Oza, Karishma K.; Silverman, Jay G.; Bojorquez, Ietza; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Goldenberg, Shira M.
Objective To explore experiences during childhood and adolescence that influenced reproductive and sexual health among women who had entered the sex industry in adolescence. Methods A qualitative study was conducted using information provided by 25 female sex workers (FSWs) from Tijuana, Mexico, who reported entering the sex industry when younger than 18 years. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with all participants between January 31, 2011, and July 8, 2011. Results Four interrelated themes that shaped health experiences—early sexual abuse, early illicit drug use, ongoing violence, and limited access to reproductive and sexual health care—were identified. Participants reporting these experiences were at risk of unintended teenaged pregnancy, spontaneous abortion or stillbirth, and untreated sexually transmitted infections. Conclusion Programs and policies that address social, structural, and individual vulnerabilities during adolescence and adulthood are required to promote reproductive and sexual health among FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. PMID:25458416
Dantas, T A; Cancian, G; Neodini, D N R; Mano, D R S; Capucho, C; Predes, F S; Pulz, R Barbieri; Pigoso, A A; Dolder, H; Severi-Aguiar, G D C
Ametryn is an herbicide used to control broadleaf and grass weeds and its acute and chronic toxicity is expected to be low. Since toxicological data on ametryn is scarce, the aim of this study was to evaluate rat reproductive toxicity. Thirty-six adult male Wistar rats (90 days) were divided into three groups: Co (control) and T1 and T2 exposed to 15 and 30 mg/kg/day of ametryn, respectively, for 56 days. Testicular analysis demonstrated that ametryn decreased sperm number per testis, daily sperm production, and Leydig cell number in both treated groups, although little perceptible morphological change has been observed in seminiferous tubule structure. Lipid peroxidation was higher in group T2, catalase activity decreased in T1 group, superoxide dismutase activity diminished, and a smaller number of sulphydryl groups of total proteins were verified in both exposed groups, suggesting oxidative stress. These results showed negative ametryn influence on the testes and can compromise animal reproductive performance and survival.
This article was based on a speech given in Rio de Janeiro in January 1994 at the Reproductive Health and Justice Conference. Questions were raised about the universality of reproductive rights. The suggestion was that Western norms and principles subordinated Southern meanings. A women's health advocate in Nigeria believed that poor and oppressed women were not able to consider limiting family size or to consider reproductive health when the critical concerns were health care, education, livelihood, and basic needs. Rights and needs go together. Reproductive and sexual rights must be understood in terms of social, economic, and political enabling conditions. The respect for women's bodily integrity and reproductive and sexual well-being was viewed as integral to being an effective social and political agent. Women group's have carved out distinct concepts of work, economic resources, education, and political empowerment. The differences in experiences between the North and the South must not be used to diminish the impact of population control forces and fundamentalists. Reproductive rights means giving women the power to make informed decisions about individual fertility, childrearing, and health and sexual activity and means the resources to make decisions effectively and safely. The origin of the definition must not be confused with the process of debate. Rights can be approached either as legal and formal entities and/or as political claims to change existing power structures. Reproductive rights when construed to be liberties or choices were viewed as ineffectual; the focus must be on gender, class, culture, ethnicity, and national needs. Social rights must be incorporated in the concept of reproductive rights and as such challenge structural adjustment programs that reduce expenditures on health and social services. Terminology that focused on "reproduction" obscured the larger focus on personal health and well being. The principles of reproductive rights
Stephenson, Rob; Tsui, Amy Ong; Sulzbach, Sara; Bardsley, Phil; Bekele, Getachew; Giday, Tilahun; Ahmed, Rehana; Gopalkrishnan, Gopi; Feyesitan, Bamikale
Networks of franchised health establishments, providing a standardized set of services, are being implemented in developing countries. This article examines associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes for both the member provider and the client. Regression models are fitted examining associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes at the service provider and client levels in three settings. Franchising has a positive association with both general and family planning client volumes, and the number of family planning brands available. Similar associations with franchise membership are not found for reproductive health service outcomes. In some settings, client satisfaction is higher at franchised than other types of health establishments, although the association between franchise membership and client outcomes varies across the settings. Franchise membership has apparent benefits for both the provider and the client, providing an opportunity to expand access to reproductive health services, although greater attention is needed to shift the focus from family planning to a broader reproductive health context.
Full Text Available AIM: According to the rights to equality in reproductive and sexual rights, no persons should be discriminated against their sexual and reproductive lives, in their access to health care and/or services on the grounds of race, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, family position, age, language, religion, political, or other opinion; national or social origin, property, birth, or other status In this context, health professionals devoted to reproductive health are responsible for the provision of services to individuals equally and should maintain equality rights. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of gender on the reproductive health of women and utilization of reproductive health services. METHODS: The study population consisted of 250 married women at their reproductive ages of 15 to 49, who applied to the obstetrics and gynecology service of a university hospital and a gynecology clinic of a training hospital dedicated to obstetrics and gynecology between 1 February 2007 and 30 April 2007. The data collection form was developed by researchers after evaluation of the relevant literature which relevance of gender discrimination could show where the questions. RESULTS: 52% of Women have graduated from primary school. Education levels of women with men (her husband between level of education is statistically significant difference, and women were receive less education than men (her husband (²=34.231, p<0.001. The study was determined that women who received training secondary school and above, worked and decision maker to domestic that they get prenatal care of a high percentage and deliver their babies in the hospital with the aid of a health care professional, and they go to medical center from gynecological problems and they need to obtain permission from their husbands in order to seek aid at a medical center of a low percentage (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Women's reproductive health, gender discrimination status
Understanding fertility desire and reproductive health care needs of HIV positive men and women in the era of better access to antiretroviral therapy and improved health status is important in planning and organizing appropriate health services. To assess the fertility desire and reproductive health care needs of men and ...
African Journal of Reproductive Health (AJRH) is published by the Women's Health and Action Research Centre (WHARC). It is a multidisciplinary and international journal that publishes original research, comprehensive review articles, short reports and commentaries on reproductive health in Africa. The journal strives to ...
Vijayan K. Pillai; Rashmi Gupta
Background: Research on reproductive health in developing countries focuses mostly on the role of economic development on various components of reproductive health. Cross-sectional and empirical research studies in particular on the effects of non-economic factors such as reproductive rights remain few and far between. Objective: This study investigates the influence of two components of an empowerment strategy, gender equality, and reproductive rights on women’s reproductive health in develo...
Goicolea, Isabel; Hernandez, Alison
Abstract Although Tunisia is regarded as a pioneer in the Middle East and North Africa in terms of women’s status and rights, including sexual and reproductive health and rights, evidence points to a number of persisting challenges. This article uses the Health Rights of Women Assessment Instrument (HeRWAI) to analyze Tunisia’s reproductive health policy between 1994 and 2014. It explores the extent to which reproductive rights have been incorporated into the country’s reproductive health policy, the gaps in the implementation of this policy, and the influence of this policy on gender empowerment. Our results reveal that progress has been slow in terms of incorporating reproductive rights into the national reproductive health policy. Furthermore, the implementation of this policy has fallen short, as demonstrated by regional inequities in the accessibility and availability of reproductive health services, the low quality of maternal health care services, and discriminatory practices. Finally, the government’s lack of meaningful engagement in advancing gender empowerment stands in the way as the main challenge to gender equality in Tunisia. PMID:28559685
Jul 1, 2003 ... REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH AWARENESS AMONG ADOLESCENTS. By the end of ... young people face numerous reproductive heath challenges worldwide. Cardinal among these challenges include: unsafe sex, unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortion, HIV/AIDS and other classical (sexually transmitted ...
Pillai, Vijayan K; Gupta, Rashmi
Research on reproductive health in developing countries focuses mostly on the role of economic development on various components of reproductive health. Cross-sectional and empirical research studies in particular on the effects of non-economic factors such as reproductive rights remain few and far between. This study investigates the influence of two components of an empowerment strategy, gender equality, and reproductive rights on women's reproductive health in developing countries. The empowerment strategy for improving reproductive health is theoretically situated on a number of background factors such as economic and social development. Cross-national socioeconomic and demographic data from a number of international organizations on 142 developing countries are used to test a model of reproductive rights and reproductive health. The findings suggest that both economic and democratic development have significant positive effects on levels of gender equality. The level of social development plays a prominent role in promoting reproductive rights. It is found that reproductive rights channel the influences of social structural factors and gender equality on reproductive health.
Alexandrova-Yankulovska, S; Bozhinov, P; Bojinova, S
Medical progress has enabled achievements that were not even thinkable earlier but at the same time society and public health have had to face new challenges. What are we ready to accept in the area of human reproduction? This paper aims at ethical analysis of Bulgarian laws on reproduction. The abortion debate nowadays has got new dimiension focusing not that much on its moral acceptability but rather on the acceptable indications for its performance. Is it ethical to perform abortion in case of undesired gender of the embryo or genetic malformations? Lots of moral issues mark the area of assisted reproduction which is due to the separation of the reproductive functions (ova, sperm and embryo donation, surrogacy), fragmentation of motherhood and fatherhood, differentiation of biological and social parenthood. Defining limits of acceptable interference or non-interference in human reproduction will never be easy, but dynamics of moral judgment shouldn't bother us. The rigidity of moral norms is what should be alarming because it threatens procreative autonomy.
Beginning in the mid-1800s, the American Medical Association, antiobscenity crusaders, and even women's groups supported criminalization of abortion. By 1900, it was illegal nationwide. In the late 1960s, women, physicians, and states began questioning abortion laws, since many women had unsafe, often fatal, illegal abortions. By 1973, 4 states had legalized abortion and 15 other states had liberalized abortion laws. A mid-1960 study showed that private patients comprised about 95% of all elective abortions. Poor clinic patients did not have the power to convince 3 physicians to support their request for an abortion. IN 1965, the Supreme Court agreed that a Connecticut Planned Parenthood Affiliate had the right to distribute contraceptives. The 1973 Roe v. Wade Court decision advanced this decision, by confirming a woman's right to abortion during the first 2 semesters of pregnancy. In 1976, the US Congress passed the Hyde amendment forbidding federal funding (e.g., Medicaid) for abortions except to save a mother. 2 1980 Supreme Court decisions supported the Hyde amendment. The Hyde amendment and these court decisions showed discrimination against poor women. Since then there have been other decisions that have whittled away at Roe v. Wade. Contraceptive failure is responsible for about 50% of the 1.6 million abortions/year. About 60% of women having an abortion are under 25 years old. Thus, criminalization of abortion would adversely affect many women as well as society. Many prochoice physicians had cared for women who suffered from botched abortions. Physicians under 45 years old tend to not know how to perform a 2nd trimester abortion because most obstetrician/gynecology residency training programs do not require them to learn it, and they do not want to do them. 2nd trimester abortion should be a required part of residency training. Physicians as preservers of women's health should be advocating safe abortion and not adopt the legal vs. illegal abortion
Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is an important cause of mortality and morbidity all over the world and is particularly relevant in developing countries like India where the disease is endemic. Female reproductive system is very vulnerable to this infection and clinical presentation of this disease in female reproductive tract is protean in nature and in a large majority of patients could be completely silent. This disease is an important cause of infertility, menstrual irregularity, pregnancy loss, and in association with pregnancy, morbidity to both the mother and child increases. Some of the effects of TB infection on female genital tract could be remote in nature due to infection elsewhere. Medicines used to treat TB infection can also have adverse effects on contraception and other areas of female reproductive health. HIV coinfection and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB and increased population migration from developed to developing countries have now added a whole new dimension to this infection. Though new, finer diagnostic tools of detection of TB are increasingly available in the form of bacterial cultures and polymerase chain reaction (PCR based diagnostics, suspicion by clinicians remains the main tool for diagnosis of the condition. Hence, doctors need to be properly trained to become "Tuberculosis Minded".
Potts, Malcolm; Henderson, Courtney E
The largest absolute numbers of maternal deaths occur among the 40-50 million women who deliver annually without a skilled birth attendant. Most of these deaths occur in countries with a total fertility rate of greater than 4. The combination of global warming and rapid population growth in the Sahel and parts of the Middle East poses a serious threat to reproductive health and to food security. Poverty, lack of resources, and rapid population growth make it unlikely that most women in these countries will have access to skilled birth attendants or emergency obstetric care in the foreseeable future. Three strategies can be implemented to improve women's health and reproductive rights in high-fertility, low-resource settings: (1) make family planning accessible and remove non-evidenced-based barriers to contraception; (2) scale up community distribution of misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage and, where it is legal, for medical abortion; and (3) eliminate child marriage and invest in girls and young women, thereby reducing early childbearing. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cook, Rebecca J; Dickens, Bernard M
Stigmatization marks individuals for disgrace, shame, and even disgust-spoiling or tarnishing their social identities. It can be imposed accidentally by thoughtlessness or insensitivity; incidentally to another purpose; or deliberately to deter or punish conduct considered harmful to actors themselves, others, society, or moral values. Stigma has permeated attitudes toward recipients of sexual and reproductive health services, and at times to service providers. Resort to contraceptive products, to voluntary sterilization and abortion, and now to medically assisted reproductive care to overcome infertility has attracted stigma. Unmarried motherhood has a long history of shame, projected onto the "illegitimate" (bastard) child. The stigma of contracting sexually transmitted infections has been reinvigorated with HIV infection. Gynecologists and their professional associations, ethically committed to uphold human dignity and equality, especially for vulnerable women for whom they care, should be active to guard against, counteract, and relieve stigmatization of their patients and of related service providers. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jensen, Tina Kold; Swan, Shanna; Jørgensen, Niels
STUDY QUESTION: Is there an association between alcohol intake and semen quality and serum reproductive hormones among healthy men from the USA and Europe? SUMMARY ANSWER: Moderate alcohol intake is not adversely associated with semen quality in healthy men, whereas it was associated with higher...... sample size and the results have been contradictory. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A coordinated international cross-sectional study among 8344 healthy men. A total of 1872 fertile men aged 18-45 years (with pregnant partners) from four European cities and four US states, and 6472 young men (most...... with unknown fertility) aged 18-28 years from the general population in six European countries were recruited. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: The men were recruited using standardized protocols. A semen analysis was performed and men completed a questionnaire on health and lifestyle, including...
The African Journal of Reproductive Health is a multidisciplinary and international journal that publishes original research, comprehensive review articles, short reports and commentaries on reproductive health in Africa. The journal strives to provide a forum for African authors, as well as others working in Africa, to share ...
Reproductive health is an essential aspect of the wellbeing of adolescents. Therefore reproductive health knowledge and sexual behaviour deservedly attract the attention of researchers, programme planners and policy implementers working with young people. Yet in Nigeria, little is known about the effect of migration ...
C.A. Snijder (Claudia)
textabstractWith the increasing labour force participation among women in Western countries, many women will work during their reproductive years. This will increase the likelihood that women during their reproductive years will be exposed to a variety of risk factors at work that may
Behrman, Julia Andrea; Weitzman, Abigail
This article explores the effects of the 2010 Haiti earthquake on women's reproductive health, using geocoded data from the 2005 and 2012 Haiti Demographic and Health Surveys. We use geographic variation in the destructiveness of the earthquake to conduct a difference-in-difference analysis. Results indicate that heightened earthquake intensity reduced use of injectables-the most widely used modern contraceptive method in Haiti-and increased current pregnancy and current unwanted pregnancy. Analysis of impact pathways suggests that severe earthquake intensity significantly increased women's unmet need for family planning and reduced their access to condoms. The earthquake also affected other factors that influence reproductive health, including women's ability to negotiate condom use in their partnerships. Our findings highlight how disruptions to health care services following a natural disaster can have negative consequences for women's reproductive health. © 2016 The Population Council, Inc.
Allotey, Pascale A; Diniz, Simone; Dejong, Jocelyn; Delvaux, Thérèse; Gruskin, Sofia; Fonn, Sharon
This paper addresses the challenges faced in mainstreaming the teaching of sexual and reproductive health and rights into public health education. For this paper, we define sexual and reproductive health and rights education as including not only its biomedical aspects but also an understanding of its history, values and politics, grounded in gender politics and social justice, addressing sexuality, and placed within a broader context of health systems and global health. Using a case study approach with an opportunistically selected sample of schools of public health within our regional contexts, we examine the status of sexual and reproductive health and rights education and some of the drivers and obstacles to the development and delivery of sexual and reproductive health and rights curricula. Despite diverse national and institutional contexts, there are many commonalities. Teaching of sexual and reproductive health and rights is not fully integrated into core curricula. Existing initiatives rely on personal faculty interest or short-term courses, neither of which are truly sustainable or replicable. We call for a multidisciplinary and more comprehensive integration of sexual and reproductive health and rights in public health education. The education of tomorrow's public health leaders is critical, and a strategy is needed to ensure that they understand and are prepared to engage with the range of sexual and reproductive health and rights issues within their historical and political contexts. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUN D: Accessibility of health services for reproductive health (RH) is an important factor in increasing use of reproductive health services. Reports show that reproductive health services access in Ethiopia varies by region. A better understanding of the accessibility and utilization of existing reproductive health ...
Full Text Available Reproductive health represents a state of complete physical, mental and social prosperity, and not just the absence of illness or weakness, and it refers to reproductive processes, functions and systems. Adolescents, young people from the age of ten to nineteen, are yet to achieve their reproductive function, thus their reproductive health and behavior are very significant both from the individual and social standpoint. Risky behavior, which represents the main cause of diseases that young people contract most often, in the field of sexuality often lead to unplanned pregnancies and abortions, as well as diseases from sexually transmitted infections. The extensiveness can be decreased by prevention. Reproductive health promotion, as well as general health promotion, understands a social surrounding that supports healthy behavior styles. Above all, the family, schoolmates, health and school systems, mass media, without neglecting the importance of economic, social and political security in society, political and legal solutions, as well as activities of nongovernmental, religious and other organizations. Their impact, in complex interaction, directly and indirectly influence youth behavior and determine the decisions they make regarding reproductive health.
Prescott, Alexandra S.; Luippold-Roge, Genevieve P.; Gurman, Tilly A.
Objective: Maya women in Guatemala are disproportionately affected by poverty and negative reproductive health outcomes. Although social networks are valued in many Indigenous cultures, few studies have explored whether health education programmes can leverage these networks to improve reproductive health and economic wellbeing. Design: This…
However conscientious objection amongst the available few is a hitherto undocumented potential factor influencing access to health care in SSA. Provision of certain reproductive health services goes counter to some individual's religious and moral beliefs and practices. Health providers sometimes refuse to participate in or ...
Pal, P; Joshi, V
Reproductive health is one of the major issues of current feminist debates. The issue was brought to light because of population control policies which are being enforced through women's bodies and the spread of HIV/AIDS. In this context, women's organizations and activists are trying to focus upon the issue of reproductive health as part of the larger issue of the position of women in families, societies, and states. Policy makers and donor agencies are trying to address the problem as lack of awareness and knowledge of how to use contraceptives. The authors argue in this situation that it is important to study reproductive health relative to the status of women in society. This paper looks at the existing social construct of patriarchy and population control policies in relation to reproductive health. Women and self, the reproductive role of women, preference for male children, family planning decision making, family planning programs and reproductive health, and the Vikalp program in two districts of Rajasthan are discussed.
Full Text Available Environmental contaminants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs are man-made bioaccumulative compounds with long half-lives that are found throughout the world as a result of heavy use in a variety of consumer products during the twentieth century. Wildlife and animal studies have long suggested adverse effects of exposure to these compounds on human reproductive health, which, according to the endocrine disrupter hypothesis, are ascribed to the compounds' potential to interfere with endocrine signaling, especially when exposure occurs during certain phases of fetal and childhood development. An extensive number of epidemiological studies have addressed the possible effects of exposure to POPs on male reproductive health, but the results are conflicting. Thus far, most studies have focused on investigating exposure and the different reproductive health outcomes during adulthood. Some studies have addressed the potential harmful effects of fetal exposure with respect to malformations at birth and/or reproductive development, whereas only a few studies have been able to evaluate whether intrauterine exposure to POPs has long-term consequences for male reproductive health with measurable effects on semen quality markers and reproductive hormone levels in adulthood. Humans are not exposed to a single compound at a time, but rather, to a variety of different substances with potential divergent hormonal effects. Hence, how to best analyze epidemiological data on combined exposures remains a significant challenge. This review on POPs will focus on current knowledge regarding the potential effects of exposure to POPs during fetal and childhood life and during adulthood on male reproductive health, including a critical revision of the endocrine disruption hypothesis, a comment on pubertal development as part of reproductive development and a comment on how to account for combined exposures in epidemiological research.
V K Srivastava
Full Text Available The international community for the first time during the International Conference on Population and Development in 1994 defined the Reproductive Health, not in a demographic context, but as a right and matter of choice for even individual. In the years that followed other International Conferences on women issues reinforced this consensus. The human right relevant of Reproductive Health includes :The right to life and healthThe freedom to marry and determine the number, timing and spacing of childrenThe right to access the informationThe right to discrimination and equality for men and womenThe right to liberty and security of the person, including freedom from sexual violence and coercionThe right to privacyThe women all over the world have the same reproductive health needs, however, the factors like migration and urbanization that influence the involuntary movement of populations within the national frontiers render them more vulnerable, including to reproductive health problems. This increases their needs for preventive and curative care, including sendees related to safe motherhood, family planning, prevention and treatment of complicated abortions. HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections (STls. The consequences of sexual violence, traditional values, extended families, new friends and unfamiliar ways of life, inadequate reproductive health sendees etc are unusual impediments for availing the sendees.
Cook, R J
This work examines reproductive health within the framework of human rights assured by various international conventions, and analyzes the high maternal mortality rates of developing countries as a violation of several guaranteed rights. The 1st of 3 main sections of the report discusses the failure of governments to make protection of women's reproductive health a priority. Historically, women's principal role has been to bear children, and no recognition was given to the cost in health of accomplishing this duty. Women's reproductive health has created controversies in many traditional juridical systems because of its relation to human sexuality and morals. WHO has estimated that some 500,000 maternal deaths occur each year, with 25-50% resulting from unsafe abortions. The causes of maternal mortality often have their roots in the poor nutrition or inadequate health care provided to the woman long before the 1st pregnancy. Early and frequent pregnancies and heavy physical labor are among the many factors that contribute to maternal death. Laws to protect women's health may be lacking or may not be applied. For example, many countries have no legal minimum age for marriage. To combat the traditional negligence, a new viewpoint is emerging which views women's reproductive health as a condition in which childbearing occurs in a state of physical, mental, and social wellbeing. It implies that women have the capacity to reproduce, regulate their fertility, and enjoy sexual relations. Laws that deny access to reproductive health services or place obstacles or conditions in the way are coming under question as violations of basic human rights of women protected by international conventions. The main such convention discussed in this article is the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, although several other conventions are relevant to protecting women's reproductive health. If international law on human rights is to become truly
Kyilleh, Joseph Maaminu; Tabong, Philip Teg-Nefaah; Konlaan, Benson Boinkum
In Ghana, adolescents constitute about a quarter of the total population. These adolescents make reproductive health decisions and choices based on their knowledge and the availability of such choices. These reproductive health decisions and choices can either negatively or positively affect their lives. This study therefore explored adolescents' reproductive health knowledge and choices, the type of choices they make and the factors that affect these choices. This qualitative study adopted a narrative approach to qualitative enquiry. Eight focus group discussions (N = 80) were conducted among both in-school and out-of-school adolescents aged 10-19 years. The discussions were stratified by sex and studentship. In addition, nine in-depth interviews were conducted with various stakeholders in reproductive health services and community opinion leaders. Both the focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using NVivo 11. Thematic analysis was employed in analysing data. The study found that knowledge on reproductive health choices was low among respondents with majority of them relying on their peers for information on sexual and reproductive health. Having a sexual partner(s) and engaging in premarital sex was common and viewed as normal. Adolescents engaged in unprotected sexual practices as a way of testing their fertility, assurance of love, bait for marriage and for livelihood. Inserting herbs into the vagina, drinking concoctions and boiled pawpaw leaves were identified as local methods employed by adolescents to induce abortion. Reproductive health services were available in the community but received low utilization because of perceived negative attitude of health workers, confidentiality and social norms. Adolescents in this study generally engaged in risky reproductive health choices that can negatively affect their reproductive health. Adolescents in this part of Ghana have challenges utilizing available
Strengthening Governance in Health Systems for Reproductive Health and Rights in Pakistan. Pakistan, with the world's sixth largest population, is part of a region that is notorious for its social and gender inequities. As a low-income country, its population has faced numerous economic challenges, especially in the last two ...
Adolescent sexual and reproductive health access continues to dominate the development agenda since the historic 1994 Cairo Conference and becomes a huge public health concern for the increasing diverse of undocumented adolescents who have become an important component as irregular migration patterns and ...
Vested, Anne; Giwercman, Aleksander; Bonde, Jens Peter
Environmental contaminants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are man-made bioaccumulative compounds with long half-lives that are found throughout the world as a result of heavy use in a variety of consumer products during the twentieth century. Wildlife and animal studies have long...... suggested adverse effects of exposure to these compounds on human reproductive health, which, according to the endocrine disrupter hypothesis, are ascribed to the compounds' potential to interfere with endocrine signaling, especially when exposure occurs during certain phases of fetal and childhood...... development. An extensive number of epidemiological studies have addressed the possible effects of exposure to POPs on male reproductive health, but the results are conflicting. Thus far, most studies have focused on investigating exposure and the different reproductive health outcomes during adulthood. Some...
Toppari, J; Larsen, J C; Christiansen, Peter
that the adverse changes may be inter-related and have a common origin in fetal life or childhood. Exposure of the male fetus to supranormal levels of estrogens, such as diethlylstilbestrol, can result in the above-mentioned reproductive defects. The growing number of reports demonstrating that common......Male reproductive health has deteriorated in many countries during the last few decades. In the 1990s, declining semen quality has been reported from Belgium, Denmark, France, and Great Britain. The incidence of testicular cancer has increased during the same time incidences of hypospadias...... and cryptorchidism also appear to be increasing. Similar reproductive problems occur in many wildlife species. There are marked geographic differences in the prevalence of male reproductive disorders. While the reasons for these differences are currently unknown, both clinical and laboratory research suggest...
Toppari, J.; Larsen, John Christian; Christiansen, Pia
that the adverse changes may be inter-related and have a common origin in fetal life or childhood. Exposure of the male fetus to supranormal levels of estrogens, such as diethlylstilbestrol, can result in the above-mentioned reproductive defects. The growing number of reports demonstrating that common......Male reproductive health has deteriorated in many countries during the last few decades. in the 1990s, declining semen quality has been reported from Belgium, Denmark, France, and Great Britain. The incidence of testicular cancer has increased during the same time. incidences of hypospadias...... and cryptorchidism also appear to be increasing. Similar reproductive problems occur in many wildlife species. There are marked geographic differences in the prevalence of male reproductive disorders. While the reasons for these differences are currently unknown, both clinical and laboratory research suggest...
Garanina I. G.
Full Text Available The author considers the established stereotypes which are summarized prejudices identifying the membership of certain people in a certain group. The article reveals that women are victims of stereotyping them as housekeepers and mothers in the negative sense, which exclude them from performing other roles and functions. There are examples from the foreign legislation where they dispel the stereotype of a woman as a reproductive instrument and uphold the woman‘s right to equal dignity with men in their reproductive choice
Nelen, W.L.D.M.; Hermens, R.P.M.G.; Mourad, S.M.; Haagen, E.C.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Kremer, J.A.M.
Monitoring reproductive health by the Reprostat indicators in Europe will facilitate the transparency of reproductive health as well as comparisons over time and between countries. However, for the monitoring and improvement of reproductive health care, we suggest the systematic development of
Toppari, J; Larsen, J C; Christiansen, Peter
environmental contaminants and natural factors possess estrogenic activity presents the working hypothesis that the adverse trends in male reproductive health may be, at least in part, associated with exposure to estrogenic or other hormonally active (e.g., antiandrogenic) environmental chemicals during fetal......Male reproductive health has deteriorated in many countries during the last few decades. In the 1990s, declining semen quality has been reported from Belgium, Denmark, France, and Great Britain. The incidence of testicular cancer has increased during the same time incidences of hypospadias...
This article addresses the issue concerning the reproductive health and international human rights of women. The modern era of human rights applied to women's health started with the adoption of the UN Charter in 1946 and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted by the General Assembly in 1948. However, the leading instrument of women's equal rights is the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women adopted in 1979. This treaty assumed the legal responsibility to eradicate all forms of discrimination against women, particularly in the field of health care, thus ensuring that women will have access to health and family planning services. The concept of health as "the state of physical, mental and social well-being" as described by WHO emphasizes the significance of the social well-being in which the social, cultural, and economic factors plays a pivotal role in women's health status. In other parts of the world however, women are considered as relatively insignificant and are made to suffer discrimination in health because of their sex role. Such disadvantages against the female gender include injustices in the light of human rights law, particularly in the context of reproductive health services. Addressing the health disadvantages of women calls for actions gearing towards the promotion of women's empowerment. Efforts to advance the reproductive health through human rights of women should be rooted on the existing framework of human rights as recognized in most national constitutions and international human rights treaties.
Schenker, J G
It is important to those who practice reproduction techniques to learn about the different religious attitudes related to reproductive health problems. Religion exerts an influence on civil authorities in the field of reproduction such as prevention or procreation and in issues such as abortion and infertility therapy. The Jewish attitude towards reproduction can be learned from the fact that the first commandment of God to Adam was be fruitful and multiply. Judaism allows the practice of all techniques of assisted reproduction when the oocyte and sperm originate from the wife and husband, respectively. All Rabbinical rulings permit the use of contraception for medical indications. Economic difficulties and inconveniences of raising children are not indications for birth control practice. According to Judaism abortion on demand is forbidden but it may be performed if the mother's life is in danger. The attitude toward reproductive practice is different among the different divisions of Christianity. The practice of assisted reproduction is not accepted by the Vatican, however, it may be practiced by Protestant, Anglican and other Denomination's. According to the Roman Catholic doctrine the primary purpose of marriage is procreation. The contraceptive act destroys the potential of producing new life by sexual intercourse and violates the purpose of marriage and, therefore, is a sin against nature. The Christian tradition views the embryo as a human being since conception and, therefore, abortion is strictly forbidden. According to Islam, the procedure of IVF and ET is acceptable, however, it can be preformed only if it involves the husband and the wife. It allows contraception practice only under some circumstances and only in some special cases abortion can be preformed. Religion, being concerned with affairs that are regarded as extraordinary and as having unique importance in life, is an intrinsic aspect of the culture of all societies, religious groups, however
Adinma, Echendu D; Adinma, Brian-D J I
Gender, for its impact on virtually every contemporary life issue, can rightly be regarded as a foremost component of reproductive health. Reproductive health basically emphasises on people and their rights to sexuality, reproduction, and family planning, and the information to actualize these right, which has been inextricably linked to development at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo, Egypt, in 1994. Women's sexual and reproductive rights became recognised as universal human right, violations of which occur in some reproductive health areas including gender concerns. Gender inequality and inequity encompass gender based violence as well as gender discrimination which cuts across the life cycle of the woman; attitudes, religious and cultural practices of various nations; and issues related to employment, economy, politics, and development. The redress of gender inequality is a collective responsibility of nations and supranational agencies. Nations should adopt a framework hinged on three pedestals--legal, institutional and policy, employing the three recommended approaches of equal treatment, positive action, and gender mainstreaming.
Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Abedian, Kobra
One proposed strategy to improve youth health is needs assessment, a process for determining and addressing the needs of individual groups. The aim of this study was to explore the attitudes and perceptions of Iranian university students toward reproductive health needs, in order to promote the provision of reproductive health services. Using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among 548 students who were randomly selected from eight universities in Sari City, Iran. Topics covered the participants' attitudes towards reproductive health needs as well as their opinion about proper sources of information in this area, as measured using a 5-point Likert scale. The mean age of participants was 21.57 years, and 57.82% were female. The maximum score of perceived reproductive health needs was related to "Be informed about appropriate behavior with my spouse", and the majority of students (82.82%) supported family-based reproductive health education with emphasis on the mothers' role. Although 65.14% of the participants agreed that "When a young has been raped, it's better that she/he counsel with her/his family", 11.67% of them stated that she/he must hide the problem. Finally, we found that 60.40% of the students preferred someone in a health care center as the one to explain how to use any contraception that may be provided for them. Taken as a whole, these findings support the critical importance of programming for university students as part of a comprehensive strategy to improve the health and development of young adults.
Amroussia, Nada; Goicolea, Isabel; Hernandez, Alison
Although Tunisia is regarded as a pioneer in the Middle East and North Africa in terms of women's status and rights, including sexual and reproductive health and rights, evidence points to a number of persisting challenges. This article uses the Health Rights of Women Assessment Instrument (HeRWAI) to analyze Tunisia's reproductive health policy between 1994 and 2014. It explores the extent to which reproductive rights have been incorporated into the country's reproductive health policy, the gaps in the implementation of this policy, and the influence of this policy on gender empowerment. Our results reveal that progress has been slow in terms of incorporating reproductive rights into the national reproductive health policy. Furthermore, the implementation of this policy has fallen short, as demonstrated by regional inequities in the accessibility and availability of reproductive health services, the low quality of maternal health care services, and discriminatory practices. Finally, the government's lack of meaningful engagement in advancing gender empowerment stands in the way as the main challenge to gender equality in Tunisia.
Full Text Available Despite the intensive national campaign for safe motherhood and legalization of induced abortion (IA, morbidity from abortion has remained a serious problem for Indian women. This study examined the consequences of IA on women’s reproductive health. Analysis used data of 90,303 ever-married women age 15-49 years, included in India’s second National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2, 1998-99. Binary logistic regression methods were used to examine the consequences of IA on women’s reproductive health. Independent of other factors, the likelihood of experiencing any reproductive health problems was 1.5 times higher (OR,1.46;95%CI,1.33-1.60;P<0.001 among women who had one IA and 1.9 times higher (OR,1.85;95%CI,1.52-2.27;P<0.001 among women who had two or more IA compared to women with no history of IA. Study suggests that IA may have negative consequences for women’s reproductive health.
Stotland, Nada Logan
Reproductive rights are essential to the recognition/treatment of women as full-fledged human beings/citizens. Barriers to reproductive rights pose a grave danger to women's well-being. This article explores the origins of these barriers, their nature, and their impact on mental health. The most controversial relationship is between induced abortion and mental health. Barriers, misinformation, and coercion affecting contraceptive, abortion, and pregnancy care are an ongoing danger to women's mental health and the well-being of their families. Mental health professionals are best qualified, and have an obligation, to know the facts, apply them, and provide accurate information to protect women's health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Toppari, J; Larsen, J C; Christiansen, P; Giwercman, A; Grandjean, P; Guillette, L J; Jégou, B; Jensen, T K; Jouannet, P; Keiding, N; Leffers, H; McLachlan, J A; Meyer, O; Müller, J; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Scheike, T; Sharpe, R; Sumpter, J; Skakkebaek, N E
Male reproductive health has deteriorated in many countries during the last few decades. In the 1990s, declining semen quality has been reported from Belgium, Denmark, France, and Great Britain. The incidence of testicular cancer has increased during the same time incidences of hypospadias and cryptorchidism also appear to be increasing. Similar reproductive problems occur in many wildlife species. There are marked geographic differences in the prevalence of male reproductive disorders. While the reasons for these differences are currently unknown, both clinical and laboratory research suggest that the adverse changes may be inter-related and have a common origin in fetal life or childhood. Exposure of the male fetus to supranormal levels of estrogens, such as diethlylstilbestrol, can result in the above-mentioned reproductive defects. The growing number of reports demonstrating that common environmental contaminants and natural factors possess estrogenic activity presents the working hypothesis that the adverse trends in male reproductive health may be, at least in part, associated with exposure to estrogenic or other hormonally active (e.g., antiandrogenic) environmental chemicals during fetal and childhood development. An extensive research program is needed to understand the extent of the problem, its underlying etiology, and the development of a strategy for prevention and intervention.
This research project will contribute to evidence from four country case studies in Syria, South Sudan, Mali, and Colombia or the Democratic Republic of Congo as part of a global project to inform developing operational guidance on interventions related to reproductive, maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health ...
van Dalen, H.P.; Micevska Scharf, M.; Kulczycki, A.
In this contribution the authors show that development assistance targeting reproductive health overwhelmingly concentrates on HIV/AIDS at the expense of family planning elements. Data on financial contributions disbursed by governments and private foundations are used as collected by the Resource
The study examined the reproductive health and psychological effects of female genital mutilation, in one traditional area in the Upper East region (i.e. Kayoro Traditional Area) of Ghana. The results of the study revealed that, the practice of FGM actually affects the physical (deforming the female genitalia), psychological (the ...
Toppari, J; Larsen, J C; Christiansen, Peter
Male reproductive health has deteriorated in many countries during the last few decades. In the 1990s, declining semen quality has been reported from Belgium, Denmark, France, and Great Britain. The incidence of testicular cancer has increased during the same time incidences of hypospadias...
Nearly one third of Nigeria's total population of 148.1 million is between the ages of 10 and 24. Nigerian adolescents' sizeable share of the population makes them integral to the country's social, political and economic development. Nigeria's development is compromised by the sexual and reproductive health issues afflicting its youth. Lack of…
consequences of the major reproductive health challenges confronting Africa. This was and remains the gap that the .... familiale (PF), les pratiques sexuelles, la grossesse, la violence sexuelle et sexiste, l'éducation sexuelle, ... recherche de la santé chez les adolescents non mariés et les jeunes adultes et les interventions.
This paper reviews 44 National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs) to assess the NAPA process and identify the range of interventions included in countries' priority adaptation actions and highlight how population issues and reproductive health/family planning (RH/FP) are addressed as part of the adaptation ...
This was an exploratory study on how dressmakers and hairdressers in the Assin South District of Ghana receive education on sexual and reproductive health. The respondents comprised mainly of full time female dressmakers and hairdressers as well as their apprentices (aged between 15 and 35 years, had attained ...
Methods: A cross sectional survey of the reproductive health knowledge and practices of 412 junior secondary school pupils from 12 schools in Enugu State, Nigeria was undertaken using a uniform set of structured self-administered questionnaire. Results: The results revealed that while the pupils demonstrated fair ...
Conclusion: Though respondents were knowledgeable about benefits of family planning, there is the need for continuous education of women about reproductive health issues and integration of men's participation in family planning programme to increase utilization of family planning services in Ibadan, Nigeria.
Context: The continued poor reproductive health behaviour and outcomes among youths informed the investigation of the knowledge, attitudes, sexual behaviour, outcomes and care-seeking among university students in Zaria, north western Nigeria. Methods: Using a cross-sectional descriptive study design, ...
Young women and girls in South Africa are at high risk of unintended pregnancy and HIV. Previous studies have reported barriers to contraceptive and other sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services among young women in this context. We aimed to assess young women's SRH knowledge and experiences and to ...
Phipps, Amanda I; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Prentice, Ross; McTiernan, Anne; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Kuller, Lewis H; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Lane, Dorothy; Stefanick, Marcia L; Vitolins, Mara; Kabat, Geoffrey C; Rohan, Thomas E; Li, Christopher I
Triple-negative (ie, estrogen receptor [ER], progesterone receptor, and HER2 negative) breast cancer occurs disproportionately among African American women compared with white women and is associated with a worse prognosis than ER-positive (ER+) breast cancer. Hormonally mediated risk factors may be differentially related to risk of triple-negative and ER+ breast cancers. Using data from 155,723 women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative, we assessed associations between reproductive and menstrual history, breastfeeding, oral contraceptive use, and subtype-specific breast cancer risk. We used Cox regression to evaluate associations with triple-negative (N = 307) and ER+ (N = 2610) breast cancers and used partial likelihood methods to test for differences in subtype-specific hazard ratios (HRs). Reproductive history was differentially associated with risk of triple-negative and ER+ breast cancers. Nulliparity was associated with decreased risk of triple-negative breast cancer (HR = 0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.37 to 0.97) but increased risk of ER+ breast cancer (HR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.20 to 1.52). Age-adjusted absolute rates of triple-negative breast cancer were 2.71 and 1.54 per 10,000 person-years in parous and nulliparous women, respectively; by comparison, rates of ER+ breast cancer were 21.10 and 28.16 per 10,000 person-years in the same two groups. Among parous women, the number of births was positively associated with risk of triple-negative disease (HR for three births or more vs one birth = 1.46, 95% CI = 0.82 to 2.63) and inversely associated with risk of ER+ disease (HR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.74 to 1.04). Ages at menarche and menopause were modestly associated with risk of ER+ but not triple-negative breast cancer; breastfeeding and oral contraceptive use were not associated with either subtype. The association between parity and breast cancer risk differs appreciably for ER+ and triple-negative breast cancers. These findings require further
influence their sexual behaviors and to determine the extent to which adolescents had access to sexual and reproductive health information. Methods: The case study ... with sexual reproduction health education, information and services. ..... munity health workers as their main sources of sexual and reproductive health ...
Stillman, R J
Normal cyclic menstruation involves a delicate concert of hormonal events, characterized by midcycle ovulation and, if no pregnancy is achieved, menstrual flow. Women's health--and especially their reproductive health and fertility--may be affected by abnormalities in cyclicity or in menstruation. A number of valuable modes of therapy have recently become available. Abnormal cyclicity may be caused by decreased estrogen levels (from exercise, smoking, or eating disorders). Small ovulation ind...
Vitko, Michelle; O'Conor, Rachel; Bailey, Stacy Cooper
Abstract Background: Health literacy is thought to impact women's reproductive health, yet no comprehensive systematic reviews have been conducted on the topic. Our objective was to systematically identify, investigate, and summarize research on the relationship between health literacy and women's reproductive health knowledge, behaviors, and outcomes. Methods: PRISMA guidelines were used to guide this review. English language, peer-reviewed research articles indexed in MEDLINE as of February 2015 were searched, along with study results posted on Clinicaltrials.gov. Articles were included if they (1) described original data-driven research conducted in developed countries, (2) were published in a peer-reviewed journal, (3) measured health literacy using a validated assessment, (4) reported on the relationship between health literacy and reproductive health outcomes, related knowledge, or behaviors, and (5) consisted of a study population that included reproductive age women. Results: A total of 34 articles met eligibility criteria and were included in this review. Data were abstracted from articles by two study authors using a standardized form. Abstracted data were then reviewed and summarized in table format. Overall, health literacy was associated with reproductive health knowledge across a spectrum of topics. It was also related to certain health behaviors, such as prenatal vitamin use and breastfeeding. Its relationship with other reproductive behaviors and outcomes remains unclear. Conclusions: Health literacy plays an important role in reproductive knowledge and may impact behaviors and outcomes. While further research is necessary, healthcare providers should utilize health literacy best practices now to promote high-quality care for patients. PMID:27564780
Look, P. F. A. van; Heggenhougen, Kris; Quah, Stella R
.... Major changes have taken place in the last 15 years in the way decision-makers think about the subject and the manner in which programmes deliver comprehensive sexual and reproductive health services...
Toppari, J; Larsen, J C; Christiansen, Peter
and cryptorchidism also appear to be increasing. Similar reproductive problems occur in many wildlife species. There are marked geographic differences in the prevalence of male reproductive disorders. While the reasons for these differences are currently unknown, both clinical and laboratory research suggest...... environmental contaminants and natural factors possess estrogenic activity presents the working hypothesis that the adverse trends in male reproductive health may be, at least in part, associated with exposure to estrogenic or other hormonally active (e.g., antiandrogenic) environmental chemicals during fetal...... and childhood development. An extensive research program is needed to understand the extent of the problem, its underlying etiology, and the development of a strategy for prevention and intervention....
This article presents an outline of India's Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) Programme. This program provides special interventions for the country's adolescent population. One of its main objectives is to help stabilize population numbers, including adolescents, at a level consistent with the needs and goals of national development. A committee of experts constituted in the Department of Family Welfare developed an appropriate package for adolescents, focusing on counseling and the provision of reproductive health services through the existing health care delivery system. In addition, special projects for people living in urban slums and tribal areas have been incorporated in the RCH Programme. Its view has been to improve the delivery of family health care services. The success of the Programme has depended on the development of a strong partnership between the Government and non-Governmental organizations, and in overcoming age-old values and prejudice against adolescent girls. Moreover, India's reconceptualized population education, which brings the education of adolescents into focus, includes elements of adolescent reproductive health.
Linna, Milla S; Raevuori, Anu; Haukka, Jari; Suvisaari, Jaana M; Suokas, Jaana T; Gissler, Mika
Eating disorders are common psychiatric disorders in women at childbearing age. Previous research suggests that eating disorders are associated with fertility problems, unplanned pregnancies, and increased risk of induced abortions and miscarriages. The purpose of this study was to assess how eating disorders are related to reproductive health outcomes in a representative patient population. Female patients (N = 2,257) treated at the eating disorder clinic of Helsinki University Central Hospital during 1995-2010 were compared with matched controls identified from the Central Population Register (N = 9,028). Patients had been diagnosed (ICD-10) with anorexia nervosa (AN), atypical AN, bulimia nervosa (BN), atypical BN, or binge eating disorder (BED, according to DSM-IV research criteria). Register-based data on number of children, pregnancies, childbirths, induced abortions, miscarriages, and infertility treatments were used to measure reproductive health outcomes. Patients were more likely to be childless than controls [odds ratio (OR) 1.86; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.62-2.13, p health outcomes are compromised in women with a history of eating disorders across all eating disorder types. Our findings emphasize the importance of reproductive health counseling and monitoring among women with eating disorders. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Henningsen, Anna-Karina Aaris; Gissler, M.; Skjaerven, R.
to lowering the rate of multiples but also concerning the health of singletons. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) The European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE), the University of Copenhagen and the Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation has supported the project. The Co......NARTaS group has received travel and meeting funding from the Nordic Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology (NFOG). None of the authors has any competing interests to declare....
Harlow, Siobán D
This commentary discusses the intersection of human ovarian and somatic aging. It argues for re-contextualizing estrogen's role in and impact on ovarian aging and, more broadly, on women's health, considering in particular the importance of timing, dose, and the broader endocrine milieu. Distinguishing between current clinical needs and optimizing women's future options, the paper outlines an approach to broadening the research agenda to better understand the role of ovarian aging in supporting the metabolic demands of longevity. Three overarching issues important to consider explicitly as we pursue research on the health correlates of reproductive aging are discussed, including implications of a lifespan approach, population diversity, and selection bias.
African Journal of Reproductive Health. ... African Journal of Reproductive Health - Vol 4, No 2 (2000). Journal Home > Archives > Vol 4, No 2 (2000). Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Editorial: Female Genital Mutilation: A Model for Research on Sexual and Reproductive Rights. OA Olatunbosun ...
According to a Department of Health (DOH) official speaking at the recent Reproductive Health Advocacy Forum in Zamboanga City, the concept of reproductive health (RH) is now on the way to being fully integrated into the Philippines' primary health care system. The DOH is also developing integrated information, education, and communication material for an intensified advocacy campaign on RH among target groups in communities. The forum was held to enhance the knowledge and practice of RH among health, population and development program managers, field workers, and local government units. In this new RH framework, family planning becomes just one of many concerns of the RH package of services which includes maternal and child health, sexuality education, the prevention and treatment of abortion complications, prevention of violence against women, and the treatment of reproductive tract infections. Of concern, however, the Asian economic crisis has led the Philippine government to reduce funding, jeopardizing the public sector delivery of basic services, including reproductive health care. The crisis has also forced other governments in the region to reassess their priorities and redirect their available resources into projects which are practical and sustainable.
This workgroup report addresses the central question: what are the critical windows during development (pre-conception through puberty) when exposure to xenobiotics may have the greatest adverse impact on subsequent reproductive health. The reproductive system develops in stages...
Padmanabhan, V; Veiga-Lopez, A
Inappropriate programming of the reproductive system by developmental exposure to excess steroid hormones is of concern. Sheep are well suited for investigating developmental origin of reproductive and metabolic disorders. The developmental time line of female sheep (approximately 5 mo gestation and approximately 7 mo to puberty) is ideal for conducting sequential studies of the progression of metabolic and/or reproductive disruption from the developmental insult to manifestation of adult consequences. Major benefits of using sheep include knowledge of established critical periods to target adult defects, a rich understanding of reproductive neuroendocrine regulation, availability of noninvasive approaches to monitor follicular dynamics, established surgical approaches to obtain hypophyseal portal blood for measurement of hypothalamic hormones, and the ability to perform studies in natural setting thereby keeping behavioral interactions intact. Of importance is the ability to chronically instrument fetus and mother for determining early endocrine perturbations. Prenatal exposure of the female to excess testosterone (T) leads to an array of adult reproductive disorders that include LH excess, functional hyperandrogenism, neuroendocrine defects, multifollicular ovarian morphology, and corpus luteum dysfunction culminating in early reproductive failure. At the neuroendocrine level, all 3 feedback systems are compromised. At the pituitary level, gonadotrope (LH secretion) sensitivity to GnRH is increased. Multifollicular ovarian morphology stems from persistence of follicles as well as enhanced follicular recruitment. These defects culminate in progressive loss of cyclicity and reduced fecundity. Prenatal T excess also leads to fetal growth retardation, an early marker of adult reproductive and metabolic diseases, insulin resistance, hypertension, and behavioral deficits. Collectively, the reproductive and metabolic deficits of prenatal T-treated sheep provide proof of
Sen, Gita; Govender, Veloshnee
Sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) are centrally important to health. However, there have been significant shortcomings in implementing SRHR to date. In the context of health systems reform and universal health coverage/care (UHC), this paper explores the following questions. What do these changes in health systems thinking mean for SRHR and gender equity in health in the context of renewed calls for increased investments in the health of women and girls? Can SRHR be integrated usefully into the call for UHC, and if so how? Can health systems reforms address the continuing sexual and reproductive ill health and violations of sexual and reproductive rights (SRR)? Conversely, can the attention to individual human rights that is intrinsic to the SRHR agenda and its continuing concerns about equality, quality and accountability provide impetus for strengthening the health system? The paper argues that achieving equity on the UHC path will require a combination of system improvements and services that benefit all, together with special attention to those whose needs are great and who are likely to fall behind in the politics of choice and voice (i.e., progressive universalism paying particular attention to gender inequalities).
This article opens by tabulating selected family planning (FP) indicators from the 24 poorest countries (those with a gross national product (GNP) of up to $300 per capita). Consideration of what is poverty and who are the poor concludes that poverty is hard to define but that is it a combination of low income, low life expectancy, illiteracy, and low educational levels; that is, the result of a denial of choices and opportunities. The poorest countries by this criteria differ somewhat from the poorest chosen according to GNP, but most are located in sub-Saharan Africa. The use of national data is complicated by the fact that huge differences exist between rich and poor within countries. The poorest countries have the lowest use of FP, the most restrictive abortion laws, high incidences of mortality associated with unsafe abortion, and high maternal mortality rates. International population and FP assistance is embarrassingly low and unfairly allocated. International assistance must be increased to break the cycle of poverty and improve reproductive health. The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) believes that improvement of reproductive health for the impoverished is a basic condition for human development and reduction of global inequity. In its policy statement on this topic, the IPPF recommends that local FP associations 1) constantly reevaluate how to maximize their impact on the most vulnerable, 2) be pioneers in the field of sexual and reproductive health, 3) reassess priorities in light of diminishing donor funding, 4) become advocates for increased resources and to further the work they are undertaking, and 5) strengthen collaboration with other development agencies working in the field.
Stillman, R J
Normal cyclic menstruation involves a delicate concert of hormonal events, characterized by midcycle ovulation and, if no pregnancy is achieved, menstrual flow. Women's health--and especially their reproductive health and fertility--may be affected by abnormalities in cyclicity or in menstruation. A number of valuable modes of therapy have recently become available. Abnormal cyclicity may be caused by decreased estrogen levels (from exercise, smoking, or eating disorders). Small ovulation induction pumps, which deliver minute physiologic concentrations of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) around the clock, can be used for safe and successful treatment. Increased estrogen levels may also affect cyclicity, and may be suppressed with new GnRH antagonists or stimulated to cyclicity with pure follicle-stimulating hormone. Abnormal menstruation may be caused by intrauterine scarring or fibroids. Outpatient hysteroscopic surgery may successfully and conservatively be used to treat these problems. Today, even women who have been born without a uterus or who have undergone hysterectomy may have a child through a host uterus program. This combines in vitro fertilization of the husband's sperm with his wife's egg with transfer of the embryo into a host who is capable of carrying the pregnancy. Our potential to improve women's reproductive health continues to expand, as some of the recent developments described above for treating abnormalities of cyclicity or menstruation attest.
Full Text Available Adolescents are reproductive potential of society. Protection of their reproductive health is one of the biggest challenges of modern society. Adolescent reproductive health is endangered by early sexual activities, inadequate protection against unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. It is necessary to take measures which would protect and improve adolescent reproductive health.Adoption of knowledge about sexuality, physiology of reproduction, protection against unwanted pregnancy and sexual infections are prerequisites for formation of correct attitudes related to family planning and taking over responsibility for their own sexual behaviour.
Understanding fertility desire and reproductive health care needs of HIV positive men and women in the era of better access to antiretroviral therapy and improved health status is important in planning and organizing appropriate health services. To assess the fertility desire and reproductive health care needs of men and ...
KB Tanyigna, JK Tanyigna, F Aremu, JO Adisa ... This factor as well as other factors such as poor education, unilateral decision making by some men in purdah in matters of reproductive needs, misunderstanding and misinterpretation of the Qu'ran have immensely contributed to the increasing cases of RTIs among these ...
Al Ali Mahmoud T
Full Text Available Abstract Consanguineous marriages have been practiced since the early existence of modern humans. Until now consanguinity is widely practiced in several global communities with variable rates depending on religion, culture, and geography. Arab populations have a long tradition of consanguinity due to socio-cultural factors. Many Arab countries display some of the highest rates of consanguineous marriages in the world, and specifically first cousin marriages which may reach 25-30% of all marriages. In some countries like Qatar, Yemen, and UAE, consanguinity rates are increasing in the current generation. Research among Arabs and worldwide has indicated that consanguinity could have an effect on some reproductive health parameters such as postnatal mortality and rates of congenital malformations. The association of consanguinity with other reproductive health parameters, such as fertility and fetal wastage, is controversial. The main impact of consanguinity, however, is an increase in the rate of homozygotes for autosomal recessive genetic disorders. Worldwide, known dominant disorders are more numerous than known recessive disorders. However, data on genetic disorders in Arab populations as extracted from the Catalogue of Transmission Genetics in Arabs (CTGA database indicate a relative abundance of recessive disorders in the region that is clearly associated with the practice of consanguinity.
Tadmouri, Ghazi O; Nair, Pratibha; Obeid, Tasneem; Al Ali, Mahmoud T; Al Khaja, Najib; Hamamy, Hanan A
Consanguineous marriages have been practiced since the early existence of modern humans. Until now consanguinity is widely practiced in several global communities with variable rates depending on religion, culture, and geography. Arab populations have a long tradition of consanguinity due to socio-cultural factors. Many Arab countries display some of the highest rates of consanguineous marriages in the world, and specifically first cousin marriages which may reach 25-30% of all marriages. In some countries like Qatar, Yemen, and UAE, consanguinity rates are increasing in the current generation. Research among Arabs and worldwide has indicated that consanguinity could have an effect on some reproductive health parameters such as postnatal mortality and rates of congenital malformations. The association of consanguinity with other reproductive health parameters, such as fertility and fetal wastage, is controversial. The main impact of consanguinity, however, is an increase in the rate of homozygotes for autosomal recessive genetic disorders. Worldwide, known dominant disorders are more numerous than known recessive disorders. However, data on genetic disorders in Arab populations as extracted from the Catalogue of Transmission Genetics in Arabs (CTGA) database indicate a relative abundance of recessive disorders in the region that is clearly associated with the practice of consanguinity. PMID:19811666
In the current debate about healthcare reform in the USA, advocates for government-ensured universal coverage assume that health care is a right. Although this position is politically popular, it is sometimes challenged by a restricted view of rights popular with libertarians and individualists. The restricted view of rights only accepts 'negative' rights as legitimate rights. Negative rights, the argument goes, place no obligations on you to provide goods to other people and thus respect your right to keep the fruits of your labour. A classic enumeration of negative rights includes life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Positive rights, by contrast, obligate you either to provide goods to others, or pay taxes that are used for redistributive purposes. Health care falls into the category of positive rights since its provision by the government requires taxation and therefore redistribution. Therefore, the libertarian or individualist might argue that health care cannot be a true right. This paper rejects the distinction between positive and negative rights. In fact, the protection of both positive and negative rights can place obligations on others. Furthermore, because of its role in helping protect equality of opportunity, health care can be tied to the rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. There is, therefore, good reason to believe that health care is a human right and that universal access should be guaranteed. The practical application, by governments and non-governmental organisations, of several of the arguments presented in this paper is also discussed.
Reproductive Health is usually focused upon women in their reproductive years, but this does not include girls who have not begun procreation nor women who are past the age of reproduction. In this paper, we focus attention upon women in menopause, realizing that they form a significant proportion of the female ...
Auer, Sonya K; Arendt, Jeffrey D; Chandramouli, Radhika; Reznick, David N
Compensatory or 'catch-up' growth may be an adaptive mechanism that buffers the growth trajectory of young organisms from deviations caused by reduced food availability. Theory generally assumes that rapid juvenile compensatory growth impacts reproduction only through its positive effects on age and size at maturation, but potential reproductive costs to juvenile compensatory growth remain virtually unexplored. We used a food manipulation experiment to examine the reproductive consequences of compensatory growth in Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata). Compensatory growth did not affect adult growth rates, litter production rates or investment in offspring size. However, compensatory growth had negative effects on litter size, independent of the effects of female body length, resulting in a 20% decline in offspring production. We discuss potential mechanisms behind this observed cost to reproduction.
Objective: To describe sexual and reproductive health among women in Accra and explore the burden of sexual and reproductive ill health among this urban population. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: We analysed data from the WHSA-II (n=2814), a cross-sectional household survey on women's health, and ...
Despite policy instruments, sound knowledge through education programmes and campaigns, female students are still assailed by health and social pathologies with regard to their reproductive health and rights. Patriarchy still accounts for the historical pattern of reproductive health for women in intimate relationship.
Background: Street youth are predisposed to sexual and reproductive health challenges. Most of the street children live in severe deprivation, which make them liable to various forms of health risks. Street youth have risky sexual behaviours that increase the likelihood of adverse sexual and reproductive health ...
In Ghana, few studies have investigated the reproductive health needs of adolescent boys. The aim of this study was to find out sources of reproductive health information for boys and the reasons for their low/non use of public health services. Qualitative methods were used, including focus group discussions, ...
Patient satisfaction is an individual's state of being content with the care provided in the health system. It is important for reproductive health care providers to get feedback from women regarding satisfaction with reproductive health services. There is a dearth of knowledge about patient satisfaction in Malawi. Aim
paying jobs, such that health services are not affordable even if these services are identified.3,4. Botswana's National Health Policy, the Immigration Policy, and the. National Sexual and Reproductive Health Programme Framework are.
Cook, Rebecca J
This article reviews the jurisprudence on reproductive and sexual health of national and international tribunals. This review reveals a shift from controlling reproduction and sexuality through the use of criminal law to impose a moral order, to the use of administrative law to ensure availability of safe and effective services, and, finally, to the use of human rights to promote respect for human dignity. The conventional use of criminal law to prohibit provision of reproductive and sexual health services, underage sex, and relations between same-sex partners is waning. Due in part to research showing how criminal law harms reproductive health, an emerging judicial trend is toward the more pragmatic use of law to reduce the harm to health associated with sexuality and reproduction. Most recently, courts are recognizing that respect for individuals' needs to protect their reproductive and sexual health is a matter of social justice.
The principal objective of the Third International Conference on Population and Development to be held in Cairo in 1994 is to achieve consensus on a Plan of Action to reinforce reproductive rights of individuals, who bear ultimate responsibility for slowing population growth. The Plan of Action should be adopted by all the peoples of the world in order to stabilize population growth during the next twenty years by means of programs to provide family planning and reproductive health services. The preliminary conference document incorporated recommendations and proposals of two preparatory committees, five regional conferences, six expert meetings, 109 countries, and over 400 nongovernmental organizations from around the world. At current rates of growth, the world's 5.7 billion inhabitants will increase to 9.1 billion by the year 2025, vastly increasing pressure on already limited resources and ecosystems. The central theme of the first World Population Conference in Bucharest in 1974 was the close relationship between population growth and socioeconomic development. The 1974 World Population Plan of Action stressed development of strategies to achieve a better quality of life and rapid socioeconomic development. Recommendations of the 1984 World Population Conference in Mexico remained centered on implementation of the Bucharest Plan of Action with a few additions. Although progress has been achieved in meeting the goals of the Bucharest Plan of Action, growth rates of some developing countries have actually increased. Poverty, unemployment, illiteracy, and discrimination against women are still obstacles to socioeconomic development, and contraceptive usage has not reached optimal levels. Urban migration remains excessive. Progress for many countries over the past decade has been directly related to increasing the access of women to health care and family planning. Themes related to women's status and rights will be incorporated in the 1994 Cairo Conference. The
Mendes, Neuza; Palma, Fátima; Serrano, Fátima
As adolescent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are major sources of morbidity, preventing them is an important health goal for Portuguese society. To review data on the knowledge, attitudes and statistics on sexual and reproductive health. A systematic review was conducted including peer-reviewed articles addressing issues influencing the sexuality of Portuguese adolescents (aged 13 to 19), published up to 2011 and conducted in any type of setting. After crossing-cleaning the reference list, 33 articles were included. The rate of sexual activity by Portuguese adolescents is high (44%-95%), but there has been an increase in the age of intercourse debut (currently 15.6 years). Early commencement of sexual intercourse is associated with smoking and regular alcohol consumption. Condoms are the most frequently chosen contraceptive method for first (76%-96%) and subsequent (52%-69%) sexual encounters. The perception of a double standard in sex still exists in teenage culture for both genders and influence behavior. There are significant differences between migrant and native adolescents: African adolescents initiate sexual intercourse at earlier ages and are more likely to have unprotected sex. Only one-third of Portuguese teenagers have ever visited a health facility to seek counseling concerning contraception or STIs, and less than half have ever attended classes on reproductive health. Very few (12%) have knowledge about Chlamydia trachomatis infection. The prevalence of STIs in Portuguese youth is unknown. The adolescent fertility rate is still high (14.7 births per 1000 females aged 15-19 years), but it, as well as the rate of abortion, is steadily decreasing. There is still a long way to go towards promoting a resourceful young population. Citizens and institutions must focus on increasing both the competence of youths and external supports. Information must be provided systematically and health services must have greater accessibility. Studies
Logez, Sophie; Jayasekar, Shalini; Moller, Helene; Ahmed, Kabir; Patel, Margaret Usher
Objectives: Although poor reproductive health constitutes a significant proportion of the disease burden in developing countries, essential medicines for reproductive health are often not available to the population. The objective was to analyze the guiding principles for developing national Essential Medicines Lists (EML). The second objective was to compare the reproductive health medicines included on these EMLs to the 2002 WHO/UNFPA list of essential drugs and commodities for reproductive health. Another objective was to compare the medicines included in existing international lists of medicines for reproductive health. Methods: The authors calculated the average number of medicines per clinical groups included in 112 national EMLs and compared these average numbers with the number of medicines per clinical group included on the WHO/UNFPA List. Additionally, they compared the content of the lists of medicines for reproductive health developed by various international agencies. Results: In 2003, the review of the 112 EMLs highlighted that medicines for reproductive health were not consistently included. The review of the international lists identified inconsistencies in their recommendations. The reviews’ outcomes became the catalyst for collaboration among international agencies in the development of the first harmonized Interagency List of Essential Medicines for Reproductive Health. Additionally, WHO, UNFPA and PATH published guidelines to support the inclusion of essential medicines for reproductive health in national medicine policies and EMLs. The Interagency List became a key advocacy tool for countries to review their EMLs. In 2009, a UNFPA/WHO assessment on access to reproductive health medicines in six countries demonstrated that the major challenge was that the Interagency List had not been updated recently and was inconsistently used. Conclusion: The addition of cost-effective medicines for reproductive health to EMLs can result in enhanced equity
Nguyen, My Hu'o'ng; Gammeltoft, Tine; Christoffersen, Sarah Vigh
Research was conducted on reproductive tract infections among women obtaining induced abortions at Ph[image omitted]-[image omitted] hospital in Haiphong City, a major maternity hospital in northern Vietnam. The research aimed to explore how clinicians and lab-technicians diagnose reproductive tr...... with overuse of antibiotics.......-technicians providing reproductive health services. A marked tendency was observed among both clinicians and lab-technicians to overdiagnose reproductive tract infections and to prescribe antibiotics routinely. Social, cultural, and clinical factors associated with the tendency to overdiagnose reproductive tract...
This study focuses on the realities of organizational policies and practices for women's reproductive health in Nigeria. It examines the relationship between sexism and several indices of support for organizational reproductive health policies, particularly those relating to family-friendly policies. Data was collected from 419 ...
Few reproductive health programs are targeted to married adolescent girls. This study measures changes associated with a program for married adolescent girls and a parallel husbands' program, in rural Ethiopia. The married girls' program provided information on communication, self-esteem, reproductive health and ...
The knowledge of reproductive health issues amongst secondary school adolescents in Calabar was studied. The aim was to assess and improve the knowledge content of these adolescents about reproductive health issues. Ten secondary schools in Calabar were selected by simple random sampling. One hundred and ...
Integrating reproductive and child health and HIV services in Tanzania: Implication to policy, systems and services. ... Experts around the world recognize the central role of Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) services in preventing HIV infection. Evidence suggests that improving access to contraception for women to ...
Out-of-school peer educators [PE] are resourceful in transmitting reproductive health information but their retention remains a contentious issue. This study aimed to assess motivation and sustainability of out-of-school PEs in disseminating reproductive health information among adolescents. A structured questionnaire was ...
school students to sexual and reproductive health knowledge and skills at different places including home. ... School was mentioned as the most common source of information for sexual and reproductive health issues ... student communications through targeted family life education activities among students and parents.
Mar 30, 2014 ... streetism.. Street youth are exposed to situations that make them vulnerable to sexual and reproductive health problems on a day to day basis.[9-12] A risky sexual behaviour is one that increases the likelihood of adverse sexual and reproductive health consequences.[9-12] Available data shows that HIV ...
Westeneng, J.; D'Exelle, B.S.H.
This article uses data from Northern Tanzania to analyse how economic empowerment helps women reduce their reproductive health (RH) vulnerability. It analyses the effect of women's employment and economic contribution to their household on health care use at three phases in the reproductive cycle:
Conclusions: Although the majority of the students think discussion on sexual and reproductive health issues is important, they prefer to discuss with peers as this makes them more comfortable. Thus, it is essential to improve the sexual and Reproductive Health knowledge of school students to enhance peer influence ...
Impact of Reproductive Health on Socio-economic Development: A Case Study of Nigeria. ... African Journal of Reproductive Health ... Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa, has policies and programmes geared towards the improvement of its socio-economic standing and overal development, with little positive result.
Assessment of barriers to reproductive health service utilization among Bench Maji Zone Pastoralist Communities. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ... Background: The reproductive health (RH) needs and challenges in pastoralist area are different from elsewhere. People in this ...
Results: The community/religious leaders perceived reproductive health problems as prevalent and contributing to maternal morbidity and mortality. They believe women should seek healthcare services for preventive and curative care preferably from female providers. They suspect reproductive health programmes as ...
There has been an increasing awareness of the need to pay special focus on the adolescent and their sexual and reproductive health. This article reviews the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents in the Niger Delta region (NDR) of Nigeria. The objective is to bring to focus these important issues in the region.
Health research, when it does address women's concerns, tends to emphasize and cater to their reproductive health needs. The Health Gap identifies and addresses key gaps in gender and health research: women and AIDS, tropical disease, the working environment, barriers to quality health care, and the health of ...
Woodruff, T. J
.... Focusing on exposures to environmental contaminants, particularly during critical periods in development and their potential effects on all aspects of future reproductive life-course, this book...
Abou Shabana, K; el-Shiek, M; el-Nazer, M; Samir, N
ABSTRACT At the outpatient clinic of Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital, perceptions and practices of 1000 women regarding their reproductive health rights (reproductive rights) were evaluated. The majority had positive perceptions about their rights to reproductive health; however, 30% disagreed with prohibitions of discrimination against women, particularly prohibitions of female genital mutilation (FGM). A significant association was found between perceptions of sexual rights and demographic characteristics and between education and practices regarding early detection of cancer. No significant association was found between education and concepts of adolescent health education as a reproductive right. Programmes about women's reproductive rights that emphasize the issue of sexual health through religious education are recommended as one of the best strategies for the eradication of FGM.
Full Text Available Background: In urban environment, exposure to the emission of motor vehicles is common. In urban peoples it is a very difficult task to distinguish among peoples with different grades of momentous period exposure to such pollutants. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of diesel exhaust, gasoline emission, Particulate Matter (PM noise and heat on the reproductive health of rickshaw drivers. Methods: Adult married male individuals were recruited randomly in the study from Btkhella, Malakand agency, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Two groups were made, control (n=45 and rickshaw drivers (n=50. A special questionnaire was designed about occupational activities, socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. From both groups 5 mL of the blood was collected and was analyze for serum total testosterone and cortisol using Biocheck (USA and Antibodies-online GmbH (Germany kits. Results: In control group the Mean±SEM of total serum testosterone was 657.6±16.84 ng/dl and cortisol was 443.8±14.67 mU/L. In rickshaw drivers the Mean±SEM of total serum testosterone was 577.1±11.42 ng/dl and cortisol was 595.1±8.879mU/L. In rickshaw drivers there was a significant reduction in total serum testosterone (P0.0002 but a significant increase in serum cortisol level (P < 0.0001 at 95% confidence interval. Conclusions: Reproductive health problems like decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, absent morning and nocturnal erection, ejaculatory problems, primary infertility and secondary infertility were prevalent in rickshaw drivers but, no such problems were found in control group. Chronic exposure to pollutants such as diesel exhaust, gasoline emission, Particulate Matter (PM noise and heat negatively regulate Hypothalmo-Pituitary Gonadal axis (HPG leading to reproductive problems.
Made Asri Budisuari
Full Text Available Background: Islamic boarding school system has long story in indonesia, they covered as much 14.798 student whoare teenager between 9–15 year old. Problems encountered with adolescent sexuality and reproductive health. Methods:An explorative research implemented in 3 provinces ie East Java, Nusa Tenggara Barat (NTB, East Kalimantan and sixIslamic boarding schools. Data were collected through questionnaires about reproductive health. Results: It showed 48,5%of respondents didn’t have enough knowledge, attitudes and behavior about reproductive health, 40% of respondents knewvery little about puberty, menstruation and wet dream, 71% of respondents had little knowledge about the risk of pregnancy;49% of respondents had not enough knowledge about sexually transmited diseases. 88% respondents said that they hadfall in love, 76% of respondents had positive courtship behavior. Conclusion: The information about reproductive healthin islamic boarding school for adolescents is still in adequate and only refer to yellow book. Health worker did not provideadequqte information. We still found student who have sex while when they were engaged still datting. Suggestion: Theneed of additional and up to date reproductive health information and the risks of sexual intercourse marriage it maybedelivery on interesting media, such as one social networking. A health reproductive modules consist of scientic materialand some knowledge has to be developed and should be delivery health worker. Reproductive health syllabus and trainingfor trainers for teachers of boarding school is needed.
Full Text Available In this paper, we examine whether variation in reproductive investment affects the health of Roma women using a dataset collected through original anthropological fieldwork among Roma women in Serbia. Data were collected in 2014–2016 in several Roma semi-urban settlements in central Serbia. The sample consisted of 468 Roma women, averaging 44 years of age. We collected demographic data (age, school levels, socioeconomic status, risk behaviors (smoking and alcohol consumption, marital status, and reproductive history variables (the timing of reproduction, the intensity of reproduction, reproductive effort and investment after birth, in addition to self-reported health, height, and weight. Data analyses showed that somatic, short-term costs of reproduction were revealed in this population, while evolutionary, long-term costs were unobservable—contrariwise, Roma women in poor health contributed more to the gene pool of the next generation than their healthy counterparts. Our findings appear to be consistent with simple trade-off models that suggest inverse relationships between reproductive effort and health. Thus, personal sacrifice—poor health as an outcome—seems crucial for greater reproductive success.
About 150 legislators from about 57 countries attended the 1995 International Meeting of Parliamentarians on Gender, Population, and Development held in Tokyo, Japan. Participants affirmed their important role in emphasizing gender issues and in developing networks among legislators at the national, regional, and inter-regional levels. The conference chairperson was Taro Nakayama from the Japan Parliamentarians Federation for Population. He stated that women's empowerment and population decline meant women's control over reproductive decision making and health. Japan stated its commitment to women's empowerment through support of women's initiatives in developing countries. The executive director of the UN Population Fund, Nafis Sadik, stated that the Plan of Action adopted at the Cairo conference and earlier conferences must be affirmed and expanded at the forthcoming women's conference. The secretary-general of the International Planned Parenthood Federation stated that development was not possible without the enhancement of women's and girls' status. Most participants at the parliamentarians' conference went on to attend the women's conference in Beijing.
Prakash, Ravi; Singh, Abhishek; Pathak, Praveen Kumar; Parasuraman, Sulabha
Early marriage, women's poor reproductive health and child well-being are important areas of concern, especially in developing countries like India. Data from the third wave of National Family Health Survey (NFHS, 2005-2006) was used to examine the effects of early marriage on the reproductive health status of women and on the well-being of their children. Bivariate analyses, multiple linear regression and logistic regression were used for analyses. The results show that early age at marriage had detrimental effects on the reproductive health status of women. Women married at an early age were exposed to frequent childbearing, unplanned motherhood and abortions, which negatively affected their nutritional status. Children born to mothers with poor reproductive health had lower chances of survival and a higher likelihood of anthropometric failure (i.e. stunting, wasting and underweight). Programmes should focus on delaying entry of adolescents into wedlock and motherhood through information, education and communication. More emphasis needs to be put on meeting the reproductive needs of poor adolescent mothers, and improving the nutritional status of their children, to break the vicious circle of poor reproductive health and poverty.
This study is a survey of access to reproductive health information amongst rural women in Nigeria with particular reference to Delta State. A total of 483 rural women of reproductive age (15 – 49 years) returned questionnaire; selected through simple random sampling, participated in the study. Questionnaire and interview ...
Therefore, equipping young people with life skills will enable young people to cope with various challenges but also improve their sexual and reproductive health, such as avoiding risky sexual behaviour. In addition to being informed about sexual and reproductive issues, adolescents need skills to be in charge and take ...
Powell, Brent; Fletcher, J. Sue
There has been little research on undergraduate reproductive anatomy education. This pilot study explores knowledge of anatomical reproductive anatomy among university students in a lower division and upper division health course. Using a Qualtrics survey program, a convenience sample of 120 lower division and 157 upper division students for a…
AJRH Managing Editor
Keywords: Ethiopia, young people, sexual and reproductive health, service provision. Résumé. Les jeunes gens en Ethiopie sont confrontés à un certain nombre de risques par rapport à leur santé sexuelle et de la reproduction, y compris la grossesse chez les adolescentes, la violence sexuelle, et les besoins non satisfaits ...
issues relating to reproductive health and reproductive rights, and their opinions about abortion law reform. It was a population- based ... husband. The prevalence of contraceptive use among the lawyers was low and attitude to abortion law not satisfactory. ... legitimized variously by religion, ideology, traditions, culture and ...
Rosemary Ogonna Ibekwe
Full Text Available Reproductive health indices in most developing countries are still deplorable, less than a decade to the Millennium Development Goals. In Nigeria, as is the case in most developing countries, many factors combine to nurture reproductive ill-health and developmental backwardness. Some of these factors are harmful reproductive health practices such as, early marriages, violence against women, widowhood practices, and female genital mutilation. These are highlighted and suggestions made on how to improve on them in line with the targets of the Millennium Development Goals. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(2.000: 139-144
Luffy, Samantha M; Evans, Dabney P; Rochat, Roger W
To identify perceived barriers to accessing reproductive health care according to the women of Ocotal, Nicaragua; describe their understanding of their reproductive rights; and document their opinions about Nicaragua's total ban on abortion. From May to June 2014, three focus group discussions were held in Spanish with 17 women from two different neighborhoods (barrios) in the city of Ocotal, Nicaragua. A semi-structured discussion guide with open-ended questions was employed to elucidate local perspectives regarding the focus group discussions themes. Serious obstacles including 1) violence against women, 2) machismo, 3) criticism from others, and 4) lack of communication and education limit women's ability to make their own reproductive health decisions. Women had a pervasive lack of knowledge about reproductive rights and the international human rights documents that define them. In addition, due to religious and cultural ideologies, most women supported the country's total ban on abortion in most circumstances, with the possible exception of rape. Both men and women in Ocotal should be encouraged to participate in community-level programs designed to reduce the impact of the following obstacles to receiving reproductive health care: 1) violence against women and machismo; 2) insufficient, non-standardized sexual education and information about reproductive rights; and 3) poor communication within families and the community at large. Any future public health campaigns to address women's reproductive health needs in Ocotal should implement these types of programs, at the neighborhood level, to reduce stigma surrounding sexual health and activity.
Sadeu, J C; Hughes, Claude L; Agarwal, Sanjay; Foster, Warren G
Reproductive function and fertility are thought to be compromised by behaviors such as cigarette smoking, substance abuse, and alcohol consumption; however, the strength of these associations are uncertain. Furthermore, the reproductive system is thought to be under attack from exposure to environmental contaminants, particularly those chemicals shown to affect endocrine homeostasis. The relationship between exposure to environmental contaminants and adverse effects on human reproductive health are frequently debated in the scientific literature and these controversies have spread into the lay press drawing increased public and regulatory attention. Therefore, the objective of the present review was to critically evaluate the literature concerning the relationship between lifestyle exposures and adverse effects on fertility as well as examining the evidence for a role of environmental contaminants in the purported decline of semen quality and the pathophysiology of subfertility, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and endometriosis. The authors conclude that whereas cigarette smoking is strongly associated with adverse reproductive outcomes, high-level exposures to other lifestyle factors are only weakly linked with negative fertility impacts. Finally, there is no compelling evidence that environmental contaminants, at concentrations representative of the levels measured in contemporary biomonitoring studies, have any effect, positive or negative, on reproductive health in the general population. Further research using prospective study designs with robust sample sizes are needed to evaluate testable hypotheses that address the relationship between exposure and adverse reproductive health effects.
Shahid, A.; Nasim, S.; Memon, A.A.; Mustafa, M.A.
Objectives: To determine the existing knowledge, attitude and behavior about reproductive and sexual health in adolescents of Karachi and seek their opinion about reproductive health education. Study type, settings and duration: A cross sectional study was conducted on adolescents (17-19 years) of both gender studying in colleges of Karachi during 2010. Subject sand Methods: Using stratified sampling procedure, a cross sectional study was carried out. After informed consent and ensuring confidentiality an anonymous quantitative questionnaire was completed to ascertain the knowledge of adolescents on reproductive health. Results: A total of 912 adolescents (470 males and 442 females) of 12 public and private sector colleges of Karachi participated in the study. Acquaintance to reproductive health was present in 75% males and 71% females and most participants confirmed discussing reproductive health issues with friends. About 81% males and 91 % females affirmed for a need for enhanced reproductive health education and awareness while over 50% of the respondents were of the opinion that the right age for reproductive health education was 16 to 18 years. Confining sexual activity to one partner and avoiding exposure to blood and needles for the prevention of AIDS was known to 38% males and 44% females but the prevention of sexually transmitted infections using condoms, was known to only 1/3 rd of the respondents. Although 70% of the respondents of both genders knew that pregnancy can be avoided but only 20% knew about contraceptives. Conclusions: Most adolescents' knew about the reproductive cycle but were not well aware of how to avoid exposures to sexually transmitted infections and pregnancies. Policy message: Reproductive health education is insufficient in adolescents should be gender specific and socio culturally sensitive. (author)
Traub, Michael L; Santoro, Nanette
Reproductive aging coincides with endocrine changes that are not solely reproductive in nature and culminates in hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and amenorrhea. These changes are identifiable biochemically regardless of clinical manifestations. Changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis are associated with changes in other hormonal axes, specifically the adrenal androgen and the somatotropic axis. A large body of literature indicates that reproductive aging is associated with a decline in the somatotropic axis. The interactions between reproductive aging and changes in the adrenal androgen axis are more complex and complicated by age-related declines in the adrenal axis early in the reproductive years. These changes may play an important role in overall health maintenance. Attempts to ameliorate hormonal declines with exogenous hormonal therapy have produced mixed results. Finally, the age-specific timing as well as the rapidity of the changes that occur with reproductive aging seems to have important consequences on metabolism, cardiovascular risk, cognition, bone density, and even mortality.
Arousell, Jonna; Carlbom, Aje
An increasing number of contemporary research publications acknowledge the influence of religion and culture on sexual and reproductive behavior and health-care utilization. It is currently hypothesized that religious influences can partly explain disparities in sexual and reproductive health outcomes. In this paper, we will pay particular attention to Muslims in sexual and reproductive health care. This review reveals that knowledge about devout Muslims' own experience of sexual and reproductive health-care matters is limited, thus providing weak evidence for modeling of efficient practical guidelines for sexual and reproductive health care directed at Muslim patients. Successful outcomes in sexual and reproductive health of Muslims require both researchers and practitioners to acknowledge religious heterogeneity and variability, and individuals' possibilities to negotiate Islamic edicts. Failure to do so could lead to inadequate health-care provision and, in the worst case, to suboptimal encounters between migrants with Muslim background and the health-care providers in the receiving country. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Shorey, Shefaly; Yang, Yen Yen; Ang, Emily
The aim of this study was to systematically retrieve, critique and synthesize available evidence regarding the association between negative childbirth experiences and future reproductive decisions. A child's birth is often a joyous event; however, there is a proportion of women who undergo negative childbirth experiences that have long-term implications on their reproductive decisions. A systematic review of quantitative studies was undertaken using Joanna Briggs Institute's methods. A search was carried out in CINAHL Plus with Full Text, Embase, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science from January 1996 - July 2016. Studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were assessed by two independent reviewers using the Joanna Briggs Institute's Critical Appraisal Tools. Data were extracted under subheadings adapted from the institute's data extraction forms. Twelve studies, which examined either one or more influences of negative childbirth experiences, were identified. The included studies were either cohort or cross-sectional designs. Five studies observed positive associations between prior negative childbirth experiences and decisions to not have another child, three studies found positive associations between negative childbirth experiences and decisions to delay a subsequent birth and six studies concluded positive associations between negative childbirth experiences and maternal requests for caesarean section in subsequent pregnancies. To receive a holistic understanding on negative childbirth experiences, a suitable definition and validated measuring tools should be used to understand this phenomenon. Future studies or reviews should include a qualitative component and/or the exploration of specific factors such as cultural and regional differences that influence childbirth experiences. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
This article presents the results of a participatory exploration of male attitudes towards sexual and reproductive health issues in Nicaragua. Nicaraguan culture views men in a machismo concept. The study examined the knowledge, attitudes and behavior of men in relation to the social construction of masculinity: sexuality, reproduction, and fatherhood. Employing 90 men from both rural and urban communities, attitudes towards sexuality, reproduction, abortion and fatherhood were discussed. Several insights were gathered from the research, which explains men's behavior. Thus, it was deemed imperative that in empowering women by promoting sexual and reproductive health among men would require challenging male hegemony and persuading men to participate in health promotion. However, the setting and application of a men's agenda for sexual health promotion should not result in the curtailment of services for women because funds are being reallocated to men, nor should it give men the opportunity to more subtle forms of domination and exploitation.
Hueiwang Anna Jeng
Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs can interfere with normal hormonal balance and may exert adverse consequences on humans. The male reproductive system may be susceptible to the effects of such environmental toxicants. This review discusses the recent progress in scientific data mainly from epidemiology studies on the associations between EDCs and male reproductive health and our understanding of possible mechanisms associated with the effects of EDCs on male reproductive health. Finally, the review provides recommendations on future research to enhance our understanding of EDCs and male reproductive health. The review highlights the need for 1 well-defined longitudinal epidemiology studies, with appropriately designed exposure assessment to determine potential causal relationships; 2 chemical and biochemical approaches aimed at a better understanding of the mechanism of action of xenoestrogens with regard to low-dose effects, and assessment of identify genetic susceptibility factors associated with the risk of adverse effects following exposure to EDCs.
apprentissage fondé sur les problèmes et la médecine basée sur des constatations, ... des principes de la santé reproductive et la nouvelle philosophie du rapport médecin-malade dans la surveillance clinique et dans la formation des étudiants. (Af. J. Of ...
Jun 1, 2012 ... Ghana 3Regional Institute for Population Studies, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana 4Ibis Reproductive .... tion and abortion. The third component comprised in- depth interviews (IDIs) exploring experiences of abor- tion among women who reported having had an .... Religion prohibits/religious reasons. 1.
ABSTRACT. Adolescence is marked by progression from the appearance of secondary sexual characteristics to sexual and reproductive maturity. Curiosity about bodily changes is heightened. However, adolescents' perceived sexuality education needs have been poorly documented. A survey of 989 adolescents from 24.
Sanneving, Linda; Trygg, Nadja; Saxena, Deepak; Mavalankar, Dileep; Thomsen, Sarah
Background Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5 is focused on reducing maternal mortality and achieving universal access to reproductive health care. India has made extensive efforts to achieve MDG 5 and in some regions much progress has been achieved. Progress has been uneven and inequitable however, and many women still lack access to maternal and reproductive health care. Objective In this review, a framework developed by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) is used to categorize and explain determinants of inequity in maternal and reproductive health in India. Design A review of peer-reviewed, published literature was conducted using the electronic databases PubMed and Popline. The search was performed using a carefully developed list of search terms designed to capture published papers from India on: 1) maternal and reproductive health, and 2) equity, including disadvantaged populations. A matrix was developed to sort the relevant information, which was extracted and categorized based on the CSDH framework. In this way, the main sources of inequity in maternal and reproductive health in India and their inter-relationships were determined. Results Five main structural determinants emerged from the analysis as important in understanding equity in India: economic status, gender, education, social status (registered caste or tribe), and age (adolescents). These five determinants were found to be closely interrelated, a feature which was reflected in the literature. Conclusion In India, economic status, gender, and social status are all closely interrelated when influencing use of and access to maternal and reproductive health care. Appropriate attention should be given to how these social determinants interplay in generating and sustaining inequity when designing policies and programs to reach equitable progress toward improved maternal and reproductive health. PMID:23561028
Cook, R J
This paper analyzes the Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) and the Platform for Action of the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women (FWCW) to explicate the principles contained in these documents that might be used to develop a national reproductive health law. The introductory section of the paper describes how the use of human rights principles to advance reproductive health and empower women has grown and reprints the ICPD definition of reproductive health as well as the portion of the FWCW Platform that links women's human rights and reproductive health. The next section shows how the following human rights can be applied to an effort to protect reproductive interests: 1) the right to life and survival (protection from pregnancy-related death); 2) the right to liberty and security of the person (protection from restrictive or coercive abortion policies, from restricted or coercive contraception and sexual sterilization, and from female genital mutilation as well as protection of the right to a private life); 3) the right to the highest attainable standard of health (violated by the unmet need for family planning); 4) the right to the benefits of scientific progress; 5) the right to receive and impart information; and 6) the right to nondiscrimination on the basis of sex, age, or disability. The final section of the paper discusses how an alliance of health and legal professionals could lobby governments to enact reproductive health laws that enforce human rights and are accompanied by a reproductive rights impact assessment of relevant policies, ethical codes for health practitioners, and compliance mechanisms.
Hord, C; David, H P; Donnay, F; Wolf, M
As a result of the restrictive reproductive health policies enforced under the 25-year Ceausescu dictatorship, Romania ended the 1980s with the highest recorded maternal mortality of any country in Europe--159 deaths per 100,000 live births in 1989. An estimated 87 percent of these maternal deaths were caused by illegal and unsafe abortion. Under the Ceausescu regime, all contraceptive methods were forbidden and induced abortion was available only for women who met extremely narrow criteria. Immediately after the December 1989 revolution that overthrew Ceausescu, the new government removed restrictions on contraceptive use and legalized abortion. This legislative change has had beneficial effects on women's health, seen in the drop in maternal mortality in 1990 to 83 deaths per 100,000 live births--almost half the ratio in 1989. In addition, changes instituted since the revolution have led to the improved availability of reproductive health services and to the creation of new educational and training opportunities related to reproductive health services and to the creation of new educational and training opportunities related to reproductive health. The newly created contraceptive and abortion services have presented health system managers and policymakers with many challenges as they work to expand the availability of high-quality, comprehensive reproductive health care in a setting of economic hardship, political unrest, insufficient infrastructure, and outdated medical knowledge and practice.
Full Text Available Sexual- reproductive health of youth is one of the most unknown aspects of our community, while the world, including our country is faced with the risk of AIDS spreading. The aim of this study was to describe Health Belief Model (HBM of the students about sexual-reproductive health behaviors and evaluate the ability of the model in predicting related behaviors. By using quota sampling, 1117 male and female students of Qazvin Medical Science and International universities were included in the study in 1991. A self-completed questionnaire was prepared containing close questions based on HBM components including perceived threats (susceptibility and severity of related diseases, perceived reproductive benefits and barriers and self efficacy of youth about reproductive health. A total of 645 of participants were female and 457 were male (Mean age 21.4±2.4 and 22.7±3.5, respectively. The Health Belief Model of the students showed that they perceived a moderate threat for AIDS and venereal diseases and their health outcomes. Most of them perceived the benefits of reproductive health behaviors. They believed that the ability of youth in considering reproductive health is low or moderate. However, they noted to some barriers for spreading of reproductive health in youth including inadequacy of services. Boys felt a higher level of threat for acquiring the AIDS and venereal diseases in compare to girls, but girls had a higher knowledge about these diseases and their complications. The Health Belief Model of the students with premarital intercourse behavior was not significantly different with the students without this behavior (Mann-Withney, P<0.05. Female students and the students without the history of premarital intercourse had significantly more positive attitude towards abstinence, comparing to male students and students with the history of premarital intercourse, respectively (Mann-Withney, P<0.05. Seventy five percent of students believed in
Amie B. Jackson
Full Text Available Women with spina bifida have unique health care concerns and as the life expectancy of this population increases, they are transitioning from adolescence to womanhood and entering their reproductive years with little information about what to expect. Likewise, their health care providers do not have the benefit of evidence-based research that comprehensively addresses the issues these women may face related to reproduction or aging. Few studies have focused on the effects that spina bifida may have on these women's reproductive systems, nor has attention been paid to the effects that possible reproductive endocrine changes may have on their disability. Needless to say, concerns about sexuality, sexual function, and pregnancy are just as important to these women as they are to their able-bodied counterparts.
Scheftel, Joni M; Elchos, Brigid L; Rubin, Carol S; Decker, John A
OBJECTIVE To review publications that address female reproductive health hazards in veterinary practice, summarize best practices to mitigate reproductive risks, and identify current knowledge gaps. DESIGN Systematized review. SAMPLE English-language articles describing chemical, biological, and physical hazards present in the veterinary workplace and associations with adverse reproductive outcomes or recommendations for minimizing risks to female reproductive health. PROCEDURES Searches of the CAB abstracts database were performed in July 2012 and in May 2015 with the following search terms: veterinarians AND occupational hazards and vets.id AND occupational hazards.sh. Searches of the PubMed database were conducted in November 2012 and in May 2015 with the following medical subject heading terms: occupational exposure AND veterinarians; anesthetics, inhalation/adverse effects AND veterinarians; risk factors AND pregnancy AND veterinarians; pregnancy outcome AND veterinarians; and animal technicians AND occupational exposure. Two additional PubMed searches were completed in January 2016 with the terms disinfectants/toxicity AND female AND fertility/drug effects and veterinarians/psychology AND stress, psychological. No date limits were applied to searches. RESULTS 4 sources supporting demographic trends in veterinary medicine and 118 resources reporting potential hazards to female reproductive health were identified. Reported hazards included exposure to anesthetic gases, radiation, antineoplastic drugs, and reproductive hormones; physically demanding work; prolonged standing; and zoonoses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Demographic information suggested that an increasing number of women of reproductive age will be exposed to chemical, biological, and physical hazards in veterinary practice. Information on reproductive health hazards and minimizing risk, with emphasis on developing a safety-focused work culture for all personnel, should be discussed starting
While governments in the ESCAP region have made significant efforts toward meeting the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) Program of Action recommendations to reorient and broaden reproductive health programs, obstacles related to the limited capacity of statistical systems for monitoring and evaluating progress in meeting ICPD goals have been problematic. With the goal of strengthening national capacities to monitor and evaluate comprehensive reproductive health programs, the Training Workshop on Improving the National Capacity for Monitoring Reproductive Health Programs was organized by ESCAP, with the financial support of the Netherlands. The workshop was held in Bangkok from November 23 to December 4, 1998, and attended by 15 participants from Cambodia, Laos, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, and Vietnam. Participants were drawn from countries' ministries of health and national statistical agencies. Workshop participants valued the experience and look forward to receiving additional training in the field.
Gaydos, Laura M; Smith, Alexandria; Hogue, Carol J R; Blevins, John
Separate from scholarship in religion and medicine, a burgeoning field in religion and population health, includes religion and reproductive health. In a survey of existing literature, we analyzed data by religious affiliation, discipline, geography and date. We found 377 peer-reviewed articles; most were categorized as family planning (129), sexual behavior (81), domestic violence (39), pregnancy (46), HIV/AIDS (71), and STDs (61). Most research occurred in North America (188 articles), Africa (52), and Europe (47). Article frequency increased over time, from 3 articles in 1980 to 38 articles in 2008. While field growth is evident, there is still no cohesive "scholarship" in religion and reproductive health.
Research on the influence of the social, economic, and cultural context on reproductive health is just beginning in Mexico. Because health risks and damage appear to be associated with living conditions of the population, the mechanisms through which social inequality affects reproductive health should be analyzed. Gender inequality is of particular importance to the study of reproductive health. The construction of feminine identity, centered on motherhood and the ability to relate to others, has decisive consequences for self-esteem, social valuation, and the capacity of women to make decisions and act in their own self interest. The obstacles that women face in making decisions about sexuality and reproduction have psychological, affective, and health costs. Women living in contexts of limited female autonomy are often pressured into early pregnancy and union and to having large families. The need to satisfy expectations for their gender and social position, fear of being devalued or abandoned, and the desire to cement affective relationships may restrict their capacity to exercise their sexuality with autonomy and to separate it from procreation. The low rates of use of contraceptives by men and the almost exclusive focus on women of contraceptive technologies and programs also reflect the inequality of the sexes. The lesser access to resources and exercise of power by women in the household may lead to nutritional disadvantages, and societal standards that tolerate extramarital sexual activity for men but not for women leave women vulnerable to sexually transmitted diseases. The health effects of gender inequalities are magnified by poverty and other forms of social disadvantage. The Program of Reproductive Health and Society aims to contribute to improved reproductive health in the Mexican population through study of the consequences of social and gender inequality.
Amoo, Emmanuel O; Oni, Gholahan A; Ajayi, Mofoluwake P; Idowu, Adenike E; Fadayomi, Theophilus O; Omideyi, Adekunbi K
The study examined men's reproductive health problems and sexual behavior and their implications for men's welfare in Nigeria. It used the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data set of 2013. The analysis used only male recode files, representing 17,359 males. The dependent variable is the computed wealth index, which was selected as proxy for welfare condition. Analysis involved univariate and multivariate levels. The findings indicated that 49.3% of the respondents currently have more than one sexual partner. The total lifetime sexual partner index identifies 70.2% of the men interviewed have had at least two sexual partners in their lifetime. It revealed that men who experience reproductive health challenges, such as sexually transmitted infections and genital ulcer, are 44% and 93%, respectively, less likely to enjoy good welfare condition. It also indicated that men in urban area are 7.256 times more likely to enjoy good welfare condition compared with their rural counterparts. There is a negative association between total lifetime sexual partnerships and exposure to good welfare. The study concludes that social workers, marriage counselors, other health personnel, and policy makers need to focus on the practice of multiple sexual partnership and reproductive health diseases as major determinants of men's welfare. The authors suggest that the index of welfare should include reproductive health issues and indicators of sexual behavior. Also, there is need for the establishment of specialized reproductive health care services and centers that are accessible to all men for effective servicing of reproductive health needs of men in the country.
Ritte, Rebecca; Grote, Verena; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Berrino, Franco; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Tikk, Kaja; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Quirós, José Ramón; Buckland, Genevieve; Molina-Montes, Esther; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Amiano, Pilar; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Gils, Carla H van; Peeters, Petra HM; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Dumeaux, Vanessa; Lund, Eliv; Sund, Malin; Andersson, Anne; Romieu, Isabelle; Tjønneland, Anne; Rinaldi, Sabina; Vineis, Paulo; Merritt, Melissa A; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Fournier, Agnès; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise
The association of reproductive factors with hormone receptor (HR)-negative breast tumors remains uncertain. Within the EPIC cohort, Cox proportional hazards models were used to describe the relationships of reproductive factors (menarcheal age, time between menarche and first pregnancy, parity, number of children, age at first and last pregnancies, time since last full-term childbirth, breastfeeding, age at menopause, ever having an abortion and use of oral contraceptives [OC]) with risk of ER-PR- (n = 998) and ER+PR+ (n = 3,567) breast tumors. A later first full-term childbirth was associated with increased risk of ER+PR+ tumors but not with risk of ER-PR- tumors (≥35 vs. ≤19 years HR: 1.47 [95% CI 1.15-1.88] p trend < 0.001 for ER+PR+ tumors; ≥35 vs. ≤19 years HR: 0.93 [95% CI 0.53-1.65] p trend = 0.96 for ER-PR- tumors; P het = 0.03). The risk associations of menarcheal age, and time period between menarche and first full-term childbirth with ER-PR-tumors were in the similar direction with risk of ER+PR+ tumors (p het = 0.50), although weaker in magnitude and statistically only borderline significant. Other parity related factors such as ever a full-term birth, number of births, age- and time since last birth were associated only with ER+PR+ malignancies, however no statistical heterogeneity between breast cancer subtypes was observed. Breastfeeding and OC use were generally not associated with breast cancer subtype risk. Our study provides possible evidence that age at menarche, and time between menarche and first full-term childbirth may be associated with the etiology of both HR-negative and HR-positive malignancies, although the associations with HR-negative breast cancer were only borderline significant
Background: The quality of health services has been known to be grossly deficient in developing countries, but only few studies were carried out to document the deficiencies in a systematic manner. Objective: To assess the quality of reproductive health services in rural settings with emphasis on the structural aspect.
This project represents one of nine spanning two regions (West Africa and the Middle East) and two thematic topics (adolescent sexual and reproductive health and health information systems). The project is closely aligned with the Government of Canada's new Feminist International Assistance Policy, the strategic priorities ...
Elfers, John; Carlton, Lidia; Gibson, Paul; Puffer, Maryjane; Smith, Sharla; Todd, Kay
The Adolescent Sexual Health Work Group commissioned the development of core competencies that define the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for all providers of adolescent sexual and reproductive health. This article describes the background and rationale for this set of competencies, the history and use of competencies, and the process…
The purpose of this article is to show the relationship between women education, affordability of hospital delivery, availability of government health center and the use of reproductive health services among childbearing women in Akute Community of Ogun State, Nigeria. The article begins with a background of the ...
... inform the design and implementation of ALHIV friendly SRH programmes services in both urban and rural settings in Nigeria. (Afr J Reprod Health 2014; 18: 102-108). Keywords: Nigeria, Adolescents living with HIV, Sexual, Reproductive, Health, Needs. On est très peu renseigné sur les besoins de santé sexuelle et ...
ABSTRACT. Adolescent sexual and reproductive health access continues to dominate the development agenda since the historic 1994 Cairo Conference and becomes a huge public health concern for the increasing diverse of undocumented adolescents who have become an important component as irregular migration ...
The WHO (World Health Organization) definition of reproductive health establishes reproductive rights for women and men. This includes the capability to reproduce and the freedom to decide, if, when, and how often to do so. In this article the implementation of these rights in Germany is evaluated, focusing on selected aspects of family planning. Findings from empirical studies, surveys, and official registers on fertility intentions, on births, on contraception, and on abortion are compiled. Moreover, the influence of social aspects on reproductive health (education, migration background) is discussed. Records show high standards regarding information and access to contraceptives; however, more action and research are needed in three regards. First, men and women have fewer children than they would like to have, and the desire to have (more) children is deferred systematically. Second, the number and rate of abortions should be reduced. And third, more attention should be paid to social determinants that influence the access to reproductive health. Furthermore, the special needs of migrants should be taken into account.
Daniels, C R; Paul, M; Rosofsky, R
Potential exposure to occupational reproductive hazards raises complex questions regarding health and gender discrimination in the workplace. On the one hand, growing scientific evidence suggests that workplace exposures to either sex can cause a wide range of disorders ranging from infertility to adverse pregnancy outcomes. On the other hand, policies alleging to protect workers from reproductive risks have often reinforced gender inequalities in the workplace. This article sheds new light on this continuing debate through an examination of the policy insights suggested by a recent study of reproductive hazard policies in Massachusetts. In what ways do policies evidenced in this study reflect or differ from historical patterns of protectionism? The article presents a political-legal review of reproductive hazard policies in the workplace, then examines the policy implications of the Massachusetts study, and finally presents the prescriptions for change that are implied by both the historical and contemporary evidence.
The goal of the current study is to explore the perceived reproductive health risks associated with alcoholism from the perspective of rural communities in Kenya where abuse of illicit liquor especially among men has become an epidemic. Data for the study were gathered qualitatively through focus groups among community members and in-depth interviews with opinion leaders and key informants who were selected through a snowball method. All recorded data were analyzed through constructivist and interpretive techniques, which started with a line-by-line examination of transcripts for identification of emerging themes. Rural communities are aware of the lethal nature of the illicit liquor and the severe reproductive health problems associated with it among male consumers. Alcoholism also affects women's sexual and reproductive needs and is attributed to risky sexual behaviors in alcohol-discordant relationships, which puts them at a higher risk of HIV infection. Results indicate a need to address alcoholism in rural Kenya as a public health problem focusing on education and understanding of the long-term health consequences. Addressing the impact on male reproductive health is crucial because it impacts the wider community. Given the complex relationship between alcohol abuse and HIV/AIDS, it is also important for prevention interventions to target married women and non-alcohol consumers. Furthermore, engaging communities will ensure development of culture- and gender-specific interventions. Such engagement requires facilitation of health practitioners for development of meaningful community-based initiatives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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Background: Inequalities in reproductive and child health (RCH exist, in general, in different regions of India. The present study aims to investigate the current status of RCH and examine the factors responsible for it in different parts of India.
Methods: This study utilized data obtained from two Indian studies – (i National Family Health Survey – 3 (NFHS- 2005-06 and (ii District Level Household Survey (DLHS – 2002-04. Reproductive Health Index was computed on the basis of five variables such as total fertility rate, infant mortality rate, birth order, delivery care and female educational attainment.
Results: In terms of reproductive and child health, a wide range of variation exists in India in its different regions. The study reveals that among Indian states, 13 states have an index value less than the national average. On the basis of the reproductive health index, the Indian states can be divided into three categories, namely; progressive states, semi progressive states and backward states.
Conclusions: The interstate differences in healthcare utilization are partly due to variations in the implementation of maternal health care programs as well as differences in availability of and accessibility to healthcare between Indian states.
Verret, Catherine; Jutand, Mathe-Aline; De Vigan, Catherine; Bégassat, Marion; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Brochard, Patrick; Salamon, Roger
Abstract Background Since 1993, many studies on the health of Persian Gulf War veterans (PGWVs) have been undertaken. Some authors have concluded that an association exists between Gulf War service and reported infertility or miscarriage, but that effects on PGWV's children were limited. The present study's objective was to describe the reproductive outcome and health of offspring of French Gulf War veterans. Methods The French Study on the Persian Gulf War (PGW) and its Health Consequences i...
Kane, Sumit; Rial, Matilda; Matere, Anthony; Dieleman, Marjolein; Broerse, Jacqueline E.W.; Kok, Maryse
Background In South Sudan, women disproportionately bear the burden of morbidity and mortality related to sexual and reproductive health, with a maternal mortality ratio of 789 deaths per 100,000 live births. Design A qualitative study was conducted to analyze how gendered social relations among the Fertit people affect women's ability to exercise control over their reproductive lives and thereby their sexual and reproductive health. Transcripts of 5 focus group discussions and 44 semi-structured interviews conducted with purposefully selected community members and health personnel were analyzed using Connell's relational theory of gender. Results Women across all age groups report that they have little choice but to meet the childbearing demands of husbands and their families. Women, both young and old, and also elders, are frustrated about how men and society are letting them down and how they are left to bear the reproductive burden. The poverty and chronic insecurity in South Sudan mean that many men have few sources of pride and achievement; conformity and complicity with the hegemonic practices accord both security and a sense of belonging and privilege to men, often at the expense of women's reproductive health. Conclusions Inequalities in the domestic, social, and economic spheres intersect to create social situations wherein Fertit women's agency in the reproductive realm is constrained. In South Sudan, as long as economic and social opportunities for women remain restricted, and as long as insecurity and uncertainty remain, many women will have little choice but to resort to having many children to safeguard their fragile present and future. Unless structural measures are taken to address these inequalities, there is a risk of both a widening of existing health inequalities and the emergence of new inequalities. PMID:27900934
Full Text Available Background: In South Sudan, women disproportionately bear the burden of morbidity and mortality related to sexual and reproductive health, with a maternal mortality ratio of 789 deaths per 100,000 live births. Design: A qualitative study was conducted to analyze how gendered social relations among the Fertit people affect women's ability to exercise control over their reproductive lives and thereby their sexual and reproductive health. Transcripts of 5 focus group discussions and 44 semi-structured interviews conducted with purposefully selected community members and health personnel were analyzed using Connell's relational theory of gender. Results: Women across all age groups report that they have little choice but to meet the childbearing demands of husbands and their families. Women, both young and old, and also elders, are frustrated about how men and society are letting them down and how they are left to bear the reproductive burden. The poverty and chronic insecurity in South Sudan mean that many men have few sources of pride and achievement; conformity and complicity with the hegemonic practices accord both security and a sense of belonging and privilege to men, often at the expense of women's reproductive health. Conclusions: Inequalities in the domestic, social, and economic spheres intersect to create social situations wherein Fertit women's agency in the reproductive realm is constrained. In South Sudan, as long as economic and social opportunities for women remain restricted, and as long as insecurity and uncertainty remain, many women will have little choice but to resort to having many children to safeguard their fragile present and future. Unless structural measures are taken to address these inequalities, there is a risk of both a widening of existing health inequalities and the emergence of new inequalities.
Full Text Available Background & aim: Reproductive health of puberty is very important in the cycle of Life. Adolescence is a very important period of time in cycle of life and it is followed by physical, psychological and social changes. Therefore the aim of this study was needs assessment of reproductive health for adolescence as a first and principal step in curriculum planning for health services. Methods: This study was qualitative like the most needs assessments and the method was content analysis. Data gathering was done by semi structured interview. We used two focus groups (7and 10persons for needs assessment of reproductive health between girls, and personal interview with 10 boys. We did content analysis and then extracted the main themes and sub themes. Results: Adolescent girls had diverse needs in four groups: experiences related to menstruation and hygiene, social needs, sexual needs and psychological needs. Also adolescent boys had three groups of needs like physical changes, psychological and sexual needs. In physical needs group they had some needs like no knowledge of symptoms of adolescence, no knowledge of hygiene related to puberty. In psychological needs group they had some needs like feeling depression and in sexual needs group they had some needs like tendency to make contacts with girls, no knowledge of communication with people with different sex. Conclusion: Education and the systematic planning in reproductive health matters are necessary for parents, teachers and adolescents, and they are known as the prior needs.
Verbiest, Sarah; Malin, Christina Kiko; Drummonds, Mario; Kotelchuck, Milton
The maternal and child health (MCH) community, partnering with women and their families, has the potential to play a critical role in advancing a new multi-sector social movement focused on creating a women's reproductive and economic justice agenda. Since the turn of the twenty-first century, the MCH field has been planting seeds for change. The time has come for this work to bear fruit as many states are facing stagnant or slow progress in reducing infant mortality, increasing maternal death rates, and growing health inequities. This paper synthesizes three current, interrelated approaches to addressing MCH challenges-life course theory, preconception health, and social justice/reproductive equity. Based on these core constructs, the authors offer four directions for advancing efforts to improve MCH outcomes. The first is to ensure access to quality health care for all. The second is to facilitate change through critical conversations about challenging issues such as poverty, racism, sexism, and immigration; the relevance of evidence-based practice in disenfranchised communities; and how we might be perpetuating inequities in our institutions. The third is to develop collaborative spaces in which leaders across diverse sectors can see their roles in creating equitable neighborhood conditions that ensure optimal reproductive choices and outcomes for women and their families. Last, the authors suggest that leaders engage the MCH workforce and its consumers in dialogue and action about local and national policies that address the social determinants of health and how these policies influence reproductive and early childhood outcomes.
implies that the economic and political situation in a country before the onset of health sector reforms go a long ... There are technical and political strategies that can be used in ensuring that the goals and objectives of ... This has been done in Bolivia, where all fees from key maternal and child health services in the public ...
Full Text Available Introduction. Reproductive health of women is determined by females’ demographic and socio-economic characteristics, their behavior, and the complex of environmental factors. Objective. The paper examines the predictive impact of personal and environmental characteristics, health and healthcare characteristics regarding the most important aspects of reproductive health. Methods From a sample of 2,718 women, aged 20-49 years, we collected information on various characteristics using a structured questionnaire. Based on factorial analysis (principal components method, Kaisser Varimax criterion we selected representative variables (factors, describing personal (demographic and socio-economic characteristics of women, their environment (family, household, community, health (attitudes towards health, life-style, health status, healthcare (independent and the characteristics of reproductive health (dependent variables. The predictors were analyzed by multiple regression and correlation. Results. Sexual behavior was determined by socio-economic status, personal tidiness, rest, presence of risk factor(s, health evaluation and attitude toward personal responsibility, trust in physicians etc. The predictors of contraception involved satisfaction with one’s own health, serious health problems, health evaluation. The presence and number of abortions were determined by personal psychological maturity, rest, risk factors, life-style, health evaluation and its manifestations, and the continuity and timely healthcare. The predictors of adequate protection of reproductive health involved the cultural level of the community, financial standing of the household, satisfaction with one’s own life, tidiness and rest, presence of risk factors, health evaluation, attitude towards personal responsibility, and trust in physicians. HIV control was determined by satisfaction with one’s own life, physical activity of women, presence of serious health problems, and
Prata, Ndola; Summer, Anna
Ethiopia is among the top six countries contributing to the highest numbers of maternal deaths globally. The Ethiopian total fertility rate was estimated at 4.8 in 2011, and the use of contraceptives by married women was 29%. Lack of knowledge, cultural stigma surrounding abortion, and barriers to access of services contribute to persistently high rates of unsafe abortion and abortion-related mortality. This study seeks to assess the generation and institutionalization of political priority for reproductive health within the political systems of Ethiopia. Interviews with key policy makers, government ministers, academics, and leaders of prominent non-governmental organizations in Ethiopia between July 2010 and January 2011 were conducted, using Shiffman and Smith's Framework, to analyse the key actors and ideas behind the shift towards prioritization of reproductive health in Ethiopia, as well as the political context and primary characteristics of the issues that propelled progressive action in reproductive health in that country. Some of the key lessons point to the readiness of the Ethiopian government to reform and to improve the socio-economic status of the population. The role of civil society organizations working alongside the government was crucial to creating a window of opportunity in a changing political climate to achieve gains in reproductive health. To our knowledge, this is the first time Shiffman and Smith's Framework has been used for reproductive health policies. We conclude that Ethiopian experience fits well within this framework for understanding prioritization of global health issues and may serve as a model for other sub-Saharan African countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Programmatic aspects of postpartum family planning in developing countries: a qualitative analysis of key informant interviews in Kenya and Ethiopia · EMAIL FREE ... Impediments to Media Communication of Social Change in Family Planning and Reproductive Health: Experiences from East Africa · EMAIL FREE FULL ...
... the role of sexual and reproductive health education on adolescents' sexual behaviours. A cross sectional design was employed by using open and closed ended questionnaires, interview guides and focus group discussions (FGD). Data analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software.
Knowledge, attitude and practices study on reproductive health among secondary school students in Bolgatanga, Upper East Region, Ghana · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE ... Poor parenting: Teenagers' views on adolescent pregnancies in Eastern Uganda · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT
This project aims to generate knowledge on adolescents' perceptions of and requirements for sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services among Palestinian refugee camp dwellers in the West Bank and Jordan. SRH services are currently offered only to married girls and women by the United Nations Relief and Works ...
Reproductive Health and the Question of Abortion in Botswana: A Review. Stephanie S Smith. Abstract. The complications of unsafe, illegal abortions are a significant cause of maternal mortality in Botswana. The stigma attached to abortion leads some women to seek clandestine procedures, or alternatively, to carry the ...
Gender analysis of sexual and reproductive health information access and use: a study of university student communities in Tanzania. ... Finally, the paper makes detailed recommendations on SRH service provision; gender mainstreaming in SRH service provision; family planning; IEC and BCC; marketing and promoting ...
South Africa (SA) has progressive legislation enabling adolescents to access various sexual- and reproductive-health services (SRH) independently, without consent from parents or legal guardians. This article reviews the SA legislative framework for adolescent access to SRH interventions. It outlines the five approaches ...
Jensen, Tina Kold; Jørgensen, Niels; Asklund, Camilla
Little is known the about the reproductive health of offspring after fertility treatment. In 2001-2005, the authors approached young Danish men attending a compulsory physical examination to determine their fitness for military service. A total of 1,925 men volunteered, delivered a semen sample, ...
Opportunities and Limitations for Using New Media and Mobile Phones to Expand Access to Sexual and Reproductive Health Information and Services for Adolescent Girls and Young Women in Six Nigerian States · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.
Conclusion: The male attendance to RH services together with their female partners' in rural Shinyanga .... infection, other than HIV (Table. 2). Table 2: Awareness of men on various the reproductive health services. Service. Response. Frequency. (N) = 204. Percentage (%). FP .... Knowing our status was important to both.
Nov 11, 2003 ... Attitude of Teachers to School Based Adolescent Reproductive Health Interventions. Seven secondary schools were selected among the nine public secondary schools in Sagamu through simple random sampling using balloting method. In the chosen schools, after consent was obtained from.
students could access a wide range of sources of SRH information but the actual use was concentrated and .... Simonelli et al (2002), evaluating sexual and reproductive health education and services for youths in .... of these sources of SRH information and the attitude towards gender equity (see table 1-3 below). Table 1: ...
Peters, Ingrid A.; Schölmerich, Vera L. N.; van Veen, Daniëlle W.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Denktas, Semiha
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the characteristics of the participants and the success of the recruitment methods and increase in knowledge of participants in reproductive health peer education. Dutch perinatal mortality rates are relatively high compared to other European countries. Non-Western ethnic minorities show particularly…
Adequate information about sexuality is an important factor that affect attitude towards reproductive health practices. However, female adolescents with hearing impairment have problems of normal adolescents to contend with in addition to the problems occasioned by their hearing disability and unlike their normal ...
The study examined the relationship between demographic variables and the reproductive health behaviour of the adolescents in Oyo State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The sample for the study consisted of 164 adolescents, male and female, in Oyo State, Nigeria. Multi stage ...
... to determine the extent to which adolescents had access to sexual and reproductive health information. Methods: The case study methodology was used for the study. The interpretive paradigm was used as the methodological theory and Grunig's model of excellence in communication was used as the substantive theory.
Sexual and reproductive health risk behaviours among South African university students: results from a representative campus-wide survey. Susie Hoffman, Michael Levasseur, Joanne E. Mantell, Mags Beksinska, Zonke Mabude, Claudia Ngoloyi, Elizabeth A. Kelvin, Theresa Exner, Cheng-Shiun Leu, Lavanya Pillay, ...
Harrison, P. F.; Hemmerling, A.; Romano, J.; Whaley, K. J.; Young Holt, B.
Women worldwide confront two frequently concurrent reproductive health challenges: the need for contraception and for protection from sexually transmitted infections, importantly HIV/AIDS. While conception and infection share the same anatomical site and mode of transmission, there are no reproductive health technologies to date that simultaneously address that reality. Relevant available technologies are either contraceptive or anti-infective, are limited in number, and require different modes of administration and management. These “single-indication” technologies do not therefore fully respond to what is a substantial reproductive health need intimately linked to pivotal events in many women's lives. This paper reviews an integrated attempt to develop multipurpose prevention technologies—“MPTs”—products explicitly designed to simultaneously address the need for both contraception and protection from sexually transmitted infections. It describes an innovative and iterative MPT product development strategy with the following components: identifying different needs for such technologies and global variations in reproductive health priorities, defining “Target Product Profiles” as the framework for a research and development “roadmap,” collating an integrated MPT pipeline and characterizing significant pipeline gaps, exploring anticipated regulatory requirements, prioritizing candidates for problem-solving and resource investments, and implementing an ancillary advocacy agenda to support this breadth of effort. PMID:23533733
P. F. Harrison
Full Text Available Women worldwide confront two frequently concurrent reproductive health challenges: the need for contraception and for protection from sexually transmitted infections, importantly HIV/AIDS. While conception and infection share the same anatomical site and mode of transmission, there are no reproductive health technologies to date that simultaneously address that reality. Relevant available technologies are either contraceptive or anti-infective, are limited in number, and require different modes of administration and management. These “single-indication” technologies do not therefore fully respond to what is a substantial reproductive health need intimately linked to pivotal events in many women's lives. This paper reviews an integrated attempt to develop multipurpose prevention technologies—“MPTs”—products explicitly designed to simultaneously address the need for both contraception and protection from sexually transmitted infections. It describes an innovative and iterative MPT product development strategy with the following components: identifying different needs for such technologies and global variations in reproductive health priorities, defining “Target Product Profiles” as the framework for a research and development “roadmap,” collating an integrated MPT pipeline and characterizing significant pipeline gaps, exploring anticipated regulatory requirements, prioritizing candidates for problem-solving and resource investments, and implementing an ancillary advocacy agenda to support this breadth of effort.
Promoting and Prioritising Reproductive Health Commodities: Understanding the Emergency Contraception Value Chain in South Africa · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Knowledge and attitudes towards cervical cancer and human papillomavirus: A Nigerian pilot study · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT
AJRH Managing Editor
Abstract. Youth report embarrassment, cost, and poor access as barriers to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. ..... Table 4: Percent of Respondents Reporting Perceived Barriers to HIV Testing, Abortion, and Contraception by. Gender, Age, Community and School Status. Perceived. Barrier. Boys Girls 11-16 yrs.
This paper attempted to identify whether access to reproductive health services partly explains use of modern contraception in Malawi. Recent changes in Malawi\\'s population policy have brought the state\\'s population ambitions into alignment with the consensus reached at the International Conference on Population and ...
Methods: This paper is based on a desk review of existing literature on sexual and reproductive health needs and rights of young positives. Results: The results indicate young positives are sexually active and are engaging in risky sexual encounters. Yet, existing policies, programs and services are inadequate in ...
Transdisciplinary analysis in this study involves understanding gender relations as a way of investigating whether household decisions are both democratic and all inclusive. By emphasising the inseparability of gender and reproductive health discourse, the paper makes important contributions to the theoretical and ...
A legal perspective on reproductive health and gender-specific human rights in Nigeria. ... Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research ... The concept of human rights is very fundamental to society and is based on international instruments signed and ratified by sovereign States after the Second World War. In general ...
Challenges of monitoring reproductive health services: a case study of antenatal clinics in Kinondoni municipality, Dar Es Salaam. ... was descriptive cross sectional employing both qualitative and quantitative methods. The sample population included nurse-midwives who manage ANC clinics in Kinondoni Municipality.
Lack of information about SRH, poor perceptions about SRH, feeling of shame, fear of being seen by others, restrictive cultural norms, lack of privacy, confidentiality and unavailability of services were deterring use of sexual and reproductive health services. Conclusions: Only a small proportion of young people used sexual ...
Reproductive health, defined in the 1994 UN Cairo Conference on Population and Development, is discussed and its limits identified. Mortality and morbidity impacts of components of male and female reproductive health are quantified. Use is made of survey data and the estimates of deaths and disease burdens provided by the Global Burden of Disease Inquiry. Maternal causes are the greatest contributors to the total disease burden among women aged 15-44 years. In developing countries, up to half of those who want to delay or avoid further pregnancy are not using contraception. Worldwide, induced abortion accounts for 61,000 deaths annually. Sexually transmitted diseases and other illnesses also result from unsafe sexual practices, resulting in at least 1 million deaths each year. These deaths-and an overall disease burden of 50 million disability-adjusted life years-are entirely preventable. Constraints include, lack a of international commitment to improving reproductive health, social and economic factors, lack of biomedical research, insensitive social science research, and inadequate knowledge. Men and women have the right to demand better services and the knowledge and conditions in which to use them. Those in the more developed countries have the responsibility of ensuring adequate financial and technical support to make reproductive health possible everywhere.
AJRH Managing Editor
Mixed Methods Study of Young Women's Needs and Experiences in Soweto, ... Young women and girls in South Africa are at high risk of unintended pregnancy and HIV. Previous studies have reported barriers to contraceptive and other sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services among young women in this context.
advocate the use of these strategies in promoting sexuality education. The study also reveals that significant difference does not exist in the means scores of male and female counsellors on the ways to promote and protect the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents as shown in table III. Implications for Counselling.
Nov 11, 2003 ... adolescent sexual behaviour, including contraceptive use is important. The attitude of teachers to school-based adolescent reproductive health services was assessed among two hundred and twenty three teachers in Sagamu. Forty seven percent of them were trained family life educators while 52.9% had ...
Kane, Sumit; Rial, Matilda; Matere, Anthony; Dieleman, Marjolein; Broerse, Jacqueline E W; Kok, Maryse
Background: In South Sudan, women disproportionately bear the burden of morbidity and mortality related to sexual and reproductive health, with a maternal mortality ratio of 789 deaths per 100,000 live births. Design: A qualitative study was conducted to analyze how gendered social relations among
Moroccan population has known a growing demographic trend. However, beyond the global tendency, reproductive health remains characterised by inequalities and disparities between urban and rural, rich and poor, developed and deprived regions.In this study, we relied mainly on data and statistics provided by the last ...
Objective: To investigate the sexual behaviour and reproductive health amongst female senior secondary school students. Methods: Using cross-sectional descriptive study 374 students were studied. Information was collected on their sexual behaviours, knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), prevalence of ...
Dec 4, 2009 ... This study was conducted within the secondary school student population of the Bolgatanga community, in Northern Ghana, to learn about knowledge, attitude and practices of reproductive health of this adolescent student population. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected on adolescence.
The result revealed that sexual transmitted diseases, hypertensive diseases, hemorrhage, and anaemia were determinants of reproductive health problems among adolescents. Based on the findings, the researchers made some recommendations and counselling implications. Introduction. Adolescence is the period in the ...
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Benin, 1Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Basic Medical. Sciences ... Internet search of studies on male infertility was done, and those relevant for this study were reviewed. ... of adverse consequences of infertility on reproductive health.
The study tried to find out the determinants of adolescent reproductive health problems in Awka South Local Government Area of Nigeria. The descriptive survey research design was used for the study. Four research questions guided the study. A total of two hundred and fourteen adolescent who attended antenatal clinic ...
The paper suggests the design and execution of male participation grounded in human rights based approach to program for wider development agenda and good governance initiatives in Africa.` Keywords: social mobilization, male engagement, social change, reproductive health, gender equality, social innovation ...
Adults may facilitate or obstruct healthy sexual behaviours by adolescents; hence information on their attitude towards adolescent sexual behaviour, including contraceptive use is important. The attitude of teachers to school-based adolescent reproductive health services was assessed among two hundred and twenty three ...
Abortion is illegal in Malawi except when the pregnancy endangers the mother's life, yet complications of abortion account for the majority of admissions to gynecological wards. This study collected data on all post-abortion care (PAC) cases reporting to all PAC-providing health facilities in Malawi over a 30-day period.
Medical doctors are bound by ethics in their clinical practice – health service delivery. They often discharge their contractual responsibilities under the provisions of their professional ethical code and personal morality. Ethical principles in clinical care include i) Respect for patient's autonomy ii) Doing good (beneficence) ...
Women's autonomy is widely considered to be a key to improving maternal health in developing countries, whereas there is no consistent empirical evidence to support this claim. This paper examines whether or not and how women's autonomy within the household affects the use of reproductive health care, using a household survey data from Tajikistan. Estimation is performed by the bivariate probit model whereby woman's use of health services and the level of women's autonomy are recursively and simultaneously determined. The data is from a sample of women aged 15-49 from the Tajikistan Living Standard Measurement Survey 2007. Women's autonomy as measured by women's decision-making on household financial matters increase the likelihood that a woman receives antenatal and delivery care, whilst it has a negative effect on the probability of attending to four or more antenatal consultations. The hypothesis that women's autonomy and reproductive health care utilisation are independently determined is rejected for most of the estimation specifications, indicating the importance of taking into account the endogenous nature of women's autonomy when assessing its effect on health care use. The empirical results reconfirm the assertion that women's status within the household is closely linked to reproductive health care utilisation in developing countries. Policymakers therefore need not only to implement not only direct health interventions but also to focus on broader social policies which address women's empowerment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
T. A. Sokolovskaya
Full Text Available The federal reporting forms over 1986–1995 and the official statistics over 2009–2014 were analyzed using the methods of descriptive statistics and correlation analysis to identify the relationship of neonatal health status to reproductive problems in adulthood. The investigation showed that at the end of the 20th century, the overall structure of newborns showed a larger proportion of very low (1000–1499 g and low (1500–2499 g birth weight babies from 0,42% in 1986 to 0,47% in 1995 and from 4,9 to 5,46%, respectively. Moreover, the common neonatal abnormalities were birth trauma, intrauterine hypoxia, birth asphyxia, congenital abnormalities, growth retardation, and malnutrition. Further, there was a decline in the number of people coming of active reproductive age, men and women alike (24,77% in 2009 and 23,77% in 2014. With this, in 2009–2014, the adult population exhibited increases in the incidence of newly diagnosed cases of diseases of the endocrine, circulatory, and urinary systems (by 6,61, 15,07, and 4,14%, respectively, and female infertility (by 21,25%. Correlation analysis indicated that there was a negative relationship between neonatal hemolytic disease and adult-onset circulatory diseases and anemia (r =–0,45; p<0,05 and r =–0,48; p<0,05; infections specific to the perinatal period, salpingitis and oophoritis (r =–0,30; p<0,05; there was a direct correlation between congenital pneumonia in the newborn and diabetes mellitus, diseases characterized by high blood pressure in adults (r =0,31; p<0,05 and r =0,36; p<0,05; respiratory distress syndrome and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (r =0,38; p<0,05. Pathological processes result in a vicious circle: a neonatal patient — a female and/or male patient — pregnancy and/or labor pathology — a sick child.
The objective of the study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of a college course in preconception health and prenatal development at improving reproductive health awareness in college students. Students enrolled in the course completed pretest and posttest assessments and a course evaluation. Students' self-perception of awareness of the positive and negative factors that can affect pregnancy increased from 13% at the beginning of the course to 89 and 93% at the end of the course, respectively. Correspondingly, students' knowledge of course-related information improved across nearly all areas assessed. The average score among students increased from 67 to 90% correct from pretest to posttest. Course evaluation results indicated that over 94% of students found the course to be beneficial and informative. College courses are a practical way to disseminate reproductive and prenatal health information. Educating college students in these areas has clear benefits to both individual students and society and, as such, merits increased attention in college curricula.
Apollonio, D E; Malone, R E
Literature suggests that 'negative advertising' is an effective way to encourage behavioral changes, but it has enjoyed limited use in public health media campaigns. However, as public health increasingly focuses on non-communicable disease prevention, negative advertising could be more widely applied. This analysis considers an illustrative case from tobacco control. Relying on internal tobacco industry documents, surveys and experimental data and drawing from political advocacy literature, we describe tobacco industry and public health research on the American Legacy Foundation's "truth" campaign, an example of effective negative advertising in the service of public health. The tobacco industry determined that the most effective advertisements run by Legacy's "truth" campaign were negative advertisements. Although the tobacco industry's own research suggested that these negative ads identified and effectively reframed the cigarette as a harmful consumer product rather than focusing solely on tobacco companies, Philip Morris accused Legacy of 'vilifying' it. Public health researchers have demonstrated the effectiveness of the "truth" campaign in reducing smoking initiation. Research on political advocacy demonstrating the value of negative advertising has rarely been used in the development of public health media campaigns, but negative advertising can effectively communicate certain public health messages and serve to counter corporate disease promotion.
Hall, Kelli Stidham; Harris, Lisa H; Dalton, Vanessa K
To describe women's preferences for reproductive health providers as sources of primary and mental health care. This is secondary data analysis of the Women's Health Care Experiences and Preferences Study, an Internet survey conducted in September 2013 of 1,078 women aged 18 to 55 randomly sampled from a U.S. national probability panel. We estimated women's preferred and usual sources of care (reproductive health providers, generalists, other) for various primary care and mental health care services using weighted statistics and multiple logistic regression. Among women using health care in the past 5 years (n = 981), 88% received primary and/or mental health care, including a routine medical checkup (78%), urgent/acute (48%), chronic disease (27%), depression/anxiety (21%), stress (16%), and intimate partner violence (2%) visits. Of those, reproductive health providers were the source of checkup (14%), urgent/acute (3%), chronic disease (6%), depression/anxiety (6%), stress (11%), and intimate partner violence (3%) services. Preference for specific reproductive health-provided primary/mental health care services ranged from 7% to 20%. Among women having used primary/mental health care services (N = 894), more women (1%-17%) preferred than had received primary/mental health care from reproductive health providers. Nearly one-quarter (22%) identified reproductive health providers as their single most preferred source of care. Contraceptive use was the strongest predictor of preference for reproductive health-provided primary/mental health care (odds ratios range, 2.11-3.30). Reproductive health providers are the sole source of health care for a substantial proportion of reproductive-aged women-the same groups at risk for unmet primary and mental health care needs. Findings have implications for reproductive health providers' role in comprehensive women's health care provision and potentially for informing patient-centered, integrated models of care in current
Shaw, Dorothy; Cook, Rebecca J
Universal access to reproductive health is a target of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5B, and along with MDG 5A to reduce maternal mortality by three-quarters, progress is currently too slow for most countries to achieve these targets by 2015. Critical to success are increased and sustainable numbers of skilled healthcare workers and financing of essential medicines by governments, who have made political commitments in United Nations forums to renew their efforts to reduce maternal mortality. National essential medicine lists are not reflective of medicines available free or at cost in facilities or in the community. The WHO Essential Medicines List indicates medicines required for maternal and newborn health including the full range of contraceptives and emergency contraception, but there is no consistent monitoring of implementation of national lists through procurement and supply even for basic essential drugs. Health advocates are using human rights mechanisms to ensure governments honor their legal commitments to ensure access to services essential for reproductive health. Maternal mortality is recognized as a human rights violation by the United Nations and constitutional and human rights are being used, and could be used more effectively, to improve maternity services and to ensure access to drugs essential for reproductive health. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Latin American and Caribbean Seminar on Women's Health and Reproductive Rights was held in Brasilia on November 13-14, 1991. The seminar manifesto reproduced here cities the many ways in which women in the region are oppressed by poverty and social injustice, and points to Cuba as a country where health and reproductive rights are respected. Latin American has been oppressed for 500 years. Its population still experiences misery, poverty, and deprivation of human rights and an equitable quality of life. The poor, especially women and children, are being decimated by endemic disease, mass sterilization, sexual and racial discrimination, and expropriation of liberty and the freedom to make choices concerning their own countries and bodies. The situation has resulted from the neoliberal policies of the latin American governments with the exception of Cuba. The international policy has called for renunciation of national sovereignty and submission to imperialist policy. social programs have suffered particularly. Women in Latin American are not considered 1st class in all stages of their lives. The Seminar of Women's Health and Reproductive Rights signals the urgent need to improve the situation through measures to mobilize society in defence of health and reproductive rights. High indices of maternal mortality caused largely by illegal abortion, premature births and perinatal deaths, lack of prenatal care, malnutrition, generalized violence, prostitution of minors and adolescents, psychic disturbances from limitations and deformations in the exercise of sexuality, lack of choice of contraceptive methods, surgical sterilization at a young age, excess numbers of cesareans, high-technology medical interventions motivated by economic interest, lack of sex education, and shortcomings of preventive health policies and basic public services are among the problems affecting Latin American women. Cuba is hailed as a country where women can freely choose abortion, and where
Agampodi Thilini C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent health needs, behaviours and expectations are unique and routine health care services are not well geared to provide these services. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived reproductive health problems, health seeking behaviors, knowledge about available services and barriers to reach services among a group of adolescents in Sri Lanka in order to improve reproductive health service delivery. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in a semi urban setting in Sri Lanka. A convenient sample of 32 adolescents between 17–19 years of age participated in four focus group discussions. Participants were selected from four midwife areas. A pre-tested focus group guide was used for data collection. Male and female facilitators conducted discussions separately with young males and females. All tape-recorded data was fully transcribed and thematic analysis was done. Results Psychological distresses due to various reasons and problems regarding menstrual cycle and masturbation were reported as the commonest health problems. Knowledge on existing services was very poor and boys were totally unaware of youth health services available through the public health system. On reproductive Health Matters, girls mainly sought help from friends whereas boys did not want to discuss their problems with anyone. Lack of availability of services was pointed out as the most important barrier in reaching the adolescent needs. Lack of access to reproductive health knowledge was an important reason for poor self-confidence among adolescents to discuss these matters. Lack of confidentiality, youth friendliness and accessibility of available services were other barriers discussed. Adolescents were happy to accept available services through public clinics and other health infrastructure for their services rather than other organizations. A demand was made for separate youth friendly services through medical practitioners
This master thesis focuses on the knowledge of reproductive health among middle schoolers in the targeted middle schools in the Czech Republic. In the theoretical part of my work, I define the term of reproduction health, describe physiology of female and male genitals, disorders in reproductive health, and types of methods -natural invasive- offered by anticonception. Another part of my thesis concerns on reproductive health related to a prostitution, and a sexual abuse, and pregnancy impact...
Kapinga, Orestes Silverius; Hyera, Daniel Frans
This study explored pupils' perceptions of sex and reproductive health education in primary schools in Tanzania. Specifically, the study aimed at (i) exploring pupils' views on sex and reproductive health education in primary schools; (ii) determining opinions on the appropriateness of sex and reproductive health education for pupils in primary…
At the beginning of another millennium, it seems appropriate to take stock of the major developments that have taken place in reproductive health care, particularly in the last century. Although reproductive health has become a truly multidisciplinary enterprise, the co-ordination of reproductive health care services will ...
In 1995 the IPPF Africa Region undertook advocacy missions to six countries in the region to sensitize national leaders about family planning (FP). This mission was governed by the six challenges laid down in the IPPF's strategic plan, Vision 2000, and the program of action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. In Ethiopia, Kenya, and Tanzania the concerns were adolescent sexuality, family life education, and services to youth. In Uganda unsafe abortion; while in the Central African Republic and Guinea sexual and reproductive health, unsafe abortion, the sexuality of youth, and the empowerment of women were the main issues. Documentation packages prepared for the mission included annual reports, periodicals, conference reports, booklets, and position papers. The target audiences were political leaders, national, regional, and international organizations, religious, educational, and media leaders, and the public. Press conferences were organized and lobbying was conducted with national family planning associations to strengthen networking and coalition building. In Ethiopia the IPPF president's visit pertained to the sexuality of young people. In Kenya the mission coincided with the controversy of introducing family life education in primary schools. A seminar in Nairobi brought together 100 influential people who came to an agreement on the necessity of such education. In Tanzania the advocacy team crusaded for reproductive health services for young people. The country's president fully supported FP activities even allowing the use of hospitals and health centers for the distribution of contraceptives. There was a visit to a teenage mothers' center providing vocational training and reproductive health counseling in Dar es Salaam. In Uganda UNFPA, USAID, and national family planning association representatives met to forge closer working relations and examine the issue of tax exemption for imported contraceptives
Full Text Available The human vaginal microbiota plays an important role in the maintenance of a woman′s health, as well as of her partner′s and newborns′. When this predominantly Lactobacillus community is disrupted, decreased in abundance and replaced by different anaerobes, bacterial vaginosis (BV may occur. BV is associated with ascending infections and obstetrical complications, such as chorioamnionitis and preterm delivery, as well as with urinary tract infections and sexually transmitted infections. In BV the overgrowth of anaerobes produces noxious substances like polyamines and other compounds that trigger the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL-1 β and IL-8. BV can profoundly affect, with different mechanisms, all the phases of a woman′s life in relation to reproduction, before pregnancy, during fertilization, through and at the end of pregnancy. BV can directly affect fertility, since an ascending dissemination of the involved species may lead to tubal factor infertility. Moreover, the increased risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases contributes to damage to reproductive health. Exogenous strains of lactobacilli have been suggested as a means of re-establishing a normal healthy vaginal flora. Carefully selected probiotic strains can eliminate BV and also exert an antiviral effect, thus reducing viral load and preventing foetal and neonatal infection. The administration of beneficial microorganisms (probiotics can aid recovery from infection and restore and maintain a healthy vaginal ecosystem, thus improving female health also in relation to reproductive health.
Raymond, Susan U; Greenberg, Henry M; Leeder, Stephen R
The concept of women's health is tethered strongly to reproductive health. At present, international attention and resources are focused on obstetric events and, recently, HIV/AIDS because of the significance of these problems in the least developed nations. This limited concept of women's health, however, is decreasingly relevant to the global community, and needs to be revisited in the light of decreasing fertility and increasing life expectancy in many countries where it was previously applicable. It should be expanded to embrace the full spectrum of health experienced by women, and preventive and remedial approaches to the major conditions that afflict women. Allocation of health service resources should be aligned with the epidemiological realities of these threats to women's health. Cause of death data for women aged 15-34 years and 35-44 years were examined for nine less developed countries. Deaths associated with pregnancy and child birth, and HIV were compared with deaths due to three chronic disease categories (cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes). The women's health research literature for developing countries appearing in the American Journal of Public Health and British Medical Journal was also examined. In seven out of the nine countries, among women aged 15-34 years, chronic diseases caused over 20% of deaths, while reproductive causes and HIV together accounted for approximately 10% of deaths, in all countries except in India. Among women aged 35-44 years, in all but India, chronic diseases accounted for over four times the deaths attributable to reproductive causes and HIV. The causes of death were not related to the level of development in these countries as measured by GNI PPP. Papers pertaining to women's health published in public health and medical research journals focused principally on reproduction. Extending the definition of women's health to include a concern for chronic diseases is critical if the needs of women in less
This article presents extracts from comments made by young people in various parts of the world about the meaning of the term "safe motherhood." A Ghanian woman noted that young girls, who often bear a heavier workload than boys but receive less food, need to be given the same diet as boys. A young Senegalese mother relayed that she found out she was pregnant when she went to a hospital with stomach pains shortly before her 14th birthday. Until then she had no idea that sexual intercourse led to pregnancy. A Mexican youth cited the problems that accompany adolescent pregnancy and motherhood, and a young woman in India called for delivery of proper medical care to all young mothers and presentation of health education about safe motherhood in schools. An Egyptian youth extolled the benefits of a project that involved young people from rural youth organizations in safe motherhood IEC (information, education, and communication) activities. Previously, adolescents had not received any special attention. Finally, a youth working in a family planning educational booth in Botswana stated that many youth who engage in sexual intercourse at an early age have no idea of the consequences of their actions.
Full Text Available Many reproductive health studies have examined trends and outcomes of adolescent sexual behaviour but have overlooked the patterns of reproductive communication between mothers and daughters that have implications on girls’ reproductive wellbeing. Although there is a need to safeguard adolescent health, not enough work exists at the interface between female reproductive change and communication. The patterns of communication determine the effectiveness of reproductive knowledge transfer to safeguard girls’ reproductive health at a time of social change. Despite widespread opinion about the taboo nature of sexual and reproductive communication in traditional African settings, its prevalence among mothers and daughters in Ugep, Nigeria, was found to be quite high. The context, form, direction and level of communication reveal that the females engage in reproductive communication in a private environment and through peaceful and friendly strategies. Communication is achieved through sharing of meaning and mutual understanding, which has implications for adolescent female reproductive health.
The effect of incorporating reproductive herd health programme in the management of 12 urban farms was studied. Over a four year period, calving intervals reduced (from 19.3 to 13.7 months) services per conception (from 3.8 to 1.8) and age at first calving (from 37.7 to 27.8 months). The number of milking cows in the ...
Penchaszadeh, V B
New reproductive genetics means recently developed techniques to prevent the birth of children with specific defects or genetic diseases by testing individuals for sickle cell anemia, the thalassemias, Tay-Sachs disease, cystic fibrosis, or Down syndrome. Third World health services have many deficiencies with high maternal mortality rates (30-40 fold higher than in developed countries), the low percentage of births delivered by health personnel, the high rates of low birth weight babies, and high child malnutrition and infant mortality rates. The main issues in women's reproductive health are fertility regulation, abortion, maternal mortality, sexually transmitted diseases, and infertility. As a result of expansion in contraceptive use worldwide, the total fertility rate in developing countries has declined from 6.1 in 1965 to 3.9 in 1990. It is estimated that, worldwide, 36-53 million induced abortions are performed each year, most of them in developing nations. WHO estimates that more than 500,000 women die each year because of complications of pregnancy, most in developing countries. More than 95% of the 13 million estimated deaths of children under 5 years of age have occurred in these countries. Approximately 200 million people carry a potentially pathologic hemoglobinopathy gene, and about 250,000 children are born every year with hemoglobinopathy, most of them in the developing world. Reproductive genetic testing in big cities and in private for-profit ventures cater to the socioeconomic elite. Amniocentesis is often misused for fetal sex determination to abort female fetuses in India. Currently, in Cuba virtually every pregnant woman is tested for sickle cell trait and maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels between 15 and 20 weeks of gestation. It is predicted that the judicious use of reproductive genetic testing will be possible when health and quality of life issues are addressed properly.
Full Text Available Premature sexual activity of the young, before reaching physical and psycho-social maturity, brings along the risk of jeopardizing their reproductive health, mostly because it can lead to sexually transmitted infections or pregnancy, which is mostly unwanted in adolescence. The starting assumption of the promotion of reproductive health of the young is understanding and acceptance of their sexuality and relevant needs in social environment in which they live. Primarily in the family, the media, healthcare institutions and school. During the period of childhood and youth, school possesses the unique possibility to enable a large number of young people to acquire knowledge and skills related to sexuality and reproductive health and shape their values, attitudes and beliefs. The complexity of the process of making the decision about becoming sexually active, as well as the space for action towards its postponement to older age, are also indicated by the results of the research conducted in Belgrade, on the sample of one hundred and eleven female adolescents aged fourteen to twenty, who became sexually active at the age sixteen and earlier. These are primarily those results which refer to the meaning of love and sex in their value system, motives, feelings and attitudes related to becoming sexually active.
Full Text Available Balanced functioning of the endocrine system is essential for preservation of human species by providing normal growth and development, reproduction, and normal functioning of all other organ systems. In the last decades, emerging area of interest is the impact of environmental exposures to human health. Important environmental pollutants are endocrine-disrupting che- micals (EDCs, which can have adverse e ects on the living organism due to their interference with the endocrine system. The group of known EDCs embraces ubiquitous synthetic substan- ces used as industrial lubricants and solvents, with their by-products, incomplete combustion remains, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, pesticides and plasticizers. Natural com- pounds such as genistein, a phytoestrogen, and heavy metals can also have endocrine e ects. Endocrine disruption is a serious public health problem. EDCs among other health problems ge- nerate reproductive disorders in males, such as decreases in sperm count and quality, increases in testicular germ cell numbers, prostate and breast cancers, cryptorchidism and hypospadias, impaired fertility, and infertility. This paper critically reviews the current knowledge of the impa- ct of EDCs on reproductive disorders in human males.
Ibitoye, Mobolaji; Choi, Cecilia; Tai, Hina; Lee, Grace; Sommer, Marni
Adolescent girls aged 15-19 bear a disproportionate burden of negative sexual and reproductive health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. Research from several high-income countries suggests that early age at menarche is an important determinant of sexual and reproductive health. We conducted this systematic review to better understand whether and how early menarche is associated with various negative sexual and reproductive health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries and the implications of such associations. We systematically searched eight health and social sciences databases for peer-reviewed literature on menarche and sexual and reproductive health in low- and middle-income countries. Two reviewers independently assessed all studies for inclusion, overall quality and risk of bias, and performed data extraction on all included studies. Twenty-four articles met all inclusion criteria-nine of moderate quality and fifteen with several methodological weaknesses. Our review of the minimal existing literature showed that early menarche is associated with early sexual initiation, early pregnancy and some sexually transmitted infections in low- and middle-income countries, similar to what has been observed in high-income countries. Early menarche is also associated with early marriage-an association that may have particularly important implications for countries with high child marriage rates. Early age at menarche may be an important factor affecting the sexual and reproductive health of adolescent girls and young women in low- and middle-income countries. More research is needed to confirm the existence of the identified associations across different settings and to better understand the process through which early menarche and other markers of early pubertal development may contribute to the increased vulnerability of girls to negative sexual and reproductive health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. Given the association of early
Handbook for Educating on Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual Health. Book One, Understanding the Adolescents and Their Reproductive and Sexual Health: Guide to Better Educational Strategies [and] Book Two, Strategies and Materials on Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual Health Education.
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Clearing House on Population Education and Communication.
This two-part handbook presents information on educating adolescents about reproductive and sexual health issues. "Book One, Understanding the Adolescents and Their Reproductive and Sexual Health: Guide to Better Educational Strategies" focuses on the demographic profile of adolescents as well as their fertility, sexual behavior, incidence of…
Rahman, Mizanur; Curtis, Siân L; Chakraborty, Nitai; Jamil, Kanta
Bangladesh has made significant social, economic, and health progress in recent decades, yet many reproductive health indicators remain weak. Access to television (TV) is increasing rapidly and provides a potential mechanism for influencing health behavior. We present a conceptual framework for the influence of different types of TV exposure on individual's aspirations and health behavior through the mechanisms of observational learning and ideational change. We analyze data from two large national surveys conducted in 2010 and 2011 to examine the association between women's TV watching and five reproductive health behaviors controlling for the effects of observed confounders. We find that TV watchers are significantly more likely to desire fewer children, are more likely to use contraceptives, and are less likely to have a birth in the two years before the survey. They are more likely to seek at least four antenatal care visits and to utilize a skilled birth attendant. Consequently, continued increase in the reach of TV and associated growth in TV viewing is potentially an important driver of health behaviors in the country.
Full Text Available Bangladesh has made significant social, economic, and health progress in recent decades, yet many reproductive health indicators remain weak. Access to television (TV is increasing rapidly and provides a potential mechanism for influencing health behavior. We present a conceptual framework for the influence of different types of TV exposure on individual’s aspirations and health behavior through the mechanisms of observational learning and ideational change. We analyze data from two large national surveys conducted in 2010 and 2011 to examine the association between women’s TV watching and five reproductive health behaviors controlling for the effects of observed confounders. We find that TV watchers are significantly more likely to desire fewer children, are more likely to use contraceptives, and are less likely to have a birth in the two years before the survey. They are more likely to seek at least four antenatal care visits and to utilize a skilled birth attendant. Consequently, continued increase in the reach of TV and associated growth in TV viewing is potentially an important driver of health behaviors in the country.
Hunt, Xanthe; Carew, Mark T; Braathen, Stine Hellum; Swartz, Leslie; Chiwaula, Mussa; Rohleder, Poul
There is a body of theoretical work, and some empirical research, which suggests that non-disabled people assume people with physical disabilities are not suitable romantic partners, do not have sexual drives or desires, or are not sexually active. It has also been proposed that people with physical disabilities face barriers to sexual healthcare access which are structural as well as social. The present paper explores non-disabled South Africans' beliefs concerning the degree to which non-disabled respondents enjoy sexual and reproductive rights, and benefit from sexual and reproductive healthcare, compared to people without disability. Using a survey, we asked 1989 South Africans to estimate the degree to which people with physical disabilities and people without disability have sexual rights, and benefit from sexual and reproductive healthcare services, respectively. Respondents were more likely to support the idea that the population without disability were deserving of sexual rights compared to people with physical disabilities. Respondents were more likely to rate the degree to which people with physical disability benefit from sexual and reproductive healthcare as less than that for people without physical disabilities. These findings provide some of the first empirical support that non-disabled people perceive people with physical disabilities as having fewer sexual and reproductive rights, and deriving less benefit from sexual and reproductive health services, than the population without disability. To have diminished sexual rights, and benefit less from sexual and reproductive healthcare, we suggest, evinces a negation of the sexual and reproductive needs and capacity of people with physical disabilities.
Myer, Landon; Akugizibwe, Paula
The HIV epidemic has changed the face of women's reproductive health across southern Africa. In some circles, there have been calls for restrictions on women's reproductive rights, focusing particularly on the spread of HIV between sexual partners and from mother to child. However, during the past decade, public health attention and resources for the clinical care of HIV-infected individuals living in Africa have led to advances in women's reproductive health services. As many programs have recognized that effective HIV care and treatment services must link to other areas of primary care, key reproductive health services such as those providing contraception and barrier methods are commonly integrated into antiretroviral therapy services. In much of the region, this programmatic focus has helped increase attention on the ground to women's reproductive rights. However, in many settings, policies explicitly supporting the reproductive rights of HIV-infected women have lagged. Important gaps remain both in policy development and in the design, evaluation, and implementation of interventions promoting women's reproductive health and rights at the service delivery level.
Terplan, Mishka; Lawental, Maayan; Connah, Melanie Bryant; Martin, Caitlin Eileen
Individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs) have unique reproductive health needs. The aim of this study was to evaluate these needs and assess the acceptability of family planning service delivery of SUD treatment clients. Reproductive health needs of drug treatment clients were assessed using a cross-sectional anonymous survey in 4 treatment sites in Baltimore City, MD. Surveys were distributed by staff. Contraceptives assessed included sterilization, intrauterine devices, implants, injections, pills, patches, rings, condoms, spermicide, withdrawal, and the rhythm method. Results are stratified by sex and between those using and not using highly effective contraceptive methods. A total of 115 women and 95 men completed the survey (80% younger than 50 years), with 39% of women and 54% of men reporting using condoms, but only 24% of women and 26% of men reporting consistent use. All other methods were used by less than 12% of the sample. Only 20% of sexually active women reported using a highly reliable form of contraception and only 53% were using any form of contraception at all. Contraceptive use correlated inversely with age, but did not correlate with having had sexually transmitted infection testing or other preventive health services. Although more than 90% of participants had access to health care services in the past 3 years, 25% of women and 33% of men reported difficulty accessing health care providers. The majority of respondents said they would likely use family planning services if available at their SUD treatment (83% of women and 58% of men). Men and women in SUD treatment have unmet reproductive health needs. As SUD treatment moves toward greater integration, the programmatic inclusion of family planning services should be considered.
The effect of population growth is not limited to national boundaries. Indeed the inability of people in developing countries to control their own fertility has repercussions on global security and on the balance between population and environment as well a on their health and welfare. All nations need to take steps to slow down rapid population growth now, otherwise we will suffer serious consequences. The different between 2 UN projections of world population equals current world population size. Almost 90% of the increase of the larger projection would occur in developing countries, yet they are the least capable of managing big populations. Further major inequalities in reproductive health between developed and developing countries, as well as between men and women exist. The infant mortality rate in developed regions is around 6 times lower than it is in developing regions, child mortality is 7 times lower, and maternal mortality is 15 times lower. International collaboration to rid the world of these inequalities is need to improve reproductive health. Specifically, political and health leaders should mobilize necessary international and national resources. Even though there is more than US $50,000 million in official development assistance funds available annually, the level of population related funding has decreased to less than 1.1% of these funds for 1993-1994. Developed countries could reduce the debt burden to free funds for population activities and to reverse the flow from the poor countries in the Southern Hemisphere to the rich countries in the Northern Hemisphere. Besides developing countries spend much of their money on the military (e.g. sub-Saharan Africa spends US$ 10,000 million). International cooperation leading to peace would make significantly more money available for the social and health sectors, especially reproductive health care.
Varga, Christine A
Although the literature on Africa increasingly adopts a gendered approach to sexual and reproductive health issues, few studies have addressed adolescent pregnancy and parenthood in such a framework. This article examines links between gender ideology or gender roles and the social impact of adolescent childbearing in the lives of rural and urban adolescents in KwaZulu/Natal, South Africa. It employs a triangulated research methodology (focus-group discussions, narrative role playing and discussions, and questionnaires and in-depth interviews) to inform an analysis of adolescents' notions of male and female gender ideals. This analysis forms the basis for an exploration of the potential influence of adolescent childbearing on young peoples' lives and factors that shape their sexual and reproductive well-being. Results indicate that gender ideals are grounded in traits that reinforce poor sexual negotiation dynamics and behavioral double standards and that place adolescents at risk for early pregnancy and other sexual and reproductive health complications. Overall, adolescent parenthood is viewed negatively by participants of both sexes because it compromises personal, professional, and financial aspirations. Compared with its effect on boys, parenthood has a disproportionate (and highly negative) impact on girls that is directly linked to gender-based inequities. The article addresses the research and policy implications of these findings.
Richey, Lisa Ann
Markets and Malthus: Population, Gender, and Health in Neo-liberal Times explores the ideas and institutions that were framed at the 1994 United Nations population conference in Cairo and traces their trajectories sixteen years down the line. Why were Third World feminists profoundly critical...... of the Cairo consensus and process? How has the health of people around the world been affected by neo-liberal economic policies? What have these meant for women's rights, including reproductive rights? The book presents detailed case studies from various countries ranging from India and China, to Egypt...
Ivanova, Olena; Dræbel, Tania; Tellier, Siri
for them to influence decisions related to their health, and also to exercise their rights. This paper presents the findings from a study that explored how vulnerable groups and principles of human rights are incorporated into national sexual and reproductive health (SRH) policies of 4 selected countries...... in this study. Content analysis of SRH policies was performed using the EquiFrame analytical framework. RESULTS: The study revealed that vulnerable groups and core principles of human rights are differently addressed in SRH policies within 4 studied countries. The opinions of policy-makers on the importance...
Valente, Pablo K
The Zika virus epidemic rapidly spread across Brazil and Latin America, gaining international attention because of the causal relationship between Zika and birth defects. The high number of cases in Brazil has been attributed to a failure of the state to contain the epidemic and protect the affected people, especially women. Therefore, the public health crisis created by Zika exposed a stark conflict between Brazil's constitutional right to health and the long-standing violation of reproductive rights in the country. Although health is considered to be a right of all in Brazil, women struggle with barriers to reproductive services and lack of access to safe and legal abortions. In response to the epidemic, women's rights advocates have filed a lawsuit with Brazil's supreme court that requires the decriminalization of abortion upon the diagnosis of Zika virus. However, the selective decriminalization of abortion may lead to negative social consequences and further stigmatization of people with disabilities. A solution to the reproductive health crisis in Brazil must reconcile women's right to choose and the rights of people with disabilities.
Dodge, Laura E; Haider, Sadia; Hacker, Michele R
Access to abortion continues to decrease in the United States. The aim of this study was to explore attitudes toward abortion among clinicians who provide reproductive health care. Clinician members of several reproductive health professional organizations completed a self-administered survey that assessed their attitudes toward abortion. A total of 278 clinicians who provided clinical reproductive health services within the United States were included. Nearly all strongly agreed that abortion should be available in cases of rape (89.6%), incest (89.2%), life endangerment (93.2%), health endangerment (91.0%), and fetal anomaly (85.9%). Although most strongly disagreed that spousal notification (81.3%) and spousal consent (86.6%) should be required for married women, fewer strongly disagreed that parental notification (57.6%) and parental consent (66.9%) should be required for minors. Respondents were generally supportive of private insurance coverage (70.1% strongly agreed) and Medicaid coverage (65.0% strongly agreed) for abortion services. Support for legal abortion and public funding of abortion were significantly associated with being female (both p ≤ .03) and having no personal religious affiliation (both p ≤ .04). Younger respondents and men were more supportive of third-party involvement and mandatory counseling (all p ≤ .02). Abortion providers were significantly more supportive of abortion access (legality of abortion, public and private funding, no third-party involvement, and no mandated counseling) than nonproviders (all p abortion and funding for abortion, lower support among younger respondents may indicate future difficulties in maintaining a clinical workforce that is willing to provide abortion care. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Poulsen, Grete Lottrup; Andersson, A-M; Leffers, H
Phthalates adversely affect the male reproductive system in animals, inducing hypospadias, cryptorchidism, reduced testosterone production and decreased sperm counts. Phthalate effects are much more severe after in utero than adult exposure. Little is known about human health effects. This study...... discusses two recent studies on perinatal phthalate exposure, which indicated that human testicular development might be susceptible to phthalates. One study analysed phthalate monoesters in breast milk and reproductive hormone levels in infants. Five of six phthalates [monoethyl-(MEP), monobutyl- (MBP......), monomethyl- (MMP), mono-2-ethylhexyl- (MEHP) and mono-isononyl phthalate (MiNP)] showed correlation with hormone levels in healthy boys, which were indicative of lower androgen activity and reduced Leydig cell function. MEP and MBP were positively correlated with serum sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG...
Full Text Available The ethics of reproductive health covers a wide field of different issues, from the ethical dimensions of assisted reproduction, life of newborns with disabilities to the never-ending debate on the ethical aspects of abortion. Furthermore, increasing attention is paid to the ethical dimensions of using stem cells taken from human embryos, the creation of cloned embryos of patients for possible self-healing, and the increasingly present issue of reproductive cloning. Development of vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV has introduced new ethical aspects related to reproductive health and the need for a consensus of clinical and public-healthcare population. Today immunization with HPV vaccine is a measure for the primary prevention of cervical cancer and it provides effective protection against certain types of viruses included in the vaccine. The most often mentioned issues of discussions on ethical concerns about HPV vaccination are the recommended age of girls who should be informed and vaccinated (12-14 years, attitudes and fears of parents concerning discussion with their preadolescent daughters on issues important for their future sexual behavior, dilemma on the vaccination of boys and the role of the chosen pediatrician in providing information on the vaccination. In Serbia, two HPV vaccines have been registered but the vaccination is not compulsory. Up-till-now there has been no researches on the attitudes of physicians and parents about HPV vaccination. Nevertheless, it is very important to initiate education of general and medical public about the fact that the availability of vaccine, even if we disregard all aforementioned dilemmas, does not lead to the neglect of other preventive strategies against cervical cancer, primarily screening. The National Program for Cervical Cancer Prevention involves organized screening, i.e. regular cytological examinations of the cervical smear of all women aged 25-69 years, every three years
Matejić, Bojana; Kesić, Vesna
The ethics of reproductive health covers a wide field of different issues, from the ethical dimensions of assisted reproduction, life of newborns with disabilities to the never-ending debate on the ethical aspects of abortion. Furthermore, increasing attention is paid to the ethical dimensions of using stem cells taken from human embryos, the creation of cloned embryos of patients for possible self-healing, and the increasingly present issue of reproductive cloning. Development of vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) has introduced new ethical aspects related to reproductive health and the need for a consensus of clinical and public-healthcare population. Today immunization with HPV vaccine is a measure for the primary prevention of cervical cancer and it provides effective protection against certain types of viruses included in the vaccine. The most often mentioned issues of discussions on ethical concerns about HPV vaccination are the recommended age of girls who should be informed and vaccinated (12-14 years), attitudes and fears of parents concerning discussion with their preadolescent daughters on issues important for their future sexual behavior, dilemma on the vaccination of boys and the role of the chosen pediatrician in providing information on the vaccination. In Serbia, two HPV vaccines have been registered but the vaccination is not compulsory. Up-till-now there has been no researches on the attitudes of physicians and parents about HPV vaccination. Nevertheless, it is very important to initiate education of general and medical public about the fact that the availability of vaccine, even if we disregard all aforementioned dilemmas, does not lead to the neglect of other preventive strategies against cervical cancer, primarily screening. The National Program for Cervical Cancer Prevention involves organized screening, i.e. regular cytological examinations of the cervical smear of all women aged 25-69 years, every three years, regardless of the
Full Text Available Abstract Background Negative events are abusive, potentially dangerous or life-threatening health care events, as perceived by the patient. Patients' perceptions of negative events are regarded as a potentially important source of information about the quality of health care. We explored negative events in hospital care as perceived by immigrant patients. Methods Semi-structured individual and group interviews were conducted with respondents about negative experiences of health care. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a framework method. A total of 22 respondents representing 7 non-Dutch ethnic origins were interviewed; each respondent reported a negative event in hospital care or treatment. Results Respondents reported negative events in relation to: 1 inadequate information exchange with care providers; 2 different expectations between respondents and care providers about medical procedures; 3 experienced prejudicial behavior on the part of care providers. Conclusions We identified three key situations in which negative events were experienced by immigrant patients. Exploring negative events from the immigrant patient perspective offers important information to help improve health care. Our results indicate that care providers need to be trained in adequately exchanging information with the immigrant patient and finding out specific patient needs and perspectives on illness and treatment.
Background In the period of middle childhood, social experiences (both educational and social) may constitute a critical moment in time for the ultimate results of development in the case of an individual. Negative life events and coping skills may guarantee a positive or negative direction of development, exerting an influence on the mental health of children. In the study, a four-factor model of mental health was adopted, taking into consideration psychopathological symptoms within the...
Keygnaert, Ines; Guieu, Aurore; Ooms, Gorik; Vettenburg, Nicole; Temmerman, Marleen; Roelens, Kristien
The European Union (EU) refers to health as a human right in many internal and external communications, policies and agreements, defending its universality. In parallel, specific health needs of migrants originating from outside the EU have been acknowledged. Yet, their right to health and in particular sexual and reproductive health (SRH) is currently not ensured throughout the EU. This paper reflects on the results of a comprehensive literature review on migrants' SRH in the EU applying the Critical Interpretive Synthesis review method. We highlight the discrepancy between a proclaimed rights-based approach to health and actual obstacles to migrants' attainment of good SRH. Uncertainties on entitlements of diverse migrant groups are fuelled by unclear legal provisions, creating significant barriers to access health systems in general and SRH services in particular. Furthermore, the rare strategies addressing migrants' health fail to address sexual health and are generally limited to perinatal care and HIV screening. Thus, future European public health policy-making should not only strongly encourage its Member States to ensure equal access to health care for migrants as for EU citizens, but also promote migrants' SRH effectively through a holistic and inclusive approach in SRH policies, prevention and care. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Violence against women is a devastating social problem which constitutes a serious health risk to the women. It occurs commonly in developing societies where gender roles are strictly defined and enforced. Studies exploring violence and women\\'s health consistently report negative effect and have been shown to be ...
Finger, William, Comp.; Tipton, Margaret, Comp.
As a sequel to YouthLens No. 1, New Resources Available on Youth Reproductive Health and HIV Prevention (July 2002), this YouthLens summarizes major reports and resources that have appeared since July 2002. The resources are organized by overview reports, reproductive health resources, and HIV/AIDS resources. [YouthLens is an activity of YouthNet,…
To summarize the newest available evidence on maternal and reproductive health disparities, and to describe elements of the Affordable Care Act most likely to impact these disparities. Significant racial and ethnic disparities in maternal and reproductive health outcomes have persisted in recent years, contributing to poor outcomes and increasing costs. Pregnancy-related mortality ratios are up to three times higher in Black women compared with non-Hispanic White women, with the risk of severe maternal morbidity also significantly higher in Black and Hispanic women. Unintended pregnancy is twice as likely in minority women. Insurance status, socioeconomic status, and broader social determinants of health are implicated in these disparities. Coverage changes associated with the Affordable Care Act may provide some opportunities to reach communities most at risk. Delivery innovation, payment reform, and further public financing of key services are examples of further management approaches that can be used to address reproductive health disparities. The Affordable Care Act offers important opportunities to address persistent reproductive health disparities, but significant gaps remain. Efforts must be made to reduce the negative outcomes and high financial and human costs associated with disparities in reproductive health.
Full Text Available Introduction: Health Center Zemun, in collaboration with Zemun municipality and Zemun Senior High School, carried out the project: 'Young Under Risk! Good Advice is worth your health.' All students received training (lectures and workshops about reproductive health of the young and breast self-exam, as screening method in prevention of breast cancer. Objective: to demonstrate the problem of insufficient awareness and knowledge about reproductive health in young population. Method: anonymous questionnaire regarding reproductive health of the young. Results: 1200 students of Zemun Senior High School were interviewed. • 59% were girls, and 41% were young men. • 25% were sexually active. • 31% and 26% of them had the first sexual experience in age of 16 and 17 years respectively. • The ground for the first sexual relationship was love in 50%, passion in • 19%, curiosity in17% of cases, and 0.44% (one girl was raped. • 49% of sexually active students have exclusive sexual partner. • In group of the students with multiple sexual partners, 55% of them had two partners, 20% three, and 25% four partners. • 56.5% of sexually active students are using contraception always, 26% occasionally, and 17% do not use contraception. • Condom is method of contraception in 93% of students. • 5% had a sexually transmitted infection. • 0.44% (one girl had unwanted pregnancy • 16% of the girls have visited gynecologist, and 11% have regular gynecologic exams. • 59% of students believe that health education with sexual education as it constituent should be introduced in curriculum • 60% of students suppose that different experts should be involved in teaching the health education. • 46% of students think that health education should combine lectures and workshops. Conclusion: Increasing number of adolescents who are involved in sexual relationships combined with scarce use of contraceptives and insufficient awareness of importance of
Hough, Carolyn A
This paper draws on ethnographic fieldwork with Gambian women who have experienced infertility and/or child mortality and who have consequently become kanyalengs. Kanyaleng kafoos are groups of women united by their reproductive difficulties whose bold public performances are designed to "beg God" for fertility and for children who will survive. I situate 'kanyalengs' disrupted childbearing within a framework of stratified reproduction, which reveals the tensions between ongoing demands to meet norms of high fertility, women's heavy burden of reproductive disease and the limits of a reproductive public health agenda narrowly focused on family planning and HIV prevention. To ameliorate these tensions, I call for an expansion of the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) agenda in Gambia to include RTI/STI prevention, diagnosis and management. This expansion reflects the goals set out by the Cairo International Conference on Population and Development for a broader approach to reproductive health, the productive potential of linkages between SRH and HIV prevention efforts, as well as the reproductive objectives of Gambian women and men. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Quint, Elisabeth H
Adolescents with special needs have unique reproductive health care needs related to their physical and cognitive issues. This review discusses some of the most common concerns that are encountered in clinical practice, as the clinician will partner with the adolescent and her family to guide her through the pubertal transition and to help navigate the risks and rights of reproduction. Families often seek anticipatory guidance before menarche on menstrual hygiene, abuse risk and sexuality and can be reassured that most teens with special needs do very well with menstruation. The clinician needs to evaluate the teenager's reproductive knowledge as well her risk for abuse and coercion and her ability to consent to sexual activity, if she requests contraception. Menstrual management is mostly based on the impact of the menstrual cycles on the teenager's life and activities. The adolescents may have a decreased ability to tolerate menses or pain, or experience changes in seizure pattern or altered mood. Hormonal treatment is often used to assist with menstrual hygiene, cyclical mood changes or dysmenorrhea. The goal of treatment can be complete amenorrhea, alleviate pain or regulate and decrease menstrual flow. The unique risks and benefits of hormonal treatment for this special population are highlighted. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This workgroup report addresses the central question: what are the critical windows during development (pre-conception through puberty) when exposure to xenobiotics may have the greatest adverse impact on subsequent reproductive health. The reproductive system develops in stages...
Schoevers, Maria A; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria E T C; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L M
To determine the reproductive health problems of illegal female immigrants and what obstacles they experience when seeking help for these problems. One hundred illegal female immigrants in The Netherlands aged more than 18 years were provided with a structured list of common reproductive and sexual health problems. Further semi-structured interviews were conducted regarding their experiences with reproductive health facilities. Obstacles accessing reproductive health facilities were frequently reported. Illegal female immigrants were not able to exercise control over their own reproductive and sexual health. The reasons for obstacles accessing reproductive health facilities include lack of information about reproductive health services and contraception, problems with paying for services, sexual and physical violence and fear of deportation. Obstacles accessing reproductive health facilities resulted in lacking or delayed pregnancy care (19% never received antenatal care), infrequent use of contraception and high abortion rates (64.9/1000). Of all interviewed women, 70% reported gynaecologic or sexual problems, and 28% reported past exposure to sexual violence. The reproductive health status of illegal female immigrants in The Netherlands is worrisome. There is an urgent need to empower illegal women through education. The Dutch government should make efforts to improve access to reproductive health and family planning services.
and research, such as human reproductive cloning.“ However, despite advances in ART the proportion of ... religions such as Islam completely forbid them, and in many countries there is strict regulation of treatment. Although sperm cryopreservation in humans was introduced in 1953,13 sperm donation commenced using.
In addition to food, clothing, and shelter, the hundreds of thousands of refugees fleeing Kosovo need primary health care services, including reproductive health care. The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) estimates that of a population of 350,000 refugees in Albania, 35,000 are women in need of prenatal or postnatal care. According to UNFPA, 7 babies were born in 1 refugee camp alone in one 24-hour period, and there are widespread reports of the systematic rape of ethnic Albanian women as they flee. In response, UNFPA announced in early April that it is coordinating the delivery of emergency reproductive health kits to Albanian refugee camps. Each kit contains clean delivery supplies, emergency contraceptive pills (ECP) for women who have been raped, counseling information for post-rape trauma, supplies to treat the complications of unsafe abortion, and condoms, IUDs, and other contraceptive methods. UNFPA expects to send enough supplies to care for the refugees for up to 6 months, with most supplies aimed at providing safe deliveries. The Vatican immediately condemned UNFPA's distribution of ECPs. Whether the US will renew its funding of UNFPA is pending before Congress.
Leodoro J. Labrague
Full Text Available This investigation explored gender-related norms, sexuality, and reproductive health among education students in a government university in Samar, Philippines. A descriptive-analytical design of study was adopted for this investigation and data were collected over a period of five months. Five hundred fifty (550 education students who were enrolled in the different year level completed the modified John Clelands’ Illustrative Questionnaire for Young People. Results indicated that 14.73% of the students reported having had early sexual experience where in 69.14 % had it unplanned. Among sexually active students, only 17.28% used contraception, with condoms and withdrawal as the most popular choices. Respondents were also found to have some misconceptions regarding HIV/AIDS and STI’s. Result also showed that dating was still acceptable, however, the idea of abortion and sexual coercion were considered wrong. No significant differences in the knowledge about HIV/AIDS and STI’s and gender norms were found across year level. Findings suggest a greater need for education, support and advocacy relative to sexuality so as to create a more positive school environment conducive for holistic growth and development of all students. Thus, school administrators should improve/enhance existing policies and programs relative to reproductive health among college students of the University such as health promotion activities, sexuality education, counseling and alike.
Miller, K; Rosenfield, A
This paper gives a brief overview of current world population or demographic issues, followed by a discussion of the ICPD proceedings and various notable aspects of the ICPD Programme of Action. It then focuses on six of the most pressing reproductive health concerns facing women today: gender inequalities, access to contraceptive services, sexually transmitted diseases (including HIV), maternal mortality, unsafe abortion, and adolescent pregnancy. Because the ICPD Programme of Action is intended to have far-reaching consequences for each of these issues, it is taken as a focal point of analysis.
Ronis, Tova; Frankovich, Jennifer; Yen, Sophia; Sandborg, Christy; Chira, Peter
Objective: To assess perception and behavior after reproductive health counseling among adolescent patients in a tertiary care-based pediatric rheumatology clinic. Methods: Adolescent females seen at Stanford pediatric rheumatology clinic were prospectively enrolled during routine visits. At study start, standard clinic procedures for the following were reviewed with providers: 1) HEADSS (home, education, activities, drugs, sexual activity, and suicide/depression) assessment; 2) reproductive health counseling; and 3) medical record documentation. Patients were enrolled if providers indicated that they performed HEADSS assessment and reproductive health counseling. At enrollment, patients completed a survey to assess perceptions of reproductive health counseling. Chart review confirmed documented discussions. Follow-up survey 3-5 months after enrollment tracked reproductive health information seeking behavior. Results: Ninety females (ages 17 ± 2 years old) participated. Almost all patients (99%) agreed that reproductive health was discussed. Seventy-one percent reported that pregnancy risks were discussed, 42% had recent concerns about reproductive health, and 33% reported their provider recommended that they seek further reproductive health care. Eighty-four patients completed follow-up phone surveys, with 25% reporting seeking further information on reproductive health concerns but merely 9.5% actually sought further care. Only 18% reported having ever asked their rheumatology provider for guidance regarding reproductive health care concerns. Conclusion: Routine reproductive health discussion and counseling are necessary in a rheumatology clinic; as in our experience, a substantial number of adolescents have concerns and actively seek reproductive health information. Despite these discussions, teens rarely pursued further reproductive health care. Further work to bridge this gap is needed.
Introduction: Women in Uganda encounter considerable challenges to the realisation of their reproductive health rights. Mass media play a significant role in shaping a society’s understanding of their health and perception on health rights. This study explored how women’s reproductive health is
Kumar, Sushil; Kaur, Gurcharan
Nutritional infertility is very common in societies where women fail to eat enough to match their energy expenditure and such females often present as clinical cases of anorexia nervosa. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that link energy balance and central regulation of reproduction are still not well understood. Peripheral hormones such as estradiol, testosterone and leptin, as well as neuropeptides like kisspeptin and neuropeptides Y (NPY) play a potential role in regulation of reproduction and energy balance with their primary target converging on the hypothalamic median eminence-arcuate region. The present study was aimed to explore the effects of negative energy state resulting from intermittent fasting dietary restriction (IF-DR) regimen on complete hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal axis in Wistar strain young female and male rats. Significant changes in body weight, blood glucose, estrous cyclicity and serum estradiol, testosterone and LH level indicated the negative role of IF-DR regimen on reproduction in these young animals. Further, it was elucidated whether serum level of metabolic hormone, leptin plays a mechanistic role in suppressing hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal (HPG) axis via energy regulators, kisspeptin and NPY in rats on IF-DR regimen. We also studied the effect of IF-DR regimen on structural remodeling of GnRH axon terminals in median eminence region of hypothalamus along with the glial cell marker, GFAP and neuronal plasticity marker, PSA-NCAM using immunostaining, Western blotting and RT-PCR. Together these data suggest that IF-DR regimen negatively influences reproduction in young animals due to its adverse effects on complete hypothalamus-hypophysial-gonadal axis and may explain underlying mechanism(s) to understand the clinical basis of nutritional infertility.
Full Text Available Nutritional infertility is very common in societies where women fail to eat enough to match their energy expenditure and such females often present as clinical cases of anorexia nervosa. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that link energy balance and central regulation of reproduction are still not well understood. Peripheral hormones such as estradiol, testosterone and leptin, as well as neuropeptides like kisspeptin and neuropeptides Y (NPY play a potential role in regulation of reproduction and energy balance with their primary target converging on the hypothalamic median eminence-arcuate region. The present study was aimed to explore the effects of negative energy state resulting from intermittent fasting dietary restriction (IF-DR regimen on complete hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal axis in Wistar strain young female and male rats. Significant changes in body weight, blood glucose, estrous cyclicity and serum estradiol, testosterone and LH level indicated the negative role of IF-DR regimen on reproduction in these young animals. Further, it was elucidated whether serum level of metabolic hormone, leptin plays a mechanistic role in suppressing hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal (HPG axis via energy regulators, kisspeptin and NPY in rats on IF-DR regimen. We also studied the effect of IF-DR regimen on structural remodeling of GnRH axon terminals in median eminence region of hypothalamus along with the glial cell marker, GFAP and neuronal plasticity marker, PSA-NCAM using immunostaining, Western blotting and RT-PCR. Together these data suggest that IF-DR regimen negatively influences reproduction in young animals due to its adverse effects on complete hypothalamus-hypophysial-gonadal axis and may explain underlying mechanism(s to understand the clinical basis of nutritional infertility.
Benagiano, Giuseppe; d'Arcangues, Catherine; Harris Requejo, Jennifer; Schafer, Alessandra; Say, Lale; Merialdi, Mario
The Special Programme of Research in Human Reproduction (HRP), co-sponsored by the UNDP, UNFPA, WHO, and the World Bank, is celebrating 40 years of activities with an expansion of its mandate and new co-sponsors. When it began, in 1972, the main focus was on evaluating the acceptability, effectiveness, and safety of existing fertility-regulating methods, as well as developing new, improved modalities for family planning. In 1994, HRP not only made major contributions to the Plan of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD); it also broadened its scope of work to include other aspects of health dealing with sexuality and reproduction, adding a specific perspective on gender issues and human rights. In 2002, HRP's mandate was once again broadened to include sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS and in 2003 it was further expanded to research activities on preventing violence against women and its many dire health consequences. Today, the work of the Programme includes research on: the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents, women, and men; maternal and perinatal health; reproductive tract and sexually transmitted infections (including HIV/AIDS); family planning; infertility; unsafe abortion; sexual health; screening for cancer of the cervix in developing countries, and gender and reproductive rights. Additional activities by the Programme have included: fostering international cooperation in the field of human reproduction; the elaboration of WHO's first Global Reproductive Health Strategy; work leading to the inclusion of ICPD's goal 'reproductive health for all by 2015' into the Millennium Development Goal framework; the promotion of critical interagency statements on the public health, legal, and human rights implications of female genital mutilation and gender-biased sex selection. Finally, HRP has been involved in the creation of guidelines and tools, such as the 'Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use
Full Text Available Background In the period of middle childhood, social experiences (both educational and social may constitute a critical moment in time for the ultimate results of development in the case of an individual. Negative life events and coping skills may guarantee a positive or negative direction of development, exerting an influence on the mental health of children. In the study, a four-factor model of mental health was adopted, taking into consideration psychopathological symptoms within the scope of externalizing and internalizing disorders, the level of the performance of developmental tasks, and the sense of life satisfaction. The present study investigated the correlation between stress, coping and mental health in children in middle childhood. Participants and procedure The study included 182 individuals aged between 9 and 12 years. The following aspects were subjected to assessment: the level of mental health, the number and severity of negative life events, and the strategies of coping with stress. In order to determine the strongest predictors of the four dimensions of mental health of children, hierarchical regression analysis was applied. Results It was found that the strongest predictor of mental health of children in the period of middle childhood was individual and accumulated negative stress events. Lower significance was found for the subjective assessment of the severity of events being experienced. It was found that a factor protecting against disorders was active methods of coping. Conclusions The study suggests that it is not only psychopathological symptoms that constitute the negative consequence of the effect of stress. Negative stress events influence the positive dimensions of mental health, including the level of performance of developmental tasks and the sense of life satisfaction in children in the period of middle childhood. The obtained results show the specific character of the discussed period of development. However
Isoh Sukaesah, Rusdi
Full Text Available Model and learning media is an important component that may affect the achievement of learning objectives. Model selection and appropriate learning media can improve student learning outcomes both in the cognitive and affective domains. This study was aimed to examine the effect of the learning model Think Pair Share (TPS, Student Team Achievement Division (STAD and Conventional learning model and the interaction model and learning media attitude towards reproductive health and student learning outcomes in the material reproductive system. The study was conducted at XI MIA grade students in four Senior High Schools in North Jakarta the academic year 2014/2015. Data were collected through the test instrument scale reproductive health attitudes and learning outcomes instruments reproductive system. Data were analyzed by Two-Way ANOVA and Tukey Test. The results showed that the use of models and instructional media and the interaction between the model and learning media significantly influence the attitude of reproductive health and learning outcomes of the reproductive system of high school students with a significance value (p< = 0.01.
A huge number of chemicals are produced and used in the world, and some of them can have negative effects on the reproductive health of workers. To date, most chemicals and work environments have not been studied for their potential to have damaging effects on the workers' reproductive system. Because of the lack of information, many workers may not be aware that such problems can be related to occupational exposures. Newly industrialized countries such as Republic of Korea have rapidly amassed chemicals and other toxicants that pose health hazards, especially to the reproductive systems of workers. This literature review provides an overview of peer-reviewed literature regarding the teratogenic impact and need for safe handling of chemicals. Literature searches were performed using PubMed, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect. Search strategies were narrowed based on author expertise and 100 articles were chosen for detailed analysis. A total of 47 articles met prespecified inclusion criteria. The majority of papers contained studies that were descriptive in nature with respect to the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms and keywords: "reproductive and heath or hazard and/or workplace or workers or occupations." In the absence of complete information about the safe occupational handling of chemicals in Republic of Korea (other than a material safety data sheet), this review serves as a valuable reference for identifying and remedying potential gaps in relevant regulations. The review also proposes other public health actions including hazard surveillance and primary prevention activities such as reduction, substitution, ventilation, as well as protective equipment.
Full Text Available A huge number of chemicals are produced and used in the world, and some of them can have negative effects on the reproductive health of workers. To date, most chemicals and work environments have not been studied for their potential to have damaging effects on the workers' reproductive system. Because of the lack of information, many workers may not be aware that such problems can be related to occupational exposures. Newly industrialized countries such as Republic of Korea have rapidly amassed chemicals and other toxicants that pose health hazards, especially to the reproductive systems of workers. This literature review provides an overview of peer-reviewed literature regarding the teratogenic impact and need for safe handling of chemicals. Literature searches were performed using PubMed, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect. Search strategies were narrowed based on author expertise and 100 articles were chosen for detailed analysis. A total of 47 articles met prespecified inclusion criteria. The majority of papers contained studies that were descriptive in nature with respect to the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH terms and keywords: “reproductive and heath or hazard and/or workplace or workers or occupations.” In the absence of complete information about the safe occupational handling of chemicals in Republic of Korea (other than a material safety data sheet, this review serves as a valuable reference for identifying and remedying potential gaps in relevant regulations. The review also proposes other public health actions including hazard surveillance and primary prevention activities such as reduction, substitution, ventilation, as well as protective equipment.
Schoepf, I; Pillay, N; Schradin, C
Energy is limited and must be allocated among competing life-history traits. Reproduction is considered one of the most energetically demanding life-history stages. Therefore, the amount of energy an individual invests in reproduction might carry fitness costs through reduced energy allocation to other activities such as health maintenance. We investigated whether reproduction impacts health in the seasonally breeding African striped mouse (Rhabdomys pumilio). We measured health in individuals that reproduced (breeders) and individuals that did not reproduce (their adult offspring) and tested whether: (1) breeders' health before reproduction was similar to that of their offspring (representing a baseline); (2) breeders' health deteriorated after reproduction; (3) breeders' health after reproduction was worse than that of their offspring. We collected blood samples from 12 breeding females and 11 breeding males both at the onset and at the end of the breeding season and from 12 adult daughters and 11 adult sons that did not reproduce at the end of the breeding season. Health was assessed using serum biochemistry analysis with VetScan Abaxis. Breeders differed considerably in their health before and after reproduction, particularly in parameters associated with digestion (lower amylase in males), metabolism (lower albumin, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and glucose), osmoregulation (lower potassium and phosphorous in females) and immunity (higher globulin and altered alanine aminotransferase). Our results suggest that with the onset of breeding striped mice shifted their energy allocation from maintaining health to reproduction, indicating that investment into reproduction carries significant health costs.
Granek, Leeat; Nakash, Ora
In this paper, we situate and frame Israeli women's reproductive health within the social, historical, political, cultural, and geographical context of Israeli women's lives. We used a theoretical review in this paper. Militarism, patriarchy, and cultural values heavily shape and influence Jewish and Arab women's access to and experience of reproductive health when it comes to the imperative to have children, pregnancy, birth, access to contraception and abortion, and other reproductive healthcare services. We discuss five main factors pertaining to Israeli women's reproductive health including (1) fertility and emphasis on reproduction; (2) infertility; (3) pregnancy, birth, and miscarriage; (4) reproductive rights including contraception and abortion; and (5) maternity leave and accessible childcare. Israel is a pro-natalist country, in which both Jewish and Arab women share many of the consequences of the social imperative to have children. Though Arab women, as part of their double minority status, are exposed to more mental health risks pre- and postpartum, the personal and public reproductive health decisions and reproductive healthcare services are largely shaped by similar social forces. These include the patriarchal and religious culture that dictates a value system that highly cherishes motherhood, and within the military political context of the on-going Israeli-Palestinian conflict and past social and political traumas. We address four major gaps that need to be addressed in order to improve Israeli women's reproductive health and well-being that include the neoliberal gap, the information gap, the reproductive health services gap, and the leadership and policy gap.
Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab
One of the most important and basic needs of adolescent girls is reproductive health services and education, which is different from that required by adults. The aim of this study was to determine reproductive health education needs from the perspective of adolescent girls living in urban and rural areas, as well as to explore adolescents' understanding of reproductive health needs. The first phase was a cross-sectional study conducted on 1274 female adolescents. In the second phase, 77 girls in the form of 11 groups participated in focused group discussions. This sequential explanatory mixed methods study using follow-up variants was conducted in two phases. Questionnaires, including items on socio-demographic characteristics and reproductive health needs from adolescents' perspectives, were completed using the self-administered method. The quantitative results of the study revealed city and village girls' perspectives on reproductive health education needs. These results showed that village adolescents were nearly 1.5-2 times more in favor of a same sex counselor, reproductive health group education, and the need for sexual health education than city adolescents. A review of the transcripts of the qualitative phase led to the extraction of two themes including the characteristics of the reproductive health educator and priorities of reproductive health education, which explains the adolescent girls' understanding of reproductive health education needs. The findings of this study confirm the importance of determining reproductive health education needs from the perspective of adolescent girls. The present study shows how a sequential mixed design can be used for a better understanding of reproductive health needs of adolescent girls. The results of this study can be used in health research, education, policy making, and planning associated with adolescent health.
of-school adolescents, in particular often lack access to health information, counseling, legal protection, as well as health care and other social services. Objective: This study is intended to assess and compare reproductive health needs of rural ...
The Palestinian Family Planning and Protection Association (PFPPA) recently implemented a new strategic plan based on the Strategic Plan of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) aimed at the empowerment of women. Advocacy is the central part of the program with preparing the services and dealing with the issue of population. In early 1995 a round of meetings in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip launched the plan with new programs for women, youth, men, information, education, and communication, and service provision to start in January 1996. In Gaza the Youth Program is well under way. Five members were selected from each of 50 groups for a 1-week training course in Gaza City in November 1995. The topics included: mutual respect between husband and wife, discussion of the role of family planning in the context of Islam, the rights and wrongs of polygamy, and the hotly debated issue of sex segregation in education. The PFPPA staff was initially apprehensive about the new youth and women's program plans to broaden family planning to women's empowerment and sexual and reproductive health. An IPPF-sponsored video was also shown in Hebron, West Bank, on the problem of early marriage. It featured Palestinian women: one with 12 children who was married at age 13; a mother whose husband wanted to marry off their 12-year-old daughter; and portrayed pressure from husbands and other family members to produce many children. The new strategy engendered debate in the West Bank and Gaza among village women and young people, while in the meantime the training of government health workers started in sexual and reproductive health counseling. In the village of Tkooi, near Bethlehem, a counselor held sessions on the oppression of women and psycho-physiological problems and stress. A lawyer also summarized women's economic and property rights, which most of them were unaware of.
Full Text Available The olm (Proteus anguinus is a troglomorphic, neotenous amphibian with extraordinary life expectancy and unique adaptations that deserve further investigation. A low reproductive rate and habitat decline render it threatened by extinction. Establishing captive populations for maintenance and artificial breeding may one day become crucial to the species. Longitudinal, in-vivo assessment of inner organs is invaluable to our understanding of reproductive physiology, health, and behavior. Using ultrasound, we measured heart rate and assessed health and reproductive status of 13 captive olms at Zagreb Zoo. Heart rate averaged 42.9 ± 4.6 bpm (32-55 bpm, as determined via pulsed-wave Doppler at 4-12 MHz. By using frequencies of up to 70 MHz (ultrasound biomicroscopy, inner organs were visualized in detail. Assessment of the gastrointestinal tract provided insights into feeding status and digestive processes. Several subclinical pathologies were detected, including biliary sludge, subcutaneous edema, ascites, and skin lesions. Detection of skin lesions by ultrasound was more sensitive than visual adspection. Olms with ultrasonographically detected skin lesions tested positive for Saprolegnia and were treated. Three of the four affected individuals survived and subsequently tested negative for Saprolegnia. Sex was reliably determined; only one individual proved male. The reason for this extreme female-biased sex-ratio remains unknown. However, as most of the individuals were flushed from the caves by strong currents in spring, the sample may not be representative of natural populations. In female olms, different stages of ovarian follicular development were observed with diameters ranging between 0.1 and 1.1 mm. Results were confirmed by comparing ultrasound, necropsy, and histological findings of one dead specimen. In summary, ultrasound proved a valuable tool to support conservation and captive breeding programs by allowing non-invasive assessment of
Holtze, Susanne; Lukač, Maja; Cizelj, Ivan; Mutschmann, Frank; Szentiks, Claudia Anita; Jelić, Dušan; Hermes, Robert; Göritz, Frank; Braude, Stanton; Hildebrandt, Thomas Bernd
The olm (Proteus anguinus) is a troglomorphic, neotenous amphibian with extraordinary life expectancy and unique adaptations that deserve further investigation. A low reproductive rate and habitat decline render it threatened by extinction. Establishing captive populations for maintenance and artificial breeding may one day become crucial to the species. Longitudinal, in-vivo assessment of inner organs is invaluable to our understanding of reproductive physiology, health, and behavior. Using ultrasound, we measured heart rate and assessed health and reproductive status of 13 captive olms at Zagreb Zoo. Heart rate averaged 42.9 ± 4.6 bpm (32-55 bpm), as determined via pulsed-wave Doppler at 4-12 MHz. By using frequencies of up to 70 MHz (ultrasound biomicroscopy), inner organs were visualized in detail. Assessment of the gastrointestinal tract provided insights into feeding status and digestive processes. Several subclinical pathologies were detected, including biliary sludge, subcutaneous edema, ascites, and skin lesions. Detection of skin lesions by ultrasound was more sensitive than visual adspection. Olms with ultrasonographically detected skin lesions tested positive for Saprolegnia and were treated. Three of the four affected individuals survived and subsequently tested negative for Saprolegnia. Sex was reliably determined; only one individual proved male. The reason for this extreme female-biased sex-ratio remains unknown. However, as most of the individuals were flushed from the caves by strong currents in spring, the sample may not be representative of natural populations. In female olms, different stages of ovarian follicular development were observed with diameters ranging between 0.1 and 1.1 mm. Results were confirmed by comparing ultrasound, necropsy, and histological findings of one dead specimen. In summary, ultrasound proved a valuable tool to support conservation and captive breeding programs by allowing non-invasive assessment of physiological
... can be prevented or minimized by limiting the number of embryos that are put into the woman's body. Learn More Assisted Reproductive Technologies (American Society for Reproductive Medicine) - PDF Also ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited attention has been paid to the issue of reproductive health as it affects women with intellectual disabilities, despite reproductive health being a vital issue in public health policy for women in the general population. This paper describes caregiver awareness of reproductive health issues relative to women with intellectual disabilities who are being cared for in welfare institutions in Taiwan. Methods The study employed a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study which recruited 1,152 caregivers (response rate = 71.87% from 32 registered disability welfare institutions in Taiwan. We classified their understanding/awareness of reproductive health issues into four domains: menstrual (1 and menopause (2 issues, sex education (3, and reproductive health services (4. Each domain had five associated yes/no questions and the total score for the four domains was out of a maximum of 20. Data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0 software. Results We found that most of the caregivers were familiar with matters concerning sex education, menopause, and reproductive health services, but they lacked adequate understanding of issues associated with menstruation in women with ID. Many aspects of reproductive health such as "menstrual pain", "age at menarche", "masturbation", "diet during perimenopause", and "publicly available reproductive health services" were issues in which caregivers lacked adequate knowledge and required further instruction. Logistic regression analysis revealed that female caregivers with a university degree, and those who had experience assisting with reproductive health care were more inclined to have higher reproductive health awareness scores than their counterparts. Conclusions This study highlights that service providers should offer appropriate reproductive health education to institutional caregivers, and that more attention be focused on the personal experiences and concerns of intellectually disabled
Patel, Preeti; Roberts, Bayard; Guy, Samantha; Lee-Jones, Louise; Conteh, Lesong
Reproductive health needs are particularly acute in countries affected by armed conflict. Reliable information on aid investment for reproductive health in these countries is essential for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of aid. The purpose of this study was to analyse official development assistance (ODA) for reproductive health activities in conflict-affected countries from 2003 to 2006. The Creditor Reporting System and the Financial Tracking System databases were the chosen data sources for the study. ODA disbursement for reproductive health activities to 18 conflict-affected countries was analysed for 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006. An average of US $20.8 billion in total ODA was disbursed annually to the 18 conflict-affected countries between 2003 and 2006, of which US $509.3 million (2.4%) was allocated to reproductive health. This represents an annual average of US $1.30 disbursed per capita in the 18 sampled countries for reproductive health activities. Non-conflict-affected least-developed countries received 53.3% more ODA for reproductive health activities than conflict-affected least-developed countries, despite the latter generally having greater reproductive health needs. ODA disbursed for HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment increased by 119.4% from 2003 to 2006. The ODA disbursed for other direct reproductive health activities declined by 35.9% over the same period. This study provides evidence of inequity in disbursement of reproductive health ODA between conflict-affected countries and non-conflict-affected countries, and between different reproductive health activities. These findings and the study's recommendations seek to support initiatives to make aid financing more responsive to need in the context of armed conflict.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reproductive health needs are particularly acute in countries affected by armed conflict. Reliable information on aid investment for reproductive health in these countries is essential for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of aid. The purpose of this study was to analyse official development assistance (ODA for reproductive health activities in conflict-affected countries from 2003 to 2006. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Creditor Reporting System and the Financial Tracking System databases were the chosen data sources for the study. ODA disbursement for reproductive health activities to 18 conflict-affected countries was analysed for 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006. An average of US $20.8 billion in total ODA was disbursed annually to the 18 conflict-affected countries between 2003 and 2006, of which US $509.3 million (2.4% was allocated to reproductive health. This represents an annual average of US $1.30 disbursed per capita in the 18 sampled countries for reproductive health activities. Non-conflict-affected least-developed countries received 53.3% more ODA for reproductive health activities than conflict-affected least-developed countries, despite the latter generally having greater reproductive health needs. ODA disbursed for HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment increased by 119.4% from 2003 to 2006. The ODA disbursed for other direct reproductive health activities declined by 35.9% over the same period. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence of inequity in disbursement of reproductive health ODA between conflict-affected countries and non-conflict-affected countries, and between different reproductive health activities. These findings and the study's recommendations seek to support initiatives to make aid financing more responsive to need in the context of armed conflict.
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the level of knowledge of the adolescent girls regarding reproductive health issues.Materials and methods: A cross sectional descriptive type of study was carried out among 150unmarried adolescent girls of Vashantek slum in Dhaka city by face to face interview using a semistructuredquestionnaire from January to June 2008.Results: The mean age of the respondents were 16.4±2.9 years ranging from 10-19 years. Out of 150respondents, 130 had history of menstruation and their median age of menarche was 13 years. Thecorrect knowledge was high among the adolescent having secondary level of education than the SSCand above or primary level of education and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05. Aboutthree-fourths of the respondents had sufficient knowledge about hygienic menstrual practice. Majority ofthe girls could mention the legal age of marriage. Regarding the demerits of early marriage, majoritymentioned some of the demerits but not all. Three-fifths of the respondents had no knowledge onimportance of family planning and regarding the methods of family planning, majority of them had noknowledge. Majority of the respondents heard the disease AIDS but regarding the knowledge oncausative agent half of them had no knowledge. More than two-fifths had no knowledge on mode oftransmission of AIDS. It was also found that majority of the respondents had no knowledge on symptomsof AIDS and three-fifths had no knowledge on prevention of AIDS.Conclusion: So formal, informal and special educational program may be taken to educate theadolescent girls on reproductive health issues and government should be more concerned about this.
Jayashree S Gothankar
Full Text Available Objective: To assess knowledge and practices related to menstruation and reproductive health amongst college going adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study done on 323 adolescent girls admitted in the year 2012 to professional colleges belonging to the health sciences faculty of a private university in Pune, India, using self-administered proforma. Results: Mean age of onset of menarche was 13.35 years. Many girls (86.65% had knowledge of menstruation prior to menarche. For 68% of girls, mother was a source of menstrual information. Half of the girls reported some form of restriction in activities during menstruation due to religious reasons. 11% girls suffered from some form of reproductive tract infections (RTIs. Practices related to menstruation revealed that cloth piece is used for menstrual protection by 3% of girls. Soaked sanitary pads were disposed sanitarily by 96% of girls. Adolescent of medical faculty had significantly more knowledge than nursing faculty adolescents regarding emergency contraceptives (P < 0.05. Only four girls reported a history of sexual contact, of these, three were aware of emergency contraceptives, while one used them to prevent pregnancy. Conclusions: Adolescent girls received knowledge of menstruation prior to menarche from their mothers. Restriction in activity during menstruation due to religious reasons is practiced by many girls. Sanitary pad was used by almost all girls, and all disposed the same in a sanitary manner. More than half of the girls were aware about emergency contraceptives. Prevalence of RTI was found to be low and very few girls reported history of sexual exposure.
Patel, P; Roberts, B; Guy, S; Lee-Jones, L; Conteh, L
Editors' Summary Background Reproductive health concerns the bodily functions and systems that are involved in conceiving and bearing offspring. A reproductively healthy person is able to have a responsible, satisfying and safe sex life and to reproduce if and when they chose to do so. More specifically, to ensure their reproductive health, both men and women need access to safe and effective birth control methods, they need to know how to avoid sexually transmitted diseases (including HIV/AI...
Full Text Available Background & aim: Men’s sexual and reproductive health is one of the most important public health issues. However, less attention has been paid to this matter, compared to women’s health issues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the educational needs of men regarding sexual and reproductive health in Ahvaz, Iran. Methods:This descriptive study was performed on 1,068 adult men (aged 20-60 years, selected via random cluster sampling in Ahvaz city in 2014. In order to determine the educational needs of men regarding sexual and reproductive health, a questionnaire consisting of three major sections (i.e., demographic data, sexual and reproductive health needs, and men’s attitudes was designed. The validity of the questionnaire was determined by content and face validity. Its reliability was assessed by internal consistency (α=85% and test-retest. For data analysis, descriptive statistics, t-test and ANOVA were performed, using SPSS version 19. Results: The majority of men (75.1% had poor knowledge and a moderate attitude (67.3% towards sexual and reproductive health. The three most important educational needs of men regarding sexual and reproductive health were cancers of male reproductive system (83.8%, sexually transmitted diseases (STD/HIV (77.4% and religious attitudes toward sex (77%, respectively. Friends were the most important source of information in all aspects of sexual and reproductive health, while men preferred to receive information from a male physician or counselor. According to the results, men were dissatisfied with the amount of information they received about sexual and reproductive health. Conclusion: Based on the findings, men felt the need for sexual and reproductive health education; these needs were influenced by social and demographic factors, except marital status. If health policymakers pay attention to these educational needs, it is possible to implement suitable programs for improving men's sexual health and
Jitendra Kumar Meena
Full Text Available Context. Men play a significant role in all spheres of domestic life including reproduction. Youth is a period of critical development and ignoring sexual and reproductive health (SRH needs of young men ought to have wider social and health consequences. Aims and Objectives. To assess the knowledge, attitude, and perceptions regarding SRH among young unmarried men (18–25 years. Settings and Design. A semiqualitative study conducted across four health centers (2 rural, 2 urban across Delhi. Materials and Methods. Focus group discussions (FGDs were held among sixty-four participants regarding various aspects of SRH. Data Analysis. The data generated were analyzed using free listing and thematic content analysis along with simple quantitative proportions for different variable groups. Results. Good knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS was observed though found poor regarding other STIs/RTIs. Inadequate knowledge and negative attitude towards SRH and condom use were observed among rural participants. Peer group and mass media were the commonest SRH information sources among rural and urban participants, respectively. Conclusions. Poor SRH knowledge, perceptions, and available nonformal, unreliable information sources expose young men to poor SRH outcomes. Early, comprehensive SRH information provision can have life-long protective benefits to them and their partners.
Smith, Sarah A
Recent evidence of negative sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes for Micronesian migrants warrants a review of what is currently known about Micronesian SRH beliefs, customs, behaviors, outcomes, and access to SRH services. A systematic literature review employing the matrix method was conducted using the same key terms for 8 databases. Peer-reviewed articles published between 1990 and 2010 were abstracted for several key components, including topics, methodology, and other important elements necessary to assess major findings, strengths, and weaknesses. Thirty-two articles matched the inclusion criteria for review. Of these articles, the major research of interest was behavior relating to sexual risk behavior, pregnancy, health care seeking, and HIV/AIDS for various populations throughout Micronesia. Study populations ranged from pregnant women seeking prenatal care to students in high school. No cohesive body of SRH literature exists for one topic or one community within Micronesia to date.
Sharika, Rajasekharan; Subbaiah, Priya; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy
Microbial association with a host using model system C. elegans have been widely studied based on factors such as host survival, the mode of infection, disease pathogenesis and the role of various players regulated during infection. The influence of pathogenic microorganism on reproduction and associated issues has not been explored fully. The present study focuses on the impact of bacterial infection on male reproductive parameters such as spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis, including physiological aspects like tail morphology defect and underlying molecular mechanisms that have been perturbed. In order to compare the consequence of infection caused by Gram positive and negative bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio alginolyticus were chosen as candidate pathogens, respectively. Microscopic observations revealed notable changes in tail morphology during 24 h of infection, as along with change in sperm size and activation. The Real Time-PCR results suggest the plausible down regulation of DBL-1/TGF-β pathway suggesting the morphological change in the tail. Shotgun proteomics further lead to the identification of MAG-1, Magonashi Protein a candidate regulatory player that affects spermatogenesis and HIF-1 that regulate during stress in both Gram positive and Gram negative infection. The protein-protein interaction with detected proteins revealed RACK-1 protein and mTOR pathway in S. aureus and V. alginolyticus respectively interacting with MAG-1 protein, which plays an important role in spermatogenesis termination in hermaphrodites during L4 to adult switch. This study paves a way to understand the candidate players that regulate reproduction during bacterial infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
...] Advisory Committee for Reproductive Health Drugs; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... Committee for Reproductive Health Drugs. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and.... If the number of registrants requesting to speak is greater than can be reasonably accommodated...
...] Advisory Committee for Reproductive Health Drugs; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... Committee for Reproductive Health Drugs. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and... be limited. If the number of registrants requesting to speak is greater than can be reasonably...
...] Advisory Committee for Reproductive Health Drugs; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... Committee for Reproductive Health Drugs. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and... limited. If the number of registrants requesting to speak is greater than can be reasonably accommodated...
H.P. van Dalen (Hendrik)
textabstractThis paper tries to establish who carries the burden in supporting reproductive health and AIDS programs worldwide. The 1994 International Conference of Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo established goals for the expansion of assistance in matters of reproductive health and
... dynamics in which reproductive health decision-making is embedded and not just the biological aspects of sexual relations and fertility. Their definitions of reproductive health reflected social taboos about pre-marital sex, infidelity and illegitimate children, and comprised holistic notions of bodily and spiritual cleanliness.
Reproductive health education for early childhood it has been the time to teach, because the demand of the changing times and will affect the child's life when he/she is a teenager. During this time, the reproductive health education, which is in it there is sex education, considered taboo among some communities. They argue that the reproductive…
Hall, Kelli Stidham; Moreau, Caroline; Trussell, James
An understanding of the association between adolescents' sexual and reproductive health knowledge and their use of relevant services is needed to improve young people's sexual and reproductive health. Data from the National Survey of Family Growth were used to examine associations between sexual and reproductive health communication (parental and formal) and service use among 2,326 U.S. women aged 15-19 in 2002 and 2006-2008. Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression were used to assess relationships between adolescents' receipt of sexual and reproductive health communication from parents and formal (school, church, community) sources and their use of sexual and reproductive health services. The majority of adolescents had received parental (75%) and formal (92%) sexual and reproductive health communication; 43% reported recent service use. In unadjusted analyses, parental and formal communication were positively associated with service use. In regression models, overall parental communication remained positively associated with service use (odds ratio, 1.6); parental abstinence-only communication, which was not significant in 2002, was associated with reduced odds of service use for the pooled sample (0.4) and in 2006-2008 (0.3). Formal communication was not associated with service use. Further research is needed to assess whether comprehensive sexual and reproductive health communication facilitates adolescents' health care utilization. Examination of how communication sources, quality and content are related to service use is needed to understand adolescents' sexual and reproductive health knowledge and needs. Copyright © 2012 by the Guttmacher Institute.
Trani, Jean-Francois; Browne, Joyce; Kett, Maria; Bah, Osman; Morlai, Teddy; Bailey, Nicki; Groce, Nora
This is the first study to compare health status and access to health care services between disabled and non-disabled men and women in urban and peri-urban areas of Sierra Leone. It pays particular attention to access to reproductive health care services and maternal health care for disabled women. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2009 in 5 districts of Sierra Leone, randomly selecting 17 clusters for a total sample of 425 households. All adults who were identified as being disabled, as well as a control group of randomly selected non-disabled adults, were interviewed about health and reproductive health. As expected, we showed that people with severe disabilities had less access to public health care services than non-disabled people after adjustment for other socioeconomic characteristics (bivariate modelling). However, there were no significant differences in reporting use of contraception between disabled and non-disabled people; contrary to expectations, women with disabilities were as likely to report access to maternal health care services as did non-disabled women. Rather than disability, it is socioeconomic inequality that governs access to such services. We also found that disabled women were as likely as non-disabled women to report having children and to desiring another child: they are not only sexually active, but also need access to reproductive health services. We conclude that disparity in access to government-supported health care facilities constitutes a major and persisting health inequity between persons with and without disabilities in Sierra Leone. Ensuring equal access will require further strengthening of the country's health care system. Furthermore, because the morbidity and mortality rates of pregnant women are persistently high in Sierra Leone, assessing the quality of services received is an important priority for future research. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This study gathered baseline data on reproductive health information and service needs of adolescent girls aged between 16 to 19 years in Samoa. The opinions and attitudes of these girls towards the provision of reproductive health services, and the health services available in Samoa were investigated using qualitative and quantitative research methods. Self-administered, semi-structured questionnaires were used with the adolescent girls, and semi-structured interview schedules were used with key informants from health services and the hospitality and entertainment industries. Access to age-specific education, information and health services were identified as reproductive health needs for Samoan adolescent girls. Promotion and encouragement of condom use by sexually active adolescents was also identified as a need. Including biological and psychosocial aspects of reproductive health in the school curriculum may improve knowledge. Reproductive health education involves all strata of society, such as governments, churches, communities, and families, with each playing a vital role. No stratum should be wholly responsible for addressing adolescent reproductive health. Any Samoan initiative on reproductive health may be evaluated against the data from this study. This study featured both selection bias and measurement bias. Sex is not openly discussed in Samoan society and could have led to participants not responding to certain questions or providing responses that they deemed socially desirable. These biases may have distorted results. Convenient population sampling method used may have led to mis-reporting of results in some adolescent groups.
Olsen, Jørn; Pedersen, Lars Henning
Reproductive epidemiologists study disease outcomes over three time periods: (i) from conception, or before, to birth, (ii) from birth to death and (iii) from death and into the next generations. They have traditionally been short of data from the time of conception to birth, and we use data at birth to estimate fetal growth or the incidence of congenital malformations. Although we are interested in incidence data for defects that start early in gestation, we have to use prevalence data at birth. Cumulative incidence will only be similar to prevalence at birth given no competing risks - or no fetal death after the onset of the lesion. Routinely use of ultrasound methods in fetal medicine will change our monitoring of structural birth defects. We may now be able to link exposures to events with the right time sequence, for example on fetal growth deviations and get better data on fetal deaths also for twins and triplets. The scientific challenges will mainly come from induced abortions following ultrasound examinations. Ultrasound data from the time of pregnancy will be of crucial importance for studies on fetal programming or "developmental origins of health and disease" (DOHaD). In humans, babies that are small at birth have an increased risk of, eg, cardiovascular disease, as shown by DJ Barker in the 1980s (1), but this association is probably not a direct consequence of the low birth weight but rather caused by external or internal exposures during fetal life. DOHaD studies that use outcomes at birth, including weight, as exposures or intermediates may be biased. One notorious example is the apparent protective effect of smoking on the mortality of children with a low birth weight (2). This bias, partly related to collider stratification bias, is potentially less important in studies using direct ultrasound assessments. The risk of reverse causation may also be reduced in longitudinal studies based on ultrasound data. Fetal ultrasound examinations are also done
Full Text Available From the community profiles conducted by nursing students in Mangaung, the following observation was prevalent: an increase in the prevalence of teenage pregnancy together with a high prevalence of HIV infection was demonstrated. The relationship between young people’s reproductive behavior and the prevalence of HIV is well documented. To address this problem, a community -based education programme is required. Developing a successful community-based educational programme that addresses the needs of youth requires that such a programme be based on the needs of such a group. The research question is applicable: How do youth in Mangaung in the Free State province in South Africa perceive their reproductive health needs and their reproductive health behavior? The aim of this article is to explore and describe the reproductive health needs and the reproductive health behaviour of the youth in Mangaung. A quantitative research design that is descriptive and explorative in nature was conducted. The reproductive health needs and the reproductive health behaviour of the youth were collected by means of a structured questionnaire with open-ended and closed questions. A purposive non - probability sampling method was utilized and (n=250 drawn from the youth. The justification of the sample was further enhanced by collecting data from youth aged 13-25 at three high schools in Mangaung and at the health centre of MUCPP. Qualitative data obtained from open-ended questionnaires was coded and analyzed by using Tech’s (1990 content analysis approach. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed on the quantitative data from closed questions. A descriptive analysis of the participant’s ages and their perceived reproductive health needs and reproductive health behaviour was done. The mean age of the participants was 18.6, which could be because all the respondents were of school- going age. The results indicated that the youth received insufficient
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1993, many studies on the health of Persian Gulf War veterans (PGWVs have been undertaken. Some authors have concluded that an association exists between Gulf War service and reported infertility or miscarriage, but that effects on PGWV's children were limited. The present study's objective was to describe the reproductive outcome and health of offspring of French Gulf War veterans. Methods The French Study on the Persian Gulf War (PGW and its Health Consequences is an exhaustive cross-sectional study on all French PGWVs conducted from 2002 to 2004. Data were collected by postal self-administered questionnaire. A case-control study nested in this cohort was conducted to evaluate the link between PGW-related exposures and fathering a child with a birth defect. Results In the present study, 9% of the 5,666 Gulf veterans who participated reported fertility disorders, and 12% of male veterans reported at least one miscarriage among their partners after the PGW. Overall, 4.2% of fathers reported at least one child with a birth defect conceived after the mission. No PGW-related exposure was associated with any birth defect in children fathered after the PGW mission. Concerning the reported health of children born after the PGW, 1.0% of children presented a pre-term delivery and 2.7% a birth defect. The main birth defects reported were musculoskeletal malformations (0.5% and urinary system malformations (0.3%. Birth defect incidence in PGWV children conceived after the mission was similar to birth defect incidence described by the Paris Registry of Congenital Malformations, except for Down syndrome (PGWV children incidence was lower than Registry incidence. Conclusion This study did not highlight a high frequency of fertility disorders or miscarriage among French PGW veterans. We found no evidence for a link between paternal exposure during the Gulf War and increased risk of birth defects among French PGWV children.
Metusela, Christine; Ussher, Jane; Perz, Janette; Hawkey, Alexandra; Morrow, Marina; Narchal, Renu; Estoesta, Jane; Monteiro, Melissa
Migrant and refugee women are at risk of negative sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes due to low utilisation of SRH services. SRH is shaped by socio-cultural factors which can act as barriers to knowledge and influence access to healthcare. Research is needed to examine constructions and experiences of SRH in non-English-speaking migrant and refugee women, across a range of cultural groups. This qualitative study examined the constructions and experiences of SRH among recent migrant and refugee women living in Sydney, Australia, and Vancouver, Canada. A total of 169 women from Afghanistan, Iraq, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, India, Sri Lanka and South America participated in the study, through 84 individual interviews, and 16 focus groups comprised of 85 participants. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Three themes were identified: "women's assessments of inadequate knowledge of sexual and reproductive health and preventative screening practices", "barriers to sexual and reproductive health" and "negative sexual and reproductive health outcomes". Across all cultural groups, many women had inadequate knowledge of SRH, due to taboos associated with constructions and experiences of menstruation and sexuality. This has implications for migrant and refugee women's ability to access SRH education and information, including contraception, and sexual health screening, making them vulnerable to SRH difficulties, such as sexually transmissible infections and unplanned pregnancies. It is essential for researchers and health service providers to understand socio-cultural constraints which may impede SRH knowledge and behaviour of recent migrant and refugee women, in order to provide culturally safe SRH education and services that are accessible to all women at resettlement irrespective of ethnicity or migration category.
...] Joint Meeting of the Advisory Committee for Reproductive Health Drugs and the Drug Safety and Risk... Reproductive Health Drugs and the Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee. General Function of the...., [[Page 59143
Hansen, Bo Terning; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk
To investigate associations between early smoking initiation, risk-taking behavior and reproductive health.......To investigate associations between early smoking initiation, risk-taking behavior and reproductive health....
Christiansen, Terkel; Erb, Karin; Rizvanovic, Amra
To examine the costs to the public health care system of couples in medically assisted reproduction.......To examine the costs to the public health care system of couples in medically assisted reproduction....
Pizzarossa, Lucía Berro; Perehudoff, Katrina
General Comment No. 22, issued in 2016 by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR), clarifies states' legal duties to respect, protect, and fulfill the right to sexual and reproductive health (SRH). Our study analyzes domestic constitutions around the world to investigate whether and to what extent the right to sexual and reproductive health is respected, protected, and fulfilled; to what extent these provisions are inclusive and non-discriminatory; and to what degree the interlinkages between this and other human rights are acknowledged. Of the 195 constitutions accessed, 27 enshrine sexual and/or reproductive health, and seven adopt restrictive approaches to this right. In the 27 constitutions, provisions most frequently enshrine respect of one's sexual health and family planning decisions, the protection of sexual health, and the provision of reproductive health care and family planning services (fulfillment). Most of the 27 constitutions fail to adequately respect reproductive health rights; to protect reproductive health, family planning, and abortion services from third-party interference; and to fulfill all dimensions of sexual health and access to abortion. Three of the 27 constitutions enshrine a universal right to SRH, and additional constitutions protect specific vulnerable groups (such as women, children) and/or restrict the scope of rights holders to couples. Among the 27 constitutions, nine explicitly link the right to sexual and reproductive health to the rights to education, science, and/or to make autonomous decisions about sexuality and reproduction. Our results can serve as a baseline measure to track constitutional reforms in pursuit of the realization of sexual and reproductive health and rights, and as building blocks for future lawmakers committed to realizing these rights through domestic legal reform.
Islam, Fakhar ul; Jalali, Samina; Shafqat, Mustafa Nawaz; Shah, Syed Tahir Abbas
Endosulfan is an organochlorine pesticide that is toxic to aquatic life. Endosulfan might hamper the reproductive health of indigenous fish in agricultural areas of Pakistan where this pesticide is sprayed widely. The aim of the current study is to investigate the toxic effects of endosulfan on selected reproductive parameters of male freshwater fish, Cyprinion watsoni. Two concentrations of endosulfan (0.5 and 1 ppb for 30 days exposure) were tested for their effects on body weight, body length, and testicular weight, length, and width. Testicular testosterone was assayed from tissue extracts using enzyme immunoassay (EIA). A significant increase in the mortality rate was observed in both treated groups during both spawning and quiescent seasons. The overall behavior of fish in the aquarium was normal in all control and treated groups. However, the treated fish exhibited anxiety after treatment with endosulfan. The body weight and length, and testicular weight, length and width were not significantly different to the control group. The testicular testosterone concentrations were significantly lower in both endosulfan-treated groups compared to the control. The decrease was dose-dependent, with a significant difference between the two treated groups. The histomorphological results demonstrated various testicular alterations in the treated groups. These alterations included an increase in interlobular areas and clumping patterns in spermatocytes/spermatids. Because spermatids eventually differentiate into sperms, their low count will directly result in lower sperm count. Taken together, these results suggest that endosulfan is a toxicant that at least disturbs testosterone levels (possibly others) and negatively impacts the reproductive health of male freshwater fish.
Cronley, Courtney; Hohn, Kris; Nahar, Shamsun
Women experiencing homelessness report higher rates of reproductive health-related traumas, including unplanned pregnancy, miscarriage, and abortion than their non-homeless peers. Using phenomenological hermeneutic methods, we sought to understand the reproductive health histories of women currently experiencing homelessness (N = 20, 25-61 years old, Mage = 38.33, SDage = 9.33) analyzing data collected between June 2014 and July 2015 in north central Texas. Three key themes highlight the essence of the women's experiences: (1) unexpected pregnancy-pregnancy just happened, (2) loss of reproductive health rights-I was broken, and (3) resilience-giving back and looking forward to good things. Many of the women became mothers through unexpected pregnancies, and overnight found that their lives were transformed irrevocably. Often unexpected pregnancy was the result or cause of a lack of ownership over their reproductive health and led to prolonged health-related traumas. Over time, though, many of the women whom we interviewed re-expressed resilience through social support, housing assistance, and a sense of giving back to society. Results indicate that reproductive health care providers require training to identify the relationship among unexpected pregnancy, reproductive health-related traumas, and housing insecurity. Providers can help preserve women's reproductive health rights through education and empowerment.
Waldman, Linda; Stevens, Marion
Information and Communications Technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunity and innovation to improve public health and health systems.This paper explores the intersections between mHealth and sexual and reproductive health and rights in both policy and practice. It is a qualitative study, informed by policy review and key informant interviews. Three case studies provide evidence of what is happening on the ground in relation to ICTs and reproductive health and rights. We argue that in terms of policy, there is little overlap between health rights and communication technology. In the area of practice, however, significant interventions address aspects of reproductive health. At present, the extent to which mHealth addresses the full range of reproductive justice and sexual and reproductive health and rights is limited, particularly in terms of government initiatives. The paper argues that mHealth projects tend to avoid contentious aspects of sexual health, while addressing favourable topics such as pregnancy and motherhood. The ways in which information is framed in mHealth mirrors current gaps within sexual and reproductive health and rights, where a limited and conservative lens predominates, and which may result in narrow programming and implementation of services. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Patel, P; Dahab, M; Tanabe, M; Murphy, A; Ettema, L; Guy, S; Roberts, B
To provide information on trends on official development assistance (ODA) disbursement patterns for reproductive health activities in 18 conflict-affected countries. Secondary data analysis. 18 conflict-affected countries and 36 non-conflict-affected countries. The Creditor Reporting System (CRS) database was analyzed for ODA disbursement for direct and indirect reproductive health activities to 18 conflict-affected countries (2002-2011). A comparative analysis was also made with 36 non-conflict-affected counties in the same 'least-developed' income category. Multivariate regression analyses examined associations between conflict status and reproductive health ODA and between reproductive needs and ODA disbursements. Patterns of ODA disbursements (constant U.S. dollars) for reproductive health activities. The average annual ODA disbursed for reproductive health to 18 conflict-affected countries from 2002 to 2011 was US$ 1.93 per person per year. There was an increase of 298% in ODA for reproductive health activities to the conflict-affected countries between 2002 and 2011; 56% of this increase was due to increases in HIV/AIDS funding. The average annual per capita reproductive health ODA disbursed to least-developed non-conflict-affected countries was 57% higher than to least-developed conflict-affected countries. Regression analyses confirmed disparities in ODA to and between conflict-affected countries. Despite increases in ODA for reproductive health for conflict-affected countries (albeit largely for HIV/AIDS activities), considerable disparities remains. Study tracking 10 years of aid for reproductive aid shows major disparities for conflict-affected countries. © 2016 The Authors. BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
L O Omokanye; A G Salaudeen; A S Yusuf
Background: The sexual and reproductive health needs of sex workers have been neglected both in research and public health interventions. Among the reasons for this are the condemnation, stigma and ambiguous legal status of sex work in Nigeria. This study was aimed at determining the reproductive health problems and health-seeking behavior of brothel-based female sex workers (FSW). Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among brothel-based FSW in Sabon-Gari Local Gove...
Mayhew, Susannah H
This paper analyses the impact of decentralisation on the political organisation, management and provision of sexual and reproductive health services in Ghana. It draws on qualitative research and interviews with key informants from the Ministry of Health, donors, NGOs, regional and district health management teams, local government and community leaders. Within a national reproductive health policy framework, previously disparate family planning, maternal and child health, STI and HIV/AIDS programmes have become more integrated, and donors have pooled or co-ordinated their funding. Some decision-making about resource allocation is meant to happen at district and regional level but in practice, this remains centrally controlled, which may be a necessary safeguard for sexual and reproductive health services. Earmarked donor funds still ensure a regular supply of contraceptives and STI drugs. However, paying for these is problematic at local level. Sexual and reproductive health staff make up a large proportion of primary health care staff, but especially in rural areas they experience poor working conditions, and there is high turnover and vacancies. District and sub-district level links are working well in this new system, but clarity is still needed on how different national sexual and reproductive health bodies relate to each other and to regional and district health authorities. The development of formal mechanisms for priority setting and advocacy at local levels could help to secure benefits for sexual and reproductive health care.
Valle, Shelley; Carpentier, Elodie; Vu, Bethany; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Deviche, Pierre
Nutrition influences reproductive functions across vertebrates, but the effects of food availability on the functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in wild birds and the mechanisms mediating these effects remain unclear. We investigated the influence of chronic food restriction on the HPG axis of photostimulated house finches, Haemorhous mexicanus. Food-restricted birds had underdeveloped testes with smaller seminiferous tubules than ad libitum-fed birds. Baseline plasma testosterone increased in response to photostimulation in ad libitum-fed but not in food-restricted birds. Food availability did not, however, affect the plasma testosterone increase resulting from a gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I (GnRH) or a luteinizing hormone (LH) challenge. The number of hypothalamic GnRH immunoreactive (ir) but not proGnRH-ir perikarya was higher in food-restricted than in ad libitum-fed finches, suggesting inhibited secretion of GnRH. Hypothalamic gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH)-ir and neuropeptide Y (NPY)-ir were not affected by food availability. Plasma corticosterone (CORT) was also not affected by food availability, indicating that the observed HPG axis inhibition did not result from increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. This study is among the first to examine multilevel functional changes in the HPG axis in response to food restriction in a wild bird. The results indicate that food availability affects both hypothalamic and gonadal function, but further investigations are needed to clarify the mechanisms by which nutritional signals mediate these effects. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Kresowik, Jessica; Sparks, Amy; Duran, Eyup H; Shah, Divya K
To compare rates of clinical pregnancy (CPR) and live birth (LBR) following embryo transfer (ET) performed by reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI) fellows before and after a prolonged lapse in clinical training due to an 18-month research rotation. Retrospective cohort study. Not applicable. All women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) and IVF-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles with ET performed by REI fellows from August 2003 to July 2012. Eighteen-month lapse in clinical training of REI fellows. CPR and LBR before and after the lapse in clinical training were calculated and compared per fellow and as a composite group. Alternating logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds of clinical pregnancy and live birth following transfers performed before and after the lapse in training. Unadjusted odds of clinical pregnancy and live birth were similar between the two time periods both for individual fellows and for the composite group. Alternate logistic regression analysis revealed no significant difference in CPR (odds ratio [OR] 0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.83-1.07) or LBR (OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.94-1.18) after the lapse in training compared with before. A research rotation is common in REI fellowship training programs. This prolonged departure from clinical training does not appear to negatively affect pregnancy outcome following fellow ET. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Baheiraei, Azam; Bakouei, Fatemeh; Mohammadi, Eesa; Montazeri, Ali; Hosseni, Mostafa
Prioritizing women's health helps achievement of the 4(th) and 5(th) goals of Millennium Development Program. This study aimed to investigate association between social determinants of health and women's health of reproductive age. This population-based cross-sectional study, using multi-stage sampling procedure was conducted on 770, 15 to 49-year-old women residing in any one of the 22 municipality zones across Tehran, Iran. Eligible women were interviewed at home with SF-36 (Short Form Health Survey) and socio-demographic questionnaires. Social determinants of health contains; ethnicity, education, job, income, and crowding index. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Multiple Linear Regression using SPSS-16. The threshold of P.V was considered 0.05. Overall, 770 women with mean age 33.9±9.3 years were interviewed. Majority of them were married (72.27%), housewives (62.2%), of Persian ethnicity (64.3%), and educated to high school level (43.8%). Age with dimensions of health except role emotional, mental health, and social functioning had significant association with B from -0.65 to -0.16.educational level with dimensions of health except role emotional andsocial functioning had significant association with B from 3.61 to 6.43 (Peducation level on negative women' health experiences are alarming. Interaction between social determinants of health and health status must be considered in policymaking, and there is a need for policies that would enhance health of women in the low education and income brackets.
Arianna Oliveira Santana Lopes
Full Text Available The article discusses issues associated to women's health, since search what are the sexual and reproductive rights for women in situations of incarceration, highlighting the essentiality of these and if they are applied in Brazilian prisons. Therefore, was realized a literature review to assess the situation of the Brazilian women's prisons with regular year 2003 to 2012. When examined there was a wide disparity of reality experienced by these women by numerous factors, ranging from the barriers imposed by the prison as restriction on conjugal visits, the very attempt to play a role of motherhood and, of course, which drew more attention: the discrimination based on gender, since man reassembles his relationships more easily and generally leaves the companion incarcerated for cultural and social arising male sex. Concludes with the emerging need for change this situation in order to provide a better way to live in such a hostile environment to women incarcerated, where the same have their rights violated and nothing is done to such default.
Arianna Oliveira Santana Lopes
Full Text Available The article discusses issues associated to women's health, since search what are the sexual and reproductive rights for women in situations of incarceration, highlighting the essentiality of these and if they are applied in Brazilian prisons. Therefore, was realized a literature review to assess the situation of the Brazilian women's prisons with regular year 2003 to 2012. When examined there was a wide disparity of reality experienced by these women by Saúde da mulher em situação de prisão: direitos sexuais e reprodutivos numerous factors, ranging from the barriers imposed by the prison as restriction on conjugal visits, the very attempt to play a role of motherhood and, of course, which drew more attention: the discrimination based on gender, since man reassembles his relationships more easily and generally leaves the companion incarcerated for cultural and social arising male sex. Concludes with the emerging need for change this situation in order to provide a better way to live in such a hostile environment to women incarcerated, where the same have their rights violated and nothing is done to such default.
Saleh, Wael F; Gamaleldin, Sameh F; Abdelmoty, Hatem I; Raslan, Ayman N; Fouda, Usama M; Mohesen, Mohamed N; Youssef, Mohamed A F M
To assess awareness of several reproductive health and HIV issues and to determine the sources of reproductive health knowledge. A cross-sectional survey of 150 randomly recruited, newly married couples without formal education attending gynecology or andrology outpatient clinics in Cairo, Egypt, was conducted from January 2012 to January 2013. Participants were interviewed separately and asked to respond to a semi-structured questionnaire on reproductive health and HIV awareness. Most participants had not received premarital counseling or undergone premarital testing. Awareness about HIV was relatively high: 117 (78.0%) women and 128 (85.3%) men had heard of HIV and had some awareness of the modes of HIV transmission. Only 24 (16.0%) women had ever used a condom compared with 36 (24.0%) men. Only two men out of the 150 couples questioned were aware of the free HIV hotline. Television and friends were the main sources of reproductive health knowledge. Routine premarital counseling and testing by reproductive health, gynecology, and andrology specialists need to be enforced. Mass media is an essential source of knowledge about HIV and reproductive health. Premarital, reproductive health, and HIV education programs need to be improved. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Prather, Cynthia; Fuller, Taleria R; Marshall, Khiya J; Jeffries, William L
African American women are disproportionately affected by multiple sexual and reproductive health conditions compared with women of other races/ethnicities. Research suggests that social determinants of health, including poverty, unemployment, and limited education, contribute to health disparities. However, racism is a probable underlying determinant of these social conditions. This article uses a socioecological model to describe racism and its impact on African American women's sexual and reproductive health. Although similar models have been used for specific infectious and chronic diseases, they have not described how the historical underpinnings of racism affect current sexual and reproductive health outcomes among African American women. We propose a socioecological model that demonstrates how social determinants grounded in racism affect individual behaviors and interpersonal relationships, which may contribute to sexual and reproductive health outcomes. This model provides a perspective to understand how these unique contextual experiences are intertwined with the daily lived experiences of African American women and how they are potentially linked to poor sexual and reproductive health outcomes. The model also presents an opportunity to increase dialog and research among public health practitioners and encourages them to consider the role of these contextual experiences and supportive data when developing prevention interventions. Considerations address the provision of opportunities to promote health equity by reducing the effects of racism and improving African American women's sexual and reproductive health.
Sarin, A R
In India the 1991 census showed a declining sex ratio. The number of females was 929 per 1000 males compared to 934 in 1981. Early childhood mortality, malnutrition, high maternal mortality, and female feticide may all be contributing to this disturbing trend. Only 39.42% of women are literate compared to 63.86% of males. At least 50% of women suffer from anemia. Indian women face a 50-times higher rate of pregnancy- and delivery-related deaths than the women in the industrialized countries, a consequence of difficult access to health care, ignorance, poverty, and repeated and close pregnancies. Reproductive tract infections (RTIs) are common with outcomes such as ectopic pregnancy, infertility, and chronic pelvic pain. Also, cervical cancer is still a major killer of Indian women. Another area of concern is the population explosion. Overpopulation brings malnourished and dying children, slums, unemployment, deforestation, desertification and an unending cycle of poverty, illiteracy, and disease. India's population has reached 862 million, and according to the 1991 census there has been an increase of 23.5% during the past decade. India's annual population growth rate of 2.11% is only marginally less than the 2.23% of the preceding decade. The density of population has increased to 267 per square km compared to 216 in 1981. At the present rate of growth, the population by the turn of the century would reach 1 billion. Perhaps the real cause of failing to halt the galloping population growth is related to different human rights standards for men and women. Society accepts that men have the ultimate say when it comes to family planning and determining the size of the family. The medical profession can be an instrument of change, especially in regard to women's health related to wider sociological, cultural, historical, and economic issues.
Homeless adolescent women are at high risk for negative health outcomes including early unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. The purpose of this study was to hear the perspectives of homeless adolescent females on the topics of health issues, self-care and fertility control, as well as on lessons from being homeless. The rescarch was descriptive, using semi-structured interviews and focus groups with a purposeful sample of 20 clinic-based female youth ages 15-23 years. The data were coded and analyzed following standard qualitative tcchniques. The youth described female-specific health issues of being homeless, such as problems with hygiene, sexual exploitation, survival sex. Most knew of homeless female youth who had tried self-induced abortions through drugs, herbs or physical abuse. They spoke of fertility control practices of young women living on the streets. The women also spoke of the lessons they had learned while being homeless, including the development of self-sufficiency. The young women in this study were willing to discuss their perspectives and experiences of being homeless. Health care providers should receive increased training in how to ask about sensitive subjects such as survival sex and the practice of self-induced abortions. Programs should be structured to ensure engagement of the women in healthy relationships with adults.
Full Text Available Male reproductive health has deteriorated in many ways during the last decades. The incidence of testicular cancer has rapidly increased in Europe and European-derived populations. Sperm concentrations have declined and sperm motility and morphology have worsened in many areas. Both adverse trends have been shown to be associated with year of birth. Older birth cohorts have better reproductive health than the younger generations. Incidences of cryptorchidism and hypospadias have also increased according to several studies. The reasons for secular trends are unknown, but the rapid pace of the change points to environmental causes. Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been hypothesized to influence male reproductive health.
Wang, Guo-yao; Ji, Yun-xin; Ding, Hui-qing; Gui, Zhong-bao; Liang, Xiao-ming; Fu, Jian-fei; Cheng, Yue
To investigate how network education can improve college students' knowledge on sexual and reproductive health in Ningbo city. From December 2012 to June 2013, we conducted a questionnaire investigation among college students in Ningbo city about the effects of network education on their knowledge about sexual psychology, sexual physiology, sexual ethics, and reproductive health. A total of 7 362 college students accomplished the investigation, of whom 2 483 (42.1% males and 57.9% females) received network education, while the other 4 879 (24.1% males and 75.9% females) did not. Approximately 47.1% of the male and 28.0% of the female students acquired sexual and reproductive knowledge via network education. Reproductive health-related network education significantly enriched the students' knowledge about the reproductive system and sex, pubertal development, sexual physiology, conception and embryonic development, methods of contraception, sexual psychology, sexually transmitted diseases and their prevention, pregnancy care and eugenics, and environment- and occupation-related reproductive health (P knowledge (P education showed a significantly higher rate of masturbation (P education can enhance the effect of reproductive health education among college students and improve their sexual experience and health.
Golbasi, Zehra; Taskin, Lale
To evaluate the effectiveness of school-based reproductive health education for adolescent girls on the reproductive knowledge level of the girls. This research was carried out as a quasi-experimental study at two vocational girls high schools, one of which was used as the study school and the other as the control school. The study group (97 students) consisted of three classes representing every grade. The control group consisted of students selected likewise (92 students). Reproductive health education was given to students in the study group for 10 weeks; the control group was not subjected to any educational program. The impact of the program was evaluated with reproductive health knowledge test designed for this study. A pretest evaluated baseline knowledge, and a posttest measured the gain in knowledge. Baseline knowledge score of students in study and control group were similar and low (p > 0.05). We found that the reproductive health knowledge level of students in the study group increased significantly after the program of education. Post-test knowledge scores (75.03 +/- 13.82) of the students in the study group were higher than those of the control group (36.65 +/- 14.17). The results showed students' low baseline knowledge and a good ability to learn. A school-based reproductive health education is needed to promote knowledge and prevention in reproductive health among teenagers.
Müller, Alex; Spencer, Sarah; Meer, Talia; Daskilewicz, Kristen
Adolescents have significant sexual and reproductive health needs. However, complex legal frameworks, and social attitudes about adolescent sexuality, including the values of healthcare providers, govern adolescent access to sexual and reproductive health services. These laws and social attitudes are often antipathetic to sexual and gender minorities. Existing literature assumes that adolescents identify as heterosexual, and exclusively engage in (heteronormative) sexual activity with partners of the opposite sex/gender, so little is known about if and how the needs of sexual and gender minority adolescents are met. In this article, we have analysed data from fifty in-depth qualitative interviews with representatives of organisations working with adolescents, sexual and gender minorities, and/or sexual and reproductive health and rights in Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Sexual and gender minority adolescents in these countries experience double-marginalisation in pursuit of sexual and reproductive health services: as adolescents, they experience barriers to accessing LGBT organisations, who fear being painted as "homosexuality recruiters," whilst they are simultaneously excluded from heteronormative adolescent sexual and reproductive health services. Such barriers to services are equally attributable to the real and perceived criminalisation of consensual sexual behaviours between partners of the same sex/gender, regardless of their age. The combination of laws which criminalise consensual same sex/gender activity and the social stigma towards sexual and gender minorities work to negate legal sexual and reproductive health services that may be provided. This is further compounded by age-related stigma regarding sexual activity amongst adolescents, effectively leaving sexual and gender minority adolescents without access to necessary information about their sexuality and sexual and reproductive health, and sexual and reproductive health services.
Cohen, Beth E; Maguen, Shira; Bertenthal, Daniel; Shi, Ying; Jacoby, Vanessa; Seal, Karen H
An increasing number of women serve in the military and are exposed to trauma during service that can lead to mental health problems. Understanding how these mental health problems affect reproductive and physical health outcomes will inform interventions to improve care for women veterans. We analyzed national Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) data from women Iraq and Afghanistan veterans who were new users of VA healthcare from October 7, 2001, through December 31, 2010 (n = 71,504). We used ICD-9 codes to categorize veterans into five groups by mental health diagnoses (MH Dx): Those with no MH Dx, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, comorbid PTSD and depression, and a MH Dx other than PTSD and depression. We determined the association between mental health category and reproductive and other physical health outcomes defined by ICD-9 codes. Categories included sexually transmitted infections, other infections (e.g., urinary tract infections), pain-related conditions (e.g., dysmenorrhea and dsypareunia), and other conditions (e.g., polycystic ovarian syndrome, infertility, sexual dysfunction). Models were adjusted for sociodemographic and military service factors. There were 31,481 patients (44%) who received at least one mental health diagnosis. Women veterans with any mental health diagnosis had significantly higher prevalences of nearly all categories of reproductive and physical disease diagnoses (p women with PTSD, depression, and comorbid PTSD and depression (p for trend Afghanistan women veterans with mental health diagnoses had significantly greater prevalences of several important reproductive and physical health diagnoses. These results provide support for VA initiatives to address mental and physical health concerns and improve comprehensive care for women veterans. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Merklinger-Gruchala, Anna; Jasienska, Grazyna; Kapiszewska, Maria
Air pollution can influence women's reproductive health, specifically menstrual cycle characteristics, oocyte quality, and risk of miscarriage. The aim of the study was to assess whether air pollution can affect the length of the overall menstrual cycle and the length of its phases (follicular and luteal). Municipal ecological monitoring data was used to assess the air pollution exposure during the monitored menstrual cycle of each of 133 woman of reproductive age. Principal component analyses were used to group pollutants (PM 10 , SO₂, CO, and NO x ) to represent a source-related mixture. PM 10 and SO₂ assessed separately negatively affected the length of the luteal phase after standardization (b = -0.02; p = 0.03; b = -0.06; p = 0.02, respectively). Representing a fossil fuel combustion emission, they were also associated with luteal phase shortening (b = -0.32; p = 0.02). These pollutants did not affect the follicular phase length and overall cycle length, neither in single- nor in multi-pollutant models. CO and NO x assessed either separately or together as a traffic emission were not associated with overall cycle length or the length of cycle phases. Luteal phase shortening, a possible manifestation of luteal phase deficiency, can result from fossil fuel combustion. This suggests that air pollution may contribute to fertility problems in women.
Jewell, Elizabeth L; Aghajanian, Carol; Montovano, Margaret; Lewin, Sharyn N; Baser, Raymond E; Carter, Jeanne
To assess the emotional, reproductive, sexual health, and relationship concerns of women treated for gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) and examine associations with ß-hCG surveillance. This institutional review board approved study surveyed GTN survivors (n = 51) who received treatment from 1996 to 2008. Fifty-one women, including those actively followed or formerly treated, were surveyed. The survey consisted of background/medical information, the Reproductive Concerns Scale, the Female Sexual Function Index, an item from the Abbreviated Dyadic Adjustment Scale, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale, the Menopausal Symptom Checklist, the Impact of Life Events Scale, and exploratory items. Mean age at diagnosis was 37.1 years; 41.6 years at study enrollment. Twenty-seven patients (56%) expressed worry about treatment harm and 30 (60%) about recurrence. Twenty percent reported significant depressive symptomatology. Mild cancer-related distress, reproductive concerns, sexual dysfunction, and bothersome menopausal symptoms were noted. Nineteen patients (40%) rated their ß-hCG surveillance worry as "high." Among patients who attempted conception after treatment, 3 of 12 (25%) succeeded in the ß-hCG high-worry group versus 13 of 19 (68%) in the ß-hCG low-worry group. Survivors with high ß-hCG worry had greater reproductive concerns than those with low worry (p = 0.002) and reported less sexual desire (p = 0.025). There was no difference in the number of low-worry versus high-worry participants in active surveillance (p = 0.09). Our study suggests that cancer-specific distress, sexual health, and reproductive concerns continue to impact women years after treatment. High worry about ß-hCG surveillance is negatively associated with the emotional well-being of GTN survivors and possibly influences reproductive attempts and success.
Sauer, Mark V
Advanced age is a risk factor for female infertility, pregnancy loss, fetal anomalies, stillbirth, and obstetric complications. These concerns are based on centuries-old observations, yet women are delaying childbearing to pursue educational and career goals in greater numbers than ever before. As a result, reproductive medicine specialists are treating more patients with age-related infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, while obstetricians are faced with managing pregnancies often complicated by both age and comorbidities. The media portrayal of a youthful but older woman, able to schedule her reproductive needs and balance family and job, has fueled the myth that "you can have it all," rarely characterizing the perils inherent to advanced-age reproduction. Reproductive medicine specialists and obstetrician/gynecologists should promote more realistic views of the evidence-based realities of advanced maternal age pregnancy, including its high-risk nature and often compromised outcomes. Doctors should also actively educate both patients and the public that there is a real danger of childlessness if individuals choose to delay reproduction. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Because of American preoccupation with abortion, worldwide reproductive health issues in 1991 received scant attention, despite many important changes. With the fall of Communism, Eastern European governments struggle in the legislatures and the courts to regulate abortion, particularly Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and the newly unified Federal Republic of Germany. Two international tribunals ruled narrowly on the restrictive Irish abortion law and international treaties ratified by Ireland protecting freedom of speech, leaving the Irish law intact. Spain's Supreme Court relaxed restrictions on abortion and for the 1st time allowed abortions for social reasons. Frances' highest administrative court ruled that the French government exceeded its authority in ordering the distribution of RU 497 (mifepristone), but ruled that French abortion law, allowing abortions in the 1st 10 weeks in "situations of distress," did not violate international treaties guaranteeing the "right to life." England approved use of RU 486 under English abortion law, with medical restrictions. The Canadian Supreme Court agreed to review a province's legislation that had the effect of limiting access to abortions via medical and hospital regulations. The Islamic, developing countries of Pakistan and the Sudan replaced colonial laws with more liberal abortion rules tailored to Islamic law. Pakistan decriminalized early abortions when given to provide (undefined) "necessary treatment" the Sudan allows abortions during the 1st 90 days. Peru reduced the penalties for some abortions. In Latin America, only Cuba allows abortions on request in early pregnancy. Iran, China, and the former USSR tightened and encouraged compliance with their family planning regulations. Fear of AIDS prompted several countries to tighten condom regulations. Artificial insemination, embryo research and surrogate motherhood also received attention.
Padmanabhan, V.; Veiga-Lopez, A.
The inappropriate programming of the reproductive system by developmental exposure to excess steroid hormones is of concern. Sheep are well suited for investigating developmental origin of reproductive and metabolic disorders. The developmental time line of female sheep (~5 mo gestation and ~7 mo to puberty) is ideal for conducting sequential studies of the progression of metabolic and (or) reproductive disruption from the developmental insult to manifestation of adult consequences. Major benefits of using sheep include knowledge of established critical periods to target adult defects, a rich understanding of reproductive neuroendocrine regulation, availability of non-invasive approaches to monitor follicular dynamics, established surgical approaches to obtain hypophyseal portal blood for measurement of hypothalamic hormones, and the ability to perform studies in natural setting keeping behavioral interactions intact. Of importance is the ability to chronically instrument fetus and mother for determining early endocrine perturbations. Prenatal exposure of the female to excess testosterone (T) leads to an array of adult reproductive disorders that include LH excess, functional hyperandrogenism, neuroendocrine defects, multifollicular ovarian morphology, and corpus luteum dysfunction culminating in early reproductive failure. At the neuroendocrine level all three feedback systems are compromised. At the pituitary level, gonadotrope (LH secretion) sensitivity to GnRH is increased. Multifollicular ovarian morphology stems from persistence of follicles, as well as enhanced follicular recruitment. These defects culminate in progressive loss of cyclicity and reduced fecundity. Prenatal T excess also leads to fetal growth retardation, an early marker of adult reproductive/metabolic diseases, insulin resistance, hypertension and behavioral deficits. Collectively, the reproductive and metabolic deficits of prenatal T-treated sheep provide proof of concept for the
Zivaridelavar, Maryam; Kazemi, Ashraf; Kheirabadi, Gholam Reza
The process of assisted reproductive treatment is a stressful situation in the treatment of infertile couples and it would harm the mental health of women. Fertile women who started infertility treatment due to male factor infertility have reported to experience less stress and depression than other women before the assisted reproductive process but considering the cultural and social factors and also the etiology of the assisted reproductive process, it could affect the metal health of these women. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the mental health of fertile women who undergo assisted reproductive treatment due to male factor infertility. This study was a prospective study on 70 fertile women who underwent assisted reproductive treatment due to male factor infertility. The exclusion criterion was to stop super ovulation induction. To assess mental health, anxiety and depression dimensions of the general health questionnaire were used. Before starting ovulation induction and after oocyte harvesting, the general health questionnaire was filled by women who were under treatment. Data were analyzed using multi-variable linear regression, paired t-test, and Chi-square. The results showed that the mean score of depression and anxiety before ovulation induction and after oocyte harvesting were not significantly different; but the rate of mental health disorder in the depression dimension was significantly decreased after oocytes harvesting (31.7% vs. 39.7%). Also, there was a significant relation between the level of anxiety and depression before ovulation induction and after oocyte harvesting (P assisted reproductive treatment does not affect the mental health in fertile women independently, but these women start assisted reproductive process with high levels of depression and anxiety. Therefore, prior to the assisted reproductive treatment mental health consultation is needed.
... Videos for Educators Search English Español Male Reproductive System KidsHealth / For Parents / Male Reproductive System What's in ... your son's reproductive health. About the Male Reproductive System Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...
Sevig, Umit; Yilmaz, Senay; Başer, Mürüvvet; Taşci, Sultan
The Turkish Armed Forces Commando Brigade has started a continuous and systematic education program, called the Patriotic Awareness Acquirement Project (PCAP), to inform soldiers who will be demobilized. Within the PCAP, topics such as Turkish history, the Armenian question, and manners/etiquette, as well as healthy living, reproductive health, family planning, general hygiene, and sexually transmitted diseases were included. The aim of Reproductive Health Education (RHE) conducted within the PCAP is to inform male individuals about reproductive health and to increase their knowledge, awareness, and sensitivity. In the RHE, the privates were provided with information regarding male and female reproductive organs, the menstruation mechanism, pregnancy, determination of gender, fertility-infertility, and sexually transmitted diseases. After the evaluation, it was reported that the privates indicated they were satisfied with RHE, were informed, took notice of the incorrect information, and, for postmilitary life, would visit health clinics for counseling.
...). The main results paper on the baseline CAMS data, "Breast Cancer in Younger Women: Reproductive and Late Health Effects of Treatment," was completed and accepted for publication by the Journal of Clinical Oncology...
Cruz-McDonnell, Kirsten K; Wolf, Blair O
Avian communities of arid ecosystems may be particularly vulnerable to global climate change due to the magnitude of projected change for desert regions and the inherent challenges for species residing in resource limited ecosystems. How arid-zone birds will be affected by rapid increases in air temperature and increased drought frequency and severity is poorly understood because avian responses to climate change have primarily been studied in the relatively mesic northern temperate regions. We studied the effects of increasing air temperature and aridity on a Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) population in the southwestern United States from 1998 to 2013. Over 16 years, the breeding population declined 98.1%, from 52 pairs to 1 pair, and nest success and fledgling output also declined significantly. These trends were strongly associated with the combined effects of decreased precipitation and increased air temperature. Arrival on the breeding grounds, pair formation, nest initiation, and hatch dates all showed significant delays ranging from 9.4 to 25.1 days over 9 years, which have negative effects on reproduction. Adult and juvenile body mass decreased significantly over time, with a loss of 7.9% mass in adult males and 10.9% mass in adult females over 16 years, and a loss of 20.0% mass in nestlings over 8 years. Taken together, these population and reproductive trends have serious implications for local population persistence. The southwestern United States has been identified as a climate change hotspot, with projections of warmer temperatures, less winter precipitation, and an increase in frequency and severity of extreme events including drought and heat waves. An increasingly warm and dry climate may contribute to this species' decline and may already be a driving force of their apparent decline in the desert southwest. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bello, Jennifer K; Adkins, Katlynn; Stulberg, Debra B; Rao, Goutham
Physicians face barriers to incorporating recommended contraceptive and preconception health services, including reproductive life plans (RLPs), into primary care. With promising findings from early studies of RLPs, we examined the impact of a novel reproductive health self-assessment tool (RH-SAT) on reproductive health counseling. We created the RH-SAT for an urban community health center population and trained providers on preconception and contraceptive guidelines. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to assess perceptions of the tool with 22 patients and with all 15 providers at the clinic. Transcripts were thematically analyzed using a grounded theoretical approach. Patients and providers reported the RH-SAT presented new and thought-provoking material that promoted patient participation and facilitated counseling. This RH-SAT is acceptable and useful to patients and providers in an underserved urban health center. In accordance with Medical Communication Alignment Theory (MCAT), increased patient participation in reproductive health discussions may alert providers to patient interest in these topics. This study provides preliminary evidence that the RH-SAT can help overcome barriers to reproductive health counseling in primary care. Providers may wish to incorporate tools into their practice to improve communication with patients about their reproductive health goals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
We establish the importance of government corruption and youth literacy for their effects on Youth Reproductive Health (YRH), with particularly strong effects on adolescent girls, in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We identify the magnitude of these previously unspecified factors in the reproductive health of young people by controlling for the commonly cited influences of poverty and social inequality. We also measure the policy-mediated effects of ethnic diversity on women’s ages at marriage, the...
Through the use of interactive radio and other media, Health Unlimited through its implementing agencies, the Cambodia Health Education Media Services and Cambodia Health Education and Development is working towards increasing knowledge of reproductive and sexual health among Cambodian adolescents. It also seeks to promote the use of reproductive and sexual health services for the youth; improve youth involvement in developing information, education and communication (IEC) materials on reproductive health; and increase the capacity of nongovernmental organizations, government agencies and the private sector to develop IEC for the youth. The strategies being pursued include exploring the role of radio and using nongovernmental organization expertise in radio show production and sharing IEC messages with the media. The main activities being carried include the production of interactive radio magazine programs for the youth along with magazine supplements, training of health and media staff and providing them with work experience, and involving the youth in media production by using an interactive format and focus group discussion.
Kismodi, Eszter; Hilber, Adriane Martin; Lincetto, Ornella; Stahlhofer, Marcus; Gruskin, Sofia
Abstract This paper describes the development of a tool that uses human rights concepts and methods to improve relevant laws, regulations and policies related to sexual and reproductive health. This tool aims to improve awareness and understanding of States’ human rights obligations. It includes a method for systematically examining the status of vulnerable groups, involving non-health sectors, fostering a genuine process of civil society participation and developing recommendations to address regulatory and policy barriers to sexual and reproductive health with a clear assignment of responsibility. Strong leadership from the ministry of health, with support from the World Health Organization or other international partners, and the serious engagement of all involved in this process can strengthen the links between human rights and sexual and reproductive health, and contribute to national achievement of the highest attainable standard of health. PMID:20616975
Farhi, A; Reichman, B; Boyko, V; Hourvitz, A; Ron-El, R; Lerner-Geva, L
This study assessed the risk for maternal complications in women and neonatal outcomes in children conceived following assisted reproductive treatment as compared with spontaneously conception and also separately evaluated conventional IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The prospective cohort included 1161 women with singleton pregnancies: 561 who conceived following assisted reproduction (223 following IVF and 338 following ICSI) and 600 who conceived spontaneously. No differences were observed in pregnancy complications (including spontaneous abortion, pregnancy-induced hypertension, gestational diabetes and Caesarean delivery) except for significantly increased risk for excess vaginal bleeding in assisted reproduction pregnancies (21.4% versus 12.9%; OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.18-2.37), which was prominent in women who reported polycystic ovary syndrome. Neonates born following assisted reproduction had increased risk for prematurity (10.6% versus 5.3%; OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.04-2.87), and IVF, but not ICSI, was associated with significantly increased risk for prematurity (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.28-4.37) and low birthweight (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.03-3.46). In conclusion, this study observed only an increased risk for excess vaginal bleeding as a pregnancy-associated complication in singleton pregnancies following assisted compared with spontaneous conception. However, singleton neonates born following IVF, but not ICSI, were at increased risk for prematurity. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Globally, women constitute 50% of all persons living with HIV. Gender inequalities are a key driver of women's vulnerabilities to HIV. This paper looks at how these structural factors shape specific behaviours and outcomes related to the sexual and reproductive health of women living with HIV. There are several pathways by which gender inequalities shape the sexual and reproductive health and wellbeing of women living with HIV. First, gender norms that privilege men's control over women and violence against women inhibit women's ability to practice safer sex, make reproductive decisions based on their own fertility preferences and disclose their HIV status. Second, women's lack of property and inheritance rights and limited access to formal employment makes them disproportionately vulnerable to food insecurity and its consequences. This includes compromising their adherence to antiretroviral therapy and increasing their vulnerability to transactional sex. Third, with respect to stigma and discrimination, women are more likely to be blamed for bringing HIV into the family, as they are often tested before men. In several settings, healthcare providers violate the reproductive rights of women living with HIV in relation to family planning and in denying them care. Lastly, a number of countries have laws that criminalize HIV transmission, which specifically impact women living with HIV who may be reluctant to disclose because of fears of violence and other negative consequences. Addressing gender inequalities is central to improving the sexual and reproductive health outcomes and more broadly the wellbeing of women living with HIV. Programmes that go beyond a narrow biomedical/clinical approach and address the social and structural context of women's lives can also maximize the benefits of HIV prevention, treatment, care and support.
Despite a number of programs aimed at the transfer of reproductive health information, adolescents in Zimbabwe still face unprecedented reproductive challenges. The study sought to explore adolescent girls' knowledge of their sexual and reproductive health; the factors that influence their sexual behaviors and to determine the extent to which adolescents had access to sexual and reproductive health information. The case study methodology was used for the study. The interpretive paradigm was used as the methodological theory and Grunig's model of excellence in communication was used as the substantive theory. Data was obtained through the use of focus group discussions and indepth interviews. Although adolescents knew the different types of sexually transmitted diseases and were aware of the consequences of engaging in risky sexual behaviors, they engaged in health behaviors which had potential for serious consequences. The study established that adolescents did not have adequate access to sexual and reproductive health information. Sexual issues were not adequately addressed both at school and at home. Adolescents lack adequate access to reproductive health information and there is need for effective communication programs that contribute towards the understanding of communicated messages by audiences and the understanding of audiences by communicators.
L O Omokanye
Full Text Available Background: The sexual and reproductive health needs of sex workers have been neglected both in research and public health interventions. Among the reasons for this are the condemnation, stigma and ambiguous legal status of sex work in Nigeria. This study was aimed at determining the reproductive health problems and health-seeking behavior of brothel-based female sex workers (FSW. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among brothel-based FSW in Sabon-Gari Local Government in Zaria, Nigeria between 1 st January 2011 and 31 st June 2011. A total of 208 FSW were randomly selected and information was obtained with the use of the semi-structured questionnaire. Data entry was done with the help of structured codes in Microsoft Excel. Descriptive analysis was carried out using the statistical package (SSPS 16-University of Bristol. Results: Majority 90.7% of the respondents had experienced reproductive morbidity in the last 3 months. Frequently experienced symptoms were vaginal discharge (63.8%, acute lower abdominal pain (57.5%, menstrual irregularities (37% and genital ulcer (32.3%. Genital tear occurred in only 25 (9.8% respondents. Furthermore, 178 (63.6% had a termination of unwanted pregnancies. Most (32.3% sought care for their reproductive health problems from chemist shops; followed by the private hospitals in 23.6% of respondents. Others took self-medication for their ailments. Post-treatment success was the most frequently mentioned reason for the choice of place of treatment, followed by finance. Conclusion: The most commonly reported reproductive health problem among FSW was vaginal discharge and many of them have poor health seeking behavior. Health promotion and client sensitive health care services specifically targeting FSW should be developed, packaged and delivered to improve reproductive health of FSW. There should be concerted efforts by the government and other stakeholders in reproductive health to
Northridge, Jennifer L; Silver, Ellen J; Talib, Hina J; Coupey, Susan M
To determine the prevalence of reproductive coercion, a form of intimate partner violence (IPV) including contraceptive sabotage and pregnancy pressure, among urban high school-aged girls and to examine its associations with reproductive health risks. A self-administered survey completed by high school-aged girls living in high-poverty neighborhoods while awaiting medical care in a pediatric emergency room, inpatient service, school-based, and hospital-based clinic. One hundred forty-nine sexually active girls aged 14-17 years. To determine the prevalence of reproductive coercion and to examine associations with unprotected sex, sexually transmitted infections, physical IPV, and risk factors for abusive relationships. Twenty-nine of 149 (19%) of girls reported reproductive coercion, most frequently that a romantic or sexual partner had ever: "told them not to use any birth control" (n = 23; 79%); "took off a condom during sex so they would get pregnant" (n = 12; 43%); and "said he would leave them if they didn't get pregnant" (n = 6; 21%). Girls reporting reproductive coercion were nearly 3 times more likely than those not coerced to have had chlamydia (odds ratio [OR], 2.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-7.19) and nearly 5 times more likely to report IPV (OR, 4.8; 95% CI, 2.0-11.8). In addition, girls reporting coercion were less likely to have high recognition of abusive behaviors (OR, 0.10; 95% CI, 0.01-0.8) and less likely to have high comfort communicating with their sexual partners (OR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.1-0.7) than girls not reporting coercion. Reproductive coercion is experienced by 1 in 5 high school-aged girls in a high-poverty community and is associated with chlamydia infection and IPV. Awareness of the high prevalence and health risks of coercion might allow for intervention. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Xiu-jun; Shen, Qiong; Yu, Yu-ling; Sun, Ye-huan; Yu, Guo-bin; Zhao, Dong; Ye, Dong-qing
To understand health seeking behavior and its influential factors to reproductive tract infections (RTIs) on women at reproductive age in the rural areas. 54540 fertile women aged 15 - 49 were surveyed by a stratified-cluster-random sampling method and gynecological examination were conducted in two steps: converging at the clinics, and then visiting their households, later, 31 624 women who had at least one RTI symptom were chosen. Among all the women at reproductive age, the rate of having at least one RTI symptom was 59.8% with the means of RTI symptom as 1.66 +/- 0.89. 15989 women went to see doctors out of the 31 624 women who had RTI symptoms, with a proportion of 50.6%. The results of logistic regress showed that those women whose husbands having higher education level, higher income, more RTI symptoms and better knowledge on RTI were more easily to go to the hospitals. However, those women whose husbands working out of the county, having older first bearing age and more numbers of pregnancy were less likely to go to the hospitals. Reasons that refrained them from going to see a doctor would include: 2137 (13.7%) did not know that RTI was a disease; 7443 (47.6%) of them thought that every woman were bound to have at least one symptom and it did not matter; 1629 (10.4%) of them felt shameful; 349 (2.2%) learned that the diseases were incurable; 975 (6.2%) felt the cost of treatment was too expensive; 2101 (13.4%) had no time; 1001 (6.4%) would treat themselves through buying medicines over the counter. RTI symptoms were quite prevalent among women at reproductive age but the rate of seeing a doctor was low and caused by multi-factors. Health education and gynecological census in increasing the curable rate of RTIs should to be strengthened.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The continued poor sexual and reproductive health (SRH outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa highlight the difficulties in reforming policies and laws, and implementing effective programmes. This paper uses one international and two national case studies to reflect on the challenges, dilemmas and strategies used in operationalising sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR in different African contexts. Methods The international case study focuses on the progress made by African countries in implementing the African Union’s Maputo Plan of Action (for the Operationalisation of the Continental Policy Framework for Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights and the experiences of state and non-state stakeholders in this process. The case was developed from an evaluation report of the progress made by nine African countries in implementing the Plan of Action, qualitative interviews exploring stakeholders’ experiences and perceptions of the operationalisation of the plan (carried out as part of the evaluation in Botswana and Nigeria, and authors’ reflections. The first national case study explores the processes involved in influencing Ghana’s Domestic Violence Act passed in 2007; developed from a review of scientific papers and organisational publications on the processes involved in influencing the Act, qualitative interview data and authors’ reflections. The second national case study examines the experiences with introducing the 2006 Sexual Offences Act in Kenya, and it is developed from organisational publications on the processes of enacting the Act and a review of media reports on the debates and passing of the Act. Results Based on the three cases, we argue that prohibitive laws and governments’ reluctance to institute and implement comprehensive rights approaches to SRH, lack of political leadership and commitment to funding SRHR policies and programmes, and dominant negative cultural framing of women’s issues
Sousa, Isabela Cabral Felix de
A health education program in Brazil trained 26 women as community health educators. Only four used their roles to foster social change. Discussing women's reproductive health in the context of religion and social values contributed to successful training; economic and political empowerment was hampered by perpetuation of traditional role…
Ferguson, T S; Tulloch-Reid, M K; Gordon-Strachan, G; Hamilton, P; Wilks, R J
Over the last six decades, comprehensive national health surveys have become important data-gathering mechanisms to inform countries on their health status and provide information for health policy and programme planning. Developing countries have only recently begun such surveys and Jamaica has been at the forefront of this effort. Jamaica's Reproductive Health Surveys and programme response to their findings have resulted in an almost 50% reduction infertility rates over three decades as well as a 40% reduction in unmet contraceptive needs and a 40% reduction in unplanned pregnancies over the last two decades. The Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Surveys have served to reinforce the major burden that non-communicable diseases place on the society and the extent to which these are driven by unhealthy lifestyles. These surveys have shown that obesity, hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidaemia affect approximately 50%, 25%, 10% and 10% of the adult population, respectively. These surveys have documented low rates of treatment and control for these chronic non-communicable diseases despite two major policy initiatives, the National Programme for the Promotion of Healthy Lifestyles and the creation of the National Health Fund which subsidizes healthcare provision for chronic diseases. In order to maximize the uptake of the findings of future surveys into effective health policy, there will need to be effective collaborations between academia, policy-makers, regional and international health agencies, non-government organizations and civil society. Such collaborations should take into account the social, political and economic issues, thus ensuring a more comprehensive approach to health policy and result in improvement of the nation's health status and by extension national development.
This article reports on the production of 52 video programs addressing reproductive and sexual health and reproductive rights issues by the Colombo-based Worldview International Foundation. The UN Population Fund (UNFPA) and relevant NGOs and institutions chose the themes. Following the production, the video programs will be broadcast through Young Asia Television, which covers 18 countries in Asia and reaches over 385 million viewers, and other channels. This advocacy program is under the Television Advocacy Program for Adolescent Reproductive Health and Population Issues project, which complements special strategies under the European Commission/UNFPA Initiative for Reproductive Health in Asia. By promoting the global dissemination of information and education, the Worldview project aims to 1) strengthen young people's participation; 2) advance TV media advocacy; 3) advocate the inclusion of population, gender, sexual and reproductive health issues; 4) provide extended knowledge of adolescent reproductive health to all concerned groups; 5) encourage positive attitudes towards preventive methods among the target groups; 6) promote the importance of incorporating gender perspectives and child abuse issues; and 7) establish close cooperation among organizations at the national, regional and international levels.
Full Text Available Introduction: Teen problems are conditions that need to be considered in national development in Indonesia. Teenagers problems occur, because they are not prepared regarding knowledge of aspects related to the problem of transition from childhood to adulthood. One of the problems faced by teenagers today is about the health of adolescents, especially related to reproductive health. Methods: This study uses a quantitative approach pre experiment with pre - post test design, the purpose of research, construction of models of healthy reproductive learning through peer groups in traditional schools and analyze the application of learning through peer group against knowledge female students about reproductive health. The sample was female students in Boarding school Miftahul Hasan Gunung Sepikul amounted to 50 female students, with purposive sampling technique. Results of analysis using Spearman's rho test ,P value of 0.00 obtained value where the value is < less than 0.05 so it can be concluded that there is a learning effect of reproductive health through peer groups for knowledge female students . Discuss: Boarding schools need to provide curriculum on reproductive health in order to improve the understanding of female students in healthy living behavior associated with reproductive organs.
Nordkap, Loa; Joensen, Ulla Nordström; Blomberg Jensen, Martin
of various low-dose exposures to endocrine disrupters in our environment are responsible for the adverse effects in the male reproductive system. Semen quality may be the most sensitive marker of adverse environmental exposures, and we suggest that standardized surveillance studies of semen quality...
The maternal mortality rate in Nigeria is still very high and as such has been topical. This problem is partly a result of patriarchy and therefore has been of great interest to many scholars. This study was aimed at creating knowledge on reproductive behaviour of career women and the role of men in such behaviour.
Abstract. Background: “Adolescents "and "young people “are defined by WHO as the age group 10-19 years and 10-24 years, respectively. Young people make up over one –quarter of the world's population. Neglecting this population has a major implication on sexual and reproductive behaviors as they develop into adults ...
Socioeconomic and reproductive factors associated with condom use within and outside of marriage among urban pregnant women in Zambia. Chipepo Kankasa, Margaret Siwale, Francis Kasolo, Ayako Nishiyama, Hiroshi Terunuma, Naomi Wakasugi. Swaziland's traditional birth attendants survey. MM Lech, PT Mngadi ...
Reproductive coercion and intimate partner violence among rural women in Côte d'Ivoire: a cross-sectional study · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. KL Falb, J Annan, D Kpedo, J Gupta, 61-69 ...
Effects of maternal micronutrient supplementation on fetal loss and under-2-years child mortality: Long-term follow-up of a randomised controlled trial from Guinea- ... Cultural and Ethical Challenges of Assisted Reproductive Technologies in the Management of Infertility among the Yoruba of Southwestern Nigeria · EMAIL ...
Enough Children: Reproduction, Risk and “Unmet Need” among People Receiving Antiretroviral Treatment in Western Uganda · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Amy Kaler, Arif Alibhai, Walter Kipp, Joseph Konde-Lule, Tom Rubaale ...
The study was aimed to provide basic information regarding reproductive status of Gaddi sheep reared by nomadic tribe of Himachal Pradesh. Female genitalia of Gaddi sheep (n=190) were collected from unorganized abattoirs around Palampur over a period of one and half years. Out of total genitalia examined, 80.53% ...
Les jeunes gens en Ethiopie sont confrontés à un certain nombre de risques par rapport à leur santé sexuelle et de la reproduction, y compris la grossesse chez les adolescentes, la violence sexuelle, et les besoins non satisfaits de planification familiale. Cette étude explore la mesure dans laquelle la prestation de services ...
Sharma, Vartika; Sarna, Avina; Tun, Waimar; Saraswati, Lopamudra Ray; Thior, Ibou; Madan, Ira; Lüchters, Stanley
Objectives To explore contextual factors that increase vulnerabilities to negative sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes and possible differences in SRH-related behaviours and the needs of women who use drugs (WUD) through non-injecting and injecting routes. Design Qualitative study design using semi-structured in-depth interviews. Participants Twenty women who injected drugs in the past 3 months and 28 women who reported using drugs through non-injecting routes in the past 1 month. S...
Ataman, Hacer; Kömürcü, Nuran
The research was conducted experimentally to evaluate the effectiveness of the sexual health/reproductive health (SH/RH) education given to Turkish adolescents who use alcohol or illicit substances. The population was adolescents who use alcohol and substances and were inpatients at the Child and Adolescent Substance Addiction Research, Treatment and Education Center. The adolescents were grouped into the following three groups: Group 1 (control group), Group 2 (those who have received training once), and Group 3 (those who have received training twice). Data were collected between September 2011 and December 2012 using the forms Self-Introduction and Information on Sexual Health-Reproductive Health and Information on Sexual Health-Reproductive Health Education Modules. Upon studying the total SH/RH test scores of the groups individually, a statistically significant difference was observed in the scores of Groups 2 and 3 (p education in a repetitive manner for prevention of risky sexual behavior.
Masatu, Melkiory C; Kvåle, Gunnar; Klepp, Knut-Inge
To describe adolescents' sources of reproductive health information and perceived credibility of these sources. A questionnaire survey was conducted among 1247 seventh grade pupils in Arusha district; enquiring their sources of reproductive health information and perceived credibility of these sources. Mean scores were computed for each type of information in relation to frequency of source and credibility, and scales for reproductive health information sources and credibility constructed. Analysis of covariance was used to compare mean scores by demographic and sexual behaviour variables. Mass media ranked first as sources of reproductive health information, followed by teachers and health workers. Health workers ranked first in credibility followed by parents, while credibility rating for media was low. Religious leaders and respondents' friends played a rather minor role as sources of reproductive health information, and their credibility ratings were also low. Mass media were the most frequent sources of reproductive health information for primary school adolescents, but parents and health workers were regarded as more credible sources. Programmes seeking to promote reproductive health of young people should take into account the diverse arenas through which young people currently obtain reproductive health information, and strive to tap into and strengthen the full range of these arenas. Increased involvement of parents and health workers in providing reproductive health information to young people seem indispensable.
Valerie J. Lewis
Full Text Available Adolescents, like adults, frequently experience discrimination, which can be particularly salient in the context of reproductive health care. We examined urban Black adolescent females’ perceived experiences of racial discrimination during reproductive health care encounters. Structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with female African American patients, from age 13 through 20, who obtained reproductive health care services at a single site. Twenty-four participants were enrolled. All were in or graduated from high school, with a mean age of 16.8 years. These young Black women reported infrequent race-based discrimination in the health care setting; however, many reported commonly experiencing discrimination in other places. An awareness of the discrimination that minority young women experience in non–health care settings can help providers demonstrate cultural humility when addressing such concerns with their patients. With this information, providers can provide anticipatory guidance and the tools necessary to navigate complex social systems.
In Timor-Leste, high fertility, high maternal mortality and low levels of contraceptive prevalence demonstrate the importance of exploring perceptions, policies and practices around reproductive health and rights. This paper explores the influence of the Catholic Church on reproductive decision-making at different levels of policy and practice. Utilising a feminist qualitative research methodology, in-depth interviews were conducted with a range of participants including nuns and priests, Timorese women and men of different ages and backgrounds and local and national stakeholders working in reproductive health and women's rights. Findings reveal that the Church is reported to play a significant role in reproductive health and rights decision-making at all levels of society, from policy-making to the reproductive decisions made by individual Timorese women and men. Nevertheless, the translation of Church teachings into practice, particularly by nuns, priests and Timorese men and women, reveal a range of attitudes and opinions; some that support and others that contest official Catholic doctrine. In light of the significant influence of the Timorese Catholic Church on policy and practice at many levels of society, there is a need to prioritise the development of rights-based strategies to improve reproductive health services in Timor-Leste.
Diana Teresa Pakasi
Full Text Available Adolescents’ knowledge on sexuality and reproductive health is still limited, although there have been initiatives to provide sexual and reproductive health education as indicated by previous studies. This paper examines reproductive health and sexuality education for adolescents that has been conducted by government and non-government at the high school level. This paper is based on a research using mixed methods of quantitative methods that are supported by qualitative. Quantitative methods are surveys conducted to 918 students and 128 high school teachers and supported by focus group discussions and in-depth interviews in eight cities in Indonesia. Focus group discussions conducted to civil society organizations, teacher forums, and youth groups, while in-depth interviews conducted to local government, parents, school committees, and religious/community leaders. The results show that the reproductive and sexual health education does not match the reality of sexual behavior and sexual risk faced by teenagers because: (1 reproductive health and sexuality education that is given to the high school level is more focused on the biological aspects alone, (2 There is still a notion that sexuality is a taboo to be given at school, (3 the sexuality education tends to emphasize the dangers of premarital sex from the moral and religious point of view, (4 the sexuality education has not looked at the importance of aspects of gender relations and rights of adolescents in adolescent reproductive and sexual health. The construction of adolescent sexuality and the discourse on sexuality education contribute to the content and methods of sexuality and reproductive health education for adolescents.
Sundari Ravindran, T K; Fonn, Sharon
A social franchise in health is a network of for-profit private health practitioners linked through contracts to provide socially beneficial services under a common brand. The early 21st century has seen considerable donor enthusiasm for promoting social franchises for the provision of reproductive health services. Based on a compendium of descriptive information on 45 clinical social franchises, located in 27 countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America, this paper examines their contribution to universal access to comprehensive reproductive health services. It finds that these franchises have not widened the range of reproductive health services, but have mainly focused on contraceptive services, and to a lesser extent, maternal health care and abortion. In many instances, coverage had not been extended to new areas. Measures taken to ensure sustainability ran counter to the objective of access for low-income groups. In almost two-thirds of the franchises, the full cost of all services had to be paid out of pocket and was unaffordable for low-income women. While standards and protocols for quality assurance were in place in all franchises, evidence on adherence to these was limited. Informal interviews with patients indicated satisfaction with services. However, factors such as difficulties in recruiting franchisees and significant attrition, franchisees' inability to attend training programmes, use of lay health workers to deliver services without support or supervision, and logistical problems with applying quality assurance tools, all raise concerns. The contribution of social franchises to universal access to reproductive health services appears to be uncertain. Continued investment in them for the provision of reproductive health services does not appear to be justified until and unless further evidence of their value is forthcoming. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Raisa Viktorovna Nifantova
Full Text Available The article is devoted to such important problem as Russians’ reproductive health worsening that defines health of posterity and viability of generations, and appreciably impacts on the birth rate. Statistics of contraception among women of reproductive age, statistics of induced abortions occurrence, statistics of primary, and secondary infertility are investigated. Data of Public Opinion Foundation on problems of child-free marriages and reproductive rights of citizens are given. Results of medical, scientific centers about additional reproductive technologies practice such as in vitro fertilization (EKO, surrogate motherhood, etc. are shown. The importance of state support of these technologies and liberalization of legal control of the realization of a desire to be parents as the most important tool of demographic policy is emphasized. The questions of raising the public importance of family planning, sex education, family and moral values among young formation, healthy lifestyle, responsible motherhood and paternity are explored in the article.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review the way cooperation for development has dealt with sexual and reproductive rights by looking at the following three aspects of the question (with the case of Mexico as an example: the actors confronting one another over theissues under discussion (the international donor agencies and specifically the United Nations; the Vatican and the national churches; and the feminist movement; initiatives taking an empowerment approach; and a realistic, viable perspective on possible ways of establishing North-South cooperation relations.In relation to options on support and financing for reproductive rights projects, the resistance of cooperation agencies to incorporate the issue is analyzed. Then the paper discusses elements of a proposal for adoption of a global strategy, some possible pointsof departure, dilemmas faced by bodies receiving applications, and possible strategies for alliances between bodies in North and South.
This paper is a qualitative study of women’s well-being and reproductive health status among married women in mining communities in India. An exploratory qualitative research design was conducted using purposive sampling among 40 selected married women in a rural Indian mining community. Ethical permission was obtained from Goa University. A semi-structured indepth interview guide was used to gather women’s experiences and perceptions regarding well-being and reproductive health in 2010. These interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, verified, coded and then analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Early marriage, increased fertility, less birth intervals, son preference and lack of decision-making regarding reproductive health choices were found to affect women’s reproductive health. Domestic violence, gender preference, husbands drinking behaviors, and low spousal communication were common experiences considered by women as factors leading to poor quality of marital relationship. Four main themes in confronting women’s well-being are poor literacy and mobility, low employment and income generating opportunities, poor reproductive health choices and preferences and poor quality of martial relationships and communication. These determinants of physical, psychological and cultural well-being should be an essential part of nursing assessment in the primary care settings for informed actions. Nursing interventions should be directed towards participatory approach, informed decision making and empowering women towards better health and well-being in the mining community. PMID:23602071
D'Souza, Melba Sheila; Karkada, Subrahmanya Nairy; Somayaji, Ganesha; Venkatesaperumal, Ramesh
This paper is a qualitative study of women's well-being and reproductive health status among married women in mining communities in India. An exploratory qualitative research design was conducted using purposive sampling among 40 selected married women in a rural Indian mining community. Ethical permission was obtained from Goa University. A semi-structured indepth interview guide was used to gather women's experiences and perceptions regarding well-being and reproductive health in 2010. These interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, verified, coded and then analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Early marriage, increased fertility, less birth intervals, son preference and lack of decision-making regarding reproductive health choices were found to affect women's reproductive health. Domestic violence, gender preference, husbands drinking behaviors, and low spousal communication were common experiences considered by women as factors leading to poor quality of marital relationship. Four main themes in confronting women's well-being are poor literacy and mobility, low employment and income generating opportunities, poor reproductive health choices and preferences and poor quality of martial relationships and communication. These determinants of physical, psychological and cultural well-being should be an essential part of nursing assessment in the primary care settings for informed actions. Nursing interventions should be directed towards participatory approach, informed decision making and empowering women towards better health and well-being in the mining community.
Baryamutuma, R; Baingana, F
Numbers of young people with perinatally acquired HIV is growing significantly. With antiretroviral drugs, children who get infected at birth with HIV have an opportunity to graduate into adolescence and adulthood. This achievement notwithstanding, new challenges have emerged in their care and support needs. The most dynamic being, their sexual and reproductive health needs and rights (SRHR). This paper aimed at establishing the gaps at policy, program and health systems level as far as addressing sexual and reproductive health needs of young people who have lived with HIV since infancy is concerned. This paper is based on a desk review of existing literature on sexual and reproductive health needs and rights of young positives. The results indicate young positives are sexually active and are engaging in risky sexual encounters. Yet, existing policies, programs and services are inadequate in responding to their sexual and reproductive health needs and rights. Against these findings, it is important, that policies specifically targeting this subgroup are formulated and to make sure that such policies result in programs and services that are youth friendly. It is also important that integration of Sexual Reproductive Health (SRH) and HIV services is prioritized.
Priority setting for reproductive health is affected by health sector reform policies, the often politically charged nature of issues such as abortion, decreasing funding for reproductive health activities and the broad agenda of the ICPD Programme of Action. This paper examines the influence of political and organizational factors on national priority setting for reproductive health and argues that existing priority setting tools such as disability-adjusted life years and cost-effectiveness analysis do not consider the influence of politics on the priority setting process or account for the interpretation of evidence in priority setting. It suggests that priority setting tools can be strengthened by incorporating empirical measures of political and organizational attention to an issue, and through a new measure--policy priority. The paper applied this new measure to a case study of attention to breast and cervical cancer in Ghana from 1990-97, illustrating how traditional priority setting methods cannot explain the priority given to breast cancer in Ghana. It demonstrates how local politics can trump scientific and economic evidence and suggests that the priority setting process can have unforeseen equity and social implications. It concludes by arguing that the policy priority measure provides a more complete picture of reproductive health priorities and is useful for better understanding the implications of the priority setting process for reproductive health.
Les femmes africaines font face à la discrimination et aux défis par rapport au VIH/SIDA, surtout quand il s'agit des services de la santé sexuelle et de reproduction. Ajouté à ceci est le manque de renseignement concernant le VIH et la grossesse, les difficultés liées à l'emploi des contraceptifs, les attitudes négatives envers ...
Le classement des problèmes de la santé reproductive afin de définir les priorités des services. Le Rapport du Développement Mondial de 1993 a proposé un nouveau paradigme à l'établissement des priorités dans les services de santé. Les deux démarches importantes par rapport à cette approche sont les estimations ...
Evaluation d\\'un programme de l\\'éducation de la santé de reproduction basé sur l\\'école au sud-ouest rural, Nigéria Cette etude quasi-expérimental a comparé efficacité relative de seules les instructions de l\\'enseignant, l\\'éducation de pairs uniquement et une combinaison des deux sur la connaissance de la santé de ...
Eisenberg, Michael L
Approximately 15% of all couples are unable to conceive after a year and are labeled infertile. In recent years, increasing attention has been given to lifestyle factors that may impact fertility. In the United States, it is estimated that there are more than 17 million current users of marijuana with 4.6 million using marijuana almost daily. Although common, to date, little data exist on the impact of marijuana use on male fertility. In the current issue of the Journal, Gundersen et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2015;182(6):473-481) provide data examining the relationship between marijuana use and semen quality from young men recruited out of the general Danish population. Men who reported daily marijuana use displayed significant lower sperm concentration and sperm counts compared with nonusers, while testosterone levels were higher. The current report provides important information for patients and providers regarding the negative association of marijuana use on semen quality. Although the benefit of marijuana cessation on recovery is uncertain, further study on the impact of marijuana use on male reproductive health is warranted as more states explore marijuana legalization. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Cristina Iuliana El Mahdy
Full Text Available The main component of the body: the water, alongside with many function which it has,represents a constituent in the diet of animal. There are many and various factors that influence the daily water requirements of animals: some dependent on animal: and others dependent on the environment. Water quality administered to livestock must meet the requirements for potability prerequisite to maintaining the health, externalization full productive potential and sustaining breeding. Knowing the importance of water quality consists in the negative action which can exert on the body to exceeding certain thresholds translated through: reducing water consumption simultaneously with the decrease milk production, decreased feed conversion rate and average daily gain, degradation of health status by reducing the local resistance, decrease overall body resistance, metabolic, digestive, skeletal disorders and impaired reproduction sphere translated through:decreasing fertility, abortions; elements interfering with the absorption of other essential water body, producing chronic or acute poisoning. The water composition plays essential role depending on which is supplemented or not as the case the quantity of the macro and trace minerals from feedingstuff according to the synergism or antagonism action between the minerals present.
Dovis, Vonyca; Setyowati; Kurniawati, Wiwit
Young women face a difficult situation when they live in a prostitution area or red light district. A phenomenological approach was applied to explore the experiences in maintaining reproductive health of 10 young women living in the prostitution area in Lampung, one of the provinces in Sumatra. Thematic content analysis found 7 themes including: (1) The participants' perception of prostitution as a place of naughty women and free sexual activity that can transmit STDs and influence adolescent psychology; (2) The ways the participants kept their reproductive organs healthy were through maintaining friendships, maintaining personal hygiene, avoiding free sexual activity, eating healthy food, and having routine medical checkups; (3) Information support was gained from family, health workers, media, and teachers; (4) Emotional support from family and friends; (5) Barriers to maintaining good health were inaccessible health facilities and an underfunded health service; (6) The needs of the participants were reproductive health services and clean environment; (7) The participants hoped for health education and intensive health services with friendly nurses. The results of this research illustrate that there is a need for socializing intensive ways to maintain reproductive health, especially in a risky environment.
Silver, L D; Castilho, S R
A consumer-protection assessment and action program aimed at improving reproductive health technologies is reviewed. Evaluations employed both literature review, synthesis, market analysis and laboratory testing for conformity to standards of a wide range of products which affect reproductive health on the Brazilian market 1995-1997. Anti-infective gynecological products, ampicillins, condoms, pregnancy tests, hormonal contraceptives, infant formulas, selected teratogens, bromocriptine and prostaglandins were studied. Actions include dissemination in periodicals and the mass media, consumer education, pressure for regulation, negotiations with manufacturers and legal action. The program was effective in improving the supply and regulation of some, but not all products studied. Impact on health and utilization are unknown. A significant proportion of products studied are unsafe, ineffective or of sub-standard quality. A combination of careful scientific work, strong links between scientists and social movements, dissemination and legal action, can effectively improve the quality of products which affect reproductive health.
Wright, Elizabeth J; White, Katherine M; Obst, Patricia L
As research examining what constitutes Facebook false self-presentation is lacking, the aim of this study was to develop a preliminary inventory of Facebook false self-presentation behaviors, as well as identify predictors and possible outcomes. Participants (N = 211) completed questions regarding frequency of engagement in Facebook false self-presentation behaviors, as well as self-esteem, social influences, motivation strategies, well-being, depression, anxiety, and stress. Results indicated the presence of two distinct false self-presentation behaviors: lying (e.g., untruthful status updates, profile creation) and liking behaviors (e.g., liking posts dishonestly), each associated with different predictors and outcomes. Results indicated that moral norms significantly predicted lying behaviors; and age, self-esteem, group norms, and moral norms significantly predicted liking behaviors. Unexpectedly, liking behaviors were associated with depression, anxiety, and stress, whereas lying behaviors were related to anxiety only. Findings highlight associations between online self-presentation strategies, in particular liking behaviors, on Facebook and possible offline negative mental health.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health promotion is critical for community and family health. Health-promoting behaviours provide solutions for maintaining and promoting health. Although several studies have addressed the frequency and different types of health-promoting behaviours in women, little information is available about their experiences. This study aimed to explore the experiences of women of reproductive age regarding health-promoting behaviours. Methods In the present study, which was conducted in Tehran, Iran, 15 females, who were selected purposefully, participated in individual in-depth, semi-structured interviews. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using conventional content analysis. Results Nine main categories were derived from the analysis, including establishing an appropriate eating pattern, establishing a balanced rest/activity pattern, spirituality, stress management, personal sensitivity and responsibility, establishing an appropriate pattern of social interactions, practicing safe and healthy recreations, feeling improvement in physical-functional health, and feeling improvement in emotional and psychological health. The first 7 categories represent the nature and types of real health-promoting behaviours in women of reproductive age, whereas the last 2 constitute feeling and understanding of the implementation of these behaviours. Conclusion The study findings show that the women experience improvement in physical-functional, emotional, and psychological health by implementing health-promoting behaviours. It is therefore necessary to introduce strategies in the context of the community culture for improving different aspects of health-promoting behaviours in women of reproductive age to maintain and improve their overall health.
Baheiraei, Azam; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Mohammadi, Eesa; Charandabi, Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh
Health promotion is critical for community and family health. Health-promoting behaviours provide solutions for maintaining and promoting health. Although several studies have addressed the frequency and different types of health-promoting behaviours in women, little information is available about their experiences. This study aimed to explore the experiences of women of reproductive age regarding health-promoting behaviours. In the present study, which was conducted in Tehran, Iran, 15 females, who were selected purposefully, participated in individual in-depth, semi-structured interviews. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using conventional content analysis. Nine main categories were derived from the analysis, including establishing an appropriate eating pattern, establishing a balanced rest/activity pattern, spirituality, stress management, personal sensitivity and responsibility, establishing an appropriate pattern of social interactions, practicing safe and healthy recreations, feeling improvement in physical-functional health, and feeling improvement in emotional and psychological health. The first 7 categories represent the nature and types of real health-promoting behaviours in women of reproductive age, whereas the last 2 constitute feeling and understanding of the implementation of these behaviours. The study findings show that the women experience improvement in physical-functional, emotional, and psychological health by implementing health-promoting behaviours. It is therefore necessary to introduce strategies in the context of the community culture for improving different aspects of health-promoting behaviours in women of reproductive age to maintain and improve their overall health.
Newman, Karen; Fisher, Sarah; Mayhew, Susannah; Stephenson, Judith
This article suggests that sexual and reproductive health and rights activists seeking to influence the post-2015 international development paradigm must work with sustainable development advocates concerned with a range of issues, including climate change, environmental issues, and food and water security, and that a way of building bridges with these communities is to demonstrate how sexual and reproductive health and rights are relevant for these issues. An understanding of population dynamics, including urbanization and migration, as well as population growth, can help to clarify these links. This article therefore suggests that whether or not sexual and reproductive health and rights activists can overcome resistance to discussing "population", become more knowledgeable about other sustainable development issues, and work with others in those fields to advance the global sustainable development agenda are crucial questions for the coming months. The article also contends that it is possible to care about population dynamics (including ageing and problems faced by countries with a high proportion of young people) and care about human rights at the same time. It expresses concern that, if sexual and reproductive health and rights advocates do not participate in the population dynamics discourse, the field will be left free for those for whom respecting and protecting rights may be less of a priority. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Reproductive health is an essential part of the life of each and every individual. Our adolescents particularly rural girls have poor reproductive health awareness, which leads them easy prey to disasters i.e. teenage pregnancy and STDs. OBJECTIVES To evaluate and compare the reproductive health awareness of rural and urban adolescent school girls. METHODS Total 1400 adolescent school girls (700 from rural and 700 urban girls studying in 6th to 12th class were included in the study. Awareness was assessed by a questionnaire. RESULTS Only a few girls were aware about age of onset of adolescence. Term puberty was heard by 444 urban and 306 rural girls. Awareness about changes of adolescence was more for urban girls. Awareness regarding menstruation as activation of reproductive system was more in urban girls. About half girls of both background were aware regarding normal duration of menses. Only a few girls were aware about part of menstruation during which a woman has greatest chances of getting pregnant. Awareness regarding contraception and symptoms of sexual diseases was more in urban girls. Awareness regarding modes of spread of HIV was more in rural girls. CONCLUSION Awareness regarding contraceptive, menstruation, and changes of adolescence is very poor, so special attention is required for these aspects such as including these topics in educational system and there is also need to maintain and increase awareness regarding HIV/AIDS. The health system of India should bridge this huge gap of unmet need of adolescent reproductive health.
Tork, Hanan Mohamed Mohamed; Al Hosis, Khalid Fahad
For many girls, the onset of puberty that occurs during adolescence marks a time of heightened vulnerability to early pregnancy, with its attendant complications and heightened risk of maternal mortality. National and international forums have recognized the need to address these problems through reproductive health education. This article assesses the reproductive-health-related knowledge and attitudes of female adolescents aged between 14 and 19 years. In addition, the authors assess the effectiveness of a reproductive health education program in improving the related knowledge of female adolescents. The study was conducted on female students in three secondary schools and in the preparatory year at Qassim University (N = 309). A 59-item structured questionnaire was used to test the knowledge and attitudes of all participants regarding reproductive health before and after the intervention program. Data collection was carried out between September and November 2012. A significant increase for the total sample in knowledge regarding puberty and menstruation was observed (p education program improves knowledge among adolescent girls regarding reproductive health.
Wang, Hongxiang; Chen, Bin; Xu, Yong; Miao, Qing; Wu, Zhenming; Ju, Qiang; Huang, Yiran
To determine whether the attitudes to sexual and reproductive health of a cohort of university students had changed from 2005 to 2013. Questionnaires (1,000) on sexual and reproductive health attitudes were randomly distributed to students at Shanghai Jiaotong University in May 2013. All participants volunteered for the study and their answers were anonymous. The questionnaire contents included personal information and 72 MCQs, which covered four categories: knowledge about sexual/reproductive health and STDs; attitude to sexual behavior; attitudes to pornographic books/movies; desire of the participants for education on sexual/reproductive health. The participants had not received sexual/reproductive health education since their admission to the university. Their study majors were broadly similar to those participants in the April 2005 survey. The high sensitivity of the content of the questionnaire made it imperative to maintain anonymity and high security of the collected data. The return rate of questionnaires were 98% (request age from 19~21 years). Personal hygiene was much greater in females than in males. The proportion of females and males who held a positive attitude to premarital sexual behavior was significantly increased (P College students are more open today compared to the 2003 survey. A higher level of sexual knowledge has been achieved but there scope for further improvement. Sex education should be based on the actual needs of young people, teaching reforms, and special attention paid to practical teaching.
Son, Ji; Miller, Willa M; Tossone, Krystel; Butcher, Fredrick; Kuo, Kelly
To assess the effects of an interprofessional student-led comprehensive sexual education curriculum in improving the reproductive health literacy among at-risk youths in detention. We performed a prospective cohort study involving 134 incarcerated youth and an interprofessional team of 23 medical, nursing, and social work students, who participated in a comprehensive reproductive health curriculum over the course of 3 days. Basic reproductive health knowledge, confidence in condom use with a new partner, and self-efficacy with regard to contraception use and sexual autonomy were assessed before and after completion of the curriculum. We also assessed the student teachers' level of comfort with teaching reproductive health to adolescents and their perception of interprofessionalism. Incarcerated youth showed a statistically significant increase in knowledge regarding sexually transmitted infections as well as self-reported confidence in condom use (P = .002). Self-efficacy in contraception use and sexual autonomy did not show significant improvement. Qualitative analysis of student teachers' surveys revealed theme categories regarding perception of youth, perception of self in teaching youth, perception of interacting with youth, and perception of working in interprofessional teams. Our program might represent a mutually beneficial community relationship to improve reproductive health literacy in this high-risk youth population. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pérez, Glòria; Gotsens, Mercè; Palència, Laia; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Domínguez-Berjón, M Felicitas; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Puig, Vanessa; Bartoll, Xavier; Gandarillas, Ana; Martín, Unai; Bacigalupe, Amaia; Díez, Elia; Ruiz, Miguel; Esnaola, Santiago; Calvo, Montserrat; Sánchez, Pablo; Luque Fernández, Miguel Ángel; Borrell, Carme
The aim is to present the protocol of the two sub-studies on the effect of the economic crisis on mortality and reproductive health and health inequalities in Spain. Substudy 1: describe the evolution of mortality and reproductive health between 1990 and 2013 through a longitudinal ecological study in the Autonomous Communities. This study will identify changes caused by the economic crisis in trends or reproductive health and mortality indicators using panel data (17 Autonomous Communities per study year) and adjusting Poisson models with random effects variance. Substudy 2: analyse inequalities by socioeconomic deprivation in mortality and reproductive health in several areas of Spain. An ecological study analysing trends in the pre-crisis (1999-2003 and 2004-2008) and crisis (2009-2013) periods will be performed. Random effects models Besag York and Mollié will be adjusted to estimate mortality indicators softened in reproductive health and census tracts. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Chacham, Alessandra S; Diniz, Simone G; Maia, Mônica B; Galati, Ana F; Mirim, Liz A
The sexual and reproductive health needs of sex workers have been neglected both in research and public health interventions, which have almost exclusively focused on STI/HIV prevention. Among the reasons for this are the condemnation, stigma and ambiguous legal status of sex work. This paper describes work carried out by two feminist NGOs in Brazil, Mulher e Saúde (MUSA) in Belo Horizonte and Coletivo Feminista Sexualidade e Saúde in São Paulo, to promote sexual and reproductive health for sex workers. MUSA's project "In the Battle for Health", was begun in 1992; sex workers were trained as peer educators and workshops were offered on self-care for sex workers and their clients. In São Paulo, the Coletivo project "Get Friendly with Her", begun in 2002, offers clinic consultations and self-care workshops on sexuality, contraception, STI/HIV prevention and self-examination. Health care needs during menstruation and unhealthy vaginal practices led to promotion of the diaphragm as a contraceptive, for prevention of reproductive tract infection and to catch menstrual blood. Meeting the sexual and reproductive health needs of sex workers depends on the promotion of their human rights, access to health care without discrimination, and attention to psychosocial health issues, alcohol and drug abuse, and violence from clients, partners, pimps and police.
Ramos, S; Gogna, M
Beginning in July 1993, a 5-year program has sought to provide social research, training, and technical assistance in reproductive health and sexuality in Argentina, Chile, Peru, and Colombia by 1) building research capacity and promoting an interdisciplinary approach to reproductive health and sexuality and 2) promoting a gender perspective to these issues. The target groups are women's nongovernmental organizations (NGOs); family planning, reproductive health, and women's health providers; and social scientists conducting health-related research. Training activities include regional workshops, a Regional Resident Fellowship Program to support graduate-level education, and provision of technical assistance. The first 3 years of the program have revealed that the basic training needs in these areas include 1) helping women's NGOs improve their record-keeping capacity, evaluation processes, theoretical and methodological background, and institutional-building ability; 2) sensitizing women's health providers to sociocultural dimension of health-illness issues and to a gender and human rights perspective; and 3) training social scientist researchers to apply their skills in applied research, develop their theoretical background, and improve research quality control procedures. The main challenges for training activities in the field of reproductive health and sexuality are posed by the complexity of the issues and their interdisciplinary nature.
Mouhanna, Farah; DeJong, Jocelyn; Afifi, Rima; Asmar, Khalil; Nazha, Bassel; Zurayk, Huda
Reproductive health education (RHE) programmes in schools are a well-recognised means of helping young people make informed decisions relating to their sexual health and well-being. Very little research however has investigated attitudes towards such programmes among students in the Arab world. A national HIV education curriculum was developed in…
DeMairo, Pauline; Dischell, Jackie; Jouthe, Sorahya A.; Horner, Andrea
The Teen Outreach Reproductive CHallenge (TORCH) is a peer education program that provides information on various topics relevant to adolescent sexual health to a diverse audience, ranging from teens to health care providers. This information is disseminated through various projects by a group of New York City high-school students who are…
Poljski, Carolyn; Quiazon, Regina; Tran, Chau
Drawing on the research and advocacy work being conducted by the Multicultural Centre for Women's Health (MCWH), a national community-based organization in Victoria, Australia, the paper analyzes female international students' experiences with accessing sexual and reproductive health information and services. Accessibility of sexual and…
Khatri, R.; Schildbach, E.; Schmitz, K.; Silwal, P.R.; Van Teijlingen, Edwin
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Background and rationale Th e Ministry of Health and Population (MoHP) Nepal has endorsed the Nepal Health Sector Programme (NHSP) II (2010–2015), which aims to introduce 1,000 adolescent-friendly services (AFSs) in Nepal by 2015. Towards this, the Government of Nepal is implementing the National Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health (ASRH) Programme, which, by November 2012 had covered 516 health facilities in 36 districts. To assess the implementation of the National A...
Tesso Dessalegn W
factors that negatively influence parent-communication about reproductive health.
Tesso, Dessalegn W; Fantahun, Mesganaw A; Enquselassie, Fikre
This study aims at examining parent-young people communication about sexual and reproductive health related topics and factors associated with it from both young people's and parents' perspectives. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2,269 young people aged 10-24 years in Nekemte town and semi urban areas, western Ethiopia. Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted using SPSS for windows version 16. The qualitative data was coded, and categorized in to emerging themes using the open code software version 3.4. About a third of young people-32.5% (32.4% of females and 32.7% males) engaged in conversation about sexual and reproductive health topics with their parents/parent figures during the last six months. In logistic regression analyses, young people who were aged 15-19 years were more likely to report parent-communication compared to the other age groups (AOR = 1.57; 95%CI = 1.26-1.97). Female young people are more likely to discuss with their mothers, (AOR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.13-3.2), sister (AOR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.19-3.9) and female friends (AOR = 11.7, 95% CI = 7.36-18.7) while males are more likely to discuss with male friends (AOR = 17.3, 95%CI = 10-4-28.6). Educated young people were more likely to parent-communicate(AOR = 1.70, 95%CI = 1.30-2.24). Fear of parent, cultural taboos attached to sex, embarrassments, and parents' lack of knowledge related to sexual and reproductive health were found to be barriers for parent communication. Parent-communication takes place not only infrequently but also in warning, & threatening way. Parent-young people communication about sexual health is occurring rarely in the family and bounded by certain barriers. Programmes/policies related to young people's reproductive health should address not only individual or behavioral factors but also cultural and social factors that negatively influence parent-communication about reproductive health.
Windisch, Ricarda; de Savigny, Don; Onadja, Geneviève; Somda, Antoine; Wyss, Kaspar; Sié, Ali; Kouyaté, Bocar
Organizational changes, increased funding and the demands of HIV antiretroviral (ARV) treatment create particular challenges for governance in the health sector. We assess resource allocation, policy making and integration of the national responses to ARV provision and reproductive health in Burkina Faso, using national and district budgets related to disease burden, policy documents, organizational structures, and coordination and implementation processes. ARV provision represents the concept of a "crisis scenario", in which reforms are pushed due to a perception of urgent need, whereas the national reproductive health programme, which is older and more integrated, represents a "politics-as-usual scenario". Findings show that the early years of the national response to HIV and AIDS were characterized by new institutions with overlapping functions, and failure to integrate with and strengthen existing structures. National and district budget allocations for HIV compared to other interventions were disproportionately high when assessed against burden of disease. Strategic documents for ARV provision were relatively less developed and referred to, compared to those of the Ministry of Health Directorates for HIV and for Family Health and district health planning teams for reproductive health services. Imbalances and new structures potentially trigger important adverse effects which are difficult to remedy and likely to increase due to the dynamics they create. It therefore becomes crucial, from the outset, to integrate HIV/AIDS funding and responses into health systems. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Adolescence is a period in which young people are exposed to various physiological disorders, diseases and social consequences of risky behavior. Sudden changes in society leading to increased poverty, changes of values and increased crime rate can all cause risky behavior among young people. The aim of the study was to establish the attitudes and knowledge of secondary school students in Vojvodina related to the human body, physiological processes, sexual maturation and reproductive health. The study also focused on students' attitudes towards sexual intercourse and to what extent the topics related to reproductive health are present in the school curriculum. In this investigation we used data obtained in a recent research on second, third and fourth-year secondary students in some municipalities of Vojvodina in 2012 and 2013. The students were examined in the municipalities of Ruma, Senta, Čoka, Kanjiža and Subotica. We applied the method of survey. The questions were both open and closed, and divided into four groups: knowledge on the human body and sexual organs, information on sexual maturation and reproductive health, attitudes towards sexual intercourse and students' views on the content of reproductive health issues in the curriculum. The adolescents do not know enough about the human body and the basic physiological processes and show insufficient awareness of the importance of using contraception to preserve their reproductive health. Most of the students express a positive opinion of introducing a special subject into the curriculum that would deal with issues related to reproductive health. The obtained data are consistent with other previous studies in Serbia, suggesting that nothing has changed in this segment of our medical culture. The results suggest that young people need sexual education that corresponds to their age and needs, in order to be able to increase their knowledge and improve skills that can help them maintain
Anderson, Kayla N; Koh, Bibiana D; Connor, Jennifer J; Koerner, Ascan F; Damario, Mark; Rueter, Martha A
Compared with singletons, what is the parent mental health, parent-child and couple relationship satisfaction, and child adjustment of 6- to 12-year-old assisted reproduction technology (ART) twins and their families? There are no differences between 6- and 12-year-old ART twin and singleton families in parent mental health or family relationships; however, twins had significantly fewer behavior and attention problems than singletons in middle childhood. When ART twins are younger than 5 years old, parents have more mental health difficulties and poorer parent-child relationship quality, and no differences have been found in ART twin and singletons' psychosocial adjustment. However, studies have only examined the implications of ART twin status in families with infant and toddler aged children. A cross-sectional study of 300 6-12-year-old ART children (n = 124 twins and n = 176 singletons) from 206 families at a reproductive endocrinology clinic in the USA. Patients from one clinic with a child born between 1998 and 2004 were invited to participate in an online survey (82% recruitment rate). Participants provided information on each 6- to 12-year-old ART child in the family, and responded to questions on parent mental health, family relationships and child adjustment. There were no differences in parent mental health or family relationships in families with 6- to 12-year-old ART twins versus singletons. However, twins (M = 2.40, SE = 0.35) had significantly fewer behavior problems than singletons (M = 3.47, SE = 0.36; F(1, 201) = 4.54, b = 1.08, P family demographics are representative of US ART patients, patients are from one US clinic. Responses also are from one family member and may be subject to social desirability biases. Additionally, our data did not include identification of monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Studies on infant and toddler ART twins suggest these families have parents with more mental health difficulties and lower parent-child relationship
Full Text Available Rhesus-positive and Rhesus-negative persons differ in the presence-absence of highly immunogenic RhD protein on the erythrocyte membrane. The biological function of the RhD molecule is unknown. Its structure suggests that the molecular complex with RhD protein transports NH3 or CO2 molecules across the erythrocyte cell membrane. Some data indicate that RhD positive and RhD negative subjects differ in their tolerance to certain biological factors, including, Toxoplasma infection, aging and fatique. Present cross sectional study performed on 3,130 subjects showed that Rhesus negative subjects differed in many indices of their health status, including incidences of many disorders. Rhesus negative subjects reported to have more frequent allergic, digestive, heart, hematological, immunity, mental health, and neurological problems. On the population level, a Rhesus-negativity-associated burden could be compensated for, for example, by the heterozygote advantage, but for Rhesus negative subjects this burden represents a serious problem.
Anne Brigitte Albrectsen
Full Text Available Ministry of Health, Mother and Child Health and Family Planning General Directorate; Turkey Field Office of UNFPA, and Gulhane Military Medical Academy (GMMA of Turkish Armed Forces have been conducting a program to increase male concern and participation in sexual and reproductive health in a positive and supporting way. Specialist physicians and nurses from military hospitals were trained by Ministry of Health as trainers (October 2002- September 2003 by one-week courses on interactive training skills. Primary physicians, nurses and medical petty officers were trained as field trainers and counselors (March 2003-April 2004. Training rooms with standardized training material were established in all of the military garrisons. Soldiers were given the one-day participatory course. Trained medical staff also provided individual counseling and services. All training rooms were coded and connected to Reproductive Health Network established within the Intranet of Army. Reproductive Health activities were included in the regular supervision scheme of the army. Since April 2004 740.000 soldiers were given the one-day course. A total of 4000 military medical staff was educated as Trainers. A total of 580 training rooms were established. Twenty of Military Hospitals became a center of reproductive health training and service delivery. Since large-scale intervention is necessary to reach male population, the army seems to be the best possible venue in Turkey. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 97-106
Byrskog, Ulrika; Olsson, Pia; Essén, Birgitta; Allvin, Marie Klingberg
Political violence and war are push factors for migration and social determinants of health among migrants. Somali migration to Sweden has increased threefold since 2004, and now comprises refugees with more than 20 years of war experiences. Health is influenced by earlier life experiences with adverse sexual and reproductive health, violence, and mental distress being linked. Adverse pregnancy outcomes are reported among Somali born refugees in high-income countries. The aim of this study was to explore experiences and perceptions on war, violence, and reproductive health before migration among Somali born women in Sweden. Qualitative semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with 17 Somali born refugee women of fertile age living in Sweden. Thematic analysis was applied. Before migration, widespread war-related violence in the community had created fear, separation, and interruption in daily life in Somalia, and power based restrictions limited access to reproductive health services. The lack of justice and support for women exposed to non-partner sexual violence or intimate partner violence reinforced the risk of shame, stigmatization, and silence. Social networks, stoicism, and faith constituted survival strategies in the context of war. Several factors reinforced non-disclosure of violence exposure among the Somali born women before migration. Therefore, violence-related illness might be overlooked in the health care system. Survival strategies shaped by war contain resources for resilience and enhancement of well-being and sexual and reproductive health and rights in receiving countries after migration.
Larrañaga, Isabel; Martín, Unai; Bacigalupe, Amaia
Sexual and reproductive health (SRH) is protected by the public authorities to ensure that people enjoy a free, satisfying, and safe sexual life. Despite the approval of the National Sexual and Reproductive Health Strategy in 2011, the progress achieved may be jeopardized by recent proposals for legislative changes affecting this area (abortion Law and 16/2012 Law) and by the impact of the current economic crisis. This article aims to describe the current situation of sexual and reproductive health in the Spanish population and to identify the potential impact of the economic crisis. To this end, we used the following information sources: the National Sexual Health Survey, the DAPHNE surveys, births and fetal deaths statistics from the Spanish National Institute of Statistics, the Registry of Voluntary Pregnancy Interruptions, reports from the National Epidemiology Center, and the National AIDS Registry. Sexual health and the availability of information are rated as good by the Spanish population. Among young people, schools and health services have become less important as information sources and the internet has become more important. Since the beginning of the crisis, contraceptive use and fertility have declined and maternity has been delayed. The economic crisis seems to have affected some indicators of sexual and reproductive health. However, the potential effects on other indicators should continue to be monitored because insufficient time may have passed for accurate determination of the full effect of the crisis. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Sidze, E.M.; Pradhan, J.; Beekink, E.; Maina, T.M.; Maina, B.W.
Understanding the flow of resources at the country level to reproductive health is essential for effective financing of this key component of health. This paper gives a comprehensive picture of the allocation of resources for reproductive health in Kenya and the challenges faced in the
Coates, Amy L; Hill, Peter S; Rushton, Simon; Balen, Julie
The Holy See has engaged extensively in United Nations negotiations on issues concerning sexual and reproductive health rights as they have emerged and evolved in a dynamic global agenda over the past two decades. A meta-narrative review of the mission's official statements was conducted to examine the positions, discourses and tensions across the broad range of agendas. The Holy See represents a fundamentally conservative and stable position on a range of sexual and reproductive health rights concerns. However, the mission has been dynamic in the ways in which it has forwarded its arguments, increasingly relying upon secularised technical claims and empirical evidence; strategically interpreting human rights norms in ways consistent with its own position; and framing sexuality and reproduction in the context of "the family". Seen in the broader context of a "religious resurgence" in international relations, and in light of the fact that the Holy See has frequently sought to form alliances with conservative State and non-State actors, these findings make an important contribution to understanding the slow progress as well as the potential obstacles that lie ahead in the battle to realise sexual and reproductive health rights in a changing global political environment. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alvarez, Maria do Carmo Avamilano; Cuenca, Angela Maria Belloni; Noronha, Daisy Pires; Schor, Néia
Virtual libraries have been implemented in an attempt to organize scientific information found in the Internet, including the Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde Reprodutiva (BVSR), or Virtual Library on Reproductive Health. The aim is to provide quality information to researchers in the reproductive health field. The current study evaluates the use of the BVSR, emphasizing the users' expectations, difficulties, and suggestions. The study adopted a qualitative methodology. The focus group technique was applied to Internet chat groups through which reproductive health researchers communicated. Users expressed their expectations regarding information, highlighting the lack of time and the need to quickly obtain precise data. Use of virtual libraries for research increases where there is more trust in the institutions responsible for maintaining them. Researchers suggested the following: greater dissemination of the BVSR, publication of an electronic newsletter, and creation of a communications channel between the BVSR and users in order to foster intelligent collective communication.
Described as a blessing or a curse, a bonus or a bomb, the youthful population boom in the global South is thought to be the catalyst of present and future social change on a massive scale. These binary understandings of youth are popular among proponents of development programs aimed at young people, including for family planning. But dualistic, numbers-based theories oversimplify a much more complex picture. They narrow our perceptions of young populations and, when lacking more detailed understanding based in youth experience, have the potential to constrict sexual and reproductive health and rights. Instead, youth-friendly, inclusive sexual and reproductive health policy should build from young peoples' visions and diverse realities. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bienefeld, M.K.; McLaughlin, J.R.
The evidence regarding the effects of occupational exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation on reproductive health is limited. However, exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation is associated with increased risk of adverse reproductive outcomes. The resulting uncertainty about the effects of occupational exposures has caused concern among some workers, therefore, we have designed a study to examine this question among Canadian medical radiation technologists. A short mailed questionnaire will be sent to all CAMRT members to obtain information about reproductive history, and a sample of respondents will receive a second questionnaire requesting information about other important exposures. Occupational dose records will be retrieved from the National Dose Registry. Using this information, relative risks for each outcome will be calculated for different radiation dose levels. This article provides a brief review of the literature on ionizing radiation exposure and reproductive outcomes, and an outline of the proposed study
Crockett, Cailin; Cooper, Bergen
Despite their demographic significance and the lifetime impact of gender disparities on their health and rights, women considered older than reproductive age are excluded from most investments in global public health. While development policies linking human rights with access to sexual and reproductive healthcare have yielded progress towards improving the status of women and girls, older women have not benefited from these initiatives. Yet as women grow older, they experience a range of health conditions rooted in their reproductive biology - from ageing with fistula, to cervical and breast cancers. Current approaches to global women's health ignore these serious conditions, harming older women through the perpetuation of gender norms that construe women's health through a narrow reproductive lens. Meanwhile, older women are generally absent from global ageing discourse, which lacks a gender perspective, creating a dual invisibility as the field of global women's health presumes ageing women are accounted for. Reclaiming the sexual rights framework suggested by the International Conference on Population and Development and the Beijing Platform for Action, we call for the revision of global health policies to incorporate a life course approach to women's health as a matter of human rights. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Ketting, E.; Esin, A.
Sexual health and reproductive health are relatively new concepts in Europe. They were introduced and recommended during and after the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo, 1994. At the ICPD a 20-year Programme of Action was adopted by the vast majority of world
Stefansson, Lilja S.; Webb, M. Elizabeth; Hebert, Luciana E.; Masinter, Lisa; Gilliam, Melissa L.
Background: Adolescents experience numerous barriers to obtaining sexual and reproductive health care (SRHC). Mobile Health Units (MHUs) can remove some barriers by traveling to the community. This pilot study developed Mobile SRHC through an iterative process on an existing MHU and evaluated it among adolescents and providers. Methods: Mobile…
Manu, Abubakar A; Mba, Chuks Jonathan; Asare, Gloria Quansah; Odoi-Agyarko, Kwasi; Asante, Rexford Kofi Oduro
Young people aged 10-24 years represent one-third of the Ghanaian population. Many are sexually active and are at considerable risk of negative health outcomes due to inadequate sexual and reproductive health knowledge. Although growing international evidence suggests that parent-child sexual communication has positive influence on young people's sexual behaviours, this subject has been poorly studied among Ghanaian families. This study explored the extent and patterns of parent-child sexual communication, and the topics commonly discussed by parents. A cross-sectional design was used to sample 790 parent-child dyads through a two-stage cluster sampling technique with probability proportional to size. Interviewer-administered questionnaire method was used to gather quantitative data on parent-child communication about sex. Twenty sexual topics were investigated to describe the patterns and frequency of communication. The Pearson's chi-square and z-test for two-sample proportions were used to assess sexual communication differences between parents and young people. Qualitative data were used to flesh-out relevant issues which standard questionnaire could not cover satisfactorily. About 82.3% of parents had at some point in time discussed sexual and reproductive health issues with their children; nonetheless, the discussions centered on a few topics. Whereas child-report indicated that 78.8% of mothers had discussed sexual communication with their children, 53.5% of fathers had done so. Parental discussions on the 20 sexual topics ranged from 5.2%-73.6%. Conversely, young people's report indicates that mother-discussed topics ranged between 1.9%-69.5%, while father-discussed topics ranged from 0.4% to 46.0%. Sexual abstinence was the most frequently discussed topic (73.6%), followed by menstruation 63.3% and HIV/AIDS 61.5%; while condom (5.2%) and other contraceptive use (9.3%) were hardly discussed. The most common trigger of communication cited by parent
Ancheta, Rosedelia; Hynes, Colin; Shrier, Lydia A
The objective of this study was to explore the associations of sources, content, and timing of reproductive health education with cognitive and behavioral sexual risk in a sample of high-risk female adolescents and young adults. Female adolescents and young adults (n=113, median age 17 years) receiving treatment for a sexually transmitted disease (STD) reported sources of reproductive health education, topics covered, and when first formal education occurred. Dependent variables included sexual risk knowledge; condom attitudes, negotiation skills, and use (consistent and at last sex); and number of sexual partners. Most participants reported receiving reproductive health education from both parental (80%) and formal sources (92%). Parents discussed the menstrual cycle (94%) more frequently than other sex education topics, while formal sources focused most on teaching about STDs (91%). Although median age of first formal instruction was 12 years, 26% of girls received their first formal education during or after the year they initiated coitus. Girls with a parental source of education and those receiving formal instruction on pregnancy reported greater ability to negotiate condom use. Girls who received education later in relation to the onset of sexual activity and those with a parental source of education reported more sexual partners. Early reproductive health education and education from both parental and formal sources is associated with reduced sexual risk among high-risk adolescent girls. Interestingly, receiving parental education is also associated with more sexual partners, suggesting that parental educational efforts may be reactive to their daughters' increasing sexual risk behavior. Future research should examine multiple sources of reproductive health education and the timing of education from these sources to enhance understanding the dynamic interactions between reproductive health education and adolescent sexual risk.
Afsar, H.A.; Sohani, S.; Younas, M.; Mohammad, S.
Objective: To assess the knowledge of medical practitioners regarding management of selected reproductive tract infections, diagnosis of sexual dysfunction and identification of sexual abuse and to assess the attitudes and practices of health care providers regarding sexual and reproductive rights in order to recommend areas that need to be incorporated in a sexual and reproductive health curriculum. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Place and Duration of Study: From March to August 2003 in the District Turbat of Balochistan, Pakistan. Subject and Methods: Selected indicators of knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding sexual and reproductive health of primary care physicians were assessed using a pre-tested questionnaire and formal informal interviews. Variables were identified from the literature and previous in-depth interviews, and then formulated into respective questions. A Lichert scale marked from 1 to 5 was used for categorizing responses into agreed, neutral and disagreed. Descriptive statistics were computed using SPSS version 10 for windows. Qualitative interviews were translated and transcribed and analyzed according to pre-judged and emerging themes. Results: Out of 45 physicians interviewed, nearly half scored less than 50% in the knowledge section. Attitudes and practices assessed suggested a tendency to be judgmental, gender/rights discriminatory and with little provision for enabling clients to make their own decisions, so essential for quality sexual health service provision. Conclusion: Keeping in view the importance of the sexual health issues and a lack of ability of health care providers to handle it effectively, deficient areas of sexual health must be integrated into the medical curriculum. Medical educators have the responsibility to train physicians and other health professionals in the core competencies to improve the sexual and reproductive health of their communities. (author)
Gontijo, Daniela Tavares; de Sena e Vasconcelos, Anna Carolina; Monteiro, Rosana Juliet Silva; Facundes, Vera Lúcia Dutra; Trajano, Maria de Fátima Cordeiro; de Lima, Luciane Soares
Occupational therapy can contribute to sexual and reproductive health through health education. The purpose of this study was to describe an occupational therapy intervention aimed at sexual and reproductive health promotion in adolescents. Fifty-eight adolescents were involved in the study, before, during and after the interventions. Educative activities such as puzzles, storytelling, mime and board games were used, which occupational therapy faculty and students had constructed. The games were employed as mediators for gaining knowledge in sexual and reproductive health. Outcome was measured using a questionnaire, audio recordings and field diaries. The data were analysed by descriptive statistics and thematic content analysis. The results showed the adolescents' increased knowledge of sexual and reproductive health information immediately after the intervention. The thematic analysis was grouped into three categories: the adolescents' initial expectations regarding the project, reflections on the process experienced during the interventions and use of educational games by occupational therapists. The importance of rapport and dialogue was highlighted in the construction of interventions based on participatory methods. The absence of a longitudinal follow-up is a limitation in this study. Further research is important to systematically assess sexual health promotion strategies in adolescence. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Corroon, Meghan; Speizer, Ilene S; Fotso, Jean-Christophe; Akiode, Akinsewa; Saad, Abdulmumin; Calhoun, Lisa; Irani, Laili
To date, limited evidence is available for urban populations in sub-Saharan Africa, specifically research into the association between urban women's empowerment and reproductive health outcomes. The objective of this study is to investigate whether women's empowerment in urban Nigerian settings is associated with family planning use and maternal health behaviors. Moreover, we examine whether different effects of empowerment exist by region of residence. This study uses baseline household survey data from the Measurement, Learning and Evaluation Project for the Nigerian Urban Reproductive Health Initiative being implemented in six major cities. We examine four dimensions of empowerment: economic freedom, attitudes towards domestic violence, partner prohibitions and decision-making. We determine if the empowerment dimensions have different effects on reproductive health outcomes by region of residence using multivariate analyses. Results indicate that more empowered women are more likely to use modern contraception, deliver in a health facility and have a skilled attendant at birth. These trends vary by empowerment dimension and by city/region in Nigeria. We conclude by discussing the implications of these findings on future programs seeking to improve reproductive health outcomes in urban Nigeria and beyond.
Salam, Rehana A; Faqqah, Anadil; Sajjad, Nida; Lassi, Zohra S; Das, Jai K; Kaufman, Miriam; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
Adolescents have special sexual and reproductive health needs (whether or not they are sexually active or married). This review assesses the impact of interventions to improve adolescent sexual and reproductive health (including the interventions to prevent female genital mutilation/cutting [FGM/C]) and to prevent intimate violence. Our review findings suggest that sexual and reproductive health education, counseling, and contraceptive provision are effective in increasing sexual knowledge, contraceptive use, and decreasing adolescent pregnancy. Among interventions to prevent FGM/C, community mobilization and female empowerment strategies have the potential to raise awareness of the adverse health consequences of FGM/C and reduce its prevalence; however, there is a need to conduct methodologically rigorous intervention evaluations. There was limited and inconclusive evidence for the effectiveness of interventions to prevent intimate partner violence. Further studies with rigorous designs, longer term follow-up, and standardized and validated measurement instruments are required to maximize comparability of results. Future efforts should be directed toward scaling-up evidence-based interventions to improve adolescent sexual and reproductive health in low- and middle-income countries, sustain the impacts over time, and ensure equitable outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Webber, Gail C; Spitzer, Denise L
In Southeast Asia, hundreds of thousands of young rural women migrate from their villages to the larger cities in search of work. Many find employment with beer companies or in the clubs where beer is sold, promoting the sale of beer. Previous research suggests these young migrants are in a highly vulnerable position. This paper will describe the findings of an October 2009 meeting to develop a research agenda on the sexual and reproductive health of beer promoters and a subsequent pilot study of focus groups with beer promoters to review this agenda. Participants of the research meeting representing beer promoters, academics, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), government and the beer industry from Cambodia, Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam collaborated in the development of three key research themes. The themes were verified in focus group discussions with beer promoters organized by local research partners in all four countries. The focus group participants were asked what they felt were the key sexual and reproductive health issues facing them in a non-directive and unstructured manner, and then asked to comment more specifically on the research priorities developed at the meeting. The focus groups were recorded digitally, transcribed, and translated into English. The data were analyzed by coding for common themes and then developing matrices to compare themes between groups. The participants of the meeting identified three key research themes: occupational health (including harassment and violence, working conditions, and fair pay), gender and social norms (focusing on the impact of power relations between the genders on women's health), and reproductive health (knowledge and access to reproductive health care services). The participants in the focus groups in all four countries agreed that these were key priorities for them, though the emphasis on the most important issues varied between groups of women. Sexual harassment in the workplace and challenges in
Spitzer Denise L
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Southeast Asia, hundreds of thousands of young rural women migrate from their villages to the larger cities in search of work. Many find employment with beer companies or in the clubs where beer is sold, promoting the sale of beer. Previous research suggests these young migrants are in a highly vulnerable position. This paper will describe the findings of an October 2009 meeting to develop a research agenda on the sexual and reproductive health of beer promoters and a subsequent pilot study of focus groups with beer promoters to review this agenda. Methods Participants of the research meeting representing beer promoters, academics, non-governmental organizations (NGOs, government and the beer industry from Cambodia, Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam collaborated in the development of three key research themes. The themes were verified in focus group discussions with beer promoters organized by local research partners in all four countries. The focus group participants were asked what they felt were the key sexual and reproductive health issues facing them in a non-directive and unstructured manner, and then asked to comment more specifically on the research priorities developed at the meeting. The focus groups were recorded digitally, transcribed, and translated into English. The data were analyzed by coding for common themes and then developing matrices to compare themes between groups. Results The participants of the meeting identified three key research themes: occupational health (including harassment and violence, working conditions, and fair pay, gender and social norms (focusing on the impact of power relations between the genders on women's health, and reproductive health (knowledge and access to reproductive health care services. The participants in the focus groups in all four countries agreed that these were key priorities for them, though the emphasis on the most important issues varied between groups of women
Women's health is currently shaped by the confluence of two important policy trends - the evolution of health system reform policies and from the early 1990s onwards, a strong articulation of a human rights-based approach to health that has emphasised laws and policies to advance gender equality and sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR). The drive for sexual and reproductive rights represents an inclusive trend towards human rights to health that goes beyond the right to health services, directing attention to girls' and women's rights to bodily autonomy, integrity and choice in relation to sexuality and reproduction. Such an expanded concept of the right to health is essential if laws, policies and programmes are to respect, protect and fulfil the health of girls and women. However, this expanded understanding has been ghettoised from the more mainstream debates on the right to health and was only partially included in the Millennium Development Goals. The paper argues in favour of a twofold approach in placing SRHR effectively in the context of the post-2015 development agenda: first, firmly ground it in an inclusive approach to the right to health; and second, drawing on two decades of national-level implementation, propose a forward-looking agenda focusing on quality, equality and accountability in policies and in programmes. This can build on good practice while addressing critical challenges central to the development framework itself.
In this paper, the negative and the positive effects of alcohol on health are reviewed. It is first of all established facts that a high alcohol intake implies an increased risk of a large number of health outcomes, such as dementia, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, cirrhosis, upper digestive...... tract cancer and alcohol dependency. Second, it is justified that alcohol has beneficial effects for some individuals, especially with regard to prevention of thrombosis of the heart. The public health relevance of these results is considered. The sensible drinking limits, used in both the UK...
Ngwena, Charles G; Brookman-Amissah, Eunice; Skuster, Patty
The African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights recently adopted General Comment No 2 to interpret provisions of Article 14 of the Protocol to the African Charter on the Rights Women. The provisions relate to women's rights to fertility control, contraception, family planning, information and education, and abortion. The present article highlights the General Comment's potential to promote women's sexual and reproductive rights in multiple ways. The General Comment's human rights value goes beyond providing states with guidance for framing their domestic laws, practices, and policies to comply with treaty obligations. General Comment No 2 is invaluable in educating all stakeholders-including healthcare providers, lawyers, policymakers, and judicial officers at the domestic level-about pertinent jurisprudence. Civil society and human rights advocates can use the General Comment to render the state accountable for failure to implement its treaty obligations. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Suely Gomes Costa
Full Text Available This article analyses the nature of the tensions brought about by the entrance of women into public space and the rise of protectionist systems in Brazil. It places both experience and theory in the long-range context of women’s history, gender relations and feminist movements. Feminist struggles and domesticity patterns reaffirm the home as the place par excellence of protectionist practices, something that prevented or delayed the advent of public protectionist systems. The different relationships among those women who remained at home and those that managed to develop their activities outside the domestic environment will certainly establish inequalities as to the obtention of social rights. The article examines evidence of change in the historical trend in the struggle for universal reproductive rights during the 1980s.
... and the ability to have children. Something that affects reproductive health is called a reproductive hazard. Examples include: Radiation Metals such as lead and mercury Chemicals such as pesticides Cigarettes Some viruses Alcohol For men, a reproductive hazard can affect the ...
Though gender equity is widely considered to be a key to improving maternal health in developing countries, little empirical evidence has been presented to support this claim. This paper investigates whether or not and how female autonomy within the household affects women's use of reproductive health care in Tajikistan, where the situation of maternal health and gender equity is worse compared with neighbouring countries. Estimation is performed using bivariate probit models in which woman's...
Cohen, S A
According to the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, there are approximately 40 million refugees and other internally displaced people worldwide, with the overwhelming majority coming from and still living in developed countries. 80% of all refugees are estimated to be women and children. Many refugees spend months and even years in what are designed to be temporary settings where efforts are made to accommodate their basic needs such as food, clean water, shelter, security, and primary health care during emergency situations. Women refugees, however, have certain unique needs beyond what traditionally have been considered basic in relief programs. Many women in developing countries suffer considerable health risks during the best of times due to their poverty or low social status. When fleeing conflict or natural disaster, their health status is at even higher risk of being compromised by severe living conditions and the complete absence of reproductive health services. The recognition that women refugees often face serious and sometimes life-threatening reproductive health-related situations led to the development of a field manual on reproductive health for use at the local level. Planned for publication in late 1998 or early 1999, the guide will describe the goals of a minimum array of reproductive health services in the early phase of an emergency and provide direct guidance on care relating to sexual violence, STDs, family planning, adolescents' needs, and other reproductive health concerns such as female genital mutilation and treatment for septic and incomplete abortion. The manual has garnered worldwide attention and support, as well as scrutiny by abortion opponents in the US, in particular New Jersey Republican Representative Chris Smith.
Sarnquist, Clea C; Rahangdale, Lisa; Maldonado, Yvonne
Review key topics and recent literature regarding reproductive health and family planning needs for HIV-infected women in Sub-Saharan Africa. Electronic searches performed in PubMed, JSTOR, and Web of Science; identified articles reviewed for inclusion. Most HIV-infected women in Sub-Saharan Africa bear children, and access to antiretroviral therapy may increase childbearing desires and/or fertility, resulting in greater need for contraception. Most contraceptive options can be safely and effectively used by HIV-infected women. Unmet need for contraception is high in this population, with 66- 92% of women reporting not wanting another child (now or ever), but only 20-43% using contraception. During pregnancy and delivery, HIV-infected women need access to prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services, a skilled birth attendant, and quality post-partum care to prevent HIV infection in the infant and maximize maternal health. Providers may lack resources as well as appropriate training and support to provide such services to women with HIV. Innovations in biomedical and behavioral interventions may improve reproductive healthcare for HIV-infected women, but in Sub-Saharan Africa, models of integrating HIV and PMTCT services with family planning and reproductive health services will be important to improve reproductive outcomes. HIV-infected women in Sub-Saharan Africa have myriad needs related to reproductive health, including access to high-quality family planning information and options, high-quality pregnancy care, and trained providers. Integrated services that help prevent unintended pregnancy and optimize maternal and infant health before, during and after pregnancy will both maximize limited resources as well as provide improved reproductive outcomes.
Gmelin, Theresa; Raible, Claire A; Dick, Rebecca; Kukke, Surabhi; Miller, Elizabeth
This study assessed the feasibility of integrating reproductive health services into intimate partner violence/sexual violence (IPV/SV) programs. After a training for victim service agencies on integration of health services, we conducted semistructured interviews with IPV/SV program leadership. Leadership reported advocates were more likely to recognize the need to refer clients to health services, and revealed challenges operationalizing partnerships with health care centers. Training to integrate basic health assessment into victim services may be one way to address women's urgent health needs. Formal partnership agreements, protocols to facilitate referrals, and opportunities to cross-train are needed to nurture these cross-sector collaborations.
Mac-Seing, Muriel; Zarowsky, Christina
Reproductive health remains a major global health issue. People with disabilities face additional discrimination and barriers to access which need to be better understood. To contribute to future interventions, we examined the intersections between gender and disability related to reproductive health in sub-Saharan Africa in the qualitative literature. We conducted a meta-synthesis, using a taxonomic analysis. An inductive and iterative approach was adopted to allow exploration of new and emergent semantic variations in themes. NVivo 11 Plus was used to code themes. Ten qualitative studies from six sub-Saharan African countries were analysed. Two main thematic areas emerged from the analysis: 1) gendered roles of people with disabilities are programmed by sociocultural normativity, including perceptions about sexuality. They are exacerbated by the hegemony of ableism and influenced by the type of reproductive health issues experienced by people with disabilities; and 2) experiences of disability in interaction with a reproductive health issue are exacerbated by the type of disability, influenced by the type of barriers to access, and perceived differently depending upon the actors involved. The intersections between gender and disability embodied by people with disabilities are multiple and complex. Not only do imposed gendered roles influence the lives of people with disabilities, but their experiences of disability are also intricately linked to gender. An intersectional analysis is proposed as a useful support to developing future perspectives.
Orza, Luisa; Crone, Tyler; Mellin, Julie; Westerhof, Nienke; Stackpool-Moore, Lucy; Restoy, Enrique; Gray, Greg; Stevenson, Jacqui
Sexual and reproductive health and rights have gained prominence in the HIV response. The role of sexual and reproductive health in underpinning a successful approach to HIV prevention, treatment, care, and services has increasingly been recognized. However, the "second R," referring to sexual and reproductive rights, is often neglected. This leads to policies and programs which both fail to uphold and fulfill these rights and which fail to meet the needs of those most affected by HIV by neglecting to take account of the human right-based barriers and challenges they face. In this commentary, the authors draw on the approach and practical experiences of the Link Up program, and the findings of a global consultation led for and by young people living with and most affected by HIV, to present a five-point framework to improve programming and health outomces by better protecting, respecting, and fulfilling the sexual health and reproductive rights of young people living with and most vulnerable to HIV. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Katz, Karen R; McDowell, Misti; Green, Mackenzie; Jahan, Shamim; Johnson, Laura; Chen, Mario
Little is known about the sexual and reproductive health care needs of female sex workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Survey data were collected from 354 hotel-based and 323 street-based female sex workers using a venue-based stratified cluster sampling approach. In addition, in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 female sex workers recruited from drop-in centers. We calculated unmet need for family planning and examined fertility desires, use of condoms and other contraceptive methods, experiences with gender-based violence, sexual and reproductive health service needs, and preferences on where to receive services. The prevalence of unmet need was 25% among hotel-based female sex workers and 36% among street-based female sex workers. Almost all participants reported having used condoms in the past 30 days, and 44% of hotel-based sex workers and 30% of street-based sex workers reported dual method use during that period. Condom use was inconsistent, however, and condom breakage and nonuse for extra money were common. Many women reported experiencing gender-based violence. Sexual and reproductive health services had been obtained by 64% of hotel-based and 89% of street-based sex workers in the past six months; drop-in centers were their preferred site for receiving health services. Female sex workers in Dhaka need family planning and other sexual and reproductive health services and prefer receiving them from drop-in centers.
Global debate on required policy responses to issues of older persons has intensified over the past 15 years, fuelled by a growing awareness of the rapid ageing of populations. Health has been a central focus, but scrutiny of global policies, human rights instruments and reports reveals that just as older people are excluded from sexual and reproductive health and rights agendas, so are issues of sexual and reproductive health and rights wholly marginal to current agendas focused on older people. A critical question is whether the policy lacuna reflects a dearth of research evidence or a faulty translation of existing knowledge. A reading of the current research landscape and literature, summarised in this paper, strongly suggests it is the former. To be sure, sexuality in old age is a burgeoning field of scientific inquiry. What the existing knowledge and discourse fail to provide is an engagement with, and elucidation of, the broader sexual and reproductive health and rights agenda as it relates to older persons. A concerted research effort is needed to provide a basis for developing policy guidance and for pinpointing essential indicators and establishing necessary data systems to enable a routine tracking of progress. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Prevalence of Du Phenotype amongst Rhesus Negative Females in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. CA Nwauche, OA Ejele, AOU Okpani ... Live Births after Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection in the Management of Oligospermia and Azoospermia in Nigeria. RA Ajayi, JH Parsons, VN Bolton ...
Reese Masterson, Amelia; Usta, Jinan; Gupta, Jhumka; Ettinger, Adrienne S
The current conflict in Syria continues to displace thousands to neighboring countries, including Lebanon. Information is needed to provide adequate health and related services particularly to women in this displaced population. We conducted a needs assessment in Lebanon (June-August 2012), administering a cross-sectional survey in six health clinics. Information was collected on reproductive and general health status, conflict violence, stress, and help-seeking behaviors of displaced Syrian women. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to examine associations between exposure to conflict violence, stress, and reproductive health outcomes. We interviewed 452 Syrian refugee women ages 18-45 who had been in Lebanon for an average of 5.1 (± 3.7) months. Reported gynecologic conditions were common, including: menstrual irregularity, 53.5%; severe pelvic pain, 51.6%; and reproductive tract infections, 53.3%. Among the pregnancy subset (n = 74), 39.5% of currently pregnant women experienced complications and 36.8% of those who completed pregnancies experienced delivery/abortion complications. Adverse birth outcomes included: low birthweight, 10.5%; preterm delivery, 26.5%; and infant mortality, 2.9%. Of women who experienced conflict-related violence (30.8%) and non-partner sexual violence (3.1%), the majority did not seek medical care (64.6%). Conflict violence and stress score was significantly associated with reported gynecologic conditions, and stress score was found to mediate the relationship between exposure to conflict violence and self-rated health. This study contributes to the understanding of experience of conflict violence among women, stress, and reproductive health needs. Findings demonstrate the need for better targeting of reproductive health services in refugee settings, as well as referral to psychosocial services for survivors of violence.
AJRH Managing Editor
Faculty of Health, Sports and Social Work, Research Centre Mental Health Nursing, Inholland University of Applied Sciences,. Amsterdam ... relationship and whether to have sex, and their intentions towards SRH behaviour, such as condom use were positive. The SRH ... Keywords: Adolescents, Intervention, Sex Education.
As a past consultant to IDRC, the World Health Organization, and other institutions, her expertise is in the health, legal, ethical, and socioeconomic issues affecting the lives of ... Dans les pays à faible revenu et les pays à revenu intermédiaire où le tabagisme est répandu, la tuberculose constitue un problème majeur.
government became the main funding source for RH services (44.2%), partly reflecting government enhanced commitment to increase resources for maternal and child health, and due to exemption of pregnant women from paying for health care. Nevertheless, this commitment didn't last and the financing burden was borne ...
reforms such as Public Sector Reform Program, Local Government Reform Program and Public. Financial Management ... the international community to account for investing adequately in the health of women and children. Policy makers .... Inadequate provision of maternal and newborn health care, combined with minimal.
Rocío Rivas Martín
Full Text Available Introduction: Health care to women is mainly focused on their gynecological and reproductive health. It is directed toward heterosexual women, their coital relations and the gestation, and doesn´t consider other practices and health issues. In recent years, lesbian women have become more visible in society, recalling that should not focus solely on sexual vaginal coitus and demanding their desire of being mothers.Objetives: With this study we try to be closer to lesbian women´s perceptions about their sexual and reproductive health, as well as trying to determine the factors that influence their health care and their relationship with the health system. Methodology: For this purpose was carried out a qualitative study among lesbian women of different ages. Techniques of collected data used were in-depth interview and discussion group. Results: The results show that lesbians feel safe at the risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections; in addition they express their difficulties to reveal their sexual identity to healthcare professionals as well as problems accessing maternity. Conclusions: We conclude with the idea of the need for greater diversity and sexual health training for professionals, as well as further research on gynecological, sexual and reproductive health of this group of population.
Russel J. Reiter
Full Text Available Melatonin has a wide variety of beneficial actions at the level of the gonads and their adnexa. Some actions are mediated via its classic membrane melatonin receptors while others seem to be receptor-independent. This review summarizes many of the published reports which confirm that melatonin, which is produced in the ovary, aids in advancing follicular maturation and preserving the integrity of the ovum prior to and at the time of ovulation. Likewise, when ova are collected for in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer, treating them with melatonin improves implantation and pregnancy rates. Melatonin synthesis as well as its receptors have also been identified in the placenta. In this organ, melatonin seems to be of particular importance for the maintenance of the optimal turnover of cells in the villous trophoblast via its ability to regulate apoptosis. For male gametes, melatonin has also proven useful in protecting them from oxidative damage and preserving their viability. Incubation of ejaculated animal sperm improves their motility and prolongs their viability. For human sperm as well, melatonin is also a valuable agent for protecting them from free radical damage. In general, the direct actions of melatonin on the gonads and adnexa of mammals indicate it is an important agent for maintaining optimal reproductive physiology.
Reiter, Russel J.; Rosales-Corral, Sergio A.; Manchester, Lucien C.; Tan, Dun-Xian
Melatonin has a wide variety of beneficial actions at the level of the gonads and their adnexa. Some actions are mediated via its classic membrane melatonin receptors while others seem to be receptor-independent. This review summarizes many of the published reports which confirm that melatonin, which is produced in the ovary, aids in advancing follicular maturation and preserving the integrity of the ovum prior to and at the time of ovulation. Likewise, when ova are collected for in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer, treating them with melatonin improves implantation and pregnancy rates. Melatonin synthesis as well as its receptors have also been identified in the placenta. In this organ, melatonin seems to be of particular importance for the maintenance of the optimal turnover of cells in the villous trophoblast via its ability to regulate apoptosis. For male gametes, melatonin has also proven useful in protecting them from oxidative damage and preserving their viability. Incubation of ejaculated animal sperm improves their motility and prolongs their viability. For human sperm as well, melatonin is also a valuable agent for protecting them from free radical damage. In general, the direct actions of melatonin on the gonads and adnexa of mammals indicate it is an important agent for maintaining optimal reproductive physiology. PMID:23549263
Valenzuela, M S; Herold, J M; Morris, L; López, I M
In 1988 a survey was carried out in order to obtain information on knowledge about reproduction, sexual activity, attitudes, and use of contraceptive methods among residents between 15 and 24 years of age in Greater Santiago. For this purpose, a multistage, self-weighted, non-replacement probability sample was chosen from the entire Santiago urban area. After 2,898 households were visited, 865 women and 800 men were selected and interviewed. For the interview, a questionnaire with 156 questions was developed; many questions were similar to those included in similar surveys in Brazil and Guatemala. The interviewers were professionals who had received prior training. Although 75% of the interviewees had attended sex education classes, they had erroneous ideas on various basic subjects. Sixty-nine percent of the women interviewed had undergone menarche before attending these classes. In addition, 35.4% of the women and 65.0% of the men had had sexual relations prior to marriage, and less than 20% had used any contraceptive method. More than 60% of the interviewees who had children had conceived them before marrying. These findings point up the necessity of offering sex education classes for children and young people, as well as facilitating their access to family planning services, in order to decrease the number of illegitimate and unwanted children that are born in Chile.
OBJECTIVE: To report the pregnancy outcomes in Irish female renal transplant recipients on modern maintenance immunosuppression. METHODS: The Republic of Ireland transplant database was accessed to identify the patient cohort in question. All female renal transplant recipients whose transplantation was in Ireland before or during their reproductive years were included. A questionnaire was sent to the identified women. A chart review was performed for those women who reported a pregnancy following renal transplantation. RESULTS: Two hundred and ten women met the inclusion criteria. There was a response rate of 70% (n = 148). Eighteen women reported 29 pregnancies. The live birth rate was 76%. The mean gestation of the live births was 36.2 weeks with a mean birth weight of 3.0 kg. There were six cases of pre-eclampsia. Twin pregnancies and those entering pregnancy with a creatinine greater than 135 micromol\\/l had particularly complicated clinical courses. Four women had not conceived post transplant despite actively trying for over 1 year. Two women utilised assisted fertility methods (in vitro fertilisation), one of whom became pregnant. CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of women who attempt to conceive following renal transplantation are successful, without the use of assisted fertility. Pregnancy in this setting warrants meticulous multidisciplinary care.
Epelboin, Sylvie; Patrat, Catherine; Luton, Dominique
Around 3% of children are conceived by assisted reproductive technology (ART) in France. Several questions concerning the early or late follow-up of these children are raised, as there are differences in the population in charge and because of clinical or biological procedures used. Nevertheless, one has to be cautious in interpreting the data as it is difficult to study one factor at a time, and as many other events can bias the results. However, ART is associated with a higher risk, even moderate, of prematurity, foetal hypotrophy, and neo natal complications, as compared to natural conceived children. There is also increasing evidence that ART-conceived children present more epigenetic diseases and congenital mainly concerning cardio-vascular, uro-genital and musculo-skeletal systems, as natural conceived children. Absolute risks remain anyway moderate and reassuring. Long term follow up is encouraging, with correct growth or psychomotor development of these children, and no significant excess of risk for cancer, but it is necessary to carry on this follow up in order to have data on their development to adulthood and on their fertility.
Smith, Elise; Behrmann, Jason; Martin, Carolina; Williams-Jones, Bryn
A subcategory of medical tourism, reproductive tourism has been the subject of much public and policy debate in recent years. Specific concerns include: the exploitation of individuals and communities, access to needed health care services, fair allocation of limited resources, and the quality and safety of services provided by private clinics. To date, the focus of attention has been on the thriving medical and reproductive tourism sectors in Asia and Eastern Europe; there has been much less consideration given to more recent 'players' in Latin America, notably fertility clinics in Chile, Brazil, Mexico and Argentina. In this paper, we examine the context-specific ethical and policy implications of private Argentinean fertility clinics that market reproductive services via the internet. Whether or not one agrees that reproductive services should be made available as consumer goods, the fact is that they are provided as such by private clinics around the world. We argue that basic national regulatory mechanisms are required in countries such as Argentina that are marketing fertility services to local and international publics. Specifically, regular oversight of all fertility clinics is essential to ensure that consumer information is accurate and that marketed services are safe and effective. It is in the best interests of consumers, health professionals and policy makers that the reproductive tourism industry adopts safe and responsible medical practices.
...] Joint Meeting of the Advisory Committee for Reproductive Health Drugs and the Drug Safety and Risk... Reproductive Health Drugs and the Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee. General Function of the... presentation may be limited. If the number of registrants requesting to speak is greater than can be reasonably...
...] Joint Meeting of the Advisory Committee for Reproductive Health Drugs and the Drug Safety and Risk... Reproductive Health Drugs and the Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee. General Function of the... East, Adelphi, MD. The conference center telephone number is: 301 985-7300. Contact Person: Kalyani...
...] Joint Meeting of the Advisory Committee for Reproductive Health Drugs and the Drug Safety and Risk... Reproductive Health Drugs and the Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee. General Function of the... before February 7, 2013. Time allotted for each presentation may be limited. If the number of registrants...
...] Joint Meeting of the Advisory Committee for Reproductive Health Drugs and the Drug Safety and Risk... Reproductive Health Drugs and the Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee. General Function of the..., Adelphi, MD. The conference center telephone number is 301-985-7300. Contact Person: Kalyani Bhatt, Center...
Ma, Ning; Hou, Xiaohui
A large body of research has attempted to explore the links between women's autonomy and their uptake of reproductive health services in the South Asia region, but the evidence so far is inconclusive. This study uses the Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement Survey to examine the influence of household decision making on women's uptake of reproductive health services. The analys...
Nobelius, Ann-Maree; Kalina, Bessie; Pool, Robert; Whitworth, Jimmy; Chesters, Janice; Power, Robert
This paper defines how out-of-school adolescents from Masaka District in rural southwest Uganda currently receive sexual and reproductive health information and how they would prefer to receive that information. Information adolescents feel they lack falls into three broad categories: sexual and reproductive health issues, the negotiation of sex…
Manlove, Jennifer; Terry-Humen, Elizabeth; Ikramullah, Erum; Holcombe, Emily
When it comes to the reproductive health behaviors of teens and young adults, far more public attention has focused on women than on men. That's not surprising. After all, men don't actually have the babies. Yet the importance of understanding men's reproductive health behaviors should not be overlooked, given their potential implications for men…
In conclusion, the study reveals that there is a wide gap between social expectations of women\\'s reproductive health and cultural realities in Nupeland of Nigeria. The study thus recommends, among others, the need for sustainable safe motherhood campaign in culture bound societies. Résumé Analyse de la Situation de ...
Asklund, Camilla; Jørgensen, Niels; Skakkebaek, N E
Some studies have suggested an association between paternal subfertility and hypospadias among their sons, although the association has not been systematically investigated. We therefore compared male reproductive health among a group of fathers of boys with hypospadias and a group of fathers...
A. I. Olugbenga-Bello
Full Text Available Introduction. All over the world, numbers of prisoners have being increasing with majority in the sexually active age group; hence diseases such as HIV, Tuberculosis and Hepatitis are more prevalent in prisons than in the community. This study thus aims to provide an overview of the reproductive health status of adult prison inmates in Osun State. Methodology. This is a cross-sectional study among adult inmates in Osun State prison. Data was obtained from 209 selected respondents using pre-tested semi structured questionnaire. Result. Majority of the respondents were in the age group 20–39 years with mean age of 30.9+7.5. 73.2% are aware of STIs, 93.3% HIV/AIDS and 81.3% contraception. 54.6% had multiple sexual partners before incarceration and 23.3% of them used condom always. 89.5% were not involved in any sexual practice inside the prison, 9.1% masturbated and 1.4% had homosexual partners. Less than 6% had access to male condoms gotten from prison staffs and prison clinics. Conclusion and recommendation. No comprehensive reproductive health care system to address reproductive health services in prisons. Respondents’ knowledge about STIs, HIV/AIDS and contraception is good, but their condom usage is low compared with the knowledge. Government should put in place specific reproductive health programmes in prisons.
Reeve, Charlie L.; Basalik, Debra
The current study examines the degree to which state intellectual capital, state religiosity and reproductive health form a meaningful nexus of ecological relations. Though the specific magnitude of effects vary across outcomes, results from hierarchical regression analyses were consistent with the hypothesized path model indicating that a state's…
Amira Mohamed Elhassan
Full Text Available A cross sectional survey was carried out in dairy farms in four States of Sudan to determine prevalence of reproductive health disorders that affect dairy cattle industries in the country. A total of 575 adult female cows in dairy farms located in Khartoum, Gezira, Sennar, and White Nile States were investigated using questionnaire survey and face-to-face interviews with the owners. The results indicated that 24.4% of the animals were affected with one or more reproductive health disorders. Abortion (57.1% represented the major health problem affecting calf yield, followed by infertility (34.3% and neonatal death (8.6%. Other health problems included stillbirth, vaginitis and retained placenta, anomalies, metritis and repeat breeder. Most of the abortion cases were detected during third trimester (76.25% followed by first (12.5% and second (11.25% trimesters. Finally, countrywide investigations of reproductive disorders and increasing awareness to the owners are recommended for designing successful control strategies of reproductive disorders in Sudan.
Berro Pizzarossa, Lucia; Perehudoff, Katrina
General Comment No. 22, issued in 2016 by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR), clarifies states' legal duties to respect, protect, and fulfill the right to sexual and reproductive health (SRH). Our study analyzes domestic constitutions around the world to investigate
Córdova Pozo, K.; Chandra-Mouli, V.; Decat, P.; Nelson, E.; de Meyer, S.; Jaruseviciene, L.; Vega, B.; Segura, Z.; Auquilla, N.; Hagens, A.; van Braeckel, D.; Michielsen, K.
In February 2014, an international congress on Promoting Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health (ASRH) took place in Cuenca, Ecuador. Its objective was to share evidence on effective ASRH intervention projects and programs in Latin America, and to link this evidence to ASRH policy and program
Steeneveld, W.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Hogeveen, H.
Sensor systems for oestrus and disease detection are increasingly used on dairy farms. It is, however, not known whether using sensor systems also improves production, health, reproduction and economic performance of the farm. The first objective of this study is to investigate the effect of
Rijsdijk, L.E.; Lie, R.; Bos, A.E.R.; Leerlooijer, J.N.; Kok, G.
This paper presents the findings from an explorative study comparing sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) against local realities for young people in Uganda. This was done by analysing statements by Ugandan adolescents extracted from focus group discussions relating to two SRHRs central
The purpose of this study is to determine the understanding of reproductive health among parents and female adolescents with Down syndrome. This cross-sectional study involved 22 parents and 22 female adolescents with Down syndrome in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The parents were required to fill up the socio-demographic information in questionnaire…
van der Geugten, J.; Dijkstra, M.; van Meijel, B.K.G.; den Uyl, M.H.G.; de Vries, N.
There have been few assessments of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) education programmes in sub-Saharan Africa from the students' and educators' perspective. This study examined students' opinions on an SRH programme in northern Ghana and explored the facilitators and barriers for educators
NK De Vries; Jolien van der Geugten; prof Berno van Meijel; M Dijkstra; M Den Uyl
There have been few assessments of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) education programmes in sub-Saharan Africa from the students’ and educators’ perspective. This study examined students’ opinions on an SRH programme in northern Ghana and explored the facilitators and barriers for educators
Kirby, Douglas; And Others
An evaluation of the reproductive health programs of six diverse school-based clinics measured the impact of the clinics on sexual behavior and contraceptive use. All six clinics served low-income populations; at five of them, the great majority of the students were black. An analysis of student visits by type of care given found that these…
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.
This document announces web sites that address adolescent reproductive and sexual health. The web sites are arranged alphabetically by name, and refer to the owner of the site rather than the title. The profile of each site consists of basic information such as the address of the organization or owner, fax number, telephone number, e-mail address,…
He, D.; Zhou, Y.; Ji, N.; Wu, S.; Wang, Z.; Decat, P.; Moyer, E.; Minkauskiene, M.; Pang, C.; Cheng, Y.
Aim: The purpose of this study was to broadly assess the level of knowledge, attitude and behaviors related to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) among unmarried female migrants in China. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted and a self-administered questionnaire was
Sexual and reproductive health (SRH) education is one way Namibia combats HIV/AIDS. This exploratory study had two objectives: to investigate attitudes and perceptions towards sex education, and to see what purpose sex education serves in Namibia. To what extent do stakeholders support sex education in Namibia? What kind of obstacles exists to SRH…
Full Text Available Objectives: To assess status of reproductive health and nutrition amongst girls attending high school in an urban area of Bangladesh. Methods: This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in four selected girl’s high schools. A structured pre-tested questionnaire and a checklist were used to collect data through face-to-face interview and anthropometry. Results: A total of 360 adolescents girls were interviewed. The mean age at menarche of the respondents was found to be 12.4 years. More than half (54.2% of the respondents were malnourished (BMI < 18.5. More than four-fifths (83% were found to be suffering from reproductive health problems during or after menstruation. The most common complain (60% disclosed by the adolescent girls was dysmenorrhoea. Majority (300 of the respondents acknowledged practicing unhygienic protective measures during menstruation. Conclusion: More than half of the adolescents were malnourished, practiced unhygienic protective measures during menstruation and disclosed different types of reproductive health complaints. Findings of the study strongly recommend that adolescent girls of urban Bangladesh need proper and appropriate management of their reproductive health problems. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2008; 2(1: 9-11
This article concerns a 3-year materials development project that was implemented by the Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association and the Bureau of Non-Physical Family Resilience. The project was developed in response to the need for improving adolescent reproductive health in Jakarta, Yogyakarta and West Java, where adolescent problems have been increasing during the last decade. The project's long-term goal is centered on raising the commitment of families to instill in their children a better understanding of adolescent reproductive health concepts and desirable family values. For its short-term objectives, the project seeks to develop a basic information, education and communication (IEC)/counseling strategy and policy in support of a family-centered approach to adolescent reproductive health; promote better understanding of reproductive health needs of adolescents among the policy-makers; and improving the IEC/counseling skills of personnel at the community level. The project used five strategies to achieve its goals; namely, 1) preparation of a media development and production plan; 2) conducting a needs assessment; 3) production of three types of materials; 4) implementation of three key activities; and 5) periodic monitoring of activities.
Salih, Sana M; Elsarrag, Sarah Z; Prange, Elizabeth; Contreras, Karli; Osman, Radya G; Eikoff, Jens C; Puccetti, Diane
Female childhood cancer survivors are at an increased risk of reproductive health impairment. We compared reproductive health outcomes with the recommended standard in a cohort of childhood cancer survivors. A retrospective chart review of 222 female childhood cancer survivors aged 21 years or younger that presented to a tertiary referral center between 1997-2008 was initiated. The main outcome measures were the compliance with the American Society of Clinical Oncology guidelines for childhood cancer survivor management of reproductive health. In particular, we evaluated menstrual cycle regularity, fertility preservation counseling, and endocrine profile, as defined by follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) levels as surrogate markers for ovarian reserve. Secondary outcomes were to study the contribution of survivor clinics in enforcing these guidelines. Of 136 patients older than 13 years at their last visit, 58 patients (43%) had FSH data available and none had AMH data. Patients were stratified into 3 groups according to FSH levels. Forty of 58 patients (69%) have normal ovarian reserve (FSH level 40. Most patients with amenorrhea have elevated FSH levels indicating primary ovarian insufficiency, while 3 patients (2.2%) have low FSH levels consistent with hypothalamic amenorrhea. None of the patients were counseled on fertility preservation. Reproductive health follow-up in children with cancer, including FSH and AMH measurement when indicated, should be established and strictly adhered. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
adolescents. Ils sont traditionnellement négligés en faveur des adolescents qui sont toujours en scolarisation qui ont beaucoup plus d\\'accès aux renseignements. African Journal of Reproductive Health Vol. 8 (3) 2004: 55-67. AJOL African Journals ...
Klinger, Amanda; Asgary, Ramin
In Madagascar, prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unplanned pregnancies are high among adolescents. Limited reproductive health education is available. In northern Madagascar, in 2014, we assessed the baseline knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy regarding STIs/HIV and family planning among 155 adolescents, and designed and implemented a 6-week reproductive health curriculum for adolescents using complementary teaching methods. We evaluated the curriculum through pre- and post-curriculum surveys of adolescents using paired t-tests. Pre-test survey revealed a general lack of knowledge regarding different types of STIs. Post-curriculum, there was a significant improvement in the following educational domains: general knowledge of HIV/AIDS, other STIs and family planning (49%±17% to 65%±15%) (pknowledge, attitude and self-efficacy (53%±14% to 68%±14%) (psex and usage of condoms. Important misconceptions and knowledge gaps regarding reproductive health exist among adolescents. The comprehensive reproductive health curriculum with complementary teaching methods was feasible, well-received and effective, and could be considered for integration into the schools' curricula. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available In Thailand, numerous reproductive health projects funded by both national and international agencies have been established in an attempt to mitigate reproductive health problems. Solving problems on reproductive health projects that only have temporary funding requires effective project management that hopefully leads to better long-term desired outcomes. This paper identifies the association between collaborative reproductive health (CRH project management and sustainable outcomes. The Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide is employed to benchmark project management practices on four CRH projects in Thailand. The research methodology presented in this paper comprises of content analysis and questionnaire survey. It is evident that limited use of certain project management knowledge areas (PMKAs affects CRH project implementation and success. The association between the use of PMKAs and sustainable outcomes on these projects is also presented. Scope, integration and quality management were found to be the most influential PMKAs for sustainable outcomes on CRH projects. Nevertheless, the projects showed a shortage of project management processes for PMKAs that were required to attain the outcomes.
Mariansdatter, Saga Elise; Ernst, Andreas; Toft, Gunnar
Objective To investigate the possible associations between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and daughters' age of menarche and subsequent markers of reproductive health. Methods Nine hundred eighty-five pregnant women (80 %) were enrolled at their routine 30th week examinations in 198...
Factors related to fertility such as population size, composition and growth rate may influence a community's ability to adapt to climate change, particularly in poor countries. This Perspective describes theories and analytic strategies that can link climate to reproductive health outcomes.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many programmes on young people and HIV/AIDS prevention have focused on the in-school and channeled sexual and reproductive health messages through schools with limited activities for the young people's families. The assumption has been that parents in African families do not talk about sexual and reproductive health (SRH with their children. These approach has had limited success because of failure to factor in the young person's family context, and the influence of parents. This paper explores parent-child communication about SRH in families, content, timing and reasons for their communication with their children aged 14-24 years in rural Tanzania. Methods This study employed an ethnographic research design. Data collection involved eight weeks of participant observation, 17 focus group discussions and 46 in-depth interviews conducted with young people aged 14-24 years and parents of young people in this age group. Thematic analysis was conducted with the aid of NVIVO 7 software. Results Parent-child communication about SRH happened in most families. The communication was mainly on same sex basis (mother-daughter and rarely father-son or father-daughter and took the form of warnings, threats and physical discipline. Communication was triggered by seeing or hearing something a parent perceived negative and would not like their child to experience (such as a death attributable to HIV and unmarried young person's pregnancy. Although most young people were relaxed with their mothers than fathers, there is lack of trust as to what they can tell their parents for fear of punishment. Parents were limited as to what they could communicate about SRH because of lack of appropriate knowledge and cultural norms that restricted interactions between opposite sex. Conclusions Due to the consequences of the HIV pandemic, parents are making attempts to communicate with their children about SRH. They are however, limited by cultural barriers
Mugisha, Frank; Birungi, Harriet; Askew, Ian
This paper explores the ability for reproductive health (RH) non-governmental organizations (NGO) in Uganda to survive in the context of SWAp and decentralization. The authors argue that, contrary to the perceptions that this context may increase NGO's financial vulnerability, a SWAp and a decentralized system may provide an opportunity that should be embraced by NGOs to enhance their sustainability and effectiveness by reducing their current dependency on donor funding. The paper discusses the systemic weaknesses of many NGOs that currently make them vulnerable, and observes that unless these weaknesses are addressed, such NGOs will lose their space in the SWAp and decentralization arena. The authors suggest that NGOs need to recognize the opportunities that participating in public-private partnerships through a SWAp can offer them for long-term and significant funding. They need also to develop their capacity to pro-actively participate in a SWAp and decentralized context by becoming more entrepreneurial in nature, through re-orienting their organizational philosophies and strategic planning and budgeting so as to be able to partner effectively with the public sector in accessing funds made available through health sector reform.
Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Banwell, Cathy; Carmichael, Gordon; Utomo, Iwu Dwisetyani; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Kelly, Matthew; Sleigh, Adrian
This study sheds light on obstacles to safe sexual health for young Thais and their need for appropriate sexual and reproductive health services. The study population was 1,745 unmarried adolescents aged 17-20 who resided or worked in Chiang Mai, the major city in northern Thailand. The study used quantitative and qualitative methods to explore the vulnerability of sexually active adolescents as well as the lack of support and care for them from parents and health providers. We found that young Thais still prefer pharmacies for self-medication and use government health care facilities as a last resort. Current health services are not suitable for young people in northern Thailand because they lack privacy and impose judgemental attitudes, especially towards sexually active adolescent females. Current programs for adolescent sexual and reproductive health focus on education and counselling and do not provide appropriate privacy or clinical care. There is a pressing need for advocacy, policy support for the development of youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health services in Thailand. PMID:23082599
Lithur, Nana Oye
Traditional and cultural values, social perceptions, religious teachings and criminalisation have facilitated stigmatisation of abortion in Ghana. Abortion is illegal in Ghana except in three instances. Though the law allows for performance of abortion in three circumstances, the Ghana reproductive health service policy did not have any induced legal abortion services component to cover the three exceptions until it was revised in 2003. The policy only had 'unsafe and post-abortion' care components, and abortions performed in health facilities operated by the Ghana Health Service were performed under this component. Though the policy has been revised, women and girls who need abortion services in Ghana more often resort to the backstreet dangerous methods and procedures. Criminalisation of abortion and those who perform abortions has contributed to unsafe abortion, the second leading cause of maternal deaths in Ghana. Most of these are performed outside the formal health service structures. Traditionally, abortion is perceived as a shameful act and the community may shun and give a woman who has caused anabortion derogatory names. Would provision of legal abortion services be culturally acceptable within a Ghanaian community? Yes, if they are made aware of the reproductive health benefits of providing safe abortion services. Three major strategies that would help to destigmatise abortion in the community are (1) the liberal interpretation of the three exceptions to the law on abortion; (2) expanding community awareness of its reproductive health benefits; and (3) improving and increasing access to legal abortion services within the formal health facilities.
Campbell, Jared M; Lane, Michelle; Owens, Julie A; Bakos, Hassan W
This systematic review investigated the effect of paternal obesity on reproductive potential. Databases searched were Pubmed, Ovid, Web of Science, Scopus, Cinahl and Embase. Papers were critically appraised by two reviewers, and data were extracted using a standardized tool. Outcomes were: likelihood of infertility, embryo development, clinical pregnancy, live birth, pregnancy viability, infant development, sperm; concentration, morphology, motility, volume, DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and seminal plasma factors. Thirty papers were included, with a total participant number of 115,158. Obese men were more likely to experience infertility (OR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.53-1.79), their rate of live birth per cycle of assisted reproduction technology (ART) was reduced (OR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.44-0.97) and they had a 10% absolute risk increase of pregnancy non-viability. Additionally, obese men had an increased percentage of sperm with low MMP, DNA fragmentation, and abnormal morphology. Clinically significant differences were not found for conventional semen parameters. From these findings it can be concluded that male obesity is associated with reduced reproductive potential. Furthermore, it may be informative to incorporate DNA fragmentation analysis and MMP assessment into semen testing, especially for obese men whose results suggest they should have normal fertility. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Jennifer Manlove, Heather Fish, Kristin Anderson Moore Child Trends, Bethesda, MD, USA Background: US adolescents have high rates of teen pregnancy, childbearing, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs, highlighting the need to identify and implement effective programs that will help improve teen sexual and reproductive health. Materials and methods: This review identified 103 random-assignment evaluations of 85 programs that incorporated intent-to-treat analyses and assessed impacts on pregnancy, childbearing, STIs, and their key determinants – sexual activity, number of sexual partners, condom use, and other contraceptive use – among teens. This review describes the evidence base for five broad program approaches, including abstinence education, comprehensive sex education, clinic-based programs, youth development programs, and parent–youth relationship programs. We also describe programs with impacts on key outcomes, including pregnancy/childbearing, STIs, and those that found impacts on both sexual activity and contraceptive use. Results: Our review identified 52 effective programs: 38 with consistent impacts on reproductive health outcomes, and 14 with mixed findings (across subpopulations, follow-ups, or multiple measures of a single outcome. We found that a variety of program approaches produced impacts on sexual and reproductive health outcomes. Parent–youth relationship programs and clinic-based program evaluations more frequently showed impacts than other program approaches, although we also identified a number of abstinence-education, comprehensive sex education, and youth-development programs with impacts on sexual and reproductive health outcomes. Overall, we identified nine program evaluations with impacts on teen pregnancies or births, five with impacts on reducing STIs, and 15 with impacts on both delaying/reducing sexual activity and increasing contraceptive use (including condom use. Conclusion: Future efforts should
Full Text Available Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/FGC constitutes a tragic health and human rights issue of girls and women in a number of countries, mainly in Africa. The practice has serious health consequences, both physical and psychological. Attempts to eradicate the practice have not been successful over the past few decades. Medicalisation of the practice has added to its propagation, and this is not valid from ethical and professional standpoints. Further efforts need to be exerted to eliminate the practice and alleviate the sufferings that millions of girls and women worldwide are unnecessarily subjected to. This article reviews the problem and discusses the consequences to health for women and girls, and suggests ways to eradicate the practice.
Kelsall, Helen L; Sim, Malcolm R; Ikin, Jillian F; Forbes, Andrew B; McKenzie, Dean P; Glass, Deborah C; Ittak, Peter
Abstract Background Since the 1991 Gulf War concerns have been raised about the effects of deployment to the Gulf War on veterans' health. Studies of the reproductive health of Gulf War veterans have reported varied findings. Methods We undertook a cross-sectional study of male Australian Gulf War veterans (n = 1,424) and a randomly sampled military comparison group (n = 1,548). The study was conducted from August 2000 to April 2002. A postal questionnaire included questions about difficultie...
Hossain, Md Kamal; Mondal, Md Nazrul Islam; Akter, Mst Nazniz
This study evaluated the reproductive health rights, women empowerment and gender equity in a rural area of Bangladesh. Three hundred married women of reproductive age (15-49 years) in Meherpur District, Bangladesh were interviewed using a structured questionnaire and purposing sampling techniques. The logistic regression analysis was used to determine the dominating factors affecting reproductive health rights. To fulfill the objectives of the study the two main factors, age at marriage and family planning acceptance of the respondents, were regarded as the determinants. The study results revealed that almost all the respondents were housewives (82.3%), one-third (31.0%) did not avail any modern facility, and their yearly income was very low. Moreover, about half of the women (52.7%) were very young (≤30 years), most of them (79.0%) had married early (women's reproductive health rights, marriage after the age of 18 and family planning acceptance among couples needs to be enhanced in Mehrpur District in Bangladesh.
Hossain, Md Kamal; Mondal, Md Nazrul Islam; Akter, Mst Nazniz
Background This study evaluated the reproductive health rights, women empowerment and gender equity in a rural area of Bangladesh. Methods Three hundred married women of reproductive age (15-49 years) in Meherpur District, Bangladesh were interviewed using a structured questionnaire and purposing sampling techniques. The logistic regression analysis was used to determine the dominating factors affecting reproductive health rights. To fulfill the objectives of the study the two main factors, age at marriage and family planning acceptance of the respondents, were regarded as the determinants. Results The study results revealed that almost all the respondents were housewives (82.3%), one-third (31.0%) did not avail any modern facility, and their yearly income was very low. Moreover, about half of the women (52.7%) were very young (≤30 years), most of them (79.0%) had married early (reproductive health rights, marriage after the age of 18 and family planning acceptance among couples needs to be enhanced in Mehrpur District in Bangladesh. PMID:23926496
During the first decade of the 21st century a new "dramatic story" about the growing global surrogacy industry brought renewed attention to surrogacy as a social problem and a health policy issue. This paper asks: What cultural assumptions about gender, family and the global reproductive health market are revealed in current U.S. media coverage of and public discourses about surrogacy? From a qualitative analysis of prominent news accounts of surrogacy that were published in 2008, New York Times articles and blogs published on the topic between 2006 and 2010, and over 1000 online reader comments to these articles, I identify key frames used to discursively construct and debate the international surrogacy market. This study reveals the distinct contrast between the occasions when reproductive labor is rhetorically distanced from commodification processes and when it is linked to those processes. The findings contribute to intersectional analyses of assisted reproductive practices and women's health/bodies/gametes. In particular, this study's analysis of recent media framings of and public discourses about surrogacy across the globe serves as another illustration that national/classed/racialized bodies continue to be reproductively stratified via differently gendered discourses about women, motherhood and family. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The rest of the child health articles focus on correlates of autism among primary and secondary children in Ni- geria.7; Caries and dental erosion vis-à-vis increased soft- drink availability in Uganda8; physical activity, body mass index and blood pressure in primary school pupils attend- ing private schools.9; and long-term ...
The Talk 2 Me project is a good example of putting knowledge into action and trying out best practices gained from conferences. The design of this project was based on knowledge shared by Straight Talk Foundation of Uganda during the 2008 “Investing in Young People's Health and Development: Research that Improves ...
Using NCS Pearson statistical software, the sample size for the study was determined to be 851. This estimated sample size was allocated to the 23 health districts (strata) using probability proportional to size (PPS). Having obtained the sample size for each district, the healthcare providers to be interviewed from each ...
Sep 1, 2017 ... In pastoralist areas of Tanzania, there is low attractiveness of remote posts and difficulty in recruiting health workers to these areas. Long distances to .... forest. You know what? The great fear is that many women are being eaten by hyena in forests while giving birth.” (Woman FGD participant from Dizi ...
Contraceptive use by women in Accra, Ghana: results from the 2003 Accra women's health survey · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. RMK Adanu, JD Seffah, AG Hill, R Darko, RB Duda, JK Anarfi ...
Prevalence and Determinants of Early Antenatal Care Visit among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care in Debre Berhan Health Institutions, Central Ethiopia · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Amtatachew M Zegeye, Bikes D Bitew, Digsu N Koye ...
Religious perceptions and attitudes of men towards discontinuation of female genital cutting in Nigeria: evidence from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Ayotunde Titilayo, Martin E. Palamuleni, John ...
) into the Public Health System in Kenya: A Qualitative Study · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. N Mack, C Wong, K McKenna, A Lemons, J Odhiambo, K Agot, 54-62 ...
education, nutrition, access to health care services, power of decision making and employment. Thus the ... from the Gulf of Guinea on the Atlantic coast in the south to the fringes of the Sahara Desert in the north. ..... healthcare facilities to private use of outright sale to other people thereby living the people at the mercy of ...
Methods: A Medline search and search of other internet search engines for published studies on contraceptive commodity security and maternal and child health in West Africa was done. The journals were accessed online and from public libraries. Results: Contraceptive prevalence rate in West Africa is generally low.
Lazarus, Jeff; Nadisauskiene, R J; Liljestrand, J
Public attention in Sweden has been drawn to three neighboring states that recently joined the European Union: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. At this historic moment, it seems instructive to look at how the rapidly reformed health sectors of these ex-Soviet republics are responding to the vision...
In South Africa, the private sector has responded to the HIV epidemic by providing treatment in the form of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The private sector has paved the way for policy and treatment regimens, while the public sector has reviewed health-systems capacity and the political will to provide ...
Madimenos, Felicia C; Snodgrass, J Josh; Liebert, Melissa A; Cepon, Tara J; Sugiyama, Lawrence S
Clinical and epidemiological research suggest that bone mineral density (BMD) in women is shaped by various reproductive factors such as parity and lactation patterns. However, the extent of these effects on BMD remains unclear because of contradictory findings and a focus on industrialized populations. Because fertility patterns in these groups are vastly different than those of women from non-Western, subsistence populations, our current understanding of the reproductive effects on skeletal health is incomplete. Using a life history perspective, this study examines the relationship between reproductive factors and bone density among women from the Indigenous Shuar population, an Amazonian Ecuadorian forager-horticulturalist group. This preliminary, cross-sectional study included 130 premenopausal and postmenopausal women (14-86 years old) from the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador. Anthropometrics were recorded, as was estimated BMD using a calcaneal ultrasonometer. A reproductive history questionnaire was administered that included questions regarding menarche, parity, lactation patterns, and menopause. Among postmenopausal women, early menarche and greater stature were significantly associated with higher bone density values. Among premenopausal women, few significant relationships between bone values and reproductive variables were documented; effects of lactation appeared to be transient and restored following weaning. Although preliminary and not based on longitudinal data, these findings suggest that the effects of reproduction are transient as the system of calcium homeostasis in premenopausal women efficiently restores the bone loss that results from metabolically active reproductive states. Further, this research suggests that the timing of early life history events may canalize bone density phenotype. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Skakkebaek, Niels E
During the past few decades there has been a significantly increasing trend in germ cell tumours all over the world, particularly in countries with Caucasian populations. The changes in incidence have occurred so fast that only environmental factors can explain this development. This review focus...... animal studies that demonstrate adverse reproductive effects caused by a number of endocrine-disrupting chemicals to which humans are exposed as part of our modern lifestyle....... on the hypothesis that testicular germ cell cancer, which originates from germ cell neoplasia in situ, is of foetal origin and associated with other male reproductive problems through a testicular dysgenesis syndrome, also including foetal origin of impaired spermatogenesis, hypospadias and cryptorchidism....... There is little doubt that environmental factors associated with modern lifestyles have - in a broad sense - had an adverse influence on male reproductive health. The hypothesis that exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals plays a fundamental role in this trend is plausible. This is based on evidence from...
Beh, Hazel G; Pietsch, James H
This article focuses on the thorny and evolving legal issues and implications of health care decision-making for children and adolescents in matters of gender, sexual identity, sexual conduct, and reproduction. In treating minors, health care professionals increasingly experience competing duties and responsibilities to their patient, the parents or guardians, and to the state. This article gives health care professionals a foundation for understanding the legal concepts of adolescent health care decision-making and provides an approach for balancing the potential competing interests of these stakeholders while complying with professional standards,the law, and their own ethical and moral convictions.
Bhuiya, Nazmim S; Crowley, Jacqueline; Fletcher, Erica; McAdoo, Sarah Perez; Middleton, Dawn; Hallum-Montes, Rachel; Waggett, Jessica; Tendulkar, Shalini A
Health care practices can play a key role in reducing teen pregnancies, though current health care systems do not adequately meet adolescents' reproductive health needs. To address this gap, Youth First, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded, community-wide initiative in Holyoke and Springfield (Massachusetts) established partnerships with nine local health care practices to increase adolescent access to health services. However, we had limited knowledge about their reproductive health services and policies. To address this gap, assessments were conducted with staff using structured interviews and surveys to inform targeted efforts to enhance the quality and youth friendliness of adolescent reproductive health services. Findings revealed that many of the youth-friendly services best practices recommended by the CDC were not routinely implemented by all health care practices. Findings from this assessment can be used to support health care practices to facilitate widespread adoption of best practices related to meeting adolescents' reproductive health needs.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is global recognition of the reproductive health rights of people living with HIV (PLHIV. The aim of this research study was to explore the reproductive choices, and the factors influencing these choices, of HIV positive patients attending primary health care (PHC facilities in the Ekurhuleni health district of the Gauteng Province of South Africa. Methods During 2013, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in the Ekurhuleni health district. At each of three randomly selected community health centres, a random sample of HIV positive patients was selected. After informed consent was obtained, trained fieldworkers administered a structured questionnaire that elicited information on socio-demographics, reproductive choices and knowledge of reproductive options. Survey data were analysed using STATA® 13. Results The majority of survey participants (n = 430 were female (70% and unemployed (57%. The mean age of participants was 36.4 years (SD 8.6: 40.8 years (SD 8.7 for men and 34.5 years (SD7.8 for women. Among survey participants, 46% expressed a desire for children (95% CI: 41.4–50.9. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, predictors of desire for children were age less than 49 years, marriage or living together, and no biological children. The odds of wanting children was 16.48 [95% CI: 5.94–45.74] times higher for PLHIV without children, compared with those with two or more children, while for those less than 25 years, the odds of wanting children was 0.78 [95% CI: 0.23–2.59] compared with those older than 50 years. The PLHIV knowledge on the available reproductive options was limited, with the majority relying on the guidance of the health workers. Conclusion Health care providers at PHC level should be educated to address the reproductive health needs of PLHIV. These aspects should be reflected in provincial and national health policies.
De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Soliman, Ashraf; Mohamed, Yassin
The Centres for Disease Control and Prevention have defined a chronic diseases as an "illnesses that are prolonged, do not resolve spontaneously, and are rarely cured completely". Approximately 20% of all children have a chronic illness and 65% of them the illness is severe enough to interfere with daily activities. Failure of pubertal growth, delay or absence of sexual development, infertility and sexual dysfunction due to hypogonadism and defective spermatogenesis are well recognized disturbances among adolescents and young male adult patients with chronic diseases. The causes are multifactorial and can be due to disease itself, associated complications or drugs. Haemoglobinopathies, endocrine disorders, gastrointestinal and renal diseases are some examples that frequently cause some degree of disability. Infertility affects the future quality of life of these patients and is a predictor of stress in current and future relationships. Health care providers often neglect the reproductive health of chronically ill adolescents and young adults, although many studies indicate that they are sexually active and interested in knowing about their future fertility. This review article provides an overview of the literature concerning the impact of some chronic diseases in adolescents and young adults on reproductive health but will not address patients with cancer because it has been tackled adequately in the literature.MEDLINE database search of English-language medical journal articles published between 1975 and 2012 for papers related to reproductive health in adolescents and young adults with chronic diseases since childhood was done. Several Authors, recommend that all young adult patients with severe/prolonged chronic disease in childhood should be offered reproductive health care in a specialized center with appropriate expertise, involving a multidisciplinary team, including endocrinologists, andrologists, geneticists, psychologists, urologists and specialist
Full Text Available The most prevalent, curable sexually important diseases are those caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis and genital mycoplasmas. An important characteristic of these infections is their ability to cause long-term sequels in upper genital tract, thus potentially affecting the reproductive health in both sexes. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID, tubal factor infertility (TFI, and ectopic pregnancy (EP are well documented complications of C. trachomatis infection in women. The role of genital mycoplasmas in development of PID, TFI, and EP requires further evaluation, but growing evidence supports a significant role for these in the pathogenesis of chorioamnionitis, premature membrane rupture, and preterm labor in pregnant woman. Both C. trachomatis and genital mycoplasmas can affect the quality of sperm and possibly influence the fertility of men. For the purpose of this paper, basic, epidemiologic, clinical, therapeutic, and public health issue of these infections were reviewed and discussed, focusing on their impact on human reproductive health.