology could explain the difference in cognitive function between the patient groups. Both patient groups performed significantly worse than healthy controls on most cognitive tests. Patients with bipolar disorder displayed cognitive deficits that were milder but qualitatively similar to those of patients with schizophrenia. Residual negative symptoms mediated the difference in performance on cognitive tests between the two groups. Neither residual general psychotic symptoms nor greater antipsychotic doses explained this relationship. The shared variance explained by the residual negative and cognitive deficits that the difference between patient groups may be explained by greater frontal cortical neurophysiological deficits in patients with schizophrenia, compared to bipolar disorder. Further longitudinal work may provide insight into pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie these deficits.

  17. Parsing cognitive and emotional empathy deficits for negative and positive stimuli in frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Lindsay D; Mitchell, Derek G V; Dziobek, Isabel; MacKinley, Julia; Coleman, Kristy; Rankin, Katherine P; Finger, Elizabeth C

    2015-01-01

    Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by frontal and temporal lobe atrophy primarily affecting social cognition and emotion, including loss of empathy. Many consider empathy to be a multidimensional construct, including cognitive empathy (the ability to adopt and understand another's perspective) and emotional empathy (the capacity to share another's emotional experience). Cognitive and emotional empathy deficits have been associated with bvFTD; however, little is known regarding the performance of patients with bvFTD on behavioural measures of emotional empathy, and whether empathic responses differ for negative versus positive stimuli. 24 patients with bvFTD and 24 healthy controls completed the Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET; Dziobek et al., 2008), a performance-based task that taps both cognitive and emotional facets of empathy, and allows for the discrimination of responses to negative versus positive realistic images. MET scores were also compared with caregiver ratings of patient behaviour on the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, which assesses patients' everyday demonstrations of perspective taking and empathic concern. Patients with bvFTD were less accurate than controls at inferring mental states for negative and positive stimuli. They also demonstrated lower levels of shared emotional experience, more positive emotional reactions, and diminished arousal to negative social stimuli relative to controls. Patients showed reduced emotional reactions to negative non-social stimuli as well. Lastly, the MET and IRI measures of emotional empathy were found to be significantly correlated within the bvFTD group. The results suggest that patients with bvFTD show a global deficit in cognitive empathy, and deficient emotional empathy for negative, but not positive, experiences. Further, a generalized emotional processing impairment for negative stimuli was observed, which could contribute to the

  18. The Effect of Negative Affect on Cognition: Anxiety, Not Anger, Impairs Executive Function

    OpenAIRE

    Shields, Grant S.; Moons, Wesley G.; Tewell, Carl A.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    It is often assumed that negative affect impairs the executive functions that underlie our ability to control and focus our thoughts. However, support for this claim has been mixed. Recent work has suggested that different negative affective states like anxiety and anger may reflect physiologically separable states with distinct effects on cognition. However, the effects of these two affective states on executive function have never been assessed. As such, we induced anxiety or anger in parti...

  19. Prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in severe mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauritz, M.W.; Goossens, P.J.J.; Draijer, N.; Achterberg, T. van

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with severe mental illness (SMI) are often not recognized in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To substantiate the prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with SMI. METHODS: We

  20. Prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in severe mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauritz, M.W.; Goossens, P.J.J.; Draijer, N.; van Achterberg, T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with severe mental illness (SMI) are often not recognized in clinical practice. Objective: To substantiate the prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with SMI. Methods: We

  1. Individual Differences in the Habitual Use of Cognitive Reappraisal Predict the Reward-related Feedback Negativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyang eSai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that instructed cognitive reappraisal can regulate the neural processing of reward. However, it is still unclear whether the habitual use of cognitive reappraisal in everyday life can influence brain activity associated with reward processing. In the present study, participant’s neural responses to reward were measured using electroencephalography (EEG recorded during a gambling task, while their tendency to use cognitive reappraisal was assessed using the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ. Event-related potential (ERP results indicated that losses on the gambling task elicited greater negative reward-related feedback negativity (FN than gains. The differential FN between losses and gains was significantly correlated with cognitive reappraisal scores across participants, such that individuals with a higher tendency to use cognitive reappraisal showed stronger reward processing (i.e. amplified FN difference between losses and gains. This correlation remained significant after controlling for expressive suppression scores. However, expressive suppression per se was not correlated with FN differences. Taken together, these results suggest that the habitual use of cognitive reappraisal influences the neural processing of reward.

  2. Intensifying the Dominant Response II: Nonconscious Negative Affect, Cognitive Demand, and Conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Jennifer L.; Laliker, Melanie

    2002-01-01

    Examines mechanisms that may account for why evaluations made by participants involved in conversations are more influenced by subliminal negative cues than are evaluations made by observers. Explains three studies in which subliminal priming tasks were used with differing cognitive loads and self-preservation concerns among a group of…

  3. Relationships among Negative Emotionality, Responsive Parenting and Early Socio-Cognitive Development in Korean Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Kijoo

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the interplay among negative emotionality, responsive parenting and socio-cognitive developmental outcomes (i.e., communication, personal-social and problem-solving outcomes) in about 1620 Korean children using three waves of longitudinal data spanning the first 2 years of their life. Results from the Structural Equation…

  4. The Effects of Positive and Negative Mood on Cognition and Motivation in Multimedia Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Tze Wei; Tan, Su-Mae

    2016-01-01

    The Cognitive-Affective Theory of Learning with Media framework posits that the multimedia learning process is mediated by the learner's mood. Recent studies have shown that positive mood has a facilitating effect on multimedia learning. Though literature has shown that negative mood encourages an individual to engage in a more systematic,…

  5. The moderating effects of aging and cognitive abilities on the association between work stress and negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Jinshil; Sliwinski, Martin J; Almeida, David M; Smyth, Joshua M; Scott, Stacey B

    2018-05-01

    Given that the association between work stress and negative affect can exacerbate negative health and workplace outcomes, it is important to identify the protective and risk factors that moderate this association. Socioemotional aging and cognitive abilities might influence how people utilize emotion regulation skills and engage in practical problem solving to manage their work stress. The aim of this study is to examine whether age and cognitive abilities independently and interactively moderate the association between work-related stress and negative affect. A diverse working adult sample (N = 139, age 25-65, 69% of females) completed a cross-sectional survey that assessed chronic work stress, negative affect, and fluid and crystallized cognitive abilities. Results from regression analyses suggested that both fluid and crystallized cognitive abilities, but not age, moderated the association between work stress and negative affect. Further, we found that crystallized cognition had a stronger attenuating effect on the work stress-negative affect association for older compared to younger workers. The moderating effect of fluid cognition was invariant across age. Our findings demonstrate that cognitive abilities are an important personal resource that might protect individuals against the negative impacts of work stress and negative affect. Although the role that fluid cognition plays in work stress-negative affect association is comparably important for both younger and older workers, crystallized cognition might play a more valuable role for older than younger workers.

  6. Mismatch negativity, social cognition, and functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-yan Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mismatch negativity is generated automatically, and is an early monitoring indicator of neuronal integrity impairment and functional abnormality in patients with brain injury, leading to decline of cognitive function. Antipsychotic medication cannot affect mismatch negativity. The present study aimed to explore the relationships of mismatch negativity with neurocognition, daily life and social functional outcomes in patients after brain injury. Twelve patients with traumatic brain injury and 12 healthy controls were recruited in this study. We examined neurocognition with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised China, and daily and social functional outcomes with the Activity of Daily Living Scale and Social Disability Screening Schedule, respectively. Mismatch negativity was analyzed from electroencephalogram recording. The results showed that mismatch negativity amplitudes decreased in patients with traumatic brain injury compared with healthy controls. Mismatch negativity amplitude was negatively correlated with measurements of neurocognition and positively correlated with functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury. Further, the most significant positive correlations were found between mismatch negativity in the fronto-central region and measures of functional outcomes. The most significant positive correlations were also found between mismatch negativity at the FCz electrode and daily living function. Mismatch negativity amplitudes were extremely positively associated with Social Disability Screening Schedule scores at the Fz electrode in brain injury patients. These experimental findings suggest that mismatch negativity might efficiently reflect functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury.

  7. Performance-based interpretation bias in clinically anxious youths: relationships with attention, anxiety, and negative cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenman, Michelle; Amir, Nader; Weersing, V Robin

    2014-09-01

    This preliminary investigation sought to examine basic interpretive biases, as assessed via performance-based means, in the context of anxious symptomatology, attention, and negative cognition in children and adolescents. At a single assessment, 26 youths diagnosed with primary separation anxiety, social phobia, or generalized anxiety disorder completed performance-based assessments of interpretation and attention. Youths and parents also completed diagnostic interviews and youths completed a measure of negative self-statements. Components of interpretation (threat-valence judgments and speed of responding) were examined, and interpretation was explored as a correlate of youth anxiety, attention bias, and negative self-statements. Results found percentage of negative interpretations endorsed as the strongest predictor of anxiety symptoms; this index was also correlated with attention bias. Slower rejection of benign interpretations was also associated with youth-reported negative self-statements.This initial investigation provides support for a relationship between interpretation bias and anxiety and preliminary evidence for a relationship between attention and interpretation biases. Continued research dismantling the stages of basic cognition within the chain of information processing may provide a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying anxiety disorders in youths and lead to continued development and refinement of cognitive interventions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Depressive cognition: a test of depressive realism versus negativity using general knowledge questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, E R; Dodrill, C L; Johnson, N

    2001-11-01

    This research is an examination of whether cognition in depressed individuals incorporates a realistic view of the world or a general tendency toward negativity. Participants provided two types of probability judgments of the likelihood that they correctly answered general knowledge questions: the probability that they correctly answered each of the individual questions and an aggregate judgment, after completing the questionnaire, of the percentage of all the questions they thought they had correctly answered. These tasks generally elicit overconfidence and accuracy in nondepressives. In accord with theories of both depressive realism and general negativity, in their item-by-item assessments of their answers to the individual questions, depressed participants demonstrated less overconfidence than nondepressed participants. In accord with the theory of general negativity but not with the theory of depressive realism, however, depressed participants demonstrated underconfidence in their aggregate judgments. The implications of these findings on theories of depressive cognition are discussed.

  9. The role of low cognitive effort and negative symptoms in neuropsychological impairment in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Gregory P; Morra, Lindsay F; Sullivan, Sara K; Gold, James M

    2015-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine whether insufficient effort, negative symptoms (e.g., avolition, anhedonia), and psychological variables (e.g., anhedonia and perception of low cognitive resources) predict generalized neurocognitive impairment in individuals with schizophrenia (SZ). In Experiment 1, participants included 97 individuals with SZ and 63 healthy controls (CN) who completed the Victoria Symptom Validity Test (VSVT), the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB), and self-report anhedonia questionnaires. In Experiment 2, participants included 46 individuals with SZ and 33 CN who completed Green's Word Memory Test (WMT), the MCCB, and self-reports of anhedonia, defeatist performance beliefs, and negative expectancy appraisals. RESULTS indicated that a low proportion of individuals with SZ failed effort testing (1.0% Experiment 1; 15.2% Experiment 2); however, global neurocognitive impairment was significantly predicted by low effort and negative symptoms. Findings indicate that low effort does not threaten the validity of neuropsychological test results in the majority of individuals with schizophrenia; however, effort testing may be useful in SZ patients with severe negative symptoms who may be more likely to put forth insufficient effort due to motivational problems. Although the base rate of failure is relatively low, it may be beneficial to screen for insufficient effort in SZ and exclude individuals who fail effort testing from pharmacological or cognitive remediation trials. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Visual attention and emotional reactions to negative stimuli: The role of age and cognitive reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Maria; Isaacowitz, Derek M; Kunzmann, Ute

    2017-09-01

    Prominent life span theories of emotion propose that older adults attend less to negative emotional information and report less negative emotional reactions to the same information than younger adults do. Although parallel age differences in affective information processing and age differences in emotional reactivity have been proposed, they have rarely been investigated within the same study. In this eye-tracking study, we tested age differences in visual attention and emotional reactivity, using standardized emotionally negative stimuli. Additionally, we investigated age differences in the association between visual attention and emotional reactivity, and whether these are moderated by cognitive reappraisal. Older as compared with younger adults showed fixation patterns away from negative image content, while they reacted with greater negative emotions. The association between visual attention and emotional reactivity differed by age group and positive reappraisal. Younger adults felt better when they attended more to negative content rather than less, but this relationship only held for younger adults who did not attach a positive meaning to the negative situation. For older adults, overall, there was no significant association between visual attention and emotional reactivity. However, for older adults who did not use positive reappraisal, decreases in attention to negative information were associated with less negative emotions. The present findings point to a complex relationship between younger and older adults' visual attention and emotional reactions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Cognitive moderators of children's adjustment to stressful divorce events: the role of negative cognitive errors and positive illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, E; Wolchik, S A; Virdin, L; Sandler, I N; West, S G

    1999-01-01

    This study examined whether children's cognitive appraisal biases moderate the impact of stressful divorce-related events on psychological adjustment in 355 children ages 9 to 12, whose families had experienced divorce within the past 2 years. Multiple regression indicated that endorsement of negative cognitive errors for hypothetical divorce events moderates the relations between stressful divorce events and self- and maternal reports of internalizing and externalizing symptoms, but only for older children. Positive illusions buffer the effects of stressful divorce events on child-reported depression and mother-reported externalizing problems. Implications of these results for theories of stress and coping, as well as for interventions for children of divorced families, are discussed.

  12. The role of trauma-related distractors on neural systems for working memory and emotion processing in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Rajendra A; Dolcos, Florin; Petty, Christopher M; Cooper, Debra A; Hayes, Jasmeet Pannu; LaBar, Kevin S; McCarthy, Gregory

    2009-05-01

    The relevance of emotional stimuli to threat and survival confers a privileged role in their processing. In PTSD, the ability of trauma-related information to divert attention is especially pronounced. Information unrelated to the trauma may also be highly distracting when it shares perceptual features with trauma material. Our goal was to study how trauma-related environmental cues modulate working memory networks in PTSD. We examined neural activity in participants performing a visual working memory task while distracted by task-irrelevant trauma and non-trauma material. Recent post-9/11 veterans were divided into a PTSD group (n=22) and a trauma-exposed control group (n=20) based on the Davidson trauma scale. Using fMRI, we measured hemodynamic change in response to emotional (trauma-related) and neutral distraction presented during the active maintenance period of a delayed-response working memory task. The goal was to examine differences in functional networks associated with working memory (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and lateral parietal cortex) and emotion processing (amygdala, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and fusiform gyrus). The PTSD group showed markedly different neural activity compared to the trauma-exposed control group in response to task-irrelevant visual distractors. Enhanced activity in ventral emotion processing regions was associated with trauma distractors in the PTSD group, whereas activity in brain regions associated with working memory and attention regions was disrupted by distractor stimuli independent of trauma content. Neural evidence for the impact of distraction on working memory is consistent with PTSD symptoms of hypervigilance and general distractibility during goal-directed cognitive processing.

  13. The Integration of Negative Affect, Pain, and Cognitive Control in the Cingulate Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackman, Alexander J.; Salomons, Tim V.; Slagter, Heleen A.; Fox, Andrew S.; Winter, Jameel J.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Preface It has been argued that emotion, pain, and cognitive control are functionally segregated in distinct subdivisions of the cingulate cortex. But recent observations encourage a fundamentally different view. Imaging studies indicate that negative affect, pain, and cognitive control activate an overlapping region of dorsal cingulate, the anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC). Anatomical studies reveal that aMCC constitutes a hub where information about reinforcers can be linked to motor centers responsible for expressing affect and executing goal-directed behavior. Computational modeling and other kinds of evidence suggest that this intimacy reflects control processes that are common to all three domains. These observations compel a reconsideration of dorsal cingulate’s contribution to negative affect and pain. PMID:21331082

  14. EFFECTIVENESS OF MINDFULNESS BASED COGNITIVE THERAPY ON REDUCTION OF NEGATIVE AUTOMATIC THOUGHTS OF DEPRESSIVE PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Farokhzad, Pegah; Yazdanfar, Tahmineh

    2018-01-01

    AbstractThe present research is aimed to study the effectiveness of mindfulness based cognitive therapy on reduction of negative automatic thoughts of depressive patients. It was a semi-experimental research, using pre-test post-test with control group design. The statistical population consists of 20-40 year old patients who were referred to Tehran Psychiatric Institute for depression in 2015. Out of them, on the basis of Cohen’s table, 30 patients who had negative automatic thoughts were sc...

  15. Understanding negative impacts of perceived cognitive load on job learning effectiveness: a social capital solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chieh-Peng

    2010-12-01

    This study proposes a model explaining how social capital helps ease excessively required mental effort. Although organizational researchers have studied both social capital and cognitive load, no prior research has critically examined the role of social capital in improving individuals' mental load and effort and consequently enhancing job learning effectiveness. This study surveys participants made up of professionals in Taiwan's information technology industry. It measures the constructs with the use of 5-point Likert-type scale items modified from existing literature. The survey data were analyzed with the use of structural equation modeling. Job learning effectiveness is negatively influenced by role ambiguity and role conflict. Time pressure has a positive influence on role ambiguity and role conflict Although the relationship between task complexity and role ambiguity is insignificant, task complexity has a positive influence on role conflict. Because the relationship between network ties and role conflict is insignificant, trust has a negative influence on role conflict. Last, shared vision has a negative influence on role ambiguity. This study provides an example of how social capital can be applied as a useful remedy to ease the negative impact of perceived cognitive load on job learning effectiveness. The negative relationship between shared vision and role ambiguity suggests that a shared vision helps in disseminating organizationally common goals and directions among employees to alleviate individuals' mental efforts in dealing with the ambiguity of their job roles. A firm's management team should take actions to decrease role conflict by strengthening trust among employees.

  16. The effect of negative affect on cognition: Anxiety, not anger, impairs executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S; Moons, Wesley G; Tewell, Carl A; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2016-09-01

    It is often assumed that negative affect impairs the executive functions that underlie our ability to control and focus our thoughts. However, support for this claim has been mixed. Recent work has suggested that different negative affective states like anxiety and anger may reflect physiologically separable states with distinct effects on cognition. However, the effects of these 2 affective states on executive function have never been assessed. As such, we induced anxiety or anger in participants and examined the effects on executive function. We found that anger did not impair executive function relative to a neutral mood, whereas anxiety did. In addition, self-reports of induced anxiety, but not anger, predicted impairments in executive function. These results support functional models of affect and cognition, and highlight the need to consider differences between anxiety and anger when investigating the influence of negative affect on fundamental cognitive processes such as memory and executive function. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Trauma-related memories in PTSD after interpersonal violence: an ambulatory assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Priebe, Kathlen; Petri, Mirja; Hecht, Amélie; Santangelo, Philip; Bohus, Martin; Schulte-Herbrüggen, Olaf

    2017-01-01

    Background : Ambulatory assessment (AA) is increasingly recommended for assessing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Previous AA studies provided new insights into the phenomenology of trauma-related memories, but also divergent findings. Notably, the range of trauma-related memories (a major target of psychotherapeutic interventions) reported in AA studies was as wide as 7.3 to 74.5 per week which might result from different methods used in these studies. Objective : We aimed at assessing the frequency of trauma-related memories in PTSD related to interpersonal violence and investigated whether this frequency is dependent upon the method. Method : For each patient trauma-related memories were assessed using two variants of smartphone-based AA: (1) Event-based sampling (EBS), i.e. participants entered data on each intrusive memory as it occurred; (2) Time-based sampling (TBS), i.e. participants reported the number of trauma-related memories they had experienced during the last two hours after they had been alerted by the smartphone. The numbers reported during the TBS-block were either analysed as reported by the participants or restricted to one per hour (rTBS). The impact of smartphone-assessments on trauma-related memories was assessed during a post-monitoring questionnaire. Results : While trauma-related memories were frequent across assessments, the methodology had a huge impact on the numbers: EBS (median = 7) and rTBS (median = 6) yielded significantly lower weekly numbers of intrusive trauma-related memories than TBS (median = 49). Accordingly, the possibility to report unrestricted numbers of trauma-related memories clearly impacted the results. The post-monitoring questionnaire identified another source for the divergent findings: while feeling disrupted by the smartphone-assessments was unrelated to the numbers reported during EBS, feeling disrupted was related to an increase of trauma-related memories during TBS and r

  18. Mismatch Negativity as an Indicator of Cognitive Sub-Domain Dysfunction in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parameswaran Mahadeva Iyer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo evaluate the utility of mismatch negativity (MMN, a neurophysiologic marker of non-motor cognitive processing, in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS.Methods89 patients, stratified into 4 different phenotypic presentations of ALS (67 spinal-onset, 15 bulbar-onset, 7 ALS-FTD, 7 C9ORF72 gene careers, and 19 matched controls underwent 128-channel EEG data recording. Subjects were presented with standard auditory tones interleaved with pitch-deviant tones in three recording blocks. The MMN response was quantified by peak amplitude, peak delay, average amplitude, and average delay, 100–300 ms after stimuli. 64 patients underwent cognitive screening using the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS, and 38 participants underwent contemporaneous cognitive assessment using the Stroop Color–Word Interference test (CWIT, which measures attention shift, inhibitory control, and error monitoring.ResultsThe MMN response was observed in frontal and frontocentral regions of patient and control groups. Compared to controls, waveforms were attenuated in early onset, and the average delay was significantly increased in all of the ALS subgroups, with no significant difference between subgroups. Comparing with the control response, the ALS MMN response clustered into four new subgroups characterized by differences in response latency. The increased average delay correlated with changes in the Stroop CWIT; however, it did not show a direct relationship with age, gender, traditional phenotypes, revised ALS Functional Rating Scale, or ECAS scores.Conclusion and significanceThe MMN response in ALS patients reflects the cognitive dysfunction in specific sub-domains, as the new patient subgroups, identified by cluster analysis, do not segregate with existing clinical or cognitive classifications. Event-related potentials can provide additional quantitative neurophysiologic measures of impairment in specific cognitive sub-domains from which it

  19. Prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in severe mental illness

    OpenAIRE

    Mauritz, Maria W.; Goossens, Peter J.J.; Draijer, Nel; Achterberg, Theo van

    2013-01-01

    Background: Interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with severe mental illness (SMI) are often not recognized in clinical practice.Objective: To substantiate the prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with SMI.Methods: We conducted a systematic review of four databases (1980-2010) and then described and analysed 33 studies in terms of primary diagnosis and instruments used to measure trauma exposure and traumarelated dis...

  20. Trauma-related self-defining memories and future goals in Dissociative Identity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntjens, Rafaële J C; Wessel, Ineke; Ostafin, Brian D; Boelen, Paul A; Behrens, Friederike; van Minnen, Agnes

    2016-12-01

    This study examined the content of self-defining autobiographical memories in different identities in patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) and comparison groups of patients with PTSD, healthy controls, and DID simulators. Consistent with the DID trauma model, analyses of objective ratings showed that DID patients in trauma identities retrieved more negative and trauma-related self-defining memories than DID patients in avoidant identities. Inconsistent with the DID trauma model, DID patients' self-rated trauma-relatedness of self-defining memories and future life goals did not differ between trauma identities and trauma avoidant identities. That is, the DID patients did not seem to be "shut off" from their trauma while in their avoidant identity. Furthermore, DID patients in both identities reported a higher proportion of avoidance goals compared to PTSD patients, with the latter group scoring comparably to healthy controls. The simulators behaved according to the instructions to respond differently in each identity (i.e., to report memories and goals consistent with the identity tested). The discrepant task behavior by DID patients and simulators indicated that DID patients did not seem to intentionally produce the hypothesized differences in performance between identities. In conclusion, for patients with DID (i.e., in both identities) and patients with PTSD, trauma played a central role in the retrieval of self-defining memories and in the formulation of life goals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Examining the interplay among negative emotionality, cognitive functioning, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Dione M; Marks, David J; Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2011-05-01

    Cognition and emotion, traditionally thought of as largely distinct, have recently begun to be conceptualized as dynamically linked processes that interact to influence functioning. This study investigated the moderating effects of cognitive functioning on the relationship between negative emotionality and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom severity. A total of 216 (140 hyperactive/inattentive; 76 typically developing) preschoolers aged 3-4 years were administered a neuropsychological test battery (i.e., NEPSY). To avoid method bias, child negative emotionality was rated by teachers (Temperament Assessment Battery for Children-Revised), and parents rated symptom severity on the ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS-IV). Hierarchical Linear Regression analyses revealed that both negative emotionality and Perceptual-Motor & Executive Functions accounted for significant unique variance in ADHD symptom severity. Significant interactions indicated that when negative emotionality is low, but not high, neuropsychological functioning accounts for significant variability in ADHD symptoms, with lower functioning predicting more symptoms. Emotional and neuropsychological functioning, both individually and in combination, play a significant role in the expression of ADHD symptom severity.

  2. Adolescents' aggressive and prosocial behaviors: links with social information processing, negative emotionality, moral affect, and moral cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Deborah J; Murphy, Tia Panfile; Augustine, Mairin

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine whether moral affect, moral cognition, negative emotionality, and attribution biases independently predicted adolescents' prosocial and aggressive behavior in adolescence. A total of 148 adolescents completed self-report measures of prosocial and aggressive behavior, moral affect, moral cognition, negative emotionality, and attribution biases. Although in general all 3 factors (emotional, moral, and social cognitive) were correlated with adolescent social behavior, the most consistent independent predictors of adolescent social behavior were moral affect and cognition. These findings have important implications for intervention and suggest that programs that promote adolescent perspective taking, moral reasoning, and moral affect are needed to reduce aggressive behavior and promote prosocial behavior.

  3. Habitual Cognitive Reappraisal Was Negatively Related to Perceived Immorality in the Harm and Fairness Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongquan Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Emotion plays an important role in moral judgment, and people always use emotion regulation strategies to modulate emotion, consciously or unconsciously. Previous studies had investigated only the relationship between emotion regulation strategies and moral judgment in the Harm domain, and revealed divergent results. Based on Moral Foundations Theory, the present study extended the investigation into moral judgment in all five moral domains and used a set of standardized moral vignettes. Two hundred and six college students filled in the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire and completed emotional ratings and moral judgment on moral vignettes from Moral Foundations Vignettes. Correlation analysis indicated that habitual cognitive reappraisal was negatively related to immorality rating in Harm, Fairness, and Loyalty domains. Regression analysis revealed that after controlling the effect of other variables, cognitive reappraisal negatively predicted immorality ratings in the Harm and Fairness domains. Further mediation analysis showed that emotional valence only partially explained the association between cognitive reappraisal and moral judgment in Harm area. Some other factors beyond emotional valence were suggested for future studies.

  4. The Ups and Downs of Cognitive Function: Neuroticism and Negative Affect Drive Performance Inconsistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Elizabeth; Stawski, Robert S; Sliwinski, Martin J; Smyth, Joshua M; MacDonald, Stuart W S

    2018-03-26

    Response time inconsistency (RTI)-or trial-to-trial variability in speeded performance-is increasingly recognized as an indicator of transient lapses of attention, cognitive health status, and central nervous system integrity, as well as a potential early indicator of normal and pathological cognitive aging (Hultsch, Strauss, Hunter, & MacDonald, 2008; MacDonald, Li, & Bäckman, 2009). Comparatively, little research has examined personality predictors of RTI across adulthood. We evaluated the association between the personality trait neuroticism and RTI in a community-dwelling sample of 317 adults between the ages of 19 to 83 and tested for two indirect pathways through negative affect (NA) and cognitive interference (CI). The personality trait neuroticism predicted greater RTI independent of mean response time performance and demographic covariates; the results were age-invariant. Furthermore, NA (but not CI) accounted for this association and moderated mediation model results indicated that older adults were more vulnerable to the adverse effects of NA. Neuroticism predicts greater response time inconsistency irrespective of mean performance and this effect is driven largely by heightened negative emotionality that may be particularly detrimental for older adults.

  5. Impact of negative cognitions about body image on inflammatory status in relation to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Černelič-Bizjak, Maša; Jenko-Pražnikar, Zala

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests that body dissatisfaction may relate to biological processes and that negative cognitions can influence physical health through the complex pathways linking psychological and biological factors. The present study investigates the relationships between body image satisfaction, inflammation (cytokine levels), aerobic fitness level and obesity in 96 middle-aged men and women (48 normal and 48 overweight). All participants underwent measurements of body satisfaction, body composition, serological measurements of inflammation and aerobic capabilities assessment. Body image dissatisfaction uniquely predicted inflammation biomarkers, C-reactive protein and tumour necrosis factor-α, even when controlled for obesity indicators. Thus, body image dissatisfaction is strongly linked to inflammation processes and may promote the increase in cytokines, representing a relative metabolic risk, independent of most traditional risk factors, such as gender, body mass index and intra-abdominal (waist to hip ratio) adiposity. Results highlight the fact that person's negative cognitions need to be considered in psychologically based interventions and strategies in treatment of obesity, including strategies for health promotion. Results contribute to the knowledge base of the complex pathways in the association between psychological factors and physical illness and some important attempts were made to explain the psychological pathways linking cognitions with inflammation.

  6. Habitual Cognitive Reappraisal Was Negatively Related to Perceived Immorality in the Harm and Fairness Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongquan; Wu, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Lisong; Zhang, Ziyuan

    2017-01-01

    Emotion plays an important role in moral judgment, and people always use emotion regulation strategies to modulate emotion, consciously or unconsciously. Previous studies had investigated only the relationship between emotion regulation strategies and moral judgment in the Harm domain, and revealed divergent results. Based on Moral Foundations Theory, the present study extended the investigation into moral judgment in all five moral domains and used a set of standardized moral vignettes. Two hundred and six college students filled in the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire and completed emotional ratings and moral judgment on moral vignettes from Moral Foundations Vignettes. Correlation analysis indicated that habitual cognitive reappraisal was negatively related to immorality rating in Harm, Fairness, and Loyalty domains. Regression analysis revealed that after controlling the effect of other variables, cognitive reappraisal negatively predicted immorality ratings in the Harm and Fairness domains. Further mediation analysis showed that emotional valence only partially explained the association between cognitive reappraisal and moral judgment in Harm area. Some other factors beyond emotional valence were suggested for future studies.

  7. Adverse Life Events and Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Adolescence: The Role of Non-Verbal Cognitive Ability and Negative Cognitive Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Panourgia, Constantina

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether negative cognitive errors (overgeneralizing, catastrophizing, selective abstraction, and personalizing) mediate the moderator effect of non-verbal cognitive ability on the association between adverse life events (life stress) and emotional and behavioral problems in adolescence. The sample consisted of 430…

  8. Reduced mismatch negativity in mild cognitive impairment: associations with neuropsychological performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowszowski, Loren; Hermens, Daniel F; Diamond, Keri; Norrie, Louisa; Hickie, Ian B; Lewis, Simon J G; Naismith, Sharon L

    2012-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) refers to a transitory state between healthy aging and dementia. Biomarkers are needed to facilitate early identification of MCI and predict progression to dementia. One potential neurophysiological biomarker, mismatch negativity (MMN), is an event-related potential reflecting fundamental, pre-attentive cognitive processes. MMN is reduced in normal aging and dementia and in neuropsychiatric samples and is associated with verbal memory deficits and poor executive functioning. This study aimed to investigate auditory MMN and its relationship to neuropsychological performance in MCI. Twenty-eight MCI participants and fourteen controls, aged ≥50 years, underwent neurophysiological and neuropsychological assessment, and completed questionnaires pertaining to disability. Relative to controls, the MCI group demonstrated reduced temporal MMN amplitude (p patients with MCI exhibit altered pre-attentive information processing, which in turn is associated with memory and psychosocial deficits. These findings overall suggest that MMN may be a viable neurophysiological biomarker of underlying disease in this 'at risk' group.

  9. Modifying adolescent interpretation biases through cognitive training: effects on negative affect and stress appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telman, Machteld D; Holmes, Emily A; Lau, Jennifer Y F

    2013-10-01

    Adolescent anxiety is common, impairing and costly. Given the scale of adolescent anxiety and its impact, fresh innovations for therapy are in demand. Cognitive Bias Modification of Interpretations (CBM-I) studies of adults show that by training individuals to endorse benign interpretations of ambiguous situations can improve anxious mood-states particularly in response towards stress. While, these investigations have been partially extended to adolescents with success, inconsistent training effects on anxious mood-states have been found. The present study investigated whether positive versus negative CBM-I training influenced appraisals of stress, in forty-nine adolescents, aged 15-18. Data supported the plasticity of interpretational styles, with positively-trained adolescents selecting more benign resolutions of new ambiguous situations, than negatively-trained adolescents. Positively-trained adolescents also rated recent stressors as having less impact on their lives than negatively-trained adolescents. Thus, while negative styles may increase negative responses towards stress, positive styles may boost resilience.

  10. Cognitive reappraisal and secondary control coping: associations with working memory, positive and negative affect, and symptoms of anxiety/depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreotti, Charissa; Thigpen, Jennifer E; Dunn, Madeleine J; Watson, Kelly; Potts, Jennifer; Reising, Michelle M; Robinson, Kristen E; Rodriguez, Erin M; Roubinov, Danielle; Luecken, Linda; Compas, Bruce E

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the relations of measures of cognitive reappraisal and secondary control coping with working memory abilities, positive and negative affect, and symptoms of anxiety and depression in young adults (N=124). Results indicate significant relations between working memory abilities and reports of secondary control coping and between reports of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal. Associations were also found between measures of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal and positive and negative affect and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Further, the findings suggest that reports of cognitive reappraisal may be more strongly predictive of positive affect whereas secondary control coping may be more strongly predictive of negative affect and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Overall, the results suggest that current measures of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal capture related but distinct constructs and suggest that the assessment of working memory may be more strongly related to secondary control coping in predicting individual differences in distress.

  11. Depression and selection of positive and negative social feedback: motivated preference or cognitive balance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloy, L B; Lipman, A J

    1992-05-01

    In this commentary we examine Swann, Wenzlaff, Krull, and Pelham's (1992) findings with respect to each of 5 central propositions in self-verification theory. We conclude that although the data are consistent with self-verification theory, none of the 5 components of the theory have been demonstrated convincingly as yet. Specifically, we argue that depressed subjects' selection of social feedback appears to be balanced or evenhanded rather than biased toward negative feedback and that there is little evidence to indicate that depressives actively seek negative appraisals. Furthermore, we suggest that the studies are silent with respect to the motivational postulates of self-verification theory and that a variety of competing cognitive and motivational models can explain Swann et al.'s findings as well as self-verification theory.

  12. Do you remember your sad face? The roles of negative cognitive style and sad mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudek, Corrado; Monni, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effects of negative cognitive style, sad mood, and facial affect on the self-face advantage in a sample of 66 healthy individuals (mean age 26.5 years, range 19-47 years). The sample was subdivided into four groups according to inferential style and responsivity to sad mood induction. Following a sad mood induction, we examined the effect on working memory of an incidental association between facial affect, facial identity, and head-pose orientation. Overall, head-pose recognition was more accurate for the self-face than for nonself face (self-face advantage, SFA). However, participants high in negative cognitive style who experienced higher levels of sadness displayed a stronger SFA for sad expressions than happy expressions. The remaining participants displayed an opposite bias (a stronger SFA for happy expressions than sad expressions), or no bias. These findings highlight the importance of trait-vulnerability status in the working memory biases related to emotional facial expressions.

  13. The effect of arousal on regulation of negative emotions using cognitive reappraisal: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeslag, Sandra J E; Surti, Kruti

    2017-08-01

    Because the effectiveness of the emotion regulation strategy cognitive reappraisal may vary with emotion intensity, we investigated how stimulus arousal affects reappraisal success. Participants up- and down-regulated emotional responses using cognitive reappraisal to low and high arousing unpleasant pictures while the electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. Up-regulation resulted in more negative self-reported valence, while down-regulation resulted in less negative self-reported valence regardless of stimulus arousal, suggesting that subjective reappraisal success does not vary with emotional intensity. Participants felt that down-regulation of emotional responses to low arousing unpleasant pictures was easiest, which is in line with previous findings that participants showed a greater preference for reappraisal in low than high arousing situations. The late positive potential (LPP) amplitude was enhanced by down-regulation of high arousing unpleasant pictures. Even though this effect was unexpected and is opposite to the typical effect of down-regulation on the LPP, it is in line with several previous studies. Potential explanations for LPP regulation effects in the unexpected direction, such as strategy selection and task design, are evaluated. Suggestions and recommendations for future research are discussed, including using trial-by-trial manipulation of regulation instructions and studying the effect of stimulus arousal on up- and down-regulation of positive emotions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Positive and negative affect, depression, and cognitive processes in the Cognition in the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (Co-STAR) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danhauer, Suzanne C; Legault, Claudine; Bandos, Hanna; Kidwell, Kelley; Costantino, Joseph; Vaughan, Leslie; Avis, Nancy E; Rapp, Steve; Coker, Laura H; Naughton, Michelle; Naylor, Cecile; Terracciano, Antonio; Shumaker, Sally

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between positive and negative affect, depressive symptoms, and cognitive performance. The sample consisted of 1479 non-demented, postmenopausal women (mean age = 67 years) at increased risk of breast cancer enrolled in the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project's Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene. At each annual visit, women completed a standardized neuropsychological battery and self-report measures of affect and depression. Data from three visits were used in linear mixed models for repeated measures using likelihood ratio tests. Separate analyses were performed to relate positive/negative affect and depression to each cognitive measure. Higher positive affect was associated with better letter fluency (p = .006) and category fluency (p negative affect was associated with worse global cognitive function (p negatively associated with verbal knowledge (p = .004), figural memory (p positive affect and increased verbal fluency and between depressive symptoms and decreased memory. The most novel finding shows that negative affect is related to decreased global cognition and visuospatial ability. Overall, this research in a large, longitudinal sample supports the notion that positive affect is related to increases and negative affect to decreases in performance on distinct cognitive measures.

  15. Vulnerability-specific stress generation: An examination of negative cognitive and interpersonal styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Richard T.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Mastin, Becky M.; Choi, Jimmy Y.; Boland, Elaine M.; Jenkins, Abby L.

    2014-01-01

    Although there is substantial evidence documenting the stress generation effect in depression (i.e., the tendency for depression-prone individuals to experience higher rates of life stress to which they contribute), additional research is required to advance current understanding of the specific types of dependent stress (i.e., events influenced by characteristics and attendant behaviors of the individual) relevant to this effect. The present study tested an extension of the stress generation hypothesis, in which the content of dependent stress that is produced by depression-prone individuals is contingent upon, and matches, the nature of their particular vulnerabilities. This extension was tested within the context of two cognitive models (i.e., hopelessness theory [Abramson, Metalsky, & Alloy, 1989] and Cole’s [1990, 1991] competency-based model) and two interpersonal models (i.e., Swann’s [1987] self-verification theory and Coyne’s [1976] interpersonal theory) of depression. Overall, support was obtained for vulnerability-specific stress generation. Specifically, in analyses across vulnerability domains, evidence of stress-generation specificity was found for all domain-specific cognitive vulnerabilities except self-perceived social competence. The within-domain analyses for cognitive vulnerabilities produced more mixed results, but were largely supportive. Additionally, excessive reassurance-seeking was specifically predictive of dependent stress in the social domain, and moderated, but did not mediate, the relation between negative inferential styles overall and in the interpersonal domain and their corresponding generated stress. Finally, no evidence was found for a stress generation effect with negative feedback-seeking. PMID:24679143

  16. Pain perception in schizophrenia: influence of neuropeptides, cognitive disorders, and negative symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban-Kowalczyk M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Małgorzata Urban-Kowalczyk,1 Justyna Pigońska,2 Janusz Śmigielski3 1Department of Affective and Psychotic Disorders, Medical University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland; 2Department of Neurology and Movement Disorders, Medical University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland; 3Department of Geriatrics, Healthy Ageing Research Centre (HARC, Medical University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland Objectives: The causes and nature of insensitivity to pain in schizophrenia remain unknown. The role of endorphins and the association of cognitive dysfunction and negative symptoms are postulated.Methods: In this study, 43 patients with schizophrenia, five first-degree relatives, and 34 healthy controls were examined. Participants’ plasma concentrations of substance P, β-endorphin, and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP were assessed. In patients, the Trail-Making Test, the Color Reading Interference Test (Stroop test, and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale Negative Syndrome subscale (PANSS N test were performed. We also evaluated pain threshold using nociceptive reflex (RTIII testing.Results: The mean β-endorphin concentration was about 20% higher in patients than in healthy controls (P<0.05. CGRP concentrations were significantly higher in patients than in controls (5.34 ng/mL versus 4.16 ng/mL; P<0.01. Subjects treated with antipsychotic polytherapy had higher concentrations of CGRP than did patients treated with second-generation antipsychotic monotherapy (5.92 ng/mL versus 5.02 ng/mL; P<0.05. There were no correlations between any biochemical parameters and Trail-Making Test, Stroop test, and PANSS N scores. There were no differences in RTIII among study groups. Strong negative correlation (P<0.001 was found between PANSS N scores and subjective pain threshold on the right lower limb.Conclusion: The insensitivity to pain in schizophrenia is a complex phenomenon that is probably not related to changes in nociceptive pathways. Increase in β-endorphin level

  17. Cholinergic Oculomotor Nucleus Activity Is Induced by REM Sleep Deprivation Negatively Impacting on Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Patrícia Dos; Targa, Adriano D S; Noseda, Ana Carolina D; Rodrigues, Lais S; Fagotti, Juliane; Lima, Marcelo M S

    2017-09-01

    Several efforts have been made to understand the involvement of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep for cognitive processes. Consolidation or retention of recognition memories is severely disrupted by REM sleep deprivation (REMSD). In this regard, pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT) and other brainstem nuclei, such as pontine nucleus (Pn) and oculomotor nucleus (OCM), appear to be candidates to take part in this REM sleep circuitry with potential involvement in cognition. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate a possible association between the performance of Wistar rats in a declarative memory and PPT, Pn, and OCM activities after different periods of REMSD. We examined c-Fos and choline acetyltransferase (ChaT) expressions as indicators of neuronal activity as well as a familiarity-based memory test. The animals were distributed in groups: control, REMSD, and sleep rebound (REB). At the end of the different REMSD (24, 48, 72, and 96 h) and REB (24 h) time points, the rats were immediately tested in the object recognition test and then the brains were collected. Results indicated that OCM neurons presented an increased activity, due to ChaT-labeling associated with REMSD that negatively correlated (r = -0.32) with the cognitive performance. This suggests the existence of a cholinergic compensatory mechanism within the OCM during REMSD. We also showed that 24 h of REMSD impacted similarly in memory, compared to longer periods of REMSD. These data extend the notion that REM sleep is influenced by areas other than PPT, i.e., Pn and OCM, which could be key players in both sleep processes and cognition.

  18. Fear, Negative Cognition, and Depression Mediate the Relationship Between Traumatic Exposure and Sleep Problems Among Flood Victims in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Rui; Quan, Lijuan; Zhou, Xiao

    2017-10-09

    To examine the prerequisites of sleep problems among a traumatized population, and assess the underlying mechanisms of sleep problems following trauma. The current study investigated 187 flood victims from 5 makeshift shelters in the Wuhu city of Anhui province after a major flood disaster that occurred in July 2016. A traumatic exposure questionnaire, a fear questionnaire, a posttraumatic cognition inventory, a depression inventory, and a sleep problems questionnaire were used. Traumatic exposure had a direct and positive association with sleep problems and could also be indirectly associated with sleep problems through fear, depression, but not negative cognitions. The positive association could be the result of a path from negative cognitions to depression, but not from fear to negative cognition, or from fear to depression. Furthermore, a threefold multipath from fear to depression via negative cognitions could also link traumatic exposure to sleep problems. Flood victims' sleep problems are elicited by the combined role of fear, negative cognitions, and depression following trauma. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. The indirect effect of emotion dysregulation in terms of negative affect and smoking-related cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Adrienne L; McLeish, Alison C

    2016-02-01

    Although negative affect is associated with a number of smoking-related cognitive processes, the mechanisms underlying these associations have yet to be examined. The current study sought to examine the indirect effect of emotion regulation difficulties in terms of the association between negative affect and smoking-related cognitive processes (internal barriers to cessation, negative affect reduction smoking motives, negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies). Participants were 126 daily cigarette smokers (70.4% male, Mage=36.5years, SD=13.0; 69.8% Caucasian) who smoked an average of 18.5 (SD=8.7) cigarettes per day and reported moderate nicotine dependence. Formal mediation analyses were conducted using PROCESS to examine the indirect effect of negative affect on internal barriers to cessation and negative affect reduction smoking motives and outcome expectancies through emotion regulation difficulties. After accounting for the effects of gender, daily smoking rate, and anxiety sensitivity, negative affect was indirectly related to internal barriers to cessation and negative affect reduction smoking motives through emotion regulation difficulties. There was no significant indirect effect for negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies. These findings suggest that greater negative affect is associated with a desire to smoke to reduce this negative affect and perceptions that quitting smoking will be difficult due to negative emotions because of greater difficulties managing these negative emotions. Thus, emotion regulation difficulties may be an important target for smoking cessation interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Trauma and Depression among North Korean Refugees: The Mediating Effect of Negative Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subin Park

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available North Korean refugees experience adaptation difficulties, along with a wide range of psychological problems. Accordingly, this study examined the associations between early traumatic experiences, negative automatic thoughts, and depression among young North Korean refugees living in South Korea. Specifically, we examined how different factors of negative automatic thoughts would mediate the relationship between early trauma and depressive symptoms. A total of 109 North Korean refugees aged 13–29 years were recruited from two alternative schools. Our path analysis indicated that early trauma was positively linked with thoughts of personal failure, physical threat, and hostility, but not with thoughts of social threat. The link with depressive symptoms was only significant for thoughts of personal failure. After removing all non-significant pathways, the model revealed that early traumatic experiences were positively associated with depressive symptoms (ß = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.48–0.73 via thoughts of personal failure (ß = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.08–0.28, as well as directly (ß = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.27–0.59. Interventions that target negative cognitions of personal failure may be helpful for North Korean refugees at risk of depression.

  1. Negative attention bias and processing deficits during the cognitive reappraisal of unpleasant emotions in HIV+ women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Roger C; Tartar, Jaime L; Widmayer, Susan; Rosselli, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in emotional processing may be attributed to HIV disease or comorbid psychiatric disorders. Electrocortical markers of emotional attention, i.e., amplitude of the P2 and late positive potential (LPP), were compared between 26 HIV+ women and 25 healthy controls during an emotional regulation paradigm. HIV+ women showed early attention bias to negative stimuli indexed by greater P2 amplitude. In contrast, compared with the passive viewing of unpleasant images, HIV+ women demonstrated attenuation of the early and late LPP during positive reappraisal. This interaction remained significant after adjusting for individual differences in apathy, anxiety, and depression. Post hoc analyses implicated time since HIV diagnosis with LPP attenuation during positive reappraisal. Advancing HIV disease may disrupt neural generators associated with the cognitive reappraisal of emotions independent of psychiatric function.

  2. Mismatch Negativity Encoding of Prediction Errors Predicts S-ketamine-Induced Cognitive Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, André; Bachmann, Rosilla; Kometer, Michael; Csomor, Philipp A; Stephan, Klaas E; Seifritz, Erich; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2012-01-01

    Psychotomimetics like the N-methyl--aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine and the 5-hydroxytryptamine2A receptor (5-HT2AR) agonist psilocybin induce psychotic symptoms in healthy volunteers that resemble those of schizophrenia. Recent theories of psychosis posit that aberrant encoding of prediction errors (PE) may underlie the expression of psychotic symptoms. This study used a roving mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm to investigate whether the encoding of PE is affected by pharmacological manipulation of NMDAR or 5-HT2AR, and whether the encoding of PE under placebo can be used to predict drug-induced symptoms. Using a double-blind within-subject placebo-controlled design, S-ketamine and psilocybin, respectively, were administrated to two groups of healthy subjects. Psychological alterations were assessed using a revised version of the Altered States of Consciousness (ASC-R) questionnaire. As an index of PE, we computed changes in MMN amplitudes as a function of the number of preceding standards (MMN memory trace effect) during a roving paradigm. S-ketamine, but not psilocybin, disrupted PE processing as expressed by a frontally disrupted MMN memory trace effect. Although both drugs produced positive-like symptoms, the extent of PE processing under placebo only correlated significantly with the severity of cognitive impairments induced by S-ketamine. Our results suggest that the NMDAR, but not the 5-HT2AR system, is implicated in PE processing during the MMN paradigm, and that aberrant PE signaling may contribute to the formation of cognitive impairments. The assessment of the MMN memory trace in schizophrenia may allow detecting early phases of the illness and might also serve to assess the efficacy of novel pharmacological treatments, in particular of cognitive impairments. PMID:22030715

  3. Oscillatory underpinnings of mismatch negativity and their relationship with cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Kaser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Impairments in mismatch negativity (MMN generation have been consistently reported in patients with schizophrenia. However, underlying oscillatory activity of MMN deficits in schizophrenia and the relationship with cognitive impairments have not been investigated in detail. Time-frequency power and phase analyses can provide more detailed measures of brain dynamics of MMN deficits in schizophrenia. METHOD: 21 patients with schizophrenia and 21 healthy controls were tested with a roving frequency paradigm to generate MMN. Time-frequency domain power and phase-locking (PL analysis was performed on all trials using short-time Fourier transforms with Hanning window tapering. A comprehensive battery (CANTAB was used to assess neurocognitive functioning. RESULTS: Mean MMN amplitude was significantly lower in patients with schizophrenia (95% CI 0.18 - 0.77. Patients showed significantly lower EEG power (95% CI -1.02 - -0.014 in the ~4-7 Hz frequency range (theta band between 170 and 210 ms. Patients with schizophrenia showed cognitive impairment in multiple domains of CANTAB. However, MMN impairments in amplitude and power were not correlated with clinical measures, medication dose, social functioning or neurocognitive performance. CONCLUSION: The findings from this study suggested that while MMN may be a useful marker to probe NMDA receptor mediated mechanisms and associated impairments in gain control and perceptual changes, it may not be a useful marker in association with clinical or cognitive changes. Trial-by-trial EEG power analysis can be used as a measure of brain dynamics underlying MMN deficits which also can have implications for the use of MMN as a biomarker for drug discovery.

  4. Girls in residential care: From child maltreatment to trauma-related symptoms in emerging adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, E.; Lanctôt, N.; Paquette, G.; Collin-Vezina, D.; Lemieux, A.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the association between child maltreatment and trauma-related symptoms in emerging adulthood - over and above the incidence of such symptoms and conduct problems during adolescence - among a sample of female adolescents in residential care. This study used data from a

  5. Prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in severe mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria W. Mauritz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with severe mental illness (SMI are often not recognized in clinical practice. Objective: To substantiate the prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with SMI. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of four databases (1980–2010 and then described and analysed 33 studies in terms of primary diagnosis and instruments used to measure trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders. Results: Population-weighted mean prevalence rates in SMI were physical abuse 47% (range 25–72%, sexual abuse 37% (range 24–49%, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD 30% (range 20–47%. Compared to men, women showed a higher prevalence of sexual abuse in schizophrenia spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, and mixed diagnosis groups labelled as having SMI. Conclusions: Prevalence rates of interpersonal trauma and trauma-related disorders were significantly higher in SMI than in the general population. Emotional abuse and neglect, physical neglect, complex PTSD, and dissociative disorders have been scarcely examined in SMI.

  6. Prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritz, Maria W; Goossens, Peter J J; Draijer, Nel; van Achterberg, Theo

    2013-01-01

    Interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with severe mental illness (SMI) are often not recognized in clinical practice. To substantiate the prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with SMI. We conducted a systematic review of four databases (1980-2010) and then described and analysed 33 studies in terms of primary diagnosis and instruments used to measure trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders. Population-weighted mean prevalence rates in SMI were physical abuse 47% (range 25-72%), sexual abuse 37% (range 24-49%), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 30% (range 20-47%). Compared to men, women showed a higher prevalence of sexual abuse in schizophrenia spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, and mixed diagnosis groups labelled as having SMI. Prevalence rates of interpersonal trauma and trauma-related disorders were significantly higher in SMI than in the general population. Emotional abuse and neglect, physical neglect, complex PTSD, and dissociative disorders have been scarcely examined in SMI.

  7. Poor sleep quality is associated with a negative cognitive bias and decreased sustained attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Christina M; Banks, Jonathan B; Fins, Ana I; Tartar, Jaime L

    2015-10-01

    Poor sleep quality has been demonstrated to diminish cognitive performance, impair psychosocial functioning and alter the perception of stress. At present, however, there is little understanding of how sleep quality affects emotion processing. The aim of the present study was to determine the extent to which sleep quality, measured through the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, influences affective symptoms as well as the interaction between stress and performance on an emotional memory test and sustained attention task. To that end, 154 undergraduate students (mean age: 21.27 years, standard deviation = 4.03) completed a series of measures, including the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, the Sustained Attention to Response Task, an emotion picture recognition task and affective symptom questionnaires following either a control or physical stress manipulation, the cold pressor test. As sleep quality and psychosocial functioning differ among chronotypes, we also included chronotype and time of day as variables of interest to ensure that the effects of sleep quality on the emotional and non-emotional tasks were not attributed to these related factors. We found that poor sleep quality is related to greater depressive symptoms, anxiety and mood disturbances. While an overall relationship between global Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index score and emotion and attention measures was not supported, poor sleep quality, as an independent component, was associated with better memory for negative stimuli and a deficit in sustained attention to non-emotional stimuli. Importantly, these effects were not sensitive to stress, chronotype or time of day. Combined, these results suggest that individuals with poor sleep quality show an increase in affective symptomatology as well as a negative cognitive bias with a concomitant decrease in sustained attention to non-emotional stimuli. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  8. Gender differences in the pathway from adverse life events to adolescent emotional and behavioural problems via negative cognitive errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Panourgia, Constantina

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to test for gender differences in how negative cognitive errors (overgeneralizing, catastrophizing, selective abstraction, and personalizing) mediate the association between adverse life events and adolescents' emotional and behavioural problems (measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). The sample consisted of 202 boys and 227 girls (aged 11-15 years) from three state secondary schools in disadvantaged areas in one county in the South East of England. Control variables were age, ethnicity, special educational needs, exclusion history, family structure, family socio-economic disadvantage, and verbal cognitive ability. Adverse life events were measured with Tiet et al.'s (1998) Adverse Life Events Scale. For both genders, we assumed a pathway from adverse life events to emotional and behavioural problems via cognitive errors. We found no gender differences in life adversity, cognitive errors, total difficulties, peer problems, or hyperactivity. In both boys and girls, even after adjustment for controls, cognitive errors were related to total difficulties and emotional symptoms, and life adversity was related to total difficulties and conduct problems. The life adversity/conduct problems association was not explained by negative cognitive errors in either gender. However, we found gender differences in how adversity and cognitive errors produced hyperactivity and internalizing problems. In particular, life adversity was not related, after adjustment for controls, to hyperactivity in girls and to peer problems and emotional symptoms in boys. Cognitive errors fully mediated the effect of life adversity on hyperactivity in boys and on peer and emotional problems in girls.

  9. Repetitive negative thinking predicts depression and anxiety symptom improvement during brief cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertz, Sarah J; Koran, Jennifer; Stevens, Kimberly T; Björgvinsson, Thröstur

    2015-05-01

    Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) is a common symptom across depression and anxiety disorders and preliminary evidence suggests that decreases in rumination and worry are related to improvement in depression and anxiety symptoms. However, despite its prevalence, relatively little is known about transdiagnostic RNT and its temporal associations with symptom improvement during treatment. The current study was designed to examine the influence of RNT on subsequent depression and anxiety symptoms during treatment. Participants (n = 131; 52% female; 93% White; M = 34.76 years) were patients presenting for treatment in a brief, cognitive behavior therapy based, partial hospitalization program. Participants completed multiple assessments of depression (Center for the Epidemiological Studies of Depression-10 scale), anxiety (the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale), and repetitive negative thinking (Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire) over the course of treatment. Results indicated statistically significant between and within person effects of RNT on depression and anxiety, even after controlling for the effect of time, previous symptom levels, referral source, and treatment length. RNT explained 22% of the unexplained variability in depression scores and 15% of the unexplained variability in anxiety scores beyond that explained by the control variables. RNT may be an important transdiagnostic treatment target for anxiety and depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The relationship between parenting attitudes, negative cognition, and the depressive symptoms according to gender in Korean adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Subin; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Park, Min-Hyeon

    2016-01-01

    Background Parenting style is one potential contributor to the development of adolescents? cognitions, self-esteem and emotional problems. This study examined the relationship between maternal parenting attitudes and adolescents? negative cognitions, and depressive symptoms according to gender. Methods A total of 401 middle and high school students were recruited (i.e. 221 males and 180 females; mean age, 13.92???1.31?years). The Maternal Behavior Research Instrument assessed maternal parenti...

  11. Cognitive Impairments in Fibromyalgia Syndrome: Associations With Positive and Negative Affect, Alexithymia, Pain Catastrophizing and Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez-Sánchez, Carmen M; Reyes Del Paso, Gustavo A; Duschek, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic condition characterized by widespread pain accompanied by symptoms like depression, anxiety, sleep disturbance and fatigue. In addition, affected patients frequently report cognitive disruption such as forgetfulness, concentration difficulties or mental slowness. Though cognitive deficits in FMS have been confirmed in various studies, not much is known about the mechanisms involved in their origin. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of affect-related variables to cognitive impairments in FMS. For this purpose, 67 female FMS patients and 32 healthy control subjects completed a battery of cognitive tests measuring processing speed, attention, visuospatial and verbal memory, cognitive flexibility and planning abilities. In addition, participants completed self-report questionnaires pertaining to positive and negative affect, alexithymia, pain catastrophizing and self-esteem. Clinical characteristics including pain severity, symptoms of depression and anxiety, insomnia and fatigue were also assessed. FMS patients showed markedly poorer performance than healthy controls in all of the cognitive domains assessed, in addition to greater levels of depression, anxiety, negative affect, alexithymia and pain catastrophizing, and lower self-esteem and positive affect. In exploratory correlation analysis in the FMS sample, lower cognitive performance was associated with higher pain severity, depression, anxiety, negative affect, alexithymia and pain catastrophizing, as well as lower self-esteem and positive affect. However, in regression analyses, pain, self-esteem, alexithymia, and pain catastrophizing explained the largest portion of the variance in performance. While interference effects of clinical pain in cognition have been previously described, the present findings suggest that affective factors also substantially contribute to the genesis of cognitive impairments. They support the notion that affective disturbances

  12. Positive and Negative Thinking in Tinnitus: Factor Structure of the Tinnitus Cognitions Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handscomb, Lucy E; Hall, Deborah A; Shorter, Gillian W; Hoare, Derek J

    Researchers and clinicians consider thinking to be important in the development and maintenance of tinnitus distress, and altering thoughts or thinking style is an object of many forms of psychological therapy for tinnitus. Those working with people with tinnitus require a reliable, psychometrically robust means of measuring both positive and negative thinking related to it. The Tinnitus Cognitions Questionnaire (TCQ) was designed as such a measure and its authors showed it to be reliable, with good psychometric properties. However, no research teams have yet carried out independent validation. This study aimed to use the TCQ to investigate thinking amongst members of the general population with both bothersome and nonbothersome tinnitus and also to verify its factor structure. Three hundred forty-two members of the public with tinnitus completed the TCQ online or on paper. They also rated their tinnitus on a scale as "not a problem," "a small problem," "a moderate problem," "a big problem," or a "very big problem." The authors tested the original factor structure of the TCQ using confirmatory factor analysis and then calculated the mean scores for each item, comparing mean total scores across "problem categories" for the full questionnaire and for the positive and negative subscales. The original two-factor structure of the TCQ was a good fit to the data when the correlation between positive and negative factors was fixed at zero (root mean square error of approximation = 0.064, 90% confidence interval = 0.058 to 0.070). Items pertaining to wishing the tinnitus would go away and despairing that it would ever get better had the highest mean scores. The mean total score for the "no problem" group (M = 31.17, SD = 16.03) was not significantly different from the mean total score for the "small problem" group (M = 34.00, SD = 12.44, p = 0.99). Differences between mean scores for all other groups were statistically significant. For the negative subscale, differences

  13. The relationship between cognitive ability, emotional intelligence and negative career thoughts: A study of career-exploring adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Dahl

    2012-11-01

    Research purpose: This study investigated the relationship between cognitive ability, emotional intelligence and negative thoughts pertaining to career in a sample of unemployed, non-student adults. Motivation for study: There is a need for research which investigates the psychological factors that contribute to successful career exploration and decision-making. Cognitive ability is one such factor, whilst emotional intelligence is another whose validity is not yet well established. Research design, approach and method: A survey design and quantitative procedures were used in gathering and analysing data gathered from 193 non-student, middle-aged adults attending a community-based career exploration programme in British Columbia, Canada. Cognitive ability, emotional intelligence and negative career thoughts before and after a career exploration programme were measured. Main findings: Neither cognitive ability nor any aspect of emotional intelligence predicted negative career thinking change. Cognitive ability predicted overall negative career thoughts as well as decision-making confusion, but only after the programme. The ability to manage emotions, however, predicted negative career thoughts both before and after the career decision-making programme. Practical/managerial implications: The managing emotions component of emotional intelligence is significantly associated with negative career thoughts. These findings suggest that career counselling requires that the role of emotions and their influence on behaviours must be given more consideration. Industrial and organisational (IO psychologists would benefit from engaging in programmes that train them to assist clients in becoming more aware of, and increasing, their own emotional intelligence. Contribution/value-add: The study added insights to the field of career psychology regarding the ability of emotional intelligence to predict important outcomes regarding the dimensions of emotional intelligence (EI as

  14. Cognitive training to improve memory in individuals undergoing electroconvulsive therapy: Negative findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jimmy; Wang, Yuanjia; Feng, Tianshu; Prudic, Joan

    2017-09-01

    Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) remains the most effective treatment for severe depression, some patients report persistent memory problems following ECT that impact their quality of life and their willingness to consent to further ECT. While cognitive training has been shown to improve memory performance in various conditions, this approach has never been applied to help patients regain their memory after ECT. In a double-blind study, we tested the efficacy of a new cognitive training program called Memory Training for ECT (Mem-ECT), specifically designed to target anterograde and retrograde memory that can be compromised following ECT. Fifty-nine patients with treatment-resistant depression scheduled to undergo ultra-brief right unilateral ECT were randomly assigned to either: (a) Mem-ECT, (b) active control comprised of nonspecific mental stimulation, or (c) treatment as usual. Participants were evaluated within one week prior to the start of ECT and then again within 2 weeks following the last ECT session. All three groups improved in global function, quality of life, depression, and self-reported memory abilities without significant group differences. While there was a decline in verbal delayed recall and mental status, there was no decline in general retrograde memory or autobiographical memory in any of the groups, with no significant memory or clinical benefit for the Mem-ECT or active control conditions compared to treatment as usual. While we report negative findings, these results continue to promote the much needed discussion on developing effective strategies to minimize the adverse memory side effects of ECT, in hopes it will make ECT a better and more easily tolerated treatment for patients with severe depression who need this therapeutic option. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dealing with negative stereotypes in sports: the role of cognitive anxiety when multiple identities are activated in sensorimotor tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiny, Sarah E; Gleibs, Ilka H; Parks-Stamm, Elizabeth J; Martiny-Huenger, Torsten; Froehlich, Laura; Harter, Anna Lena; Roth, Jenny

    2015-08-01

    Based on research on stereotype threat and multiple identities, this work explores the beneficial effects of activating a positive social identity when a negative identity is salient on women's performance in sports. Further, in line with research on the effects of anxiety in sports, we investigate whether the activation of a positive social identity buffers performance from cognitive anxiety associated with a negative stereotype. Two experiments tested these predictions in field settings. Experiment 1 (N = 83) shows that the simultaneous activation of a positive (i.e., member of a soccer team) and a negative social identity (i.e., woman) led to better performance than the activation of only a negative social identity for female soccer players. Experiment 2 (N = 46) demonstrates that identity condition moderated the effect of cognitive anxiety on performance for female basketball players. Results are discussed concerning multiple identities' potential for dealing with stressful situations.

  16. Negative mental imagery in public speaking anxiety: Forming cognitive resistance by taxing visuospatial working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Sophie R; Deeprose, Catherine; Andrade, Jackie

    2016-03-01

    This study sought to reconcile two lines of research. Previous studies have identified a prevalent and causal role of negative imagery in social phobia and public speaking anxiety; others have demonstrated that lateral eye movements during visualisation of imagery reduce its vividness, most likely by loading the visuospatial sketchpad of working memory. It was hypothesised that using eye movements to reduce the intensity of negative imagery associated with public speaking may reduce anxiety resulting from imagining a public speaking scenario compared to an auditory control task. Forty undergraduate students scoring high in anxiety on the Personal Report of Confidence as a Speaker scale took part. A semi-structured interview established an image that represented the participant's public speaking anxiety, which was then visualised during an eye movement task or a matched auditory task. Reactions to imagining a hypothetical but realistic public speaking scenario were measured. As hypothesised, representative imagery was established and reduced in vividness more effectively by the eye movement task than the auditory task. The public speaking scenario was then visualised less vividly and generated less anxiety when imagined after performing the eye movement task than after the auditory task. Self-report measures and a hypothetical scenario rather than actual public speaking were used. Replication is required in larger as well as clinical samples. Visuospatial working memory tasks may preferentially reduce anxiety associated with personal images of feared events, and thus provide cognitive resistance which reduces emotional reactions to imagined, and potentially real-life future stressful experiences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Trauma-Informed Peer Counselling in the Care of Refugees with Trauma-Related Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöller, Wolfgang

    2016-09-01

    Providing adequate culture-sensitive care for a large number of refugees with trauma-related disorders constitutes a major challenge. In this context, peer support and trauma-informed peer counselling can be regarded as a valuable means to complement the psychosocial care systems. In recent years, peer support and peer education have been successfully implemented e. g. in health care education, in psychiatric care, and in the treatment of traumatized individuals. Only little research data is available for traumatized refugees. However, results are encouraging. A program is presented which integrates trauma-informed peer educators (TIP) with migration background in the care of traumatized refugees. Peers' responsibility includes emotional support and understanding the refugees' needs, sensitizing for trauma-related disorders, providing psychoeducation, and teaching trauma-specific stabilization techniques under supervision of professional psychotherapists. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. The Role of Thought Suppression, Meta-Cognitive Factors and Negative Emotions in Prediction of Substance Dependency Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Saed

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study investigated the role of thought suppression, meta- cognitive factors, and negative emotions in predicting of substance dependency disorder. Method: Subjects were 70 patients with substance dependence disorder and 70 normal individuals (total 140. Substance dependants were selected of outpatient treatment centers and the normal sample was selected of the general population too. Sampling methods in both samples were convenience sampling. All people were assessed by MCQ-30, White Bear Suppression Inventory, and Beck’s Anxiety and Depression Questionnaires. For data analysis, discriminant analysis were used. Results: Negative meta-cognitive beliefs about worry, depression, and thought suppression were the most significant predictors of substance dependence disorder. Conclusion: Through meta-cognitive beliefs, thought suppression and negative emotion (especially depression, substance dependency disorder can be predicted. Based on this model can be used to take a substance dependency disorder prevention approach and psychotherapy approach (based on cognitive and meta-cognitive therapies. In addition, the findings of this research can be applied in clinical and counseling environments to help substance dependant clients.

  19. Sex Differences in Trauma-Related Psychopathology: a Critical Review of Neuroimaging Literature (2014-2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helpman, Liat; Zhu, Xi; Suarez-Jimenez, Benjamin; Lazarov, Amit; Monk, Catherine; Neria, Yuval

    2017-11-08

    Sex differences in the epidemiology and clinical presentation of trauma-related psychopathology have long been documented. Multiple underlying mechanisms have been examined, both psychosocial and biological. Among the most promising biological mechanisms are neural substrates of trauma-related psychopathology that have been uncovered in recent years. Neuroimaging studies of sex-related heterogeneity published over the past 3 years (2014-2017) demonstrate an interaction between sex and type, timing, and load of trauma exposure. These studies suggest that, for males, early trauma exposure may involve a loss of gray matter in the limbic system, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala, and hippocampus, and an over-activity and increased connectivity of salience hubs, and particularly dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). For females, however, early trauma exposure may involve overactive and possibly an enlarged amygdala, as well as decreased connectivity of salience hubs such as the dACC. Underlying mechanisms may include interaction with several endocrine systems and result in differential neural response to naturally occurring and added endocrine ligands, as well as sex-specific genetic and epigenetic risk and resilience factors. This complex interaction between multiple biological systems may be associated with sex-specific behavioral patterns, in turn associated with trauma-related psychopathology. While substantial number of published studies present preliminary evidence for neural mechanisms of sex-specific posttraumatic responses, there is a paucity of research directly designed to examine sex as a biological factor in trauma-related psychopathology. Specific foci for future studies aiming to bridge current gaps in the literature are discussed.

  20. Mindfulness Training in Primary Schools Decreases Negative Affect and Increases Meta-Cognition in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, Charlotte E.; Dorjee, Dusana

    2016-01-01

    Studies investigating the feasibility and impact of mindfulness programs on emotional well-being when delivered by school teachers in pre-adolescence are scarce. This study reports the findings of a controlled feasibility pilot which assessed acceptability and emotional well-being outcomes of an 8-week mindfulness program (Paws b) for children aged 7–9 years. The program was delivered by school teachers within a regular school curriculum. Emotional well-being was measured using self-report questionnaires at baseline, post-training and 3 months follow-up, and informant reports were collected at baseline and follow-up. Seventy one participants aged 7–9 years were recruited from three primary schools in the UK (training group n = 33; control group n = 38). Acceptability of the program was high with 76% of children in the training group reporting ‘liking’ practicing mindfulness at school, with a strong link to wanting to continue practicing mindfulness at school (p mindfulness and emotion regulation scores from baseline to post-training (p = 0.038) and baseline to follow-up (p = 0.033). Findings from this study provide initial evidence that the Paws b program in children aged 7–9 years (a) can be feasibly delivered by primary school teachers as part of the regular curriculum, (b) is acceptable to the majority of children, and (c) may significantly decrease negative affect and improve meta-cognition. PMID:26793145

  1. Mismatch negativity (MMN amplitude as a biomarker of sensory memory deficit in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica eLindín

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that changes in some event-related potential (ERP parameters associated with controlled processing of stimuli could be used as biomarkers of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. However, data regarding the suitability of ERP components associated with automatic and involuntary processing of stimuli for this purpose are not conclusive. In the present study, we studied the Mismatch Negativity (MMN component, a correlate of the automatic detection of changes in the acoustic environment, in healthy adults and adults with aMCI (age range: 50-87 years. An auditory-visual attention-distraction task, in two evaluations separated by an interval of between 18 and 24 months, was used. In both evaluations, the MMN amplitude was significantly smaller in the aMCI adults than in the control adults. In the first evaluation, such differences were observed for the subgroup of adults between 50 and 64 years of age, but not for the subgroup of 65 years and over. In the aMCI adults, the MMN amplitude was significantly smaller in the second evaluation than in the first evaluation, but no significant changes were observed in the control adult group. The MMN amplitude was found to be a sensitive and specific biomarker of aMCI, in both the first and second evaluation.

  2. The relationship among self-efficacy, negative self-referent cognitions, and social anxiety in children: a multiple mediator model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudy, Brittany M; Davis, Thompson E; Matthews, Russell A

    2012-09-01

    Evidence suggests that general self-efficacy, an individual's beliefs about his global abilities, and social self-efficacy, an individual's beliefs in his ability to navigate social situations, are strongly connected to levels of social anxiety. Negative self-statements, also known as negative self-referent cognitions, have also been linked with levels of social anxiety. Although self-efficacy and negative self-statements have been shown to be important variables in the phenomenology and maintenance of social anxiety in children, they have yet to be examined in conjunction with one another. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between negative self-referent cognitions and self-efficacy and to examine both general self-efficacy and social self-efficacy as mediator variables in the relationship between negative self-statements and social anxiety. Results were based on a sample of 126 children ages 11 to 14 years. A significant association between negative self-statements and both general self-efficacy and social self-efficacy was established. Results also indicated that general self-efficacy fully mediated the relationship between negative self-statements and social anxiety; however, contrary to hypotheses, social self-efficacy did not mediate the relationship between negative self-statements and social anxiety. Implications and future recommendations are discussed. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Relationships among Career and Life Stress, Negative Career thoughts, and Career Decision State: A Cognitive Information Processing Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock-Yowell, Emily; Peterson, Gary W.; Reardon, Robert C.; Leierer, Stephen J.; Reed, Corey A.

    2011-01-01

    According to cognitive information processing theory, career thoughts mediate the relationship between career and life stress and the ensuing career decision state. Using a sample of 232 college students and structural equation modeling, this study found that an increase in career and life stress was associated with an increase in negative career…

  4. Is Perceived Control a Critical Factor in Understanding the Negative Relationship between Cognitive Test Anxiety and Examination Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, David W.; Aveyard, Ben

    2018-01-01

    A well established finding is that the cognitive component of test anxiety (worry) is negatively related to examination performance. The present study examined how 3 self-beliefs (academic buoyancy, perceived control, and test competence) moderated the strength of the relationship between worry and examination performance in a sample of 270 final…

  5. Longitudinal and Incremental Relation of Cybervictimization to Negative Self-Cognitions and Depressive Symptoms in Young Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David A; Zelkowitz, Rachel L; Nick, Elizabeth; Martin, Nina C; Roeder, Kathryn M; Sinclair-McBride, Keneisha; Spinelli, Tawny

    2016-10-01

    Adolescents are among the most frequent users of social media websites, raising concern about the dangers of cyber bullying or cybervictimization (CV). A 12-month longitudinal study examined the unique, prospective relation of CV to the development of negative self-cognitions and depressive symptoms in a community sample of 827 children and young adolescents (ages 8-13; 55.1 % female) from the southeastern United States. Over and above conventional types of peer victimization, CV significantly predicted changes in self-referential negative cognitions, victimization-related cognitive reactions, and depressive symptoms, even after controlling for baseline levels of the dependent variables. Results also showed that CV was significantly less stable than other forms of victimization and tended to increase slightly with time. The study highlights the unique effects of CV and has implications for research and practice.

  6. The impact of motivation on cognitive performance in an animal model of the negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Ryan D; Winiger, Vanessa; Higa, Kerin K; Kahn, Julia B; Kandel, Eric R; Balsam, Peter D; Simpson, Eleanor H

    2015-06-01

    Interactions between motivation and cognition are implicated in producing functional impairments and poor quality of life in psychiatric patients. This interaction, however, is not well understood at either the behavioral or neural level. We developed a procedure for mice in which a cognitive measure, sustained attention, is modulated by a motivationally relevant signal that predicts reward probability on a trial-by-trial basis. Using this paradigm, we tested the interaction between motivation and cognition in mice that model the increased striatal D2 receptor activity observed in schizophrenia patients (D2R-OE mice). In control mice, attention was modulated by signaled-reward probability. In D2R-OE mice, however, attention was not modulated by reward-related cues. This impairment was not due to any global deficits in attention or maintenance of the trial-specific information in working memory. Turning off the transgene in D2R-OE mice rescued the motivational modulation of attention. These results indicate that deficits in motivation impair the ability to use reward-related cues to recruit attention and that improving motivation improves functional cognitive performance. These results further suggest that addressing motivational impairments in patients is critical to achieving substantive cognitive and functional gains. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Abstract recall of a happy memory to repair sad mood in dysphoria: A possible link to negative cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, Kate; Moulds, Michelle L

    2015-01-01

    The capacity to repair sad mood through the deliberate recall of happy memories has been found to be impaired in dysphoric individuals. Rumination, or adopting an abstract processing mode, has been proposed as a possible mechanism underpinning this effect. In low and high dysphoric participants, we examined the relative consequences of adopting an abstract or concrete processing mode during happy memory recall or engaging in distraction for (1) mood repair and (2) cognitive content. Recalling a happy memory in either an abstract or concrete way resulted in greater happiness than distraction. Engaging in abstract recall of a happy memory resulted in high dysphoric participants generating negative evaluations and negative generalisations. These findings raise the interesting possibility that abstract processing of positive memories has the potential to generate negative cognition.

  8. Communication subjective assessments of patients undergoing compulsory treatment with the severity of negative symptoms and cognitive functioning level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabanov T.N.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies on the relationship of subjective assessments of the mentally ill with the severity of negative symptoms and cognitive functioning level. The features of patients perception of various aspects of compulsory treatment and subjective satisfaction with treatment. In a study of 94 male patients with a diagnosis of organic mental disorder and schizophrenia was used diagnostic system, consisting of patopsihologicheskogo study, formal survey map, the scale of assessment of negative symptoms SANS, questionnaire symptom levels SCL-90, self-existing problems, as well as - in Test authoring tool sheet to treatment and hospital stay (VG Bulygin, Kabanov, TN, 2011. The differences in subjective assessments of aspects of compulsory treatment and social functioning of patients with varying degrees of severity of negative symptoms and dependence of subjective assessments of the level of cognitive functioning.

  9. Close relation of interpersonal sensitivity with negative core beliefs about the self, the central construct of cognitive vulnerability to depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Shirata, Toshinori

    2018-05-01

    Interpersonal sensitivity is a personality trait linked with anxious attachment conceptualized in attachment theory. This personality trait is comprised of four components, i.e., interpersonal awareness, separation anxiety, timidity and fragile inner-self, which are measured by the corresponding subscales of the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM). Meanwhile, one study showed that six items of the IPSM tentatively used as negative self-schemas predicted the onset of depression. To clarify if interpersonal sensitivity reflects cognitive vulnerability, we examined the relation of this personality trait with negative core beliefs about the self. The study population consisted of 335 Japanese volunteers. Interpersonal sensitivity was measured by the IPSM, and negative core beliefs about the self were assessed by the negative-self subscale of the Brief Core Schema Scales (BCSS). Multiple regression analysis showed that scores of the four subscales of the IPSM were strongly correlated with those of the negative-self subscale of the BCSS (P < 0.001). Similarly, sequential equation modeling demonstrated that the four components of interpersonal sensitivity were strongly predicted by core beliefs of negative-self (P < 0.001). The present study shows that interpersonal sensitivity is closely related to negative core beliefs about the self, suggesting that this personality trait can be regarded as a cognitive vulnerability to depression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. False Memory for Trauma-Related DRM Lists in Adolescents and Adults with Histories of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Gail S.; Ogle, Christin M.; Block, Stephanie D.; Harris, LaTonya S.; Larson, Rakel P.; Augusti, Else-Marie; Cho, Young Il; Beber, Jonathan; Timmer, Susan; Urquiza, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to examine Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory for trauma-related and nontrauma-related lists in adolescents and adults with and without documented histories of child sexual abuse (CSA). Individual differences in psychopathology and adult attachment were also explored. Participants were administered free recall and recognition tests after hearing CSA, negative, neutral, and positive DRM lists. In free recall, CSA and negative lists produced the most false memory. In sharp contrast, for recognition, CSA lists enjoyed the highest d’ scores. CSA-group adolescents who evinced greater PTSD symptoms had higher rates of false memory compared to: 1) nonCSA-group adolescents with higher PTSD symptom scores (free recall), and 2) CSA-group adolescents with lower PTSD symptom scores (recognition). Regression analyses revealed that individuals with higher PTSD scores and greater fearful-avoidant attachment tendencies showed less proficient memory monitoring for CSA lists. Implications for trauma and memory development and for translational research are discussed. PMID:23786687

  11. The relationship between cognitive ability, emotional intelligence and negative career thoughts: A study of career-exploring adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Dahl

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Career exploration can be a stressful experience, often manifested by negative career thoughts. In this article, the factors which influence the ability to cope with negative thinking are investigated.Research purpose: This study investigated the relationship between cognitive ability, emotional intelligence and negative thoughts pertaining to career in a sample of unemployed, non-student adults.Motivation for study: There is a need for research which investigates the psychological factors that contribute to successful career exploration and decision-making. Cognitive ability is one such factor, whilst emotional intelligence is another whose validity is not yet well established.Research design, approach and method: A survey design and quantitative procedures were used in gathering and analysing data gathered from 193 non-student, middle-aged adults attending a community-based career exploration programme in British Columbia, Canada. Cognitive ability, emotional intelligence and negative career thoughts before and after a career exploration programme were measured.Main findings: Neither cognitive ability nor any aspect of emotional intelligence predicted negative career thinking change. Cognitive ability predicted overall negative career thoughts as well as decision-making confusion, but only after the programme. The ability to manage emotions, however, predicted negative career thoughts both before and after the career decision-making programme.Practical/managerial implications: The managing emotions component of emotional intelligence is significantly associated with negative career thoughts. These findings suggest that career counselling requires that the role of emotions and their influence on behaviours must be given more consideration. Industrial and organisational (IO psychologists would benefit from engaging in programmes that train them to assist clients in becoming more aware of, and increasing, their own emotional

  12. Trauma-related sleep disturbance and self-reported physical health symptoms in treatment-seeking female rape victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clum, G A; Nishith, P; Resick, P A

    2001-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between trauma-related sleep disturbance and physical health symptoms in treatment-seeking female rape victims. A total of 167 participants were assessed for PTSD symptoms, depression, sleep disturbance, and frequency of self-reported health symptoms. Results demonstrated that trauma-related sleep disturbance predicted unique variance in physical health symptoms after other PTSD and depression symptoms were controlled. The findings suggest that trauma-related sleep disturbance is one potential factor contributing to physical health symptoms in rape victims with PTSD.

  13. Negative Social Relationships Predict Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Among War-Affected Children Via Posttraumatic Cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palosaari, Esa; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Peltonen, Kirsi; Diab, Marwan; Qouta, Samir R

    2016-07-01

    Post traumatic cognitions (PTCs) are important determinants of post traumatic stress symptoms (PTS symptoms). We tested whether risk factors of PTS symptoms (trauma, demographics, social and family-related factors) predict PTCs and whether PTCs mediate the association between risk factors and PTS symptoms among war-affected children. The participants were 240 Palestinian children 10-12 years old, half boys and half girls, and their parents. Children reported about psychological maltreatment, sibling and peer relations, war trauma, PTCs, PTS symptoms, and depression. Parents reported about their socioeconomic status and their own PTS symptoms. The associations between the variables were estimated in structural equation models. In models which included all the variables, PTCs were predicted by and mediated the effects of psychological maltreatment, war trauma, sibling conflict, and peer unpopularity on PTS symptoms. Other predictors had statistically non-significant effects. Psychological maltreatment had the largest indirect effect (b* = 0.29, p = 0.002) and the indirect effects of war trauma (b* = 0.10, p = 0.045), sibling conflict (b* = 0.10, p = 0.045), and peer unpopularity (b* = 0.10, p = 0.094) were lower and about the same size. Age-salient social relationships are potentially important in the development of both PTCs and PTS symptoms among preadolescents. Furthermore, PTCs mediate the effects of the risk factors of PTS symptoms. The causality of the associations among the variables is not established but it could be studied in the future with interventions which improve the negative aspects of traumatized children's important social relationships.

  14. Psychiatric comorbidity and aspects of cognitive coping negatively predict outcome in cognitive behavioral treatment of psychophysiological insomnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, M. van de; Pevernagie, D.; Mierlo, P. van; Overeem, S.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral treatment is the gold standard treatment for insomnia, although a substantial group does not respond. We examined possible predictors for treatment outcome in psychophysiological insomniacs, with a focus on the presence of clearly defined psychiatric comorbidity. This was a

  15. Using Emotion as Information in Future-Oriented Cognition: Individual Differences in the Context of State Negative Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroquín, Brett; Boyle, Chloe C.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan; Stanton, Annette L.

    2016-01-01

    Predictions about the future are susceptible to mood-congruent influences of emotional state. However, recent work suggests individuals also differ in the degree to which they incorporate emotion into cognition. This study examined the role of such individual differences in the context of state negative emotion. We examined whether trait tendencies to use negative or positive emotion as information affect individuals' predictions of what will happen in the future (likelihood estimation) and how events will feel (affective forecasting), and whether trait influences depend on emotional state. Participants (N=119) reported on tendencies to use emotion as information (“following feelings”), underwent an emotion induction (negative versus neutral), and made likelihood estimates and affective forecasts for future events. Views of the future were predicted by both emotional state and individual differences in following feelings. Whereas following negative feelings affected most future-oriented cognition across emotional states, following positive feelings specifically buffered individuals' views of the future in the negative emotion condition, and specifically for positive future events, a category of future-event prediction especially important in psychological health. Individual differences may confer predisposition toward optimistic or pessimistic expectations of the future in the context of acute negative emotion, with implications for adaptive and maladaptive functioning. PMID:27041783

  16. The relationship between parenting attitudes, negative cognition, and the depressive symptoms according to gender in Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Park, Min-Hyeon

    2016-01-01

    Parenting style is one potential contributor to the development of adolescents' cognitions, self-esteem and emotional problems. This study examined the relationship between maternal parenting attitudes and adolescents' negative cognitions, and depressive symptoms according to gender. A total of 401 middle and high school students were recruited (i.e. 221 males and 180 females; mean age, 13.92 ± 1.31 years). The Maternal Behavior Research Instrument assessed maternal parenting attitudes. Analyses examined the relationship between parenting attitudes and affective symptoms, with self-esteem and negative automatic thoughts as mediators of these relations. Maternal rejecting attitudes were positively associated with depressive symptoms via increasing negative autonomic thoughts and decreasing self-esteem among female adolescents. Among male adolescents, maternal rejecting attitudes were associated with low self-esteem, but they were not associated with depressive symptoms. Maternal parenting has a larger impact on the emotional adjustment of females compared to males. Interventions to increase self-esteem and correct negative cognitions may be helpful for depressed female adolescents, specifically for those whose mothers are rejecting.

  17. Negative Academic Emotion and Psychological Well-being in Chinese Rural-to-Urban Migrant Adolescents: Examining the Moderating Role of Cognitive Reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daoyang; Li, Shuting; Hu, Mingming; Dong, Dan; Tao, Sha

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to explore the relationship among negative academic emotions (e.g., anxiety, shame, anger, boredom, hopelessness, disappointment, and hatred), psychological well-being (including life vitality, health concern, altruism commitment, self-value, friendly relationship, and personal development), and cognitive reappraisal in rural-to-urban migrant adolescents in China. Specifically, it was hypothesized that the relationship between psychological well-being and negative academic emotions is moderated by cognitive reappraisal. A total of 311 migrant adolescents aged 14-20 years were selected, including 132 boys and 179 girls. Results of a regression analysis showed that cognitive reappraisal (positive) and negative academic emotions were significant predictors of psychological well-being. The interaction effect between cognitive reappraisal and negative academic emotion was also a significant predictor of psychological well-being. In the simple slope analysis the group with a below average cognitive reappraisal score the negative academic emotions were associated with lower psychological well-being, whereas in the group with above average cognitive reappraisal the effect of negative academic emotions on psychological well-being was not significant. However, for those with a cognitive reappraisal score of 1 standard deviation above the average, the effect of negative academic emotions on psychological well-being was not significant. These results suggest that cognitive reappraisal was a significant moderator in the relationship between negative academic emotion and psychological well-being.

  18. Negative Academic Emotion and Psychological Well-being in Chinese Rural-to-Urban Migrant Adolescents: Examining the Moderating Role of Cognitive Reappraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoyang Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to explore the relationship among negative academic emotions (e.g., anxiety, shame, anger, boredom, hopelessness, disappointment, and hatred, psychological well-being (including life vitality, health concern, altruism commitment, self-value, friendly relationship, and personal development, and cognitive reappraisal in rural-to-urban migrant adolescents in China. Specifically, it was hypothesized that the relationship between psychological well-being and negative academic emotions is moderated by cognitive reappraisal. A total of 311 migrant adolescents aged 14–20 years were selected, including 132 boys and 179 girls. Results of a regression analysis showed that cognitive reappraisal (positive and negative academic emotions were significant predictors of psychological well-being. The interaction effect between cognitive reappraisal and negative academic emotion was also a significant predictor of psychological well-being. In the simple slope analysis the group with a below average cognitive reappraisal score the negative academic emotions were associated with lower psychological well-being, whereas in the group with above average cognitive reappraisal the effect of negative academic emotions on psychological well-being was not significant. However, for those with a cognitive reappraisal score of 1 standard deviation above the average, the effect of negative academic emotions on psychological well-being was not significant. These results suggest that cognitive reappraisal was a significant moderator in the relationship between negative academic emotion and psychological well-being.

  19. Pathological spirit possession as a cultural interpretation of trauma-related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Tobias; Barnewitz, Eva; Stenmark, Hakon; Iversen, Valentina

    2016-07-01

    Spirit possession is a phenomenon frequently occurring in war-torn countries. It has been shown to be an idiom of distress entailing dissociative symptoms. However, its association with trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders remains unclear. This study aimed to explore subjective disease models and the relationship between pathological spirit possession and trauma-related disorders in the Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. Seventy-three (formerly) possessed persons (74% female, mean age = 34 years), referred by traditional and spiritual healers, were interviewed about their experiences of pathological spirit possession, trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, shame and guilt, psychotic symptoms, somatic complaints, and the impairment of psychosocial functioning. The most common disease model for pathological spirit possession was another person having sent the spirit, mostly a family member or a neighbor, out of jealousy or conflict over resources. Significant correlations were found between spirit possession over lifetime and PTSD symptom severity, feelings of shame and guilt, depressive symptoms, somatic complaints, and psychotic symptoms. Spirit possession during the preceding 4 weeks was associated with PTSD symptom severity, impairment of psychosocial functioning, and psychotic symptom severity. The results of this study indicate that pathological spirit possession is a broad explanatory framework for various subjectively unexplainable mental and physical health problems, including but not limited to trauma-related disorders. Understanding pathological spirit possession as a subjective disease model for various mental and physical health problems may help researchers and clinicians to develop culturally sensitive treatment approaches for affected individuals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. The Gut Microbiome and Mental Health: Implications for Anxiety- and Trauma-Related Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan-Muller, Stefanie; Valles-Colomer, Mireia; Raes, Jeroen; Lowry, Christopher A; Seedat, Soraya; Hemmings, Sian M J

    2018-02-01

    Biological psychiatry research has long focused on the brain in elucidating the neurobiological mechanisms of anxiety- and trauma-related disorders. This review challenges this assumption and suggests that the gut microbiome and its interactome also deserve attention to understand brain disorders and develop innovative treatments and diagnostics in the 21st century. The recent, in-depth characterization of the human microbiome spurred a paradigm shift in human health and disease. Animal models strongly suggest a role for the gut microbiome in anxiety- and trauma-related disorders. The microbiota-gut-brain (MGB) axis sits at the epicenter of this new approach to mental health. The microbiome plays an important role in the programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis early in life, and stress reactivity over the life span. In this review, we highlight emerging findings of microbiome research in psychiatric disorders, focusing on anxiety- and trauma-related disorders specifically, and discuss the gut microbiome as a potential therapeutic target. 16S rRNA sequencing has enabled researchers to investigate and compare microbial composition between individuals. The functional microbiome can be studied using methods involving metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, metaproteomics, and metabolomics, as discussed in the present review. Other factors that shape the gut microbiome should be considered to obtain a holistic view of the factors at play in the complex interactome linked to the MGB. In all, we underscore the importance of microbiome science, and gut microbiota in particular, as emerging critical players in mental illness and maintenance of mental health. This new frontier of biological psychiatry and postgenomic medicine should be embraced by the mental health community as it plays an ever-increasing transformative role in integrative and holistic health research in the next decade.

  1. Trauma-Related Sleep Disturbance and Self-Reported Physical Health Symptoms in Treatment-Seeking Female Rape Victims

    OpenAIRE

    CLUM, GRETCHEN A.; NISHITH, PALLAVI; RESICK, PATRICIA A.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between trauma-related sleep disturbance and physical health symptoms in treatment-seeking female rape victims. A total of 167 participants were assessed for PTSD symptoms, depression, sleep disturbance, and frequency of self-reported health symptoms. Results demonstrated that trauma-related sleep disturbance predicted unique variance in physical health symptoms after other PTSD and depression symptoms were controlled. The findings sugge...

  2. Risk of long-lasting negative cognitive consequences after electroconvulsive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anne Marie; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Vinberg, Maj

    2013-01-01

    This case study describes a patient who had a unipolar depression and experienced long-lasting cognitive problems after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Neuropsychological testing revealed lower scores on measures of learning, memory and sustained attention. These results stress the importance...... of informing patients who have ECT of the potential cognitive consequences of this treatment as it may influence the patients' functional capabilities. Prospective studies are needed since we do not have sufficient knowledge regarding the 3-5% of these patients who experience sustained cognitive problems....

  3. Randomized clinical trial of cognitive behavioral social skills training for schizophrenia: improvement in functioning and experiential negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granholm, Eric; Holden, Jason; Link, Peter C; McQuaid, John R

    2014-12-01

    Identifying treatments to improve functioning and reduce negative symptoms in consumers with schizophrenia is of high public health significance. In this randomized clinical trial, participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (N = 149) were randomly assigned to cognitive behavioral social skills training (CBSST) or an active goal-focused supportive contact (GFSC) control condition. CBSST combined cognitive behavior therapy with social skills training and problem-solving training to improve functioning and negative symptoms. GFSC was weekly supportive group therapy focused on setting and achieving functioning goals. Blind raters assessed functioning (primary outcome: Independent Living Skills Survey [ILSS]), CBSST skill knowledge, positive and negative symptoms, depression, and defeatist performance attitudes. In mixed-effects regression models in intent-to-treat analyses, CBSST skill knowledge, functioning, amotivation/asociality negative symptoms, and defeatist performance attitudes improved significantly more in CBSST relative to GFSC. In both treatment groups, comparable improvements were also found for positive symptoms and a performance-based measure of social competence. The results suggest CBSST is an effective treatment to improve functioning and experiential negative symptoms in consumers with schizophrenia, and both CBSST and supportive group therapy actively focused on setting and achieving functioning goals can improve social competence and reduce positive symptoms.

  4. Negative Emotions and Suicidal Ideation during Psychosocial Treatments in Older Adults with Major Depression and Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiosses, Dimitris N; Gross, James J; Banerjee, Samprit; Duberstein, Paul R; Putrino, David; Alexopoulos, George S

    2017-06-01

    To examine the relationship of negative emotions with suicidal ideation during 12 weeks of Problem Adaptation Therapy (PATH) versus Supportive Therapy of Cognitively Impaired Older Adults (ST-CI), hypothesizing that improved negative emotions are associated with reduced suicidal ideation, PATH improves negative emotions more than ST-CI, and improved negative emotions, rather than other depression symptoms, predict reduction in suicidal ideation. In a randomized controlled trial of two home-delivered psychosocial interventions, 74 older participants (65-95 years old) with major depressive disorder and cognitive impairment were recruited in collaboration with community agencies. The sample reported less intense feelings than suicidal intention. Interventions and assessments were conducted in participants' homes. PATH focuses on improving emotion regulation, whereas ST-CI focuses on nonspecific therapeutic factors, such as understanding and empathy. Improved negative emotions were measured as improvement in Montgomery Asberg's Depression Rating Scales' (MADRS) observer ratings of sadness, anxiety, guilt, hopelessness, and anhedonia. Suicidal ideation was assessed with the MADRS Suicide Item. MADRS Negative Emotions scores were significantly associated with suicidal ideation during the course of treatment (F [1,165]  = 12.73, p = 0.0005). PATH participants had significantly greater improvement in MADRS emotions than ST-CI participants (treatment group by time: F [1,63.2]  = 7.02, p = 0.0102). Finally, improved negative emotions, between lagged and follow-up interview, significantly predicted reduction in suicidal ideation at follow-up interview (F [1, 96]  = 9.95, p = 0.0022). Findings thatimprovement in negative emotions mediates reduction in suicidal ideation may guide the development of psychosocial interventions for reduction of suicidal ideation (clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00368940). Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric

  5. Dealing with negative stereotypes in sports: The role of cognitive anxiety when multiple identities are activated in sensorimotor tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Martiny, Sarah E.; Gleibs, Ilka H.; Parks-Stamm, Elizabeth J.; Martiny-Huenger, Torsten; Froehlich, Laura; Harter, Anna-Lena; Roth, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Accepted manuscript version. Published version at http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/jsep.2014-0284. Based on research on stereotype threat and multiple identities, this work explores the beneficial effects of activating a positive social identity when a negative identity is salient on women’s performance in sports. Further, in line with research on the effects of anxiety in sports, we investigate whether the activation of a positive social identity buffers performance from cognitive anxiety associ...

  6. Negative Posttrauma Cognitions Mediate the Association Between Morally Injurious Events and Trauma‐Related Psychopathology in Treatment‐Seeking Veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Held, Philip; Klassen, Brian J.; Zou, Denise S.; Schroedter, Blake S.; Karnik, Niranjan S.; Pollack, Mark H.; Zalta, Alyson K.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Exposure to potentially morally injurious events has been shown to be associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms in military personnel. Few studies have examined factors that help to explain how potentially morally injurious events may contribute to the development of trauma‐related psychopathology. Negative posttrauma cognitions are thought to play a role in the etiology of PTSD and depression following trauma; however, it is unclear whether more gl...

  7. Risk of long-lasting negative cognitive consequences after electroconvulsive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anne Marie; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Vinberg, Maj

    2013-01-01

    This case study describes a patient who had a unipolar depression and experienced long-lasting cognitive problems after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Neuropsychological testing revealed lower scores on measures of learning, memory and sustained attention. These results stress the importance...

  8. Automatic social comparison: Cognitive load facilitates an increase in negative thought accessibility after thin ideal exposure among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocage-Barthélémy, Yvana; Chatard, Armand; Jaafari, Nematollah; Tello, Nina; Billieux, Joël; Daveau, Emmanuel; Selimbegović, Leila

    2018-01-01

    Women are routinely exposed to images of extremely slim female bodies (the thin ideal) in advertisements, even if they do not necessarily pay much attention to these images. We hypothesized that paradoxically, it is precisely in such conditions of low attention that the impact of the social comparison with the thin ideal might be the most pronounced. To test this prediction, one hundred and seventy-three young female participants were exposed to images of the thin ideal or of women's fashion accessories. They were allocated to either a condition of high (memorizing 10 digits) or low cognitive load (memorizing 4 digits). The main dependent measure was implicit: mean recognition latency of negative words, relative to neutral words, as assessed by a lexical decision task. The results showed that thin-ideal exposure did not affect negative word accessibility under low cognitive load but that it increased it under high cognitive load. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that social comparison with the thin ideal is an automatic process, and contribute to explain why some strategies to prevent negative effects of thin-ideal exposure are inefficient.

  9. The relation between mindfulness and fear of negative evaluation over the course of cognitive behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Mark; Schmertz, Stefan K; Price, Matthew; Masuda, Akihiko; Anderson, Page L

    2013-03-01

    This study examined the relation between mindfulness and fear of negative evaluation over the course of nonmindfulness based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD). We expected that higher levels of mindfulness would be associated with a more positive response to treatment. This study is a secondary report from a randomized controlled trial in which participants (N = 65) diagnosed with SAD were randomly assigned to receive 8 weeks of 1 of 2 manualized treatments (exposure group therapy, n = 33; or virtual reality exposure therapy, n = 32) either immediately or following an 8 week waiting period. Fear of negative evaluation decreased following treatment and was negatively related to mindfulness throughout treatment and follow-up. Mindfulness did not moderate treatment outcome. These findings indicate that while mindfulness is related to fear, it is not a moderator of symptom reduction in nonmindfulness-based treatment. Implications for treatment and future research are discussed. 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  10. Impulsivity and negative priming: evidence for diminished cognitive inhibition in impulsive children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M. R. M.; Das-Smaal, E.; Kwakman, H.

    1996-01-01

    This study addresses the relationship between impulsivity and lack of inhibition. Inhibition was measured both by the interference score and by the negative priming effect in a Stroop colour-word paradigm. The negative priming effect in this paradigm is defined by slower naming of a target colour if

  11. Cognitive performance and iron status are negatively associated with hookworm infection in Cambodian schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khov, Kuong; Fiorentino, Marion; Perignon, Marlene

    2016-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection has been associated with lower cognitive performance of schoolchildren. To identify pathways through which STH infection might affect school performance, baseline data from a large rice-fortification trial in Cambodian schoolchildren were used to investig...

  12. Modifying Adolescent Interpretation Biases Through Cognitive Training: Effects on Negative Affect and Stress Appraisals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telman, M.D.; Holmes, E.A; Lau, J.Y.F

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent anxiety is common, impairing and costly. Given the scale of adolescent anxiety and its impact, fresh innovations for therapy are in demand. Cognitive Bias Modification of Interpretations (CBM-I) studies of adults show that by training individuals to endorse benign interpretations of

  13. Perfectionism and negative/positive affect associations: the role of cognitive emotion regulation and perceived distress/coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Juliana; Soares, Maria João; Pereira, Ana T; Macedo, António

    2017-01-01

    To explore 1) if perfectionism, perceived distress/coping, and cognitive emotion regulation (CER) are associated with and predictive of negative/positive affect (NA/PA); and 2) if CER and perceived distress/coping are associated with perfectionism and if they mediate the perfectionism-NA/PA associations. There is a distinction between maladaptive and adaptive perfectionism in its association with NA/PA. CER and perceived distress/coping may mediate the maladaptive/adaptive perfectionism and NA/PA associations. 344 students (68.4% girls) completed the Hewitt & Flett and the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scales, the Composite Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Profile of Mood States, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. NA predictors were maladaptive/adaptive perfectionism, maladaptive CER and perceived distress (positively), positive reappraisal and planning, and perceived coping (negatively). PA predictors were maladaptive/adaptive perfectionism and perceived distress (negatively), positive reappraisal and planning, positive refocusing and perceived coping (positively). The association between maladaptive perfectionism and NA was mediated by maladaptive CER/low adaptive CER, perceived distress/low coping. Maladaptive perfectionism and low PA association was mediated by perceived distress. High PA was determined by low maladaptive perfectionism and this association was mediated by adaptive REC and coping. Adaptive perfectionism and NA association was mediated by maladaptive CER and perceived distress. CER and perceived distress/coping are associated and mediate the perfectionism-NA/PA associations.

  14. Trauma-related dreams of Australian veterans with PTSD: content, affect and phenomenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Andrea J; Forbes, David; Hopwood, Malcolm; Creamer, Mark

    2011-10-01

    Consensus on the parameters of trauma-related dreams required to meet criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is critical when: (i) the diagnosis requires a single re-experiencing symptom; and (ii) trauma dreams are prevalent in survivors without PTSD. This study investigated the phenomenology of PTSD dreams in 40 veterans, using structured interview and self-report measures. Dream content varied between replay, non-replay, and mixed, but affect was largely the same as that experienced at the time of trauma across all dream types. ANOVA indicated no difference between dream types on PTSD severity or nightmare distress. The findings provide preliminary support for non-replay dreams to satisfy the DSM B2 diagnostic criterion when the affect associated with those dreams is the same as that experienced at the time of the traumatic event.

  15. Why expressive suppression does not pay? Cognitive costs of negative emotion suppression: The mediating role of subjective tense-arousal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczygieł Dorota

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to contribute to a broader understanding of the cognitive consequences of expressive suppression. Specifically, we examined whether the deteriorating effect of expressive suppression on cognitive functioning is caused by tense arousal enhanced by suppression. Two experiments were performed in order to test this prediction. In both studies we tested the effect of expressive suppression on working memory, as measured with a backwards digit-span task (Study 1, N = 43 and anagram problem-solving task (Study 2, N = 60. In addition, in Study 2 we tested whether expressive suppression degrades memory of the events that emerged during the period of expressive suppression. Both studies were conducted in a similar design: Participants watched a film clip which evoked negative emotions (i.e. disgust in Study 1 and a combination of sadness and anxiety in Study 2 under the instruction to suppress those negative emotions or (in the control condition to simply watch the film. The results of these experiments lead to three conclusions. First, the results reveal that expressive suppression degrades memory of the events that emerged during the period of expressive suppression and leads to poorer performance on working memory tasks, as measured with a backwards digit-span task and anagram problem-solving task. Second, the results indicate that expressive suppression leads to a significant increase in subjective tense arousal. Third, the results support our prediction that expressive suppression decreases cognitive performance through its effects on subjective tense arousal. The results of the Study 1 show that tense arousal activated during expressive suppression of disgust fully mediates the negative effect of suppression on working memory as measured with a backwards digit-span task. The results of Study 2 reveal that subjective tense arousal elicited while suppressing sadness and anxiety mediates both the effect of suppression on

  16. Effects of cariprazine, a novel antipsychotic, on cognitive deficit and negative symptoms in a rodent model of schizophrenia symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Jo C; Grayson, Ben; Kiss, Béla; Gyertyán, István; Ferguson, Paul; Adham, Nika

    2016-01-01

    Negative symptoms and cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia are strongly associated with poor functional outcome and reduced quality of life and remain an unmet clinical need. Cariprazine is a dopamine D3/D2 receptor partial agonist with preferential binding to D3 receptors, recently approved by the FDA for the treatment of schizophrenia and manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder. The aim of this study is to evaluate effects of cariprazine in an animal model of cognitive deficit and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Following sub-chronic PCP administration (2mg/kg, IP for 7 days followed by 7 days drug-free), female Lister Hooded rats were administered cariprazine (0.05, 0.1, or 0.25mg/kg, PO) or risperidone (0.16 or 0.1mg/kg, IP) before testing in novel object recognition (NOR), reversal learning (RL), and social interaction (SI) paradigms. As we have consistently demonstrated, sub-chronic PCP significantly impaired behavior in these tests. Deficits were significantly improved by cariprazine, in a dose dependent manner in the operant RL test with efficacy at lower doses in the NOR and SI tests. Locomotor activity was reduced at the highest doses of 0.1mg/kg and 0.25mg/kg in NOR and SI. Risperidone also reversed the PCP-induced deficit in all tests. In conclusion, cariprazine was effective to overcome PCP-induced deficits in cognition and social behavior in a thoroughly validated rat model in tests representing specific symptom domains in schizophrenia patients. These findings support very recent results showing efficacy of cariprazine in the treatment of negative symptoms in schizophrenia patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  17. Psilocybin disrupts sensory and higher order cognitive processing but not pre-attentive cognitive processing-study on P300 and mismatch negativity in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravermanová, Anna; Viktorinová, Michaela; Tylš, Filip; Novák, Tomáš; Androvičová, Renáta; Korčák, Jakub; Horáček, Jiří; Balíková, Marie; Griškova-Bulanova, Inga; Danielová, Dominika; Vlček, Přemysl; Mohr, Pavel; Brunovský, Martin; Koudelka, Vlastimil; Páleníček, Tomáš

    2018-02-01

    Disruption of auditory event-related evoked potentials (ERPs) P300 and mismatch negativity (MMN), electrophysiological markers of attentive and pre-attentive cognitive processing, is repeatedly described in psychosis and schizophrenia. Similar findings were observed in a glutamatergic model of psychosis, but the role of serotonergic 5-HT 2A receptors in information processing is less clear. We studied ERPs in a serotonergic model of psychosis, induced by psilocybin, a psychedelic with 5-HT 2A/C agonistic properties, in healthy volunteers. Twenty subjects (10M/10F) were given 0.26 mg/kg of psilocybin orally in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over design. ERPs (P300, MMN) were registered during the peak of intoxication. Correlations between measured electrophysiological variables and psilocin serum levels and neuropsychological effects were also analyzed. Psilocybin induced robust psychedelic effects and psychotic-like symptoms, decreased P300 amplitude (p = 0.009) but did not affect the MMN. Psilocybin's disruptive effect on P300 correlated with the intensity of the psychedelic state, which was dependent on the psilocin serum levels. We also observed a decrease in N100 amplitude (p = 0.039) in the P300 paradigm and a negative correlation between P300 and MMN amplitude (p = 0.014). Even though pre-attentive cognition (MMN) was not affected, processing at the early perceptual level (N100) and in higher-order cognition (P300) was significantly disrupted by psilocybin. Our results have implications for the role of 5-HT 2A receptors in altered information processing in psychosis and schizophrenia.

  18. Dose reduction of risperidone and olanzapine can improve cognitive function and negative symptoms in stable schizophrenic patients: A single-blinded, 52-week, randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanling; Li, Guannan; Li, Dan; Cui, Hongmei; Ning, Yuping

    2018-05-01

    The long-term effects of dose reduction of atypical antipsychotics on cognitive function and symptomatology in stable patients with schizophrenia remain unclear. We sought to determine the change in cognitive function and symptomatology after reducing risperidone or olanzapine dosage in stable schizophrenic patients. Seventy-five stabilized schizophrenic patients prescribed risperidone (≥4 mg/day) or olanzapine (≥10 mg/day) were randomly divided into a dose-reduction group ( n=37) and a maintenance group ( n=38). For the dose-reduction group, the dose of antipsychotics was reduced by 50%; for the maintenance group, the dose remained unchanged throughout the whole study. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Negative Symptom Assessment-16, Rating Scale for Extrapyramidal Side Effects, and Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) Consensus Cognitive Battery were measured at baseline, 12, 28, and 52 weeks. Linear mixed models were performed to compare the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Negative Symptom Assessment-16, Rating Scale for Extrapyramidal Side Effects and MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery scores between groups. The linear mixed model showed significant time by group interactions on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative symptoms, Negative Symptom Assessment-16, Rating Scale for Extrapyramidal Side Effects, speed of processing, attention/vigilance, working memory and total score of MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (all pNegative Syndrome Scale negative subscale, Negative Symptom Assessment-16, Rating Scale for Extrapyramidal Side Effects, speed of processing, working memory and total score of MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery for the dose reduction group compared with those for the maintenance group (all pnegative symptoms in patients with stabilized schizophrenia.

  19. Interview-based assessment of cognition is a strong predictor of quality of life in patients with schizophrenia and severe negative symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno F. Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the correlation between quality of life, symptoms, and cognition assessed by the interview-based Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale (SCoRS. Methods: Seventy-nine outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia were evaluated with the Quality of Life Scale – Brazilian version (QLS-BR, the SCoRS, and symptoms scales (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale [PANSS]. After determining the potential explanatory variables using Spearman’s correlation and Student’s t test results, we ran simple, multivariate, and decision-tree regression analyses to assess the impact of SCoRS and PANSS ratings on mean overall quality of life. Results: Cognitive deficits and negative symptoms were the best predictors of quality of life. A low degree of negative symptoms (PANSS negative < 11 was a strong predictor of better quality of life (QLS ∼ 75, regardless of SCoRS rating. Among participants with more severe negative symptoms, elevated cognitive impairment (interviewer SCoRS ∼ 44 was a predictor of worse quality of life (QLS ∼ 44. Conclusions: Cognitive impairment determined by interview-based assessment seems to be a strong predictor of quality of life in subjects with severe negative symptoms. These results support the usefulness of SCoRS for cognitive assessment that is relevant to the everyday life of patients with schizophrenia.

  20. Adolescent Depression and Negative Life Events, the Mediating Role of Cognitive Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stikkelbroek, Yvonne; Bodden, Denise H. M.; Kleinjan, Marloes; Reijnders, Mirjam; van Baar, Anneloes L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression during adolescence is a serious mental health problem. Difficulties in regulating evoked emotions after stressful life events are considered to lead to depression. This study examined if depressive symptoms were mediated by various cognitive emotion regulation strategies after stressful life events, more specifically, the loss of a loved one, health threats or relational challenges. Methods We used a sample of 398 adolescents (Mage = 16.94, SD = 2.90), including 52 depressed outpatients, who all reported stressful life event(s). Path analyses in Mplus were used to test mediation, for the whole sample as well as separately for participants scoring high versus low on depression, using multigroup analyses. Results Health threats and relational challenging stressful life events were associated with depressive symptoms, while loss was not. More frequent use of maladaptive strategies was related to more depressive symptoms. More frequent use of adaptive strategies was related to less depressive symptoms. Specific life events were associated with specific emotion regulation strategies. The relationship between challenging, stressful life events and depressive symptoms in the whole group was mediated by maladaptive strategies (self-blame, catastrophizing and rumination). No mediation effect was found for adaptive strategies. Conclusion The association between relational challenging, stressful life events and depressive symptoms was mediated by maladaptive, cognitive emotion regulation strategies. PMID:27571274

  1. Social anxiety and work status: the role of negative metacognitive beliefs, symptom severity and cognitive-behavioural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordahl, Henrik; Wells, Adrian

    2017-06-24

    Psychological health has a profound effect on personal and occupational functioning with Social Anxiety Symptoms in particular having a major effect on ability to work. Recent initiatives have focused on treating psychological illness with cognitive-behavioural models with a view to increasing return to work. However, the psychological correlates of work status amongst individuals with elevated mental health symptoms such as social anxiety are under-explored. This study reports a test of unique predictors of work status drawing on variables that have been given centre stage in cognitive-behavioural models and in the metacognitive model of psychological disorder. The sample consisted of high socially anxious individuals who reported to be working (n = 102) or receiving disability benefits (n = 102). A comparison of these groups showed that those out of work and receiving benefits had greater symptom severity, higher avoidance and use of safety behaviours, greater self-consciousness, and elevated negative metacognitive beliefs and beliefs about the need to control thoughts. However, when the covariance's between these variables were controlled, only negative metacognitive beliefs significantly predicted out-of-work status. Our finding might be important because CBT does not focus on metacognitive beliefs, but targets components that in our analysis had no unique predictive value for work status.

  2. Relationship of low vitamin D status with positive, negative and cognitive symptom domains in people with first-episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, K A; Keefe, R S; Lieberman, J A; Calikoglu, A S; Lansing, K M; Perkins, D O

    2015-10-01

    Deficient vitamin D levels are very common among Americans of all ages and ethnicities, but little is known about its prevalence or associated problems among those with schizophrenia. Stored plasma from 20 recent onset schizophrenia subjects and 20 matched healthy comparison subjects were analysed for 25 OH vitamin D, and related to measures of symptom severity and neurocognition. There was no significant difference in mean 25 OH vitamin D between the schizophrenia and the healthy comparison subjects (28.2 standard deviation (SD) 12.6 ng mL(-1) vs. 29.9 SD 14.3 ng mL(-1) ), and about half the subjects in each group had insufficient levels (vitamin D status (r = -0.55, P = 0.012); the correlations of overall symptom severity and positive symptom severity with 25 OH vitamin D levels approached significance (r = -0.42, P = 0.07 and r = -0.36, P = 0.12, respectively). There was no relationship of vitamin D with depressive symptoms. Among the schizophrenia subjects, lower 25 OH vitamin D levels were associated with more severe overall cognitive deficits (r = 0.56, P = 0.019). This study found that lower vitamin D levels in schizophrenia subjects were associated with more severe negative symptoms and overall cognitive deficits. However, the cross-sectional design precludes any conclusions about whether low vitamin D status in fact causes more severe negative symptoms and cognitive impairments. No relationship was found between lower vitamin D levels and depressive symptoms. © 2014 The Authors Early Intervention in Psychiatry Published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Cognitive "babyness": developmental differences in the power of young children's supernatural thinking to influence positive and negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periss, Virginia; Blasi, Carlos Hernández; Bjorklund, David F

    2012-09-01

    Perceptions of maturational status may play an important role in facilitating caretaking and resources toward children expressing them. Previous work has revealed evidence that cues of cognitive immaturity foster positive perceptions in adults toward young children at a time during their lives when they are most dependent on adult care. In the current series of studies, the authors investigated when during development these biases emerge. They tested American and Spanish adolescents ranging from 10 to 17 years of age. Each participant rated a series of vignettes presenting different expressions of immature and mature thinking attributed to young children. Results revealed that older adolescents performed similarly to adults tested in previous studies (D. F. Bjorklund, C. Hernández Blasi, & V. A. Periss, 2010), rating positively expressions of supernatural thinking (e.g., animism) compared with other forms of immature cognition labeled as natural (e.g., overestimation). Both male and female participants 14 years and older favored children expressing the immature supernatural cognition on traits reflecting positive affect (e.g., endearing, likeable), while associating greater negative affect (e.g., sneaky, impatient with) with children expressing immature natural cognition. However, younger adolescents consistently rated all forms of immature thinking less positively than mature thinking, suggesting that a positive bias for some forms of immature thinking develops during adolescence. Based on an evolutionary developmental framework, the authors suggest that supernatural thinking may have a unique role in humans, fostering positive perceptions of young children in older adolescents (and adults) as they prepare themselves for the possible role of parenthood. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Triglycerides are negatively correlated with cognitive function in nondemented aging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Vishnu; Frazier, Darvis T; Bettcher, Brianne M; Jastrzab, Laura; Chao, Linda; Reed, Bruce; Mungas, Dan; Weiner, Michael; DeCarli, Charles; Chui, Helena; Kramer, Joel H

    2017-09-01

    Vascular risk factors like hyperlipidemia may adversely affect brain function. We hypothesized that increased serum triglycerides are associated with decreased executive function and memory in nondemented elderly subjects. We also researched possible vascular mediators and white matter microstructure as assessed with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Participants were 251 nondemented elderly adults (54% male) with a mean age of 78 (SD = 6.4; range: 62-94) years and a mean education of 15.6 (SD = 2.9; range: 8-23) years. Fasting blood samples were used to detect serum triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels along with ApoE4 status. DTI was used to determine whole brain fractional anisotropy (FA). Composite executive and memory scores were derived from item response theory. Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scores provided informant-based measures of daily functioning. Triglyceride levels were inversely correlated with executive function, but there was no relationship with memory. Controlling for age, gender, and education did not affect this correlation. This relationship persisted after controlling for vascular risk factors like LDL, total cholesterol, CDR and ApoE4 status. Lastly, adding whole-brain FA to the model did not affect the correlation between triglycerides and executive function. Triglyceride levels are inversely correlated with executive function in nondemented elderly adults after controlling for age, education, gender, total cholesterol, LDL, ApoE4 status, CDR, and white-matter microstructure. The fact that the effect of triglycerides on cognition was not clearly mediated by vascular risks or cerebrovascular injury raises questions about widely held assumptions of how triglycerides might impact cognition function. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Disaster metrics: quantitative benchmarking of hospital surge capacity in trauma-related multiple casualty events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Jamil D; Zuabi, Shawki; Subbarao, Italo

    2011-06-01

    Hospital surge capacity in multiple casualty events (MCE) is the core of hospital medical response, and an integral part of the total medical capacity of the community affected. To date, however, there has been no consensus regarding the definition or quantification of hospital surge capacity. The first objective of this study was to quantitatively benchmark the various components of hospital surge capacity pertaining to the care of critically and moderately injured patients in trauma-related MCE. The second objective was to illustrate the applications of those quantitative parameters in local, regional, national, and international disaster planning; in the distribution of patients to various hospitals by prehospital medical services; and in the decision-making process for ambulance diversion. A 2-step approach was adopted in the methodology of this study. First, an extensive literature search was performed, followed by mathematical modeling. Quantitative studies on hospital surge capacity for trauma injuries were used as the framework for our model. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization triage categories (T1-T4) were used in the modeling process for simplicity purposes. Hospital Acute Care Surge Capacity (HACSC) was defined as the maximum number of critical (T1) and moderate (T2) casualties a hospital can adequately care for per hour, after recruiting all possible additional medical assets. HACSC was modeled to be equal to the number of emergency department beds (#EDB), divided by the emergency department time (EDT); HACSC = #EDB/EDT. In trauma-related MCE, the EDT was quantitatively benchmarked to be 2.5 (hours). Because most of the critical and moderate casualties arrive at hospitals within a 6-hour period requiring admission (by definition), the hospital bed surge capacity must match the HACSC at 6 hours to ensure coordinated care, and it was mathematically benchmarked to be 18% of the staffed hospital bed capacity. Defining and quantitatively benchmarking the

  6. What are the combined effects of negative emotions and illness cognitions on self-care in people with type 2 diabetes? A longitudinal structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Joanna L; Bundy, Christine; Coventry, Peter; Dickens, Chris; Wood, Alex; Reeves, David

    2016-07-01

    To explore whether negative emotions mediate the effect of diabetes cognitions on diabetes self-care and conversely whether diabetes cognitions mediate the effect of negative emotions on diabetes self-care. Longitudinal observational study in adults with type 2 diabetes. Self-reported depression and anxiety (Diabetes Wellbeing Questionnaire), cognitions (Illness Perceptions Questionnaire-Revised; Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire), and diabetes self-care (Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Scale) were completed at baseline and six months. Analyses used structural equation modelling. Baseline medication concerns were associated with elevated symptoms of depression and anxiety at follow-up, but emotions did not mediate medication concern's effect on diabetes self-care. Baseline depression and anxiety symptoms were associated with specific diabetes cognitions over time, but these cognition domains did not mediate emotion's effect on diabetes self-care. Personal control remained independent of emotions and was associated with diabetes self-care over time. Negative emotions did not act directly or alongside cognitions to influence diabetes self-care. The reciprocal relationship between diabetes cognitions and emotions suggests cognitive restructuring, in addition to other mood management intervention techniques would likely improve the emotional wellbeing of adults with type 2 diabetes. Likewise, personal control beliefs are likely important intervention targets for improving self-care.

  7. Prospective evaluation of a cognitive vulnerability-stress model for depression: the interaction of schema self-structures and negative life events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeds, Pamela M; Dozois, David J A

    2010-12-01

    This study tested the diathesis-stress component of Beck's (1967) cognitive theory of depression. Initially, participants completed measures assessing cognitive organization of the self-schema and depressive symptoms. One year later, participants completed measures assessing cognitive organization of the self-schema, depressive symptoms, and negative life events. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses, controlling for initial depression, indicated that more tightly interconnected negative content was associated with greater elevations in depressive symptoms following the occurrence of life events. More diffusely interconnected positive content for interpersonal self-referent information also interacted with life events to predict depressive symptoms. Cognitive organization dimensions showed moderate to high stability across the follow-up, suggesting that they may be trait-like vulnerability factors. Implications for the cognitive vulnerability-stress model of depression are discussed. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Evidence-based treatments for children with trauma-related psychopathology as a result of childhood maltreatment: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenarts, L.E.W.; Diehle, J.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; Jansma, E.P.; Lindauer, R.J.L.

    2013-01-01

    This is a systematic review of evidence-based treatments for children exposed to childhood maltreatment. Because exposure to childhood maltreatment has been associated with a broad range of trauma-related psychopathology (e.g., PTSD, anxiety, suicidal ideation, substance abuse) and with aggressive

  9. Negative rumination in social anxiety: A randomised trial investigating the effects of a brief intervention on cognitive processes before, during and after a social situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modini, Matthew; Abbott, Maree J

    2017-06-01

    According to cognitive models of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD), negative rumination is a key maintaining factor in the vicious cycle of social anxiety. However, there is a scarcity of research investigating treatment effects on rumination in social anxiety, as well as other key cognitive variables. The current study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a brief intervention on a range of cognitive processes, most notably negative rumination. Additionally, predictors of negative rumination and state anxiety are also investigated. Participants with a diagnosis of SAD were randomly allocated to an intervention (n = 24) or control group (n = 23). Participant's initially completed trait and state based measures with the intervention group also completing a brief cognitive intervention. One-week later participants completed state anxiety and cognitive measures before and after a speech task. Finally, one-week post-speech task participants completed further trait and state based measures. While the brief cognitive intervention had positive effects on some of the cognitive processes measured at different time points of the study, levels of negative rumination remained stable. Predictors of negative rumination and state anxiety were consistent with cognitive models of SAD. The brief nature of the intervention and temporal stance of the intervention (delivered one-week before the speech) may have impacted outcomes. Cognitive technique can potentially impact a range of key processes that maintain SAD, however, more powerful and tailored interventions are needed that address the different processes at play before, during and after a social situation for socially anxious individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cardiovascular reactivity of younger and older adults to positive-, negative-, and mixed-emotion cognitive challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Michael J; James, Jack E; McCabe, Tadhg R; Kilmartin, Liam; Howard, Siobhán; Noone, Chris

    2012-03-01

    Although aging is associated with progressive increases in blood pressure level, previous research has been inconsistent as to whether older adults show greater or lesser cardiovascular reactivity (CVR) to emotion than do younger adults. There is reason to believe that these inconsistencies could be clarified by examining age-related differences in hemodynamic profile revealed by measuring the pattern of cardiac output and total peripheral resistance associated with changes in blood pressure reactivity. Accordingly, the present study examined the performance, CVR, and hemodynamic profile of younger and older adults during encoding and recognition of word pairs involving four valence types: positive, negative, mixed (positive/negative), and neutral word pairs. Results revealed higher baseline blood pressure, increased CVR characterized by a vascular hemodynamic profile, and more rapid recovery (especially during encoding) for older than for younger participants. Results are discussed in light of research and theory on the relationship between aging and cardiovascular health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Relationship Between Psychological Distress, Negative Cognitions, and Expectancies on Problem Drinking: Exploring a Growing Problem Among University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obasi, Ezemenari M; Brooks, Jessica J; Cavanagh, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have sought to understand the concurrent relationship between cognitive and affective processes on alcohol use and negative alcohol-related consequences, despite both being identified as predictive risk factors in the college population. More research is needed to understand the relationships between identified factors of problem drinking among this at-risk population. The purpose of this study was to test if the relationship between psychological distress and problem drinking among university students (N = 284; M-age = 19.77) was mediated by negative affect regulation strategies and positive alcohol-related expectancies. Two latent mediation models of problem drinking were tested using structural equation modeling (SEM). The parsimonious three-path mediated latent model was supported by the data, as evidenced by several model fit indices. Furthermore, the alternate saturated model provided similar fit to the data, but contained several direct relationships that were not statistically significant. The relationship between psychological distress and problem drinking was mediated by an extended contributory chain, including negative affect regulation and positive alcohol-related expectancies. Implications for prevention and treatment, as well as future directions, are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. The Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Group Therapy in Reducing Negative Automatic Thoughts and Dysfunctional Attitudes in Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mehdipour

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive group therapy (MBCT in reducing negative automatic thoughts and dysfunctional attitudes in cancer patients. Methods The study was an applied and quasi-experimental research conducted by pre- and post-testing. The sample consisted of 30 cancer patients selected by purposive sampling and randomly placed in the control and the experimental group (15 individuals per group. The members of both groups filled out the automatic thoughts questionnaire (ATQ and the dysfunctional attitudes scale (DAS-26 at the pre- and the post-test stage. The collected data were analyzed by the SPSS software and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA tests. Results The results indicated that MBCT significantly reduced negative automatic thoughts (F = 126.15, P < 0.01 and dysfunctional attitudes (F = 179.53, P < 0.01 in the experimental group at the post-test stage in comparison to the control group. Conclusions Based on the results of this study, it is essential that therapeutic centers and support forums related to patients with refractory disorders use MBCT in their programs for reducing negative automatic thoughts and dysfunctional attitudes.

  13. Readability of Trauma-Related Patient Education Materials From the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltorai, Adam E M; P Thomas, Nathan; Yang, Heejae; Daniels, Alan H; Born, Christopher T

    2016-02-01

    According to the american medical association (AMA) and the national institutes of health (NIH), the recommended readability of patient education materials should be no greater than a sixth-grade reading level. The online patient education information produced by the american academy of orthopaedic surgeons (AAOS) may be too complicated for some patients to understand. This study evaluated whether the AAOS's online trauma-related patient education materials meet recommended readability guidelines for medical information. Ninety-nine articles from the "Broken Bones and Injuries" section of the AAOS-produced patient education website, orthoinfo.org, were analyzed for grade level readability using the Flesch-Kincaid formula, a widely-used and validated tool to evaluate the text reading level. Results for each webpage were compared to the AMA/NIH recommended sixth-grade reading level and the average reading level of U.S. adults (eighth-grade). The mean (SD) grade level readability for all patient education articles was 8.8 (1.1). All but three of the articles had a readability score above the sixth-grade level. The readability of the articles exceeded this level by an average of 2.8 grade levels (95% confidence interval, 2.6 - 3.0; P reading skill level of U.S. adults (eighth grade) by nearly an entire grade level (95% confidence interval, 0.6-1.0; P education website have readability levels that may make comprehension difficult for a substantial portion of the patient population.

  14. The Structured Trauma-Related Experiences and Symptoms Screener (STRESS): Development and Preliminary Psychometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Damion J; Felton, Julia W; Reid-Quiñones, Kathryn

    2015-08-01

    The Structured Trauma-Related Experiences and Symptoms Screener (STRESS) is a self-report instrument for youth of age 7-18 that inventories 25 adverse childhood experiences and potentially traumatic events and assesses symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder using the revised criteria published in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). The STRESS can be administered by computer such that questions are read aloud and automatic scoring and feedback are provided. Data were collected on a sample of 229 children and adolescents of age 7-17 undergoing a forensic child abuse and neglect evaluation. The purpose of the current study was to examine preliminary psychometric characteristics of the computer-administered STRESS as well as its underlying factor structure in relation to the four-factor DSM-5 model. Results provide initial support for the use of the STRESS in assessing adverse and potentially traumatic experiences and traumatic stress in children and adolescents. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Trauma-related symptoms in neglected preschoolers and affective quality of mother-child communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milot, Tristan; St-Laurent, Diane; Ethier, Louise S; Provost, Marc A

    2010-11-01

    This study (a) assessed whether child neglect is associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative symptoms in the preschool period and (b) examined the role of quality of mother-child affective communication in the development of trauma-related symptoms among neglected children. Participants were 33 neglected and 72 non-neglected preschoolers (mean age = 60 months). Neglected children were recruited from the Child Protection Agencies. Neglected and non-neglected children victims of other form of abuse were excluded from the study. Trauma symptoms were evaluated through mother and preschool teacher reports. Quality of mother-child affective communication was assessed in a lab visit during an unstructured task. According to teachers, neglected children displayed more PTSD and dissociative symptoms than non-neglected children. Quality of mother-child communication was lower in neglected dyads. Mother-child affective communication predicted teacher-reported child trauma symptomatology, over and above child neglect. Discussion focuses on the traumatic nature of child neglect and the underlying parent-child relational processes.

  16. Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Thickness Is Related to Alexithymia in Childhood Trauma-Related PTSD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A Demers

    Full Text Available Alexithymia, or "no words for feelings", is highly prevalent in samples with childhood maltreatment and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC has been identified as a key region involved in alexithymia, early life trauma, and PTSD. Functional alterations in the dACC also have been associated with alexithymia in PTSD. This study examined whether dACC morphology is a neural correlate of alexithymia in child maltreatment-related PTSD. Sixteen adults with PTSD and a history of childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, or exposure to domestic violence, and 24 healthy controls (HC completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale 20 (TAS-20 and underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Cortical thickness of the dACC was measured using FreeSurfer, and values were correlated with TAS-20 scores, controlling for sex and age, in both groups. Average TAS-20 score was significantly higher in the PTSD than the HC group. TAS-20 scores were significantly positively associated with dACC thickness only in the PTSD group. This association was strongest in the left hemisphere and for TAS-20 subscales that assess difficulty identifying and describing feelings. We found that increasing dACC gray matter thickness is a neural correlate of greater alexithymia in the context of PTSD with childhood maltreatment. While findings are correlational, they motivate further inquiry into the relationships between childhood adversity, emotional awareness and expression, and dACC morphologic development in trauma-related psychopathology.

  17. Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Thickness Is Related to Alexithymia in Childhood Trauma-Related PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Lauren A; Olson, Elizabeth A; Crowley, David J; Rauch, Scott L; Rosso, Isabelle M

    2015-01-01

    Alexithymia, or "no words for feelings", is highly prevalent in samples with childhood maltreatment and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) has been identified as a key region involved in alexithymia, early life trauma, and PTSD. Functional alterations in the dACC also have been associated with alexithymia in PTSD. This study examined whether dACC morphology is a neural correlate of alexithymia in child maltreatment-related PTSD. Sixteen adults with PTSD and a history of childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, or exposure to domestic violence, and 24 healthy controls (HC) completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale 20 (TAS-20) and underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Cortical thickness of the dACC was measured using FreeSurfer, and values were correlated with TAS-20 scores, controlling for sex and age, in both groups. Average TAS-20 score was significantly higher in the PTSD than the HC group. TAS-20 scores were significantly positively associated with dACC thickness only in the PTSD group. This association was strongest in the left hemisphere and for TAS-20 subscales that assess difficulty identifying and describing feelings. We found that increasing dACC gray matter thickness is a neural correlate of greater alexithymia in the context of PTSD with childhood maltreatment. While findings are correlational, they motivate further inquiry into the relationships between childhood adversity, emotional awareness and expression, and dACC morphologic development in trauma-related psychopathology.

  18. Past racial discrimination exacerbates the effects of racial exclusion on negative affect, perceived control, and alcohol-risk cognitions among Black young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Michelle L; Peterson, Laurel M; Molloy, Brianne K; Lambert, Sharon F

    2017-06-01

    Racial discrimination is associated with alcohol use and risky sex cognitions and behaviors, which are risk factors for negative health outcomes, including human immunodeficiency virus infection. The current study investigated the causal impact of racial discrimination on alcohol and sexual-risk cognitions while exploring potential mediators that might help explain this relation: negative affect, perceived control, and meaningful existence. We also examined if past discrimination impacts the strength of (moderates) these effects. Participants were 287 Black/African American young adults aged 18-25. They were randomly assigned to be excluded or included by White peers via the game Cyberball. Racial exclusion (vs. inclusion) predicted greater: perceived racial discrimination, negative affect, alcohol use willingness, and reduced perceived control and meaningful existence. Furthermore, excluded participants who experienced more past racial discrimination reported the lowest perceived control, and greatest negative affect and alcohol-risk cognitions. The findings suggest that past racial discrimination exacerbates the harmful health effects of immediate experiences of discrimination.

  19. Subthreshold Depressive Symptoms have a Negative Impact on Cognitive Functioning in Middle-Aged and Older Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Erlend J; Eikeland, Rune A; Lundervold, Astri J

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive aging is associated with a decline on measures of fluid intelligence (gF), whereas crystallized intelligence (gC) tends to remain stable. In the present study we asked if depressive symptoms might contribute to explain the decline on gF in a sample of healthy middle-aged and older adults. The Norwegian sample included 83 females and 42 males (M = 60, SD = 7.9 years). gF was calculated from factor-analysis, including tests of matrix reasoning (WASI), memory function (CVLT-II), processing speed and executive function (CDT; CWIT). gC was derived from a Vocabulary subtest (WASI). Depressive symptoms were assessed by self-reports on Beck's Depression Index (BDI) and ranged from 0 to 21 (M = 6, SD = 4.5). Increased age was correlated with a decline on gF (r = -0.436, p  age and sex in the first step, showed that symptoms of depression significantly contributed to explain decline on gF, F(3, 124) = 16.653, p < 0.001, R? = 0.292, ΔR? = 0.054. The results showed that symptoms of depression were negatively correlated with cognitive functioning in males even when the symptom-level was below clinical threshold. This indicates that minimal symptoms of depression in older men are clinically relevant to address.

  20. Early intervention for relapse in schizophrenia: impact of cognitive behavioural therapy on negative beliefs about psychosis and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumley, Andrew; Karatzias, Athanasios; Power, Kevin; Reilly, James; McNay, Lisa; O'Grady, Margaret

    2006-06-01

    The study aimed to test two hypotheses. Firstly, that participants who relapsed during the 12-month follow-up period of our randomized controlled trial, would show increased negative beliefs about their illness and reduced self-esteem, in comparison to the non-relapsed participants. Secondly, that cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for early signs of relapse would result in a reduction in negative beliefs about psychosis and an improvement in self-esteem at 12 months. A total of 144 participants with schizophrenia or a related disorder were randomized to receive either treatment as usual (TAU; N=72) or CBT (N=72). Participants completed the Personal Beliefs about Illness Questionnaire (PBIQ; Birchwood, Mason, MacMillan, & Healy, 1993) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES; Rosenberg, 1965) at entry, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months. At 12 months, relapsers showed greater increase in scores for PBIQ entrapment compared with non-relapsers. In addition, after controlling for baseline covariates (treatment group and PBIQ self versus illness), relapsers also showed greater increase in scores for PBIQ self versus illness at 12 months. Furthermore, in comparison to treatment as usual, participants who received CBT showed greater improvement in PBIQ loss and in Rosenberg self-esteem. The study provides evidence that relapse is associated with the development of negative appraisals of entrapment and self-blame (self vs. illness). In addition, this is the first study to show that CBT reduces negative appraisals of loss arising from psychosis and improvements in self-esteem. Implications for future research and treatment are discussed.

  1. Machismo, Marianismo, and Negative Cognitive-Emotional Factors: Findings From the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, Alicia; González, Patricia; Talavera, Gregory A; Sanchez-Johnsen, Lisa; Roesch, Scott C; Davis, Sonia M; Arguelles, William; Womack, Veronica Y; Ostrovsky, Natania W; Ojeda, Lizette; Penedo, Frank J; Gallo, Linda C

    2016-11-01

    There is limited research on the traditional Hispanic male and female gender roles of machismo and marianismo, respectively, in relation to negative cognitions and emotions. Given the vulnerability of Hispanics to negative cognitions and emotions, it is important to examine sociocultural correlates of emotional distress. Therefore, we examined associations of machismo and marianismo with negative cognitive-emotional factors (i.e., depression symptoms; cynical hostility; and trait anxiety and anger) in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study, a cross-sectional cohort study of sociocultural and psychosocial correlates of cardiometabolic health. Participants were aged 18-74 years and self-identified as Hispanic of Central American, Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South American, and other Hispanic background ( N = 4,426). Results revealed that specific components of machismo (traditional machismo) and marianismo (family and spiritual pillar dimensions) were associated with higher levels of negative cognitions and emotions after adjusting for socio-demographic factors ( p < .05); these associations remained consistent across sex, Hispanic background group, and acculturation. Findings can inform mental health interventions and contribute to our understanding of the importance of gender role socialization in the context of self-reported negative cognitive-emotional factors in Hispanics.

  2. Associations between social cognition, skills, and function and subclinical negative and positive symptoms in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangkilde, A; Jepsen, J M R; Schmock, H

    2016-01-01

    -related symptoms. The aims of this study were to conduct a comprehensive investigation of social impairments at three different levels (function, skill, and cognition) and their interrelationship and to determine to what degree the social impairments correlate to subclinical levels of negative and positive...... symptoms, respectively, in a young cohort of 22q11.2DS not diagnosed with schizophrenia. METHODS: The level of social impairment was addressed using questionnaires and objective measures of social functioning (The Adaptive Behavior Assessment System), skills (Social Responsiveness Scale), and cognition....... Association between social impairment and negative and positive symptoms levels was examined in cases only. RESULTS: Subjects with 22q11.2DS were highly impaired in social function, social skills, and social cognition (p ≤ 6.2 × 10(-9)) relative to control peers and presented with more negative (p = 5.8 × 10...

  3. Compelled attention: the effects of viewing trauma-related stimuli on concurrent task performance in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemtob, C M; Roitblat, H L; Hamada, R S; Muraoka, M Y; Carlson, J G; Bauer, G B

    1999-04-01

    We examined the ability of Vietnam veterans with PTSD to focus attention on a primary digit detection task while concurrently viewing neutral or Vietnam-related picture and word distractors. Controlling for combat exposure, military service, and psychopathology, veterans with PTSD took longer to detect the target when Vietnam-related pictures were distractors. There were no reaction time differences when word stimuli were distractors. The latency effect was specific to trials with trauma-related pictures and did not spread to neutral trials interleaved within a mixed block of trauma and neutral pictures. Individuals with PTSD recalled proportionally more Vietnam-related words than other groups, implying differential attention to Vietnam-related words. Attending to trauma-related pictures interferes with performance of a concurrent task by individuals with PTSD.

  4. Subthreshold depressive symptoms have a negative impact on cognitive functioning in middle-aged and older males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlend Joramo Brevik

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cognitive aging is associated with a decline on measures of fluid intelligence (gF, whereas crystallized intelligence (gC tends to remain stable. In the present study we asked if depressive symptoms might contribute to explain the decline on gF in a sample of healthy, middle-aged and older adults. Method. The Norwegian sample included 83 females and 42 males (M = 60, SD = 7.9 yrs. gF was calculated from factor-analysis, including tests of matrix reasoning (WASI, memory function (California Verbal Learning Test, processing speed and executive function (Cued Discrimination Task; Color-Word Interference Test. gC was derived from a Vocabulary subtest (WASI. Depressive symptoms were assessed by self-reports on Beck’s Depression Index (BDI and ranged from 0 to 21 (M = 6, SD = 4.5. Results. Increased age was correlated with a decline on gF (r=-.436, p<.001, but not gC (r=-.103, p=ns.. The BDI score in the whole sample was correlated with gF (r=-.313, p<.001. A more detailed analysis showed that the BDI score correlated with measures of both gF and gC in males. The correlations were non-significant for females on all measures, with the exception of a measure of processing speed/executive function. A regression analysis including age and sex in the first step, showed that symptoms of depression significantly contributed to explain decline on gF, F(3,124=16.653, p < .001, R² = .292, ∆R² = .054. Discussion. The results showed that symptoms of depression have a negative impact on cognitive functioning in males even when the symptom-level was below clinical threshold. This indicates that minimal symptoms of depression in older men are clinically relevant to address.

  5. How does social support relieve depression among flood victims? The contribution of feelings of safety, self-disclosure, and negative cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Rui; Quan, Lijuan; Zhou, Xiao

    2018-03-15

    Depression is one of the most common post-trauma symptoms that can be alleivated by social support. The purpose of this study was to examine the multiple mediating effects of social support on depression via feelings of safety, disclosure, and negative cognition. One hundred and eighty-seven flood victims in Wuhu City, an area affected most severely by a flood during July 2016, were selected to complete a self-report questionnaire package. Social support has four indirect negative effects on depression, including a one-step indirect path to self-disclosure, 2 two-step paths from feelings of safety to self-disclosure, and from self-disclosure to negative cognition about self, and a three-step indirect path from feelings of life safety via self-disclosure to negative self-cognition. All variables were measured using self-report scales. Social support may relieve depression in flood victims by inducing feelings of safety and self-disclosure, and by relieving negative cognition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Trauma-Related Pain, Reexperiencing Symptoms, and Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Longitudinal Study of Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoszek, Gregory; Hannan, Susan M; Kamm, Janina; Pamp, Barbara; Maieritsch, Kelly P

    2017-06-01

    Research has demonstrated a strong positive association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and physical pain. However, few studies have explored the impact of pain problems on the symptoms and treatment of PTSD, and results remain inconsistent. This longitudinal study examined whether trauma-related and trauma-unrelated pain differentially and uniquely predicted reexperiencing symptoms. We also examined whether levels of reexperiencing symptoms mediated the relationship between pain intensity and posttreatment symptoms of avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal (ANH). Analyses were conducted using archival data from 99 treatment-seeking veterans who reported the etiology and intensity of their pain and severity of PTSD symptoms pre- and posttreatment. Among veterans with trauma-related pain, pain intensity (a) uniquely corresponded to greater posttreatment reexperiencing symptoms (b = 1.09), and (b) was indirectly predictive of ANH symptoms via the reexperiencing symptoms (b = 1.93). However, veterans with trauma-unrelated pain evidenced no associations between pain intensity and reexperiencing (b = 0.04) or ANH symptoms (b = 0.06). We thus found that trauma-related pain was indirectly related to poor PTSD treatment outcomes via reexperiencing symptoms. These findings offer additional insight into factors that may influence PTSD treatment outcomes for pain-suffering trauma survivors. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  7. The effect of positive symptoms on social cognition in first-episode schizophrenia is modified by the presence of negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliksted, Vibeke; Videbech, Poul; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Frith, Chris

    2017-02-01

    There is considerable evidence that patients with schizophrenia have neurocognitive and social-cognitive deficits. It is unclear how such deficits in first-episode schizophrenia relate to current clinical symptoms. Fifty-nine patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) were tested using the Danish version of NART (premorbid IQ), subtests from WAIS-III (current IQ), and global cognition using Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrena (BACS), a neurocognitive test battery. Social perception was tested using film clips of everyday interactions (TASIT). Theory of mind (ToM) was tested using silent animations (Animated Triangles Task). The FES subjects had been experiencing psychotic symptoms for several years (mean duration 9.5 years 95% confidence interval (CI [7.6;11.3]). The FES patients were divided into clinical subgroups based on their level of positive and negative symptoms (using SANS and SAPS). Healthy controls were matched to the patients. High levels of negative symptoms were associated with low estimated functional IQ and poor neurocognition and social cognition. All SANS subscales, but Avolition-Apathy, had significant negative impact on social cognition. The effects of positive symptoms were complex. High levels of delusions were associated with higher premorbid IQ. In the presence of high levels of negative symptoms, high levels of positive symptoms were associated with the most comprehensive deficits in social perception, while, in the absence of negative symptoms, high levels of positive symptoms were not associated with such deficits. The results suggest that social-cognitive training will need to take account of the above mentioned effects of symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. A randomized trial of a cognitive-behavioral therapy and hypnosis intervention on positive and negative affect during breast cancer radiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Schnur, Julie B.; David, Daniel; Kangas, Maria; Green, Sheryl; Bovbjerg, Dana H.; Montgomery, Guy H.

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer radiotherapy can be an emotionally difficult experience. Despite this, few studies have examined the effectiveness of psychological interventions to reduce negative affect, and none to date have explicitly examined interventions to improve positive affect among breast cancer radiotherapy patients. The present study examined the effectiveness of a multimodal psychotherapeutic approach, combining cognitive-behavioral therapy and hypnosis (CBTH), to reduce negative affect and incre...

  9. Differences in the relationship between traumatic experiences, self-esteem, negative cognition, and Internet addiction symptoms among North Korean adolescent defectors and South Korean adolescents: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun; Jun, Jin Yong

    2017-11-01

    North Korean adolescent defectors experience adaptation difficulties along with a wide range of psychosocial problems, but no study has yet examined their Internet addiction symptoms. We compared early traumatic experiences, self-esteem, negative cognition, and Internet addiction symptoms, as well as the relationships between these variables, between North Korean adolescent defectors and South Korean adolescents. Fifty-six North Korean adolescent defectors and 112 age- and sex- matched South Korean adolescents participated. The analyses examined the relationship between traumatic experiences and Internet addiction symptoms, with negative automatic thoughts or low self-esteem as mediators of these relations. North Korean adolescent defectors tended to have higher levels of negative automatic thoughts and more severe Internet addiction symptoms, as well as better self-esteem, than did South Korean adolescents. Furthermore, only among North Korean adolescent defectors, traumatic experiences were positively associated with Internet addition symptoms via increasing negative automatic thoughts. North Korean adolescent defectors are more susceptible to Internet addiction, negative cognitions, and early traumatic experiences compared to South Korean adolescents. However, the cross-sectional design of this study precludes consideration of the causality of these relationships. Interventions aiming to correct negative cognitions and increase self-esteem may be helpful for North Korean adolescent defectors with problematic Internet use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Anticholinergic load negatively correlates with recovery of cognitive activities of daily living for geriatric patients after stroke in the convalescent stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, E; Hirai, T; Seki, T; Hidaka, S; Hamamoto, T

    2018-05-16

    Anticholinergic drugs are associated with risks of falls, confusion and cognitive dysfunction. However, the effect of anticholinergic drug use on rehabilitation outcomes after a stroke is poorly documented. We therefore aimed to establish whether the anticholinergic load was associated with functional recovery among geriatric patients convalescing after stroke. Consecutive geriatric stroke patients admitted and discharged from a convalescence rehabilitation ward between 2010 and 2016 were included in this retrospective cohort study. Anticholinergic load was assessed by the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), and functional recovery was assessed by the Functional Independence Measure (FIM). The primary outcome was cognitive FIM (FIM-C) gain, but we also assessed the interaction of other putative factors identified from univariate analysis. Multivariate analyses were performed, adjusting for confounding factors. We included 418 participants (171 males, 247 females) with a median age of 78 years (interquartile range, 72-84 years). Multiple regression analysis revealed that ARS change, length of stay, and epilepsy were independently and negatively correlated with cognitive FIM gain. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the "Comprehension" and "Memory" items of the cognitive FIM gain were independently and negatively associated with anticholinergic load. A causal relationship cannot be established, but increased ARS scores during hospitalization may predict limited cognitive functional improvement in geriatric patients after stroke. Alternatively, cognitive impairment may lead to increased use of anticholinergic drugs. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Predictors of Change Following Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Children with Anxiety Problems: A Preliminary Investigation on Negative Automatic Thoughts and Anxiety Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Mayer, Birgit; den Adel, Madelon; Roos, Tamara; van Wamelen, Julie

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate negative automatic thoughts and anxiety control as predictors of change produced by cognitive-behavioral treatment of youths with anxiety disorders. Forty-five high-anxious children aged between 9 and 12 years who were selected from the primary school population, received a standardized CBT…

  12. Cognitive Defusion versus Thought Distraction: A Clinical Rationale, Training, and Experiential Exercise in Altering Psychological Impacts of Negative Self-Referential Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Akihiko; Feinstein, Amanda B.; Wendell, Johanna W.; Sheehan, Shawn T.

    2010-01-01

    Using two modes of intervention delivery, the present study compared the effects of a cognitive defusion strategy with a thought distraction strategy on the emotional discomfort and believability of negative self-referential thoughts. One mode of intervention delivery consisted of a clinical rationale and training (i.e., Partial condition). The…

  13. Reductions in negative repetitive thinking and metacognitive beliefs during transdiagnostic internet cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) for mixed anxiety and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newby, Jill M; Williams, Alishia D; Andrews, Gavin

    We explored whether transdiagnostic internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) for mixed anxiety and depression effectively reduces repetitive negative thinking (RNT), and whether reductions in RNT and positive metacognitive beliefs mediate symptom improvement during iCBT. Participants

  14. Individuals with clinically significant insomnia symptoms are characterised by a negative sleep-related expectancy bias: Results from a cognitive-experimental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtauld, Hannah; Notebaert, Lies; Milkins, Bronwyn; Kyle, Simon D; Clarke, Patrick J F

    2017-08-01

    Cognitive models of insomnia consistently suggest that negative expectations regarding the consequences of poor sleep contribute to the maintenance of insomnia. To date, however, no research has sought to determine whether insomnia is indeed characterised by such a negative sleep-related expectancy bias, using objective cognitive assessment tasks which are more immune to response biases than questionnaire assessments. Therefore, the current study employed a reaction-time task assessing biased expectations among a group with clinically significant insomnia symptoms (n = 30) and a low insomnia symptoms group (n = 40). The task involved the presentation of scenarios describing the consequences of poor sleep, and non-sleep related activities, which could be resolved in a benign or a negative manner. The results demonstrated that the high insomnia symptoms group were disproportionately fast to resolve sleep-related scenarios in line with negative outcomes, as compared to benign outcomes, relative to the low insomnia symptoms group. The two groups did not differ in their pattern of resolving non-sleep related scenarios. This pattern of findings is entirely consistent with a sleep-specific expectancy bias operating in individuals with clinically significant insomnia symptoms, and highlights the potential of cognitive-experimental assessment tasks to objectively index patterns of biased cognition in insomnia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. PTSD symptom severity relates to cognitive and psycho-social dysfunctioning - a study with Congolese refugees in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainamani, Herbert E; Elbert, Thomas; Olema, David K; Hecker, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Background : In the ongoing conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), civilians have been heavily exposed to traumatic stressors. Traumatizing experiences cumulatively heighten the risk for trauma-related disorders, and with it affect cognitive and psycho-social functioning. Objectives : We aimed at investigating the association between trauma-related disorders and cognitive and psycho-social functioning and hypothesized that PTSD symptom severity would negatively correlate with executive functioning, working memory and psycho-social functioning in everyday life. Method : In total, 323 Congolese refugees (mean age: 31.3 years) who arrived in the Ugandan Nakivale refugee settlement after January 2012 were assessed regarding their exposure to traumatic events, PTSD symptom severity (posttraumatic symptom scale interview), executive functioning (Tower of London), working memory performance (Corsi block tapping task) and psycho-social dysfunctioning (Luo functioning scale). Results : Hierarchical regression analyses indicated a significant negative association between PTSD symptom severity and working memory (β = -0.32, p  psycho-social functioning in everyday life was positively related with PTSD symptom severity (β = 0.70, p  psycho-social dysfunctioning (β = 0.09, p  > 0.05). Conclusion : Trauma survivors not only suffer from the core PTSD symptoms but also from impaired cognitive functioning. PTSD symptom severity seems furthermore to be related to impaired psycho-social functioning. Our findings suggest that trauma-related mental health problems may heighten the risk for poverty and lack of prospect and further aggravate the consequences of war and conflict.

  16. PTSD symptom severity relates to cognitive and psycho-social dysfunctioning – a study with Congolese refugees in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainamani, Herbert E.; Elbert, Thomas; Olema, David K.; Hecker, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: In the ongoing conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), civilians have been heavily exposed to traumatic stressors. Traumatizing experiences cumulatively heighten the risk for trauma-related disorders, and with it affect cognitive and psycho-social functioning. Objectives: We aimed at investigating the association between trauma-related disorders and cognitive and psycho-social functioning and hypothesized that PTSD symptom severity would negatively correlate with executive functioning, working memory and psycho-social functioning in everyday life. Method: In total, 323 Congolese refugees (mean age: 31.3 years) who arrived in the Ugandan Nakivale refugee settlement after January 2012 were assessed regarding their exposure to traumatic events, PTSD symptom severity (posttraumatic symptom scale interview), executive functioning (Tower of London), working memory performance (Corsi block tapping task) and psycho-social dysfunctioning (Luo functioning scale). Results: Hierarchical regression analyses indicated a significant negative association between PTSD symptom severity and working memory (β = –0.32, p psycho-social functioning in everyday life was positively related with PTSD symptom severity (β = 0.70, p psycho-social dysfunctioning (β = 0.09, p > 0.05). Conclusion: Trauma survivors not only suffer from the core PTSD symptoms but also from impaired cognitive functioning. PTSD symptom severity seems furthermore to be related to impaired psycho-social functioning. Our findings suggest that trauma-related mental health problems may heighten the risk for poverty and lack of prospect and further aggravate the consequences of war and conflict. PMID:28326164

  17. A relative weights comparison of trauma-related shame and guilt as predictors of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity among US veterans and military members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Katherine C; Davis, Joanne L; Wilson, Sarah M; Resick, Patricia A

    2018-06-01

    Veterans and military service members have increased risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and consequent problems with health, psychosocial functioning, and quality of life. In this population and others, shame and guilt have emerged as contributors to PTSD, but there is a considerable need for research that precisely demonstrates how shame and guilt are associated with PTSD. This study examined whether a) trauma-related shame predicts PTSD severity beyond the effects of trauma-related guilt and b) shame accounts for a greater proportion of variance in PTSD symptoms than guilt. We collected cross-sectional self-report data on measures of PTSD symptom severity based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria, trauma-related shame, and trauma-related guilt via online survey. Participants included 61 US veterans and active duty service members. Hierarchical multiple regression and relative weights analysis were used to test hypotheses. In step 1 of regression analysis, guilt was significantly associated with PTSD. However, when shame was added to the model, the effect of guilt became non-significant, and only shame significant predicted PTSD. Results from relative weights analysis indicated that both shame and guilt predicted PTSD, jointly accounting for 46% of the variance in PTSD. Compared to guilt, trauma-related shame accounted for significantly more explained variance in PTSD. This study provided evidence that among US veterans and service members, trauma-related shame and guilt differ in their association with PTSD and that trauma-related shame, in particular, is associated with the severity of PTSD. Trauma-related shame and guilt explained almost half of the observed variance in PTSD symptom severity among this sample of US military veterans and service members. Trauma-related shame and guilt each made a unique contribution to PTSD severity after accounting for the similarity between these two emotions

  18. Development of personal narratives as a mediator of the impact of deficits in social cognition and social withdrawal on negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaker, Paul H; Erikson, Molly; Macapagal, Kathryn R; Tunze, Chloe; Gilmore, Emily; Ringer, Jamie M

    2012-04-01

    Although negative symptoms are a barrier to recovery from schizophrenia, little is understood about the psychological processes that reinforce and sustain them. To explore this issue, this study used structural equation modeling to test whether the impact of social withdrawal and emotion recognition deficits upon negative symptoms is mediated by the richness or poverty of personal narratives. The participants were 99 adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Social cognition was assessed using the Bell-Lysaker Emotional Recognition Task; social withdrawal, using the Quality of Life Scale; narrative coherence, using the Scale To Assess Narrative Development; and negative symptoms, using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. The findings reveal that although social cognition deficits and social withdrawal are significantly associated with negative symptom severity, these relationships become nonsignificant when personal narrative integrity is examined as a mediating factor. These results indicate that the development of personal narratives may be directly linked to the severity of negative symptoms; this construct may be a useful target for future interventions.

  19. Bilingual Language Control and General Purpose Cognitive Control among Individuals with Bilingual Aphasia: Evidence Based on Negative Priming and Flanker Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Tanya; Kar, Bhoomika R.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Bilingualism results in an added advantage with respect to cognitive control. The interaction between bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control systems can also be understood by studying executive control among individuals with bilingual aphasia. Objectives. The current study examined the subcomponents of cognitive control in bilingual aphasia. A case study approach was used to investigate whether cognitive control and language control are two separate systems and how factors related to bilingualism interact with control processes. Methods. Four individuals with bilingual aphasia performed a language background questionnaire, picture description task, and two experimental tasks (nonlinguistic negative priming task and linguistic and nonlinguistic versions of flanker task). Results. A descriptive approach was used to analyse the data using reaction time and accuracy measures. The cumulative distribution function plots were used to visualize the variations in performance across conditions. The results highlight the distinction between general purpose cognitive control and bilingual language control mechanisms. Conclusion. All participants showed predominant use of the reactive control mechanism to compensate for the limited resources system. Independent yet interactive systems for bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control were postulated based on the experimental data derived from individuals with bilingual aphasia. PMID:24982591

  20. Bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control among individuals with bilingual aphasia: evidence based on negative priming and flanker tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Tanya; Kar, Bhoomika R

    2014-01-01

    Bilingualism results in an added advantage with respect to cognitive control. The interaction between bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control systems can also be understood by studying executive control among individuals with bilingual aphasia. objectives: The current study examined the subcomponents of cognitive control in bilingual aphasia. A case study approach was used to investigate whether cognitive control and language control are two separate systems and how factors related to bilingualism interact with control processes. Four individuals with bilingual aphasia performed a language background questionnaire, picture description task, and two experimental tasks (nonlinguistic negative priming task and linguistic and nonlinguistic versions of flanker task). A descriptive approach was used to analyse the data using reaction time and accuracy measures. The cumulative distribution function plots were used to visualize the variations in performance across conditions. The results highlight the distinction between general purpose cognitive control and bilingual language control mechanisms. All participants showed predominant use of the reactive control mechanism to compensate for the limited resources system. Independent yet interactive systems for bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control were postulated based on the experimental data derived from individuals with bilingual aphasia.

  1. The impact of positive, negative and neutral stimuli in a virtual reality cognitive-motor rehabilitation task: a pilot study with stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameirão, Mónica S; Faria, Ana Lúcia; Paulino, Teresa; Alves, Júlio; Bermúdez I Badia, Sergi

    2016-08-09

    Virtual Reality (VR) based methods for stroke rehabilitation have mainly focused on motor rehabilitation, but there is increasing interest in integrating motor and cognitive training to increase similarity to real-world settings. Unfortunately, more research is needed for the definition of which type of content should be used in the design of these tools. One possibility is the use of emotional stimuli, which are known to enhance attentional processes. According to the Socioemotional Selectivity Theory, as people age, the emotional salience arises for positive and neutral, but not for negative stimuli. For this study we developed a cognitive-motor VR task involving attention and short-term memory, and we investigated the impact of using emotional images of varying valence. The task consisted of finding a target image, shown for only two seconds, among fourteen neutral distractors, and selecting it through arm movements. After performing the VR task, a recall task took place and the patients had to identify the target images among a valence-matched number of distractors. Ten stroke patients participated in a within-subjects experiment with three conditions based on the valence of the images: positive, negative and neutral. Eye movements were recorded during VR task performance with an eye tracking system. Our results show decreased attention for negative stimuli in the VR task performance when compared to neutral stimuli. The recall task shows significantly more wrongly identified images (false memories) for negative stimuli than for neutral. Regression and correlation analyses with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and the Geriatric Depression Scale revealed differential effects of cognitive function and depressive symptomatology in the encoding and recall of positive, negative and neutral images. Further, eye movement data shows reduced search patterns for wrongly selected stimuli containing emotional content. The results of this study suggest that it is feasible

  2. Admission to Intensive Care for a trauma related to alcohol or drugs, a 'teachable moment' for the beginning of a change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordovilla-Guardia, S; Vilar-López, R; Lardelli-Claret, P; Navas, J F; Guerrero-López, F; Fernández-Mondéjar, E

    To estimate how many of the trauma patients admitted to ICU would be candidates for a secondary prevention programme for trauma related to alcohol or drug use by brief motivational intervention and to define what factors prevent that intervention being performed. All 16-70year old trauma patients (n=242) admitted to ICU in 32 non-consecutive months (November 2011 to March 2015) were included in the study, coinciding with the implementation of a screening and brief motivational intervention programme for trauma patients related to substance consumption. The programme includes screening for exposure to substances at admission. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were collected prospectively. The screening for substances was not performed in 38 (15.7%) of all admitted patients. Of the patients screened, 101 (49.5%) were negative. The variables that in greater proportion impeded intervention between screening positive patients were neurological damage due to the trauma with 23 patients (37.1%) and prior psychiatric disorder with 18 (29%). Both variables were associated with substance consumption: negatives 9.9% vs positive 22.3% (P=.001) and negatives 3% vs positive 17.5% (P=.016) respectively. The number of candidates for motivational intervention was 41, 16.9% of all admitted patients. Almost 2 out of 10 patients were potential candidates. The factors that in a greater proportion precluded the intervention were the same as those associated with consumption. Mortality in ICU was associated with non-compliance with the screening protocol. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Trauma-related altered states of consciousness in women with BPD with or without co-occurring PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Frewen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A “4-D model” was recently described as a theoretical framework for categorizing trauma-related symptoms into four phenomenological dimensions (the experience of time, thought, body, and emotion that can present either in the form of normal waking consciousness (NWC or as dissociative experiences, that is, trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC. Methods: The present study examined the predictions of the 4-D model in 258 persons with borderline personality disorder (BPD with (n=126 versus without (n=132 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Results: As measured by the Borderline Symptom List, consistent with the predictions of the 4-D model, in comparison with symptom endorsements theorized to be associated with NWC, measures of TRASC were less frequent, and more strongly correlated with both Dissociative Experience Scale scores and severity of childhood emotional neglect, particularly in persons with both BPD and PTSD. Our prediction that symptoms of TRASC would be less intercorrelated in comparison with distress associated with NWC symptoms, however, was not supported. Conclusions: Findings are discussed as they pertain to the symptomatology of BPD, PTSD, and dissociation.

  4. Emotion Risk-Factor in Patients With Cardiac Diseases: The Role of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies, Positive Affect and Negative Affect (A Case-Control Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahremand, Mostafa; Alikhani, Mostafa; Zakiei, Ali; Janjani, Parisa; Aghaei, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Application of psychological interventions is essential in classic treatments for patient with cardiac diseases. The present study compared cognitive emotion regulation strategies, positive affect, and negative affect for cardiac patients with healthy subjects. This study was a case-control study. Fifty subjects were selected using convenient sampling method from cardiac (coronary artery disease) patients presenting in Imam Ali medical center of Kermanshah, Iran in the spring 2013. Fifty subjects accompanied the patients to the medical center, selected as control group, did not have any history of cardiac diseases. For collecting data, the cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire and positive and negative affect scales were used. For data analysis, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was applied using the SPSS statistical software (ver. 19.0). In all cognitive emotion regulation strategies, there was a significant difference between the two groups. A significant difference was also detected regarding positive affect between the two groups, but no significant difference was found regarding negative affect. We found as a result that, having poor emotion regulation strategies is a risk factor for developing heart diseases. PMID:26234976

  5. Emotion Risk-Factor in Patients with Cardiac Diseases: The Role of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies, Positive Affect and Negative Affect (A Case-Control Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahremand, Mostafa; Alikhani, Mostafa; Zakiei, Ali; Janjani, Parisa; Aghei, Abbas

    2015-05-17

    Application of psychological interventions is essential in classic treatments for patient with cardiac diseases. The present study compared cognitive emotion regulation strategies, positive affect, and negative affect for cardiac patients with healthy subjects. This study was a case-control study. Fifty subjects were selected using convenient sampling method from cardiac (coronary artery disease) patients presenting in Imam Ali medical center of Kermanshah, Iran in the spring 2013. Fifty subjects accompanied the patients to the medical center, selected as control group, did not have any history of cardiac diseases. For collecting data, the cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire and positive and negative affect scales were used. For data analysis, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) Was applied using the SPSS statistical software (ver. 19.0). In all cognitive emotion regulation strategies, there was a significant difference between the two groups. A significant difference was also detected regarding positive affect between the two groups, but no significant difference was found regarding negative affect. We found as a result that, having poor emotion regulation strategies is a risk factor for developing heart diseases.

  6. [Effects of the recipient's response on the emotions and cognitions of female undergraduates disclosing negative emotional experiences in interpersonal relationships].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Hiroko; Yukawa, Shintaro

    2013-04-01

    The relationship between a recipient's response to a disclosure of negative emotional experiences, and the resulting negative emotions, hesitation in self-disclosure (interpersonal and intra-personal hesitation), and negatively-confused thoughts of the person making the disclosure were investigated. Female undergraduates (N=271) were asked to write about angry or sad events in their interpersonal relationships that they had disclosed to someone. Then they completed a questionnaire assessing the recipient's responses, negative emotions such as anger and depression caused by the recipient's responses, hesitation in self-disclosure about the events, and negatively-confused thoughts about the events. The results of covariance structure analysis indicated that a recipient's rejection in response to the disclosure of negative emotional experiences resulted in negative thoughts caused by an increase of negative emotions and hesitation in self-disclosure. The results also showed that a recipient's acceptance also increased depression in the person making the self-disclosure, which intensified the intra-personal hesitation, and increased negatively-confused thoughts.

  7. Effects of self-compassion workbook training on trauma-related guilt in a sample of homeless veterans: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Philip; Owens, Gina P

    2015-06-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of a 4-week-long self-administered self-compassion training on trauma-related guilt and compared it to a stress inoculation control group. A total of 47 homeless male veterans who were living in transitional housing facilities volunteered to participate in this study. Participants were randomly assigned to either a self-compassion (N = 13) or a stress inoculation (N = 14) group and were asked to complete pre-, mid-, and postintervention assessments measuring changes in self-compassion, trauma-related guilt, and posttraumatic stress disorder severity. Participants in both interventions reported increased levels of self-compassion and equal reductions in trauma-related guilt. No other significant changes were noted. The results from this pilot study provide preliminary evidence for the use of self-compassion and stress inoculation trainings as effective interventions for trauma-related guilt. The findings also suggest that self-administered trainings in the form of workbooks may be a viable, cost-effective form of intervention for disadvantaged populations, such as homeless veterans in transitional housing, who may lack resources or access to professionals or paraprofessionals. The effects of both self-compassion training and stress inoculation training on the study variables and directions for future research on self-compassion and trauma-related guilt are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Variations in the perception of trauma-related complications between attending surgeons, surgery residents, critical care nurses, and medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanaike, Sharmila; Berry, Matthew; Ginos, Jason; Paige, Robert; McNabb, Wendi; Griswold, John

    2009-06-01

    The morbidity and mortality conference (M&M) is a key component of the performance improvement process. The audience response system (ARS) has been shown to improve audience participation and promote more truthful responses in various settings. We implemented the ARS in our trauma M&M and evaluated the responses we received from different categories of participants. This was a prospective observational study undertaken between November 2006 and July 2007. Cases were graded based on the American College of Surgeons scoring system. We evaluated the responses of attending surgeons, residents, critical care nurses, and medical students using the ARS. We had 695 responses for complications and 936 responses for deaths. Residents consistently scored complications as more severe than other groups (P = .03). There was no difference in the scoring of deaths. Surgical residents assign higher severity to trauma-related complications than other groups when using an anonymous automated scoring system.

  9. A randomized trial of a cognitive-behavioral therapy and hypnosis intervention on positive and negative affect during breast cancer radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnur, Julie B; David, Daniel; Kangas, Maria; Green, Sheryl; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Montgomery, Guy H

    2009-04-01

    Breast cancer radiotherapy can be an emotionally difficult experience. Despite this, few studies have examined the effectiveness of psychological interventions to reduce negative affect, and none to date have explicitly examined interventions to improve positive affect among breast cancer radiotherapy patients. The present study examined the effectiveness of a multimodal psychotherapeutic approach, combining cognitive-behavioral therapy and hypnosis (CBTH), to reduce negative affect and increase positive affect in 40 women undergoing breast cancer radiotherapy. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either CBTH or standard care. Participants completed weekly self-report measures of positive and negative affect. Repeated and univariate analyses of variance revealed that the CBTH approach reduced levels of negative affect [F(1, 38)=13.49; p=.0007, omega(2)=.56], and increased levels of positive affect [F(1, 38)=9.67; p=.0035, omega(2)=.48], during the course of radiotherapy. Additionally, relative to the control group, the CBTH group demonstrated significantly more intense positive affect [F(1, 38)=7.09; p=.0113, d=.71] and significantly less intense negative affect [F(1, 38)=10.30; p=.0027, d=.90] during radiotherapy. The CBTH group also had a significantly higher frequency of days where positive affect was greater than negative affect (85% of days assessed for the CBTH group versus 43% of the Control group) [F(1, 38)=18.16; p=.0001, d=1.16]. Therefore, the CBTH intervention has the potential to improve the affective experience of women undergoing breast cancer radiotherapy.

  10. Inharmonic music elicits more negative affect and interferes more with a concurrent cognitive task than does harmonic music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Tanor; Smilek, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated whether task-irrelevant inharmonic music produces greater interference with cognitive performance than task-irrelevant harmonic music. Participants completed either an auditory (Experiment 1) or a visual (Experiment 2) version of the cognitively demanding 2-back task in which they were required to categorize each digit in a sequence of digits as either being a target (a digit also presented two positions earlier in the sequence) or a distractor (all other items). They were concurrently exposed to either task-irrelevant harmonic music (judged to be consonant), task-irrelevant inharmonic music (judged to be dissonant), or no music at all as a distraction. The main finding across both experiments was that performance on the 2-back task was worse when participants were exposed to inharmonic music than when they were exposed to harmonic music. Interestingly, performance on the 2-back task was generally the same regardless of whether harmonic music or no music was played. We suggest that inharmonic, dissonant music interferes with cognitive performance by requiring greater cognitive processing than harmonic, consonant music, and speculate about why this might be.

  11. Asthma-specific cognitions, self-focused attention, and fear of negative evaluation in adolescents and young adults diagnosed with childhood-onset asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junghans-Rutelonis, Ashley N; Tackett, Alayna P; Suorsa, Kristina I; Chaney, John M; Mullins, Larry L

    2018-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of asthma-specific thought intrusion (TI) and thought suppression (TS) on two cognitive-affective variables (self-focused attention and fear of negative evaluation) among adolescents and young adults (AYAs) diagnosed with childhood-onset asthma. Participants were 290 AYAs who completed assessment questionnaires and participated in a written exercise electronically. Asthma-TI and TS were reported by participants following participation in a writing assignment. Asthma-TI was associated with increased private, public, and social anxiety self-focused attention, and greater fear of negative evaluation. Interestingly, asthma-TS was not associated with these same outcome variables. Findings suggest illness-specific cognitions are associated with cognitive-affective variables and it may be important to assess for illness-specific intrusive thoughts following asthma-focused medical appointments. Additionally, findings suggest the importance of assessing asthma-TI and TS separately in order to better understand thoughts about health and psychological functioning.

  12. The predictive value of childhood recurrent abdominal pain for adult emotional disorders, and the influence of negative cognitive style. Findings from a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Stein

    Full Text Available Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP in childhood is common, with no explanatory pathology identified in the majority of cases. Previous studies have consistently demonstrated an association between childhood RAP and later emotional distress disorders. The aim of this study was to replicate this finding through the analysis of a large dataset, and explore how a negative style of thinking could potentially influence this relationship.The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC is a population cohort of children born in the Avon area of the UK, between 1991-1992. Data on childhood RAP was collected via maternal reports at 3, 4, 7 and 9 years. Mood, anxiety and cognitive style were measured at age 18. We controlled for various confounding factors, including maternal anxiety and the child's pre-existing psychopathology. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations, and moderation effects of cognitive style were analysed using likelihood ratios.Experiencing RAP at any one time-point is associated with an increased odds of depression and/or anxiety disorder at 18 (OR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.09-1.83. We found a dose-response relationship and each additional marker of RAP was associated with a 26% (CI: 7% to 47% increase in risk of having a mood and/or anxiety disorder. Individuals who attribute adversity to global, stable or personal factors were at amplified risk.Childhood RAP predicts depression and anxiety disorders at 18 and should be targeted for early intervention. Individuals with a negative cognitive style may be particularly vulnerable, suggesting that cognitive interpretations of physical symptoms could play an important role in long-term health outcomes.

  13. Constructive and Unproductive Processing of Traumatic Experiences in Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Adele M; Yasinski, Carly; Grasso, Damion; Ready, C Beth; Alpert, Elizabeth; McCauley, Thomas; Webb, Charles; Deblinger, Esther

    2017-03-01

    Although there is substantial evidence to support the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral treatments (CBT) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there is some debate about how these treatments have their effects. Modern learning theory and cognitive and emotional processing theories highlight the importance of reducing avoidance, facilitating the constructive processing of feared experiences, and strengthening new inhibitory learning. We examined variables thought to be associated with unproductive and constructive processing of traumatic experiences in a sample of 81 youth with elevated PTSD symptoms, who received Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) for abuse or traumatic interpersonal loss. Sessions during the trauma narrative phase of TF-CBT were coded for indicators of unproductive processing (overgeneralization, rumination, avoidance) and constructive processing (decentering, accommodation of corrective information), as well as levels of negative emotion. In previous analyses of this trial (Ready et al., 2015), more overgeneralization during the narrative phase predicted less improvement in internalizing symptoms at posttreatment and a worsening of externalizing symptoms over the 12-month follow-up. In contrast, more accommodation predicted improvement in internalizing symptoms and also moderated the negative effects of overgeneralization on internalizing and externalizing symptoms. The current study examined correlates of overgeneralization and accommodation. Overgeneralization was associated with more rumination, less decentering, and more negative emotion, suggesting immersion in trauma-related material. Accommodation was associated with less avoidance and more decentering, suggesting a healthy distance from trauma-related material that might allow for processing and cognitive change. Decentering also predicted improvement in externalizing symptoms at posttreatment. Rumination and avoidance showed important associations with

  14. Constructive and Unproductive Processing of Traumatic Experiences in Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Adele M.; Yasinski, Carly; Grasso, Damion; Ready, C. Beth; Alpert, Elizabeth; McCauley, Thomas; Webb, Charles; Deblinger, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Although there is substantial evidence to support the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral treatments (CBT) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there is some debate about how these treatments have their effects. Modern learning theory and cognitive and emotional processing theories highlight the importance of reducing avoidance, facilitating the constructive processing of feared experiences, and strengthening new inhibitory learning. We examined variables thought to be associated with unproductive and constructive processing of traumatic experiences in a sample of 81 youth with elevated PTSD symptoms, who received Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) for abuse or traumatic interpersonal loss. Sessions during the trauma narrative phase of TF-CBT were coded for indicators of unproductive processing (overgeneralization, rumination, avoidance) and constructive processing (decentering, accommodation of corrective information), as well as levels of negative emotion. In previous analyses of this trial (Ready et al., 2015), more overgeneralization during the narrative phase predicted less improvement in internalizing symptoms at posttreatment and a worsening of externalizing symptoms over the 12-month follow-up. In contrast, more accommodation predicted improvement in internalizing symptoms and also moderated the negative effects of overgeneralization on internalizing and externalizing symptoms. The current study examined correlates of overgeneralization and accommodation. Overgeneralization was associated with more rumination, less decentering, and more negative emotion, suggesting immersion in trauma-related material. Accommodation was associated with less avoidance and more decentering, suggesting a healthy distance from trauma-related material that might allow for processing and cognitive change. Decentering also predicted improvement in externalizing symptoms at posttreatment. Rumination and avoidance showed important associations with

  15. Negative cognitions about the self in patients with persecutory delusions: An empirical study of self-compassion, self-stigma, schematic beliefs, self-esteem, fear of madness, and suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Nicola; Pugh, Katherine; Waite, Felicity; Freeman, Daniel

    2016-05-30

    There has been growing awareness of the high prevalence of negative cognitions about the self in patients with persecutory delusions, and it has been proposed that paranoid fears build upon these perceived vulnerabilities. This study aimed to investigate for the first time a wide range of different conceptualisations of the negative self, and to examine associations with suicidal ideation, in patients with persecutory delusions. Twenty-one patients with persecutory delusions and twenty-one non-clinical individuals completed measures relating to negative self cognitions. The delusions group also completed a measure of suicidal ideation. It was found that the patients with persecutory delusions had low self-compassion, low self-esteem, increased fears of being mad, beliefs of inferiority to others, negative self-schemas, and low positive self-schemas when compared to the non-clinical control group. The effect sizes (Cohen's d) were large, and the different conceptualisations of negative self cognitions were highly associated with one another. Self-stigma did not differ between the two groups. Furthermore, suicidal ideation was highly associated with low self-compassion, low self-esteem, fears of madness, and negative self-schema but not self-stigma. This study shows marked negative self cognitions in patients with persecutory delusions. These are likely to prove targets of clinical interventions, with patient preference most likely determining the best conceptualisation of negative self cognitions for clinicians to use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Uncertain call likelihood negatively affects sleep and next-day cognitive performance while on-call in a laboratory environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprajcer, Madeline; Jay, Sarah M; Vincent, Grace E; Vakulin, Andrew; Lack, Leon; Ferguson, Sally A

    2018-05-11

    On-call working arrangements are employed in a number of industries to manage unpredictable events, and often involve tasks that are safety- or time-critical. This study investigated the effects of call likelihood during an overnight on-call shift on self-reported pre-bed anxiety, sleep and next-day cognitive performance. A four-night laboratory-based protocol was employed, with an adaptation, a control and two counterbalanced on-call nights. On one on-call night, participants were instructed that they would definitely be called during the night, while on the other on-call night they were told they may be called. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory form x-1 was used to investigate pre-bed anxiety, and sleep was assessed using polysomnography and power spectral analysis of the sleep electroencephalographic analysis. Cognitive performance was assessed four times daily using a 10-min psychomotor vigilance task. Participants felt more anxious before bed when they were definitely going to be called, compared with the control and maybe conditions. Conversely, participants experienced significantly less non-rapid eye movement and stage two sleep and poorer cognitive performance when told they may be called. Further, participants had significantly more rapid eye movement sleep in the maybe condition, which may be an adaptive response to the stress associated with this on-call condition. It appears that self-reported anxiety may not be linked with sleep outcomes while on-call. However, this research indicates that it is important to take call likelihood into consideration when constructing rosters and risk-management systems for on-call workers.

  17. Broken and guilty since it happened: A population study of trauma-related shame and guilt after violence and sexual abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aakvaag, Helene Flood; Thoresen, Siri; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Dyb, Grete; Røysamb, Espen; Olff, Miranda

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing interest in trauma-related shame and guilt. However, much remains unknown in terms of how these emotions relate to the type of event, gender and mental health. We investigated shame and guilt in men and women following various types of severe violence and their relation to mental

  18. Weak evidence for increased motivated forgetting of trauma-related words in dissociated or traumatised individuals in a directed forgetting experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patihis, Lawrence; Place, Patricia J

    2018-05-01

    Motivated forgetting is the idea that people can block out, or forget, upsetting or traumatic memories, because there is a motivation to do so. Some researchers have cited directed forgetting studies using trauma-related words as evidence for the theory of motivated forgetting of trauma. In the current article subjects used the list method directed forgetting paradigm with both trauma-related words and positive words. After one list of words was presented subjects were directed to forget the words previously learned, and they then received another list of words. Each list was a mix of positive and trauma-related words, and the lists were counterbalanced. Later, subjects recalled as many of the words as they could, including the ones they were told to forget. Based on the theory that motivated forgetting would lead to recall deficits of trauma-related material, we created eight hypotheses. High dissociators, trauma-exposed, sexual trauma-exposed, and high dissociators with trauma-exposure participants were hypothesised to show enhanced forgetting of trauma words. Results indicated only one of eight hypotheses was supported: those higher on dissociation and trauma recalled fewer trauma words in the to-be-forgotten condition, compared to those low on dissociation and trauma. These results provide weak support for differential motivated forgetting.

  19. Development of a symptoms questionnaire for complex regional pain syndrome and potentially related illnesses: the Trauma Related Neuronal Dysfunction Symptoms Inventory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, S.; van Hilten, J.J.; Marinus, J.J.; Zuurmond, W.W.A.; de Lange, J.J.; Perez, R.S.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Collins S, van Hilten JJ, Marinus J, Zuurmond WW, de Lange JJ, Perez RS. Development of a symptoms questionnaire for complex regional pain syndrome and potentially related illnesses: the Trauma Related Neuronal Dysfunction Symptoms Inventory. Objective: To develop a questionnaire to evaluate

  20. The influence of cognitive-behavioural stress management therapy on self-concept personality trait and negative emotions in women with Bulimia nervosa disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masiha Eskandari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The etiology of Bulimia nervosa disorder has not been determined yet. The somatic psychological problems need to be addressed in the treatment of these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of cognitive-behavioural stress management training on self-concept personality trait and negative emotions in women with Bulimia nervosa disorder. Methods: The subjects consisted of 50 patients with Bulimia nervosa disorder that were randomly assigned to experimental (25 and control (25 groups. The experimental group received group cognitive behavioural therapy. The BSCT and DASS tests were performed on both groups before and after treatment. The results were analysed by MANCOVA. Results: In terms of self-concept, the results of pre-test and post-test in experimental group were (M: 53.44 and SD: 12.62 and (M:10.48 and SD:14.21, respectively, but for control group, the results of pre-test and post-test were (M: 50.64 and SD: 13.72 and (M: 49.56 and SD:13.75, respectively. In the case of negative emotions; the findings of pre-test and post-test for experimental group were (M: 12.76 and SD: 4.06 and (M:12.08 and SD: 4.06, respectively. However, the results of pre-test and post-test for control group were (M: 27.24 and SD: 4.17, and (M: 26.36 and SD: 4.09, respectively. Within-group comparisons indicated, the pre-test results of self-concept (M: 53.44 and SD: 12.62 were higher than those of the post-test (M: 10.48 and SD:14.21, and the pre-test results of negative emotions in experimental group (M:12.76 and SD:4.06 indicated a little change in the post-test (M:12.08 and SD: 4.06. Conclusion: This study showed that cognitive-behavioural therapy is effective for increasing the self-concept and decreasing negative emotions in patients with Bulimia nervosa disorder (P<0.000.

  1. Identification and localization of trauma-related biomarkers using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kirstin; Reilly, Matthew A.; Glickman, Randolph D.

    2017-02-01

    Current treatments for ocular and optic nerve trauma are largely ineffective and may have adverse side effects; therefore, new approaches are needed to understand trauma mechanisms. Identification of trauma-related biomarkers may yield insights into the molecular aspects of tissue trauma that can contribute to the development of better diagnostics and treatments. The conventional approach for protein biomarker measurement largely relies on immunoaffinity methods that typically can only be applied to analytes for which antibodies or other targeting means are available. Matrix assisted laser-assisted desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) is a specialized application of mass spectrometry that not only is well suited to the discovery of novel or unanticipated biomarkers, but also provides information about the spatial localization of biomarkers in tissue. We have been using MALDI-IMS to find traumarelated protein biomarkers in retina and optic nerve tissue from animal models subjected to ocular injury produced by either blast overpressure or mechanical torsion. Work to date by our group, using MALDI-IMS, found that the pattern of protein expression is modified in the injured ocular tissue as soon as 24 hr post-injury, compared to controls. Specific proteins may be up- or down-regulated by trauma, suggesting different tissue responses to a given injury. Ongoing work is directed at identifying the proteins affected and mapping their expression in the ocular tissue, anticipating that systematic analysis can be used to identify targets for prospective therapies for ocular trauma.

  2. Aberrant Functional Connectivity of the Amygdala Complexes in PTSD during Conscious and Subconscious Processing of Trauma-Related Stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Rabellino

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is characterized by altered functional connectivity of the amygdala complexes at rest. However, amygdala complex connectivity during conscious and subconscious threat processing remains to be elucidated. Here, we investigate specific connectivity of the centromedial amygdala (CMA and basolateral amygdala (BLA during conscious and subconscious processing of trauma-related words among individuals with PTSD (n = 26 as compared to non-trauma-exposed controls (n = 20. Psycho-physiological interaction analyses were performed using the right and left amygdala complexes as regions of interest during conscious and subconscious trauma word processing. These analyses revealed a differential, context-dependent responses by each amygdala seed during trauma processing in PTSD. Specifically, relative to controls, during subconscious processing, individuals with PTSD demonstrated increased connectivity of the CMA with the superior frontal gyrus, accompanied by a pattern of decreased connectivity between the BLA and the superior colliculus. During conscious processing, relative to controls, individuals with PTSD showed increased connectivity between the CMA and the pulvinar. These findings demonstrate alterations in amygdala subregion functional connectivity in PTSD and highlight the disruption of the innate alarm network during both conscious and subconscious trauma processing in this disorder.

  3. The Dutch version of the Child Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory: validation in a clinical sample and a school sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diehle, Julia; de Roos, Carlijn; Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Boer, Frits; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: With the inclusion of trauma-related cognitions in the DSM-5 criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the assessment of these cognitions has become essential. Therefore, valid tools for the assessment of these cognitions are warranted. Objective: The current study aimed at

  4. Autoethnography and cognitive adaptation: two powerful buffers against the negative consequences of workplace bullying and academic mobbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheko, Mpho M

    2018-12-01

    Work is undoubtedly fundamental to human life, social development and the economic development of individuals, organizations and nations. However, the experience of working is not always pleasant as there are many instances where relationships between workers could deteriorate, leading to practices and behaviours that could be characterized as workplace bullying and/or mobbing. The current study is an exploratory study which used autoethnography to investigate experiences of academic bullying and mobbing, and relates the practices to power structures in academic institutions. Specifically, the author shares personal experiences and explores the physical and emotional pain of being bullied and mobbed. The author also outlines how both autoethnography and meaning in life strategies were used to cope with the physical and emotional distresses associated with the negative experiences. By outlining the success of the meaning in life strategies, the author hopes to inspire other "victims" to move from victims to being survivors of bullying and mobbing.

  5. Understanding Negative Self-Evaluations in Borderline Personality Disorder-a Review of Self-Related Cognitions, Emotions, and Motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Dorina; Bohus, Martin; Lis, Stefanie

    2017-03-01

    Self-conscious emotions, such as guilt, shame, or self-disgust, as well as self-related motives, such as self-enhancement or self-verification, influence how people perceive, evaluate, memorize, and respond to self-related information. They not only influence peoples' concepts of themselves but may also affect their behavior in social environments. In the current review, we describe alterations of self-related processing in borderline personality disorder (BPD). We chose BPD as an example of a mental disorder of which impairments in self-functioning and identity constitute a major feature. Since terminology used in clinical research on self-referential processing is diverse and often confusing, we start with reviewing some of the main concepts in this area of research using a conceptual framework provided from social psychology. Most studies on self-referential processing in BPD focused on descriptions of self-esteem and revealed a negative self-concept, particularly expressed by explicitly reported low self-esteem. Moreover, self-esteem is unstable in BPD and likely reactive to self-relevant cues. BPD patients are prone to negative emotions with respect to themselves, such as self-disgust and shame. First data point to altered self-related motives, too. In conclusion, although explicit self-esteem is widely studied as a global and trait-like feature of BPD, there is a strong lack of studies that take the complexity of the construct self-esteem into account. Further studies on alterations in self-related processes are required to deepen our understanding of impairments of the self-concept in BPD and enable the improvement of psychosocial therapeutic approaches.

  6. The context dependency of extinction negates the effectiveness of cognitive enhancement to reduce cocaine-primed reinstatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Sherri; Wagner, John J

    2013-09-01

    With respect to the treatment of addiction, the objective of extinction training is to decrease drug-seeking behavior by repeatedly exposing the patient to cues in the absence of unconditioned reinforcement. Such exposure therapy typically takes place in a novel (clinical) environment. This is potentially problematic, as the effects of extinction training include a context dependent component and therefore diminished efficacy is expected upon the patient's return to former drug-seeking/taking environments. We have reported that treatment with the NMDAR coagonist d-serine is effective in facilitating the effects of extinction to reduce cocaine-primed reinstatement. The present study assesses d-serine's effectiveness in reducing drug-primed reinstatement under conditions in which extinction training occurs in a novel environment. After 22 days of cocaine self-administration (0.5 mg/kg) in context "A", animals underwent 5 extinction training sessions in context "B". Immediately after each extinction session in "B", animals received either saline or d-serine (60 mg/kg) treatment. Our results indicate that d-serine treatment following extinction in "B" had no effect on either IV or IP cocaine-primed reinstatement conducted in "A". These results stand in contrast to our previous findings where extinction occurred in "A", indicating that d-serine's effectiveness in facilitating extinction training to reduce drug-primed reinstatement is not transferable to a novel extinction environment. This inability of d-serine treatment to reduce the context specificity of extinction training may explain the inconsistent effects observed in clinical studies published to date in which adjunctive cognitive enhancement treatment has been combined with behavioral therapy without significant benefit. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Expression profiling associates blood and brain glucocorticoid receptor signaling with trauma-related individual differences in both sexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalakis, Nikolaos P; Cohen, Hagit; Cai, Guiqing; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-09-16

    Delineating the molecular basis of individual differences in the stress response is critical to understanding the pathophysiology and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this study, 7 d after predator-scent-stress (PSS) exposure, male and female rats were classified into vulnerable (i.e., "PTSD-like") and resilient (i.e., minimally affected) phenotypes on the basis of their performance on a variety of behavioral measures. Genome-wide expression profiling in blood and two limbic brain regions (amygdala and hippocampus), followed by quantitative PCR validation, was performed in these two groups of animals, as well as in an unexposed control group. Differentially expressed genes were identified in blood and brain associated with PSS-exposure and with distinct behavioral profiles postexposure. There was a small but significant between-tissue overlap (4-21%) for the genes associated with exposure-related individual differences, indicating convergent gene expression in both sexes. To uncover convergent signaling pathways across tissue and sex, upstream activated/deactivated transcription factors were first predicted for each tissue and then the respective pathways were identified. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling was the only convergent pathway associated with individual differences when using the most stringent statistical threshold. Corticosterone treatment 1 h after PSS-exposure prevented anxiety and hyperarousal 7 d later in both sexes, confirming the GR involvement in the PSS behavioral response. In conclusion, genes and pathways associated with extreme differences in the traumatic stress behavioral response can be distinguished from those associated with trauma exposure. Blood-based biomarkers can predict aspects of brain signaling. GR signaling is a convergent signaling pathway, associated with trauma-related individual differences in both sexes.

  8. Validation of mismatch negativity and P3a for use in multi-site studies of schizophrenia: characterization of demographic, clinical, cognitive, and functional correlates in COGS-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Gregory A; Swerdlow, Neal R; Thomas, Michael L; Calkins, Monica E; Green, Michael F; Greenwood, Tiffany A; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C; Lazzeroni, Laura C; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Pela, Marlena; Radant, Allen D; Seidman, Larry J; Sharp, Richard F; Siever, Larry J; Silverman, Jeremy M; Sprock, Joyce; Stone, William S; Sugar, Catherine A; Tsuang, Debby W; Tsuang, Ming T; Braff, David L; Turetsky, Bruce I

    2015-04-01

    Mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a are auditory event-related potential (ERP) components that show robust deficits in schizophrenia (SZ) patients and exhibit qualities of endophenotypes, including substantial heritability, test-retest reliability, and trait-like stability. These measures also fulfill criteria for use as cognition and function-linked biomarkers in outcome studies, but have not yet been validated for use in large-scale multi-site clinical studies. This study tested the feasibility of adding MMN and P3a to the ongoing Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS) study. The extent to which demographic, clinical, cognitive, and functional characteristics contribute to variability in MMN and P3a amplitudes was also examined. Participants (HCS n=824, SZ n=966) underwent testing at 5 geographically distributed COGS laboratories. Valid ERP recordings were obtained from 91% of HCS and 91% of SZ patients. Highly significant MMN (d=0.96) and P3a (d=0.93) amplitude reductions were observed in SZ patients, comparable in magnitude to those observed in single-lab studies with no appreciable differences across laboratories. Demographic characteristics accounted for 26% and 18% of the variance in MMN and P3a amplitudes, respectively. Significant relationships were observed among demographically-adjusted MMN and P3a measures and medication status as well as several clinical, cognitive, and functional characteristics of the SZ patients. This study demonstrates that MMN and P3a ERP biomarkers can be feasibly used in multi-site clinical studies. As with many clinical tests of brain function, demographic factors contribute to MMN and P3a amplitudes and should be carefully considered in future biomarker-informed clinical studies. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Plasma bile acids show a positive correlation with body mass index and are negatively associated with cognitive restraint of eating in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip ePrinz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bile acids may be involved in the regulation of food intake and energy metabolism. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of plasma bile acids with body mass index (BMI and the possible involvement of circulating bile acids in the modulation of physical activity and eating behavior. Blood was obtained in a group of hospitalized patients with normal weight (BMI 18.5-25 kg/m2, underweight (anorexia nervosa, BMI 50 kg/m2, n=14-15/group and plasma bile acid concentrations assessed. Physical activity and plasma bile acids were measured in a group of patients with anorexia nervosa (BMI 14.6±0.3 kg/m2, n=43. Lastly, in a population of obese patients (BMI 48.5±0.9 kg/m2, n=85, psychometric parameters related to disordered eating and plasma bile acids were assessed. Plasma bile acids showed a positive correlation with BMI (r=0.26, p=0.03 in the population of patients with broad range of BMI (9-85 kg/m2, n=74. No associations were observed between plasma bile acids and different parameters of physical activity in anorexic patients (p>0.05. Plasma bile acids were negatively correlated with cognitive restraint of eating (r=-0.30, p=0.008, while no associations were observed with other psychometric eating behavior-related parameters (p>0.05 in obese patients. In conclusion, these data may point towards a role of bile acids in the regulation of body weight. Since plasma bile acids are negatively correlated with the cognitive restraint of eating in obese patients, this may represent a compensatory adaptation to prevent further overeating.

  10. Trauma cognitions are related to symptoms up to 10 years after cognitive behavioral treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher, Christine D; Suvak, Michael K; Resick, Patricia A

    2017-11-01

    This study examined (a) relationships between trauma-related cognitions and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms from pretreatment through a long-term period after cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for PTSD and (b) whether these relationships were impacted by treatment type. Participants were 171 women randomized into treatment for PTSD after rape. Measures of self-reported trauma-related cognitions and interviewer-assessed PTSD symptoms (i.e., Posttraumatic Maladaptive Beliefs Scale, Trauma-Related Guilt Inventory, and Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale) were obtained at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 3-month, 9-month, and 5-10 year follow-ups. Multilevel regression analyses were used to examine relationships between trauma-related cognitions and PTSD symptoms throughout the study period and whether these relationships differed as a function of treatment type (i.e., Cognitive Processing Therapy or Prolonged Exposure). Initial multilevel regression analyses that examined mean within-participant associations suggested that beliefs regarding Reliability and Trustworthiness of Others, Self-Worth and Judgment, Threat of Harm, and Guilt were related to PTSD symptoms throughout follow-up. Growth curve modeling suggested that patterns of belief change throughout follow-up were similar to those previously observed in PTSD symptoms over the same time period. Finally, multilevel mediation analyses that incorporated time further suggested that change in beliefs was related to change in symptoms throughout follow-up. With 1 minor exception, relationships between beliefs and symptoms were not moderated by treatment type. These data suggest that trauma-related cognitions are a potential mechanism for long-term maintenance of treatment gains after CBT for PTSD. Moreover, these cognitions may be a common, rather than specific, treatment maintenance mechanism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Cognitive processing therapy versus supportive counseling for acute stress disorder following assault: a randomized pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Reginald D V

    2012-12-01

    The study tested the efficacy and tolerability of cognitive processing therapy (CPT) for survivors of assault with acute stress disorder. Participants (N=30) were randomly allocated to CPT or supportive counseling. Therapy comprised six individual weekly sessions of 90-min duration. Independent diagnostic assessment for PTSD was conducted at posttreatment. Participants completed self-report measures of posttraumatic stress, depression, and negative trauma-related beliefs at pre-, posttreatment, and 6-month follow-up. Results indicated that both interventions were successful in reducing symptoms at posttreatment with no statistical difference between the two; within and between-group effect sizes and the proportion of participants not meeting PTSD criteria was greater in CPT. Treatment gains were maintained for both groups at 6-month follow-up. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Aggression by Children Exposed to IPV: Exploring the Role of Child Depressive Symptoms, Trauma-Related Symptoms, & Warmth in Family Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Caroline C; Cameranesi, Margherita

    2018-06-01

    Multi-informant reports of aggression by siblings in families with and without a history of IPV were compared. Associations between aggressive behavior and child depressive and trauma-related symptoms, as well as maternal and sibling warmth were also explored. Mothers, observers and the siblings themselves reported on aggressive behaviour. Mothers reported on child trauma-related symptoms while children provided self-report on depressive symptoms and mother-child and sibling warmth. The frequency of observed aggression did not differ across groups on average, although more sibling dyads exposed to IPV engaged in aggression than those not exposed. Child reports of sibling aggression did not differ across groups but mothers reported significantly less aggressive behavior by children exposed to IPV than those not exposed. Regression results indicated that depressive and trauma-related symptoms were significant risk factors for aggression, while the role of mother-child and sibling warmth was more complex. Results were discussed within a developmental psychopathology framework.

  13. Mental Defeat and Cumulative Trauma Experiences Predict Trauma-Related Psychopathology : Evidence From a Postconflict Population in Northern Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Wilker, Sarah; Kleim, Birgit; Geiling, Angelika; Pfeiffer, Anett; Elbert, Thomas; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    The peritraumatic cognitive process of mental defeat, the complete loss of inner resistance, has been identified as a key predictor of PTSD. Yet, most evidence on cognitive risk factors stems from industrialized countries where survivors typically report few traumata. Research from postconflict settings indicates that individual differences decrease with accumulating traumatic experiences, as almost everybody develops PTSD at extreme levels of trauma load. Would this leave less room for the i...

  14. SU94. Allele-Specific and Trauma-Related Epigenetic Changes in the FKBP5 Gene: Differences Between Psychotic Patients and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaljevic, Marina; Franic, Dusica; Soldatovic, Ivan; Andric, Sanja; Mirjanic, Tijana; Novakovic, Ivana; Adzic, Miroslav; Maric, Nadja

    2017-01-01

    5 gene in psychotic patients, which is in line with previous reports in traumatized individuals. Trauma-related demethylation in risk controls’ group supports the hypothesis that psychotic and stress-related conditions could share common neurobiological underlying mechanism, such as HPA axis dysregulation, particularly in individuals with genetic predisposition for altered stress response. References 1.Daskalakis NP, Binder EB. Schizophrenia in the spectrum of gene-stress interactions: the FKBP5 example. Schizophr Bull. 2015;41:323–329. 2.Klengel T, Mehta D, Anacker C et al. Allele-specific FKBP5 DNA demethylation mediates gene-childhood trauma interactions. Nat Neurosci. 2013;16:33–41.

  15. Physical and nutrition statuses of geriatric patients after trauma-related hospitalization: Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hang Joo; Hong, Tae Hwa; Kim, Maru

    2018-03-01

    Population aging is associated with increasing numbers of geriatric trauma patients, and various studies have evaluated their short-term outcomes, assessment, and treatment. However, there is insufficient information regarding their long-term outcomes. This study evaluated the physical and nutritional statuses of geriatric patients after trauma-related hospitalization.Data regarding physical and nutritional status were obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI (2013-2015).A total of 21,069 individuals participated in the survey, including 5650 geriatric individuals. After excluding individuals with missing data, 3731 cases were included in the analyses. The average age was 68 years, and most individuals were women (n = 2055, 55.08%). There were 94 patients had been hospitalized because of trauma. Trauma-related hospitalization among geriatric patients was significantly associated with reduced strength exercise (23.56% vs 12.99%, P = .043), activity limitations caused by joint pain (0.65% vs 3.31%, P = .028), self-care problems (8.00% vs 16.77%, P = .008), pain or discomfort (29.48% vs 40.51%, P = .024), hypercholesterolemia (27.37% vs 39.36%, P = .037), and mastication discomfort (39.98% vs 57.85% P = .005). The adjusted analyses revealed that trauma-related hospitalization was independently associated with activity limitations caused by joint pain (odds ratio [OR]: 5.04, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.29-19.67, P = .020), self-care problems (OR: 2.24, 95% CI: 1.11-4.53, P = .025), pain or discomfort (OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.08-2.89, P = .023), and mastication discomfort (OR: 2.06, 95% CI: 1.22-3.46, P = .007).Medical staff should be aware that geriatric patients have relatively poor physical and nutritional statuses after trauma-related hospitalization, and manage these patients accordingly.

  16. Broken and guilty since it happened: A population study of trauma-related shame and guilt after violence and sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aakvaag, Helene Flood; Thoresen, Siri; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Dyb, Grete; Røysamb, Espen; Olff, Miranda

    2016-11-01

    There is increasing interest in trauma-related shame and guilt. However, much remains unknown in terms of how these emotions relate to the type of event, gender and mental health. We investigated shame and guilt in men and women following various types of severe violence and their relation to mental health. Telephone interviews were conducted with a Norwegian general population sample (n=4529; age=18-75; response rate=42.9%). Measures included child sexual abuse, child and adult rape, severe physical violence from/between parents, severe violence from a partner and non-partners, less severe violence and non-violent trauma, the new Shame and Guilt After Trauma Scale, and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. Analyses included t-tests and linear regressions. All types of severe violence were significantly associated with trauma-related shame and guilt (coefficients from 0.11 to 0.38, p-values guilt than men did (p-values guilt measure requires further validation. The more types of violence that were reported, the higher levels of shame and guilt were. Clinicians should be aware of shame and guilt after a variety of violent events, including non-sexual violence, in both men and women and should particularly be aware of whether individuals have multiple violent experiences. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Changing the Air Force Disqualification Policy for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Other Trauma-Related Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-21

    injury, or sexual violence directly or indirectly occurred. It is characterized by intrusive symptoms, typically flashbacks, intrusive memories/dreams...of functioning. Symptoms must last at least 1 month to meet criteria for a diagnosis of PTSD. Traumatic events can include sexual abuse, violence...psychology, neuropsychology , and psychiatry believe that misdiagnosis can have a potentially negative outcome for aviators as well as their perception of

  18. Trauma-related shame and guilt as time-varying predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms during imagery exposure and imagery rescripting--A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øktedalen, Tuva; Hoffart, Asle; Langkaas, Tomas Formo

    2015-01-01

    The specific aims of this study are to examine trauma-related shame and guilt as time-varying predictors of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Sixty-five patients were included in the statistical analyses and the multilevel modeling analyses supported three major findings. (i) Patients with a higher level of shame and guilt at the start of treatment displayed a higher level of PTSD symptoms over the course of treatment compared to other patients. (ii) Time-specific change in shame and guilt predicted the level of PTSD symptoms 3 days later from session to session during treatment. (iii) No significant differences were evident between prolonged exposure (PE) and modified PE to include imagery rescripting in the within-person process of change in PTSD symptoms from session to session during therapy. This trial reports the first evidence that within-person change in shame and guilt predicts change in PTSD symptoms from session to session during treatment.

  19. Developmental Associations between Short-Term Variability and Long-Term Changes: Intraindividual Correlation of Positive and Negative Affect in Daily Life and Cognitive Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hülür, Gizem; Hoppmann, Christiane A.; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Conceptual notions and empirical evidence suggest that the intraindividual correlation (iCorr) of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) is a meaningful characteristic of affective functioning. PA and NA are typically negatively correlated within-person. Previous research has found that the iCorr of PA and NA is relatively stable over time…

  20. The effect of positive symptoms on social cognition in first-episode schizophrenia is modified by the presence of negative symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliksted, Vibeke Fuglsang; Videbech, Poul B; Fagerlund, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There is considerable evidence that patients with schizophrenia have neurocognitive and social-cognitive deficits. It is unclear how such deficits in first-episode schizophrenia relate to current clinical symptoms. METHOD: Fifty-nine patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) were...

  1. DA Negatively Regulates IGF-I Actions Implicated in Cognitive Function via Interaction of PSD95 and nNOS in Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Saidan; Zhuge, Weishan; Wang, Xuebao; Yang, Jianjing; Lin, Yuanshao; Wang, Chengde; Hu, Jiangnan; Zhuge, Qichuan

    2017-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) has been positively correlated with cognitive ability. Cognitive decline in minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) was shown to be induced by elevated intracranial dopamine (DA). The beneficial effect of IGF-I signaling in MHE remains unknown. In this study, we found that IGF-I content was reduced in MHE rats and that IGF-I administration mitigated cognitive decline of MHE rats. A protective effect of IGF-I on the DA-induced interaction between postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) was found in neurons. Ribosomal S6 protein kinase (RSK) phosphorylated nNOS in response to IGF-I by recruiting extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2). In turn, DA inactivated the ERK1/2/RSK pathway and stimulated the PSD95-nNOS interaction by downregulating IGF-I. Inhibition of the interaction between PSD95 and nNOS ameliorated DA-induced memory impairment. As DA induced deficits in the ERK1/2/RSK pathway and the interaction between PSD95 and nNOS in MHE brains, IGF-I administration exerted a protective effect via interruption of the interaction between PSD95 and nNOS. These results suggest that IGF-I antagonizes DA-induced cognitive loss by disrupting PSD95-nNOS interactions in MHE.

  2. DA Negatively Regulates IGF-I Actions Implicated in Cognitive Function via Interaction of PSD95 and nNOS in Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saidan Ding

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I has been positively correlated with cognitive ability. Cognitive decline in minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE was shown to be induced by elevated intracranial dopamine (DA. The beneficial effect of IGF-I signaling in MHE remains unknown. In this study, we found that IGF-I content was reduced in MHE rats and that IGF-I administration mitigated cognitive decline of MHE rats. A protective effect of IGF-I on the DA-induced interaction between postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95 and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS was found in neurons. Ribosomal S6 protein kinase (RSK phosphorylated nNOS in response to IGF-I by recruiting extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2. In turn, DA inactivated the ERK1/2/RSK pathway and stimulated the PSD95–nNOS interaction by downregulating IGF-I. Inhibition of the interaction between PSD95 and nNOS ameliorated DA-induced memory impairment. As DA induced deficits in the ERK1/2/RSK pathway and the interaction between PSD95 and nNOS in MHE brains, IGF-I administration exerted a protective effect via interruption of the interaction between PSD95 and nNOS. These results suggest that IGF-I antagonizes DA-induced cognitive loss by disrupting PSD95–nNOS interactions in MHE.

  3. A cognitive-perceptual model of symptom perception in males and females: the roles of negative affect, selective attention, health anxiety and psychological job demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Laura; Fairclough, Stephen H; Poole, Helen M

    2013-06-01

    Kolk et al.'s model of symptom perception underlines the effects of trait negative affect, selective attention and external stressors. The current study tested this model in 263 males and 498 females from an occupational sample. Trait negative affect was associated with symptom reporting in females only, and selective attention and psychological job demands were associated with symptom reporting in both genders. Health anxiety was associated with symptom reporting in males only. Future studies might consider the inclusion of selective attention, which was more strongly associated with symptom reporting than negative affect. Psychological job demands appear to influence symptom reporting in both males and females.

  4. Psychometric properties of the Posttraumatic Cognition Inventory within a Northern Ireland adolescent sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Philip; Murphy, Jamie; Shevlin, Mark; Murphy, Siobhan; Egan, Arlene; Boduszek, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    This study sought to investigate the psychometric properties of the Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory (PTCI; Foa et al., 1999, Psychol. Assess., 11, 303) among a cohort of older adolescents and to determine the relationship between post-traumatic cognitions and a variety of psychological outcomes including depression, anxiety, stress, and loneliness. The PTCI was investigated among a large sample (N = 785) of Northern Irish adolescents. Confirmatory factor analysis and composite reliability analysis were conducted to assess the psychometric properties of the scale. The familiar three-factor solution of negative cognitions of self, negative cognitions of the world and others, and self-blame was supported; however, it was necessary to remove eight items from the original 33-item scale. The three-factor structure was subsequently demonstrated to be factorially invariant across gender and to possess satisfactory internal reliability. The three PTCI factors were found to correlate with depression, anxiety, stress, and three dimensions of loneliness. These results provide the first piece of evidence that older adolescents cognitively respond to trauma in a similar manner to adults, that the PTCI is factorially invariant between genders, and that trauma cognitions are correlated with feelings of loneliness. The contextual dependent nature of the structure of the PTCI factors is discussed in relation to future research efforts. The PTCI is a valid and reliable measure of trauma-related cognitions among adolescents and works equally well for male adolescents and female adolescents. Trauma cognitions are associated with a range of mental health problems beyond post-traumatic stress disorder including depression, anxiety, stress, and various aspects of loneliness. Reductions in trauma cognitions in survivors of trauma will have wide-scale clinical benefits to patient well-being. The exact structure and make-up of items in the PTCI may well be dependent on culture, context

  5. “I can't tell whether it's my hand”: a pilot study of the neurophenomenology of body representation during the rubber hand illusion in trauma-related disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Rabellino

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early traumatic experiences are thought to be causal factors in the development of trauma-related dissociative experiences, including depersonalization and derealization. The rubber hand illusion (RHI, a well-known paradigm that measures multi-sensorial integration of a rubber hand into one's own body representation, has been used to investigate alterations in the experience of body ownership and of body representation. Critically, however, it has never been studied in individuals with trauma-related disorders. Objective: To investigate body representation distortions occurring in trauma-related disorders in response to the RHI. Method: The RHI was administered to three individuals with the dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, and subjective, behavioral, cardiovascular and skin conductance responses were recorded. Results: Participants’ subjective experiences of the RHI were differentiated and complex. The illusion was induced following both synchronous and asynchronous brushing and variably evoked subjective distress, depersonalization and derealization experiences, tonic immobility, increased physiological arousal and flashbacks. Conclusions: The present findings point towards the RHI as a strong provocation stimulus that elicits individual patterns of symptom presentation, including experiences of distress and dissociation, in individuals with trauma-related disorders, including the dissociative subtype of PTSD. Highlights of the article:

  6. The Cortisol Paradox of Trauma-Related Disorders: Lower Phasic Responses but Higher Tonic Levels of Cortisol Are Associated with Sexual Abuse in Childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Schalinski

    Full Text Available Inconsistent findings exist for the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis in patients with stress related disorders. Recent studies point towards early life stress as a potential modulator.We investigated the impact of childhood sexual abuse on phasic (saliva cortisol reactivity and tonic (hair cortisol regulation. Furthermore, we assessed predictors on cortisol accumulation in hair. Women (N = 43 with stress-related disorders underwent a standardized assessment of idiographic adverse and traumatic experiences and psychopathology, while measuring salivary cortisol and, heart rate and blood pressure.Comparing women with and without childhood sexual abuse revealed lower rates of responders and distinct levels of salivary cortisol to the interview in conjunction with a lower heart rate for the abused group. Childhood adversities, traumatic experiences, and depression contributed to higher hair cortisol levels.Our finding of lower response rate and distinct salivary cortisol pattern in individuals with childhood sexual abuse compared to individuals without early sexual abuse supports the role of environmental programming for the HPA axis. Both, childhood adversities and traumatic stress emerge as crucial factors for long-term cortisol secretion. Lower or suppressed phasic cortisol responses to trauma-related stimuli may therefore be associated with higher tonic values. Thus, early exposure to adversities may result in a biological distinct phenotype in adult patients with stress-related disorders.

  7. The Cortisol Paradox of Trauma-Related Disorders: Lower Phasic Responses but Higher Tonic Levels of Cortisol Are Associated with Sexual Abuse in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalinski, Inga; Elbert, Thomas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Inconsistent findings exist for the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with stress related disorders. Recent studies point towards early life stress as a potential modulator. We investigated the impact of childhood sexual abuse on phasic (saliva cortisol reactivity) and tonic (hair cortisol) regulation. Furthermore, we assessed predictors on cortisol accumulation in hair. Women (N = 43) with stress-related disorders underwent a standardized assessment of idiographic adverse and traumatic experiences and psychopathology, while measuring salivary cortisol and, heart rate and blood pressure. Comparing women with and without childhood sexual abuse revealed lower rates of responders and distinct levels of salivary cortisol to the interview in conjunction with a lower heart rate for the abused group. Childhood adversities, traumatic experiences, and depression contributed to higher hair cortisol levels. Our finding of lower response rate and distinct salivary cortisol pattern in individuals with childhood sexual abuse compared to individuals without early sexual abuse supports the role of environmental programming for the HPA axis. Both, childhood adversities and traumatic stress emerge as crucial factors for long-term cortisol secretion. Lower or suppressed phasic cortisol responses to trauma-related stimuli may therefore be associated with higher tonic values. Thus, early exposure to adversities may result in a biological distinct phenotype in adult patients with stress-related disorders.

  8. Matched trauma: The role of parents' and children's shared history of childhood domestic violence exposure in parents' report of children's trauma-related symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohodes, Emily; Hagan, Melissa; Narayan, Angela; Lieberman, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Parents' childhood experiences of trauma may influence their reports of their children's behavior, and this may be particularly true when children are also traumatized. The present study proposed and tested a matched trauma hypothesis, positing that compared to parents without a childhood history of witnessing domestic violence (DV), parents with a childhood history of witnessing DV may report their children's trauma-related symptomatology differently following children's exposure to DV. Of 137 included parents (M age = 32 years; 93% mothers), 81 reported witnessing childhood DV (matched group), whereas 56 reported no childhood DV exposure (nonmatched comparison group). All parents reported on their 3- to 6-year-old children's dissociation and posttraumatic stress symptoms following children's DV exposure. An analysis of covariance controlling for parental life stress, dissociation symptoms, and other childhood traumatic events revealed that parents who witnessed childhood DV reported significantly fewer child dissociation symptoms than comparison parents. No difference was found for parents' reports of children's posttraumatic stress symptoms. Exploratory analyses on a subsample of children with teacher reports of child dissociation symptoms (n = 75) revealed that the strength of the association between parent and teacher reports of dissociation symptoms was moderated by matched versus nonmatched group membership. Findings suggest the importance of considering a parent's history of trauma when using parents as informants for children's trauma symptoms.

  9. Reported positive and negative outcomes associated with a self-practice/self-reflection cognitive-behavioural therapy exercise for CBT trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spendelow, Jason S; Butler, Lisa J

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to identify outcomes of a self-practice/self-reflection (SP/SR) exercise for trainee clinical psychologists. Thirty-two trainees enrolled in their first year of a UK university doctoral clinical psychology training programme completed an online questionnaire following an eight-week exercise. Findings indicated an endorsement of many previously reported benefits of exercise participation, but also the identification of negative outcomes. Thematic analysis of qualitative data revealed that outcomes could be grouped into two main thematic domains (individual task outcomes and task organization issues) along with several subordinate themes. SP/SR is a useful tool in the development of trainee CBT therapist competences. There has been limited previous recognition of potential negative outcomes from this type of exercise. However, these can provide additional impetus for therapist skill development.

  10. When negation is not negation

    OpenAIRE

    Milicevic, Nataša

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I will discuss the formation of different types of yes/no questions in Serbian (examples in (1)), focusing on the syntactically and semantically puzzling example (1d), which involves the negative auxiliary inversion. Although there is a negative marker on the fronted auxiliary, the construction does not involve sentential negation. This coincides with the fact that the negative quantifying NPIs cannot be licensed. The question formation and sentential negation have similar synta...

  11. Negative mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, Richard T

    2015-01-01

    Some physical aspects of negative mass are examined. Several unusual properties, such as the ability of negative mass to penetrate any armor, are analysed. Other surprising effects include the bizarre system of negative mass chasing positive mass, naked singularities and the violation of cosmic censorship, wormholes, and quantum mechanical results as well. In addition, a brief look into the implications for strings is given. (paper)

  12. Measuring the Cognitions, Emotions, and Motivation Associated With Avoidance Behaviors in the Context of Pain: Preliminary Development of the Negative Responsivity to Pain Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mark P; Ward, L Charles; Thorn, Beverly E; Ehde, Dawn M; Day, Melissa A

    2017-04-01

    We recently proposed a Behavioral Inhibition System-Behavioral Activation System (BIS-BAS) model to help explain the effects of pain treatments. In this model, treatments are hypothesized to operate primarily through their effects on the domains within 2 distinct neurophysiological systems that underlie approach (BAS) and avoidance (BIS) behaviors. Measures of the model's domains are needed to evaluate and modify the model. An item pool of negative responses to pain (NRP; hypothesized to be BIS related) and positive responses (PR; hypothesized to be BAS related) were administered to 395 undergraduates, 325 of whom endorsed recurrent pain. The items were administered to 176 of these individuals again 1 week later. Analyses were conducted to develop and validate scales assessing NRP and PR domains. Three NRP scales (Despondent Response to Pain, Fear of Pain, and Avoidant Response to Pain) and 2 PR scales (Happy/Hopeful Responses and Approach Response) emerged. Consistent with the model, the scales formed 2 relatively independent overarching domains. The scales also demonstrated excellent internal consistency, and associations with criterion variables supported their validity. However, whereas the NRP scales evidenced adequate test-retest stability, the 2 PR scales were not adequately stable. The study yielded 3 brief scales assessing NRP, which may be used to further evaluate the BIS-BAS model and to advance research elucidating the mechanisms of psychosocial pain treatments. The findings also provide general support for the BIS-BAS model, while also suggesting that some minor modifications in the model are warranted.

  13. Negative Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Negative Leadership by Colonel David M. Oberlander United States Army United States Army War...SUBTITLE Negative Leadership 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Colonel David M...Dr. Richard C. Bullis Department of Command Leadership , and Management 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING

  14. Negative liability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dari-Mattiacci, G.

    2009-01-01

    Negative and positive externalities pose symmetrical problems to social welfare. The law internalizes negative externalities by providing general tort liability rules. According to such rules, those who cause harm to others should pay compensation. In theory, in the presence of positive

  15. Negative ... concord?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giannakidou, A

    The main claim of this paper is that a general theory of negative concord (NC) should allow for the possibility of NC involving scoping of a universal quantifier above negation. I propose that Greek NC instantiates this option. Greek n-words will be analyzed as polarity sensitive universal

  16. [Prevalence of trauma-related disorders in the French WHO study: Santé mentale en population générale (SMPG)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiva, G; Jehel, L; Cottencin, O; Ducrocq, F; Duchet, C; Omnes, C; Genest, P; Rouillon, F; Roelandt, J-L

    2008-12-01

    Trauma-related disorders are disabling affections of which epidemiological data change according to the country, population and measuring instruments. The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to have increased over the past 15 years, but one cannot tell whether it has indeed increased or whether the standardized procedure has improved. Moreover, very few epidemiologic studies among the general population have been conducted in Europe, notably in France. The "Santé mentale en population générale" (SMPG) survey, that took place in France between 1999 and 2003 among more than 36 000 individuals, gives an estimation of the prevalence of psychotraumatic disorders in the general population. Multi-varied analyses were performed on PTSD-related variables and comorbid disorders. The instantaneous prevalence (past month) of PTSD was of 0.7% among the whole SMPG sample, with almost the same proportion of men (45%) and women (55%). There was a high rate of comorbidity among PTSD individuals, notably with mood disorders, anxiety disorders and addictive behaviour. There was an obvious relationship with suicidal behaviour, with 15-fold more suicide attempts during the past month among the PTSD population. This survey analysed the consequences of a psychic traumatism over and above complete PTSD according to DSM-IV criteria, observing for instance the consequences for people exposed both to a trauma and suffering from at least one psychopathological symptom since the trauma. Those who suffered from a psychotraumatic syndrome, according to our enlarged definition, represented 5.3% of the population, half suffered from daily discomfort and a third of them used medication. Then, we compared those psychotraumatic syndromes to complete PTSD from a sociodemographic, functional and type of care point of view. There was little difference in prevalence of PTSD between men and women in the SMPG survey (45% vs 55%), which is clearly distinct from the other

  17. Negative CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meysman, F.J.R.; Montserrat, F.

    2017-01-01

    Negative emission technologies (NETs) target the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere, and are being actively investigated as a strategy to limit global warming to within the 1.5–2°C targets of the 2015 UN climate agreement. Enhanced silicate weathering (ESW) proposes to

  18. Negative Certainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariso, José María

    2017-01-01

    The definitions of "negative knowledge" and the studies in this regard published to date have not considered the categorial distinction Wittgenstein established between knowledge and certainty. Hence, the important role that certainty, despite its omission, should have in these definitions and studies has not yet been shown. In this…

  19. Embodied simulation in exposure-based therapies for posttraumatic stress disorder—a possible integration of cognitive behavioral theories, neuroscience, and psychoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuvia Peri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to the trauma memory is the common denominator of most evidence-based interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Although exposure-based therapies aim to change associative learning networks and negative cognitions related to the trauma memory, emotional interactions between patient and therapist have not been thoroughly considered in past evaluations of exposure-based therapy. This work focuses on recent discoveries of the mirror-neuron system and the theory of embodied simulation (ES. These conceptualizations may add a new perspective to our understanding of change processes in exposure-based treatments for PTSD patients. It is proposed that during exposure to trauma memories, emotional responses of the patient are transferred to the therapist through ES and then mirrored back to the patient in a modulated way. This process helps to alleviate the patient's sense of loneliness and enhances his or her ability to exert control over painful, trauma-related emotional responses. ES processes may enhance the integration of clinical insights originating in psychoanalytic theories—such as holding, containment, projective identification, and emotional attunement—with cognitive behavioral theories of learning processes in the alleviation of painful emotional responses aroused by trauma memories. These processes are demonstrated through a clinical vignette from an exposure-based therapy with a trauma survivor. Possible clinical implications for the importance of face-to-face relationships during exposure-based therapy are discussed.

  20. Conservatism and Cognitive Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankov, Lazar

    2009-01-01

    Conservatism and cognitive ability are negatively correlated. The evidence is based on 1254 community college students and 1600 foreign students seeking entry to United States' universities. At the individual level of analysis, conservatism scores correlate negatively with SAT, Vocabulary, and Analogy test scores. At the national level of…

  1. Exploring the Psychological Influence of Perceived Negative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    2017-10-14

    Oct 14, 2017 ... This paper critically examined the psychological influence of ... development, there are some perceived negative foreign factors that have constituted ..... essence, it is the sum total of the individual's cognitive, intellectual and ...

  2. Suggestibility and negative priming: two replication studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Daniel; Brown, Richard J

    2002-07-01

    Research suggests that inhibiting the effect of irrelevant stimuli on subsequent thought and action (cognitive inhibition) may be an important component of suggestibility. Two small correlation studies were conducted to address the relationship between different aspects of suggestibility and individual differences in cognitive inhibition, operationalized as the degree of negative priming generated by to-be-ignored stimuli in a semantic categorization task. The first study found significant positive correlations between negative priming, hypnotic suggestibility, and creative imagination; a significant negative correlation was obtained between negative priming and interrogative suggestibility, demonstrating the discriminant validity of the study results. The second study replicated the correlation between negative priming and hypnotic suggestibility, using a different suggestibility measurement procedure that assessed subjective experience and hypnotic involuntariness as well as objective responses to suggestions. These studies support the notion that the ability to engage in cognitive inhibition may be an important component of hypnotic responsivity and maybe of other forms of suggestibility.

  3. Cognitive vulnerability to depression : genetic and environmental influences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antypa, Niki

    2011-01-01

    This thesis explores cognitive vulnerability to depression and the interplay between genetic and environmental influences. Cognitive vulnerability to depression is characterized by negative patterns of information processing. One aspect is cognitive reactivity - the tendency to respond with

  4. Cognitive Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here Home › Non-Movement Symptoms › Cognitive Changes Cognitive Changes Some people with Parkinson’s disease (PD) experience mild cognitive impairment. Feelings of distraction or disorganization can accompany ...

  5. Application of a cognitive neuroscience perspective of cognitive control to late-life anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudreau, Sherry A.; MacKay-Brandt, Anna; Reynolds, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence supports a negative association between anxiety and cognitive control. Given age-related reductions in some cognitive abilities and the relation of late life anxiety to cognitive impairment, this negative association may be particularly relevant to older adults. This critical review conceptualizes anxiety and cognitive control from cognitive neuroscience and cognitive aging theoretical perspectives and evaluates the methodological approaches and measures used to assess cognitive control. Consistent with behavioral investigations of young adults, the studies reviewed implicate specific and potentially negative effects of anxiety on cognitive control processes in older adults. Hypotheses regarding the role of both aging and anxiety on cognitive control, the bi-directionality between anxiety and cognitive control, and the potential for specific symptoms of anxiety (particularly worry) to mediate this association, are specified and discussed. PMID:23602352

  6. Cognitive Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Cognitive Challenges Approximately 45% to 60% of individuals with TSC develop cognitive challenges (intellectual disabilities), although the degree of intellectual ...

  7. Cognitive impairment in anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Volel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are an important biomedical problem due to the high prevalence and significant negative impact on the quality of life and the course of concomitant somatic and neurological diseases. Cognitive impairment (CI is one of the most intensively studied aspects of pathological anxiety. Impairments in attention, executive functions, memory, cognitive deficit, as well as abnormal cognitions and metacognitions are identified in anxiety disorders. Moreover, the treatment of the latter with the most frequently used drugs (antidepressants, atypical antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, tranquilizers does not lead to a significant improvement in cognitive functions, and often contributes to their worsening. In this connection, in addition to psychotherapy, cognitive function-improving agents play a large role in treating anxiety diseases associated with cognitive dysfunction. Ginkgo Biloba extract (EGb 761, Tanakan® that positively affects cognitive functions, especially in the domains of memory, concentration and attention deserves special attention.

  8. Stress-Related Cognitive Interference Predicts Cognitive Function in Old Age

    OpenAIRE

    Stawski, Robert S.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Smyth, Joshua M.; University, Syracuse

    2006-01-01

    Both subjective distress and cognitive interference have been proposed as mechanisms underlying the negative effects of stress on cognition. Studies of aging have shown that distress is associated with lower cognitive performance, but none have examined the effects of cognitive interference. One hundred eleven older adults (Mage = 80) completed measures of working memory, processing speed, and episodic memory as well as self-report measures of subjective distress and cognitive interference. C...

  9. Biological simplexity and cognitive heteronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gahrn-Andersen, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    Heteronomy informs parts of human sense-making including perceptual and linguistic activities. This article explores Berthoz's (2012) notion of simplexity in relation to heteronomous aspects of human cognition while it criticises proponents of Active Externalism for presuming that cognitive...... activity is based in strong autonomy. Specifically, its negative target is the problematic aspects of Varelian Enactivism and Extended Cognitive Functionalism which are linked to the assumption that cognition is conditioned by the cogniser's strong autonomy. Since active externalists presume that cognition...... has a clear agent-to-world directionality, they prove unable to account for cases where cognition is informed by novel sensuous inputs. The article presents a positive argument that acknowledges the embodied basis of human sense-making as well as the weak autonomy of the cogniser. It argues...

  10. Suicidal Fantasies and Positive/Negative Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouts, Gregory; Norrie, Janice

    This study attempted to provide some initial normative data to help professionals and researchers to distinguish between playful and stimulating suicidal fantasies as opposed to serious and compulsive thoughts and behaviours characterized by negative affects. It is argued that the former is a natural consequence of cognitive development, the entry…

  11. An Interpersonal Approach to Writing Negative Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Douglas

    1988-01-01

    Asserts that textbook advice regarding buffers and negative messages is simplistic and frequently wrong, and analyses 22 job-refusal letters and their effectiveness. Claims that recent research on cognitive complexity and social perspective-taking suggests the need for more sophisticated audience analysis protocols for dealing with the negative…

  12. Are negative symptoms in schizophrenia a distinct therapeutic target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MICLUTIA, IOANA VALENTINA

    2018-01-01

    Background and aims The relationship between negative symptoms and cognition in schizophrenia is not clear, inconsistent findings have been reported by multiple authors and meta analyses. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cognition and primary negative symptoms. Methods 67 outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia were evaluated using PANSS and the NSA-16 scale. Correlation and regression analyses were used in the present study to investigate the relationship between the primary negative symptoms and cognition. Results No relationship was found between the PANSS Cognitive factor and Negative factor, but when investigating the relationship of the Cognitive PANSS factor with the negative symptoms evaluated with the NSA-16 scale, it was shown that there is a significant association between cognition and motor retardation. Conclusions Our study reveals the relative independence of cognitive factor from the global negative domain of the psychopathology, even though the association with motor retardation was clear. These findings also support the need of using appropriate assessment tools in order to gain a more refined understanding of the phenomenology of schizophrenia. PMID:29440953

  13. Cognitive performance after ischaemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela R. Ferreira

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment after stroke affects the patient recovery process. Therefore, the identification of factors associated with cognitive outcomes is important since it allows risk profiles of stroke survivors to be determined. OBJECTIVE: To assess cognitive outcome of stroke outpatients and investigate associations among clinical and demographic variables, vascular risk factors, depression symptoms and functional ability; and to describe the neuropsychological profile of these patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional design study was conducted. Subjects who suffered a first-ever ischaemic stroke 6 to 10 months prior to data collection underwent neuropsychological assessment and screening for depressive symptoms and functional ability. The outcome "cognitive performance" was analyzed considering two groups: "cognitive impairment" and "no cognitive impairment". RESULTS: There was a statistically significant association between cognitive impairment and female gender, age, stroke severity and functional ability. Regarding neuropsychological profile, the cognitive impairment group exhibited more generalized deficits in attention, visuospatial organization, verbal functions and verbal memory domains compared to the community control group. CONCLUSION: The occurrence of cognitive impairment among patients was high, especially in women, older participants, individuals with more severe stroke, and greater impairment in functional ability. Multiple cognitive domains are affected and this may hamper recovery and negatively impact independence and quality of life after stroke.

  14. Negativity Bias in Dangerous Drivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chai

    Full Text Available The behavioral and cognitive characteristics of dangerous drivers differ significantly from those of safe drivers. However, differences in emotional information processing have seldom been investigated. Previous studies have revealed that drivers with higher anger/anxiety trait scores are more likely to be involved in crashes and that individuals with higher anger traits exhibit stronger negativity biases when processing emotions compared with control groups. However, researchers have not explored the relationship between emotional information processing and driving behavior. In this study, we examined the emotional information processing differences between dangerous drivers and safe drivers. Thirty-eight non-professional drivers were divided into two groups according to the penalty points that they had accrued for traffic violations: 15 drivers with 6 or more points were included in the dangerous driver group, and 23 drivers with 3 or fewer points were included in the safe driver group. The emotional Stroop task was used to measure negativity biases, and both behavioral and electroencephalograph data were recorded. The behavioral results revealed stronger negativity biases in the dangerous drivers than in the safe drivers. The bias score was correlated with self-reported dangerous driving behavior. Drivers with strong negativity biases reported having been involved in mores crashes compared with the less-biased drivers. The event-related potentials (ERPs revealed that the dangerous drivers exhibited reduced P3 components when responding to negative stimuli, suggesting decreased inhibitory control of information that is task-irrelevant but emotionally salient. The influence of negativity bias provides one possible explanation of the effects of individual differences on dangerous driving behavior and traffic crashes.

  15. The Effects of Mood, Cognitive Style, and Cognitive Ability on Implicit Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretz, Jean E.; Totz, Kathryn Sentman; Kaufman, Scott Barry

    2010-01-01

    In an experiment with 109 undergraduates, we examined the effect of mood, cognitive style, and cognitive ability on implicit learning in the Artificial Grammar (AG) and Serial Reaction Time (SRT) tasks. Negative mood facilitated AG learning, but had no significant effect on SRT learning. Rational cognitive style predicted greater learning on both…

  16. Visual cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book consists of essays covering issues in visual cognition presenting experimental techniques from cognitive psychology, methods of modeling cognitive processes on computers from artificial intelligence, and methods of studying brain organization from neuropsychology. Topics considered include: parts of recognition; visual routines; upward direction; mental rotation, and discrimination of left and right turns in maps; individual differences in mental imagery, computational analysis and the neurological basis of mental imagery: componental analysis.

  17. Cognitive Readiness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrison, John

    2002-01-01

    Cognitive readiness is described as the mental preparation an individual needs to establish and sustain competent performance in the complex and unpredictable environment of modern military operations...

  18. The impact of subjective cognitive fatigue and depression on cognitive function in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Daniel; Doniger, Glen M; Wissemann, Karl; Zarif, Myassar; Bumstead, Barbara; Buhse, Marijean; Fafard, Lori; Lavi, Idit; Wilken, Jeffrey; Gudesblatt, Mark

    2018-02-01

    The association between subjective cognitive fatigue and objective cognitive dysfunction in patients with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) has been studied, with conflicting results. To explore the impact of fatigue on cognitive function, while controlling for the influence of depression, disability, comorbidities, and psychotropic medications. PwMS completed a computerized cognitive testing battery with age- and education-adjusted cognitive domain scores. Disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS)), cognitive fatigue, and depression were concurrently evaluated. In all, 699 PwMS were included. Both cognitive fatigue and depression were significantly and negatively correlated with the same cognitive domains: information processing speed, executive function, attention, motor function, and memory (-0.15 ⩽ r ⩽ -0.14 for cognitive fatigue; -0.24 ⩽ r ⩽ -0.19 for depression). Multivariate analysis revealed significant but small independent correlations only between depression and neuropsychological test results, while cognitive fatigue had no independent correlation with objective cognitive function except for a trend toward impaired motor function in highly fatigued PwMS. Depression and cognitive fatigue accounted for no more than 6% of the variance in objective cognitive domain scores. Cognitive fatigue is not independently related to objective cognitive impairment. Depression may influence cognitive function of PwMS primarily when it is severe. Cognitive impairment in PwMS should not be ascribed to fatigue or mild depression.

  19. Cognitive anthropology is a cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boster, James S

    2012-07-01

    Cognitive anthropology contributes to cognitive science as a complement to cognitive psychology. The chief threat to its survival has not been rejection by other cognitive scientists but by other cultural anthropologists. It will remain a part of cognitive science as long as cognitive anthropologists research, teach, and publish. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  20. Risk Aversion Relates to Cognitive Ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Holm, Håkan J.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2016-01-01

    Recent experimental studies suggest that risk aversion is negatively related to cognitive ability. In this paper we report evidence that this relation might be spurious. We recruit a large subject pool drawn from the general Danish population for our experiment. By presenting subjects with choice...... tasks that vary the bias induced by random choices, we are able to generate both negative and positive correlations between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Structural estimation allowing for heterogeneity of noise yields no significant relation between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Our...... results suggest that cognitive ability is related to random decision making, rather than to risk preferences....

  1. Risk aversion relates to cognitive ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Holm, Håkan J.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    Recent experimental studies suggest that risk aversion is negatively related to cognitive ability. In this paper we report evidence that this relation might be spurious. We recruit a large subject pool drawn from the general Danish population for our experiment. By presenting subjects with choice...... tasks that vary the bias induced by random choices, we are able to generate both negative and positive correlations between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Structural estimation allowing for heterogeneity of noise yields no significant relation between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Our...... results suggest that cognitive ability is related to random decision making rather than to risk preferences....

  2. Social Dominance Orientation, Dispositional Empathy, and Need for Cognitive Closure Moderate the Impact of Empathy-Skills Training, but Not Patient Contact, on Medical Students' Negative Attitudes toward Higher-Weight Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Angela; Higgs, Suzanne; Burke, Sara E; Dovidio, John F; van Ryn, Michelle; Phelan, Sean M

    2017-01-01

    Anti-fat bias in healthcare providers and medical students has serious implications for quality of care of higher-weight patients. Studies of interventions aimed at reducing anti-fat attitudes in medical students have generally been disappointing, with little enduring effect. It is possible that some students may be more receptive to prejudice-reducing influences than others, due to underlying differences in their personal characteristics. It is also possible that attitudes toward patients, specifically, may differ from anti-fat attitudes in general, and prejudice-reduction effectiveness on patient-specific attitudes has not yet been evaluated. The present study explored the effect on general and patient-specific anti-fat attitudes of (1) contact with higher-weight individuals prior to and during medical school; and (2) training designed to increase medical students' empathy toward patients by encouraging them to take the patient's perspective during clinical encounters. The moderating role of individual difference factors on effectiveness of contact and student-reported hours of empathy training on patient-specific attitudes was assessed. A total of 3,576 students enrolled across 49 US medical schools completed an online survey at the start of their first year of medical school and at the end of their fourth year. Favorable contact experience with higher-weight patients predicted improved attitudes toward heavier patients after 4 years of medical school, and appeared sufficient to partially offset the effects of dislike of higher-weight individuals at baseline. The impact of favorable contact on general anti-fat attitudes was less strong, highlighting the importance of using target-specific outcome measures. The positive effects of favorable contact on attitudes toward higher-weight patients did not differ based on students' baseline levels of social dominance orientation, dispositional empathy, or need for cognitive closure. In contrast, the effectiveness of

  3. Negative-ion states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton, R.N.

    1982-01-01

    In this brief review, we discuss some of the properties of atomic and molecular negative ions and their excited states. Experiments involving photon reactions with negative ions and polar dissociation are summarized. 116 references, 14 figures

  4. Negative ion detachment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, R.L.; Doverspike, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: H - and D - collisions with atomic hydrogen; collisional decomposition of SF 6 - ; two-electron loss processes in negative ion collisions; associative electron detachment; and negative ion desorption from surfaces

  5. Visual cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This collection of research papers on visual cognition first appeared as a special issue of Cognition: International Journal of Cognitive Science. The study of visual cognition has seen enormous progress in the past decade, bringing important advances in our understanding of shape perception, visual imagery, and mental maps. Many of these discoveries are the result of converging investigations in different areas, such as cognitive and perceptual psychology, artificial intelligence, and neuropsychology. This volume is intended to highlight a sample of work at the cutting edge of this research area for the benefit of students and researchers in a variety of disciplines. The tutorial introduction that begins the volume is designed to help the nonspecialist reader bridge the gap between the contemporary research reported here and earlier textbook introductions or literature reviews.

  6. Cognitive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The tutorial will discuss the definition of cognitive systems as the possibilities to extend the current systems engineering paradigm in order to perceive, learn, reason and interact robustly in open-ended changing environments. I will also address cognitive systems in a historical perspective...... to be modeled within a limited set of predefined specifications. There will inevitably be a need for robust decisions and behaviors in novel situations that include handling of conflicts and ambiguities based on the capability and knowledge of the artificial cognitive system. Further, there is a need...... in cognitive systems include e.g. personalized information systems, sensor network systems, social dynamics system and Web2.0, and cognitive components analysis. I will use example from our own research and link to other research activities....

  7. Cognitive remission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortolato, Beatrice; Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Köhler, Cristiano A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction in major depressive disorder (MDD) encompasses several domains, including but not limited to executive function, verbal memory, and attention. Furthermore, cognitive dysfunction is a frequent residual manifestation in depression and may persist during the remitted...... phase. Cognitive deficits may also impede functional recovery, including workforce performance, in patients with MDD. The overarching aims of this opinion article are to critically evaluate the effects of available antidepressants as well as novel therapeutic targets on neurocognitive dysfunction in MDD....... DISCUSSION: Conventional antidepressant drugs mitigate cognitive dysfunction in some people with MDD. However, a significant proportion of MDD patients continue to experience significant cognitive impairment. Two multicenter randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reported that vortioxetine, a multimodal...

  8. Sentential Negation in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

  9. Negative ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Junzo; Takagi, Toshinori

    1983-01-01

    Negative ion sources have been originally developed at the request of tandem electrostatic accelerators, and hundreds of nA to several μA negative ion current has been obtained so far for various elements. Recently, the development of large current hydrogen negative ion sources has been demanded from the standpoint of the heating by neutral particle beam injection in nuclear fusion reactors. On the other hand, the physical properties of negative ions are interesting in the thin film formation using ions. Anyway, it is the present status that the mechanism of negative ion action has not been so fully investigated as positive ions because the history of negative ion sources is short. In this report, the many mechanisms about the generation of negative ions proposed so far are described about negative ion generating mechanism, negative ion source plasma, and negative ion generation on metal surfaces. As a result, negative ion sources are roughly divided into two schemes, plasma extraction and secondary ion extraction, and the former is further classified into the PIG ion source and its variation and Duoplasmatron and its variation; while the latter into reflecting and sputtering types. In the second half of the report, the practical negative ion sources of each scheme are described. If the mechanism of negative ion generation will be investigated more in detail and the development will be continued under the unified know-how as negative ion sources in future, the development of negative ion sources with which large current can be obtained for any element is expected. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  10. Polemic and Descriptive Negations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horslund, Camilla Søballe

    2011-01-01

    to semantics and pragmatics, negations can be used in three different ways, which gives rise to a typology of three different types of negations: 1) the descriptive negation, 2) the polemic negation, and 3) the meta-linguistic negation (Nølke 1999, 4). This typology illuminates the fact that the negation...... common in certain social context or genres, while polemic negations are more likely to come up in other genres and social settings. Previous studies have shown a relation between articulatory prominence and register, which may further inform the analysis. Hence, the paper investigates how articulatory...... prominence and register may either work in concert or oppose each other with respect to the cues they provide for the interpretation....

  11. Clinical and Cognitive Insight in a Compensatory Cognitive Training Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Cynthia Z.; Vella, Lea; Twamley, Elizabeth W.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of limited insight is a crucial consideration in the treatment of individuals with psychiatric illness. In the context of psychosis, both clinical and cognitive insight have been described. This study aimed to evaluate the relationships between clinical and cognitive insight and neuropsychological functioning, psychiatric symptom severity, and everyday functioning in patients with a primary psychotic disorder participating in a compensatory cognitive training (CT) intervention. Sixty-nine individuals diagnosed with a primary psychotic disorder were randomized to a 3-month CT intervention or to standard pharmacotherapy, and they completed a comprehensive neuropsychological, clinical, and functional battery at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. The CT intervention focused on habit formation and compensatory strategy learning in four domains: prospective memory, attention and vigilance, learning and memory, and problem-solving/cognitive flexibility. At baseline, better clinical insight was significantly related to better executive functioning and less severe negative symptoms. There was no significant association between cognitive insight and cognitive functioning, symptom severity, or everyday functioning ability. The CT intervention did not have an effect on clinical or cognitive insight, but better cognitive insight prior to participation in CT significantly predicted decreased positive and depressive symptom severity posttreatment, and better clinical insight predicted improved self-reported quality of life. Although clinical insight is related to executive functioning, the correlates of cognitive insight remain elusive. Intact insight appears to be beneficial in ameliorating clinical symptomatology like positive symptoms and depression, rather than augmenting cognition. It may be valuable to develop brief interventions aimed at improving clinical and cognitive insight prior to other psychosocial rehabilitation in order to maximize the benefit of

  12. Embodying cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Kristian Møller Moltke; Aggerholm, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    During the last decades, research on cognition has undergone a reformation, which is necessary to take into account when evaluating the cognitive and behavioural aspects of therapy. This reformation is due to the research programme called Embodied Cognition (EC). Although EC may have become...... the theoretical authority in current cognitive science, there are only sporadic examples of EC-based therapy, and no established framework. We aim to build such a framework on the aims, methods and techniques of the current third-wave of CBT. There appears to be a possibility for cross-fertilization between EC...... and CBT that could contribute to the development of theory and practice for both of them. We present a case-study of an EC-based model of intervention for working with self-control in cerebral palsy.We centre the results of the study and its discussion on how we should understand and work with self...

  13. Environmental Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W.

    1980-01-01

    Research is reviewed on human spatial cognition in real, everyday settings and is organized into five empirical categories: age, familiarity, gender, class and culture, and physical components of settings. (Author/DB)

  14. Moral Cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleim, Stephan; Clausen, Jens; Levy, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Research on moral cognition is a growing and heavily multidisciplinary field. This section contains chapters addressing foundational psychological, neuroscientific, and philosophical issues of research on moral decision-making. Further- more, beyond summarizing the state of the art of their

  15. Cognitive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because chemicals can adversely affect cognitive function in humans, considerable effort has been made to characterize their effects using animal models. Information from such models will be necessary to: evaluate whether chemicals identified as potentially neurotoxic by screenin...

  16. Cognitive Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alliance Our Story Our Vision Our Team Our Leadership Our Results Our Corporate Policies FAQs Careers Contact Us Media Store Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Cognitive Challenges Approximately 45% to 60% of individuals with TSC ...

  17. Individual differences in cognitive control over emotional material modulate cognitive biases linked to depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaert, Jonas; Grahek, Ivan; Koster, Ernst H W

    2017-06-01

    Deficient cognitive control over emotional material and cognitive biases are important mechanisms underlying depression, but the interplay between these emotionally distorted cognitive processes in relation to depressive symptoms is not well understood. This study investigated the relations among deficient cognitive control of emotional information (i.e. inhibition, shifting, and updating difficulties), cognitive biases (i.e. negative attention and interpretation biases), and depressive symptoms. Theory-driven indirect effect models were constructed, hypothesising that deficient cognitive control over emotional material predicts depressive symptoms through negative attention and interpretation biases. Bootstrapping analyses demonstrated that deficient inhibitory control over negative material was related to negative attention bias which in turn predicted a congruent bias in interpretation and subsequently depressive symptoms. Both shifting and updating impairments in response to negative material had an indirect effect on depression severity through negative interpretation bias. No evidence was found for direct effects of deficient cognitive control over emotional material on depressive symptoms. These findings may help to formulate an integrated understanding of the cognitive foundations of depressive symptoms.

  18. Cognitive technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Mello, Alan; Figueiredo, Fabrício; Figueiredo, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the next generation optical networks as well as mobile communication technologies. The reader will find chapters on Cognitive Optical Network, 5G Cognitive Wireless, LTE, Data Analysis and Natural Language Processing. It also presents a comprehensive view of the enhancements and requirements foreseen for Machine Type Communication. Moreover, some data analysis techniques and Brazilian Portuguese natural language processing technologies are also described here. .

  19. Fish cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Bshary, Redouan; Brown, Culum

    2017-01-01

    The central nervous system, and the brain in particular, is one of the most remarkable products of evolution. This system allows an individual to acquire, process, store and act on information gathered from the environment. The resulting flexibility in behavior beyond genetically coded strategies is a prime adaptation in animals. The field of animal cognition examines the underlying processes and mechanisms. Fishes are a particularly interesting group of vertebrates to study cognition for two...

  20. Mismatch Negativity in Patients with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Urban

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficit is considered to be a part of core dysfuncions in schizophrenia. It is associated with social impairment and influences the long-term course of the disorder. In addition to neuropsychological methods, event-related potentials can be used to study cognitive functions. In patients with schizophrenia an association was found between amplitude changes in slow negative component of evoked responses and infrequent deviations in a series of uniform stimuli. This amplitude change is known as „mismatch negativity“ (MMN. It is supposed to be independent of the focused attention and effort that otherwise interfere with neuropsychological testing. Recently accumulated knowledge on MMN as a possible preattentive measure of cognition supports its potential significance for neuropsychological assessment. It may be helpful in more precise diagnosis and functional evaluation of schizophrenia.

  1. Visual cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Patrick

    2011-07-01

    Visual cognition, high-level vision, mid-level vision and top-down processing all refer to decision-based scene analyses that combine prior knowledge with retinal input to generate representations. The label "visual cognition" is little used at present, but research and experiments on mid- and high-level, inference-based vision have flourished, becoming in the 21st century a significant, if often understated part, of current vision research. How does visual cognition work? What are its moving parts? This paper reviews the origins and architecture of visual cognition and briefly describes some work in the areas of routines, attention, surfaces, objects, and events (motion, causality, and agency). Most vision scientists avoid being too explicit when presenting concepts about visual cognition, having learned that explicit models invite easy criticism. What we see in the literature is ample evidence for visual cognition, but few or only cautious attempts to detail how it might work. This is the great unfinished business of vision research: at some point we will be done with characterizing how the visual system measures the world and we will have to return to the question of how vision constructs models of objects, surfaces, scenes, and events. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Negative Ion Density Fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igor Kaganovich

    2000-01-01

    Negative ions tend to stratify in electronegative plasmas with hot electrons (electron temperature Te much larger than ion temperature Ti, Te > Ti ). The boundary separating a plasma containing negative ions, and a plasma, without negative ions, is usually thin, so that the negative ion density falls rapidly to zero-forming a negative ion density front. We review theoretical, experimental and numerical results giving the spatio-temporal evolution of negative ion density fronts during plasma ignition, the steady state, and extinction (afterglow). During plasma ignition, negative ion fronts are the result of the break of smooth plasma density profiles during nonlinear convection. In a steady-state plasma, the fronts are boundary layers with steepening of ion density profiles due to nonlinear convection also. But during plasma extinction, the ion fronts are of a completely different nature. Negative ions diffuse freely in the plasma core (no convection), whereas the negative ion front propagates towards the chamber walls with a nearly constant velocity. The concept of fronts turns out to be very effective in analysis of plasma density profile evolution in strongly non-isothermal plasmas

  3. The Roles of Negative Career Thinking and Career Problem-Solving Self-Efficacy in Career Exploratory Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock-Yowell, Emily; Katz, Sheba P.; Reardon, Robert C.; Peterson, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    The respective roles of social cognitive career theory and cognitive information processing in career exploratory behavior were analyzed. A verified path model shows cognitive information processing theory's negative career thoughts inversely predict social cognitive career theory's career problem-solving self-efficacy, which predicts career…

  4. [Epilepsy, cognition and ketogenic diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Penas, J J

    2018-03-01

    Most individuals with epilepsy will respond to pharmacologic treatment; however, approximately 20-30% will develop medically refractory epilepsy. Cognitive side effects of antiepileptic drugs are common and can negatively affect tolerability, compliance, and long-term retention of the treatment. Ketogenic diet is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for these children with refractory epilepsy without any negative effect on cognition or behavior. To review the current state of experimental and clinical data concerning the neuroprotective and cognitive effects of the ketogenic diet in both humans and animals. In different animal models, with or without epilepsy, the ketogenic diet seems to have neuroprotective and mood-stabilizing effects. In the observational studies in pediatric epilepsy, improvements during treatment with the ketogenic diet are reported in behavior and cognitive function, particularly with respect to attention, alertness, activity level, socialization, and sleep quality. One randomized controlled trial in patients with pediatric refractory epilepsy showed a mood and cognitive activation during ketogenic diet treatment. Ketogenic diet shows a positive impact on behavioral and cognitive functioning in children and adolescents with refractory epilepsy. More specifically, an improvement is observed in mood, sustained attention, and social interaction.

  5. A Modality Called 'Negation'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berto, F.

    2015-01-01

    I propose a comprehensive account of negation as a modal operator, vindicating a moderate logical pluralism. Negation is taken as a quantifier on worlds, restricted by an accessibility relation encoding the basic concept of compatibility. This latter captures the core meaning of the operator. While

  6. Negative thermal expansion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.S.O.

    1997-01-01

    The recent discovery of negative thermal expansion over an unprecedented temperature range in ZrW 2 O 8 (which contracts continuously on warming from below 2 K to above 1000 K) has stimulated considerable interest in this unusual phenomenon. Negative and low thermal expansion materials have a number of important potential uses in ceramic, optical and electronic applications. We have now found negative thermal expansion in a large new family of materials with the general formula A 2 (MO 4 ) 3 . Chemical substitution dramatically influences the thermal expansion properties of these materials allowing the production of ceramics with negative, positive or zero coefficients of thermal expansion, with the potential to control other important materials properties such as refractive index and dielectric constant. The mechanism of negative thermal expansion and the phase transitions exhibited by this important new class of low-expansion materials will be discussed. (orig.)

  7. Human cognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    The study of human cognition encompasses the study of all mental phenomena, from the receipt and interpretation of sensory information to the final control of the motor system in the performance of action. The cognitive scientist examines all intermediary processes, including thought, decision making, and memory and including the effects of motivation, states of arousal and stress, the study of language, and the effects of social factors. The field therefore ranges over an enormous territory, covering all that is known or that should be known about human behavior. It is not possible to summarize the current state of knowledge about cognition with any great confidence that we know the correct answer about any aspect of the work. Nontheless, models provide good characterizations of certain aspects of the data and situations. Even if these models should prove to be incorrect, they do provide good approximate descriptions of people's behavior in some situations, and these approximations will still apply even when the underlying theories have changed. A quick description is provided of models within a number of areas of human cognition and skill and some general theoretical frameworks with which to view human cognition. The frameworks are qualitative descriptions that provide a way to view the development of more detailed, quantitative models and, most important, a way of thinking about human performance and skill

  8. Visual cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Visual cognition, high-level vision, mid-level vision and top-down processing all refer to decision-based scene analyses that combine prior knowledge with retinal input to generate representations. The label “visual cognition” is little used at present, but research and experiments on mid- and high-level, inference-based vision have flourished, becoming in the 21st century a significant, if often understated part, of current vision research. How does visual cognition work? What are its moving parts? This paper reviews the origins and architecture of visual cognition and briefly describes some work in the areas of routines, attention, surfaces, objects, and events (motion, causality, and agency). Most vision scientists avoid being too explicit when presenting concepts about visual cognition, having learned that explicit models invite easy criticism. What we see in the literature is ample evidence for visual cognition, but few or only cautious attempts to detail how it might work. This is the great unfinished business of vision research: at some point we will be done with characterizing how the visual system measures the world and we will have to return to the question of how vision constructs models of objects, surfaces, scenes, and events. PMID:21329719

  9. Cognitive linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Vyvyan

    2012-03-01

    Cognitive linguistics is one of the fastest growing and influential perspectives on the nature of language, the mind, and their relationship with sociophysical (embodied) experience. It is a broad theoretical and methodological enterprise, rather than a single, closely articulated theory. Its primary commitments are outlined. These are the Cognitive Commitment-a commitment to providing a characterization of language that accords with what is known about the mind and brain from other disciplines-and the Generalization Commitment-which represents a dedication to characterizing general principles that apply to all aspects of human language. The article also outlines the assumptions and worldview which arises from these commitments, as represented in the work of leading cognitive linguists. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:129-141. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1163 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. Entrepreneurial Cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zichella, Giulio

    entrepreneurs and nonentrepreneurs differ in their behavioral susceptibility to prior outcomes, increasing degrees of risk, risk perception, and predictive information. The empirical analyses are based on data from a laboratory experiment that I designed and conducted in October 2014. Individuals participating......Research in decision making and cognition has a long tradition in economics and management and represents a substantial stream of research in entrepreneurship. Risk and uncertainty are two characteristics of the decision environment. It has long been believed that entrepreneurs who need to make...... business judgments in such environments are less risk- and uncertainty-averse than non-entrepreneurs. However, this theoretical prediction has not been supported by empirical evidence. Instead, entrepreneurs have been found to be more susceptible to cognitive biases and heuristics. These cognitive...

  11. Negative affect varying in motivational intensity influences scope of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threadgill, A Hunter; Gable, Philip A

    2018-04-06

    Emotions influence cognitive processes involved in memory. While some research has suggested that cognitive scope is determined by affective valence, recent models of emotion-cognition interactions suggest that motivational intensity, rather than valence, influences these processes. The present research was designed to clarify how negative affects differing in motivational intensity impact memory for centrally or peripherally presented information. Experiments 1 & 2 found that, relative to a neutral condition, high intensity negative affect (anger) enhances memory for centrally presented information. Experiment 3 replicated this effect using another high intensity negative affect (threat). Experiment 4 extended this by finding that, relative to a neutral condition, low intensity negative affect (sadness) enhanced memory for peripherally presented information. Finally, in Experiment 5, the effects of sadness and threat on scope of memory were directly compared, finding that threat narrowed scope of memory, while sadness broadened scope of memory. Together, these results provide additional support for the motivational dimensional model of cognitive scope, in that high intensity emotions narrow cognitive scope, while low intensity emotions broaden cognitive scope.

  12. The impact of affective and cognitive focus on attitude formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, H. van den; Manstead, A.S.R.; Pligt, J. van der; Wigboldus, D.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    We examined the effects of unobtrusive affective and cognitive focus on attitude formation. To induce focus, participants worked on a word-search puzzle consisting of either affective (e.g., emotion) or cognitive (e.g., reasoning) words. They then read positive and negative affective and cognitive

  13. Neural activity during emotion recognition after combined cognitive plus social cognitive training in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Christine I; Bruce, Lori; Fisher, Melissa; Verosky, Sara C; Miyakawa, Asako; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2012-08-01

    Cognitive remediation training has been shown to improve both cognitive and social cognitive deficits in people with schizophrenia, but the mechanisms that support this behavioral improvement are largely unknown. One hypothesis is that intensive behavioral training in cognition and/or social cognition restores the underlying neural mechanisms that support targeted skills. However, there is little research on the neural effects of cognitive remediation training. This study investigated whether a 50 h (10-week) remediation intervention which included both cognitive and social cognitive training would influence neural function in regions that support social cognition. Twenty-two stable, outpatient schizophrenia participants were randomized to a treatment condition consisting of auditory-based cognitive training (AT) [Brain Fitness Program/auditory module ~60 min/day] plus social cognition training (SCT) which was focused on emotion recognition [~5-15 min per day] or a placebo condition of non-specific computer games (CG) for an equal amount of time. Pre and post intervention assessments included an fMRI task of positive and negative facial emotion recognition, and standard behavioral assessments of cognition, emotion processing, and functional outcome. There were no significant intervention-related improvements in general cognition or functional outcome. fMRI results showed the predicted group-by-time interaction. Specifically, in comparison to CG, AT+SCT participants had a greater pre-to-post intervention increase in postcentral gyrus activity during emotion recognition of both positive and negative emotions. Furthermore, among all participants, the increase in postcentral gyrus activity predicted behavioral improvement on a standardized test of emotion processing (MSCEIT: Perceiving Emotions). Results indicate that combined cognition and social cognition training impacts neural mechanisms that support social cognition skills. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All

  14. Neural activity during emotion recognition after combined cognitive plus social-cognitive training in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Christine I.; Bruce, Lori; Fisher, Melissa; Verosky, Sara C.; Miyakawa, Asako; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive remediation training has been shown to improve both cognitive and social-cognitive deficits in people with schizophrenia, but the mechanisms that support this behavioral improvement are largely unknown. One hypothesis is that intensive behavioral training in cognition and/or social-cognition restores the underlying neural mechanisms that support targeted skills. However, there is little research on the neural effects of cognitive remediation training. This study investigated whether a 50 hour (10-week) remediation intervention which included both cognitive and social-cognitive training would influence neural function in regions that support social-cognition. Twenty-two stable, outpatient schizophrenia participants were randomized to a treatment condition consisting of auditory-based cognitive training (AT) [Brain Fitness Program/auditory module ~60 minutes/day] plus social-cognition training (SCT) which was focused on emotion recognition [~5–15 minutes per day] or a placebo condition of non-specific computer games (CG) for an equal amount of time. Pre and post intervention assessments included an fMRI task of positive and negative facial emotion recognition, and standard behavioral assessments of cognition, emotion processing, and functional outcome. There were no significant intervention-related improvements in general cognition or functional outcome. FMRI results showed the predicted group-by-time interaction. Specifically, in comparison to CG, AT+SCT participants had a greater pre-to-post intervention increase in postcentral gyrus activity during emotion recognition of both positive and negative emotions. Furthermore, among all participants, the increase in postcentral gyrus activity predicted behavioral improvement on a standardized test of emotion processing (MSCEIT: Perceiving Emotions). Results indicate that combined cognition and social-cognition training impacts neural mechanisms that support social-cognition skills. PMID:22695257

  15. Atomic negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brage, T.

    1991-01-01

    We review some of the recent progress in the studies of alkaline-earth, negative ions. Computations of autodetachment rates, electron affinities and transition wavelengths are discussed and some new and improved results are given

  16. Cognitive Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    Children's thinking is highly variable at every level of analysis, from neural and associative levels to the level of strategies, theories, and other aspects of high-level cognition. This variability exists within people as well as between them; individual children often rely on different strategies or representations on closely related problems…

  17. Cognitive Fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-25

    is another cognitive fingerprint that has been used extensively for authorship . This work has been ex- tended to authentication by relating keyboard...this work is the inference of high-level features such as personality, gender , and dominant hand but those features have not been integrated to date

  18. Cognitive Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocking, Rodney R.; Mestre, Jose P.

    The focus of this paper is on cognitive science as a model for understanding the application of human skills toward effective problem-solving. Sections include: (1) "Introduction" (discussing information processing framework, expert-novice distinctions, schema theory, and learning process); (2) "Application: The Expert-Novice…

  19. Psychosocial working conditions and cognitive complaints among Swedish employees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia U D Stenfors

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cognitive complaints involving problems with concentration, memory, decision-making and thinking are relatively common in the work force. The sensitivity of both subjective and objective cognitive functioning to common psychiatric conditions, stress levels and to cognitive load makes it plausible that psychosocial working conditions play a role in cognitive complaints. Thus, this study aimed to test the associations between psychosocial work factors and cognitive complaints in nationally representative samples of the Swedish work force. Cross-sectional (n = 9751 and prospective (n = 3644; two time points two years apart sequential multiple regression analyses were run, adjusting for general confounders, depressive- and sleeping problems. Additional prospective analyses were run adjusting for baseline cognitive complaints. CROSS/SECTIONAL RESULTS: High quantitative demands, information and communication technology (ICT demands, under qualification and conflicts were positively associated with cognitive complaints, while social support, good resources at work and over qualification were negatively associated with cognitive complaints in all models. Skill discretion and decision authority were weakly associated with cognitive complaints. Conflicts were more strongly associated with cognitive complaints in women than in men, after adjustment for general confounders. PROSPECTIVE RESULTS: Quantitative job demands, ICT demands and under qualification were positively associated with future cognitive complaints in all models, including when adjusted for baseline cognitive complaints. Decision authority was weakly positively associated with future cognitive complaints, only after adjustment for depressive- and sleeping problems respectively. Social support was negatively associated with future cognitive complaints after adjustment for general confounders and baseline cognitive complaints. Skill discretion and resources were negatively

  20. NEGATION AFFIXES IN ENGLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedy Subandowo -

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This research entitled "Negation Affixes in English". This study is aimed to describe the various negation affixes in English, morphological process, morphophonemic and meaning. The research data were taken from various sources of English grammar book, morphology, research journal and the book which relatees to the research. English grammar books used in this study are written by Otto Jesperson, Marcella Frank, Greenbaum and Geoffrey Leech.  The method used in this research is the descriptive-qualitative method. While the data collection techniques are performed by using jot-down method. And the results of analysis are presented in tabular form and descriptive method. The result of the research shows that English has six types of negative affixes which are categorized by the intensity of its appearance, such as dis-, in-, non-, un-, anti- and -less. Based on the function, negation affixes are divided into several categories such as adjectives, nouns, verbs, and adverbs. The morphophonemic affix in- has four allomorphs, they are in-, im-, il- and ir- . While the analysis revealed that negation affixes have some basic meanings, such as ‘not’, ‘without’, and ‘anti’.

  1. Cognition about Cognition: Metacognitive Therapy and Change in Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    Metacognitive theory and therapy views the persistence of negative beliefs and thoughts as a result of metacognitions controlling cognition. This paper describes, with reference to the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and social phobia, how metacognition contributes to cognitive stability and to change. Metacognitive therapy offers…

  2. On Various Negative Translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several proof translations of classical mathematics into intuitionistic mathematics have been proposed in the literature over the past century. These are normally referred to as negative translations or double-negation translations. Among those, the most commonly cited are translations due to Kolmogorov, Godel, Gentzen, Kuroda and Krivine (in chronological order. In this paper we propose a framework for explaining how these different translations are related to each other. More precisely, we define a notion of a (modular simplification starting from Kolmogorov translation, which leads to a partial order between different negative translations. In this derived ordering, Kuroda and Krivine are minimal elements. Two new minimal translations are introduced, with Godel and Gentzen translations sitting in between Kolmogorov and one of these new translations.

  3. Negative ion sourcery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Os, C.F.A. van.

    1989-01-01

    The work described in this thesis is involved by current research programs in the field of nuclear-fusion. A brief introduction to fusion is given, anticipated problems related to current drive of the fusion plasma are pinpointed and probable suggestions to overcome these problems are described. One probable means for current drive is highlighted; Neutral Beam Injection (NBI). This is based on injecting a 1 MeV neutral hydrogen or deuterium beam into a fusion plasma. Negative ions are needed as primary particles because they can easily be neutralized at 1 MeV. The two current schemes for production of negative ions are described, volume production and negative surface ionization. The latter method is extensively studied in this thesis. (author). 171 refs.; 55 figs.; 7 tabs

  4. Effects of valence and divided attention on cognitive reappraisal processes

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, John A.; Leclerc, Christina M.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the neural substrates supporting cognitive reappraisal, identifying the importance of cognitive control processes implemented by prefrontal cortex (PFC). This study examined how valence and attention affect the processes used for cognitive reappraisal by asking participants to passively view or to cognitively reappraise positive and negative images with full or divided attention. When participants simply viewed these images, results revealed few effects of v...

  5. Potential of Cognitive Computing and Cognitive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive computing and cognitive technologies are game changers for future engineering systems, as well as for engineering practice and training. They are major drivers for knowledge automation work, and the creation of cognitive products with higher levels of intelligence than current smart products. This paper gives a brief review of cognitive computing and some of the cognitive engineering systems activities. The potential of cognitive technologies is outlined, along with a brief description of future cognitive environments, incorporating cognitive assistants - specialized proactive intelligent software agents designed to follow and interact with humans and other cognitive assistants across the environments. The cognitive assistants engage, individually or collectively, with humans through a combination of adaptive multimodal interfaces, and advanced visualization and navigation techniques. The realization of future cognitive environments requires the development of a cognitive innovation ecosystem for the engineering workforce. The continuously expanding major components of the ecosystem include integrated knowledge discovery and exploitation facilities (incorporating predictive and prescriptive big data analytics); novel cognitive modeling and visual simulation facilities; cognitive multimodal interfaces; and cognitive mobile and wearable devices. The ecosystem will provide timely, engaging, personalized / collaborative, learning and effective decision making. It will stimulate creativity and innovation, and prepare the participants to work in future cognitive enterprises and develop new cognitive products of increasing complexity. http://www.aee.odu.edu/cognitivecomp

  6. Brain Signal Variability Differentially Affects Cognitive Flexibility and Cognitive Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster-Genç, Diana J N; Ueltzhöffer, Kai; Fiebach, Christian J

    2016-04-06

    Recent research yielded the intriguing conclusion that, in healthy adults, higher levels of variability in neuronal processes are beneficial for cognitive functioning. Beneficial effects of variability in neuronal processing can also be inferred from neurocomputational theories of working memory, albeit this holds only for tasks requiring cognitive flexibility. However, cognitive stability, i.e., the ability to maintain a task goal in the face of irrelevant distractors, should suffer under high levels of brain signal variability. To directly test this prediction, we studied both behavioral and brain signal variability during cognitive flexibility (i.e., task switching) and cognitive stability (i.e., distractor inhibition) in a sample of healthy human subjects and developed an efficient and easy-to-implement analysis approach to assess BOLD-signal variability in event-related fMRI task paradigms. Results show a general positive effect of neural variability on task performance as assessed by accuracy measures. However, higher levels of BOLD-signal variability in the left inferior frontal junction area result in reduced error rate costs during task switching and thus facilitate cognitive flexibility. In contrast, variability in the same area has a detrimental effect on cognitive stability, as shown in a negative effect of variability on response time costs during distractor inhibition. This pattern was mirrored at the behavioral level, with higher behavioral variability predicting better task switching but worse distractor inhibition performance. Our data extend previous results on brain signal variability by showing a differential effect of brain signal variability that depends on task context, in line with predictions from computational theories. Recent neuroscientific research showed that the human brain signal is intrinsically variable and suggested that this variability improves performance. Computational models of prefrontal neural networks predict differential

  7. Testing the cognitive catalyst model of rumination with explicit and implicit cognitive content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sova, Christopher C; Roberts, John E

    2018-06-01

    The cognitive catalyst model posits that rumination and negative cognitive content, such as negative schema, interact to predict depressive affect. Past research has found support for this model using explicit measures of negative cognitive content such as self-report measures of trait self-esteem and dysfunctional attitudes. The present study tested whether these findings would extend to implicit measures of negative cognitive content such as implicit self-esteem, and whether effects would depend on initial mood state and history of depression. Sixty-one undergraduate students selected on the basis of depression history (27 previously depressed; 34 never depressed) completed explicit and implicit measures of negative cognitive content prior to random assignment to a rumination induction followed by a distraction induction or vice versa. Dysphoric affect was measured both before and after these inductions. Analyses revealed that explicit measures, but not implicit measures, interacted with rumination to predict change in dysphoric affect, and these interactions were further moderated by baseline levels of dysphoria. Limitations include the small nonclinical sample and use of a self-report measure of depression history. These findings suggest that rumination amplifies the association between explicit negative cognitive content and depressive affect primarily among people who are already experiencing sad mood. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. You are such a bad child! Appraisals as mechanisms of parental negative and positive affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavita, Oana Alexandra; David, Daniel; DiGiuseppe, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Although parent cognitions are considered important predictors that determine specific emotional reactions and parental practices, models on the cognitive strategies for regulating parental distress or positive emotions are not well developed. Our aim was to investigate the nature of cognitions involved in parental distress and satisfaction, in terms of their specificity (parental or general) and their processing levels (inferential or evaluative cognitions). We hypothesized that parent's specific evaluative cognitions will mediate the impact of more general and inferential cognitive structures on their affective reactions. We used bootstrapping procedures in order to test the mediation models proposed. Results obtained show indeed that rather specific evaluative parental cognitions are mediating the relationship between general cognitions and parental distress. In terms of the cognitive processing levels, it seems that when parents hold both low self-efficacy and parental negative global evaluations for the self/child, this adds significantly to their distress.

  9. Can exercise prevent cognitive decline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Sophie; Ebmeier, Klaus P

    2014-01-01

    As the tolerability of pharmacological agents decreases with age, exercise may be particularly helpful as a possible treatment or stabiliser of mood and cognitive function in older age. Exercise has been most commonly evaluated for the treatment of depression. Exercise interventions designed primarily for treatment of physical conditions in the elderly do appear to confer psychological benefits as well, with reduction in depressive symptoms over the course of treatment. The effects of exercise on reducing depressive symptoms are not dissimilar to the effects of antidepressant drugs and cognitive behaviour therapy. Exercise may be a useful low-tech intervention for people with mild to moderate depression. In particular, exercise may be helpful in the elderly and in patients who have had insufficient response to, or are intolerant of, pharmacotherapy. Mastery of a new skill and positive feedback from others may increase feelings of self-esteem and improve mood. Exercise may distract participants from persistent negative thoughts. Exercise has been shown to improve executive function acutely in adults of all ages. It is possible that dance routines or other exercise regimens requiring some cognitive input may confer additional benefit to cognitive function. Exercise has a moderate effect on the ability of people with dementia to perform activities of daily living and may improve cognitive function. Midlife exercise may also have an impact on later cognitive function.

  10. Cognitive memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widrow, Bernard; Aragon, Juan Carlos

    2013-05-01

    Regarding the workings of the human mind, memory and pattern recognition seem to be intertwined. You generally do not have one without the other. Taking inspiration from life experience, a new form of computer memory has been devised. Certain conjectures about human memory are keys to the central idea. The design of a practical and useful "cognitive" memory system is contemplated, a memory system that may also serve as a model for many aspects of human memory. The new memory does not function like a computer memory where specific data is stored in specific numbered registers and retrieval is done by reading the contents of the specified memory register, or done by matching key words as with a document search. Incoming sensory data would be stored at the next available empty memory location, and indeed could be stored redundantly at several empty locations. The stored sensory data would neither have key words nor would it be located in known or specified memory locations. Sensory inputs concerning a single object or subject are stored together as patterns in a single "file folder" or "memory folder". When the contents of the folder are retrieved, sights, sounds, tactile feel, smell, etc., are obtained all at the same time. Retrieval would be initiated by a query or a prompt signal from a current set of sensory inputs or patterns. A search through the memory would be made to locate stored data that correlates with or relates to the prompt input. The search would be done by a retrieval system whose first stage makes use of autoassociative artificial neural networks and whose second stage relies on exhaustive search. Applications of cognitive memory systems have been made to visual aircraft identification, aircraft navigation, and human facial recognition. Concerning human memory, reasons are given why it is unlikely that long-term memory is stored in the synapses of the brain's neural networks. Reasons are given suggesting that long-term memory is stored in DNA or RNA

  11. The role of cognitive flexibility in cognitive restructuring skill acquisition among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnco, C; Wuthrich, V M; Rapee, R M

    2013-08-01

    Cognitive flexibility is one aspect of executive functioning that encompasses the ability to produce diverse ideas, consider response alternatives, and modify behaviors to manage changing circumstances. These processes are likely to be important for implementing cognitive restructuring. The present study investigated the impact of cognitive flexibility on older adults' ability to learn cognitive restructuring. Neuropsychological measures of cognitive flexibility were administered to 40 normal community-dwelling older adult volunteers and their ability to implement cognitive restructuring was coded and analyzed. Results indicated that the majority of participants showed good cognitive restructuring skill acquisition with brief training. The multiple regression analysis suggested that those with poorer cognitive flexibility on neuropsychological testing demonstrated poorer quality cognitive restructuring. In particular, perseverative thinking styles appear to negatively impact the ability to learn cognitive restructuring. Further research is needed to clarify whether older adults with poor cognitive flexibility can improve their cognitive restructuring skills with repetition over treatment or whether alternative skills should be considered. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Performance Costs when Emotion Tunes Inappropriate Cognitive Abilities: Implications for Mental Resources and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storbeck, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Emotion tunes cognition, such that approach-motivated positive states promote verbal cognition, whereas withdrawal-motivated negative states promote spatial cognition (Gray, 2001). The current research examined whether self-control resources become depleted and influence subsequent behavior when emotion tunes an inappropriate cognitive tendency.…

  13. Corrugator Activity Confirms Immediate Negative Affect in Surprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha eTopolinski

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The emotion of surprise entails a complex of immediate responses, such as cognitive interruption, attention allocation to, and more systematic processing of the surprising stimulus. All these processes serve the ultimate function to increase processing depth and thus cognitively master the surprising stimulus. The present account introduces phasic negative affect as the underlying mechanism responsible for these consequences. Surprising stimuli are schema-discrepant and thus entail cognitive disfluency, which elicits immediate negative affect. This affect in turn works like a phasic cognitive tuning switching the current processing mode from more automatic and heuristic to more systematic and reflective processing. Directly testing the initial elicitation of negative affect by suprising events, the present experiment presented high and low surprising neutral trivia statements to N = 28 participants while assessing their spontaneous facial expressions via facial electromyography. High compared to low suprising trivia elicited higher corrugator activity, indicative of negative affect and mental effort, while leaving zygomaticus (positive affect and frontalis (cultural surprise expression activity unaffected. Future research shall investigate the mediating role of negative affect in eliciting surprise-related outcomes.

  14. NEVER forget: negative emotional valence enhances recapitulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Holly J; Kark, Sarah M; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2017-07-10

    A hallmark feature of episodic memory is that of "mental time travel," whereby an individual feels they have returned to a prior moment in time. Cognitive and behavioral neuroscience methods have revealed a neurobiological counterpart: Successful retrieval often is associated with reactivation of a prior brain state. We review the emerging literature on memory reactivation and recapitulation, and we describe evidence for the effects of emotion on these processes. Based on this review, we propose a new model: Negative Emotional Valence Enhances Recapitulation (NEVER). This model diverges from existing models of emotional memory in three key ways. First, it underscores the effects of emotion during retrieval. Second, it stresses the importance of sensory processing to emotional memory. Third, it emphasizes how emotional valence - whether an event is negative or positive - affects the way that information is remembered. The model specifically proposes that, as compared to positive events, negative events both trigger increased encoding of sensory detail and elicit a closer resemblance between the sensory encoding signature and the sensory retrieval signature. The model also proposes that negative valence enhances the reactivation and storage of sensory details over offline periods, leading to a greater divergence between the sensory recapitulation of negative and positive memories over time. Importantly, the model proposes that these valence-based differences occur even when events are equated for arousal, thus rendering an exclusively arousal-based theory of emotional memory insufficient. We conclude by discussing implications of the model and suggesting directions for future research to test the tenets of the model.

  15. Dualising Intuitionictic Negation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Priest

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One of Da Costa's motives when he constructed the paraconsistent logic Cw was to dualise the negation of intuitionistic logic. In this paper I explore a different way of going about this task. A logic is defined by taking the Kripke semantics for intuitionistic logic, and dualising the truth conditions for negation. Various properties of the logic are established, including its relation to CWo Tableau and natural deduction systems for the logic are produced, as are appropriate algebraic structures. The paper then investigates dualising the intuitionistic conditional in the same way. This establishes various connections between the logic, and a logic called in the literature 'Brouwerian logic' or 'closed-set logic'.

  16. Dualising Intuitionistic Negation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Priest

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available One of Da Costa’s motives when he constructed the paraconsistent logic C! was to dualise the negation of intuitionistic logic. In this paper I explore a different way of going about this task. A logic is defined by taking the Kripke semantics for intuitionistic logic, and dualising the truth conditions for negation. Various properties of the logic are established, including its relation to C!. Tableau and natural deduction systems for the logic are produced, as are appropriate algebraic structures. The paper then investigates dualising the intuitionistic conditional in the same way. This establishes various connections between the logic, and a logic called in the literature ‘Brouwerian logic’ or ‘closed-set logic’.

  17. Cognitive Distortions, Humor Styles, and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rnic, Katerina; Dozois, David J A; Martin, Rod A

    2016-08-01

    Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual's ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor) as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria.

  18. The influence of sense of coherence and mindfulness on PTSD symptoms and posttraumatic cognitions in a sample of elderly Austrian survivors of World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glück, Tobias M; Tran, Ulrich S; Raninger, Simone; Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte

    2016-03-01

    Sense of Coherence (SOC) and mindfulness are known protective factors against psychopathology, also in older age. We set out to investigate the influence of SOC and mindfulness on posttraumatic symptoms and cognitions in the context of lifetime trauma in elderly persons with a history of childhood war-experiences. Elderly Austrians (N = 97) filled in questionnaires on traumatic lifetime experiences and posttraumatic symptoms (ETI), posttraumatic cognitions (PTCI), SOC (SOC-13) and mindfulness (FFMQ). We expected the influence of SOC scores on posttraumatic symptoms and cognitions to be on one hand influenced by mindfulness. On the other hand, we expected that both aspects would uniquely explain fewer posttraumatic symptoms and cognitions. Participants reported various lifetime traumas (M = 2.42), including experiences during World War II (WWII) as children and adolescents. Mindfulness partially mediated the association of SOC scores with posttraumatic cognitions, but not with posttraumatic symptoms. However, in a two-stage mediation model, mindfulness significantly predicted posttraumatic symptoms via its effects on posttraumatic cognitions. Although SOC was the strongest predictor of posttraumatic symptoms, mindfulness influenced the severity of posttraumatic symptoms via its effects on posttraumatic cognitions. We discuss implications for mindfulness-based interventions on trauma-related cognitions in the elderly.

  19. Evaluation of Physicians' Cognitive Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Beckstead, Jason W; Elqayam, Shira; Reljic, Tea; Hozo, Iztok; Kumar, Ambuj; Cannon-Bowers, Janis; Taylor, Stephanie; Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Turner, Brandon; Paidas, Charles

    2014-07-01

    Patient outcomes critically depend on accuracy of physicians' judgment, yet little is known about individual differences in cognitive styles that underlie physicians' judgments. The objective of this study was to assess physicians' individual differences in cognitive styles relative to age, experience, and degree and type of training. Physicians at different levels of training and career completed a web-based survey of 6 scales measuring individual differences in cognitive styles (maximizing v. satisficing, analytical v. intuitive reasoning, need for cognition, intolerance toward ambiguity, objectivism, and cognitive reflection). We measured psychometric properties (Cronbach's α) of scales; relationship of age, experience, degree, and type of training; responses to scales; and accuracy on conditional inference task. The study included 165 trainees and 56 attending physicians (median age 31 years; range 25-69 years). All 6 constructs showed acceptable psychometric properties. Surprisingly, we found significant negative correlation between age and satisficing (r = -0.239; P = 0.017). Maximizing (willingness to engage in alternative search strategy) also decreased with age (r = -0.220; P = 0.047). Number of incorrect inferences negatively correlated with satisficing (r = -0.246; P = 0.014). Disposition to suppress intuitive responses was associated with correct responses on 3 of 4 inferential tasks. Trainees showed a tendency to engage in analytical thinking (r = 0.265; P = 0.025), while attendings displayed inclination toward intuitive-experiential thinking (r = 0.427; P = 0.046). However, trainees performed worse on conditional inference task. Physicians capable of suppressing an immediate intuitive response to questions and those scoring higher on rational thinking made fewer inferential mistakes. We found a negative correlation between age and maximizing: Physicians who were more advanced in their careers were less willing to spend time and effort in an

  20. Neurocognitive performance and physical function do not change with physical-cognitive-mindfulness training in female laboratory technicians with chronic musculoskeletal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jay, Kenneth; Brandt, Mikkel; Schraefel, M. C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive and physical performance can be negatively affected by chronic pain. This study evaluates the effect of combined physical-, cognitive-, and mindfulness training (PCMT) on cognitive and physical performance. METHODS: From a large pharmaceutical company in Denmark we randomly...

  1. [Cognitive remediation and work outcome in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, N

    2014-06-01

    Recovery is partly defined by the patients' capacity to work, since doing well in a job favors hope and responsibilities' taking. Diminished job placement or tenure is linked with cognitive disorders, which impact directly and indirectly (through negative symptoms) functional outcomes. Attention, executive functions and working memory disorders can result in an alteration of the ability to manage the tasks required in the workplace. Executive function, working memory and social cognition disorders may also have an impact on behavior in relationships. Cognitive disorders do not automatically directly contribute to vocational outcome, yet their effects may be mediated by other variables such as symptoms, metacognition, social skills and intrinsic motivation. Then, since all these dimensions have to be taken into account, reducing the impact of cognitive troubles becomes a major challenge for the care of schizophrenia. Cognitive remediation is the more effective therapeutic tool to reduce cognitive dysfunctions. It rests in particular on the development of new strategies that allow taking concrete situations into account more efficiently. Cognitive remediation reduces the detrimental consequences of cognitive disorders and permits their compensation. It has emerged as an effective treatment, that improves not only cognitive abilities but also functioning, as it has been shown by numerous randomized controlled studies and several meta-analyses. The present article considers the effects on cognitive remediation on work function in schizophrenia. Several randomized controlled trials that compared supported employment alone versus supported employment associated with cognitive remediation showed significant improvement of employment rates in the latter condition. These results favor the use of cognitive remediation before job placement. The specific needs of the occupation that will be provided and the cognitive profile of the user should be taken into account. Copyright

  2. Cognition in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvo, P.; Keijzer, F.A.

    2009-01-01

    To what extent can plants be considered cognitive from the perspective of embodied cognition? Cognition is interpreted very broadly within embodied cognition, and the current evidence for plant intelligence might find an important theoretical background here. However, embodied cognition does stress

  3. Predicting Response Trajectories during Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Panic Disorder: No Association with the BDNF Gene or Childhood Maltreatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martí Santacana

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and result in low quality of life and a high social and economic cost. The efficacy of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT for anxiety disorders is well established, but a substantial proportion of patients do not respond to this treatment. Understanding which genetic and environmental factors are responsible for this differential response to treatment is a key step towards "personalized medicine". Based on previous research, our objective was to test whether the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and/or childhood maltreatment are associated with response trajectories during exposure-based CBT for panic disorder (PD.We used Growth Mixture Modeling to identify latent classes of change (response trajectories in patients with PD (N = 97 who underwent group manualized exposure-based CBT. We conducted logistic regression to investigate the effect on these trajectories of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and two different types of childhood maltreatment, abuse and neglect.We identified two response trajectories ("high response" and "low response", and found that they were not significantly associated with either the genetic (BDNF Val66Met polymorphism or childhood trauma-related variables of interest, nor with an interaction between these variables.We found no evidence to support an effect of the BDNF gene or childhood trauma-related variables on CBT outcome in PD. Future studies in this field may benefit from looking at other genotypes or using different (e.g. whole-genome approaches.

  4. Body image related negative interpretation bias in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeyer, Timo; Anderle, Alisa; Schmidt, Hagen; Febry, Stephanie; Wünsch-Leiteritz, Wally; Leiteritz, Andreas; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

    2018-05-01

    A distorted body image and pronounced body dissatisfaction are hallmarks of anorexia nervosa (AN) that typically result in dietary restraint and compensatory behaviours. Cognitive biases such as negative interpretation bias are considered key maintaining factors of these maladaptive cognitions and behaviours. However, little attention has been paid to empirical tests whether negative interpretation bias exists in AN and to what degree it is associated with symptom severity. Participants in the present study were 40 women with AN and 40 healthy women with no history of an eating disorder. Body-related negative interpretation bias (i.e., a tendency to interpret ambiguous information about the own body in a negative way) was measured by a Scrambled Sentences Task. Patients with AN showed a stronger body-related negative interpretation bias than healthy controls. Within both groups, negative interpretation bias correlated strongly and positively with AN symptom severity and these effects were not moderated by levels of depressive symptoms. The findings support the idea that biased interpretation of body-related information is associated with the specific psychopathology of AN. Targeted, computerised interventions (e.g. interpretation bias modification) may help to alter these dysfunctional cognitive schemas that lie at the heart of AN. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Negative ion beam processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, T.D.; Lawrence, G.P.; Bentley, R.F.; Malanify, J.J.; Jackson, J.A.

    1975-06-01

    Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory fiscal year 1975 work on production of intense, very bright, negative hydrogen (H - ), ion beams and conversion of a high-energy (a few hundred MeV) negative beam into a neutral beam are described. The ion source work has used a cesium charge exchange source that has produced H - ion beams greater than or equal to 10 mA (about a factor of 10 greater than those available 1 yr ago) with a brightness of 1.4 x 10 9 A/m 2 -rad 2 (about 18 times brighter than before). The high-energy, neutral beam production investigations have included measurements of the 800-MeV H - -stripping cross section in hydrogen gas (sigma/sub -10/, tentatively 4 x 10 -19 cm 2 ), 3- to 6-MeV H - -stripping cross sections in a hydrogen plasma (sigma/sub -10/, tentatively 2 to 4 x 10 -16 cm 2 ), and the small-angle scattering that results from stripping an 800-MeV H - ion beam to a neutral (H 0 ) beam in hydrogen gas. These last measurements were interrupted by the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility shutdown in December 1974, but should be completed early in fiscal year 1976 when the accelerator resumes operation. Small-angle scattering calculations have included hydrogen gas-stripping, plasma-stripping, and photodetachment. Calculations indicate that the root mean square angular spread of a 390-MeV negative triton (T - ) beam stripped in a plasma stripper may be as low as 0.7 μrad

  6. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  7. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  8. Cognitive processes in CBT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, E.S.; Vrijsen, J.N.; Hofmann, S.G.; Asmundson, G.J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Automatic cognitive processing helps us navigate the world. However, if the emotional and cognitive interplay becomes skewed, those cognitive processes can become maladaptive and result in psychopathology. Although biases are present in most mental disorders, different disorders are characterized by

  9. Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) Overview Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate stage between the expected cognitive decline of normal aging and the more-serious decline of dementia. It ...

  10. COGNITIVE COMPETENCE COMPARED TO COGNITIVE INDEPENDENCE AND COGNITIVE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina B. Shmigirilova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is aimed at identifying the essence of the cognitive competence concept in comparison with the concepts of cognitive independence and activity.Methods: The methodology implies a theoretical analysis of psychopedagogical and methodological materials on the cognitive competence formation; generalized teaching experience; empirical methods of direct observations of educational process in the secondary school classrooms; interviews with school teachers and pupils.Results: The research outcomes reveal a semantic intersection between the cognitive competence, independence and activity, and their distinctive features. The paper emphasizes the importance of cognitive competence as an adaptive mechanism in situations of uncertainty and instability.Scientific novelty: The author clarifies the concept of cognitive competence regarding it as a multi-component and systematic characteristic of a personality.Practical significance: The research findings can be used by specialists in didactics developing the teaching techniques of cognitive competence formation for schoolchildren.

  11. Neuro-cognition and social cognition elements of social functioning and social quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Mashiach-Eizenberg, Michal; Arnon-Ribenfeld, Nitzan; Kravetz, Shlomo; Roe, David

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that deficits in social cognition mediate the association between neuro-cognition and functional outcome. Based on these findings, the current study presents an examination of the mediating role of social cognition and includes two different outcomes: social functioning assessed by objective observer and social quality of life assessed by subjective self-report. Instruments measuring different aspects of social cognition, cognitive ability, social functioning and social quality of life were administered to 131 participants who had a diagnosis of a serious mental illness. Results showed that emotion recognition and attributional bias were significant mediators such that cognitive assessment was positively related to both, which in turn, were negatively related to SQoL. While one interpretation of the data suggests that deficits in emotion recognition may serve as a possible defense mechanism, future studies should re-assess this idea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cognitive Cybernetics vs. Captology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Balaž

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In acronym Captology – Computers as Persuasive Technology, a persuasive component (lat. persuasibilibus – enticing refers to the persuasive stimulation by intelligent technologies. Latter being transitive and interactive as intelligent systems, they have imposed, by their persuasivity, a ‘cult of information’, after which information has become a type of goods that as a utilitarian resource must be exploited quickly and efficiently. Such a widely accepted fact resulted as hype, presenting a perspective that the approach to a large amount of information and faster ‘digestion’ of their content will enable users to quickly get desired knowledge. Recent investigations about persuasion processes have shown its dependence on intelligent technology factors (design, interactive computer products, web, desktop and others. Such technologies are also used to influence people’s attitudes, beliefs, learning, and behaviour. Development strategies for global computer production and sales head in that direction and confirm latter statement with the promoted 3-P model: persuasive, permissive and pervasive components. Cognitive level of human integrated development is increasingly overshadowed by the contribution of artificial intelligence through its products, i.e. ‘smart’ creations, and by the array of shortcomings and problems that the same interactive technology brings. This paper presents a parallel between captological component of intelligent and interactive technologies on one side and illustrates examples of captological influences proved by confirmed trials within cognitive science through computer simulations of human thinking on the other side. Many studies have shown that the success of persuasion depends on the factors which have been exposed by cognitive cybernetics. Next to it, people’s behavior system is transforming through the very development of society. Therefore, the influence of latter can be either positive or negative

  13. Conceptions of cognition for cognitive engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive processes, cognitive psychology tells us, unfold in our heads. In contrast, several approaches in cognitive engineering argue for a shift of unit of analysis from what is going on in the heads of operators to the workings of whole socio-technical systems. This shift is sometimes presented...... as part of the development of a new understanding of what cognition is and where the boundaries of cognitive systems are. Cognition, it is claimed, is not just situated or embedded, but extended and distributed in the world. My main question in this article is what the practical significance...... is of this framing of an expanded unit of analysis in a cognitive vocabulary. I focus on possible consequences for how cognitive engineering practitioners think about function allocation in system design, and on what the relative benefits and costs are of having a common framework and vocabulary for talking about...

  14. Episodic memory after trauma exposure: Medial temporal lobe function is positively related to re-experiencing and inversely related to negative affect symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Stevens

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal structure is particularly sensitive to trauma and other stressors. However, previous findings linking hippocampal function with trauma-related psychopathology have been mixed. Heterogeneity in psychological responses to trauma has not been considered with respect to hippocampal function and may contribute to mixed findings. To address these issues, we examined associations between data-driven symptom dimensions and episodic memory formation, a key function of the hippocampus, in a trauma-exposed sample. Symptom dimensions were defined using principal components analysis (PCA in 3881 trauma-exposed African-American women recruited from primary care waiting rooms of a large urban hospital. Hippocampal and amygdala function were subsequently investigated in an fMRI study of episodic memory formation in a subset of 54 women. Participants viewed scenes with neutral, negative, and positive content during fMRI, and completed a delayed cued recall task. PCA analysis produced five symptom dimensions interpreted as reflecting negative affect, somatic symptoms, re-experiencing, hyper-arousal, and numbing. Re-experiencing was the only symptom type associated with hippocampal function, predicting increased memory encoding-related activation in the hippocampus as well as the amygdala. In contrast, the negative affect component predicted lower amygdala activation for subsequently recalled scenes, and lower functional coupling with other important memory-related regions including the precuneus, inferior frontal gyrus, and occipital cortex. Symptom dimensions were not related to hippocampal volume. The fMRI findings for re-experiencing versus negative affect parallel differences in behavioral memory phenomena in PTSD versus MDD, and highlight a need for more complex models of trauma-related pathology.

  15. Can cognitive science create a cognitive economics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chater, Nick

    2015-02-01

    Cognitive science can intersect with economics in at least three productive ways: by providing richer models of individual behaviour for use in economic analysis; by drawing from economic theory in order to model distributed cognition; and jointly to create more powerful 'rational' models of cognitive processes and social interaction. There is the prospect of moving from behavioural economics to a genuinely cognitive economics. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Do `negative' temperatures exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavenda, B. H.

    1999-06-01

    A modification of the second law is required for a system with a bounded density of states and not the introduction of a `negative' temperature scale. The ascending and descending branches of the entropy versus energy curve describe particle and hole states, having thermal equations of state that are given by the Fermi and logistic distributions, respectively. Conservation of energy requires isentropic states to be isothermal. The effect of adiabatically reversing the field is entirely mechanical because the only difference between the two states is their energies. The laws of large and small numbers, leading to the normal and Poisson approximations, characterize statistically the states of infinite and zero temperatures, respectively. Since the heat capacity also vanishes in the state of maximum disorder, the third law can be generalized in systems with a bounded density of states: the entropy tends to a constant as the temperature tends to either zero or infinity.

  17. Cortical thickness changes correlate with cognition changes after cognitive training: Evidence from a Chinese community study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan eJiang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether changes in cortical thickness correlated with cognitive function changes in healthy older adults after receiving cognitive training interventions. Moreover, it also aimed to examine the differential impacts of a multi-domain and a single-domain cognitive training interventions. Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scanning was performed on participants 65 to 75 years of age using the Siemens 3.0 T Trio Tim with the MPRAGE sequence. The cortical thickness was determined using FreeSurfer software. Cognitive functioning was evaluated using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS. There were significant group × time interaction effects on the left supramarginal, the left frontal pole cortical regions; and a marginal significant group × time interaction effects on visuospatial/constructional and delayed memory scores. In a multi-domain cognitive training group, a number of cortical region changes were significantly positively correlated with changes in attention, delayed memory, and the total score, but significantly negatively correlated with changes in immediate memory and language scores. In the single-domain cognitive training group, some cortical region changes were significantly positively associated with changes in immediate memory, delayed memory, and the total score, while they were significantly negatively associated with changes in visuospatial/constructional, language, and attention scores. Overall, multi-domain cognitive training offered more advantages in visuospatial/constructional, attention, and delayed memory abilities, while single-domain cognitive training benefited immediate memory ability more effectively. These findings suggest that healthy older adults benefit more from the multi-domain cognitive training than single-domain cognitive training. Cognitive training has impacted on cortical thickness changes in healthy elderly

  18. Subjective cognitive decline and fall risk in community-dwelling older adults with or without objective cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirooka, Hidehiko; Nishiguchi, Shu; Fukutani, Naoto; Tashiro, Yuto; Nozaki, Yuma; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2018-05-01

    The association between subjective cognitive decline and falls has not been clearly determined. Our aim was to explore the effect of subjective cognitive decline on falls in community-dwelling older adults with or without objective cognitive decline. We included 470 older adults (mean age 73.6 ± 5.2; 329 women) living in the community and obtained data on fall history directly from the participants. Subjective cognitive decline was assessed using a self-administered question. Objective cognitive function was measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Statistical analyses were carried out separately for participants with objective cognitive decline and those without. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that, among participants without objective cognitive decline, subjective cognitive decline was positively associated with falls [OR 1.91; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17-3.12; p = 0.01). Conversely, among participants with objective cognitive decline, subjective cognitive decline was negatively associated with falls (OR 0.07; 95% CI 0.01-0.85, p = 0.04). The result suggests that the objective-subjective disparity may affect falls in community-dwelling older adults. The presence of subjective cognitive decline was significantly positively associated with falls among cognitively intact older adults. However, among their cognitively impaired peers, the absence of subjective cognitive decline was positively associated with falls.

  19. Infant Cries Rattle Adult Cognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Dudek

    Full Text Available The attention-grabbing quality of the infant cry is well recognized, but how the emotional valence of infant vocal signals affects adult cognition and cortical activity has heretofore been unknown. We examined the effects of two contrasting infant vocalizations (cries vs. laughs on adult performance on a Stroop task using a cross-modal distraction paradigm in which infant distractors were vocal and targets were visual. Infant vocalizations were presented before (Experiment 1 or during each Stroop trial (Experiment 2. To evaluate the influence of infant vocalizations on cognitive control, neural responses to the Stroop task were obtained by measuring electroencephalography (EEG and event-related potentials (ERPs in Experiment 1. Based on the previously demonstrated existence of negative arousal bias, we hypothesized that cry vocalizations would be more distracting and invoke greater conflict processing than laugh vocalizations. Similarly, we expected participants to have greater difficulty shifting attention from the vocal distractors to the target task after hearing cries vs. after hearing laughs. Behavioral results from both experiments showed a cry interference effect, in which task performance was slower with cry than with laugh distractors. Electrophysiology data further revealed that cries more than laughs reduced attention to the task (smaller P200 and increased conflict processing (larger N450, albeit differently for incongruent and congruent trials. Results from a correlation analysis showed that the amplitudes of P200 and N450 were inversely related, suggesting a reciprocal relationship between attention and conflict processing. The findings suggest that cognitive control processes contribute to an attention bias to infant signals, which is modulated in part by the valence of the infant vocalization and the demands of the cognitive task. The findings thus support the notion that infant cries elicit a negative arousal bias that is

  20. Negative Trauma Appraisals and PTSD Symptoms in Sri Lankan Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnamperuma, Thyagi; Nicolson, Nancy A

    2016-02-01

    The cognitive model posits that negative appraisals play an important role in posttraumatic stress disorder, in children as well as in adults. This study examined correlates of negative appraisals in relation to trauma exposure and their relationship to posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in 414 Sri Lankan adolescents, aged 12 to 16, living in areas impacted in varying degrees by the 2004 tsunami. In 2008, participants completed measures of negative appraisals, lifetime traumatic events, posttraumatic stress symptoms, internalizing symptoms, ongoing adversity, and social support. The majority (70 %) of the participants reported multiple traumatic events; 25 % met DSM-IV criteria for full or partial PTSD. Adolescents who had experienced more severe events, abusive events, greater cumulative trauma, or greater current adversity reported more negative appraisals. In regression analyses controlling for known risk factors such as female gender, cumulative trauma, ongoing adversity, and low social support, negative appraisals were the best predictor of PTSS, explaining 22 % of the variance. This relationship appeared specific to PTSS, as negative appraisals did not predict internalizing symptoms. Findings confirm the link between negative cognitions concerning traumatic events and persistent PTSS in adolescents, but longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether appraisals contribute to symptom maintenance over time.

  1. Lithium alloy negative electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Robert A.

    The 1996 announcement by Fuji Photo Film of the development of lithium batteries containing convertible metal oxides has caused a great deal of renewed interest in lithium alloys as alternative materials for use in the negative electrode of rechargeable lithium cells. The earlier work on lithium alloys, both at elevated and ambient temperatures is briefly reviewed. Basic principles relating thermodynamics, phase diagrams and electrochemical properties under near-equilibrium conditions are discussed, with the Li-Sn system as an example. Second-phase nucleation, and its hindrance under dynamic conditions plays an important role in determining deviations from equilibrium behavior. Two general types of composite microstructure electrodes, those with a mixed-conducting matrix, and those with a solid electrolyte matrix, are discussed. The Li-Sn-Si system at elevated temperatures, and the Li-Sn-Cd at ambient temperatures are shown to be examples of mixed-conducting matrix microstructures. The convertible oxides are an example of the solid electrolyte matrix type. Although the reversible capacity can be very large in this case, the first cycle irreversible capacity required to convert the oxides to alloys may be a significant handicap.

  2. Microdosimetry of negative pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amols, H.I.; Dicello, J.F.; Lane, T.F.

    1976-01-01

    The radiation quality of negative and positive pions of initial momentum 168MeV/c has been determined at eight different depths in a liquid phantom. The measurements were made with a 2.5cm diameter spherical proportional counter with Shonka A-150 neutron tissue equivalent plastic walls. The gas pressure in the sensitive volume was chosen to stimulate a diameter of 2μm in unit density material. Dose distributions as a function of lineal energy change slowly in the entrance and plateau regions with a dose mean lineal energy of 6-8keV/μm. Less than 3% of the dose is delivered in excess of 50keV/μm in this region. In the Bragg peak region the distributions change rapidly as a function of depth with the dose mean lineal energy increasing to 38keV/μm at the peak and to 57keV/μm just beyond the peak. On the basis of these microdosimetric data predictions of RBE and OER have been made with the use of both the theory of dual radiation action and also the delta ray theory of cell survival. The former has been used to predict biological response at low doses and the latter at high doses. A comparison is made between the two theories at intermediate doses. The results of these calculations are not inconsistant with recent biological data

  3. Negative legacy of obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohsuke Shirakawa

    Full Text Available Obesity promotes excessive inflammation, which is associated with senescence-like changes in visceral adipose tissue (VAT and the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM and cardiovascular diseases. We have reported that a unique population of CD44hi CD62Llo CD4+ T cells that constitutively express PD-1 and CD153 exhibit cellular senescence and cause VAT inflammation by producing large amounts of osteopontin. Weight loss improves glycemic control and reduces cardiovascular disease risk factors, but its long-term effects on cardiovascular events and longevity in obese individuals with T2DM are somewhat disappointing and not well understood. High-fat diet (HFD-fed obese mice were subjected to weight reduction through a switch to a control diet. They lost body weight and visceral fat mass, reaching the same levels as lean mice fed a control diet. However, the VAT of weight reduction mice exhibited denser infiltration of macrophages, which formed more crown-like structures compared to the VAT of obese mice kept on the HFD. Mechanistically, CD153+ PD-1+ CD4+ T cells are long-lived and not easily eliminated, even after weight reduction. Their continued presence maintains a self-sustaining chronic inflammatory loop via production of large amounts of osteopontin. Thus, we concluded that T-cell senescence is essentially a negative legacy effect of obesity.

  4. Music cognition and the cognitive sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Marcus; Rohrmeier, Martin

    2012-10-01

    Why should music be of interest to cognitive scientists, and what role does it play in human cognition? We review three factors that make music an important topic for cognitive scientific research. First, music is a universal human trait fulfilling crucial roles in everyday life. Second, music has an important part to play in ontogenetic development and human evolution. Third, appreciating and producing music simultaneously engage many complex perceptual, cognitive, and emotional processes, rendering music an ideal object for studying the mind. We propose an integrated status for music cognition in the Cognitive Sciences and conclude by reviewing challenges and big questions in the field and the way in which these reflect recent developments. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  5. Positive Effects of Negative Publicity: When Negative Reviews Increase Sales

    OpenAIRE

    Jonah Berger; Alan T. Sorensen; Scott J. Rasmussen

    2010-01-01

    Can negative information about a product increase sales, and if so, when? Although popular wisdom suggests that "any publicity is good publicity," prior research has demonstrated only downsides to negative press. Negative reviews or word of mouth, for example, have been found to hurt product evaluation and sales. Using a combination of econometric analysis and experimental methods, we unify these perspectives to delineate contexts under which negative publicity about a product will have posit...

  6. Cognitive biases can affect moral intuitions about cognitive enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucius eCaviola

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Research into cognitive biases that impair human judgment has mostly been applied to the area of economic decision-making. Ethical decision-making has been comparatively neglected. Since ethical decisions often involve very high individual as well as collective stakes, analyzing how cognitive biases affect them can be expected to yield important results. In this theoretical article, we consider the ethical debate about cognitive enhancement (CE and suggest a number of cognitive biases that are likely to affect moral intuitions and judgments about CE: status quo bias, loss aversion, risk aversion, omission bias, scope insensitivity, nature bias, and optimistic bias. We find that there are more well-documented biases that are likely to cause irrational aversion to CE than biases in the opposite direction. This suggests that common attitudes about CE are predominantly negatively biased. Within this new perspective, we hope that subsequent research will be able to elaborate this hypothesis and develop effective de-biasing techniques that can help increase the rationality of the public CE debate and thus improve our ethical decision-making.

  7. Symbiotic Cognitive Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell, Robert G.; Lenchner, Jonathan; Kephjart, Jeffrey O.; Webb, Alan M.; Muller, MIchael J.; Erikson, Thomas D.; Melville, David O.; Bellamy, Rachel K.E.; Gruen, Daniel M.; Connell, Jonathan H.; Soroker, Danny; Aaron, Andy; Trewin, Shari M.; Ashoori, Maryam; Ellis, Jason B.

    2016-01-01

    IBM Research is engaged in a research program in symbiotic cognitive computing to investigate how to embed cognitive computing in physical spaces. This article proposes 5 key principles of symbiotic cognitive computing.  We describe how these principles are applied in a particular symbiotic cognitive computing environment and in an illustrative application.  

  8. Schizophrenia and smoking: impact on negative symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Saliba

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: it has been hypothesized that individuals with schizophrenia use nicotine to reduce negative symptoms and improve cognitive function. There is an inconsistency in the literature suggesting that nicotine could help decrease negative symptoms in schizophrenic patients. Objective: to investigate the effects of nicotine on the expression of the negative symptoms in smokers and non-smokers with schizophrenia. Methods: a cross sectional study, conducted between April and August 2016, 100 inpatients with schizophrenia (54 smokers and 46 non-smokers diagnosed according to DSM-V, at Psychiatric Hospital of the Cross Lebanon, were compared to changes in clinical parameters using CDSS, PANSS, and nicotine dependence using FTND. The Student’s t-test was used to compare between 2 groups, while the ANOVA test was used to compare between 3 or more groups. For categorical variables, the chi-2 test was used. Results: the mean age was 47.16 years (SD = 7.14 for smokers compared to 47.02 years (SD = 7.92 for non-smokers. 64.8% of smokers were males versus 45.7% of non-smokers. Smoking (high nicotine dependence significantly decreases the PANSS negative symptoms score between the 2 groups (p .05 for both variables. Discussion and conclusion: this study is the first to investigate the relationship between the expression of negative symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia and smoking in Lebanon. Cigarette smoking rates remain remarkably high in patients with schizophrenia. Smoking is a complex process which involves psychopathological, biochemical and neuropharmacological aspects among schizophrenic patients. Further studies are needed to acknowledge these findings and the reasons behind it.

  9. Positive versus negative priming of older adults' generative value: do negative messages impair memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagood, Elizabeth W; Gruenewald, Tara L

    2018-02-01

    A considerable volume of experimental evidence demonstrates that exposure to aging stereotypes can strongly influence cognitive performance among older individuals. However, whether such effects extend to stereotypes regarding older adults' generative (i.e. contributory) worth is not yet known. The present investigation sought to evaluate the effect of exposure to positive versus negative generative value primes on an important aspect of later life functioning, memory. Participants of age 55 and older (n = 51) were randomly assigned to read a mock news article portraying older individuals as either an asset (positive prime) or a burden (negative prime) to society. Upon reading their assigned article, participants completed a post-priming memory assessment in which they were asked to recall a list of 30 words. Those exposed to the negative prime showed significantly poorer memory performance relative to those exposed to the positive prime (d = 0.75), even when controlling for baseline memory performance and sociodemographic covariates. These findings suggest that negative messages regarding older adults' generative social value impair memory relative to positive ones. Though demonstrated in the short term, these results also point to the potential consequences of long-term exposure to such negative ideologies and may indicate a need to promote more positive societal conceptualizations of older adults' generative worth.

  10. Bipolar Disorder: What Can Psychotherapists Learn From the Cognitive Research?

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Sheri; Tran, Tanya

    2007-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials of psychological treatment, principally cognitive therapy, for bipolar disorder have yielded inconsistent results. Given the status of this evidentiary base, we provide a more fine-grained analysis of the cognitive profiles associated with bipolar disorder to inform clinical practice. In this practice-friendly review, we consider evidence that both negative and positive cognitive styles are related to bipolar disorder. Cross-sectional and prospective evidence sugg...

  11. The role of abnormalities in the corpus callosum in social cognition deficits after Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Skye; Rushby, Jacqueline A; Dalton, Katie I; Allen, Samantha K; Parks, Nicklas

    2018-08-01

    The corpus callosum (CC) is vulnerable to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Social cognition requires integration of non-verbal and verbal information in order to understand social behaviour and may be compromised if the CC is damaged. 17 adults with severe, chronic TBI and 17 control participants underwent structural MRI and Diffusion Tensor Imaging. A region of interest analysis examined fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) across regions of the CC. Performance on The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT): part 1 (emotion recognition) and parts 2 and 3 (social inference), was examined in relation to FA and MD. Across participants, higher genu FA values were related to higher TASIT part 3 scores. Increased splenium FA was associated with better performance for TASIT parts 1-3. There was no association between DTI values and TASIT in the controls alone. In the TBI group, FA of the genu and splenium was correlated with TASIT part 3. The pattern of performance was similar when controlling for non-social cognitive ability. In conclusion, social information is complex and multi-modal requiring inter-hemispheric connection. People with TBI, regardless of focal grey matter injury, may lose social cognitive ability due to trauma related changes to the corpus callosum.

  12. The effect of early childhood stunting on children's cognitive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EPHA USER33

    The balance of the propensity score matching techniques was checked and found to be satisfied (P<0.01). Results: Early childhood stunting is significantly negatively associated with cognitive performance of .... linked to poorer cognitive attainment later in life (22). .... to the questionnaires and organization of the field work.

  13. Cognitive Dissonance Among Chinese Gamblers: Cultural Beliefs Versus Gambling Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Robert J. Taormina; Blair K. H. Chong

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which cognitive dissonance exists among Chinese gamblers as a consequence of gambling while holding negative attitudes toward gambling, which are inherent in China’s traditional cultural values. Using the behavioral variable of actual gambling and an attitudinal variable of negative beliefs about gambling, a third, practical measure of cognitive dissonance was developed. By using questionnaires completed by 200 adult Chinese respondents, these measures were e...

  14. Effects of Cognitive Bias Modification Training via Smartphones

    OpenAIRE

    Ranming Yang; Ranming Yang; Lixia Cui; Feng Li; Jing Xiao; Qin Zhang; Tian P. S. Oei; Tian P. S. Oei

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Negative cognitive biases have been linked to anxiety and mood problems. Accumulated data from laboratory studies show that positive and negative interpretation styles with accompanying changes in mood can be induced through cognitive bias modification (CBM) paradigms. Despite the therapeutic potential of positive training effects, few studies have explored training paradigms administered via smartphones. The current study aimed to compare the effectiveness of three...

  15. PTSD symptoms and perception of cognitive problems: The roles of posttraumatic cognitions and trauma coping self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Kristin W; Bartel, Alisa; Valadez, Racquel; Jordan, Joshua T

    2017-09-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with mild neurocognitive deficits, yet clients often complain of cognitive problems that exceed what their objective performance demonstrates. In addition, PTSD is associated with negative appraisals about the self, traumatic event, and one's ability to cope. This study examined posttraumatic cognitions as a moderator, and trauma coping self-efficacy as a mediator, of the relationship between PTSD symptoms and self-report of cognitive problems. A sample of 268 trauma-exposed adults completed the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5, the Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory, the Trauma Coping Self-Efficacy Scale, the Cognitive Self-Report Questionnaire, and the Quality of Life Scale. Negative self-appraisals was a significant moderator in the relationship between PTSD symptoms and perception of cognitive problems (β = -.252, p = .001). In participants with high levels of negative posttraumatic cognitions, perception of cognitive problems was high regardless of PTSD symptom level. In a mediator analysis, there was a significant indirect effect of trauma coping self-efficacy (b = .125, 95% CI [.088, .172]). Finally, there was evidence of moderated mediation, such that trauma coping self-efficacy was a mediator only when posttraumatic cognitions were low or average. Results indicate that posttraumatic appraisals and coping self-efficacy play significant roles in perception of cognitive problems following trauma. Clinically, in patients for which there is a perception of cognitive impairment that is not borne out in neuropsychological testing, cognitive-behavioral therapy focused on altering negative self-perceptions and appraisals may be beneficial. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Negative dimensional integrals. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliday, I.G.; Ricotta, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    We propose a new method of evaluating integrals based on negative dimensional integration. We compute Feynman graphs by considering analytic extensions. Propagators are raised to negative integer powers and integrated over negative integer dimensions. We are left with the problem of computing polynomial integrals and summing finite series. (orig.)

  17. Negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, A.L.C.

    1979-01-01

    This thesis describes some aspects of Negative Chemical Ionization (NCI) mass spectrometry. The reasons for the growing interest in NCI are: (i) to extend the basic knowledge of negative ions and their reactions in the gas phase; (ii) to investigate whether or not this knowledge of negative ions can be used successfully to elucidate the structure of molecules by mass spectrometry. (Auth.)

  18. Thermodynamics of negative absolute pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Martinas, K.

    1984-03-01

    The authors show that the possibility of negative absolute pressure can be incorporated into the axiomatic thermodynamics, analogously to the negative absolute temperature. There are examples for such systems (GUT, QCD) processing negative absolute pressure in such domains where it can be expected from thermodynamical considerations. (author)

  19. Cognitive Dissonance Among Chinese Gamblers: Cultural Beliefs Versus Gambling Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Taormina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the extent to which cognitive dissonance exists among Chinese gamblers as a consequence of gambling while holding negative attitudes toward gambling, which are inherent in China’s traditional cultural values. Using the behavioral variable of actual gambling and an attitudinal variable of negative beliefs about gambling, a third, practical measure of cognitive dissonance was developed. By using questionnaires completed by 200 adult Chinese respondents, these measures were examined in relation to a set of relevant independent variables frequently tested in the gambling literature. Cognitive dissonance was expected to have significant negative correlations with traditional Chinese values and family support, and a significant positive correlation with neuroticism. Cognitive dissonance was also expected to be negatively correlated with two personal outcomes, i.e. self-actualization and life satisfaction. The results supported these hypotheses, which confirmed the validity of the new measures, and that cognitive dissonance does indeed exist among Chinese gamblers. The results also found that Chinese gamblers, even though they do gamble, also hold negative attitudes toward gambling, with more cognitive dissonance strongly associated with higher levels of gambling. This provides a new perspective on studying Chinese gambling, and offers a possible strategy to help pathological gamblers, for example, by advising them that their negative beliefs about gambling reflect the positive moral values of their society’s traditional culture, an approach that may be effective in reducing excessive gambling.

  20. Comparison of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, cognitive behavioral writing therapy, and wait-list in pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder following single-incident trauma: a multicenter randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roos, Carlijn; van der Oord, Saskia; Zijlstra, Bonne; Lucassen, Sacha; Perrin, Sean; Emmelkamp, Paul; de Jongh, Ad

    2017-11-01

    Practice guidelines for childhood posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) recommend trauma-focused psychotherapies, mainly cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is a brief trauma-focused, evidence-based treatment for PTSD in adults, but with few well-designed trials involving children and adolescents. We conducted a single-blind, randomized trial with three arms (n = 103): EMDR (n = 43), Cognitive Behavior Writing Therapy (CBWT; n = 42), and wait-list (WL; n = 18). WL participants were randomly reallocated to CBWT or EMDR after 6 weeks; follow-ups were conducted at 3 and 12 months posttreatment. Participants were treatment-seeking youth (aged 8-18 years) with a DSM-IV diagnosis of PTSD (or subthreshold PTSD) tied to a single trauma, who received up to six sessions of EMDR or CBWT lasting maximally 45 min each. Both treatments were well-tolerated and relative to WL yielded large, intent-to-treat effect sizes for the primary outcomes at posttreatment: PTSD symptoms (EMDR: d = 1.27; CBWT: d = 1.24). At posttreatment 92.5% of EMDR, and 90.2% of CBWT no longer met the diagnostic criteria for PTSD. All gains were maintained at follow-up. Compared to WL, small to large (range d = 0.39-1.03) intent-to-treat effect sizes were obtained at posttreatment for negative trauma-related appraisals, anxiety, depression, and behavior problems with these gains being maintained at follow-up. Gains were attained with significantly less therapist contact time for EMDR than CBWT (mean = 4.1 sessions/140 min vs. 5.4 sessions/227 min). EMDR and CBWT are brief, trauma-focused treatments that yielded equally large remission rates for PTSD and reductions in the severity of PTSD and comorbid difficulties in children and adolescents seeking treatment for PTSD tied to a single event. Further trials of both treatments with PTSD tied to multiple traumas are warranted. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental

  1. Cognitive-behavioral couple therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Norman B; Zheng, Le

    2017-02-01

    This article describes how cognitive-behavioral couple therapy (CBCT) provides a good fit for intervening with a range of stressors that couples experience from within and outside their relationship. It takes an ecological perspective in which a couple is influenced by multiple systemic levels. We provide an overview of assessment and intervention strategies used to modify negative behavioral interaction patterns, inappropriate or distorted cognitions, and problems with the experience and regulation of emotions. Next, we describe how CBCT can assist couples in coping with stressors involving (a) a partner's psychological disorder (e.g. depression), (b) physical health problems (e.g. cancer), (c) external stressors (e.g. financial strain), and (d) severe relational problems (e.g. partner aggression). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Need for cognition and attitudes toward immigrants among russian students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei A. Shchebetenko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The author examined how need for cognition may contribute to the attitudes toward immigrants among Russian students. It was shown that although need for cognition may not correlate with attitude toward immigrants directly it might either interact with other factors or influence several relations of attitudes. Specifically, low need for cognition may facilitate the application of immigrants' ethnicity as a cue for the attitudes toward immigrants. On the contrary, those participants having highneed for cognition probably may not use immigrants ethnicity as a cue for attitudes. Additionally, need for cognition might make attitudes toward immigrants more positive among Russian women comparing with Russian men. Furthermore, a positive correlation between perceived stereotypicity and attitude toward immigrants was eliminated among lowneed for cognition participants. Moreover, this correlation has become even negative among lowneed for cognition males. The results of the study are discussed.

  3. Cognitive Measures of Adolescent Depression: Unique or Unitary Constructs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Silva, Susan G.; Jacobs, Rachel H.; Tonev, Simon; Hoyle, Rick H.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Reinecke, Mark A.; Curry, John F.; March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    The factor structure of several self-report questionnaires assessing depression-relevant cognitions frequently employed in clinical research was examined in a sample of 390 adolescents (M age =14.54; 216 girls; 74% Caucasian) with current major depressive disorder enrolled in the Treatment of Adolescents with Depression Study. A four-factor solution resulted, accounting for 65% of the total variance. The factors were labeled (a) Cognitive Distortions and Maladaptive Beliefs, (b) Cognitive Avoidance, (c) Positive Outlook, and (d) Solution-Focused Thinking. Internal consistencies for the factor-based composite scores were .83, .85, .84, and .82, respectively. Girls endorsed more negative cognitions than boys on three of the four factors. Maladaptive cognitions were positively related to severity of depression and predicted treatment response. Taken together, findings indicated that there are four distinct domains of cognitions that are present among adolescents with depression that are tapped by several widely used self-report measures of cognitions. PMID:20183663

  4. Cognitive Blackouts in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Adler

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive blackouts, e.g. moments of amnesia, disorientation, or perplexity may be an early sign of incipient Alzheimer’s dementia (AD. A short questionnaire, the checklist for cognitive blackouts (CCB, was evaluated cross-sectionally in users of a memory clinic. Methods: The CCB was performed in 130 subjects, who further underwent a neuropsychological and clinical examination. Subjective memory impairment and depressive symptoms were assessed. Differences in the CCB score between diagnostic groups and relationships with cognitive performance, depression, and subjective memory impairment were analyzed. Results: The CCB score was increased in mild cognitive impairment of the amnestic type or mild AD and correctly predicted 69.2% of the respective subjects. It was negatively correlated with cognitive performance, positively correlated with depressive symptoms, and substantially increased in subjects who estimated their memory poorer than that of other persons of their age. Discussion: The CCB may be a helpful screening tool for the early recognition of AD.

  5. Analytic cognitive style predicts religious and paranormal belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennycook, Gordon; Cheyne, James Allan; Seli, Paul; Koehler, Derek J; Fugelsang, Jonathan A

    2012-06-01

    An analytic cognitive style denotes a propensity to set aside highly salient intuitions when engaging in problem solving. We assess the hypothesis that an analytic cognitive style is associated with a history of questioning, altering, and rejecting (i.e., unbelieving) supernatural claims, both religious and paranormal. In two studies, we examined associations of God beliefs, religious engagement (attendance at religious services, praying, etc.), conventional religious beliefs (heaven, miracles, etc.) and paranormal beliefs (extrasensory perception, levitation, etc.) with performance measures of cognitive ability and analytic cognitive style. An analytic cognitive style negatively predicted both religious and paranormal beliefs when controlling for cognitive ability as well as religious engagement, sex, age, political ideology, and education. Participants more willing to engage in analytic reasoning were less likely to endorse supernatural beliefs. Further, an association between analytic cognitive style and religious engagement was mediated by religious beliefs, suggesting that an analytic cognitive style negatively affects religious engagement via lower acceptance of conventional religious beliefs. Results for types of God belief indicate that the association between an analytic cognitive style and God beliefs is more nuanced than mere acceptance and rejection, but also includes adopting less conventional God beliefs, such as Pantheism or Deism. Our data are consistent with the idea that two people who share the same cognitive ability, education, political ideology, sex, age and level of religious engagement can acquire very different sets of beliefs about the world if they differ in their propensity to think analytically. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cognitive fatigue in patients with myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Berit; Schweden, Tabea L K; Mehl, Theresa; Menge, Uwe; Zierz, Stephan

    2017-09-01

    Cognitive fatigue has frequently been reported in myasthenia gravis (MG). However, objective assessment of cognitive fatigability has never been evaluated. Thirty-three MG patients with stable generalized disease and 17 healthy controls underwent a test battery including repeated testing of attention and concentration (d2-R) and Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test. Fatigability was based on calculation of linear trend (LT) reflecting dynamic performance within subsequent constant time intervals. Additionally, fatigue questionnaires were used. MG patients showed a negative LT in second d2-R testing, indicating cognitive fatigability. This finding significantly differed from stable cognitive performance in controls (P fatigue was significantly higher in MG patients compared with controls (P fatigue is not correlated with objective findings. Muscle Nerve 56: 449-457, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Entanglements of Trauma: Relationality and Toni Morrison's Home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Irene

    2014-01-01

    The conceptual field of trauma theory in postcolonial studies has from the start enabled the inclusion of interdisciplinary research, but postcolonial literary critics have long hesitated to develop innovative approaches to explore new areas for trauma theory. Now, however, there is a widespread

  8. A survey analysis of acoustic trauma related to MR scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Toshiharu; Kamiya, Naoki; Sone, Michihiko; Muranaka, Hiroyuki; Tsuchihashi, Toshio; Yamada, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Sachiko

    2012-01-01

    The maximum limit of MR scanner noise and necessity of ear protection is defined in the IEC standard (IEC60601-2-33) of MR safety. With improvements in MR scanner performance, pulse sequences generating higher scanning noise have been used clinically. In this study, we investigated the factors significantly related to potential acoustic trauma cases (PATC) after MR examinations. To consider the future direction for MR safety and prevention of acoustic trauma, issues related to noise generation by MR scanners and acoustic trauma were systematically reviewed. A statistical analysis was performed using the data set from a survey (n=974) conducted in 2010 by the Japanese Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (JSMRM) safety committee. Hierarchical clustering analysis was used to extract the characteristics of the responders. With this classification as a reference, tests of independence and a residual analysis were employed to evaluate the factors related to PATC. No significant relationship was observed between the ear protection policy and the incidence or the reported outcome of PATC. While the two main clusters out of the six clusters extracted were associated with who reported the PATC and the confirmation process of the acoustic noise level of MR scanners, no cluster was associated with the frequency of PATC. An absence of PATC was significantly less reported (p=0.03) and more PATC was reported (p=0.04) by facilities with 3T MR systems. Although the total frequency was 4 cases, it should be noted that persistent hearing disturbances are a possible consequence of MR examinations. Neither the condition of the subjects nor the ear protection method was significantly related to the probability of PATC, suggesting the difficulty of predicting the potential risk of acoustic trauma. It is recommended to more systematically follow up PATC cases and clarify the risk factors. (author)

  9. Trauma-Related Dissociation Is Linked With Maladaptive Personality Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Granieri

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extensive research has demonstrated the positive associations among the exposure to traumatic experiences, the levels of dissociation, and the severity of psychiatric symptoms in adults. However, it has been hypothesized in clinical literature that an excessive activation of the dissociative processes following multiple traumatic experiences may jeopardize the psychological and behavioral functioning of the individuals, fostering higher levels of maladaptive personality functioning.Methods: The study involved 322 adult volunteers from Italy. Participants completed measures on traumatic experiences, dissociation, and maladaptive personality traits.Results: The number of traumatic experiences reported by participants were positively associated with dissociation scores and maladaptive personality scores. Mediation analyses showed that dissociation acted as a partial mediator in the relationship between traumatic experiences and overall maladaptive personality functioning. Regression curve analyses showed that the positive association between maladaptive personality functioning and dissociation was stronger among participants with higher exposure to traumatic experiences.Conclusion: Exposure to multiple traumatic experiences may increase the risk for an excessive activation of the dissociative processes, which in turn may generate severe impairments in multiple domains of personality functioning.

  10. Pharmacological treatment of refugees with trauma-related disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Charlotte; Carlsson, Jessica; Bech, Per

    2017-01-01

    traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We conducted a systematic review of published treatment outcome studies on PTSD and depression among refugees. Fifteen studies were identified and reviewed. Most studies focused on the use of antidepressants. Included studies differed widely in method and quality....... The majority were observational studies and case studies. Small sample sizes limited the statistical power. Few studies reported effect sizes, confidence intervals, and statistical significance of findings. No specific pharmacological treatment for PTSD among refugees can be recommended on the basis...

  11. Negative snakes in JET: evidence for negative shear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, R D; Alper, B; Edwards, A W [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Pearson, D [Reading Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1994-07-01

    The signature of the negative snakes from the soft X-ray cameras is very similar to the more usual snakes except that the localised region of the snake has, compared with its surroundings, decreased rather than increased emission. Circumstances where negative snakes have been seen are reviewed. The negative snake appears as a region of increased resistance and of increased impurity density. The relationship between the shear and the current perturbation is shown, and it seem probable that the magnetic shear is reversed at the point of the negative snake, i.e. that q is decreasing with radius. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Negative snakes in JET: evidence for negative shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, R.D.; Alper, B.; Edwards, A.W.

    1994-01-01

    The signature of the negative snakes from the soft X-ray cameras is very similar to the more usual snakes except that the localised region of the snake has, compared with its surroundings, decreased rather than increased emission. Circumstances where negative snakes have been seen are reviewed. The negative snake appears as a region of increased resistance and of increased impurity density. The relationship between the shear and the current perturbation is shown, and it seem probable that the magnetic shear is reversed at the point of the negative snake, i.e. that q is decreasing with radius. 6 refs., 6 figs

  13. Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Assessing the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez de Arellano, Michael A.; Jobe-Shields, Lisa; George, Preethy; Dougherty, Richard H.; Daniels, Allen S.; Ghose, Sushmita Shoma; Huang, Larke; Delphin-Rittmon, Miriam E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) is a conjoint parent-child treatment developed by Cohen, Mannarino, and Deblinger that uses cognitive-behavioral principles and exposure techniques to prevent and treat posttraumatic stress, depression, and behavioral problems. This review defined TF-CBT, differentiated it from other models, and assessed the evidence base. Methods Authors reviewed meta-analyses, reviews, and individual studies (1995 to 2013). Databases surveyed were PubMed, PsycINFO, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, PILOTS, the ERIC, and the CINAHL. They chose from three levels of research evidence (high, moderate, and low) on the basis of benchmarks for number of studies and quality of their methodology. They also described the evidence of effectiveness. Results The level of evidence for TF-CBT was rated as high on the basis of ten RCTs, three of which were conducted independently (not by TF-CBT developers). TF-CBT has demonstrated positive outcomes in reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, although it is less clear whether TF-CBT is effective in reducing behavior problems or symptoms of depression. Limitations of the studies include concerns about investigator bias and exclusion of vulnerable populations. Conclusions TF-CBT is a viable treatment for reducing trauma-related symptoms among some children who have experienced trauma and their nonoffending caregivers. Based on this evidence, TF-CBT should be available as a covered service in health plans. Ongoing research is needed to further identify best practices for TF-CBT in various settings and with individuals from various racial and ethnic backgrounds and with varied trauma histories, symptoms, and stages of intellectual, social, and emotional development. PMID:24638076

  14. Incorporating spiritual beliefs into a cognitive model of worry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmarin, David H; Pirutinsky, Steven; Auerbach, Randy P; Björgvinsson, Thröstur; Bigda-Peyton, Joseph; Andersson, Gerhard; Pargament, Kenneth I; Krumrei, Elizabeth J

    2011-07-01

    Cognitive theory and research have traditionally highlighted the relevance of the core beliefs about oneself, the world, and the future to human emotions. For some individuals, however, core beliefs may also explicitly involve spiritual themes. In this article, we propose a cognitive model of worry, in which positive/negative beliefs about the Divine affect symptoms through the mechanism of intolerance of uncertainty. Using mediation analyses, we found support for our model across two studies, in particular, with regards to negative spiritual beliefs. These findings highlight the importance of assessing for spiritual alongside secular convictions when creating cognitive-behavioral case formulations in the treatment of religious individuals. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Negative Attitudes, Network and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe

    We consider the impact of negative attitudes against immigrants and immigration on educational choice in a search and wage bargaining model including networking. We consider two cases in terms of the importance of negative attitudes againts immigrants for high and low educated individuals and find...... that more negative attitudes against immigrants has a positive impact on education in one case and a negative impact in the other and has no impact on natives. Immigration improves employment perspectives for immigrants and thereby increases immigrant education whereas endogenous negative attitudes lead...... use Danish register data to find a signficant positive correlation between negative attitudes towards immigrants and high school attendance and find a positive impact of networking on high school attendance. In both the macro and the micro-econometric analysis we run the same regressions for natives...

  16. Negative hydrogen ion production mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacal, M. [UPMC, LPP, Ecole Polytechnique, UMR CNRS 7648, Palaiseau (France); Wada, M. [School of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Negative hydrogen/deuterium ions can be formed by processes occurring in the plasma volume and on surfaces facing the plasma. The principal mechanisms leading to the formation of these negative ions are dissociative electron attachment to ro-vibrationally excited hydrogen/deuterium molecules when the reaction takes place in the plasma volume, and the direct electron transfer from the low work function metal surface to the hydrogen/deuterium atoms when formation occurs on the surface. The existing theoretical models and reported experimental results on these two mechanisms are summarized. Performance of the negative hydrogen/deuterium ion sources that emerged from studies of these mechanisms is reviewed. Contemporary negative ion sources do not have negative ion production electrodes of original surface type sources but are operated with caesium with their structures nearly identical to volume production type sources. Reasons for enhanced negative ion current due to caesium addition to these sources are discussed.

  17. Measurement of Negativity Bias in Personal Narratives Using Corpus-Based Emotion Dictionaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Shuki J.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a novel methodology for the measurement of negativity bias using positive and negative dictionaries of emotion words applied to autobiographical narratives. At odds with the cognitive theory of mood dysregulation, previous text-analytical studies have failed to find significant correlation between emotion dictionaries and…

  18. Wages, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of the attitudes on immigrants welfare. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are of importance: they both affect their labour market outcomes and their quality of life. We...... interpret the negative effect on wages as evidence of labour market discrimination. We estimate the welfare effects of negative attitudes, through their wage and local amenities, for immigrants with different levels of skills, origin, gender and age....

  19. Income, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    2016-01-01

    We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of negative attitudes on refugees’ utility from labour income and amenities. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are important: while they affect mainly the refugees......’ quality of life, they also affect their income. We estimate the utility effects of negative attitudes for refugees with different levels of education and gender. We also analyse how the size of the refugees’ networks relate to their quality of life and income as well as how negative attitudes towards...

  20. Varieties of Cognitive Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, William A.

    1974-01-01

    The author examines how students in three countries use four styles of cognitive integration (affective balance, affective-evaluative consistency, centralization, and image comparability) within the cognitive domains of nations, acquaintances, self-roles, and family relations. (DE)

  1. COGNITIVE RESTRUCTURING: ALTERNATIVE COUNSELING TECHNIQUES TO REDUCTION ACADEMIC PROCRASTINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annisa Sofiana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Procrastination is often experienced by almost everyone, including students who often delay to resolve any responsibility in the academic process that would decrease the individual academic achievement. cognitive restructuring is one of the cognitive techniques used in counseling in addition to cognitive behavioral techniques (behavioral and didaktif techniques. This technique has several procedures by focusing on identifying an effort and changing dysfunctional thoughts or negative self-statements into a new belief that is more rational and adaptive, which will affect more rational behavior anyway. Cognitive restructuring techniques assessed to be an alternative counseling techniques in reducing academic procrastination.

  2. The effect of antiepileptic drugs on cognitive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kotov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Impaired cognitive function is a common problem in epileptic patients. The exact cause of cognitive impairment in case of epilepsy has not been explored fully, but there is no doubt that a role in this is played by three factors: the disease underlying epilepsy; epileptic seizures proper; and negative side effects of antiepileptic drugs. Their cognitive effects are one of the major problems affecting the tolerance of therapy. The review considers the effects of phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproates, oxcarbazepine, topiramate, lamotrigine, and levetiracetam in terms of their action on the cognitive function of healthy volunteers and epileptic patients.

  3. Cultural differences in hedonic emotion regulation after a negative event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yuri; Ma, Xiaoming; Petermann, Amelia G

    2014-08-01

    Beliefs about emotions can influence how people regulate their emotions. The present research examined whether Eastern dialectical beliefs about negative emotions lead to cultural differences in how people regulate their emotions after experiencing a negative event. We hypothesized that, because of dialectical beliefs about negative emotions prevalent in Eastern culture, Easterners are less motivated than Westerners to engage in hedonic emotion regulation-up-regulation of positive emotions and down-regulation of negative emotions. By assessing online reactions to a recent negative event, Study 1 found that European Americans are more motivated to engage in hedonic emotion regulation. Furthermore, consistent with the reported motivation to regulate emotion hedonically, European Americans show a steeper decline in negative emotions 1 day later than do Asians. By examining retrospective memory of reactions to a past negative event, Study 2 further showed that cultural differences in hedonic emotion regulation are mediated by cultural differences in dialectical beliefs about motivational and cognitive utility of negative emotions, but not by personal deservingness or self-efficacy beliefs. These findings demonstrate the role of cultural beliefs in shaping emotion regulation and emotional experiences.

  4. Neuropsychology of reward learning and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestor, Paul G; Choate, Victoria; Niznikiewicz, Margaret; Levitt, James J; Shenton, Martha E; McCarley, Robert W

    2014-11-01

    We used the Iowa Gambling Test (IGT) to examine the relationship of reward learning to both neuropsychological functioning and symptom formation in 65 individuals with schizophrenia. Results indicated that compared to controls, participants with schizophrenia showed significantly reduced reward learning, which in turn correlated with reduced intelligence, memory and executive function, and negative symptoms. The current findings suggested that a disease-related disturbance in reward learning may underlie both cognitive and motivation deficits, as expressed by neuropsychological impairment and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Motivation enhances control of positive and negative emotional distractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Amy T; Carmel, David; Harper, David; Grimshaw, Gina M

    2018-01-03

    Using cognitive control to ignore distractions is essential for successfully achieving our goals. In emotionally-neutral contexts, motivation can reduce interference from irrelevant stimuli by enhancing cognitive control. However, attention is commonly biased towards emotional stimuli, making them potent distractors. Can motivation aid control of emotional distractions, and does it do so similarly for positive and negative stimuli? Here, we examined how task motivation influences control of distraction from positive, negative, and neutral scenes. Participants completed a simple perceptual task while attempting to ignore task-irrelevant images. One group received monetary reward for fast and accurate task performance; another (control) group did not. Overall, both negative (mutilation) and positive (erotic) images caused greater slowing of responses than neutral images of people, but emotional distraction was reduced with reward. Crucially, despite the different motivational directions associated with negative and positive stimuli, reward reduced negative and positive distraction equally. Our findings suggest that motivation may encourage the use of a sustained proactive control strategy that can effectively reduce the impact of emotional distraction.

  6. Cognitive deficits in marijuana users: effects on motivational enhancement therapy plus cognitive behavioral therapy treatment outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharonovich, Efrat; Brooks, Adam C; Nunes, Edward V; Hasin, Deborah S

    2008-01-01

    Clinical variables that affect treatment outcome for marijuana dependent individuals are not yet well understood, including the effects of cognitive functioning. To address this, level of cognitive functioning and treatment outcome were investigated. Twenty marijuana-dependent outpatients were administered a neuropsychological battery at treatment entry. All patients received 12 weekly individual sessions of combined motivational enhancement therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. The Wilcoxon Exact Test was used to compare cognitive functioning test scores between completers and dropouts, and the Fisher Exact Test was used to compare proportion of negative urines between those with higher and lower scores on the cognitive tests. Marijuana abstinence was unrelated to cognitive functioning. However, dropouts scored significantly lower than completers on measures of abstract reasoning and processing accuracy, providing initial evidence that cognitive functioning plays a role in treatment retention of adult marijuana dependent patients. If supported by further studies, the findings may help inform the development of interventions tailored for cognitively impaired marijuana dependent patients. PMID:18329188

  7. Handbook of Spatial Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, David, Ed.; Nadel, Lynn, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial cognition is a branch of cognitive psychology that studies how people acquire and use knowledge about their environment to determine where they are, how to obtain resources, and how to find their way home. Researchers from a wide range of disciplines, including neuroscience, cognition, and sociology, have discovered a great deal about how…

  8. Interactive Team Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Nancy J.; Gorman, Jamie C.; Myers, Christopher W.; Duran, Jasmine L.

    2013-01-01

    Cognition in work teams has been predominantly understood and explained in terms of shared cognition with a focus on the similarity of static knowledge structures across individual team members. Inspired by the current zeitgeist in cognitive science, as well as by empirical data and pragmatic concerns, we offer an alternative theory of team…

  9. The tractable cognition thesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rooij, Iris

    2008-09-01

    The recognition that human minds/brains are finite systems with limited resources for computation has led some researchers to advance the Tractable Cognition thesis: Human cognitive capacities are constrained by computational tractability. This thesis, if true, serves cognitive psychology by constraining the space of computational-level theories of cognition. To utilize this constraint, a precise and workable definition of "computational tractability" is needed. Following computer science tradition, many cognitive scientists and psychologists define computational tractability as polynomial-time computability, leading to the P-Cognition thesis. This article explains how and why the P-Cognition thesis may be overly restrictive, risking the exclusion of veridical computational-level theories from scientific investigation. An argument is made to replace the P-Cognition thesis by the FPT-Cognition thesis as an alternative formalization of the Tractable Cognition thesis (here, FPT stands for fixed-parameter tractable). Possible objections to the Tractable Cognition thesis, and its proposed formalization, are discussed, and existing misconceptions are clarified. 2008 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. The Tractable Cognition Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, Iris

    2008-01-01

    The recognition that human minds/brains are finite systems with limited resources for computation has led some researchers to advance the "Tractable Cognition thesis": Human cognitive capacities are constrained by computational tractability. This thesis, if true, serves cognitive psychology by constraining the space of computational-level theories…

  11. The Tractable Cognition thesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, I.J.E.I. van

    2008-01-01

    The recognition that human minds/brains are finite systems with limited resources for computation has led some researchers to advance the Tractable Cognition thesis: Human cognitive capacities are constrained by computational tractability. This thesis, if true, serves cognitive psychology by

  12. The Cognitive Doppler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozoil, Micah E.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the learning needs of students in the concrete operational stage in mathematics. Identifies the phenomenon of reduced cognitive performance in an out-of-class environment as the "Cognitive Doppler." Suggests methods of reducing the pronounced effects of the Cognitive Doppler by capitalizing on the students' ability to memorize…

  13. Underpowered samples, false negatives, and unconscious learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadillo, Miguel A; Konstantinidis, Emmanouil; Shanks, David R

    2016-02-01

    The scientific community has witnessed growing concern about the high rate of false positives and unreliable results within the psychological literature, but the harmful impact of false negatives has been largely ignored. False negatives are particularly concerning in research areas where demonstrating the absence of an effect is crucial, such as studies of unconscious or implicit processing. Research on implicit processes seeks evidence of above-chance performance on some implicit behavioral measure at the same time as chance-level performance (that is, a null result) on an explicit measure of awareness. A systematic review of 73 studies of contextual cuing, a popular implicit learning paradigm, involving 181 statistical analyses of awareness tests, reveals how underpowered studies can lead to failure to reject a false null hypothesis. Among the studies that reported sufficient information, the meta-analytic effect size across awareness tests was d z = 0.31 (95 % CI 0.24-0.37), showing that participants' learning in these experiments was conscious. The unusually large number of positive results in this literature cannot be explained by selective publication. Instead, our analyses demonstrate that these tests are typically insensitive and underpowered to detect medium to small, but true, effects in awareness tests. These findings challenge a widespread and theoretically important claim about the extent of unconscious human cognition.

  14. Possible roles for mismatch negativity in neuropsychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gené-Cos, N; Ring, H A; Pottinger, R C; Barrett, G

    1999-01-01

    This article reviews research on the main characteristics of mismatch negativity (MMN) and its applications in neuropsychiatry. Event-related potentials (ERPs) have been used to study many aspects of information processing. Mismatch negativity is an early auditory ERP that has been identified as an index of an automatic (preconscious) alerting mechanism stimulating an individual to attend to unexpected environmental events. Disturbances of MMN may relate to abnormalities of auditory information processing contributing to the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric conditions. The authors review (1) studies that have evaluated the electrophysiological aspects of MMN and (2) studies that have investigated the different applications of MMN in neuropsychiatry. The first part of this article describes the characteristics of MMN, its cerebral origins, and electrophysiological parameters. We then discuss the role of "echoic memory" as well as that of attention and vigilance. In the second part of the article, disturbances in MMN associated with schizophrenia, depressive illness, dementing processes, and other neuropsychiatric states are discussed. MMN is a preconscious cognitive ERP, the main generators and functions of which are well defined. Observations relating to the origins of MMN and its role in early auditory information processing together with its possible behavioral significance, combined with observations of MMN aberrations in psychiatric conditions, may provide novel insights into the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric states.

  15. A longitudinal mediation analysis of the effect of negative-self-schemas on positive symptoms via negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya, E S; Ascone, L; Lincoln, T M

    2018-06-01

    Cognitive models postulate that negative-self-schemas (NSS) cause and maintain positive symptoms and that negative affect mediates this link. However, only few studies have tested the temporal mediation claim systematically using an appropriate design. A longitudinal cohort design in an online community sample (N = 962) from Germany, Indonesia, and the USA was used. NSS, negative affect and positive symptoms were measured at four time-points (T0-T3) over a 1-year period. Cross-lagged panel and longitudinal mediation analyses with structural equation modeling were used to test the temporal mediation. Independent cross-lagged panel models showed a significant unidirectional longitudinal path from NSS to positive symptoms (T2-T3, β = 0.18, p negative affect (T0-T1, γ = 0.14, p negative affect at T1 and T2 to positive symptoms at T3 (unstandardized indirect effect coefficient = 0.020, p affective pathway from NSS to positive symptoms via negative affect. Specifically, our data indicate that NSS and negative affect influence each other and build up over the course of several months before leading on to positive symptoms. We conclude that interrupting this process by targeting NSS and negative affect early in the process could be a promising strategy to prevent the exacerbation of positive symptoms.

  16. Digital Screen Media and Cognitive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel R; Subrahmanyam, Kaveri

    2017-11-01

    In this article, we examine the impact of digital screen devices, including television, on cognitive development. Although we know that young infants and toddlers are using touch screen devices, we know little about their comprehension of the content that they encounter on them. In contrast, research suggests that children begin to comprehend child-directed television starting at ∼2 years of age. The cognitive impact of these media depends on the age of the child, the kind of programming (educational programming versus programming produced for adults), the social context of viewing, as well the particular kind of interactive media (eg, computer games). For children negative associations, especially for language and executive function. For preschool-aged children, television viewing has been found to have both positive and negative outcomes, and a large body of research suggests that educational television has a positive impact on cognitive development. Beyond the preschool years, children mostly consume entertainment programming, and cognitive outcomes are not well explored in research. The use of computer games as well as educational computer programs can lead to gains in academically relevant content and other cognitive skills. This article concludes by identifying topics and goals for future research and provides recommendations based on current research-based knowledge. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Daily stressors and emotional reactivity in individuals with mild cognitive impairment and cognitively healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickenbach, Elizabeth Hahn; Condeelis, Kristen L; Haley, William E

    2015-06-01

    Daily experiences of stress are common and have been associated with worse affect among older adults. People with mild cognitive impairment (PWMCI) have measurable memory deficits in between normal cognition and dementia and have been identified as having greater psychological distress than cognitively healthy older adults (CHOAs). Little is known about whether daily stressors contribute to distress among PWMCI. We hypothesized that compared with CHOAs, PWMCI would have higher daily negative affect and lower daily positive affect, report greater numbers and severity of daily stressors, and experience greater emotional reactivity to daily stressors. Fifteen clinically diagnosed PWMCI and 25 CHOAs completed daily reports of stressors, stressor severity, and positive and negative affect over an 8-day period. PWMCI reported higher daily negative affect, lower daily positive affect, and higher numbers and greater severity of memory stressors but did not differ from CHOAs in numbers or severity of general stressors. Cognitive status was a moderator of the daily stress-affect relationship. Days with greater numbers and severity of general daily stressors were associated with higher negative affect only for PWMCI. The numbers and severity of memory stressors were not associated with negative affect. In addition, more severe general daily stressors and memory stressors were associated with lower positive affect for all participants. Results suggest that PWMCI are less resilient in the face of daily stress than are CHOAs in terms of negative affect, perhaps because of declines in reserve capacity. The study presents a promising approach to understanding stress and coping in predementia states of cognition. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Clinical cognition and embodiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paley, John

    2004-01-01

    I first identify two different distinctions: between Cartesian cognition and embodied cognition, and between calculative rationality and intuitive know-how. I then suggest that, in the nursing literature, these two distinctions are run together, to create an opposition between 'Cartesian rationality' and 'embodied know-how'. However, it is vital to keep the two distinctions apart, because 'embodied knowing' is very frequently rational. In separating the idea of embodied cognition from non-rational intuition, I show how 'embodiment' leads to the concepts of distributed cognition and distributed expertise. This has extensive and important implications for how we understand clinical cognition in nursing.

  19. Cognitive Load and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Felix Sebastian; Piovesan, Marco; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2017-01-01

    We study the effect of intuitive and reflective processes on cooperation using cognitive load. Compared with time constraint, which has been used in the previous literature, cognitive load is a more direct way to block reflective processes, and thus a more suitable way to study the link between...... intuition and cooperation. Using a repeated public goods game, we study the effect of different levels of cognitive load on contributions. We show that a higher cognitive load increases the initial level of cooperation. In particular, subjects are significantly less likely to fully free ride under high...... cognitive load....

  20. Extended spider cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japyassú, Hilton F; Laland, Kevin N

    2017-05-01

    There is a tension between the conception of cognition as a central nervous system (CNS) process and a view of cognition as extending towards the body or the contiguous environment. The centralised conception requires large or complex nervous systems to cope with complex environments. Conversely, the extended conception involves the outsourcing of information processing to the body or environment, thus making fewer demands on the processing power of the CNS. The evolution of extended cognition should be particularly favoured among small, generalist predators such as spiders, and here, we review the literature to evaluate the fit of empirical data with these contrasting models of cognition. Spiders do not seem to be cognitively limited, displaying a large diversity of learning processes, from habituation to contextual learning, including a sense of numerosity. To tease apart the central from the extended cognition, we apply the mutual manipulability criterion, testing the existence of reciprocal causal links between the putative elements of the system. We conclude that the web threads and configurations are integral parts of the cognitive systems. The extension of cognition to the web helps to explain some puzzling features of spider behaviour and seems to promote evolvability within the group, enhancing innovation through cognitive connectivity to variable habitat features. Graded changes in relative brain size could also be explained by outsourcing information processing to environmental features. More generally, niche-constructed structures emerge as prime candidates for extending animal cognition, generating the selective pressures that help to shape the evolving cognitive system.

  1. How does "not left" become "right"? Electrophysiological evidence for a dynamic conflict-bound negation processing account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudschig, Carolin; Kaup, Barbara

    2018-05-01

    Human thought and language is traditionally considered as abstract, amodal, and symbolic. However, recent theories propose that high-level human cognition is directly linked to basic, modal biological systems such as sensorimotor areas. Despite this influential representational debate very little is known regarding whether the mechanisms involved in sensorimotor control are also shared with higher-level cognitive processes, such as language comprehension. We investigated negation as a universal of human language, addressing two key questions: (a) Does negation result in a conflict-like representation? (b) Does negation trigger executive control adjustments in a similar manner as standard information processing conflicts do (e.g., Simon, Flanker)? Electrophysiological data indicated that phrases such as "not left/not right" result in initial activation of the to-be-negated information and subsequently the outcome of the negation process. More importantly, our findings also suggest that negation triggers conflict-related adjustments in information processing in line with traditional conflict tasks. Trial-by-trial conflict adaptation patterns in both behavioral and electrophysiological data indicated that negation processing dynamically changes depending on the current cognitive state. In summary, negation processing results in cognitive conflict, and dynamic influences of the cognitive state determine conflict resolution, that is, negation implementation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. A Critical Review of Negative Affect and the Application of CBT for PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Wilson J; Dewey, Daniel; Bunnell, Brian E; Boyd, Stephen J; Wilkerson, Allison K; Mitchell, Melissa A; Bruce, Steven E

    2018-04-01

    Forms of cognitive and behavioral therapies (CBTs), including prolonged exposure and cognitive processing therapy, have been empirically validated as efficacious treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the assumption that PTSD develops from dysregulated fear circuitry possesses limitations that detract from the potential efficacy of CBT approaches. An analysis of these limitations may provide insight into improvements to the CBT approach to PTSD, beginning with an examination of negative affect as an essential component to the conceptualization of PTSD and a barrier to the implementation of CBT for PTSD. As such, the literature regarding the impact of negative affect on aspects of cognition (i.e., attention, processing, memory, and emotion regulation) necessary for the successful application of CBT was systematically reviewed. Several literature databases were explored (e.g., PsychINFO and PubMed), resulting in 25 articles that met criteria for inclusion. Results of the review indicated that high negative affect generally disrupts cognitive processes, resulting in a narrowed focus on stimuli of a negative valence, increased rumination of negative autobiographical memories, inflexible preservation of initial information, difficulty considering counterfactuals, reliance on emotional reasoning, and misinterpretation of neutral or ambiguous events as negative, among others. With the aim to improve treatment efficacy of CBT for PTSD, suggestions to incorporate negative affect into research and clinical contexts are discussed.

  3. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy & Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaten, Ole Michael; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Gulbrandsen, Knut Arild

    Coaching is an expanding area of professional work, and recent years have brought forward the notion of cognitive coaching (Costa, 2006; Oestrich, 2005) which adapts theory and techniques from cognitive therapy to serve self-enhancement in non-clinical populations. We suggest that a cognitive...... to monitor and evaluate the learning process. The course is embedded in a graduate programme of applied cognitive, developmental and neuropsychology, and includes 92 hours (17 days spanning one academic year) of lectures and workshops on cognitive behavioural therapy and coaching. Seven behaviour competence...... coaching module in the graduate curriculum for students of psychology is a rewarding introduction to cognitive behavioural approaches, since it allows combination of traditional lectures with “action-reflection-learning” workshops, during which students train cognitive behavioural techniques in their own...

  4. Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Vieira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Several reviews of the literature support the idea that cognitive deficits observed in a large percentage of patients with schizophrenia are responsible for the cognitive performance deficit and functional disability associated with the disease. The grow- ing importance of neurocognition in Psychiatry, especially with regard to planning strategies and rehabilitative therapies to improve the prognosis of patients contrib- utes to the interest of achieving this literature review on cognitive rehabilitation in schizophrenia. In this work, drawn from research in the areas of schizophrenia, cog- nition, cognitive rehabilitation and cognitive remediation (2000-2012 through PubMed and The Cochrane Collaboration, it is intended, to describe the types of psychological and behavioral therapies recommended in the treatment of cognitive disabilities in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. This review will also highlight the clinical and scientific evidence of each of these therapies, as their effect on cognitive performance, symptoms and functionality in patients with schizophrenia.

  5. Language and Cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo

    The Ph.D dissertation “Language and Cognition” addresses the way social uses of language – e.g. on the media, or in conversation – shape the way we think and act. Cognitive sciences have started focusing on embodiment and joint cognition – the way in which cognitive processes are deeply shaped...... interacting, without making place for and relying upon the external world, for its structures, its resistances and its dynamics. Cognition is thus a relational process aimed at - perceiving the regularities and affordances (possibilities for further action, perception and, more generally, cognition...... to linguistic use, but also the effects of these processes on the coordination of other cognitive processes. It involved conceptual and experimental methodologies. Chapter 2 The cognitive study of metaphors largely focuses on showing how abstract thought and language uses are strongly shaped by embodied...

  6. The association of lifetime insight and cognition in psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Torres, Ana M; Zarzuela, Amalia; Peralta, Victor; Cuesta, Manuel J

    2015-03-01

    Poor insight has been related to poor course in psychosis. However, the role of cognition in insight remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of cognition and lifetime psychopathological dimensions on insight in psychosis. We followed up 42 patients with psychotic disorders over 10years. Lifetime psychopathological dimensions and cognitive performance were assessed. Patients were divided into two groups by lifetime patterns of insight and compared with 42 healthy volunteers. Lower IQ and poorer social cognition were associated with higher risks of poorer lifetime insight of feeling ill and global insight respectively. Lifetime negative symptoms were associated with a higher risk of poorer lifetime insight into symptoms. Lifetime lack of insight is independent of cognitive impairment in specific domains, except for social cognition. Higher IQ may contribute to better lifetime awareness of illness, while better ability to manage emotions is involved in lifetime global insight. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Isotropic Negative Thermal Expansion Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingling; Li, Bo; Zhou, Ji

    2016-07-13

    Negative thermal expansion materials are important and desirable in science and engineering applications. However, natural materials with isotropic negative thermal expansion are rare and usually unsatisfied in performance. Here, we propose a novel method to achieve two- and three-dimensional negative thermal expansion metamaterials via antichiral structures. The two-dimensional metamaterial is constructed with unit cells that combine bimaterial strips and antichiral structures, while the three-dimensional metamaterial is fabricated by a multimaterial 3D printing process. Both experimental and simulation results display isotropic negative thermal expansion property of the samples. The effective coefficient of negative thermal expansion of the proposed models is demonstrated to be dependent on the difference between the thermal expansion coefficient of the component materials, as well as on the circular node radius and the ligament length in the antichiral structures. The measured value of the linear negative thermal expansion coefficient of the three-dimensional sample is among the largest achieved in experiments to date. Our findings provide an easy and practical approach to obtaining materials with tunable negative thermal expansion on any scale.

  8. Cognitive behavioural interventions in addictive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhir, Paulomi M

    2018-02-01

    Cognitive behaviour therapy is a structured, time limited, psychological intervention that has is empirically supported across a wide variety of psychological disorders. CBT for addictive behaviours can be traced back to the application of learning theories in understanding addiction and subsequently to social cognitive theories. The focus of CBT is manifold and the focus is on targeting maintaining factors of addictive behaviours and preventing relapse. Relapse prevention programmes are based on social cognitive and cognitive behavioural principles. Interventions for preventing relapse include, behavioural strategies to decrease the valence of addictive behaviours, coping skills to deal with craving, arousal, negative mood states, assertiveness skills to manage social pressures, family psychoeducation and environmental manipulation and cognitive strategies to enhance self-efficacy beliefs and modification of outcome expectancies related to addictive behaviours. More recent developments in the area of managing addictions include third wave behaviour therapies. Third wave behaviour therapies are focused on improving building awareness, and distress tolerance skills using mindfulness practices. These approaches have shown promise, and more recently the neurobiological underpinnings of mindfulness strategies have been studied. The article provides an overview of cognitive behavioural approaches to managing addictions.

  9. Negative Attitudes, Network and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe

    , the impact of negative attitudes and networking taking into account that these parameters may influence high and uneducated workers as well as immigrants and natives differently, creating different incentives to acquire education for the two ethnic groups. Using rich Danish administrative data, this paper......This paper explores potential explanations behind the educational gap between young natives and immigrants using two measures, negative attitudes towards immigrants and networking, which may influence natives and immigrants differently. The paper considers, both theoretically and empirically...... finds evidence that greater negative attitudes increase incentives for males to acquire education and that networking also increases immigrant education....

  10. Inhibitory deficits for negative information in persons with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Mark A; Christensen, Bruce K; Hawley, Lance L; Gemar, Michael S; Segal, Zindel V

    2007-09-01

    Within Beck's cognitive model of depression, little is known about the mechanism(s) by which activated self-schemas result in the production of negative thoughts. Recent research has demonstrated that inhibitory dysfunction is present in depression, and this deficit is likely valence-specific. However, whether valence-specific inhibitory deficits are associated with increased negative cognition and whether such deficits are specific to depression per se remains unexamined. The authors posit the theory that inhibitory dysfunction may influence the degree to which activated self-schemas result in the production of depressive cognition. Individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD, n=43) versus healthy (n=36) and non-depressed anxious (n=32) controls were assessed on the Prose Distraction Task (PDT), a measure of cognitive inhibition, and the Stop-Signal Task (SST), a measure of motor response inhibition. These two tasks were modified in order to present emotionally valenced semantic stimuli (i.e. negative, neutral, positive). Participants with MDD demonstrated performance impairments on the PDT, which were most pronounced for negatively valenced adjectives, relative to both control groups. Moreover, these impairments correlated with self-report measures of negative thinking and rumination. Conversely, the performance of the MDD participants did not differ from either control group on the SST. Implications of these findings for understanding the mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of depressive cognition are discussed.

  11. Recent negative ion source developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1978-01-01

    This report describes recent results obtained from studies associated with the development of negative ion sources which utilize sputtering in a diffuse cesium plasma as a means of ion beam generation. Data are presented which relate negative ion yield and important operational parameters such as cesium oven temperature and sputter probe voltage from each of the following sources: (1) A source based in principle according to the University of Aarhus design and (2) an axial geometry source. The important design aspects of the sources are given--along with a list of the negative ion intensities observed to date. Also a qualitative description and interpretation of the negative ion generation mechanism in sources which utilize sputtering in the presence of cesium is given

  12. Gamification of Cognitive Assessment and Cognitive Training: A Systematic Review of Applications and Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, Jim; Edwards, Elizabeth A; Lawrence, Natalia S; Coyle, David; Munafò, Marcus R

    2016-07-15

    Cognitive tasks are typically viewed as effortful, frustrating, and repetitive, which often leads to participant disengagement. This, in turn, may negatively impact data quality and/or reduce intervention effects. However, gamification may provide a possible solution. If game design features can be incorporated into cognitive tasks without undermining their scientific value, then data quality, intervention effects, and participant engagement may be improved. This systematic review aims to explore and evaluate the ways in which gamification has already been used for cognitive training and assessment purposes. We hope to answer 3 questions: (1) Why have researchers opted to use gamification? (2) What domains has gamification been applied in? (3) How successful has gamification been in cognitive research thus far? We systematically searched several Web-based databases, searching the titles, abstracts, and keywords of database entries using the search strategy (gamif* OR game OR games) AND (cognit* OR engag* OR behavi* OR health* OR attention OR motiv*). Searches included papers published in English between January 2007 and October 2015. Our review identified 33 relevant studies, covering 31 gamified cognitive tasks used across a range of disorders and cognitive domains. We identified 7 reasons for researchers opting to gamify their cognitive training and testing. We found that working memory and general executive functions were common targets for both gamified assessment and training. Gamified tests were typically validated successfully, although mixed-domain measurement was a problem. Gamified training appears to be highly engaging and does boost participant motivation, but mixed effects of gamification on task performance were reported. Heterogeneous study designs and typically small sample sizes highlight the need for further research in both gamified training and testing. Nevertheless, careful application of gamification can provide a way to develop engaging and

  13. The influence of positive vs. negative affect on multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Brent; D'Mello, Sidney K

    2016-10-01

    Considerable research has investigated how affect influences performance on a single task; however, little is known about the role of affect in complex multitasking environments. In this paper, 178 participants multitasked in a synthetic work environment (SYNWORK) consisting of memory, visual monitoring, auditory monitoring, and math tasks. Participants multitasked for a 3-min baseline phase (MT1), following which they were randomly assigned to watch one of three affect-induction videos: positive, neutral, or negative. Participants then resumed multitasking for two additional critical phases (MT2, MT3; 3min each). In MT2, performance of the positive and neutral conditions was statistically equivalent and higher than the negative condition. In MT3, the positive condition performed better than the negative condition, with the neutral condition not significantly different from the other two. The differences in overall multitasking scores were largely driven by errors in the Math task (the most cognitively demanding task) in MT2 and the Memory task in MT3. These findings have implications for how positive and negative affective states influence processing in a cognitively demanding multitasking environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ferroelectric Negative Capacitance Domain Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Michael; Khan, Asif Islam; Serrao, Claudy; Lu, Zhongyuan; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Pešić, Milan; Slesazeck, Stefan; Schroeder, Uwe; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Transient negative capacitance effects in epitaxial ferroelectric Pb(Zr$_{0.2}$Ti$_{0.8}$)O$_3$ capacitors are investigated with a focus on the dynamical switching behavior governed by domain nucleation and growth. Voltage pulses are applied to a series connection of the ferroelectric capacitor and a resistor to directly measure the ferroelectric negative capacitance during switching. A time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau approach is used to investigate the underlying domain dynamics. The transien...

  15. Negative magnetic relaxation in superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnoperov E.P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It was observed that the trapped magnetic moment of HTS tablets or annuli increases in time (negative relaxation if they are not completely magnetized by a pulsed magnetic field. It is shown, in the framework of the Bean critical-state model, that the radial temperature gradient appearing in tablets or annuli during a pulsed field magnetization can explain the negative magnetic relaxation in the superconductor.

  16. SM-1 negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zhenjun; Wang Jianzhen

    1987-01-01

    The working principle and characteristics of SM-1 Negative Ion Source is mainly introduced. In the instrument, there is a device to remove O 3 . This instrument can keep high density of negative ions which is generated by the electrical coronas setting out electricity at negative high voltage and can remove the O 3 component which is harmful to the human body. The density of negative ions is higher than 2.5 x 10 6 p./cm 3 while that of O 3 components is less than 1 ppb at the distance of 50 cm from the panel of the instrument. The instrument sprays negative ions automatically without the help of electric fan, so it works noiselessly. It is widely used in national defence, industry, agriculture, forestry, stock raising, sidelines and in the places with an equipment of low density of negative ion or high concentration of O 3 components. Besides, the instrument may also be used to treat diseases, to prevent against rot, to arrest bacteria, to purify air and so on

  17. Ferroelectric negative capacitance domain dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Michael; Khan, Asif Islam; Serrao, Claudy; Lu, Zhongyuan; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Pešić, Milan; Slesazeck, Stefan; Schroeder, Uwe; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Transient negative capacitance effects in epitaxial ferroelectric Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 capacitors are investigated with a focus on the dynamical switching behavior governed by domain nucleation and growth. Voltage pulses are applied to a series connection of the ferroelectric capacitor and a resistor to directly measure the ferroelectric negative capacitance during switching. A time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau approach is used to investigate the underlying domain dynamics. The transient negative capacitance is shown to originate from reverse domain nucleation and unrestricted domain growth. However, with the onset of domain coalescence, the capacitance becomes positive again. The persistence of the negative capacitance state is therefore limited by the speed of domain wall motion. By changing the applied electric field, capacitor area or external resistance, this domain wall velocity can be varied predictably over several orders of magnitude. Additionally, detailed insights into the intrinsic material properties of the ferroelectric are obtainable through these measurements. A new method for reliable extraction of the average negative capacitance of the ferroelectric is presented. Furthermore, a simple analytical model is developed, which accurately describes the negative capacitance transient time as a function of the material properties and the experimental boundary conditions.

  18. Neural Mechanisms of Cognitive Dissonance (Revised): An EEG Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colosio, Marco; Shestakova, Anna; Nikulin, Vadim V; Blagovechtchenski, Evgeny; Klucharev, Vasily

    2017-05-17

    Cognitive dissonance theory suggests that our preferences are modulated by the mere act of choosing. A choice between two similarly valued alternatives creates psychological tension (cognitive dissonance) that is reduced by a postdecisional reevaluation of the alternatives. We measured EEG of human subjects during rest and free-choice paradigm. Our study demonstrates that choices associated with stronger cognitive dissonance trigger a larger negative frontocentral evoked response similar to error-related negativity, which has in turn been implicated in general performance monitoring. Furthermore, the amplitude of the evoked response is correlated with the reevaluation of the alternatives. We also found a link between individual neural dynamics (long-range temporal correlations) of the frontocentral cortices during rest and follow-up neural and behavioral effects of cognitive dissonance. Individuals with stronger resting-state long-range temporal correlations demonstrated a greater postdecisional reevaluation of the alternatives and larger evoked brain responses associated with stronger cognitive dissonance. Thus, our results suggest that cognitive dissonance is reflected in both resting-state and choice-related activity of the prefrontal cortex as part of the general performance-monitoring circuitry. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Contrary to traditional decision theory, behavioral studies repeatedly demonstrate that our preferences are modulated by the mere act of choosing. Difficult choices generate psychological (cognitive) dissonance, which is reduced by the postdecisional devaluation of unchosen options. We found that decisions associated with a higher level of cognitive dissonance elicited a stronger negative frontocentral deflection that peaked ∼60 ms after the response. This activity shares similar spatial and temporal features as error-related negativity, the electrophysiological correlate of performance monitoring. Furthermore, the frontocentral resting

  19. The meaning of collective terrorist threat : Understanding the subjective causes of terrorism reduces its negative psychological impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat.

  20. Facial affect processing and depression susceptibility: cognitive biases and cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistricky, Steven L; Ingram, Rick E; Atchley, Ruth Ann

    2011-11-01

    Facial affect processing is essential to social development and functioning and is particularly relevant to models of depression. Although cognitive and interpersonal theories have long described different pathways to depression, cognitive-interpersonal and evolutionary social risk models of depression focus on the interrelation of interpersonal experience, cognition, and social behavior. We therefore review the burgeoning depressive facial affect processing literature and examine its potential for integrating disciplines, theories, and research. In particular, we evaluate studies in which information processing or cognitive neuroscience paradigms were used to assess facial affect processing in depressed and depression-susceptible populations. Most studies have assessed and supported cognitive models. This research suggests that depressed and depression-vulnerable groups show abnormal facial affect interpretation, attention, and memory, although findings vary based on depression severity, comorbid anxiety, or length of time faces are viewed. Facial affect processing biases appear to correspond with distinct neural activity patterns and increased depressive emotion and thought. Biases typically emerge in depressed moods but are occasionally found in the absence of such moods. Indirect evidence suggests that childhood neglect might cultivate abnormal facial affect processing, which can impede social functioning in ways consistent with cognitive-interpersonal and interpersonal models. However, reviewed studies provide mixed support for the social risk model prediction that depressive states prompt cognitive hypervigilance to social threat information. We recommend prospective interdisciplinary research examining whether facial affect processing abnormalities promote-or are promoted by-depressogenic attachment experiences, negative thinking, and social dysfunction.

  1. Neuropsychologists as primary care providers of cognitive health: A novel comprehensive cognitive wellness service delivery model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimental, Patricia A; O'Hara, John B; Jandak, Jessica L

    2018-01-01

    By virtue of their extensive knowledge base and specialized training in brain-behavior relationships, neuropsychologists are especially poised to execute a unique broad-based approach to overall cognitive wellness and should be viewed as primary care providers of cognitive health. This article will describe a novel comprehensive cognitive wellness service delivery model including cognitive health, anti-aging, lifelong wellness, and longevity-oriented practices. These practice areas include brain-based cognitive wellness, emotional and spiritually centric exploration, and related multimodality health interventions. As experts in mind-body connections, neuropsychologists can provide a variety of evidence-based treatment options, empowering patients with a sense of value and purpose. Multiple areas of clinical therapy skill-based learning, tailor-made to fit individual needs, will be discussed including: brain stimulating activities, restorative techniques, automatic negative thoughts and maladaptive thinking reduction, inflammation and pain management techniques, nutrition and culinary focused cognitive wellness, spirituality based practices and mindfulness, movement and exercise, alternative/complimentary therapies, relationship restoration/social engagement, and trauma healing/meaning. Cognitive health rests upon the foundation of counteracting mind-body connection disruptions from multiple etiologies including inflammation, chronic stress, metabolic issues, cardiac conditions, autoimmune disease, neurological disorders, infectious diseases, and allergy spectrum disorders. Superimposed on these issues are lifestyle patterns and negative health behaviors that develop as ill-fated compensatory mechanisms used to cope with life stressors and aging. The brain and body are electrical systems that can "short circuit." The therapy practices inherent in the proposed cognitive wellness service delivery model can provide preventative insulation and circuit breaking against

  2. A Comparison of Cognitive-Processing Therapy With Prolonged Exposure and a Waiting Condition for the Treatment of Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Female Rape Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resick, Patricia A.; Nishith, Pallavi; Weaver, Terri L.; Astin, Millie C.; Feuer, Catherine A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare cognitive-processing therapy (CPT) with prolonged exposure and a minimal attention condition (MA) for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. One hundred seventy-one female rape victims were randomized into 1 of the 3 conditions, and 121 completed treatment. Participants were assessed with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, the PTSD Symptom Scale, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM–IV, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Trauma-Related Guilt Inventory. Independent assessments were made at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 3 and 9 months posttreatment. Analyses indicated that both treatments were highly efficacious and superior to MA. The 2 therapies had similar results except that CPT produced better scores on 2 of 4 guilt subscales. PMID:12182270

  3. Cognitive predictors and moderators of winter depression treatment outcomes in cognitive-behavioral therapy vs. light therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnikov, Lilya; Rohan, Kelly J; Evans, Maggie; Mahon, Jennifer N; Nillni, Yael I

    2013-12-01

    There is no empirical basis for determining which seasonal affective disorder (SAD) patients are best suited for what type of treatment. Using data from a parent clinical trial comparing light therapy (LT), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), and their combination (CBT + LT) for SAD, we constructed hierarchical linear regression models to explore baseline cognitive vulnerability constructs (i.e., dysfunctional attitudes, negative automatic thoughts, response styles) as prognostic and prescriptive factors of acute and next winter depression outcomes. Cognitive constructs did not predict or moderate acute treatment outcomes. Baseline dysfunctional attitudes and negative automatic thoughts were prescriptive of next winter treatment outcomes. Participants with higher baseline levels of dysfunctional attitudes and negative automatic thoughts had less severe depression the next winter if treated with CBT than if treated with LT. In addition, participants randomized to solo LT who scored at or above the sample mean on these cognitive measures at baseline had more severe depressive symptoms the next winter relative to those who scored below the mean. Baseline dysfunctional attitudes and negative automatic thoughts did not predict treatment outcomes in participants assigned to solo CBT or CBT + LT. Therefore, SAD patients with extremely rigid cognitions did not fare as well in the subsequent winter if treated initially with solo LT. Such patients may be better suited for initial treatment with CBT, which directly targets cognitive vulnerability processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Potential factors that may promote successful cognitive aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vance DE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available David E VanceCenter for Nursing Research, School of Nursing, Edward R Roybal Center for Translational Research in Aging and Mobility, University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB, Birmingham, AL, USAAbstract: With the unprecedented number of older adults worldwide, it is important to consider ways of facilitating successful cognitive aging. One way to think of this is by augmenting or bolstering cognitive reserve. Loosely defined, cognitive reserve is considered a neurological reservoir that can be depleted by physiological insults (eg, white matter hyperintensities, oxidative stress to the brain but yet maintain optimal cognitive functioning. Cognitive reserve is built up or depleted by processes of positive and negative neuroplasticity, respectively. Lifestyle factors such as physical exercise (+, mental stimulation (+, good sleep hygiene (+, substance abuse (-, sedentary lifestyle (-, chronic stress and depression (-, social isolation (-, and poor health (- can either promote or discourage positive and negative neuroplasticity, which in turn impacts cognitive reserve. Nurses are encouraged to understand these processes so they can help facilitate successful cognitive aging in their patients.Keywords: cognitive reserve, Alzheimer's disease, neuroplasticity

  5. Embodied social cognition

    CERN Document Server

    Lindblom, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    This book clarifies the role and relevance of the body in social interaction and cognition from an embodied cognitive science perspective. Theories of embodied cognition have during the last decades offered a radical shift in explanations of the human mind, from traditional computationalism, to emphasizing the way cognition is shaped by the body and its sensorimotor interaction with the surrounding social and material world. This book presents a theoretical framework for the relational nature of embodied social cognition, which is based on an interdisciplinary approach that ranges historically in time and across different disciplines. It includes work in cognitive science, artificial intelligence, phenomenology, ethology, developmental psychology, neuroscience, social psychology, linguistics, communication, and gesture studies. The theoretical framework is illustrated by empirical work that provides some detailed observational fieldwork on embodied actions captured in three different episodes of spontaneous s...

  6. Alcohol-related memory associations in positive and negative affect situations: Drinking motives, working memory capacity, and prospective drinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salemink, E.; Wiers, R.W.

    2014-01-01

    Although studies on explicit alcohol cognitions have identified positive and negative reinforcing drinking motives that are differentially related to drinking indices, such a distinction has received less attention in studies on implicit cognitions. An alcohol-related Word-Sentence Association Task

  7. Processing negative valence of word pairs that include a positive word.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkes, Oksana; Mashal, Nira

    2016-09-01

    Previous research has suggested that cognitive performance is interrupted by negative relative to neutral or positive stimuli. We examined whether negative valence affects performance at the word or phrase level. Participants performed a semantic decision task on word pairs that included either a negative or a positive target word. In Experiment 1, the valence of the target word was congruent with the overall valence conveyed by the word pair (e.g., fat kid). As expected, response times were slower in the negative condition relative to the positive condition. Experiment 2 included target words that were incongruent with the overall valence of the word pair (e.g., fat salary). Response times were longer for word pairs whose overall valence was negative relative to positive, even though these word pairs included a positive word. Our findings support the Cognitive Primacy Hypothesis, according to which emotional valence is extracted after conceptual processing is complete.

  8. Peer Victimization and Harsh Parenting Predict Cognitive Diatheses for Depression in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David A.; Sinclair-McBride, Keneisha R.; Zelkowitz, Rachel; Bilsky, Sarah A.; Roeder, Kathryn; Spinelli, Tawny

    2015-01-01

    Objective The current study examined peer victimization and harsh parenting as longitudinal predictors of broadband and narrowband cognitions associated with the etiology of depression in children and adolescents. Method The sample consisted of 214 elementary and middle school students. At the start of the study, their average age was 12.2 years (SD = 1.0). The sex ratio was 112 girls to 102 boys. The sample was ethnically diverse (58.9% Caucasian, 34.1% African American, 10.7% Hispanic, 3.3% Asian, and 5.2% other). Children and their parents completed measures of peer victimization and harsh parenting. At two waves one year apart, children also completed questionnaire measures of negative and positive broadband cognitive style (e.g., personal failure, global self-worth) and narrowband self-perceptions (e.g., perceived social threat, social acceptance). Results Every wave 2 cognitive variable was predicted by peer victimization or harsh parenting or both, even after controlling for a wave 1 measure of the same cognitive variable. Peer victimization more consistently predicted narrowband social/interpersonal cognitions, whereas harsh parenting more consistently predicted broadband positive and negative cognitions. Furthermore, controlling for positive and negative self-cognitions eliminated a statistically significant effect of harsh parenting and peer victimization on depressive symptoms. Conclusions Support emerged for the social learning of negative self-cognitions. Support also emerged for negative self-cognitions as a mediator of depressive symptoms. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:25751612

  9. Peer Victimization and Harsh Parenting Predict Cognitive Diatheses for Depression in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David A; Sinclair-McBride, Keneisha R; Zelkowitz, Rachel; Bilsk, Sarah A; Roeder, Kathryn; Spinelli, Tawny

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined peer victimization and harsh parenting as longitudinal predictors of broadband and narrowband cognitions associated with the etiology of depression in children and adolescents. The sample consisted of 214 elementary and middle school students. At the start of the study, their average age was 12.2 years (SD = 1.0). The sex ratio was 112 girls to 102 boys. The sample was ethnically diverse (58.9% Caucasian, 34.1% African American, 10.7% Hispanic, 3.3% Asian, and 5.2% other). Children and their parents completed measures of peer victimization and harsh parenting. At two waves 1 year apart, children also completed questionnaire measures of negative and positive broadband cognitive style (e.g., personal failure, global self-worth) and narrowband self-perceptions (e.g., perceived social threat, social acceptance). Every Wave 2 cognitive variable was predicted by peer victimization or harsh parenting or both, even after controlling for a Wave 1 measure of the same cognitive variable. Peer victimization more consistently predicted narrowband social/interpersonal cognitions, whereas harsh parenting more consistently predicted broadband positive and negative cognitions. Furthermore, controlling for positive and negative self-cognitions eliminated a statistically significant effect of harsh parenting and peer victimization on depressive symptoms. Support emerged for the social learning of negative self-cognitions. Support also emerged for negative self-cognitions as a mediator of depressive symptoms. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  10. Asymmetric Spatial Processing Under Cognitive Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naert, Lien; Bonato, Mario; Fias, Wim

    2018-01-01

    Spatial attention allows us to selectively process information within a certain location in space. Despite the vast literature on spatial attention, the effect of cognitive load on spatial processing is still not fully understood. In this study we added cognitive load to a spatial processing task, so as to see whether it would differentially impact upon the processing of visual information in the left versus the right hemispace. The main paradigm consisted of a detection task that was performed during the maintenance interval of a verbal working memory task. We found that increasing cognitive working memory load had a more negative impact on detecting targets presented on the left side compared to those on the right side. The strength of the load effect correlated with the strength of the interaction on an individual level. The implications of an asymmetric attentional bias with a relative disadvantage for the left (vs the right) hemispace under high verbal working memory (WM) load are discussed.

  11. Functional and cognitive decline in hospitalized elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EUGÉNIA MENDES

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aim – Understand if functional and cognitive decline is accentuated during hospitalization in elderly patients. Method – It was design a descriptive and correlational study. The Functional Independence Measure (FIM and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE were used. Results – Were evaluated at admission and discharge 51 elderly (75.53 ± 7.16 years, 53% women, admitted in an internal medicine unit with a length of stay of 14.27±6.45 days. For FIM and MMSE were found statistically significant differences with lower scores from admission to discharge. Negative correlations between age and length of stay and the scores of all measures were found. Except for the Cognitive FIM at admission, all elderly residents at home fared better than the institutionalized in all measures. Conclusions – The hospitalization contributes to a greater weakness/frailty of the elderly and is considered high risk for decline in physical fitness and cognitive function.

  12. Cognitive wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Zhiyong; Zhang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    This brief examines the current research in cognitive wireless networks (CWNs). Along with a review of challenges in CWNs, this brief presents novel theoretical studies and architecture models for CWNs, advances in the cognitive information awareness and delivery, and intelligent resource management technologies. The brief presents the motivations and concepts of CWNs, including theoretical studies of temporal and geographic distribution entropy as well as cognitive information metrics. A new architecture model of CWNs is proposed with theoretical, functional and deployment architectures suppo

  13. Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Moghaddam, Nima G.; Dawson, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is a generic term, encompassing both: (1) approaches underpinned by an assumption that presenting emotional and behavioural difficulties are cognitively mediated or moderated; and (2) atheoretical bricolages of cognitive and behavioural techniques. This latter category may include effective therapeutic packages (perhaps acting through mechanisms articulated in the first category) but, when theory is tacit, it becomes harder to make analytical generalisation...

  14. Assessment in Cognitive Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Gary P.; Clark, David A.

    2015-01-01

    This volume brings together leading experts to explore the state of the art of cognitive clinical assessment and identify cutting-edge approaches of interest to clinicians and researchers. The book highlights fundamental problems concerning the validity of assessments that are widely used in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Key directions for further research and development are identified. Updated cognitive assessment methods are described in detail, with particular attention to transdiag...

  15. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hong; He, Ri-Hui; Zheng, Yun-Rong; Tao, Ran

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the main method of psychotherapy generally accepted in the field of substance addiction and non-substance addiction. This chapter mainly introduces the methods and technology of cognitive-behavior therapy of substance addiction, especially in order to prevent relapse. In the cognitive-behavior treatment of non-substance addiction, this chapter mainly introduces gambling addiction and food addiction.

  16. Simulating motivated cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevarter, William B.

    1991-01-01

    A research effort to develop a sophisticated computer model of human behavior is described. A computer framework of motivated cognition was developed. Motivated cognition focuses on the motivations or affects that provide the context and drive in human cognition and decision making. A conceptual architecture of the human decision-making approach from the perspective of information processing in the human brain is developed in diagrammatic form. A preliminary version of such a diagram is presented. This architecture is then used as a vehicle for successfully constructing a computer program simulation Dweck and Leggett's findings that relate how an individual's implicit theories orient them toward particular goals, with resultant cognitions, affects, and behavior.

  17. COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory conducts basic and applied human research studies to characterize cognitive performance as influenced by militarily-relevant contextual and physical...

  18. Hypnotic suggestibility, cognitive inhibition, and dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienes, Zoltán; Brown, Elizabeth; Hutton, Sam; Kirsch, Irving; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Wright, Daniel B

    2009-12-01

    We examined two potential correlates of hypnotic suggestibility: dissociation and cognitive inhibition. Dissociation is the foundation of two of the major theories of hypnosis and other theories commonly postulate that hypnotic responding is a result of attentional abilities (including inhibition). Participants were administered the Waterloo-Stanford Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form C. Under the guise of an unrelated study, 180 of these participants also completed: a version of the Dissociative Experiences Scale that is normally distributed in non-clinical populations; a latent inhibition task, a spatial negative priming task, and a memory task designed to measure negative priming. The data ruled out even moderate correlations between hypnotic suggestibility and all the measures of dissociation and cognitive inhibition overall, though they also indicated gender differences. The results are a challenge for existing theories of hypnosis.

  19. Subjective memory complaints are associated with poorer cognitive performance in adults with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamkwalala, Asante; Hulgan, Todd; Newhouse, Paul

    2017-05-01

    With successful antiretroviral therapy in the US, HIV-positive adults now routinely survive into old age. However, increased life expectancy with HIV introduces the added complication of age-related cognitive decline. Aging with HIV has been associated with poorer cognitive outcomes compared to HIV-negative adults. While up to 50% of older HIV-positive adults will develop some degree of cognitive impairment over their lifetime, cognitive symptoms are often not consistently monitored, until those symptoms are significant enough to impair daily life. In this study we found that subjective memory complaint (SMC) ratings correlated with measurable memory performance impairments in HIV-positive adults, but not HIV-negative adults. As the HIV-positive population ages, structured subjective cognitive assessment may be beneficial to identify the early signs of cognitive impairment, and subsequently allow for earlier interventions to maintain cognitive performance as these adults continue to survive into old age.

  20. Stress and Cognition: A Cognitive Psychological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Lyle E., Jr.; Yaroush, Rita A.

    2003-01-01

    Research in cognitive psychology has made a significant contribution to our understanding of how acute and chronic stress affect performance. It has done so by identifying some of the factors that contribute to operator error and by suggesting how operators might be trained to respond more effectively in a variety of circumstances. The major purpose of this paper was to review the literature of cognitive psychology as it relates to these questions and issues. Based on the existence of earlier reviews (e.g., Hamilton, & Warburton, 1979; Hockey, 1983) the following investigation was limited to the last 15 years (1988-2002) and restricted to a review of the primary peer-reviewed literature. The results of this examination revealed that while cognitive psychology has contributed in a substantive way to our understanding of stress impact on various cognitive processes, it has also left many questions unanswered. Concerns about how we define and use the term stress and the gaps that remain in our knowledge about the specific effects of stressors on cognitive processes are discussed in the text.

  1. Quantum entanglement at negative temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, G B; Meerovich, V M; Sokolovsky, V L

    2013-01-01

    An isolated spin system that is in internal thermodynamic equilibrium and that has an upper limit to its allowed energy states can possess a negative temperature. We calculate the thermodynamic characteristics and the concurrence in this system over the entire range of positive and negative temperatures. Our calculation was performed for different real structures, which can be used in experiments. It is found that the temperature dependence of the concurrence is substantially asymmetrical similarly to other thermodynamic characteristics. At a negative temperature the maximum concurrence and the absolute temperature of the entanglement appearance are significantly larger than those at a positive temperature. The concurrence can be characterized by two dimensionless parameters: the ratio between the Zeeman and dipolar energies and the ratio of the thermal and dipolar energies. It was shown that for all considered structures the dimensionless temperatures of the transition between entanglement and separability of the first and second spins are independent of spin structure and the number of spins. (paper)

  2. Parental Employment and Child Cognitive Development

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher J. Ruhm

    2000-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between parental employment and child cognitive development using data from multiple years of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Maternal labor supply during the first three years of the child's life is predicted to have a small negative effect on the verbal ability of 3 and 4 year olds and a substantial detrimental impact on the reading and math achievement of 5 and 6 year olds. Working during the second and third years appears to have less fa...

  3. Negative Attitudes, Networks and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe

    This paper theoretically and empirically assesses the potential explanations behind the educational gap between young natives and immigrants using two measures, negative attitudes towards immigrants and networking. The paper considers that two these parameters may influence high and uneducated...... workers as well as immigrants and natives differently, creating different incentives to acquire education for the two groups. Using rich Danish administrative data, this paper finds suggestive evidence rejecting the theoretical case where negative attitudes decrease 1st generation immigrant education...... and indications that quality of networks seems to matter more for immigrants than the quantity of individuals in a potential network....

  4. Patch Test Negative Generalized Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiker, Alison; Mowad, Christen

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common condition in dermatology. Patch testing is the criterion standard for diagnosis. However, dermatitis is not always caused by an allergen, and patch testing does not identify a culprit in every patient. Generalized dermatitis, defined as eczematous dermatitis affecting greater than 3 body sites, is often encountered in dermatology practice, especially patch test referral centers. Management for patients with generalized dermatitis who are patch test negative is challenging. The purpose of this article is to outline an approach to this challenging scenario and summarize the paucity of existing literature on patch test negative generalized dermatitis.

  5. Cognitive training for dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konta, Brigitte

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the HTA report is to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive training methods to treat cognitive disorders of dementia and other diseases with cognitive deficits. For this purpose, a systematic literature search was carried out first based on the DIMDI superbase retrieval. The identified publications were judged and selected by two independent, methodically competent experts. 33 publications were included in the report. Based on the studies for a normal cognitive development in old age a theory that healthy older people have a considerable capacity reserve for an improved performance in abstract abilities of thinking can be assumed. The first symptoms for older people at risk for dementia are a reduced cognitive capacity reserve. Cognitive training methods therefore focus abilities of abstract memory. Apart from types of dementia another two groups of diseases with cognitive deficits were included in the HTA report: cerebral lesions and schizophrenic psychoses. Studies with mild as well as forms of dementia heavy forms including the Alzheimer disease were included. The described training methods were very heterogeneous with regard to their contents, the temporal sequence and the outcome parameter. The studies were methodically partly contestable. Approximately a third of the studies of all publications could show improvements in the cognitive achievements by the training. Three studies concerning cognitive training methods in case of cerebral lesions were included. All three studies demonstrated a significant improvement in the training group in some outcome parameters. Special cognitive training methods were used for the treatment of cognitive deficits at schizophrenic psychoses. The neurocognitive training (NET, the "Cognitive Remediation Therapy" as well as the strategic training with coaching proved to be effective. The studies, however, were hardly comparable and very heterogeneous in detail. Summarising the cognitive training

  6. Gamification of cognitive assessment and cognitive training: A systematic review of applications, approaches and efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Lumsden

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive tasks are typically viewed as effortful, frustrating and repetitive, and these factors may lead participants to disengage with the task at hand. This, in turn, may negatively impact our data quality and reduce any intervention effects. Gamification may provide a solution. If we can successfully import game design elements into cognitive tasks without undermining their scientific value, then we may be able improve the quality of data, increase the effectiveness of our interventions, and maximise participant engagement. We conducted a systematic review of the existing literature of gamified cognitive testing and training tasks to identify where, how and why gamification has been used, and whether it has been successful. We searched several online databases, from January 2007 to January 2015, and screened 33,000 articles that matched our search terms. Our review identified 34 relevant studies, covering 31 gamified cognitive tasks used across a wide range of disorders and cognitive domains. Gamified cognitive training to relieve attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms was particularly prominent. We also found that the majority of gamified cognitive tasks were validated successfully and were rated as enjoyable or engaging by the study participants. Despite this, the heterogeneity of study designs and typically small sample sizes highlights the need for further research. We describe the game mechanics used in gamified cognitive tasks, their effectiveness and how they relate to several models of player engagement. In conclusion the evidence suggests that gamification can provide a way to develop engaging and scientifically valid cognitive tasks, but that no single game can be engaging to every participant and therefore gamification is not a silver-bullet for all motivational problems in psychological research.

  7. Positive and Negative Affect and Adolescent Adjustment: Moderation Effects of Prefrontal Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieant, Alexis; Holmes, Christopher J; Maciejewski, Dominique; Lee, Jacob; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; King-Casas, Brooks; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen

    2018-03-01

    We examined whether cognitive control moderates the effects of emotion on adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptomatology in a longitudinal study of 138 adolescents. Self-reported positive affect (PA) and negative affect and behavioral and neural indicators of cognitive control, indexed by performance and prefrontal hemodynamic response during a cognitive interference task, were collected at Time 1. Self-reported internalizing and externalizing symptomatology were collected at Time 1 and Time 2 (1 year later). Results indicated that higher PA predicted decreases in externalizing symptomatology, but only for adolescents with poor neural cognitive control. No moderation effects were found for behavioral cognitive control. Findings imply the beneficial effects of PA on the development of externalizing problems among adolescents with poor prefrontal functioning. © 2018 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  8. Negative priming in a numerical Piaget-like task as evidenced by ERP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daurignac, Elsa; Houdé, Olivier; Jouvent, Roland

    2006-05-01

    Inhibition is a key executive function in adults and children for the acquisition and expression of cognitive abilities. Using event-related potentials in a priming adaptation of a Piaget-like numerical task taken from developmental psychology, we report a negative priming effect in adults measured just after the cognitive inhibition of a misleading strategy, the visuospatial length-equals-number bias. This effect was determined in the N200 information processing stage through increased N200 amplitude. We show here that for accuracy in numerical quantification, the adult brain still had to control the child-like cognition biases that are stored in a kind of "developmental memory."

  9. Cognitive Virtualization: Combining Cognitive Models and Virtual Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuan Q. Tran; David I. Gertman; Donald D. Dudenhoeffer; Ronald L. Boring; Alan R. Mecham

    2007-01-01

    3D manikins are often used in visualizations to model human activity in complex settings. Manikins assist in developing understanding of human actions, movements and routines in a variety of different environments representing new conceptual designs. One such environment is a nuclear power plant control room, here they have the potential to be used to simulate more precise ergonomic assessments of human work stations. Next generation control rooms will pose numerous challenges for system designers. The manikin modeling approach by itself, however, may be insufficient for dealing with the desired technical advancements and challenges of next generation automated systems. Uncertainty regarding effective staffing levels; and the potential for negative human performance consequences in the presence of advanced automated systems (e.g., reduced vigilance, poor situation awareness, mistrust or blind faith in automation, higher information load and increased complexity) call for further research. Baseline assessment of novel control room equipment(s) and configurations needs to be conducted. These design uncertainties can be reduced through complementary analysis that merges ergonomic manikin models with models of higher cognitive functions, such as attention, memory, decision-making, and problem-solving. This paper will discuss recent advancements in merging a theoretical-driven cognitive modeling framework within a 3D visualization modeling tool to evaluate of next generation control room human factors and ergonomic assessment. Though this discussion primary focuses on control room design, the application for such a merger between 3D visualization and cognitive modeling can be extended to various areas of focus such as training and scenario planning

  10. Association between Cognitive Activity and Cognitive Function in Older Hispanics

    OpenAIRE

    Marquine, María J.; Segawa, Eisuke; Wilson, Robert S.; Bennett, David A.; Barnes, Lisa L.

    2012-01-01

    There is limited research on the association between participation in cognitively stimulating activity and cognitive function in older Hispanics. The main purpose of the present study was to explore whether frequency of cognitive activity and its association with cognitive function in Hispanics is comparable to that of non-Hispanics. In a multiethnic cohort of 1571 non-demented older adults, we assessed past and current cognitive activity, availability of cognitive resources in the home in ch...

  11. Selective phosphodiesterase inhibitors: a promising target for cognition enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Reneerkens, Olga A. H.; Rutten, Kris; Steinbusch, Harry W. M.; Blokland, Arjan; Prickaerts, Jos

    2008-01-01

    Rationale One of the major complaints most people face during aging is an impairment in cognitive functioning. This has a negative impact on the quality of daily life and is even more prominent in patients suffering from neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders including Alzheimer?s disease, schizophrenia, and depression. So far, the majority of cognition enhancers are generally targeting one particular neurotransmitter system. However, recently phosphodiesterases (PDEs) have gained increa...

  12. Culture and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggleton, Neil G; Banissy, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the nature and both environmental and cognitive origins of culturally associated differences in a range of behaviors. This special issue of Cognitive Neuroscience presents six empirical papers investigating diverse categories of potential culturally related effects as well as a review article, all of which provide timely updates of the current state of knowledge in this area.

  13. Cognitive task analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2000-01-01

    Cognitive task analysis is defined as the extension of traditional task analysis techniques to yield information about the knowledge, thought processes and goal structures that underlie observable task performance. Cognitive task analyses are conducted for a wide variety of purposes, including the

  14. Learning and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gr ver Aukrust, Vibeke, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This collection of 58 articles from the recently-published third edition of the International Encyclopedia of Education focuses on learning, memory, attention, problem solving, concept formation, and language. Learning and cognition is the foundation of cognitive psychology and encompasses many topics including attention, memory, categorization,…

  15. Functional and cognitive grammars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna Siewierska

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive review of the functional approach and cognitive approach to the nature of language and its relation to other aspects of human cognition. The paper starts with a brief discussion of the origins and the core tenets of the two approaches in Section 1. Section 2 discusses the similarities and differences between the three full-fledged structural functional grammars subsumed in the functional approach: Halliday's Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG), Dik's Functional Grammar (FG), and Van Valin's Role and Reference Grammar (RRG). Section 3 deals with the major features of the three cognitive frameworks: Langacker's Cognitive Grammar (CG), Goldberg's Cognitive Construction Grammar (CCG), and Croft's Radical Construction Grammar (RCG). Section 4 compares the two approaches and attempts to provide a unified functional-cognitive grammar. In the last section, the author concludes the paper with remarks on the unidirectional shift from functional grammar to cognitive grammar that may indicate a reinterpretation of the traditional relationship between functional and cognitive models of grammar.

  16. Transcending Cognitive Individualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerubavel, Eviatar; Smith, Eliot R.

    2010-01-01

    Advancing knowledge in many areas of psychology and neuroscience, underlined by dazzling images of brain scans, appear to many professionals and to the public to show that people are on the way to explaining cognition purely in terms of processes within the individual's head. Yet while such cognitive individualism still dominates the popular…

  17. Towards Cognitive Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Ahrendt, Peter; Larsen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive component analysis (COCA) is here defined as the process of unsupervised grouping of data such that the ensuing group structure is well-aligned with that resulting from human cognitive activity. We have earlier demonstrated that independent components analysis is relevant for representing...

  18. Cognitive Style: Individual Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    1989-01-01

    A literature review describes several dimensions of cognitive styles in an effort to illustrate individual stylistic differences. Discusses the field dependence-independence dimension, taking into account age, sex, and cultural differences. Suggests that cognitive style theory needs to be structured in a broader theoretical framework. (NH)

  19. [Cognitive deterioration after surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinmetz, J.; Rasmussen, L.S.

    2008-01-01

    Delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction are important and common complications after surgery. Risk factors are first of all increasing age and type of surgery, whereas the type of anaesthesia does not seem to play an important role. Mortality is higher among patients with cognitive...

  20. Documentary and Cognitive Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the benefits of using cognitive theory in documentary film studies. The article outlines general aspects of cognitive theory in humanities and social science, however the main focus is on the role of narrative, visual style and emotional dimensions of different types...

  1. Histone deacetylases in memory and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Jay; Tsai, Li-Huei

    2014-12-09

    Over the past 30 years, lysine acetylation of histone and nonhistone proteins has become established as a key modulator of gene expression regulating numerous aspects of cell biology. Neuronal growth and plasticity are no exception; roles for lysine acetylation and deacetylation in brain function and dysfunction continue to be uncovered. Transcriptional programs coupling synaptic activity to changes in gene expression are critical to the plasticity mechanisms underlying higher brain functions. These transcriptional programs can be modulated by changes in histone acetylation, and in many cases, transcription factors and histone-modifying enzymes are recruited together to plasticity-associated genes. Lysine acetylation, catalyzed by lysine acetyltransferases (KATs), generally promotes cognitive performance, whereas the opposing process, catalyzed by histone lysine deacetylases (HDACs), appears to negatively regulate cognition in multiple brain regions. Consistently, mutation or deregulation of different KATs or HDACs contributes to neurological dysfunction and neurodegeneration. HDAC inhibitors have shown promise as a treatment to combat the cognitive decline associated with aging and neurodegenerative disease, as well as to ameliorate the symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder, among others. In this review, we discuss the evidence for the roles of HDACs in cognitive function as well as in neurological disorders and disease. In particular, we focus on HDAC2, which plays a central role in coupling lysine acetylation to synaptic plasticity and mediates many of the effects of HDAC inhibition in cognition and disease. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Negative energy solutions and symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidharth, B.G.

    2011-01-01

    We revisit the negative energy solutions of the Dirac (and Klein–Gordon) equation, which become relevant at very high energies in the context of the Feshbach–Villars formulation, and study several symmetries which follow therefrom. Significant consequences are briefly examined. (author)

  3. Symmetric relations of finite negativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaltenbaeck, M.; Winkler, H.; Woracek, H.; Forster, KH; Jonas, P; Langer, H

    2006-01-01

    We construct and investigate a space which is related to a symmetric linear relation S of finite negativity on an almost Pontryagin space. This space is the indefinite generalization of the completion of dom S with respect to (S.,.) for a strictly positive S on a Hilbert space.

  4. Production of negative helium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, A.S. de; Sala, O.

    1977-01-01

    A negative helium ion source using potassium charge exchange vapor has been developed to be used as an injector for the Pelletron accelerator. 3 He and α beam currents of up to 2μA have been extracted with 75% particle transmission through the machine [pt

  5. Cognitive therapy for punishment paranoia: a single case experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, P; Trower, P

    1996-04-01

    There is growing agreement that at least certain kinds of delusions defend against negative self-evaluation, and in consequence that cognitive therapy for delusions needs to address issues of self-evaluation more explicitly. However, in practice it can be difficult to enable clients to see the connection between delusions and self-esteem. The present single-case study exemplifies the conceptual and practical application of cognitive therapy for individuals who are both paranoid and have strong negative self-evaluative beliefs. A multiple-baseline approach is used, whereby one man's negative self-evaluative belief and two paranoid delusions are challenged sequentially. Conviction in two of the three beliefs changes at the point of intervention; conviction in the third changes prior to intervention. We discuss the details of the case, as well as the wider implications for cognitive approaches to delusions.

  6. Cognitive Resilience and Psychological Responses across a Collegiate Rowing Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Morgan R; Brooks, M Alison; Koltyn, Kelli F; Kim, Jee-Seon; Cook, Dane B

    2017-11-01

    Student-athletes face numerous challenges across their competitive season. Although mood states have been previously studied, little is known about adaptations in other psychological responses, specifically cognition. The purpose of this study was to characterize cognitive function, mood, sleep, and stress responses at select time points of a season in collegiate rowers. It was hypothesized that during baseline, typical training, and recovery, athletes would show positive mental health profiles, in contrast to decreases in cognition with increases in negative mood and measurements of stress during peak training. Male and female Division I rowers (N = 43) and healthy controls (N = 23) were enrolled and assessed at baseline, typical training, peak training, and recovery. At each time point, measures of cognitive performance (Stroop color-naming task), academic and exercise load, perceived cognitive deficits, mood states, sleep, and stress (via self-report and salivary cortisol) were recorded. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed significant group-time interactions for perceived exercise load, cognitive deficits, mood states, and perceived stress (P cognitive deficits was positively correlated with mood disturbance (r = 0.54, P Cognitive performance did not change over the course of the season for either group. Cortisol and sleepiness changed over the course of the season but no significant interactions were observed. These results demonstrate that various psychological responses change over the course of a season, but they also highlight adaptation indicative of cognitive resilience among student-athletes.

  7. Cognitive approach in studying of entrepreneur phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulakovsky T.Yu.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The research indicates that there is no prospect of searching specific entrepreneurial traits that are necessary for conducting successful entrepreneurial activity. It is pointed on the impossibility to fully explain the negative state of domestic business exclusively by the influence of environmental factors. The paper points on the necessity of concentrating the scientific search on the cognitive features of personality, as factors that contribute to success of entrepreneurial activities. It is revealed that the decision-making process directed on problem-solving in entrepreneurial activity, from an entrepreneurial idea to obtaining an appropriate result, cannot be algorithmized. The author points out on the insufficiency of attempts to model cognitive processes of entrepreneurs, in which their cognitive activity is regarded as an information processing system that resembles a computer. The results obtained in the framework of the cognitive approach in studying the phenomenon of the entrepreneur are analyzed. Particular emphasis is placed on the features of heuristics and cognitive biases. It is stated that the high levels of uncertainty, novelty, time deficit, information overload and emotional tension facilitate influence of cognitive biases on the cognitive processes of the entrepreneur. The role of «availability heuristic», «anchoring and adjustment heuristic», «confirmation bias», «hindsight bias» and self-efficacy in making decisions about starting an entrepreneurial activity are considered. The article points to the role of «belief in the law of small numbers» and the illusion of control in establishing optimistic bias (overly positive self-esteem, excessive optimism about future plans and events that lead to reducing the subjective perception of entrepreneurial risk.

  8. Unimode metamaterials exhibiting negative linear compressibility and negative thermal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudek, Krzysztof K; Attard, Daphne; Caruana-Gauci, Roberto; Grima, Joseph N; Wojciechowski, Krzysztof W

    2016-01-01

    Unimode metamaterials made from rotating rigid triangles are analysed mathematically for their mechanical and thermal expansion properties. It is shown that these unimode systems exhibit positive Poisson’s ratios irrespective of size, shape and angle of aperture, with the Poisson’s ratio exhibiting giant values for certain conformations. When the Poisson’s ratio in one loading direction is larger than +1, the systems were found to exhibit the anomalous property of negative linear compressibility along this direction, that is, the systems expand in this direction when hydrostatically compressed. Also discussed are the thermal expansion properties of these systems under the assumption that the units exhibit increased rotational agitation once subjected to an increase in temperature. The effect of the geometric parameters on the aforementioned thermo-mechanical properties of the system, are discussed, with the aim of identifying negative behaviour. (paper)

  9. Modeling Organizational Cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secchi, Davide; Cowley, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    This article offers an alternative perspective on organizational cognition based on e-cognition whereby appeal to systemic cognition replaces the traditional computational model of the mind that is still extremely popular in organizational research. It uses information processing, not to explore...... inner processes, but as the basis for pursuing organizational matters. To develop a theory of organizational cognition, the current work presents an agent-based simulation model based on the case of how individual perception of scientific value is affected by and affects organizational intelligence...... units' (e.g., research groups', departmental) framing of the notorious impact factor. Results show that organizational cognition cannot be described without an intermediate meso scale - called here social organizing - that both filters and enables the many kinds of socially enabled perception, action...

  10. Cognitive Dynamic Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Miguel, Ignacio; Duran, Ramon J.; Jimenez, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    The use of cognition is a promising element for the control of heterogeneous optical networks. Not only are cognitive networks able to sense current network conditions and act according to them, but they also take into account the knowledge acquired through past experiences; that is, they include...... learning with the aim of improving performance. In this paper, we review the fundamentals of cognitive networks and focus on their application to the optical networking area. In particular, a number of cognitive network architectures proposed so far, as well as their associated supporting technologies......, are reviewed. Moreover, several applications, mainly developed in the framework of the EU FP7 Cognitive Heterogeneous Reconfigurable Optical Network (CHRON) project, are also described....

  11. Uncertainty and Cognitive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal eMushtaq

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A growing trend of neuroimaging, behavioural and computational research has investigated the topic of outcome uncertainty in decision-making. Although evidence to date indicates that humans are very effective in learning to adapt to uncertain situations, the nature of the specific cognitive processes involved in the adaptation to uncertainty are still a matter of debate. In this article, we reviewed evidence suggesting that cognitive control processes are at the heart of uncertainty in decision-making contexts. Available evidence suggests that: (1 There is a strong conceptual overlap between the constructs of uncertainty and cognitive control; (2 There is a remarkable overlap between the neural networks associated with uncertainty and the brain networks subserving cognitive control; (3 The perception and estimation of uncertainty might play a key role in monitoring processes and the evaluation of the need for control; (4 Potential interactions between uncertainty and cognitive control might play a significant role in several affective disorders.

  12. The social life of cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Joanna; Voiklis, John; Malle, Bertram F

    2015-02-01

    We begin by illustrating that long before the cognitive revolution, social psychology focused on topics pertaining to what is now known as social cognition: people's subjective interpretations of social situations and the concepts and cognitive processes underlying these interpretations. We then examine two questions: whether social cognition entails characteristic concepts and cognitive processes, and how social processes might themselves shape and constrain cognition. We suggest that social cognition relies heavily on generic cognition but also on unique concepts (e.g., agent, intentionality) and unique processes (e.g., projection, imitation, joint attention). We further suggest that social processes play a prominent role in the development and unfolding of several generic cognitive processes, including learning, attention, and memory. Finally, we comment on the prospects of a recently developing approach to the study of social cognition (social neuroscience) and two potential future directions (computational social cognition and social-cognitive robotics). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Empathy for positive and negative emotions in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Amanda S; Mateen, Maria A; Brozovich, Faith A; Zaki, Jamil; Goldin, Philippe R; Heimberg, Richard G; Gross, James J

    2016-12-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is associated with elevated negative and diminished positive affective experience. However, little is known about the way in which individuals with SAD perceive and respond emotionally to the naturally-unfolding negative and positive emotions of others, that is, cognitive empathy and affective empathy, respectively. In the present study, participants with generalized SAD (n = 32) and demographically-matched healthy controls (HCs; n = 32) completed a behavioral empathy task. Cognitive empathy was indexed by the correlation between targets' and participants' continuous ratings of targets' emotions, whereas affective empathy was indexed by the correlation between targets' and participants' continuous self-ratings of emotion. Individuals with SAD differed from HCs only in positive affective empathy: they were less able to vicariously share others' positive emotions. Mediation analyses revealed that poor emotional clarity and negative interpersonal perceptions among those with SAD might account for this finding. Future research using experimental methodology is needed to examine whether this finding represents an inability or unwillingness to share positive affect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Social resources and cognitive ageing across 30 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gow, Alan J.; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2016-01-01

    Background: to examine associations between social resources and cognitive ageing over 30 years. Methods: participants in the Glostrup 1914 Cohort, a year of birth sample, completed a standardarised battery of cognitive ability tests every 10 years from age 50 to 80, summarised as general cognitive...... a negative association. Marital status (at ages 50 and 60) and loneliness at age 70 were the only social resources associated with cognitive change; married individuals and those not feeling lonely experienced less cognitive decline. When the social resources showing significant associations were considered...... ability. Participants also provided information concerning a range of social resources, including marital status and living arrangements from age 50, and from age 70, details regarding social support, social contact and loneliness. Results: across the follow-up, participants were less likely to be married...

  15. A Cognitive Distortions and Deficits Model of Suicide Ideation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura L. Fazakas-DeHoog

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although cognitive distortions and deficits are known risk factors for the development and escalation of suicide ideation and behaviour, no empirical work has examined how these variables interact to predict suicide ideation. The current study proposes an integrative model of cognitive distortions (hopelessness and negative evaluations of self and future and deficits (problem solving deficits, problem solving avoidance, and cognitive rigidity. To test the integrity of this model, a sample of 397 undergraduate students completed measures of deficits, distortions, and current suicide ideation. A structural equation model demonstrated excellent fit, and findings indicated that only distortions have a direct effect on suicidal thinking, whereas cognitive deficits may exert their effects on suicide ideation via their reciprocal relation with distortions. Findings underscore the importance of both cognitive distortions and deficits for understanding suicidality, which may have implications for preventative efforts and treatment.

  16. AFFECTIVE GUIDANCE OF INTELLIGENT AGENTS: How Emotion Controls Cognition1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clore, Gerald L.; Palmer, Janet E.

    2008-01-01

    Emotions and moods color cognition. In this article, we outline how emotions affect judgments and cognitive performance of human agents. We argue that affective influences are due, not to the affective reactions themselves, but to the information they carry about value, a potentially useful finding for creators of artificial agents. The kind of influence that occurs depends on the focus of the agent at the time. When making evaluative judgments, for example, agents may experience positive affect as a positive attitude toward a person or object. But when an agent focuses on a cognitive task, positive affect may act like performance feedback, with positive affect giving a green light to cognitive, relational processes. By contrast, negative affect tends to inhibit relational processing, resulting in a more perceptual, stimulus-specific processing. One result is that many textbook phenomena from cognitive psychology occur readily in happy moods, but are inhibited in sad moods. PMID:19255620

  17. The NIH Cognitive and Emotional Health Project. Report of the Critical Evaluation Study Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrie, Hugh C; Albert, Marilyn S; Butters, Meryl A; Gao, Sujuan; Knopman, David S; Launer, Lenore J; Yaffe, Kristine; Cuthbert, Bruce N; Edwards, Emmeline; Wagster, Molly V

    2006-01-01

    The Cognitive and Emotional Health Project (CEHP) seeks to identify the demographic, social, and biological determinants of cognitive and emotional health in the older adult. As part of the CEHP, a critical evaluation study committee was formed to assess the state of epidemiological research on demographic, social, and biological determinants of cognitive and emotional health. Criteria for inclusion in the survey were large cohort studies, longitudinal in design, participants predominantly 65 years or older, with measurements of both cognition and emotion, and information on a wide variety of demographic, psychosocial, and biological factors. North American and European studies, which met these criteria, were selected for the review. Outcome measures included cognition, cognitive decline, and cognitive function. For emotion, symptoms included depression and anxiety, positive and negative affect, subjective well being, mastery, and resilience. Ninety-six papers were identified that addressed cognitive and emotional outcomes. A large variety of risk factors were consistently identified with cognitive outcomes, particularly those previously associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. There was considerable overlap between risk factors for cognitive and emotional outcomes. This review identifies a large number of lifestyle and health behaviors that alter the risk for maintenance of cognitive and emotional health. Large longitudinal cohort studies are a unique source to explore factors associated with cognitive and emotional health. Secondary analyses of these studies should be encouraged as should the development of standardized questionnaires to measure cognitive and emotional health. Future research in this field should study cognitive and emotional health simultaneously.

  18. Trauma exposure is associated with increased context-dependent adjustments of cognitive control in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Stalder, Tobias; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Weber, Fanny; Hoyer, Jürgen; Plessow, Franziska

    2014-12-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with alterations in prefrontal-cortex-dependent cognitive processes (e.g., working memory, cognitive control). However, it remains unclear whether these cognitive dysfunctions are related to PTSD symptomatology or trauma exposure. Furthermore, regarding cognitive control, research has only focused on the integrity of selected control functions, but not their dynamic regulation in response to changing environmental demands. Therefore, the present study investigated dynamic variations in interference control, in addition to overall interference susceptibility and working memory (WM) performance in matched groups of 24 PTSD patients and 26 traumatized and 30 nontraumatized healthy controls. The Simon task was used to measure overall interference susceptibility and the flexible adjustment of cognitive control, on the basis of the occurrence of response conflicts (conflict adaptation effect). WM performance was assessed with the forward and backward digit span tasks. Since we have previously shown that trauma exposure per se is associated with reduced hair cortisol concentrations (HCC), we further explored whether PTSD/trauma-related cognitive alterations are related to HCC in proximal 3-cm hair segments. The results revealed that PTSD patients and traumatized controls showed significantly more pronounced conflict adaptation effects than nontraumatized controls. Moreover, the conflict adaptation effect was positively related to the number of lifetime traumatic events and the frequency of traumatization. The groups did not differ in overall interference susceptibility or WM performance. Exploratory analyses revealed no association between HCC and the observed cognitive differences. These results suggest that context-driven control adjustments constitute a sensitive correlate of trauma exposure, irrespective of PTSD.

  19. Cognitive fallacies and criminal investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditrich, Hans

    2015-03-01

    The human mind is susceptible to inherent fallacies that often hamper fully rational action. Many such misconceptions have an evolutionary background and are thus difficult to avert. Deficits in the reliability of eye-witnesses are well known to legal professionals; however, less attention has been paid to such effects in crime investigators. In order to obtain an "inside view" on the role of cognitive misconceptions in criminalistic work, a list of fallacies from the literature was adapted to criminalistic settings. The statements on this list were rated by highly experienced crime scene investigators according to the assumed likelihood of these errors to appear and their severity of effect. Among others, selective perception, expectation and confirmation bias, anchoring/"pars per toto" errors and "onus probandi"--shifting the burden of proof from the investigator to the suspect--were frequently considered to negatively affect criminal investigations. As a consequence, the following measures are proposed: alerting investigating officers in their training to cognitive fallacies and promoting the exchange of experiences in peer circles of investigators on a regular basis. Furthermore, the improvement of the organizational error culture and the establishment of a failure analysis system in order to identify and alleviate error prone processes are suggested. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cognitive Dysfunctions in Epileptic Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih Ayta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Some children with epilepsy display a low level of intelligence, learning disabilities, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, mood disorders and anxiety. Besides specific learning disabilities like reading, writing, arithmetics, learning problems may involve other major areas of intellectual functions such as speech and language, attention, memory, fine motor coordination. Even in the presence of common pathology that leads to epilepsy and mental dysfunctions, seizures cause additional cognitive problems. Age at seizure onset, type of seizures and epileptic syndromes are some variables that determine the effect of epilepsy on cognition. As recurrent seizures may have some negative impact on the developing brain, the use of antiepileptic drugs should be considered not only to aim reducing seizures but also to prevent possible seizure-induced cortical dysfunctions. Epilepsy is a disorder requiring a complicated psychological adjustment for the patients and indeed is a disease that affects the whole family. Thus, the management of epilepsy must include educational, psychotherapeutic and behavioral interventions as well as drug treatment.