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Sample records for negative skin tests

  1. Hypersensitivity reactions to penicillins: studies in a group of patients with negative benzylpenicillin G skin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, H-L; Li, Z; Yang, J; Tian, X; Gao, N; Jia, L-J

    2009-06-01

    Although skin tests are usually employed to evaluate current penicillin allergy status, a negative result does not exclude hypersensitivity. There is a need for accurate in vitro tests to exclude hypersensitivity. A radioallergosorbent test (RAST) is a potentially good supplementary approach, but there is little information on the suitability of this method to diagnose penicillin hypersensitivity in subjects with a negative skin test to benzylpenicillin. A total of 133 patients with a negative skin test to benzylpenicillin G (PG) and all of whom developed allergic reactions to PG were studied. RAST was used to detect eight kinds of specific IgE antibodies to penicillins in serum, which included four kinds of major and minor antigenic determinants to four penicillin drugs. The combination sites for the specific IgE antibodies were studied by RAST inhibition test. The rate of positive reactions for the specific IgE antibodies was 59.40% (79/133). Of the eight kinds of antigenic determinants, the positive rates for specific IgE against the major and minor determinants were 39.10% (52) and 42.86% (57) respectively. Of the four drugs, positive cases only to PG were 10 (7.5%), were significantly fewer than the cross-reacting positive cases (36) to PG (P penicillins could induce specific responses with a variable degree of cross-reactivity among the different penicillins. Radioallergosorbent test is a good complementary test in persons who are skin-test negative with PG, and the sensitivity of RAST increases with increasing specificity of IgE antibodies to be detected. 6-APA and the groups, making part of the different side-chains on penicillins, all contributed to the cross-reactivity.

  2. Opisthorchis felineus negatively associates with skin test reactivity in Russia-EuroPrevall-International Cooperation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, O S; Janse, J J; Ogorodova, L M; Fedotova, M M; Achterberg, R A; Verweij, J J; Fernández-Rivas, M; Versteeg, S A; Potts, J; Minelli, C; van Ree, R; Burney, P; Yazdanbakhsh, M

    2017-07-01

    Most studies on the relationship between helminth infections and atopic disorders have been conducted in (sub)tropical developing countries where exposure to multiple parasites and lifestyle can confound the relationship. We aimed to study the relationship between infection with the fish-borne helminth Opishorchis felineus and specific IgE, skin prick testing, and atopic symptoms in Western Siberia, with lifestyle and hygiene standards of a developed country. Schoolchildren aged 7-11 years were sampled from one urban and two rural regions. Skin prick tests (SPT) and specific IgE (sIgE) against food and aeroallergens were measured, and data on allergic symptoms and on demographic and socioeconomic factors were collected by questionnaire. Diagnosis of opisthorchiasis was based on PCR performed on stool samples. Of the 732 children included, 34.9% had opisthorchiasis. The sensitization to any allergen when estimated by positive SPT was 12.8%, while much higher, 24.0%, when measured by sIgE. Atopic symptoms in the past year (flexural eczema and/or rhinoconjunctivitis) were reported in 12.4% of the children. SPT was positively related to flexural eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis, but not to wheezing. Opisthorchiasis showed association with lower SPT response, as well as borderline association with low IgE reactivity to any allergen. However, the effect of opisthorchiasis on SPT response was not mediated by IgE, suggesting that opisthorchiasis influences SPT response through another mechanism. Opisthorchiasis also showed borderline association with lower atopic symptoms. There is a negative association between a chronic helminth infection and skin prick test reactivity even in a developed country. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Risk of redocumenting penicillin allergy in a cohort of patients with negative penicillin skin tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimawi, Ramzy H; Shah, Kaushal B; Cook, Paul P

    2013-11-01

    Even though electronic documentation of allergies is critical to patient safety, inaccuracies in documentation can potentiate serious problems. Prior studies have not evaluated factors associated with redocumenting penicillin allergy in the medical record despite a proven tolerance with a penicillin skin test (PST). Assess the prevalence of reinstating inaccurate allergy information and associated factors thereof. We conducted a retrospective observational study from August 1, 2012 to July 31, 2013 of patients who previously had a negative PST. We reviewed records from the hospital, long-term care facilities (LTCF), and primary doctors' offices. Vidant Health, a system of 10 hospitals in North Carolina. Patients with proven penicillin tolerance rehospitalized within a year period from the PST. We gauged hospital reappearances, penicillin allergy redocumentation, residence, antimicrobial use, and presence of dementia or altered mentation. Of the 150 patients with negative PST, 55 (37%) revisited a Vidant system hospital within a 1-year period, of whom 21 were LTCF residents. Twenty (36%) of the 55 patients had penicillin allergy redocumented without apparent reason. Factors associated with penicillin allergy redocumentation included age >65 years (P = 0.011), LTCF residence (P = 0.0001), acutely altered mentation (P Penicillin allergy was still listed in all 21 (100%) of the LTCF records. At our hospital system, penicillin allergies are often redocumented into the medical record despite proven tolerance. The benefits of PST may be limited by inadequately removing the allergy from different electronic/paper hospital, LTCF, primary physician, and community pharmacy records. © 2013 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  4. Comparison of Tuberculin Skin Test result and interferon gamma response to human PPD in BCG scar positive and negative children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyahfar, Shirin; Karimi, Abdollah; Fahimzad, Alireza; Shamshiri, Ahmad Reza

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study is to compare Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) result and interferon gamma response to human PPD (purified protein derivative), in scar positive and scar negative BCG-vaccinated children. Between August 2007 and May 2008 a total of 236 children aged 1-168 months (mean 21 months) admitted to Mofid Children's Hospital, Tehran, Iran, were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Each patient was examined for BCG vaccine scar and tested with TST and human PPD-based Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA). Two hundred and twenty one cases out of 236 (44% female, 1-168 months, mean age 21 months) were scar positive of whom 95% TST result was negative. Human PPD-based IGRA was positive in 110 (49.8%), negative in 85 (38.4 %) and indeterminate in 26 (11.8%) of scar positive patients. Fifteen children (40% female, 1-156 months; mean age 42 months) were scar negative. All the scar negative cases were TST negative. Human PPD-based IGRA was positive in 10 (66.7%), negative in 4 (26.7%) and indeterminate in 1 (6.7%) of scar negative patients. Immune responsiveness to human PPD antigens in scar positive and negative children may not correspond with results of the Tuberculin Skin Test. Copyright © 2013 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Histoplasma skin test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Histoplasmosis skin test ... health care provider cleans an area of your skin, usually the forearm. An allergen is injected just below the cleaned skin surface. An allergen is a substance that causes ...

  6. Allergy testing - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test; Allergic rhinitis - allergy testing; Asthma - allergy testing; Eczema - allergy testing; Hayfever - allergy testing; Dermatitis - allergy testing; Allergy testing; ...

  7. Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Learn how to evaluate people for latent TB infection with the Mantoux tuberculin skin test. This podcast includes sections on administering and reading the Mantoux tuberculin skin test, the standard method for detecting latent TB infection since the 1930s.

  8. Allergy Skin Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and symptoms. Medications can interfere with results Before scheduling a skin test, bring your doctor a list ... of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Manage Cookies Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization ...

  9. Tuberculin Skin Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Appendix 3 Interim Laboratory Biosafety Guidance for XDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains Data & Statistics ... The Mantoux tuberculin skin test (TST) is the standard method of determining whether a person is infected ...

  10. Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-11-22

    Learn how to evaluate people for latent TB infection with the Mantoux tuberculin skin test. This podcast includes sections on administering and reading the Mantoux tuberculin skin test, the standard method for detecting latent TB infection since the 1930s.  Created: 11/22/2006 by National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 12/12/2006.

  11. Skin graft viability test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahner, H.W.; Robertson, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    With respect to skin pedicles (tubular pedicle or direct flap), an estimation of the blood supply is of great importance in making a decision as to when to perform the separation from the original blood supply. This decision is based on empiric observation of the normal time of healing and varies greatly with the site and the concepts of the individual surgery. A number of methods have been proposed for testing the circulation of pedicle skin flaps or tubes, and these methods all seem more complicated and less accurate than the isotope method that is described in this chapter

  12. Flu Vaccine Skin Patch Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe September 2017 Print this issue Health Capsule Flu Vaccine Skin Patch Tested En español Send us ... Each year, millions of people nationwide catch the flu. The best way to protect yourself is to ...

  13. Patch test study of 90 patients with tattoo reactions: negative outcome of allergy patch test to baseline batteries and culprit inks suggests allergen(s) are generated in the skin through haptenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serup, Jørgen; Hutton Carlsen, Katrina

    2014-11-01

    Tattoo reactions, especially in red tattoos, are often suggested as allergic in nature, however, systematic evaluation by patch testing has not performed in the past. To report the results of patch testing in 90 patients with non-infectious chronic tattoo reactions. From 2009 to 2013 at the 'Tattoo Clinic', Department of Dermatology, Bispebjerg University Hospital, 90 patients were patch tested with batteries of baseline allergens, disperse dyes/textile allergens, and a selection of tattoo ink stock products, which, according to case observations, were problematic, supplemented with individual culprit inks when accessible. Patients with reactions to the tattoo colour red, the most predominant colour associated with skin reactions, showed negative patch test results with common allergens. Outcomes were also negative in patients who had experienced concomitant reactions in another hitherto tolerated tattoo of the same colour as the problematic tattoo. The allergen or allergens responsible for tattoo reactions are not present directly in tattoo ink stock products. This is despite the fact that clinical histories suggest that the vast majority of clinical reactions, especially reactions to red and red nuances, are likely to be allergic events caused by the injected inks. We suggest that the responsible allergen results from a complicated and slow process of haptenization, which may even include photochemical cleavage of red azo pigment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Quiz: Test Your Skin Cancer IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feature: Skin Cancer Quiz: Test Your Skin Cancer IQ Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table of Contents 1. ... Sun – Safety First / Quiz: Test Your Skin Cancer IQ Summer 2013 Issue: Volume 8 Number 2 Page ...

  15. Lepromin skin test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if left untreated. It is caused by Mycobacterium leprae bacteria. This test is a research tool that ... Renault CA, Ernst JD. Mycobacterium leprae (leprosy). In: Bennett ... Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, Updated Edition . ...

  16. Patch Test Negative Generalized Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiker, Alison; Mowad, Christen

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common condition in dermatology. Patch testing is the criterion standard for diagnosis. However, dermatitis is not always caused by an allergen, and patch testing does not identify a culprit in every patient. Generalized dermatitis, defined as eczematous dermatitis affecting greater than 3 body sites, is often encountered in dermatology practice, especially patch test referral centers. Management for patients with generalized dermatitis who are patch test negative is challenging. The purpose of this article is to outline an approach to this challenging scenario and summarize the paucity of existing literature on patch test negative generalized dermatitis.

  17. The skin prick test – European standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinzerling Lucie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Skin prick testing is an essential test procedure to confirm sensitization in IgE-mediated allergic disease in subjects with rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, urticaria, anapylaxis, atopic eczema and food and drug allergy. This manuscript reviews the available evidence including Medline and Embase searches, abstracts of international allergy meetings and position papers from the world allergy literature. The recommended method of prick testing includes the appropriate use of specific allergen extracts, positive and negative controls, interpretation of the tests after 15 – 20 minutes of application, with a positive result defined as a wheal ≥3 mm diameter. A standard prick test panel for Europe for inhalants is proposed and includes hazel (Corylus avellana, alder (Alnus incana, birch (Betula alba, plane (Platanus vulgaris, cypress (Cupressus sempervirens, grass mix (Poa pratensis, Dactilis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense, Festuca pratensis, Helictotrichon pretense, Olive (Olea europaea, mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris, ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Alternaria alternata (tenuis, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Parietaria, cat, dog, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, and cockroach (Blatella germanica. Standardization of the skin test procedures and standard panels for different geographic locations are encouraged worldwide to permit better comparisons for diagnostic, clinical and research purposes.

  18. Improvements in skin-testing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Warner W

    2006-01-01

    Allergy skin testing is the primary modality used in the diagnosis of allergic diseases and guides development of treatment and avoidance plans. The goal of the Allergist is to skin test the appropriate population with a device and technique that minimizes pain while maximizing sensitivity and specificity. The debate involving the use of intradermal versus skin-prick testing in the diagnosis of aeroallergy has been long lasting. Past and present medical literature will be reviewed, establishing the lack of diagnostic use of intradermal testing in the setting of aeroallergy. New skin devices continue to be developed with a trend toward production of multidevices. Performance characteristics of various skin test devices will be reviewed with an emphasis on sensitivity, specificity, and variability of skin-prick testing devices. Significant statistical differences exist between all devices tested and reported in the literature. Whether these statistical differences equate to clinical differences is not known. With this review the practicing allergist should carefully evaluate multiple different devices and choose a device that suits their practice needs. In addition, allergists must ensure that technicians are sufficiently trained on the correct use of their device and should conduct continuing education to ensure that proper skin testing techniques are being used in their practice. Finally, the use of skin testing in pediatrics will be reviewed with a focus on safety. Care should be taken when skin testing infants < or = 6 months of age, especially in the setting of eczema and a family history of atopy.

  19. An in vitro human skin test for assessing sensitization potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S S; Wang, X N; Fielding, M; Kerry, A; Dickinson, I; Munuswamy, R; Kimber, I; Dickinson, A M

    2016-05-01

    Sensitization to chemicals resulting in an allergy is an important health issue. The current gold-standard method for identification and characterization of skin-sensitizing chemicals was the mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA). However, for a number of reasons there has been an increasing imperative to develop alternative approaches to hazard identification that do not require the use of animals. Here we describe a human in-vitro skin explant test for identification of sensitization hazards and the assessment of relative skin sensitizing potency. This method measures histological damage in human skin as a readout of the immune response induced by the test material. Using this approach we have measured responses to 44 chemicals including skin sensitizers, pre/pro-haptens, respiratory sensitizers, non-sensitizing chemicals (including skin-irritants) and previously misclassified compounds. Based on comparisons with the LLNA, the skin explant test gave 95% specificity, 95% sensitivity, 95% concordance with a correlation coefficient of 0.9. The same specificity and sensitivity were achieved for comparison of results with published human sensitization data with a correlation coefficient of 0.91. The test also successfully identified nickel sulphate as a human skin sensitizer, which was misclassified as negative in the LLNA. In addition, sensitizers and non-sensitizers identified as positive or negative by the skin explant test have induced high/low T cell proliferation and IFNγ production, respectively. Collectively, the data suggests the human in-vitro skin explant test could provide the basis for a novel approach for characterization of the sensitizing activity as a first step in the risk assessment process. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Skin prick test in patients with chronic allergic skin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Bains

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic allergic skin disorders are the inflammatory and proliferative conditions in which both genetic and environmental factors play important roles. Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU and atopic dermatitis (AD are among the most common chronic allergic skin disorders. These can be provoked by various food and aeroallergens. Skin prick tests (SPTs represent the cheapest and most effective method to diagnose type I hypersensitivity. Positive skin tests with a history suggestive of clinical sensitivity strongly incriminate the allergen as a contributor to the disease process. Aim s and Objectives: To determine the incidence of positive SPT in patients with chronic allergic skin disorders and to identify the various allergens implicated in positive SPT. Methods: Fifty patients of chronic allergic disorders were recruited in this study. They were evaluated by SPT with both food and aeroallergens. Results: In our study, SPT positivity in patients of CIU was 63.41% and in AD was 77.78%. Out of the 41 patients of CIU, the most common allergen groups showing SPT positivity were dust and pollen, each comprising 26.83% patients. SPT reaction was positive with food items (21.6%, insects (17.07%, fungus (12.20%, and Dermatophagoides farinae, that is, house dust mite (HDM (7.32%. The allergen which showed maximum positivity was grain dust wheat (19.51%. Among nine patients of AD, maximum SPT positivity was seen with Dermatophagoides farinae, pollen Amaranthus spinosus, grain dust wheat, and cotton mill dust; each comprising 22.22% of patients. Conclusion: Our study showed that a significant number of patients of CIU and AD showed sensitivity to dust, pollen, insects, Dermatophagoides farinae, and fungi on SPT. Thus, it is an important tool in the diagnosis of CIU and AD.

  1. A negative bioventing feasibility test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePaoli, D.W.; Greene, D.W.; Herbes, S.E.; Walzel, A.D.

    1994-01-01

    A bioventing feasibility test was conducted at a hydrocarbon fuel spill site at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The soils at this site are generally of low air permeability and are representative of the clayey soils encountered at several Department of Energy sites and throughout the southeastern United States. The tests included an in situ air permeability test and in situ respiration tests at three well where highest soil contamination was measured. The in situ respiration tests showed that there was the potential for significant biodegradation in the soil with adequate oxygenation. The in situ permeability tests indicated that the majority of flow was trough fractures, rather than through the bulk soils. A helium tracer test verified that injected gas flowed directly to the surface through a small number of fractures, with no flow reaching the monitoring wells. These results indicate that oxygen transport to the bulk soils would be severely limited by diffusion, such that bioventing was deemed not feasible for this site. In light of these results, the importance of testing for fracture flow in soils of lower permeability is stressed -- whether the technology is bioventing or conventional soil venting

  2. Distinguishing Entailment and Presupposition Under Negation Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatri Asti Putri Indarti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Distinguishing entailment from presupposition is quite difficult because their semantic relation seems to be similar. Both entailment and presupposition have an automatic relationship based on the context. However, those semantic relations can still be differentiated by using negation test to show whether a pair is entailment or presupposition. This research focuses on sentences and utterances. Thus, this research aims to analyze and test pairs of entailment and pairs of presupposition by using negation in utterances. The data were twelve comic strips from the Internet and they were analysed by using a negation test. The analysis shows that negation test is useful to test entailment and presupposition in the comic strips. It can be concluded that the difficulty of distinguishing pair of entailment and presupposition in the comic strip using negation test has been successfully solved. In this case, negation test is suitable to test entailment and presupposition. This research can be developed further by other researchers to distinguish entailment and presupposition by using another test if the negation test cannot be used to any further extent.   DOI: https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.2015.180104

  3. Natural history of skin prick test reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou Nielsen, Jesper; Meteran, Howraman; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2017-01-01

    population sample of children and adolescents in relation to symptoms of rhinitis. METHODS: A total of 983 individuals, aged 7 to 17 years, were randomly selected in 1986 and invited to 4 examinations during a 20-year period. During each examination, a skin prick test was performed using common local...

  4. Negative HPV screening test predicts low cervical cancer risk better than negative Pap test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on a study that included more than 1 million women, investigators at NCI have determined that a negative test for HPV infection compared to a negative Pap test provides greater safety, or assurance, against future risk of cervical cancer.

  5. Evaluation of sex-related changes in skin topography and structure using innovative skin testing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowska, M; Mielcarek, A; Nowak, I

    2018-04-29

    Evaluation of skin condition on the basis of parametrization and objective measurements of the parameters has become obligatory. The aim of this study was to assess sex-related changes in skin topography and structure using the skin testing equipment. The study was carried out on the group of 40 volunteers (20 females and 20 males) of the mean age 24 ± 3 years. The skin parameters were measured using 3 devices: Visioscan ®  VC 98 (skin topography), Visioline ® VL 650 (skin macro relief) and Ultrascan UC22 (ultrasound imaging of the skin). All measurements were performed on the inner part of the left forearm. The skin parameters measured revealed significant differences in skin surface and structure between females and males. The skin of all women subjects was more homogenous in its structure with the presence of more abundant superficial skin lines and wrinkles in comparison to male skin. The higher number of skin furrows in the skin of women is in agreement with literature reports claiming that men's skin has lower number of wrinkles which are deeper and more pronounced. Ultrasound imaging of the skin indicated greater thickness and lower density of the dermis of men subjects compared to those of females. Non-invasive methods of skin testing using new and advanced equipment have provided a possibility of objective parametrization and evaluation of sex-related changes in skin topography and structure. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Sporotrichin Skin Test for the Diagnosis of Sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Toriello, Conchita; Araiza, Javier; Ramírez-Soto, Max C; Tirado-Sánchez, Andrés

    2018-05-09

    Sporotrichosis is the most common implantation mycosis caused by several species of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. The gold standard for diagnosis is concerned with the isolation of the fungus; although, fresh examinations, staining, and biopsies are also helpful for this purpose. The sporotrichin is an antigenic complex comprised of a peptide-rhamnomannan, which is relevant with respect to pathogenic fungi; it is primarily used for serological and skin testing. We present a study regarding the use of sporotrichin as a diagnostic aid for cutaneous sporotrichosis. Furthermore, 138 cases with suspicion of sporotrichosis were included, 55 of which were proven through cultures. Moreover, out of these 55 cases, 52 (94.5%) tested positive for sporotrichin, while the negative cases corresponded to the disseminated cutaneous forms. We observed a sensitivity of 94.5% and a specificity of 95.2%. We consider that the use of sporotrichin as a skin test helps us as an auxiliary diagnosis before a positive sample culture.

  7. Penicillin skin testing is a safe and effective tool for evaluating penicillin allergy in the pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Stephanie J; Park, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    Penicillin skin testing has been validated in the evaluation of adult patients with penicillin allergy. However, the commercially available benzylpenicilloyl polylysine (Pre-Pen) is not indicated in the pediatric population. Moreover, the safety and validity of penicillin skin testing in the pediatric population has not been well studied. We describe the safety and validity of penicillin skin testing in the evaluation of children with a history of penicillin allergy. Children (penicillin allergy were evaluated with penicillin skin tests and were reviewed for basic demographics, penicillin skin test results, adverse drug reaction to penicillin after penicillin skin test, and adverse reaction to penicillin skin test. By using the χ(2) test, we compared the differences in the proportion of children and adults with a positive penicillin skin test. P value (penicillin skin testing; 703 of 778 patients had a negative penicillin skin test (90.4%), 66 had a positive test (8.5%), and 9 had an equivocal test (1.1%). Children were more likely to have a positive penicillin skin test (P penicillin skin test (52%) were challenged with penicillin, and 14 of 369 patients (3.8%) had an adverse drug reaction. No adverse reactions to penicillin skin testing were observed. Penicillin skin testing was safe and effective in the evaluation of children with a history of penicillin allergy. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Tuberculosis skin testing, anergy and protein malnutrition in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelly, T F; Santillan, C F; Gilman, R H; Cabrera, L Z; Garcia, E; Vidal, C; Zimic, M J; Moore, D A J; Evans, C A

    2005-09-01

    Malnutrition and intestinal parasites cause immunosuppression. This may cause false-negative tuberculin skin tests (TST) and failure to identify tuberculosis (TB) infection. To assess factors associated with TST positivity and anergy in disadvantaged communities in Peru. A study of 212 randomly selected adults: 102 in a rural Amazonian village and 110 shanty town residents in urban Lima. Respectively 52% and 53% of urban and rural jungle populations were TST-positive. Using simultaneous tetanus and candida skin tests, 99% had at least one positive skin test. Generalised anergy was therefore rare, despite frequent intestinal parasitic infection, including 34% helminth infection prevalence in the jungle. TST positivity was associated with age (P = 0.001), known TB contact (P = 0.02) and poor household ventilation (P = 0.007). TST positivity was not significantly associated with crowding, reported past TB, single/multiple BCG vaccination, income, intestinal parasites, dietary factors, body mass index or body fat. Individuals with lower anthropometric body protein, as measured by corrected arm muscle area, were less likely to be TST-positive (P = 0.02), implying that protein malnutrition caused tuberculin-specific anergy. These results identify the importance of household ventilation for community TB transmission and add to the evidence that protein malnutrition suppresses TB immunity, causing false-negative TST results.

  9. Penicillin skin testing in the evaluation and management of penicillin allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Stephanie; Park, Miguel A

    2011-01-01

    to review the role of penicillin skin testing in the evaluation and management of penicillin allergy mediated by IgE. PubMed and OVID search of English-language articles regarding penicillin allergy, penicillin allergy testing, and management of penicillin allergy. articles pertinent to the subject matter were selected and reviewed. the major determinant (benzylpenicillin polylysine) detects the greatest number of penicillin allergic patients during skin testing, and the minor determinants of penicillin increase the sensitivity of penicillin skin testing. Penicillin skin testing to the major and minor determinants was found to have a negative predictive value of 97% to 99%. The incidence of systemic adverse reaction to penicillin skin testing is less than 1%. a detailed history of the prior reaction to penicillin is an integral part of the evaluation, but it is not accurate in predicting a positive penicillin skin test result. A patient with a negative penicillin skin test result to the major and minor determinants is at a low risk of an immediate-type hypersensitivity reaction to penicillin. Patients with a positive skin test result should undergo desensitization to penicillin or an alternative antibiotic should be considered.

  10. Skin invasion and prognosis in node negative breast cancer: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horii Rie

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of skin invasion in node negative breast cancer is uncertain. Methods We determined the prognosis in 97 node negative breast cancer patients (case group who had tumors with skin invasion. Then we compared these patients with 4500 node negative invasive breast cancer patients treated surgically in the same period. Results Patients with skin invasion tended to be older, had more invasive lobular carcinoma and larger tumor size, and were less likely to have breast conserving surgery than those in the control group. The 5-year disease-free survival rate in the case group was 94.0%. There was no significant difference in the 10-year disease-specific overall survival rates in terms of skin invasion in node negative patients (90.7% in the case group, 92.9% in the control group; p = 0.2032. Conclusion Results suggest that skin invasion has no impact on survival in node negative invasive breast cancer patients. The adjuvant regimens which the individual institute applies for node negative breast cancer should be used regardless of skin invasion.

  11. An Alternative Treatment Strategy for Complicated Chronic Wounds: Negative Pressure Therapy over Mesh Skin Graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Maruccia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive skin defect represents a real problem and major challenge in plastic and reconstructive surgery. On one hand, skin grafts offer a practical method to deal with skin defects despite their unsuitability for several complicated wounds. On the other hand, negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT, applied before skin grafting, promotes granulation tissue growth. The aim of the study is to evaluate the improvement in wound healing given by the merger of these two different approaches. We treated 23 patients for large wounds of multiple factors. Of these, 15 were treated with the application of V.A.C.® Therapy (KCI Medical S.r.l., Milan, Italy, in combination with skin grafts after a prior unsuccessful treatment of 4 weeks with mesh skin grafts and dressings. Another 8 were treated with only mesh skin graft. Pain reduction and wound area reduction were found statistically significant (p<0.0009, p<0.0001. Infection was resolved in almost all patients. According to our study, the use of the negative pressure wound therapy over mesh skin grafts is significantly effective especially in wounds resistant to conventional therapies, thereby improving the rate of skin graft take.

  12. Papain-induced asthma: diagnosis by skin test, RAST and bronchial provocation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, X.; Fruhmann, G.

    1979-01-01

    Seven out of eleven workers occupationally exposed to airborne papain developed immediate hypersensitive reactions, predominantly asthma and rhinitis. Skin tests and RAST with papain were positive in all symptomatic workers, but not in the four asymptomatic workers. Furthermore, out of forty non-exposed asthmatics, thirty-eight had negative RAST results and all had negative skin test results. Bronchial provocation tests with 0.15-0.5 mg papain performed in five patients with a positive case history showed in each case an immediate asthmatic reaction; in addition to that, one patient developed signs of a dual asthmatic reaction. These results suggest that airborne papain is a highly immunogenic agent in humans, which induces type I allergic reactions in a large percentage of the exposed subjects. (author)

  13. [Allergens used in skin tests in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larenas Linnemann, Désirée; Arias Cruz, Alfredo; Guidos Fogelbach, Guillermo Arturo; Cid del Prado, Mari Lou

    2009-01-01

    Immunotherapy is the only recognized causal treatment for allergies. It is prepared on an individual basis, based on the patient's clinical history and the result of the skin prick test (SPT). An adequate composition of the allergens with which to test the patient is crucial for an optimal diagnosis. To know allergens used in tests in allergy practices in Mexico. A national survey among all members of the Colegio Mexicano de Inmunología Clínica y Alergia (CMICA) and of the Colegio Mexicano de Pediatras Especialistas en Inmunología Clínica y Alergia (COMPEDIA) was carried out. In a second phase respondents were asked to send in the composition of a routine SPT in their clinic. The results are presented descriptively and the frequency is calculated by which certain allergen is tested in the interviewed practices. A survey response rate of 61 (17%) was obtained and 54% showed their SPT content. Weeds' representation in the SPT seems adequate; Atriplex is tested in all allergy practices. Some trees that show cross-reactivity might be eliminated from the SPT, but 20% doesn't test for Cynodon nor Holcus, and 25% doesn't for important allergens as cat, dog and cockroach. House dust and tobacco are still tested with certain frequency. The selection of which allergens to test in a SPT is based on multiple data, that change continuously with new investigations and discoveries. Our specialty is the most indicated--and obligated--to adjust constantly to these changes to have the best diagnostic tool to detect specific allergies.

  14. Tuberculin skin testing: Spectrum of adverse reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Ramar; Bahuguna, Amit; Dhadwal, Bhumesh Singh

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculin skin testing (TST) is one of the primary diagnostic modalities recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) study conducted in the United Kingdom (UK) for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB). Even after acceptance as a diagnostic modality and stern standardization, TST has its own flaws that include a spectrum of adverse reactions. We report a series of cases with a spectrum of adverse reactions occurring with a higher frequency than present in the available evidence. The study has some demerits such as being a retrospective one with interobserver variation and lack of histopathological confirmation. The observation is presented to accentuate the fact that adverse reactions are not a rarity and that further studies are required to establish the cause and exact incidence of the same.

  15. Using negative pressure therapy for improving skin graft taking on genital area defects following Fournier gangrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Erkan; Şenen, Dilek

    2017-09-01

    Fournier's gangrene is an infective necrotizing fasciitis of the perineal, genital and perianal regions. Treatment includes aggressive surgical debridement that often results in extensive loss of genital skin. Skin grafts may be used for reconstruction but skin grafting of the male genitalia is diffucult because the penis and scrotum are mobile and deformable. A variety of methods are used to secure skin graft to recipient beds. We used negative pressure therapy (NPT) to secure skin grafts and improve skin graft taking. We used negative pressure therapy for graft fixation in 13 male patients who underwent debridements with the indication of Fournier gangrene, and whose defects formed were reconstructed with grafts between January 2009, and January 2014. Information about age of the patients, sessions of negative pressure therapy applied before, and after reconstruction, duration of hospital stay, and graft losses during postoperative period were recorded. Median age of the patients was 56.15 (46-72) years. NPT was applied to patients for an average of 6.64 sessions (4-12) before and 1 sessions after graft reconstruction. Patients were hospitalized for an average of 26.7 (20-39) days. Any graft loss was not seen after NPT. Because of the peculiar anatomy of the genital region, anchoring of grafts is difficult so graft losses are often encountered. Use of NPT for ensuring graft fixation on the genital region prevents skin graft shearing.

  16. Immediate hypersensitivity to iodinated contrast media: diagnostic accuracy of skin tests and intravenous provocation test with low dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesé, L; Gaouar, H; Autegarden, J-E; Alari, A; Amsler, E; Vial-Dupuy, A; Pecquet, C; Francès, C; Soria, A

    2016-03-01

    The diagnosis of HSR to iodinated contrast media (ICM) is challenging based on clinical history and skin tests. This study evaluates the negative predictive value (NPV) of skin tests and intravenous provocation test (IPT) with low-dose ICM in patients with suspected immediate hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) to ICM. Thirty-seven patients with suspected immediate hypersensitivity reaction to ICM were included retrospectively. Skin tests and a single-blind placebo-controlled intravenous provocation test (IPT) with low-dose iodinated contrast media (ICM) were performed. Skin tests with ICM were positive in five cases (one skin prick test and five intradermal test). Thirty-six patients were challenged successfully by IPT, and only one patient had a positive challenge result, with a grade I reaction by the Ring and Messmer classification. Ten of 23 patients followed up by telephone were re-exposed to a negative tested ICM during radiologic examination; two experienced a grade I immediate reaction. For immediate hypersensitivity reaction to ICM, the NPV for skin tests and IPT with low dose was 80% (95% CI 44-97%). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Alternative methods for skin irritation testing: the current status : ECVAM skin irritation task force report 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botham, P.A.; Earl, L.K.; Fentem, J.H.; Roguet, R.; Sandt, J.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The ECVAM Skin Irritation Task Force was established in November 1996, primarily to prepare a report on the current status of the development and validation of alternative tests for skin irritation and corrosion and, in particular, to identify any appropriate non-animal tests for predicting human

  18. Sporotrichin Skin Test for the Diagnosis of Sporotrichosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandro Bonifaz

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Sporotrichosis is the most common implantation mycosis caused by several species of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. The gold standard for diagnosis is concerned with the isolation of the fungus; although, fresh examinations, staining, and biopsies are also helpful for this purpose. The sporotrichin is an antigenic complex comprised of a peptide-rhamnomannan, which is relevant with respect to pathogenic fungi; it is primarily used for serological and skin testing. We present a study regarding the use of sporotrichin as a diagnostic aid for cutaneous sporotrichosis. Furthermore, 138 cases with suspicion of sporotrichosis were included, 55 of which were proven through cultures. Moreover, out of these 55 cases, 52 (94.5% tested positive for sporotrichin, while the negative cases corresponded to the disseminated cutaneous forms. We observed a sensitivity of 94.5% and a specificity of 95.2%. We consider that the use of sporotrichin as a skin test helps us as an auxiliary diagnosis before a positive sample culture.

  19. Evaluation of skin test reactivity to environmental allergens in healthy cats and cats with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleifer, Sebastian G; Willemse, Ton

    2003-06-01

    To evaluate skin test reactivity to environmental allergens in healthy cats and in cats with atopic dermatitis (AD). 10 healthy cats and 10 cats with AD. 10 allergens in serial dilutions were injected ID on the lateral aspect of the thorax of sedated cats. Histamine (0.01% solution) and buffer solutions were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Immediately after the last injection, 10% fluorescein solution was administered IV. Skin test results were evaluated with ultraviolet light after 15 to 30 minutes and at 4 and 6 hours by 2 independent observers. In the control group, skin tests were repeated after 6 weeks. Skin test reactivity and the nature of the immunoglobulin involved were investigated by use of the Prausnitz-Küstner test with untreated and heat-treated cat sera. Intertest and interobserver agreement were high when measurement of the diameter of the fluorescent wheal was used to evaluate skin test responses, compared with assessment of its intensity. In both groups of cats, immediate skin test reactivity was observed as an IgE-mediated reaction, as an IgG-mediated reaction, and as a result of nonspecific mast cell degranulation. There was no correlation between allergen concentration and the type of reaction observed. Skin test reactivity in cats should be evaluated after IV administration of 10% fluorescein solution by means of a Prausnitz-Küstner test to differentiate among IgE-mediated, IgG-mediated, and nonspecific reactions.

  20. Composite flexible skin with large negative Poisson’s ratio range: numerical and experimental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. J.; Scarpa, F.; Farrow, I. R.; Liu, Y. J.; Leng, J. S.

    2013-04-01

    This paper describes the manufacturing, characterization and parametric modeling of a novel fiber-reinforced composite flexible skin with in-plane negative Poisson’s ratio (auxetic) behavior. The elastic mechanical performance of the auxetic skin is evaluated using a three-dimensional analytical model based on the classical laminate theory (CLT) and Sun’s thick laminate theory. Good agreement is observed between in-plane Poisson’s ratios and Young’s moduli of the composite skin obtained by the theoretical model and the experimental results. A parametric analysis carried out with the validated model shows that significant changes in the in-plane negative Poisson’s ratio can be achieved through different combinations of matrix and fiber materials and stacking sequences. It is also possible to identify fiber-reinforced composite skin configurations with the same in-plane auxeticity but different orthotropic stiffness performance, or the same orthotropic stiffness performance but different in-plane auxeticity. The analysis presented in this work provides useful guidelines to develop and manufacture flexible skins with negative Poisson’s ratio for applications focused on morphing aircraft wing designs.

  1. Composite flexible skin with large negative Poisson’s ratio range: numerical and experimental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y J; Leng, J S; Scarpa, F; Farrow, I R; Liu, Y J

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the manufacturing, characterization and parametric modeling of a novel fiber-reinforced composite flexible skin with in-plane negative Poisson’s ratio (auxetic) behavior. The elastic mechanical performance of the auxetic skin is evaluated using a three-dimensional analytical model based on the classical laminate theory (CLT) and Sun’s thick laminate theory. Good agreement is observed between in-plane Poisson’s ratios and Young’s moduli of the composite skin obtained by the theoretical model and the experimental results. A parametric analysis carried out with the validated model shows that significant changes in the in-plane negative Poisson’s ratio can be achieved through different combinations of matrix and fiber materials and stacking sequences. It is also possible to identify fiber-reinforced composite skin configurations with the same in-plane auxeticity but different orthotropic stiffness performance, or the same orthotropic stiffness performance but different in-plane auxeticity. The analysis presented in this work provides useful guidelines to develop and manufacture flexible skins with negative Poisson’s ratio for applications focused on morphing aircraft wing designs. (paper)

  2. Utility of minor determinants for skin testing in inpatient penicillin allergy evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Bob; Eastman, Jacqueline J; Mori, Karen; Braskett, Melinda; Riedl, Marc A

    2017-09-01

    Most patients with a history of penicillin allergy can tolerate penicillin. Skin testing can identify tolerant patients, but not all known allergenic determinants are commercially available. Protocols exist that use only available reagents, but the sensitivity and safety of these protocols, particularly for hospitalized patients, are controversial. To determine the number of hospitalized patients referred for penicillin skin testing who showed unique positivity to the minor determinants penicilloate and penilloate. A retrospective chart review was conducted of all inpatients who underwent penicillin skin testing at 1 institution. Patients were referred by their treating physician. All patients underwent skin prick testing to benzylpenicilloyl polylysine (major determinant), penicillin G, penicilloate, penilloate (minor determinants), amoxicillin, and positive and negative controls. If the result was negative, then intradermal testing was done with the same penicillin determinants and the negative control. A 4-mm wheal with flare was considered a positive reaction. Inpatient penicillin skin testing was done in 528 subjects. Any positive test reaction was found in 107 subjects (20%). Three subjects (3%) reacted to penilloate only, 25 (23%) reacted to penicilloate only, 2 (2%) reacted to penicillin G only, and 8 (8%) reacted to amoxicillin only. Sixty-eight subjects (64%) reacted to a compound other than the major determinant. This study found a high rate of exclusively positive skin test reactions to the minor determinants penicilloate and penilloate. Because patients with positive test reactions are at increased risk of reaction to drug challenge, these data support the use of these reagents for penicillin skin testing in hospitalized patients. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Surprisingly high specificity of the PPD skin test for M. tuberculosis infection from recent exposure in The Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Philip C; Brookes, Roger H; Fox, Annette; Jackson-Sillah, Dolly; Lugos, Moses D; Jeffries, David J; Donkor, Simon A; Adegbola, Richard A; McAdam, Keith P W J

    2006-12-20

    Options for intervention against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection are limited by the diagnostic tools available. The Purified Protein Derivative (PPD) skin test is thought to be non-specific, especially in tropical settings. We compared the PPD skin test with an ELISPOT test in The Gambia. Household contacts over six months of age of sputum smear positive TB cases and community controls were recruited. They underwent a PPD skin test and an ELISPOT test for the T cell response to PPD and ESAT-6/CFP10 antigens. Responsiveness to M. tuberculosis exposure was analysed according to sleeping proximity to an index case using logistic regression. 615 household contacts and 105 community controls were recruited. All three tests assessed increased significantly in positivity with increasing M. tuberculosis exposure, the PPD skin test most dramatically (OR 15.7; 95% CI 6.6-35.3). While the PPD skin test positivity continued to trend downwards in the community with increasing distance from a known case (61.9% to 14.3%), the PPD and ESAT-6/CFP-10 ELISPOT positivity did not. The PPD skin test was more in agreement with ESAT-6/CFP-10 ELISPOT (75%, p = 0.01) than the PPD ELISPOT (53%, pPPD skin test positive increased (pPPD skin test negative decreased (pPPD skin test has surprisingly high specificity for M. tuberculosis infection from recent exposure in The Gambia. In this setting, anti-tuberculous prophylaxis in PPD skin test positive individuals should be revisited.

  4. Elective penicillin skin testing in a pediatric outpatient setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Barbara Capes; Wedner, H James; Bloomberg, Gordon R

    2006-12-01

    Adverse reactions associated with penicillin-type antibiotics are common in pediatric practice, leading to the subsequent unnecessary use of alternative antibiotics. IgE-mediated penicillin allergy represents only a fraction of these adverse reactions. To examine (1) the trend of penicillin skin test reactivity during a recent 10-year interval, (2) the relative distribution of specific reagents related to a positive skin test result, and (3) skin test reactivity as a function of reaction history. Penicillin testing using 3 reagents--benzylpenicilloyl polylysine, penicillin G, and sodium penicilloate (penicillin A)--was conducted in a prospective study of 359 consecutive patients referred to an outpatient pediatric allergy clinic between January 1, 1993, and May 31, 2003. We also retrospectively reviewed penicillin skin test results for 562 children previously tested between January 1, 1979, and December 31, 1992. Between 1993 and 2003, the prevalence of penicillin skin test sensitivity markedly declined. Of all the positive skin test results between 1979 and 2002, either penicillin G or sodium penicilloate or both identified 34%, with sodium penicilloate alone responsible for 8.5%. The rate of positive skin test reactions was not significantly different between patients with vs without a history of suggestive IgE-mediated reactions. A marked decline in penicillin skin test sensitivity in the pediatric age group is identified. The minor determinant reagents penicillin G and sodium penicilloate are both necessary for determining potential penicillin allergy. Relating history alone to potential penicillin sensitivity is unreliable in predicting the presence or absence of a positive skin test result.

  5. A SKIN TEST FOR DETECTING GROUP C HEMOLYTIC STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTION CAUSING EPIZOOTIC LYMPHADENITIS IN GUINEA PIGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Johannes K.

    1936-01-01

    1. A skin test with a crude bacterial extract prepared from group C (Lancefield) hemolytic streptococci was used as a means of detecting possible carriers of the streptococcus causing epizootic lymphadenitis in guinea pigs. A positive test similar to a positive tuberculin reaction was considered presumptive evidence of present or recent infection with this streptococcus. 2. 20 positive reactors were found in 330 supposedly normal guinea pigs. 3. 195 negatively reacting animals were used as a breeding stock which yielded 1,296 progeny over a period of 15 months. None of the breeding stock or their progeny showed evidence of spontaneous lymphadenitis. Skin tests of 100 of the progeny were all negative. 4. The use of this skin test as a means of obtaining guinea pig breeding stock free of the streptococcus causing spontaneous lymphadenitis is suggested. PMID:19870552

  6. Using ELISPOT to expose false positive skin test conversion in tuberculosis contacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip C Hill

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Repeat tuberculin skin tests may be false positive due to boosting of waned immunity to past mycobacterial exposure. We evaluated whether an ELISPOT test could identify tuberculosis (TB contacts with boosting of immunity to non-tuberculous mycobacterial exposure.We conducted tuberculin and ELISPOT tests in 1665 TB contacts: 799 were tuberculin test negative and were offered a repeat test after three months. Those with tuberculin test conversion had an ELISPOT, chest X-ray and sputum analysis if appropriate. We compared converters with non-converters, assessed the probability of each of four combinations of ELISPOT results over the two time points and estimated boosting with adjustment for ELISPOT sensitivity and specificity. 704 (72% contacts had a repeat tuberculin test; 176 (25% had test conversion, which increased with exposure to a case (p = 0.002, increasing age (p = 0.0006 and BCG scar (p = 0.06. 114 tuberculin test converters had ELISPOT results: 16(14% were recruitment positive/follow-up positive, 9 (8% positive/negative, 34 (30% negative/positive, and 55 (48% were negative/negative. There was a significant non-linear effect of age for ELISPOT results in skin test converters (p = 0.038. Estimates of boosting ranged from 32%-41% of skin test converters with increasing age. Three converters were diagnosed with TB, two had ELISPOT results: both were positive, including one at recruitment.We estimate that approximately one third of tuberculin skin test conversion in Gambian TB case contacts is due to boosting of immunity to non-tuberculous mycobacterial exposure. Further longitudinal studies are required to confirm whether ELISPOT can reliably identify case contacts with tuberculin test conversion that would benefit most from prophylactic treatment.

  7. Skin test of radiosensitivity. Application to Fanconi anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutreix, J.; Gluckman, E.

    1983-01-01

    A test of skin radiosensitivity is described. It is achieved by irradiating small skin fields (15 mm in diameter) with 50 kV X-rays. The radiosensitivity is evaluated from the skin reaction observed for a single acute dose of 8 and 10 Gy; it is considered increased if the reaction for 10 Gy exceeds the desquamation threshold, and scored according to the observed reaction. The test includes an evaluation of the cellular repair, assessed on the comparison of the reactions for single dose and split irradiation. The time of the reaction peak is also reported. Abnormal reactions have been observed on 4 out of 8 patients with Fanconi Anemia

  8. Skin test of radiosensitivity. Application to Fanconi anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutreix, J. (Institut Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France)); Gluckman, E. (Centre Hayem, Hopital St.-Louis, 75 Paris (France))

    1983-01-01

    A test of skin radiosensitivity is described. It is achieved by irradiating small skin fields (15 mm in diameter) with 50 kV X-rays. The radiosensitivity is evaluated from the skin reaction observed for a single acute dose of 8 and 10 Gy; it is considered increased if the reaction for 10 Gy exceeds the desquamation threshold, and scored according to the observed reaction. The test includes an evaluation of the cellular repair, assessed on the comparison of the reactions for single dose and split irradiation. The time of the reaction peak is also reported. Abnormal reactions have been observed on 4 out of 8 patients with Fanconi Anemia.

  9. Extraction and detection of Mycobacterium leprae DNA from ZNCF-stained skin smear slides for better identification of negative skin smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamble R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Identification of Mycobacterium leprae, which causes leprosy, is done by Ziehl Neelsen Carbol Fuchsin (ZNCF stained slit skin smear microscopy that aids in the diagnosis and quantification of approximate bacterial load carried by the patient. We attempted M. leprae DNA extraction from 46 stained slit skin smear negative slides, using Proteinase K and SDS lysis, followed by ethanol precipitation. M. leprae specific primers (16SrRNA were used for PCR-based amplification of DNA. We could detect M. leprae DNA in 15 (32.6% samples. The method can be useful in the diagnosis of apparently slit skin smear negative leprosy cases.

  10. Minimizing the Negative Flavor Attributes and Evaluating Consumer Acceptance of Chocolate Fortified with Peanut Skin Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, L L; Klevorn, C M; Hess, B J

    2016-10-13

    In recent years, there has been increased interest in antioxidant-rich products by consumers wanting to enhance the health benefits of their diet. Chocolate has been identified as a natural source of antioxidant compounds, which resulted in the development of polyphenol-enriched chocolate products that are now available commercially. This study investigated the use of phenolic compounds extracted from peanut skins as a novel antioxidant source for the enrichment of milk chocolate. The extracts were encapsulated with maltodextrin to lessen their bitterness. Antioxidant potential of the encapsulated peanut skin extracts was evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazl radical quenching assay. Encapsulated peanut skins were found to have a corrected Trolox equivalency of 31.1 μmol/g of chocolate up to 0.8% (w/w). To produce a product with an antioxidant content similar to that of dark chocolate yet which maintained the milder flavor of milk chocolate, the best estimate threshold of encapsulated peanut skin extract in chocolate was 0.9 % (w/w) based on the standard method (American Society of Testing Materials; ASTM E-679). Consumer liking of milk chocolate enhanced by adding subthreshold (0.8 % (w/w)) inclusion levels of encapsulated peanut skin extract was found to be at parity with milk chocolate as a control. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. Nickel deposited on the skin-visualization by DMG test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julander, Anneli; Skare, Lizbet; Vahter, Marie; Lidén, Carola

    2011-03-01

    Nickel is the most common cause of contact allergy and an important risk factor for hand eczema. Visualization techniques may be powerful in showing exposures. The dimethylglyoxime (DMG) test might be used to establish skin exposure to nickel. To develop and evaluate methods for visualization of nickel on the skin by the DMG test and hand imprints. Nickel solutions at different concentrations were applied in duplicate on the hands in healthy subjects (n = 5). The DMG test and acid wipe sampling for quantification were then performed. Hand imprints were taken after manipulation of nickel-releasing tools (n = 1), and in workers performing their normal tasks (n = 7). The imprints were developed by the DMG test. The DMG test on hands gave positive results in all subjects. The lowest concentration giving rise to a colour change was set to 0.13 µg/cm(2) for DMG testing on skin. DMG test-developed imprints worked well except when hands were heavily contaminated by other particles/dust. The DMG test may be used as a simple and powerful tool for visualization of nickel on skin. DMG test-developed hand imprints may, in the future, be used for semi-quantitative or quantitative exposure assessment. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. [Hypersensitivity to platinum salts and taxanes: The value of skin tests and tolerance induction procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brault, F; Waton, J; Poreaux, C; Schmutz, J-L; Barbaud, A

    2017-11-01

    The rate of hypersensitivity reactions to platinum salts (PS) and taxanes (TX) is on the increase. The aim of our study was to show the value of skin testing and efficacy of rapid drug desensitization. This was a retrospective study conducted between January 2007 and February 2016 in patients consulting for immediate or delayed hypersensitivity to PS and TX. Skin prick tests (pT) and intradermal reaction tests (IDR) were performed according to the ENDA/EAACI recommendations. We used a 12-step desensitization protocol for rapid drug desensitization. Among the 99 patients included (30 men, 69 women, age 60.4) PS were suspected in 86 cases and taxanes in 13 cases. Skin tests were positive in 25 patients (7 pT, 18 IDR), 23 for platinum salts and 2 for taxanes. Rapid drug desensitization was proposed in 50 patients and performed in 33 (30 PS and 3 TX), proved effective in 29 patients, with protocol adaptation being necessary in 7 cases, and was ineffective in 4 patients. The skin tests for the latter 4 patients were positive. Seventy-five percent of patients with positive skin tests to oxaliplatin presented hypersensitivity reactions during desensitization, i.e. twice as many as patients having negative skin tests. Two percent of patient for PS and 7% for TX had cross reactivity. This French study confirms the efficacy of the 12-step protocol that allows patients to receive chemotherapy after hypersensitivity reaction. Skin test permits the detection of cross-reactions but their practice must be considered based on the patient's history. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Skin graft fixation in severe burns: use of topical negative pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamolz, L P; Lumenta, D B; Parvizi, D; Wiedner, M; Justich, I; Keck, M; Pfurtscheller, K; Schintler, M

    2014-09-30

    Over the last 50 years, the evolution of burn care has led to a significant decrease in mortality. The biggest impact on survival has been the change in the approach to burn surgery. Early excision and grafting has become a standard of care for the majority of patients with deep burns; the survival of a given patient suffering from major burns is invariably linked to the take rate and survival of skin grafts. The application of topical negative pressure (TNP) therapy devices has demonstrated improved graft take in comparison to conventional dressing methods alone. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of TNP therapy on skin graft fixation in large burns. In all patients, we applied TNP dressings covering a %TBSA of >25. The following parameters were recorded and documented using BurnCase 3D: age, gender, %TBSA, burn depth, hospital length-of-stay, Baux score, survival, as well as duration and incidence of TNP dressings. After a burn depth adapted wound debridement, coverage was simultaneously performed using split-thickness skin grafts, which were fixed with staples and covered with fatty gauzes and TNP foam. The TNP foam was again fixed with staples to prevent displacement and finally covered with the supplied transparent adhesive film. A continuous subatmospheric pressure between 75-120 mm Hg was applied (VAC®, KCI, Vienna, Austria). The first dressing change was performed on day 4. Thirty-six out of 37 patients, suffering from full thickness burns, were discharged with complete wound closure; only one patient succumbed to their injuries. The overall skin graft take rate was over 95%. In conclusion, we consider that split thickness skin graft fixation by TNP is an efficient method in major burns, notably in areas with irregular wound surfaces or subject to movement (e.g. joint proximity), and is worth considering for the treatment of aged patients.

  14. A negative ion source test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melanson, S.; Dehnel, M., E-mail: morgan@d-pace.com; Potkins, D.; Theroux, J.; Hollinger, C.; Martin, J.; Stewart, T.; Jackle, P.; Withington, S. [D-Pace, Inc., P.O. Box 201, Nelson, British Columbia V1L 5P9 (Canada); Philpott, C.; Williams, P.; Brown, S.; Jones, T.; Coad, B. [Buckley Systems Ltd., 6 Bowden Road, Mount Wellington, Auckland 1060 (New Zealand)

    2016-02-15

    Progress is being made in the development of an Ion Source Test Facility (ISTF) by D-Pace Inc. in collaboration with Buckley Systems Ltd. in Auckland, NZ. The first phase of the ISTF is to be commissioned in October 2015 with the second phase being commissioned in March 2016. The facility will primarily be used for the development and the commercialization of ion sources. It will also be used to characterize and further develop various D-Pace Inc. beam diagnostic devices.

  15. The use of ex vivo human skin tissue for genotoxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reus, Astrid A.; Usta, Mustafa; Krul, Cyrille A.M.

    2012-01-01

    As a result of the chemical legislation concerning the registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction of chemicals (REACH), and the Seventh Amendment to the Cosmetics Directive, which prohibits animal testing in Europe for cosmetics, alternative methods for safety evaluation of chemicals are urgently needed. Current in vitro genotoxicity assays are not sufficiently predictive for the in vivo situation, resulting in an unacceptably high number of misleading positives. For many chemicals and ingredients of personal care products the skin is the first site of contact, but there are no in vitro genotoxicity assays available in the skin for additional evaluation of positive or equivocal responses observed in regulatory in vitro genotoxicity assays. In the present study ex vivo human skin tissue obtained from surgery was used for genotoxicity evaluation of chemicals by using the comet assay. Fresh ex vivo human skin tissue was cultured in an air–liquid interface and topically exposed to 20 chemicals, including true positive, misleading positive and true negative genotoxins. Based on the results obtained in the present study, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the ex vivo skin comet assay to predict in vivo genotoxicity were 89%, 90% and 89%, respectively. Donor and experimental variability were mainly reflected in the magnitude of the response and not the difference between the presence and absence of a genotoxic response. The present study indicates that human skin obtained from surgery is a promising and robust model for safety evaluation of chemicals that are in direct contact with the skin. -- Highlights: ► We use human skin obtained from surgery for genotoxicity evaluation of chemicals. ► We use the comet assay as parameter for genotoxicity in ex vivo human skin. ► Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy to predict in vivo genotoxins are determined. ► Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy are 89%, 90% and 90%, respectively. ► The method

  16. The use of ex vivo human skin tissue for genotoxicity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reus, Astrid A.; Usta, Mustafa [TNO Triskelion BV, Utrechtseweg 48, 3704 HE, Zeist (Netherlands); Krul, Cyrille A.M., E-mail: cyrille.krul@tno.nl [TNO, Utrechtseweg 48, 3704 HE Zeist (Netherlands)

    2012-06-01

    As a result of the chemical legislation concerning the registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction of chemicals (REACH), and the Seventh Amendment to the Cosmetics Directive, which prohibits animal testing in Europe for cosmetics, alternative methods for safety evaluation of chemicals are urgently needed. Current in vitro genotoxicity assays are not sufficiently predictive for the in vivo situation, resulting in an unacceptably high number of misleading positives. For many chemicals and ingredients of personal care products the skin is the first site of contact, but there are no in vitro genotoxicity assays available in the skin for additional evaluation of positive or equivocal responses observed in regulatory in vitro genotoxicity assays. In the present study ex vivo human skin tissue obtained from surgery was used for genotoxicity evaluation of chemicals by using the comet assay. Fresh ex vivo human skin tissue was cultured in an air–liquid interface and topically exposed to 20 chemicals, including true positive, misleading positive and true negative genotoxins. Based on the results obtained in the present study, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the ex vivo skin comet assay to predict in vivo genotoxicity were 89%, 90% and 89%, respectively. Donor and experimental variability were mainly reflected in the magnitude of the response and not the difference between the presence and absence of a genotoxic response. The present study indicates that human skin obtained from surgery is a promising and robust model for safety evaluation of chemicals that are in direct contact with the skin. -- Highlights: ► We use human skin obtained from surgery for genotoxicity evaluation of chemicals. ► We use the comet assay as parameter for genotoxicity in ex vivo human skin. ► Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy to predict in vivo genotoxins are determined. ► Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy are 89%, 90% and 90%, respectively. ► The method

  17. Merkel cell tumor of the skin treated with localized radiotherapy: are widely negative margins required?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Parda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Merkel’s cell carcinoma is a rare cutaneous tumor that can affect a wide variety of sites throughout the body. Commonly, it affects the skin alone and the management of limited disease can be confusing since the natural history of the disease involves distant metastasis. Traditional management has required wide local excision with negative margins of resection. We describe a case treated with local therapy alone and review the literature to suggest that complete microscopic excision may not be required if adjuvant radiotherapy is used.

  18. Reliability of skin testing as a measure of nutritional state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forse, R.A.; Christou, N.; Meakins, J.L.; MacLean, L.D.; Shizgal, H.M.

    1981-01-01

    The reliability of skin testing to assess the nutritional state was evaluated in 257 patients who received total parenteral nutrition (TPN). The nutritional state was assessed by determining body composition, by multiple-isotope dilution. Immunocompetence was simultaneously evaluated by skin testing with five recall antigens. These measurements were carried out before and at two-week intervals during TPN. A statistically significant relationship existed between the response to skin testing and the nutritional state. A body composition consistent with malnutrition was present in the anergic patients, while body composition was normal in the patients who reacted normally to skin testing. However, a considerable overlap existed as 43% of the reactive patients were malnourished, and 21% of the anergic patients were normally nourished. Thirty-seven (43%) of the 86 anergic patients converted and became reactive during TPN, and their body composition improved significantly. The remaining 49 anergic patients (57%) did not convert, and their body composition did not change despite similar nutritional support. The principal difference between the two groups of anergic patients was the nature of the therapy administered. In the anergic patients who converted, therapy was aggressive and appropriate, and clinical improvement occurred in 23 (62.2%) of the patients, with a mortality of 5.4%. In the 49 patients who remained anergic, therapy was often inappropriate or unsuccessful, with clinical improvement in only three (6.1%) of the patients and a mortality of 42.8%. The data demonstrated a significant relationship between the response to skin testing and the nutritional state. However, because of the wide overlap, skin testing does not accurately assess a person's nutritional state. The persistence of the anergic state is indicative of a lack of response to therapy

  19. Course of Skin Symptoms and Quality of Life in Children Referred for Patch Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Anne B; Sommerlund, Mette; Deleuran, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Children are patch tested in the same manner as adults, but little has been done to establish whether positive or negative findings influence the course of skin symptoms. To uncover the course of skin symptoms and the impact of persistent eczema on life quality in paediatric patients referred...... to follow-up. Among patients without atopic dermatitis, 23.5% reported to suffer from chronic eczema. Persistent eczema increased the risk of severe impairment of life quality. Our findings indicate a significant risk of childhood eczema becoming chronic and affecting life quality considerably. Patch...

  20. The local lymph node assay and skin sensitization testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, Ian; Dearman, Rebecca J

    2010-01-01

    The mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a method for the identification and characterization of skin sensitization hazards. In this context the method can be used both to identify contact allergens, and also determine the relative skin sensitizing potency as a basis for derivation of effective risk assessments.The assay is based on measurement of proliferative responses by draining lymph node cells induced following topical exposure of mice to test chemicals. Such responses are known to be causally and quantitatively associated with the acquisition of skin sensitization and therefore provide a relevant marker for characterization of contact allergic potential.The LLNA has been the subject of exhaustive evaluation and validation exercises and has been assigned Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) test guideline 429. Herein we describe the conduct and interpretation of the LLNA.

  1. Pattern Of Skin Prick Allergy Test Results In Enugu | Mgbor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study we report on pattern of allergy prick skin test results found among atopic patients attending the department of otorhinolargngology of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu and Hansa Clinics, Enugu and propose ways of minimizing the exposure of the population to allergens. Material and method

  2. Where to prick the apple for skin testing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; van de Weg, W. E.; van der Heide, S.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    Mal d 1 is not equally distributed over the apple. We aimed to examine the influence of the location of pricking in the apple on prick-to-prick skin prick test (PTP) results. PTPs were performed in autumn 2007 and spring 2008, before the birch pollen season, in 32 Dutch adults with symptoms of oral

  3. Erythema exsudativum multiforme after a Leishmania skin test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, Bas S.; Guimarães, Luiz H.; Machado, Paulo R. L.

    2014-01-01

    A 45-year-old otherwise healthy male from an endemic region for Leishmania braziliensis infection in Bahia, Brazil, presented with three erosive hemorrhagic infiltrated plaques on the left shin accompanied with lymphadenopathy in the groin since one month. A Leishmania skin test performed on the

  4. Where to prick the apple for skin testing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B.J.; Weg, van de W.E.; Heide, van der S.; Dubois, A.E.J.

    2013-01-01

    Mal d 1 is not equally distributed over the apple. We aimed to examine the influence of the location of pricking in the apple on prick-to-prick skin prick test (PTP) results. PTPs were performed in autumn 2007 and spring 2008, before the birch pollen season, in 32 Dutch adults with symptoms of oral

  5. Skin test reactivity among Danish children measured 15 years apart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, SF; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Porsbjerg, C

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge of secular trends in the prevalence of allergy among children stems in large part from questionnaire surveys, whereas repeated cross-sectional studies using objective markers of atopic sensitization are sparse. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the prevalence of skin prick...... (n = 527) and the second in 2001 (n = 480). Skin test reactivity to nine common aeroallergens was measured at both occasions. RESULTS: The prevalence of positive SPT to at least one allergen decreased from 24.1% in 1986 to 18.9% in 2001, (p = 0.05). We found a declining prevalence of sensitization...

  6. Sensitization to Food Additives in Patients with Allergy: A Study Based on Skin Test and Open Oral Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Hejrati, Zinatosadat; Dehghani, Zahra; Dehghani, Faranak; Kolahi, Niloofar

    2016-06-01

    There has been a great increase in the consumption of various food additives in recent years. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of sensitization to food additives by using skin prick test in patients with allergy and to determine the concordance rate between positive skin tests and oral challenge in hypersensitivity to additives. This cross-sectional study included 125 (female 71, male 54) patients aged 2-76 years with allergy and 100 healthy individuals. Skin tests were performed in both patient and control groups with 25 fresh food additives. Among patients with allergy, 22.4% showed positive skin test at least to one of the applied materials. Skin test was negative to all tested food additives in control group. Oral food challenge was done in 28 patients with positive skin test, in whom 9 patients showed reaction to culprit (Concordance rate=32.1%). The present study suggested that about one-third of allergic patients with positive reaction to food additives showed positive oral challenge; it may be considered the potential utility of skin test to identify the role of food additives in patients with allergy.

  7. Validation of artificial skin equivalents as in vitro testing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Robert; Marx, Ulrich; Walles, Heike; Schober, Lena

    2011-03-01

    With the increasing complexity of the chemical composition of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and everyday substances, the awareness of potential health issues and long term damages for humanoid organs is shifting into focus. Artificial in vitro testing systems play an important role in providing reliable test conditions and replacing precarious animal testing. Especially artificial skin equivalents ASEs are used for a broad spectrum of studies like penetration, irritation and corrosion of substances. One major challenge in tissue engineering is the qualification of each individual ASE as in vitro testing system. Due to biological fluctuations, the stratum corneum hornified layer of some ASEs may not fully develop or other defects might occur. For monitoring these effects we developed an fully automated Optical Coherence Tomography device. Here, we present different methods to characterize and evaluate the quality of the ASEs based on image and data processing of OCT B-scans. By analysing the surface structure, defects, like cuts or tears, are detectable. A further indicator for the quality of the ASE is the morphology of the tissue. This allows to determine if the skin model has reached the final growth state. We found, that OCT is a well suited technology for automatically characterizing artificial skin equivalents and validating the application as testing system.

  8. Evaluation and Management of Patch Test-Negative Patients With Generalized Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiker, Alison; Mowad, Christen M

    Patients with generalized dermatitis are common in dermatology practices. Allergic contact dermatitis is often suspected, and patients frequently undergo patch testing. When the patch testing result is negative, further evaluation and management of these patients are challenging. The purpose of this study was to survey members of the American Contact Dermatitis Society regarding the evaluation and management of patch test-negative patients with generalized dermatitis. Generalized dermatitis was the most common term identified for patch test-negative patients with diffuse dermatitis. After having negative expanded patch testing results, most physicians proceeded with additional testing including skin biopsy, complete blood cell count with differential, and liver and renal function tests. The most commonly used systemic treatment is prednisone, followed by methotrexate. Narrow-band ultraviolet B (UVB) is the most commonly used light source. Antihistamines are frequently prescribed. Food allergy is not felt to be causative. This cohort of patients experiences significant impairment in quality of life, stress on personal relationships, and time off work. The management of patch test-negative patients with generalized dermatitis is challenging. This study provides insight into management of these complex patients. It also demonstrates practice gaps in the management of these patients, indicating a need for further studies to direct the evaluation and management of this patient population.

  9. The positive and negative consequences of multiple-choice testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roediger, Henry L; Marsh, Elizabeth J

    2005-09-01

    Multiple-choice tests are commonly used in educational settings but with unknown effects on students' knowledge. The authors examined the consequences of taking a multiple-choice test on a later general knowledge test in which students were warned not to guess. A large positive testing effect was obtained: Prior testing of facts aided final cued-recall performance. However, prior testing also had negative consequences. Prior reading of a greater number of multiple-choice lures decreased the positive testing effect and increased production of multiple-choice lures as incorrect answers on the final test. Multiple-choice testing may inadvertently lead to the creation of false knowledge.

  10. The test-negative design for estimating influenza vaccine effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael L; Nelson, Jennifer C

    2013-04-19

    The test-negative design has emerged in recent years as the preferred method for estimating influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) in observational studies. However, the methodologic basis of this design has not been formally developed. In this paper we develop the rationale and underlying assumptions of the test-negative study. Under the test-negative design for influenza VE, study subjects are all persons who seek care for an acute respiratory illness (ARI). All subjects are tested for influenza infection. Influenza VE is estimated from the ratio of the odds of vaccination among subjects testing positive for influenza to the odds of vaccination among subjects testing negative. With the assumptions that (a) the distribution of non-influenza causes of ARI does not vary by influenza vaccination status, and (b) VE does not vary by health care-seeking behavior, the VE estimate from the sample can generalized to the full source population that gave rise to the study sample. Based on our derivation of this design, we show that test-negative studies of influenza VE can produce biased VE estimates if they include persons seeking care for ARI when influenza is not circulating or do not adjust for calendar time. The test-negative design is less susceptible to bias due to misclassification of infection and to confounding by health care-seeking behavior, relative to traditional case-control or cohort studies. The cost of the test-negative design is the additional, difficult-to-test assumptions that incidence of non-influenza respiratory infections is similar between vaccinated and unvaccinated groups within any stratum of care-seeking behavior, and that influenza VE does not vary across care-seeking strata. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of autologous serum skin test and skin prick test reactivity to house dust mite in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Song

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU is a common skin disorder with etiology that is not well understood. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of autologous serum skin test (ASST and skin prick testing (SPT to house dust mite (HDM in 862 CSU cases in China. Clinical features, courses and treatment responses were also recorded. RESULTS: The prevalence of positive ASST was 46.3%, and patients aged 30-39 years had the highest positive rate (52.1%. Positive SPT to HDM was seen in 153 patients (17.7% with the highest positive rate (34.2% in patients aged 20 or less. Patients with positive ASST had higher urticaria activity scores (UAS (4.18±0.65 vs. 3.67±0.53 but lower positive rates of HDM (24.6% vs. 37.6%, as compared with those with negative ASST (odds ratio (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.38-2.47. Patients could be categorized into four groups based on the results of ASST and SPT to HDM and patients with positive ASST and positive SPT to HDM had the highest disease activity scores, experienced higher frequencies of angioedema, diseases duration, and required higher dosage of loratadine every month, compared with other subgroups (P<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with CSU showed varied responses of positive ASST and varied sensitivity to HDM, Patients with positive ASST and/or positive SPT had more disease activity compared with patients with negative ASST and/or negative SPT. Further classification can be made based on the result of SPT and ASST.

  12. Validation of the cephalosporin intradermal skin test for predicting immediate hypersensitivity: a prospective study with drug challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, S-Y; Park, S Y; Kim, S; Lee, T; Lee, Y S; Kwon, H-S; Cho, Y S; Moon, H-B; Kim, T-B

    2013-07-01

    Cephalosporin is a major offending agent in terms of drug hypersensitivity along with penicillin. Cephalosporin intradermal skin tests (IDTs) have been widely used; however, their validity for predicting immediate hypersensitivity has not been studied. This study aimed to determine the predictive value of cephalosporin intradermal skin testing before administration of the drug. We prospectively conducted IDTs with four cephalosporins, one each of selected first-, second-, third-, or fourth-generation cephalosporins: ceftezol; cefotetan or cefamandole; ceftriaxone or cefotaxime; and flomoxef, respectively, as well as with penicillin G. After the skin test, whatever the result, one of the tested cephalosporins was administered intravenously and the patient was carefully observed. We recruited 1421 patients who required preoperative cephalosporins. Seventy-four patients (74/1421, 5.2%) were positive to at least one cephalosporin. However, none of responders had immediate hypersensitivity reactions after a challenge dose of the same or different cephalosporin, which were positive in the skin test. Four patients who suffered generalized urticaria and itching after challenge gave negative skin tests for the corresponding drug. The IDT for cephalosporin had a sensitivity of 0%, a specificity of 97.5%, a negative predictive value of 99.7%, and a positive predictive value (PPV) of 0%, when challenged with the same drugs that were positive in the skin test. Routine skin testing with a cephalosporin before its administration is not useful for predicting immediate hypersensitivity because of the extremely low sensitivity and PPV of the skin test (CRIS registration no. KCT0000455). © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Membrane properties for permeability testing: Skin versus synthetic membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Anika; Dorrani, Mania; Goodyear, Benjamin; Joshi, Vivek; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena

    2018-03-25

    Synthetic membranes that are utilized in diffusion studies for topical and transdermal formulations are usually porous thin polymeric sheets for example cellulose acetate (CA) and polysulfones. In this study, the permeability of human skin was compared using two synthetic membranes: cellulose acetate and Strat-M® membrane and lipophilic and hydrophilic compounds either as saturated or formulated solutions as well as marketed dosage forms. Our data suggests that hydrophilic compounds have higher permeation in Strat-M membranes compared with lipophilic ones. High variation in permeability values, a typical property of biological membranes, was not observed with Strat-M. In addition, the permeability of Strat-M was closer to that of human skin than that of cellulose acetate (CA > Strat-M > Human skin). Our results suggest that Strat-M with little or no lot to lot variability can be applied in pilot studies of diffusion tests instead of human skin and is a better substitute than a cellulose acetate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 575 Photoaging Attenuates Skin Test Response to Histamine More Than Natural Aging

    OpenAIRE

    King, Monroe James; Fitzhugh, David; Lockey, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical experience suggests that skin test reactivity is often decreased in photo-exposed skin versus sun-protected skin in older individuals. The current study was designed to address whether photoaging or natural aging of skin causes a greater diminution in skin test reponse. Methods Prick-puncture skin tests to histamine were performed on sun-exposed and sun-protected areas in younger (n = 61, age 20–50) and older (n = 63, age 60–87) adult volunteers who were recruited for skin...

  15. Skin Sensitive Difference of Human Body Sections under Clothing-Smirnov Test of Skin Surface Temperatures' Dynamic Changing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; WU Hai-yan; WANG Yun-yi

    2004-01-01

    Skin sensitive difference of human body sections under clothing is the theoretic foundation of thermal insulation clothing design.By a new method of researching on clothing comfort perception,the skin temperature live changing procedure of human body sections affected by the same cold stimulation is inspected.Furthermore with the Smirnov test the skin temperatures dynamic changing patterns of main human body sections are obtained.

  16. [Characteristics of allergic conjunctivitis with positive skin prick test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S; Jiang, Y; Jin, Y M; Zhang, J Y; Li, Y

    2017-09-11

    Objective: To observe the clinical characteristics of allergic conjunctivitis, and the correlations with skin prick test results. Methods: A retrospective study. Forty patients with positive skin prick test result were included. Patients underwent an ophthalmologic examination to identify their primary presenting signs and symptoms. The allergy types were divided into 5 groups. All dates were analyzed for the dependence, normality and homogeneity of variance. Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis H test and Spearman correlation analysis were performed accordingly. Results: Among 40 patients, 18(45.0%) had a clinical diagnosis of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, 14(35.0%) had perennial allergic conjunctivitis, 5(12.5%) had vernal keratoconjunctivitis, and 2(5.0%) had atopic keratoconjunctivits, and 1(2.5%) had giant papillary conjunctivitis. There was no significant difference in the number of symptoms and signs score among different types of allergic conjunctivitis, the score of itching and hyperemia had a positive relationship with the number of positive allergens ( r =0.74, Ptest of the allergen, the more symptoms and signs encountered in terms of severity. Conclusion: Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis was the most prevalent disorder, the most important clinical characteristics of allergic conjunctivitis are itching and conjunctival congestion, the main allergens are dust and pollens, patients may be sensitive to multiple allergens. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2017, 53: 689-693) .

  17. Radiophosphorus (32P)-test on precancerosis and malignant tumors of the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biersack, H.J.; Rodermund, O.E.; Meurin, G.; Winkler, C.; Bonn Univ.

    1976-01-01

    In 21 patients with a variety of skin tumors (squamous cell carcinomas, malignant melanomas, basal cell epitheliomas and mycosis fungoides) or precancerous lesions (Bowen's disease, actinic keratosis, junctional nevus cell nevus) the radioactive phosphorus uptake test demonstrates a sign ficantly increased concentration of P 32 in those tumors. There were no false negative tests. The possibility of differentiation of malignant melanoma from benign nevus cell nevus and the early recognition of cutaneous metastases is described. Furthermore recurrence of previously irradiated or excised basal cell epitheliomas can be detected without a biopsy. No hematological side-effects were observed. (orig.) [de

  18. Impact of chemical peeling combined with negative pressure on human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S J; Kang, I J; Shin, M K; Jeong, K H; Baek, J H; Koh, J S; Lee, S J

    2016-10-01

    In vivo changes in skin barrier function after chemical peeling with alpha hydroxyacids (AHAs) have been previously reported. However, the additional effects of physical treatment with chemical agents on skin barrier function have not been adequately studied. This study measured the degree of acute skin damage and the time required for skin barrier repair using non-invasive bioengineering methods in vivo with human skin to investigate the additional effect of a 4% AHA chemical jet accelerated at supersonic velocities. Thirteen female subjects (average age: 29.54 ± 4.86 years) participated in this study. The faces of the subjects were divided into half according to the block randomization design and were then assigned to receive AHA peeling alone or AHA peeling combined with pneumatic pressure on each side of the face. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin colour and skin blood flow were evaluated at baseline and at 30 min, 2, 5 and 7 days after treatment. The TEWL and skin blood flow were significantly increased after 30 min in chemodermabrasion compared with chemical peeling alone (P peeling alone (P < 0.05). Chemodermabrasion can temporarily impair skin barriers, but it is estimated that it can enhance the skin barrier function after 7 days compared to the use of a chemical agent alone. In addition, chemodermabrasion has a more effective impact in the dermis and relatively preserves the skin barrier. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  19. Negative pressure wound therapy using polyvinyl alcohol foam to bolster full-thickness mesh skin grafts in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, Matan; Van Goethem, Bart; Kitshoff, Adriaan; Koenraadt, Annika; Schwarzkopf, Ilona; Bosmans, Tim; de Rooster, Hilde

    2017-04-01

    To report the use of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) foam to bolster full-thickness mesh skin grafts in dogs. Retrospective case series. Client-owned dogs (n = 8). Full-thickness mesh skin graft was directly covered with PVA foam. NPWT was maintained for 5 days (in 1 or 2 cycles). Grafts were evaluated on days 2, 5, 10, 15, and 30 for graft appearance and graft take, granulation tissue formation, and complications. Firm attachment of the graft to the recipient bed was accomplished in 7 dogs with granulation tissue quickly filling the mesh holes, and graft take considered excellent. One dog had bandage complications after cessation of the NPWT, causing partial graft loss. The PVA foam did not adhere to the graft or damage the surrounding skin. The application of NPWT with a PVA foam after full-thickness mesh skin grafting in dogs provides an effective method for securing skin grafts, with good graft acceptance. PVA foam can be used as a primary dressing for skin grafts, obviating the need for other interposing materials to protect the graft and the surrounding skin. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  20. Skin irritability to sodium lauryl sulfate is associated with increased positive patch test reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwitulla, J; Brasch, J; Löffler, H; Schnuch, A; Geier, J; Uter, W

    2014-07-01

    As previous observations have indicated an inter-relationship between irritant and allergic skin reactions we analysed data of synchronous allergen and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) patch tests in terms of a relationship between SLS responsiveness and allergic patch test reactions. To analyse differences in terms of allergen-specific and overall reaction profiles between patients with vs. those without an irritant reaction to SLS. Clinical data of 26 879 patients patch tested from 2008 to 2011 by members of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology were analysed. After descriptive analyses, including the MOAHLFA index, the positivity ratio and the reaction index, a negative binomial hurdle model was adopted to investigate the correlation between SLS reactivity and positive patch test reactions. Men, patients aged ≥ 40 years and patients with an occupational dermatitis background were over-represented in the SLS-reactive group. Patients with an irritant reaction to SLS showed a higher proportion of weak positive reactions, as well as more questionable and irritant reactions to contact allergens than patients not reactive to SLS. The risk of an additional positive patch test reaction increased by 22% for SLS-reactive patients compared with those who were SLS negative. The marked association between SLS reactivity and the number of positive reactions in patch test patients may be due to nonspecific increased skin reactivity at the moment of patch testing only. However, increased SLS reactivity could also be due to longer-lasting enhanced skin irritability, which may have promoted (poly-)sensitization. Further studies, for example with longitudinal data on patients repeatedly patch tested with SLS and contact allergens, are necessary. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  1. Mathematical Model and Analysis of Negative Skin Friction of Pile Group in Consolidating Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangqiang Kong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to calculate negative skin friction (NSF of pile group embedded in a consolidating soil, the dragload calculating formulas of single pile were established by considering Davis one-dimensional nonlinear consolidation soils settlement and hyperbolic load-transfer of pile-soil interface. Based on effective influence area theory, a simple semiempirical mathematical model of analysis for predicting the group effect of pile group under dragload was described. The accuracy and reliability of mathematical models built in this paper were verified by practical engineering comparative analysis. Case studies were studied, and the prediction values were found to be in good agreement with those of measured values. Then, the influences factors, such as, soil consolidation degree, the initial volume compressibility coefficient, and the stiffness of bearing soil, were analyzed and discussed. The results show that the mathematical models considering nonlinear soil consolidation and group effect can reflect the practical NSF of pile group effectively and accurately. The results of this paper can provide reference for practical pile group embedded in consolidating soil under NSF design and calculation.

  2. Advanced Development of Leishmania Topical Skin Test Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    was discarded. The lysate was then heated in a water bath for 30 minutes at 60°C. The material was cooled to 10 °C, poured into sterile centrifuge...followed to assess the effectiveness of the cleaning and sanitization procedures. The filling, capping and assembly of final containers occurred in Class...40 and 80 µg doses per 0.1 mL. For all skin tests, 0.1 mL was injected intradermally into the volar surface of the forearm . Final LtSTA Report for

  3. Identification of low allergenic apple cultivars using skin prick tests and oral food challenge tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B.J.; Weg, van de W.E.; Heide, van der S.; Arens, P.F.P.; Heijerman-Peppelman, G.; Dubois, A.E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: As oral allergy syndrome (OAS) symptoms to apple are frequent, we aimed to identify low allergenic apple cultivars and to validate the prick-to-prick skin prick test (SPT) as a suitable screening method. Methods: Sixty-eight apple cultivars were tested by SPTs in 33 Dutch adults with

  4. EPA Releases Draft Policy to Reduce Animal Testing for Skin Sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    The document, Draft Interim Science Policy: Use of Alternative Approaches for Skin Sensitization as a Replacement for Laboratory Animal Testing, describes the science behind the non-animal alternatives that can now be used to identify skin sensitization.

  5. Bayesian inference for disease prevalence using negative binomial group testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Nicholas A.; Tebbs, Joshua M.

    2011-01-01

    Group testing, also known as pooled testing, and inverse sampling are both widely used methods of data collection when the goal is to estimate a small proportion. Taking a Bayesian approach, we consider the new problem of estimating disease prevalence from group testing when inverse (negative binomial) sampling is used. Using different distributions to incorporate prior knowledge of disease incidence and different loss functions, we derive closed form expressions for posterior distributions and resulting point and credible interval estimators. We then evaluate our new estimators, on Bayesian and classical grounds, and apply our methods to a West Nile Virus data set. PMID:21259308

  6. [Diagnostic capacity of skin prick test in egg and cow's milk allergic infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jun-mei; Chen, Jing; Li, Hai-qi; Hu, Yan

    2011-05-01

    Mean diameter is the most common used parameter for wheal response assessment after skin prick test. This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic capacity of mean diameter according to the outcome of oral food challenge, and to determine the cut-off points that could render food challenges unnecessary. Data of 173 children referred to the Division of Primary Child Health Care for the evaluation of suspected food allergy were prospectively studied. All children underwent skin prick test and open food challenge to the relevant food(s) in clinic. The mean wheal diameter of skin prick test was measured, and open food challenge was performed to confirm food allergy. The SPSS software package version 13.0 for windows (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA) was used for all statistical analysis. Open food challenge was taken as the gold standard for diagnosis. Diagnostic capacity of skin prick test, including the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, was calculated by cross-table. In addition, receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was plotted and area under the curve (AUC) was calculated to quantify the accuracy of the parameter. For the 173 children, 271 open food challenges were performed with egg white, egg yolk and cow's milk, In which 123 were positive, 99 children were diagnosed as food allergy. Cutaneous symptoms (87.0%) were most common, followed by gastrointestinal symptoms (9.8%). The AUC of mean diameter was 0.794 for egg white, 0.804 for egg yolk and 0.904 for cow's milk. The sensitivity of skin prick test with a cut-off value of ≥ 3 mm was ranged from 71% to 87%, while the specificity was between 31% and 57%. The authors also defined food specific skin prick test mean diameters that were 100% diagnostic for allergy to egg white (≥ 8.5 mm), egg yolk (≥ 5.5 mm), cow's milk (≥ 5.5 mm). Predictive decision points for a positive outcome of food challenges can be calculated for egg and cow's milk using mean diameter. It

  7. State of the art in non-animal approaches for skin sensitization testing: from individual test methods towards testing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezendam, Janine; Braakhuis, Hedwig M; Vandebriel, Rob J

    2016-12-01

    The hazard assessment of skin sensitizers relies mainly on animal testing, but much progress is made in the development, validation and regulatory acceptance and implementation of non-animal predictive approaches. In this review, we provide an update on the available computational tools and animal-free test methods for the prediction of skin sensitization hazard. These individual test methods address mostly one mechanistic step of the process of skin sensitization induction. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for skin sensitization describes the key events (KEs) that lead to skin sensitization. In our review, we have clustered the available test methods according to the KE they inform: the molecular initiating event (MIE/KE1)-protein binding, KE2-keratinocyte activation, KE3-dendritic cell activation and KE4-T cell activation and proliferation. In recent years, most progress has been made in the development and validation of in vitro assays that address KE2 and KE3. No standardized in vitro assays for T cell activation are available; thus, KE4 cannot be measured in vitro. Three non-animal test methods, addressing either the MIE, KE2 or KE3, are accepted as OECD test guidelines, and this has accelerated the development of integrated or defined approaches for testing and assessment (e.g. testing strategies). The majority of these approaches are mechanism-based, since they combine results from multiple test methods and/or computational tools that address different KEs of the AOP to estimate skin sensitization potential and sometimes potency. Other approaches are based on statistical tools. Until now, eleven different testing strategies have been published, the majority using the same individual information sources. Our review shows that some of the defined approaches to testing and assessment are able to accurately predict skin sensitization hazard, sometimes even more accurate than the currently used animal test. A few defined approaches are developed to provide an

  8. Comparison between sensitivity of autologous skin serum test and autologous plasma skin test in patients with Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria for detection of antibody against IgE or IgE receptor (FcεRIα).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajedi, Vahid; Movahedi, Masoud; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Aghamohamadi, Asghar; Gharagozlou, Mohammad; Ghareguzlou, Mohammad; Shafiei, Alireza; Soheili, Habib; Sanajian, Nahal

    2011-06-01

    Intradermal injection of autologous serum and plasma elicit a cutaneous reactivity in almost 45-60% of patients with Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria (CIU). This reactivity is associated with the presence of auto antibodies against IgE or IgE receptors. This study was carried out to compare the cutaneous reactivity of autologous serum and plasma skin tests in a series of patients with CIU for diagnosis of auto antibodies against IgE or IgE receptor. Fifty eight patients with CIU were injected intradermally with autologous serum and plasma (anticoagulated by citrate). Histamine was used as positive control and normal saline as negative control. The study group was checked by routine laboratory tests (CBC, U/A etc), allergens with skin prick tests, and serum IgE level, and auto antibodies against thyroid as well. Duration of urticaria was another factor which was assessed.There was no significant difference between positive ASST and positive APST patients for the above mentioned tests. 77.6% of the patients were Positive for APST and 65.5% were ASST positive. Duration of urticaria was longer in patients with positive ASST and APST than ASST and APST negative patients, although the difference was not statistically significant.Autologus serum skin test (ASST) and autologous plasma skin test (APST) could be used for estimation of duration and severity of urticaria and planning for the treatment.

  9. Negative Exercise Stress Test: Does it Mean Anything? Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan A. Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite its low sensitivity and specificity (67% and 72%, respectively, exercise testing has remained one of the most widely used noninvasive tests to determine the prognosis in patients with suspected or established coronary disease.As a screening test for coronary artery disease, the exercise stress test is useful in that it is relatively simple and inexpensive. It has been considered particularly helpful in patients with chest pain syndromes who have moderate probability for coronary artery disease, and in whom the resting electrocardiogram (ECG is normal. The following case presentation and discussion will question the predictive value of a negative stress testing in patients with moderate probability for coronary artery disease.

  10. Ultrastructural examination of skin biopsies may assist in diagnosing mitochondrial cytopathy when muscle biopsies yield negative results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, John L; Warren, Christine B; Prayson, Richard A

    2017-08-01

    Ultrastructural evaluation of skin biopsies has been utilized for diagnosis of mitochondrial disease. This study investigates how frequently skin biopsies reveal mitochondrial abnormalities, correlates skin and muscle biopsy findings, and describes clinical diagnoses rendered following the evaluation. A retrospective review of surgical pathology reports from 1990 to 2015 identified skin biopsies examined by electron microscopy for suspected metabolic disease. A total of 630 biopsies were included from 615 patients. Of these patients, 178 also underwent a muscle biopsy. Of the 630 skin biopsies, 75 (12%) showed ultrastructural abnormalities and 34 (5%) specifically showed mitochondrial abnormalities including increased size (n=27), reduced or abnormal cristae (n=23), dense matrices (n=20), and increased number (n=8). Additional findings included lysosomal abnormalities (n=13), lipid accumulation (n=2) or glycogen accumulation (n=1). Of the 34 patients with mitochondrial abnormalities on skin biopsy, 20 also had muscle biopsies performed and nine showed abnormalities suggestive of a mitochondrial disorder including absent cytochrome oxidase staining (n=2), increased subsarcolemmal NADH, SDH, or cytochrome oxidase staining (n=1), or ultrastructural findings including large mitochondrial size (n=5), abnormal mitochondrial structure (n=5), and increased mitochondrial number (n=4). The most common presenting symptoms were intellectual disability (n=13), seizures (n=12), encephalopathy (n=9), and gastrointestinal disturbances (n=9). At last known follow-up, 12 patients had a definitive diagnosis of a mitochondrial disorder. One patient each had Complex I deficiency, Complex III deficiency, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency, and Phelan-McDermid syndrome. Our results suggest that skin biopsy sometimes yields diagnostic clues suggestive of a mitochondrial cytopathy in cases with a negative muscle biopsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  11. Primary Cilia Negatively Regulate Melanogenesis in Melanocytes and Pigmentation in a Human Skin Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyunjung; Shin, Ji Hyun; Kim, Eun Sung; Park, So Jung; Bae, Il-Hong; Jo, Yoon Kyung; Jeong, In Young; Kim, Hyoung-June; Lee, Youngjin; Park, Hea Chul; Jeon, Hong Bae; Kim, Ki Woo; Lee, Tae Ryong; Cho, Dong-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    The primary cilium is an organelle protruding from the cell body that senses external stimuli including chemical, mechanical, light, osmotic, fluid flow, and gravitational signals. Skin is always exposed to the external environment and responds to external stimuli. Therefore, it is possible that primary cilia have an important role in skin. Ciliogenesis was reported to be involved in developmental processes in skin, such as keratinocyte differentiation and hair formation. However, the relation between skin pigmentation and primary cilia is largely unknown. Here, we observed that increased melanogenesis in melanocytes treated with a melanogenic inducer was inhibited by a ciliogenesis inducer, cytochalasin D, and serum-free culture. However, these inhibitory effects disappeared in GLI2 knockdown cells. In addition, activation of sonic hedgehog (SHH)-smoothened (Smo) signaling pathway by a Smo agonist, SAG inhibited melanin synthesis in melanocytes and pigmentation in a human skin model. On the contrary, an inhibitor of primary cilium formation, ciliobrevin A1, activated melanogenesis in melanocytes. These results suggest that skin pigmentation may be regulated partly by the induction of ciliogenesis through Smo-GLI2 signaling.

  12. Primary Cilia Negatively Regulate Melanogenesis in Melanocytes and Pigmentation in a Human Skin Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunjung Choi

    Full Text Available The primary cilium is an organelle protruding from the cell body that senses external stimuli including chemical, mechanical, light, osmotic, fluid flow, and gravitational signals. Skin is always exposed to the external environment and responds to external stimuli. Therefore, it is possible that primary cilia have an important role in skin. Ciliogenesis was reported to be involved in developmental processes in skin, such as keratinocyte differentiation and hair formation. However, the relation between skin pigmentation and primary cilia is largely unknown. Here, we observed that increased melanogenesis in melanocytes treated with a melanogenic inducer was inhibited by a ciliogenesis inducer, cytochalasin D, and serum-free culture. However, these inhibitory effects disappeared in GLI2 knockdown cells. In addition, activation of sonic hedgehog (SHH-smoothened (Smo signaling pathway by a Smo agonist, SAG inhibited melanin synthesis in melanocytes and pigmentation in a human skin model. On the contrary, an inhibitor of primary cilium formation, ciliobrevin A1, activated melanogenesis in melanocytes. These results suggest that skin pigmentation may be regulated partly by the induction of ciliogenesis through Smo-GLI2 signaling.

  13. Skin prick test reactivity to aeroallergens by filaggrin mutation status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, M G; Johansen, J D; Linneberg, A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that filaggrin gene (FLG) mutations are positively associated with sensitization to aero allergens. We hypothesized that FLG mutations would also have an effect on the mean size of positive skin prick test (SPT) reactions as well as the number of positive reactions....... OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of FLG mutations on the mean size and the number of positive SPT reactions, as well as the association with positive specific IgE. METHODS: A random sample of 3335 adults from the general population in Denmark was genotyped for the R501X and 2282del4 mutations in the FLG...... mutations alone are insufficient to cause secondary sensitization to allergens. The positive association seen in patients must be explained by a combination of further barrier abnormality caused by dermatitis as well as increased allergen exposure....

  14. Standardization of food allergen extracts for skin prick test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, K; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Skov, P S

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to standardize and evaluate technically optimized food allergen extracts for use in skin prick test (SPT). The standardization procedure comprised 36 allergic histories in 32 food allergic patients with 21 healthy, non-atopic individuals serving as controls. The patients...... had a history of allergic symptoms upon ingestion of either cow's milk (n=3), hen's egg (n=9), wheat (n=4), hazelnut (n=14) or cod (n=6). They also had specific IgE in serum to the food in question and a positive SPT with a fresh preparation of the food. The diagnosis had been confirmed by a double......-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, except for the hazelnut-allergic patients. The controls were subjected to an open food challenge with all the foods to ensure tolerance. The standardization was performed by means of titrated SPT in accordance with the guidelines on biological standardization from...

  15. Wearable device for skin contact thermography: design, construction and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giansanti, D.; Maccioni, G.

    2008-01-01

    The need for wearable devices for thermal monitoring is rising. These devices could be used to continuously monitor patients for breast cancer investigation or vascular, dermatological and rheumatic disorders, in viability studies, or during physical exercise. We designed and constructed a wearable device for skin-contact thermography that uses integrated silicon sensors. The device was validated using a phantom with a dynamic bench test. The thermal resolution was greater than 0.030'C, and the spatial resolution was equal to 1.6x10-5 m'2. We also investigated the device's performance on five clinical subjects. Results of these studies showed a maximal error of less than 0.10'C in each evaluation [it

  16. LLNA variability: An essential ingredient for a comprehensive assessment of non-animal skin sensitization test methods and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    The development of non-animal skin sensitization test methods and strategies is quickly progressing. Either individually or in combination, the predictive capacity is usually described in comparison to local lymph node assay (LLNA) results. In this process the important lesson from other endpoints, such as skin or eye irritation, to account for variability reference test results - here the LLNA - has not yet been fully acknowledged. In order to provide assessors as well as method and strategy developers with appropriate estimates, we investigated the variability of EC3 values from repeated substance testing using the publicly available NICEATM (NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods) LLNA database. Repeat experiments for more than 60 substances were analyzed - once taking the vehicle into account and once combining data over all vehicles. In general, variability was higher when different vehicles were used. In terms of skin sensitization potential, i.e., discriminating sensitizer from non-sensitizers, the false positive rate ranged from 14-20%, while the false negative rate was 4-5%. In terms of skin sensitization potency, the rate to assign a substance to the next higher or next lower potency class was approx.10-15%. In addition, general estimates for EC3 variability are provided that can be used for modelling purposes. With our analysis we stress the importance of considering the LLNA variability in the assessment of skin sensitization test methods and strategies and provide estimates thereof.

  17. Characteristics of children with positive tuberculin skin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocaoğlu, Arzu Babayiğit; Erge, Duygu Olmez; Anal, Ozden; Makay, Balahan; Uzuner, Nevin; Karaman, Ozkan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the characteristics of children with latent tuberculosis diagnosed with positive tuberculin skin test (TST) and evaluate potential risk factors in children with positive TST. Children followed with the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection were included in the study retrospectively. Demographic characteristics of patients including history of atopy, respiratory infections, family history of tuberculosis and atopy, number of BCG vaccinations, findings of physical examination and laboratory data were extracted from patient's file. Eighty-one children (51 male, 30 female) who had positive TST were retrospectively evaluated in the study. Mean age of the patients was 8.00 ± 4.00 years. Only 13 (16%) of the children had contact with a case who had active tuberculosis. It was shown that the age of the patients, number of BCG scars and BCG vaccination significantly affected TST reaction size. TST size was not affected with time passed after last dose of BCG vaccination, family history of tuberculosis, presence of TST positive case in the family, exposure to cigarette smoke, number of household family members and presence of respiratory allergic disease. The patient's age, numbers of BCG vaccination and BCG scars significantly affect TST results in childhood. This may cause difficulty in diagnosing latent tuberculosis infection and in decision of initiating prophylactic treatment. The results of this study may show that recently developed, more accurate and convenient in vitro tests that they have higher costs and require sophisticated laboratory, can be used to diagnose latent tuberculosis.

  18. Test-retest reliability of the multifocal photopic negative response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Alstine, Anthony W; Viswanathan, Suresh

    2017-02-01

    To assess the test-retest reliability of the multifocal photopic negative response (mfPhNR) of normal human subjects. Multifocal electroretinograms were recorded from one eye of 61 healthy adult subjects on two separate days using a Visual Evoked Response Imaging System software version 4.3 (EDI, San Mateo, California). The visual stimulus delivered on a 75-Hz monitor consisted of seven equal-sized hexagons each subtending 12° of visual angle. The m-step exponent was 9, and the m-sequence was slowed to include at least 30 blank frames after each flash. Only the first slice of the first-order kernel was analyzed. The mfPhNR amplitude was measured at a fixed time in the trough from baseline (BT) as well as at the same fixed time in the trough from the preceding b-wave peak (PT). Additionally, we also analyzed BT normalized either to PT (BT/PT) or to the b-wave amplitude (BT/b-wave). The relative reliability of test-retest differences for each test location was estimated by the Wilcoxon matched-pair signed-rank test and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Absolute test-retest reliability was estimated by Bland-Altman analysis. The test-retest amplitude differences for neither of the two measurement techniques were statistically significant as determined by Wilcoxon matched-pair signed-rank test. PT measurements showed greater ICC values than BT amplitude measurements for all test locations. For each measurement technique, the ICC value of the macular response was greater than that of the surrounding locations. The mean test-retest difference was close to zero for both techniques at each of the test locations, and while the coefficient of reliability (COR-1.96 times the standard deviation of the test-retest difference) was comparable for the two techniques at each test location when expressed in nanovolts, the %COR (COR normalized to the mean test and retest amplitudes) was superior for PT than BT measurements. The ICC and COR were comparable for the BT/PT and

  19. Changes in subcutaneous blood flow during locally applied negative pressure to the skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skagen, K; Henriksen, O

    1983-01-01

    The effect of locally applied subatmospheric pressure on subcutaneous blood flow was studied in 12 healthy subjects. Blood flow was measured on the forearm by the local 133Xe wash-out technique. Air suction between 10 mmHg and 250 mmHg was applied to the skin. Subatmospheric pressure of 20 mm...

  20. Coverage of Deep Cutaneous Wounds Using Dermal Template in Combination with Negative-pressure Therapy and Subsequent Skin Graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alexandre A.; Lobato, Rodolfo C.; Nakamoto, Hugo A.; Tuma, Paulo; Ferreira, Marcus C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: We consider the use of dermal matrix associated with a skin graft to cover deep wounds in the extremities when tendon and bone are exposed. The objective of this article was to evaluate the efficacy of covering acute deep wounds through the use of a dermal regeneration template (Integra) associated with vacuum therapy and subsequent skin grafting. Methods: Twenty patients were evaluated prospectively. All of them had acute (up to 3 weeks) deep wounds in the limbs. We consider a deep wound to be that with exposure of bone, tendon, or joint. Results: The average area of integration of the dermal regeneration template was 86.5%. There was complete integration of the skin graft over the dermal matrix in 14 patients (70%), partial integration in 5 patients (25%), and total loss in 1 case (5%). The wound has completely closed in 95% of patients. Conclusions: The use of Integra dermal template associated with negative-pressure therapy and skin grafting showed an adequate rate of resolution of deep wounds with low morbidity. PMID:25289363

  1. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy Applied Before and After Split-Thickness Skin Graft Helps Healing of Fournier Gangrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Junna; Xie, Ting; Wu, Minjie; Ni, Pengwen; Lu, Shuliang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fournier gangrene is a rare but highly infectious disease characterized by fulminant necrotizing fasciitis involving the genital and perineal regions. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT; KCI USA Inc, San Antonio, TX) is a widely adopted technique in many clinical settings. Nevertheless, its application and effect in the treatment of Fournier gangrene are unclear. A 47-year-old male patient was admitted with an anal abscess followed by a spread of the infection to the scrotum, which was caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. NPWT was applied on the surface of the scrotal area and continued for 10 days. A split-thickness skin graft from the scalp was then grafted to the wound, after which, NPWT utilizing gauze sealed with an occlusive dressing and connected to a wall suction was employed for 7 days to secure the skin graft. At discharge, the percentage of the grafted skin alive on the scrotum was 98%. The wound beside the anus had decreased to 4 × 0.5 cm with a depth of 1 cm. Follow-up at the clinic 1 month later showed that both wounds had healed. The patient did not complain of any pain or bleeding, and was satisfied with the outcome. NPWT before and after split-thickness skin grafts is safe, well tolerated, and efficacious in the treatment of Fournier gangrene. PMID:25654376

  2. The colour of blood in skin: a comparison of Allen's test and photonics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Välisuo, Petri; Kaartinen, Ilkka; Kuokkanen, Hannu; Alander, Jarmo

    2010-11-01

    The colour of the skin reflects many physiological and pathological states of an individual. Usually, the skin colour is examined by the bare eye alone. Several scaling systems have been developed to quantify the sensory evaluation of skin colour. In this work, the reflectance of the skin is measured directly using an objective instrument. Haemoglobin inside the dermal circulation is one of the key factors of skin colour and it also has a major role in the appearance of many skin lesions and scars. To quantitatively measure and analyse such conditions, the relation between the skin colour and the haemoglobin concentration in the skin needs to be resolved. To examine the effect of blood concentration on the skin colour, five Allen's tests were performed on 20 persons. The skin colour change was measured using a spectrophotometer by changing the blood concentration by the Allen's test. Light interaction with the skin was simulated with a Monte Carlo model, tuning the blood concentration parameter until the simulated and the measured spectra matched, yielding the relationship between the skin colour and the blood concentration. The simulation produced spectra similar to those measured. The change in the blood concentration in the simulation model and in the skin produced changes similar to the spectra. The reflectance of the skin was found to be a nonlinear function of the blood concentration. The relationship found between skin colour and blood concentration makes it possible to quantify those skin conditions expressed by blood volume better than plain colour. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Simplification of intradermal skin testing in Hymenoptera venom allergic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocka-Jarosz, Ewa; Stobiecki, Marcin; Brzyski, Piotr; Rogatko, Iwona; Nittner-Marszalska, Marita; Sztefko, Krystyna; Czarnobilska, Ewa; Lis, Grzegorz; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna

    2017-03-01

    The direct comparison between children and adults with Hymenoptera venom anaphylaxis (HVA) has never been extensively reported. Severe HVA with IgE-documented mechanism is the recommendation for venom immunotherapy, regardless of age. To determine the differences in the basic diagnostic profile between children and adults with severe HVA and its practical implications. We reviewed the medical records of 91 children and 121 adults. Bee venom allergy was exposure dependent, regardless of age (P bee venom allergic group, specific IgE levels were significantly higher in children (29.5 kU A /L; interquartile range, 11.30-66.30 kU A /L) compared with adults (5.10 kU A /L; interquartile range, 2.03-8.30 kU A /L) (P venom were higher in bee venom allergic children compared with the wasp venom allergic children (P venom. At concentrations lower than 0.1 μg/mL, 16% of wasp venom allergic children and 39% of bee venom allergic children had positive intradermal test results. The median tryptase level was significantly higher in adults than in children for the entire study group (P = .002), as well as in bee (P = .002) and wasp venom allergic groups (P = .049). The basic diagnostic profile in severe HVA reactors is age dependent. Lower skin test reactivity to culprit venom in children may have practical application in starting the intradermal test procedure with higher venom concentrations. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A tuberculin skin test survey among Ghanaian school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonsu Christian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ghana has not conducted a national tuberculin survey or tuberculosis prevalence survey since the establishment of the National Tuberculosis Control Programme. The primary objective of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence of tuberculin skin sensitivity in Ghanaian school children aged 6-10 years in 8 out of 10 regions of Ghana between 2004 and 2006. Methods Tuberculin survey was conducted in 179 primary schools from 21 districts in 8 regions. Schools were purposively selected so as to reflect the proportion of affluent private and free tuition public schools as well as the proportion of small and large schools. Results Of the 24,778 children registered for the survey, 23,600 (95.2% were tested of which 21,861 (92.6% were available for reading. The age distribution showed an increase in numbers of children towards older age: 11% of the children were 6 years and 25%, 10 years. Females were 52.5% and males 47.5%. The proportion of girls was higher in all age groups (range 51.4% to 54.0%, p Conclusion Tuberculosis infection is still a public health problem in Ghana and to monitor the trend, the survey needs to be repeated at 5 years interval.

  5. Where to prick the apple for skin testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B J; van de Weg, W E; van der Heide, S; Dubois, A E J

    2013-09-01

    Mal d 1 is not equally distributed over the apple. We aimed to examine the influence of the location of pricking in the apple on prick-to-prick skin prick test (PTP) results. PTPs were performed in autumn 2007 and spring 2008, before the birch pollen season, in 32 Dutch adults with symptoms of oral allergy to fresh apple, using apples harvested in autumn 2007. PTPs with fresh intact and unpeeled Pink Lady, Golden Delicious, Elise, Santana and Modi apples were performed using material obtained from approximately 2 cm near the stalk (top), and the middle region. All PTP responses were greater when performed with apple material near the stalk than from the middle region. In 2007, these differences were statistically significant for Pink Lady, Golden Delicious and Elise, and in 2008, for Pink Lady and Modi. When performing PTPs, the apple should be pricked near the stalk rather than in the middle. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Negative ion test facility ELISE—Status and first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinemann, B.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Froeschle, M.; Kircher, M.; Kraus, W.; Martens, C.; Nocentini, R.; Riedl, R.; Ruf, B.; Schiesko, L.; Wimmer, C.; Wuenderlich, D.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The negative ion source test facility ELISE has been set up at IPP Garching. ► The Radio frequency source has half the ITER source size. ► It shall demonstrate the required ITER parameters (20 A D-, 0.3 Pa, electron to ion current ratio below 1). ► First plasma and beam operation is starting in October 2012. -- Abstract: The new test facility ELISE (Extraction from a Large Ion Source Experiment) has been designed and installed since November 2009 at IPP Garching to support the development of the radio frequency driven negative ion source for the Neutral Beam System on ITER. The test facility is now completely assembled; all auxiliary systems have been commissioned and are operational. First plasma and beam operation is starting in October 2012. The source is designed to deliver an ion beam of 20 A of D − ions, operating at 0.3 Pa source pressure at an electron to ion current ratio below 1. Beam extraction is limited to 60 kV for 10 s every 3 minutes, while plasma operation of the source can be performed continuously for 1 hour. The ion source and extraction system have the same width as the ITER source, but only half the height, i.e. 1 × 1 m 2 source area with an extraction area of 0.1 m 2 . The aperture pattern of the extraction system and the multi driver source concept stay as close as possible to the ITER design. Easy access to the source for diagnostic tools or modifications allows to analyze and optimize the source performance. Among other possibilities many different magnetic filter field configurations inside the source can be realized to enhance the negative ion extraction and to reduce the co-extraction of electrons. Beam power and profiles are measured by calorimetry and thermography on an inertially cooled target as well as by beam emission spectroscopy. Cs evaporation into the source is done via two dispenser ovens

  7. Compatibility of Clinical Manifestation with Skin Prick Test Result and Food Provocation Test in Food Cross Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Azwin; Barlianto, Wisnu; Endaryanto, Anang; Harsono, Ariyanto

    2017-01-01

    Background: Subjective diagnostic test of food allergy is hugely biased, resulting in irrational diet avoidance. Additional objective tools by skin prick test following food provocation test resulting more accurate cause and prevalence on population. Purpose: To evaluate the compatibility of clinical symptoms with skin prick test and provocation test for imunoglobulin E (IgE) mediated food allergy in Dr. Soetomo Hospital Surabaya. Methods: Cross sectional observational analytic study. Patient...

  8. Prospective, multicenter clinical trial to validate new products for skin tests in the diagnosis of allergy to penicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, J; Torres, M J; Campos, J; Arribas-Poves, F; Blanca, M

    2013-01-01

    Allergy to penicillin is the most commonly reported type of drug hypersensitivity. Diagnosis is currently confirmed using skin tests with benzylpenicillin reagents, ie, penicilloyl-polylysine (PPL) as the major determinant of benzylpenicillin and benzylpenicillin, benzylpenicilloate and benzylpenilloate as a minor determinant mixture (MDM). To synthesize and assess the diagnostic capacity of 2 new benzylpenicillin reagents in patients with immediate hypersensitivity reactions to B-lactams: benzylpenicilloyl octa-L-lysine (BP-OL) as the major determinant and benzylpenilloate (penilloate) as the minor determinant. Prospective multicenter clinical trial performed in 18 Spanish centers. Efficacy was assessed by detection of positive skin test results in an allergic population and negative skin test results in a nonallergic, drug-exposed population. Sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values were determined. The study sample comprised 94 allergic patients: 31 (35.23%) presented anaphylaxis, 4 (4.55%) anaphylactic shock, 51 (58.04%) urticaria, and 2 (2.27%) no specific condition. The culprit 8-lactams were amoxicillin in 63 cases (71.60%), benzypencillin in 14 cases (15.89%), cephalosporins in 2 cases (2.27%), other drugs in 3 cases (3.42%), and unidentified agents in 6 cases (6.82%). The results of testing with BP-OL were positive in 46 cases (52.3%); the results of testing with penilloate were positive in 33 cases (37.5%). When both reagents were taken into consideration, sensitivity reached 61.36% and specificity 100%. Skin testing with penilloate was significantly more often negative when the interval between the reaction and the study was longer. The sensitivity of BP-OL and penilloate was 61%. Considering that amoxicillin was the culprit drug in 71% of reactions, these results indicate that most patients were allergic to the whole group of penicillins. These data support the use of benzylpenicillin determinants in the diagnosis of allergy

  9. Pregnancy presenting as hyperthyroidism with negative urine pregnancy test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Rita; Deepak, Desh; Ghosh, Gopal Chandra; Gupta, Mamta

    2014-05-20

    A 22-year-old lactating mother presented with symptoms of uneasiness, palpitation, tachycardia and exophthalmos. She had an abdominal lump suggestive of 26 weeks uterine size but her urine pregnancy test was negative. Her thyroid profile was suggestive of hyperthyroidism. Gynaecological and ultrasonographic findings revealed a hydatidiform mole. She had a low β-human chorionic gonadotropin level that surprisingly increased after suction and evacuation. The paradoxical findings that appeared as erroneous laboratory results could be explained by the 'high-dose hook effect' after a review of literature. One week after the evacuation, the patient's thyroid profile and symptoms resolved completely without any treatment for hyperthyroidism. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  10. Skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Malignant disease involving the skin represents a significant work load to the general radiotherapist and can involve interesting diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. Primary skin cancer is also relatively common and there is a need to provide an efficient service in which the first treatment is successful in the majority of patients. The reward for careful attention to technique is very considerable both in terms of clinical cancer control and functional results. Squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and intra-epidermal carcinoma constitute the majority of the lesions dealt with clinically, but metastatic disease, lymphomas, and malignant melanomas are also referred regularly for opinions and may require radiotherapy. The general principle of the techniques of assessment and radiotherapeutic management to be described are equally applicable to any malignant skin tumour once the decision has been made to accept it for radiotherapy. Dosage and fractionation may have to be adjusted to allow for the nature of the disease process and the intent of the treatment

  11. Does a Negative Triple Test Reduce the Rate of Negative Appendectomy in Adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud F. Sakr

    2012-08-01

    Results: Sixty-seven patients (65.9% were female and 35 (34.1% were male. Their ages ranged between 16 and 49 years (mean 27.5 years. Most patients (87.3% had their symptoms for 12-36 hours before hospital admission. The mean values for TLC, NP, and CRP were 7,573/ and micro;L, 54.53%, and 0.61 mg/L, respectively. Of the 102 patients with NTT, 101 (99% proved not to have appendiceal inflammation (NPV=99%. Only 39 patients were operated upon, of whom 38 (97.4% had a normal appendix, and the remaining 63 patients were either discharged (n=47 or referred to other specialties (n=16. There were significantly more women (76.3%, 29/38 with negative appendectomy than men (24.7%, 9/38 (X2= 21.1, p=0.0001. Gynecological causes were the most common (60.5%, 23/38 and in 11 cases, the exact etiology could not be identified. Conclusions: From the data presented, it may be concluded that TLC, NP and CRP blood levels (triple test should be measured upon hospital admission of adult patients with clinically suspected acute appendicitis. If used judiciously, they may spare the group of patients with an NTT an unnecessary surgical operation, hence markedly reducing the NAR with its potential risks. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2012; 1(4.000: 229-236

  12. HMB-45 negative clear cell perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusiol, Teresa; Morichetti, Doriana; Zorzi, Maria Grazia; Dario, Surace

    2012-01-01

    The first case of cutaneous clear cell perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) with negative HMB-45 marker is presented. The tumor was a nodule 3x2 cm in size, located on the right foot in a 60-year-old man. The lesion consisted of large irregularly shaped cells with clear cytoplasm, negative for S-100 protein, HMB-45, Melan-A, pancytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen and CAM5.2. Multifocal positivity for desmin, microphthalmia transcription factor and tyrosinase was found. The diagnosis of cutaneous PEComa of clear cell type was made. Clear cell change is a very unusual finding in PEComa and may pose problems in diagnostic differentiation from other clear cell cutaneous lesions that may be excluded with immunohistochemistry. In our case, the HMB-45 negativity may be explained by extensive clear cell change. Additional studies are necessary to accept the clear cell cutaneous HMB-45 negative PEComa as a new variant of perivascular epithelioid cell tumor.

  13. Exercise Activates p53 and Negatively Regulates IGF-1 Pathway in Epidermis within a Skin Cancer Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Miao; King, Brenee; Ewert, Emily; Su, Xiaoyu; Mardiyati, Nur; Zhao, Zhihui; Wang, Weiqun

    2016-01-01

    Exercise has been previously reported to lower cancer risk through reducing circulating IGF-1 and IGF-1-dependent signaling in a mouse skin cancer model. This study aims to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which exercise may down-regulate the IGF-1 pathway via p53 and p53-related regulators in the skin epidermis. Female SENCAR mice were pair-fed an AIN-93 diet with or without 10-week treadmill exercise at 20 m/min, 60 min/day and 5 days/week. Animals were topically treated with TPA 2 hours before sacrifice and the target proteins in the epidermis were analyzed by both immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Under TPA or vehicle treatment, MDM2 expression was significantly reduced in exercised mice when compared with sedentary control. Meanwhile, p53 was significantly elevated. In addition, p53-transcriptioned proteins, i.e., p21, IGFBP-3, and PTEN, increased in response to exercise. There was a synergy effect between exercise and TPA on the decreased MDM2 and increased p53, but not p53-transcripted proteins. Taken together, exercise appeared to activate p53, resulting in enhanced expression of p21, IGFBP-3, and PTEN that might induce a negative regulation of IGF-1 pathway and thus contribute to the observed cancer prevention by exercise in this skin cancer model.

  14. Diagnostic evaluation of a large group of patients with immediate allergy to penicillins: the role of skin testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M J; Romano, A; Mayorga, C; Moya, M C; Guzman, A E; Reche, M; Juarez, C; Blanca, M

    2001-09-01

    Penicillin is no longer the most commonly prescribed beta-lactam, and the pattern of reactions has changed. We studied the diagnostic value of skin testing in penicillin-allergic subjects from a population where benzylpenicillin is not now the most frequently used beta-lactam. Patients with a history of immediate allergic reactions to penicillins were studied with: skin tests with major and minor determinants of benzylpenicillin (BPO/MDM), amoxicillin, and ampicillin; in vitro determination of specific IgE; and controlled administration for those with a positive history but negative skin and in vitro tests. A reaction was considered immediate when symptoms appeared within a maximum of 1 h after drug intake. After testing, 290 patients (71% having anaphylaxis and 29% having urticaria) proved to be allergic. Amoxicillin was involved in 64.8% and benzylpenicillin in 2.8% of the patients. Skin test positivity to at least one determinant appeared in 70% of cases, amoxicillin being the most frequent. The overall sensitivity decreased markedly when only BPO and MDM were considered. In 13.1% of patients, the diagnosis was established by in vitro test and in 16.9% by controlled administration. Of the 290 patients, 42.1% were positive to determinants generated from benzylpenicillin and 57.9% were selective responders. Sensitivity of skin tests to BPO was lower than reported, being partly replaced by minor determinants, mostly amoxicillin. The incorporation of additional reagents and the development of new tests are required, and these will probably change as the patterns of consumption vary.

  15. D2-40 negative pyogenic granuloma-like Kaposi's sarcoma: Diagnostic features and histogenetic hypothesis of an uncommon skin tumor in HIV-negative patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabibi, D; Giannone, A G; Guarnotta, C; Schillaci, O; Franco, V

    2015-07-01

    Pyogenic granuloma-like Kaposi's sarcoma (PGLKS) is a recently described skin tumor showing features both of pyogenic granuloma (PG) and Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). The differential diagnosis is often challenging. We reviewed a series of 50 PG and 23 Ks located on distal extremities with the aid of an immunohistochemical panel comprising CD34, CD31, FVIII, SMA, D2-40, HHV8. After revision, 6/50 PG lesions previously diagnosed as PG, showed positive immunostaining for LNA1-HHV8 and focal positivity for CD31 and FVIII in the endothelial cells of the proliferating vessels, with some SMA positive pericytes. D2-40, a marker of lymphatic endothelium positive in KS, stained negatively. These lesions were renamed PGLKS. Of note, in our series, PGLKS represented the only form of KS localized in the hand; all the patients were HIV-negative, older than PG patients, with a prevalence for male gender. PGLKS and PG need a different management and a follow-up is advisable for PGLKS, as for the other variants of KS. To date, D2-40 negative immunostaining has not yet been reported in PGLKS and should not lead to a misdiagnosis of PG. The morphological similarities with PG and the immunohistochemical findings, showing a defective phenotype of the neoplastic cells, suggest a histogenetic hypothesis in which D2-40 negative PGLKS could represent an early stage of HHV8 infection of a pre-existing PG, whose vessels loose progressively their blood vascular markers but have not still acquired the lymphatic ones. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Insertion Testing of Polyethylene Glycol Microneedle Array into Cultured Human Skin with Biaxial Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Naoki; Tachikawa, Hiroto; Miyano, Takaya; Nishiyabu, Kazuaki

    Aiming at the practical use of polyethylene glycol (PEG) microneedles for transdermal drug delivery system (DDS), a testing apparatus for their insertion into cultured human skin has been developed. To simulate the variety of conditions of human skin, biaxial tension can be applied to the cultured human skin. An adopted testing scheme to apply and control the biaxial tension is similar to the deep-draw forming technique. An attention was also paid to the short-time setup of small, thin and wet cultured skin. One dimensional array with four needles was inserted and influence of tension was discussed. It was found that tension, deflection of skin during insertion and original curvature of skin are the important parameters for microneedles array design.

  17. Bloodstains on Leather: Examination of False Negatives in Presumptive Test and Human Hemoglobin Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelló, Ana; Francès, Francesc; Verdú, Fernando

    2017-09-01

    Presumptive tests for blood are very simple and sensitive tests used in the search for evidence. They also provide initial information on the nature of stains. A second test can confirm their nature. However, these tests can present false-negative results for different reasons. Some of those reasons have been studied, while others, those caused by the substrate material that contains the stain, are less well known. This work studies the effect of one component of a leather substrate-quebracho extract-on presumptive and human hemoglobin blood tests. Assays were performed using samples of blood dilutions contaminated with quebracho extract and others formed on a substrate containing the contaminant. Results show an undoubted interference that causes false negatives and even visible to the naked eye stains and also indicate that some tests (phenolphthalein) are more affected than others. Examiners should be taken into account when working on this kind of substrates. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Documented tuberculin skin testing among infliximab users following a multi-modal risk communication interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatin, Deborah; Rawson, Nigel S B; Curtis, Jeffrey R; Braun, M Miles; Martin, Carolyn K; Moreland, Larry W; Becker, Angela F; Patkar, Nivedita M; Allison, Jeroan J; Saag, Kenneth G

    2006-01-01

    Following its licensure, tuberculosis (TB) was reported as a potential adverse effect of infliximab. Subsequently, the product circular was changed to recommend tuberculin skin testing before patients received infliximab, which was reinforced by several risk communication efforts. The aim of this study was to evaluate patterns and predictors of documented tuberculin skin testing in patients before and after manufacturer, federal, and academic risk communications. Patients administered infliximab were identified from 11 health plans located throughout the United States, and claims data were examined to determine whether the patients had received a tuberculin skin test. Patients were divided into three cohorts depending on the timing of their first infliximab treatment in relation to the risk communication efforts. The overall tuberculin skin testing rate doubled from 15.4% in the first cohort to 30.9% in the last cohort, while the rate of pre-infliximab treatment testing increased from 0 to 27.7% (Chi-squared test for trend, p skin testing rates were significantly higher in women, those with a diagnosis of rheumatoid or psoriatic arthritis, and those with a rheumatologist as prescriber. After multivariable analysis, only rheumatologist remained significantly associated with tuberculin skin testing. Although the tuberculin skin testing rate was relatively low overall, tuberculin skin testing doubled over 30 months of ongoing risk communication efforts and under ascertainment likely occurred. We also found variation in the tuberculin skin testing rate associated with physician specialty. This study demonstrates a significant change in patient care following risk communication efforts. (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Feasibility, Benefits, and Limitations of a Penicillin Allergy Skin Testing Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Prasanna P; Jeffres, Meghan N

    2017-06-01

    To critically examine the feasibility, benefits, and limitations of an inpatient penicillin skin testing service and how pharmacists can be utilized. A PubMed search was performed from July 2016 through September 2016 using the following search terms: penicillin skin testing, penicillin allergy, β-lactam allergy. Additional references were identified from a review of literature citations. All English-language studies assessing the use of penicillin skin testing as well as management and clinical outcomes of patients with a β-lactam allergy were evaluated. The prevalence of people self-identifying as penicillin allergic ranges from 10% to 20% in the United States. Being improperly labeled as penicillin allergic is associated with higher health care costs, worse clinical outcomes, and an increased prevalence of multidrug-resistant infections. Penicillin skin testing can be a tool used to clarify penicillin allergies and has been demonstrated to be a successful addition to antimicrobial stewardship programs in multiple health care settings. Prior to implementing a penicillin skin testing service, institutions will need to perform a feasibility analysis of who will supply labor and accept the financial burden as well as identify if the positive benefits of a penicillin skin testing service overcome the limitations of this diagnostic test. We conclude that institutions with high percentages of patients receiving non-β-lactams because of penicillin allergy labels would likely benefit the most from a penicillin skin testing service.

  20. A SKIN TEST FOR DETECTING GROUP C HEMOLYTIC STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTION CAUSING EPIZOOTIC LYMPHADENITIS IN GUINEA PIGS : APPLICATIONS IN SELECTING BREEDING STOCK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, J K

    1936-09-30

    1. A skin test with a crude bacterial extract prepared from group C (Lancefield) hemolytic streptococci was used as a means of detecting possible carriers of the streptococcus causing epizootic lymphadenitis in guinea pigs. A positive test similar to a positive tuberculin reaction was considered presumptive evidence of present or recent infection with this streptococcus. 2. 20 positive reactors were found in 330 supposedly normal guinea pigs. 3. 195 negatively reacting animals were used as a breeding stock which yielded 1,296 progeny over a period of 15 months. None of the breeding stock or their progeny showed evidence of spontaneous lymphadenitis. Skin tests of 100 of the progeny were all negative. 4. The use of this skin test as a means of obtaining guinea pig breeding stock free of the streptococcus causing spontaneous lymphadenitis is suggested.

  1. Deuterium results at the negative ion source test facility ELISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, W.; Wünderlich, D.; Fantz, U.; Heinemann, B.; Bonomo, F.; Riedl, R.

    2018-05-01

    The ITER neutral beam system will be equipped with large radio frequency (RF) driven negative ion sources, with a cross section of 0.9 m × 1.9 m, which have to deliver extracted D- ion beams of 57 A at 1 MeV for 1 h. On the extraction from a large ion source experiment test facility, a source of half of this size is being operational since 2013. The goal of this experiment is to demonstrate a high operational reliability and to achieve the extracted current densities and beam properties required for ITER. Technical improvements of the source design and the RF system were necessary to provide reliable operation in steady state with an RF power of up to 300 kW. While in short pulses the required D- current density has almost been reached, the performance in long pulses is determined in particular in Deuterium by inhomogeneous and unstable currents of co-extracted electrons. By application of refined caesium evaporation and distribution procedures, and reduction and symmetrization of the electron currents, considerable progress has been made and up to 190 A/m2 D-, corresponding to 66% of the value required for ITER, have been extracted for 45 min.

  2. A tuberculin skin test survey among Ghanaian school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Addo, K.K.; van den Hof, S.; Mensah, G.I.; Hesse, A.; Bonsu, C.; Koram, K.A.; Afutu, F.K.; Bonsu, F.A.

    2010-01-01

    Ghana has not conducted a national tuberculin survey or tuberculosis prevalence survey since the establishment of the National Tuberculosis Control Programme. The primary objective of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence of tuberculin skin sensitivity in Ghanaian school children aged

  3. Evaluation of the performance of the reduced local lymph node assay for skin sensitization testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezendam, Janine; Muller, Andre; Hakkert, Betty C; van Loveren, Henk

    2013-06-01

    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is the preferred method for classification of sensitizers within REACH. To reduce the number of mice for the identification of sensitizers the reduced LLNA was proposed, which uses only the high dose group of the LLNA. To evaluate the performance of this method for classification, LLNA data from REACH registrations were used and classification based on all dose groups was compared to classification based on the high dose group. We confirmed previous examinations of the reduced LLNA showing that this method is less sensitive compared to the LLNA. The reduced LLNA misclassified 3.3% of the sensitizers identified in the LLNA and misclassification occurred in all potency classes and that there was no clear association with irritant properties. It is therefore not possible to predict beforehand which substances might be misclassified. Another limitation of the reduced LLNA is that skin sensitizing potency cannot be assessed. For these reasons, it is not recommended to use the reduced LLNA as a stand-alone assay for skin sensitization testing within REACH. In the future, the reduced LLNA might be of added value in a weight of evidence approach to confirm negative results obtained with non-animal approaches. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A tuberculin skin test survey among Ghanaian school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addo, Kennedy Kwasi; van den Hof, Susan; Mensah, Gloria Ivy; Hesse, Adukwei; Bonsu, Christian; Koram, Kwadwo Ansah; Afutu, Felix Kwami; Bonsu, Frank Adae

    2010-01-26

    Ghana has not conducted a national tuberculin survey or tuberculosis prevalence survey since the establishment of the National Tuberculosis Control Programme. The primary objective of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence of tuberculin skin sensitivity in Ghanaian school children aged 6-10 years in 8 out of 10 regions of Ghana between 2004 and 2006. Tuberculin survey was conducted in 179 primary schools from 21 districts in 8 regions. Schools were purposively selected so as to reflect the proportion of affluent private and free tuition public schools as well as the proportion of small and large schools. Of the 24,778 children registered for the survey, 23,600 (95.2%) were tested of which 21,861 (92.6%) were available for reading. The age distribution showed an increase in numbers of children towards older age: 11% of the children were 6 years and 25%, 10 years. Females were 52.5% and males 47.5%. The proportion of girls was higher in all age groups (range 51.4% to 54.0%, p < 0.001). BCG scar was visible in 89.3% of the children. The percentage of children with a BCG scar differed by district and by age. The percentage of children with a BCG scar decreased with increasing age in all districts, reflecting increasing BCG vaccination coverage in Ghana in the last ten years. The risk of tuberculosis infection was low in the northern savannah zones compared to the southern coastal zones. Using a cut-off of 15 mm, the prevalence of infection ranged from 0.0% to 5.4% and the Annual Risks of Tuberculosis Infection 0.0% to 0.6%. There was an increase in the proportion of infected children after the age of 7 years. Children attending low and middle-class schools had a higher risk of infection than children attending upper-class schools. Tuberculosis infection is still a public health problem in Ghana and to monitor the trend, the survey needs to be repeated at 5 years interval.

  5. Skin signs in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: clinical tests and para-clinical methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remvig, Lars; Duhn, Ph; Ullman, S

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The criteria for Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) and the hypermobility syndrome (HMS) should be reliable. Examination for general joint hypermobility has high reliability but there is only sparse information on the reliability of skin tests, and no information on the level of normal skin...

  6. Skin signs in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: clinical tests and para-clinical methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remvig, L; Duhn, Ph; Ullman, S

    2010-01-01

    The criteria for Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) and the hypermobility syndrome (HMS) should be reliable. Examination for general joint hypermobility has high reliability but there is only sparse information on the reliability of skin tests, and no information on the level of normal skin extensibility...

  7. Blocking negative effects of senescence in human skin fibroblasts with a plant extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lämmermann, Ingo; Terlecki-Zaniewicz, Lucia; Weinmüllner, Regina; Schosserer, Markus; Dellago, Hanna; de Matos Branco, André Dargen; Autheried, Dominik; Sevcnikar, Benjamin; Kleissl, Lisa; Berlin, Irina; Morizot, Frédérique; Lejeune, Francois; Fuzzati, Nicola; Forestier, Sandra; Toribio, Alix; Tromeur, Anaïs; Weinberg, Lionel; Higareda Almaraz, Juan Carlos; Scheideler, Marcel; Rietveld, Marion; El Ghalbzouri, Abdoel; Tschachler, Erwin; Gruber, Florian; Grillari, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that senescent cells are a driving force behind many age-related pathologies and that their selective elimination increases the life- and healthspan of mice. Senescent cells negatively affect their surrounding tissue by losing their cell specific functionality and by secreting a pro-tumorigenic and pro-inflammatory mixture of growth hormones, chemokines, cytokines and proteases, termed the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Here we identified an extract from the plant Solidago virgaurea subsp. alpestris , which exhibited weak senolytic activity, delayed the acquisition of a senescent phenotype and induced a papillary phenotype with improved functionality in human dermal fibroblasts. When administered to stress-induced premature senescent fibroblasts, this extract changed their global mRNA expression profile and particularly reduced the expression of various SASP components, thereby ameliorating the negative influence on nearby cells. Thus, the investigated plant extract represents a promising possibility to block age-related loss of tissue functionality.

  8. ANA Negative Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Leading to CTEPH, TTP-Like Thrombocytopenia, and Skin Ulcers

    OpenAIRE

    Changal, Khalid Hamid; Sofi, Fayaz; Altaf, Sheikh Shoaib; Raina, Adnan; Raina, Ab. Hameed

    2016-01-01

    SLE affects almost every organ system, with differing degrees of severity. During its clinical course periods of flares may alternate with periods of remission culminating in disease and therapy related damage. We describe a case of ANA negative SLE with severe thrombocytopenia, cutaneous vasculitis, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, and pulmonary artery hypertension. As there is no definitive cure for SLE the treatment lies in caring for the individual organ systems involved and simultaneo...

  9. ANA Negative Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Leading to CTEPH, TTP-Like Thrombocytopenia, and Skin Ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Hamid Changal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available SLE affects almost every organ system, with differing degrees of severity. During its clinical course periods of flares may alternate with periods of remission culminating in disease and therapy related damage. We describe a case of ANA negative SLE with severe thrombocytopenia, cutaneous vasculitis, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, and pulmonary artery hypertension. As there is no definitive cure for SLE the treatment lies in caring for the individual organ systems involved and simultaneously taking care of the patient as a whole.

  10. Comparison of the skin sensitizing potential of unsaturated compounds as assessed by the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and the guinea pig maximization test (GPMT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiling, R; Hollnagel, H M; Hareng, L; Eigler, D; Lee, M S; Griem, P; Dreessen, B; Kleber, M; Albrecht, A; Garcia, C; Wendel, A

    2008-06-01

    The skin sensitization potential of eight unsaturated and one saturated lipid (bio)chemicals was tested in both the LLNA and the GPMT to address the hypothesis that chemicals with unsaturated carbon-carbon double bonds may result in a higher number of unspecific (false positive) results in the LLNA compared to the GPMT. Seven substances (oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, undecylenic acid, maleic acid, squalene and octinol) gave clear positive results in the LLNA (stimulation index (SI)> or = 3) and thus would require labelling as skin sensitizer. Fumaric acid and succinic acid gave clearly negative results. In the GPMT, besides some sporadic skin reactions, reproducible skin reactions indicating an allergic response were found in a few animals for four test substances. Based on the GPMT results, only undecylenic acid would have to be classified and labelled as a skin sensitizer according to the European Dangerous Substance Directive (67/548/EEC) (results for linoleic acid were inconclusive), while the other seven test substances would not require labelling. Possible mechanisms for unspecific skin cell stimulation and lymph node responses are discussed. In conclusion, the suitability of the LLNA for unsaturated compounds bearing structural similarity to the tested substances should be carefully considered and the GPMT should remain available as an accepted test method for skin sensitization hazard identification.

  11. Factors influencing and modifying the decision to pursue genetic testing for skin cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Alexander L; Jaju, Prajakta D; Li, Shufeng; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie; Tang, Jean Y; Sarin, Kavita Y

    2017-05-01

    Across cancers, the decision to pursue genetic testing is influenced more by subjective than objective factors. However, skin cancer, which is more prevalent, visual, and multifactorial than many other malignancies, may offer different motivations for pursuing such testing. The primary objective was to determine factors influencing the decision to receive genetic testing for skin cancer risk. A secondary objective was to assess the impact of priming with health questions on the decision to receive testing. We distributed anonymous online surveys through ResearchMatch.org to assess participant health, demographics, motivations, and interest in pursuing genetic testing for skin cancer risk. Two surveys with identical questions but different question ordering were used to assess the secondary objective. We received 3783 responses (64% response rate), and 85.8% desired testing. Subjective factors, including curiosity, perceptions of skin cancer, and anxiety, were the most statistically significant determinants of the decision to pursue testing (P < .001), followed by history of sun exposure (odds ratio 1.85, P < .01) and history of skin cancer (odds ratio 0.5, P = .01). Age and family history of skin cancer did not influence this decision. Participants increasingly chose testing if first queried about health behaviors (P < .0001). The decision to pursue hypothetical testing may differ from in-clinic decision-making. Self-selected, online participants may differ from the general population. Surveys may be subject to response bias. The decision to pursue genetic testing for skin cancer is primarily determined by subjective factors, such as anxiety and curiosity. Health factors, including skin cancer history, also influenced decision-making. Priming with consideration of objective health factors can increase the desire to pursue testing. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 'False-positive' and 'false-negative' test results in clinical urine drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisfield, Gary M; Goldberger, Bruce A; Bertholf, Roger L

    2009-08-01

    The terms 'false-positive' and 'false-negative' are widely used in discussions of urine drug test (UDT) results. These terms are inadequate because they are used in different ways by physicians and laboratory professionals and they are too narrow to encompass the larger universe of potentially misleading, inappropriate and unexpected drug test results. This larger universe, while not solely comprised of technically 'true' or 'false' positive or negative test results, presents comparable interpretive challenges with corresponding clinical implications. In this review, we propose the terms 'potentially inappropriate' positive or negative test results in reference to UDT results that are ambiguous or unexpected and subject to misinterpretation. Causes of potentially inappropriate positive UDT results include in vivo metabolic conversions of a drug, exposure to nonillicit sources of a drug and laboratory error. Causes of potentially inappropriate negative UDT results include limited assay specificity, absence of drug in the urine, presence of drug in the urine, but below established assay cutoff, specimen manipulation and laboratory error. Clinical UDT interpretation is a complicated task requiring knowledge of recent prescription, over-the-counter and herbal drug administration, drug metabolism and analytical sensitivities and specificities.

  13. Design, Fabrication, and Testing of Active Skin Antenna with 3D Printing Array Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhu Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An active skin antenna with structural load-bearing and electromagnetic functions is usually installed in the structural surface of mobile vehicles such as aircrafts, warships, and high-speed train. This paper presents the design, fabrication, and testing of a novel active skin antenna which consists of an encapsulation shell, antenna skin, and RF and beam control circuits. The antenna skin which consists of the facesheet, honeycomb, array framework, and microstrip antenna elements was designed by using Bayesian optimization, in order to improve the design efficiency. An active skin antenna prototype with 32 microstrip antenna elements was fabricated by using a hybrid manufacturing method. In this method, 3D printing technology was applied to fabricate the array framework, and the different layers were bonded to form the final antenna skin by using traditional composite process. Some experimental testing was conducted, and the testing results validate the feasibility the proposed antenna skin structure. The proposed design and fabrication technique is suitable for the development of conformal load-bearing antenna or smart skin antenna installed in the structural surface of aircraft, warships, and armored vehicles.

  14. Diagnosis of penicillin allergy revisited: the value of case history, skin testing, specific IgE and prolonged challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjortlund, J; Mortz, C G; Skov, P S; Bindslev-Jensen, C

    2013-08-01

    Skin testing in duplicate, correlation between case history of immediate and nonimmediate reactions and challenge outcome and prolonged oral treatment with penicillin in the diagnostic evaluation of allergic reactions to β-lactam antibiotics, mimicking real-life situations, have only been addressed in few studies. A total of 342 patients suspected of having β-lactam allergy were investigated according to the European Network for Drug Allergy (ENDA) guidelines and patients found to be negative in the ENDA program were supplemented with a 7-day oral treatment with penicillin. Skin testing with penicillins was performed in duplicate. Patients with case histories of reactions to other β-lactams were also subsequently challenged with the culprit drug. Nineteen patients were IgE-sensitized to penicillin. Then, intracutaneous tests (ICTs) were performed, in which 35 patients tested positive for allergy, 21 with delayed and 14 with immediate reactions. Only three patients tested positive for the major (PPL) and/or minor (MDM) penicillin determinants, all being positive for penicillin G in ICT. The remaining 291 patients were challenged with penicillin: 10 tested positive in single-dose challenge and 23 tested positive in the 7-day challenge. A total of 17 of 78 patients with a negative penicillin challenge tested positive during challenges with other β-lactams. We found no correlation between case histories of immediate and nonimmediate reactions and reaction time during challenge. The data suggest that case history is often insufficient to discriminate between immediate reactors and nonimmediate reactors. A 7-day challenge with the culprit β-lactam may yield more positive reactions than the accepted one- or 2-day challenge. Interpretation of skin testing should be made with caution. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. De-labelling self-reported penicillin allergy within the emergency department through the use of skin tests and oral drug provocation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwood, Joseph; Aguirrebarrena, Gonzalo; Kerr, Stephen; Welch, Susan A; Rimmer, Janet

    2017-10-01

    Self-reported penicillin allergy is common among patients attending the ED, but is a poor predictor of true immunoglobulin E-mediated hypersensitivity to penicillin. We hypothesise that with a combination of skin testing and drug provocation testing, selected patients can be safely de-labelled of their allergy. This prospective study enrolled a sample of patients presenting to an urban academic ED between 2011 and 2016 with a self-reported allergy to penicillin. Standardised skin prick and intradermal testing with amoxicillin and both major and minor determinants of penicillin was performed in the department. If negative, testing was followed by a graded oral challenge of amoxicillin over 9 days. The primary end point was the allergy status of participants at the end of the study. A total of 100 patients (mean age 42; standard deviation 14 years; 54% women) completed the testing. Of these, 81% (95% confidence interval 71.9-88.2) showed no hypersensitivity to penicillin and were labelled non-allergic. The majority (16/19) of allergies were confirmed by skin testing, with three suspected allergies detected by the oral challenge. Women were more likely than men to have a true penicillin allergy, with odds ratio of 4.0 (95% confidence interval 1.23-13.2). There were no serious adverse events. Selected patients in the ED who self-report an allergy to penicillin can be safely tested there for penicillin allergy, using skin tests and oral drug provocation testing. This testing allows a significant de-labelling of penicillin allergy, with the majority of these patients able to tolerate penicillin without incident. © 2017 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  16. Negativity bias and task motivation: testing the effectiveness of positively versus negatively framed incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Kelly; Dhar, Ravi

    2013-12-01

    People are frequently challenged by goals that demand effort and persistence. As a consequence, philosophers, psychologists, economists, and others have studied the factors that enhance task motivation. Using a sample of undergraduate students and a sample of working adults, we demonstrate that the manner in which an incentive is framed has implications for individuals' task motivation. In both samples we find that individuals are less motivated when an incentive is framed as a means to accrue a gain (positive framing) as compared with when the same incentive is framed as a means to avoid a loss (negative framing). Further, we provide evidence for the role of the negativity bias in this effect, and highlight specific populations for whom positive framing may be least motivating. Interestingly, we find that people's intuitions about when they will be more motivated show the opposite pattern, with people predicting that positively framed incentives will be more motivating than negatively framed incentives. We identify a lay belief in the positive correlation between enjoyment and task motivation as one possible factor contributing to the disparity between predicted and actual motivation as a result of the framing of the incentive. We conclude with a discussion of the managerial implications for these findings. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Helminths and skewed cytokine profiles increase tuberculin skin test positivity in Warao Amerindians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, L. M.; Hermans, P. W. M.; Warris, A.; de Groot, R.; Maes, M.; Villalba, J. A.; del Nogal, B.; van den Hof, S.; Mughini Gras, L.; van Soolingen, D.; Pinelli, E.; de Waard, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    The immune regulatory mechanisms involved in the acquisition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children are largely unknown. We investigated the influence of parasitic infections, malnutrition and plasma cytokine profiles on tuberculin skin test (TST) positivity in Warao Amerindians in

  18. Impact of changed legislation on skin tests: the present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klimek, Ludger; Hoffmann, Hans Jürgen; Kugler, Alexa; Muraro, Antonella; Hellings, Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    To discuss the impact of current European Union regulations on the availability of commercially available skin test allergens in European member states. European Union legislations now define diagnostic allergens to be medicine requiring market authorization of every individual diagnostic allergen

  19. Dual skin tests with Mycobacterium avium sensitin and PPD to detect misdiagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, E M; O'Donnell, M; Chamblee, S; Horsburgh, C R; Marsh, B J; Moreland, J D; Johnson, L S; von Reyn, C Fordham

    2011-11-01

    A positive tuberculin skin test (TST) may indicate cross-reacting immunity to non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) and not latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). To assess misclassification of LTBI, as assessed by skin testing with Mycobacterium avium sensitin (MaS), and to determine how this misclassification affects the analysis of risk factors for LTBI. In a population-based survey, participants underwent skin testing with M. tuberculosis purified protein derivative (PPD) and MaS. A PPD-dominant skin test was a reaction that was ≥ 3 mm larger than the MaS reaction; a MaS-dominant skin test was a reaction that was ≥ 3 mm larger than the PPD reaction. Of 447 randomly selected persons, 135 (30%) had a positive PPD test. Of these, 21 (16%) were MaS- dominant, and were therefore attributable to NTM and misclassified as LTBI. PPD reactions of 5-14 mm were more likely to be misclassified than those ≥ 15 mm (OR = 5.0, 95%CI 1.9-13.2). Adjusting for misclassification had only a small impact on the analysis of risk factors for LTBI. A substantial number of individuals who are diagnosed with LTBI are actually sensitized to NTM. Using dual skin testing would reduce misdiagnosis and prevent unnecessary treatment.

  20. CAT SCRATCH DISEASE: RESULTS OF COMPLEMENT-FIXATION AND SKIN TESTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serologic and skin-testing data on a group of patients having cat scratch disease are presented to demonstrate a possible relationship to the psitt...indicate that the incidence of positive serologic reactions with the psitt-LGV group antigen is consistently higher in patients with cat scratch disease...patients, 2 of 5 did not respond with positive skin reactions when tested with cat scratch antigen, and at least 2 of the remaining 3 responded in a manner difficult to interpret.

  1. [Practice patterns in Mexican allergologists about skin tests with allergens during 2005-2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larenas Linnemann, Désirée; Fogelbach, Guillermo Arturo Guidos; Cruz, Alfredo Arias

    2008-01-01

    Immunotherapy has been practiced since over a hundred years. The exact composition of the immunotherapy concentrate, with which the patient is treated, depends partly on the results of the skin prick tests applied to the allergic patient. As such, the effectiveness of the immunotherapy depends heavily on the quality of the skin prick test. The detailed recommendations for the realization of the skin prick tests have evolved and changed over the years, leading to multiple variations in its application in Mexico. We tried to get a picture of the daily practice patterns of the members of CMICA and CoMPedIA concerning the application of skin prick tests. Aquestionnaire was sent in various occasions to all members of the Colegio Mexicano de Inmunologia Clinica y Alergia (CMICA) and of the Colegio Mexicano de Pediatras, Especialistas en Inmunologia y Alergia (CoMPedIA). The results are presented descriptively and by calculation of the frequency/percentages of intervals of replies, in the case of numerical responses. A response rate of 61 (17%) was obtained of the College members, showing consistency in some replies but a wide variation in others, for example in the time certain medication has to be suspended before the execution of the skin prick test. Comparing the replies obtained with recent recommendations in international publications, some discrepancy can be detected. In some aspects of the survey there is coincidence of the skin test practices among the participants; however, in other items there is an important variation.

  2. Skin age testing criteria: characterization of human skin structures by 500 MHz MRI multiple contrast and image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Rakesh

    2010-01-01

    Ex vivo magnetic resonance microimaging (MRM) image characteristics are reported in human skin samples in different age groups. Human excised skin samples were imaged using a custom coil placed inside a 500 MHz NMR imager for high-resolution microimaging. Skin MRI images were processed for characterization of different skin structures. Contiguous cross-sectional T1-weighted 3D spin echo MRI, T2-weighted 3D spin echo MRI and proton density images were compared with skin histopathology and NMR peaks. In all skin specimens, epidermis and dermis thickening and hair follicle size were measured using MRM. Optimized parameters TE and TR and multicontrast enhancement generated better MRI visibility of different skin components. Within high MR signal regions near to the custom coil, MRI images with short echo time were comparable with digitized histological sections for skin structures of the epidermis, dermis and hair follicles in 6 (67%) of the nine specimens. Skin % tissue composition, measurement of the epidermis, dermis, sebaceous gland and hair follicle size, and skin NMR peaks were signatures of skin type. The image processing determined the dimensionality of skin tissue components and skin typing. The ex vivo MRI images and histopathology of the skin may be used to measure the skin structure and skin NMR peaks with image processing may be a tool for determining skin typing and skin composition.

  3. Skin age testing criteria: characterization of human skin structures by 500 MHz MRI multiple contrast and image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Rakesh, E-mail: rs05h@fsu.ed [Departments of Chemical Engineering and Biomedical Engineering, FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States)

    2010-07-21

    Ex vivo magnetic resonance microimaging (MRM) image characteristics are reported in human skin samples in different age groups. Human excised skin samples were imaged using a custom coil placed inside a 500 MHz NMR imager for high-resolution microimaging. Skin MRI images were processed for characterization of different skin structures. Contiguous cross-sectional T1-weighted 3D spin echo MRI, T2-weighted 3D spin echo MRI and proton density images were compared with skin histopathology and NMR peaks. In all skin specimens, epidermis and dermis thickening and hair follicle size were measured using MRM. Optimized parameters TE and TR and multicontrast enhancement generated better MRI visibility of different skin components. Within high MR signal regions near to the custom coil, MRI images with short echo time were comparable with digitized histological sections for skin structures of the epidermis, dermis and hair follicles in 6 (67%) of the nine specimens. Skin % tissue composition, measurement of the epidermis, dermis, sebaceous gland and hair follicle size, and skin NMR peaks were signatures of skin type. The image processing determined the dimensionality of skin tissue components and skin typing. The ex vivo MRI images and histopathology of the skin may be used to measure the skin structure and skin NMR peaks with image processing may be a tool for determining skin typing and skin composition.

  4. Safety and efficacy of the C-Tb skin test to diagnose Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, compared with an interferon γ release assay and the tuberculin skin test: a phase 3, double-blind, randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhwald, Morten; Aggerbeck, Henrik; Gallardo, Rafael Vázquez; Hoff, Søren T; Villate, José I; Borregaard, Bettine; Martinez, José A; Kromann, Ingrid; Penas, Antón; Anibarro, Luis L; de Souza-Galvão, Maria Luiza; Sánchez, Francisca; Rodrigo-Pendás, Jose Ángel; Noguera-Julian, Antoni; Martínez-Lacasa, Xavier; Tuñez, Maria Victoria; Fernández, Virginia Leiro; Millet, Joan P; Moreno, Antonio; Cobos, Nazaret; Miró, José M; Roldan, Llanos; Orcau, Angels; Andersen, Peter; Caylá, Joan A

    2017-04-01

    Targeted screening and treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection substantially reduces the risk of developing active tuberculosis. C-Tb (Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark) is a novel specific skin test based on ESAT-6 and CFP10 antigens. We investigated the safety and diagnostic potential of C-Tb compared with established tests in the contact-tracing setting. Negative controls, close contacts, occasional contacts, and patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis were enrolled at 13 centres in Spain. We compared C-Tb with the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube ([QFT] Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) interferon γ release assay (IGRA) and the purified protein derivative (PPD) RT 23 tuberculin skin test ([TST] Statens Serum Institute). All participants older than 5 years were tested with QFT. Some participants in the negative control group received C-Tb without the TST to test for potential interactions between C-Tb and PPD RT 23. The rest were randomly assigned in blocks of ten and tested with both C-Tb and TST, with five in each block receiving injection of C-Tb in the right arm and the TST in the left arm and five vice versa. The primary and safety analyses were done in all participants randomly assigned to a group who received any test. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01631266, and with EudraCT, number 2011-005617-36. From July 24, 2012, to Oct 2, 2014, 979 participants were enrolled, of whom 263 were negative controls, 299 were occasional contacts, 316 were close contacts, and 101 were patients with tuberculosis. 970 (99%) participants completed the trial. Induration sizes were similar for C-Tb and TST, but TST positivity was affected by BCG vaccination status. We found a strong positive trend towards C-Tb test positivity with increasing risk of infection, from 3% in negative controls to 16% in occasional contacts, to 43% in close contacts. C-Tb and QFT results were concordant in 785 (94%) of 834 participants aged 5 years and older

  5. Predicting the outcome of oral food challenges with hen's egg through skin test end-point titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripodi, S; Businco, A Di Rienzo; Alessandri, C; Panetta, V; Restani, P; Matricardi, P M

    2009-08-01

    Oral food challenge (OFC) is the diagnostic 'gold standard' of food allergies but it is laborious and time consuming. Attempts to predict a positive OFC through specific IgE assays or conventional skin tests so far gave suboptimal results. To test whether skin test with titration curves predict with enough confidence the outcome of an oral food challenge. Children (n=47; mean age 6.2 +/- 4.2 years) with suspected and diagnosed allergic reactions to hen's egg (HE) were examined through clinical history, physical examination, oral food challenge, conventional and end-point titrated skin tests with HE white extract and determination of serum specific IgE against HE white. Predictive decision points for a positive outcome of food challenges were calculated through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for HE white using IgE concentration, weal size and end-point titration (EPT). OFC was positive (Sampson's score >or=3) in 20/47 children (42.5%). The area under the ROC curve obtained with the EPT method was significantly bigger than the one obtained by measuring IgE-specific antibodies (0.99 vs. 0.83, P<0.05) and weal size (0.99 vs. 0.88, P<0.05). The extract's dilution that successfully discriminated a positive from a negative OFC (sensitivity 95%, specificity 100%) was 1 : 256, corresponding to a concentration of 5.9 microg/mL of ovotransferrin, 22.2 microg/mL of ovalbumin, and 1.4 microg/mL of lysozyme. EPT is a promising approach to optimize the use of skin prick tests and to predict the outcome of OFC with HE in children. Further studies are needed to test whether this encouraging finding can be extended to other populations and food allergens.

  6. Antimicrobial-impregnated dressing combined with negative-pressure wound therapy increases split-thickness skin graft engraftment: a simple effective technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Chun; Chew, Khong-Yik; Chen, Chien-Chang; Kuo, Yur-Ren

    2015-01-01

    Immobilization and adequate surface contact to wounds are critical for skin graft take. Techniques such as the tie-over dressing, cotton bolster, and vacuum-assisted closure are used to address this, but each has its limitations. This study is designed to assess the effect of antimicrobial-impregnated dressing (AMD) combined with negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) on skin graft survival. Retrospective case-control study : Patients with chronic or contaminated wounds treated with split-thickness skin graft. A broad spectrum of wounds was included, from causes such as trauma, burns, chronic diabetic ulcers, and infection. Antimicrobial-impregnated dressing, which contains 0.2% polyhexamethylene biguanide, with NPWT MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:: Success of skin graft : In the AMD group, all skin grafts achieved 100% take without secondary intervention. No infection or graft failure was observed in any patients, and no complications, such as hematoma or seroma formation, were noted, although in the control group partial loss of skin grafts was noted in 3 patients. Infection and inadequate immobilization were thought to be the main reasons. There were no hematoma or seroma formations in the control group. Use of an AMD dressing with NPWT after split-thickness skin grafting can be an effective method to ensure good graft to wound contact and enhances skin graft take in chronic and contaminated wounds.

  7. Systematic evaluation of non-animal test methods for skin sensitisation safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisinger, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Alépée, Nathalie; Ashikaga, Takao; Barroso, Joao; Elcombe, Cliff; Gellatly, Nicola; Galbiati, Valentina; Gibbs, Susan; Groux, Hervé; Hibatallah, Jalila; Keller, Donald; Kern, Petra; Klaric, Martina; Kolle, Susanne; Kuehnl, Jochen; Lambrechts, Nathalie; Lindstedt, Malin; Millet, Marion; Martinozzi-Teissier, Silvia; Natsch, Andreas; Petersohn, Dirk; Pike, Ian; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Schepky, Andreas; Tailhardat, Magalie; Templier, Marie; van Vliet, Erwin; Maxwell, Gavin

    2015-02-01

    The need for non-animal data to assess skin sensitisation properties of substances, especially cosmetics ingredients, has spawned the development of many in vitro methods. As it is widely believed that no single method can provide a solution, the Cosmetics Europe Skin Tolerance Task Force has defined a three-phase framework for the development of a non-animal testing strategy for skin sensitization potency prediction. The results of the first phase – systematic evaluation of 16 test methods – are presented here. This evaluation involved generation of data on a common set of ten substances in all methods and systematic collation of information including the level of standardisation, existing test data,potential for throughput, transferability and accessibility in cooperation with the test method developers.A workshop was held with the test method developers to review the outcome of this evaluation and to discuss the results. The evaluation informed the prioritisation of test methods for the next phase of the non-animal testing strategy development framework. Ultimately, the testing strategy – combined with bioavailability and skin metabolism data and exposure consideration – is envisaged to allow establishment of a data integration approach for skin sensitisation safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients.

  8. A 'difficult' insect allergy patient: reliable history of a sting, but all testing negative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, James M; Olsen, Jonathan A; Carlson, John

    2015-08-01

    Few conditions are as treatable as allergy to stinging insects, with venom immunotherapy (VIT) providing up to 98% protection to subsequent stings. The challenge with VIT is not in the treatment, but in the diagnosis. To offer VIT, one must determine a history of a systemic reaction to a stinging insect in conjunction with the presence venom-specific IgE. Current diagnostic methods, although sensitive and specific, are imperfect, and some newer testing options are not widely available. A conundrum occasionally faced is the patient with a reliable and compelling history of a systemic allergic reaction yet negative venom-specific testing. This diagnostic dilemma presents an opportunity to consider possible causes for this diagnostic challenge. Our evolving understanding of the role of occult mast cell disease may begin to help us understand this situation and develop appropriate management strategies. Venom-specific skin testing has long been the cornerstone of the evaluation of venom sensitivity and is often combined with in-vitro assays to add clarity, but even these occasionally may fall short. Exploring novel venom diagnostic testing methods may help to fill in some of the diagnostic gaps. Do currently available venom vaccines contain all the key venom species? Are there enough differences between insect species that we may simply be missing the relevant allergens? What is the significance of the antigenicity of carbohydrate moieties in venoms? What is the role of recombinant venom extracts? VIT is the definitive treatment for insect allergic individuals. To utilize VIT, identification of the relevant Hymenoptera is necessary. Unfortunately, this cannot always be accomplished. This deficiency can have several causes: a potential comorbid condition such as occult mast cell disease, limitations of currently available diagnostic resources, or testing vaccines with an insufficient coverage of relevant venom allergens. Exploring these potential causes may help to

  9. Oral Challenge without Skin Testing Safely Excludes Clinically Significant Delayed-Onset Penicillin Hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confino-Cohen, Ronit; Rosman, Yossi; Meir-Shafrir, Keren; Stauber, Tali; Lachover-Roth, Idit; Hershko, Alon; Goldberg, Arnon

    Penicillins are the drug family most commonly associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Current guidelines recommend negative skin tests (ST) before re-administering penicillins to patients with previous nonimmediate reactions (NIR). The objective of this study was to examine whether ST are necessary before re-administering penicillin to patients with NIR. Patients with NIR to penicillins starting longer than 1 hour after last dose administration or starting any time after the first treatment day or patients with vague recollection of their reaction underwent penicillin ST. Disregarding ST results, patients were challenged with the relevant penicillins. One-tenth of the therapeutic dose followed by the full dose was administered at 1-hour interval and patients continued taking the full dose for 5 days. A total of 710 patients with alleged BL allergy were evaluated. Patients with a history of immediate reaction (52, 7.3%) or cephalosporin allergy (16, 2.2%) were excluded. Of the remaining 642 patients, 62.3% had negative ST, 5.3% positive ST, and 32.4% equivocal ST. A total of 617 (96.1%) patients were challenged. Immediate reaction was observed in 9 patients (1.5%): 1-positive ST, 7-negative ST, and 1-equivocal ST (P = .7). Late reaction to the first-day challenge occurred in 24 patients (4%). An at-home challenge was continued by 491 patients. Complete 5-day and partial challenges were well tolerated by 417 (85%) and 44 patients (8.9%), respectively, disregarding ST results. Thirty patients (6.1%) developed mild reactions to the home challenge regardless of their ST results. A 5-day oral challenge without preceding ST is safe and sufficient to exclude penicillin allergy after NIR developing during penicillin treatment. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of recombinant purified protein derivative (PPD) antigens as specific skin test for tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavri, Henriette; Bucurenci, Nadia; Ulea, Irina; Costache, Adriana; Popa, Loredana; Popa, Mircea Ioan

    2012-11-01

    Purified protein derivative (PPD) is currently the only available skin test reagent used worldwide for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study was to develop a Mycobacterium tuberculosis specific skin test reagent, without false positive results due to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination using recombinant antigens. Proteins in PPD IC-65 were analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry and compared to proteins in M. tuberculosis culture filtrate; 54 proteins were found in common. Top candidates MPT64, ESAT 6, and CFP 10 were overexpressed in Escherichia coli expression strains and purified as recombinant proteins. To formulate optimal immunodiagnostic PPD cocktails, the antigens were evaluated by skin testing guinea pigs sensitized with M. tuberculosis H37Rv and BCG. For single antigens and a cocktail mixture of these antigens, best results were obtained using 3 μg/0.1 ml, equivalent to 105 TU (tuberculin units). Each animal was simultaneously tested with PPD IC-65, 2 TU/0.1 ml, as reference. Reactivity of the multi-antigen cocktail was greater than that of any single antigen. The skin test results were between 34.3 and 76.6 per cent the level of reactivity compared to that of the reference when single antigens were tested and 124 per cent the level of reactivity compared to the reference for the multi-antigen cocktail. Our results showed that this specific cocktail could represent a potential candidate for a new skin diagnostic test for TB.

  11. Integrating non-animal test information into an adaptive testing strategy - skin sensitization proof of concept case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, Joanna; Harol, Artsiom; Kern, Petra S; Gerberick, G Frank

    2011-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop data integration and testing strategy frameworks allowing interpretation of results from animal alternative test batteries. To this end, we developed a Bayesian Network Integrated Testing Strategy (BN ITS) with the goal to estimate skin sensitization hazard as a test case of previously developed concepts (Jaworska et al., 2010). The BN ITS combines in silico, in chemico, and in vitro data related to skin penetration, peptide reactivity, and dendritic cell activation, and guides testing strategy by Value of Information (VoI). The approach offers novel insights into testing strategies: there is no one best testing strategy, but the optimal sequence of tests depends on information at hand, and is chemical-specific. Thus, a single generic set of tests as a replacement strategy is unlikely to be most effective. BN ITS offers the possibility of evaluating the impact of generating additional data on the target information uncertainty reduction before testing is commenced.

  12. Criterion for testing multiparticle negative-partial-transpose entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, B.; Zhou, D.L.; Zhang, P.; Xu, Z.; You, L.

    2003-01-01

    We revisit the criterion of multiparticle entanglement based on the overlaps of a given quantum state ρ with maximally entangled states. For a system of m particles, each with N distinct states, we prove that ρ is m-particle negative partial transpose entangled, if there exists a maximally entangled state vertical bar MES>, such that >1/N. While this sufficiency condition is weaker than the Peres-Horodecki criterion in all cases, it applies to multi-particle systems, and becomes especially useful when the number of particles (m) is large. We also consider the converse of this criterion and illustrate its invalidity with counter examples

  13. Development, validation and testing of a skin sampling method for assessment of metal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfani, Behnaz; Midander, Klara; Lidén, Carola; Julander, Anneli

    2017-07-01

    Nickel, cobalt and chromium are frequent skin sensitizers. Skin exposure results in eczema in sensitized individuals, the risk being related to the skin dose. To develop a self-sampling method for quantification of skin exposure to metals, to validate the method, and to assess its feasibility. Defined metal doses (0.01-5 µg) were applied to the fingers of 5 participants. Skin areas (2 cm 2 ) were sampled with 1% HNO 3 , either as 0.1 ml on a swab, or as 0.5 ml on a wipe. Furthermore, 17 participants performed self-sampling by swab after 2 h of leisure activity. Samples were extracted in 1% HNO 3 and analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The sampling efficiency by swab was 46%, as compared with 93% for acid wipe sampling, for all tested doses. Most metal from the skin dose was detected in the first swab (33-43%). Despite lower sampling efficiency by swab, skin doses of metals following 2 h of leisure activity without hand washing were quantified in all participants, and ranged from 0.0016 to 0.15 µg/cm 2 , from 0.00014 to -0.0020 µg/cm 2 and from 0.00048 to -0.027 µg/cm 2 for nickel, cobalt, and chromium, respectively. The results indicate a future potential of skin sampling by swab to detect and monitor metals on skin by self-sampling. This will contribute to better knowledge of metal skin exposure among dermatitis patients, workers, and the general population. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. [Assessment of hypersensitivity to honey-bee venom in beekeepers by skin tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril-Ángeles, Martín; Núñez-Velázquez, Marco; Marín-Martínez, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Beekeepers are exposed to frequent honey-bee stings, and have the risk to develop hypersensitivity to bee venom, but long-term exposure can induce immune tolerance in them. Up to 30% of beekeepers show positive skin tests with honey-bee venom. The prevalence of systemic reactions to bee stings in beekeepers is from 14% to 42%. To know the prevalence of hypersensitivity to honeybee venom in Mexican beekeepers and non-beekeepers by the use of skin tests. A group of 139 beekeepers and a group of 60 non-beekeeper volunteers had a history and physical related to age, sex, family and personal atopic history and time of exposure to bee stings. Both groups received intradermal skin tests with honey-bee venom, 0.1 mcg/mL and 1 mcg/mL, and histamine sulphate 0.1 mg/mL and Evans solution as controls. The skin tests results of both groups were compared by chi-squared test. Of the group of beekeepers, 116 were men (83%) and 23 women, average age was 39.3 years, had atopic family history 28% and personal atopy 13%, average time of exposure to bee stings was 10.9 years, skin tests with honey-bee venom were positive in 16.5% and 11% at 1 mcg/mL and 0.1 mcg/mL, respectively. In the non-beekeepers group venom skin tests were positive in 13.3% and 6.7% at 1 mcg/mL and 0.1 mcg/mL. We did not find significant differences between the two venom concentrations tested in both groups, neither in the number of positive skin tests between the two groups. We found hypersensivity to honey-bee venom slightly higher in the beekeepers than in the group apparently not exposed. Both honey-bee venom concentrations used did not show difference in the results of the skin tests. The similarity of skin tests positivity between both groups could be explained by immune tolerance due to continued exposure of beekeepers.

  15. The power of extraverts: testing positive and negative mood regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Hervas

    Full Text Available Extraversion is a personality trait which has been systematically related to positive affect and well-being. One of the mechanisms that may account for these positive outcomes is the ability to regulate the responses to positive, as well as negative, moods. Prior research has found that extraverts' higher positive mood maintenance could explain their higher levels of positive affect. However, research exploring differences between extraverts and introverts in negative mood regulation has yielded mixed results. The aim of the current study was explore the role of different facets of mood regulation displayed by extraverts, ambiverts, and introverts. After been exposed to a sad vs. happy mood induction, participants underwent a mood regulation task. Extraverts and ambiverts exhibited higher positive mood regulation than introverts, but similar mood repair. Thus, this research highlights the importance of positive mood regulation in the psychological functioning of extraverts, and opens new conceptualizations for developing interventions for introverts to improve their positive mood regulation and, hence, overall positive affect and well-being.

  16. Optical coherence tomography applied to tests of skin care products in humans--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez-Pinto, L M C; Maldonado, E P; Raele, M P; Amaral, M M; de Freitas, A Z

    2015-02-01

    When evaluating skin care products for human skin, quantitative test methods need to be simple, precise and reliable. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), provides high-resolution sectional images of translucent materials to a depth of a few millimeters, a technique usually applied to medical measurements in ophthalmology and dermatology. This study aimed to demonstrate the application of OCT as the main technique for monitoring changes in skin topography during tests of a wrinkle-reduction product in humans. We used a commercial OCT apparatus to perform clinical examinations of skin roughness in treated and non-treated sites in the periorbital region of thirty human voluntaries who were using an anti-aging product commercially available: Natura Chronos® Flavonóides de Passiflora 45+ FPS15, from Natura Cosméticos, Brazil. Measurements were performed days 0, 7, 14 and 28 of treatment. Equipment and software allowed real-time recording of skin roughness parameters and wrinkle depths. The OCT measurements have allowed the monitoring of changes in skin roughness, which have shown reduction in treated sites around 10%. The obtained depth distributions also indicate reduction in the occurrence of wrinkles deeper than 170 μm. The verified results are consistent with those typically obtained after successful treatment with modern anti-aging products. By using the OCT technique, it was possible to quantify changes in skin roughness and in the distribution of depths of skin wrinkles, with adequate sensitivity. OCT imaging allows the direct visualization of the skin topography with resolution of micrometers, a reliable and interactive tool for clinical use. Therefore, for the first time, we demonstrated the use of OCT technique to verify the efficacy of cosmetic products in real time. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Sensitivity and specificity of skin tests in the diagnosis of clarithromycin allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Francesca; Barni, Simona; Pucci, Neri; Rossi, Elisabetta; Azzari, Chiara; de Martino, Maurizio; Novembre, Elio

    2010-05-01

    Clarithromycin is one of the most frequently prescribed oral macrolidic antibiotics in the pediatric population. Suspected adverse reactions to clarithromycin have been frequently described by parents of children examined in pediatric allergy units, but there is a lack of reliable methods available in detecting the presence of specific IgE antibodies. To investigate the prevalence of a clarithromycin allergy in children seen in a pediatric allergy unit using standardized skin tests and oral provocation tests (OPTs). Sixty-four children were referred with a history of a clarithromycin-associated adverse drug reaction. All these children underwent skin tests and OPTs. The nonirritating intradermal skin test concentration for clarithromycin was determined in a control group of 18 children who had tolerated clarithromycin in the previous month. The threshold nonirritating intradermal concentration was established at the 10:2 dilution (0.5 mg/mL). Nine of the 64 children had an immediately positive intradermal response to the 10:2 dilution and only 1 child to the 10:3 dilution (0.05 mg/mL). None had positive skin prick test results or delayed skin responses to intradermal tests. Four of 64 children (6%) with previously described adverse reactions due to clarithromycin intake had a positive OPT reaction. When we correlated the intradermal skin test results to the OPT results, intradermal test sensitivity and specificity were 75% and 90%, respectively. Intradermal tests seem to be useful in allergologic workup in children with suspected clarithromycin hypersensitivity and may help reduce the need for OPTs.

  18. QSAR models of human data can enrich or replace LLNA testing for human skin sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Vinicius M.; Capuzzi, Stephen J.; Muratov, Eugene; Braga, Rodolpho C.; Thornton, Thomas; Fourches, Denis; Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Andrade, Carolina H.; Tropsha, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Skin sensitization is a major environmental and occupational health hazard. Although many chemicals have been evaluated in humans, there have been no efforts to model these data to date. We have compiled, curated, analyzed, and compared the available human and LLNA data. Using these data, we have developed reliable computational models and applied them for virtual screening of chemical libraries to identify putative skin sensitizers. The overall concordance between murine LLNA and human skin sensitization responses for a set of 135 unique chemicals was low (R = 28-43%), although several chemical classes had high concordance. We have succeeded to develop predictive QSAR models of all available human data with the external correct classification rate of 71%. A consensus model integrating concordant QSAR predictions and LLNA results afforded a higher CCR of 82% but at the expense of the reduced external dataset coverage (52%). We used the developed QSAR models for virtual screening of CosIng database and identified 1061 putative skin sensitizers; for seventeen of these compounds, we found published evidence of their skin sensitization effects. Models reported herein provide more accurate alternative to LLNA testing for human skin sensitization assessment across diverse chemical data. In addition, they can also be used to guide the structural optimization of toxic compounds to reduce their skin sensitization potential. PMID:28630595

  19. Natural evolution of skin-test sensitivity in patients with IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to cephalosporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, A; Gaeta, F; Valluzzi, R L; Zaffiro, A; Caruso, C; Quaratino, D

    2014-06-01

    There are studies demonstrating that skin-test sensitivity to penicillins can decrease over time and that allergic patients may lose sensitivity if the responsible compounds are avoided. With regard to subjects with IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to cephalosporins, however, such studies are lacking. We evaluated prospectively in a 5-year follow-up 72 cephalosporin-allergic patients. After the first evaluation, patients were classified into two groups according to their patterns of allergologic-test positivity: to both penicillins and cephalosporins (group A), or only to cephalosporins (group B). Skin tests and serum-specific IgE assays were repeated 1 year later and, in case of persistent positivity, 3 and 5 years after the first allergologic examination. Seven (43.7%) of the 16 subjects of group A and 38 (67.8%) of the 56 patients of group B became negative; one was lost to follow-up. Patients of group B became negative sooner and more frequently than group A subjects. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Use of genotoxicity information in the development of integrated testing strategies (ITS) for skin sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekenyan, Ovanes; Patlewicz, Grace; Dimitrova, Gergana; Kuseva, Chanita; Todorov, Milen; Stoeva, Stoyanka; Kotov, Stefan; Donner, E Maria

    2010-10-18

    Skin sensitization is an end point of concern for various legislation in the EU, including the seventh Amendment to the Cosmetics Directive and Registration Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH). Since animal testing is a last resort for REACH or banned (from 2013 onward) for the Cosmetics Directive, the use of intelligent/integrated testing strategies (ITS) as an efficient means of gathering necessary information from alternative sources (e.g., in vitro, (Q)SARs, etc.) is gaining widespread interest. Previous studies have explored correlations between mutagenicity data and skin sensitization data as a means of exploiting information from surrogate end points. The work here compares the underlying chemical mechanisms for mutagenicity and skin sensitization in an effort to evaluate the role mutagenicity information can play as a predictor of skin sensitization potential. The Tissue Metabolism Simulator (TIMES) hybrid expert system was used to compare chemical mechanisms of both end points since it houses a comprehensive set of established structure-activity relationships for both skin sensitization and mutagenicity. The evaluation demonstrated that there is a great deal of overlap between skin sensitization and mutagenicity structural alerts and their underlying chemical mechanisms. The similarities and differences in chemical mechanisms are discussed in light of available experimental data. A number of new alerts for mutagenicity were also postulated for inclusion into TIMES. The results presented show that mutagenicity information can provide useful insights on skin sensitization potential as part of an ITS and should be considered prior to any in vivo skin sensitization testing being initiated.

  1. Differential skin test reactivity to pollens in pollen food allergy syndrome versus allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Von; Scott, David R; Chin, William K; Wineinger, Nathan E; Kelso, John M; White, Andrew A

    2015-01-01

    Pollen food allergy syndrome (PFAS), also called oral allergy syndrome, is a form of food allergy in which uncooked foods cause allergic symptoms generally limited to the oral mucosa. It occurs in a subset of patients with pollen allergy, although not all patients have prominent rhinitis symptoms. PFAS is related to antigenic similarity between the pollen and food allergen. The size of skin test reactions in a group of subjects with pollen sensitivity with PFAS was compared with a group of subjects who were pollen sensitive and without PFAS. Self-reported rhinitis symptoms between the two groups were compared to identify if symptom severity differed. Twenty subjects with PFAS and 20 subjects with seasonal allergic rhinitis without PFAS were enrolled in the study. All the subjects underwent standard skin-prick testing to a panel of common allergens, including select fresh fruits and vegetables. The subjects completed a Mini Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire as part of their clinical evaluation. The subjects with PFAS and those without PFAS were compared statistically. The subjects with PFAS had significantly larger-sized skin-prick test results specific to pollens (p PFAS reported milder nasal symptoms in relation to pollen skin test result size when compared with allergic rhinitis controls without PFAS. Our study outlined basic differences between two seemingly similar patient groups with a particularly striking discordance between skin test result sizes and rhinitis symptoms. This discordance should be explored further to increase mechanistic understanding of allergen cross-reactivity in PFAS.

  2. GALEN skin test study III: Minimum battery of test inhalent allergens needed in epidemiological studies in patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousquet, P.-J.; Burbach, G.; Heinzerling, L. M.; Edenharter, G.; Bachert, C.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Bonini, S.; Bousquet-Rouanet, L.; Demoly, P.; Bresciani, M.; Bruno, A.; Gjomarkaj, M.; Canonica, G. W.; Darsow, U.; Durham, S.; Fokkens, W. J.; Giavi, S.; Gramiccioni, C.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Haahtela, T.; Kowalski, M. L.; Magyar, P.; Muraközi, G.; Orosz, M.; Röhnelt, C.; Stingl, G.; Todo-Bom, A.; von Mutius, E.; Wiesner, A.; Wöhrl, S.; Bousquet, J.; Zuberbier, T.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The number of allergens to be tested in order to identify sensitized patients is important in order to have the most cost-effective approach in epidemiological studies. Objective: To define the minimal number and the type of skin prick test (SPT) allergens required to identify a patient

  3. Reliability of candida skin test in the evaluation of T-cell function in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Both standardized and non-standardized candida skin tests are used in clinical practice for functional in-vivo assessment of cellular immunity with variable results and are considered not reliable under the age of 1 year. We sought to investigate the reliability of using manually prepared candida intradermal test ...

  4. Studies on the prevalence of leishmanin skin test positivity in the Baringo District, Rift Valley, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaefer, K. U.; Kurtzhals, J. A.; Kager, P. A.; Gachihi, G. S.; Gramiccia, M.; Kagai, J. M.; Sherwood, J. A.; Muller, A. S.

    1994-01-01

    The leishmanin skin test (LST) was applied in 26 clusters of an average of 97 individuals in Baringo District, Kenya. These clusters were centered around recent cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Of 2,411 individuals tested, 254 (10.5%, 155 males and 99 females) had a positive reaction. Among

  5. In vitro and in vivo characterization of hazelnut skin prick test extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerdaas, Jaap H.; Wensing, Marjolein; Knulst, André C.; Aalberse, Rob C.; Hefle, Susan L.; van Ree, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    RATIONALE: Hazelnut allergy ranks among the most frequently observed food allergies. Clinical symptoms range from the oral allergy syndrome to life threatening anaphylaxis. Diagnosis of hazelnut allergy partially relies on in vivo testing by means of skin prick testing (SPT). The aim of this study

  6. Identification of low allergenic apple cultivars using skin prick tests and oral food challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; van de Weg, W. E.; van der Heide, S.; Kerkhof, M.; Arens, P.; Heijerman-Peppelman, G.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    2011-01-01

    As oral allergy syndrome (OAS) symptoms to apple are frequent, we aimed to identify low allergenic apple cultivars and to validate the prick-to-prick skin prick test (SPT) as a suitable screening method. Sixty-eight apple cultivars were tested by SPTs in 33 Dutch adults with OAS, before and during

  7. Identification of low allergenic apple cultivars using skin prick tests and oral food challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; van de Weg, W. E.; van der Heide, S.; Kerkhof, M.; Arens, P.; Heijerman-Peppelman, G.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    P>Background: As oral allergy syndrome (OAS) symptoms to apple are frequent, we aimed to identify low allergenic apple cultivars and to validate the prick-to-prick skin prick test (SPT) as a suitable screening method. Methods: Sixty-eight apple cultivars were tested by SPTs in 33 Dutch adults with

  8. GA(2)LEN skin test study II: clinical relevance of inhalant allergen sensitizations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burbach, G J; Heinzerling, L M; Edenharter, G

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin prick testing is the standard for diagnosing IgE-mediated allergies. A positive skin prick reaction, however, does not always correlate with clinical symptoms. A large database from a Global Asthma and Allergy European Network (GA(2)LEN) study with data on clinical relevance was ...... the clinical relevance of positive skin prick tests and calls for further studies, which may, ultimately, help increase the positive predictive value of allergy testing.......BACKGROUND: Skin prick testing is the standard for diagnosing IgE-mediated allergies. A positive skin prick reaction, however, does not always correlate with clinical symptoms. A large database from a Global Asthma and Allergy European Network (GA(2)LEN) study with data on clinical relevance...... was used to determine the clinical relevance of sensitizations against the 18 most frequent inhalant allergens in Europe. The study population consisted of patients referred to one of the 17 allergy centres in 14 European countries (n = 3034, median age = 33 years). The aim of the study was to assess...

  9. Frozen fruit skin prick test for the diagnosis of fruit allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garriga, Teresa; Guilarte, Mar; Luengo, Olga; Guillén, Mercé; Labrador-Horrillo, Moisés; Fadeeva, Tatiana; Sala, Anna; Cardona, Victória

    2010-12-01

    Diagnosis of fruit sensitisation by skin prick test (SPT) is fast and easy to perform. Nevertheless, some fruit is not available throughout the year. Freezing aliquots of these fresh fruits to be defrosted would be a good solution to perform SPT at any time. To compare the reproducibility of SPT with Rosaceae and Cucurbitaceae frozen fruit with fresh and commercial fruit extracts. SPT with the following fruit were performed: apricot, cherry, strawberry, nectarine, Japanese medlar, peach, (peel and pulp), yellow and red plum, melon and watermelon. We compared fresh fruit, commercial extract and fruit which had been frozen at -18 degrees C. Results were read by planimetry (Inmunotek prick-film) after 15 minutes. The study group comprised 48 patients (9 males, 39 females) with a mean age of 31, 6 +/- 2.0 years. Concordance of positive and negative results was extremely high and significant in all cases. Correlation between frozen fruit and commercial extract, frozen fruit and fresh and commercial extract and fresh fruit was statistically significant in all cases except for strawberry. The use of frozen fruit is a valid method, as the performance of the SPT is similar to that of fresh fruit. This enables diagnostic procedures with seasonal fruit at any time of the year.

  10. Outbreak of pulmonary tuberculosis in which tuberculosis developed from QuantiFERON-TB second generation (QFT-2G) test negative persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Junichi; Ooba, Yuko; Kaneda, Mie; Uchida, Kiyomi; Ishikawa, Yo; Suzuki, Kiminori; Yagi, Takenori; Sasaki, Yuka; Yamagishi, Fumio

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the points to be considered when QuantiFERON-TB second generation (QFT-2G) tests are used in the contacts examination by public health center. We analyzed the results of contacts examination on 43 workplace colleagues (39 y/o and younger) of a pulmonary tuberculosis patient (bII2, Gaffky 9, cough for 1.5 months). After two months of the last contact with the index case, tuberculin skin tests, QFT-2G tests and chest X-rays were undertaken. After 6 months, chest X-rays were taken, and after 9 months, QFT-2G tests and chest CT scans were also undertaken. The tuberculin skin tests after two months showed a bimodal distribution, and 10 were QFT-2G positive and 2 showed doubtful reaction. The latter 12 persons underwent chemoprophylaxis. After 6 months, however, out of 31 QFT-2G negative persons, 2 developed pulmonary tuberculosis. Moreover, after 9 months, chest CT scans revealed 5 pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Three out of 7 new patients showed positive or doubtful reactions in QFT-2G tests undertaken after 9 months. The sensitivity of QFT-2G tests is reported to be 80 to 90%, and the possibility of false negative is not negligible. We propose measures for public health center to conduct the contacts examination as follows; In case of high QFT-2G positive (including doubtful reaction) rate and/or a bimodal distribution of tuberculin skin test result, many infected persons are likely to be included in the group; and the following measures are recommended; Necessity of chemoprophylaxis should be judged considering both tuberculin skin test results and the situation of contact with the index case, and not only by QFT-2G test results. QFT-2G negative persons also need to be followed with chest X-rays. (author)

  11. Perfectionism, Performance, and State Positive Affect and Negative Affect after a Classroom Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flett, Gordon L.; Blankstein, Kirk R.; Hewitt, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the associations among trait dimensions of perfectionism, test performance, and levels of positive and negative affect after taking a test. A sample of 92 female university students completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale one week prior to an actual class test. Measures of positive affect and negative affect…

  12. Improvement of human cell line activation test (h-CLAT) using short-time exposure methods for prevention of false-negative results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Kazuto; Ishii, Yuuki; Vo, Phuc Thi Hong; Nakagawa, Fumiko; Ogata, Shinichi; Yamashita, Kunihiko; Kojima, Hajime; Itagaki, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    Recently, animal testing has been affected by increasing ethical, social, and political concerns regarding animal welfare. Several in vitro safety tests for evaluating skin sensitization, such as the human cell line activation test (h-CLAT), have been proposed. However, similar to other tests, the h-CLAT has produced false-negative results, including in tests for acid anhydride and water-insoluble chemicals. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the cause of false-negative results from phthalic anhydride was hydrolysis by an aqueous vehicle, with IL-8 release from THP-1 cells, and that short-time exposure to liquid paraffin (LP) dispersion medium could reduce false-negative results from acid anhydrides. In the present study, we modified the h-CLAT by applying this exposure method. We found that the modified h-CLAT is a promising method for reducing false-negative results obtained from acid anhydrides and chemicals with octanol-water partition coefficients (LogK ow ) greater than 3.5. Based on the outcomes from the present study, a combination of the original and the modified h-CLAT is suggested for reducing false-negative results. Notably, the combination method provided a sensitivity of 95% (overall chemicals) or 93% (chemicals with LogK ow > 2.0), and an accuracy of 88% (overall chemicals) or 81% (chemicals with LogK ow > 2.0). We found that the combined method is a promising evaluation scheme for reducing false-negative results seen in existing in vitro skin-sensitization tests. In the future, we expect a combination of original and modified h-CLAT to be applied in a newly developed in vitro test for evaluating skin sensitization.

  13. A simple in chemico method for testing skin sensitizing potential of chemicals using small endogenous molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, Mahesh Raj; Shakya, Rajina; Kang, Mi Jeong; Jeong, Tae Cheon

    2018-06-01

    Among many of the validated methods for testing skin sensitization, direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA) employs no cells or animals. Although no immune cells are involved in this assay, it reliably predicts the skin sensitization potential of a chemical in chemico. Herein, a new method was developed using endogenous small-molecular-weight compounds, cysteamine and glutathione, rather than synthetic peptides, to differentiate skin sensitizers from non-sensitizers with an accuracy as high as DPRA. The percent depletion of cysteamine and glutathione by test chemicals was measured by an HPLC equipped with a PDA detector. To detect small-size molecules, such as cysteamine and glutathione, a derivatization by 4-(4-dimethylaminophenylazo) benzenesulfonyl chloride (DABS-Cl) was employed prior to the HPLC analysis. Following test method optimization, a cut-off criterion of 7.14% depletion was applied to differentiate skin sensitizers from non-sensitizers in combination of the ratio of 1:25 for cysteamine:test chemical with 1:50 for glutathione:test chemical for the best predictivity among various single or combination conditions. Although overlapping HPLC peaks could not be fully resolved for some test chemicals, high levels of sensitivity (100.0%), specificity (81.8%), and accuracy (93.3%) were obtained for 30 chemicals tested, which were comparable or better than those achieved with DPRA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. House dust bioactivities predict skin prick test reactivity for children with high risk of allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Haejin; Tse, Kevin; Levin, Linda; Bernstein, David; Reponen, Tiina; LeMasters, Grace; Lummus, Zana; Horner, Anthony A

    2012-06-01

    Although evidence suggests that ambient exposures to endotoxin and other immunostimulants during early life influence allergic risk, efforts to understand this host-environment relationship have been hampered by a paucity of relevant assays. These investigations determined whether parameters of house dust extract (HDE) bioactivity were predictive of allergen skin prick test (SPT) reactivity for infants at high risk of allergy participating in the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study (CCAAPS). We conducted a nested case-control study, selecting 99 CCAAPS children who had positive SPT results to at least 1 aeroallergen at age 3 years and 101 subjects with negative SPT results. HDEs were prepared from dust samples collected from the subjects' homes at age 1 year. Murine splenocytes and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells were incubated with HDEs, and supernatant cytokine concentrations were determined by means of ELISA. Alternatively, bone marrow-derived dendritic cells were preincubated with HDEs, and then LPS-induced IL-6 responses were assessed. HDE endotoxin levels were determined by using the limulus amebocyte lysate assay. HDEs derived from the homes of children with positive (cases) and negative (control subjects) SPT results had similar bioactivities. However, when cases were considered in isolation, HDEs with higher levels of bioactivity were significantly associated with children who had lower numbers of positive SPT results. Analogous statistical analyses did not identify any association between HDE endotoxin levels and the aeroallergen sensitization profiles of children included in this study. HDE immunostimulatory activities predicted the aeroallergen sensitization status of CCAAPS subjects better than HDE endotoxin levels. These results provide the first published evidence that HDE bioassays have clinical relevance in predicting atopic risk. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All

  15. A comparative evaluation of in vitro skin sensitisation tests: the human cell-line activation test (h-CLAT) versus the local lymph node assay (LLNA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashikaga, Takao; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Sono, Sakiko; Kosaka, Nanae; Ishikawa, Makie; Nukada, Yuko; Miyazawa, Masaaki; Ito, Yuichi; Nishiyama, Naohiro; Itagaki, Hiroshi

    2010-08-01

    We previously developed the human cell-line activation test (h-CLAT) in vitro skin sensitisation test, based on our reported finding that a 24-hour exposure of THP-1 cells (a human monocytic leukaemia cell line) to sensitisers is sufficient to induce the augmented expression of CD86 and CD54. The aim of this study is to confirm the predictive value of h-CLAT for skin sensitisation activity by employing a larger number of test chemicals. One hundred chemicals were selected, according to their categorisation in the local lymph node assay (LLNA), as being: extreme, strong, moderate and weak sensitisers, and non-sensitisers. The correlation of the h-CLAT results with the LLNA results was 84%. There were some false negatives (e.g. benzoyl peroxide, hexyl cinnamic aldehyde) and some false positives (e.g. 1-bromobutane, diethylphthalate). Eight out of the 9 false negatives (89%) were water-insoluble chemicals. The h-CLAT could positively predict not only extreme and strong sensitisers, but also moderate and weak sensitisers, though the detection rates of weak sensitisers and non-sensitisers were comparatively low. Some sensitisers enhanced both CD86 and CD54 levels, and some enhanced the level of only one of them. The use of the combination of CD86 and CD54 induction as a positive indicator, improved the accuracy of the test. In conclusion, the h-CLAT is expected to be a useful cell-based in vitro method for predicting skin sensitisation potential. 2010 FRAME.

  16. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  17. Identification of low allergenic apple cultivars using skin prick tests and oral food challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B J; van de Weg, W E; van der Heide, S; Kerkhof, M; Arens, P; Heijerman-Peppelman, G; Dubois, A E J

    2011-04-01

    As oral allergy syndrome (OAS) symptoms to apple are frequent, we aimed to identify low allergenic apple cultivars and to validate the prick-to-prick skin prick test (SPT) as a suitable screening method. Sixty-eight apple cultivars were tested by SPTs in 33 Dutch adults with OAS, before and during the birch pollen season in 2006 and 2007, respectively. Three cultivars yielding the largest number of negative SPTs (Elise, Santana and Pink Lady®) and one reference cultivar (Golden Delicious) were subsequently tested by single-blind oral food challenges (SBFC) just after picking in fall 2007 (fresh) and in spring 2008 (stored), outside the birch pollen season and preceded by SPTs. In spring, Santana was replaced by Modi®. In fresh apples, OAS symptoms of Elise, as measured by cumulative scores on a Visual Analogue Scale VASt, were significantly lower than those of Santana, Pink Lady and Golden Delicious (P = 0.021; 0.040 and 0.005, respectively). VASt scores of Santana were significantly lower than those of Golden Delicious (P = 0.049). In stored apples, VASt scores of Elise were significantly lower than that of Golden Delicious (P = 0.038). VASt scores of fresh apples did not differ significantly from stored apples, except in Golden Delicious (spring < fall: P = 0.021). The SPTs did not predict the severity of OAS. SPTs are not useful to assess the allergenicity of apple cultivars. By using SBFC, Elise and Santana were identified as low allergenic apple cultivars in patient with OAS. Our data on the effect of storage are inconclusive. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Undetected by Tuberculin Skin Testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anderson, S. T.; Williams, A. J.; Brown, J. R.; Newton, S. M.; Šimšová, Marcela; Nicol, M. P.; Šebo, Peter; Levin, M.; Wilkinson, R. J.; Wilkinson, K. A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 173, - (2006), s. 1038-1042 ISSN 1073-449X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5020406 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : adenylate cyclase * diagnostic tests and procedures * mycobacterium tuberculosis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 9.091, year: 2006

  19. Diagnosis of mold allergy by RAST and skin prick testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordvall, S L; Agrell, B; Malling, H J; Dreborg, S

    1990-11-01

    Sera from 33 patients with mold allergy proven by bronchial provocation were analyzed for specific IgE against six mold species comparing an improved Phadebas RAST with four other techniques. The new method was more sensitive and gave significantly higher IgE antibody concentrations for all tested molds except Cladosporium herbarum.

  20. Performance and Pain Tolerability of Current Diagnostic Allergy Skin Prick Test Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tversky, Jody R; Chelladurai, Yohalakshmi; McGready, John; Hamilton, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    Allergen skin prick testing remains an essential tool for diagnosing atopic disease and guiding treatment. Sensitivity needs to be defined for newly introduced devices. Our aim was to compare the performance of 10 current allergy skin prick test devices. Single- and multiheaded skin test devices (n = 10) were applied by a single operator in a prospective randomized manner. Histamine (1 and 6 mg/mL) and control diluent were introduced at 6 randomized locations onto the upper and lower arms of healthy subjects. Wheal and flare reactions were measured independently by 2 masked technicians. Twenty-four subjects provided consent, and 768 skin tests were placed. Mean wheal diameter among devices differed from 3.0 mm (ComforTen; Hollister-Stier, Spokane, Wash) to 6.8 mm (UniTest PC; Lincoln Diagnostics, Decatur, Ill) using 1 mg/mL histamine (P Diagnostics, Decatur, Ill; and Sharp-Test; Panatrex, Placentia, Calif) using 6 mg/mL histamine (P pain score of less than 4 on a 10-point visual analog scale. Pain scores were higher among women, but this did not reach statistical significance. The Multi-Test PC and the UniTest PC had the lowest pain scores compared with the other devices. All 10 skin prick test devices displayed good analytical sensitivity and specificity; however, 3 mm cannot arbitrarily be used as a positive threshold. The use of histamine at 1 mg/mL is unacceptable for certain devices but may be preferable for the most sensitive devices. On average, there was no pain score difference between multiheaded and single-head devices. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pulse testing in the presence of wellbore storage and skin effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogbe, D.O.; Brigham, W.E.

    1984-08-01

    A pulse test is conducted by creating a series of short-time pressure transients in an active (pulsing) well and recording the observed pressure response at an observation (responding) well. Using the pressure response and flow rate data, the transmissivity and storativity of the tested formation can be determined. Like any other pressure transient data, the pulse-test response is significantly influenced by wellbore storage and skin effects. The purpose of this research is to examine the influence of wellbore storage and skin effects on interference testing in general and on pulse-testing in particular, and to present the type curves and procedures for designing and analyzing pulse-test data when wellbore storage and skin effects are active at either the responding well or the pulsing well. A mathematical model for interference testing was developed by solving the diffusivity equation for radial flow of a single-phase, slightly compressible fluid in an infinitely large, homogeneous reservoir. When wellbore storage and skin effects are present in a pulse test, the observed response amplitude is attenuated and the time lag is inflated. Consequently, neglecting wellbore storage and skin effects in a pulse test causes the calculated storativity to be over-estimated and the transmissivity to be under-estimated. The error can be as high as 30%. New correlations and procedures are developed for correcting the pulse response amplitude and time lag for wellbore storage effects. Using these correlations, it is possible to correct the wellbore storage-dominated response amplitude and time lag to within 3% of their expected values without wellbore storage, and in turn to calculate the corresponding transmissivity and storativity. Worked examples are presented to illustrate how to use the new correction techniques. 45 references.

  2. Antibacterial activities of coagulase-negative staphylococci from bovine teat apex skin and their inhibitory effect on mastitis-related pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braem, G; Stijlemans, B; Van Haken, W; De Vliegher, S; De Vuyst, L; Leroy, F

    2014-05-01

    To explore antibacterial activities of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) from teat apices of dairy cows towards mastitis-causing pathogens. Of 254 CoNS, 38 displayed bacteriocin-like activity after a first screening. Seven of these strains displayed activity against at least one mastitis-related pathogen (Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus). Staphylococcus chromogenes L217 displayed the strongest inhibitory effect, being active against all tested mastitis-related pathogens and most tested CoNS. Based on cation exchange and reversed-phase chromatography, in addition to N-terminal Edman degradation and PCR, the antibacterial peptide was identified as a nukacin-type bacteriocin and named nukacin L217. Although staphylococcal bacteriocins are generally found in the cell-free supernatants of liquid cultures, Staph. chromogenes L217 only led to detectable activity when grown on agar medium. Bacteriocin-like activities are not uncommon among CoNS from teat apices and may inhibit mastitis-causing pathogens, as found for nukacin L217 production by Staph. chromogenes L217. Nukacin L217 is the first identified bacteriocin of the species Staph. chromogenes and displays unusual production kinetics, that is, requiring surface growth of its producer. The fact that nukacins are produced by different CoNS species suggests a role in the teat skin ecosystem. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. A tiered approach to the use of alternatives to animal testing for the safety assessment of cosmetics: skin irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Martin; Jones, Penny; Goebel, Carsten; Dufour, Eric; Rowland, Joanna; Araki, Daisuke; Costabel-Farkas, Margit; Hewitt, Nicola J; Hibatallah, Jalila; Kirst, Annette; McNamee, Pauline; Schellauf, Florian; Scheel, Julia

    2009-07-01

    Evaluation of the skin irritancy and corrosivity potential of an ingredient is a necessity in the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients. To date, there are two formally validated alternatives to the rabbit Draize test for skin corrosivity in place, namely the rat skin transcutaneous electrical resistance (TER) assay and the Human Skin Model Test using EpiSkin, EpiDerm and SkinEthic reconstructed human epidermal equivalents. For skin irritation, EpiSkin, EpiDerm and SkinEthic are validated as stand-alone test replacements for the rabbit Draize test. Data from these tests are rarely considered in isolation and are evaluated in combination with other factors to establish the overall irritating or corrosive potential of an ingredient. In light of the deadlines established in the Cosmetics Directive for cessation of animal testing for cosmetic ingredients, a COLIPA scientific meeting was held in Brussels on 30th January, 2008 to review the use of alternative approaches and to set up a decision tree approach for their integration into tiered testing strategies for hazard and safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients and their use in products. In conclusion, the safety assessments for skin irritation/corrosion of new chemicals for use in cosmetics can be confidently accomplished using exclusively alternative methods.

  4. Lack of Correlation between Severity of Clinical Symptoms, Skin Test Reactivity, and Radioallergosorbent Test Results in Venom-Allergic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warrington RJ

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To retrospectively examine the relation between skin test reactivity, venom-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE antibody levels, and severity of clinical reaction in patients with insect venom allergy. Method Thirty-six patients (including 15 females who presented with a history of allergic reactions to insect stings were assessed. The mean age at the time of the reactions was 33.4 ± 15.1 years (range, 4-76 years, and patients were evaluated 43.6 ± 90 months (range, 1-300 months after the reactions. Clinical reactions were scored according to severity, from 1 (cutaneous manifestations only to 3 (anaphylaxis with shock. These scores were compared to scores for skin test reactivity (0 to 5, indicating the log increase in sensitivity from 1 μg/mL to 0.0001 μg/mL and radioallergosorbent test (RAST levels (0 to 4, indicating venom-specific IgE levels, from undetectable to >17.5 kilounits of antigen per litre [kUA/L]. Results No correlation was found between skin test reactivity (Spearman's coefficient = 0.15, p = .377 or RAST level (Spearman's coefficient = 0.32, p = .061 and the severity of reaction. Skin test and RAST scores both differed significantly from clinical severity (p p = .042. There was no correlation between skin test reactivity and time since reaction (Spearman's coefficient = 0.18, p = .294 nor between RAST and time since reaction (r = 0.1353, p = .438. Elimination of patients tested more than 12 months after their reaction still produced no correlation between skin test reactivity (p = .681 or RAST score (p = .183 and the severity of the clinical reaction. Conclusion In venom-allergic patients (in contrast to reported findings in cases of inhalant IgE-mediated allergy, there appears to be no significant correlation between the degree of skin test reactivity or levels of venom-specific IgE (determined by RAST and the severity of the clinical reaction.

  5. Increased Sensitization to Mold Allergens Measured by Intradermal Skin Testing following Hurricanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saporta, Diego; Hurst, David

    2017-01-01

    Objective . To report on changes in sensitivity to mold allergens determined by changes in intradermal skin testing reactivity, after exposure to two severe hurricanes. Methods . A random, retrospective allergy charts review divided into 2 groups of 100 patients each: Group A, patients tested between 2003 and 2010 prior to hurricanes, and Group B, patients tested in 2014 and 2015 following hurricanes. Reactivity to eighteen molds was determined by intradermal skin testing. Test results, age, and respiratory symptoms were recorded. Chi-square test determined reactivity/sensitivity differences between groups. Results . Posthurricane patients had 34.6 times more positive results ( p hurricanes ( p hurricanes ( p hurricanes. This supports climatologists' hypothesis that environmental changes resulting from hurricanes can be a health risk as reflected in increased allergic sensitivities and symptoms and has significant implications for physicians treating patients from affected areas.

  6. A skin test survey of valley fever in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrich, B E

    1989-01-01

    Results of a study of the prevalence of valley fever among 1128 residents of Tijuana, Baja California are presented. Children from primary and middle schools (n = 497) and adults from technical institutes and maquiladoras (assembly plants) were tested for reaction to both spherulin and coccidioidin during 1985-1986, and they completed a questionnaire containing 23 variables on their socio-environment. Place of residence was mapped. The population sampled is largely middle class. Discriminant analysis indicates the distribution of positive cases is not clustered, nor can it be correlated with geomorphic factors such as mesa tops, canyons, or valley bottoms.

  7. Proficiency testing of skin prick testers as part of a quality assurance system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Allesen-Holm, Pernille; Karved, Lisbeth Sys

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin prick test is an important diagnostic procedure in clinical allergy but documentation of the quality is often missing. METHODS: We describe a proficiency system to evaluate staff members in relation to the international recommended reproducibility in terms of coefficient...... of variation (CV 0.85) based on blinded octuplicate histamine testing using histamine 3, 10, 30 and 100 mg/ml. RESULTS: Fourteen trained allergy nurses participated in the proficiency testing. More than 95 % of the nurses, generated coefficient of variation...

  8. Positive Skin Test or Specific IgE to Penicillin Does Not Reliably Predict Penicillin Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannert, Line Kring; Mortz, Charlotte Gotthard; Skov, Per Stahl; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    According to guidelines, patients are diagnosed with penicillin allergy if skin test (ST) result or specific IgE (s-IgE) to penicillin is positive. However, the true sensitivity and specificity of these tests are presently not known. To investigate the clinical relevance of a positive ST result and positive s-IgE and to study the reproducibility of ST and s-IgE. A sample of convenience of 25 patients with positive penicillin ST results, antipenicillin s-IgE results, or both was challenged with their culprit penicillin. Further 19 patients were not challenged, but deemed allergic on the basis of a recent anaphylactic reaction or delayed reactions to skin testing. Another sample of convenience of 18 patients, 17 overlapping with the 25 challenged, with initial skin testing and s-IgE (median, 25; range, 3-121), months earlier (T -1 ), was repeat skin tested and had s-IgE measured (T 0 ), and then skin tested and had s-IgE measured 4 weeks later (T 1 ). Only 9 (36%) of 25 were challenge positive. There was an increased probability of being penicillin allergic if both ST result and s-IgE were positive at T 0 . Positive ST result or positive s-IgE alone did not predict penicillin allergy. Among the 18 patients repeatedly tested, 46.2% (12 of 25) of positive ST results at T -1 were reproducibly positive at T 0 . For s-IgE, 54.2% (14 of 24) positive measurements were still positive at T 0 and 7 converted to positive at T 1 . The best predictor for a clinically significant (IgE-mediated) penicillin allergy is a combination of a positive case history with simultaneous positive ST result and s-IgE or a positive challenge result. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Skin test concentrations for systemically administered drugs -- an ENDA/EAACI Drug Allergy Interest Group position paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brockow, K.; Garvey, L. H.; Aberer, W.; Atanaskovic-Markovic, M.; Barbaud, A.; Bilo, M. B.; Bircher, A.; Blanca, M.; Bonadonna, B.; Campi, P.; Castro, E.; Cernadas, J. R.; Chiriac, A. M.; Demoly, P.; Grosber, M.; Gooi, J.; Lombardo, C.; Mertes, P. M.; Mosbech, H.; Nasser, S.; Pagani, M.; Ring, J.; Romano, A.; Scherer, K.; Schnyder, B.; Testi, S.; Torres, M.; Trautmann, A.; Terreehorst, I.

    2013-01-01

    Skin tests are of paramount importance for the evaluation of drug hypersensitivity reactions. Drug skin tests are often not carried out because of lack of concise information on specific test concentrations. The diagnosis of drug allergy is often based on history alone, which is an unreliable

  10. Comparison of two interferon-gamma assays and tuberculin skin test for tracing tuberculosis contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arend, Sandra M.; Thijsen, Steven F. T.; Leyten, Eliane M. S.; Bouwman, John J. M.; Franken, Willeke P. J.; Koster, Ben F. P. J.; Cobelens, Frank G. J.; van Houte, Arend-Jan; Bossink, Ailko W. J.

    2007-01-01

    The tuberculin skin test (TST) has low specificity. QuantiFERON-TB Gold (QFT-G) and T-SPOT.TB are based on interferon (IFN)-gamma responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antigens. A novel in-tube format of QFT-G (QFT-GIT) offers logistical advantages. To compare TST, QFT-GIT, and T-SPOT.TB

  11. Dragon Skin - How It Changed Body Armor Testing in the United States Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    members of this committee who have their kids at one time or another wearing body armor in theater, either Iraq or Afghanistan. And that includes... YouTube has pictures of Dragon Skin body armor testing on the Internet and Wikipedia has posted a carefully documented description of the history of

  12. Development and characterisation of an in vitro photomicronucleus test using ex vivo human skin tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reus, A.A.; Meeuwen, R.N.C. van; Vogel, N. de; Maas, W.J.M.; Krul, C.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Photosafety testing is of concern for the evaluation of personal care products and pharmaceuticals. Current regulatory guidance state that photosafety should be evaluated for compounds that absorb radiation between 290 and 700 nm with relevant exposure in the skin or eyes. However, oversensitivity

  13. Tuberculin skin testing in patients with HIV infection: limited benefit of reduced cutoff values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobelens, Frank G.; Egwaga, Saidi M.; van Ginkel, Tessa; Muwinge, Hemed; Matee, Mecky I.; Borgdorff, Martien W.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: When determining eligibility for isoniazid preventive therapy of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, the cutoff value of the tuberculin skin test (TST) is often reduced from an induration of 10 mm in diameter to one of 5 mm in diameter to compensate for loss of

  14. Histological and Immunological Description of the Leishmanin Skin Test in Ibizan Hounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordeix, L; Silva, J E Dos S; Llull, J; Quirola, P; Montserrat-Sangrà, S; Martínez-Orellana, P; Solano-Gallego, L

    2018-01-01

    The leishmanin skin test (LST), a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction to Leishmania infantum, can specifically identify dogs that have made a cell-mediated immune response to L. infantum infection. The Ibizan hound appears to be more resistant to L. infantum infection than other breeds of dog. The aim of this study was to describe the histological and immunohistochemical changes induced by the LST in Ibizan hounds living in an area highly endemic for leishmaniosis. The majority of dogs were apparently healthy, lacked serum antibody to L. infantum and blood parasitaemia, but had marked specific interferon gamma production after in-vitro blood stimulation with L. infantum. Leishmanin (3 × 10 8 killed promastigotes of L. infantum/ml) was injected intradermally and biopsy samples were obtained from a positive reaction at 72 h from nine Ibizan hounds. A moderate to intense, perivascular to interstitial dermatitis and panniculitis characterized the inflammatory response at the injection site. In addition, three samples had diffuse inflammation in the deep dermis and panniculus. Oedema and necrosis were present in the deep dermis and panniculus. Congestion and haemorrhage were observed in five biopsies. T lymphocytes (CD3 + ) and large mononuclear cells (lysozyme - ) were the most prevalent cells. CD3 + cells were significantly more numerous than CD20 + B cells and lysozyme + cells. B cells were sparsely distributed, especially in the deep dermis and panniculus. Rare neutrophils and macrophages (lysozyme + ) were observed with few eosinophils. Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 protein was expressed in large mononuclear cells mainly located in the superficial dermis. Leishmania immunohistochemistry was negative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction was positive in all cases. The intradermal injection of killed L. infantum promastigotes in Ibizan hounds causes similar histological and immunohistochemical findings to those described for human subjects and are

  15. Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from patients who are nucleic acid amplification test- negative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yingda L; Cronin, Wendy A; Proschan, Michael; Oatis, Richard; Cohn, Silvia; Curry, Scott R; Golub, Jonathan E; Barry Iii, Clifton E; Dorman, Susan E

    2018-04-24

    Among adults with signs and symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), recognition of transmissible TB has implications for airborne infection isolation and public health activities. Sputum smear-negative TB patients account for around one-fifth of tuberculosis transmission. The tuberculosis transmission risk of TB patients with negative results on nucleic acid amplification (NAA) testing of respiratory specimens has not been established. We sought to estimate the tuberculosis transmission risk of NAA test-negative TB patients. We retrospectively reviewed Maryland TB program data from 2004 to 2009 during which NAA testing by the Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Direct Test (MTD) was performed routinely. Patients with sputum Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) isolates having matching genotypes were assigned to clusters. Transmission sequence was approximated by collection order of individuals' first culture-positive specimens. Minimum transmission risks of NAA (MTD)-negative TB patients and of smear-negative TB patients were estimated based on individuals' positions within clusters. Among 809 patients with culture-confirmed TB, M.tb genotypes were available for 782 (96.7%). For NAA-negative TB patients the minimum transmission risk estimate was 5.1% (95% CI 0-11.4). For smear-negative TB patients the minimum transmission risk estimate was 11.2% (95% CI 7.2-15.3). Minimum transmission risk of NAA-negative TB patients was lower than that of smear-negative TB patients. However, transmission risk of NAA-negative TB patients appears to not be negligible.

  16. The adverse outcome pathway for skin sensitisation: Moving closer to replacing animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Terry W; Dimitrova, Gergana; Dimitrov, Sabcho; Mekenyan, Ovanes G

    2016-10-01

    This article outlines the work of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) that led to being jointly awarded the 2015 Lush Black Box Prize. The award-winning work centred on the development of 'The Adverse Outcome Pathway for Skin Sensitisation Initiated by Covalent Binding to Proteins'. This Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) has provided the mechanistic basis for the integration of skin sensitisation-related information. Recent developments in integrated approaches to testing and assessment, based on the AOP, are summarised. The impact of the AOP on regulatory policy and on the Three Rs are discussed. An overview of the next generation of the skin sensitisation AOP module in the OECD QSAR Toolbox, based on more-recent work at the Laboratory of Mathematical Chemistry, is also presented. 2016 FRAME.

  17. Biodegradable Polymers Induce CD54 on THP-1 Cells in Skin Sensitization Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yeon Suk; Kato, Reiko; Tsuchiya, Toshie

    2011-01-01

    Currently, nonanimal methods of skin sensitization testing for various chemicals, biodegradable polymers, and biomaterials are being developed in the hope of eliminating the use of animals. The human cell line activation test (h-CLAT) is a skin sensitization assessment that mimics the functions of dendritic cells (DCs). DCs are specialized antigen-presenting cells, and they interact with T cells and B cells to initiate immune responses. Phenotypic changes in DCs, such as the production of CD86 and CD54 and internalization of MHC class II molecules, have become focal points of the skin sensitization test. In this study, we used h-CLAT to assess the effects of biodegradable polymers. The results showed that several biodegradable polymers increased the expression of CD54, and the relative skin sensitizing abilities of biodegradable polymers were PLLG (75 : 25) < PLLC (40 : 60) < PLGA (50 : 50) < PCG (50 : 50). These results may contribute to the creation of new guidelines for the use of biodegradable polymers in scaffolds or allergenic hazards.

  18. Biodegradable Polymers Induce CD54 on THP-1 Cells in Skin Sensitization Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon Suk Jung

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, nonanimal methods of skin sensitization testing for various chemicals, biodegradable polymers, and biomaterials are being developed in the hope of eliminating the use of animals. The human cell line activation test (h-CLAT is a skin sensitization assessment that mimics the functions of dendritic cells (DCs. DCs are specialized antigen-presenting cells, and they interact with T cells and B cells to initiate immune responses. Phenotypic changes in DCs, such as the production of CD86 and CD54 and internalization of MHC class II molecules, have become focal points of the skin sensitization test. In this study, we used h-CLAT to assess the effects of biodegradable polymers. The results showed that several biodegradable polymers increased the expression of CD54, and the relative skin sensitizing abilities of biodegradable polymers were PLLG (75 : 25 < PLLC (40 : 60 < PLGA (50 : 50 < PCG (50 : 50. These results may contribute to the creation of new guidelines for the use of biodegradable polymers in scaffolds or allergenic hazards.

  19. Full-thickness human skin explants for testing the toxicity of topically applied chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, M.; Rikimaru, T.; Yano, T.; Moore, K.G.; Pula, P.J.; Schofield, B.H.; Dannenberg, A.M. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes a model organ-culture system for testing the toxicity of chemical substances that are topically applied to human skin. In this system, the viable keratinocytes in the full-thickness skin explants are protected by the same keratinized layer as skin remaining on the donor, and toxicity can be assessed microscopically and/or biochemically. The human skin specimens were discards from a variety of surgical procedures. They were cut into full-thickness 1.0-cm2 explants, and briefly exposed to the military vesicant sulfur mustard (SM), which was used as a model toxicant. The explants were then organ cultured in small Petri dishes for 24 h at 36 degrees C. In the 0.03-1.0% dosage range, a straight-line dose-response relationship occurred between the concentration of SM applied and the number of paranuclear vacuoles seen histologically in the epidermis. Within the same SM dosage range, there was also a proportional decrease in 14C-leucine incorporation by the explants. Thus, the number of paranuclear vacuoles reflected decreases in protein synthesis by the injured epidermal cells. The epidermis of full-thickness untreated (control) human skin explants usually remained viable for 7 d when stored at 4 degrees C in culture medium. During storage, a relatively small number of paranuclear vacuoles developed within the epidermis, but the explants were still quite satisfactory for testing SM toxicity. Incubation (for 4 or 24 h at 36 degrees C) of such control skin explants reduced (often by 50%) the small number of paranuclear vacuoles produced during 4-7 d of storage. This reduction was probably caused by autolysis of many of the vacuolated cells. Two types of paranuclear vacuoles could be identified by both light and electron microscopy: a storage type and a toxicant type. The storage type seemed to be caused by autolysis of cell components

  20. Full-thickness human skin explants for testing the toxicity of topically applied chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, M.; Rikimaru, T.; Yano, T.; Moore, K.G.; Pula, P.J.; Schofield, B.H.; Dannenberg, A.M. Jr. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1990-09-01

    This report describes a model organ-culture system for testing the toxicity of chemical substances that are topically applied to human skin. In this system, the viable keratinocytes in the full-thickness skin explants are protected by the same keratinized layer as skin remaining on the donor, and toxicity can be assessed microscopically and/or biochemically. The human skin specimens were discards from a variety of surgical procedures. They were cut into full-thickness 1.0-cm2 explants, and briefly exposed to the military vesicant sulfur mustard (SM), which was used as a model toxicant. The explants were then organ cultured in small Petri dishes for 24 h at 36 degrees C. In the 0.03-1.0% dosage range, a straight-line dose-response relationship occurred between the concentration of SM applied and the number of paranuclear vacuoles seen histologically in the epidermis. Within the same SM dosage range, there was also a proportional decrease in 14C-leucine incorporation by the explants. Thus, the number of paranuclear vacuoles reflected decreases in protein synthesis by the injured epidermal cells. The epidermis of full-thickness untreated (control) human skin explants usually remained viable for 7 d when stored at 4 degrees C in culture medium. During storage, a relatively small number of paranuclear vacuoles developed within the epidermis, but the explants were still quite satisfactory for testing SM toxicity. Incubation (for 4 or 24 h at 36{degrees}C) of such control skin explants reduced (often by 50%) the small number of paranuclear vacuoles produced during 4-7 d of storage. This reduction was probably caused by autolysis of many of the vacuolated cells. Two types of paranuclear vacuoles could be identified by both light and electron microscopy: a storage type and a toxicant type. The storage type seemed to be caused by autolysis of cell components.

  1. CON4EI: SkinEthic™ Human Corneal Epithelium Eye Irritation Test (SkinEthic™ HCE EIT) for hazard identification and labelling of eye irritating chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rompay, A R; Alépée, N; Nardelli, L; Hollanders, K; Leblanc, V; Drzewiecka, A; Gruszka, K; Guest, R; Kandarova, H; Willoughby, J A; Verstraelen, S; Adriaens, E

    2018-06-01

    Assessment of ocular irritancy is an international regulatory requirement and a necessary step in the safety evaluation of industrial and consumer products. Although a number of in vitro ocular irritation assays exist, none are capable of fully categorizing chemicals as a stand-alone assay. Therefore, the CEFIC-LRI-AIMT6-VITO CON4EI (CONsortium for in vitro Eye Irritation testing strategy) project was developed with the goal of assessing the reliability of eight in vitro/alternative test methods as well as establishing an optimal tiered-testing strategy. One of the in vitro assays selected was the validated SkinEthic™ Human Corneal Epithelium Eye Irritation Test method (SkinEthic™ HCE EIT). The SkinEthic™ HCE EIT has already demonstrated its capacity to correctly identify chemicals (both substances and mixtures) not requiring classification and labelling for eye irritation or serious eye damage (No Category). The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of the SkinEthic™ HCE EIT test method in terms of the important in vivo drivers of classification. For the performance with respect to the drivers all in vivo Cat 1 and No Cat chemicals were 100% correctly identified. For Cat 2 chemicals the liquids and the solids had a sensitivity of 100% and 85.7%, respectively. For the SkinEthic™ HCE EIT test method, 100% concordance in predictions (No Cat versus No prediction can be made) between the two participating laboratories was obtained. The accuracy of the SkinEthic™ HCE EIT was 97.5% with 100% sensitivity and 96.9% specificity. The SkinEthic™ HCE EIT confirms its excellent results of the validation studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Assessment of the respiratory metabolism in the skin from transcutaneous measurements of pO2 and pCO2: potential for non-invasive monitoring of response to tuberculin skin testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbot, N C; Spence, V A; Swanson-Beck, J; Carnochan, F M; Gibbs, J H; Lowe, J G

    1990-03-01

    A method is described for non-invasive transcutaneous (tc) measurement of tissue respiratory gas tensions in the skin on the forearm for study of delayed hypersensitivity reactions in man. Steady state values for tcpO2 and tcpCO2 were measured, and the skin respiratory rate (oxygen consumption) and the tissue pH were estimated from the changes in tcpO2 and tcpCO2 observed after interruption of the arterial circulation by cuff occlusion for 4 minutes. The extent of within-experiment and between subject variation in the steady-state measurements was not great (coefficient of variation 10%): tcpCO2.ss (steady state) was higher in men and tcpO2.ss was higher in women, but the extent of these sex differences was also small. Reference ranges have been established for tc measurements and calculated indices of tissue respiration in the undisturbed forearm skin of normal volunteers, against which the changes induced by tuberculin testing can be assessed. Severe changes, indicative of profound hypoxia and acidosis, are seen in intense delayed hypersensitivity reactions. Similar, but less severe changes were seen at the site of skin tests on BCG-vaccinated subjects who were 'negative' by conventional criteria of measurement of dermal induration and they became greatly exaggerated after successful re-vaccination. Intradermal injection of saline did not induce hypoxia or local acidosis. These new methods are very sensitive indicators of the tissue response in the DHS reaction.

  3. Basic principles of test-negative design in evaluating influenza vaccine effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Wakaba; Hirota, Yoshio

    2017-08-24

    Based on the unique characteristics of influenza, the concept of "monitoring" influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) across the seasons using the same observational study design has been developed. In recent years, there has been a growing number of influenza VE reports using the test-negative design, which can minimize both misclassification of diseases and confounding by health care-seeking behavior. Although the test-negative designs offer considerable advantages, there are some concerns that widespread use of the test-negative design without knowledge of the basic principles of epidemiology could produce invalid findings. In this article, we briefly review the basic concepts of the test-negative design with respect to classic study design such as cohort studies or case-control studies. We also mention selection bias, which may be of concern in some countries where rapid diagnostic testing is frequently used in routine clinical practices, as in Japan. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Risk factors for false positive and for false negative test results in screening with fecal occult blood testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegeman, Inge; de Wijkerslooth, Thomas R.; Stoop, Esther M.; van Leerdam, Monique; van Ballegooijen, M.; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A.; Fockens, Paul; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Dekker, Evelien; Bossuyt, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Differences in the risk of a false negative or a false positive fecal immunochemical test (FIT) across subgroups may affect optimal screening strategies. We evaluate whether subgroups are at increased risk of a false positive or a false negative FIT result, whether such variability in risk is

  5. The false sero-negativity of brucella standard agglutination test: Prozone phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İrfan Binici

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We aimed to assess prozone phenomenon that is quite rare and causes false negativity in serological diagnosisof brucellosis with standard dilution titers.Materials and methods: In this study the tests of four cases that have false negative serological results were evaluated.Blood cultures were obtained from all cases while cerebrospinal fluid cultures were studied in the two cases. Standardagglutination test (SAT and Coombs test were performed to all patients.Results: SAT and Coombs test was negative in titers up to 1/640 in all cases. The SAT and Coombs tests in cerebrospinalfluid (CSF of the two cases with neurobrucellosis diagnosis were negative, as well. Since the clinical and laboratoryfindings suggested the brucellosis, the serums were restudied by diluting up to 1/10240 titer and we saw that the first3 cases became positive at a titer of 1/1280. The fourth case remained negative and therefore, we applied high dilutionCoombs test. This time the test gave a positive result at 1/10240 titer beginning from 1/2560 titer. B.melitensis wasisolated from two cases.Conclusion: SAT and Coombs’ test must be diluted to titers 1/2560 or more in order to exclude false sero-negativity incases with clinical and laboratory findings suggesting brucellosis. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2011; 1(3:110-113

  6. Reassurance against future risk of precancer and cancer conferred by a negative human papillomavirus test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Julia C; Schiffman, Mark; Katki, Hormuzd A; Castle, Philip E; Fetterman, Barbara; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Poitras, Nancy E; Lorey, Thomas; Cheung, Li C; Kinney, Walter K

    2014-08-01

    Primary human papillomavirus (HPV) testing (without concurrent Pap tests) every 3 years is under consideration in the United States as an alternative to the two recommended cervical cancer screening strategies: primary Pap testing every 3 years, or concurrent Pap and HPV testing ("cotesting") every 5 years. Using logistic regression and Weibull survival models, we estimated and compared risks of cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) for the three strategies among 1011092 women aged 30 to 64 years testing HPV-negative and/or Pap-negative in routine screening at Kaiser Permanente Northern California since 2003. All statistical tests were two sided. Three-year risks following an HPV-negative result were lower than 3-year risks following a Pap-negative result (CIN3+ = 0.069% vs 0.19%, P < .0001; Cancer = 0.011% vs 0.020%, P < .0001) and 5-year risks following an HPV-negative/Pap-negative cotest (CIN3+ = 0.069% vs 0.11%, P < .0001; Cancer = 0.011% vs 0.014%, P = .21). These findings suggest that primary HPV testing merits consideration as another alternative for cervical screening. © Published by Oxford University Press 2014.

  7. Failure of introduction of food allergens after negative oral food challenge tests in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.M. van der Valk; R. Gerth van Wijk (Roy); Y. Vergouwe; N.W. de Jong (Nicolette)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractOne of the purposes to perform an oral food challenge (FC) test is to avoid unnecessary elimination of food allergens. In case of a negative FC test result, the food can be introduced. It is, however, unknown if patients act according to the outcome of the test. This study evaluates the

  8. Assuring consumer safety without animal testing: a feasibility case study for skin sensitisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Gavin; Aleksic, Maja; Aptula, Aynur; Carmichael, Paul; Fentem, Julia; Gilmour, Nicola; Mackay, Cameron; Pease, Camilla; Pendlington, Ruth; Reynolds, Fiona; Scott, Daniel; Warner, Guy; Westmoreland, Carl

    2008-11-01

    Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD; chemical-induced skin sensitisation) represents a key consumer safety endpoint for the cosmetics industry. At present, animal tests (predominantly the mouse Local Lymph Node Assay) are used to generate skin sensitisation hazard data for use in consumer safety risk assessments. An animal testing ban on chemicals to be used in cosmetics will come into effect in the European Union (EU) from March 2009. This animal testing ban is also linked to an EU marketing ban on products containing any ingredients that have been subsequently tested in animals, from March 2009 or March 2013, depending on the toxicological endpoint of concern. Consequently, the testing of cosmetic ingredients in animals for their potential to induce skin sensitisation will be subject to an EU marketing ban, from March 2013 onwards. Our conceptual framework and strategy to deliver a non-animal approach to consumer safety risk assessment can be summarised as an evaluation of new technologies (e.g. 'omics', informatics), leading to the development of new non-animal (in silico and in vitro) predictive models for the generation and interpretation of new forms of hazard characterisation data, followed by the development of new risk assessment approaches to integrate these new forms of data and information in the context of human exposure. Following the principles of the conceptual framework, we have been investigating existing and developing new technologies, models and approaches, in order to explore the feasibility of delivering consumer safety risk assessment decisions in the absence of new animal data. We present here our progress in implementing this conceptual framework, with the skin sensitisation endpoint used as a case study. 2008 FRAME.

  9. The value of Tzanck smear test in diagnosis of erosive, vesicular, bullous, and pustular skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durdu, Murat; Baba, Mete; Seçkin, Deniz

    2008-12-01

    Tzanck smear is generally used for the diagnosis of the pemphigus group of autoimmune bullous diseases and mucocutaneous herpesvirus infections. There are only a few studies in the literature investigating its diagnostic value. We aimed to investigate Tzanck smear findings and to determine the diagnostic value of this test in moist (erosive, vesicular, bullous, and pustular) skin lesions. We also aimed to develop an algorithmic approach for the diagnosis of these types of skin lesions according to the Tzanck smear findings. Samples were stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa and evaluated by the same dermatologist. In some patients, methylene blue and Gram staining or direct immunofluorescence examinations were additionally performed. In all of the study cases, after the evaluation of clinical and laboratory findings (including, when appropriate, potassium hydroxide examination; viral serology; bacterial and fungal cultures; histopathology; direct and indirect immunofluorescence; patch testing), the definite diagnosis was established. We also determined the sensitivity and the specificity of certain Tzanck smear findings. Tzanck smear was performed in a total of 400 patients with moist skin lesions. The sensitivities of multinucleated giant cells and acantholytic cells in herpetic infections, dyskeratotic acantholytic cells and cocci in bullous impetigo, pseudohyphae in candidiasis, acantholytic cells in pemphigus and more than 10 tadpole cells (magnification x100) in spongiotic dermatitis were 84.7%, 92%, 100%, 100%, and 81.5%, respectively. Because Tzanck smears were evaluated by the same dermatologist, no comment could be made regarding the interobserver reliability of this test and how the level of experience with this technique might affect the results. Also, the sensitivity and the specificity of Tzanck smear test findings for certain diseases could not be calculated because of an insufficient number of patients. The Tzanck smear test is an inexpensive, useful

  10. A 1MeV, 1A negative ion accelerator test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanada, M.; Dairaku, M.; Inoue, T.; Miyamoto, K.; Ohara, Y.; Okumura, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Yokoyama, K.

    1995-01-01

    For the Proof-of-Principle test of negative ion acceleration up to 1 MeV, the beam energy required for ITER, a negative ion test facility named MeV Test Facility (MTF) and an ion source/accelerator have been designed and constructed. They are designed to produce a 1 MeV H- beam at a low source pressure of 0.13Pa. The MTF has a power supply system, which constituts of a 1MV, 1A, 60 s Cockcroft-Walton type dc high energy generator and power supplies for negative ion generation and extraction (ion source power supplies). The negative ion source/accelerator is composed of a cesiated volume source and a 5-stage, multi-aperture, electrostatic accelerator. The MTF and the ion source/accelerator have been completed, and the accelertion test up to 1 MeV of the H- ions has started. (orig.)

  11. Associations among immunological, parasitological and clinical parameters in canine visceral leishmaniasis: Emaciation, spleen parasitism, specific antibodies and leishmanin skin test reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos-Santos, W L C; Jesus, E E; Paranhos-Silva, M; Pereira, A M; Santos, J C; Baleeiro, C O; Nascimento, E G; Moreira, E D; Oliveira, G G S; Pontes-de-Carvalho, L C

    2008-06-15

    Associations among parameters commonly used as markers of infection by Leishmania sp., or of susceptibility to visceral leishmaniasis, were investigated in 325 stray dogs from an area where this disease is endemic. Evidence of infection (presence of Leishmania in splenic cultures, positive leishmanin skin test (LST) or detection of anti-Leishmania antibody activity in the serum) was found in 57% of the animals. Both evidence of weight loss (chi(2)-test, P=0.0005) and presence of specific antibody activity in the serum (chi(2)-test, Ptest results and emaciation (chi(2), P=0.0089). Furthermore, animals with positive splenic cultures and negative leishmanin skin test results had higher levels of total serum IgG (Kruskal-Wallis test, P=0.001) and IgG2 (Kruskal-Wallis test, P=0.05) than animals with negative splenic cultures, and were more emaciated than animals with negative LST results and positive splenic cultures. The data presented herein suggest that associating these common parameters may improve their performance in predicting susceptibility to canine visceral leishmaniasis.

  12. Testing and Analysis of the Peeling of Medical Adhesives From Human Skin

    OpenAIRE

    Karwoski, Alicia Corrine

    2003-01-01

    The analysis of peeling tape or a bandage from skin is a challenging problem. Skin is a very complex material made of many layers with anisotropic material properties. Adhesives that bond tapes or patches to skin must attach to skin through moisture and skin movement, but then be removed with little skin trauma. A computer model of peeling from skin apparently has not been developed previously. With experiments and the application of mechanics, research was conducted to analyze adhesion to sk...

  13. Development, standardization and testing of a bacterial wound infection model based on ex vivo human skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schaudinn

    Full Text Available Current research on wound infections is primarily conducted on animal models, which limits direct transferability of these studies to humans. Some of these limitations can be overcome by using-otherwise discarded-skin from cosmetic surgeries. Superficial wounds are induced in fresh ex vivo skin, followed by intradermal injection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa under the wound. Subsequently, the infected skin is incubated for 20 hours at 37°C and the CFU/wound are determined. Within 20 hours, the bacteria count increased from 107 to 109 bacteria per wound, while microscopy revealed a dense bacterial community in the collagen network of the upper wound layers as well as numerous bacteria scattered in the dermis. At the same time, IL-1alpha and IL-1beta amounts increased in all infected wounds, while-due to bacteria-induced cell lysis-the IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations rose only in the uninfected samples. High-dosage ciprofloxacin treatment resulted in a decisive decrease in bacteria, but consistently failed to eradicate all bacteria. The main benefits of the ex vivo wound model are the use of healthy human skin, a quantifiable bacterial infection, a measureable donor-dependent immune response and a good repeatability of the results. These properties turn the ex vivo wound model into a valuable tool to examine the mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions and to test antimicrobial agents.

  14. A Preliminary Test for Skin Gas Assessment Using a Porphyrin Based Evanescent Wave Optical Fiber Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman SELYANCHYN

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An evanescent-wave optical fibre sensor modified with tetrakis-(4-sulfophenyl porphine (TSPP and poly(allylamine hydrochloride (PAH bilayers using layer-by-layer (LbL electrostatic self-assembly was tested to measure the gas emitted from human skin. Optical intensity changes at different wavelengths in the transmission spectrum of the porphyrin-based film were induced by the human skin gas and measured as sensor response. Influence of relative humidity, which can be a major interference to sensor response, was thoroughly studied and shown to be significantly different when compared to the influence of skin emanations. Responses of the current optical sensor system could be considered as composite sensor array, where different optical wavelengths act as channels that have selective response to specific volatile compounds. Data obtained from the sensor system was analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA. This approach enabled to distinguish skin odors of different people and their altered physiological conditions after alcohol consumption.

  15. The role of breast milk in the colonization of neonatal gut and skin with coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeorg, Hiie; Metsvaht, Tuuli; Eelmäe, Imbi; Merila, Mirjam; Treumuth, Sirli; Huik, Kristi; Jürna-Ellam, Marika; Ilmoja, Mari-Liis; Lutsar, Irja

    2017-11-01

    BackgroundWe aimed to determine the genetic relatedness between Staphylococcus epidermidis colonizing breast milk (BM) and BM-fed neonates during the first month of life.MethodsS. epidermidis was isolated from the stool and skin swabs of 20 healthy term and 49 preterm neonates hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit and from the BM of mothers once a week and typed by multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis. Virulence-related genes were determined by PCR.ResultsThe gut (95%) and skin (100%) of term neonates were colonized with strains genetically similar to those in BM and carrying mecA and IS256 at low rate (both skin (34.7%) and in the gut in the first week of life (14.3%), but the prevalence of mecA (>90.6%) and IS256 (>61.7%) was high. By the fourth week, in the gut of preterm neonates the prevalence of mecA (73.8%) and IS256 (18.4%) decreased, but colonization with strains genetically similar to those in BM increased (83.7%).ConclusionDuring early life, the skin and gut of preterm neonates is colonized with S. epidermidis that is distinct from strains found in BM, but gradually the gut is enriched with strains genetically similar to those in BM, as in term neonates.

  16. Negative pressure wound therapy applied before and after split-thickness skin graft helps healing of Fournier gangrene: a case report (CARE-Compliant).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Junna; Xie, Ting; Wu, Minjie; Ni, Pengwen; Lu, Shuliang

    2015-02-01

    Fournier gangrene is a rare but highly infectious disease characterized by fulminant necrotizing fasciitis involving the genital and perineal regions. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT; KCI USA Inc, San Antonio, TX) is a widely adopted technique in many clinical settings. Nevertheless, its application and effect in the treatment of Fournier gangrene are unclear. A 47-year-old male patient was admitted with an anal abscess followed by a spread of the infection to the scrotum, which was caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. NPWT was applied on the surface of the scrotal area and continued for 10 days. A split-thickness skin graft from the scalp was then grafted to the wound, after which, NPWT utilizing gauze sealed with an occlusive dressing and connected to a wall suction was employed for 7 days to secure the skin graft. At discharge, the percentage of the grafted skin alive on the scrotum was 98%. The wound beside the anus had decreased to 4 × 0.5 cm with a depth of 1 cm. Follow-up at the clinic 1 month later showed that both wounds had healed. The patient did not complain of any pain or bleeding, and was satisfied with the outcome. NPWT before and after split-thickness skin grafts is safe, well tolerated, and efficacious in the treatment of Fournier gangrene.

  17. Freqüência de positividade em teste cutâneo para aeroalérgenos Frequency of positive skin tests for airborne allergic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Godinho

    2003-12-01

    frequency of positive skin tests for specific airborne allergic agents, we assessed medical records of 398 patients with nasal symptoms suggestive of allergy or other otolaryngologic complaints which required skin testing to aid in the diagnosis. RESULTS: The most frequently found allergic agents were house dust (74,9%, dermatophagoides farinae (58,4% and mold (36,5%, followed by dog hair (32,7%, grass (22,4%, cat hair (16,9%, feathers (16,4% and wool (15,6%. Only 3,5% were positive for lovebird feathers and 1,5% for flowers. 39 patients (9,8% had negative skin tests, 10 (2,5% had reactions to the solution extract and 8 (2% did not react to histamine. We did not have complications in performing the test. CONCLUSION: House dust was the most frequently found allergic agent. Skin tests must be performed based on the clinical history, and their results may guide us towards the correct diagnosis and treatment of nose diseases.

  18. Food allergies in children: a comparison of parental reports and skin prick test results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilia Metadea Aji Savitri

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Food allergy is common in children and its prevalence is generally on the rise. Imprecise parental reports about reactions to particular foods can lead to unnecessary restrictions. Since children have specific growth requirements, such nutritional restrictions may have disturbing effects on children’s growth and development. Objective To compare parental reports on food reactions to skin prick test results in their children. Method Retrospective, cross sectional study using patient’s medical record data during one-year study period. Data were analyzed manually and statistically, to assess the degree of agreement (Kappa’s coefficient and significance (P. Results We collected data from 154 subjects aged 0-18 years. For every allergen assessed, parents reported more food reactions than positive skin prick test results. Allergy incidence were caused, in order, by cow’s milk and chicken (25.3%, eggs (22.1%, chocolate (20.1%, fruits (14.3%, seafood (13%, and saltwater fish (1.9%. Kappa coefficient are all poor (0.05 except for chicken (P=0.02. Conclusion Most parents tend to overestimate which food cause reactions in their children, as reactions reported were not necessarily allergenic. Therefore, every patient experiencing allergy reactions should undergo skin prick testing to confirm the possibility of allergy.

  19. Tests of Flammability of Cotton Fabrics and Expected Skin Burns in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Jane M.; Torvi, David A.; Gabriel, Kamiel S.; Ruff, Gary A.

    2004-01-01

    During a shuttle launch and other portions of space flight, astronauts wear specialized flame resistant clothing. However during most of their missions on board the Space Shuttle or International Space Station, astronauts wear ordinary clothing, such as cotton shirts and pants. As the behaviour of flames is considerably different in microgravity than under earth s gravity, fabrics are expected to burn in a different fashion in microgravity than when tested on earth. There is interest in determining how this change in burning behaviour may affect times to second and third degree burn of human skin, and how the results of standard fabric flammability tests conducted under earth s gravity correlate with the expected fire behaviour of textiles in microgravity. A new experimental apparatus was developed to fit into the Spacecraft Fire Safety Facility (SFSF), which is used on NASA s KC-135 low gravity aircraft. The new apparatus was designed to be similar to the apparatus used in standard vertical flammability tests of fabrics. However, rather than using a laboratory burner, the apparatus uses a hot wire system to ignite 200 mm high by 80 mm wide fabric specimens. Fabric temperatures are measured using thermocouples and/or an infrared imaging system, while flame spread rates are measured using real time observations or video. Heat flux gauges are placed between 7 and 13 mm away from the fabric specimen, so that heat fluxes from the burning fabric to the skin can be estimated, along with predicted times required to produce skin burns.

  20. Use of negative-pressure dressings and split-thickness skin grafts following penile shaft reduction and reduction scrotoplasty in the management of penoscrotal elephantiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Tracey H; Follmar, Keith E; Silverstein, Ari D; Weizer, Alon Z; Donatucci, Craig F; Anderson, Everett E; Erdmann, Detlev

    2006-06-01

    From 1988 to 2005, 8 men who presented with penoscrotal elephantiasis underwent penile shaft degloving and reduction scrotoplasty, followed by transplantation of a split-thickness skin graft (STSG) to the penile shaft. The etiology of elephantiasis in these patients included self-injection of viscous fluid and postsurgical obstructive lymphedema. In the 6 most recent cases, negative-pressure dressings were applied over the STSG to promote graft take, and STSG take rate was 100%. The results of our series corroborate those of a previous report, which showed circumferential negative-pressure dressings to be safe and efficacious in bolstering STSGs to the penile shaft. Furthermore, these results suggest that the use of negative-pressure dressings may improve graft take in this patient population.

  1. Degree of skin denervation and its correlation to objective thermal sensory test in leprosy patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Alves Rodrigues Júnior

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leprosy is an infectious disease affecting skin and peripheral nerves resulting in increased morbidity and physical deformities. Early diagnosis provides opportune treatment and reduces its complications, relying fundamentally on the demonstration of impaired sensation in suggestive cutaneous lesions. The loss of tactile sensitivity in the lesions is preceded by the loss of thermal sensitivity, stressing the importance of the thermal test in the suspicious lesions approach. The gold-standard method for the assessment of thermal sensitivity is the quantitative sensory test (QST. Morphological study may be an alternative approach to access the thin nerve fibers responsible for thermal sensitivity transduction. The few studies reported in leprosy patients pointed out a rarefaction of thin dermo-epidermal fibers in lesions, but used semi-quantitative evaluation methods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This work aimed to study the correlation between the degree of thermal sensitivity impairment measured by QST and the degree of denervation in leprosy skin lesions, evaluated by immunohistochemistry anti-PGP 9.5 and morphometry. Twenty-two patients were included. There were significant differences in skin thermal thresholds among lesions and contralateral skin (cold, warm, cold induced pain and heat induced pain. The mean reduction in the density of intraepidermal and subepidermal fibers in lesions was 79.5% (SD = 19.6 and 80.8% (SD = 24.9, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We observed a good correlation between intraepidermal and subepidermal fibers deficit, but no correlation between these variables and those accounting for the degree of impairment in thermal thresholds, since the thin fibers rarefaction was homogeneously intense in all patients, regardless of the degree of sensory deficit. We believe that the homogeneously intense denervation in leprosy lesions should be objective of further investigations focused on its

  2. Development and psychometric testing of the 'Motivation and Self-Efficacy in Early Detection of Skin Lesions' index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Judith; Cowdell, Fiona

    2014-12-01

    To develop and psychometrically test the Motivation and Self-Efficacy in Early Detection of Skin Lesions Index. Skin cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer worldwide. The primary strategy used to prevent skin cancer is promotion of sun avoidance and the use of sun protection. However, despite costly and extensive campaigns, cases of skin cancer continue to increase. If found and treated early, skin cancer is curable. Early detection is, therefore, very important. The study was conducted in 2013. Instrument Development. A literature review and a survey identified barriers (factors that hinder) and levers (factors that help) to skin self-examination. These were categorized according to a the Theoretical Domains Framework and this formed the basis of an instrument, which was tested for validity and reliability using confirmatory factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha respectively. A five-factor 20-item instrument was used that tested well for reliability and construct validity. Test-retest reliability was good for all items and domains. The five factors were: (i) Outcome expectancies; (ii) Intention; (iii) Self-efficacy; (iv) Social influences; (v) Memory. The Motivation and Self-Efficacy in Early Detection of Skin Lesions Index provides a reliable and valid method of assessing barriers and levers to skin self-examination. The next step is to design a theory-based intervention that can be tailored according to individual determinants to behaviour change identified by this instrument. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Analysis of the suitableness of some enzymatic tests for estimation the degree of radiational injury of skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matyushichev, V.B.; Kornikov, V.V.; Taratukhin, V.R.; Timofeeva, O.E.; Vereshchagina, E.M.

    1981-01-01

    Possibilities to characterize the degree of skin injury of white male-rats on the 14th day after external 85 Kr #betta#-irradiation at 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 krad doses by activity levels of alkali and acid DNA-ases of skin and blood plasma as well as skin and plasma alpha-amylase have been studied using the methods of factor analysis. It has been ascertained that alkali and acid DNA-ases of skin have the best indicating properties. Other tests in the main only supplement the general picture. The combined accounting of properties of alkali and acid DNA-ases of skin as well as acid DNA-ase and alpha-amylase of blood plasma permits to demarkate individuals completely according to the degree (zero - 3d) of skin injuries. These indicators can be used in practical dosimetry

  4. Autologous serum skin test as an indicator of chronic autoimmune urticaria in a tertiary care hospital in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikramkumar, Adaikalampillai Ganapathy; Kuruvila, Sheela; Ganguly, Satyaki

    2014-12-01

    Autologous serum skin test (ASST) is a simple in-vivo clinical test for the detection of basophil histamine releasing activity and to diagnose chronic autoimmune urticaria (CAU) among chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) patients. Diagnosing these patients is also important as they may need high doses of antihistamines and systemic corticosteroids during acute exacerbations. The aim of this study is to study the prevalence of CAU among cases of CSU by using ASST. This was a cross-sectional study done among 48 patients presenting with CSU. Detailed history, physical examination and routine investigations were recorded for all patients. ASST was done on all the 48 patients. Of the 48 patients included in the study, 20 patients (41.6%) were ASST positive, while the remaining 28 (58%) were ASST negative. The median duration of disease in both ASST positive and negative patients was 1 year. ASST positivity was higher (66.6%) among patients with a history of round shaped weals, though not statistically significant. ASST positivity was seen in 5 (71.4%) out of seven patients with systemic involvement, which was again not statistically significant. Our study did not show any significant difference between patients with and without antibodies regarding mean age and sex distribution, clinical morphology of individual weals, duration, severity, systemic symptoms, angioedema, atopy, and association with other autoimmune conditions.

  5. Does treatment of split-thickness skin grafts with negative-pressure wound therapy improve tissue markers of wound healing in a porcine experimental model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Christopher; Ciraulo, David; Coulter, Michael; Desjardins, Steven; Liaw, Lucy; Peterson, Sarah

    2012-08-01

    Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has been used for to treat wounds for more than 15 years and, more recently, has been used to secure split-thickness skin grafts. There are some data to support this use of NPWT, but the actual mechanism by which NPWT speeds healing or improves skin graft take is not entirely known. The purpose of this project was to assess whether NPWT improved angiogenesis, wound healing, or graft survival when compared with traditional bolster dressings securing split-thickness skin grafts in a porcine model. We performed two split-thickness skin grafts on each of eight 30 kg Yorkshire pigs. We took graft biopsies on postoperative days 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 and submitted the samples for immunohistochemical staining, as well as standard hematoxylin and eosin staining. We measured the degree of vascular ingrowth via immunohistochemical staining for von Willenbrand's factor to better identify blood vessel epithelium. We determined the mean cross-sectional area of blood vessels present for each representative specimen, and then compared the bolster and NPWT samples. We also assessed each graft for incorporation and survival at postoperative day 10. Our analysis of the data revealed that there was no statistically significant difference in the degree of vascular ingrowth as measured by mean cross-sectional capillary area (p = 0.23). We did not note any difference in graft survival or apparent incorporation on a macroscopic level, although standard hematoxylin and eosin staining indicated that microscopically, there seemed to be better subjective graft incorporation in the NPWT samples and a nonsignificant trend toward improved graft survival in the NPWT group. We were unable to demonstrate a significant difference in vessel ingrowth when comparing NPWT and traditional bolster methods for split-thickness skin graft fixation. More studies are needed to elucidate the manner by which NPWT exerts its effects and the true clinical magnitude of these

  6. Development of an in vitro skin sensitization test based on ROS production in THP-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazutoshi; Miyazawa, Masaaki; Nukada, Yuko; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Nishiyama, Naohiro

    2013-03-01

    Recently, it has been reported that reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by contact allergens can affect dendritic cell migration and contact hypersensitivity. The aim of the present study was to develop a new in vitro assay that could predict the skin sensitizing potential of chemicals by measuring ROS production in THP-1 (human monocytic leukemia cell line) cells. THP-1 cells were pre-loaded with a ROS sensitive fluorescent dye, 5-(and 6-)-chloromethyl-2', 7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, acetyl ester (CM-H2DCFDA), for 15min, then incubated with test chemicals for 30min. The fluorescence intensity was measured by flow cytometry. For the skin sensitizers, 25 out of 30 induced over a 2-fold ROS production at more than 90% of cell viability. In contrast, increases were only seen in 4 out of 20 non-sensitizers. The overall accuracy for the local lymph node assay (LLNA) was 82% for 50 chemicals tested. A correlation was found between the estimated concentration showing 2-fold ROS production in the ROS assay and the EC3 values (estimated concentration required to induce positive response) of the LLNA. These results indicated that the THP-1 cell-based ROS assay was a rapid and highly sensitive detection system able to predict skin sensitizing potentials and potency of chemicals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Experimental testing and constitutive modeling of the mechanical properties of the swine skin tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łagan, Sylwia D; Liber-Kneć, Aneta

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was an estimation of the possibility of using hyperelastic material models to fit experimental data obtained in the tensile test for the swine skin tissue. The uniaxial tensile tests of samples taken from the abdomen and back of a pig was carried out. The mechanical properties of the skin such as the mean Young's modulus, the mean maximum stress and the mean maximum elongation were calculated. The experimental data have been used to identify the parameters in specific strain-energy functions given in seven constitutive models of hyperelastic materials: neo-Hookean, Mooney-Rivlin, Ogden, Yeoh, Martins, Humphrey and Veronda-Westmann. An analysis of errors in fitting of theoretical and experimental data was done. Comparison of load -displacement curves for the back and abdomen regions of skin taken showed a different scope of both the mean maximum loading forces and the mean maximum elongation. Samples which have been prepared from the abdominal area had lower values of the mean maximum load compared to samples from the spine area. The reverse trend was observed during the analysis of the values of elongation. An analysis of the accuracy of model fitting to the experimental data showed that, the least accurate were the model of neo- -Hookean, model of Mooney-Rivlin for the abdominal region and model of Veronda-Westmann for the spine region. An analysis of seven hyperelastic material models showed good correlations between the experimental and the theoretical data for five models.

  8. Non-occlusive topical exposure of human skin in vitro as model for cytotoxicity testing of irritant compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnqvist, Susanna; Briheim, Kristina; Kratz, Gunnar

    2016-02-01

    Testing of irritant compounds has traditionally been performed on animals and human volunteers. Animal testing should always be restricted and for skin irritancy mice and rabbits hold poor predictive value for irritant potential in humans. Irritant testing on human volunteers is restricted by the duration subjects can be exposed, and by the subjectivity of interpreting the visual signs of skin irritation. We propose an irritant testing system using viable human full thickness skin with the loss of cell viability in the exposed skin area as end point measurement. Skin was exposed to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at 20% concentration by non-occluded topical exposure to establish a positive control response and subsequent test compounds were statistically compared with the 20% SDS response. Cell viability and metabolism were measured with 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The model presents correlation between increased concentration of SDS and decreased viability of cells in the exposed skin area (R(2) = 0.76). We propose the model to be used for cytotoxicity testing of irritant compounds. With fully intact barrier function, the model comprises all cells present in the skin with quantifiable end point measurement.

  9. Proposal of abolition of the skin sensitivity test before equine rabies immune globulin application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CUPO Palmira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An epizootic outbreak of rabies occurred in 1995 in Ribeirão Preto, SP, with 58 cases of animal rabies (54 dogs, 3 cats and 1 bat confirmed by the Pasteur Institute of São Paulo, and one human death. The need to provide care to a large number of people for the application of equine rabies immune globulin (ERIG prevented the execution of the skin sensitivity test (SST and often also the execution of desensitization, procedures routinely used up to that time at the Emergency Unit of the University Hospital of the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (EU-UHFMRP-USP, a reference hospital for the application of heterologous sera. In view of our positive experience of several years with the abolition of SST and of the use of premedication before the application of antivenom sera, we used a similar schedule for ERIG application. Of the 1489 victims of animal bites, 1054 (71% received ERIG; no patient was submitted to SST and all received intravenously anti-histamines (anti-H1 + anti-H2 and corticosteroids before the procedure. The patients were kept under observation for 60 to 180 minutes and no adverse reaction was observed. On the basis of these results, since December 1995 ERIG application has been decentralized in Ribeirão Preto and has become the responsibility of the Emergency Unit of the University Hospital and the Central Basic Health Unit, where the same routine is used. Since then, 4216 patients have received ERIG (1818 at the Basic Health Unit and 2398 at the EU-UHFMRP, with no problems. The ideal would be the routine use of human rabies immune globulin (HRIG in public health programs, but this is problematic, because of their high cost. However, while this does not occur, the use of SST is no longer justified at the time of application of ERIG, in view of the clinical evidence of low predictive value and low sensitivity of SST involving the application of heterologous sera. It is very important to point out

  10. Assessment of a Protein Cocktail-Based Skin Test for Bovine Tuberculosis in a Double-Blind Field Test in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Ting; Jia, Hong; Ding, Jiabo; Li, Pingjun; Yang, Hongjun; Hou, Shaohua; Yuan, Weifeng; Guo, Xiaoyu; Wang, Haichun; Liang, Qianqian; Li, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a worldwide zoonosis caused mainly by Mycobacterium bovis. The traditional diagnostic method used often is the tuberculin skin test, which uses bovine purified protein derivatives (PPD-B). However, it is difficult to maintain uniformity of PPD-B from batch to batch, and it shares common antigens with nonpathogenic environmental mycobacteria. To overcome these problems, M. bovis-specific antigens that showed good T cell stimulation, such as CFP-10, ESAT-6, Rv3615c, etc., have been used in the skin test, but there have been no large-scale clinical studies on these antigens. In this study, two combinations (CFP-10/ESAT-6/TB10.4 protein cocktail and CFP-10/ESAT-6/Rv3872/MPT63 protein cocktail) were developed and used as stimuli in the skin test. Cattle were double-blind tested to assess the efficiency of the protein cocktail-based skin tests. The results showed that the CFP-10/ESAT-6/TB10.4 protein cocktail-based skin test can differentiate TB-infected cattle from Mycobacterium avium-infected ones and that it shows a high degree of agreement with the traditional tuberculin skin test (κ = 0.8536) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) release assay (κ = 0.8154). Compared to the tuberculin skin test, the relative sensitivity and relative specificity of the CFP-10/ESAT-6/TB10.4-based skin test were 87% and 97%, respectively., The relative sensitivity and relative specificity of the CFP-10/ESAT-6/TB10.4-based skin test were 93% and 92%, respectively, on comparison with the IFN-γ release assay. The correlation between the increases in skin thickness observed after the inoculation of stimuli was high (PPD-B versus CFP-10/ESAT-6/TB10.4, Spearman r of 0.8435). The correlation between the optical density at 450 nm (OD450) obtained after blood stimulation with PPD-B and the increase in skin thickness observed after inoculation of the CFP-10/ESAT-6/TB10.4 protein cocktail was high (Spearman r = 0.7335). Therefore, the CFP-10/ESAT-6/TB10.4-based skin test

  11. Skin test concentrations for systemically administered drugs -- an ENDA/EAACI Drug Allergy Interest Group position paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brockow, K; Garvey, L H; Aberer, W

    2013-01-01

    Skin tests are of paramount importance for the evaluation of drug hypersensitivity reactions. Drug skin tests are often not carried out because of lack of concise information on specific test concentrations. The diagnosis of drug allergy is often based on history alone, which is an unreliable...... indicator of true hypersensitivity.To promote and standardize reproducible skin testing with safe and nonirritant drug concentrations in the clinical practice, the European Network and European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Interest Group on Drug Allergy has performed a literature...... search on skin test drug concentration in MEDLINE and EMBASE, reviewed and evaluated the literature in five languages using the GRADE system for quality of evidence and strength of recommendation. Where the literature is poor, we have taken into consideration the collective experience of the group...

  12. Derivation and application of mathematical model for well test analysis with variable skin factor in hydrocarbon reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengcheng Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Skin factor is often regarded as a constant in most of the mathematical model for well test analysis in oilfields, but this is only a kind of simplified treatment with the actual skin factor changeable. This paper defined the average permeability of a damaged area as a function of time by using the definition of skin factor. Therefore a relationship between a variable skin factor and time was established. The variable skin factor derived was introduced into existing traditional models rather than using a constant skin factor, then, this newly derived mathematical model for well test analysis considering variable skin factor was solved by Laplace transform. The dimensionless wellbore pressure and its derivative changed with dimensionless time were plotted with double logarithm and these plots can be used for type curve fitting. The effects of all the parameters in the expression of variable skin factor were analyzed based on the dimensionless wellbore pressure and its derivative. Finally, actual well testing data were used to fit the type curves developed which validates the applicability of the mathematical model from Sheng-2 Block, Shengli Oilfield, China.

  13. Cystic fibrosis of the pancreas with test of negative iontophoresis. Case study and literature revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaramillo B, Lina

    2000-01-01

    A case study is presented about a 6-month-old infant with repetitive respiratory symptoms. It is documented as cystic fibrosis, even though traditional diagnostic criteria are not met, such as a negative iontophoresis. The possible causes of this case are discussed, as well as diagnostic alternatives in these circumstances. Even though the iontophoresis test is negative the need to not eliminate this disease especially when the symptoms are very suspicious, is insisted greatly

  14. Towards the development of improved tests for negative symptoms of schizophrenia in a validated animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ceren; Doostdar, Nazanin; Neill, Joanna C

    2016-10-01

    Negative symptoms in schizophrenia remain an unmet clinical need. There is no licensed treatment specifically for this debilitating aspect of the disorder and effect sizes of new therapies are too small to make an impact on quality of life and function. Negative symptoms are multifactorial but often considered in terms of two domains, expressive deficit incorporating blunted affect and poverty of speech and avolition incorporating asociality and lack of drive. There is a clear need for improved understanding of the neurobiology of negative symptoms which can be enabled through the use of carefully validated animal models. While there are several tests for assessing sociability in animals, tests for blunted affect in schizophrenia are currently lacking. Two paradigms have recently been developed for assessing negative affect of relevance to depression in rats. Here we assess their utility for studying negative symptoms in schizophrenia using our well validated model for schizophrenia of sub-chronic (sc) treatment with Phencyclidine (PCP) in adult female rats. Results demonstrate that sc PCP treatment produces a significant negative affect bias in response to a high value reward in the optimistic and affective bias tests. Our results are not easily explained by the known cognitive deficits induced by sc PCP and support the hypothesis of a negative affective bias in this model. We suggest that further refinement of these two tests will provide a means to investigate the neurobiological basis of negative affect in schizophrenia, thus supporting the assessment of efficacy of new targets for this currently untreated symptom domain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Rotavirus vaccine effectiveness in low-income settings: An evaluation of the test-negative design

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Lauren M.; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Neuzil, Kathleen M.; Victor, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Background The test-negative design (TND), an epidemiologic method currently used to measure rotavirus vaccine (RV) effectiveness, compares the vaccination status of rotavirus-positive cases and rotavirus-negative controls meeting a pre-defined case definition for acute gastroenteritis. Despite the use of this study design in low-income settings, the TND has not been evaluated to measure rotavirus vaccine effectiveness. Methods This study builds upon prior methods to evaluate the use of the T...

  16. Sensitivity Comparison of the Skin Prick Test and Serum and Fecal Radio Allergosorbent Test (RAST in Diagnosis of Food Allergy in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Kianifar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diagnosis of food allergy is difficult in children. Food allergies are diagnosed using several methods that include medical histories, clinical examinations, skin prick and serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE tests, radio-allergosorbent test (RAST, food challenge, and supervised elimination diets. In this study we evaluated allergies to cow's milk, egg, peanut, and fish in children with suspected food allergies with skin prick tests and serum and feces RAST. Methods: Forty-one children with clinical symptoms of food allergies were enrolled in the study. Skin prick tests and serum and fecal RAST were performed and compared with challenge tests. Results: The most common sites of food allergy symptoms were gastrointestinal (82.9% and skin (48.8%. 100% of the patients responded to the challenge tests with cow’s milk, egg, peanut, and fish. 65% of the patients tested positive with the skin prick test, 12.1% tested positive with serum RAST, and 29.2% tested positive with fecal RAST. Conclusions: The skin prick test was more sensitive than serum or fecal RAST, and fecal RAST was more than twice as sensitive as serum RAST.

  17. Humoral immunity in tuberculin skin test anergy and its role in high-risk persons exposed to active tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encinales, Liliana; Zuñiga, Joaquin; Granados-Montiel, Julio; Yunis, Maria; Granados, Julio; Almeciga, Ingrid; Clavijo, Olga; Awad, Carlos; Collazos, Vilma; Vargas-Rojas, María Inés; Bañales-Mendez, José Luis; Vazquez-Castañeda, Lilia; Stern, Joel N; Romero, Viviana; Fridkis-Hareli, Masha; Frindkis-Hareli, Masha; Terreros, Daniel; Fernandez-Viña, Marcelo; Yunis, Edmond J

    2010-02-01

    The most common test to identify latent tuberculosis is the tuberculin skin test that detects T cell responses of delayed type hypersensitivity type IV. Since it produces false negative reactions in active tuberculosis or in high-risk persons exposed to tuberculosis patients as shown in this report, we studied antibody profiles to explain the anergy of such responses in high-risk individuals without active infection. Our results showed that humoral immunity against tuberculin, regardless of the result of the tuberculin skin test is important for protection from active tuberculosis and that the presence of high antibody titers is a more reliable indicator of infection latency suggesting that latency can be based on the levels of antibodies together with in vitro proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the presence of the purified protein derivative. Importantly, anti-tuberculin IgG antibody levels mediate the anergy described herein, which could also prevent reactivation of disease in high-risk individuals with high antibody titers. Such anti-tuberculin IgG antibodies were also found associated with blocking and/or stimulation of in vitro cultures of PBMC with tuberculin. In this regard, future studies need to establish if immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis can generate a broad spectrum of reactions either toward Th1 responses favoring stimulation by cytokines or by antibodies and those toward diminished responses by Th2 cytokines or blocking by antibodies; possibly involving mechanisms of antibody dependent protection from Mtb by different subclasses of IgG. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Amphibians Testing Negative for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Supen WANG; Wei ZHU; Liqing FAN; Jiaqi LI; Yiming LI

    2017-01-01

    A disease caused by the fungi Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) is responsible for recent worldwide declines and extinctions of amphibian populations.The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) is aglobal biodiversity hotspot,yet little is known about the prevalence of Bd and Bsal in this region.In this study,we collected 336 non-invasive skin swabs from wild amphibians (including an exotic amphibian species) on the QTP.In addition,to assess the historical prevalence of Bd and Bsal on the QTP,we collected 117 non-invasive skin swabs from museum-archived amphibian samples (from 1964-1982) originating from the QTP.Our results showed all samples to be negative for Bd and Bsal.The government should ban the potentially harmful introduction of non-native amphibian species to the QTP and educate the public about the impacts of releasing exotic amphibians from chytrid-infected areas into native environments of the QTP.

  19. Antibiotic-induced immediate type hypersensitivity is a risk factor for positive allergy skin tests for neuromuscular blocking agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagau, Natalia; Gherman, Nadia; Cocis, Mihaela; Petrisor, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Skin tests for neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) are not currently recommended for the general population undergoing general anaesthesia. In a previous study we have reported a high incidence of positive allergy tests for NMBAs in patients with a positive history of non-anaesthetic drug allergy, a larger prospective study being needed to confirm those preliminary results. The objective of this study was to compare the skin tests results for patients with a positive history of antibiotic-induced immediate type hypersensitivity reactions to those of controls without drug allergies. Ninety eight patients with previous antibiotic hypersensitivity and 72 controls were prospectively included. Skin tests were performed for atracurium, pancuronium, rocuronium, and suxamethonium. We found 65 positive skin tests from the 392 tests performed in patients with a positive history of antibiotic hypersensitivity (1 6.58%) and 23 positive skin tests from the 288 performed in controls (7.98%), the two incidences showing significant statistical difference (p = 0.0011). The relative risk for having a positive skin test for NMBAs for patients versus controls was 1.77 (1.15-2.76). For atracurium, skin tests were more often positive in patients with a positive history of antibiotic hypersensitivity versus controls (p = 0.02). For pancuronium, rocuronium and suxamethonium the statistical difference was not attained (p-values 0.08 for pancuronium, 0.23 for rocuronium, and 0.26 for suxamethonium). Patients with a positive history of antibiotic hypersensitivity seem to have a higher incidence of positive skin tests for NMBAs. They might represent a group at higher risk for developing intraoperative anaphylaxis compared to the general population. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of sensitivity of quantiferon-tb gold test and tuberculin skin test in active pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, K.F.; Ambreen, A.; Butt, T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the sensitivity of tuberculin skin test (TST) and quantiFERON-TB gold test (QFT-G) in active pulmonary tuberculosis. Study Design: Analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pulmonology, Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi, from July 2011 to January 2012. Methodology: QuantiFERON-TB gold test (QFT-G) was evaluated and compared it with tuberculin skin test (TST) in 50 cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis, in whom tuberculous infection was suspected on clinical, radiological and microbiological grounds. Sensitivity was determined against positive growth for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Results: Out of 50 cases, 43 were females and 7 were males. The mean age was 41.84 A+- 19.03 years. Sensitivity of QFT-G was 80% while that of TST was 28%. Conclusion: QFT-G has much higher sensitivity than TST for active pulmonary tuberculosis. It is unaffected by prior BCG administration and prior exposure to atypical mycobacteria. A positive QFT-G result can be an adjunct to diagnosis in patients having clinical and radiological data compatible with pulmonary tuberculosis. (author)

  1. Food Sensitivity in Children with Acute Urticaria in Skin Prick Test: Single Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Eke Gungor

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Families of children with acute urticaria often think that there is food allergy in children with urticaria and insist for skin tests. In this study, it was aimed to determine whether skin prick tests are necessary in cases presented with acute urticaria, in whom other causes of acute urticaria are excluded. Material and Method: A test panel involving cow milk, egg white, wheat, hazelnut, peanut, soybean, walnut, sesame, and tuna fish antigens was applied to the children presented with acute urticaria between 1 August 2013 and 1 August 2014, in whom other causes of acute urticaria were excluded and suspected food allergy was reported by parents. Results: Overall, 574 children aged 1-14 years were included to the study. Of the patients, sensitization against at least one food antigen was detected in 22.3% (128/574 of the patients. This rate was found to be 31.9% among those younger than 3 years, while 19.3% in those older than 3 years. Overall, sensitization rates against food allergen in panel were as follows: egg white, 7.3%; wheat, 3.3%; cow milk, 2.7%,; sesame, 2.8%; hazelnut, 2.4%; soybean, 2.3%; peanut, 1.9%, walnut, 1.6%; tuna fish, 1.6%. In general, the history of patients wasn%u2019t compatible with food sensitization detected. Discussion: Sensitization to food allergens is infrequent in children presented with acute urticaria, particularly among those older than 3 years despite expressions of parent and skin prick tests seems to be unnecessary unless strongly suggestive history is present.

  2. False-negative HIV tests using oral fluid tests in children taking antiretroviral therapy from Harare, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaru, Ioana D; McHugh, Grace; Dakshina, Suba; Majonga, Edith; Dauya, Ethel; Bandason, Tsitsi; Kranzer, Katharina; Mujuru, Hilda; Ferrand, Rashida A

    2017-08-29

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) for HIV infection have high sensitivity and specificity, but in the setting of longstanding antiretroviral therapy (ART), can give false results that can lead to misinterpretation, confusion and inadequate management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the proportion of falsely negative results of a RDT performed on oral fluid in HIV-infected children on longstanding ART. One hundred and twenty-nine children with known HIV infection and receiving ART were recruited from the HIV Clinic at the Harare Central Hospital, Zimbabwe. HIV testing was performed on oral fluid and on finger-stick blood. Children included in the study had a median age of 12 years (IQR 10-14) and 67 (51.9%) were female. Median age at HIV diagnosis was 5 years (IQR 3-6) and the median time on ART was 6.3 years (IQR 4.3-8.1). The oral fluid test was negative in 11 (8.5%) patients and indeterminate in 2 (1.6%). Finger-stick blood test was negative in 1 patient. Patients with a negative oral fluid test had a higher CD4 cell count (967 vs. 723 cells/mm 3 , p  = 0.016) and a longer time on ART (8.5 vs. 6 years, p  = 0.016). This study found that a substantial proportion of false-negative HIV test results in children on longstanding ART when using an oral fluid test. This could lead to misinterpretation of HIV test results and in the false perception of cure or delayed diagnosis.

  3. Partial hydatidiform mole with false-negative urine human chorionic gonadatropin test in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundangepfupfu, Tichaendepi; Waseem, Muhammad

    2014-03-01

    Hydatidiform mole (molar pregnancy) is a benign tumor of placental trophoblastic cells, which release human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Several case reports have described complete hydatidiform moles with false-negative urine qualitative hCG tests. These negative pregnancy tests have been attributed to the hook effect. We report an unusual presentation of a partial mole and review an alternative explanation for the negative hCG test. As partial moles are usually not associated with a large proliferation of trophoblastic cells, levels of hCG are commonly negative and serum quantitative hCG was 1,094,950 mIU/mL. Pelvic ultrasonography showed a uterine cavity containing a soft-tissue mass with multiple cystic lesions and the hydatidiform mole was extracted with suction curettage. Tissue pathology confirmed partial hydatidiform mole. In addition to the hook effect, we present another possible explanation for the false-negative test; namely the inability of some assays to detect hCG-degradation products, which may be higher in clinical samples from patients with hydatidiform mole. This case underscores the importance of knowing the limitations of the commonly used hCG assays. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The sensitization potential of sunscreen after ablative fractional skin resurfacing using modified human repeated insult patch test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonchai, Waranya; Sathaworawong, Angkana; Wongpraparut, Chanisada; Wanitphakdeedecha, Rungsima

    2015-10-01

    Ablative fractional skin resurfacing has become popular and proven to be useful in treating scars, photoaging and wrinkles. Although post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) is the most common complication especially in dark-skinned patients like Asian. Several modalities have been used to overcome the PIH. To determine the sensitization potential of sunscreen applied immediately after ablative fractional skin resurfacing. Sixty volunteers were recruited. Of these 30 subjects were from previous ablative fractional skin resurfacing study who applied broad-spectrum sunscreen containing anti-inflammatory agent starting on the first day after resurfacing and another 30 non-resurfacing subjects had applied the same sunscreen on the intact skin. All subjects were patch/photopatch tested for sensitization study by using modified human repeated insult patch test (HRIPT). There were significantly higher sensitization rate of UV-filter, octocrylene and the sunscreen in resurfacing group than in non-resurfacing group. Early application of sunscreen after ablative fractional skin resurfacing has increased the incidence of sensitization potential of sunscreen. The sunscreen is recommended to start using from D3 after fractional ablative skin resurfacing to ensure the complete recovery of skin barrier and minimize the risk of sensitization.

  5. Cyclical thrombocytosis, acquired von Willebrand syndrome and aggressive non-melanoma skin cancers are common in patients with Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms treated with hydroxyurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verner, Emma; Forsyth, Cecily; Grigg, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Abstract Cyclical thrombocytosis, acquired von Willebrand syndrome, aggressive non-melanoma skin cancers and other hydroxyurea complications have been reported in Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), but their incidence and clinical consequences have not been defined in a large cohort of patients. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 188 consecutive patients with MPNs specifically addressing the incidence of these complications. Cyclical thrombocytosis was documented in 29 patients (15%), the majority of whom were receiving hydroxyurea. Acquired von Willebrand syndrome was identified in 17 of the 84 screened patients (20%), but was not associated with any major bleeding complications. Non-melanoma skin cancers were reported in 51 patients (27%). Hydroxyurea-related fever occurred in nine of 149 patients (6%) who received hydroxyurea. Seventy-three patients (39%) experienced a total of 98 major thrombotic events, with the majority of these occurring prior to or within 3 months of the diagnosis. Cyclical thrombocytosis, acquired von Willebrand syndrome, aggressive non-melanoma skin cancers and other hydroxyurea-related complications are not infrequent in MPNs and have important clinical consequences for management.

  6. Negative pressure wound therapy using a portable single-use device for free skin grafts on the distal extremity in seven dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A J; Cashmore, R G; Marchevsky, A M; Havlicek, M; Brown, P M; Fearnside, S M

    2016-09-01

    Retrospective study to describe clinical experience with a portable single-use negative pressure wound therapy device after application of full-thickness meshed skin grafts to wounds on the distal extremities of seven dogs. Seven dogs were treated with portable NPWT after receiving skin grafts; six as the result of tumour resection and one for traumatic injury. Medical records were reviewed and data recorded on patient signalment, cause and location of wound, surgical technique, application and maintenance of portable NPWT, graft survival and outcome, and complications encountered with the system. NPWT was provided for between 4 and 7 days. Five patients were discharged from hospital during the treatment period. Application and maintenance of the portable device was technically easy and no major complications were encountered. Minor complications consisted of fluid accumulation in the evacuation tubing. All dogs achieved 100% graft survival. Application and maintenance of the portable device was technically straightforward. All dogs receiving portable NPWT after transfer of a free skin graft to the distal extremity had a successful outcome. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  7. Compositional analysis and physicochemical and mechanical testing of tanned rabbit skins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. R. Sousa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and physicochemical and mechanical parameters of New Zealand White rabbit tanned skin were evaluated. Skin samples from 70-d-old males, in natura and semi-finished, were collected for evaluation. The in natura treatment comprise skins without any processing, while semi-finished treatment comprise skins after soaking, fleshing, liming, de-liming, purging, degreasing, pickling, tanning, neutralising, re-tanning and dyeing, followed by oiling, drying, stretching and softening. After tanning, samples from the dorsal and flank regions were removed for tensile and physicochemical testing in the longitudinal and transverse directions. A split plot design was used with plot treatments (leather regions: R1=dorsal and R2=flank and subplots directions (S1=longitudinal and S2=transversal, using 10 examples per treatment. At the end of processing, the leather analysis revealed low moisture (31.76%, protein (46.48% and fat content (24.95%, and a high ash content (8.58%. Leather presented a pH of 4.9 and contained 2.0% chromium oxide, 25.5% extractable substances in dichloromethane, and these characteristics were coupled with a higher tensile strength (10.84 N/mm2 in the dorsal region. However, samples in the same region proved to have higher elasticity (64.57% in the longitudinal direction, although there was no difference in the progressive tearing analysis (21.07-23.50 N/mm. Overall, our analyses suggest that, in this case, the tanned leather product does not have sufficient resistance for application in clothing production.

  8. Preliminary Validation of a New Measure of Negative Response Bias: The Temporal Memory Sequence Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedish, Omer; Kivilis, Naama; Hoofien, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The Temporal Memory Sequence Test (TMST) is a new measure of negative response bias (NRB) that was developed to enrich the forced-choice paradigm. The TMST does not resemble the common structure of forced-choice tests and is presented as a temporal recall memory test. The validation sample consisted of 81 participants: 21 healthy control participants, 20 coached simulators, and 40 patients with acquired brain injury (ABI). The TMST had high reliability and significantly high positive correlations with the Test of Memory Malingering and Word Memory Test effort scales. Moreover, the TMST effort scales exhibited high negative correlations with the Glasgow Coma Scale, thus validating the previously reported association between probable malingering and mild traumatic brain injury. A suggested cutoff score yielded acceptable classification rates in the ABI group as well as in the simulator and control groups. The TMST appears to be a promising measure of NRB detection, with respectable rates of reliability and construct and criterion validity.

  9. Approach/avoidance motivation, message framing and skin cancer prevention: a test of the congruency hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevey, David; Dolan, Michelle

    2014-08-01

    The congruency hypothesis posits that approach-orientated individuals are persuaded to engage in prevention behaviours by positively framed messages; conversely, negatively framed messages are more persuasive in encouraging those who are avoidance-orientated. A 2 (frame: loss vs gain) × 2 (motivation: avoidance vs approach) design examined the effects of skin cancer information on sun-protective intentions and free sunscreen sample requests among 533 young adults. Gain-framed messages had the strongest effect on sun-protective intentions for approach-oriented individuals, whereas loss-framed messages had the strongest effect on avoidance-oriented individuals. Message framing effects on precautionary sun behaviour intentions were moderated by motivational differences. © The Author(s) 2013.

  10. Negative pressure wound therapy, staged excision and definitive closure with split-thickness skin graft for axillary hidradenitis suppurativa: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, F B; Richardson, K A

    2017-01-02

    Bilateral axillary hidradenitis is a chronic, suppurative, and scarring disease that is most effectively treated by complete excision of all hair-bearing tissues. We assessed our staged procedure for excision and placement of a split-thickness skin graft for bilateral axillary hidradenitis in terms of costs, outcomes, and timing of excision. An IRB approved retrospective case analysis was performed on patients that underwent bilateral axillary hidradenitis skin excision with eventual placement of split-thickness skin grafting using the current LSUHSC/University Health hidradenitis surgical treatment protocol. Using ICD-9 codes (705.83) and CPT codes (11041, 11042, 11451, 11600, 11601, 11602, 11603, 11604) we reviewed cases performed at our institution from 1 January 2008 to 24 Febuary 2014 and we selected patients based on bilateral axillary involvement (alone) and >1 year history of active disease. Patients were excluded if resection of tissue encompassed regions outside of the immediately adjacent axillary. A total of seven patients matching criteria for bilateral axillary hidradenitis were selected for analysis. Clinical course, cost and surgical techniques were assessed. Of the seven patients, six required admission throughout their treatment due to lack of funding making use of negative pressure wound therapy at home not possible. These patients stayed an average of 10 days with a mean hospital charge of $35,178 and a mean hospital provider charge of $10,019. No recurrence was demonstrated. All patients attained full range of motion, post grafting. No patient required a further operation due to graft failure. Split-thickness skin grafting without use of bilayer dermal regenerative templates yielded definitive results with acceptable cosmesis and functionality, without the added cost of treatments such as a bilayer dermal regenerative template.

  11. The prevalence of skin-test-positive allergic rhinitis in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Jørgensen, T; Nielsen, N H

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is disputed whether increases in self-reported respiratory allergy represent a true increase or merely increased recognition. We aimed to investigate whether the prevalence of skin-prick-test (SPT)-positive allergic rhinitis had increased in an adult general population in Copenhagen...... (participation rate 74.6%) and 482 (participation rate 53.4%) subjects were examined in 1990 and 1998, respectively. Diagnoses of SPT-positive allergic rhinitis were based on a history of nasal symptoms on exposure to allergens and SPT positivity to allergens. RESULTS: The prevalence of a diagnosis of SPT...

  12. Testing Human Skin and Respiratory Sensitizers—What Is Good Enough?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anki Malmborg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative methods for accurate in vitro assessment of skin and respiratory sensitizers are urgently needed. Sensitization is a complex biological process that cannot be evaluated accurately using single events or biomarkers, since the information content is too restricted in these measurements. On the contrary, if the tremendous information content harbored in DNA/mRNA could be mined, most complex biological processes could be elucidated. Genomic technologies available today, including transcriptional profiling and next generation sequencing, have the power to decipher sensitization, when used in the right context. Thus, a genomic test platform has been developed, denoted the Genomic Allergen Rapid Detection (GARD assay. Due to the high informational content of the GARD test, accurate predictions of both the skin and respiratory sensitizing capacity of chemicals, have been demonstrated. Based on a matured dendritic cell line, acting as a human-like reporter system, information about potency has also been acquired. Consequently, multiparametric diagnostic technologies are disruptive test principles that can change the way in which the next generation of alternative methods are designed.

  13. Identification of common allergens for united airway disease by skin prick test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Deep Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Identification of common allergens by skin prick test in patients of united airway disease. Materials and Methods: Skin prick test was performed in 60 patients of United Airway Disease to identify the common allergens. A total of 62 allergens consisting of 36 types of pollen, 5 fungi, 4 insects, 8 type of dusts, 4 dander, 3 fabrics, Dust mite and Parthenium leaves were tested. Result: Most common allergens were Dust mite (60% followed by Parthenium leaves (45%, insects (18.75%, pollen (14.81%, dust allergens (8.51%, fabrics (8.33%, fungi (5.66%, dander (5%. Most common insect allergens were cockroach (female (30%, cockroach (male (23.33%. Common pollens were Ricinus communis (28.33%, Amaranthus spinosus (28.33%, Parthenium hysterophorus (26.66%, Eucalyptus tereticornis (26.66% and Cynodon dactylon (25%. Common dust allergens were house dust (21.66%, paper dust (11.66% and cotton mill dust (10%. Among fabrics kapok cotton (13.33% showed maximum positivity. Among fungi Aspergillus fumigatus (10% followed by A. niger (6.66% were most common. In animal dander group common ones were cat dander followed by dog dander. Conclusion: In conclusion it can be said that the knowledge drawn by above study will help to treat patients by immunotherapy or avoidance strategy.

  14. Positive Skin Test or Specific IgE to Penicillin Does Not Reliably Predict Penicillin Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tannert, Line Kring; Mørtz, Charlotte G; Skov, Per Stahl

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: According to guidelines, patients are diagnosed with penicillin allergy if skin test (ST) result or specific IgE (s-IgE) to penicillin is positive. However, the true sensitivity and specificity of these tests are presently not known. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical relevance...... of a positive ST result and positive s-IgE and to study the reproducibility of ST and s-IgE. METHODS: A sample of convenience of 25 patients with positive penicillin ST results, antipenicillin s-IgE results, or both was challenged with their culprit penicillin. Further 19 patients were not challenged......-IgE measured (T0), and then skin tested and had s-IgE measured 4 weeks later (T1). RESULTS: Only 9 (36%) of 25 were challenge positive. There was an increased probability of being penicillin allergic if both ST result and s-IgE were positive at T0. Positive ST result or positive s-IgE alone did not predict...

  15. False-negative reactions to the comparative intradermal tuberculin test for bovine tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudielle A. Rodrigues

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: According to the Brazilian National Program for the Control and Eradication of Animal Brucellosis and Tuberculosis (PNCEBT, the routine tests for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in the country are the simple intradermal tuberculin test (SITT of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MAPA, the caudal fold test and the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CITT. The latter is also used as a confirmatory test. A group of 53 animals from three dairy herds in a focal area for bovine tuberculosis, that were submitted to depopulation in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, were submitted to the CITT. Tissues were cultured and the resulting colonies were confirmed by PCR and DNA sequencing. Among the 53 animals analyzed using the CITT, 32 (60.4% were negative, 14 (26.4% were positive and seven (13.2% results were inconclusive. The CITT detected 11 of the 39 animals with culture-confirmed M. bovis infection as positive. Among the total of 14 uninfected animals based on cultures, the CBT detected eight as negative. Thus, the CITT demonstrated sensitivity of 28.2% and specificity of 57.1% for the population sampled. A total of 24/32 (75.0% of the animals with negative CITT results were culture positive (confirmed by PCR and were considered false negatives based on the CITT. The maintenance of these false-negative animals in herds has serious implications for the control of the disease, since they can be a source of infection. The addition of complementary tests could help identify such animals and increase the odds of diagnostic success.

  16. 78 FR 68076 - Request for Information on Alternative Skin Sensitization Test Methods and Testing Strategies and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM), and by the industry organization Cosmetics Europe... products. Pesticides and other marketed chemicals, including cosmetic ingredients, are routinely tested for... sensitization. NICEATM collaboration with industry scientists to develop an open-source Bayesian network as an...

  17. Comparison of E-test with other conventional susceptibility testing methods for ciprofloxacin and gentamicin against gram negative enteric bacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbolu, D O; Terry-Alli, O A; Daini, O A; Olabiyi, F A; Igharo, E A

    2012-06-01

    Increasing antibiotic resistance in Gram negative bacteria has led to the need for a faster and reliable method for determining antimicrobial susceptibility testing. In a resource poor setting like ours, it's also important to look for methods that will be clinically and economically beneficial to the patient. This study was aimed at evaluating the Epsilometer test (E-test) and conventional methods for determining antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates of Gram-negative enteric bacteria to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. Disc diffusion, E-test, broth dilution and agar dilution methods were performed on 54 bacterial isolates. Using the E-test, 88.9% of bacterial isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, 92.6% were resistant using broth microdilution, 96.3% were resistant using agar dilution and 72.2% were resistant using disc diffusion. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) of isolates for gentamicin showed significant difference for all the techniques (p 0.05). Both E-test and broth dilution methods showed high levels of agreement (p > 0.05), there were low levels of agreement between E-test and agar dilution method (p < 0.05), especially at MIC50. The E-test can therefore be considered a reliable method to determine antimicrobial susceptibility testing and it gives results which are at least as accurate as those obtained by the broth dilution method.

  18. The impact of screening-test negative samples not enumerated by MPN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corbellini, Luis Gustavo; Ribeiro Duarte, Ana Sofia; de Knegt, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    that includes false negative results from the screening, and a third that considers the entire data set. The relative sensitivity of the screening test was also calculated assuming as gold standard samples with confirmed Salmonella. Salmonella was confirmed by a reference laboratory in 29 samples either...

  19. Electronics system for the 150 kV negative ion test stand at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    The 150 kV test stand at BNL is being used to investigate the extraction, acceleration and transport problems associated with the development of intense negative ion beams. The power supplies associated with these functions as well as the control and monitoring electronics are described

  20. Evidence Based Medicine; Positive and Negative Likelihood Ratios of Diagnostic Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Baratloo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the previous two parts of educational manuscript series in Emergency, we explained some screening characteristics of diagnostic tests including accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values. In the 3rd  part we aimed to explain positive and negative likelihood ratio (LR as one of the most reliable performance measures of a diagnostic test. To better understand this characteristic of a test, it is first necessary to fully understand the concept of sensitivity and specificity. So we strongly advise you to review the 1st part of this series again. In short, the likelihood ratios are about the percentage of people with and without a disease but having the same test result. The prevalence of a disease can directly influence screening characteristics of a diagnostic test, especially its sensitivity and specificity. Trying to eliminate this effect, LR was developed. Pre-test probability of a disease multiplied by positive or negative LR can estimate post-test probability. Therefore, LR is the most important characteristic of a test to rule out or rule in a diagnosis. A positive likelihood ratio > 1 means higher probability of the disease to be present in a patient with a positive test. The further from 1, either higher or lower, the stronger the evidence to rule in or rule out the disease, respectively. It is obvious that tests with LR close to one are less practical. On the other hand, LR further from one will have more value for application in medicine. Usually tests with 0.1 < LR > 10 are considered suitable for implication in routine practice.

  1. Concordant or discordant results by the tuberculin skin test and the quantiFERON-TB test in children reflect immune biomarker profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhanasekaran, S; Jenum, S; Stavrum, R

    2014-01-01

    The tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON-TB-Gold-In-tube (QFTGIT) are adjunctive tests used in the diagnosis of pediatric tuberculosis (TB). Neither test can rule out TB; however, a positive test usually triggers preventive treatment in TB contacts aged <5 years. TST and QFTGIT can give div...

  2. [An attempt to construct a Japanese version of the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test (IPANAT)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Shunsuke; Okubo, Nobutoshi; Kobayashi, Mai; Sato, Shigetaka; Kitamura, Hideya

    2014-08-01

    The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test (IPANAT) is an instrument for the indirect assessment of positive and negative affect. A Japanese version of the IPANAT was developed and its reliability and validity were examined. In Study 1, factor analysis identified two independent factors that could be interpreted as implicit positive and negative affect, which corresponded to the original version. The Japanese IPANAT also had sufficient internal consistency and acceptable test-retest reliability. In Study 2, we demonstrated that the Japanese IPANAT was associated with explicit state affect (e.g., PANAS), extraversion, and neuroticism, which indicated its adequate construct validity. In Study 3, we examined the extent to which the Japanese IPANAT was sensitive to changes in affect by assessing a set of IPANAT items after the presentation of positive, negative, or neutral photographs. The results indicated that the Japanese IPANAT was sufficiently sensitive to changes in affect resulting from affective stimuli. Taken together, these studies suggest that the Japanese version of the IPANAT is a useful instrument for the indirect assessment of positive and negative affect.

  3. Rotavirus vaccine effectiveness in low-income settings: An evaluation of the test-negative design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Lauren M; Halloran, M Elizabeth; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Neuzil, Kathleen M; Victor, John C

    2017-01-03

    The test-negative design (TND), an epidemiologic method currently used to measure rotavirus vaccine (RV) effectiveness, compares the vaccination status of rotavirus-positive cases and rotavirus-negative controls meeting a pre-defined case definition for acute gastroenteritis. Despite the use of this study design in low-income settings, the TND has not been evaluated to measure rotavirus vaccine effectiveness. This study builds upon prior methods to evaluate the use of the TND for influenza vaccine using a randomized controlled clinical trial database. Test-negative vaccine effectiveness (VE-TND) estimates were derived from three large randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) of monovalent (RV1) and pentavalent (RV5) rotavirus vaccines in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Derived VE-TND estimates were compared to the original RCT vaccine efficacy estimates (VE-RCTs). The core assumption of the TND (i.e., rotavirus vaccine has no effect on rotavirus-negative diarrhea) was also assessed. TND vaccine effectiveness estimates were nearly equivalent to original RCT vaccine efficacy estimates. Neither RV had a substantial effect on rotavirus-negative diarrhea. This study supports the TND as an appropriate epidemiologic study design to measure rotavirus vaccine effectiveness in low-income settings. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Further development of LLNA:DAE method as stand-alone skin-sensitization testing method and applied for evaluation of relative skin-sensitizing potency between chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Kunihiko; Shinoda, Shinsuke; Hagiwara, Saori; Itagaki, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    To date, there has been no well-established local lymph node assay (LLNA) that includes an elicitation phase. Therefore, we developed a modified local lymph node assay with an elicitation phase (LLNA:DAE) to discriminate true skin sensitizers from chemicals that gave borderline positive results and previously reported this assay. To develop the LLNA:DAE method as a useful stand-alone testing method, we investigated the complete procedure for the LLNA:DAE method using hexyl cinnamic aldehyde (HCA), isoeugenol, and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) as test compounds. We defined the LLNA:DAE procedure as follows: in the dose-finding test, four concentrations of chemical applied to dorsum of the right ear on days 1, 2, and 3 and dorsum of both ears on day 10. Ear thickness and skin irritation score were measured on days 1, 3, 5, 10, and 12. Local lymph nodes were excised and weighed on day 12. The test dose for the primary LLNA:DAE study was selected as the dose that gave the highest left ear lymph node weight in the dose-finding study, or the lowest dose that produced a left ear lymph node of over 4 mg. This procedure was validated using nine different chemicals. Furthermore, qualitative relationship was observed between the degree of elicitation response in the left ear lymph node and the skin sensitizing potency of 32 chemicals tested in this study and the previous study. These results indicated that LLNA:DAE method was as first LLNA method that was able to evaluate the skin sensitizing potential and potency in elicitation response.

  5. Association between parasitic infections and tuberculin skin test results in refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Nathaniel S; Mizinduko, Mucho M; Barnett, Elizabeth D; White, Laura F; Hochberg, Natasha S

    Parasitic infections are known to modulate the immune response necessary for controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. We sought to investigate species-specific effects of parasite infection on M. tuberculosis infection. As part of the Refugee Health Assessment Program, stool examinations and tuberculin skin testing were performed on refugees seen at Boston Medical Center between 1995 and 2012. Tuberculin skin test (TST) and stool examination data were collected for 6669 refugees; 3349 (50.2%) were TST positive (≥10 mm). Among TST-positive subjects, 176 (5.3%) had helminth infections and 1149 (34.3%) protozoa. After adjusting for sex, age, and country of origin, helminth and protozoan infections were not associated with TST-positivity. When species-specific effects were examined, subjects infected with Trichuris trichiura and Giardia lamblia had reduced odds of TST-positivity (adjusted OR [aOR] 0.65 [95%CI 0.44-0.96; p = 0.03] and aOR 0.79 [95%CI 0.65-0.95, p = 0.01], respectively). Our findings suggest that T. trichiura and G. lamblia may provide protection against M. tuberculosis infection. This study adds to a growing body of literature suggesting that immune response modulation and susceptibility to M. tuberculosis infection is parasite species-dependent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. GALEN skin test study III: Minimum battery of test inhalent allergens needed in epidemiological studies in patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, P-J; Burbach, G; Heinzerling, L M

    2009-01-01

    Background: The number of allergens to be tested in order to identify sensitized patients is important in order to have the most cost-effective approach in epidemiological studies. Objective: To define the minimal number and the type of skin prick test (SPT) allergens required to identify a patient...... the allergens selection. Result: Among the 3034 patients involved, 1996 (68.2%) were sensitized to at least one allergen. Overall, eight allergens (grass pollen, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, birch pollen, cat dander, Artemisia, olive pollen, Blatella and Alternaria) allowed to identified more than 95......% of sensitized subjects. However, differences were observed between countries, two allergens being sufficient for Switzerland (grass pollen and cat dander) as opposed to nine for France (grass pollen, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, olive pollen, cat dander, Blatella, cypress, dog dander, alder and [Artemisia...

  7. Numerical simulations of the first operational conditions of the negative ion test facility SPIDER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serianni, G.; Agostinetti, P.; Antoni, V.; Baltador, C.; Chitarin, G.; Marconato, N.; Pasqualotto, R.; Sartori, E.; Toigo, V.; Veltri, P.; Cavenago, M.

    2016-01-01

    In view of the realization of the negative ion beam injectors for ITER, a test facility, named SPIDER, is under construction in Padova (Italy) to study and optimize production and extraction of negative ions. The present paper is devoted to the analysis of the expected first operations of SPIDER in terms of single-beamlet and multiple-beamlet simulations of the hydrogen beam optics in various operational conditions. The effectiveness of the methods adopted to compensate for the magnetic deflection of the particles is also assessed. Indications for a sequence of the experimental activities are obtained

  8. Do negative screening test results cause false reassurance? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Grace C; Harvie, Michelle N; French, David P

    2017-11-01

    It has been suggested that receiving a negative screening test result may cause false reassurance or have a 'certificate of health effect'. False reassurance in those receiving a negative screening test result may result in them wrongly believing themselves to be at lower risk of the disease, and consequently less likely to engage in health-related behaviours that would lower their risk. The present systematic review aimed to identify the evidence regarding false reassurance effects due to negative screening test results in adults (over 18 years) screened for the presence of a disease or its precursors, where disease or precursors are linked to lifestyle behaviours. MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched for trials that compared a group who had received negative screening results to an unscreened control group. The following outcomes were considered as markers of false reassurance: perceived risk of disease; anxiety and worry about disease; health-related behaviours or intention to change health-related behaviours (i.e., smoking, diet, physical activity, and alcohol consumption); self-rated health status. Nine unique studies were identified, reporting 55 measures in relation to the outcomes considered. Outcomes were measured at various time points from immediately following screening to up to 11 years after screening. Despite considerable variation in outcome measures used and timing of measurements, effect sizes for comparisons between participants who received negative screening test results and control participants were typically small with few statistically significant differences. There was evidence of high risk of bias, and measures of behaviours employed were often not valid. The limited evidence base provided little evidence of false reassurance following a negative screening test results on any of four outcomes examined. False reassurance should not be considered a significant harm of screening, but further research is warranted. Statement of contribution

  9. Intraoperative anaphylaxis to sugammadex and a protocol for intradermal skin testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadleir, P H M; Russell, T; Clarke, R C; Maycock, E; Platt, P R

    2014-01-01

    Sugammadex is a selective binding agent for aminosteroid neuromuscular blockers whose use is increasing in anaesthetic practice. We present three cases of severe anaphylaxis coincident with sugammadex administration. Subsequent intradermal testing confirmed sugammadex as the triggering agent, with all patients having positive skin responses to a 1:100 dilution of the standard 100 mg/ml solution and two out of three having a positive response to a 1:1000 dilution. As all patients were administered sugammadex to reverse neuromuscular blockade with rocuronium, we considered that sugammadex-rocuronium complexes were a potential unique allergen. In the two patients who were additionally tested with a rocuronium-sugammadex (3.6:1 molecular ratio) mixture, the wheal-and-flare response was significantly attenuated.

  10. Skin sensitisation: the Colipa strategy for developing and evaluating non-animal test methods for risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Gavin; Aeby, Pierre; Ashikaga, Takao; Bessou-Touya, Sandrine; Diembeck, Walter; Gerberick, Frank; Kern, Petra; Marrec-Fairley, Monique; Ovigne, Jean-Marc; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Schroeder, Klaus; Tailhardat, Magali; Teissier, Silvia; Winkler, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction induced by small reactive chemicals (haptens). Currently, the sensitising potential and potency of new chemicals is usually characterised using data generated via animal studies, such as the local lymph node assay (LLNA). There are, however, increasing public and political concerns regarding the use of animals for the testing of new chemicals. Consequently, the development of in vitro, in chemico or in silico models for predicting the sensitising potential and/or potency of new chemicals is receiving widespread interest. The Colipa Skin Tolerance task force currently collaborates with and/or funds several academic research groups to expand our understanding of the molecular and cellular events occurring during the acquisition of skin sensitisation. Knowledge gained from this research is being used to support the development and evaluation of novel alternative approaches for the identification and characterisation of skin sensitizing chemicals. At present three non-animal test methods (Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay (DPRA), Myeloid U937 Skin Sensitisation Test (MUSST) and human Cell Line Activation Test (hCLAT)) have been evaluated in Colipa interlaboratory ring trials for their potential to predict skin sensitisation potential and were recently submitted to ECVAM for formal pre-validation. Data from all three test methods will now be used to support the study and development of testing strategy approaches for skin sensitiser potency prediction. This publication represents the current viewpoint of the cosmetics industry on the feasibility of replacing the need for animal test data for informing skin sensitisation risk assessment decisions.

  11. A case of natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy with repeated negative CSF JCV testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazda, Monica E; Brosch, Jared R; Wiens, Andrea L; Bonnin, José M; Kamer, Aaron P; Mattson, David H; Snook, Riley J

    2013-05-01

    The development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in patients treated with natalizumab is a well-known potential risk. Diagnosis of PML can be confounded in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) if new demyelinating lesions develop, and the sensitivity of existing diagnostic tests is less than ideal. In the case presented here, four samples of cerebrospinal fluid tested negative for John Cunningham virus (JCV) DNA by polymerase chain reaction, yet brain biopsy eventually proved positive by immunohistochemistry. A review of the limitations of existing clinical diagnostic tests is addressed, and we review the most recent literature on the proper management of natalizumab-treated MS patients.

  12. Laser heat stimulation of tiny skin areas adds valuable information to quantitative sensory testing in postherpetic neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Marcel; Spohn, Dorothee; Ritter, Alexander; Rolke, Roman; Miltner, Wolfgang H R; Weiss, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    Patients suffering from postherpetic neuralgia often complain about hypo- or hypersensation in the affected dermatome. The loss of thermal sensitivity has been demonstrated by quantitative sensory testing as being associated with small-fiber (Aδ- and C-fiber) deafferentation. We aimed to compare laser stimulation (radiant heat) to thermode stimulation (contact heat) with regard to their sensitivity and specificity to detect thermal sensory deficits related to small-fiber dysfunction in postherpetic neuralgia. We contrasted detection rate of laser stimuli with 5 thermal parameters (thresholds of cold/warm detection, cold/heat pain, and sensory limen) of quantitative sensory testing. Sixteen patients diagnosed with unilateral postherpetic neuralgia and 16 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects were tested. Quantitative sensory testing and laser stimulation of tiny skin areas were performed in the neuralgia-affected skin and in the contralateral homologue of the neuralgia-free body side. Across the 5 thermal parameters of thermode stimulation, only one parameter (warm detection threshold) revealed sensory abnormalities (thermal hypoesthesia to warm stimuli) in the neuralgia-affected skin area of patients but not in the contralateral area, as compared to the control group. In contrast, patients perceived significantly less laser stimuli both in the affected skin and in the contralateral skin compared to controls. Overall, laser stimulation proved more sensitive and specific in detecting thermal sensory abnormalities in the neuralgia-affected skin, as well as in the control skin, than any single thermal parameter of thermode stimulation. Thus, laser stimulation of tiny skin areas might be a useful diagnostic tool for small-fiber dysfunction. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. HCV viraemia in anti-HCV-negative haemodialysis patients: Do we need HCV RNA detection test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Nikolaos; Griveas, Ioannis; Sveroni, Eirini; Argiana, Vasiliki; Kalliaropoulos, Antonios; Martinez-Gonzalez, Beatriz; Deutsch, Melanie

    2018-03-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is still common among dialysis patients, but the natural history of HCV in this group is not completely understood. The KDIGO HCV guidelines of 2009 recommend that chronic haemodialysis patients be screened for HCV antibody upon admission to the dialysis clinic and every 6 months thereafter if susceptible to HCV infection. However, previous studies have shown the presence of HCV viraemia in anti-HCV-negative haemodialysis patients as up to 22%. To evaluate the presence of HCV viraemia, using HCV RNA detection, among anti-HCV-negative haemodialysis patients from a tertiary dialysis unit in Athens. We enrolled 41 anti-HCV-negative haemodialysis patients diagnosed with third-generation enzyme immunoassay. HCV viraemia was evaluated using a sensitive (cut-off: 12 IU/mL) reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (COBAS AmpliPrep/TaqMan system) for HCV RNA. None of the 41 anti-HCV-negative haemodialysis patients were shown to be viraemic. Routine HCV RNA testing appears not to be necessary in anti-HCV-negative haemodialysis patients.

  14. Testes cutâneos de hipersensibilidade imediata com o evoluir da idade Positive skin test and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma Carvalho Neves Forte

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliação da positividade aos testes cutâneos de hipersensibilidade imediata em crianças com asma brônquica e/ou rinite alérgica em diferentes faixas etárias. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: foi observada a positividade aos testes cutâneos de hipersensibilidade imediata, por testes de puntura, frente a diferentes alérgenos de mesma procedência: poeira total e Dermatophagóides sp, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae e Blomia tropicalis, Penicillium sp, Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium herbarium, Aspergillus fumigatus, grama bermuda, capim de pasto, epitélio de cão, epitélio de gato, penas, Blatella germanica, lã. Foram selecionadas 713 crianças divididas em grupos conforme a faixa etária: grupo I (6 a 11 meses, II (1 a 3 anos e 11 meses, III (4 a 8 anos e 11 meses e IV (9 a 15 anos. Para análise estatística utilizou-se o cálculo do qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: o total de diferenças significativas entre os vários grupos foi: I e II = 5; II e III = 5; II e IV = 5; III e IV = 6; I e III = 10 e I e IV = 10 CONCLUSÃO: concluiu-se que a positividade ao teste de hipersensibilidade imediata foi maior com o evoluir da idade, havendo positividade já aos doze meses de vida, sendo esta positividade significativamente maior a partir de quatro anos de idade.OBJECTIVE: to evaluate positive responses to skin tests for immediate hypersensitivity to allergens in children with asthma and rhinitis at different ages. METHOD: we observed positive skin test reactivity in prick tests using fifteen allergens of same origin (total dust and Dermatophagoides sp.; Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus; Dermatophagoides farinae; Blomia tropicalis; Penicillium sp; Alternaria alternata; Cladosporium herbarium; Aspergillus fumigatus; Bermuda grass; forage grass; dog and cat epithelia; feathers; Blatella germanica and wool. We placed 713 selected patients into different age groups - Group I: 6 to 11 months; Group II: 1 to 3 years and 11

  15. Development and preliminary testing of a standardized method for quantifying excess water in over-hydrated skin using evaporimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fader, M; Clark-O'Neill, S R; Cottenden, A M; Wong, W K R; Runeman, B; Farbrot, A

    2011-01-01

    Although evaporimetry (the measurement of water vapour flux density from the skin) has often been used to study the impact on skin hydration of using products such as baby diapers and incontinence pads, it is difficult to interpret results and to compare data from different studies because of the diversity of unvalidated methodologies used. The aim of this work was to develop a robust methodology for measuring the excess water in over-hydrated skin and test it on volar forearm and hip skin which had been occluded with saline soaked patches. Three repeat measurements were made on the volar forearm and the hip of five young (31–44 years) and six older (67–85 years) women and moderately good within-subject repeatability was found for both skin sites for both subject groups. Measurements taken from the hip were significantly higher (P = 0.001) than those from the arm and had larger coefficients of variation (3.5–22.1%) compared to arms (3.0–14.0%). There were no significant differences between young and older skin, implying that women for future studies could be recruited without regard to age. This is the first time that a robust evaporimetric methodology for quantifying excess water in over-hydrated skin has been described and validated, and it will form a solid basis for future work

  16. Screening for skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfand, M; Mahon, S M; Eden, K B; Frame, P S; Orleans, C T

    2001-04-01

    of referrals, types of suspected skin cancers, biopsies, confirmed skin cancers, and stages and thickness of skin cancers. For studies that reported test performance, we recorded the definition of a suspicious lesion, the "gold-standard" determination of disease, and the number of true positive, false positive, true negative, and false negative test results. When possible, positive predictive values, likelihood ratios, sensitivity, and specificity were recorded. No randomized or case-control studies have been done that demonstrate that routine screening for melanoma by primary care providers reduces morbidity or mortality. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are very common, but detection and treatment in the absence of formal screening are almost always curative. No controlled studies have shown that formal screening programs will improve this already high cure rate. While the efficacy of screening has not been established, the screening procedures themselves are noninvasive, and the follow-up test, skin biopsy, has low morbidity. Five studies from mass screening programs reported the accuracy of skin examination as a screening test. One of these, a prospective study, tracked patients with negative results to determine the number of patients with false-negative results. In this study, the sensitivity of screening for skin cancer was 94% and specificity was 98%. Several recent case-control studies confirm earlier evidence that risk of melanoma rises with the presence of atypical moles and/or many common moles. One well-done prospective study demonstrated that risk assessment by limited physical exam identified a relatively small (fair. We found no studies that assessed the effectiveness of periodic skin examination by a clinician in reducing melanoma mortality. Both self-assessment of risk factors or clinician examination can classify a small proportion of patients as at highest risk for melanoma. Skin cancer screening, perhaps using a risk

  17. Effects of different base agents on prediction of skin irritation by sodium lauryl sulfate using patch testing and repeated application test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horita, Kotomi; Horita, Daisuke; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Yasoshima, Mitsue; Yagami, Akiko; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2017-05-01

    Animal testing for cosmetics was banned in the European Union (EU) in 2013; therefore, human tests to predict and ensure skin safety such as the patch test or usage test are now in demand in Japan as well as in the EU. In order to investigate the effects of different bases on the findings of tests to predict skin irritation, we performed patch testing (PT) and the repeated application test (RAT) using sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), a well-known irritant, dissolved in 6 different base agents to examine the effects of these bases on skin irritation by SLS. The bases for PT were distilled water, 50% ethanol, 100% ethanol, a gel containing 50% ethanol, white petrolatum, and hydrophilic cream. The concentrations of SLS were 0.2% and 0.5%. Twelve different base combinations were applied to the normal back skin of 19 individuals for 24h. RAT was performed with distilled water, 50% ethanol, 100% ethanol, a gel containing 50% ethanol, white petrolatum, and hydrophilic cream containing SLS at concentrations of 0.2%, 2%, and 5%, being applied to the arms of the same PT subjects. The test preparation of each base was applied at the same site, with 0.2% SLS being used in the first week, 2% SLS in the following week, and 5% SLS in the final week. The results of PT revealed that skin irritation scores varied when SLS at the same concentration was dissolved in a different base. The results of RAT showed that although skin irritation appeared with every base at a concentration of 5%, the positive rate was approximately the same. In conclusion, our results suggest that skin irritation elicited in PT depends on the base, while in RAT, it does not depend on the type of base employed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Histamine 50-skin-prick test: a tool to diagnose histamine intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Lukas; Ulmer, Hanno; Kofler, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Background. Histamine intolerance results from an imbalance between histamine intake and degradation. In healthy persons, dietary histamine can be sufficiently metabolized by amine oxidases, whereas persons with low amine oxidase activity are at risk of histamine toxicity. Diamine oxidase (DAO) is the key enzyme in degradation. Histamine elicits a wide range of effects. Histamine intolerance displays symptoms, such as rhinitis, headache, gastrointestinal symptoms, palpitations, urticaria and pruritus. Objective. Diagnosis of histamine intolerance until now is based on case history; neither a validated questionnaire nor a routine test is available. It was the aim of this trial to evaluate the usefullness of a prick-test for the diagnosis of histamine intolerance. Methods. Prick-testing with 1% histamine solution and wheal size-measurement to assess the relation between the wheal in prick-test, read after 20 to 50 minutes, as sign of slowed histamine degradation as well as history and symptoms of histamine intolerance. Results. Besides a pretest with 17 patients with HIT we investigated 156 persons (81 with HIT, 75 controls): 64 out of 81 with histamine intolerance(HIT), but only 14 out of 75 persons from the control-group presented with a histamine wheal ≥3 mm after 50 minutes (P < .0001). Conclusion and Clinical Relevance. Histamine-50 skin-prickt-test offers a simple tool with relevance.

  19. Feedback enhances the positive effects and reduces the negative effects of multiple-choice testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Andrew C; Roediger, Henry L

    2008-04-01

    Multiple-choice tests are used frequently in higher education without much consideration of the impact this form of assessment has on learning. Multiple-choice testing enhances retention of the material tested (the testing effect); however, unlike other tests, multiple-choice can also be detrimental because it exposes students to misinformation in the form of lures. The selection of lures can lead students to acquire false knowledge (Roediger & Marsh, 2005). The present research investigated whether feedback could be used to boost the positive effects and reduce the negative effects of multiple-choice testing. Subjects studied passages and then received a multiple-choice test with immediate feedback, delayed feedback, or no feedback. In comparison with the no-feedback condition, both immediate and delayed feedback increased the proportion of correct responses and reduced the proportion of intrusions (i.e., lure responses from the initial multiple-choice test) on a delayed cued recall test. Educators should provide feedback when using multiple-choice tests.

  20. Serial testing of refugees for latent tuberculosis using the QuantiFERON-gold in-tube: effects of an antecedent tuberculin skin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Cristina A; Thomas, William; Stauffer, William M; Peterson, Phillip K; Tsukayama, Dean T

    2009-04-01

    Screening for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in refugee populations immigrating to low-incidence countries remains a challenge. We assessed the characteristics of the QuantiFERON-Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) compared with the tuberculin skin test (TST) in 198 refugees of all ages from tuberculosis-endemic countries. Diagnostic agreement between the first QFT-GIT and simultaneous TST was 78% (kappa = 0.56) and between serial QFT-GITs was 89% (kappa = 0.76). In serial QFT-GIT testing, 70% of subjects had an increased QFT-GIT value, perhaps the result of an antecedent TST in the setting of previous TB exposure. This boosting seemed to become less prevalent with time from TST and occurred less frequently in those with negative first QFT-GIT readings. Despite small changes in the quantitative results caused by nonspecific variation and boosting, the diagnostic result of the QFT-GIT was reliable. The QFT-GIT shows the potential to replace the TST for LTBI screening in refugees from tuberculosis-endemic areas.

  1. Transcriptome analysis of skin fibroblasts with dominant negative COL3A1 mutations provides molecular insights into the etiopathology of vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarelli, Nicola; Carini, Giulia; Zoppi, Nicoletta; Ritelli, Marco; Colombi, Marina

    2018-01-01

    Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS) is a dominantly inherited connective tissue disorder caused by mutations in the COL3A1 gene that encodes type III collagen (COLLIII), which is the major expressed collagen in blood vessels and hollow organs. The majority of disease-causing variants in COL3A1 are glycine substitutions and in-frame splice mutations in the triple helix domain that through a dominant negative effect are associated with the severe clinical spectrum potentially lethal of vEDS, characterized by fragility of soft connective tissues with arterial and organ ruptures. To shed lights into molecular mechanisms underlying vEDS, we performed gene expression profiling in cultured skin fibroblasts from three patients with different structural COL3A1 mutations. Transcriptome analysis revealed significant changes in the expression levels of several genes involved in maintenance of cell redox and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis, COLLs folding and extracellular matrix (ECM) organization, formation of the proteasome complex, and cell cycle regulation. Protein analyses showed that aberrant COLLIII expression is associated with the disassembly of many structural ECM constituents, such as fibrillins, EMILINs, and elastin, as well as with the reduction of the proteoglycans perlecan, decorin, and versican, all playing an important role in the vascular system. Furthermore, the altered distribution of the ER marker protein disulfide isomerase PDI and the strong reduction of the COLLs-modifying enzyme FKBP22 are consistent with the disturbance of ER-related homeostasis and COLLs biosynthesis and post-translational modifications, indicated by microarray analysis. Our findings add new insights into the pathophysiology of this severe vascular disorder, since they provide a picture of the gene expression changes in vEDS skin fibroblasts and highlight that dominant negative mutations in COL3A1 also affect post-translational modifications and deposition into the ECM of

  2. Transcriptome analysis of skin fibroblasts with dominant negative COL3A1 mutations provides molecular insights into the etiopathology of vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Chiarelli

    Full Text Available Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS is a dominantly inherited connective tissue disorder caused by mutations in the COL3A1 gene that encodes type III collagen (COLLIII, which is the major expressed collagen in blood vessels and hollow organs. The majority of disease-causing variants in COL3A1 are glycine substitutions and in-frame splice mutations in the triple helix domain that through a dominant negative effect are associated with the severe clinical spectrum potentially lethal of vEDS, characterized by fragility of soft connective tissues with arterial and organ ruptures. To shed lights into molecular mechanisms underlying vEDS, we performed gene expression profiling in cultured skin fibroblasts from three patients with different structural COL3A1 mutations. Transcriptome analysis revealed significant changes in the expression levels of several genes involved in maintenance of cell redox and endoplasmic reticulum (ER homeostasis, COLLs folding and extracellular matrix (ECM organization, formation of the proteasome complex, and cell cycle regulation. Protein analyses showed that aberrant COLLIII expression is associated with the disassembly of many structural ECM constituents, such as fibrillins, EMILINs, and elastin, as well as with the reduction of the proteoglycans perlecan, decorin, and versican, all playing an important role in the vascular system. Furthermore, the altered distribution of the ER marker protein disulfide isomerase PDI and the strong reduction of the COLLs-modifying enzyme FKBP22 are consistent with the disturbance of ER-related homeostasis and COLLs biosynthesis and post-translational modifications, indicated by microarray analysis. Our findings add new insights into the pathophysiology of this severe vascular disorder, since they provide a picture of the gene expression changes in vEDS skin fibroblasts and highlight that dominant negative mutations in COL3A1 also affect post-translational modifications and deposition

  3. Tests of the power PC theory of causal induction with negative contingencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, David R

    2002-01-01

    The power PC theory of causal induction (Cheng, 1997) proposes that causal estimates are based on the power p of a potential cause, where p is the contingency between the cause and effect normalized by the base rate of the effect. Previous tests of this theory have concentrated on generative causes that have positive contingencies with their associated outcomes. Here we empirically test this theory in two experiments using preventive causes that have negative contingencies for their outcomes. Contrary to the power PC theory, the results show that causal judgments vary with contingency across conditions of constant power p. This pattern is consistent, however, with several alternative accounts of causal judgment.

  4. The incidence and features of systemic reactions to skin prick tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellaturay, Priya; Nasser, Shuaib; Ewan, Pamela

    2015-09-01

    Skin prick testing (SPT) has been regarded as a safe procedure with few systemic reactions. To evaluate the rate of systemic reactions and their associations after SPT in the largest population to date. In this study reactions were recorded prospectively in a specialist UK allergy clinic for 6 years (2007-2013). An estimated 31,000 patients underwent SPT. Twenty-four patients (age range 7 months to 56 years, mean 23.5 years, 17 female patients, 12 with asthma) had systemic reactions. The rate of systemic reactions to SPT was 0.077%. The likely allergens causing the reaction were foods (18; peanut, 7; walnut, 1; Brazil nut, 2; pistachio, 1; lupin, 1; cow's milk, 2; shrimp, 1; spinach, 1; legume, 1; soy, 1), aeroallergens (4; rabbit, 1; rat, 1; ragwort, 1; grass pollen, 1), wasp venom (1), and Tazocin (1). The causative SPT wheal was larger than 8 mm in 75%. The reaction to Tazocin was severe, with anaphylaxis occurring minutes after SPT. Reactions were treated immediately in the clinic and did not require further medical care. In this largest single-center study, the rate of systemic reactions after SPT was 77 per 100,000 patients. It is the first study to identify foods as a common and important cause (75%), with nuts posing the highest risk. This study reports the first systemic reaction to venom SPT and the first anaphylactic reaction after drug SPT. There was an association with a history of severe reactions and large skin test reaction. There are risks, albeit small, when undertaking SPT. Copyright © 2015 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Tritiated Water Skin Barrier Integrity Test: Considerations for Acceptance Criteria with and Without 14C-Octanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Paul A; Beatch, Kacie; Raney, Sam G; Franz, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    A study was designed to assess barrier integrity simultaneously using separate compounds (probes) for polar and non-polar pathways through the skin, 3 H 2 O and 14 C-octanol, respectively; and to determine whether the two probe approach could better define barrier integrity. A 5-min dose of water containing 3 H 2 O and 14 C -octanol was applied to ex vivo human skin mounted in Franz diffusion cells. The receptor solution was sampled at 30 min, analyzed for 3 H and 14 C content, and the correlation between water and octanol absorption was determined by statistical tests suitable for non-normally distributed data. This study was conducted on skin from 37 donors with from 3 to 30 replicate skin sections per donor (a total of 426 sections). The correlation between 3 H 2 O and 14 C-octanol absorption was low (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.3485). The 3 H 2 O absorption cutoff used in this study to select for a normal skin barrier rejected some sections in which 14 C-octanol absorption was within normal limits and accepted others in which 14 C-octanol absorption was abnormally high. The converse was true for 3 H 2 O absorption when the 14 C-octanol-based cutoff was used. The results of the 3 H 2 O test or of similar tests that primarily assess the permeability of polar pathways through the skin may not necessarily provide information relevant to the absorption of highly lipophilic compounds. Octanol, or another molecule that more closely matches the physicochemical attributes of the test compound, may characterize properties of the skin barrier that are more relevant to compounds of low water solubility.

  6. Epidemiology of meningitis with a negative CSF Gram stain: under-utilization of available diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesher, L; Hadi, C M; Salazar, L; Wootton, S H; Garey, K W; Lasco, T; Luce, A M; Hasbun, R

    2016-01-01

    Meningitis with a negative cerebrospinal fluid Gram stain (CSF-GS) poses a diagnostic challenge as more than 50% of patients remain without an aetiology. The introduction of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and arboviral serologies have increased diagnostic capabilities, yet large scale epidemiological studies evaluating their use in clinical practice are lacking. We conducted a prospective observational study in New Orleans between November 1999 and September 2008 (early era) when PCR was not widely available, and in Houston between November 2008 and June 2013 (modern era), when PCR was commonly used. Patients presenting with meningitis and negative CSF-GS were followed for 4 weeks. All investigations, PCR used, and results were recorded as they became available. In 323 patients enrolled, PCR provided the highest diagnostic yield (24·2%) but was ordered for 128 (39·6%) patients; followed by serology for arboviruses (15%) that was ordered for 100 (31%) of all patients. The yield of blood cultures was (10·3%) and that of CSF cultures was 4%; the yield for all other tests was meningitis and a negative CSF-GS, but both tests are being under-utilized.

  7. Pre-employment screening of latent tuberculosis infection among healthcare workers using tuberculin skin test and QuantiFERON-TB Gold test at a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El-Helaly

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Objective: To assess the agreement between the tuberculin skin test (TST and the QuantiFERON-TB Gold test (QFT-G as pre-employment screening tests for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI among healthcare workers. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted among 1412 healthcare workers who were screened for LTBI during the period from August 2009 to May 2011 at a tertiary-care hospital in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. The studied population was screened for LTBI using both TST and QFT-G simultaneously. The agreement between both tests was quantified using the Kappa coefficient (κ. Results: Comparing the results of QFT-G with TST, the tests had a significant overall agreement of 73.7% (1040/1412; κ = 0.33; p < 0.01. Negative concordance comprised 60.1% of the results, and positive concordance comprised 13.5%. However, positive TST but negative QFT comprised 16.3% of the results, and negative TST but positive QFT-G comprised 10.1%. Concordance was significantly associated with young age, female gender, Saudi-born nationals, and early career but not job type (clinical versus non-clinical nor status of Bacillus Calmette–Guerin (BCG vaccination. Conclusions: This study demonstrated 73.7% overall agreement between TST and QFT-G results among healthcare workers during pre-employment screening for LTBI. The results need to be confirmed in future studies before recommending QFT-G as a pre-employment screening test for LTBI. Keywords: Latent tuberculosis infection, Healthcare workers, Tuberculin skin test, QuantiFERON-TB Gold test

  8. The late negative episodic memory effect: the effect of recapitulating study details at test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, David; Cycowicz, Yael M; Bersick, Michael

    2005-05-01

    An hypothesis concerning mnemonic function suggests that perceptual details of previously experienced episodes are retrieved from the cortices that initially processed that information during the encoding phase. Cycowicz et al. [Cycowicz, Y.M., Friedman, D. and Snodgrass, J.G., Remembering the color of objects: an ERP investigation of source memory, Cereb Cortex, 11 (2001) 322-334.] have interpreted the presence of a late negative episodic memory (EM) effect, maximal over parieto-occipital scalp, as a brain signature of the search for and/or retrieval/evaluation of the specific perceptual source-specifying attributes (i.e., color) of pictures in the visual cortical regions that were recruited during the encoding of that information. The present study assessed the validity of this hypothesis. Twelve participants studied pictures outlined in red or green and were subsequently tested with inclusion (i.e., item; old or new regardless of color) and exclusion (i.e., source; same color, different color/new judgments) tasks. In both, old pictures were presented either in the same color as at study or in the alternate color. A late negative, parieto-occipital EM effect was of much larger amplitude in the source compared to the item task. It was of similar magnitude to correctly recognized pictures whose colors were identical at study and test relative to those whose colors changed, and was not modulated by the success or failure of the source retrieval. These data run counter to the initial hypothesis that the late negative EM effect reflects the search for and/or retrieval of specific perceptual attributes such as color. Rather, the late negative EM effect may reflect the search for and/or retrieval/evaluation of more general source-specifying information in the cortical regions that initially processed the stimuli.

  9. QSAR models of human data can enrich or replace LLNA testing for human skin sensitization

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Vinicius M.; Capuzzi, Stephen J.; Muratov, Eugene; Braga, Rodolpho C.; Thornton, Thomas; Fourches, Denis; Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Andrade, Carolina H.; Tropsha, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Skin sensitization is a major environmental and occupational health hazard. Although many chemicals have been evaluated in humans, there have been no efforts to model these data to date. We have compiled, curated, analyzed, and compared the available human and LLNA data. Using these data, we have developed reliable computational models and applied them for virtual screening of chemical libraries to identify putative skin sensitizers. The overall concordance between murine LLNA and human skin ...

  10. Comorbidity negatively influences the outcomes of diagnostic tests for musculoskeletal pain in the orofacial region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutris, Michail; Visscher, Corine M; Lobbezoo, Frank; Naeije, Machiel

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether diagnostic tests for musculoskeletal pain in the orofacial region [temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain] are influenced by the presence of comorbid conditions, and to determine whether this influence decreases when the presence of "familiar pain" is used as outcome measure. In total, 117 patients (35 men, 82 women; 75 TMD-pain patients, 42 pain-free patients; mean age ± SD = 42.94 ± 14.17 years) were examined with palpation tests and dynamic/static tests. After each test, they were asked whether any pain was provoked and whether this pain response was familiar or not. For four clinical outcome measures (pain on palpation, familiar pain on palpation, pain on dynamic/static tests, and familiar pain on dynamic/static tests), multiple logistic regression analyses were performed with the presence of TMD pain as the primary predictor and regional (neck/shoulder) pain, widespread pain, depression, and somatization as comorbid factors. Pain on palpation was not associated with the primary predictor but with regional pain [P = 0.02, odds ratio (OR) = 4.59] and somatization (P = 0.011, OR = 8.47), whereas familiar pain on palpation was associated with the primary predictor (P = 0.003, OR = 5.23), but also with widespread pain (P = 0.001, OR = 2.02). Pain on dynamic/static tests was associated with the primary predictor (P pain on dynamic/static tests was only associated with the primary predictor (P diagnostic tests are negatively influenced by the presence of comorbidity. This influence decreases when the presence of familiar pain is used as outcome measure. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus Lung Disease: Drug Susceptibility Testing in Sputum Culture Negative Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiko Kobayashi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Among Mycobacterium abscessus complex infections, patients with M. abscessus subsp. abscessus (MAA lung disease are difficult to treat and no standard therapy has been established. Few reports have investigated the drug susceptibility of these strains. We retrospectively investigated how in vitro drug susceptibility testing (DST of MAA affects the induction of sputum conversion using pharmacotherapy. Methods: Patients with MAA lung disease diagnosed and treated between 2010 and 2014 at our hospital were enrolled and divided into Group A (sputum conversion without relapse within 1 year and Group B (persistent positive cultured or negative conversion with relapse. MAA was identified in M. abscessus using sequence with genotyping, and DST of MAA was performed. Results: We assessed 23 patients (9 males and 14 females. There were 8 patients in Group A and 15 in Group B. Higher prevalence of susceptible isolates for clarithromycin (CAM susceptibility on day 14 was noted in Group A than in Group B (P = 0.03 and no significant difference observed in the two groups for other drugs. Conclusions: In vitro DST of MAA, especially CAM susceptibility on day 14, affected the results of negative conversion. No other drugs were found to affect sputum culture negative conversion.

  12. Evaluation of the tuberculin skin test and the interferon-γ release assay for TB screening in French healthcare workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffi Francois

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Using French cut-offs for the Tuberculin Skin Test (TST, results of the TST were compared with the results of an Interferon-γ Release Assay (IGRA in Healthcare Workers (HCW after contact to AFB-positive TB patients. Methods Between May 2006 and May 2007, a total of 148 HCWs of the University Hospital in Nantes, France were tested simultaneously with IGRA und TST. A TST was considered to indicate recent latent TB infection (LTBI if an increase of >10 mm or if TST ≥ 15 mm for those with no previous TST result was observed. For those with a positive TST, chest X-ray was performed and preventive chemotherapy was offered. Results All HCWs were BCG-vaccinated. The IGRA was positive in 18.9% and TST ≥ 10 mm was observed in 65.5%. A recent LTBI was believed to be highly probable in 30.4% following TST. Agreement between IGRA and TST was low (kappa 0.041. In 10 (16.7% out of 60 HCWs who needed chest X-ray following TST the IGRA was positive. In 9 (20% out of 45 HCWs to whom preventive chemotherapy was offered following TST the IGRA was positive. Of those considered TST-negative following the French guidelines, 20.5% were IGRA-positive. In a two-step strategy - positive TST verified by IGRA - 18 out of 28 (64.3% IGRA-positive HCWs would not have been detected using French guidelines for TST interpretation. Conclusion The introduction of IGRA in contact tracings of BCG-vaccinated HCWs reduces X-rays and preventive chemotherapies. Increasing the cut-off for a positive TST does not seem to be helpful to overcome the effect of BCG vaccination on TST.

  13. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test: Validity and Relationship with Cardiovascular Stress-Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Melanie M; Brosschot, Jos F; Thayer, Julian F; Verkuil, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Self-report, i.e., explicit, measures of affect cannot fully explain the cardiovascular (CV) responses to stressors. Measuring affect beyond self-report, i.e., using implicit measures, could add to our understanding of stress-related CV activity. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test (IPANAT) was administered in two studies to test its ecological validity and relation with CV responses and self-report measures of affect. In Study 1 students (N = 34) viewed four film clips inducing anger, happiness, fear, or no emotion, and completed the IPANAT and the Positive And Negative Affect Scale at baseline and after each clip. Implicit negative affect (INA) was higher and implicit positive affect (IPA) was lower after the anger inducing clip and vice versa after the happiness inducing clip. In Study 2 students performed a stressful math task with (n = 14) or without anger harassment (n = 15) and completed the IPANAT and a Visual Analog Scale as an explicit measure afterwards. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were recorded throughout. SBP and DBP were higher and TPR was lower in the harassment condition during the task with a prolonged effect on SBP and DBP during recovery. As expected, explicit negative affect (ENA) was higher and explicit positive affect (EPA) lower after harassment, but ENA and EPA were not related to CV activity. Although neither INA nor IPA differed between the tasks, during both tasks higher INA was related to higher SBP, lower HRV and lower TPR and to slower recovery of DBP after both tasks. Low IPA was related to slower recovery of SBP and DBP after the tasks. Implicit affect was not related to recovery of HR, HRV, and TPR. In conclusion, the IPANAT seems to respond to film clip-induced negative and positive affect and was related to CV activity during and after stressful tasks. These findings support the theory that implicitly measured affect

  14. Systematic evaluation of non-animal test methods for skin sensitisation safety assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reisinger, K.; Hoffmann, S.; Alépée, N.; Ashikaga, T.; Barroso, J.; Elcombe, C.; Gellatly, N.; Galbiati, V.; Gibbs, S.; Groux, H.; Hibatallah, J.; Keller, D.; Kern, P.; Klaric, M.; Kolle, S.; Kuehnl, J.; Lambrechts, N.; Lindstedt, M.; Millet, M.; Martinozzi-Teissier, S.; Natsch, A.; Petersohn, D.; Pike, I.; Sakaguchi, H.; Schepky, A.; Tailhardat, M.; Templier, M.; van Vliet, E; Maxwell, G.

    2015-01-01

    The need for non-animal data to assess skin sensitisation properties of substances, especially cosmetics ingredients, has spawned the development of many in vitro methods. As it is widely believed that no single method can provide a solution, the Cosmetics Europe Skin Tolerance Task Force has

  15. Reliable test for prenatal prediction of fetal RhD type using maternal plasma from RhD negative women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Frederik Banch; Krog, Grethe Risum; Rieneck, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a reliable test for prenatal prediction of fetal RhD type using maternal plasma from RhD negative women. This test is needed for future prenatal Rh prophylaxis.......The objective of this study was to establish a reliable test for prenatal prediction of fetal RhD type using maternal plasma from RhD negative women. This test is needed for future prenatal Rh prophylaxis....

  16. Medical clowns ease anxiety and pain perceived by children undergoing allergy prick skin tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, A; Stauber, T; Peleg, O; Hanuka, P; Eshayek, L; Confino-Cohen, R

    2014-10-01

    Intervention of medical clowns (MC) during various medical procedures performed in children has been used to relieve anxiety and pain. Their role in allergy skin testing has never been evaluated. To evaluate whether MC can diminish pain and anxiety perceived by children undergoing allergy skin prick tests (SPT). In a prospective, randomized, controlled, and blinded study, children undergoing SPT were or were not accompanied by MC. All parents and children ≥8 years completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) before and after SPT. Videotapes recorded during the procedure were scored for anxiety (m-YPAS) for all children and for pain (FLACC) for children 2-7 years old by a psychologist who was unaware of the MC's presence. After SPT, children ≥8 years completed a visual analog score (VAS) for pain. Ninety-one children (mean age 8.2 years, M/F = 54/37) were recruited of whom 45 were accompanied by clowns. A significant reduction in state-STAI was found in the clowns group, in both parents and children, when compared with the regular group (26.9 ± 6.6 and 32.3 ± 10.0; P = 0.004, and 27.1 ± 4.2 and 34.3 ± 7.6; P = 0.002, respectively). Both m-YPAS and FLACC were reduced in the clowns group compared with the regular one. In the clowns group, m-YPAS positively correlated with both VAS and FLACC (P = 0.000 and 0.002, respectively). m-YPAS was positively correlated with FLACC in the regular group (P = 0.000). Medical clowns significantly decrease the level of anxiety perceived by both children undergoing allergy SPT and their parents, as well as the pain perceived by young children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Non-animal assessment of skin sensitization hazard: Is an integrated testing strategy needed, and if so what should be integrated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David W; Patlewicz, Grace

    2018-01-01

    There is an expectation that to meet regulatory requirements, and avoid or minimize animal testing, integrated approaches to testing and assessment will be needed that rely on assays representing key events (KEs) in the skin sensitization adverse outcome pathway. Three non-animal assays have been formally validated and regulatory adopted: the direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA), the KeratinoSens™ assay and the human cell line activation test (h-CLAT). There have been many efforts to develop integrated approaches to testing and assessment with the "two out of three" approach attracting much attention. Here a set of 271 chemicals with mouse, human and non-animal sensitization test data was evaluated to compare the predictive performances of the three individual non-animal assays, their binary combinations and the "two out of three" approach in predicting skin sensitization potential. The most predictive approach was to use both the DPRA and h-CLAT as follows: (1) perform DPRA - if positive, classify as sensitizing, and (2) if negative, perform h-CLAT - a positive outcome denotes a sensitizer, a negative, a non-sensitizer. With this approach, 85% (local lymph node assay) and 93% (human) of non-sensitizer predictions were correct, whereas the "two out of three" approach had 69% (local lymph node assay) and 79% (human) of non-sensitizer predictions correct. The findings are consistent with the argument, supported by published quantitative mechanistic models that only the first KE needs to be modeled. All three assays model this KE to an extent. The value of using more than one assay depends on how the different assays compensate for each other's technical limitations. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Commissioning and first results of the ITER-relevant negative ion beam test facility ELISE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, P.; Heinemann, B.; Fantz, U.; Wünderlich, D.; Kraus, W.; Fröschle, M.; Martens, C.; Riedl, R.; Nocentini, R.; Masiello, A.; Ruf, B.; Schiesko, L.; Wimmer, C.

    2013-01-01

    The test facility ELISE which was constructed in the last three years at the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP), Garching, is an important intermediate step of the development of the neutral beam system for ITER. ELISE allows gaining an early experience of the performance and operation of large RF driven sources for negative hydrogen ions and will give an important input for the commissioning and the design of the SPIDER and MITICA test facilities at Padua and the ITER neutral beam system. ELISE has gone recently into operation with first plasma and beam pulses. The experiments aim at the demonstration of an ion beam at the required parameters within 2 years of operation until end of 2014, the end of the service contract with F4E for the establishment and exploitation of ELISE

  19. Decontamination efficiency of detergents on the market for the skin contaminated with radioactive materials. The comparative test (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyabe, Kenjiro; Ninomiya, Kazushi; Takasaki, Koji; Horiuchi, Nobuharu; Yasunaka, Hideo; Izumi, Yuichi

    1999-04-01

    Contamination incidence on human body and skin happens sometimes during radiation works in controlled area. The radioactive surface contamination should be removed from the skin as soon as possible for radiation control and exposure management. Titanium oxide paste, which is reserved as a detergent for decontamination, has a satisfactory and reliable result for decontamination effects. The titanium oxide paste, however, has a short preservation period, and must be updated and supplied every serenal months. Decontamination tests for about 60 kinds of detergents on the market were carried out with swine and radioactive material, Ce-144. Radioactive solution of Ce-144 was dropped on the test samples of swine skin, which were left for 5 min or 40 min as it is. Radioactivities of the samples were measured before and after washing by the detergents. As a result of the decontamination tests, 22 kinds of detergents on the market which have a similar decontamination efficiency to the titanium oxide paste were selected. It was also ascertained that the decontamination efficiency of all the detergents decreased on the test samples which were immersed in the radioactive solution for 40 min and wounded on skin surface. (Suetake, M.)

  20. Tuberculin skin test and QuantiFERON® assay in young children investigated for tuberculosis in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moyo, S.; Isaacs, F.; Gelderbloem, S.; Verver, S.; Hawkridge, A. J.; Hatherill, M.; Tameris, M.; Geldenhuys, H.; Workman, L.; Pai, M.; Hussey, G.; Hanekom, W. A.; Mahomed, H.

    2011-01-01

    Although the literature on interferon-gamma release assays on tuberculosis (TB) in children has increased, data pertaining to young children remain relatively limited. To compare results from the tuberculin skin test (TST) and the QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube assay (QFT) in children aged <3 years

  1. Negative screening tests in classical galactosaemia caused by S135L homozygosity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Crushell, E

    2009-06-01

    Classical galactosaemia is relatively common in Ireland due to a high carrier rate of the Q188R GALT mutation. It is screened for using a bacterial inhibition assay (BIA) for free galactose. A Beutler assay on day one of life is performed only in high risk cases (infants of the Traveller community and relatives of known cases). A 16-month-old Irish-born boy of Nigerian origin was referred for investigation of developmental delay, and failure to thrive. He had oral aversion to solids and his diet consisted of cow\\'s milk and milk-based cereal mixes. He was found to have microcephaly, weight <2nd percentile, hepatomegaly and bilateral cataracts. Coagulation screen was normal and transaminases were slightly elevated. His original newborn screen was reviewed and confirmed to have been negative; urinary reducing substances on three separate occasions were negative. Beutler assay demonstrated "absent" red cell galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) activity. GALT enzyme activity was <0.5 gsubs\\/h per gHb confirming classical galactosaemia. Gal-1-P was elevated at 1.88 micromol\\/gHb. Mutation analysis of the GALT gene revealed S135L homozygosity. S135L\\/S135L galactosaemia is associated with absent red cell GALT activity but with approximately 10% activity in other tissues such as the liver and intestines, probably explaining the negative screening tests and the somewhat milder phenotype associated with this genotype. The patient was commenced on galactose-restricted diet; on follow-up at 2 years of age, growth had normalized but there was global developmental delay. In conclusion, galactosaemia must be considered in children who present with poor growth, hepatomegaly, developmental delay and cataracts and GALT enzyme analysis should be a first line test in such cases. Non-enzymatic screening methods such as urinary reducing substances and BIA for free galactose are not reliable in S135L homozygous galactosaemia.

  2. Long-term repeatability of the skin prick test is high when supported by history or allergen-sensitivity tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, Uffe; Jacobsen, C R; Poulsen, L K

    2003-01-01

    subjects. An SPT was positive when > or =3 mm, and repeatable if either persistently positive or negative. Clinical sensitivity to birch pollen was used as model for inhalation allergy, and was investigated at inclusion and at study termination by challenge tests, intradermal test, titrated SPT and Ig......E measurements. Birch pollen symptoms were confirmed in diaries. RESULTS: The repeatability of a positive SPT was 67%, increasing significantly to 100% when supported by the history. When not supported by history, the presence of specific IgE was significantly associated with a repeatable SPT. Allergen....... CONCLUSION: SPT changes are clinically relevant. Further studies using other allergens are needed. Long-term repeatability of SPT is high in the presence of a supportive history....

  3. Sensitization to cereals and peanut evidenced by skin prick test and specific IgE in food-tolerant, grass pollen allergic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martens Maria

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test (SPT and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without history of, and clinically reactions to foods botanically related to grass. Methods 70 subjects (41 females; mean age 32 years and 20 healthy controls (13 females; mean age 24 years were tested by open food challenge (OFC with cereals and peanut. SPT and sIgE both with Immulite® (Siemens and ImmunoCAP® (Phadia to grass and birch pollen, cereals, peanut and bromelain were performed. Results Of the 65 OFC-negative subjects 29-46% (SPT, depending on cut-off, 20% (Immulite and 38% (ImmunoCAP had positive results to one or more of the foods tested. Controls were negative in all tests. Cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD as evidenced by reaction to bromelain could explain only a minority of the measured IgE-sensitizations. Conclusion Grass pollen allergic patients with documented food tolerance to cereals and peanut may express significant sensitization. False-positive cereal or peanut allergy diagnoses may be a quantitatively important problem both in routine clinical work and epidemiological studies.

  4. The Clinical Test of Nano gold Cosmetic for Recovering Skin Damage Due to Chemicals: Special Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufikurohmah, T.; Wardana, A. P.; Tjahjani, S.; Sanjaya, I. G. M.; Baktir, A.; Syahrani, A.

    2018-01-01

    Manufacturing of Nano gold cosmetics was done at PT. Gizi Indonesia. Clinical trials to cosmetics data supported that cosmetics are able to treat skin health which has been reported partially. For special cases, the recovery process of facial skin damage should also receive attention including cases of facial skin damage caused by chemicals such as phenol, HCl, aqua regia or other harsh chemicals. The problem determined whether the Nano gold is able to recover skin damage due to the harsh chemicals. This clinical trial data on the forms of early skin damage caused by phenol was delivered in the forms of facial photos patients. The recovery progress of facial skin condition was obtained every week for two months. The data included the forms of widespread wounds during the recovery process. This statement supported by anova statistical analysis of the widespread wound changing every week for 8 times. The conclusion is skin damage due to Phenol impregnation can be recovered with the use of Nano gold cosmetics for 8 weeks. This results support the manufacturing of Nano gold cosmetics for the needs of society. It also suggest that Nano gold material can be used for medicine manufacturing in the future.

  5. [IFN-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot assay versus PPD tuberculin skin test in the diagnosis of tuberculous epididymitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Yang, Xi-Fei; Deng, Qun-Yi; Li, Bing; Liu, Guo-Hui; Zhang, Jie-Yun; Yang, Da-Fei

    2012-06-01

    To explore the potential application of IFN-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay in the diagnosis of tuberculous epididymitis (TE) by comparing ELISPOT assay with the traditional purified protein derivative (PPD) tuberculin skin test. We examined 13 TE patients using an in-house ELISPOT kit, another 11 TE patients by PPD skin testing, and 57 healthy male volunteers by parallel test with both the methods. Twelve (92.3%) of the 13 TE cases were positive on ELISPOT assay, and 10 (90.9%) of the 11 TE cases positive on PPD skin test, with no statistically significant differences between the two groups (P > 0.05). Among the 57 healthy male volunteers, 8 (14.0%) were positive on ELISPOT, and 28 (49.1%) positive on PPD test, the latter significantly higher than the former (P PPD test in the examination of tuberculous epididymitis. As for specificity, ELISPOT assay seems better than PPD test in differentiating tuberculous epididymitis patients from healthy males.

  6. Estimating negative likelihood ratio confidence when test sensitivity is 100%: A bootstrapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marill, Keith A; Chang, Yuchiao; Wong, Kim F; Friedman, Ari B

    2017-08-01

    Objectives Assessing high-sensitivity tests for mortal illness is crucial in emergency and critical care medicine. Estimating the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the likelihood ratio (LR) can be challenging when sample sensitivity is 100%. We aimed to develop, compare, and automate a bootstrapping method to estimate the negative LR CI when sample sensitivity is 100%. Methods The lowest population sensitivity that is most likely to yield sample sensitivity 100% is located using the binomial distribution. Random binomial samples generated using this population sensitivity are then used in the LR bootstrap. A free R program, "bootLR," automates the process. Extensive simulations were performed to determine how often the LR bootstrap and comparator method 95% CIs cover the true population negative LR value. Finally, the 95% CI was compared for theoretical sample sizes and sensitivities approaching and including 100% using: (1) a technique of individual extremes, (2) SAS software based on the technique of Gart and Nam, (3) the Score CI (as implemented in the StatXact, SAS, and R PropCI package), and (4) the bootstrapping technique. Results The bootstrapping approach demonstrates appropriate coverage of the nominal 95% CI over a spectrum of populations and sample sizes. Considering a study of sample size 200 with 100 patients with disease, and specificity 60%, the lowest population sensitivity with median sample sensitivity 100% is 99.31%. When all 100 patients with disease test positive, the negative LR 95% CIs are: individual extremes technique (0,0.073), StatXact (0,0.064), SAS Score method (0,0.057), R PropCI (0,0.062), and bootstrap (0,0.048). Similar trends were observed for other sample sizes. Conclusions When study samples demonstrate 100% sensitivity, available methods may yield inappropriately wide negative LR CIs. An alternative bootstrapping approach and accompanying free open-source R package were developed to yield realistic estimates easily. This

  7. Testing a linear time invariant model for skin conductance responses by intraneural recording and stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerster, Samuel; Namer, Barbara; Elam, Mikael; Bach, Dominik R

    2018-02-01

    Skin conductance responses (SCR) are increasingly analyzed with model-based approaches that assume a linear and time-invariant (LTI) mapping from sudomotor nerve (SN) activity to observed SCR. These LTI assumptions have previously been validated indirectly, by quantifying how much variance in SCR elicited by sensory stimulation is explained under an LTI model. This approach, however, collapses sources of variability in the nervous and effector organ systems. Here, we directly focus on the SN/SCR mapping by harnessing two invasive methods. In an intraneural recording experiment, we simultaneously track SN activity and SCR. This allows assessing the SN/SCR relationship but possibly suffers from interfering activity of non-SN sympathetic fibers. In an intraneural stimulation experiment under regional anesthesia, such influences are removed. In this stimulation experiment, about 95% of SCR variance is explained under LTI assumptions when stimulation frequency is below 0.6 Hz. At higher frequencies, nonlinearities occur. In the intraneural recording experiment, explained SCR variance is lower, possibly indicating interference from non-SN fibers, but higher than in our previous indirect tests. We conclude that LTI systems may not only be a useful approximation but in fact a rather accurate description of biophysical reality in the SN/SCR system, under conditions of low baseline activity and sporadic external stimuli. Intraneural stimulation under regional anesthesia is the most sensitive method to address this question. © 2017 The Authors. Psychophysiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  8. Relevance of Cat and Dog Sensitization by Skin Prick Testing in Childhood Eczema and Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Kam Lun; Tsang, Kathy Yin Ching; Pong, Nga Hin Henry; Leung, Ting Fan

    2017-01-01

    Household animal dander has been implicated as aeroallergen in childhood atopic diseases. Many parents seek healthcare advice if household pet keeping may be detrimental in atopic eczema (AE), allergic rhinitis and asthma. We investigated if skin sensitization by cat/dog dander was associated with disease severity and quality of life in children with AE. Demographics, skin prick test (SPT) results, disease severity (Nottingham eczema severity score NESS), Children Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI), blood IgE and eosinophil counts of a cohort of AE patients were reviewed. 325 AE patients followed at a pediatric dermatology clinic were evaluated. Personal history of asthma was lowest (20%) in the dog-dander-positive-group but highest (61%) in bothcat- and-dog-dander-positive group (p=0.007). Binomial logistic regression ascertained that catdander sensitization was associated with increasing age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.056; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.006 to 1.109; p=0.029), dust-mite sensitization (aOR, 4.625; 95% CI, 1.444 to 14.815; p=0.010), food-allergen sensitization (aOR, 2.330; 95% CI, 1.259 to 4.310; p=0.007) and keeping-cat-ever (aOR, 7.325; 95% CI, 1.193 to 44.971; p=0.032); whereas dogdander sensitization was associated with dust-mite sensitization (aOR, 9.091; 95% CI, 1.148 to 71.980; p=0.037), food-allergen sensitization (aOR, 3.568; 95% CI, 1.341 to 9.492; p=0.011) and keeping-dog-ever (aOR, 6.809; 95% CI, 2.179 to 21.281; p=0.001). However, neither cat nor dog sensitization were associated with asthma, allergic rhinitis, parental or sibling atopic status, disease severity or quality of life. Physicians should advise parents that there is no direct correlation between AE severity, quality of life, asthma or allergic rhinitis with cutaneous sensitization to cats or dogs. Sensitized patients especially those with concomitant asthma and severe symptoms may consider non-furry alternatives if they plan to have a pet. Highly sensitized

  9. Negative Effect of Zinc on Testes, Testosterone and Gonadotrophins Levels in Adult Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sohrabi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and ObjectivesThe toxic effects of zinc leading to sebaceous gland closure, skin eczema and blister have been previously demonstrated in other studies. The aim of this study is to determine the chronic effects of zinc chloride (ZnCl2 on testicular tissues, testosterone and gonadotrophins in adult male Wistar rats.Methods Twenty four Adult male Wistar rats were divided in to two groups of study and control with each group consisting of 12 rats. Study group rats received 10 mg/kg interaperitoneal Zinc chloride in normal saline (N.S every other day for 30 days. Control group rats received N.S during this time. Blood sample for hormonal evaluation were collected from hearts of these rats. The rats were destroyed and their testes were removed and fixed in a 10% formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde solution.ResultsThe results of this study showed a significant decrease in the level of LH and testosterone hormone among the rats in the study group compared to the control group with p< 0.001 and p< 0.01 respectively. Study of fine structure of testicular cells and tissues in the study group rats revealed swelling of mitochondria, increase in smooth endoplasmic reticulum vacuolization and lysosomic granules (Autophagic vacuoles in cytosol of their germinal cells.ConclusionBased on the results of this study consumption of large amount of compounds which contain zinc should be controlled and limited among men. There is a need for further studies to evaluate and determine the reversibility of most hormonal and physiological changes due to usage of zinc containing compounds.Keywords: Zinc Chloride; Testis; Testosterone; Gonadotrophins

  10. Negative Effect of Zinc on Testes, Testosterone and Gonadotrophins Levels in Adult Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Sohrabi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives

    The toxic effects of zinc leading to sebaceous gland closure, skin eczema and blister have been previously demonstrated in other studies. The aim of this study is to determine the chronic effects of zinc chloride (ZnCl2   on testicular tissues, testosterone and gonadotrophins in adult male Wistar rats.

     

    Methods

    Twenty four Adult male Wistar rats were divided in to two groups of study and control with each group consisting of 12 rats. Study group rats received 10 mg/kg interaperitoneal Zinc chloride in normal saline (N.S every other day for 30 days. Control group rats received N.S during this time. Blood sample for hormonal evaluation were collected from hearts of these rats. The rats were destroyed and their testes were removed and fixed in a 10% formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde solution.

     

    Results

    The results of this study showed a significant decrease in the level of LH and testosterone hormone among the rats in the study group compared to the control group with p< 0.001  and

    p< 0.01 respectively. Study of fine structure of testicular cells and tissues in the study group rats  revealed swelling of mitochondria, increase in smooth endoplasmic reticulum vacuolization and lysosomic granules (Autophagic vacuoles in cytosol of their germinal cells.

     

    Conclusion

    Based on the results of this study consumption of large amount of compounds which contain zinc should be controlled and limited among men. There is a need for further studies to evaluate and determine the reversibility of most hormonal and physiological changes due to usage of zinc containing compounds.

  11. Influence of negative stereotypes and beliefs on neuropsychological test performance in a traumatic brain injury population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kit, Karen A; Mateer, Catherine A; Tuokko, Holly A; Spencer-Rodgers, Julie

    2014-02-01

    The impact of stereotype threat and self-efficacy beliefs on neuropsychological test performance in a clinical traumatic brain injury (TBI) population was investigated. A total of 42 individuals with mild-to-moderate TBI and 42 (age-, gender-, educationally matched) healthy adults were recruited. The study consisted of a 2 (Type of injury: control, TBI) × 2 (Threat Condition: reduced threat, heightened threat) between-participants design. The purpose of the reduced threat condition was to reduce negative stereotyped beliefs regarding cognitive effects of TBI and to emphasize personal control over cognition. The heightened threat condition consisted of an opposing view. Main effects included greater anxiety, motivation, and dejection but reduced memory self-efficacy for head-injured-groups, compared to control groups. On neuropsychological testing, the TBI-heightened-threat-group displayed lower scores on Initial Encoding (initial recall) and trended toward displaying lower scores on Attention (working memory) compared to the TBI-reduced-threat-group. No effect was found for Delayed Recall measures. Memory self-efficacy mediated the relation between threat condition and neuropsychological performance, indicating a potential mechanism for the threat effect. The findings highlight the impact of stereotype threat and self-referent beliefs on neuropsychological test performance in a clinical TBI population.

  12. Applying computerized adaptive testing to the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised: Rasch analysis of workplace bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shu-Ching; Chien, Tsair-Wei; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Li, Yu-Chi; Yui, Mei-Shu

    2014-02-17

    Workplace bullying is a prevalent problem in contemporary work places that has adverse effects on both the victims of bullying and organizations. With the rapid development of computer technology in recent years, there is an urgent need to prove whether item response theory-based computerized adaptive testing (CAT) can be applied to measure exposure to workplace bullying. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative efficiency and measurement precision of a CAT-based test for hospital nurses compared to traditional nonadaptive testing (NAT). Under the preliminary conditions of a single domain derived from the scale, a CAT module bullying scale model with polytomously scored items is provided as an example for evaluation purposes. A total of 300 nurses were recruited and responded to the 22-item Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised (NAQ-R). All NAT (or CAT-selected) items were calibrated with the Rasch rating scale model and all respondents were randomly selected for a comparison of the advantages of CAT and NAT in efficiency and precision by paired t tests and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). The NAQ-R is a unidimensional construct that can be applied to measure exposure to workplace bullying through CAT-based administration. Nursing measures derived from both tests (CAT and NAT) were highly correlated (r=.97) and their measurement precisions were not statistically different (P=.49) as expected. CAT required fewer items than NAT (an efficiency gain of 32%), suggesting a reduced burden for respondents. There were significant differences in work tenure between the 2 groups (bullied and nonbullied) at a cutoff point of 6 years at 1 worksite. An AUROC of 0.75 (95% CI 0.68-0.79) with logits greater than -4.2 (or >30 in summation) was defined as being highly likely bullied in a workplace. With CAT-based administration of the NAQ-R for nurses, their burden was substantially reduced without compromising measurement precision.

  13. The effect of Ramadan fasting on tuberculin skin test and leukocyte count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Nasiri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Annually, many Muslims fast during the month of Ramadan worldwide. This practice has different favorable medical and physiological effects, such as improved serum lipid profile and blood glucose level due to changes in diet and sleep patterns. It has also been hypothesized that Ramadan fasting may affect the immune system. As reported, Ramadan fasting can influence the immunoglobulin and cytokine levels. Accordingly, tuberculin skin test or purified protein derivative (PPD test, which is a delayed-type hypersensitivity of cellular immune response, may also be affected by Ramadan fasting. Regarding this, the present study aimed to investigate the alteration of PPD test during and after Ramadan. Materials & Methods: A total of 42 males (seminary students who fasted during Ramadan in 2006 were included in the study; however, only 28 cases completed the study. For data collection, the participants underwent blood and tuberculin tests at the fourth week of Ramadan and three months after this month. The white blood cell (WBC count and the tuberculin induration were recorded and compared between the two intervals to evaluate the changes. Results: According to the results of the study, the mean age of the participants was 19.21±3.83 years. Furthermore, the mean tuberculin induration was 9.3±5.4 mm (size range: 2-22 mm on the fourth week of Ramadan, which increased to 9.79±6.8 mm (size range: 3-35 mm three months after this month (P=0.501. The mean count of WBC decreased insignificantly from 5907±1879 mcL to 5601±1362 mcL after Ramadan (P=0.334. Additionally, the mean lymphocytes count decreased significantly from 2292±520/mcL to 2023±486/mcL after this month (P=0.003. Likewise, the lymphocyte (P=0.014 and mean neutrophil percentage also reduced significantly (P0.05. Conclusion: As the findings of the present study indicated, Ramadan fasting induce some changes in the immune status, including lymphocyte and neutrophil

  14. The value of ultrasonographic measurement in carpal tunnel syndrome in patients with negative electrodiagnostic tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyuncuoglu, Hasan Rifat; Kutluhan, Suleyman; Yesildag, Ahmet; Oyar, Orhan; Guler, Kezban; Ozden, Ahmet

    2005-01-01

    The diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is mainly based on clinical findings and electrodiagnostic tests (EDT). However, EDT results do not support clinical findings in some cases. It has been recently suggested that ultrasonography (US) can be used to diagnose CTS. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether US has a diagnostic value for CTS in patients with negative EDT findings or not. EDT was performed on 319 wrists with clinical CTS findings in electrophysiology laboratory. Median and ulnar nerve conduction velocities were measured in all cases and electromyography was performed in patient with tenar atrophy and having suspicion involvement of brachial plexus as EDT. Fifty-nine wrists with negative EDT (study group) and 30 wrists from 15 healthy individuals (control group) were examined using US. The mean of cross-sectional areas (CSAs) measurements were found 8.83 ± 3.05 mm 2 by tracing method (TM) and 8.51 ± 3.13 mm 2 by ellipsoid formula (EF) in study group, and 7.63 ± 1.52 mm 2 by TM and 7.66 ± 1.42 mm 2 by EF in control group. The differences between study group and control group according to both TM and EF were significant (t-test p = 0.0079, p = 0.0460, respectively). In study group, CSAs were larger than 10.5 mm 2 in 18 (30.51%) and 16 (27.12%) wrists according to TM and EF findings, respectively, and in only one wrist (3.33%) in control group by both TM and EF. The differences of ultrasonographic CTS numbers between study group and control group were significant (p = 0.0024 by TM, p = 0.0086 by EF). We confirmed the usefulness of quantitative US assessment in the diagnosis of CTS in the patients with negative EDT findings. If EDT findings are inadequate to confirm the CTS in the patients with clinical CTS, US studies may be helpful to diagnose

  15. Comparison of the Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Toluidine Red Unheated Serum Test and the CSF Rapid Plasma Reagin Test with the CSF Venereal Disease Research Laboratory Test for Diagnosis of Neurosyphilis among HIV-Negative Syphilis Patients in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Gu, Xin; Peng, Rui-Rui; Wang, Cuini; Gao, Zixiao; Gao, Ying; Shi, Mei; Guan, Zhifang; Seña, Arlene C.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the performance of nontreponemal antibody tests in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from syphilis patients. From September 2009 to September 2012, CSF specimens were collected at the Shanghai Skin Disease Hospital in Shanghai, China, from 1,132 syphilis patients without HIV infection, including 154 with symptomatic and 56 with asymptomatic neurosyphilis. All of the CSF specimens underwent testing with a rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test, an RPR-V (commercial RPR antigen diluted 1:2 in 10% saline) test, the toluidine red unheated serum test (TRUST), and the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test. Specificities, sensitivities, positive predictive values (PPVs), negative predictive values (NPVs), and kappa values were calculated to determine the performances of the tests. We compared results of the CSF-VDRL, CSF-RPR, CSF-RPR-V, and CSF-TRUST among patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic neurosyphilis who had reactive CSF-Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) test results. Overall, the CSF-VDRL test was reactive in 261 patients (23.1%). There were no cases in which the CSF-VDRL was nonreactive and CSF-RPR, CSF-RPR-V, or CSF-TRUST was reactive. Agreement between the results of CSF-TRUST and CSF-RPR was almost perfect (κ = 0.861), with substantial agreement between the results of CSF-RPR and CSF-RPR-V (κ = 0.740). The sensitivities of CSF-VDRL, CSF-RPR, CSF-RPR-V, and CSF-TRUST were 81.4%, 76.2%, 79.5%, and 76.2%, respectively. Compared to CSF-VDRL, CSF-RPR, CSF-RPR-V, and CSF-TRUST had comparable PPVs and NPVs. However, the specificity of CSF-VDRL (90.3%) was significantly lower than those of the other tests (92.7 to 93.4%). Therefore, CSF-RPR, CSF-RPR-V, and CSF-TRUST can be considered alternative tests for neurosyphilis diagnosis in HIV-negative populations, particularly when the CSF-VDRL is not available. PMID:24335955

  16. Standardisation of defined approaches for skin sensitisation testing to support regulatory use and international adoption: position of the International Cooperation on Alternative Test Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casati, S; Aschberger, K; Barroso, J; Casey, W; Delgado, I; Kim, T S; Kleinstreuer, N; Kojima, H; Lee, J K; Lowit, A; Park, H K; Régimbald-Krnel, M J; Strickland, J; Whelan, M; Yang, Y; Zuang, Valérie

    2018-02-01

    Skin sensitisation is the regulatory endpoint that has been at the centre of concerted efforts to replace animal testing in recent years, as demonstrated by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) adoption of five non-animal methods addressing mechanisms under the first three key events of the skin sensitisation adverse outcome pathway. Nevertheless, the currently adopted methods, when used in isolation, are not sufficient to fulfil regulatory requirements on the skin sensitisation potential and potency of chemicals comparable to that provided by the regulatory animal tests. For this reason, a number of defined approaches integrating data from these methods with other relevant information have been proposed and documented by the OECD. With the aim to further enhance regulatory consideration and adoption of defined approaches, the European Union Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal testing in collaboration with the International Cooperation on Alternative Test Methods hosted, on 4-5 October 2016, a workshop on the international regulatory applicability and acceptance of alternative non-animal approaches, i.e., defined approaches, to skin sensitisation assessment of chemicals used in a variety of sectors. The workshop convened representatives from more than 20 regulatory authorities from the European Union, United States, Canada, Japan, South Korea, Brazil and China. There was a general consensus among the workshop participants that to maximise global regulatory acceptance of data generated with defined approaches, international harmonisation and standardisation are needed. Potential assessment criteria were defined for a systematic evaluation of existing defined approaches that would facilitate their translation into international standards, e.g., into a performance-based Test Guideline. Informed by the discussions at the workshop, the ICATM members propose practical ways to further promote the regulatory use and facilitate

  17. 389 Allergic Reactions to Local Anesthetics: Detection by Skin Tests and Subcutaneous Provocation. Analysis of 160 Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcanjo, Luiz; Gonçalves Tavares, Tania Maria; Delcourt, Nathalia; Baroni, Juliana; Rios, João; Rios, José Luiz

    2012-01-01

    Background Adverse reactions to local anesthetics (LA) are frequent and often referred to as allergic. Although immune-mediated reactions are rare, it should be investigated for suspected cases. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of positive skin test to these drugs in patients with a suspected history of allergic reactions and describe the main socio-demographic characteristics of these individuals. Methods Retrospective study of medical records of patients attended at Policlínica Geral do Rio de Janeiro Allergic Clinic, between 2008 and 2011. The parameters evaluated were the test indication and the patient ages and gender. The drug tested was that the patient had a history of suspicion. Patients underwent skin prick and intradermal tests and subcutaneous provocation. Descriptive statistical analysis of the data was performed. Results It was performed 160 tests (125 female). Three of this total was excluded due to inconclusive results. In women, the highest proportion of tests was in the age group from 41 to 60 years (43%), while in males the higher concentration was at a youngest age group: 21 to 40 years (41%). The most common indication (103 cases, 65%) for the tests was a previous suspected anaphylactic reaction by LA. Seven of 157 tests had a positive result (4.4%), 6 of them occurred in women (4.8%). Only one test resulted in a type of anaphylactic reaction response (0.67%). All patients who presented positive response to the test had a history of per-anesthetic reaction that suggested an immune-mediated mechanism. Conclusions In patients with a history of previous reaction to local anesthetics, the skin tests with these drugs have a key role in the prevention of anaphylaxis, and on guidance for adequate anesthetic procedures.

  18. Skin prick test results in patients with atopic symptoms in Yozgat district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Çölgeçen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Skin prick test (SPT is used widely and fastly to determine the allergens in atopic disease. We aimed in this study to analysis the relationship between total serum IgE (T.IgE and allergens that found by SPT and looking over the frequency of allergens. Methods: We evaluated clinical findings and SPT results and T.IgE levels of 190 patients who admitted to dermatology outpatient clinic, retrospectively. Rsults: 53 (27.9% patients had idiopathic generalized pruritus (IGP, 41 (21.6% had atopic dermatitis (AD, 40 (21.1% had chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU, 38 (20% had allergic rhinitis (AR, and 18 (9.5% had allergic asthma (AA. 123 (64.7% patients had positive reaction to at least one or more allergen on SPT. Of these patients 28 were IGP, 30 were AD, 20 were CIU, 28 were AR, and 17 were AA. The most common allergens were pine pollen (25.3%, wheat pollen (18.4%, and dog epithelium (15.8%. The mean levels of T.IgE was 382.61 ± 517.28 IU/ml (1-2500. T.IgE is higher 54.9% of patients. It was seen that DPT positivity was significantly more frequent in patients with increased T.IgE levels than those with normal total serum IgE level (p<0.05. Conclusion: We think that pine tree and wheat pollens are the most commonly encountered allergens at Yozgat area. Moreover, our findings indicated to the requirement and benefits of DPT in patients with AD, AR and AA in addition to the those KİU and İJP, particularly in patients with increased T.IgE levels, although further studies with larger sample size are needed. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (1: 64-68

  19. Diagnostic value of scratch-chamber test, skin prick test, histamine release and specific IgE in birch-allergic patients with oral allergy syndrome to apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osterballe, M; Scheller, R; Stahl Skov, P

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to examine the diagnostic value of skin prick test (SPT), scratch-chamber test (SCT), histamine release (HR) and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in birch-allergic patients with oral allergy syndrome to apple. METHODS: Ten birch-allergic patients with oral...... a detailed case history about symptoms of oral allergy syndrome combined with a SPT with fresh apple peel or A72 will be useful....

  20. Differentiation of schizophrenia patients from healthy subjects by mismatch negativity and neuropsychological tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ting Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder with diverse presentations. The current and the proposed DSM-V diagnostic system remains phenomenologically based, despite the fact that several neurobiological and neuropsychological markers have been identified. A multivariate approach has better diagnostic utility than a single marker method. In this study, the mismatch negativity (MMN deficit of schizophrenia was first replicated in a Han Chinese population, and then the MMN was combined with several neuropsychological measurements to differentiate schizophrenia patients from healthy subjects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 120 schizophrenia patients and 76 healthy controls were recruited. Each subject received examinations for duration MMN, Continuous Performance Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Third Edition (WAIS-III. The MMN was compared between cases and controls, and important covariates were investigated. Schizophrenia patients had significantly reduced MMN amplitudes, and MMN decreased with increasing age in both patient and control groups. None of the neuropsychological indices correlated with MMN. Predictive multivariate logistic regression models using the MMN and neuropsychological measurements as predictors were developed. Four predictors, including MMN at electrode FCz and three scores from the WAIS-III (Arithmetic, Block Design, and Performance IQ were retained in the final predictive model. The model performed well in differentiating patients from healthy subjects (percentage of concordant pairs: 90.5%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: MMN deficits were found in Han Chinese schizophrenia patients. The multivariate approach combining biomarkers from different modalities such as electrophysiology and neuropsychology had a better diagnostic utility.

  1. Interactions of skin thickness and physicochemical properties of test compounds in percutaneous penetration studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkinson, Simon C.; Maas, Wilfred J. M.; Nielsen, Jesper Bo

    2006-01-01

    : Percutaneous penetration of caffeine (log P -0.01), testosterone (log P 3.32), propoxur (log P 1.52) (finite dose in ethanol to water vehicle ratio) and butoxyethanol (log P 0.83) (undiluted finite dose or as an infinite dose 50% [v/v] aqueous solution) through skin of varying thicknesses under occluded...... conditions was measured using flow through cells for 8-24 h. Saline (adjusted to pH 7.4) was used as receptor fluid, with BSA added for studies with testosterone and propoxur. Following exposure, the remaining surface dose was removed by swabbing and the skin digested prior to scintillation counting. Results......: The maximum flux of caffeine was increased with decreasing skin thickness, although these differences were found to be non-significant. The presence of caffeine in the skin membrane was not altered by skin thickness. Maximum flux and cumulative dose absorbed of testosterone and butoxyethanol (in both finite...

  2. Treatment of chronic heel osteomyelitis in vasculopathic patients. Can the combined use of Integra® , skin graft and negative pressure wound therapy be considered a valid therapeutic approach after partial tangential calcanectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraccalvieri, Marco; Pristerà, Giuseppe; Zingarelli, Enrico; Ruka, Erind; Bruschi, Stefano

    2012-04-01

    Osteomyelitis of the calcaneus is a difficult problem to manage. Patients affected by osteomyelitis of the calcaneus often have a below-the-knee amputation because of their comorbidity. In this article, we present seven cases of heel ulcerations with chronic osteomyelitis treated with Integra(®) Dermal Regeneration Template, skin graft and negative pressure wound therapy after partial tangential calcanectomy, discussing the surgical and functional results. In this casuistic of patients, all wounds healed after skin grating of the neodermis generated by Integra(®), with no patient requiring a below-knee amputation. © 2011 The Authors. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  3. 5-HTTLPR Expression Outside the Skin: An Experimental Test of the Emotional Reactivity Hypothesis in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeland, Joyce; Slagt, Meike; Brummelman, Eddie; Matthys, Walter; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Overbeek, Geertjan

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that variation in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene SLC6A4 (i.e., the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism) moderates the impact of environmental stressors on child psychopathology. Emotional reactivity -the intensity of an individual's response to other's emotions- has been put forward as a possible mechanism underlying these gene-by-environment interactions (i.e., G×E). Compared to children homozygous for the L-allele (LL-genotypes), children carrying an S-allele (SS/SL-genotypes), specifically when they have been frequently exposed to negative emotions in the family environment, might be more emotionally reactive and therefore more susceptible to affective environmental stressors. However, the association between 5-HTTLPR and emotional reactivity in children has not yet been empirically tested. Therefore, the goal of this study was to test this association in a large-scale experiment. Children (N = 521, 52.5% boys, Mage = 9.72 years) were genotyped and randomly assigned to happy, angry or neutral dynamic facial expressions and vocalizations. Motor and affective emotional reactivity were assessed through children's self-reported negative and positive affect (n = 460) and facial electromyography activity (i.e., fEMG: the zygomaticus or "smile" muscle and the corrugator or "frown" muscle, n = 403). Parents reported on their negative and positive parenting behaviors. Children mimicked and experienced the emotion they were exposed to. However, neither motor reactivity nor affective reactivity to these emotions depended on children's 5-HTTLPR genotype: SS/SL-genotypes did not manifest any stronger response to emotional stimuli than LL-genotypes. This finding remained the same when taking the broader family environment into account, controlling for kinship, age, gender and genetic ancestry, and when including a tri-allelic factor. We found no evidence for an association between the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and children's emotional

  4. Beam calorimetry at the large negative ion source test facility ELISE: Experimental setup and latest results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nocentini, Riccardo; Bonomo, Federica; Ricci, Marina; Pimazzoni, Antonio; Fantz, Ursel; Heinemann, Bernd; Riedl, Rudolf; Wünderlich, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • ELISE is the first step in the European roadmap for the development of the ITER NBI. • Several beam diagnostic tools have been installed, the latest results are presented. • A gaussian fit procedure has been implemented to characterize the large ion beam. • Average beamlet group inhomogeneity is maximum 13%, close to the ITER target of 10%. • Beam divergence measured by calorimeter agrees with the BES measurements within 30%. - Abstract: The test facility ELISE is the first step within the European roadmap for the development of the ITER NBI system. ELISE is equipped with a 1 × 0.9 m"2 radio frequency negative ion source (half the ITER source size) and an ITER-like 3-grid extraction system which can extract an H"− or D"− beam for 10 s every 3 min (limited by available power supplies) with a total acceleration voltage of up to 60 kV. In the beam line of ELISE several beam diagnostic tools have been installed with the aim to evaluate beam intensity, divergence and uniformity. A copper diagnostic calorimeter gives the possibility to measure the beam power density profile with high resolution. The measurements are performed by an IR micro-bolometer camera and 48 thermocouples embedded in the calorimeter. A gaussian fit procedure has been implemented in order to characterize the large negative ion beam produced by ELISE. The latest results obtained from the beam calorimetry at ELISE show that the average beamlet group inhomogeneity is maximum 13%. The measured beam divergence agrees with the one measured by beam emission spectroscopy within 30%.

  5. Skin graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin transplant; Skin autografting; FTSG; STSG; Split thickness skin graft; Full thickness skin graft ... donor site. Most people who are having a skin graft have a split-thickness skin graft. This takes ...

  6. Safety of the two-step tuberculin skin test in Indian health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Devasahayam J; Shankar, Deepa; Datey, Ashima; Zwerling, Alice; Pai, Madhukar

    2014-12-01

    Health care workers (HCW) in low and middle income countries are at high risk of nosocomial tuberculosis infection. Periodic screening of health workers for both TB disease and infection can play a critical role in TB infection control. Occupational health programs that implement serial tuberculin skin testing (TST) are advised to use a two-step baseline TST. This helps to ensure that boosting of waned immune response is not mistaken as new TB infection (i.e. conversion). However, there are no data on safety of the two-step TST in the Indian context where HCWs are repeatedly exposed. Nursing students were recruited from 2007 to 2009 at the Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, India. Consenting nursing students were screened with a baseline two-step TST at the time of recruitment. From 2007 to 2008 adverse events were recorded when reported during the TST reading (Cohort A). Nurses recruited in the final study year (2009) answered an investigator administered questionnaire assessing all likely side-effects Cohort B). This information was extracted from the case report forms and analysed. Between 2007 and 09, 800 trainees consented to participate in the annual TB screening study and 779 did not have a past history of TB or recall a positive TST and were selected to administer TST. Of these, 755 returned for reading the result and had complete data and were included for the final analysis - 623 subjects in (cohort A) and 132 in (cohort B). These were included for the final analysis. In cohort A only 1.3% reported adverse events. In cohort B, as per the investigator administered questionnaire; 25% reported minor side effects. Itching and local pain were the most common side effects encountered. There were no major adverse events reported. In particular, the adverse events were similar in the second step of the test and not more severe. Screening of HCWs with two-step TST for LTBI is simple and safe, and hence suitable for wide scale implementation in high

  7. Tuberculin skin testing and treatment modulates interferon-gamma release assay results for latent tuberculosis in migrants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew K O'Shea

    Full Text Available Identifying latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI in people migrating from TB endemic regions to low incidence countries is an important control measure. However, no prospective longitudinal comparisons between diagnostic tests used in such migrant populations are available.To compare commercial interferon (IFN-gamma release assays (IGRAs and the tuberculin skin test (TST for diagnosing LTBI in a migrant population, and the influence of antecedent TST and LTBI treatment on IGRA performance.This cohort study, performed from February to September 2012, assessed longitudinal IGRA and TST responses in Nepalese military recruits recently arrived in the UK. Concomitant T-SPOT.TB, QFT-GIT and TST were performed on day 0, with IGRAs repeated 7 and 200 days later, following treatment for LTBI if necessary.166 Nepalese recruits were prospectively assessed. At entry, 21 individuals were positive by T-SPOT.TB and 8 individuals by QFT-GIT. There was substantial agreement between TST and T-SPOT.TB positives at baseline (71.4% agreement; κ = 0.62; 95% CI:0.44-0.79, but only moderate concordance between positive IGRAs (38.1% agreement; κ = 0.46; 95% CI:0.25-0.67. When reassessed 7 days following TST, numbers of IGRA-positive individuals changed from 8 to 23 for QFT-GIT (p = 0.0074 and from 21 to 23 for T-SPOT.TB (p = 0.87. This resulted in an increase in IGRA concordance to substantial (64.3% agreement; κ = 0.73; 95% CI:0.58-0.88. Thus, in total on day 0 and day 7 after testing, 29 out of 166 participants (17.5% provided a positive IGRA and of these 13 were TST negative. Two hundred days after the study commenced and three months after treatment for LTBI was completed by those who were given chemoprophylaxis, 23 and 21 participants were positive by T-SPOT.TB or QFT-GIT respectively. When individual responses were examined longitudinally within this population 35% of the day 7 QFT-GIT-positive, and 19% T-SPOT.TB-positive individuals, were

  8. "Hook-like effect" causes false-negative point-of-care urine pregnancy testing in emergency patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffey, Richard T; Trent, Caleb J; Bavolek, Rebecca A; Keeperman, Jacob B; Sampson, Christopher; Poirier, Robert F

    2013-01-01

    Failure to detect pregnancy in the emergency department (ED) can have important consequences. Urine human chorionic gonadotropin (uhCG) point-of-care (POC) assays are valued for rapidly detecting early pregnancy with high sensitivity. However, under certain conditions, POC uhCG tests can fail to detect pregnancy. In investigating a series of late first-trimester false-negative pregnancy tests in our ED, a novel and distinct causative phenomenon was recently elucidated in our institution. We discuss uhCG POC tests, review our false-negative rate, and describe mechanisms for false negatives and potential remedies. The false-negative POC uhCG rate is very low, but in the setting of a large volume of tests, the numbers are worth consideration. In positive uhCG POC tests, free and fixed antibodies bind hCG to form a "sandwich"; hCG is present in several variant forms that change in their concentrations at different stages of pregnancy. When in excess, intact hCG can saturate the antibodies, preventing sandwich formation (hook effect phenomenon). Some assays may include an antibody that does not recognize certain variants present in later stages of pregnancy. When this variant is in excess, it can bind one antibody avidly and the other not at all, resulting in a false-negative test (hook-like phenomenon). In both situations, dilution is key to an accurate test. Manufacturers should consider that uhCG tests are routinely used at many stages of pregnancy. Characterizing uhCG variants recognized by their tests and eliminating lot-to-lot variability may help improve uhCG test performance. Clinicians need to be aware of and familiarize themselves with the limitations of the specific type of uhCG POC tests used in their practice, recognizing that under certain circumstances, false-negative tests can occur. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Modeling slug tests in unconfined aquifers with both oscillatory and overdamped responses, and with low-K and high-K skin effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, M. J.; Malama, B.; Barrash, W.; Bohling, G.; Butler, J. J.

    2009-12-01

    We extend the models for slug tests developed by Hyder et al. (1994) and Butler and Zhan (2004) to obtain a single general model for slug tests in unconfined aquifers in partially penetrating wells with a near-well disturbed zone (skin). The full range of responses, oscillatory to overdamped, is considered since both types of responses are common in wells in unconsolidated coarse fluvial aquifers, and others. The general semi-analytical solution allows for skin and formation storage as well as anisotropy in skin and formation hydraulic conductivity (K). The water table is treated as a fixed head boundary so the solution is applicable for wells screened below the water table. The model is validated by comparison with other models and by matching field data from unconfined fluvial aquifers at sites in Nebraska (MSEA) and Idaho (BHRS). We examine the effects of varying skin K and skin thickness to simulate the impact of a near-well disturbed zone that is lower (damage) or higher (filter pack) K than the formation. Results indicate that, for a given set of measured behavior at an example test zone, minor progressive decreases in estimated formation K occur with increases in assumed skin K, and moderate increases in estimated formation K occur with decreases in assumed skin K. Major increases (orders of magnitude) in estimated formation K occur with increased thickness of low-K skin. The importance of incorporating a finite-thickness representation of the skin, rather than the conventional infinitely thin representation, is also addressed.

  10. IgE Sensitization Patterns to Commonly Consumed Foods Determined by Skin Prick Test in Korean Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sung Ryeol; Park, Hye Jung; Park, Kyung Hee; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Park, Jung-Won

    2016-01-01

    Offending food allergens can vary with regional preferences in food consumption. In this study, we analysed sensitization rates to commonly consumed foods in Korean adults suspected of having food allergy. One hundred and thirty four subjects underwent a skin prick test (SPT) with 55 food allergens, of which 13 were made by our laboratory and the rest were commercially purchased. Of the 134 patients, 73 (54.5%) were sensitized to one or more food allergens. Sensitization to chrysalis was dete...

  11. An evaluation of the diagnostic value of different skin tests with egg in clinically egg-allergic children having atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine K; Høst, Arne; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2004-01-01

    Skin testing is a common diagnostic procedure in food allergy, but the final diagnosis of food allergy is based on the clinical response to food challenge. We studied the value of the skin prick-prick test (SPT), skin application food test (SAFT) and atopy patch test (APT) with fresh egg extract......-allergic children were positive in SPT and 40-60% in APT. In APT and in SPT false-positive reactions to egg were observed. In this study comprising a small number of patients including control subjects, neither SAFT nor APT with fresh whole egg extract were able to increase the diagnostic accuracy in detecting egg...

  12. Genetic Testing for Wolfram Syndrome Mutations in a Sample of 71 Patients with Hereditary Optic Neuropathy and Negative Genetic Test Results for OPA1/OPA3/LHON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez-Ruiz, Alberto; Galindo-Ferreiro, Alicia; Schatz, Patrik

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the authors present a sample of 71 patients with hereditary optic neuropathy and negative genetic test results for OPA1/OPA3/LHON. All of these patients later underwent genetic testing to rule out WFS. As a result, 53 patients (74.7%) were negative and 18 patients (25.3%) were positive for some type of mutation or variation in the WFS gene. The authors believe that this study is interesting because it shows that a sizeable percentage (25.3%) of patients with hereditary optic 25 neuropathy and negative genetic test results for OPA1/OPA3/LHON had WFS mutations or variants.

  13. Screening of latent tuberculosis infection among health care workers working in Hajj pilgrimage area in Saudi Arabia, using interferon gamma release assay and tuberculin skin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhary, Zakeya A; Amer, Soliman M; Emara, Magdy M; Abdalla, Mohammad E; Ali, Sahar A

    2018-01-01

    Interferon gamma release assays (IGRA) is highly specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is the preferred test in BCG-vaccinated individuals. The few studies that have screened health care workers (HCWs) in Saudi Arabia for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) using IGRA have varied in agreement with the traditional tuberculin skin test (TST). Assess the prevalence of LTBI among HCWs working in the Hajj pilgrimage using IGRA and TST and measuring their agreement. Cross-sectional prospective. Multiple non-tertiary care hospitals. HCWs who worked during the Hajj pilgrimage in Saudi Arabia in December 2015. Data was collected by standarized questionnaire. Samples were drawn and analyzed by standard methods. The prevalence of LTBI among HCW and the agreement by kappa statistic between QFT-GIT and TST. 520 subjects. Nurses accounted for 30.7% of the sample and physicians, 19.2%. The majority were BCG vaccinated (98.5%). There were a total of 56 positive by QFT-GIT and the LTBI rate was 10.8%. In 50 QFT positive/476 TST negative the LTBI rate was 10.5% in discordant tests, and in 6 QFT positive/44 TST positive it was 13.6% in concordant tests. The overall agreement between both tests was poor-83% and kappa was 0.02. LTBI prevalence was associated with longer employment (13.1 [9.2] years). The QFT-GIT positive test was significantly higher in physicians (P=.02) and in HCWs working in chest hospitals 16/76 (21.05%) (P=.001). Agreement between the tests was poor. QFT-GIT detected LTBI when TST was negative in HCWs who had a history of close contact with TB patients. A second step TST was not feasible within 2-3 weeks. None.

  14. Longitudinal investigation on learned helplessness tested under negative and positive reinforcement involving stimulus control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Emileane C; Hunziker, Maria Helena

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we investigated whether (a) animals demonstrating the learned helplessness effect during an escape contingency also show learning deficits under positive reinforcement contingencies involving stimulus control and (b) the exposure to positive reinforcement contingencies eliminates the learned helplessness effect under an escape contingency. Rats were initially exposed to controllable (C), uncontrollable (U) or no (N) shocks. After 24h, they were exposed to 60 escapable shocks delivered in a shuttlebox. In the following phase, we selected from each group the four subjects that presented the most typical group pattern: no escape learning (learned helplessness effect) in Group U and escape learning in Groups C and N. All subjects were then exposed to two phases, the (1) positive reinforcement for lever pressing under a multiple FR/Extinction schedule and (2) a re-test under negative reinforcement (escape). A fourth group (n=4) was exposed only to the positive reinforcement sessions. All subjects showed discrimination learning under multiple schedule. In the escape re-test, the learned helplessness effect was maintained for three of the animals in Group U. These results suggest that the learned helplessness effect did not extend to discriminative behavior that is positively reinforced and that the learned helplessness effect did not revert for most subjects after exposure to positive reinforcement. We discuss some theoretical implications as related to learned helplessness as an effect restricted to aversive contingencies and to the absence of reversion after positive reinforcement. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: insert SI title. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Beam diagnostic tools for the negative hydrogen ion source test facility ELISE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nocentini, Riccardo; Fantz, Ursel; Franzen, Peter; Froeschle, Markus; Heinemann, Bernd; Riedl, Rudolf; Ruf, Benjamin; Wuenderlich, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We present an overview of beam diagnostic tools foreseen for the new testbed ELISE. ► A sophisticated diagnostic calorimeter allows beam profile measurement. ► A tungsten wire mesh in the beam path provides a qualitative picture of the beam. ► Stripping losses and beam divergence are measured by H α Doppler shift spectroscopy. -- Abstract: The test facility ELISE, presently being commissioned at IPP, is a first step in the R and D roadmap for the RF driven ion source and extraction system of the ITER NBI system. The “half-size” ITER-like test facility includes a negative hydrogen ion source that can be operated for 1 h. ELISE is expected to extract an ion beam of 20 A at 60 kV for 10 s every 3 min, therefore delivering a total power of 1.2 MW. The extraction area has a geometry that closely reproduces the ITER design, with the same width and half the height, i.e. 1 m × 1 m. This paper presents an overview of beam diagnostic tools foreseen for ELISE. For the commissioning phase, a simple beam dump with basic diagnostic capabilities has been installed. In the second phase, the beam dump will be substituted by a more sophisticated diagnostic calorimeter to allow beam profile measurement. Additionally, a tungsten wire mesh will be introduced in the beam path to provide a qualitative picture of beam size and position. Stripping losses and beam divergence will be measured by means of H α Doppler shift spectroscopy. An absolute calibration is foreseen in order to measure beam intensity

  16. Goodness-of-fit tests and model diagnostics for negative binomial regression of RNA sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Gu; Di, Yanming; Schafer, Daniel W

    2015-01-01

    This work is about assessing model adequacy for negative binomial (NB) regression, particularly (1) assessing the adequacy of the NB assumption, and (2) assessing the appropriateness of models for NB dispersion parameters. Tools for the first are appropriate for NB regression generally; those for the second are primarily intended for RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data analysis. The typically small number of biological samples and large number of genes in RNA-Seq analysis motivate us to address the trade-offs between robustness and statistical power using NB regression models. One widely-used power-saving strategy, for example, is to assume some commonalities of NB dispersion parameters across genes via simple models relating them to mean expression rates, and many such models have been proposed. As RNA-Seq analysis is becoming ever more popular, it is appropriate to make more thorough investigations into power and robustness of the resulting methods, and into practical tools for model assessment. In this article, we propose simulation-based statistical tests and diagnostic graphics to address model adequacy. We provide simulated and real data examples to illustrate that our proposed methods are effective for detecting the misspecification of the NB mean-variance relationship as well as judging the adequacy of fit of several NB dispersion models.

  17. Single-crate stand-alone CAMAC control system for a negative ion source test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juras, R.C.; Ziegler, N.F.

    1979-01-01

    A single-crate CAMAC system was configured to control a negative ion source development facility at ORNL and control software was written for the crate microcomputer. The software uses inputs from a touch panel and a shaft encoder to control the various operating parameters of the test facility and uses the touch panel to display the operating status. Communication to and from the equipment at ion source potential is accomplished over optical fibers from an ORNL-built CAMAC module. A receiver at ion source potential stores the transmitted data and some of these stored values are then used to control discrete parameters of the ion source (i.e., power supply on or off). Other stored values are sent to a multiplexed digital-to-analog converter to provide analog control signals. A transmitter at ion source potential transmits discrete status information and several channels of analog data from an analog-to-digital converter back to the ground-potential receiver where it is stored to be read and displayed by the software

  18. The value of a registry negative urine pregnancy test for the prediction of a future unintended pregnancy among young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenstreich, Misgav; Grisaru-Granovsky, Sorina; Rottenstreich, Amihai

    2018-05-15

    Performance of urine pregnancy test in general adolescents' clinic reflects caregiver or woman's concern that there might be a pregnancy. We aimed to assess whether young-unmarried women in whom a negative urine pregnancy test was registered would be at increased risk of a future unintended pregnancy. The study cohort included consecutive women drafted by the Israeli military between 2013 and 2015. The risk of unintended pregnancy was compared between women with a negative urine pregnancy test (n = 2774), the study group, and those in whom urine pregnancy test was not carried out (n = 126,659), the control group. During the study period, 2147 (1.7%) women experienced an unintended pregnancy. The risk of unintended pregnancy was significantly higher in patients in whom a past pregnancy test was negative 4.3% (n = 118), as compared with the control group 1.6% (n = 2028) (odds ratio [OR], 2.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.23-3.26). In multivariate analysis history of a negative pregnancy test results was an independent predictor for a future unintended pregnancy (adjusted OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.63-2.52). A history of a negative pregnancy test among young conscripted women is a significant risk indicator for a future unintended pregnancy. Directed efforts should be made in this particular vulnerable group of patients.

  19. Quick screening tool for patients with severe negative emotional reactions to chronic illness: psychometric study of the negative emotions due to chronic illness screening test (NECIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yun-Hsin; Wu, Chih-Hsun; Chen, Hsiu-Jung; Cheng, Yih-Ru; Hung, Fu-Chien; Leung, Kai-Kuan; Lue, Bee-Horng; Chen, Ching-Yu; Chiu, Tai-Yuan; Wu, Yin-Chang

    2018-01-16

    Severe negative emotional reactions to chronic illness are maladaptive to patients and they need to be addressed in a primary care setting. The psychometric properties of a quick screening tool-the Negative Emotions due to Chronic Illness Screening Test (NECIS)-for general emotional problems among patients with chronic illness being treated in a primary care setting was investigated. Three studies including 375 of patients with chronic illness were used to assess and analyze internal consistency, test-retest reliability, criterion-related validity, a cut-off point for distinguishing maladaptive emotions and clinical application validity of NECIS. Self-report questionnaires were used. Internal consistency (Cronbach's α) ranged from 0.78 to 0.82, and the test-retest reliability was 0.71 (P analysis reference, the receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis revealed an area under the curve of 0.81 and 0.82 (ps emotions, with a sensitivity and specificity of 83.3 and 69.0%, and 68.5 and 83.0%, respectively. The clinical application validity analysis revealed that low NECIS group showed significantly better adaptation to chronic illness on the scales of subjective health, general satisfaction with life, self-efficacy of self-care for disease, illness perception and stressors in everyday life. The NECIS has satisfactory psychometric properties for use in the primary care setting. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Serum albumin and globulin analysis for hepatocellular carcinoma detection avoiding false-negative results from alpha-fetoprotein test negative subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Feng, Shangyuan; Lin, Juqiang; Zeng, Yongyi; Li, Ling; Huang, Zufang; Li, Buhong; Zeng, Haishan; Chen, Rong

    2013-11-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of serum albumin and globulin were employed to detect hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Tentative assignments of SERS bands show specific biomolecular changes associated with cancer development. These changes include a decrease in relative amounts of tryptophan, glutamine, glycine, and serine, indicating excessive consumption of amino acids for protein duplication. Principal component analysis was also introduced to analyze the obtained spectra, resulting in both diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 100%. More importantly, it reveals that this method can detect HCC patients with alpha-fetoprotein negative test results, suggesting its great potential as a new alternative to detect HCC.

  1. Non-invasive coronary angiography for patients with acute atypical chest pain discharged after negative screening including maximal negative treadmill stress test. A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonello, L; Armero, S; Jacquier, A; Com, O; Sarran, A; Sbragia, P; Panuel, M; Arques, S; Paganelli, F

    2009-05-01

    Among patients admitted in the emergency department for acute atypical chest pain those with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who are mistakenly discharged home have high mortality. A recent retrospective study has demonstrated that multislice computed tomography (MSCT) coronary angiography could improve triage of these patients. We aimed to prospectively confirm these data on patients with a negative screening including maximal treadmill stress. 30 patients discharged from the emergency department after negative screening for an ACS were included. All patients underwent MSCT angiography of the coronary artery. Patients with coronary atheroma on MSCT had an invasive coronary angiography to confirm these findings. Seven patients (23%) had obstructive coronary artery disease on MSCT. Invasive coronary angiography (ICA) confirmed the diagnosis in all patients. In patients with no previously known coronary artery disease admitted to the emergency department with atypical acute chest pain and discharged after negative screening, including maximal treadmill stress test, MSCT coronary angiography is useful for the diagnosis of obstructive coronary artery disease.

  2. Evaluation of the limulus amoebocyte lysate test in conjunction with a gram negative bacterial plate count for detecting irradiation of chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotter, Susan L.; Wood, Roger; McWeeny, David J.

    A study to evaluate the potential of the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) test in conjuction with a Gram negative bacteria (GNB) plate count for detecting the irradiation of chicken is described. Preliminary studies demonstrated that chickens irradiated at an absorbed dose of 2.5 kGy could be differentiated from unirradiated birds by measuring levels of endotoxin and of numbers of GNB on chicken skin. Irradiated birds were found to have endotoxin levels similar to those found in unirradiated birds but significantly lower numbers of GNB. In a limited study the test was found to be applicable to birds from different processors. The effect of temperature abuse on the microbiological profile, and thus the efficacy of the test, was also investigated. After temperature abuse, the irradiated birds were identifiable at worst up to 3 days after irradiation treatment at the 2.5 kGy level and at best some 13 days after irradiation. Temperature abuse at 15°C resulted in rapid recovery of surviving micro-organisms which made differentiation of irradiated and unirradiated birds using this test unreliable. The microbiological quality of the bird prior to irradiation treatment also affected the test as large numbers of GNB present on the bird prior to irradiation treatment resulted in larger numbers of survivors. In addition, monitoring the developing flora after irradiation treatment and during subsequent chilled storage also aided differentiation of irradiated and unirradiated birds. Large numbers of yeasts and Gram positive cocci were isolated from irradiated carcasses whereas Gram negative oxidative rods were the predominant spoilage flora on unirradiated birds.

  3. Evaluation of the Limulus amoebocyte lysate test in conjunction with a gram negative bacterial plate count for detecting irradiation of chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scotter, S.L.; Wood, R.; McWeeny, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    A study to evaluate the potential of the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) test in conjunction with a Gram negative bacterial (GNB) plate count for detecting the irradiation of chicken is described. Preliminary studies demonstrated that chickens irradiated at an absorbed dose of 2.5 kGy could be differentiated from unirradiated birds by measuring levels of endotoxin and of numbers of GNB on chicken skin. Irradiated birds were found to have endotoxin levels similar to those found in unirradiated birds but significantly lower numbers of GNB. In a limited study the test was found to be applicable to birds from different processors. The effect of temperature abuse on the microbiological profile, and thus the efficacy of the test, was also investigated. After temperature abuse, the irradiated birds were identifiable at worst up to 3 days after irradiation treatment at the 2.5 kGy level and at best some 13 days after irradiation. Temperature abuse at 15 0 C resulted in rapid recovery of surviving micro-organisms which made differentiation of irradiated and unirradiated birds using this test unreliable. The microbiological quality of the bird prior to irradiation treatment also affected the test as large numbers of GNB present on the bird prior to irradiation treatment resulted in larger numbers of survivors. In addition, monitoring the developing flora after irradiation treatment amd during subsequent chilled storage also aided differentiation of irradiated and unirradiated birds. Large numbers of yeast and Gram positive cocci were isolated from irradiated carcasses whereas Gram negative oxidative rods were the predominant spoilage flora on unirradiated birds. (author)

  4. Evaluation of the Limulus amoebocyte lysate test in conjunction with a gram negative bacterial plate count for detecting irradiation of chicken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scotter, S L; Wood, R; McWeeny, D J [Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Norwich (UK). Food Science Lab.

    1990-01-01

    A study to evaluate the potential of the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) test in conjunction with a Gram negative bacterial (GNB) plate count for detecting the irradiation of chicken is described. Preliminary studies demonstrated that chickens irradiated at an absorbed dose of 2.5 kGy could be differentiated from unirradiated birds by measuring levels of endotoxin and of numbers of GNB on chicken skin. Irradiated birds were found to have endotoxin levels similar to those found in unirradiated birds but significantly lower numbers of GNB. In a limited study the test was found to be applicable to birds from different processors. The effect of temperature abuse on the microbiological profile, and thus the efficacy of the test, was also investigated. After temperature abuse, the irradiated birds were identifiable at worst up to 3 days after irradiation treatment at the 2.5 kGy level and at best some 13 days after irradiation. Temperature abuse at 15{sup 0}C resulted in rapid recovery of surviving micro-organisms which made differentiation of irradiated and unirradiated birds using this test unreliable. The microbiological quality of the bird prior to irradiation treatment also affected the test as large numbers of GNB present on the bird prior to irradiation treatment resulted in larger numbers of survivors. In addition, monitoring the developing flora after irradiation treatment amd during subsequent chilled storage also aided differentiation of irradiated and unirradiated birds. Large numbers of yeast and Gram positive cocci were isolated from irradiated carcasses whereas Gram negative oxidative rods were the predominant spoilage flora on unirradiated birds. (author).

  5. Is Perceived Control a Critical Factor in Understanding the Negative Relationship between Cognitive Test Anxiety and Examination Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, David W.; Aveyard, Ben

    2018-01-01

    A well established finding is that the cognitive component of test anxiety (worry) is negatively related to examination performance. The present study examined how 3 self-beliefs (academic buoyancy, perceived control, and test competence) moderated the strength of the relationship between worry and examination performance in a sample of 270 final…

  6. Mycobacterium tuberculosis epitope-specific interferon-g production in healthy Brazilians reactive and non-reactive to tuberculin skin test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosco Christiano Maciel da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The interferon (IFN-γ response to peptides can be a useful diagnostic marker of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB latent infection. We identified promiscuous and potentially protective CD4+ T-cell epitopes from the most conserved regions of MTB antigenic proteins by scanning the MTB antigenic proteins GroEL2, phosphate-binding protein 1 precursor and 19 kDa antigen with the TEPITOPE algorithm. Seven peptide sequences predicted to bind to multiple human leukocyte antigen (HLA-DR molecules were synthesised and tested with IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT assays using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from 16 Mantoux tuberculin skin test (TST-positive and 16 TST-negative healthy donors. Eighty-eight percent of TST-positive donors responded to at least one of the peptides, compared to 25% of TST-negative donors. Each individual peptide induced IFN-γ production by PBMCs from at least 31% of the TST-positive donors. The magnitude of the response against all peptides was 182 ± 230 x 106 IFN-γ spot forming cells (SFC among TST-positive donors and 36 ± 62 x 106 SFC among TST-negative donors (p = 0.007. The response to GroEL2 (463-477 was only observed in the TST-positive group. This combination of novel MTB CD4 T-cell epitopes should be tested in a larger cohort of individuals with latent tuberculosis (TB to evaluate its potential to diagnose latent TB and it may be included in ELISPOT-based IFN-γ assays to identify individuals with this condition.

  7. Field Method for Testing Repellency of an Icaridin-Containing Skin Lotion against Vespid Wasps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Boevé

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vespid wasps are ecologically beneficial predators of insects but their stings also pose a human health risk. Current control methods based on killing vespids are suboptimal. Here, the repellent effect against Vespula vulgaris of a 20% icaridin skin lotion was evaluated under field conditions. An experimental setup was designed in which six artificial skin pieces (10 × 10 cm were video-recorded for 1 h, to count each min the numbers of flying and feeding vespids. Prior to monitoring, five pieces were successively smeared with 2 mg of cream per cm2, in 30 min intervals, from t = −120 min to 0. The sixth sheet remained untreated to serve as a control. One milliliter of an attractant, fruit jam, was deposited on each of the six surfaces at t = 0. The control surface was free of any flying or feeding vespid during an average period of 25 min, whereas the other five surfaces (treated at t = −120, −90, −60, −30, and 0 min remained vespid-free for 39, 40, 45, 49, and 51 min, respectively. The skin lotion remained significantly active for at least 2 h. The experimental methodology is adjustable and allows the study of repellents against vespids in semi-natural conditions.

  8. Predicting skin sensitization potential and inter-laboratory reproducibility of a human Cell Line Activation Test (h-CLAT) in the European Cosmetics Association (COLIPA) ring trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Ryan, Cindy; Ovigne, Jean-Marc; Schroeder, Klaus R; Ashikaga, Takao

    2010-09-01

    Regulatory policies in Europe prohibited the testing of cosmetic ingredients in animals for a number of toxicological endpoints. Currently no validated non-animal test methods exist for skin sensitization. Evaluation of changes in cell surface marker expression in dendritic cell (DC)-surrogate cell lines represents one non-animal approach. The human Cell Line Activation Test (h-CLAT) examines the level of CD86 and CD54 expression on the surface of THP-1 cells, a human monocytic leukemia cell line, following 24h of chemical exposure. To examine protocol transferability, between-lab reproducibility, and predictive capacity, the h-CLAT has been evaluated by five independent laboratories in several ring trials (RTs) coordinated by the European Cosmetics Association (COLIPA). The results of the first and second RTs demonstrated that the protocol was transferable and basically had good between-lab reproducibility and predictivity, but there were some false negative data. To improve performance, protocol and prediction model were modified. Using the modified prediction model in the first and second RT, accuracy was improved. However, about 15% of the outcomes were not correctly identified, which exposes some of the limitations of the assay. For the chemicals evaluated, the limitation may due to chemical being a weak allergen or having low solubility (ex. alpha-hexylcinnamaldehyde). The third RT evaluated the modified prediction model and satisfactory results were obtained. From the RT data, the feasibility of utilizing cell lines as surrogate DC in development of in vitro skin sensitization methods shows promise. The data also support initiating formal pre-validation of the h-CLAT in order to fully understand the capabilities and limitations of the assay. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin Health and Skin Diseases Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin is the largest organ of your body? It ...

  10. Screening health care workers with interferon-γ release assay versus tuberculin skin test: impact on costs and adherence to testing (the SWITCH study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrighton-Smith, Peter; Sneed, Laurie; Humphrey, Frances; Tao, Xuguang; Bernacki, Edward

    2012-07-01

    To determine the price point at which an interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) is less costly than a tuberculin skin test (TST) for health care employee tuberculosis screening. A multidecision tree-based cost model incorporating inputs gathered from time-motion studies and parallel testing by IGRA and TST was conducted in a subset of our employees. Administering a TST testing program costs $73.20 per person screened, $90.80 per new hire, and $63.42 per annual screen. Use of an IGRA for employee health testing is cost saving at an IGRA test cost of $54.83 or less per test and resulted in higher completion rates because of the elimination of the need for a second visit to interpret the TST. Using an IGRA for employee health screening can be an institutional cost saving and results in higher compliance rates.

  11. Skin sensitisation--moving forward with non-animal testing strategies for regulatory purposes in the EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basketter, David; Alépée, Nathalie; Casati, Silvia; Crozier, Jonathan; Eigler, Dorothea; Griem, Peter; Hubesch, Bruno; de Knecht, Joop; Landsiedel, Robert; Louekari, Kimmo; Manou, Irene; Maxwell, Gavin; Mehling, Annette; Netzeva, Tatiana; Petry, Thomas; Rossi, Laura H

    2013-12-01

    In a previous EPAA-Cefic LRI workshop in 2011, issues surrounding the use and interpretation of results from the local lymph node assay were addressed. At the beginning of 2013 a second joint workshop focused greater attention on the opportunities to make use of non-animal test data, not least since a number of in vitro assays have progressed to an advanced position in terms of their formal validation. It is already recognised that information produced from non-animal assays can be used in regulatory decision-making, notably in terms of classifying a substance as a skin sensitiser. The evolution into a full replacement for hazard identification, where the decision is not to classify, requires the generation of confidence in the in vitro alternative, e.g. via formal validation, the existence of peer reviewed publications and the knowledge that the assay(s) are founded on key elements of the Adverse Outcome Pathway for skin sensitisation. It is foreseen that the validated in vitro assays and relevant QSAR models can be organised into formal testing strategies to be applied for regulatory purposes by the industry. To facilitate progress, the European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to animal testing (EPAA) provided the platform for cross-industry and regulatory dialogue, enabling an essential and open debate on the acceptability of an in vitro based integrated strategy. Based on these considerations, a follow up activity was agreed upon to explore an example of an Integrated Testing Strategy for skin sensitisation hazard identification purposes in the context of REACH submissions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The challenge of producing skin test antigens with minimal resources suitable for human application against a neglected tropical disease; leprosy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky L Rivoire

    Full Text Available True incidence of leprosy and its impact on transmission will not be understood until a tool is available to measure pre-symptomatic infection. Diagnosis of leprosy disease is currently based on clinical symptoms, which on average take 3-10 years to manifest. The fact that incidence, as defined by new case detection, equates with prevalence, i.e., registered cases, suggests that the cycle of transmission has not been fully intercepted by implementation of multiple drug therapy. This is supported by a high incidence of childhood leprosy. Epidemiological screening for pre-symptomatic leprosy in large endemic populations is required to facilitate targeted chemoprophylactic interventions. Such a test must be sensitive, specific, simple to administer, cost-effective, and easy to interpret. The intradermal skin test method that measures cell-mediated immunity was explored as the best option. Prior knowledge on skin testing of healthy subjects and leprosy patients with whole or partially fractionated Mycobacterium leprae bacilli, such as Lepromin or the Rees' or Convit' antigens, has established an acceptable safety and potency profile of these antigens. These data, along with immunoreactivity data, laid the foundation for two new leprosy skin test antigens, MLSA-LAM (M. leprae soluble antigen devoid of mycobacterial lipoglycans, primarily lipoarabinomannan and MLCwA (M. leprae cell wall antigens. In the absence of commercial interest, the challenge was to develop these antigens under current good manufacturing practices in an acceptable local pilot facility and submit an Investigational New Drug to the Food and Drug Administration to allow a first-in-human phase I clinical trial.

  13. The challenge of producing skin test antigens with minimal resources suitable for human application against a neglected tropical disease; leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivoire, Becky L; TerLouw, Stephen; Groathouse, Nathan A; Brennan, Patrick J

    2014-01-01

    True incidence of leprosy and its impact on transmission will not be understood until a tool is available to measure pre-symptomatic infection. Diagnosis of leprosy disease is currently based on clinical symptoms, which on average take 3-10 years to manifest. The fact that incidence, as defined by new case detection, equates with prevalence, i.e., registered cases, suggests that the cycle of transmission has not been fully intercepted by implementation of multiple drug therapy. This is supported by a high incidence of childhood leprosy. Epidemiological screening for pre-symptomatic leprosy in large endemic populations is required to facilitate targeted chemoprophylactic interventions. Such a test must be sensitive, specific, simple to administer, cost-effective, and easy to interpret. The intradermal skin test method that measures cell-mediated immunity was explored as the best option. Prior knowledge on skin testing of healthy subjects and leprosy patients with whole or partially fractionated Mycobacterium leprae bacilli, such as Lepromin or the Rees' or Convit' antigens, has established an acceptable safety and potency profile of these antigens. These data, along with immunoreactivity data, laid the foundation for two new leprosy skin test antigens, MLSA-LAM (M. leprae soluble antigen devoid of mycobacterial lipoglycans, primarily lipoarabinomannan) and MLCwA (M. leprae cell wall antigens). In the absence of commercial interest, the challenge was to develop these antigens under current good manufacturing practices in an acceptable local pilot facility and submit an Investigational New Drug to the Food and Drug Administration to allow a first-in-human phase I clinical trial.

  14. Relationships Between Stress, Negative Emotions, Resilience, and Smoking: Testing a Moderated Mediation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Chen, Xinguang; Gong, Jie; Yan, Yaqiong

    2016-01-01

    More effective tobacco prevention and cessation programs require in-depth understanding of the mechanism by which multiple factors interact with each other to affect smoking behaviors. Stress has long been recognized as a risk factor for smoking. However, the underlying mediation and moderation mechanisms are far from clear. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of negative emotions in mediating the link between stress and smoking and whether this indirect link was modified by resilience. Survey data were collected using audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) from a large random sample of urban residents (n = 1249, mean age = 35.1, 45.3% male) in Wuhan, China. Perceived stress, negative emotions (anxiety, depression), resilience were measured with reliable instruments also validated in China. Self-reported smoking was validated with exhaled carbon monoxide. Mediation analysis indicated that two negative emotions fully mediated the link between stress and intensity of smoking (assessed by number of cigarettes smoked per day, effect =.082 for anxiety and.083 for depression) and nicotine dependence (assessed by DSM-IV standard, effect =.134 for anxiety and.207 for depression). Moderated mediation analysis demonstrated that the mediation effects of negative emotions were negatively associated with resilience. Results suggest resilience interacts with stress and negative emotions to affect the risk of tobacco use and nicotine dependence among Chinese adults. Further research with longitudinal data is needed to verify the findings of this study and to estimate the effect size of resilience in tobacco intervention and cessation programs.

  15. Perfectionistic Concerns, Social Negativity, and Subjective Well-Being: A Test of the Social Disconnection Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, Sean P; Kehayes, Ivy-Lee L; Leonard, Kenneth E; Fraser, Ronald; Stewart, Sherry H

    2017-06-01

    Partner-specific perfectionistic concerns (PC) include concern over mistakes, self-criticism, and socially prescribed perfectionism as it pertains to one's partner. The social disconnection model proposes that PC influences well-being indirectly through interpersonal problems. Thus, we hypothesized that social negativity (expressed anger, hostility, and rejection) would mediate the relationship between dyadic PC and subjective well-being. Data from 203 romantic dyads (92.1% heterosexual) were collected using self-report surveys and a four-wave, 4-week longitudinal design. Participants were predominantly female (53.1%), young (M = 22.69 years), and Caucasian (82.3%). Data were analyzed using an actor-partner interdependence model with multilevel structural equation modeling. There were significant actor effects at the between-subjects and within-subjects levels, and significant partner effects for the relationship between PC and social negativity at the within-subject level. Social negativity mediated the relationships between PC and both negative affect and life satisfaction. However, positive affect was more weakly related to PC and social negativity. The social disconnection model was supported. PC was positively associated with one's own social negativity and evoked hostile behaviors from one's partner. Hostile, rejecting behaviors reduced the well-being of the actor, but not the partner. Results suggest perfectionism may be best understood within an interpersonal context. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Evaluation of the effect of Dardia Lipo Line on skin inflammation induced by surfactants using the repeated open-application test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortonne, J-P; Queille-Roussel, C

    2007-09-01

    Medical skin care products are topical preparations with mainly moisturizing properties. A new line of medical skin products with an excellent tolerability profile and improved hydration for dry skin has been developed, but beneficial effects have not yet been investigated on damaged skin. To investigate if these products maintain barrier function and hydration status, improve subjective symptoms due to irritant contact dermatitis and to prove their tolerability on damaged skin. Single-centre, blinded, randomized, controlled study in 20 healthy Caucasian women. 5% sodium lauryl sulphate solution was used to induce skin irritation. Two sites on the inside surface of both forearms of each subject were treated daily for 5 days (irritation period). Lipo Cream, Lipo Milk (water-in-oil emulsions) and Lipo Ointment (water-free formulation) were applied twice daily to three of the four test sites on days 1-5. The fourth site was used as a control. Visual readings, subjective symptom assessments, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and colorimetric measurements, corneometry and skin microrelief macrophotographies were done on days 1-6. On day 6, TEWL was increased vs baseline on all sites; however, TEWL with Lipo Cream or Lipo Ointment was significantly lower than control. At day 6, skin capacitance was 94%, 100% and 85% of baseline value for the cream, milk and ointment, respectively, versus 72% for control. All test products were well tolerated. Lipo Line products showed both protective properties against epidermal dysfunction and significant hydrating effect.

  17. Depressive cognition: a test of depressive realism versus negativity using general knowledge questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, E R; Dodrill, C L; Johnson, N

    2001-11-01

    This research is an examination of whether cognition in depressed individuals incorporates a realistic view of the world or a general tendency toward negativity. Participants provided two types of probability judgments of the likelihood that they correctly answered general knowledge questions: the probability that they correctly answered each of the individual questions and an aggregate judgment, after completing the questionnaire, of the percentage of all the questions they thought they had correctly answered. These tasks generally elicit overconfidence and accuracy in nondepressives. In accord with theories of both depressive realism and general negativity, in their item-by-item assessments of their answers to the individual questions, depressed participants demonstrated less overconfidence than nondepressed participants. In accord with the theory of general negativity but not with the theory of depressive realism, however, depressed participants demonstrated underconfidence in their aggregate judgments. The implications of these findings on theories of depressive cognition are discussed.

  18. Design and test of a novel isolator with negative resistance electromagnetic shunt damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Bo; Zhang, Xinong; Niu, Hongpan

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a negative resistance electromagnetic shunt damping vibration isolator and investigates the effectiveness of the isolator. The isolator consists of a shunt circuit and a pair of electromagnet and permanent magnets that are pasted onto a box-shaped spring. A kind of negative resistance shunt impedance is proposed to cancel the inherent resistance of the electromagnet. The electromechanical coupling coefficient and the electromagnetic damping force calculation formula are obtained by Biot–Savart’s law and Ampère’s law, respectively. A single degree of freedom system is employed to verify the performance of the proposed isolator. The governing equation is established. The performance of the proposed isolator under a half-cycle sine pulse is investigated and discussed. Experiments were carried out and the results agreed well with the numerical predictions. Both the results demonstrate that the negative resistance electromagnetic shunt damping vibration isolator could suppress vibration transmitted to the structure effectively. (paper)

  19. Clinical evaluation of MPT-64 and MPT-59, two proteins secreted from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, for skin test reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcke, J T; Jensen, B N; Ravn, P

    1996-01-01

    and one healthy bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccinated subject without patient contact) reacted to MPT-64. The studies of cell proliferation and induction of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) following stimulation with tuberculin PPD and MPT-64 supported this profile of reactivity. CONCLUSION: None...... of the experimental skin test antigens had properties superior to tuberculin PPD RT23 in humans. The failure of MPT-64 to induce delayed type hypersensitivity reactions in the majority of tuberculosis patients is discussed, in view of the potent reactivity to MPT-64 in tuberculous guinea pigs....

  20. Is a positive intracutaneous test induced by penicillin mediated by histamine?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tannert, Line K; Falkencrone, Sidsel; Mortz, Charlotte G

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diagnostic workup of penicillin allergy comprises skin testing with penicillins, and patients are deemed allergic if skin test is positive. However, the literature suggests that skin test-positive patients may be challenge-negative, indicating that the skin test may be falsely positive....... Objective: To investigate real-time histamine release from a positive intracutaneous test induced by penicillin in patients with positive and negative challenges to penicillin. Methods: Skin microdialysis was performed in 21 penicillin-allergic patients with positive skin test, 13 non-allergic volunteers...... serving as negative controls, and 7 grass pollen-allergic patients serving as positive controls. Histamine was measured by microdialysis after skin test with penicillin/grass/NaCl. Penicillin challenge was subsequently performed in 12 of the patients. Results: Only 10/21 patients (47.6%) were skin test...

  1. Use of a smart phone based thermo camera for skin prick allergy testing: a feasibility study (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barla, Lindi; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Klaessens, John; van der Veen, Albert

    2016-02-01

    Allergy testing is usually performed by exposing the skin to small quantities of potential allergens on the inner forearm and scratching the protective epidermis to increase exposure. After 15 minutes the dermatologist performs a visual check for swelling and erythema which is subjective and difficult for e.g. dark skin types. A small smart phone based thermo camera (FLIR One) was used to obtain quantitative images in a feasibility study of 17 patients Directly after allergen exposure on the forearm, thermal images were captured at 30 seconds interval and processed to a time lapse movie over 15 minutes. Considering the 'subjective' reading of the dermatologist as golden standard, in 11/17 pts (65%) the evaluation of dermatologist was confirmed by the thermo camera including 5 of 6 patients without allergic response. In 7 patients thermo showed additional spots. Of the 342 sites tested, the dermatologist detected 47 allergies of which 28 (60%) were confirmed by thermo imaging while thermo imaging showed 12 additional spots. The method can be improved with user dedicated acquisition software and better registration between normal and thermal images. The lymphatic reaction seems to shift from the original puncture site. The interpretation of the thermal images is still subjective since collecting quantitative data is difficult due to motion patient during 15 minutes. Although not yet conclusive, thermal imaging shows to be promising to improve the sensitivity and selectivity of allergy testing using a smart phone based camera.

  2. Pollen food allergy syndrome in Turkey: Clinical characteristics and evaluation of its association with skin test reactivity to pollens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Seςil Kepil; Özgüςlü, Selcan

    2017-09-17

    There is limited data regarding pollen food allergy syndrome (PFAS) in Turkey. To investigate the clinical characteristics and possible risk factors of PFAS in Turkey, and to evaluate if there was an association between skin test reactivity to pollens and presence of PFAS. A total of 254 consecutive adult patients with pollen sensitivity were prospectively recruited. Patients were interviewed with a questionnaire including a list of pollen-associated foods. Patients were classified as having PFAS if they reported clear allergic symptoms compatible with PFAS. All participants underwent skin prick tests (SPT) to a panel of common aeroallergens, prick-to-prick tests with culprit fresh foods were performed in patients who gave consent. Self-reported PFAS was observed in 49 patients (19.3%). The most common culprit foods were kiwi, peach, tomato, melon and watermelon. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that potential risk factors for PFAS were having asthma (OR=2.392, P=0.044) and tree pollen sensitization (OR=2.904, P=0.004). There were no significant differences in the SPT wheal sizes to individual pollen extracts between patients with and without PFAS with a positive SPT result for that pollen extract (P> 0.05). PFAS is frequent in pollen sensitized adults in Turkey. The most commonly implicated foods are kiwi, peach,tomato, melon and watermelon, in our geographical region. SPT wheal sizes to pollen extracts seems to be similar in patients with and without PFAS.

  3. Local lymph node assay (LLNA): comparison of different protocols by testing skin-sensitizing epoxy resin system components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamer, Armin O; Nies, Eberhard; Vohr, Hans-Werner

    2008-12-01

    Thirteen epoxy resin system components were tested in the LLNA with regard to their sensitizing potency. Lymph node stimulation was quantified not only by measuring the incorporation of [3H]-thymidine into the ear lymph nodes but also the counts of cells recovered from these organs. Equivalent figures were obtained with both endpoints used for the evaluation of lymph node cell proliferation if the reference stimulation indices were adjusted. When dissolved in acetone, all test substances showed skin-sensitizing potential, mainly on the boundary between "strong" and "moderate" according to common potency evaluation schemes. Replacing acetone with acetone/olive oil (4:1) as a vehicle for four selected test items, resulted in considerably lower estimated concentrations for sensitization induction. The challenges in comparing the results obtained by different LLNA variations are discussed.

  4. Interferon Gamma Release Assay versus Tuberculin Skin Testing among Healthcare Workers of Highly Diverse Origin in a Moderate Tuberculosis Burden Country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahal Al Hajoj

    Full Text Available Health care workers (HCW's are always at an increased risk of contracting tuberculosis (TB infection. In Saudi Arabia, Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA has not been evaluated as a screening tool for latent TB infection (LTBI among HCW's considering their high demographic diversity. During February 2012 to January 2015 a cross sectional study has been conducted in a tertiary care center with maximum demographically diverse staff population in the capital city-Riyadh. After a short interview and consenting, all the candidates were subjected to tuberculin skin test (TST and QuantiFERON TB gold In-tube test (QFT. A logistic regression analysis was carried out for establishing the associations between putative risk factors and the diagnostic tests. The candidates were classified according to geographical origin and a detailed analysis was conducted on the impact of their origin towards the results of TST and QFT. Of the 1595 candidates enrolled, 90.6% were BCG vaccinated, female (67.9% and mainly nurses (53.2%. Candidates with high risk of suspected or confirmed TB patient exposure were 56.1% and 76.5% of them had <10 year's work experience. TST positivity was observed in 503 (31.5% candidates, while QFT was positive among 399 (25%. Majority of the candidates were non-Saudi (83% and predominantly (52.4% from Western Pacific region. Concordant results were obtained in 14.2% of positive cases and 57.7% negative cases. The disagreements between the two tests were relatively high (kappa co-efficient-0.312±0.026, p value- <0.00001 as TST positive/QFT negative discordance was 54.8% while TST negative/QFT positive discordance was 15.7%. Age of the candidates, BCG vaccination, and South East Asian origin were associated with TST positivity while Occupational TB exposure and geographical origin of the candidates were associated with QFT positivity. A regular follow up on recently TST converted candidates showed no progression to active TB. The putative

  5. A possible alternative to the error prone modified Hodge test to correctly identify the carbapenemase producing Gram-negative bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Jeremiah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The modified Hodge test (MHT is widely used as a screening test for the detection of carbapenemases in Gram-negative bacteria. This test has several pitfalls in terms of validity and interpretation. Also the test has a very low sensitivity in detecting the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM. Considering the degree of dissemination of the NDM and the growing pandemic of carbapenem resistance, a more accurate alternative test is needed at the earliest. Aims: The study intends to compare the performance of the MHT with the commercially available Neo-Sensitabs - Carbapenemases/Metallo-β-Lactamase (MBL Confirmative Identification pack to find out whether the latter could be an efficient alternative to the former. Settings and Design: A total of 105 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae resistant to imipenem and meropenem, collected prospectively over a period of 2 years were included in the study. Subjects and Methods: The study isolates were tested with the MHT, the Neo-Sensitabs - Carbapenemases/MBL Confirmative Identification pack and polymerase chain reaction (PCR for detecting the blaNDM-1 gene. Results: Among the 105 isolates, the MHT identified 100 isolates as carbapenemase producers. In the five isolates negative for the MHT, four were found to produce MBLs by the Neo-Sensitabs. The Neo-Sensitabs did not have any false negatives when compared against the PCR. Conclusions: The MHT can give false negative results, which lead to failure in detecting the carbapenemase producers. Also considering the other pitfalls of the MHT, the Neo-Sensitabs - Carbapenemases/MBL Confirmative Identification pack could be a more efficient alternative for detection of carbapenemase production in Gram-negative bacteria.

  6. A possible alternative to the error prone modified Hodge test to correctly identify the carbapenemase producing Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremiah, S S; Balaji, V; Anandan, S; Sahni, R D

    2014-01-01

    The modified Hodge test (MHT) is widely used as a screening test for the detection of carbapenemases in Gram-negative bacteria. This test has several pitfalls in terms of validity and interpretation. Also the test has a very low sensitivity in detecting the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM). Considering the degree of dissemination of the NDM and the growing pandemic of carbapenem resistance, a more accurate alternative test is needed at the earliest. The study intends to compare the performance of the MHT with the commercially available Neo-Sensitabs - Carbapenemases/Metallo-β-Lactamase (MBL) Confirmative Identification pack to find out whether the latter could be an efficient alternative to the former. A total of 105 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae resistant to imipenem and meropenem, collected prospectively over a period of 2 years were included in the study. The study isolates were tested with the MHT, the Neo-Sensitabs - Carbapenemases/MBL Confirmative Identification pack and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detecting the blaNDM-1 gene. Among the 105 isolates, the MHT identified 100 isolates as carbapenemase producers. In the five isolates negative for the MHT, four were found to produce MBLs by the Neo-Sensitabs. The Neo-Sensitabs did not have any false negatives when compared against the PCR. The MHT can give false negative results, which lead to failure in detecting the carbapenemase producers. Also considering the other pitfalls of the MHT, the Neo-Sensitabs--Carbapenemases/MBL Confirmative Identification pack could be a more efficient alternative for detection of carbapenemase production in Gram-negative bacteria.

  7. Comparison of the Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Toluidine Red Unheated Serum Test and the CSF Rapid Plasma Reagin Test with the CSF Venereal Disease Research Laboratory Test for Diagnosis of Neurosyphilis among HIV-Negative Syphilis Patients in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Lin; Gu, Xin; Peng, Rui-Rui; Wang, Cuini; Gao, Zixiao; Zhou, Pingyu; Gao, Ying; Shi, Mei; Guan, Zhifang; Seña, Arlene C.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the performance of nontreponemal antibody tests in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from syphilis patients. From September 2009 to September 2012, CSF specimens were collected at the Shanghai Skin Disease Hospital in Shanghai, China, from 1,132 syphilis patients without HIV infection, including 154 with symptomatic and 56 with asymptomatic neurosyphilis. All of the CSF specimens underwent testing with a rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test, an RPR-V (commer...

  8. Application of 13C-urea breath test in patients diagnosed as H. pylori-negative by gastroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Long; Liu Changjiang; Gao Jianqing; Xu Sumei; Chen Linna; Zhou Jianming

    2006-01-01

    13 C-urea breath test( 13 C-UBT)was used to evaluate infection rate of H. pylori(HP) and effect of HP eradication in patients diagnosed as HP-negative by histology and rapid urease test. Patiens without gastrointestinal disorders were set as control group. Within 640 patients diagnosed as HP-negative by histology and rapid urease test, there were 389 patients showed HP-positive by 13 C-UBT. The positive rate of HP was 60.8%. 389 patients diagnosed as HP- positive by 13 C-UBT were treated with PPI-based triple therapy, PPI-based double therapy and single PPI therapy, respectively. After treatment, the negative rate of 13 C-UBT was 83.8%, 18.4% and 3.3%, respectively. The results showed significant difference between three kinds of therapy (P 13 C-UBT could improve the diagnostic rate of HP to patients who diagnosed as HP-negative by histology and rapid urease test. (authors)

  9. Private sector tuberculosis prevention in the US: Characteristics associated with interferon-gamma release assay or tuberculin skin testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockbridge, Erica L; Miller, Thaddeus L; Carlson, Erin K; Ho, Christine

    2018-01-01

    To determine whether latent tuberculosis infection risk factors are associated with an increased likelihood of latent tuberculosis infection testing in the US private healthcare sector. A national sample of medical and pharmacy claims representing services rendered January 2011 through December 2013 for 3,997,986 commercially insured individuals in the US who were 0 to 64 years of age. We used multivariable logistic regression models to determine whether TB/LTBI risk factors were associated with an increased likelihood of Interferon-Gamma Release Assay (IGRA) or Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) testing in the private sector. 4.31% (4.27-4.34%) received at least one TST/IGRA test between 2011 and 2013 while 1.69% (1.67-1.72%) received a TST/IGRA test in 2013. Clinical risk factors associated with a significantly increased likelihood of testing included HIV, immunosuppressive therapy, exposure to tuberculosis, a history of tuberculosis, diabetes, tobacco use, end stage renal disease, and alcohol use disorder. Other significant variables included gender, age, asthma, the state tuberculosis rate, population density, and percent of foreign-born persons in a county. Private sector TST/IGRA testing is not uncommon and testing varies with clinical risk indicators. Thus, the private sector can be a powerful resource in the fight against tuberculosis. Analyses of administrative data can inform how best to leverage private sector healthcare toward tuberculosis prevention activities.

  10. Testing a social cognitive theory-based model of indoor tanning: implications for skin cancer prevention messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noar, Seth M; Myrick, Jessica Gall; Zeitany, Alexandra; Kelley, Dannielle; Morales-Pico, Brenda; Thomas, Nancy E

    2015-01-01

    The lack of a theory-based understanding of indoor tanning is a major impediment to the development of effective messages to prevent or reduce this behavior. This study applied the Comprehensive Indoor Tanning Expectations (CITE) scale in an analysis of indoor tanning behavior among sorority women (total N = 775). Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that CITE positive and negative expectations were robust, multidimensional factors and that a hierarchical structure fit the data well. Social cognitive theory-based structural equation models demonstrated that appearance-oriented variables were significantly associated with outcome expectations. Outcome expectations were, in turn, significantly associated with temptations to tan, intention to tan indoors, and indoor tanning behavior. The implications of these findings for the development of messages to prevent and reduce indoor tanning behavior are discussed in two domains: (a) messages that attempt to change broader societal perceptions about tan skin, and (b) messages that focus more narrowly on indoor tanning-challenging positive expectations, enhancing negative expectations, and encouraging substitution of sunless tanning products.

  11. DISTRIBUTION OF COAGULASE-NEGATIVE STAPHYLOCOCCI SPECIES ON TEAT SKIN AND IN MILK SAMPLES FROM DAIRY COWS IN AUTOMATIC MILKING SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser Saadeldien Ibrahim; Svennesen, Line; Pedersen, Karl

    ) to identify the predisposing cow level risk factors for specific CNS IMI and teat colonization.In each herd, 30- 40 cows with somatic cell counts > 200,000 cells/ml in the previous milk recording are randomly selected and teat skin swabs and aseptic quarter foremilk samples are taken. Teat skin swabs...... are collected using a modified wet-dry method. First a wet swab immersed in ¼ Ringer’s solution followed by a dry swab are rotated 360° around the teat canal orifice and both swab tips transferred into one tube with 2 ml of ¼ Ringer’s solution. Samples are transported on ice for culturing in the laboratory...

  12. Langerin negative dendritic cells promote potent CD8+ T-cell priming by skin delivery of live adenovirus vaccine microneedle arrays.

    OpenAIRE

    Bachy V; Hervouet C; Becker PD; Chorro L; Carlin LM; Herath S; Papagatsias T; Barbaroux JB; Oh SJ; Benlahrech A; Athanasopoulos T; Dickson G; Patterson S; Kwon SY; Geissmann F

    2013-01-01

    Stabilization of virus protein structure and nucleic acid integrity is challenging yet essential to preserve the transcriptional competence of live recombinant viral vaccine vectors in the absence of a cold chain. When coupled with needle-free skin delivery, such a platform would address an unmet need in global vaccine coverage against HIV and other global pathogens. Herein, we show that a simple dissolvable microneedle array (MA) delivery system preserves the immunogenicity of vaccines encod...

  13. Your Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Skin KidsHealth / For Kids / Your Skin What's in this ... body) are really dead skin cells. Bye-Bye Skin Cells These old cells are tough and strong, ...

  14. A tan in a test tube - in vitro models for investigating ultraviolet radiation-induced damage in skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Tara L; Dawson, Rebecca A; Van Lonkhuyzen, Derek R; Kimlin, Michael G; Upton, Zee

    2012-06-01

    Presently, global rates of skin cancers induced by ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure are on the rise. In view of this, current knowledge gaps in the biology of photocarcinogenesis and skin cancer progression urgently need to be addressed. One factor that has limited skin cancer research has been the need for a reproducible and physiologically-relevant model able to represent the complexity of human skin. This review outlines the main currently-used in vitro models of UVR-induced skin damage. This includes the use of conventional two-dimensional cell culture techniques and the major animal models that have been employed in photobiology and photocarcinogenesis research. Additionally, the progression towards the use of cultured skin explants and tissue-engineered skin constructs, and their utility as models of native skin's responses to UVR are described. The inherent advantages and disadvantages of these in vitro systems are also discussed. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Diagnosis of Latent Tuberculosis in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: T.SPOT.TB versus Tuberculin Skin Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Del Mar Arenas Miras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Early studies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE reported increased incidence of tuberculosis. The tuberculin skin test (TST is the technique of choice to detect latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI but has several limitations. Objectives. We compared TST and the newer T.SPOT.TB test to diagnose LTBI in SLE patients. Methods. In this observational cohort study conducted between August 2009 and February 2012, we recruited 92 patients from those attending the SLE clinic of our university hospital. Data recorded were epidemiological and sociodemographic characteristics. Laboratory analyses included TST and T.SPOT.TB tests. Results. Of the patients studied, 92% were women with an average age of 42.7 years. Overall, the degree of correlation between the two tests was low (Kappa index = 0.324 but was better in patients not receiving corticosteroids (CTC/immunosuppressive (IS therapy (Kappa = 0.436 and in those receiving hydroxychloroquine (Kappa = 0.473. While TST results were adversely affected by those receiving CTC and/or IS drugs (P=0.021, the T.SPOT.TB results were not. Conclusion. Although the TST test remains a useful tool for diagnosing LTBI in SLE patients, the T.SPOT.TB test is perhaps better employed when the patient is receiving CTC and/or IS drugs.

  16. Fragrance patch tests prepared in advance may give false-negative reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowitz, Martin; Svedman, Cecilia; Zimerson, Erik; Bruze, Magnus

    2014-11-01

    Several of the ingredients in fragrance mix I (FM I) have been shown to evaporate from petrolatum preparations applied in test chambers to an extent that can be suspected to affect the patch test result. To compare the reactivity towards FM I and fragrance mix II (FM II) when they are applied in test chambers in advance and immediately prior to the patch test occasion. Seven hundred and ninety-five consecutive patients were simultaneously patch tested with duplicate samples of FM I and FM II. One sample was applied in the test chamber 6 days in advance (6D sample), and the other sample was applied immediately before the patients were patch tested (fresh sample). Twenty-two (2.8%) patients reacted exclusively to the fresh sample of FM I, 6 (0.7%) reacted exclusively to the 6D sample, and 22 (2.8%) reacted to both samples. The corresponding numbers for FM II were 9 (1.1%) for the fresh sample, 6 (0.7%) for the 6D sample and 12 (1.5%) for both samples. There was a statistically significant difference between the numbers of patients reacting to the fresh and 6D samples of FM I. No corresponding difference was observed for FM II. This can probably be explained by differences in volatilities between the ingredients of FM I and FM II. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Negative Attitudes toward Older Workers and Hiring Decisions: Testing the Moderating Role of Decision Makers' Core Self-Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasbender, Ulrike; Wang, Mo

    2016-01-01

    Organizational hiring practices have been charged for unfair treatment on the grounds of age. Drawing on theories of planned behavior and core self-evaluations, this research investigated the impact of negative attitudes toward older workers on hiring decisions and examined the moderating role of decision-makers' core self-evaluations. We tested our hypotheses based on a structured online questionnaire and a vignette study using a sample of 102 participants working in human resource management across different industries. As predicted, negative attitudes toward older workers were positively related to avoidance of hiring older people, which in turn was negatively related to the likelihood to select the oldest candidate. Because hiring decisions are not only about the hiring subject but also about the decision-maker, we tested the moderating role of decision-makers' core self-evaluations. Results showed that core self-evaluations buffered the relationship between negative attitudes toward older workers and avoidance of hiring older people. Theoretical implications of the findings with regard to hiring decisions about older people and practical recommendations to improve diversity management strategies and age-balanced hiring practices in organizations are discussed.

  18. First-in-man open clinical trial of a combined rdESAT-6 and rCFP-10 tuberculosis specific skin test reagent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnie Bergstedt

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculin is still the only available skin test reagent for the diagnosis of mycobacterial infection. The product has a remarkable sensitivity, but poor specificity. Previous studies, including two human phase I clinical trials, have indicated that rdESAT-6 has a potential as an improved skin test reagent. Animal studies have shown that the sensitivity may be increased by inclusion of the genetically related CFP-10 antigen in the preparation without loosing specificity.In this study a Lactococcus fermented, recombinant skin test reagent consisting of a 1ratio1 wt/wt of rdESAT-6 and CFP-10 was manufactured according to GMP standards and tested for the first time in 42 healthy adult volunteers. The two doses of 0.01 microg or 0.1 microg were injected intradermally by the Mantoux technique with 6 or 12 weeks interval. No serious adverse events and only mild adverse reactions were reported. The reagent elicited a positive skin test reaction after the first injection in one participant, who most likely was latently infected with M. tuberculosis as indicated by an appreciable IFN gamma response just below the Quantiferon(R cut-off level at the screening visit. None of the remaining participants in the four groups had any skin test reactions and sensitisation by the reagent could therefore be excluded.The investigational skin test reagent rdESAT-6 and CFP-10 appeared safe and non-sensitising in this first-in-man clinical trial in human volunteers and can now be tested in larger clinical trials involving individuals with latent M. tuberculosis infection or active TB disease.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00793702.

  19. Characterization of the mechanical properties of a dermal equivalent compared with human skin in vivo by indentation and static friction tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahouani, H; Pailler-Mattei, C; Sohm, B; Vargiolu, R; Cenizo, V; Debret, R

    2009-02-01

    The study of changes in skin structure with age is becoming all the more important with the increase in life. The atrophy that occurs during aging is accompanied by more profound changes, with a loss of organization within the elastic collagen network and alterations in the basal elements. The aim of this study is to present a method to determine the mechanical properties of total human skin in vivo compared with dermal equivalents (DEs) using indentation and static friction tests. A new bio-tribometer working at a low contact pressure for the characterization the mechanical properties of the skin has been developed. This device, based on indentation and static friction tests, also allows to characterize the skin in vivo and reconstructed DEs in a wide range of light contact forces, stress and strain. This original bio-tribometer shows the ability to assess the skin elasticity and friction force in a wide range of light normal load (0.5-2 g) and low contact pressure (0.5-2 kPa). The results obtained by this approach show identical values of the Young's modulus E(*) and the shear modulus G(*) of six DEs obtained from a 62-year-old subject (E(*)=8.5+/-1.74 kPa and G(*)=3.3+/-0.46 kPa) and in vivo total skin of 20 subjects aged 55 to 70 years (E(*)=8.3+/-2.1 kPa, G(*)=2.8+/-0.8 kpa).

  20. Comorbidity negatively influences the outcomes of diagnostic tests for musculoskeletal pain in the orofacial region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutris, M.; Visscher, C.M.; Lobbezoo, F.; Naeije, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether diagnostic tests for musculoskeletal pain in the orofacial region [temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain] are influenced by the presence of comorbid conditions, and to determine whether this influence decreases when the presence of "familiar pain" is

  1. On-site leak testing of negative-pressure filtration units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosby, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    DOP, dioctylphthalate [or di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)], commonly used as a plasticizer, has been used to produce test aerosols for in-place filter testing of HEPA filters and for quantitative respirator fit testing for over 30 years. Some questions arose about 10 years ago regarding the safety and potential health hazards of this material. Therefore, over the years many substitute materials for test aerosols have come into use in the field. A study was undertaken recently at the Harvard School of Public Health evaluating particle size distribution of the substitute materials using a Laskin nozzle aerosol generator. In concurrent preliminary studies performed at Air Techniques it was determined that the substitute liquids do not give the same concentration levels as DOP. This study will report on the various DOP alternatives and the concentrations of aerosols produced in the Laskin nozzle type aerosol generator in comparison with the concentration normally produced using DOP. Substitutes include di(2-ethylhexyl)sebacate (DOS), mineral oil, Ondina EL, Kaydol, corn oil, Emery 3004 and polyethylene glycol

  2. Sensitization to cereals and peanut evidenced by skin prick test and specific IgE in food-tolerant, grass pollen allergic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Maria; Schnoor, Heidi J; Malling, Hans-Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test (SPT) and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without...

  3. Clinical evaluation of MPT-64 and MPT-59, two proteins secreted from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, for skin test reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcke, J T; Jensen, B N; Ravn, P

    1996-01-01

    : In a small scale clinical investigation, skin reactions to these antigens were compared to reactions to tuberculin PPD RT23 in 1) patients with active tuberculosis, 2) BCG vaccinated healthy subjects with close contact with tuberculous patients, and 3) BCG vaccinated healthy subjects without contact...... with tuberculous patients. Tests for in vitro reactivity to these antigens were carried out in similar groups. RESULTS: All subjects gave positive reaction to tuberculin PPD RT23, whereas approximately half of the subjects in each of the three groups reacted to MPT-59. Two subjects (one patient with tuberculosis...... and one healthy bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccinated subject without patient contact) reacted to MPT-64. The studies of cell proliferation and induction of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) following stimulation with tuberculin PPD and MPT-64 supported this profile of reactivity. CONCLUSION: None...

  4. Average Skin-Friction Drag Coefficients from Tank Tests of a Parabolic Body of Revolution (NACA RM-10)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottard, Elmo J; Loposer, J Dan

    1954-01-01

    Average skin-friction drag coefficients were obtained from boundary-layer total-pressure measurements on a parabolic body of revolution (NACA rm-10, basic fineness ratio 15) in water at Reynolds numbers from 4.4 x 10(6) to 70 x 10(6). The tests were made in the Langley tank no. 1 with the body sting-mounted at a depth of two maximum body diameters. The arithmetic mean of three drag measurements taken around the body was in good agreement with flat-plate results, but, apparently because of the slight surface wave caused by the body, the distribution of the boundary layer around the body was not uniform over part of the Reynolds number range.

  5. Reliability of candida skin test in the evaluation of T-cell function in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    2017-01-23

    Jan 23, 2017 ... considered generally reliable under the age of 1 year.6 ... We sought to investigate the reliability of manually ... Conclusion: Candida intradermal test is a cost- effective ..... Ballow M. Historical perspectives in the diagnosis.

  6. Evaluation of ear skin temperature as a cow-side test to predict postpartum calcium status in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venjakob, P L; Borchardt, S; Thiele, G; Heuwieser, W

    2016-08-01

    Subclinical hypocalcemia is considered a gateway disease that increases susceptibility to other metabolic and infectious diseases in transition dairy cows. In the absence of a cow-side test, however, it is difficult to identify hypocalcemic cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate ear skin temperature as a diagnostic predictor of serum calcium concentration. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 7 commercial dairy farms, involving 251 cows 0 to 48h after calving. Skin temperature of the ears (STEar) was scored manually by palpating both ears. An infrared thermometer was used to measure ear temperature, skin temperature on the coxal tuber (STCox), and ambient temperature. Rectal temperature was measured using a digital thermometer. A blood sample was drawn to determine serum calcium concentration. Hypocalcemia was defined as serum calcium below 2.0mmol/L, irrespective of clinical symptoms. Serum calcium concentration cows in first, second, third, and fourth or greater lactation, respectively. None of the cows in first and second lactation had clinical milk fever. The prevalence of clinical milk fever was 6.0 and 20.3% for cows in their third and fourth or greater lactation, respectively. A decrease in ear temperature of 0.39°C [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.25-0.54] was associated with a decrease of 0.1mmol/L in serum calcium concentration. Ambient temperature, however, was a major confounder for ear temperature. With an increase in ambient temperature of 1°C, STEar rose by 0.78°C (95% CI: 0.67-0.90). Hypothermia was more pronounced in clinical milk fever (median 21.8°C; interquartile range 14.7-27.0°C) compared with subclinical hypocalcemia (median 27.6°C, interquartile range 22.1-30.8°C). All temperature estimates had only accurate test characteristics based on their area under the curve for prediction of subclinical hypocalcemia (area under the curve for STEar, STCox, and rectal temperature were 0.641, 0.668, and 0.606, respectively) when cows

  7. Determination of N-acetylglucosamine in cosmetic formulations and skin test samples by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrali, Alice; Bleve, Mariella; Capra, Priscilla; Jonsson, Tobias; Massolini, Gabriella; Perugini, Paola; Marrubini, Giorgio

    2015-03-25

    N-Acetylglucosamine is an ingredient in pharmaceuticals, nutritional supplements and in cosmetics. N-Acetylglucosamine in cosmetics is expected to improve skin hydration, reparation, and to contribute as anti-wrinkle agent. This study reports on the validation and application of an HPLC method based on HILIC and UV detection for determining N-acetylglucosamine in cosmetics and in samples obtained after testing the skin exposed to cosmetics formulations. The chromatographic column used is a ZIC(®)-pHILIC (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm particle size) on which a mobile phase containing acetonitrile-aqueous KH2PO4 (70:30, v/v) 15 mM was applied in isocratic elution mode injecting 20 μl of sample at 0.5 ml/min constant flow-rate and 10±1°C column temperature. Under these conditions the total run time was 10 min and N-acetylglucosamine eluted baseline separated from all other compounds in the samples. Calibration in the range from 40 to 80 μg/ml allowed to assess the method linearity (R(2)>0.999) in a concentration range corresponding to about 50% to 120% of the expected levels of N-acetylglucosamine in the formulations. Precision expressed by RSD% was always better than 2% in intra-day and inter-day assays of authentic samples. Accuracy was in all cases within 95-105% of the expected concentration value in formulations containing N-acetylglucosamine. The sensitivity of the method was at the level of 10 μg/ml as limit of detection, and at 40 μg/ml as limit of quantitation. The application of the method to formulations containing solid lipid nanoparticles documents its usefulness in cosmetic quality control. The results witness that the method is also suitable for the determination of N-acetylglucosamine in samples obtained from skin test strips. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Highly adaptable triple-negative breast cancer cells as a functional model for testing anticancer agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balraj Singh

    Full Text Available A major obstacle in developing effective therapies against solid tumors stems from an inability to adequately model the rare subpopulation of panresistant cancer cells that may often drive the disease. We describe a strategy for optimally modeling highly abnormal and highly adaptable human triple-negative breast cancer cells, and evaluating therapies for their ability to eradicate such cells. To overcome the shortcomings often associated with cell culture models, we incorporated several features in our model including a selection of highly adaptable cancer cells based on their ability to survive a metabolic challenge. We have previously shown that metabolically adaptable cancer cells efficiently metastasize to multiple organs in nude mice. Here we show that the cancer cells modeled in our system feature an embryo-like gene expression and amplification of the fat mass and obesity associated gene FTO. We also provide evidence of upregulation of ZEB1 and downregulation of GRHL2 indicating increased epithelial to mesenchymal transition in metabolically adaptable cancer cells. Our results obtained with a variety of anticancer agents support the validity of the model of realistic panresistance and suggest that it could be used for developing anticancer agents that would overcome panresistance.

  9. Testing questionnaires “Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale” and “Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale” (short version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Grigorieva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Social anxiety has a negative impact on individual’s daily life and disturbs his or hers social adaptation. Socially anxious people are often lonely, have difficulties in meeting new people and communicating with others. Social anxiety can also be a serious obstacle to professional growth and career development, can interfere with obtaining new skills and knowledge. Severe social anxiety is often associated with a variety of disorders, including depression, alcohol and drug addiction, eating disorders. However, social anxiety has a high prevalence among population. In this regard, it is becoming increasingly important to diagnose social anxiety. Therefore, the aim of our study was the validation of two questionnaires measuring social anxiety “Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale“ and “Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale“. The validation was conducted on 179 people (65 men and 114 women, aged from 18 to 35 years. “Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale“ measures the degree of anxiety and a tendency to avoidance occurring in various social situations: situations of social interaction and performance situations. «Fear of negative evaluation (brief version» measures the central construct underlying social anxiety - the fear of negative evaluation. As a result of factor analysis of the data it is demonstrated, that “Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale“ has three-factor structure. Single-factor structure of the «Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale» is confirmed. It is shown that all the subscale “Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale“ and “Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (brief version“ has good internal consistency, high test-retest reliability and external validity.

  10. Longitudinal study of dogs living in an area of Spain highly endemic for leishmaniasis by serologic analysis and the leishmanin skin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Gallego, Laia; Llull, Joan; Ramis, Antonio; Fernández-Bellon, Hugo; Rodríguez, Alhelí; Ferrer, Lluís; Alberola, Jordi

    2005-06-01

    The literature contains few longitudinal studies that have assessed areas endemic for canine leishmaniasis and over the same time interval Leishmania-specific cellular and humoral immunity in healthy dogs. Fourteen dogs, three mixed breed and 11 Ibizian hounds, living in an area of Spain that was highly endemic for leishmaniasis were followed-up over a three-year period by serologic analysis and the leishmanin skin test (LST). All but one of these dogs remained clinically healthy during the study period. Seroconversion was observed in four dogs. The three mixed breed dogs had a negative reaction in the LST in the first and third years. The general trend in the Ibizian hounds was an increase in the diameter of the LST reaction at both the 48- and 72-hour readings in the third year. This study demonstrates that in addition to an increase in Leishmania-specific humoral immune response in Ibizian hounds, a parallel increase in cellular immune response was observed.

  11. Test stand for magnetron H negative ion source at IPP-Nagoya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, H; Kuroda, T; Miyahara, A

    1981-02-01

    Test facilities for the development of magnetron H(-) ion source consists of the vacuum system, power supplies, diagnostic equipment, and their controlling electronics. Schematics are presented and relevant items described including sequence control, optical links, the charged pulse forming network, the extractor power supply, magnet power supply, temperature control of the cesium feeder, and the pulsed valve driver. Noise problems and diagnostics are also considered.

  12. Effectiveness of the Comalli Stroop Test as a measure of negative response bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arentsen, Timothy J; Boone, Kyle Brauer; Lo, Tracy T Y; Goldberg, Hope E; Cottingham, Maria E; Victor, Tara L; Ziegler, Elizabeth; Zeller, Michelle A

    2013-01-01

    Practice guidelines recommend the use of multiple performance validity tests (PVTs) to detect noncredible performance during neuropsychological evaluations, and PVTs embedded in standard cognitive tests achieve this goal most efficiently. The present study examined the utility of the Comalli version of the Stroop Test as a measure of response bias in a large sample of "real world" noncredible patients (n = 129) as compared with credible neuropsychology clinic patients (n=233). The credible group performed significantly better than the noncredible group on all trials, but particularly on word-reading (Stroop A) and color-naming (Stroop B); cut-scores for Stroop A and Stroop B trials were associated with moderate sensitivity (49-53%) as compared to the low sensitivity found for the color interference trial (29%). Some types of diagnoses (including learning disability, severe traumatic brain injury, psychosis, and depression), very advanced age (⩾80), and lowered IQ were associated with increased rates of false positive identifications, suggesting the need for some adjustments to cut-offs in these subgroups. Despite some previous reports of an inverted Stroop effect (i.e., color-naming worse than color interference) in noncredible subjects, individual Stroop word reading and color naming trials were much more effective in identifying response bias.

  13. Determination of the axial and circumferential mechanical properties of the skin tissue using experimental testing and constitutive modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Haghighatnama, Maedeh; Haghi, Afsaneh Motevalli

    2015-01-01

    The skin, being a multi-layered material, is responsible for protecting the human body from the mechanical, bacterial, and viral insults. The skin tissue may display different mechanical properties according to the anatomical locations of a body. However, these mechanical properties in different anatomical regions and at different loading directions (axial and circumferential) of the mice body to date have not been determined. In this study, the axial and circumferential loads were imposed on the mice skin samples. The elastic modulus and maximum stress of the skin tissues were measured before the failure occurred. The nonlinear mechanical behavior of the skin tissues was also computationally investigated through a suitable constitutive equation. Hyperelastic material model was calibrated using the experimental data. Regardless of the anatomic locations of the mice body, the results revealed significantly different mechanical properties in the axial and circumferential directions and, consequently, the mice skin tissue behaves like a pure anisotropic material. The highest elastic modulus was observed in the back skin under the circumferential direction (6.67 MPa), while the lowest one was seen in the abdomen skin under circumferential loading (0.80 MPa). The Ogden material model was narrowly captured the nonlinear mechanical response of the skin at different loading directions. The results help to understand the isotropic/anisotropic mechanical behavior of the skin tissue at different anatomical locations. They also have implications for a diversity of disciplines, i.e., dermatology, cosmetics industry, clinical decision making, and clinical intervention.

  14. Test study on relation between thaw-collapse displacement of medium sand and negative friction of single pile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, G.; Yang, W. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). College of Architecture and Civil Engineering

    1999-11-01

    Based on simulation tests, the change of thaw-collapse displacement of saturated medium sand and the relation between negative friction of single pile and thaw-collapse displacement are investigated . In the separating ice and thawing stages, the relation between separating ice surface displacement of sample and time is similarly linear, but the displacement is too small in the redistribution stage of grains. Corresponding to these two stages, the displacement of sample grain framework surface can be divided into similarly linear and non-linear factions. The contribution of the non-linear section comes from grain redistribution after thawing. The negative friction of single pile shows good linear relation following the thawing process. But the producing and increasing mechanisms of negative friction are not the same in the two stages. During the stage of grain redistribution, the displacement of sample grain framework surface occupies only 9.7% of the total displacement, while the negative friction has increased by 18% or so. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  15. In Vitro Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Animal Nocardia Isolated from Field Cases of Skin Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Oyekunle

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available In vitro antimicrobial tests were carried out on strains of Nocardia isolated from field cases of cutaneous nocardiosis in farm animals. Results with the disc diffusion test showed the multiresistant nature of the isolates, but 23.81 and 21.43% were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and gentamycin, respectively. The MIC mode and range for oxytetracycline were 12.5 and 3.12–25 μg/ml, respectively, while those of erythromycin were 3.12 and 0.78–6.25 μg/ml, respectively.

  16. Catch-up validation study of an in vitro skin irritation test method based on an open source reconstructed epidermis (phase II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeber, F; Schober, L; Schmid, F F; Traube, A; Kolbus-Hernandez, S; Daton, K; Hoffmann, S; Petersohn, D; Schäfer-Korting, M; Walles, H; Mewes, K R

    2016-10-01

    To replace the Draize skin irritation assay (OECD guideline 404) several test methods based on reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) have been developed and were adopted in the OECD test guideline 439. However, all validated test methods in the guideline are linked to RHE provided by only three companies. Thus, the availability of these test models is dependent on the commercial interest of the producer. To overcome this limitation and thus to increase the accessibility of in vitro skin irritation testing, an open source reconstructed epidermis (OS-REp) was introduced. To demonstrate the capacity of the OS-REp in regulatory risk assessment, a catch-up validation study was performed. The participating laboratories used in-house generated OS-REp to assess the set of 20 reference substances according to the performance standards amending the OECD test guideline 439. Testing was performed under blinded conditions. The within-laboratory reproducibility of 87% and the inter-laboratory reproducibility of 85% prove a high reliability of irritancy testing using the OS-REp protocol. In addition, the prediction capacity was with an accuracy of 80% comparable to previous published RHE based test protocols. Taken together the results indicate that the OS-REp test method can be used as a standalone alternative skin irritation test replacing the OECD test guideline 404. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Smear grading and the Mantoux skin test can be used to predict sputum smear conversion in patients suffering from tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saffari, Mahmood

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Smear scores and induration sizes resulting from the PPD (tuberculin purified protein derivative test can serve as indicators of whether a patient suffering from tuberculosis shows smear conversion or not. Methods: Using microbiological methods smear and sputum tests, patients diagnosed as infected with between 2002 and 2015 were included in this study. All of the assumed factors that may have a role in smear conversion were studied, in addition to the prolongation of tuberculosis. Results: 398 of 512 patients fulfilled all the inclusion criteria and formed the basis of this study. 215 patients (54% were females and 183 (46% were males. The median age for both men and women was 36 years. We found a statistically significant difference between the size of induration resulting from the PPD skin test and the rate of non-conversion (=0.002. Further univariate analysis also showed that smear grading and an induration size of ≥10 mm were independently associated with delayed smear conversion. Patients with cavitary lesions showed a higher rate of non-conversion after two months, which was not significant. We could not find any association between some of the variables, such as age, sex, weight, smoking, alcoholism, addictions, respiratory diseases, diabetes mellitus, alternative anti-TB treatment, and smear conversion. Conclusion: Intensified treatment and precautions against transmission should be especially considered for TB patients with high smear grading and an induration size of more than 10 mm.

  18. Screening Test for Shed Skin Cells by Measuring the Ratio of Human DNA to Staphylococcus epidermidis DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Hiroaki; Ohmori, Takeshi; Hara, Masaaki; Takahashi, Shirushi; Kurosu, Akira; Takada, Aya; Saito, Kazuyuki

    2016-05-01

    A novel screening method for shed skin cells by detecting Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), which is a resident bacterium on skin, was developed. Staphylococcus epidermidis was detected using real-time PCR. Staphylococcus epidermidis was detected in all 20 human skin surface samples. Although not present in blood and urine samples, S. epidermidis was detected in 6 of 20 saliva samples, and 5 of 18 semen samples. The ratio of human DNA to S. epidermidisDNA was significantly smaller in human skin surface samples than in saliva and semen samples in which S. epidermidis was detected. Therefore, although skin cells could not be identified by detecting only S. epidermidis, they could be distinguished by measuring the S. epidermidis to human DNA ratio. This method could be applied to casework touch samples, which suggests that it is useful for screening whether skin cells and human DNA are present on potential evidentiary touch samples. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Diagnostic efficacy of in vitro methods vs. skin testing in patients with inhalant allergies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corey, J.P.; Liudahl, J.J.; Young, S.A.; Rodman, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the diagnostic efficacy of two selected methods of in vitro allergy testing. Specifically, the PRIST/modified RAST I125 isotope systems and the Quantizyme/modified EAST alkaline phosphatase method were compared. The time, expense, convenience, and diagnostic efficacy of the two procedures are discussed. Special attention is given to the practicality of each method for the practicing physician

  20. Evaluation of the β-CARBA™ test, a colorimetric test for the rapid detection of carbapenemase activity in Gram-negative bacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabeu, Sandrine; Dortet, Laurent; Naas, Thierry

    2017-06-01

    There is an urgent need for accurate and fast diagnostic tests to identify carbapenemase-producing bacteria. Here, we have evaluated a novel colorimetric test (the β-CARBA™ test; Bio-Rad) to detect carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli from cultured colonies. The performance of the β-CARBA™ test was compared with that of the Carba NP test (or the CarbAcineto NP test) and RAPIDEC ® CARBA NP (bioMérieux) using a collection of 290 isolates with characterized β-lactamase content. This collection included 199 carbapenemase producers (121 Enterobacteriaceae, 36 Pseudomonas and 42 Acinetobacter baumannii ) and 91 non-carbapenemase producers (55 Enterobacteriaceae, 20 Pseudomonas and 16 A. baumannii ). The β-CARBA™ test correctly detected 84.9% of the carbapenemase producers, including all KPC and IMP, 96.4% of VIM, 85.3% of NDM, 80.5% of OXA-48-like and 91.2% of A. baumannii -related OXA carbapenemases (OXA-23, OXA-40, OXA-58, OXA-143 and overexpressed OXA-51). All rare metallo-β-lactamases (SPM, AIM, GIM, DIM and SIM) were detected. Importantly, all non-KPC Ambler class A carbapenemases were not detected, including GES variants with carbapenemase activity ( n  = 6), IMI ( n  = 3), NMC-A ( n  = 1), SME ( n  = 2), FRI-1 ( n  = 1) and BIC-1 ( n  = 1). All non-carbapenemase producers gave a negative result except with OXA-163-, OXA-405- and one TEM-3-producing Citrobacter freundii . The overall sensitivity and specificity of the β-CARBA™ test were 84.9% and 95.6%, respectively. This test is easy to perform and to interpret by non-specialized staff members. Despite lack of specificity towards non-KPC Ambler class A and OXA-48-like carbapenemases, the β-CARBA™ test could complete the existing panel of tests available for the confirmation of carbapenemases in Gram-negatives. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For

  1. Skin tests of pollen grains of taxodiaceae and cupressaceae in children with bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midoro-Horiuti, T; Nouno, S; Seino, Y

    1992-10-01

    Atmospheric cedar pollen in the southern region of Okayama Prefecture (situated in south-western Japan) has been counted since 1988. Pollen of different species of the Taxodiaceae family (Cryptomeria japonica, Sequoia sempervirens and Metasequoia glyptostroboides) and Japanese juniper (Juniperus rigida) in the Cupressaceae family, which are propagated mainly in the southern region of Okayama Prefecture, were found among the atmospheric pollen. Scratch tests using the pollen extract from Taxodiaceae and Cupressaceae were performed on children with bronchial asthma. Forty (25%) and 30 (18.8%) of the 160 patients reacted positively to an allergen extract from the pollen grains of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and Japanese juniper, respectively.

  2. Standard Test Method for Measuring Heat Transfer Rate Using a Thin-Skin Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the design and use of a thin metallic calorimeter for measuring heat transfer rate (also called heat flux). Thermocouples are attached to the unexposed surface of the calorimeter. A one-dimensional heat flow analysis is used for calculating the heat transfer rate from the temperature measurements. Applications include aerodynamic heating, laser and radiation power measurements, and fire safety testing. 1.2 Advantages 1.2.1 Simplicity of ConstructionThe calorimeter may be constructed from a number of materials. The size and shape can often be made to match the actual application. Thermocouples may be attached to the metal by spot, electron beam, or laser welding. 1.2.2 Heat transfer rate distributions may be obtained if metals with low thermal conductivity, such as some stainless steels, are used. 1.2.3 The calorimeters can be fabricated with smooth surfaces, without insulators or plugs and the attendant temperature discontinuities, to provide more realistic flow conditions for ...

  3. Tomography feasibility study on the optical emission spectroscopy diagnostic for the negative ion source of the ELISE test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonomo, F; Agostini, M; Brombin, M; Pasqualotto, R; Fantz, U; Franzen, P; Wünderlich, D

    2014-01-01

    A feasibility study of a spectroscopic tomographic diagnostic for the emissivity reconstruction of the plasma parameters in the large negative ion source of the test facility ELISE is described. Tomographic tools are developed to be applied to the measurements of the ELISE optical emission spectroscopy (OES) diagnostic, in order to reconstruct the emissivity distribution from hydrogen (or deuterium) plasma close to the plasma grid, where negative ions are produced and extracted to be accelerated. Various emissivity phantoms, both symmetric and asymmetric, reproducing different plasma experimental conditions have been simulated to test the tomographic algorithm. The simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique has been applied, accounting for the OES geometrical layout together with a suitable pixel representation. Even with a limited number of 14 lines of sight (LoSs), the plasma emissivity distribution expected on the ELISE source can be successfully reconstructed. In particular, asymmetries in the emissivity pattern can be detected and reproduced with low errors. A systematic investigation of different geometrical layouts of the LoSs as well as of the pixel arrangements has been carried out, and a final configuration has been identified. Noise on the simulated experimental spectroscopic measurements has been tested, confirming the reliability of the adopted tomographic tools for the plasma emissivity reconstructions of the source plasma in ELISE with the actual OES diagnostic system. (paper)

  4. Skin Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  5. Langerin negative dendritic cells promote potent CD8+ T-cell priming by skin delivery of live adenovirus vaccine microneedle arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachy, Veronique; Hervouet, Catherine; Becker, Pablo D; Chorro, Laurent; Carlin, Leo M; Herath, Shanthi; Papagatsias, Timos; Barbaroux, Jean-Baptiste; Oh, Sea-Jin; Benlahrech, Adel; Athanasopoulos, Takis; Dickson, George; Patterson, Steven; Kwon, Sung-Yun; Geissmann, Frederic; Klavinskis, Linda S

    2013-02-19

    Stabilization of virus protein structure and nucleic acid integrity is challenging yet essential to preserve the transcriptional competence of live recombinant viral vaccine vectors in the absence of a cold chain. When coupled with needle-free skin delivery, such a platform would address an unmet need in global vaccine coverage against HIV and other global pathogens. Herein, we show that a simple dissolvable microneedle array (MA) delivery system preserves the immunogenicity of vaccines encoded by live recombinant human adenovirus type 5 (rAdHu5). Specifically, dried rAdHu5 MA immunization induced CD8(+) T-cell expansion and multifunctional cytokine responses equipotent with conventional injectable routes of immunization. Intravital imaging demonstrated MA cargo distributed both in the epidermis and dermis, with acquisition by CD11c(+) dendritic cells (DCs) in the dermis. The MA immunizing properties were attributable to CD11c(+) MHCII(hi) CD8α(neg) epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM(neg)) CD11b(+) langerin (Lang; CD207)(neg) DCs, but neither Langerhans cells nor Lang(+) DCs were required for CD8(+) T-cell priming. This study demonstrates an important technical advance for viral vaccine vectors progressing to the clinic and provides insights into the mechanism of CD8(+) T-cell priming by live rAdHu5 MAs.

  6. Evaluation of the skin phototoxicity and photosensitivity of honeybee venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang Mi; Hong, In Phyo; Woo, Soon Ok; Kim, Se Gun; Jang, He Rye; Park, Kwan Kyu

    2017-12-01

    Bee (Apis mellifera L.) venom (BV) has been used as a cosmetic ingredient owing to its anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial effects. The aim of this study was to assess the skin safety of BV. For this purpose, skin phototoxicity and sensitization tests were conducted in healthy male Hartley guinea pigs. The animals were divided into three groups (n=5) for the phototoxicity test: G1 (negative control), G2 (BV gel treatment), and G3 (positive control). After specified treatments, the animals were irradiated with ultraviolet A (15 J/cm 2 ). The photosensitivity test was also performed in three groups: G4 (negative control, n=5), G5 (BV gel treatment, n=10), and G6 (positive control, n=5). Erythema and edema were observed after 24, 48, and 72 hours in the positive control group, but not in the negative control and BV gel groups. Application of BV to the guinea pig skin had no toxic effects on any clinical signs, body weight, or mortality. In addition, it did not evoke a skin reaction in both either the skin phototoxicity and skin photosensitization tests. Therefore, it can be concluded that BV has the potential to be developed as a drug ingredient for topical uses. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Evaluation of the frequency of food allergens based on skin prick test in children in Kurdistan Province - Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmarzi, R; Ataee, P; Homagostar, Gh; Tagik, M; Ghaderi, E; Kooti, W

    Food allergy refers to abnormal reactions of the body caused by an immune system response to food. This study was conducted aiming to investigate allergy to food allergens in children with food allergies. This study was conducted as a cross-sectional one on 304 children aged six months to seven years with food allergies admitted to the tertiary referral hospital in Kurdistan Province - Iran, during 2014-2015. All the patients were examined for skin prick test using 49 allergens. Finally, the obtained data were analysed using SPSS15 and chi-square and t tests. The highest percentage of occurrence of bump reaction (wheal) and redness (flare) was due to the consumption of fish, eggs, tomatoes, and cocoa. Moreover, the lowest rate of wheal and flare was caused by exposure to allergens like latex, tea, malt, and wheat flour. The reaction most created due to the consumption of foods was flare which was higher among under three-year-olds group (p<0.05), and between the sexes, girls showed the most common allergic reactions (p<0.05). Since food allergy has a high prevalence in children, it should be considered with great interest. Considering that avoiding food allergens is the first step in the treatment of food allergies, the present study may be a useful guide in this regard. Copyright © 2017 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. The value of counting BCG scars for interpretation of tuberculin skin tests in a tuberculosis hyperendemic shanty-town, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, M.; Bautista, C. T.; Gilman, R. H.; Bowering, A.; Levy, M. Z.; Evans, C. A.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY SETTING The tuberculin skin test (TST) is widely used as a diagnostic or screening test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease. A peri-urban shanty-town in the desert hills of south Lima, Peru, highly endemic for tuberculosis, and where bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine had been given in multiple doses until 1995. OBJECTIVE To analyze the effect of multiple BCG vaccines on TST in a community-based setting. DESIGN Point-prevalence survey of TST reactions of 572 people aged 6–26 years from 255 households. TST reactions were compared to the observed number of BCG scars and other potential risk factors (age, living with a TST-positive person, and contact with active tuberculosis). RESULT People with two or more scars had significantly larger reactions, even after adjusting for potential risk factors. The adjusted population attributable fraction of being TST-positive and having two or more BCG scars was 26%. CONCLUSION There is no demonstrated benefit of repeat BCG vaccination. We therefore recommend that physicians take into consideration the number of BCG scars when interpreting the TST and that programs give no more than one BCG vaccination. PMID:15260275

  9. Randomized Clinical Trial of the Innovative Bilayered Wound Dressing Made of Silk and Gelatin: Safety and Efficacy Tests Using a Split-Thickness Skin Graft Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasatsri, Sukhontha; Angspatt, Apichai

    2015-01-01

    We developed the novel silk fibroin-based bilayered wound dressing for the treatment of partial thickness wounds. And it showed relevant characteristics and accelerated the healing of full-thickness wounds in a rat model. This study is the clinical evaluation of the bilayered wound dressing to confirm its safety and efficacy for the treatment of split-thickness skin donor sites. The safety test was performed using a patch model and no evidence of marked and severe cutaneous reactions was found. The efficacy test of the bilayered wound dressing was conducted on 23 patients with 30 split-thickness skin graft donor sites to evaluate healing time, pain score, skin barrier function, and systemic reaction in comparison to Bactigras. We found that the healing time of donor site wounds treated with the bilayered wound dressing (11 ± 6 days) was significantly faster than those treated with Bactigras (14 ± 6 days) (p = 10−6). The wound sites treated with the bilayered wound dressing showed significantly less pain and more rapid skin functional barrier recovery than those treated with Bactigras (p = 10−5). Therefore, these results confirmed the clinical safety and efficacy of the bilayered wound dressing for the treatment of split-thickness skin graft donor sites. PMID:26221170

  10. Bovine Tuberculosis in Cattle in the Highlands of Cameroon: Seroprevalence Estimates and Rates of Tuberculin Skin Test Reactors at Modified Cut-Offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Awah-Ndukum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain epidemiological estimates of bovine tuberculosis (TB prevalence in cattle in the highlands of Cameroon using two population-based tuberculin skin test (TST surveys in the years 2009 and 2010. However, prior to the TST survey in 2010, blood was collected from already chosen cattle for serological assay. Anti-bovine TB antibodies was detected in 37.17% of tested animals and bovine TB prevalence estimates were 3.59%–7.48%, 8.92%–13.25%, 11.77%–17.26% and 13.14%–18.35% for comparative TST at ≥4 mm, ≥3 mm and ≥2 mm cut-off points and single TST, respectively. The agreement between TST and lateral flow was generally higher in TST positive than in TST negative subjects. The K coefficients were 0.119, 0.234, 0.251 and 0.254 for comparative TST at ≥4 mm, ≥3 mm and ≥2 mm cut-off points and the single TST groups, respectively. Chi square statistics revealed that strong (P48 associations existed between seroprevalence rates and TST reactors. The study suggested that using lateral flow assay and TST at severe interpretations could improve the perception of bovine TB in Cameroon. The importance of defining TST at modified cut-offs and disease status by post-mortem detection and mycobacterial culture of TB lesions in local environments cannot be overemphasised.

  11. A genomic biomarker signature can predict skin sensitizers using a cell-based in vitro alternative to animal tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrekt Ann-Sofie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergic contact dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease that affects a significant proportion of the population. This disease is caused by an adverse immune response towards chemical haptens, and leads to a substantial economic burden for society. Current test of sensitizing chemicals rely on animal experimentation. New legislations on the registration and use of chemicals within pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries have stimulated significant research efforts to develop alternative, human cell-based assays for the prediction of sensitization. The aim is to replace animal experiments with in vitro tests displaying a higher predictive power. Results We have developed a novel cell-based assay for the prediction of sensitizing chemicals. By analyzing the transcriptome of the human cell line MUTZ-3 after 24 h stimulation, using 20 different sensitizing chemicals, 20 non-sensitizing chemicals and vehicle controls, we have identified a biomarker signature of 200 genes with potent discriminatory ability. Using a Support Vector Machine for supervised classification, the prediction performance of the assay revealed an area under the ROC curve of 0.98. In addition, categorizing the chemicals according to the LLNA assay, this gene signature could also predict sensitizing potency. The identified markers are involved in biological pathways with immunological relevant functions, which can shed light on the process of human sensitization. Conclusions A gene signature predicting sensitization, using a human cell line in vitro, has been identified. This simple and robust cell-based assay has the potential to completely replace or drastically reduce the utilization of test systems based on experimental animals. Being based on human biology, the assay is proposed to be more accurate for predicting sensitization in humans, than the traditional animal-based tests.

  12. A genomic biomarker signature can predict skin sensitizers using a cell-based in vitro alternative to animal tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Allergic contact dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease that affects a significant proportion of the population. This disease is caused by an adverse immune response towards chemical haptens, and leads to a substantial economic burden for society. Current test of sensitizing chemicals rely on animal experimentation. New legislations on the registration and use of chemicals within pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries have stimulated significant research efforts to develop alternative, human cell-based assays for the prediction of sensitization. The aim is to replace animal experiments with in vitro tests displaying a higher predictive power. Results We have developed a novel cell-based assay for the prediction of sensitizing chemicals. By analyzing the transcriptome of the human cell line MUTZ-3 after 24 h stimulation, using 20 different sensitizing chemicals, 20 non-sensitizing chemicals and vehicle controls, we have identified a biomarker signature of 200 genes with potent discriminatory ability. Using a Support Vector Machine for supervised classification, the prediction performance of the assay revealed an area under the ROC curve of 0.98. In addition, categorizing the chemicals according to the LLNA assay, this gene signature could also predict sensitizing potency. The identified markers are involved in biological pathways with immunological relevant functions, which can shed light on the process of human sensitization. Conclusions A gene signature predicting sensitization, using a human cell line in vitro, has been identified. This simple and robust cell-based assay has the potential to completely replace or drastically reduce the utilization of test systems based on experimental animals. Being based on human biology, the assay is proposed to be more accurate for predicting sensitization in humans, than the traditional animal-based tests. PMID:21824406

  13. Skin abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abscess - skin; Cutaneous abscess; Subcutaneous abscess; MRSA - abscess; Staph infection - abscess ... Skin abscesses are common and affect people of all ages. They occur when an infection causes pus ...

  14. Testing predictive models of positive and negative affect with psychosocial, acculturation, and coping variables in a multiethnic undergraduate sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ben Ch; Kwantes, Catherine T

    2014-01-01

    Despite the prevalence and popularity of research on positive and negative affect within the field of psychology, there is currently little research on affect involving the examination of cultural variables and with participants of diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds. To the authors' knowledge, currently no empirical studies have comprehensively examined predictive models of positive and negative affect based specifically on multiple psychosocial, acculturation, and coping variables as predictors with any sample populations. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to test the predictive power of perceived stress, social support, bidirectional acculturation (i.e., Canadian acculturation and heritage acculturation), religious coping and cultural coping (i.e., collective, avoidance, and engagement coping) in explaining positive and negative affect in a multiethnic sample of 301 undergraduate students in Canada. Two hierarchal multiple regressions were conducted, one for each affect as the dependent variable, with the above described predictors. The results supported the hypotheses and showed the two overall models to be significant in predicting affect of both kinds. Specifically, a higher level of positive affect was predicted by a lower level of perceived stress, less use of religious coping, and more use of engagement coping in dealing with stress by the participants. Higher level of negative affect, however, was predicted by a higher level of perceived stress and more use of avoidance coping in responding to stress. The current findings highlight the value and relevance of empirically examining the stress-coping-adaptation experiences of diverse populations from an affective conceptual framework, particularly with the inclusion of positive affect. Implications and recommendations for advancing future research and theoretical works in this area are considered and presented.

  15. Filling the concept with data: integrating data from different in vitro and in silico assays on skin sensitizers to explore the battery approach for animal-free skin sensitization testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsch, Andreas; Emter, Roger; Ellis, Graham

    2009-01-01

    Tests for skin sensitization are required prior to the market launch of new cosmetic ingredients. Significant efforts are made to replace the current animal tests. It is widely recognized that this cannot be accomplished with a single in vitro test, but that rather the integration of results from different in vitro and in silico assays will be needed for the prediction of the skin sensitization potential of chemicals. This has been proposed as a theoretical scheme so far, but no attempts have been made to use experimental data to prove the validity of this concept. Here we thus try for the first time to fill this widely cited concept with data. To this aim, we integrate and report both novel and literature data on 116 chemicals of known skin sensitization potential on the following parameters: (1) peptide reactivity as a surrogate for protein binding, (2) induction of antioxidant/electrophile responsive element dependent luciferase activity as a cell-based assay; (3) Tissue Metabolism Simulator skin sensitization model in silico prediction; and (4) calculated octanol-water partition coefficient. The results of the in vitro assays were scaled into five classes from 0 to 4 to give an in vitro score and compared to the local lymph node assay (LLNA) data, which were also scaled from 0 to 4 (nonsensitizer/weak/moderate/strong/extreme). Different ways of evaluating these data have been assessed to rate the hazard of chemicals (Cooper statistics) and to also scale their potency. With the optimized model an overall accuracy for predicting sensitizers of 87.9% was obtained. There is a linear correlation between the LLNA score and the in vitro score. However, the correlation needs further improvement as there is still a relatively high variation in the in vitro score between chemicals belonging to the same sensitization potency class.

  16. Specificity of the Tuberculin Skin Test and the T-SPOT."TB" Assay among Students in a Low-Tuberculosis Incidence Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Elizabeth A.; Harland, Dawn; Wieland-Alter, Wendy; Burrer, Sherry; Adams, Lisa V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Interferon-[gamma] release assays (IGRAs) are an important tool for detecting latent "Mycobacterium tuberculosis" infection (LTBI). Insufficient data exist about IGRA specificity in college health centers, most of which screen students for LTBI using the tuberculin skin test (TST). Participants: Students at a low-TB incidence college…

  17. Effect of Several Negative Rounds of Human Papillomavirus and Cytology Co-testing on Safety Against Cervical Cancer: An Observational Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Philip E; Kinney, Walter K; Xue, Xiaonan; Cheung, Li C; Gage, Julia C; Zhao, Fang-Hui; Fetterman, Barbara; Poitras, Nancy E; Lorey, Thomas S; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Katki, Hormuzd A; Schiffman, Mark

    2018-01-02

    Current U.S. cervical cancer screening and management guidelines do not consider previous screening history, because data on multiple-round human papillomavirus (HPV) and cytology "co-testing" have been unavailable. To measure cervical cancer risk in routine practice after successive negative screening co-tests at 3-year intervals. Observational cohort study. Integrated health care system (Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, California). 990 013 women who had 1 or more co-tests from 2003 to 2014. 3- and 5-year cumulative detection of (risk for) cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3, adenocarcinoma in situ, and cervical cancer (≥CIN3) in women with different numbers of negative co-tests, overall and within subgroups defined by previous co-test results or baseline age. Five-year ≥CIN3 risks decreased after each successive negative co-test screening round (0.098%, 0.052%, and 0.035%). Five-year ≥CIN3 risks for an HPV-negative co-test, regardless of the cytology result, nearly matched the performance (reassurance) of a negative co-test for each successive round of screening (0.114%, 0.061%, and 0.041%). By comparison, ≥CIN3 risks for the cytology-negative co-test, regardless of the HPV result, also decreased with each successive round, but 3-year risks were as high as 5-year risks after an HPV-negative co-test (0.199%, 0.065%, and 0.043%). No interval cervical cancer cases were diagnosed after the second negative co-test. Independently, ≥CIN3 risks decreased with age. Length of previous screening interval did not influence future ≥CIN3 risks. Interval-censored observational data. After 1 or more negative cervical co-tests (or HPV tests), longer screening intervals (every 5 years or more) might be feasible and safe. National Cancer Institute Intramural Research Program.

  18. Extent and effects of recurrent shortages of purified-protein derivative tuberculin skin test antigen solutions - United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    Two purified-protein derivative (PPD) tuberculin skin test (TST) antigen solutions are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA): Tubersol (Sanofi Pasteur Limited) and Aplisol (JHP Pharmaceuticals, LLC). Tubersol was out of production in late 2012 through April 2013. Shortages of Aplisol have resulted from increased demand as practitioners have sought a substitute for Tubersol. Tubersol production resumed in May 2013, and supplies had been nearly restored by early June. However, in mid-July, state tuberculosis (TB) control officials notified CDC of difficulty obtaining Tubersol and Aplisol. Sanofi Pasteur notified FDA of a temporary delay in the availability of tuberculin in the 10-dose and 50-dose presentations. In mid-October, the 10-dose presentation was being returned to market, on allocation, which means that historical purchasing practices determine the amount that customers are allotted. In late October, the 50-dose presentation was being returned to market, also on allocation, one vial per historical customer per month. Supplies are forecast to approach normal during January 2014, after distributors have restored their supply chains. A compensatory surge in testing after deferment of testing during the periods of shortage might cause further temporary instability of supplies. In mid-August 2013, officials in 29 of 52 U.S. jurisdictions noted a shortage of at least one PPD TST antigen solution in health departments to the extent that it interrupted activities. This report includes a summary of the extent and effects of the shortages and a reiteration of advice on how to adapt to them.

  19. Reduction of residual stresses in internal skin of transient zones of PWR steam generator expanded tubes: tests with a ''rotating brush''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, P.

    1984-04-01

    A process aiming at preventing or suppressing cracks under stress corrosion on the primary side in the expanded zones of PWR steam generator tubes has been studied; it consists in hammering the internal skin of tubes in these zones what reduces the level of residual expanding stresses to lower values around 100-150 MPa without modifying the stress level in external skin. Tests in magnesium chloride to estimate the residual stresses of tubes in low carbon stainless austenitic steel 18% Cr-12% Ni with molybdene [fr

  20. IgE Sensitization Patterns to Commonly Consumed Foods Determined by Skin Prick Test in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Ryeol; Park, Hye Jung; Park, Kyung Hee; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Park, Jung-Won

    2016-08-01

    Offending food allergens can vary with regional preferences in food consumption. In this study, we analysed sensitization rates to commonly consumed foods in Korean adults suspected of having food allergy. One hundred and thirty four subjects underwent a skin prick test (SPT) with 55 food allergens, of which 13 were made by our laboratory and the rest were commercially purchased. Of the 134 patients, 73 (54.5%) were sensitized to one or more food allergens. Sensitization to chrysalis was detected most frequently, at a rate of 25.4%. Sensitization rates to other food allergens were as follows: maize grain (13.4%), shrimp (11.9%), almond (11.1%), wheat flour (8.2%), lobster (8.2%), buckwheat (8.2%), mackerel (5.2%), pollack (5.2%), halibut (4.5%), peanut (4.5%), anchovy (4.4%), squid (3.7%), saury (3.0%), common eel (3.0%), yellow corvina (3.0%), hairtail (2.2%), octopus (2.2%), and others. In addition to well-known food allergens, sensitivity to mackerel, chrysalis, pollack, and halibut, which are popular foods in Korea, was observed at high rates in Korean adults. We suggest that the SPT panel for food allergy in Korea should include these allergens.

  1. Point-of-care Beta-lactam Allergy Skin Testing by Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs: A Pragmatic Multicenter Prospective Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leis, Jerome A; Palmay, Lesley; Ho, Grace; Raybardhan, Sumit; Gill, Suzanne; Kan, Tiffany; Campbell, Jackie; Kiss, Alex; McCready, Janine B; Das, Pavani; Minnema, Brian; Powis, Jeff E; Walker, Sandra A N; Ferguson, Heather; Wong, Benny; Weber, Elizabeth

    2017-06-01

    Beta-lactam allergy skin testing (BLAST) is recommended by antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) guidelines, yet few studies have systematically evaluated its impact when delivered at point-of-care. We conducted a pragmatic multicenter prospective evaluation of the use of point-of-care BLAST by ASPs. In staggered 3-month intervals, ASP teams at three hospitals received training by allergists to offer BLAST for eligible patients with infectious diseases receiving non-preferred beta-lactam therapy due to severity of their allergy. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients receiving the preferred beta-lactam therapy. Of 827 patients with reported beta-lactam allergy over 15-months, beta-lactam therapy was preferred among 632(76%). During baseline periods, 50% (124/246) received preferred beta-lactam therapy based on history, compared with 60% (232/386) during the intervention periods (p=0.02), which improved further to 81% (313/386) upon provision of BLAST (pcare across three hospital ASPs resulted in greater use of preferred beta-lactam therapy without increasing the risk of adverse drug reactions. Longer term studies are needed to better assess the safety and clinical impact of this ASP intervention. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. IgE Sensitization Patterns to Commonly Consumed Foods Determined by Skin Prick Test in Korean Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Offending food allergens can vary with regional preferences in food consumption. In this study, we analysed sensitization rates to commonly consumed foods in Korean adults suspected of having food allergy. One hundred and thirty four subjects underwent a skin prick test (SPT) with 55 food allergens, of which 13 were made by our laboratory and the rest were commercially purchased. Of the 134 patients, 73 (54.5%) were sensitized to one or more food allergens. Sensitization to chrysalis was detected most frequently, at a rate of 25.4%. Sensitization rates to other food allergens were as follows: maize grain (13.4%), shrimp (11.9%), almond (11.1%), wheat flour (8.2%), lobster (8.2%), buckwheat (8.2%), mackerel (5.2%), pollack (5.2%), halibut (4.5%), peanut (4.5%), anchovy (4.4%), squid (3.7%), saury (3.0%), common eel (3.0%), yellow corvina (3.0%), hairtail (2.2%), octopus (2.2%), and others. In addition to well-known food allergens, sensitivity to mackerel, chrysalis, pollack, and halibut, which are popular foods in Korea, was observed at high rates in Korean adults. We suggest that the SPT panel for food allergy in Korea should include these allergens. PMID:27478328

  3. Tuberculin Skin Test and Quantiferon in BCG Vaccinated, Immunosuppressed Patients with Moderate-to-Severe Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurti, Zsuzsanna; Lovasz, Barbara Dorottya; Gecse, Krisztina Barbara; Balint, Anita; Farkas, Klaudia; Morocza-Szabo, Agnes; Gyurcsanyi, Andras; Kristof, Katalin; Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Gonczi, Lorant; Kiss, Lajos Sandor; Golovics, Petra Anna; Lakatos, Laszlo; Molnar, Tamas; Lakatos, Peter Laszlo

    2015-12-01

    There are few data available on the effect of immunomodulator/biological therapy on the accuracy of the tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) in BCG-vaccinated immunosuppressed patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Our aim was to define the accuracy, predictors and agreement of TST and IGRA in a BCG-vaccinated immunosuppressed referral IBD cohort. 166 consecutive moderate-to-severe IBD patients (122 Crohn's disease, CD and 44 ulcerative colitis, UC) were enrolled in a prospective study from three centers. Patients were treated with immunosuppressives and/or biologicals. IGRA and TST were performed on the same day. Both in- and outpatient records were collected and comprehensively reviewed. TST positivity rate was 23.5%, 21.1%,14.5% and 13.9% when cut-off values of 5, 10, 15 and 20mm were used. IGRA positivity rate was 8.4% with indeterminate result in 0.6%. Chest X-ray was suggestive of latent tuberculosis in 2 patients. Correlation between TST and IGRA was moderate (kappa: 0.39-0.41, p15mm) should be considered to identify patients at risk for latent TB. Accuracy is satisfactory in BCG-vaccinated, immunosuppressed IBD patients. Smoking is a risk factor for TST positivity.

  4. Characterization and diagnostic evaluation of chronic polyneuropathies induced by oxaliplatin and docetaxel comparing skin biopsy to quantitative sensory testing and nerve conduction studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigård, T; Schrøder, H D; Qvortrup, C

    2014-01-01

    was to characterize the neuropathies with regard to symptoms, neurological signs and objective evidence of damage to the structure and function of the peripheral nerves. Furthermore, the diagnostic values of skin biopsy, quantitative sensory testing (QST) and nerve conduction studies (NCS) were compared. METHODS......: Patients complaining of neuropathy symptoms at least 3 months after completion of treatment with oxaliplatin (n = 20) or docetaxel (n = 20) were recruited from the Department of Oncology or using hospital records. Neuropathy scores were determined along with the intraepidermal nerve fibre density in skin....... Mechanical detection threshold was most often affected in the QST. NCS, QTS and skin biopsy were abnormal in 11, 13 and 17 and 7, 11 and 15 of the oxaliplatin-treated patients and docetaxel-treated patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy after oxaliplatin or docetaxel...

  5. Water spray-induced grooming is negatively correlated with depressive behavior in the forced swimming test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Noboru; Narikiyo, Kimiya; Masuda, Akira; Aou, Shuji

    2016-05-01

    Rodents show grooming, a typical self-care behavior, under stress and non-stress conditions. Previous studies revealed that grooming under stress conditions such as the open-field test (OFT) or the elevated plus-maze test (EPM) is associated with anxiety, but the roles of grooming under non-stress conditions are not well understood. Here, we examined spray-induced grooming as a model of grooming under a non-stress condition to investigate the relationship between this grooming and depression-like behavior in the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test, and we compared spray-induced grooming with OFT- and EPM-induced grooming. The main finding was that the duration of spray-induced grooming, but not that of OFT/EPM-induced grooming, was negatively correlated with the duration of immobility in the FST, an index of depression-like behavior. The results suggest that spray-induced grooming is functionally different from the grooming in the OFT and EPM and is related to reduction of depressive behavior.

  6. [The role of a single PCA3 test before a first negative prostate biopsy: 5-year follow-up].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardeau, S; Charles, T; Fromont-Hankard, G; Irani, J

    2017-04-01

    We report a 5-year follow-up of a cohort of patients who underwent a first prostate biopsy following a prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) test. We reviewed consecutive patients who had in 2008 a single urinary PCA3 test using the Gen-Probe ® assay before a first prostate biopsy for a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) between 3 and 20ng/mL and/or a suspicious digital rectal examination. PCA3 performances were analyzed in 2008 and then in 2013 after taking into account the results of repeat biopsies. At initial biopsy in 2008, among the 125 patients study cohort, prostate cancer was diagnosed in 47 patients (37.6%). Abnormal digital rectal exam, PSA density, prostate volume and PCA3 score were significantly associated with prostate cancer diagnosis. PCA3 area under the curve of the receiver operating curve was 0.67 [95%CI: 0.57-0.76] with an optimal threshold of PCA3 in this sample of 24 units. During the 5-year follow-up, among the 78 patients with a negative prostate biopsy in 2008, 23 (29.5%) had a repeat prostate biopsy of whom 14 were diagnosed with prostate cancer. PCA3 score measured in 2008 was associated with prostate cancer diagnosis (P=0.002). All 9 patients with a negative repeat prostate biopsy had a PCA3 score below the cut-off while this was the case in only 2 patients among the 14 with a positive repeat prostate biopsy. The results of a single PCA3 test before a first prostate biopsy seems to be a useful aid in deciding whether to perform a repeat biopsy. 4. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube as a Confirmatory Test for Tuberculin Skin Test in Tuberculosis Contact Tracing: A Noninferiority Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Laura; Santin, Miguel; Alcaide, Fernando; Ruíz-Serrano, Maria Jesús; Gijón, Paloma; Bermúdez, Elena; Domínguez-Castellano, Angel; Navarro, María Dolores; Ramírez, Encarnación; Pérez-Escolano, Elvira; López-Prieto, María Dolores; Gutiérrez-Rodriguez, José; Anibarro, Luis; Calviño, Laura; Trigo, Matilde; Cifuentes, Carmen; García-Gasalla, Mercedes; Payeras, Antoni; Gasch, Oriol; Espasa, Mateu; Agüero, Ramon; Ferrer, Diego; Casas, Xavier; González-Cuevas, Araceli; García-Zamalloa, Alberto; Bikuña, Edurne; Lecuona, María; Galindo, Rosa; Ramírez-Lapausa, Marta; Carrillo, Raquel

    2018-01-18

    Screening strategies based on interferon-γ release assays in tuberculosis contact tracing may reduce the need for preventive therapy without increasing subsequent active disease. We conducted an open-label, randomized trial to test the noninferiority of a 2-step strategy with the tuberculin skin test (TST) followed by QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) as a confirmatory test (the TST/QFT arm) to the standard TST-alone strategy (TST arm) for targeting preventive therapy in household contacts of patients with tuberculosis. Participants were followed for 24 months after randomization. The primary endpoint was the development of tuberculosis, with a noninferiority margin of 1.5 percentage points. A total of 871 contacts were randomized. Four contacts in the TST arm and 2 in the TST/QFT arm developed tuberculosis. In the modified intention-to-treat analysis, this accounted for 0.99% in the TST arm and 0.51% in the TST/QFT arm (-0.48% difference; 97.5% confidence interval [CI], -1.86% to 0.90%); in the per-protocol analysis, the corresponding rates were 1.67% and 0.82% in the TST and TST/QFT arms, respectively (-0.85% difference; 97.5% CI, -3.14% to 1.43%). Of the 792 contacts analyzed, 65.3% in the TST arm and 42.2% in the TST/QFT arm were diagnosed with tuberculosis infection (23.1% difference; 95% CI, 16.4% to 30.0%). In low-incidence settings, screening household contacts with the TST and using QFT-GIT as a confirmatory test is not inferior to TST-alone for preventing active tuberculosis, allowing a safe reduction of preventive treatments. NCT01223534. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Skin Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Miguel A; Zakaria, Alan; Nizran, Parminder

    2015-12-01

    Skin cancer accounts for most malignancies across the globe. They are primarily divided into melanoma and nonmelanoma skin malignancies. Nonmelanoma skin cancer includes basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Fair skin and chronic ultraviolet B exposure are the most important risk factors. Primary prevention is achieved by avoiding sun exposure and tanning beds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. An in vitro method for detecting chemical sensitization using human reconstructed skin models and its applicability to cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and medical device safety testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, James M; Keller, Donald J; Gorski, Joel R

    2012-12-01

    Chemical sensitization is a serious condition caused by small reactive molecules and is characterized by a delayed type hypersensitivity known as allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Contact with these molecules via dermal exposure represent a significant concern for chemical manufacturers. Recent legislation in the EU has created the need to develop non-animal alternative methods for many routine safety studies including sensitization. Although most of the alternative research has focused on pure chemicals that possess reasonable solubility properties, it is important for any successful in vitro method to have the ability to test compounds with low aqueous solubility. This is especially true for the medical device industry where device extracts must be prepared in both polar and non-polar vehicles in order to evaluate chemical sensitization. The aim of this research was to demonstrate the functionality and applicability of the human reconstituted skin models (MatTek Epiderm(®) and SkinEthic RHE) as a test system for the evaluation of chemical sensitization and its potential use for medical device testing. In addition, the development of the human 3D skin model should allow the in vitro sensitization assay to be used for finished product testing in the personal care, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. This approach combines solubility, chemical reactivity, cytotoxicity, and activation of the Nrf2/ARE expression pathway to identify and categorize chemical sensitizers. Known chemical sensitizers representing extreme/strong-, moderate-, weak-, and non-sensitizing potency categories were first evaluated in the skin models at six exposure concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 2500 µM for 24 h. The expression of eight Nrf2/ARE, one AhR/XRE and two Nrf1/MRE controlled gene were measured by qRT-PCR. The fold-induction at each exposure concentration was combined with reactivity and cytotoxicity data to determine the sensitization potential. The results demonstrated that

  10. HUBUNGAN AUTOLOGOUS SERUM SKIN TEST/ASST DENGAN KEPARAHAN KLINIS URTIKARIA KRONIK IDIOPATIK DI RSUP Dr. MOH HOESIN PALEMBANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryadi Tjekyan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Severity of Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria In RSUP Dr. Moh. Hoesin Palembang. There were differences in clinical finding among authors about autologous serum skin test/ASST result in chronic idiopathic urtikaria/CIU. Tanus et al (1996 reported there was no significant differences in clinical features of CIU, whereas Sabroe et al (1999 found significant differences in duration and itch of CIU patients. The prevalence of urticaria in General Hospital Dr. Moh. Hoesin Palembang showed increased tendency but there was no data about CIU and the severity of clinical features. The objectives of this study were to find out the significant correlation between ASST and severity of clinical features of CIU, and compared the difference of clinical features of CIU with and without positive ASST. This study was an observational analytic study, with cross sectional design. Fifty four subjects included in this study after following selection. Ethical approval was obtained from Bioethics and Humanities Unit, Faculty of Medicine Sriwijaya University and Dr. Moh. Hoesin Hospital Palembang. The clinical feature of 54 patients with CIU were evaluated. The data of physical examination and the anamnesis about clinical scores collected and analyzed using SPSS software and Spierman correlation was used to analyze the correlation between clinical severity of CIU and ASST result. Student’s t-test was used to analyze the differences in clinical severity of CIU with and without positive ASST. There was significant correlation between the severity clinical feature of CIU and ASST result (p=0,00 ; R=0,598. Patients with positif ASST results (46,3% had more duration of illness (0,00, higher pruritus score (0,00, and angiodema score (0,024. The CIU patients with severity clinical score of 27 (cut-off point, 11 times more likely to develop autoimmune urticaria than the patients with cut-off below 27 (p=0,00.

  11. Latent tuberculosis infection, tuberculin skin test and vitamin D status in contacts of tuberculosis patients: a cross-sectional and case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnedo-Pena Alberto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deficient serum vitamin D levels have been associated with incidence of tuberculosis (TB, and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI. However, to our knowledge, no studies on vitamin D status and tuberculin skin test (TST conversion have been published to date. The aim of this study was to estimate the associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25[OH]D status with LTBI prevalence and TST conversion in contacts of active TB in Castellon (Spain. Methods The study was designed in two phases: cross-sectional and case-control. From November 2009 to October 2010, contacts of 42 TB patients (36 pulmonary, and 6 extra-pulmonary were studied in order to screen for TB. LTBI and TST conversion cases were defined following TST, clinical, analytic and radiographic examinations. Serum 25(OHD levels were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA on a COBAS® 410 ROCHE® analyzer. Logistic regression models were used in the statistical analysis. Results The study comprised 202 people with a participation rate of 60.1%. Only 20.3% of the participants had a sufficient serum 25(OHD (≥ 30 ng/ml level. In the cross-sectional phase, 50 participants had LTBI and no association between LTBI status and serum 25(OHD was found. After 2 months, 11 out of 93 negative LTBI participants, without primary prophylaxis, presented TST conversion with initial serum 25(OHD levels: a:19.4% (7/36: Conclusions The results suggest that sufficient serum 25(OHD levels protect against TST conversion.

  12. Skin tightening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolery-Lloyd, Heather; Kammer, Jenna N

    2011-01-01

    Skin tightening describes the treatment of skin laxity via radiofrequency (RF), ultrasound, or light-based devices. Skin laxity on the face is manifested by progressive loss of skin elasticity, loosening of the connective tissue framework, and deepening of skin folds. This results in prominence of submandibular and submental tissues. Genetic factors (chronological aging) and extrinsic factors (ultraviolet radiation) both contribute to skin laxity. There are many RF, ultrasound, and light-based devices directed at treating skin laxity. All of these devices target and heat the dermis to induce collagen contraction. Heating of the dermis causes collagen denaturation and immediate collagen contraction in addition to long-term collagen remodeling. Via RF, light, or ultrasound, these skin tightening devices deliver heat to the dermis to create new collagen and induce skin tightening. This chapter will provide an overview of the various skin tightening devices. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Content and reactivity to product perfumes in fragrance mix positive and negative eczema patients. A study of perfumes used in toiletries and skin-care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, J D; Rastogi, S C; Andersen, K E; Menné, T

    1997-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the elicitation potential of perfumes from 17 commonly sold lower-price cosmetic products. 8 of the perfumes were from stay-on cosmetics and 9 were from wash-off cosmetics. Each perfume was tested in 500 consecutive eczema patients, who also were tested with the European standard patch test series. 4.2% reacted to 1 or more of the wash-off product perfumes and 3.2% to 1 or more of the stay-on product perfumes. Concordant positive reactions between the fragrance mix and the product perfumes were found in 81.3% of positive reactions to the stay-on product perfumes and in 52.4% of the reactions to the wash-off product perfumes. Compared to the fragrance mix alone, only 1 additional case of contact allergy to the product perfumes was detected by balsam of Peru. Chemical analysis revealed that between 1 and 5 of the chemically-defined constituents of the fragrance mix were present in all of the product perfumes. Geraniol was found in 12 of the 17 perfumes and was most often detected. The concentration of the target fragrance materials ranged from 0.005%-1.35 w/v%. It is concluded that the allergenic constituents of the fragrance mix are impossible to avoid if perfumed cosmetics are used. Furthermore, patients suspected of perfume allergy need to be tested with their own perfumed products, as far from all cases of perfume allergy are detected by the fragrance mix and/or balsam of Peru in the European standard patch test series.

  14. Correlation of skin test results and specific immunoglobulin E blood levels with nasal provocation testing for house-dust mite allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxel, Boris R; Huppertz, Tilman; Boessert, Patrick; Bast, Florian; Fruth, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy for house-dust mite (HDM) allergies is associated with lower success rates when compared with similar treatments for other inhalant allergens, such as grass or birch. One reason might be the greater difficulty in diagnosing patients with assumed HDM allergies because symptoms occur perennially and may differ from those of a conventional allergic rhinitis. The aim of the study was to compare the different methods of diagnosis in patients with assumed HDM allergy. We performed a retrospective analysis of nasal provocation tests (NPT) from patients (n = 161) evaluated for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (n = 127) and Dermatophagoides farinae (n = 104) allergies, and compared the results with other allergen testing methods (skin-prick test [SPT], intracutaneous test, and allergen specific immunoglobulin E levels [sIgE] to detect sensitization). Receiver operating characteristic curves were used for the analyses and the areas under the curve were calculated. For D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae, 86 and 70 complete data files, respectively, were available. For both tested HDMs, the results of the receiver operating characteristic curves showed a significant correlation for SPT and sIgE, with the results of the NPT (area under the curve, 0.742 to 0.763) but not for the intracutaneous test. In patients with a positive SPT (≥3 mm), an allergy was confirmed by the NPT in 69% of cases for D. pteronyssinus and 71% for D. farinae. A positive sIgE result (ImmunoCAP class of ≥2) was verified by the NPT in 69% of cases (D. pteronyssinus) and 70% (D. farinae). The predictability value for a positive NPT result is best for SPT and sIgE. Nevertheless, even if the results of both test systems are combined, the positive predictive value that was achieved was only 0.77 for D. pteronyssinus and 0.69 for D. farinae. Therefore, in patients eligible for immunotherapy for HDM, an NPT should be performed before the start of the therapy to verify a clinically

  15. Optical emission spectroscopy at the large RF driven negative ion test facility ELISE: Instrumental setup and first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wünderlich, D.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Riedl, R.; Bonomo, F.

    2013-01-01

    One of the main topics to be investigated at the recently launched large (A source = 1.0 × 0.9 m 2 ) ITER relevant RF driven negative ion test facility ELISE (Extraction from a Large Ion Source Experiment) is the connection between the homogeneity of the plasma parameters close to the extraction system and the homogeneity of the extracted negative hydrogen ion beam. While several diagnostics techniques are available for measuring the beam homogeneity, the plasma parameters are determined by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) solely. First OES measurements close to the extraction system show that without magnetic filter field the vertical profile of the plasma emission is more or less symmetric, with maxima of the emission representing the projection of the plasma generation volumes, and a distinct minimum in between. The profile changes with the strength of the magnetic filter field but under all circumstances the plasma emission in ELISE is much more homogeneous compared to the smaller IPP prototype sources. Planned after this successful demonstration of the ELISE OES system is to combine OES with tomography in order to determine locally resolved values for the plasma parameters

  16. Langmuir probes for SPIDER (source for the production of ions of deuterium extracted from radio frequency plasma) experiment: Tests in BATMAN (Bavarian test machine for negative ions)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brombin, M.; Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Pomaro, N.; Taliercio, C.; Palma, M. Dalla; Pasqualotto, R.; Schiesko, L.

    2014-11-01

    A prototype system of the Langmuir probes for SPIDER (Source for the production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma) was manufactured and experimentally qualified. The diagnostic was operated in RF (Radio Frequency) plasmas with cesium evaporation on the BATMAN (BAvarian Test MAchine for Negative ions) test facility, which can provide plasma conditions as expected in the SPIDER source. A RF passive compensation circuit was realised to operate the Langmuir probes in RF plasmas. The sensors' holder, designed to better simulate the bias plate conditions in SPIDER, was exposed to a severe experimental campaign in BATMAN with cesium evaporation. No detrimental effect on the diagnostic due to cesium evaporation was found during the exposure to the BATMAN plasma and in particular the insulation of the electrodes was preserved. The paper presents the system prototype, the RF compensation circuit, the acquisition system (as foreseen in SPIDER), and the results obtained during the experimental campaigns.

  17. Langmuir probes for SPIDER (source for the production of ions of deuterium extracted from radio frequency plasma) experiment: Tests in BATMAN (Bavarian test machine for negative ions)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brombin, M.; Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Pomaro, N.; Taliercio, C.; Palma, M. Dalla; Pasqualotto, R.; Schiesko, L.

    2014-01-01

    A prototype system of the Langmuir probes for SPIDER (Source for the production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma) was manufactured and experimentally qualified. The diagnostic was operated in RF (Radio Frequency) plasmas with cesium evaporation on the BATMAN (BAvarian Test MAchine for Negative ions) test facility, which can provide plasma conditions as expected in the SPIDER source. A RF passive compensation circuit was realised to operate the Langmuir probes in RF plasmas. The sensors’ holder, designed to better simulate the bias plate conditions in SPIDER, was exposed to a severe experimental campaign in BATMAN with cesium evaporation. No detrimental effect on the diagnostic due to cesium evaporation was found during the exposure to the BATMAN plasma and in particular the insulation of the electrodes was preserved. The paper presents the system prototype, the RF compensation circuit, the acquisition system (as foreseen in SPIDER), and the results obtained during the experimental campaigns

  18. Testing thin-skinned inversion of a prerift salt-bearing passive margin (Eastern Prebetic Zone, SE Iberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escosa, Frederic O.; Roca, Eduard; Ferrer, Oriol

    2018-04-01

    Detailed geologic mapping combined with well and seismic data from the Eastern Prebetic Zone (SE Iberia) reveal extensional and contractional structures that permit characterization of passive margin development and its incorporation into a thin-skinned fold-and-thrust belt. The study area is represented by NW-directed, ENE-trending folds and thrusts faults locally disrupted by the NW-trending Matamoros Basin and the active Jumilla and La Rosa diapirs. These structures resulted from the thin-skinned inversion of the proximal part of the Eastern South Iberian passive margin containing prerift salt. Here, Upper Jurassic to Santonian thick-skinned extension controlled the accumulation of sediment over mobile prerift salt. This in turn defined the style of salt tectonics characterized by monoclinal drape folds, suprasalt extensional faults and diapirs. The structural and sedimentological analysis suggests that during extension, salt localizes strain thus decoupling sub- and suprasalt deformation. Thick-skinned extension controls suprasalt deformation as well as its location and distribution which changes over time. Salt also localizes strain during inversion. The preexisting salt structures, weaker than adjacent areas, preferentially absorb the contractional deformation. In addition, the stepped subsalt geometry that results from thick-skinned extension also controls the shortening propagation. Therefore, the degree of strain localization depends on the thickness of the suprasalt cover and on the dip of subsalt faults relative to the thin-skinned transport direction.

  19. Content and reactivity to product perfumes in fragrance mix positive and negative eczema patients. A study of perfumes used in toiletries and skin-care products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Rastogi, S C; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1997-01-01

    and in 52.4% of the reactions to the wash-off product perfumes. Compared to the fragrance mix alone, only 1 additional case of contact allergy to the product perfumes was detected by balsam of Peru. Chemical analysis revealed that between 1 and 5 of the chemically-defined constituents of the fragrance mix...... if perfumed cosmetics are used. Furthermore, patients suspected of perfume allergy need to be tested with their own perfumed products, as far from all cases of perfume allergy are detected by the fragrance mix and/or balsam of Peru in the European standard patch test series....... with the European standard patch test series. 4.2% reacted to 1 or more of the wash-off product perfumes and 3.2% to 1 or more of the stay-on product perfumes. Concordant positive reactions between the fragrance mix and the product perfumes were found in 81.3% of positive reactions to the stay-on product perfumes...

  20. Test of Blanc's law for negative ion mobility in mixtures of SF6 with N2, O2 and air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinojosa, G; Urquijo, J de

    2003-01-01

    We have measured the mobility of negative ion species drifting in mixtures of SF 6 with N 2 , O 2 and air. The pulsed Townsend experiment was used for this purpose. The conditions of the experiment, high pressures and low values of the reduced electric field, E/N, ensured that the majority species drifting in the gap was SF 6 - , to which the present mobilities are ascribed. The extrapolated, zero field mobilities for several mixture compositions were used to test them successfully with Blanc's law. Moreover, the measured zero field SF 6 - mobilities in air could also be explained in terms of the measured mobilities for this ionic species in N 2 and O 2

  1. Family Stress and Parental Responses to Children’s Negative Emotions: Tests of the Spillover, Crossover, and Compensatory Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A.; O’Brien, Marion; Blankson, A. Nayena; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.

    2010-01-01

    The relations between 4 sources of family stress (marital dissatisfaction, home chaos, parental depressive symptoms, and job role dissatisfaction) and the emotion socialization practice of mothers’ and fathers’ responses to children’s negative emotions were examined. Participants included 101 couples with 7-year-old children. Dyadic analyses were conducted using the Actor–Partner Interdependence Model and relations were tested in terms of the spillover, crossover, and compensatory hypotheses. Results suggest that measures of family stress relate to supportive and nonsupportive parental responses, though many of these relations differ by parent gender. The results are discussed in terms of the 3 theoretical hypotheses, all of which are supported to some degree depending on the family stressor examined. PMID:19803603

  2. Family stress and parental responses to children's negative emotions: tests of the spillover, crossover, and compensatory hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A; O'Brien, Marion; Blankson, A Nayena; Calkins, Susan D; Keane, Susan P

    2009-10-01

    The relations between 4 sources of family stress (marital dissatisfaction, home chaos, parental depressive symptoms, and job role dissatisfaction) and the emotion socialization practice of mothers' and fathers' responses to children's negative emotions were examined. Participants included 101 couples with 7-year-old children. Dyadic analyses were conducted using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model and relations were tested in terms of the spillover, crossover, and compensatory hypotheses. Results suggest that measures of family stress relate to supportive and nonsupportive parental responses, though many of these relations differ by parent gender. The results are discussed in terms of the 3 theoretical hypotheses, all of which are supported to some degree depending on the family stressor examined.

  3. Contact allergic dermatitis from melamine formaldehyde resins in a patient with a negative patch-test reaction to formaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Gavin, Juan; Loureiro Martinez, Manuel; Fernandez-Redondo, Virginia; Seoane, Maria-José; Toribio, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    Melamine paper is a basic material used in the furniture industry for home and office interiors. Contact allergic dermatitis from melamine formaldehyde resins (MFRs) should be considered in patients who work on melamine paper impregnation lines. We report a case of a 28-year-old female plywood worker who developed eczema on the dorsal side of her hands and wrists after 2 years of working on the melamine paper impregnation line. She had a relevant positive patch-test reaction to MFR, with a negative reaction to formaldehyde. Contact dermatitis due to MFR is not common, and it is usually related to products that are not fully cured or to close contact with intermediate products on the assembly line. Formaldehyde release from MFR can explain most of the positive responses. To our knowledge, this is the first report of MFR contact allergic dermatitis in a worker on a melamine paper impregnation line.

  4. Persistent negative illness perceptions despite long-term biochemical control of acromegaly: novel application of the drawing test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemensma, Jitske; Pereira, Alberto M; Romijn, Johannes A; Broadbent, Elizabeth; Biermasz, Nienke R; Kaptein, Adrian A

    2015-05-01

    Patients with acromegaly have persistent complaints despite long-term biochemical control. Drawings can be used to assess patients' perceptions about their disease. We aimed to explore the utility of the drawing test and its relation to illness perceptions and quality of life (QoL) in patients after long-term remission of acromegaly. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the utility of the drawing test. A total of 50 patients after long-term remission (mean±s.e.m., 16±1.2 years) of acromegaly were included in this study. Patients completed the drawing test (two retrospective drawings of their body perception before acromegaly and during the active phase of acromegaly, and one drawing on the current condition after long-term remission), Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised, Physical Symptom Checklist, EuroQoL-5D, and AcroQoL. Patients perceived a dramatic change in body size during the active state of the disease compared with the healthy state before the awareness of acromegaly. Patients reported that their body did not completely return to the original proportions after long-term remission. In addition, larger drawings indicated more negative consequences (Pdrawings also indicated more impaired QoL, especially disease-specific QoL (all Pdrawing test, illness perceptions, and QoL. The drawing test appears to be a novel and relatively easy tool to assess the perception of patients after long-term remission of acromegaly. The assessment of drawings may enable health care providers to appreciate the perceptions of patients with long-term remission of acromegaly, and enable discussion of symptoms and remission. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  5. Patients with a negative cystoscopy and negative Nmp22® Bladderchek® test are at low risk of missed transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder: a prospective evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Terrell

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Urine based tumor markers have uncertain utility in diagnosis or surveillance of patients with bladder cancer while cytology is commonly used. We evaluated whether cytology provides additional diagnostic information in patients with a negative NMP22® BladderChek® test (BladderChek and negative cystoscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed subset analyses of 2 large prospective multi-center databases evaluating BladderChek for UCB detection and surveillance. These cohorts were analyzed for presence of cancer and result of urine cytology in setting of a negative cystoscopy and negative BladderChek. Subsequently, we prospectively performed cystoscopy, cytology and BladderChek on 434 patients at our institution being evaluated for UCB. RESULTS: In the detection database (n = 1331, 1065 patients had a negative cystoscopy and BladderChek. There were 3 cancers (stages Ta, Tis and T1 and cytology was atypical in one and reactive in two. In the surveillance cohort (n = 668 patients, 437 patients had negative cystoscopy and BladderChek. Cancer was found in 2 patients (stages Tis and Ta. The patient with Tis has dysplastic cytology and Ta tumor had reactive cytology. In our cohort of 434 patients, 288 pts had negative cystoscopy and BladderChek. One cancer was missed, a Ta ureteral urothelial carcinoma with a reactive cytology. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with negative cystoscopy and BladderChek, very few cancers are missed and cytology was not effective in detection. Use of a point-of-care test in conjunction with cystoscopy in lieu of cytology could decrease cost, provide immediate results, improve negative predictive value and reduce the uncertainty that results from inconclusive cytologic results.

  6. Thorium molecular negative ion production in a cesium sputter source at BARC-TIFR pelletron accelerator ion source test set up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.K.; Mehrotra, N.; Kale, R.M.; Alamelu, D.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    Ion source test set up at Pelletron Accelerator facility has been utilized extensively for the production and characterization of negative ions, with particular emphasis being place at the species of experimental users interest. The attention have been focussed towards the formation of rare earth negative ions, due to their importance in the ongoing accelerator mass spectroscopy program and isotopic abundance measurements using secondary negative ion mass spectrometry

  7. Xenobiotic metabolism capacities of human skin in comparison with a 3D-epidermis model and keratinocyte-based cell culture as in vitro alternatives for chemical testing: phase II enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, Christine; Pfeiffer, Roland; Tigges, Julia; Ruwiedel, Karsten; Hübenthal, Ulrike; Merk, Hans F; Krutmann, Jean; Edwards, Robert J; Abel, Josef; Pease, Camilla; Goebel, Carsten; Hewitt, Nicola; Fritsche, Ellen

    2012-05-01

    The 7th Amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive prohibits the use of animals in cosmetic testing for certain endpoints, such as genotoxicity. Therefore, skin in vitro models have to replace chemical testing in vivo. However, the metabolic competence neither of human skin nor of alternative in vitro models has so far been fully characterized, although skin is the first-pass organ for accidentally or purposely (cosmetics and pharmaceuticals) applied chemicals. Thus, there is an urgent need to understand the xenobiotic-metabolizing capacities of human skin and to compare these activities to models developed to replace animal testing. We have measured the activity of the phase II enzymes glutathione S-transferase, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase and N-acetyltransferase in ex vivo human skin, the 3D epidermal model EpiDerm 200 (EPI-200), immortalized keratinocyte-based cell lines (HaCaT and NCTC 2544) and primary normal human epidermal keratinocytes. We show that all three phase II enzymes are present and highly active in skin as compared to phase I. Human skin, therefore, represents a more detoxifying than activating organ. This work systematically compares the activities of three important phase II enzymes in four different in vitro models directly to human skin. We conclude from our studies that 3D epidermal models, like the EPI-200 employed here, are superior over monolayer cultures in mimicking human skin xenobiotic metabolism and thus better suited for dermatotoxicity testing. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY OF COAGULASE-POSITIVE AND COAGULASE-NEGATIVE STAPHYLOCOCCI IN RELATION TO METHICILLIN SENSITIVITY TESTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmanabham Yalangi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Staphylococcus aureus has long been recognised as an important pathogen in human disease. Staphylococci infection occurs regularly in hospitalised patients and has serious consequences despite antibiotic therapy. Shortly after introduction of methicillin after clinical use Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA were identified in many countries and become one of the most common causes of nosocomial infections. The aim of the study is to know the methicillin sensitivity of both coagulase-negative and coagulase-positive staphylococci isolated from various samples. MATERIALS AND METHODS 100 strains of staphylococci both coagulase positive and coagulase negative were isolated in the Department of Microbiology from various clinical samples. They were confirmed by morphology, staining methods and by using standard bacteriological procedures and biochemical reactions. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion test. RESULTS Predominant species from pus were S. epidermidis (42.42% and from sputum S. haemolyticus (31.81% from blood S. haemolyticus (53.33%. 53% of strains produced beta-lactamase. Majority 47.22% by S. epidermidis from pus followed by S. haemolyticus 23.33% from pus. Beta-lactamase production was least from throat swab (5.55%. Out of 32 coagulase-positive staphylococci tested to methicillin 15 (46.87% were found to be sensitive, 17 (53.13% were found to be resistant. Out of 68 coagulase-negative staphylococci tested, 13 (19.11% were found to sensitive and 55 (80.88% were found to be resistant. 72% of strains were sensitive to novobiocin and 28% resistant to novobiocin. 43% showed drug resistance to 2 drugs. 14% to 3 drugs and 5 drugs. 6% of staphylococci sensitive to all the 10 drugs. CONCLUSION MRSA is a type of bacteria that is resistant to a number of widely used antibiotics. This means MRSA infections can be more difficult to treat than other bacterial infections. In recent years

  9. Content and reactivity to product perfumes in fragrance mix positive and negative eczema patients. A study of perfumes used in toiletries and skin-care products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Andersen, K E

    1997-01-01

    with the European standard patch test series. 4.2% reacted to 1 or more of the wash-off product perfumes and 3.2% to 1 or more of the stay-on product perfumes. Concordant positive reactions between the fragrance mix and the product perfumes were found in 81.3% of positive reactions to the stay-on product perfumes...... and in 52.4% of the reactions to the wash-off product perfumes. Compared to the fragrance mix alone, only 1 additional case of contact allergy to the product perfumes was detected by balsam of Peru. Chemical analysis revealed that between 1 and 5 of the chemically-defined constituents of the fragrance mix...... were present in all of the product perfumes. Geraniol was found in 12 of the 17 perfumes and was most often detected. The concentration of the target fragrance materials ranged from 0.005%-1.35 w/v%. It is concluded that the allergenic constituents of the fragrance mix are impossible to avoid...

  10. Intensity response function of the photopic negative response (PhNR): effect of age and test-retest reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Nabin R; Ly, Emma; Viswanathan, Suresh

    2017-08-01

    To assess the effect of age and test-retest reliability of the intensity response function of the full-field photopic negative response (PhNR) in normal healthy human subjects. Full-field electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded from one eye of 45 subjects, and 39 of these subjects were tested on two separate days with a Diagnosys Espion System (Lowell, MA, USA). The visual stimuli consisted of brief (test-retest reliability was assessed with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Bland-Altman analysis. Holm's correction was applied to account for multiple comparisons. V max of BT was significantly smaller than that of PT and b-wave, and the V max of PT and b-wave was not significantly different from each other. The slope parameter n was smallest for BT and the largest for b-wave and the difference between the slopes of all three measures were statistically significant. Small differences observed in the mean values of K for the different measures did not reach statistical significance. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test indicated no significant differences between the two test visits for any of the Naka-Rushton parameters for the three ERG measures, and the Bland-Altman plots indicated that the mean difference between test and retest measurements of the different fit parameters was close to zero and within 6% of the average of the test and retest values of the respective parameters for all three ERG measurements, indicating minimal bias. While the coefficient of reliability (COR, defined as 1.96 times the standard deviation of the test and retest difference) of each fit parameter was more or less comparable across the three ERG measurements, the %COR (COR normalized to the mean test and retest measures) was generally larger for BT compared to both PT and b-wave for each fit parameter. The Naka-Rushton fit parameters did not show statistically significant changes with age for any of the ERG measures when corrections were applied for multiple comparisons. However, the V max of

  11. Assessment of the potential skin irritation of lysine-derivative anionic surfactants using mouse fibroblast and human keratinocytes as an alternative to animal testing

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Molina, Lourdes; Mitjans Arnal, Montserrat; Infante Martínez-Pardo, Ma. Rosa; Vinardell Martínez-Hidalgo, Ma. Pilar

    2004-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to identify new surfactants with low skin irritant properties for use in pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations, employing cell culture as an alternative method to in vivo testing. In addition, we sought to establish whether potential cytotoxic properties were related to the size of the counterions bound to the surfactants. Methods. Cytotoxicity was assessed in the mouse fibroblast cell line 3T6, and the human keratinocyte cell line NCTC 2544, using the MT...

  12. Skin Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Skin Complications Diabetes can affect every part of the ... lipoidica diabeticorum, diabetic blisters, and eruptive xanthomatosis. General Skin Conditions Bacterial Infections Several kinds of bacterial infections ...

  13. Cryotherapy - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryosurgery - skin; Warts - freezing; Warts - cryotherapy; Actinic keratosis - cryotherapy; Solar keratosis - cryotherapy ... may be used to: Remove warts Destroy precancerous skin lesions (actinic keratoses or solar keratoses) In rare ...

  14. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types ... face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Anyone ...

  15. Sagging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turkey neck,” this occurs as skin loses its elasticity and in cases where individuals have lost a ... technique or procedure is appropriate for my skin type? Did the doctor show me before-and-after ...

  16. Skin Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... like these: skin rashes or conditions, such as eczema or psoriasis skin infections, such as staph diseases, ...

  17. Clinical value and severity of myocardial perfusion defects in asymptomatic diabetic patients with negative or weakly positive exercise treadmill test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakavi, Seyed Rasoul; Taherpour, Mehdi; Moossavi, Zohreh; Sadeghi, Ramin; Kakhki, Vahidreza Dabbagh; Rokni, Haleh

    2013-01-01

    Although coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death in type 2 diabetic patients, it is frequently asymptomatic. Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is reported to show ischemia in a significant number of asymptomatic diabetic patients. We studied the prevalence and severity of myocardial perfusion defects in asymptomatic diabetic patients and its clinical impact. One hundred thirty consecutive asymptomatic patients, aged 35-65 years with type 2 diabetes mellitus and with no history of CAD and no cardiac symptoms were recruited in the study. Echocardiography, electrocardiography (ECG), routine laboratory tests and exercise treadmill test (ETT) were performed and patients with weakly positive or negative ETT underwent Dipyridamole MPI. Patients with positive ETT were referred to coronary angiography. Patients were followed for at least 17 months (mean 21.7 months) and any cardiac event was recorded. We studied 81 female and 49 male patients with mean age of 51.8 years. Negative, weakly positive and positive ETT result was noted in 74.3%, 15% and 10.7% respectively. 75% of patients with positive ETT had coronary artery disease in angiography. Gated myocardial perfusion SPECT was done in 106 patients. MPI showed reversible defect in 26.9% of the patients with a mean summed stress score of 3.3±1.8. Follow up completed in 112 patients and only one patient with abnormal MPI underwent coronary angiography followed by PTCA. No cardiac death, MI, UA or hospital admission occurred among our patients during follow up (17-26 months). Mean stress end diastolic volume (EDV) was significantly higher in patients with reversible defect compared to patients without reversible defect based on MPI findings (62.0±31.6 Vs 48.5±18.4 ml, P=0.04). Blood glucose and HbA1c were significantly higher in patients with ischemia compared to patients without ischemia (P<0.05). Meanwhile the ratio of TG to HDL was 6.06±3.2 in ischemic patients compared to 4.8±2.3 in normal

  18. Skin Graft

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, Ruka; Kishi, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Skin graft is one of the most indispensable techniques in plastic surgery and dermatology. Skin grafts are used in a variety of clinical situations, such as traumatic wounds, defects after oncologic resection, burn reconstruction, scar contracture release, congenital skin deficiencies, hair restoration, vitiligo, and nipple-areola reconstruction. Skin grafts are generally avoided in the management of more complex wounds. Conditions with deep spaces and exposed bones normally require the use o...

  19. Skin Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  20. Experimental testing of skin reactions to insulin detemir in diabetes patients naïve to insulin detemir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'goshi, Kenichiro; Serup, Jørgen; Blaaholm, Bente

    2011-01-01

    in accordance with ICH-GCP guidelines. Blood flow was recorded with the Periflux PF5010, and skin colour (a*) with the DSMII colorimeter. RESULTS: Clinical reading, flowmetry and colorimetry consistently showed delayed reactions after intradermal insulin injection (35 of 40 patients reacted with mainly weak...

  1. The effect of post milking test dip and suckling on teat skin condition, bacterial colonisation, and udder health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M.D.; Larsen, H.D.

    1998-01-01

    The teat skin of cows was scored (1 : smooth as silk; 2: smooth; 3: slightly rough; 4: rough; 5: cracked; and 6: sores) by trained technicians who moved their fingers down the barrel of the teat with a light touch. Technicians ranked the same population of teats in the same rank order, but their ...

  2. Protecting the skin during thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Bezerra Lira

    Full Text Available In this note we describe the standard technical maneuver used in our department to protect the skin during thyroidectomy in order to get the best aesthetic result. We use surgical gloves to protect the skin during these operations to reduce the negative impact of thermal trauma and mechanical retractors and energy delivery devices at the edges of the skin incised. This practice is effective, inexpensive, rapid, reproducible and showed no complication in our experience of over 2,500 thyroidectomies.

  3. Measuring sunscreen protection against solar-simulated radiation-induced structural radical damage to skin using ESR/spin trapping: development of an ex vivo test method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, Rachel; Volkov, Arsen; Andrady, Carima; Sayer, Robert

    2012-03-01

    The in vitro star system used for sunscreen UVA-testing is not an absolute measure of skin protection being a ratio of the total integrated UVA/UVB absorption. The in vivo persistent-pigment-darkening method requires human volunteers. We investigated the use of the ESR-detectable DMPO protein radical-adduct in solar-simulator-irradiated skin substitutes for sunscreen testing. Sunscreens SPF rated 20+ with UVA protection, reduced this adduct by 40-65% when applied at 2 mg/cm(2). SPF 15 Organic UVA-UVB (BMDBM-OMC) and TiO(2)-UVB filters and a novel UVA-TiO(2) filter reduced it by 21, 31 and 70% respectively. Conventional broad-spectrum sunscreens do not fully protect against protein radical-damage in skin due to possible visible-light contributions to damage or UVA-filter degradation. Anisotropic spectra of DMPO-trapped oxygen-centred radicals, proposed intermediates of lipid-oxidation, were detected in irradiated sunscreen and DMPO. Sunscreen protection might be improved by the consideration of visible-light protection and the design of filters to minimise radical leakage and lipid-oxidation.

  4. Cost analysis of negative-pressure wound therapy with instillation for wound bed preparation preceding split-thickness skin grafts for massive (>100 cm(2)) chronic venous leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C Kevin; Alcantara, Sean; Goss, Selena; Lantis, John C

    2015-04-01

    Massive (≥100 cm(2)) venous leg ulcers (VLUs) demonstrate very low closure rates with standard compression therapy and are costly to manage. Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT), followed by a split-thickness skin graft (STSG), can be a cost-effective alternative to this standard care. We performed a cost analysis of these two treatments. A retrospective review was performed of 10 ulcers treated with surgical debridement, 7 days of inpatient NPWT with topical antiseptic instillation (NPWTi), and STSG, with 4 additional days of inpatient NPWT bolster over the graft. Independent medical cost estimators were used to compare the cost of this treatment protocol with standard outpatient compression therapy. The average length of time ulcers were present before patients entered the study was 38 months (range, 3-120 months). Eight of 10 patients had complete VLU closure by 6 months after NPWTi with STSG. The 6-month costs of the proposed treatment protocol and standard twice-weekly compression therapy were estimated to be $27,000 and $28,000, respectively. NPWTi with STSG treatment is more effective for closure of massive VLUs at 6 months than that reported for standard compression therapy. Further, the cost of the proposed treatment protocol is comparable with standard compression therapy. Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Marital and Co-Worker Relationships on Negative Affect: Testing the Central Role of Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Steven R. H.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined negative affect among 349 adults. Indices of salient social support and salient interpersonal stress irrespective of source were related to level of negative affective symptoms. Marital relationship was most frequently named source of support, but coworkers were named equally often as source of interpersonal stress. Marital satisfaction…

  6. The Effects of Anger, Sadness and Happiness on Persuasive Message Processing: A Test of the Negative State Relief Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Monique M.; Brown, Kenneth M.; Morris-Villagran, Melinda; Villagran, Paul D.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the strength of the effects of happiness and sadness on attitude change, and compares these effects with the effect of anger on attitude change and persuasive message processing. Finds that message strength was positively correlated with attitude, intention and behavior, but was negatively correlated with negative thoughts, and counter…

  7. [Skin graft, smoking and diabetes mellitus type 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Guisado, Joaquín; Fidalgo-Rodríguez, Félix T; Gaston, Kate L; Rioja, Luis F; Thomas, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    Smoking and hyperglycemia decrease the success of skin graft survival in specific circumstances. It is well known that smoking and diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 increase the oxidative and impair the endothelial function. The objective of this retrospective study was to determine if smoking and DM type 2 are factors associated with lower skin graft survival, in different etiologies of the injury associated to the skin loss. It was a bicentric, retrospective, cross sectional case control study, carried out on 2457 medical patients who met the inclusion criteria. It was carried out over a 10 years period between January 2000-December 2009, at Reina Sofía University Hospital (Córdoba, Spain) and UAB Hospital at Birmingham (Alabama, USA). The percentage of successful graft for each group and its control were analyzed by Chi-square test. The confidence interval chosen for statistical differences was 95%. Smoking and DM type 2 decreased the percentage of skin graft survival when compared with their control groups. DM type 2 was associated with greater negative success on skin graft survival than smoking when compared with their control groups. There was a statistically significant drop in skin graft of 18% in smoking group (range: 68-86%) and 25% in DM type 2 group (53-78%). The OR showed a clear association between the risk factors studied and the lower skin graft success, being stronger for DM type 2. In conclusion, DM type 2 and smoking are factors associated to lower skin graft take.

  8. Negative perceptions of hepatitis B vaccination among attendees of an urban free testing center for sexually transmitted infections in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyroud, Lauranne; Hustache, Sarah; Goirand, Laurence; Hauzanneau, Marianne; Epaulard, Olivier

    2017-05-04

    Official French health care policy recommends vaccinations against hepatitis B for all infants and at-risk adults. Attendees at our free testing center for sexually transmitted infections (FTC-STI) routinely express hepatitis B vaccine hesitancy. We aimed in this exposed population to explore the extent of knowledge concerning HBV infection, to quantify HBV vaccine refusal, and to identify the reasons for this refusal. During a 3-month period in 2013, all attendees at the Grenoble FTC-STI were given an anonymous questionnaire exploring their knowledge of hepatitis B, perception of the hepatitis B vaccine, acceptance of free same-day hepatitis B vaccination, and reasons for refusing this offer (where applicable). The questionnaire was completed by 735 attendees (64.7% of those attending during the study period)(59.9% men; age 27.9 ± 9.2). Most respondents identified hepatitis B as a potentially severe, potentially lifelong illness existing in France. Concerning the hepatitis B vaccine, less than 50% totally or mostly agreed that it is safe; when asked whether the vaccine is dangerous, 44.2% answered "I don't know" and 14.0% agreed; when asked whether the vaccine is "not well characterized," 45.0%, answered "I don't know" and 26.5% agreed. When asked whether they mistrust the hepatitis B vaccine or all vaccines in general, 39.0% and 28.9% of those unvaccinated agreed, respectively. Two thirds refused to get vaccinated on the same day. When asked whether they were afraid of the adverse effects of this vaccine, only 18.7% disagreed. Negative perceptions of the hepatitis B vaccine are widespread in this at-risk population. Consequently, a successful communication strategy must reassure this at-risk population of the vaccine's innocuous nature.

  9. Comparison of the Cathra Repliscan II, the AutoMicrobic system Gram-Negative General Susceptibility-Plus Card, and the Micro-Media System Fox Panel for dilution susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiber, N E; Kelly, M T; Latimer, J M; Tison, D L; Hysmith, R M

    1985-06-01

    A comparative evaluation was done to test the accuracy of the Cathra Repliscan II agar dilution system (Diagnostic Equipment, Inc., St. Paul, Minn.), the AutoMicrobic system with Gram-Negative General Susceptibility-Plus Card (Vitek Systems, Inc., Hazelwood, Mo.), and the Micro-Media Fox Panel micro broth dilution system (Micro-Media Systems, Inc., San Jose, Calif.) in determining MICs of 12 antibiotics for 200 gram-negative bacilli. Of the 200 strains tested, 12 isolates did not grow in one of the three systems. The 188 remaining organisms included 158 members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, 20 Pseudomonas spp., 5 Acinetobacter sp., 3 Aeromonas spp., and 2 Vibrio spp. A total of 2,256 organism-antibiotic combinations were analyzed for each system. An MIC was considered correct if two of the three systems were in agreement. When disagreements occurred, correct MICs were determined by the standard agar dilution method. With this criterion, overall agreements of the Cathra Repliscan II system, AutoMicrobic system, and Micro-Media Fox Panel system were 94.7, 94.9, and 95.5%, respectively. Tetracycline (20%), nitrofurantoin (20%), and ampicillin (16%) accounted for 56% of the discrepancies observed. These results indicate that all three systems perform with a high degree of accuracy for susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacilli.

  10. Testing predictive models of positive and negative affect with psychosocial, acculturation, and coping variables in a multiethnic undergraduate sample

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Ben CH; Kwantes, Catherine T

    2014-01-01

    Despite the prevalence and popularity of research on positive and negative affect within the field of psychology, there is currently little research on affect involving the examination of cultural variables and with participants of diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds. To the authors’ knowledge, currently no empirical studies have comprehensively examined predictive models of positive and negative affect based specifically on multiple psychosocial, acculturation, and coping variables as pr...

  11. Plastic occlusion stress test as a model to investigate the effects of skin delipidization on the stratum corneum water holding capacity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardesca, E; Herbst, R; Maibach, H

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop an in vivo model to study the effects of lipid removal on skin barrier. 16 subjects (age 41 +/- 8) were delipidized in vivo on the volar forearm using respectively ether/acetone (EA; 1:1) and chloroform/methanol (CM; 2:1). A third site served as control. Water holding capacity (WHC) was measured according to the plastic occlusion stress test (POST) procedure: the water desorption curve after removal of the occlusion was recorded in terms of skin surface water loss (SSWL) using an evaporimeter for 30 min. In the central part of the evaporation curve (bound water) the CM-treated site is significantly different from control and EA-treated sites (p rate of water from SC are higher in the CM-treated site (p evaporation of free water. We conclude that polar lipids have a key role in modulating barrier function and WHC of the stratum corneum. The POST can represent a useful in vivo model to study the effects of lipid extraction on skin function.

  12. Delayed-type hypersensitivity skin test responses to PPD and other antigens among BCG-vaccinated HIV-1-infected and healthy children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Natalia Moriya Xavierda; Albuquerque, Maly de; Lins, Janaína Bacelar Acioli; Alvares-Junior, João Teixeira; Stefani, Mariane Martins de Araújo

    2011-10-01

    Among HIV-1-infected patients, CD4+ T cell counts are well-established markers of cell-mediated immunity. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin tests can be used to evaluate in vivo cell-mediated immunity to common antigens. DTH responses to tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD), sporotrichin, trichophytin, candidin and streptokinase/streptodornase antigens were assessed. Thirty-six HIV-1-infected children/adolescents and 56 age- and sex-matched HIV-1/HIV-2-seronegative participants were tested. All participants had a BCG scar. Fisher's exact test was used to evaluate significant differences between groups (pPPD positivity prevailed among healthy participants (40/56, 71.4%). PPD reactivity in the HIV-1-positive group was 8.3% (pPPD induration was 2.5mm (range: 2-5mm) in the HIV-1 group and 6.0 mm among healthy participants (range: 3-15 mm). There was no correlation between PPD positivity and age. No correlation between CD4+ T cell counts and DTH reactivity was observed among HIV-1-infected patients. DTH skin test responses, including PPD reactivity, were significantly lower among HIV-1-infected participants compared to healthy controls, which likely reflects advanced disease and T cell depletion.

  13. Tuberculosis screening of new hospital employees: compliance, clearance to work time, and cost using tuberculin skin test and interferon-gamma release assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster-Chang, Sarah A; Manning, Mary L; Chandler, Laura

    2014-11-01

    Selection of the most suitable test(s) for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) infection should be based on purpose, setting, effectiveness, and cost. Two tests are available to screen for latent TB: the tuberculin skin test (TST) and the more recent interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs). Based on the administrative, logistic, and technical ease of use, an IGRA trial was initiated by the occupational health department at an urban Veteran's Administration health care facility for TB screening of new employees. As a result, new employees completing the pre-placement process within the organization's designated 14 days increased from 77% to 97%, new employee clearance to work time decreased from 13.18 to 5.91 days, and new employee TB screening costs were reduced by 40%. The IGRA is an acceptable alternative to the TST and has significant potential to improve the process of pre-placement TB screening. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Chip-based human liver-intestine and liver-skin co-cultures--A first step toward systemic repeated dose substance testing in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschmeyer, Ilka; Hasenberg, Tobias; Jaenicke, Annika; Lindner, Marcus; Lorenz, Alexandra Katharina; Zech, Julie; Garbe, Leif-Alexander; Sonntag, Frank; Hayden, Patrick; Ayehunie, Seyoum; Lauster, Roland; Marx, Uwe; Materne, Eva-Maria

    2015-09-01

    Systemic repeated dose safety assessment and systemic efficacy evaluation of substances are currently carried out on laboratory animals and in humans due to the lack of predictive alternatives. Relevant international regulations, such as OECD and ICH guidelines, demand long-term testing and oral, dermal, inhalation, and systemic exposure routes for such evaluations. So-called "human-on-a-chip" concepts are aiming to replace respective animals and humans in substance evaluation with miniaturized functional human organisms. The major technical hurdle toward success in this field is the life-like combination of human barrier organ models, such as intestine, lung or skin, with parenchymal organ equivalents, such as liver, at the smallest biologically acceptable scale. Here, we report on a reproducible homeostatic long-term co-culture of human liver equivalents with either a reconstructed human intestinal barrier model or a human skin biopsy applying a microphysiological system. We used a multi-organ chip (MOC) platform, which provides pulsatile fluid flow within physiological ranges at low media-to-tissue ratios. The MOC supports submerse cultivation of an intact intestinal barrier model and an air-liquid interface for the skin model during their co-culture with the liver equivalents respectively at (1)/100.000 the scale of their human counterparts in vivo. To increase the degree of organismal emulation, microfluidic channels of the liver-skin co-culture could be successfully covered with human endothelial cells, thus mimicking human vasculature, for the first time. Finally, exposure routes emulating oral and systemic administration in humans have been qualified by applying a repeated dose administration of a model substance - troglitazone - to the chip-based co-cultures. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates in the Dutch population from 2003 to 2014: The test-negative design case-control study with different control groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, Eva; Darvishian, Maryam; Dijkstra, Frederika; Donker, Gé A; Overduin, Pieter; Meijer, Adam; Hak, Eelko

    2017-05-15

    Information about influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) is important for vaccine strain selection and immunization policy decisions. The test-negative design (TND) case-control study is commonly used to obtain IVE estimates. However, the definition of the control patients may influence IVE estimates. We have conducted a TND study using the Dutch Sentinel Practices of NIVEL Primary Care Database which includes data from patients who consulted the General Practitioner (GP) for an episode of acute influenza-like illness (ILI) or acute respiratory infection (ARI) with known influenza vaccination status. Cases were patients tested positive for influenza virus. Controls were grouped into those who tested (1) negative for influenza virus (all influenza negative), (2) negative for influenza virus, but positive for respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus or enterovirus (non-influenza virus positive), and (3) negative for these four viruses (pan-negative). We estimated the IVE over all epidemic seasons from 2003/2004 through 2013/2014, pooled IVE for influenza vaccine partial/full matched and mismatched seasons and the individual seasons using generalized linear mixed-effect and multiple logistic regression models. The overall IVE adjusted for age, GP ILI/ARI diagnosis, chronic disease and respiratory allergy was 35% (95% CI: 15-48), 64% (95% CI: 49-75) and 21% (95% CI: -1 to 39) for all influenza negative, non-influenza virus positive and pan-negative controls, respectively. In both the main and subgroup analyses IVE estimates were the highest using non-influenza virus positive controls, likely due to limiting inclusion of controls without laboratory-confirmation of a virus causing the respiratory disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Negative Effect of Proton-pump Inhibitors (PPIs) on Helicobacter pylori Growth, Morphology, and Urease Test and Recovery after PPI Removal--An In vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saniee, Parastoo; Shahreza, Somayeh; Siavoshi, Farideh

    2016-04-01

    Proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) consumption does lead to false-negative results of Helicobacter pylori diagnostic tests such as biopsy culture and rapid urease test (RUT). Helicobacter pylori isolates from 112 dyspeptic patients with (56.5%) or without (43.5%) PPI consumption were recruited for examining the negative effects of omeprazole (OMP), lansoprazole (LPZ), and pantoprazole (PAN) on H. pylori viability, morphology, and urease, in vitro. The effect of a sublethal concentration of OMP on bacterial features and their recovery after removal of OMP was also assessed. Of 112 culture-positive gastric biopsies, 87.5% were RUT positive and 12.5% RUT negative. There was a significant correlation between negative RUT results and PPI consumption (p urease of 90.3% of isolates between 0 and 40 minutes and 54.4% between 20 and 40 minutes, respectively. PAN did not inhibit H. pylori growth and urease. Three 3-day (9 days) consecutive subcultures of H. pylori on brucella blood agar (BBA) supplemented with OMP resulted in reduced bacterial viability (1+), compared with control (4+), change of spiral morphology to coccoid, and reduction in pink color intensity in urea agar. Bacterial growth (1+), morphology, and urease test did not improve after the first 3-day and second 3-day (6 days) subcultures on BBA. However, relative recovery occurred after the third 3-day (9 days) subculture and complete recovery was observed after the fourth 3-day (12 days) subculture, as confluent growth (4+), 100% spiral cells, and strong urease test. Proton-pump Inhibitors exert transient negative effects on H. pylori viability, morphology, and urease test. Accordingly, cessation of PPI consumption at least 12 days before endoscopy could help avoiding false-negative results of H. pylori diagnostic tests. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Fibre Diffraction Analysis of Skin Offers a Very Early and Extremely Accurate Diagnostic Test for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Veronica J. [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia; O’Malley Ford, Judith M. [Kedron 7 Day Medical Centre, Kedron, Brisbane, QLD 4005, Australia

    2014-01-01

    Double blind analysis of a batch of thirty skin tissue samples from potential prostate cancer sufferers correctly identified all “control” patients, patients with high and low grade prostate cancers, the presence of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), perineural invasions, and the one lymphatic invasion. Identification was by analysis of fibre diffraction patterns interpreted using a schema developed from observations in nine previous studies. The method, schema, and specific experiment results are reported in this paper, with some implications then drawn.

  18. Molecular evidence of malaria and zoonotic diseases among rapid diagnostic test-negative febrile patients in low-transmission season, Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Touré, Mahamoudou; Petersen, Pelle T; Bathily, Sidy N'd

    2017-01-01

    From November to December 2012 in Sélingué-Mali, blood samples from 88 febrile patients who tested negative by malaria Paracheck (®) rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) were used to assess the presence of sub-RDT Plasmodium falciparum as well as Borrelia, Coxiella burnetii, and Babesia applying molecular...... tools. Plasmodium sp. was present among 57 (60.2%) of the 88 malaria RDT-negative patients, whereas the prevalence of Borrelia, C. burnetii, and Babesia were 3.4% (N = 3), 1.1% (N = 1), and 0.0%, respectively. The additional diagnostic use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identified a high proportion...

  19. Dry Skin Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on a budget Skin care products Skin care secrets Skin lighteners Skin of color Summer skin problems ... condition, such as eczema. Additional related information Dermatologists' top tips for relieving dry skin FIND A DERMATOLOGIST ...

  20. The relationship between CD86/CD54 expression and THP-1 cell viability in an in vitro skin sensitization test--human cell line activation test (h-CLAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Ashikaga, Takao; Miyazawa, Masaaki; Kosaka, Nanae; Ito, Yuichi; Yoneyama, Katsurako; Sono, Sakiko; Itagaki, Hiroshi; Toyoda, Hidekazu; Suzuki, Hiroyuki

    2009-04-01

    Recent regulations for cosmetics in Europe prohibit animal testing for evaluating the sensitization potential of chemicals to improve animal welfare. Yet, there is not an acceptable Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development non-animal skin sensitization test method. Several in vitro skin sensitization methods that focus on the activation of Langerhans cells, including human cell lines, are being evaluated as possible alternatives. In our previous study, we optimized our human cell line activation test (h-CLAT) using THP-1 cells (monocytic leukemia cell line) and conducted an inter-laboratory study. We found that measuring CD86/CD54 expression may be useful for predicting skin sensitization. The aim of this study was to confirm the relationship between CD86/CD54 expression and THP-1 cell viability in the h-CLAT. In this study, 21 allergens (e.g., dinitrochlorobenzene, p-phenylenediamine, Ni) and 8 non-allergens (e.g., SLS, lactic acid) were evaluated. For each chemical, more than 10 concentrations that gave a predicted cell viability range of 20-95% were used. The data showed that expression patterns of CD86/CD54 differed depending on chemical. For most allergens, cytotoxicity (65-90% cell viability) was needed for enhancement of CD86/CD54 expression. The criteria of "CD86 > or = 150 or CD54 > or = 200" resulted in an accuracy of 93%, which confirms appropriate cut-off criteria for h-CLAT. Furthermore, a good correlation was observed between EC3 of local lymph node assay and EC150(CD86) or EC200(CD54) of h-CLAT (12 or 16 chemicals, respectively), which would provide a useful estimate of allergic potency. These findings suggest that h-CLAT would be a good robust in vitro skin sensitization test.