Research suggests that emotion dysregulation or difficulties in the modulation of emotional experience constitute risk for eating disorders. Recent work has also highlighted the role of certain eating-related cognitions, specifically expectations of negative emotional reinforcement from eating, in the development of disturbed eating patterns. However, it is unclear whether these expectancies are merely a dimension of a general inability to regulate emotions effectively or rather a unique cognitive-affective risk factor for the development of an eating disorder. This study examines the unique contribution of eating expectancies to symptoms of bulimia nervosa (BN) after controlling for two dimensions of emotion dysregulation (alexithymia and experiential avoidance) previously implicated in the phenomenology of eating disorders. Participants were 115 undergraduate women who self-reported demographics, alexithymia, experiential avoidance, eating expectancies, and symptoms of BN. Eating expectancies uniquely contributed 12.4% of the variance in symptoms of BN, F(2, 108) = 11.74, p symptoms of BN. These results suggest that individuals who expect eating to provide emotional relief may be especially susceptible to disordered eating. Findings are discussed in terms of emotional risk models and clinical interventions for BN.
Hayaki, Jumi; Free, Sarah
Deficits in emotion regulation are known to characterize disordered eating patterns including binge eating, purging, and dietary restraint, though much of this work has been conducted exclusively on women. Eating expectancies, or expectations regarding reinforcement from food and eating, constitute one cognitive mechanism that is thought to serve as a proximal influence on eating behavior. Previous research shows that eating to manage negative affect (a negative eating expectancy) is associated with eating pathology in women, but less is known about eating as a reward or for pleasure (a positive eating expectancy). In addition, no prior work has examined eating expectancies among men. This study examines the role of emotion regulation and eating expectancies on disordered eating in women and men. Participants were 121 female and 80 male undergraduates who completed self-report measures of emotion regulation, eating expectancies, and disordered eating. In women, body mass index (BMI), emotion regulation, and eating to manage negative affect directly predicted disordered eating in the final multivariate model, whereas eating for pleasure or reward was inversely associated with disordered eating. However, in men, emotion regulation predicted disordered eating, but not when eating expectancies were added to the model. In the final model, only BMI and eating to manage negative affect contributed significantly to the variance in disordered eating. These findings suggest that some correlates of eating pathology, particularly eating expectancies, may vary by gender. Future research should continue to examine gender differences in the explanatory mechanisms underlying disordered eating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Theories pertaining to the "why" of motion sickness are in short supply relative to those detailing the "how." Considering the profoundly disturbing and dysfunctional symptoms of motion sickness, it is difficult to conceive of why this condition is so strongly biologically based in humans and most other mammalian and primate species. It is posited that motion sickness evolved as a potent negative reinforcement system designed to terminate motion involving sensory conflict or postural instability. During our evolution and that of many other species, motion of this type would have impaired evolutionary fitness via injury and/or signaling weakness and vulnerability to predators. The symptoms of motion sickness strongly motivate the individual to terminate the offending motion by early avoidance, cessation of movement, or removal of oneself from the source. The motion sickness negative reinforcement mechanism functions much like pain to strongly motivate evolutionary fitness preserving behavior. Alternative why theories focusing on the elimination of neurotoxins and the discouragement of motion programs yielding vestibular conflict suffer from several problems, foremost that neither can account for the rarity of motion sickness in infants and toddlers. The negative reinforcement model proposed here readily accounts for the absence of motion sickness in infants and toddlers, in that providing strong motivation to terminate aberrant motion does not make sense until a child is old enough to act on this motivation.
Sultson, Hedvig; Kukk, Katrin; Akkermann, Kirsti
Research on emotional eating mostly focuses on negative emotions. Much less is known about how positive emotions relate to overeating and binge eating (BE). The aim of the current study was to construct a scale for positive and negative emotional eating and to assess its predictive validity. In study 1, the Positive-Negative Emotional Eating Scale (PNEES) was constructed and tested on 531 women, who also completed Eating Disorders Assessment Scale (EDAS). Results showed that a two-factor model constituting Positive emotional eating (PNEES-P) and Negative emotional eating (PNEES-N) fit the data well. PNEES-N also showed good convergent validity in assessing binge eating, correlating highly with EDAS subscale Binge eating. Further, a path analysis showed that after controlling for the mediating effect of PNEES-N, PNEES-P continued to significantly predict binge eating. In study 2 (N = 60), experience sampling method was used to assess overeating and BE in the natural environment. Palmtop computers were given to participants for a three-day study period that prompted them with questions regarding emotional experience, overeating, and BE. Results indicated that PNEES-P significantly predicted overeating, whereas PNEES-N predicted overeating and BE episodes only in a subsample of women who had experienced at least one overeating or BE episode. Thus, positive and negative emotional eating might have different relations with overeating and BE, with the latter being more characteristic of the severity/frequency of overeating and BE. New assessment tools that in addition to negative emotional eating also address positive emotional eating could be of potential help in planning intervention. Further, the tendency to overeat in response to positive emotions could be integrated into current models of eating disorders, especially when addressing relapse prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Piquero, Nicole Leeper; Fox, Kristan; Piquero, Alex R.; Capowich, George; Mazerolle, Paul
Much of the prior work on General Strain Theory (GST) has focused on how strain and negative emotions interrelate to produce criminal--especially violent--activity. Very little research has extended GST to examine other types of non-criminal, negative behavior, such as self-harming behaviors associated with disordered eating, a traditionally…
Racine, Sarah E; VanHuysse, Jessica L; Keel, Pamela K; Burt, S Alexandra; Neale, Michael C; Boker, Steven; Klump, Kelly L
Theoretical models of binge eating and eating disorders include both transdiagnostic and eating disorder-specific risk factors. Negative urgency (i.e., the tendency to act impulsively when distressed) is a critical transdiagnostic risk factor for binge eating, but limited research has examined interactions between negative urgency and disorder-specific variables. Investigating these interactions can help identify the circumstances under which negative urgency is most strongly associated with binge eating. We examined whether prominent risk factors (i.e., appearance pressures, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint) specified in well-established etiologic models of eating disorders moderate negative urgency-binge eating associations. Further, we investigated whether phenotypic moderation effects were due to genetic and/or environmental associations between negative urgency and binge eating. Participants were 988 female twins aged 11-25 years from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. Appearance pressures, thin-ideal internalization, and body dissatisfaction, but not dietary restraint, significantly moderated negative urgency-binge eating associations, with high levels of these risk factors and high negative urgency associated with the greatest binge eating. Twin moderation models revealed that genetic, but not environmental, sharing between negative urgency and binge eating was enhanced at higher levels of these eating disorder-specific variables. Future longitudinal research should investigate whether eating disorder risk factors shape genetic influences on negative urgency into manifesting as binge eating. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Hart, K E; Chiovari, P
This study tested the hypothesis that dieters would score higher than nondieters in terms of food rumination. Two hundred and thirty one college undergraduates completed the Eating Obsessive-Compulsiveness Scale (EOCS) and responded to a questionnaire that inquired about dieting status. Subjects also completed measures that tapped neuroticism and social desirability. Results showed that current dieters were significantly more obsessed with thoughts of eating and food than were nondieters. Neither dieting status nor EOCS scale scores were related to neuroticism or social desirability. These results are consistent with previous theory and research suggesting that inhibition of appetitive behaviors can have negative cognitive effects. Moreover, they indicate a potential target for therapeutic intervention.
Kennedy, Craig H.; Meyer, Kim A.
A study of the relationship between presence or absence of sleep deprivation, allergy symptoms, and the rate and function of problem behavior in three adolescents with moderate to profound mental retardation found that problem behavior was negatively reinforced by escape from instruction, and both allergy symptoms and sleep deprivation influenced…
Damiano, Cara R; Cockrell, Dillon C; Dunlap, Kaitlyn; Hanna, Eleanor K; Miller, Stephanie; Bizzell, Joshua; Kovac, Megan; Turner-Brown, Lauren; Sideris, John; Kinard, Jessica; Dichter, Gabriel S
Background Previous research has found accumulating evidence for atypical reward processing in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), particularly in the context of social rewards. Yet, this line of research has focused largely on positive social reinforcement, while little is known about the processing of negative reinforcement in individuals with ASD. Methods The present study examined neural responses to social negative reinforcement (a face displaying negative affect) and non-social negative re...
Levinson, Cheri A.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.
Social anxiety and eating disorders are highly comorbid. However, it is unknown how specific domains of social anxiety relate to disordered eating. We provide data on these relationships and investigate social appearance anxiety and fear of negative evaluation as potential vulnerabilities linking social anxiety with eating disorders. Specifically, we examined five domains of social anxiety: Social interaction anxiety, fear of scrutiny, fear of positive evaluation, fear of negative evaluation, and social appearance anxiety. Results indicated that social appearance anxiety predicted body dissatisfaction, bulimia symptoms, shape concern, weight concern, and eating concern over and above fear of scrutiny, social interaction anxiety, and fear of positive evaluation. Fear of negative evaluation uniquely predicted drive for thinness and restraint. Structural equation modeling supported a model in which social appearance anxiety and fear of negative evaluation are vulnerabilities for both social anxiety and eating disorder symptoms. Interventions that target these negative social evaluation fears may help prevent development of eating disorders. PMID:22177392
Steinsbekk, Silje; Barker, Edward D.; Llewellyn, Clare; Fildes, Alison; Wichstrøm, Lars
Emotional eating, that is, eating more in response to negative mood, is often seen in children. But the origins of emotional eating remain unclear. In a representative community sample of Norwegian 4-year-olds followed up at ages 6, 8, and 10 years (analysis sample: n = 801), one potential developmental pathway was examined: a reciprocal relation between parental emotional feeding and child emotional eating. The results revealed that higher levels of emotional feeding predicted higher levels ...
Mason, Tyler B; Heron, Kristin E; Braitman, Abby L; Lewis, Robin J
Negative affect and dietary restraint are key predictors of binge eating, yet less is known about the impact of social factors on binge eating. The study sought to replicate and extend research on the relationships between negative affect, dietary restraint, perceived social isolation and binge eating using a daily diary methodology. College women (N = 54) completed measures of dietary restraint, negative affect, perceived social isolation, and binge eating daily for 14 days. Participants completed the measures nightly each day. A series of generalized estimating equations showed that dietary restraint was associated with less binge eating while controlling for negative affect and for perceived social isolation separately. Negative affect and perceived social isolation were associated with greater binge eating while controlling for restraint in separate analyses, but only perceived social isolation was significant when modeled simultaneously. All two-way interactions between negative affect, dietary restraint, and perceived social isolation predicting binge eating were nonsignificant. This study furthers our understanding of predictors of binge eating in a nonclinical sample. Specifically, these data suggest perceived social isolation, negative affect, and dietary restraint are important variables associated with binge eating in daily life and warrant further research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, Hanwei; Li, Jie
The current study examines the different impacts of positive perfectionism and negative perfectionism on individuals' emotional eating, as well as stress as the proposed underlying mediator that explains the abovementioned relationships. Overall, 386 adults in China reported their levels of positive perfectionism, negative perfectionism, perceived stress, and emotional eating behaviors. Results demonstrate that positive perfectionism is negatively associated with emotional eating, while negative perfectionism is positively associated with emotional eating. In addition, stress mediates the relationship between perfectionism and emotional eating. Specifically, positive perfectionism is indirectly related to emotional eating through the mediation of stress, whereas negative perfectionism is related to emotional eating directly and indirectly through the mediation of stress. Findings of the current study indicate that practitioners working with individuals who suffer from emotional eating problems should focus on ways to reduce negative perfectionism while finding approaches that enhance positive perfectionism. With this approach, individuals would experience less stress and, therefore, would be less likely to be involved in emotional eating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Damiano, Cara R; Cockrell, Dillon C; Dunlap, Kaitlyn; Hanna, Eleanor K; Miller, Stephanie; Bizzell, Joshua; Kovac, Megan; Turner-Brown, Lauren; Sideris, John; Kinard, Jessica; Dichter, Gabriel S
Previous research has found accumulating evidence for atypical reward processing in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), particularly in the context of social rewards. Yet, this line of research has focused largely on positive social reinforcement, while little is known about the processing of negative reinforcement in individuals with ASD. The present study examined neural responses to social negative reinforcement (a face displaying negative affect) and non-social negative reinforcement (monetary loss) in children with ASD relative to typically developing children, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We found that children with ASD demonstrated hypoactivation of the right caudate nucleus while anticipating non-social negative reinforcement and hypoactivation of a network of frontostriatal regions (including the nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, and putamen) while anticipating social negative reinforcement. In addition, activation of the right caudate nucleus during non-social negative reinforcement was associated with individual differences in social motivation. These results suggest that atypical responding to negative reinforcement in children with ASD may contribute to social motivational deficits in this population.
Litwin, Rachel; Goldbacher, Edie M; Cardaciotto, LeeAnn; Gambrel, Laura Eubanks
Emotional eating is a risk factor for eating pathology across the life- and weight-span. Research demonstrates that negative emotions are a precipitant of emotional eating, particularly among female college students. However, the underlying factors that explain this relationship are unclear. Experiential avoidance, a propensity toward being unwilling to remain in contact with aversive private experiences, may explain the association between negative emotions and emotional eating. The purpose of this study was to examine whether experiential avoidance would mediate the association between negative emotions and emotional eating. A sample of 132 women (17.4 % African American, 59.8 % White) completed measures of mood, experiential avoidance and emotional eating. Bias-corrected bootstrapping mediational analyses were conducted. Experiential avoidance mediated the relationship between negative emotions and emotional eating b = -0.21, 95 % BC CI [-0.43, -0.07]. The indirect effect through experiential avoidance accounted for 9 % of the variance, which represents a medium effect (k 2 = 0.09, 95 % BC CI [0.03, 0.18]). Results suggest that experiential avoidance is important for understanding the relationship between negative emotions and emotional eating and may inform potential strategies for prevention and treatment.
Harney, Megan B.; Fitzsimmons-Crafr, Ellen E.; Maldonado, Christine R.; Bardone-Cone, Anna M.
The purpose of this study was to examine a collection of negative affect symptoms in relation to stages of eating disorder recovery. Depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, loneliness, and perceived stress are known to be present in individuals with eating disorders; however, less is known about the presence of such constructs throughout the recovery process. Does this negative affect fog continue to linger in individuals who have recovered from an eating disorder? Female participants seen at some point for an eating disorder at a primary care clinic were categorized into one of three groups using a stringent definition of eating disorder recovery based on physical, behavioral, and psychological criteria: active eating disorder (n =53), partially recovered (n =15; psychological criteria not met), and fully recovered (n =20; all recovery criteria met). Additionally, data were obtained from 67 female controls who had no history of an eating disorder. Self-report data indicated that controls and women fully recovered from an eating disorder scored significantly lower than partially recovered and active eating disorder groups in perceived stress, depression, and anxiety. Controls and the fully recovered group were statistically indistinguishable from each other in these domains, as were the partially recovered and active eating disorder groups, suggesting an interesting divide depending on whether psychological criteria (e.g., normative levels of weight/shape concern) were met. In contrast, controls and fully recovered and partially recovered groups all reported feeling significantly less lonely relative to those with an active eating disorder suggesting that improved perceptions of interpersonal, social support may act as a stepping stone toward more comprehensive eating disorder recovery. Future research may want to longitudinally determine if an increase in actual or perceived social support facilitates the movement toward full recovery and whether this, in turn, has
Harney, Megan B; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Maldonado, Christine R; Bardone-Cone, Anna M
The purpose of this study was to examine a collection of negative affect symptoms in relation to stages of eating disorder recovery. Depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, loneliness, and perceived stress are known to be present in individuals with eating disorders; however, less is known about the presence of such constructs throughout the recovery process. Does this negative affect fog continue to linger in individuals who have recovered from an eating disorder? Female participants seen at some point for an eating disorder at a primary care clinic were categorized into one of three groups using a stringent definition of eating disorder recovery based on physical, behavioral, and psychological criteria: active eating disorder (n=53), partially recovered (n=15; psychological criteria not met), and fully recovered (n=20; all recovery criteria met). Additionally, data were obtained from 67 female controls who had no history of an eating disorder. Self-report data indicated that controls and women fully recovered from an eating disorder scored significantly lower than partially recovered and active eating disorder groups in perceived stress, depression, and anxiety. Controls and the fully recovered group were statistically indistinguishable from each other in these domains, as were the partially recovered and active eating disorder groups, suggesting an interesting divide depending on whether psychological criteria (e.g., normative levels of weight/shape concern) were met. In contrast, controls and fully recovered and partially recovered groups all reported feeling significantly less lonely relative to those with an active eating disorder suggesting that improved perceptions of interpersonal functioning and social support may act as a stepping stone toward more comprehensive eating disorder recovery. Future research may want to longitudinally determine if an increase in actual or perceived social support facilitates the movement toward full recovery and whether this
Chen, Jue; Wang, Zhen; Guo, Boliang; Arcelus, Jon; Zhang, Haiyin; Jia, Xiuzhen; Xu, Yong; Qiu, Jianyin; Xiao, Zeping; Yang, Min
BACKGROUND: The bi-relationships between psychological stress, negative affect and disordered eating has been well studied in western culture, while tri-relationship among them, i.e. how some of those factors influence these bi-relationships, has rarely been studied. However, there has been little related study in the different Chinese culture. This study was conducted to investigate the bi-relationships and tri-relationship between psychological stress, negative affect, and disordered eating...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The bi-relationships between psychological stress, negative affect and disordered eating has been well studied in western culture, while tri-relationship among them, i.e. how some of those factors influence these bi-relationships, has rarely been studied. However, there has been little related study in the different Chinese culture. This study was conducted to investigate the bi-relationships and tri-relationship between psychological stress, negative affect, and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in young Chinese women. METHODOLOGY: A total of 245 young Chinese policewomen employed to carry out health and safety checks at the 2010 Shanghai World Expo were recruited in this study. The Chinese version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10, Beck Depression Inventory Revised (BDI-II, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, and Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26 were administered to all participants. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The total scores of PSS-10, BDI-II and BAI were all highly correlated with that of EAT-26. The PSS-10 score significantly correlated with both BDI-II and BAI scores. There was no statistically significant direct effect from perceived stress to disordered eating (-0.012, 95%CI: -.038~0.006, p=0.357, however, the indirect effects from PSS-10 via affect factors were statistically significant, e.g. the estimated mediation effects from PSS to EAT-26 via depression and anxiety were 0.036 (95%CI: 0.022~0.044, p<0.001 and 0.015 (95%CI: 0.005~0.023, p<0.01, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Perceived stress and negative affects of depression and anxiety were demonstrated to be strongly associated with disordered eating. Negative affect mediated the relationship between perceived stress and disordered eating. The findings suggest that effective interventions and preventative programmes for disordered eating should pay more attention to depression and anxiety among the young Chinese female population.
Kraus, Nicole; Lindenberg, Julia; Zeeck, Almut; Kosfelder, Joachim; Vocks, Silja
Cognitive-behavioural models of eating disorders state that body checking arises in response to negative emotions in order to reduce the aversive emotional state and is therefore negatively reinforced. This study empirically tests this assumption. For a seven-day period, women with eating disorders (n = 26) and healthy controls (n = 29) were provided with a handheld computer for assessing occurring body checking strategies as well as negative and positive emotions. Serving as control condition, randomized computer-emitted acoustic signals prompted reports on body checking and emotions. There was no difference in the intensity of negative emotions before body checking and in control situations across groups. However, from pre- to post-body checking, an increase in negative emotions was found. This effect was more pronounced in women with eating disorders compared with healthy controls. Results are contradictory to the assumptions of the cognitive-behavioural model, as body checking does not seem to reduce negative emotions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Pigeons exposed to gradually increasing intensities of pulsing electric shock pecked a key and thereby reduced the intensity of shock to zero for 2 min. Acquisition of key pecking was brought about through an autoshaping process in which periodic brief keylight presentations immediately preceded automatic reduction of the shock. On the occasions of such automatic reduction of shock preceding the first measured key peck, little or no orientation to the key was observed. Observations of pigeons with autoshaping of positive reinforcement also revealed little evidence of orientation toward the key. ImagesFig. 3.Fig. 4. PMID:16811371
Pigeons exposed to gradually increasing intensities of pulsing electric shock pecked a key and thereby reduced the intensity of shock to zero for 2 min. Acquisition of key pecking was brought about through an autoshaping process in which periodic brief keylight presentations immediately preceded automatic reduction of the shock. On the occasions of such automatic reduction of shock preceding the first measured key peck, little or no orientation to the key was observed. Observations of pigeons with autoshaping of positive reinforcement also revealed little evidence of orientation toward the key.
Schieltz, Kelly M.; Wacker, David P.; Romani, Patrick W.
We evaluated the effects of providing positive reinforcement for task completion, signaled via the presence of a tangible item, on escape-maintained problem behavior displayed by three typically developing children during one-time 90-min outpatient evaluations. Brief functional analyses of problem behavior, conducted within a multielement design,…
Espeset, Ester M S; Gulliksen, Kjersti S; Nordbø, Ragnfrid H S; Skårderud, Finn; Holte, Arne
Several theoretical models suggest that deficits in emotional regulation are central in the maintenance of anorexia nervosa (AN). Few studies have examined how patients view the relationship between negative affect and anorectic behaviour. We explored how patients with AN manage the aversive emotions sadness, anger, fear and disgust, and how they link these experiences to their eating disorder behaviours. Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 14 women aged 19-39 years diagnosed with AN (DSM-IV). Interviews were analyzed using Grounded Theory methods. The participants tended to inhibit expression of sadness and anger in interpersonal situations and reported high levels of anger towards themselves, self-disgust and fear of becoming fat. Different emotions were managed by means of specific eating disorder behaviours. Sadness was particularly linked to body dissatisfaction and was managed through restrictive eating and purging. Anger was avoided by means of restrictive eating and purging and released through anorectic self-control, self-harm and exercising. Fear was linked to fear of fatness and was managed through restrictive eating, purging and body checking. Participants avoided the feeling of disgust by avoiding food and body focused situations. Treatment models of eating disorders highlight the significance of working with emotional acceptance and coping in this patient group. Knowledge about how patients understand the relationships between their negative emotions and their anorectic behaviour may be an important addition to treatment programmes for AN. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Bongers, Peggy; Jansen, Anita
Appetitive learning has been demonstrated several times using neutral cues or contexts as a predictor of food intake and it has been shown that humans easily learn cued desires for foods. It has, however, never been studied whether internal cues are also capable of appetitive conditioning. In this study, we tested whether humans can learn cued eating desires to negative moods as conditioned stimuli (CS), thereby offering a potential explanation of emotional eating (EE). Female participants were randomly presented with 10 different stimuli eliciting either negative or neutral emotional states, with one of these states paired with eating chocolate. Expectancy to eat, desire to eat, salivation, and unpleasantness of experiencing negative emotions were assessed. After conditioning, participants were brought into a negative emotional state and were asked to choose between money and chocolate. Data showed differential conditioned responding on the expectancy and desire measures, but not on salivation. Specific conditioned effects were obtained for participants with a higher BMI (body mass index) on the choice task, and for participants high on EE on the unpleasantness ratings. These findings provide the first experimental evidence for the idea that negative emotions can act as conditioned stimuli, and might suggest that classical conditioning is involved in EE.
Berg, Kelly C; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Crow, Scott J; Engel, Scott G; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Peterson, Carol B
The objective was to examine the trajectory of five types of negative affect (global negative affect, fear, guilt, hostility, sadness) prior to and following three types of eating episodes (overeating in the absence of loss of control [OE-only], loss of control eating in the absence of overeating [LOC-only], and binge eating) among obese adults using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Fifty obese adults (84% female) completed a two-week EMA protocol during which they were asked to record all eating episodes and rate each episode on continua of overeating and loss of control. Momentary measures of global negative affect, fear, guilt, hostility, and sadness were assessed using an abbreviated version of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Trajectories for each of the five types of negative affect were modeled prior to and following episodes of OE-only, LOC-only, and binge eating. Consistent with previous findings, global negative affect and Guilt increased prior to and decreased following binge eating episodes (all ps < .05). Guilt also decreased following OE-only episodes (p < .05). These results are consistent with the affect regulation model of binge eating and suggest that binge eating may function to regulate global negative affect, and more specifically, guilt among obese adults. These data suggest that the relationship between negative affect and binge eating may not be unique to individuals with clinical eating disorders and indicate that targeting negative affect may be an effective strategy for the treatment of binge eating in the context of obesity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ranđelović, Kristina M.; Želeskov-Đorić, Jelena D.
The main goal of this research paper is to examine the predictive power of personality traits in relation to fear of negative evaluation and social anxiety. The revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (rRST) postulates the existence of three major personality systems - Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS), Behavioural Activation System (BAS), and Fight-Flight-Freeze System (FFFS). In order to assess the personality traits, the Reinforcement Sensitivity Questionnaire was used (RSQ). Fear of ne...
Chen, Jue; Wang, Zhen; Guo, Boliang; Arcelus, Jon; Zhang, Haiyin; Jia, Xiuzhen; Xu, Yong; Qiu, Jianyin; Xiao, Zeping; Yang, Min
The bi-relationships between psychological stress, negative affect and disordered eating has been well studied in western culture, while tri-relationship among them, i.e. how some of those factors influence these bi-relationships, has rarely been studied. However, there has been little related study in the different Chinese culture. This study was conducted to investigate the bi-relationships and tri-relationship between psychological stress, negative affect, and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in young Chinese women. A total of 245 young Chinese policewomen employed to carry out health and safety checks at the 2010 Shanghai World Expo were recruited in this study. The Chinese version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), Beck Depression Inventory Revised (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) were administered to all participants. The total scores of PSS-10, BDI-II and BAI were all highly correlated with that of EAT-26. The PSS-10 score significantly correlated with both BDI-II and BAI scores. There was no statistically significant direct effect from perceived stress to disordered eating (-0.012, 95%CI: -.038~0.006, p=0.357), however, the indirect effects from PSS-10 via affect factors were statistically significant, e.g. the estimated mediation effects from PSS to EAT-26 via depression and anxiety were 0.036 (95%CI: 0.022~0.044, peffective interventions and preventative programmes for disordered eating should pay more attention to depression and anxiety among the young Chinese female population.
Reichenberger, Julia; Kuppens, Peter; Liedlgruber, Michael; Wilhelm, Frank H; Tiefengrabner, Martin; Ginzinger, Simon; Blechert, Jens
Stress and emotions alter eating behavior in several ways: While experiencing negative or positive emotions typically leads to increased food intake, stress may result in either over- or undereating. Several participant characteristics, like gender, BMI and restrained, emotional, or external eating styles seem to influence these relationships. Thus far, most research relied on experimental laboratory studies, thereby reducing the complexity of real-life eating episodes. The aim of the present study was to delineate the effects of stress, negative and positive emotions on two key facets of eating behavior, namely taste- and hunger-based eating, in daily life using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Furthermore, the already mentioned individual differences as well as time pressure during eating, an important but unstudied construct in EMA studies, were examined. Fifty-nine participants completed 10days of signal-contingent sampling and data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Results revealed that higher stress led to decreased taste-eating which is in line with physiological stress-models. Time pressure during eating resulted in less taste- and more hunger-eating. In line with previous research, stronger positive emotions went along with increased taste-eating. Emotional eating style moderated the relationship between negative emotions and taste-eating as well as hunger-eating. BMI moderated the relationship between negative as well as positive emotions and hunger-eating. These findings emphasize the importance of individual differences for understanding eating behavior in daily life. Experienced time pressure may be an important aspect for future EMA eating studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Margaret C. Campbell; Gina S. Mohr
This research investigates the effect of activation of a negative stereotype on behaviors that are perceived to increase the chance of becoming a member of the stereotyped group. Activation of a negative stereotype (the overweight stereotype) is shown to lead to stereotype-consistent goal commitment (low health goal commitment), which partially explains increases in stereotype-conducive behavior (eating indulgent foods). Two theoretically relevant moderators are proposed and supported. Increa...
Rodríguez-Cano, Teresa; Beato-Fernández, Luis; Belmonte-Llario, Antonia
Although the epidemiology of Eating Disorders (ED) has been highly developed in Spain, further research considering false negatives and also the prevalence of these disorders in males are needed. They were the aims of the present study. One thousand and seventy six adolescents (500 males and 576 females) participated in a two-stage survey. At the age of 13, apart from exploring numerous clinical and psychosocial variables, they were assessed by means of self-administered screening instruments, the eating attitude test (EAT), bulimic investigatory test Edinburgh (BITE), and body shape questionnaire (BSQ). The subjects were interviewed again 2 years later. Afterwards, 159 probable cases and 150 controls were interviewed by means of the structured interview SCAN. Prevalence of ED in adolescents was 3.71% (95% CI 2.58-4.83; 6.4% of females, 0.6% of males): anorexia nervosa 0.1%, bulimia nervosa 0.75%, eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) = 2.88%. The rate of false negative was 2.6% of the control group and most of them were EDNOS. The prevalence of ED obtained in our study, higher than others found in previous Spanish research, and a relatively high percentage of false negatives both indicate that up to now the prevalence of ED in Spanish adolescents could be underestimated.
Pellegrini, Santiago; Muzio, Ruben N.; Mustaca, Alba E.; Papini, Mauricio R.
Rats given access to a 32% sucrose solution later reject a 4% solution significantly more than controls that have only received the 4% solution. In Experiment 1, this consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC) effect was attenuated by previous exposure to 50% partial reinforcement. Furthermore, recovery from cSNC was also facilitated by…
Oliveira, Emileane C; Hunziker, Maria Helena
In this study, we investigated whether (a) animals demonstrating the learned helplessness effect during an escape contingency also show learning deficits under positive reinforcement contingencies involving stimulus control and (b) the exposure to positive reinforcement contingencies eliminates the learned helplessness effect under an escape contingency. Rats were initially exposed to controllable (C), uncontrollable (U) or no (N) shocks. After 24h, they were exposed to 60 escapable shocks delivered in a shuttlebox. In the following phase, we selected from each group the four subjects that presented the most typical group pattern: no escape learning (learned helplessness effect) in Group U and escape learning in Groups C and N. All subjects were then exposed to two phases, the (1) positive reinforcement for lever pressing under a multiple FR/Extinction schedule and (2) a re-test under negative reinforcement (escape). A fourth group (n=4) was exposed only to the positive reinforcement sessions. All subjects showed discrimination learning under multiple schedule. In the escape re-test, the learned helplessness effect was maintained for three of the animals in Group U. These results suggest that the learned helplessness effect did not extend to discriminative behavior that is positively reinforced and that the learned helplessness effect did not revert for most subjects after exposure to positive reinforcement. We discuss some theoretical implications as related to learned helplessness as an effect restricted to aversive contingencies and to the absence of reversion after positive reinforcement. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: insert SI title. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Capriotti, Matthew R; Brandt, Bryan C; Turkel, Jennifer E; Lee, Han-Joo; Woods, Douglas W
Tourette syndrome (TS) is marked by the chronic presence of motor and vocal tics that are usually accompanied by aversive sensory experiences called "premonitory urges." Phenomenological accounts suggest that these urges occur before tics and diminish following their occurrence. This has led some to suggest that tics are negatively reinforced by removal of premonitory urges. This hypothesis has proven difficult to test experimentally, however, due in part to challenges in measuring premonitory urge strength. We tested predictions of the negative reinforcement conceptualization of premonitory urges using novel experimental tactics within the context of the "tic detector" paradigm. We compared tic rates and ratings of premonitory urge strength exhibited by youth with TS or chronic tic disorder under free-to-tic baseline (BL), reinforced tic suppression (RTS), and reinforced tic suppression with escape (RTS + E) conditions. Results were consistent with previous research and hypotheses of the present study. Participants rated the strength of their premonitory urges as higher during RTS conditions than during BL conditions. Within RTS + E conditions, tic rates were higher during escape portions when the contingency supporting tic suppression was inactive than during components where the contingency was active, and ratings of urge strength were higher at the onset of break periods than at the offset. All participants engaged in some level of escape from reinforced suppression during the course of the experiment. Results of this study support the notion that tics may be negatively reinforced by removal of aversive premonitory urges. Future directions for basic and clinical research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Bongers, Peggy; van den Akker, Karolien; Havermans, Remco; Jansen, Anita
Emotional eating has been suggested to be a learned behaviour; more specifically, classical conditioning processes might be involved in its development. In the present study we investigated whether a negative mood facilitates appetitive conditioning and whether trait impulsivity influences this process. After undergoing either a negative or neutral mood induction, participants were subjected to a differential classical conditioning procedure, using neutral stimuli and appetizing food. Two initially neutral distinctive vases with flowers were (CS+) or were not (CS-) paired with chocolate mousse intake. We measured participants' expectancy and desire to eat (4 CS+ and 4 CS- trials), salivation response, and actual food intake. The BIS-11 was administered to assess trait impulsivity. In both mood conditions, participants showed a classically conditioned appetite. Unexpectedly, there was no evidence of facilitated appetitive learning in a negative mood with regard to expectancy, desire, salivation, or intake. However, immediately before the taste test, participants in the negative mood condition reported a stronger desire to eat in the CS+ compared to the CS- condition, while no such effect occurred in the neutral group. An effect of impulsivity was found with regard to food intake in the neutral mood condition: high-impulsive participants consumed less food when presented with the CS+ compared to the CS-, and also less than low-impulsive participants. An alternative pathway to appetitive conditioning with regard to emotions is that it is not the neutral stimuli, but the emotions themselves that become conditioned stimuli and elicit appetitive responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pautassi, Ricardo M; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Spear, Norman E
The motivational effects of drugs play a key role during the transition from casual use to abuse and dependence. Ethanol reinforcement has been successfully studied through Pavlovian and operant conditioning in adult rats and mice genetically selected for their ready acceptance of ethanol. Another model for studying ethanol reinforcement is the immature (preweanling) rat, which consumes ethanol and exhibits the capacity to process tactile, odor and taste cues and transfer information between different sensorial modalities. This review describes the motivational effects of ethanol in preweanling, heterogeneous non-selected rats. Preweanlings exhibit ethanol-mediated conditioned taste avoidance and conditioned place aversion. Ethanol's appetitive effects, however, are evident when using first- and second-order conditioning and operant procedures. Ethanol also devalues the motivational representation of aversive stimuli, suggesting early negative reinforcement. It seems that preweanlings are highly sensitive not only to the aversive motivational effects of ethanol but also to its positive and negative (anti-anxiety) reinforcement potential. The review underscores the advantages of using a developing rat to evaluate alcohol's motivational effects.
Langthorne, Paul; McGill, Peter; Oliver, Chris
The concept of motivational operations exerts an increasing influence on the understanding and assessment of problem behavior in people with intellectual and developmental disability. In this systematic review of 59 methodologically robust studies of the influence of motivational operations in negative reinforcement paradigms in this population, we identify themes related to situational and biological variables that have implications for assessment, intervention, and further research. There is now good evidence that motivational operations of differing origins influence negatively reinforced problem behavior, and that these might be subject to manipulation to facilitate favorable outcomes. There is also good evidence that some biological variables warrant consideration in assessment procedures as they predispose the person's behavior to be influenced by specific motivational operations. The implications for assessment and intervention are made explicit with reference to variables that are open to manipulation or that require further research and conceptualization within causal models.
Vaz, Petula C. M.; Volkert, Valerie M.; Piazza, Cathleen C.
We examined the effects of a negative reinforcement-based treatment on the self-feeding of 1 child with food selectivity by type and texture. Self-feeding increased when the child could choose to either self-feed 1 bite of a target food or be fed 1 bite of the target food and 5 bites of another food. Possible mechanisms that underlie the…
Haynos, Ann F; Berg, Kelly C; Cao, Li; Crosby, Ross D; Lavender, Jason M; Utzinger, Linsey M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Le Grange, Daniel; Peterson, Carol B; Crow, Scott J
Despite robust support for the role of affect in the maintenance of binge eating and purging, the relationship between affect and restrictive eating remains poorly understood. To investigate the relationship between restrictive eating and affect, ecological momentary assessment data from 118 women with anorexia nervosa (AN) were used to examine trajectories of higher-order dimensions of negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA), as well as lower-order dimensions of NA (Fear, Guilt) and PA (Joviality, Self-Assurance) relative to restrictive eating. Affect trajectories were modeled before and after restrictive eating episodes and AN subtype was examined as a moderator of these trajectories. Across the sample, Guilt significantly increased before and decreased after restrictive eating episodes. Global NA, Global PA, Fear, Joviality, and Self-Assurance did not vary relative to restrictive eating episodes across the sample. However, significant subtype by trajectory interactions were detected for PA indices. Among individuals with AN restricting subtype, Global PA, Joviality, and Self-Assurance decreased prior to and Self-Assurance increased following restrictive eating episodes. In contrast, Global PA and Self-Assurance increased prior to, but did not change following, restrictive eating episodes among individuals with AN binge eating/purging subtype. Results suggest that dietary restriction may function to mitigate guilt across AN subtypes and to enhance self-assurance among individuals with AN restricting subtype. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Vannucci, Anna; Nelson, Eric E.; Bongiorno, Diana M.; Pine, Daniel S.; Yanovski, Jack A.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian
Background Pediatric loss-of-control eating is a robust behavioral precursor to binge-type eating disorders. Elucidating precursors to loss-of-control eating and binge-type eating disorders may refine developmental risk models of eating disorders and inform interventions. Method We review evidence within constructs of the Negative Valence Systems (NVS)-domain, as specified by the Research Domain Criteria framework. Based on published studies, we propose an integrated NVS model of binge-type eating disorder risk. Results Data implicate altered corticolimbic functioning, neuroendocrine dysregulation, and self-reported negative affect as possible risk-factors. However, neuroimaging and physiological data in children and adolescents are sparse, and most prospective studies are limited to self-report measures. Conclusions We discuss a broad NVS framework for conceptualizing early risk for binge-type eating disorders. Future neural and behavioral research on the developmental trajectory of loss-of-control and binge-type eating disorders is required. PMID:26040923
Christensen, Janne Winther
of the horses (NR group) were negatively reinforced by a familiar human handler to approach a collection of novel objects in a test arena. The other half were individually released in the arena and were free to explore the objects (VOL group). On the next day, the horses were exposed to the objects again...... without a human handler, to investigate the rate of habituation. Behavioural and heart rate responses were recorded. Results: All VOL horses initially avoided the unknown objects, whereas the handler was able to get all NR horses to approach and stand next to the objects within the first 2 min session...
Jennifer A. Bremser
Full Text Available Simon Baron-Cohen pioneered the idea that different brain types evolved to process information in gender specific ways. Here we expand this approach to looking at eating disorders as a byproduct of the extreme female brain. The incidence of eating disorders is higher among females, and recent findings show that hormones may play a role in eating disorders. We present new evidence from four studies that both an empathizing bias and hyper-mentalizing (as measures of the extreme female brain; EFB are related to disordered eating and negative evaluation anxiety in women. We also advance the novel hypothesis that concerns about animal welfare (a unique expression of the EFB may account for the relationship between vegetarianism and eating disorders.
Koushiou, Maria; Nicolaou, Kalia; Karekla, Maria
The aim of the present study was to select appropriate film clips with a general vs. eating disorder (ED)-related content to induce negative affect. More specifically, the study examined the subjective emotional experience (valence, arousal, anxiety, induction of somatic symptoms, and ability to control reactions during film clips) of Greek-Cypriot university students (N = 79) in response to three types of film clips: general unpleasant, ED-specific unpleasant, and emotionally neutral. In addition, the study aimed to compare the emotional reactions to the aforementioned clips between two groups of participants differing on their risk for ED (high vs. low). Preliminary results indicate the clips with general content ("The Champ") and with ED-specific content ("Binge eating") that are most effective in inducing negative affect and differentiating between risk groups. These clips provide an effective method for emotion induction that can be used for assessing the emotional experience of individuals with ED symptoms, since their emotional experience is significantly implicated in the development and maintenance of their symptoms (Merwin, Clin Psychol Sci Pract 18(3):208-214, 2011).Level of evidence No level of evidence, Experimental Study.
Ranđelović Kristina M.
Full Text Available The main goal of this research paper is to examine the predictive power of personality traits in relation to fear of negative evaluation and social anxiety. The revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (rRST postulates the existence of three major personality systems - Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS, Behavioural Activation System (BAS, and Fight-Flight-Freeze System (FFFS. In order to assess the personality traits, the Reinforcement Sensitivity Questionnaire was used (RSQ. Fear of negative evaluation was assessed using the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale - Brief form (FNE-B, while social anxiety evaluation was obtained by Social Anxiety Scale (SA2. The sample consisted of 222 psychology students engaged in 1st and 2nd year of studies at the University of Niš and the University of Novi Sad. In order to respond to the research questions, two separate multiple regression analyses were performed. In both analyses, personality traits were the predictors, while the differences were linked to the criteria variables - Model1 - fear of negative evaluation, and Model2 - social anxiety. Both models were statistically significant. According to the results, Fear of negative evaluation model explains a total of 41% of the criteria variance, while Social anxiety model explains 46% of the criteria variance. In both models, BIS stands out as the statistically significant and the best predictor. When comparing the results of both models, the differences relate to the second significant predictor. Namely, Fight response stands out in the first model, while Freeze response stands out in the second one. The obtained findings are discussed and interpreted in the context of rRST.
Markou, Athina; Salamone, John D.; Bussey, Timothy; Mar, Adam; Brunner, Daniela; Gilmour, Gary; Balsam, Peter
The present review article summarizes and expands upon the discussions that were initiated during a meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS; http://cntrics.ucdavis.edu). A major goal of the CNTRICS meeting was to identify experimental procedures and measures that can be used in laboratory animals to assess psychological constructs that are related to the psychopathology of schizophrenia. The issues discussed in this review reflect the deliberations of the Motivation Working Group of the CNTRICS meeting, which included most of the authors of this article as well as additional participants. After receiving task nominations from the general research community, this working group was asked to identify experimental procedures in laboratory animals that can assess aspects of reinforcement learning and motivation that may be relevant for research on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, as well as other disorders characterized by deficits in reinforcement learning and motivation. The tasks described here that assess reinforcement learning are the Autoshaping Task, Probabilistic Reward Learning Tasks, and the Response Bias Probabilistic Reward Task. The tasks described here that assess motivation are Outcome Devaluation and Contingency Degradation Tasks and Effort-Based Tasks. In addition to describing such methods and procedures, the present article provides a working vocabulary for research and theory in this field, as well as an industry perspective about how such tasks may be used in drug discovery. It is hoped that this review can aid investigators who are conducting research in this complex area, promote translational studies by highlighting shared research goals and fostering a common vocabulary across basic and clinical fields, and facilitate the development of medications for the treatment of symptoms mediated by reinforcement learning and motivational deficits. PMID:23994273
Markou, Athina; Salamone, John D; Bussey, Timothy J; Mar, Adam C; Brunner, Daniela; Gilmour, Gary; Balsam, Peter
The present review article summarizes and expands upon the discussions that were initiated during a meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS; http://cntrics.ucdavis.edu) meeting. A major goal of the CNTRICS meeting was to identify experimental procedures and measures that can be used in laboratory animals to assess psychological constructs that are related to the psychopathology of schizophrenia. The issues discussed in this review reflect the deliberations of the Motivation Working Group of the CNTRICS meeting, which included most of the authors of this article as well as additional participants. After receiving task nominations from the general research community, this working group was asked to identify experimental procedures in laboratory animals that can assess aspects of reinforcement learning and motivation that may be relevant for research on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, as well as other disorders characterized by deficits in reinforcement learning and motivation. The tasks described here that assess reinforcement learning are the Autoshaping Task, Probabilistic Reward Learning Tasks, and the Response Bias Probabilistic Reward Task. The tasks described here that assess motivation are Outcome Devaluation and Contingency Degradation Tasks and Effort-Based Tasks. In addition to describing such methods and procedures, the present article provides a working vocabulary for research and theory in this field, as well as an industry perspective about how such tasks may be used in drug discovery. It is hoped that this review can aid investigators who are conducting research in this complex area, promote translational studies by highlighting shared research goals and fostering a common vocabulary across basic and clinical fields, and facilitate the development of medications for the treatment of symptoms mediated by reinforcement learning and motivational deficits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier
Vanderlinden, J.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Slagmolen, C.; Wigboldus, D.; Pieters, G.; Probst, M.
OBJECTIVE: Lack of self-esteem may play an important role in the development of eating disorders (ED). This study investigated the differential impact of positive and negative feedback on implicit and explicit self-esteem in women with an ED (N=25) as compared to women without an ED (N=29). METHOD:
Vanderlinden, J.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Slagmolen, C.J.J.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Pieters, G.; Probst, M.
OBJECTIVE: Lack of self-esteem may play an important role in the development of eating disorders (ED). This study investigated the differential impact of positive and negative feedback on implicit and explicit self-esteem in women with an ED (N=25) as compared to women without an ED (N=29). METHOD:
Alessandri, Jérôme; Cançado, Carlos R X
The effects of instructions on the sensitivity of negatively reinforced (escape) behavior to extinction were studied. Initially, responding produced timeouts from pressing a force cell on a variable-ratio (VR) schedule, which was then discontinued (extinction). Based on extinction data, participants were distributed into two groups. Participants in the Persistence Group (for which response rates were low in extinction) were instructed that the experimenter expected them to continue responding in extinction after a second exposure to the VR schedule. Participants in the Extinction group (for which response rates were high in extinction) were instructed that the experimenter expected them to stop responding in extinction. Relative to the condition in which instructions were absent, extinction-response rates increased and decreased, respectively, for participants in the Persistence and Extinction groups. These results replicate and extend to negatively reinforced responding previous findings that showed behavioral control by instructions formulated as explicit experimenter demands or expectations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hopwood, C J; Ansell, E B; Fehon, D C; Grilo, C M
Childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for eating disorder and negative/depressive affect appears to mediate this relation. However, the specific elements of eating- and body-related psychopathology that are influenced by various forms of childhood maltreatment remain unclear, and investigations among adolescents and men/boys have been limited. This study investigated the mediating role of negative affect/depression across multiple types of childhood maltreatment and eating disorder features in hospitalized adolescent boys and girls. Participants were 148 adolescent psychiatric inpatients who completed an assessment battery including measures of specific forms of childhood maltreatment (sexual, emotional, and physical abuse), negative/depressive affect, and eating disorder features (dietary restriction, binge eating, and body dissatisfaction). Findings suggest that for girls, negative/depressive affect significantly mediates the relationships between childhood maltreatment and eating disorder psychopathology, although effects varied somewhat across types of maltreatment and eating disorder features. Generalization of mediation effects to boys was limited.
Swanson, Douglas J.
A study highlighted the extent to which TV news directors and subordinates perceived negative reinforcement to be used to help establish working climate in their newsrooms, and examined the differences in their perceptions that working climate affects personal ability to do "best" work on the job. Twenty news directors and 40…
Vanderlinden, J; Kamphuis, J H; Slagmolen, C; Wigboldus, D; Pieters, G; Probst, M
Lack of self-esteem may play an important role in the development of eating disorders (ED). This study investigated the differential impact of positive and negative feedback on implicit and explicit self-esteem in women with an ED (N=25) as compared to women without an ED (N=29). False feedback (positive or negative) was given on participant's performance on a specifically developed intellectual test. Before and after the performance, explicit and implicit self-esteem was measured. On the explicit measure ED patients reacted congruently with the nature of the feedback. On the implicit measure only ED patients responded to the positive feedback with an improvement of self-esteem, with no effect for negative feedback. The control group was unaffected by either feedback. Furthermore, no correlation was observed between the explicit and implicit measures, a finding suggesting that these measurements tap different constructs. Positive feedback affects implicit self-esteem of female patients with eating disorders. The results underline the importance of positively approaching women with ED.
Cunningham, Christopher L; Fidler, Tara L; Murphy, Kevin V; Mulgrew, Jennifer A; Smitasin, Phoebe J
Drinking to alleviate the symptoms of acute withdrawal is included in diagnostic criteria for alcoholism, but the contribution of acute withdrawal relief to high alcohol intake has been difficult to model in animals. Ethanol dependence was induced by passive intragastric ethanol infusions in C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) mice; nondependent control animals received water infusions. Mice were then allowed to self-administer ethanol or water intragastrically. The time course of acute withdrawal was similar to that produced by chronic ethanol vapor exposure in mice, reaching a peak at 7 to 9 hours and returning to baseline within 24 hours; withdrawal severity was greater in D2 than in B6 mice (experiment 1). Postwithdrawal delays in initial ethanol access (1, 3, or 5 days) reduced the enhancement in later ethanol intake normally seen in D2 (but not B6) mice allowed to self-infuse ethanol during acute withdrawal (experiment 2). The postwithdrawal enhancement of ethanol intake persisted over a 5-day abstinence period in D2 mice (experiment 3). D2 mice allowed to drink ethanol during acute withdrawal drank more ethanol and self-infused more ethanol than nondependent mice (experiment 4). Alcohol access during acute withdrawal increased later alcohol intake in a time-dependent manner, an effect that may be related to a genetic difference in sensitivity to acute withdrawal. This promising model of negative reinforcement encourages additional research on the mechanisms underlying acute withdrawal relief and its role in determining risk for alcoholism. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David
Rats responded on a multiple variable-ratio (VR) 10 VR 10 schedule of reinforcement in which lever pressing was reinforced by the opportunity to run in a wheel for 30s in both the changed (manipulated) and unchanged components. To generate positive contrast, the schedule of reinforcement in the changed component was shifted to extinction; to generate negative contrast, the schedule was shifted to VR 3. With the shift to extinction in the changed component, wheel-running and local lever-pressing rates increased in the unchanged component, a result supporting positive contrast; however, the shift to a VR 3 schedule in the changed component showed no evidence of negative contrast in the unaltered setting, only wheel running decreased in the unchanged component. Changes in wheel-running rates across components were consistent in showing a compensation effect, depending on whether the schedule manipulation increased or decreased opportunities for wheel running in the changed component. These findings are the first to demonstrate positive behavioral contrast on a multiple schedule with wheel running as reinforcement in both components. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Biederman, Gerald B.; And Others
This study compared the performance of 12 children (ages 4 to 10) with developmental delay, each trained in 2 tasks, one through interactive modeling (with or without verbal reinforcement) and the other through passive modeling. Results showed that passive modeling produced better rated performance than interactive modeling and that verbal…
Davison, Michael; Elliffe, Douglas; Marr, M. Jackson
Four pigeons were trained on two-key concurrent variable-interval schedules with no changeover delay. In Phase 1, relative reinforcers on the two alternatives were varied over five conditions from 0.1 to 0.9. In Phases 2 and 3, we instituted a molar feedback function between relative choice in an interreinforcer interval and the probability of…
Kodak, Tiffany; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Volkert, Valerie M.; Trosclair, Nicole
Factors that influence choice between qualitatively different reinforcers (e.g., a food item or a break from work) are important to consider when arranging treatments for problem behavior. Previous findings indicate that children who engage in problem behavior maintained by escape from demands may choose a food item over the functional reinforcer…
Lavender, Jason M; Utzinger, Linsey M; Cao, Li; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Crosby, Ross D
Although negative affect (NA) has been identified as a common trigger for bulimic behaviors, findings regarding NA following such behaviors have been mixed. This study examined reciprocal associations between NA and bulimic behaviors using real-time, naturalistic data. Participants were 133 women with bulimia nervosa (BN) according to the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders who completed a 2-week ecological momentary assessment protocol in which they recorded bulimic behaviors and provided multiple daily ratings of NA. A multilevel autoregressive cross-lagged analysis was conducted to examine concurrent, first-order autoregressive, and prospective associations between NA, binge eating, and purging across the day. Results revealed positive concurrent associations between all variables across all time points, as well as numerous autoregressive associations. For prospective associations, higher NA predicted subsequent bulimic symptoms at multiple time points; conversely, binge eating predicted lower NA at multiple time points, and purging predicted higher NA at 1 time point. Several autoregressive and prospective associations were also found between binge eating and purging. This study used a novel approach to examine NA in relation to bulimic symptoms, contributing to the existing literature by directly examining the magnitude of the associations, examining differences in the associations across the day, and controlling for other associations in testing each effect in the model. These findings may have relevance for understanding the etiology and/or maintenance of bulimic symptoms, as well as potentially informing psychological interventions for BN. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Janssens, Pilou L H R; Hursel, Rick; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S
Addition of capsaicin (CAPS) to the diet has been shown to increase satiety; therefore, CAPS is of interest for anti-obesity therapy. We investigated the effects of CAPS on appetite profile and ad libitum energy intake in relation to energy balance. Fifteen subjects (seven women and eight men, age: 29.7 ± 10.8yrs, BMI: 23.3 ± 2.9 kg/m(2)) underwent four conditions in a randomized crossover design in 36 hour sessions in a respiration chamber; they received 100% of their daily energy requirements in the conditions "100%Control" and "100%CAPS", and 75% of their daily energy requirements in the conditions "75%Control" and "75%CAPS", followed by an ad libitum dinner. In the 100%CAPS and 75%CAPS conditions, CAPS was given at a dose of 2.56 mg (1.03 g of red chili pepper, 39,050 Scoville heat units) with every meal. Satiety (P dinner desire to eat, satiety and fullness did not differ between 75%CAPS and 100%Control, while desire to eat was higher (P dinner, capsaicin prevents the effects of the negative energy balance on desire to eat. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate if eating disorder patients differ in specific personality traits depending on a positive screening of food addiction and to find a model to predict food addiction in eating disorder patients using measures of personality and impulsivity. Methods: 278 patients having an eating disorder self-reported on food addiction, impulsivity, personality, eating and general psychopathology. Patients were then split into two groups, depending on a positive or negative result on the food addiction screening. Analysis of variance was used to compare means between the two groups. Stepwise binary logistic regression was used to obtain a predictive model for the presence of food addiction. Results: Patients with food addiction had lower self-directedness, and more negative urgency and lack of perseverance than patients not reporting addictive eating. The probability of food addiction can be predicted by high negative urgency, high reward dependence, and low lack of premeditation. Conclusions: Eating disorder patients who have more problems to pursue tasks to the end and to focus on long-term goals seem to be more likely to develop addictive eating patterns.
Wolz, Ines; Hilker, Ines; Granero, Roser; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Gearhardt, Ashley N; Dieguez, Carlos; Casanueva, Felipe F; Crujeiras, Ana B; Menchón, José M; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando
The present study aimed to investigate if eating disorder patients differ in specific personality traits depending on a positive screening of food addiction (FA) and to find a model to predict FA in eating disorder patients using measures of personality and impulsivity. Two hundred seventy eight patients, having an eating disorder, self-reported on FA, impulsivity, personality, eating and general psychopathology. Patients were then split into two groups, depending on a positive or negative result on the FA screening. Analysis of variance was used to compare means between the two groups. Stepwise binary logistic regression was used to obtain a predictive model for the presence of FA. Patients with FA had lower self-directedness, and more negative urgency and lack of perseverance than patients not reporting addictive eating. The probability of FA can be predicted by high negative urgency, high reward dependence, and low lack of premeditation. Eating disorder patients who have more problems to pursue tasks to the end and to focus on long-term goals seem to be more likely to develop addictive eating patterns.
Adriaanse, M.A.; van Oosten, J.M.F.; de Ridder, D.T.D.; de Wit, J.B.F.; Evers, C.
The present studies tested the effectiveness of implementation intentions with an "if [situation], then not [habitual response]" structure. Based on ironic process theory and the literature on the processing of negations, it was expected that these "negation implementation intentions" would,
Adriaanse, Marieke A; van Oosten, Johanna M F; de Ridder, Denise T D; de Wit, John B F; Evers, Catharine
The present studies tested the effectiveness of implementation intentions with an "if [situation], then not [habitual response]" structure. Based on ironic process theory and the literature on the processing of negations, it was expected that these "negation implementation intentions" would, ironically, strengthen the habit (situation-response association) one aims to break. In line with the hypotheses, forming negation implementation intentions resulted in cognitive ironic rebound effects as well as behavioral ironic rebound effects compared to an intention only condition or a replacement implementation intention. Additionally, it was found that negation implementation intentions are most likely to result in ironic rebound effects when the habit to be negated is strong. Although implementation intentions are generally highly effective in facilitating behavior change even when this involves breaking unwanted habits, the present research suggests that they are ineffective when they have a negating structure.
Morrell, Holly E. R.; Cohen, Lee M.; McChargue, Dennis E.
This study examined the association between vulnerability to depression and smoking behavior in college students in 1214 college students (54% female), and evaluated gender and expectancies of negative affect reduction as moderators or mediators of this relationship. Depression vulnerability predicted smoking in females, but not males. The relationship between depression vulnerability and smoking status was mediated by expectancies of negative affect reduction in females only. Female college ...
Dakanalis, Antonios; Carrà, Giuseppe; Calogero, Rachel; Fida, Roberta; Clerici, Massimo; Zanetti, Maria Assunta; Riva, Giuseppe
Despite accumulated experimental evidence of the negative effects of exposure to media-idealized images, the degree to which body image, and eating related disturbances are caused by media portrayals of gendered beauty ideals remains controversial. On the basis of the most up-to-date meta-analysis of experimental studies indicating that media-idealized images have the most harmful and substantial impact on vulnerable individuals regardless of gender (i.e., "internalizers" and "self-objectifiers"), the current longitudinal study examined the direct and mediated links posited in objectification theory among media-ideal internalization, self-objectification, shame and anxiety surrounding the body and appearance, dietary restraint, and binge eating. Data collected from 685 adolescents aged between 14 and 15 at baseline (47 % males), who were interviewed and completed standardized measures annually over a 3-year period, were analyzed using a structural equation modeling approach. Results indicated that media-ideal internalization predicted later thinking and scrutinizing of one's body from an external observer's standpoint (or self-objectification), which then predicted later negative emotional experiences related to one's body and appearance. In turn, these negative emotional experiences predicted subsequent dietary restraint and binge eating, and each of these core features of eating disorders influenced each other. Differences in the strength of these associations across gender were not observed, and all indirect effects were significant. The study provides valuable information about how the cultural values embodied by gendered beauty ideals negatively influence adolescents' feelings, thoughts and behaviors regarding their own body, and on the complex processes involved in disordered eating. Practical implications are discussed.
Maraldo, Toni M; Zhou, Wanni; Dowling, Jessica; Vander Wal, Jillon S
The dual pathway model, a theoretical model of eating disorder development, suggests that thin ideal internalization leads to body dissatisfaction which leads to disordered eating via the dual pathways of negative affect and dietary restraint. While the dual pathway model has been a valuable guide for eating disorder prevention, greater knowledge of characteristics that predict thin ideal internalization is needed. The present study replicated and extended the dual pathway model by considering the addition of fear of negative evaluation, suggestibility, rumination, and self-compassion in a sample of community women and female university students. Results showed that fear of negative evaluation and suggestibility predicted thin ideal internalization whereas rumination and self-compassion (inversely) predicted body dissatisfaction. Negative affect was predicted by fear of negative evaluation, rumination, and self-compassion (inversely). The extended model fit the data well in both samples. Analogue and longitudinal study of these constructs is warranted in future research. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Leehr, Elisabeth J; Schag, Kathrin; Dresler, Thomas; Grosse-Wentrup, Moritz; Hautzinger, Martin; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Zipfel, Stephan; Giel, Katrin E; Ehlis, Ann-Christine
Inhibitory control has been discussed as a developmental and maintenance factor in binge-eating disorder (BED). The current study is the first aimed at investigating inhibitory control in a negative mood condition on a psychophysiological and behavioral level in BED with a combination of electroencephalography (EEG) and eye tracking (ET). We conducted a combined EEG and ET study with overweight individuals with BED (BED+, n = 24, mean age = 31, mean BMI = 35 kg/m 2 ) and without BED (BED-, n = 23, mean age = 28, mean BMI = 35 kg/m 2 ) and a normal-weight (NWC, n = 26, mean age 28, mean BMI = 22 kg/m 2 ) control group. We assessed self-report data regarding impulsivity and emotion regulation as well as the processing of food stimuli under negative mood in an antisaccade task. Main outcome variables comprise event-related potentials (ERP) regarding conflict processing (N2) and performance monitoring (error-related negativity [ERN/Ne]) assessed by EEG and inhibitory control (errors in the first and second saccade) assessed by ET. BED+ patients reported increased impulsivity and higher emotion regulation difficulties compared with the other groups. The eye tracking data revealed impaired inhibitory control in BED+ compared with both control groups. Further, we found preliminary evidence from EEG recordings that conflict processing might be less thorough in the BED+ sample as well as in the NWC sample. In the BED+ sample this might be connected to the inhibitory control deficits on behavioral level. While the BED- sample showed increased conflict processing latencies (N2 latencies), which might indicate a compensation mechanism, the BED+ sample did not show such a mechanism. Performance monitoring (ERN/Ne latencies and amplitudes) was not impaired in the BED+ sample compared with both control samples. Participants with BED reported higher impulsivity and lower emotion regulation capacities. The combined investigation of electrocortical processes and
Full Text Available Bile acids may be involved in the regulation of food intake and energy metabolism. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of plasma bile acids with body mass index (BMI and the possible involvement of circulating bile acids in the modulation of physical activity and eating behavior. Blood was obtained in a group of hospitalized patients with normal weight (BMI 18.5-25 kg/m2, underweight (anorexia nervosa, BMI 50 kg/m2, n=14-15/group and plasma bile acid concentrations assessed. Physical activity and plasma bile acids were measured in a group of patients with anorexia nervosa (BMI 14.6±0.3 kg/m2, n=43. Lastly, in a population of obese patients (BMI 48.5±0.9 kg/m2, n=85, psychometric parameters related to disordered eating and plasma bile acids were assessed. Plasma bile acids showed a positive correlation with BMI (r=0.26, p=0.03 in the population of patients with broad range of BMI (9-85 kg/m2, n=74. No associations were observed between plasma bile acids and different parameters of physical activity in anorexic patients (p>0.05. Plasma bile acids were negatively correlated with cognitive restraint of eating (r=-0.30, p=0.008, while no associations were observed with other psychometric eating behavior-related parameters (p>0.05 in obese patients. In conclusion, these data may point towards a role of bile acids in the regulation of body weight. Since plasma bile acids are negatively correlated with the cognitive restraint of eating in obese patients, this may represent a compensatory adaptation to prevent further overeating.
Hapunda, Given; Abubakar, Amina; Pouwer, Frans
and adult patients. Regression analysis indicated that there was no association between total diabetes self-care and the depression total score. However, depression was associated with poor glucose testing and not eating meals on time by patients with diabetes. CONCLUSION: Some variance on poor self......-care was explained by demographic characteristics, specifically age, body mass index, and to some extent, socioeconomic status. Recognition and successful treatment of depression in patients with diabetes might help to optimize self-care behaviors, especially glucose testing and eating meals on time. However...
Cuenya, L; Sabariego, M; Donaire, R; Fernández-Teruel, A; Tobeña, A; Gómez, M J; Mustaca, A; Torres, C
Frustration is an emotional response that can be induced by the sudden devaluation of a reinforcer in the presence of greater reinforcement expectancies (e.g. instrumental successive negative contrast, iSNC). This emotional response seems to be similar to anxiety and can be attenuated by previous experiences of reward loss (e.g. partial reinforcement, PR, as opposed to continuous reinforcement, CR). In this study we used iSNC and PR procedures in order to compare the performance of two strains of rats psychogenetically selected on the basis of their emotional reactivity: the inbred Roman High- (RHA-I, low anxiety) and Low- (RLA-I, high anxiety) Avoidance rats. Animals were exposed to a straight alley, where they were changed from 12 pellets in the preshift phase (presented in 100% of trials-CR vs. 50% of trials-PR) to 2 pellets in the postshift phase, or exposed to 2 pellets throughout the training. The results indicated that the iSNC only appeared in RLA-I rats exposed to CR, as opposed to RLA-I animals exposed to PR and to RHA-I rats exposed to PR or CR. These data seem to support the implication of emotional responses in both iSNC and PR situations, and indicate that the behavioral reactivity to reward loss experiences is modulated by genetic variables. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Patel, Jay M; Merriam, Aaron R; Kohn, Joachim; Gatt, Charles J; Dunn, Michael G
Our objective was to test the efficacy of collagen-hyaluronan scaffolds reinforced with poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) fibers in an ovine total meniscus replacement model. Scaffolds were implanted into 9 sheep (n = 1 at 8 weeks, n = 2 at 16 weeks, n = 3 at both 24, 32 weeks) following total medial meniscectomy. From 16 weeks on, explants were characterized by confined compression creep, histological, and biochemical analyses. Articular surfaces were observed macroscopically and damage was ranked histologically using the Mankin score. At sacrifice, three of the nine PLLA scaffolds had completely ruptured, and the intact scaffolds experienced progressive shape changes and severe narrowing in the body region at 16, 24, and 32 weeks. Aggregate compressive modulus and permeability did not improve with time. Histological and biochemical analyses showed significantly less extracellular matrix and less matrix organization compared to native tissue. Osteophytes, bone erosion, and cartilage damage were observed, increasing with time postimplantation. A buildup of lactic acid and/or the rapid loss of scaffold mechanical integrity due to PLLA degradation are probable causes for the joint abnormalities observed in this study. These results are in sharp contrast to those of our previous successful total meniscus replacement studies using polyarylate [p(DTD DD)] fiber-reinforced scaffolds. This suggests that PLLA fiber as produced in this study cannot be used as reinforcement for a meniscus replacement scaffold.
Davis, Heather A; Smith, Gregory T
Binge eating and purging behaviors are associated with significant harm and distress among adolescents. The process by which these behaviors develop (often in the high school years) is not fully understood. We tested the Acquired Preparedness (AP) model of risk involving transactions among biological, personality, and psychosocial factors to predict binge eating and purging behavior in a sample of 1,906 children assessed in the spring of 5th grade (the last year of elementary school), the fall of 6th grade (the first year of middle school), spring of 6th grade, and spring of 10th grade (second year of high school). Pubertal onset in spring of 5th grade predicted increases in negative urgency, but not negative affect, in the fall of 6th grade. Negative urgency in the fall of 6th grade predicted increases in expectancies for reinforcement from eating in the spring of 6th grade, which in turn predicted increases in binge eating behavior in the spring of 10th grade. Negative affect in the fall of 6th grade predicted increases in thinness expectancies in the spring of 6th grade, which in turn predicted increases in purging in the spring of 10th grade. Results demonstrate similarities and differences in the development of these two different bulimic behaviors. Intervention efforts targeting the risk factors evident in this model may prove fruitful in the treatment of eating disorders characterized by binge eating and purging. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Sulkowski, Michael L; Dempsey, Jack; Dempsey, Allison G
Limited research exists on the association between stress, coping, and binge eating. To address this paucity, this study explores these associations in a sample of 147 female college students, an at-risk population for binge eating. We hypothesized that emotional and avoidant coping would be positively associated with stress and binge eating. Conversely, we expected that rational and detached coping would be negatively related to stress and binge eating. Furthermore, we expected these coping styles to mediate the relationship between stress and binge eating. As predicted, emotion-focused and avoidant coping were positively associated with stress and binge eating. Additionally, emotion-focused coping partially mediated the relationship between stress and binge eating. However, no association was found between stress, rational or detached coping, and binge eating. These results are discussed within the context of a negative reinforcement model of binge eating. Lastly, the importance of providing evidence-based treatment for individuals with binge eating symptomology is discussed in light of our findings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wetzer, I.M.; Zeelenberg, M.; Pieters, R.
What do consumers want to achieve when they engage in negative word-of-mouth communication (N-WOM)? Two studies explore this question and reveal that consumers pursue specific goals when engaging in N-WOM and that these goals systematically differ between the specific negative emotions that are
When individuals become aware of their stigma, they attempt to manage their identity through discourses that both challenge and reinforce power. Identity management is fraught with tensions between the desire to fit normative social constructions and counter the same discourse. This essay explores identity management in the midst of the embodied stigmas concerning unplanned pregnancy during college and raising a biracial son. In doing so, this essay points to the difference between outlier narratives and counter-narratives. The author encourages health communication scholars to explore conditions under which storytelling moves beyond the personal to the political. Emancipatory intent does not guarantee emancipatory outcomes. Storytelling can function therapeutically for individuals while failing to redress forces that constrain human potential and agency.
Steakley-Freeman, Diana M; Jarvis-Creasey, Zachary L; Wesselmann, Eric D
The internet is a popular tool for information dissemination and community building, serving many purposes from social networking to support seeking. However, there may be a downside to using some online support communities. For individuals with eating disorders (EDs), it is possible that certain online communities may reinforce the negative social aspects that encourage these disorders, rather than positive aspects that would facilitate treatment and recovery. Previous research identified several linguistic themes present on pro-eating disorder websites in an attempt to better understand the web-based conversation in the pro-eating disorder movement. We hypothesized that differences in theme presentation may predict changes in perceived harm. The present study sought to understand the perceived harm, and presentation patterns of pro-eating disorder (Pro-ED) website content. We replicated and extended previous research by having laypersons code these websites' content using previously identified linguistic themes and rate perceived harm. Our data replicate and extend the previous research by finding the same associations between co-occurring themes, and investigating associated perceived harm. We found that themes of Sacrifice, Control, Deceit, and Solidarity were associated with the highest perceived harm scores. In addition, we suggest an initial conceptualization of the "Eating Disorder Lifestyle", and its associations with the themes of Isolation, Success, and Solidarity. This research may provide clinicians with information to better understand the potential influence these sites have on eating disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Contribution of Interpersonal Problems to Eating Disorder Psychopathology via Negative Affect in Treatment-seeking Men and Women: Testing the Validity of the Interpersonal Model in an Understudied Population.
Ivanova, Iryna V; Tasca, Giorgio A; Proulx, Geneviève; Bissasda, Hany
Research on the psychosocial correlates and theoretical frameworks of men presenting with eating disorders (ED) psychopathology is limited. This study compared treatment-seeking men and women in terms of their levels of interpersonal functioning (affiliation and dominance), regulation of negative emotions (negative affect and instability) and ED psychopathology. The study also investigated the validity of the interpersonal model of ED in men. Results from the cross-sectional data of 388 participants (137 men and 251 women) demonstrated that the structural models fit and that paths were invariant across men and women. There were significant indirect effects of interpersonal functioning on ED psychopathology, mediated through negative affect and instability, for both men and women. Negative affect and instability partially explain the relationship between interpersonal problems and ED psychopathology in treatment-seeking men and women. Current findings highlight the need to evaluate the validity of the model using longitudinal designs to test whether men and women are likely to benefit equally from interpersonal therapies for ED. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Negative affect and instability mediated the relationship between interpersonal problems and eating disorder psychopathology for treatment-seeking men and women. There were no gender differences between levels of negative affect, emotional instability and interpersonal dysfunction, but women reported slightly higher eating concerns than men. Interpersonal model is a framework that is applicable to understanding and potentially treating men with eating disorders. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Pelletier Brochu, Jade; Meilleur, Dominique; DiMeglio, Giuseppina; Taddeo, Danielle; Lavoie, Eric; Erdstein, Julius; Pauzé, Robert; Pesant, Caroline; Thibault, Isabelle; Frappier, Jean-Yves
Few studies have examined how the perceived quality of multiple interpersonal relationships is related to eating disorder (ED) symptom severity in adolescents and how psychological variables might influence these associations. The aim of this study is to determine whether the perceived level of trust, communication, and alienation in the relationship with one's mother, father, and peers are predictive of ED severity in adolescent females and to test the mediating effects of low self-esteem and negative mood on these associations. Adolescent females aged 12 to 18 (N = 186) with a diagnosis of Anorexia Nervosa (Restrictive; AN-R or Binge/Purge; AN-B/P) completed self-report measures evaluating the perceived quality of interpersonal relationships, ED symptom severity, low self-esteem, and negative mood. Multiple regressions revealed that the level of perceived alienation in the relationship with one's mother and peers was positively associated with ED symptom severity. Low self-esteem and negative mood acted as mediators of these associations. Considering that a high level of perceived alienation in the relationship with one's mother and peers appears to be associated with more severe ED symptoms through its impact on self-esteem and mood, improvements in the quality of these interactions are likely to be an effective target of intervention among adolescents.
Wolz, Ines; Hilker, Ines; Granero, Roser; Jim?nez-Murcia, Susana; Gearhardt, Ashley N.; Dieguez, Carlos; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Crujeiras, Ana B.; Mench?n, Jos? M.; Fern?ndez-Aranda, Fernando
Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate if eating disorder patients differ in specific personality traits depending on a positive screening of food addiction (FA) and to find a model to predict FA in eating disorder patients using measures of personality and impulsivity. Methods: Two hundred seventy eight patients, having an eating disorder, self-reported on FA, impulsivity, personality, eating and general psychopathology. Patients were then split into two groups, depending on a...
Ines eWolz; Ines eWolz; Ines eHilker; Roser eGranero; Roser eGranero; Susana eJiménez-Murcia; Susana eJiménez-Murcia; Susana eJiménez-Murcia; Ashley Nicole Gearhardt; Carlos eDieguez; Carlos eDieguez; Felipe F Casanueva; Felipe F Casanueva; Ana B Crujeiras; Ana B Crujeiras
Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate if eating disorder patients differ in specific personality traits depending on a positive screening of food addiction and to find a model to predict food addiction in eating disorder patients using measures of personality and impulsivity. Methods: 278 patients having an eating disorder self-reported on food addiction, impulsivity, personality, eating and general psychopathology. Patients were then split into two groups, depending on a positiv...
Marchesi, Carlo; Ossola, Paolo; Tonna, Matteo; De Panfilis, Chiara
This study evaluates whether the difference in Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 item (TAS-20) between patients with major depression (MD), panic disorder (PD), eating disorders (ED), and substance use disorders (SUD) and healthy controls persisted after controlling for the severity of anxiety and depression. Thirty-eight patients with MD, 58 with PD, 52 with ED, and 30 with SUD and 78 healthy controls (C) completed the TAS-20, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (Ham-A), the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (Ham-D). The differences in TAS-20 scores observed between patient groups, regardless of the type of their disorders, and controls disappeared after controlling for the effect of anxiety and depression severity. In contrast, the differences in severity of anxiety and depression between patients and controls were still present, after excluding the effect of alexithymic levels. Our data suggest that alexithymic levels, as measured by the TAS-20, are modulated by the severity of symptoms, supporting the view that alexithymia can represent a state phenomenon in patients with MD, PD, ED and SUD, because the TAS-20 seems overly sensitive to a general distress syndrome, and it is more likely to measure negative affects rather than alexithymia itself. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chajęcka-Wierzchowska, Wioleta; Zadernowska, Anna; Nalepa, Beata; Sierpińska, Magda; Łaniewska-Trokenheim, Łucja
The aim of this work was to study the pheno- and genotypical antimicrobial resistance profile of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from 146 ready-to-eat food of animal origin (cheeses, cured meats, sausages, smoked fishes). 58 strains were isolated, they were classified as Staphylococcus xylosus (n = 29), Staphylococcus epidermidis (n = 16); Staphylococcus lentus (n = 7); Staphylococcus saprophyticus (n = 4); Staphylococcus hyicus (n = 1) and Staphylococcus simulans (n = 1) by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Isolates were tested for resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin, gentamicin, cefoxitin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, tigecycline, rifampicin, nitrofurantoin, linezolid, trimetoprim, sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim, chloramphenicol, quinupristin/dalfopristin by the disk diffusion method. PCR was used for the detection of antibiotic resistance genes encoding: methicillin resistance--mecA; macrolide resistance--erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), mrs(A/B); efflux proteins tet(K) and tet(L) and ribosomal protection proteins tet(M). For all the tet(M)-positive isolates the presence of conjugative transposons of the Tn916-Tn1545 family was determined. Most of the isolates were resistant to cefoxitin (41.3%) followed by clindamycin (36.2%), tigecycline (24.1%), rifampicin (17.2%) and erythromycin (13.8%). 32.2% staphylococcal isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR). All methicillin resistant staphylococci harboured mecA gene. Isolates, phenotypic resistant to tetracycline, harboured at least one tetracycline resistance determinant on which tet(M) was most frequent. All of the isolates positive for tet(M) genes were positive for the Tn916-Tn1545 -like integrase family gene. In the erythromycin-resistant isolates, the macrolide resistance genes erm(C) or msr(A/B) were present. Although coagulase-negative staphylococci are not classical food poisoning bacteria, its presence in food could be of public health significance due to the possible spread of
... of-control eating Women are more likely than men to have eating disorders. They usually start in the teenage years and often occur along with depression, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse. Eating disorders can ...
... Application Process Managing Grants Clinical Research Training Small Business Research Labs at NIMH Labs at NIMH Home Research ... About Eating Disorders More Publications About Eating Disorders Research Results PubMed: Journal Articles about Eating Disorders Contact Us The National ...
Havermans, Remco C; Vancleef, Linda; Kalamatianos, Antonis; Nederkoorn, Chantal
In the present study it was investigated whether boredom promotes eating and if so, whether this effect likely reflects an increased drive for rewarding stimulation (positive reinforcement) or more plainly the drive to escape boredom (negative reinforcement). In the latter case, the valence of the stimulation should not matter and people might even be willing to look for negative stimulation, for instance to hurt oneself, just to escape boredom. In two parallel experiments, it was tested whether induced boredom promotes the consumption of chocolate (Experiment 1) and whether participants likewise are more inclined to self-administer electrocutaneous stimuli (Experiment 2). In both experiments, a total of 30 participants attended two separate sessions watching a documentary for 1 h (neutral condition) and a monotonous repetition of a single clip from the same documentary for 1 h (boring condition), in balanced order. During Experiment 1, participants had free access to M&Ms and during Experiment 2 participants could freely self-administer brief electrical shocks. It was found that participants ate more M&Ms when bored but also that they more readily self-administered electrical shocks when bored. It is concluded that eating when bored is not driven by an increased desire for satisfying incentive stimulation, but mainly by the drive to escape monotony. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter
This report deals with stress and stiffness estimates of continuous reinforced concrete beams with different stiffnesses for negative and positive moments e.g. corresponding to different reinforcement areas in top and bottom. Such conditions are often met in practice.The moment distribution...
Stein, Richard I; Kenardy, Justin; Wiseman, Claire V; Dounchis, Jennifer Zoler; Arnow, Bruce A; Wilfley, Denise E
Previous research, mostly using retrospective reports, indicated a relation of negative affect and dietary restraint with the occurrence of binge episodes in binge eating disorder (BED). We employed Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to better understand precursors and consequences of binge eating. Thirty-three females with BED carried a handheld computer for 7 days, and were periodically prompted to indicate their current emotions, hunger, and binge status. Negative mood and hunger were significantly higher at prebinge than at nonbinge times, but negative mood was even higher at postbinge. Participants attributed binge episodes to mood more frequently than to hunger or abstinence violation. The finding that negative mood is actually heightened subsequent to a binge suggests the need to further investigate what is reinforcing about a binge, including possible escape from self-awareness. Strengths of EMA technology are discussed, as well as its broad utility in BED assessment and treatment.
Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yuri; Jinnin, Ran; Shishida, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Yasumasa
Eating disorders are characterized by aberrant patterns of eating behavior, including such symptoms as extreme restriction of food intake or binge eating, and severe disturbances in the perception of body shape and weight, as well as a drive for thinness and obsessive fears of becoming fat. Eating disorder is an important cause for physical and psychosocial morbidity in young women. Patients with eating disorders have a deficit in the cognitive process and functional abnormalities in the brain system. Recently, brain-imaging techniques have been used to identify specific brain areas that function abnormally in patients with eating disorders. We have discussed the clinical and cognitive aspects of eating disorders and summarized neuroimaging studies of eating disorders.
Moore, Catherine F; Panciera, Julia I; Sabino, Valentina; Cottone, Pietro
Compulsive eating behaviour is a transdiagnostic construct observed in certain forms of obesity and eating disorders, as well as in the proposed construct of 'food addiction'. Compulsive eating can be conceptualized as comprising three elements: (i) habitual overeating, (ii) overeating to relieve a negative emotional state, and (iii) overeating despite adverse consequences. Neurobiological processes that include maladaptive habit formation, the emergence of a negative affect, and dysfunctions in inhibitory control are thought to drive the development and persistence of compulsive eating behaviour. These complex psychobehavioural processes are under the control of various neuropharmacological systems. Here, we describe the current evidence implicating these systems in compulsive eating behaviour, and contextualize them within the three elements. A better understanding of the neuropharmacological substrates of compulsive eating behaviour has the potential to significantly advance the pharmacotherapy for feeding-related pathologies.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Of mice and mental health: facilitating dialogue between basic and clinical neuroscientists'. © 2018 The Author(s).
Griffiths, R R; Chausmer, A L
Caffeine is an excellent model compound for understanding drugs of abuse/dependence. The results of self-administration and choice studies in humans clearly demonstrate the reinforcing effects of low and moderate doses of caffeine. Caffeine reinforcement has been demonstrated in about 45% of normal subjects with histories of moderate and heavy caffeine use. Recent studies provide compelling evidence that caffeine physical dependence potentiates the reinforcing effects of caffeine through the mechanism of withdrawal symptom avoidance. Tolerance to the subjective and sleep-disrupting effects of caffeine in humans has been demonstrated. Physical dependence as reflected in a withdrawal syndrome in humans has been repeatedly demonstrated in adults and recently demonstrated in children. Withdrawal severity is an increasing function of caffeine maintenance dose, with withdrawal occurring at doses as low as 100 mg per day. Increased cerebral blood flow may be the physiological mechanism for caffeine withdrawal headache. Case studies in adults and adolescents clearly demonstrate that some individuals meet DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for a substance dependence syndrome on caffeine, including feeling compelled to continue caffeine use despite desires and recommendations to the contrary. Survey data suggest that 9% to 30% percent of caffeine consumers may be caffeine dependent according to DSM-IV criteria.
Rosen, L D; Lim, A F; Felt, J; Carrier, L M; Cheever, N A; Lara-Ruiz, J M; Mendoza, J S; Rokkum, J
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends no screen time for children under the age of 2 and limited screen time for all children. However, no such guidelines have been proposed for preteens and teenagers. Further, research shows that children, preteens, and teenagers are using massive amounts of media and those with more screen time have been shown to have increased obesity, reduced physical activity, and decreased health. This study examined the impact of technology on four areas of ill-being-psychological issues, behavior problems, attention problems and physical health-among children (aged 4-8), preteens (9-12), and teenagers (13-18) by having 1030 parents complete an online, anonymous survey about their own and their child's behaviors. Measures included daily technology use, daily food consumption, daily exercise, and health. Hypothesis 1, which posited that unhealthy eating would predict impaired ill-being, was partially supported, particularly for children and preteens. Hypothesis 2, which posited that reduced physical activity would predict diminished health levels, was partially supported for preteens and supported for teenagers. Hypothesis 3, that increased daily technology use would predict ill-being after factoring out eating habits and physical activity, was supported. For children and preteens, total media consumption predicted illbeing while for preteens specific technology uses, including video gaming and electronic communication, predicted ill-being. For teenagers, nearly every type of technological activity predicted poor health. Practical implications were discussed in terms of setting limits and boundaries on technology use and encouraging healthy eating and physical activity at home and at school.
Thompson, Carmen; Russell-Mayhew, Shelly; Saraceni, Reana
During adolescence girls become increasingly preoccupied with unrealistic ideals about body weight, often leading to dieting and unhealthy compensatory behaviours. These practices have been linked to adverse psychological, social, and health consequences. Peer-support groups offer promise in addressing risk factors for disordered eating. This study explored the effects of peer-support on measures of body satisfaction, weight loss/weight gain behaviour, internalization of media ideals, weight based teasing, and communication, for a cohort of grade 8 girls. High-risk participants demonstrated trends toward decreased internalization of media ideals and increased body satisfaction at post-test. Implications and future research direction are discussed.
Gucciardi, Enza; Celasun, Nalan; Ahmad, Farah; Stewart, Donna E
Abstract Health Issue Eating disorders are an increasing public health problem among young women. Anorexia and bulimia may give rise to serious physical conditions such as hypothermia, hypotension, electrolyte imbalance, endocrine disorders, and kidney failure. Key Issues Eating disorders are primarily a problem among women. In Ontario in 1995, over 90% of reported hospitalized cases of anorexia and bulimia were women. In addition to eating disorders, preoccupation with weight, body image and...
Matteo Di Segni; Enrico Patrono; Loris Patella; Stefano Puglisi-Allegra; Rossella Ventura
Eating disorders are multifactorial conditions that can involve a combination of genetic, metabolic, environmental, and behavioral factors. Studies in humans and laboratory animals show that eating can also be regulated by factors unrelated to metabolic control. Several studies suggest a link between stress, access to highly palatable food, and eating disorders. Eating “comfort foods” in response to a negative emotional state, for example, suggests that some individuals overeat to self-medica...
Eiber, R; Mirabel-Sarron, C; Urdapilleta, I
Cognitions are of crucial importance in the -aetiology and the maintenance of eating disorders. Dysfunctional cognitions in eating disorders are related to body image, self-esteem and feeding. The aim of this paper is to review the actual knowledge in this area. First, we will display -cognitive models in eating disorders. Cognitive factors in -eating disorders are logical errors, cognitive slippage and conceptual complexity. Eating disorder patients seem to have a deficient cognitive development. Some cognitive models stipulate that eating disorder patients may develop organised cognitive structures schemas concerning the issues of weight and its implications for the self. These schemas can account for the persistence and for the understanding the "choice of the eating disorder symptomatology. Cognitive pheno-mena of interest are self-schema, weight-related schema and weight-related self-schema. The maintenance model of ano-rexia nervosa argued that, initially there is an extreme need to control eating which is supported by low self-esteem. The maintenance of the disorder is reinforced by three mechanisms: dietary restriction enhances the sense of being in control; aspects of starvation encourage further dietary restriction; concerns about shape and weight encourage restriction. The development and maintenance of bulimic symptomatology are explained by placing a high value on attaining an idealised weight and body shape accompanied by inaccurate beliefs. The cognitive model of specific family of origin experiences puts forward the development of -maladaptative expectancies for eating and thinness. Second, we discuss distortions in information processing. a) In feeding laboratories, bulimics show a wide range of caloric intake and a disruption of circadian feeding patterns. In overeating bulimics, large meals occurred mainly during afternoon and evening with high fat and carbohydrate intake, but the majority of meals were of normal size and frequency. Responsivity
... a family meal? Whenever you and your family eat together — whether it's takeout food or a home-cooked meal with all the trimmings. Strive for nutritious food and a time when everyone can be there. This may mean eating dinner a little later to accommodate a teen who's ...
Schäfer, Axel; Vaitl, Dieter; Schienle, Anne
This study investigated whether bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge-eating disorder (BED) are associated with structural brain abnormalities. Both disorders share the main symptom binge-eating, but are considered differential diagnoses. We attempted to identify alterations in grey matter volume (GMV) that are present in both psychopathologies as well as disorder-specific GMV characteristics. Such information can help to improve neurobiological models of eating disorders and their classification. A total of 50 participants (patients suffering from BN (purge type), BED, and normal-weight controls) underwent structural MRI scanning. GMV for specific brain regions involved in food/reinforcement processing was analyzed by means of voxel-based morphometry. Both patient groups were characterized by greater volumes of the medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) compared to healthy controls. In BN patients, who had increased ventral striatum volumes, body mass index and purging severity were correlated with striatal grey matter volume. Altogether, our data implicate a crucial role of the medial OFC in the studied eating disorders. The structural abnormality might be associated with dysfunctions in food reward processing and/or self-regulation. The bulimia-specific volume enlargement of the ventral striatum is discussed in the framework of negative reinforcement through purging and associated weight regulation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... to control them. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) ARFID is a new term that some people think ... eating issues can also cause it. People with ARFID don't have anorexia or bulimia, but they ...
... There is much we can do to promote healthy eating habits. Together we can prevent or delay onset of diabetes, obesity and other chronic conditions and diseases. Benefits Helps maintain a healthy weight A healthy weight reduces risk of chronic ...
Kontić Olga; Vasiljević Nadja; Trišović Marija; Jorga Jagoda; Lakić Aneta; Jašović-Gašić Miroslava
Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis...
Full Text Available Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis. The main characteristic of these diseases is changed behavior in the nutrition, either as an intentional restriction of food, i.e. extreme dieting, or overeating, i.e. binge eating. Extreme dieting, skipping meals, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and misuse of laxatives and diuretics for the purpose of maintaining or reducing body weight are characteristic forms of compensatory behavior of patients with eating disorder. The most appropriate course of treatment is determined by evaluating the patient’s health condition, associated with behavior and eating habits, the experience of one’s own body, character traits of personality, and consequently the development and functioning of the individual. The final treatment plan is individual. Eating disorders are a growing medical problem even in this part of the world. Prevention should be planned in cooperation with different sectors so as to stop the epidemic of these diseases.
Scaglioni, Silvia; Arrizza, Chiara; Vecchi, Fiammetta; Tedeschi, Sabrina
Parents have a high degree of control over the environments and experiences of their children. Food preferences are shaped by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. This article is a review of current data on effective determinants of children's eating habits. The development of children's food preferences involves a complex interplay of genetic, familial, and environmental factors. There is evidence of a strong genetic influence on appetite traits in children, but environment plays an important role in modeling children's eating behaviors. Parents use a variety of strategies to influence children's eating habits, some of which are counterproductive. Overcontrol, restriction, pressure to eat, and a promise of rewards have negative effects on children's food acceptance. Parents' food preferences and eating behaviors provide an opportunity to model good eating habits. Satiety is closely related to diet composition, and foods with low energy density contribute to prevent overeating. Parents should be informed about the consequences of an unhealthy diet and lifestyle and motivated to change their nutritional habits. Parents should be the target of prevention programs because children model themselves on their parents' eating behaviors, lifestyles, eating-related attitudes, and dissatisfaction regarding body image. Pediatricians can have an important role in the prevention of diet-related diseases. Informed and motivated parents can become a model for children by offering a healthy, high-satiety, low-energy-dense diet and promoting self-regulation from the first years of life.
Turton, Robert; Chami, Rayane; Treasure, Janet
The objective of this paper is to review the role that hedonic factors, emotions and self-regulation systems have over eating behaviours from animal models to humans. Evidence has been found to suggest that for some high-risk individuals, obesity/binge eating may develop as an impulsive reaction to negative emotions that over time becomes a compulsive habit. Animal models highlight the neural mechanisms that might underlie this process and suggest similarities with substance use disorders. Emotional difficulties and neurobiological factors have a role in the aetiology of eating and weight disorders. Precise treatments targeted at these mechanisms may be of help for people who have difficulties with compulsive overeating.
Trach - eating ... take your first bites. Certain factors may make eating or swallowing harder, such as: Changes in the ... easier to swallow. Suction the tracheostomy tube before eating. This will keep you from coughing while eating, ...
Z = 0.62, respectively. It was shown that depression, anxiety, and absence of happiness had important roles in the process of weight reduction among applicants of weight loss. Conclusions: Anxiety and depression lead to over-eating and over-eating inturn reinforces both depression and anxiety.
Basterfield, Annie; Dimitropoulos, Gina; Bills, Donna; Cullen, Olivia; Freeman, Victoria E
This qualitative study aims to explore how individuals who are seeking help and support for eating disorders use various forms of technology. Fifteen participants, recruited from an Eating Disorder Program in a hospital setting and an eating disorder community support centre, voluntarily participated in focus groups and individual interviews in 2015. The authors used thematic analysis to code and analyse the qualitative data, and three themes were identified: safety, connection and technology development. This study identifies the need for technology use to be addressed and integrated into clinical services for eating disorders, as well as for safe and helpful technology tools to be developed for this population. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Korsgaard, Dannie Michael; Nilsson, Niels Chr.; Bjørner, Thomas
This paper documents a pilot study evaluating a simple approach allowing users to eat real food while exploring a virtual environment (VE) through a head-mounted display (HMD). Two cameras mounted on the HMD allowed for video-based stereoscopic see-through when the user’s head orientation pointed...
Smith, April R; Forrest, Lauren N; Velkoff, Elizabeth A; Ribeiro, Jessica D; Franklin, Joseph
The current study tested whether people with and without eating disorders (EDs) varied in their implicit attitudes toward ED-relevant stimuli. Additionally, the study tested whether implicit evaluations of ED-relevant stimuli predicted ED symptoms and behaviors over a 4-week interval. Participants were people without EDs (N = 85) and people seeking treatment for EDs (N = 92). All participants completed self-report questionnaires and a version of the affect misattribution procedure (AMP) at baseline. The AMP indexed implicit evaluations of average body stimuli, eating stimuli, and ED-symptom stimuli. Participants with EDs completed weekly follow-up measures of ED symptoms and behaviors for 4 weeks. Contrary to predictions, the anorexia nervosa (AN) group did not differ from the no ED group on implicit attitudes toward ED-symptom stimuli, and the bulimia nervosa (BN) group had less positive implicit attitudes toward ED-symptom stimuli relative to the no ED group. In line with predictions, people with AN and BN had more negative implicit attitudes toward average body and eating stimuli relative to the no ED group. In addition, among the ED group more negative implicit attitudes toward eating stimuli predicted ED symptoms and behaviors 4 weeks later, over and above baseline ED symptoms and behaviors. Taken together, implicit evaluations of eating stimuli differentiated people with AN and BN from people without EDs and longitudinally predicted ED symptoms and behaviors. Interventions that increase implicit liking of eating-related stimuli may reduce ED behaviors. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bruselius-Jensen, Maria Louisa; Egberg Mikkelsen, Bent
". This paper highlights the role that the organisation of food provision plays by comparing the attitudes of students towards in-school food provision as opposed to out-of-school provision where food is provided by outside caterers. Schools having internal food production and schools having external food...... operated catering seems to have a negative effect on the social and cultural structures and functions related to the meal during lunchtime. Having meals in schools where external caterers are employed is experienced as an individual act by the students in comparison with schools having internal catering......Unhealthy eating are common among adolescents and the school is a well suited setting for promoting healthy eating. For the school to play a role here, however an environment must be created, in which the school and the students develop a sense of ownership for a healthy food and nutrition "regime...
Derenne, Jennifer L.; Beresin, Eugene V.
Objective: Eating disorders, including obesity, are a major public health problem today. Throughout history, body image has been determined by various factors, including politics and media. Exposure to mass media (television, movies, magazines, Internet) is correlated with obesity and negative body image, which may lead to disordered eating. The…
Addictive drugs such as opiate can produce physical dependence after a very small number of doses. consequently, to stave off or alleviate the withdrawal distress precipitated by dependence, the addicted person resort to self- drug administration. however, the withdrawal relief theory of drug addiction posits that an ...
Stamm, Andrew W.; Nguyen, Nam D.; Seicol, Benjamin J.; Fagan, Abigail; Oh, Angela; Drumm, Michael; Lundt, Maureen; Stickgold, Robert; Wamsley, Erin J.
Post-learning sleep is beneficial for human memory. However, it may be that not all memories benefit equally from sleep. Here, we manipulated a spatial learning task using monetary reward and performance feedback, asking whether enhancing the salience of the task would augment overnight memory consolidation and alter its incorporation into…
Tan, Hui Shan Grace
In recent years, edible insects have gained global attention due to their nutritional and environmental advantages over conventional meat. While numerous species of edible insects are enjoyed in various cultures around the world, most Western consumers react with disgust and aversion towards eating creatures that are not regarded as food. The low consumer acceptance of this culturally inappropriate food is currently considered to be one of the key barriers to attaining the benefits of this po...
Utzinger, Linsey M; Gowey, Marissa A; Zeller, Meg; Jenkins, Todd M; Engel, Scott G; Rofey, Dana L; Inge, Thomas H; Mitchell, James E
This study assessed loss of control (LOC) eating and eating disorders (EDs) in adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery for severe obesity. Preoperative baseline data from the Teen Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (Teen-LABS) multisite observational study (n = 242; median BMI = 51 kg/m 2 ; mean age= 17; 76% female adolescents; 72% Caucasian) included anthropometric and self-report questionnaires, including the Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised (QEWP-R), the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), and the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Kids (IWQOL-Kids) RESULTS: LOC eating (27%) was common and ED diagnoses included binge-eating disorder (7%), night eating syndrome (5%), and bulimia nervosa (1%). Compared to those without LOC eating, those with LOC eating reported greater depressive symptomatology and greater impairment in weight-related quality of life. Before undergoing bariatric surgery, adolescents with severe obesity present with problematic disordered eating behaviors and meet diagnostic criteria for EDs. LOC eating, in particular, was associated with several negative psychosocial factors. Findings highlight targets for assessment and intervention in adolescents before bariatric surgery. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:947-952). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kistler, Brandon; Benner, Deborah; Burgess, Mary; Stasios, Maria; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Wilund, Kenneth R
Providing food or nutrition supplements during hemodialysis (HD) may be associated with improved nutritional status and reduced mortality; however, despite these potential benefits, eating practices vary across countries, regions, and clinics. Understanding present clinic practices and clinician experiences with eating during HD may help outline best practices in this controversial area. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine clinical practices and experiences related to eating during HD treatment. We surveyed clinicians about their clinic practices during the 2014 International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism Conference. We received 73 responses from six continents. Respondents were primarily dietitians (71%) working at units housed in a hospital (63%). Sixty-one clinics (85%) allowed patients to eat during treatment, with 47 of these patients (65%) actively encouraging eating. Fifty-three clinics (73%) provided food during HD. None of the nine clinics from North America, however, provided food during treatment. The majority (47 clinics; 64%) provided supplements during treatment. Clinics in the hospital setting were more likely to provide food during treatment, whereas outpatient clinics were less likely to provide nutrition supplements (P≤ 0.05 for both). We also asked clinicians about their experience with six commonly cited reasons to restrict eating during treatment using a four-point scale. Clinicians responded they observed the following conditions "rarely" or "never": choking (98%), reduced Kt/V (98%), infection control issues (96%), spills or pests (83%), gastrointestinal issues (71%), and hypotension (62%). Our results indicate that while eating is common during treatment in some areas, disparities may exist in global practices, and most of the proposed negative sequelae of eating during HD are not frequently observed in clinical practice. Whether these disparities in practice can explain global differences in albumin warrants
Mann, Linda; Blotnicky, Karen
Problem: There is evidence that university students have poor eating behaviors that can lead to short and long term negative health effects. Understanding the influences on eating behaviors will aid universities and health agencies in developing effective healthy eating promotion strategies. Purpose and Method: To determine the impact of a range…
Full Text Available Eating disorders are quite common in clinical practice and can include out-of-control behaviours and thoughts that powerfully reinforce unhealthy eating patterns. They include anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder. We conducted a trial on 102 patients (89 females and 13 males to investigate the efficacy of “DCD method” (appropriate dietary education associated to New-Electrosculpture on patients with obesity and eating disorders. The study underlines the efficacy of “DCD method”, especially when supported by behavioural therapy, in obese and overweight patients.
Brogan, Amy; Hevey, David
The research explored (1) the relationships between self-reported eating style (restraint, emotional and external eating) and dietary intake and (2) emotional eater status as a moderator of food intake when emotional, in a morbidly obese population. A sample of 57 obese participants (BMI: M = 51.84, SD = 8.66) completed a five-day food diary together with a reflective diary, which assessed eating style and positive and negative affect daily. A dietician-scored food pyramid analysis of intake. Restraint eating was the only predictor (negative) of overall food intake and the variable most strongly associated with the consumption of top-shelf foods. Emotional and external eating were unrelated to food intake. Emotional eater status did not moderate food intake in response to positive and negative mood states. The findings indicated largely analogous relationships between eating style and dietary intake in this obese sample compared with previous results from healthy populations. The lack of predictive validity for emotional eating scales (when emotional) raises questions over people's ability to adequately assess their eating style and consequently, the overall validity of emotional eater scales.
Talbot, Lisa S; Maguen, Shira; Epel, Elissa S; Metzler, Thomas J; Neylan, Thomas C
The present study investigated the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and emotional eating in a sample of medically healthy and medication-free adults. Participants with PTSD (n = 44) and control participants free of lifetime psychiatric history (n = 49) completed a measure of emotional eating. Emotional eating is the tendency to eat or overeat in response to negative emotions. PTSD participants exhibited greater emotional eating than control participants (η(2) = .20) and emotional eating increased with higher PTSD symptom severity (R(2) = .11). Results supported the stress-eating-obesity model whereby emotional eating is a maladaptive response to stressors. Over time, this could lead to weight gain, particularly abdominal stores, and contribute to higher risk for comorbid medical disorders. Findings suggest the importance of future longitudinal research to understand whether emotional eating contributes to the high rates of obesity, diabetes, and heart disease in PTSD. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Obregón Rivas, Ana Maria; Santos, Jose L; Valladares, Macarena A; Cameron, Jameson; Goldfield, Gary
The aim of this study was to assess the association between the single-nucleotide polymorphism rs9939609 in the FTO gene and homeostatic/non-homeostatic eating behavior patterns in Chilean children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 258 children (44% female; 8-14 y of age). Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, Z-score of height, body mass index, and waist circumference) were performed. Eating behavior was assessed using the Eating in Absence of Hunger Questionnaire; the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire; the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire, and the Food Reinforcement Value Questionnaire. Genotype of rs9939609 was determined by a Taqman assay. Association of rs9939609 with eating behavior was assessed using non-parametric tests. Allelic frequencies of rs9939609 were estimated as 77% for the A allele and 23% for the T allele. We found that normal-weight girl A carriers had higher scores of Satiety Responsiveness and Slowness on the Eating subscale. Normal-weight boy A carriers showed significantly higher scores on the Negative Affect and lower scores of the Desire to Drink subscale. In overweight children, A carriers showed higher scores on the Food Responsiveness, Emotional Overeating, Enjoyment of Food, and Food Choice subscales and lower scores on the Satiety- Responsiveness and Slowness in Eating subscales. In obese children, we found higher scores on the Cognitive Restrained subscale and lower Food Choice. The rs9939609 A allele of the FTO gene is associated with eating behavior traits and may predispose to obesity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kravvariti, V; Gonidakis, Fr
Women suffering from eating disorders, present considerable retardation and difficulties in their psychosexual development during adolescence. This leads to primary or secondary insufficiencies in their adult sexual life. The cause of these difficulties seems to be a series of biological, family and psychosocial factors. The majority of the research findings indicate that eating disorders have a negative impact on the patient's sexual function. The factors related to eating disorders symptomatology that influence sexuality are various and differ among each eating disorder diagnostic categories. Considering anorexia nervosa, it has been reported that women have negative attitudes to sexual issues and their body. Their sexual motivation increases when they engage in psychotherapy and their body weight is gradually restored. Starvation and its consequences on the human physiology and especially on the brain function seem to be the main factor that leads to reduced sexual desire and scarce sexual activity. Moreover, personality traits that are common in patients suffering from anorexia nervosa such as compulsivity and rigidity are also related with difficulties initiating and retaining romantic and sexual relationships. Usually patients suffering from anorexia nervosa report impaired sexual behavior and lack of interest to engage in a sexual relationship. Considering Bulimia Nervosa, impulsivity and difficulties in emotion regulation that are common features of the individuals that suffer from bulimia nervosa are also related to impulsive and sometimes self-harming sexual behaviors. Moreover women sufferers often report repulsion, anger and shame towards their body and weight, mainly due to the distorted perception that they are fat and ugly. It is interesting that a number of research findings indicate that although patients suffering from bulimia nervosa are more sexually active and have more sexual experiences than patients suffering from anorexia nervosa, both
... himself. Understanding Binge Eating If you gorged on chocolate during Halloween or ate so much pumpkin pie ... binge eating, doctors may prescribe medications along with therapy and nutrition advice. People with binge eating disorder ...
Æbelø, Amanda; Bastholm, Amanda Mains; Buch, Mathilde Sophie; Asmussen, Søs Træger; Petersen, Gitte
The area of Health Promotion has been investigated numerous of times since the concept was introduced by WHO in the political area in 1948. Health Promotion has been used in many areas of social work ever since, and in Denmark the talk of Health Promotion has been a part of the political debate since 1984. This project brings into focus the EAT-program which is developed by the Copenhagen House of Food in collaboration with the Children and Youth Committee in Copenhagen. The background for th...
Deniz Tuncel; Fatma Özlem Orhan
Hunger is an awakening related biological impulse. The relationship between hunger and sleep is moderated by the control of homeostatic and circadian rhytms of the body. Abnormal eating behavior during sleep period could result from different causes. Abnormal eating during the main sleep period has been categorized as either night eating syndrome or sleep related eating disorder. Night eating syndrome (NES) is an eating disorder characterised by the clinical features of morning anorexia, even...
A composite panel having front and back faces, the panel comprising facing reinforcement, backing reinforcement and matrix material binding to the facing and backing reinforcements, the facing and backing reinforcements each independently comprising one or more reinforcing sheets, the facing rein...... by matrix material, the facing and backing reinforcements being interconnected to resist out-of-plane relative movement. The reinforced composite panel is useful as a barrier element for shielding structures, equipment and personnel from blast and/or ballistic impact damage....
Balantekin, Katherine N; Birch, Leann L; Savage, Jennifer S
The objectives of the current study were to examine whether eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) at age 7 predicted reports of self-reported binge eating at age 15 and to identify factors among girls with high-EAH that moderated risk of later binge eating. Subjects included 158 girls assessed at age 7 and age 15. Logistic regression was used to predict binge eating at age 15 from calories consumed during EAH at age 7. A series of logistic regressions were used to examine the odds of reporting binge eating given levels of risk factors (e.g., anxiety) among those with high-EAH in childhood. Girls' EAH intake predicted reports of binge eating at age 15; after adjusting for age 7 BMI, for each additional 100kcal consumed, girls were 1.7 times more likely to report binge eating in adolescence. Among those with high-EAH, BMI, anxiety, depression, dietary restraint, emotional disinhibition, and body dissatisfaction all predicted binge eating. EAH during childhood predicted reports of binge eating during adolescence; girls with elevated BMI, negative affect, and maladaptive eating- and weight-related cognitions were at increased risk. High-EAH in childhood may be useful for indicating those at risk for developing binge eating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stojek, Monika M. K.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Kelly, Nichole R.; Thompson, Katherine A.; Mehari, Rim D.; Marwitz, Shannon E.; Demidowich, Andrew P.; Galescu, Ovidiu A.; Brady, Sheila M.; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Yanovski, Jack A.
Objective Adolescent emotional-eating, referring to eating in response to negative affective states, is frequently reported by those with loss of control (LOC) eating. Although LOC eating has been shown to predict exacerbated disordered eating and excess weight/adiposity gain, the extent to which emotional-eating, either alone or in combination with LOC, predicts adverse outcomes has not been determined. Thus, we examined associations of baseline emotional-eating with changes in disordered eating, BMI, and adiposity over 1-year, and to what degree the presence or absence of baseline LOC moderated these associations. Methods 189 non-treatment-seeking youth (15.4±1.4y; 66% female; 67% non-Hispanic White, 38% overweight [BMI ≥85th %ile]) completed the emotional-eating Scale for Children/Adolescents and the Eating Disorder Examination interview at baseline and again at 1-year. Air displacement plethysmography assessed adiposity at both time points. Results Baseline emotional-eating alone was not significantly associated with the development of objective binge eating or changes in disordered eating attitudes, BMI or adiposity 1-year later. However, baseline emotional-eating interacted with the presence of baseline LOC in the prediction of 1-year outcomes. Among adolescents with LOC eating, greater baseline emotional-eating was related to increased disordered eating attitudes (p=.03), BMI (p=.04), and adiposity (p=.04) at 1-year, after correcting for false discovery rate. Discussion Emotional-eating among youth also reporting LOC was associated with adverse outcomes over 1-year. Adolescents who report both behaviors may represent a subset of individuals at especially high risk for exacerbated disordered eating and excess weight gain. PMID:27753140
van Dyck, Zoé; Herbert, Beate M; Happ, Christian; Kleveman, Gillian V; Vögele, Claus
Intuitive eating has been described to represent an adaptive eating behaviour that is characterised by eating in response to physiological hunger and satiety cues, rather than situational and emotional stimuli. The Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2) has been developed to measure such attitudes and behaviours on four subscales: unconditional permission to eat (UPE), eating for physical rather than emotional reasons (EPR), reliance on internal hunger and satiety cues (RHSC), and body-food choice congruence (B-FCC). The present study aimed at validating the psychometric properties of the German translation of the IES-2 in a large German-speaking sample. A second objective was to assess levels of intuitive eating in participants with an eating disorder diagnosis (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or binge eating disorder). The proposed factor structure of the IES-2 could be confirmed for the German translation of the questionnaire. The total score and most subscale scores were negatively related to eating disorder symptomatology, problems in appetite and emotional awareness, body dissatisfaction, and self-objectification. Women with eating disorders had significantly lower values on all IES-2 subscale scores and the total score than women without an eating disorder diagnosis. Women with a binge eating disorder (BED) diagnosis had higher scores on the UPE subscale compared to participants with anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN), and those diagnosed with AN had higher scores on the EPR subscale than individuals with BN or BED. We conclude that the German IES-2 constitutes a useful self-report instrument for the assessment of intuitive eating in German-speaking samples. Further studies are warranted to evaluate psychometric properties of the IES-2 in different samples, and to investigate its application in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nikčević, A V; Marino, C; Caselli, G; Spada, M M
Impulsivity, Body Mass Index, negative emotions and irrational food beliefs are often reported as predictors of binge eating. In the current study we explored the role played by two thinking styles, namely food thought suppression and desire thinking, in predicting binge eating among young adults controlling for established predictors of this condition. A total of 338 university students (268 females) participated in this study by completing a battery of questionnaires measuring the study variables. Path analysis revealed that impulsivity was not associated with binge eating, that Body Mass Index and negative emotions predicted binge eating, and that irrational food beliefs only influenced binge eating via food thought suppression and desire thinking. In conclusion, thinking styles appear an important predictor of binge eating and they should be taken into consideration when developing clinical interventions for binge eating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
David R Lloyd; David R Lloyd; Douglas J Medina; Larry W Hawk; Whitney D Fosco; Jerry B Richards
In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE) that links behavioral and neural based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE) is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We ar...
One of the most problematic point in construction is the durability of the concrete especially related to corrosion of the steel reinforcement. Due to this problem the construction sector, introduced the use of Fiber Reinforced Polymer, the main fibers used in construction are Glass, Carbon and Aramid. In this study, the author aim to analyse the flexural behaviour of concrete beams reinforced with FRP. This aim is achieved by the analysis of specimens reinforced with GFRP bars, with theoreti...
TAMASE, Koji; UEDA, Masako
It was predicted that higher proportion of the negative reinforcement "Wrong" than that of the positive reinforcement "Right" in a reinforcement combination will produce higher proportion of the correct response and this trend will be greater in reflective children than in impulsive children. From 140 kindergarten children 30 reflective and 30 impulsive children were selected and they were given a two-hole marble-dropping task. The best performance in the ratio of correct responses was obtain...
Full Text Available Binge Eating Disorder, characterized by frequent and persistent overeating episodes that are accompanied by feeling of loss of control over eating without regular compensatory behaviors and was identified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition as a new eating disorder category. Binge Eating Disorder is the most common eating disorder among adults. Binge Eating Disorder is associated with significant morbidity, including medical complications related to obesity, eating disorder psychopathology, psychiatric comorbidity; reduced quality of life, and impaired social functioning. Current treatments of Binge Eating Disorder include pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy and bariatric surgery. In this review, the definition, epidemiology, etiology, clinical features, and also mainly treatment of Binge Eating Disorder are discussed.
Allison, Kelly C; Spaeth, Andrea; Hopkins, Christina M
Insomnia is related to an increased risk of eating disorders, while eating disorders are related to more disrupted sleep. Insomnia is also linked to poorer treatment outcomes for eating disorders. However, over the last decade, studies examining sleep and eating disorders have relied on surveys, with no objective measures of sleep for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, and only actigraphy data for binge eating disorder. Sleep disturbance is better defined for night eating syndrome, where sleep efficiency is reduced and melatonin release is delayed. Studies that include objectively measured sleep and metabolic parameters combined with psychiatric comorbidity data would help identify under what circumstances eating disorders and sleep disturbance produce an additive effect for symptom severity and for whom poor sleep would increase risk for an eating disorder. Cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia may be a helpful addition to treatment of those with both eating disorder and insomnia.
Maor, Noga Roguin; Sayag, Shlomit; Dahan, Rachel; Hermoni, Doron
Israeli youth lead 27 western countries in dieting. The prevalence of eating disorders has been rising in the last 30 years, causing social problems and medical complications. To examine the prevalence of eating disorders among high school students in a region in northern Israel (Misgav) and to examine the relationship between the parents' employment status and the subject's eating disorder. A structured questionnaire was administered to collect demographic data. The short version of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was used to evaluate the subject's attitudes toward and preoccupation with food, dieting, eating, physical appearance, and personal control over eating. Of 360 students approached, 283 (78%) completed the self-report EAT-26. One of every 5 females and one in every 20 males had an abnormal eating attitude. The rate of pathologic EAT-26 results, 20.8%, falls within the high range of similar community-based samples of female adolescents. There were no differences in EAT-26 score between students with an employed or unemployed mother; however, there was a trend for higher EAT-26 scores among those whose father was unemployed (21.4% vs. 12.7%, chi2 = 0.14). The findings support our hypothesis of a relatively high rate of abnormal eating attitudes (as reflected by high EAT-26 score) in this population. Another possible risk factor is having an unemployed father, which warrants further research and attention. Our next step is to introduce an intervention program in the school and to study its effect.
Reinforced sulphur concrete wherein one or more metal reinforcing members are in contact with sulphur concrete is disclosed. The reinforced sulphur concrete comprises an adhesion promoter that enhances the interaction between the sulphur and the one or more metal reinforcing members.
Goldfield, Gary S; Blouin, Arthur G; Woodside, D Blake
Male bodybuilders (MBB) exhibit more severe body dissatisfaction, bulimic eating behaviour, and negative psychological characteristics, compared with male athletic and nonathletic control subjects, but few studies have directly compared MBB and men with eating disorders. This study compared men with bulimia nervosa (MBN), competitive male bodybuilders (CMBB), and recreational male bodybuilders (RMBB) on a broad range of eating attitudes and behaviours and psychological characteristics to more accurately determine similarities and differences among these groups. Anonymous questionnaires, designed to assess eating attitudes, body image, weight and shape preoccupation, prevalence of binge eating, weight loss practices, lifetime rates of eating disorders, anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use, and general psychological factors, were completed by 22 MBN, 27 CMBB, and 25 RMBB. High rates of weight and shape preoccupation, extreme body modification practices, binge eating, and bulimia nervosa (BN) were reported among MBB, especially among those who competed. CMBB reported higher rates of binge eating, BN, and AAS use compared with RMBB, but exhibited less eating-related and general psychopathology compared with MBN. Few psychological differences were found between CMBB and RMBB. MBB, especially competitors, and MBN appear to share many eating-related features but few general psychological ones. Longitudinal research is needed to determine whether men with a history of disordered eating or BN disproportionately gravitate to competitive bodybuildin and (or) whether competitive bodybuilding fosters disordered eating, BN, and AAS use.
Wagner, Allison F; Stefano, Emily C; Cicero, David C; Latner, Janet D; Mond, Jonathan M
This study examined whether gender moderates the associations between eating disorder features and quality-of-life impairment and whether eating disorder features can explain gender differences in quality of life in a sample of undergraduate students. The SF-12 Physical and Mental Component Summary Scales were used to measure health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and the Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) was used to quantify eating disorder behaviors and cognitions. These self-report forms were completed by undergraduate men and women (n = 709). Gender was a significant predictor of mental HRQoL, such that women in this sample reported poorer mental HRQoL than men. Eating disorder cognitions were the strongest predictor of undergraduate students' mental and physical HRQoL, while binge eating negatively predicted their physical HRQoL only. Gender was not found to moderate the associations between eating disorder features and HRQoL, and eating disorder cognitions were found to mediate the association between gender and mental HRQoL such that a proportion of the difference between undergraduate men and women's mental HRQoL was attributable to eating disorder cognitions. This study provided further evidence of the significant impact of eating disorder features, particularly eating disorder cognitions, on HRQoL. The finding that gender did not moderate the relationships between eating disorder features and HRQoL indicates the importance of investigating these features in both men and women in future research.
Valladares, Macarena; Durán, Elizabeth; Matheus, Alexis; Durán-Agüero, Samuel; Obregón, Ana María; Ramírez-Tagle, Rodrigo
To determine the association between academic performance and eating behavior in university students in Chile. A total of 680 college students, 409 (60%) women and 271 (40%) men, were randomly recruited and the mean age of the entire sample was 26. The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), which evaluates 3 dimensions of eating behavior-cognitive restriction (limiting own intake), uncontrolled eating (inclination to eat), and emotional eating (control of food intake in the context of negative emotions)-was used. Academic performance was measured by the grade point average (GPA) and was associated with eating behavior. Women had significantly higher scores in the "emotional eating" dimension than men (p = 0.002). The eating behavior analysis showed that female students with higher GPAs (above 5.5) had statistically significantly lower uncontrolled eating scores (p = 0.03) and higher cognitive restriction scores (p = 0.05) than women with lower academic performance (below 5.5). There were no significant associations between eating behavior and academic performance in men. A positive association between eating behavior and academic performance was observed in female university students in Chile. Further studies are needed to explore the causes of this association and determine how to improve the nutritional habits of this population.
Matton, Annelies; de Jong, Peter; Goossens, Lien; Jonker, Nienke; Van Malderen, Eva; Vervaet, Myriam; De Schryver, Nele; Braet, Caroline
Increasing evidence shows that sensitivity to reward (SR) and punishment (SP) may be involved in eating disorders (EDs). Most studies used self-reported positive/negative effect in rewarding/punishing situations, whereas the implied proneness to detect signals of reward/punishment is largely ignored. This pilot study used a spatial orientation task to examine transdiagnostic and interdiagnostic differences in SR/SP. Participants (14-29 years) were patients with anorexia nervosa of restricting type (AN-R, n = 20), binge/purge ED group [AN of binge/purge type and bulimia nervosa (n = 16)] and non-symptomatic individuals (n = 23). Results revealed stronger difficulties to redirect attention away from signals of rewards in AN-R compared with binge/purge EDs, and binge/purge EDs showed stronger difficulties to direct attention away from signals of punishment compared with AN-R. Findings demonstrate interdiagnostic differences and show that the spatial orientation task is sensitive for individual differences in SP/SR within the context of EDs, thereby sustaining its usefulness as behavioural measure of reinforcement sensitivity. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Full Text Available ... Guide to Eating for Sports What's in this article? Eat Extra for ... more to eating for sports than chowing down on carbs or chugging sports drinks. The good news is that eating to reach your peak ...
... Approaches to Stop Hypertension. It is an eating plan that is based on research studies sponsored by ... risk of getting heart disease. The DASH eating plan Emphasizes vegetables, fruits, and whole-grains Includes fat- ...
Giel, Katrin Elisabeth; Hermann-Werner, Anne; Mayer, Jochen; Diehl, Katharina; Schneider, Sven; Thiel, Ansgar; Zipfel, Stephan
We aimed to investigate eating disorder pathology in German elite adolescent athletes. Evidence suggests that eating disorder pathology is more common in adult elite sports, especially in female athletes and in sports emphasizing leanness. There is a scarcity of studies in elite adolescent athletes who are in a vulnerable developmental stage and are affected by general as well as sport-specific risk factors. Our data was derived from the German Young Olympic Athletes' Lifestyle and Health Management Study (GOAL) which conducted a survey in 1138 elite adolescent athletes. In this sample, we assessed body weight, weight control behavior, body acceptance and screened overall for core symptoms of eating disorders, depression and anxiety. We performed a tree analysis to identify high risk groups for eating disorder pathology. High risk groups comprised (a) athletes competing in weight dependent sports, and among athletes competing in disciplines other than weight dependent sports (b) athletes who are high on negative affectivity, (c) female athletes and (d) male athletes competing in endurance, technical or power sports. Athletes competing in weight dependent disciplines reported wide spread use of compensatory behaviors to influence body weight. Athletes reporting eating disorder pathology showed higher levels of depression and anxiety than athletes without eating disorder pathology. Increased psychosocial burden in athletes with eating disorder pathology suggests that eating disorder symptoms should not be accepted as an unproblematic and functional part of elite sports. The prevention and management of eating disorder pathology is especially important in weight dependent sports. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:553-562). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Srinivasan, T.N.; Suresh, T.R.; Jayaram, Vasantha; Fernandez, M. Peter
Data on the nature and extent of major eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia is lacking in non-white, native populations of the developing world, leaving a gap in understanding the determinants of these disorders. In a study on 210 medical students examined by a two-stage survey method, 31 subjects were found to have distress relating to their eating habits and body size not amounting to criterion-based diagnosis of eating disorders. The characteristics of this eating distress syndro...
Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Czyzyk, Adam; Katulski, Krzysztof; Smolarczyk, Roman; Grymowicz, Monika; Maciejewska-Jeske, Marzena; Meczekalski, Blazej
Eating disorders (EDs) are disturbances that seriously endanger the physical health and often the lives of sufferers and affect their psychosocial functioning. EDs are usually thought of as problems afflicting teenagers. However, the incidence in older women has increased in recent decades. These cases may represent either late-onset disease or, more likely, a continuation of a lifelong disorder. The DSM-5 classification differentiates 4 categories of eating disorder: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorders and other specified feeding and eating disorders. The weight loss and malnutrition resulting from EDs have widespread negative consequences for physical, mental and social health. The main risk factors for developing long-term consequences are the degree of weight loss and the chronicity of the illness. Most of the cardiac, neurological, pulmonary, gastric, haematological and dermatological complications of EDs are reversible with weight restoration. EDs are serious illnesses and they should never be neglected or treated only as a manifestation of the fashion for dieting or a woman's wish to achieve an imposed standard feminine figure. Additionally, EDs are associated with high risk of morbidity and mortality. The literature concerning EDs in older, postmenopausal women is very limited. The main aim of this paper is to ascertain the epidemiology and prognosis of EDs in older women, and to review their diagnosis and management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
You are what you eat—and so is your baby. In addition to being smokefree, eating well during pregnancy is one of the best and most important things you can do for yourself and your baby. But healthy “eating for two” is more than just eating more.
To study the relationship between personality characteristics and eating behaviour in obese patients. The participants were 45 patients with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 39 kg/m2. Eating behaviour was measured with the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) also taking the subscales Flexible Control and Rigid Control into account, and Personality was assessed with the Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP). In linear regression analyses the personality characteristic greater Lack of Assertiveness could explain 17% of Disinhibited eating and 13% of Hunger scores, whereas less Lack of Assertiveness could explain 12% of Flexible Control. BMI was negatively related to one of the personality characteristics, Adventure Seeking. A lacking ability to be socially self-assertive and confident characterized obese patients with more problematic eating behaviours that imply a risk for over consumption of food. A greater self-assertiveness was found in patients with a relatively more efficient eating strategy such as flexible control over eating.
Lomas, Joanna E.; Fisher, Wayne W.; Kelley, Michael E.
Prior research indicates that reinforcement of an appropriate response (e.g., compliance) can produce concomitant reductions in problem behavior reinforced by escape when problem behavior continues to produce negative reinforcement (e.g., Lalli et al., 1999). These effects may be due to a preference for positive over negative reinforcement or to…
Gianini, Loren M; White, Marney A; Masheb, Robin M
The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship among emotional regulation, emotional overeating, and general eating pathology in a treatment seeking sample of adults with Binge Eating Disorder (BED). The sample was composed of 326 adults (248 women, 78 men) who were obese and met DSM-IV-TR criteria for BED. Prior to treatment, participants completed the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Emotional Overeating Questionnaire (EOQ), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) as part of a larger assessment battery. A series of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that difficulties with emotion regulation accounted for unique variance in both emotional overeating and general eating pathology above and beyond sex and negative affect. Emotion regulation may play a significant role in the maintenance of emotional overeating and eating pathology in obese adults with BED. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Enten, Roni S; Golan, Moria
Our objective was to investigate the association between parenting style and eating disorder symptoms in patients treated in an intensive outpatient center for eating disorders. The study design is a cross-sectional survey set in a community-based facility for eating disorders. Participants included 53 families, including 32 with a child meeting the DSM-IV criteria for anorexia nervosa, 18 for bulimia nervosa, and 3 diagnosed ED-NOS. Data was collected using the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ), the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2) and the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). Significant, negative correlations were found between drive for thinness scores and body dissatisfaction scores and the patient's perception of the father as authoritative. Total patient EDI score was significantly and positively correlated with patient's perception of the father as authoritarian and inversely correlated with her perception of him as authoritative. These results emphasize the importance of fathers' role in the eating disorder pathology, a relatively untapped area of research.
Full Text Available According to International Classification of Diseases by World Health Organization, eating disorders are behavioural syndromes associated with physiological disturbances . Eating disorders include anorexia nervosa, atypical anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, atypical bulimia nervosa, overeating associated with other psychological disturbances and vomiting associated with other psychological disturbances . Maladaptive eating pattern and inadequate physical activity are seen in adolescents with eating disorders and obesity . Those with comorbid eating disorder and obesity have a poorer prognosis and are at higher risk for future medical problems.
Grunert, Suzanne C.
. Particularly the aspects of security and pleasure are suggested to be important motivators for emotional eating. How these symbolic meanings relate to eating as a regulatory device for emotions is explained by a schema- theoretical approach distinguishing between automatic adaptation mechanisms and strategic......Emotional eating behaviour has been of interest to psychologists exclusively as a disorder. However, evidence suggests that it is a common aspect of normal food habits, initiated by both positive and negative emotions in order to regulate these. T behaviour thus serves to regain or preserve...... the psycho-mental homeostasis. To explain this phenomenon it is first shown which symbolic meanings are associated with eating and foods. The numerous connotations can be grouped into four basic dimensions: Security and pleasure as self-oriented, and status and prestige as socially oriented emotional symbols...
understanding of adolescent healthy eating. Based on this, the thesis presents three research questions which are investigated in three research papers. The research questions are: 1. Which roles do parents and adolescents have in healthy eating socialisation? 2. How does the social influence from parents...... and family members’ roles regarding healthy eating socialisation is underexposed, the study aimed at exploring adolescents’ and parents’ awareness of and involvement in healthy eating and investigated how they related it to their roles in the healthy eating socialisation taking place within the family...... or a cooperative one helping parents. Parents initiated dialogues with family members about healthy eating and felt responsible as role models often fulfilling the adolescents’ demands and acknowledging their help. The findings confirm that parents still have the upper hand, when it comes to healthy eating...
small quantities of the green leaves and eagerly feed on dried leaves after the first winter frost without obvious negative effects (H. Stehn, pers. obs.). On being informed of the incident, NT was intrigued, as he had never heard of vultures eating plant material and as White-backed. Vultures eat primarily soft body parts and do ...
Wechsler, Lisa S.; Riggs, Shelley A.; Stabb, Sally D.; Marshall, David M.
The current study examined patterns of association among mutuality, self-silencing, and disordered eating in an ethnically diverse sample of college women (N = 149). Partner mutuality and overall self-silencing were negatively correlated and together were associated with six disordered eating indices. All four self-silencing subscales were…
Küter, André; Geiker, Mette Rica; Møller, Per
Reinforcement corrosion is the most important cause for deterioration of reinforced concrete structures, both with regard to costs and consequences. Thermodynamically consistent descriptions of corrosion mechanisms are expected to allow the development of innovative concepts for the management...... of reinforcement corrosion....
Full Text Available Hunger is an awakening related biological impulse. The relationship between hunger and sleep is moderated by the control of homeostatic and circadian rhytms of the body. Abnormal eating behavior during sleep period could result from different causes. Abnormal eating during the main sleep period has been categorized as either night eating syndrome or sleep related eating disorder. Night eating syndrome (NES is an eating disorder characterised by the clinical features of morning anorexia, evening hyperphagia, and insomnia with awakenings followed by nocturnal food ingestion. Recently night eating syndrome, conceptualized as a delayed circadian intake of food. Sleep-related eating disorder, thought to represent a parasomnia and as such included within the revised International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-2, and characterized by nocturnal partial arousals associated with recurrent episodes of involuntary food consumption and altered levels of consciousness. Whether, however, sleep-related eating disorder and night eating syndrome represent different diseases or are part of a continuum is still debated. This review summarizes their characteristics, treatment outcomes and differences between them.
Zarychta, Karolina; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Scholz, Urte
This study tested the reciprocal relationships between automatic thoughts about eating and the actual-ideal weight discrepancies, and their role in the formation and maintenance of eating disorders (ED) symptoms in a non-clinical sample of adolescents. In particular, we investigated whether thoughts about eating mediated the effects of weight discrepancies on ED formation and whether weight discrepancies mediated the effects of thoughts about eating on ED formation were investigated. Data were collected three times, with a 2-month interval between Time 1 (T1) and Time 2 (T2), and a 9-month interval between T2 and Time 3 (T3). Adolescents (N = 55) aged 15-18 filled out the SCOFF Questionnaire, assessing eating disorders symptoms, and the Eating Disorder Thoughts Questionnaire, evaluating automatic thoughts. To assess weight discrepancies questions about actual (subjectively reported) and ideal body weight were asked followed by objective measurement of height and weight. Negative thoughts about eating (T2) mediated the relation between weight discrepancies (T1) and symptoms of anorexia and bulimia (T3). In addition, the association between negative thoughts (T1) and eating disorders symptoms (T3) was mediated by weight discrepancies (T2). The negative thoughts and the actual (both subjectively reported and objectively measured)-ideal weight discrepancies constitute a vicious cycle, related to higher ED symptoms. Prevention of eating disorders should be directed to adolescents who manifest large weight discrepancies or high levels of negative thoughts about eating, as they are at risk for developing eating disorder symptoms.
The present dissertation addresses psychological influences on eating behavior.Understanding why people eat what they eat in everyday life, that is, motives for eating behavior, is crucial for the development of interventions to promote normal eating and to prevent eating disorders. Furthermore, enhancing knowledge about both, individual and situational factors facilitating (pull factors) or impeding (push factors) healthy eating is essential for the prevention and treatment of obesity and it...
西脇, 泰子; Yasuko, Nishiwaki; 聖徳学園女子短期大学; Shotoku Gakuen Women's Junior College
This survey was conducted on this school's students, with a view to looking at changes in eating habits, centered on eating out. How studests perceptions regarding their eating habits outside the home were measured and evaluated. Results included the following : 1. Eating out has increased. Most respondents replied that eating out was more convenient. 2. Many students have little knowledge regarding a well-balanced, nutritious meal. They have poor eating habits. 3. Few students eat breakfast....
Kheifets, Aaron; Gallistel, C Randy
Our data rule out a broad class of behavioral models in which behavioral change is guided by differential reinforcement. To demonstrate this, we showed that the number of reinforcers missed before the subject shifted its behavior was not sufficient to drive behavioral change. What's more, many subjects shifted their behavior to a more optimal strategy even when they had not yet missed a single reinforcer. Naturally, differential reinforcement cannot be said to drive a process that shifts to accommodate to new conditions so adeptly that it doesn't miss a single reinforcer: it would have no input on which to base this shift.
Lydecker, Janet A.; Palmberg, Allison A.; Hill, Katherine Vatalaro; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.
Binge eating is increasingly prevalent in college students (White, Reynolds-Malear, & Cordero, 2011). Binge episodes involve eating an objectively large quantity of food in a discrete amount of time and a perceived lost control over eating (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013). Strong negative affect commonly precedes and follows each…
Shouse, Sarah H.; Nilsson, Johanna
Self-silencing (or the suppression of expressing one's thoughts, feelings, and needs) can have a negative impact on the mental health of women, from depression to disordered eating behaviors. The authors examined the relationship between self-silencing and disordered eating as well as intuitive eating. The authors also explored whether emotional…
Austin G. Garner
Full Text Available Reinforcement is the process by which selection against hybridization increases reproductive isolation between taxa. Much research has focused on demonstrating the existence of reinforcement, yet relatively little is known about the genetic basis of reinforcement or the evolutionary conditions under which reinforcement can occur. Inspired by reinforcement’s characteristic phenotypic pattern of reproductive trait divergence in sympatry but not in allopatry, we discuss whether reinforcement also leaves a distinct genomic pattern. First, we describe three patterns of genetic variation we expect as a consequence of reinforcement. Then, we discuss a set of alternative processes and complicating factors that may make the identification of reinforcement at the genomic level difficult. Finally, we consider how genomic analyses can be leveraged to inform if and to what extent reinforcement evolved in the face of gene flow between sympatric lineages and between allopatric and sympatric populations of the same lineage. Our major goals are to understand if genome scans for particular patterns of genetic variation could identify reinforcement, isolate the genetic basis of reinforcement, or infer the conditions under which reinforcement evolved.
Goulet, Benjamin E.
Reinforcement is the process by which selection against hybridization increases reproductive isolation between taxa. Much research has focused on demonstrating the existence of reinforcement, yet relatively little is known about the genetic basis of reinforcement or the evolutionary conditions under which reinforcement can occur. Inspired by reinforcement’s characteristic phenotypic pattern of reproductive trait divergence in sympatry but not in allopatry, we discuss whether reinforcement also leaves a distinct genomic pattern. First, we describe three patterns of genetic variation we expect as a consequence of reinforcement. Then, we discuss a set of alternative processes and complicating factors that may make the identification of reinforcement at the genomic level difficult. Finally, we consider how genomic analyses can be leveraged to inform if and to what extent reinforcement evolved in the face of gene flow between sympatric lineages and between allopatric and sympatric populations of the same lineage. Our major goals are to understand if genome scans for particular patterns of genetic variation could identify reinforcement, isolate the genetic basis of reinforcement, or infer the conditions under which reinforcement evolved. PMID:29614048
Full Text Available Palatable food can be seductive and hedonic eating can become irresistible beyond hunger and negative consequences. This is witnessed by the subtle equilibrium between eating to provide energy intake for homeostatic functions, and reward-induced overeating. In recent years, considerable efforts have been devoted to study neural circuits, and to identify potential factors responsible for the derangement of homeostatic eating toward hedonic eating and addiction-like feeding behavior. Here, we examined recent literature on “old” and “new” players accountable for reward-induced overeating and possible liability to eating addiction. Thus, the role of midbrain dopamine is positioned at the intersection between selected hormonal signals involved in food reward information processing (namely, leptin, ghrelin, and insulin, and lipid-derived neural mediators such as endocannabinoids. The impact of high fat palatable food and dietary lipids on endocannabinoid formation is reviewed in its pathogenetic potential for the derangement of feeding homeostasis. Next, endocannabinoid signaling that regulates synaptic plasticity is discussed as a key mechanism acting both at hypothalamic and mesolimbic circuits, and affecting both dopamine function and interplay between leptin and ghrelin signaling. Outside the canonical hypothalamic feeding circuits involved in energy homeostasis and the notion of “feeding center,” we focused on lateral hypothalamus as neural substrate able to confront food-associated homeostatic information with food salience, motivation to eat, reward-seeking, and development of compulsive eating. Thus, the lateral hypothalamus-ventral tegmental area-nucleus accumbens neural circuitry is reexamined in order to interrogate the functional interplay between ghrelin, dopamine, orexin, and endocannabinoid signaling. We suggested a pivotal role for endocannabinoids in food reward processing within the lateral hypothalamus, and for orexin
David R Lloyd
Full Text Available In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE that links behavioral and neural based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We argue that repeated presentation of reinforcing stimuli decreases their effectiveness and that these decreases are described by the behavioral characteristics of habituation (McSweeney and Murphy, 2009;Rankin et al., 2009. We describe a neural model that postulates a positive association between dopamine neurotransmission and HRE. We present evidence that stimulant drugs, which artificially increase dopamine neurotransmission, disrupt (slow normally occurring HRE and also provide evidence that stimulant drugs have differential effects on operant responding maintained by reinforcers with rapid vs. slow HRE rates. We hypothesize that abnormal HRE due to genetic and/or environmental factors may underlie some behavioral disorders. For example, recent research indicates that slow-HRE is predictive of obesity. In contrast ADHD may reflect ‘accelerated-HRE’. Consideration of HRE is important for the development of effective reinforcement based treatments. Finally, we point out that most of the reinforcing stimuli that regulate daily behavior are non-consumable environmental/social reinforcers which have rapid-HRE. The almost exclusive use of consumable reinforcers with slow-HRE in pre-clinical studies with animals may have caused the importance of HRE to be overlooked. Further study of reinforcing stimuli with rapid-HRE is needed in order to understand how habituation and reinforcement interact and regulate behavior.
Melin, Anna; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Burke, Louise; Marks, Saul; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn
Disordered eating behavior (DE) and eating disorders (EDs) are of great concern because of their associations with physical and mental health risks and, in the case of athletes, impaired performance. The syndrome originally known as the Female Athlete Triad, which focused on the interaction of energy availability, reproductive function, and bone health in female athletes, has recently been expanded to recognize that Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) has a broader range of negative effects on body systems with functional impairments in both male and female athletes. Athletes in leanness-demanding sports have an increased risk for RED-S and for developing EDs/DE. Special risk factors in aquatic sports related to weight and body composition management include the wearing of skimpy and tight-fitting bathing suits, and in the case of diving and synchronized swimming, the involvement of subjective judgments of performance. The reported prevalence of DE and EDs in athletic populations, including athletes from aquatic sports, ranges from 18 to 45% in female athletes and from 0 to 28% in male athletes. To prevent EDs, aquatic athletes should practice healthy eating behavior at all periods of development pathway, and coaches and members of the athletes' health care team should be able to recognize early symptoms indicating risk for energy deficiency, DE, and EDs. Coaches and leaders must accept that DE/EDs can be a problem in aquatic disciplines and that openness regarding this challenge is important.
Crockett, Amanda C; Myhre, Samantha K; Rokke, Paul D
Emotional eating is considered a risk factor for eating disorders and an important contributor to obesity and its associated health problems. It has been suggested that boredom may be an important contributor to overeating, but has received relatively little attention. A sample of 552 college students was surveyed. Linear regression analyses found that proneness to boredom and difficulties in emotion regulation simultaneously predicted inappropriate eating behavior, including eating in response to boredom, other negative emotions, and external cues. The unique contributions of these variables to emotional eating were discussed. These findings help to further identify which individuals could be at risk for emotional eating and potentially for unhealthy weight gain. © The Author(s) 2015.
Simpson, Courtney C; Mazzeo, Suzanne E
A pattern of disordered eating involving a pathological fixation with healthy food consumption, labeled orthorexia nervosa (ON), has recently generated attention; however, research has not yet investigated perceptions of ON-related behaviors. This study examined potential stigmatization of ON, compared with DSM-5 ED diagnoses. Participants (N = 505) were randomly assigned to read a vignette depicting a woman with anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge-eating disorder (BED), or ON. They then answered questions about the individual depicted in the vignette. A series of MANOVAs investigated whether opinions and beliefs about the person depicted varied as a function of the disorder described in the vignette. Individuals with ON were perceived as less likely to "improve with treatment" than individuals with BN, and less likely to "pull themselves together," than individuals with BED. Individuals with ON and AN were viewed as "hard[er] to talk to" and more of a "danger to others" compared with individuals with BED. ON was viewed as less distressing, less likely to evoke sympathy, and more acceptable than the other disorders. Finally, "poor living choices" were perceived as contributing more substantially to ON. Participants' attributions of various personality characteristics did not differ based on ED diagnosis. Results suggest that ON is viewed as less severe, more desirable, and more often the result of personal life choices. However, findings also imply that ON is associated with stigma, similar to DSM-5 EDs. These negative attitudes might reinforce ON behaviors, and limit awareness of their potential complications. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bodell, Lindsay P; Hames, Jennifer L; Holm-Denoma, Jill M; Smith, April R; Gordon, Kathryn H; Joiner, Thomas E
The stress generation hypothesis posits that individuals actively contribute to stress in their lives. Although stress generation has been studied frequently in the context of depression, few studies have examined whether this stress generation process is unique to depression or whether it occurs in other disorders. Although evidence suggests that stress contributes to the development of eating disorders, it is unclear whether eating disorders contribute to subsequent stress. A prospective design was used to examine the influence of eating disorder symptoms on negative life stressors. Two hundred and ninety female undergraduates completed questionnaires at two time points that examined eating disorder, depressive and anxiety symptoms and the presence of negative life events. Regression analyses found that while eating disorder symptoms (i.e. bulimic symptoms and drive for thinness) were independent, significant predictors of negative life events, they did not predict negative life events above and beyond symptoms of depression. Limitations include the use of self-report measures and a college-based sample, which may limit generalizability of the results. Findings suggest that if stress generation is present in individuals with symptoms of eating disorders, it is likely attributable to symptoms of depression. Thus, it may be important for clinicians to target depressive symptoms in order to reduce the frequency of negative life stressors among individuals with eating disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather
Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of…
Allison, Kelly C.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Stunkard, Albert J.
The authors compared eating patterns, disordered eating, features of eating disorders, and depressive symptoms in persons with binge eating disorder (BED; n = 177), with night eating syndrome (NES; n = 68), and in an overweight comparison group without BED or NES (comparison; n = 45). Participants completed semistructured interviews and several…
Lloyd, David R; Medina, Douglas J; Hawk, Larry W; Fosco, Whitney D; Richards, Jerry B
In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE) that links behavioral- and neural-based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that HRE is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We argue that repeated presentation of reinforcing stimuli decreases their effectiveness and that these decreases are described by the behavioral characteristics of habituation (McSweeney and Murphy, 2009; Rankin etal., 2009). We describe a neural model that postulates a positive association between dopamine neurotransmission and HRE. We present evidence that stimulant drugs, which artificially increase dopamine neurotransmission, disrupt (slow) normally occurring HRE and also provide evidence that stimulant drugs have differential effects on operant responding maintained by reinforcers with rapid vs. slow HRE rates. We hypothesize that abnormal HRE due to genetic and/or environmental factors may underlie some behavioral disorders. For example, recent research indicates that slow-HRE is predictive of obesity. In contrast ADHD may reflect "accelerated-HRE." Consideration of HRE is important for the development of effective reinforcement-based treatments. Finally, we point out that most of the reinforcing stimuli that regulate daily behavior are non-consumable environmental/social reinforcers which have rapid-HRE. The almost exclusive use of consumable reinforcers with slow-HRE in pre-clinical studies with animals may have caused the importance of HRE to be overlooked. Further study of reinforcing stimuli with rapid-HRE is needed in order to understand how habituation and reinforcement interact and regulate behavior.
Meule, Adrian; Reichenberger, Julia; Blechert, Jens
Existing self-report questionnaires for the assessment of emotional eating do not differentiate between specific types of emotions and between increased or decreased food intake in response to these emotions. Therefore, we developed a new measure of emotional eating-the Salzburg Emotional Eating Scale (SEES)-for which higher scores indicate eating more than usual in response to emotions and lower scores indicate eating less than usual in response to emotions. In study 1, a pool of items describing 40 emotional states was used. Factor analysis yielded four factors, which represented both positive ( happiness subscale) and negative emotions ( sadness, anger , and anxiety subscales). Subsequently, the scale was reduced to 20 items (5 items for each subscale) and its four-factor structure was replicated in studies 2 and 3. In all three studies, internal consistencies of each subscale were α > 0.70 and mean subscale scores significantly differed from each other such that individuals reported the strongest tendency to eat more than usual when being sad and the strongest tendency to eat less than usual when being anxious (sadness > happiness > anger > anxiety). Higher scores on the happiness subscale related to lower scores on the negative emotions subscales, lower body mass index (BMI), and lower eating pathology. In contrast, higher scores on the negative emotions subscales related to lower scores on the happiness subscale, higher BMI, and higher eating pathology. The SEES represents a useful measure for the investigation of emotional eating by increasing both specificity (differentiation between specific emotional states) and breadth (differentiation between increase and decrease of food intake) in the assessment of the emotion-eating relationship.
Obregón, Ana M; Valladares, Macarena; Goldfield, Gary
Studies have established a strong genetic component in eating behavior. The TaqI A1 polymorphism (rs1800497) has previously been associated with obesity and eating behavior. Additionally, this polymorphism has been associated with diminished dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) density, higher body mass, and food reinforcement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the DRD2 rs1800497 polymorphism and eating behavior in Chilean children. This was a cross-sectional study in which we selected 258 children (44% girls, 56% boys; ages 8-14 y) with a wide variation in body mass index. Anthropometric measurements were performed by standard procedures. Eating behavior was assessed using the Eating in Absence of Hunger Questionnaire (EAHQ), Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire, and the Food Reinforcement Value Questionnaire. Genotype of the rs1800497 was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Association of the TaqI A1 variant (T allele) with eating behavior was assessed using nonparametric tests. Compared with normal-weight children, the obese group demonstrated higher scores on the External Eating and Fatigue/Boredom subscales of the EAHQ. Higher scores were assessed in Food Responsiveness, Emotional Overeating, Enjoyment to Food and Desire to Drink subscales (P Food subscale in boys. The TaqI A1 polymorphism may be a risk factor for eating behavior traits that may predispose children to greater energy intake and obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pivarunas, Bernadette; Kelly, Nichole R; Pickworth, Courtney K; Cassidy, Omni; Radin, Rachel M; Shank, Lisa M; Vannucci, Anna; Courville, Amber B; Chen, Kong Y; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A; Shomaker, Lauren B
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship of dispositional mindfulness to binge eating and associated eating attitudes and behaviors among adolescent girls at risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Participants were 114 overweight or obese adolescents enrolled in a study of girls with a family history of T2D and mild depressive symptoms. Adolescent self-reports of mindfulness, eating in the absence of hunger, and depressive symptoms were collected. An interview was administered to determine presence of binge eating episodes and a behavioral task was used to assess the reinforcing value of food relative to other nonsnack food rewards. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In analyses accounting for race, percent body fat, lean mass, height, age, and depressive symptoms, dispositional mindfulness was associated with a lower odds of binge eating (p = .002). Controlling for the same potential confounds, mindfulness was also inversely associated with eating concern, eating in the absence of hunger in response to fatigue/boredom, and higher food reinforcement relative to physical activity (all p mindfulness are related to binge eating and associated attitudes and behaviors that may confer risk for obesity and metabolic problems. Further research is needed to determine the extent to which mindfulness plays a role in the etiology and/or maintenance of disinhibited eating in adolescents at risk for T2D. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available ... Guide to Eating for Sports What's in this article? Eat Extra for Excellence Athletes and Dieting Eat ... to dehydration. In large amounts, salt can cause nausea, vomiting, cramps, and diarrhea and may damage the ...
Full Text Available ... For Teens / A Guide to Eating for Sports What's in this article? Eat Extra for Excellence Athletes and Dieting Eat a Variety of Foods Muscular Minerals and Vital Vitamins Protein Power Carb ...
Spoor, Sonja T P; Bekker, Marrie H J; Van Heck, Guus L; Croon, Marcel A; Van Strien, Tatjana
This study investigated the associations of appearance orientation and eating disorder symptoms with internal body awareness in an eating-disordered group of women and a general sample of women. In the eating-disordered group, appearance orientation was positively associated with internal body awareness. Eating disorders symptoms were negatively related to the awareness of bodily signals. No significant associations were found in the general sample of women. The results indicate that in eating-disordered individuals preoccupation with the body and eating-disordered behaviors are not only negatively associated with hunger, but with awareness of other bodily signals as well.
Full Text Available Background: Eating Disorders (EDs are characterized by a persistent disturbance of eating or eating-related behavior that significantly impairs physical health or psychosocial functioning. EDs are caused by a complex interaction of genetic, biological, behavioral, psychological, and social factors. Their epidemiology is rising for the past decades, and EDs affect all races, social levels and both genders. Due to the long and expensive treatment, chronic course, and the fact that most of the sufferers do not realize the need for therapy or do not seek treatment, the demand on developing prevention programs, early detection and assessment is essential. Despite the fact, that many new EDs screening tools were developed already, there is a great lack of validated screening instruments, adapted to the Bulgarian conditions. Objects and methods: Our study aimed at eliciting a comprehensive battery for screening of not only specific ED pathology, but also some risk factors, such as negative body image, weight and depressive symptoms. The object of our study consisted of 201 females, aged 18 to 45 (mean 24.65. SCOOF- questionnaire, Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS-5, Body Image Questionnaire-34 and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI were applied. Results: Our preliminary results show that approximately 45% of the tested subjects show some of the: negative body image, eating disorders’ clinical pathology, distorted eating patterns, subclinical eating disorders pathology, overweight/obesity, or depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Our ongoing efforts in area of research also are aimed at developing and refining strategies for preventing and treating ED among adolescents and adults.
Avena, Nicole M; Bocarsly, Miriam E
Food intake is mediated, in part, through brain pathways for motivation and reinforcement. Dysregulation of these pathways may underlay some of the behaviors exhibited by patients with eating disorders. Research using animal models of eating disorders has greatly contributed to the detailed study of potential brain mechanisms that many underlie the causes or consequences of aberrant eating behaviors. This review focuses on neurochemical evidence of reward-related brain dysfunctions obtained through animal models of binge eating, bulimia nervosa, or anorexia nervosa. The findings suggest that alterations in dopamine (DA), acetylcholine (ACh) and opioid systems in reward-related brain areas occur in response to binge eating of palatable foods. Moreover, animal models of bulimia nervosa suggest that while bingeing on palatable food releases DA, purging attenuates the release of ACh that might otherwise signal satiety. Animal models of anorexia nervosa suggest that restricted access to food enhances the reinforcing effects of DA when the animal does eat. The activity-based anorexia model suggests alterations in mesolimbic DA and serotonin occur as a result of restricted eating coupled with excessive wheel running. These findings with animal models complement data obtained through neuroimaging and pharmacotherapy studies of clinical populations. Information on the neurochemical consequences of the behaviors associated with these eating disorders will be useful in understanding these complex disorders and may inform future therapeutic approaches, as discussed here. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Central Control of Food Intake'. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Marty, Lucile; Chambaron, Stéphanie; Nicklaus, Sophie; Monnery-Patris, Sandrine
Across the lifespan, eating is a common everyday act driven by the search for pleasure and reinforced by experienced pleasure. Pleasure is an innate indicator of the satisfaction of physiological needs, in addition to other attributes. Pleasure from eating is also learned and contributes to the development of children's eating habits, which remain mostly stable until adulthood. Based on classical models of determinants of food consumption behaviour, we identified three dimensions of pleasure from eating learned during childhood: 1/the sensory dimension, i.e., pleasure from sensory sensations during food consumption; 2/the interpersonal dimension, i.e., pleasure from the social context of food consumption; and 3/the psychosocial dimension, i.e., pleasure from cognitive representations of food. The objective of this narrative review is to explore whether these three dimensions may play a role in promotion of healthy eating behaviour among children. Up to now, it was assumed that providing nutritional information, pointing out which types of foods are "good" or "bad" for health, would drive healthier food choices in children. Today, we know that such strategies based on a cognitive approach toward eating have a limited impact on healthy choices and can even be counter-productive, leading children to avoid healthy foods. In the context of increasing rates of childhood obesity, new perspectives are needed to build efficient interventions that might help children adopt a healthy diet. This review suggests new directions for further research to test the efficacy of novel interventions that emphasize pleasure from eating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ellis, Jordan M; Galloway, Amy T; Webb, Rose Mary; Martz, Denise M; Farrow, Claire V
Picky eating is a childhood behavior that vexes many parents and is a symptom in the newer diagnosis of Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) in adults. Pressure to eat, a parental controlling feeding practice aimed at encouraging a child to eat more, is associated with picky eating and a number of other childhood eating concerns. Low intuitive eating, an insensitivity to internal hunger and satiety cues, is also associated with a number of problem eating behaviors in adulthood. Whether picky eating and pressure to eat are predictive of young adult eating behavior is relatively unstudied. Current adult intuitive eating and disordered eating behaviors were self-reported by 170 college students, along with childhood picky eating and pressure through retrospective self- and parent reports. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that childhood parental pressure to eat, but not picky eating, predicted intuitive eating and disordered eating symptoms in college students. These findings suggest that parental pressure in childhood is associated with problematic eating patterns in young adulthood. Additional research is needed to understand the extent to which parental pressure is a reaction to or perhaps compounds the development of problematic eating behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... your chance of success. Keep healthy snacks at work. Pack healthy lunches that you make at home. Pay attention to your feelings of hunger. Learn the difference between physical hunger and habitual eating or eating as a response to stress or boredom.
Dingemans, Alexandra E; Visser, Hiske; Paul, Linda; van Furth, Eric F
Executive functions play an important role in problem-solving and self-control. Set-shifting is an aspect of executive functioning and represents cognitive flexibility. The inability to control eating in Binge Eating Disorder (BED) may imply deficits in set-shifting which could be exacerbated by negative mood and depressive symptoms. The aim of the study was to test whether there is a causal relationship between set-shifting ability, changes in mood and loss of control over eating in BED. Seventy-five participants diagnosed with BED were randomly assigned to a negative or neutral mood induction. Set-shifting abilities, depressive symptoms, current mood and loss of control over eating were assessed. Having depressive symptoms and poorer set-shifting abilities resulted in a more negative mood after a negative mood induction, whereas this was not observed in the neutral mood induction. Post-hoc analyses revealed that individuals with poorer set-shifting abilities and more changes in negative mood, experienced more feelings of loss of control over eating than individuals whose set-shifting abilities were better and whose mood did not change. The results suggest that both depressive symptoms and deficits in set-shifting abilities may decrease an individual's ability to handle negative affect and increase loss of control over eating in individuals with BED. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
On a new framework for anorexia nervosa, learning to eat is central intervention; as patients regain a normal pattern of eating their problems dissolve. Mandometer®, a development of previous methods, allows simultaneous recording of eating rate and the development of satiety as well as experimental manipulation of eating rate. By measuring eating behavior during the course of a meal with this method, women were divided into those eating at a decelerated rate and those eatin...
Diane L. Rosenbaum
Full Text Available The purpose of this manuscript is to expand the understanding of binge eating by reviewing the role of aspects of negative affect. Specifically, this paper will present evidence for further investigation of the bearing that anxiety may have in binge eating development and maintenance. A comprehensive review of the literature regarding the relation of binge eating and anxiety was performed. Valuable contributions have been made to the binge eating literature regarding some aspects of negative affect (i.e., depression; however, outside of bulimia nervosa studies, much of the theoretical and empirical binge eating research to date has not directly addressed the role of anxiety. Research supports expansion of investigations of negative emotionality and binge eating to include specific study of anxiety. Greater inclusivity and specificity in the unique contributions of various negative emotions may further the development of temporal models and intervention efforts.
Hummel, Alexandra C; Smith, April R
The current study examined whether certain types of Facebook content (i.e., status updates, comments) relate to eating concerns and attitudes. We examined the effects of seeking and receiving negative feedback via Facebook on disordered eating concerns in a sample of 185 undergraduate students followed for approximately 4 weeks. Results indicated that individuals with a negative feedback seeking style who received a high number of comments on Facebook were more likely to report disordered eating attitudes four weeks later. Additionally, individuals who received extremely negative comments in response to their personally revealing status updates were more likely to report disordered eating concerns four weeks later. Results of the current study provide preliminary evidence that seeking and receiving negative feedback via social networking sites can increase risk for disordered eating attitudes, and suggest that reducing maladaptive social networking usage may be an important target for prevention and intervention efforts aimed at reducing disordered eating attitudes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Dingemans, Alexandra; Danner, Unna; Parks, Melissa
The purpose of the present review is to provide a summary of the research findings on emotion regulation in Binge Eating Disorder (BED). Negative emotions and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies play a role in the onset and maintenance of binge eating in BED. Anger and sadness, along with negative emotions related to interpersonal experiences (i.e., disappointment, being hurt or loneliness), seem to be particularly relevant. Individuals with BED have a tendency to suppress and ruminate on their unwanted emotions, which leads to increased psychopathological thoughts and symptoms. Compared to healthy controls, they use adaptive strategies, such as reappraisal, less frequently. Evidence concerning the causal relation between negative affect and binge eating is inconclusive and still very limited. While experimental studies in a laboratory setting lack ecological validity, ecological momentary assessment studies offer more promise at unraveling the causal relationship between emotions and binge eating. Increases in negative affect are found to be antecedents of binge eating in BED. However, there seems to be less support for the possibility that binge eating serves as a means to alleviate negative affect. Finally, BED seems to be related to other forms of maladaptive emotion regulation strategies, such as substance abuse and self-harm. PMID:29165348
Full Text Available The purpose of the present review is to provide a summary of the research findings on emotion regulation in Binge Eating Disorder (BED. Negative emotions and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies play a role in the onset and maintenance of binge eating in BED. Anger and sadness, along with negative emotions related to interpersonal experiences (i.e., disappointment, being hurt or loneliness, seem to be particularly relevant. Individuals with BED have a tendency to suppress and ruminate on their unwanted emotions, which leads to increased psychopathological thoughts and symptoms. Compared to healthy controls, they use adaptive strategies, such as reappraisal, less frequently. Evidence concerning the causal relation between negative affect and binge eating is inconclusive and still very limited. While experimental studies in a laboratory setting lack ecological validity, ecological momentary assessment studies offer more promise at unraveling the causal relationship between emotions and binge eating. Increases in negative affect are found to be antecedents of binge eating in BED. However, there seems to be less support for the possibility that binge eating serves as a means to alleviate negative affect. Finally, BED seems to be related to other forms of maladaptive emotion regulation strategies, such as substance abuse and self-harm.
Full Text Available Objective: How and why does competition and spectator involvement influence eating behaviors? The primary objective of this article is to explore the nature of eating competitions with the goal of identifying implications for other social situations.Design: Study 1 investigated how many chicken wings were eaten by men and women in a 30-minute eating competition when cheering spectators either were or were not present (compared to a control condition. A second study sought to explain Study 1’s findings through a survey of 93 students who rated male or female competitive eaters (in randomized order based on intelligence, attractiveness, health, strength, and how romantic they expected the eaters to be.Results: Exploratory findings show competitive eaters ate approximately four times as many chicken wings as a similar control group, and the presence of a cheering audience further increased wing consumption for males (but decreased consumption for females. Study 2 suggests part of the over-performance of males may be related to a shared positive perception that competitive male eaters are strong and virile. Conclusions: Even in relatively low-stakes environments, competitive visibility may dramatically increase how much males eat. These preliminary results help illuminate recent discoveries that males overeat in various social situations where there are opportunities for men to show off. This may have relevance for dining behavior – especially among younger males – at parties, banquets, group dinners, and similar social situations.
Wansink, Brian; Kniffin, Kevin M
How and why does competition and spectator involvement influence eating behaviors? The primary objective of this article is to explore the nature of competitive eating with the goal of identifying implications for other social situations. Study 1 investigated how many chicken wings were eaten by men and women in a 30-min eating competition when cheering spectators either were or were not present (compared to a control condition). The second study sought to explain Study 1's findings through a survey of 93 students who rated male or female competitive eaters (in randomized order) based on intelligence, attractiveness, health, strength, and how romantic they expected the eaters to be. Exploratory findings show competitive eaters ate approximately four times as many chicken wings as a similar control group, and the presence of a cheering audience further increased wing consumption for males (but decreased consumption for females). Study 2 suggests part of the over-performance of males may be related to a shared positive perception that competitive male eaters are strong and virile. Even in relatively low-stakes environments, competitive visibility may dramatically increase how much males eat. These preliminary results help illuminate recent discoveries that males overeat in various social situations where there are opportunities for men to "show off." This may have relevance for dining behavior - especially among younger males - at parties, banquets, group dinners, and similar social situations.
Abd El-Azeem Taha, Azza Ali; Abu-Zaid, Hany Ahmed; El-Sayed Desouky, Dalia
Eating disorders are a common health problem among adolescents, and females are especially vulnerable to them. There is lack of information on the prevalence of eating disorders in Saudi Arabia. The current study aimed to investigate the prevalence of eating disorders among female undergraduate university students in Taif city, Saudi Arabia. The study was undertaken in the female section at Taif university from November 1, 2016 to March 30, 2017. Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was used to determine the prevalence of eating disorders. The questionnaire was distributed among undergraduate students and their anthropometric measurements were assessed after obtaining their consent. The sample included 1200 university students with a median age of 21 years (range 17-33). Nonparametric tests were used to assess relationship between variables. Chi-squared test was used to compare items of the disordered eating attitudes and behaviors between positive and negative EAT respondents. Using the cutoff score of 20 on EAT-26 test, 35.4% of the students were classified at risk for eating disorders. Medical and obese students achieved the highest significant EAT scores. A high prevalence of eating disorders was found among females at Taif university, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Our findings call for prevention of these disorders and we recommend establishing a national screening program among Saudi university female students for early detection and management of these problems. © 2018 The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Carr, Katelyn A; Epstein, Leonard H
This study examined the potential for nonfood alternative activities to compete with the reinforcing value of food. Participants rated the frequency and pleasantness of engaging in a variety of activities and made hypothetical choices between food and 4 types of alternatives; cognitive-enriching (reading, listening to music), social (attending a party or event), sedentary (watching TV), and physically active (running, biking). Two-hundred seventy-six adults completed an online survey using a crowdsourcing platform. Adults with higher BMI reported engaging in fewer activities within the cognitive-enriching, social, and physically active categories. When examining how well each alternative activity type was able to compete with food, sedentary alternatives were associated with the highest food reinforcement, or were least able to compete with food reinforcers, as compared with cognitive-enriching, social, and physical. Social activities were associated with the lowest food reinforcement, or the best able to compete with food reinforcers. These results suggest that increasing the frequency and range of nonfood alternative activities may be important to obesity. This study also suggests that the class of social activities may have the biggest impact on reducing food reinforcement, and the class of sedentary may have the smallest effect on food reinforcement. These tools have relevance to clinical interventions that capitalize on increasing access to behaviors that can reduce the motivation to eat in clinical interventions for obesity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available ... Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español A Guide to Eating for Sports KidsHealth / For Teens / A Guide to Eating for Sports What's in this article? Eat Extra for Excellence Athletes and Dieting Eat a Variety of Foods Muscular Minerals and Vital Vitamins Protein ...
Ramirez, Maria E.; McIntosh, David E.; Kruczek, Theresa
Eating disorders, once thought to be exclusively a disorder of the more affluent Western countries, are now spreading around the world. Despite the wealth of information on the prevalence of eating disorders in developed countries, epidemiological data for South America is scarce. The 26-item Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) was used to explore the…
Braden, Abby; Rhee, Kyung; Peterson, Carol B; Rydell, Sarah A; Zucker, Nancy; Boutelle, Kerri
Emotional eating is the tendency to eat in response to negative emotions. Prior research has identified a relationship between parenting style and child emotional eating, but this has not been examined in clinical samples. Furthermore, the relationship between specific parenting practices (e.g., parent feeding practices) and child emotional eating has not yet been investigated. The current study examined relationships between child emotional eating and both general and specific parenting constructs as well as maternal symptoms of depression and binge eating among a treatment-seeking sample of overweight children. Participants included 106 mother-child dyads who attended a baseline assessment for enrollment in a behavioral intervention for overeating. Ages of children ranged from 8 to 12 years old. Mothers completed self-report measures of their child's emotional eating behavior, their own feeding practices, and symptoms of depression and binge eating. Children completed a self-report measure of their mothers' general parenting style. A stepwise regression analysis was conducted to identify the parent variable that was most strongly related to child emotional eating, controlling for child age and gender. Emotional feeding behavior (i.e., a tendency to offer food to soothe a child's negative emotions) was the parent factor most significantly related to child emotional eating. Findings suggest that emotional feeding practices in parents may be related to emotional eating in children. Treatment with overweight children who engage in emotional eating may be improved by targeting parent feeding practices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fisher, Naomi R; Mead, Bethan R; Lattimore, Paul; Malinowski, Peter
Evidence regarding the effectiveness of mindfulness based interventions (MBIs) for eating disorders, weight management and food craving is emerging and further studies are required to understand the underlying mechanisms of MBIs in these domains. The current study was designed to establish the role of specific mechanisms underlying the putative relationship between mindfulness and reward motivated eating. We predicted that mindfulness would be negatively related to features of reward motivated eating and that this association would be mediated by emotion regulation and habitual negative self-thinking. A cross-sectional survey measuring uncontrolled and emotional eating, mindfulness, emotion regulation and habitual negative self-thinking was completed by female and male meditators and non-meditators (N = 632). Lower levels of dispositional mindfulness were associated with difficulties in emotion regulation, habitual negative self-thinking and both emotional and uncontrolled eating. Difficulties in emotion regulation significantly mediated the mindfulness-uncontrolled eating relationship. Habitual negative self-thinking significantly mediated the mindfulness-emotional eating relationship. Participants with meditation experience reported greater levels of dispositional mindfulness, fewer difficulties with emotion regulation and habitual negative self-thinking and reduced uncontrolled eating tendencies, compared to non-meditators. The findings suggest that MBIs designed to change reward motivated eating and weight control should focus on emotion regulation and mental habits as underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Mills-Finnerty, Colleen; Hanson, Catherine; Hanson, Stephen Jose
Decision making studies typically use tasks that involve concrete action-outcome contingencies, in which subjects do something and get something. No studies have addressed decision making involving abstract reinforcers, where there are no action-outcome contingencies and choices are entirely hypothetical. The present study examines these kinds of choices, as well as whether the same biases that exist for concrete reinforcer decisions, specifically framing effects, also apply during abstract reinforcer decisions. We use both General Linear Model as well as Bayes network connectivity analysis using the Independent Multi-sample Greedy Equivalence Search (IMaGES) algorithm to examine network response underlying choices for abstract reinforcers under positive and negative framing. We find for the first time that abstract reinforcer decisions activate the same network of brain regions as concrete reinforcer decisions, including the striatum, insula, anterior cingulate, and VMPFC, results that are further supported via comparison to a meta-analysis of decision making studies. Positive and negative framing activated different parts of this network, with stronger activation in VMPFC during negative framing and in DLPFC during positive, suggesting different decision making pathways depending on frame. These results were further clarified using connectivity analysis, which revealed stronger connections between anterior cingulate, insula, and accumbens during negative framing compared to positive. Taken together, these results suggest that not only do abstract reinforcer decisions rely on the same brain substrates as concrete reinforcers, but that the response underlying framing effects on abstract reinforcers also resemble those for concrete reinforcers, specifically increased limbic system connectivity during negative frames. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Attitudes and beliefs reflecting cultural values can have a positive or negative influence on eating behaviors. Eating out may negatively affect diet quality through increased fat intake and larger portion sizes. In a representative sample of the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) consisting of 1601 Af...
Cristiane P. Lázaro
Full Text Available Abstract Objective To investigate the eating behavior of individuals with autism through their mothers’ narratives. Methods The study of narratives was used to report on the narrators’ experiences. Data on the eating habits of individuals with autism were collected using semi-structured interviews held individually with the mothers. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and codified using the NVivo software program. Results Eighteen mothers of boys/young men with autism participated in the study. Analysis yielded three major categories: eating patterns, the family's attitudes to the child's eating habits, and food-related behavior. Conclusion Results show that autism-related factors may affect the child's food choices. Environmental factors, particularly the parents’ behavior, may also play a decisive role, both in reinforcing the child's food choices and in encouraging a healthier and more diversified diet. Professionals should instruct parents regarding their decisive role in reinforcing or discouraging inappropriate mealtime behavior in children with autism.
Avena, Nicole M.; Bocarsly, Miriam E.
Food intake is mediated, in part, through brain pathways for motivation and reinforcement. Dysregulation of these pathways may underlay some of the behaviors exhibited by patients with eating disorders. Research using animal models of eating disorders has greatly contributed to the detailed study of potential brain mechanisms that many underlie the causes or consequences of aberrant eating behaviors. This review focuses on neurochemical evidence of reward-related brain dysfunctions obtained through animal models of binge eating, bulimia nervosa, or anorexia nervosa. The findings suggest that alterations in dopamine (DA), acetylcholine (ACh) and opioid systems in reward-related brain areas occur in response to binge eating of palatable foods. Moreover, animal models of bulimia nervosa suggest that while bingeing on palatable food releases DA, purging attenuates the release of ACh that might otherwise signal satiety. Animal models of anorexia nervosa suggest that restricted access to food enhances the reinforcing effects of DA when the animal does eat. The activity-based anorexia model suggests alterations in mesolimbic DA and serotonin occur as a result of starvation coupled with excessive wheel running. These findings with animal models complement data obtained through neuroimaging and pharmacotherapy studies of clinical populations. Finally, information on the neurochemical consequences of the behaviors associated with these eating disorders will be useful in understanding these complex disorders and may inform future therapeutic approaches, as discussed here. PMID:22138162
Carbonneau, Noémie; Carbonneau, Elise; Cantin, Mélynda; Gagnon-Girouard, Marie-Pierre
Intuitive eating is a positive approach to weight and eating management characterized by a strong reliance on internal physiological hunger and satiety cues rather than emotional and external cues (e.g., Tylka, 2006). Using a Self-Determination Theory framework (Deci & Ryan, 1985), the main purpose of this research was to examine the role played by both the mother and the romantic partner in predicting women's intuitive eating. Participants were 272 women (mean age: 29.9 years) currently involved in a heterosexual romantic relationship. Mothers and romantic partners were both found to have a role to play in predicting women's intuitive eating via their influence on women's motivation for regulating eating behaviors. Specifically, both the mother's and partner's controlling styles were found to predict women's controlled eating regulation, which was negatively related to their intuitive eating. In addition, autonomy support from the partner (but not from the mother) was found to positively predict intuitive eating, and this relationship was mediated by women's more autonomous regulation toward eating. These results were uncovered while controlling for women's body mass index, which is likely to affect women's eating attitudes and behaviors. Overall, these results attest to the importance of considering women's social environment (i.e., mother and romantic partner) for a better understanding of their eating regulation and ability to eat intuitively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
In this paper I will discuss the formation of different types of yes/no questions in Serbian (examples in (1)), focusing on the syntactically and semantically puzzling example (1d), which involves the negative auxiliary inversion. Although there is a negative marker on the fronted auxiliary, the construction does not involve sentential negation. This coincides with the fact that the negative quantifying NPIs cannot be licensed. The question formation and sentential negation have similar synta...
Binge eating disorder is a common eating disorder that recently has received increasing attention. Goals in treating binge eating disorder typically include controlling binge eating and diminishing excess body weight. A variety of treatment approaches have been used, including diet/lifestyle modification, psychotherapy, and pharmacologic treatment. Diet and lifestyle interventions are somewhat effective in diminishing the binge eating behavior and lead to modest weight loss, but the weight ef...
... Add antioxidant rich, anti-inflam- matory herbs and spices, such as basil, rosemary, oregano, cin- namon, ginger, ... or Culturelle ® ) and/or eat yogurt with active cultures regularly. Remember to increase your fluid intake. • Inflammation: ...
... Aim for a slow, steady weight loss by decreasing calorie intake while maintaining an adequate nutrient intake and increasing physical activity. You can cut calories without eating less nutritious ...
Samson, Audrey; Gallardo, Francisco; FRAUD, -
Let them eat cake!' is a food-led event serving an edible imaginary of a Facebook profile. In early 2012, Facebook conducted massive scale emotional contagion by manipulating the emotional expressions in the News Feeds of 689,003 users. This exemplifies how the governability and the biopolitics of everyday life flow through the many layers of shared images, liked videos, protocols, and hyperlinks, all orchestrated by the Facebook News Feed algorithm. 'Let them eat cake!' proposes a gustatory ...
Fabbri,Alessandra Donzelli; Deram,Sophie; Kerr,Daniel Shikanai; Cordás,Táki Athanássios
Background Ghrelin is a potent hormone with central and peripheral action. This hormone plays an important role in the regulation of appetite, food intake, and energy balance. Studies have suggested that ghrelin is involved with eating disorders (ED), particularly bingeing and purging. Genetic variants have also been studied to explain changes in eating behavior. Methods We conducted a literature review; we searched PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), and LILACS databases u...
Eating disorders are serious psychiatric conditions often demanding specialized psychiatric care. Several effective treatments have been developed and disseminated, but more needs to be done, as not all patients respond well to intervention, let alone achieve recovery. Obvious candidates such as eating disorder diagnosis, symptoms and psychiatric comorbidity have generally failed to explain variability in prognosis and outcome, warranting investigation of a wider range of relevant factors. Ac...
Reinforcement learning is a learning paradigm concerned with learning to control a system so as to maximize a numerical performance measure that expresses a long-term objective. What distinguishes reinforcement learning from supervised learning is that only partial feedback is given to the learner about the learner's predictions. Further, the predictions may have long term effects through influencing the future state of the controlled system. Thus, time plays a special role. The goal in reinforcement learning is to develop efficient learning algorithms, as well as to understand the algorithms'
Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Rosselli, Francine; Wilson, G. Terence; Perrin, Nancy; Harvey, Kate; DeBar, Lynn
Objective To examine clinical correlates of nocturnal eating, a core behavioral symptom of night eating syndrome. Method Data from 285 women who had participated in a two-stage screening for binge eating were utilized. Women (n = 41) who reported one or more nocturnal eating episodes in the past 28 days on the Eating Disorder Examination and women who did not report nocturnal eating (n =244) were compared on eating disorder symptomatology, Body Mass Index (BMI), and on measures of psychosocial adjustment. Results Nocturnal eaters were significantly more likely to report binge eating and differed significantly from non-nocturnal eaters (with responses indicating greater disturbance) on weight and shape concern, eating concern, self-esteem, depression, and functional impairment, but not on BMI or dietary restraint. Group differences remained significant in analyses adjusting for binge eating. Conclusions This study confirms the association between nocturnal eating and binge eating previously found in treatment seeking samples yet also suggests that the elevated eating disorder symptoms and decreased psychosocial adjustment observed in nocturnal eaters is not simply a function of binge eating. PMID:19708071
Granillo, M. Teresa; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela
The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders among a community-based sample of female Chilean adolescents. Data were collected through structured interviews with 420 female adolescents residing in Santiago, Chile. Approximately 4% of the sample reported ever being diagnosed with an eating disorder. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that those with higher symptoms of anxiety and who had tried cigarettes were significantly more likely to have been diagnosed with an eating disorder. Findings indicate that Chilean female adolescents are at risk of eating disorders and that eating disorders, albeit maladaptive, may be a means to cope with negative affect, specifically anxiety. PMID:22121329
Lydecker, Janet A; Hubbard, Rebecca R; Tully, Carrie B; Utsey, Shawn O; Mazzeo, Suzanne E
As a novel investigation of the role of White racial identity, the current study explored the link between White guilt and disordered eating. Young adult women (N=375), 200 of whom self-identified as White. Measures assessed disordered eating, trait guilt, White guilt, and affect. White guilt is interrelated with disordered eating, particularly bulimic symptomatology. Distress tolerance and tendency to experience negative affect moderated the relation between White guilt and several disordered eating variables. Exploration of White guilt in clinical and research settings can inform understanding and treatment of disordered eating. © 2013.
Peterson, Carol B.; Thuras, Paul; Ackard, Diann M.; Mitchell, James E.; Berg, Kelly; Sandager, Nora; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Pederson, Melissa W.; Crow, Scott J.
Objective The purpose of this investigation was to examine differences in personality dimensions among individuals with bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, non-binge eating obesity and a normal weight comparison group as well as to determine the extent to which these differences were independent of self-reported depressive symptoms. Method Personality dimensions were assessed using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire in 36 patients with bulimia nervosa, 54 patients with binge eating disorder, 30 obese individuals who did not binge eat, and 77 normal weight comparison participants. Results Participants with bulimia nervosa reported higher scores on measures of stress reaction and negative emotionality compared to the other three groups, and lower well-being scores compared to the normal weight comparison and the obese samples. Patients with binge eating disorder scored lower on well-being and higher on harm avoidance than the normal weight comparison group. In addition, the bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder groups scored lower than the normal weight group on positive emotionality. When personality dimensions were re-analyzed using depression as a covariate, only stress reaction remained higher in the bulimia nervosa group compared to the other three groups and harm avoidance remained higher in the binge eating disorder than the normal weight comparison group. Conclusions The higher levels of stress reaction in the bulimia nervosa sample and harm avoidance in the binge eating disorder sample after controlling for depression indicate that these personality dimensions are potentially important in the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of these eating disorders. Although the extent to which observed group differences in well-being, positive emotionality and negative emotionality reflect personality traits, mood disorders, or both is unclear, these features clearly warrant further examination in understanding and treating bulimia nervosa and
Peterson, Carol B; Thuras, Paul; Ackard, Diann M; Mitchell, James E; Berg, Kelly; Sandager, Nora; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Pederson, Melissa W; Crow, Scott J
The purpose of this investigation was to examine differences in personality dimensions among individuals with bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, non-binge eating obesity, and a normal-weight comparison group as well as to determine the extent to which these differences were independent of self-reported depressive symptoms. Personality dimensions were assessed using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire in 36 patients with bulimia nervosa, 54 patients with binge eating disorder, 30 obese individuals who did not binge eat, and 77 normal-weight comparison participants. Participants with bulimia nervosa reported higher scores on measures of stress reaction and negative emotionality compared to the other 3 groups and lower well-being scores compared to the normal-weight comparison and the obese samples. Patients with binge eating disorder scored lower on well-being and higher on harm avoidance than the normal-weight comparison group. In addition, the bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder groups scored lower than the normal-weight group on positive emotionality. When personality dimensions were reanalyzed using depression as a covariate, only stress reaction remained higher in the bulimia nervosa group compared to the other 3 groups and harm avoidance remained higher in the binge eating disorder than the normal-weight comparison group. The higher levels of stress reaction in the bulimia nervosa sample and harm avoidance in the binge eating disorder sample after controlling for depression indicate that these personality dimensions are potentially important in the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of these eating disorders. Although the extent to which observed group differences in well-being, positive emotionality, and negative emotionality reflect personality traits, mood disorders, or both, is unclear, these features clearly warrant further examination in understanding and treating bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder.
de Jersey, Susan J; Mallan, Kimberley; Callaway, Leonie; Daniels, Lynne A; Nicholson, Jan M
Objectives Little is known about the antecedents to dietary and physical activity behaviours that can support healthy gestational weight gain (GWG) across different weight status groups in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to use constructs common to dominant health behaviour theories to determine if predisposing, reinforcing and enabling factors for healthy eating, physical activity and weight gain differed between healthy and overweight pregnant women. Methods Pregnant women (n = 664) aged 29 ± 5 (mean ± SD) years were recruited at 16 ± 2 weeks gestation. Measures were self-reported pre-pregnancy weight, psychosocial constructs for healthy eating, physical activity and GWG and demographic data. Height was measured at 16 weeks. Psychosocial constructs were compared between women with pre-pregnancy weight status of healthy (BMI healthy eating and physical activity were not different between healthy (66 %) and overweight (34 %) women. Overweight women had lower self-efficacy for healthy eating, physical activity and GWG (p healthy eating (p = 0.002), and physical activity (p = 0.006). Conclusions for practice Both healthy and overweight women appear motivated to follow a healthy diet, exercise and avoid excess gestational weight during pregnancy. However many psychosocial factors associated with achieving these goals were different between healthy and overweight women. Health behaviour interventions tailored to overweight pregnant women should consider improving self-efficacy, providing support to overcome perceived barriers, validate positive changes made, and assist in managing negative expectations.
Full Text Available One of the defining goals of this paper is getting new resistant material which combine the qualities of basic materials that get into its composition but not to borrow from them their negative properties. In recent years, carbon fiber composites have been increasingly used in different ways in reinforcing structural elements. Specifically, the use of CFRP composite materials as reinforcement for wood beams under bending loads requires paying attention to several aspects of the problem which are presented in this paper.
Annesi, James J
Psychological correlates of both short- and long-term weight loss are poorly understood. Changes in satisfaction with one's body might serve to motivate healthier eating by mediating treatments' effect on psychological factors previously suggested to be associated with weight loss. Women with obesity (age 48.6±7.1 years; BMI 35.4±3.3kg/m 2 ) were randomly assigned to social cognitive theory-based weight-management treatments that were either group sessions emphasizing physical activity-derived self-regulation (experimental; n=53) or review of a written manual and phone support (comparison; n=54). Changes in weight, physical activity, body satisfaction, negative mood, and self-efficacy and self-regulation for controlled eating were assessed over 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. The experimental treatment was associated with significantly more favourable changes across variables. Over 6, 12, and 24 months, body satisfaction change mediated relationships between treatment type and changes in each of the psychological predictors of healthier eating (mood, self-efficacy, self-regulation). Reciprocal, mutually reinforcing, relationships between changes in body satisfaction and those psychological predictors were also found. Increased physical activity was associated with improved body satisfaction, even after controlling for weight changes. Findings increased understandings of the role of body satisfaction in improving psychological predictors of healthier eating over both the short- and longer-term. Results also suggested that body satisfaction could be improved through increased physical activity, irrespective of change in weight. Although results were limited to women with class 1 and 2 obesity, findings on interactions of psychological factors associated with eating changes have implications for the architecture of improved behavioural treatments. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Walker, Morgan; Thornton, Laura; De Choudhury, Munmun; Teevan, Jaime; Bulik, Cynthia M; Levinson, Cheri A; Zerwas, Stephanie
Disordered eating behavior-dieting, laxative use, fasting, binge eating-is common in college-aged women (11%-20%). A documented increase in the number of young women experiencing eating psychopathology has been blamed on the rise of engagement with social media sites such as Facebook. We predicted that college-aged women's Facebook intensity (e.g., the amount of time spent on Facebook, number of Facebook friends, and integration of Facebook into daily life), online physical appearance comparison (i.e., comparing one's appearance to others' on social media), and online "fat talk" (i.e., talking negatively about one's body) would be positively associated with their disordered eating behavior. In an online survey, 128 college-aged women (81.3% Caucasian, 6.7% Asian, 9.0% African-American, and 3.0% Other) completed items, which measured their disordered eating, Facebook intensity, online physical appearance comparison, online fat talk, body mass index, depression, anxiety, perfectionism, impulsivity, and self-efficacy. In regression analyses, Facebook intensity, online physical appearance comparison, and online fat talk were significantly and uniquely associated with disordered eating and explained a large percentage of the variance in disordered eating (60%) in conjunction with covariates. However, greater Facebook intensity was associated with decreased disordered eating behavior, whereas both online physical appearance comparison and online fat talk were associated with greater disordered eating. College-aged women who endorsed greater Facebook intensity were less likely to struggle with disordered eating when online physical appearance comparison was accounted for statistically. Facebook intensity may carry both risks and benefits for disordered eating. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
van der Horst, Klazine; Sleddens, Ester F C
more unfavorable practices such as pressure. Longitudinal data on parenting practices and their relation to healthy eating in children is needed to inform communication and interventions for parents, reinforcing key feeding strategies which have positive effects on child eating behaviors and addressing parenting styles that have unintended negative effects.
Sleddens, Ester F. C.
, such as modelling healthy food intake, as well as more unfavorable practices such as pressure. Longitudinal data on parenting practices and their relation to healthy eating in children is needed to inform communication and interventions for parents, reinforcing key feeding strategies which have positive effects on child eating behaviors and addressing parenting styles that have unintended negative effects. PMID:28542555
Klazine van der Horst
intake, as well as more unfavorable practices such as pressure. Longitudinal data on parenting practices and their relation to healthy eating in children is needed to inform communication and interventions for parents, reinforcing key feeding strategies which have positive effects on child eating behaviors and addressing parenting styles that have unintended negative effects.
Klatzkin, Rebecca R; Gaffney, Sierra; Cyrus, Kathryn; Bigus, Elizabeth; Brownley, Kimberly A
The purpose of the current study was to investigate stress-induced eating in women with binge-eating disorder (BED) and obesity. Three groups of women [obese with BED (n=9); obese non-BED (n=11); and normal weight (NW) non-BED (n=12)], rated their levels of hunger and psychological distress before and after completing the Trier Social Stress Test, followed by food anticipation and then consumption of their preferred snack food. We differentiated between the motivational and hedonic components of eating by measuring the amount of food participants poured into a serving bowl compared to the amount consumed. Stress did not affect poured and consumed calories differently between groups. Across all subjects, calories poured and consumed were positively correlated with post-stress hunger, but calories poured was positively correlated with post-stress anxiety and negative affect. These results indicate that stress-related psychological factors may be more strongly associated with the motivational drive to eat (i.e. amount poured) rather than the hedonic aspects of eating (i.e. amount consumed) for women in general. Exploratory correlation analyses per subgroup suggest that post-stress hunger was positively associated with calories poured and consumed in both non-BED groups. In the obese BED group, calories consumed was negatively associated with dietary restraint and, although not significantly, positively associated with stress-induced changes in anxiety.These findings suggest that stress-induced snacking in obese BED women may be influenced by psychological factors more so than homeostatic hunger mechanisms. After controlling for dietary restraint and negative affect, the NW non-BED women ate a greater percentage of the food they poured than both obese groups, suggesting that obesity may be associated with a heightened motivational drive to eat coupled with a reduction in hedonic pleasure from eating post-stress. Further studies that incorporate novel approaches to
This project developed a next-generation modeling approach for projecting the extent of : reinforced concrete corrosion-related damage, customized for new and existing Florida Department of : Transportation bridges and suitable for adapting to broade...
Compare, A; Callus, E; Grossi, E
Binge eating disorder (BED) is a complex and multifaceted eating disorder, and the literature indicates that BED patients show greater difficulty in identifying and making sense of emotional states, and that they have limited access to emotion regulation strategies. Findings show many links between mindfulness and emotional regulation, however there has been no previous research on mindfulness traits in BED patients. One hundred fifty BED patients (N=150: women=98, men=52; age 49.3±4.1) were matched for gender, age, marital status and educational level with 150 non-bingeing obese and 150 normal-weight subjects. All were assessed with the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), Binge Eating Scale (BES), Objective bulimic episodes (EDE-OBEs) and Body Uneasiness Test (BUT). For all the participants past or current meditation experience was an exclusion criteria. Findings showed that Mindfulness-global, Non reactivity to experience, Acting with awareness, Describing with words and Observation of experience scores were significantly lower in BED than control groups (pmindfulness measures, the obese control group did not differ from the normal weight control group. Moreover, correlations showed that mindfulness was more widely negatively correlated with the BED's OBEs, BES and BUT-GSI scores. Meanwhile, binge eating behaviours, frequency and severity (OBEs and BES) were more negatively correlated with action (Nonreactivity- to-experience and Acting-with-awareness scores). Body Uneasiness was more negatively correlated with mental processes (Describing-with-words and Observation-ofexperience) and mindfulness features. Implications on understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of problematic eating in BED were considered. Moreover, clinical considerations on treatment targets of mindfulnessbased eating awareness training were discussed.
Full Text Available Background. Symptoms of celiac disease negatively impact social activities and emotional state. Aim was to investigate the prevalence of altered eating behaviour in celiac patients. Methods. Celiac patients and controls completed a dietary interview and the Binge Eating Staircases, Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2, Eating Attitudes Test, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, State Trait Anxiety Inventory Forma Y (STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2, and Symptom Check List (SCL-90. Results. One hundred celiac adults and 100 controls were not statistically different for gender, age, and physical activity. STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2, Somatization, Interpersonal, Sensitivity, and Anxiety scores of the SLC-90 were higher in CD patients than controls. EDI-2 was different in pulse thinness, social insecurity, perfectionism, inadequacy, ascetisms, and interpersonal diffidence between CD and HC women, whilst only in interceptive awareness between CD and HC men. A higher EAT-26 score was associated with the CD group dependently with gastrointestinal symptoms. The EAT26 demonstrated association between indices of diet-related disorders in both CD and the feminine gender after controlling for anxiety and depression. Conclusion. CD itself and not gastrointestinal related symptoms or psychological factors may contribute pathological eating behavior in celiac adults. Eating disorders appear to be more frequent in young celiac women than in CD men and in HC.
DerMarderosian, Diane; Chapman, Heather A; Tortolani, Christina; Willis, Matthew D
Eating disorders are a group of psychiatric disorders with potentially fatal medical complications. Early integrated care including the family as well as pediatric medicine, nutrition, psychology and psychiatry is critical for improving prognosis and limiting negative outcomes. Mental health services are a critical component of treatment; timely weight restoration maximizes efficacy. Despite being relatively common, there are many misperceptions about eating disorders, their severity, and the associated morbidity and mortality. Opportunities exist within the medical and psychiatric communities for a better understanding of the complexity of diagnosing and treating patients with eating disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Díaz-Marsá, Marina; Alberdi-Páramo, Iñigo; Niell-Galmés, Lluis
Eating disorders (EDs) are a series of differentiated nosological entities sharing the common link of a continuous alteration in food intake or in food intake-related behavior. Within this classification, the following disorders are noteworthy: anorexia nerviosa (AN) and bulimia nerviosa (BN). Anorexia nervosa is a chronic disorder characterized mainly by negative or decreased food intake accompanied by a distortion of body image and intense accompanying fear of weight gain. The estimated vital prevalence of this disorder in adolescence is approximately 0.5%-1%.1 The primary feature of BN is the presence of binge eating accompanied by compensatory behavior (in the form of intense exercise and the use of laxatives and diuretics, etc.). The prevalence of BN is estimated to be between 2% and 4% in young women, and it generally starts at somewhat later stages than AN. It is believed that biological, psychological, and environmental factors, as well as genetic vulnerability, influence the pathogenesis of EDs. A variety of therapies exist, both biological and psychological, whose effectiveness is supported by the scientific literature. Nonetheless, we find these therapies only partially effective and new targets as well as new treatments should be sought. Although the etiopathogenesis of EDs is unclear, some of the neurobiological dysfunction found suggests that diet and nutrient supplementation could be relevant in their treatment. We review in this article new treatments focusing on nutritional deficits.
Melin, Anna; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Burke, Louise
availability, reproductive function and bone health in female athletes, has recently been expanded to recognise that Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) has a broader range of negative effects on body systems with functional impairments in both male and female athletes. Athletes in leanness......-demanding sports have an increased risk for RED-S and for developing EDs/DE. Special risk factors in aquatic sports related to weight and body composition management include the wearing of skimpy and tight-fitting bathing suits, and in the case of diving and synchronized swimming, the involvement of subjective...... judgements of performance. The reported prevalence of DE and EDs in athletic populations including athletes from aquatic sports ranges from 18-45 % in female athletes and 0-28 % in male athletes. To prevent EDs, aquatic athletes should practice healthy eating behaviour at all periods of development pathway...
Kearney, David J; Milton, Meredith L; Malte, Carol A; McDermott, Kelly A; Martinez, Michelle; Simpson, Tracy L
The adverse health effects and increasing prevalence of obesity in the United States make interventions for obesity a priority in health research. Diet-focused interventions generally do not result in lasting reductions in weight. Behavioral interventions that increase awareness of eating cues and satiety have been postulated to result in healthier eating habits. We hypothesized that participation in a program called mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) would positively influence the eating behaviors and nutritional intake of participants through changes in emotional eating (EE), uncontrolled eating (UE), and type and quantity of food consumed. Forty-eight veterans at a large urban Veterans Administration medical center were assessed before MBSR, after MBSR, and 4 months later. For all participants (N = 48), MBSR participation was not associated with significant changes in EE or UE. In addition, there were no significant differences in the intake of energy, fat, sugar, fruit, or vegetables at either follow-up time point as compared with baseline. Enhanced mindfulness skills and reduced depressive symptoms were seen over time with medium to large effect sizes. Changes in mindfulness skills were significantly and negatively correlated with changes in EE and UE over time. Overall, there was no evidence that participation in MBSR was associated with beneficial changes in eating through reductions in disinhibited eating or significant changes in dietary intake. Randomized studies are needed to further define the relationship between mindfulness program participation and eating behaviors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available IntroductionIt is unclear whether core symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD relate to specific types of disordered eating and little is known about the mediating mechanisms. We investigated associations between core symptoms of ADHD and binge/disinhibited eating and restrictive eating behavior and assessed whether negative mood and/or deficits in awareness and reliance on internal hunger/satiety cues mediate these relationships.MethodsIn two independent studies, we used a dimensional approach to study ADHD and disordered eating. In Study 1, a community-based sample of 237 adults (72.6% female, 18–60 years [M = 26.8, SE = 0.6] completed an online questionnaire, assessing eating attitudes/behaviors, negative mood, awareness, and reliance on internal hunger/satiety cues and ADHD symptomatology. In Study 2, 142 students (80.3% female, 18–32 years [M = 19.3, SE = 0.1] were recruited to complete the same questionnaires and complete tasks assessing interoceptive sensitivity and impulsivity in the laboratory.ResultsIn each study, core symptoms of ADHD correlated positively with both binge/disinhibited and restrictive eating and negative mood mediated the relationships. Deficits in awareness and reliance on internal hunger/satiety signals also mediated the association between inattentive symptoms of ADHD and disordered eating, especially binge/disinhibited eating. The results from both studies demonstrated that inattentive symptoms of ADHD were also directly related to binge/disinhibited eating behavior, while accounting for the indirect pathways of association via negative mood and awareness and reliance on internal hunger/satiety signals.ConclusionThis research provides evidence that core symptoms of ADHD are associated with both binge/disinhibited eating and restrictive eating behavior. Further investigation of the role of inattentive symptoms of ADHD in disordered eating may be helpful in developing novel
Kaisari, Panagiota; Dourish, Colin T; Rotshtein, Pia; Higgs, Suzanne
It is unclear whether core symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) relate to specific types of disordered eating and little is known about the mediating mechanisms. We investigated associations between core symptoms of ADHD and binge/disinhibited eating and restrictive eating behavior and assessed whether negative mood and/or deficits in awareness and reliance on internal hunger/satiety cues mediate these relationships. In two independent studies, we used a dimensional approach to study ADHD and disordered eating. In Study 1, a community-based sample of 237 adults (72.6% female, 18-60 years [M = 26.8, SE = 0.6]) completed an online questionnaire, assessing eating attitudes/behaviors, negative mood, awareness, and reliance on internal hunger/satiety cues and ADHD symptomatology. In Study 2, 142 students (80.3% female, 18-32 years [M = 19.3, SE = 0.1]) were recruited to complete the same questionnaires and complete tasks assessing interoceptive sensitivity and impulsivity in the laboratory. In each study, core symptoms of ADHD correlated positively with both binge/disinhibited and restrictive eating and negative mood mediated the relationships. Deficits in awareness and reliance on internal hunger/satiety signals also mediated the association between inattentive symptoms of ADHD and disordered eating, especially binge/disinhibited eating. The results from both studies demonstrated that inattentive symptoms of ADHD were also directly related to binge/disinhibited eating behavior, while accounting for the indirect pathways of association via negative mood and awareness and reliance on internal hunger/satiety signals. This research provides evidence that core symptoms of ADHD are associated with both binge/disinhibited eating and restrictive eating behavior. Further investigation of the role of inattentive symptoms of ADHD in disordered eating may be helpful in developing novel treatments for both ADHD and binge eating.
Hammond, Richard T
Some physical aspects of negative mass are examined. Several unusual properties, such as the ability of negative mass to penetrate any armor, are analysed. Other surprising effects include the bizarre system of negative mass chasing positive mass, naked singularities and the violation of cosmic censorship, wormholes, and quantum mechanical results as well. In addition, a brief look into the implications for strings is given. (paper)
Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-LoberaBehavioral Sciences Institute and Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Neuroimaging techniques have been useful tools for accurate investigation of brain structure and function in eating disorders. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and voxel-based morphometry have been the most relevant technologies in this regard. The purpose of this review is to update the existing data on neuroimaging in eating disorders. The main brain changes seem to be reversible to some extent after adequate weight restoration. Brain changes in bulimia nervosa seem to be less pronounced than in anorexia nervosa and are mainly due to chronic dietary restrictions. Different subtypes of eating disorders might be correlated with specific brain functional changes. Moreover, anorectic patients who binge/purge may have different functional brain changes compared with those who do not binge/purge. Functional changes in the brain might have prognostic value, and different changes with respect to the binding potential of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, and D2/D3 receptors may be persistent after recovering from an eating disorder.Keywords: neuroimaging, brain changes, brain receptors, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorders
Sharan, Pratap; Sundar, A. Shyam
Eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have been classically described in young females in Western population. Recent research shows that they are also seen in developing countries including India. The classification of eating disorders has been expanded to include recently described conditions like binge eating disorder. Eating disorders have a multifactorial etiology. Genetic factor appear to play a major role. Recent advances in neurobiology have improved our understanding of these conditions and may possibly help us develop more effective treatments in future. Premorbid personality appears to play an important role, with differential predisposition for individual disorders. The role of cultural factors in the etiology of these conditions is debated. Culture may have a pathoplastic effect leading to non-conforming presentations like the non fat-phobic form of anorexia nervosa, which are commonly reported in developing countries. With rapid cultural transformation, the classical forms of these conditions are being described throughout the world. Diagnostic criteria have been modified to accommodate for these myriad presentations. Treatment of eating disorders can be quite challenging, given the dearth of established treatments and poor motivation/insight in these conditions. Nutritional rehabilitation and psychotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment, while pharmacotherapy may be helpful in specific situations. PMID:26330646
Alessandra Donzelli Fabbri
Full Text Available Background Ghrelin is a potent hormone with central and peripheral action. This hormone plays an important role in the regulation of appetite, food intake, and energy balance. Studies have suggested that ghrelin is involved with eating disorders (ED, particularly bingeing and purging. Genetic variants have also been studied to explain changes in eating behavior. Methods We conducted a literature review; we searched PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO, and LILACS databases using the keywords “eating disorder”, “ghrelin”, “polymorphism”, “anorexia nervosa”, “bulimia nervosa”, “binge eating disorder”, and their combinations. We found 319 articles. Thirty-nine articles met the inclusion criteria. Results High levels of ghrelin were found in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN, especially in the purging subtype (AN-P. There was also a positive correlation between fasting ghrelin level and frequency of episodes of bingeing/purging in bulimia nervosa (BN and the frequency of bingeing in periodic binge eating disorder (BED. Some polymorphisms were associated with AN and BN. Conclusion Changes in ghrelin levels and its polymorphism may be involved in the pathogenesis of EDs; however, further studies should be conducted to clarify the associations.
Timmerman, Gayle M
This study describes restaurant-eating behaviors for nonpurge binge-eating women in comparison to dieters. Restaurant-eating behaviors were determined from a content analysis of 14-day food diaries using a convenience sample of 71 women who reported binging without purging and 46 dieters without a recent binge history. Comparing bingers to dieters, there were no significant differences in frequency of eating out, dessert consumption at restaurants, or fast food eating. Bingers more often perceived restaurant eating to be uncontrolled and excessive. Both bingers and dieters consumed significantly more calories (226-253 kcal) and fat (10.4-16.0 gm) on restaurant days. Extra calories consumed on restaurant-eating days may contribute to weight gain over time, especially with frequent restaurant eating. Restaurants may present a high-risk food environment for bingers and dieters, contributing to loss of control and excess consumption.
Wang, W C; Worsley, A
Beliefs about what people think they ought to eat to be healthy ('healthy eating norms (HENs)') may be important influences on food consumption. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive roles of normative expectations and demographics, personal values, substance use behaviours and body weight on reported food consumption among middle-aged Australians. A questionnaire was administered by mail to a random sample of people aged 40 years and above, drawn from the Electoral Rolls in Victoria, Australia. Part of the questionnaire contained questions about the respondents' beliefs about what should they eat to be healthy, what actually they ate, their personal values, smoking and alcohol use, as well as self-reported heights and weights and demographic characteristics. Respondents' reported food consumption did not match their HENs. Demographics, smoking, body mass index (BMI) and personal values, and HENs were associated with reported consumption but the relationships differed among men and women. Generally, high energy-dense, nutrition-poor (EDNP) food consumption was negatively associated with age. Fruit and vegetable HEN and consumption was positively linked to universalist values but negatively related to smoking status among men. In contrast in women, fruit and vegetable HENs were positively related to income and education while EDNP HEN was negatively associated with age and income but positively linked to body weight and power values. Reported food consumption was associated with HEN, personal values, demographics, smoking and BMI through different pathways among men and women. The implications for nutrition promotion are discussed.
Obesity - emotional eating; Overweight - emotional eating; Diet - emotional eating; Weight loss - emotional meaning ... al. Eating attentively: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of food intake memory and ...
Thaler, Lea; Steiger, Howard
Eating disorders (EDs) are characterized by intense preoccupation with shape and weight and maladaptive eating practices. The complex of symptoms that characterize EDs often arise through the activation of latent genetic potentials by environmental exposures, and epigenetic mechanisms are believed to link environmental exposures to gene expression. This chapter provides an overview of genetic factors acting in the etiology of EDs. It then provides a background to the hypothesis that epigenetic mechanisms link stresses such as obstetric complications and childhood abuse as well as effects of malnutrition to eating disorders (EDs). The chapter then summarizes the emerging body of literature on epigenetics and EDs-mainly studies on DNA methylation in samples of anorexia and bulimia. The available evidence base suggests that an epigenetically informed perspective contributes in valuable ways to the understanding of why people develop EDs.
Schreiber-Gregory, Deanna N.; Lavender, Jason M.; Engel, Scott G.; Wonderlich, Steve A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Peterson, Carol B.; Simonich, Heather; Crow, Scott; Durkin, Nora; Mitchell, James E.
Objective The primary goal of this paper is to examine and clarify characteristics of binge eating in individuals with binge eating disorder (BED), particularly the duration of binge eating episodes, as well as potential differences between individuals with shorter compared to longer binge eating episodes. Method Two studies exploring binge eating characteristics in BED were conducted. Study 1 examined differences in clinical variables among individuals (N = 139) with BED who reported a short (binge duration. Study 2 utilized an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design to examine the duration and temporal pattern of binge eating episodes in the natural environment in a separate sample of nine women with BED. Results Participants in Study 1 who were classified as having long duration binge eating episodes displayed greater symptoms of depression and lower self-esteem, but did not differ on other measures of eating disorder symptoms, compared to those with short duration binge eating episodes. In Study 2, the average binge episode duration was approximately 42 minutes, and binge eating episodes were most common during the early afternoon and evening hours, as well as more common on weekdays versus weekends. Discussion Past research on binge episode characteristics, particularly duration, has been limited to studies of binge eating episodes in BN. This study contributes to the existing literature on characteristics of binge eating in BED. PMID:23881639
Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard; Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore Chinese adolescents' perceptions of healthy eating, their perceptions of various socializing agents shaping their eating habits, and their opinions about various regulatory measures which might be imposed to encourage healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: Four focus group interview sessions…
D. H. Tavares
Full Text Available The use of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP bars is one of the alternatives presented in recent studies to prevent the drawbacks related to the steel reinforcement in specific reinforced concrete members. In this work, six reinforced concrete beams were submitted to four point bending tests. One beam was reinforced with CA-50 steel bars and five with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP bars. The tests were carried out in the Department of Structural Engineering in São Carlos Engineering School, São Paulo University. The objective of the test program was to compare strength, reinforcement deformation, displacement, and some anchorage aspects between the GFRP-reinforced concrete beams and the steel-reinforced concrete beam. The results show that, even though four GFRP-reinforced concrete beams were designed with the same internal tension force as that with steel reinforcement, their capacity was lower than that of the steel-reinforced beam. The results also show that similar flexural capacity can be achieved for the steel- and for the GFRP-reinforced concrete beams by controlling the stiffness (reinforcement modulus of elasticity multiplied by the bar cross-sectional area - EA and the tension force of the GFRP bars.
Negative Leadership by Colonel David M. Oberlander United States Army United States Army War...SUBTITLE Negative Leadership 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Colonel David M...Dr. Richard C. Bullis Department of Command Leadership , and Management 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING
Negative and positive externalities pose symmetrical problems to social welfare. The law internalizes negative externalities by providing general tort liability rules. According to such rules, those who cause harm to others should pay compensation. In theory, in the presence of positive
The main claim of this paper is that a general theory of negative concord (NC) should allow for the possibility of NC involving scoping of a universal quantifier above negation. I propose that Greek NC instantiates this option. Greek n-words will be analyzed as polarity sensitive universal
Dorard, G; Khorramian-Pour, M
Our two objectives were: (1) to investigate the relationship between binge eating disorder, dimensions of personality (according to the Big Five model of Costa and McCrae) and those of emotionality in the "tripartite" model of emotions of Watson and Clark; (2) to evaluate the correspondence between the Binge Eating Scale (BES) and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2) scores. Four self-administered questionnaires were completed on a shared doc website: the EDI-2, the BES, the BFI-Fr (Big Five Inventory-French version) and the EPN-31 (Positive and Negative Emotionality Scale). The analyses were conducted in a sample of 101 participants (36 men and 65 women), aged 20-59 years (mean age=35.28±9.76) from the general population. We found that 11% of the participants had moderate to severe binge eating disorder. Among them, nearly 4% were overweight and 4% were obese. The correlations analyses indicated that binge eating disorder was associated with two dimensions of personality, the neuroticism (P=0.001) and the consciousness (P=0.010), and with the emotions of joy (P=0.008), tenderness (P=0.036), fear (P=0.011), shame (Pbinge eating disorder get higher scores on EDI-2 subscales: search for thinness (P=0.001), bulimia (Pbinge eating disorder is associated with negative affectivity both as a personality dimension and as an emotional feeling. The patterns of associations, observed with the EDI scale, seem to confirm the good convergent validity of the Binge Eating Scale. Thus, like other eating disorders, emotional functioning should be a prime target for prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2016 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul
Numerous trials provide support for the Body Project, an eating disorder prevention program wherein young women with body image concerns critique the thin ideal. Despite medium to large effects, some participants subsequently develop an eating disorder, suggesting that intervention or recruitment procedures could be improved. This study investigated baseline and acute intervention predictors of DSM-5 eating disorder development during a 3-year follow-up among Body Project participants. Combined data from two trials compare participants who experienced eating disorder onset during follow-up (n=20) to those who did not (n=216). Participants who did versus did not develop an eating disorder started the intervention with higher eating disorder symptoms (η2=0.08), negative affect (η2=0.06), thin-ideal internalization (η2=0.02), and body dissatisfaction (η2=0.02); the same baseline predictors of eating disorder onset emerged in controls. Attenuated pre–post reductions in eating disorder symptoms (η2=0.01) predicted eating disorder onset but not after controlling for baseline levels. Given that Body Project and control participants who later developed an eating disorder started with initial elevations in risk factors and eating disorder symptoms, it might be useful to develop a more intensive variant of this program for those exhibiting greater risk at baseline and to deliver the prevention program earlier to prevent initial escalation of risk. The fact that nonresponders also showed greater negative affect and eating disorder symptoms suggests that it might be useful to add activities to improve affect and increase dissonance about disordered eating. PMID:25342026
... least 5 minutes. When eating chicken and other poultry, cook to a temperature of 165°F (74° ... all fruit juices are pasteurized. Use only salad dressings, sauces, and salsas from single-serving packages. Eat ...
Full Text Available ... calories per day to meet their energy needs. So what happens if teen athletes don't eat ... important for athletes. Fatty foods can slow digestion, so it's a good idea to avoid eating these ...
Full Text Available ... your best while also losing weight. Eat a Variety of Foods You may have heard about "carb ... in high fat meat and high fat dairy products, like butter. Choosing when to eat fats is ...
Full Text Available ... In addition, eating candy bars or other sugary snacks just before practice or competition can give athletes ... yogurt, or pasta with tomato sauce). Eat a snack less than 2 hours before the game: If ...
Steel-Fiber Reinforced Concrete is constructed by adding short fibers of small cross-sectional size .to the fresh concrete. These fibers reinforce the concrete in all directions, as they are randomly oriented. The improved mechanical properties of concrete include ductility, impact-resistance, compressive, tensile and flexural strength and abrasion-resistance. These uniqlte properties of the fiber- reinforcement can be exploited to great advantage in concrete structural members containing both conventional bar-reinforcement and steel fibers. The improvements in mechanical properties of cementitious materials resulting from steel-fiber reinforcement depend on the type, geometry, volume fraction and material-properties of fibers, the matrix mix proportions and the fiber-matrix interfacial bond characteristics. Effects of steel fibers on the mechanical properties of concrete have been investigated in this paper through a comprehensive testing-programme, by varying the fiber volume fraction and the aspect-ratio (Lid) of fibers. Significant improvements are observed in compressive, tensile, flexural strength and impact-resistance of concrete, accompanied by marked improvement in ductility. optimum fiber-volume fraction and aspect-ratio of steel fibers is identified. Test results are analyzed in details and relevant conclusions drawn. The research is finally concluded with future research needs. (author)
Clinical studies describe binge eating as a reaction to hunger, negative affect, or the need to dissociate. However, little is known about the meanings that women with bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa associate with binge eating. To examine how women with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa interpret their experiences of binge eating. Sixteen women who engaged in binge eating and had been diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or their subclinical variants were interviewed about their experiences of eating disorder. Interview data were analyzed using phenomenologically-informed thematic analysis. Participants described binge eating as a practice through which the self experiences a sense of release, and existential emptiness is replaced by overwhelming fullness. Meaningful experiences of release and fullness are central to binge eating in bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa, and may contribute to the long-term maintenance of this practice.
Alfonsson, Sven; Parling, Thomas; Ghaderi, Ata
The aim of the present study was to assess whether behavioral activation (BA) is an efficacious treatment for decreasing eating disorder symptoms in patients with obesity and binge eating disorder (BED). Ninety-six patients with severe obesity and BED were randomized to either 10 sessions of group BA or wait-list control. The study was conducted at an obesity clinic in a regular hospital setting. The treatment improved some aspects of disordered eating and had a positive effect on depressive symptoms but there was no significant difference between the groups regarding binge eating and most other symptoms. Improved mood but lack of effect on binge eating suggests that dysfunctional eating (including BED) is maintained by other mechanisms than low activation and negative mood. However, future studies need to investigate whether effects of BA on binge eating might emerge later than at post-assessment, as in interpersonal psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa. © The Author(s) 2014.
Thomas, Justin; O'Hara, Lily; Tahboub-Schulte, Sabrina; Grey, Ian; Chowdhury, Nayeefa
There is a substantial body of literature reporting a negative association between religiosity and psychiatric symptoms. In the context of eating disorders, however, this relationship appears to be reversed. The few studies exploring the relationship between religiosity and eating disorders have mostly focused on the Judeo-Christian religious traditions in Western nations. The present study examines this relationship among Muslim college women from the United Arab Emirates (UAE). All participants (N = 1069) independently completed the religious commitment inventory (RCI-10) and the eating attitudes test (EAT-26). As hypothesised, there was a positive association between religiosity and eating disorders symptoms. Furthermore, those scoring above the EAT-26 cut-off reported significantly greater levels of religiosity. These findings suggest that heightened religiosity among young Emirati women may represent a vulnerability factor for eating disorders. Preventative initiatives in the UAE should consider focusing on religiosity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Atalayer, Deniz; Gibson, Charlisa; Konopacka, Alexandra; Geliebter, Allan
There is growing evidence supporting a multifactorial etiology that includes genetic, neurochemical, and physiological components for eating disorders above and beyond the more conventional theories based on psychological and sociocultural factors. Ghrelin is one of the key gut signals associated with appetite, and the only known circulating hormone that triggers a positive energy balance by stimulating food intake. This review summarizes recent findings and several conflicting reports on ghrelin in eating disorders. Understanding these findings and inconsistencies may help in developing new methods to prevent and treat patients with these disorders. PMID:22960103
eating. In Denmark most children eat a packed lunch brought from home. It is challenging to collect dietary data from a pediatric population where recall problems exist and estimation of portion sizes can be complicated. Thus, to measure and assess the dietary effect of an intervention, new valid methods...... consecutive days during a week at each of the three measurements. In total 984 school children were invited at baseline – 493 from the 2nd -3rd grades and 491 from the 5th-6th grades. A standardized DPM was used to collect data on food intake 3 consecutive days in a week at all of the 3 measurements...
Elran-Barak, Roni; Sztainer, Maya; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Le Grange, Daniel
Previous studies on family meals and disordered eating have mainly drawn their samples from the general population. The goal of the current study is to determine family meal frequency among children and adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and feeding or eating disorder not elsewhere classified (FED-NEC) and to examine whether family meal frequency is associated with eating disorder psychopathology. Participants included 154 children and adolescents (M = 14.92 ± 2.62), who met criteria for AN (n = 60), BN (n = 32), or FED-NEC (n = 62). All participants completed the Eating Disorder Examination and the Family Meal Questionnaire prior to treatment at the University of Chicago Eating Disorders Program. AN and BN participants significantly differed in terms of family meal frequency. A majority of participants with AN (71.7%), compared with less than half (43.7%) of participants with BN, reported eating dinner with their family frequently (five or more times per week). Family meal frequency during dinner was significantly and negatively correlated with dietary restraints and eating concerns among participants with BN (r = -.381, r = -.366, p meal frequency may be explained by their parents' relatively greater vigilance over eating, whereas families of BN patients may be less aware of eating disorder behaviors and hence less insistent upon family meals. Additionally, children and adolescents with AN may be more inhibited and withdrawn and therefore are perhaps more likely to stay at home and eat together with their families. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Berner, Laura A; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Engel, Scott G; Lavender, Jason M; Mitchell, James E; Wonderlich, Stephen A
Prior research suggests that the construct of emotional instability may be salient to bulimia nervosa (BN), but no study to date has used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to examine its temporal association with binge eating and purging. In the current study, 133 women with DSM-IV BN used portable digital devices to provide multiple daily negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA) ratings and record eating disorder behaviors over 2 weeks. Two state-of-the art indices quantified affective instability: probability of acute change (PAC), which represents the likelihood of extreme affective increases, and mean squared successive difference (MSSD), which represents average change over successive recordings. For extreme affective change, results revealed that on bulimic behavior days, extreme NA increases were less likely after bulimic behaviors than before them, and extreme increases in PA were more likely after bulimic behaviors than during the same time period on non-bulimic behavior days. However, average NA instability (i.e., MSSD) was (a) greater on bulimic behavior days than non-bulimic behavior days, (b) greater after bulimic behaviors than during the same time period on non-bulimic behavior days, and (c) greater after bulimic behaviors than before them. Results lend support to the notion that bulimic behaviors are negatively reinforcing (i.e., via post-behavior acute affective changes), but also indicate that these behaviors may exacerbate overall affective dysregulation. These findings may improve understanding of BN maintenance and inform the development of novel interventions or refinement of existing treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Marilou DP Tromp,1 Anouk AMT Donners,1 Johan Garssen,1,2 Joris C Verster1,31Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 2Nutricia Research, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 3Center for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, VIC, AustraliaObjective: To investigate the relationship between eating disorders, body mass index (BMI, sleep disorders, and daytime functioning.Design: Survey.Setting: The Netherlands.Participants: N=574 Dutch young adults (18–35 years old.Measurements: Participants completed a survey on eating and sleep habits including the Eating Disorder Screen for Primary care (ESP and SLEEP-50 questionnaire subscales for sleep apnea, insomnia, circadian rhythm disorder (CRD, and daytime functioning. SLEEP-50 outcomes of participants who screened negative (≤2 and positive (>2 on the ESP were compared. In addition, SLEEP-50 scores of groups of participants with different ESP scores (0–4 and different BMI groups (ie, underweight, healthy weight, overweight, and obese were compared using nonparametric statistics.Results: Almost 12% (n=67 of participants screened positive for having an eating disorder. Relative to participants without eating disorders, participants who screened positive for eating disorders reported significantly higher scores on sleep apnea (3.7 versus 2.9, P=0.012, insomnia (7.7 versus 5.5, P<0.0001, CRD (2.9 versus 2.3, P=0.011, and impairment of daytime functioning (8.8 versus 5.8, P=0.0001. ESP scores were associated with insomnia (r=0.117, P=0.005, sleep apnea (r=0.118, P=0.004, sleep quality (r=−0.104, P=0.012, and daytime functioning (r=0.225, P<0.0001, but not with CRD (r=0.066, P=0.112. BMI correlated significantly with ESP scores (r=0.172, P<0.0001 and scores on sleep apnea (r=0.171, P<0.0001. When controlling for BMI, the partial correlation between ESP and sleep apnea remained significant (r=0.10, P=0.015.Conclusion
Full Text Available Suicide associated mortality rates are notable for eating disorders. Crude mortality rate associated with suicide, varies between 0% and 5.3% in patients with eating disorders. Prominent risk factors for suicidal behavior among these patients are subtype of the eating disorders, comorbid psychiatric diagnosis (e.g. depression, alcohol and substance abuse, personality disorders, ultrarapid drug metabolism, history of childhood abuse and particular family dynamics. In this article, suicidal behavior and associated factors in eating disorders are briefly reviewed.
Pike, Kathleen M.; Hoek, Hans W.; Dunne, Patricia E.
Purpose of review Culture has long been recognized as significant to the cause and expression of eating disorders. We reviewed the recent literature about recent trends in the occurrence of eating disorders in different cultures. Recent findings While historically, eating disorders were
Full Text Available ... A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español A Guide to Eating for Sports KidsHealth / For ... Ditch Dehydration Caffeine Game-Day Eats Print en español Guía de alimentación para deportistas Eat Extra for ...
Pike, Kathleen M.; Hoek, Hans W.; Dunne, Patricia E.
Purpose of review Culture has long been recognized as significant to the cause and expression of eating disorders. We reviewed the recent literature about recent trends in the occurrence of eating disorders in different cultures. Recent findings While historically, eating disorders were
Full Text Available ... some guidelines on what to eat and when: Eat a meal 2 to 4 hours before the game or ... for you. You may want to experiment with meal timing and how much to eat on practice days so that you're better ...
Mariscotti, M.A.J.; Morixe, M.; Tarela, P.A.; Thieberger, P.
In this paper we describe the technique of reinforced concrete tomography, its historical background, recent technological developments and main applications. Gamma radiation sensitive plates are imprinted with radiation going through the concrete sample under study, and then processed to reveal the presence of reinforcement and defects in the material density. The three dimensional reconstruction, or tomography, of the reinforcement out of a single gammagraphy is an original development alternative to conventional methods. Re-bar diameters and positions may be determined with an accuracy of ± 1 mm 0.5-1 cm, respectively. The non-destructive character of this technique makes it particularly attractive in cases of inhabited buildings and diagnoses of balconies. (author) [es
Pedersen, Susanne; Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John
It is commonly believed that during adolescence children become increasingly influenced by peers at the expense of parents. To test the strength of this tendency with regards to healthy eating (fruit and vegetable intake), a survey was completed by 757 adolescent-parent dyads. Our theoretical framework builds on social cognitive theory and the focus theory of normative conduct, and data are analysed by means of confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. The study reveals that when it comes to adolescents' fruit and vegetable intake, parents remain the main influencer, with what they do (descriptive norms) being more important than what they say (injunctive norms). The study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of what influences adolescent healthy eating, including the social influence of parents and friends, while also taking adolescent self-efficacy and outcome expectations into account. No previous studies have included all these factors in the same analysis. The study has a number of important implications: (1) healthy eating interventions should aim at strengthening self-efficacy and positive outcome expectations among adolescents, (2) the family context should be included when implementing healthy eating interventions and (3) parents' awareness of their influence on their children's healthy eating should be reinforced. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brechan, Inge; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin
The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that the effect of body dissatisfaction on disordered eating behavior is mediated through self-esteem and depression. If the effect of body dissatisfaction on disordered eating can be explained by self-esteem and depression, treatment may benefit from focusing more on self-esteem and depression than body dissatisfaction. We also hypothesized body image importance to be associated with lower self-esteem, stronger symptoms of depression, and more disordered eating. The results showed that the effect of body dissatisfaction on disorder eating was completely mediated, whereas the effect of body image importance was partly mediated. Both self-esteem and depression were significant mediators. Body image importance and self-esteem had a direct effect on restrained eating and compensatory behavior. Depression had a direct effect on binge eating. This effect was significantly stronger among women. Depression also had a direct effect on restrained eating. This effect was positive among women, but negative among men. The results support emotion regulation and cognitive behavioral theories of eating disorders, indicating that self-esteem and depression are the most proximal factors, whereas the effect of body dissatisfaction is indirect. The results point out the importance of distinguishing between different symptoms of bulimia. Depression may cause binge eating, but compensatory behavior depends on self-esteem and body image importance. The results suggest that women may turn to both binge eating and restrained eating to escape awareness of negative emotions, whereas men focus on eating to a lesser extent than women. Existing treatment focuses on eating behavior first and mechanisms such as self-esteem and depression second. The results from this study suggest that an earlier focus on self-esteem and depression may be warranted in the treatment of disordered eating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
Full Text Available Background: Mental disorders, including eating disorders, mostly begin during youth. Moreover, negative body image is found to cause unhealthy eating habits in the context of several cross-cultural settings. This study aimed to examine the correlation between health perception and body image with eating habits among high school students. Methods: A structured, anonymous questionnaire was distributed to students of a private high school in Bandung, Indonesia in June-October 2014. The questionnaire included questions about health perception, body image, eating habits, body weight and height, and also other demographic parameters. The school was selected as the study object through purposive sampling, and 140 high school students (72 male and 68 female were ramdomly selected. Results: Male and female did not show considerable differences in health perceptions. Out of 13 statements, 12 statements of male respondents showed better body image than female. While in eating habits statements, female respondents seemed to maintain healthier eating habits than male respondents. No significant correlation was observed between body image and eating habits (r=-0.015, p=0.858. There was significant correlation between health perception and eating habits (r=0.374, p<0.001. Correlation between sex and eating habits was found (p=0.020, there was not significant relationship between eating habits and Body Mass Index (BMI (p=0.368. Conclusions: The negative relationship between body image and eating habits is not significant. However there was a significant positive relationship between health perception and eating habits. Furthermore, there was correlation between sex and eating habits, while the positive relationship between eating habits and BMI was still not found.
BRACKGROUND: Protein is posited to play a dynamic role in energy balance and reward-driven eating behavior. However, little is known about the effect of increasing protein intake on snack food reinforcement. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the extent to which increasing dietary protein changes th...
Full Text Available Emotional eating is an attempt to avoid, control, or cope with negative emotions through eating a large amount of calorie dense sweet and/or high fat foods. Several factors, including various attentional mechanisms, negative affect, and stress, impact emotional eating behavior. For example, attentional narrowing on negative events may increase attentional stickiness and thereby prevent the processing of more peripheral events, such as eating behavior. This study contributes to the extant literature by examining the neural correlates underlying the attentional conflict between processing negative events and regulating behavior within a task that emulates how negative life experiences might contribute to unrestrained eating behavior. We explore this question within a normative sample that varies in their self-reported anxiety symptoms. Dense-array EEG was collected while participants played the attentional blink game—a task in which excessive attentional resource allocated to one event (e.g., negative picture interferes with the adequate attentional processing of a second event that requires action. To assess the attentional conflict, we measured N2 activation, an event-related potentials (ERPs; averaged EEG associated with conflict processing. Results revealed that N2 activation moderates the association between anxiety and emotional-eating behavior. Thus, increased anxiety combined with more negative N2 activation can contribute to emotional-eating behavior. These results are discussed in the context of ineffective conflict processing contributing to poor emotion regulation.
Gonilho Pereira, C.; Fangueiro, R.; Jalali, S.; Araujo, M.; Marques, P.
This paper reports on the development of braided reinforced composite rods as a substitute for the steel reinforcement in concrete. The research work aims at understanding the mechanical behaviour of core-reinforced braided fabrics and braided reinforced composite rods, namely concerning the influence of the braiding angle, the type of core reinforcement fibre, and preloading and postloading conditions. The core-reinforced braided fabrics were made from polyester fibres for producing braided structures, and E-glass, carbon, HT polyethylene, and sisal fibres were used for the core reinforcement. The braided reinforced composite rods were obtained by impregnating the core-reinforced braided fabric with a vinyl ester resin. The preloading of the core-reinforced braided fabrics and the postloading of the braided reinforced composite rods were performed in three and two stages, respectively. The results of tensile tests carried out on different samples of core-reinforced braided fabrics are presented and discussed. The tensile and bending properties of the braided reinforced composite rods have been evaluated, and the results obtained are presented, discussed, and compared with those of conventional materials, such as steel.
Bessaim Mohammed Mustapha
Full Text Available The proportionality of existence of land with good bearing to erect any building or building is very small, to remedy this deficiency it is necessary to resort to techniques of reinforcement of the soils which can constitute a very important development. Among these methods of remediation, there is reinforcement by the geosynthetics which constitute an effective solution to these constraints. This process tends to stabilize the soil in question with increased load bearing capacity in civil engineering and geotechnical works such as embankments, slopes, embankments and hydraulic structures, with an inestimable gain in time, economy and durability while preserving the natural and environmental aspect.
Panagiota Kaisari; Colin T. Dourish; Pia Rotshtein; Suzanne Higgs
IntroductionIt is unclear whether core symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) relate to specific types of disordered eating and little is known about the mediating mechanisms. We investigated associations between core symptoms of ADHD and binge/disinhibited eating and restrictive eating behavior and assessed whether negative mood and/or deficits in awareness and reliance on internal hunger/satiety cues mediate these relationships.MethodsIn two independent studies, we used...
Burton, Amy L.; Hay, Phillipa; Kleitman, Sabina; Smith, Evelyn; Raman, Jayanthi; Swinbourne, Jessica; Touyz, Stephen W.; Abbott, Maree J.
Background The Eating Beliefs Questionnaire (EBQ) is a 27-item self-report measure that assesses positive and negative beliefs about binge eating. It has been validated and its factor structure explored in a non-clinical sample. This study tested the psychometric properties of the EBQ in a clinical and a non-clinical sample. Method A sample of 769 participants (573 participants recruited from the university and general community, 76 seeking treatment for an eating disorder and 120 participati...
Wilson, Jenny L; Peebles, Rebecka; Hardy, Kristina K; Litt, Iris F
Pro-eating disorder Web sites are communities of individuals who engage in disordered eating and use the Internet to discuss their activities. Pro-recovery sites, which are less numerous, express a recovery-oriented perspective. This pilot study investigated the awareness and usage of pro-eating disorder Web sites among adolescents with eating disorders and their parents and explored associations with health and quality of life. This was a cross-sectional study of 698 families of patients (aged 10-22 years) diagnosed with an eating disorder at Stanford between 1997 and 2004. Anonymous surveys were mailed and offered in clinic. Survey content included questions about disease severity, health outcomes, Web site usage, and parental knowledge of eating disorder Web site usage. Surveys were returned by 182 individuals: 76 patients and 106 parents. Parents frequently (52.8%) were aware of pro-eating disorder sites, but an equal number did not know whether their child visited these sites, and only 27.6% had discussed them with their child. Most (62.5%) parents, however, did not know about pro-recovery sites. Forty-one percent of patients visited pro-recovery sites, 35.5% visited pro-eating disorder sites, 25.0% visited both, and 48.7% visited neither. While visiting pro-eating disorder sites, 96.0% reported learning new weight loss or purging techniques. However, 46.4% of pro-recovery site visitors also learned new techniques. Pro-eating disorder site users did not differ from nonusers in health outcomes but reported spending less time on school or schoolwork and had a longer duration of illness. Users of both pro-eating disorder and pro-recovery sites were hospitalized more than users of neither site. Pro-eating disorder site usage was prevalent among adolescents with eating disorders, yet parents had little knowledge of this. Although use of these sites was not associated with other health outcomes, usage may have a negative impact on quality of life and result in
Schousboe, Birgitte Hartvig; Waaddegaard, Mette
Binge eating disorder kaldes også bulimi uden opkastning eller den tredje spiseforstyrrelse. Det er en udbredt, men mindre kendt spiseforstyrrelse end anoreksi og bulimi. Patienterne er ofte overvægtige og har ikke kompenserende adfærd over for overspisningen i form af opkastning eller brug af...
... will be left when you're done with dinner? Sound familiar? You're away at college, and your parents are no longer looking over your shoulder to make sure you eat your vegetables. This and many other new freedoms ...
... wanting to go to parties or out for dinner) What Is Bulimia? Instead of starving themselves, people who have bulimia nervosa (say: boo-LEE-mee-uh nur-VOH-suh) will binge and purge . That means they will binge (that is, eat a huge amount of food, like a tub ...
Davis, Haley; Attia, Evelyn
Medications are commonly prescribed in the treatment of eating disorders. In this review, we discuss relevant medications used for the treatment of bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder (BED), and anorexia nervosa. We focus on recent research developments, where applicable, in addition to discussing important findings from older studies to provide a complete synopsis of the current evidence base for eating disorder treatment using pharmacologic agents. Medications are generally useful for patients with bulimia nervosa and BED. For bulimia nervosa, antidepressant medications are the primary pharmacologic treatment and limited new research has been completed. For BED, lisdexamfetamine is reported to be generally well tolerated and effective, and is the first medication to be indicated by the US Food and Drug Administration for treatment of BED. For anorexia nervosa, there is limited evidence supporting benefits of medications. Second-generation antipsychotics, particularly olanzapine, appear to demonstrate some benefit for weight gain in anorexia nervosa, although are not advised as a stand-alone treatment. Transdermal administration of hormonal agents is also being explored for improving bone health in anorexia nervosa. Although pharmacotherapy has established utility in bulimia nervosa and BED, further research on medications for the treatment of eating disorders, particularly anorexia nervosa, is necessary.
Yi, Chun-Xia; Heppner, Kristy; Tschöp, Matthias H.
Ghrelin is the only known circulating hormone that acts on peripheral and central targets to increase food intake and promote adiposity. The present review focuses on the possible clinical relevance of ghrelin in the regulation of human feeding behavior in individuals with obesity and other eating
Moriarty, Dick; Moriarty, Mary
Since sports can sometimes lend themselves to eating disorders, coaches and sports administrators must get involved in the detection and treatment of this problem. While no reliable studies or statistics exist on the incidence of anorexia nervosa and/or bulimia among athletes, some research suggests that such disorders occur frequently among…
MacDonald, Emily; Heier, Berit Tafjord; Nygård, Karin; Stalheim, Torunn; Cudjoe, Kofitsyo S; Skjerdal, Taran; Wester, Astrid Louise; Lindstedt, Bjørn-Arne; Stavnes, Trine-Lise; Vold, Line
In 2011, an outbreak of illness caused by Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 in Norway was linked to ready-to-eat salad mix, an unusual vehicle for this pathogen. The outbreak illustrates the need to characterize isolates of this organism, and reinforces the need for international traceback mechanisms for fresh produce.
Gan, Wan Ying; Mohamad, Normasliana; Law, Leh Shii
Although there are numerous studies on binge eating behavior in the Western countries, studies on this behavior in Malaysia are still limited. Therefore, this cross-sectional study aimed to determine the risk factors associated with binge eating behavior among adolescents in Malaysia. The study included 356 adolescents (42.7% males and 57.3% females), aged 13 to 16 years. They completed a self-administered questionnaire on demographic and socioeconomic backgrounds, frequency of family meals, family meal environments, family cohesion, perception of body size, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, perfectionistic self-presentation, and binge eating behavior. Furthermore, their weight, height, and waist circumference were measured. It was found that 14.0% of the participants engaged in binge eating behavior (15.2% in females and 12.5% in males). Additionally, it was identified that high levels of depressive symptoms, high levels of body dissatisfaction, poor family cohesion, and low self-esteem were significantly contributed to binge eating behavior after controlling for sex (adjusted R ² = 0.165, F = 15.056, p < 0.001). The findings may suggest that improving the relationships between family members, along with eliminating adolescents' negative emotions could help in the prevention of binge eating behavior among adolescents. The identified modifiable risk factors should be incorporated into binge eating preventive programs to increase the effectiveness of the programs.
Although there are numerous studies on binge eating behavior in the Western countries, studies on this behavior in Malaysia are still limited. Therefore, this cross-sectional study aimed to determine the risk factors associated with binge eating behavior among adolescents in Malaysia. The study included 356 adolescents (42.7% males and 57.3% females), aged 13 to 16 years. They completed a self-administered questionnaire on demographic and socioeconomic backgrounds, frequency of family meals, family meal environments, family cohesion, perception of body size, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, perfectionistic self-presentation, and binge eating behavior. Furthermore, their weight, height, and waist circumference were measured. It was found that 14.0% of the participants engaged in binge eating behavior (15.2% in females and 12.5% in males). Additionally, it was identified that high levels of depressive symptoms, high levels of body dissatisfaction, poor family cohesion, and low self-esteem were significantly contributed to binge eating behavior after controlling for sex (adjusted R2 = 0.165, F = 15.056, p < 0.001). The findings may suggest that improving the relationships between family members, along with eliminating adolescents’ negative emotions could help in the prevention of binge eating behavior among adolescents. The identified modifiable risk factors should be incorporated into binge eating preventive programs to increase the effectiveness of the programs. PMID:29320461
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to describe the maternal eating and physical activity strategies (monitoring, discipline, control, limits and reinforcement [MEES]; to determine the relation between MEES and the child's nutritional status [body mass index (BMI and body fat percentage (BFP]; to verify whether the MEES differ according to the child's nutritional status.METHOD: participants were 558 mothers and children (3 to 11 years of age who studied at public schools. The Parental Strategies for Eating and Activity Scale (PEAS was applied and the child's weight, height and BFP were measured. For analysis purposes, descriptive statistics were obtained, using multiple linear regression and the Kruskal-Wallis test.RESULTS: the highest mean score was found for reinforcement (62.72 and the lowest for control (50.07. Discipline, control and limits explained 12% of the BMI, while discipline and control explained 6% of the BFP. Greater control is found for obese children (χ2=38.36, p=0.001 and greater reinforcement for underweight children (χ2=7.19, p<0.05.CONCLUSIONS: the mothers exert greater control (pressure to eat over obese children and greater recognition (congratulating due to healthy eating in underweight children. Modifications in parental strategies are recommended with a view to strengthening healthy eating and physical activity habits.
Elisabeth J Leehr
Full Text Available Food stimuli are omnipresent and naturally primary reinforcing stimuli. One explanation for the intake of high amounts of food in binge eating disorder (BED is a deviant valuation process. Valuation of food stimuli is supposed to influence approach or avoidance behaviour towards food. Focusing on self-reported and indirect (facial electromyography valuation process, motivational aspects in the processing of food stimuli were investigated.We compared an overweight sample with BED (BED+ with an overweight sample without BED (BED- and with normal weight controls (NWC regarding their self-reported and indirect (via facial electromyography valuation of food versus non-food stimuli.Regarding the self-reported valuation, the BED+ sample showed a significantly stronger food-bias compared to the BED- sample, as food stimuli were rated as significantly more positive than the non-food stimuli in the BED+ sample. This self-reported valuation pattern could not be displayed in the indirect valuation. Food stimuli evoked negative indirect valuation in all groups. The BED+ sample showed the plainest approach-avoidance conflict marked by a diverging self-reported (positive and indirect (negative valuation of food stimuli.BED+ showed a deviant self-reported valuation of food as compared to BED-. The valuation process of the BED+ sample seems to be characterized by a motivational ambivalence. This ambivalence should be subject of further studies and may be of potential use for therapeutic interventions.
Michels, Nathalie; Sioen, Isabelle; Braet, Caroline; Eiben, Gabriele; Hebestreit, Antje; Huybrechts, Inge; Vanaelst, Barbara; Vyncke, Krishna; De Henauw, Stefaan
Psychological stress has been suggested to change dietary pattern towards more unhealthy choices and as such to contribute to overweight. Emotional eating behaviour could be an underlying mediating mechanism. The interrelationship between stress, emotional eating behaviour and dietary patterns has only rarely been examined in young children. Nevertheless, research in children is pivotal as the foundations of dietary habits are established starting from childhood and may track into adulthood. In 437 children (5-12years) of the ChiBS study, stress was measured by questionnaires on stressful events, emotions (happy, angry, sad, anxious) and problems (emotional, peer, conduct and hyperactivity). Data were collected on children's emotional eating behaviour and also on dietary patterns: frequency of fatty foods, sweet foods, snacks (fat and sweet), fruit and vegetables. Stressful events, negative emotions and problems were positively associated with emotional eating. Positive associations were observed between problems and both sweet and fatty foods consumption. Negative associations were observed between events and fruit and vegetables consumption. Overall, stress was associated with emotional eating and a more unhealthy dietary pattern and could thus contribute to the development of overweight, also in children. Nevertheless, emotional eating behaviour was not observed to mediate the stress-diet relation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pringle, A; Harmer, C J; Cooper, M J
Biases in emotional processing and cognitions about the self are thought to play a role in the maintenance of eating disorders (EDs). However, little is known about whether these difficulties exist pre-morbidly and how they might contribute to risk. Female dieters (n=82) completed a battery of tasks designed to assess the processing of social cues (facial emotion recognition), cognitions about the self [Self-Schema Processing Task (SSPT)] and ED-specific cognitions about eating, weight and shape (emotional Stroop). The 26-item Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26; Garner et al. 1982) was used to assess subclinical ED symptoms; this was used as an index of vulnerability within this at-risk group. Regression analyses showed that biases in the processing of both neutral and angry faces were predictive of our measure of vulnerability (EAT-26). In the self-schema task, biases in the processing of negative self descriptors previously found to be common in EDs predicted vulnerability. Biases in the processing of shape-related words on the Stroop task were also predictive; however, these biases were more important in dieters who also displayed biases in the self-schema task. We were also able to demonstrate that these biases are specific and separable from more general negative biases that could be attributed to depressive symptoms. These results suggest that specific biases in the processing of social cues, cognitions about the self, and also about eating, weight and shape information, may be important in understanding risk and preventing relapse in EDs.
Costarelli, V; Patsai, A
It is well documented that stress and anxiety can affect eating behaviour and food intake in humans. The purpose of the current study was to explore the possible effect of academic examination stress on disordered eating attitudes, emotional eating, restraint eating, body image, anxiety levels and self-esteem in a group of female university students. The interrelationships of the above parameters were also examined. Sixty Greek female university students, 18-25 years old, have been recruited and completed, on two separate occasions: a) during an examination stress period, and b) during a control period, the following questionnaires: the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Rosenberg Self- Esteem Scale, the Body Image Pictorial Instrument Scale (COLLINS) and a specially designed General Background Questionnaire. Subjects reported significantly higher levels of disordered eating attitudes (EAT-26, p=0.01), higher levels of anxiety (p=0.000) and lower levels of self-esteem (p=0.016) during the examination stress period compared to the control period. Disordered eating attitudes (EAT-26) were significantly positively correlated with emotional eating (p=0.04) and restrained eating (p=0.010) and negatively correlated with levels of self-esteem (p=0.05) and perceived desired body image (p=0.008) during the exam stress period. Finally, EAT-26 was significantly positively correlated with levels of anxiety in both study periods. Academic examination stress seems to increase disordered eating symptomatology in female university students and is associated with lower levels of self-esteem, an important finding which warrants further investigation.
Trosclair-Lasserre, Nicole M; Lerman, Dorothea C; Call, Nathan A; Addison, Laura R; Kodak, Tiffany
Consideration of reinforcer magnitude may be important for maximizing the efficacy of treatment for problem behavior. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about children's preferences for different magnitudes of social reinforcement or the extent to which preference is related to differences in reinforcer efficacy. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the relations among reinforcer magnitude, preference, and efficacy by drawing on the procedures and results of basic experimenta...
Barre, Laura K; Ferron, Joelle C; Davis, Kristin E; Whitley, Rob
To explore the understanding of a healthy diet and the barriers to healthy eating in persons with serious mental illnesses. In-depth semi-structured qualitative interviews about health behaviors were conducted in 31 individuals with serious mental illnesses. Participants were recruited from a mental health center in Chicago, Illinois, and ranged in age from 30 to 61 years old. Most participants described healthy eating as consuming fruits and vegetables, using low fat cooking methods, and limiting sweets, sodas, fast food, and/or junk food. Internal barriers to nutritional change included negative perceptions of healthy eating, the decreased taste and satiation of healthy foods, difficulty changing familiar eating habits, eating for comfort, and the prioritization of mental health. External barriers were the reduced availability and inconvenience of healthy foods, social pressures, and psychiatric medication side effects. This study revealed several modifiable barriers to healthy eating. Interventions that addressed these could aid in improving the diet and lowering the risk of cardiovascular disease in this population. Recommendations are to provide healthy eating education that is individualized, emphasizes the health consequences of poor eating, and provides opportunities to prepare and taste healthy foods. Family and friends should be included in all educational efforts. At community mental health centers and group homes, only healthy foods should be offered. Lastly, practitioners should encourage eating a healthy diet, inquire about eating in response to emotions, and explore the impact of psychiatric medications on eating behaviors.
Garcia Crespo, Andres Jose
Embodiments of the present disclosure include a system having a turbomachine blade segment including a blade and a mounting segment coupled to the blade, wherein the mounting segment has a plurality of reinforcement pins laterally extending at least partially through a neck of the mounting segment.
Paeye, Celine; Madelain, Laurent
Saccadic endpoint variability is often viewed as the outcome of neural noise occurring during sensorimotor processing. However, part of this variability might result from operant learning. We tested this hypothesis by reinforcing dispersions of saccadic amplitude distributions, while maintaining constant their medians. In a first experiment we…
Trosclair-Lasserre, Nicole M.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Call, Nathan A.; Addison, Laura R.; Kodak, Tiffany
Consideration of reinforcer magnitude may be important for maximizing the efficacy of treatment for problem behavior. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about children's preferences for different magnitudes of social reinforcement or the extent to which preference is related to differences in reinforcer efficacy. The purpose of the current…
Timmerman, G M; Acton, G J
Eating in response to emotions may lead to the consumption of excessive calories which typically leads to weight gain. This study examined the relationship between basic need satisfaction as identified by Maslow's hierarchy and emotional eating. According to Modeling and Role-Modeling theory, when lack of basic need satisfaction functions as a stressor, individuals may be more likely to engage in emotional eating as a substitute for fulfilling their needs in order to maintain homeostasis. The Basic Need Satisfaction Inventory (BNSI) had a strong, negative correlation (r = -.49; p need satisfaction, the more likely one engaged in emotional eating. In predicting EES score, 27.7% of the variance was explained by the self-esteem subscale of BNSI. This study supports looking at underlying issues contributing to weight gain in order to develop effective interventions for weight management.
Olivardia, R; Pope, H G; Mangweth, B; Hudson, J I
This study was designed to assess the characteristics of men with eating disorders in the community. The authors recruited 25 men meeting DSM-IV criteria for eating disorders and 25 comparison men through advertisements in college newspapers. A second comparison group comprised 33 women with bulimia nervosa who were recruited and interviewed with virtually identical methods. The men with eating disorders closely resembled the women with eating disorders but differed sharply from the comparison men in phenomenology of illness, rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders, and dissatisfaction with body image. Homosexuality did not appear to be a common feature of men with eating disorders in the community. Childhood physical and sexual abuse appeared slightly more common among the eating-disordered men than among the comparison men. Eating disorders, although less common in men than in women, appear to display strikingly similar features in affected individuals of the two genders.
Holm, Lotte; Ekström, Marianne Pipping; Gronow, Jukka
It is often claimed that in post-industrial societies eating is characterised by the dissolution of traditional cultural patterns regarding eating rhythms, the structure of meals and the social context of eating. This paper presents results from a Nordic quantitative and comparative study which...... was conducted in 1997 based on interviews with almost 5000 individuals from four nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden). The study showed that even through some flexibility was evident, eating was characterized by nationally different, but socially coordinated rhythms. Two distinct meal patterns...... were identified, a "western" pattern with one daily hot meal (Denmark, Norway), and an "eastern" patterns with two, daily hot meals (Finalnad, Sweden). Even though a lot of eating took place in solitude, eating was most often a social activity. It is concluded that daily eating patterns are still...
Full Text Available Norbert Dahmen, Julia Becht, Alice Engel, Monika Thommes, Peter TonnPsychiatry Department, University of Mainz, GermanyAbstract: Narcoleptic patients suffer frequently from obesity and type II diabetes. Most patients show a deficit in the energy balance regulating orexinergic system. Nevertheless, it is not known, why narcoleptic patients tend to be obese. We examined 116 narcoleptic patients and 80 controls with the structured interview for anorectic and bulimic eating disorders (SIAB to test the hypothesis that typical or atypical eating attacks or eating disorders may be more frequent in narcoleptic patients. No difference in the current prevalence of eating disorders bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, or anorexia nervosa was found, nor was the frequency of eating attacks higher in the narcolepsy group. We conclude that present eating disorders and eating attacks as defined in DSM IV are not the reason for the observed differences in body composition. Additional factors, such as basal metabolic rates and lifestyle factors need to be considered.Keywords: narcolepsy, eating disorder, SIAB, bulimia, anorexia, eating attack
French, Simone A; Epstein, Leonard H; Jeffery, Robert W; Blundell, John E; Wardle, Jane
The purpose of this review is to spark integrative thinking in the area of eating behaviors by critically examining research on exemplary constructs in this area. The eating behaviors food responsiveness, enjoyment of eating, satiety responsiveness, eating in the absence of hunger, reinforcing value of food, eating disinhibition and impulsivity/self-control are reviewed in relation to energy intake, body mass index and weight gain over time. Each of these constructs has been developed independently, and little research has explored the extent to which they overlap or whether they differentially predict food choices, energy intake and weight gain in the naturalistic environment. Most available data show positive cross-sectional associations with body mass index, but fewer studies report associations with energy intake or food choices. Little prospective data are available to link measures of eating behaviors with weight gain. Disinhibition has the largest and most consistent body of empirical data that link it prospectively with weight gain. An overarching conceptual model to integrate the conceptual and empirical research base for the role of eating behavior dimensions in the field of obesity research would highlight potential patterns of interaction between individual differences in eating behaviors, specific aspects of the individual's food environment and individual variation in state levels of hunger and satiety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
French, Simone A.; Epstein, Leonard H; Jeffery, Robert W.; Blundell, John E.; Wardle, Jane
The purpose of this review is to spark integrative thinking in the area of eating behaviors by critically examining research on exemplary constructs in this area. The eating behaviors food responsiveness, enjoyment of eating, satiety responsiveness, eating in the absence of hunger, reinforcing value of food, eating disinhibition and impulsivity/self-control are reviewed in relation to energy intake, body mass index and weight gain over time. Each of these constructs has been developed independently, and little research has explored the extent to which they overlap or whether they differentially predict food choices, energy intake and weight gain in the naturalistic environment. Most available data show positive cross-sectional associations with body mass index, but fewer studies report associations with energy intake or food choices. Little prospective data are available to link measures of eating behaviors with weight gain. Disinhibition has the largest and most consistent body of empirical data that link it prospectively with weight gain. An overarching conceptual model to integrate the conceptual and empirical research base for the role of eating behavior dimensions in the field of obesity research would highlight potential patterns of interaction between individual differences in eating behaviors, specific aspects of the individual’s food environment and individual variation in state levels of hunger and satiety. PMID:22796186
Brown, Stephen L.; Schiraldi, Glenn R.; Wrobleski, Peggy P.
Background: Overeating is often attributed to emotions and has been linked to psychological challenges and obesity. Purpose: This study investigated the effect of emotional and external cue eating on obesity and the correlation of emotional and external cue eating with positive and negative psychological factors, as well as early familial eating…
Birch, Leann Lipps; And Others
To investigate the effects of instrumental eating on food preferences, 45 preschool children were assigned to either instrumental eating or control conditions. Preference data obtained before and after a series of snack sessions (consisting of milk beverages) demonstrated a significant negative shift in preference for the instrumental groups.…
Roach, Elizabeth; Viechnicki, Gail B; Retzloff, Lauren B; Davis-Kean, Pamela; Lumeng, Julie C; Miller, Alison L
Families discuss food and eating in many ways that may shape child eating habits. Researchers studying how families talk about food have examined this process during meals. Little work has examined parent-child food-related interactions outside of mealtime. We assessed family food talk at home outside of mealtime and tested whether food talk was associated with obesogenic child eating behaviors, maternal feeding practices, or child weight. Preschool and school-aged mother-child dyads (n = 61) participated in naturalistic voice recording using a LENA (Language ENvironment Analysis) recorder. A coding scheme was developed to reliably characterize different types of food talk from LENA transcripts. Mothers completed the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) and Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) to assess child eating behaviors and maternal feeding practices. Child weight and height were measured and body mass index z-score (BMIz) calculated. Bivariate associations among food talk types, as a proportion of total speech, were examined and multivariate regression models used to test associations between food talk and child eating behaviors, maternal feeding practices, and child BMIz. Proportion of child Overall Food Talk and Food Explanations were positively associated with CEBQ Food Responsiveness and Enjoyment of Food (p's < 0.05). Child food Desire/Need and child Prep/Planning talk were positively associated with CEBQ Enjoyment of Food (p < 0.05). Child Food Enjoyment talk and mother Overt Restriction talk were positively associated with CEBQ Emotional Over-Eating (p < 0.05). Mother Monitoring talk was positively associated with CFQ Restriction (p < 0.05). Mother Prep/Planning talk was negatively associated with child BMIz. Food talk outside of mealtimes related to child obesogenic eating behaviors and feeding practices in expected ways; examining food talk outside of meals is a novel way to consider feeding practices and child eating behavior
Addison, Roger M.; Homme, Lloyd E.
A motivational system, the Contingency Management System, uses contracts in which some amount of defined task behavior is demanded for some interval of reinforcing event. The Reinforcing Event Menu, a list of high probability reinforcing behaviors, is used in the system as a prompting device for the learner and as an aid for the administrator in…
Claes, Laurence; Luyckx, Koen; Bijttebier, Patricia; Turner, Brianna; Ghandi, Amarendra; Smets, Jos; Norre, Jan; Van Assche, Leen; Verheyen, Els; Goris, Yvienne; Hoksbergen, Ingrid; Schoevaerts, Katrien
In the present study, we investigated the association between non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and problems in identity formation among patients with eating disorder (ED). NSSI is highly prevalent in ED, and problems with identity formation are characteristic of both NSSI and ED. Few studies, however, have investigated identity formation in patients with ED with and without NSSI while taking into account comorbid psychopathology (e.g. anxiety and depression). Therefore, we investigated the relationships between NSSI characteristics, identity confusion/synthesis, and anxiety/depression in 99 female patients with ED by means of self-report questionnaires. The results showed that 58.6% of the patients with ED engaged in at least one type of NSSI (most frequently cutting), with no significant differences in rates of NSSI or identity problems among ED subtypes. Presence, versatility and automatic negative reinforcement functions of NSSI were each significantly and positively related to identity confusion and negatively related to identity synthesis. Even after controlling for age, anxiety, and depression, lack of identity synthesis remained a significant predictor of NSSI in patients with ED. Given that NSSI may constitute an effort to deal with identity confusion/synthesis in patients with ED, therapists should take this developmental task into account while treating patients with ED with NSSI. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Piazza, Cathleen C; Patel, Meeta R; Gulotta, Charles S; Sevin, Bari M; Layer, Stacy A
We compared the effects of positive reinforcement alone, escape extinction alone, and positive reinforcement with escape extinction in the treatment of the food and fluid refusal of 4 children who had been diagnosed with a pediatric feeding disorder. Consumption did not increase when positive reinforcement was implemented alone. By contrast, consumption increased for all participants when escape extinction was implemented, independent of the presence or absence of positive reinforcement. However, the addition of positive reinforcement to escape extinction was associated with beneficial effects (e.g., greater decreases in negative vocalizations and inappropriate behavior) for some participants.
Meysman, F.J.R.; Montserrat, F.
Negative emission technologies (NETs) target the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere, and are being actively investigated as a strategy to limit global warming to within the 1.5–2°C targets of the 2015 UN climate agreement. Enhanced silicate weathering (ESW) proposes to
Ariso, José María
The definitions of "negative knowledge" and the studies in this regard published to date have not considered the categorial distinction Wittgenstein established between knowledge and certainty. Hence, the important role that certainty, despite its omission, should have in these definitions and studies has not yet been shown. In this…
Wasserman, Edward A.; And Others
The present series of experiments attempted to analyze more fully the contributions of stimulus-reinforcer and response-reinforcer relations to autoshaping within a single conditioning situation. (Author)
Kaarthik Krishna, N.; Sandeep, S.; Mini, K. M.
In a Reinforced Concrete (R.C) structure, major reinforcement is used for taking up tensile stresses acting on the structure due to applied loading. The present paper reports the behavior of reinforced concrete beams with helical reinforcement (transverse reinforcement) subjected to monotonous loading by 3-point flexure test. The results were compared with identically similar reinforced concrete beams with rectangular stirrups. During the test crack evolution, load carrying capacity and deflection of the beams were monitored, analyzed and compared. Test results indicate that the use of helical reinforcement provides enhanced load carrying capacity and a lower deflection proving to be more ductile, clearly indicating the advantage in carrying horizontal loads. An analysis was also carried out using ANSYS software in order to compare the test results of both the beams.
Key words: Degradation, reinforced concrete, Dar es Salaam port. Abstract—One of the ... especially corrosion of the reinforcement. ... Corrosion of steel reinforcement contributes .... cracks along the line of reinforcement bars and most of the ...
Sproesser, Gudrun; Klusmann, Verena; Schupp, Harald T; Renner, Britta
The present study investigated people's perception of their own as compared to their peers' healthy eating and related these perceptions to actual healthy eating, BMI, and subsequent healthy eating behavior. Data were collected within the framework of the longitudinal cohort study Konstanz Life Study (T1: N = 770; T2: N = 510). Our results demonstrated an optimistic bias on the group level. Specifically, people rated their own eating behavior as healthier on average than that of their average peers. This comparative optimism occurred even when actual healthy eating was unfavorable and BMI was high. However, it increased with actual healthy eating behavior. Importantly, optimistic perceptions were positively related to the intention to eat healthily and healthy eating six months later. Hence, the results suggest that an optimistic comparative view of one's own healthy eating is grounded in reality and boosts rather than deters subsequent health behavior. This implies that there might not be a need to reduce optimistic perceptions of healthy eating behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Harvey, Kate; Rosselli, Francine; Wilson, G. Terence; DeBar, Lynn L.; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.
Objective We sought to describe meal and snack frequencies of individuals with recurrent binge eating and examine the association between these eating patterns and clinical correlates. Method Data from 106 women with a minimum diagnosis of recurrent binge eating were utilized. Meal and snack frequencies were correlated with measures of weight, eating disorder features, and depression. Participants who ate breakfast every day (n=25) were compared with those who did not (n=81) on the same measures. Results Breakfast was the least, and dinner the most, commonly consumed meal. Evening snacking was the most common snacking occasion. Meal patterns were not significantly associated with clinical correlates; however, evening snacking was associated with binge eating. Discussion Our findings largely replicated those reported in earlier research. More research is needed to determine the role of breakfast consumption in binge eating. PMID:21661003
Anderson, Lisa M; Reilly, Erin E; Schaumberg, Katherine; Dmochowski, Sasha; Anderson, Drew A
Mindful eating and intuitive eating are promoted as means to circumvent potentially maladaptive dietary restraint while maintaining a healthy weight. Although theoretically related, no studies have examined the correlations between intuitive eating, mindful eating, and restraint in the same sample. This study sought to examine these constructs and their correlations with body mass index (BMI), eating-disordered behaviors, and meal consumption in a college sample. Participants (N = 125) completed a laboratory taste-test meal and measures of each eating-related construct using the EDDS, IES, MEQ, and TFEQ-Restraint Subscale. Mindful eating, intuitive eating, and restraint were not strongly correlated. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that restraint and intuitive eating accounted for significant variance in disordered eating and BMI. Elevated restraint was associated with increased BMI and disordered eating; elevated intuitive eating was associated with decreased BMI and disordered eating. Mindful eating did not correlate with any outcome variables. Follow-up analyses suggested that specific intuitive eating subscales accounted for unique variance in the relation between intuitive eating and disordered eating. Intuitive eating was the only construct that was significantly associated with meal consumption. Intuitive eating and restraint appear to be only weakly correlated, and each is differentially associated with meal consumption. Mindful eating does not appear to relate to outcome variables.
Hoyer, Silvestra; Zupančič, Andreja
The article deals with eating habits of students. Its purpose was to ascertaineating habits of students living outside their primary home and are under different forms of stress. Methods: the pattern is represented by students living in student homer where they can cook and prepare their own meals. In the research, 81 students living in the students home on Cesta v Mestni log in Ljubljana. The inquiry was composed from 34 questions. The data were processed with Microsoft Excel. Body mass inde...
Goebel-Fabbri, Ann E.
The problem of insulin restriction is an important women's health issue in type 1 diabetes. This behavior is associated with increased rates of diabetes complications and decreased quality of life. Clinical and technological research is greatly needed to improve treatment tools and strategies for this problem. In this commentary, the author describes the scope of the problem of eating disorders and diabetes, as well as offers ideas about ways technology may be applied to help solve this compl...
As part of the "Move! Eat better" campaign, Novae’s nutrition adviser, Irène Rolfo, will give a talk on the subject of everyday good nutrition. This will be held in the main building auditorium at 12:30 on Thursday, 20 September 2012. Don’t miss this informative event. For more information, go to http://cern.ch/bpmm
The paper on the 'food we eat' includes a suggestion that food irradiation may prove invaluable to the future food industry. The use of food irradiation to inactivate or destroy micro-organisms is described - irradiation would not be used on all foods, it would complement existing methods of reducing contamination by micro-organisms. The chemical changes in spoiled food and chemical additives are also discussed. (U.K.)
Mitchell, James E; King, Wendy C; Courcoulas, Anita; Dakin, George; Elder, Katherine; Engel, Scott; Flum, David; Kalarchian, Melissa; Khandelwal, Saurabh; Pender, John; Pories, Walter; Wolfe, Bruce
To describe eating patterns, prevalence of problematic eating behaviors, and determine factors associated with binge eating disorder (BED), before bariatric surgery. Before surgery, 2,266 participants (median age 46 years; 78.6% female; 86.9% white; median body mass index 45.9 kg/m(2) ) of the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 (LABS-2) study completed eating behavior survey items in the self-administered LABS-2 Behavior form. Other measures included the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, the LABS-2 Psychiatric and Emotional Test Survey, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-12, the Short Form-36 Health Survey, and Impact of Weight Quality of Life-Lite Survey. The majority (92.1%) of participants reported eating dinner regularly, whereas just over half (54.0%) reported eating breakfast regularly. Half of the participants reported eating at least four meals/week at restaurants; two meals/week were fast food. Loss of control eating was reported by 43.4%, night eating syndrome by 17.7%; 15.7% satisfied criteria for binge eating disorder (BED), 2% for bulimia nervosa. Factors that independently increased the odds of BED were being a college graduate, eating more times per day, taking medication for psychiatric or emotional problems, and having symptoms of alcohol use disorder, lower self-esteem and greater depressive symptoms. Before undergoing bariatric surgery a substantial proportion of patients report problematic eating behaviors. Several factors associated with BED were identified, most suggesting other mental health problems, including higher levels of depressive symptomotology. The strengths of this study include the large sample size, the multi-center design and use of standardized assessment practices. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
United States. Bonneville Power Administration.
The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to build a transmission line to reinforce electrical service to the southern coast of Oregon. This FYI outlines the proposal, tells how one can learn more, and how one can share ideas and opinions. The project will reinforce Oregon`s south coast area and provide the necessary transmission for Nucor Corporation to build a new steel mill in the Coos Bay/North Bend area. The proposed plant, which would use mostly recycled scrap metal, would produce rolled steel products. The plant would require a large amount of electrical power to run the furnace used in its steel-making process. In addition to the potential steel mill, electrical loads in the south Oregon coast area are expected to continue to grow.
Seals, Roland D [Oak Ridge, TN; Ripley, Edward B [Knoxville, TN; Ludtka, Gerard M [Oak Ridge, TN
A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.
Takei, Atsushi; Brau, Fabian; Roman, Benoît; Bico, José.
We study, through model experiments, the buckling under tension of an elastic membrane reinforced with a more rigid strip or a fiber. In these systems, the compression of the rigid layer is induced through Poisson contraction as the membrane is stretched perpendicularly to the strip. Although strips always lead to out-of-plane wrinkles, we observe a transition from out-of-plane to in plane wrinkles beyond a critical strain in the case of fibers embedded into the elastic membranes. The same transition is also found when the membrane is reinforced with a wall of the same material depending on the aspect ratio of the wall. We describe through scaling laws the evolution of the morphology of the wrinkles and the different transitions as a function of material properties and stretching strain.
Böttinger, Konstantin; Godefroid, Patrice; Singh, Rishabh
Fuzzing is the process of finding security vulnerabilities in input-processing code by repeatedly testing the code with modified inputs. In this paper, we formalize fuzzing as a reinforcement learning problem using the concept of Markov decision processes. This in turn allows us to apply state-of-the-art deep Q-learning algorithms that optimize rewards, which we define from runtime properties of the program under test. By observing the rewards caused by mutating with a specific set of actions...
Berkman, Nancy D; Bulik, Cynthia M; Brownley, Kimberly A; Lohr, Kathleen N; Sedway, Jan A; Rooks, Adrienne; Gartlehner, Gerald
OBJECTIVES The RTI International-University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Evidence-based Practice Center (RTI-UNC EPC) systematically reviewed evidence on efficacy of treatment for anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED), harms associated with treatments, factors associated with the treatment efficacy and with outcomes of these conditions, and whether treatment and outcomes for these conditions differ by sociodemographic characteristics. DATA SOURCES We searched MEDLINE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Applied Health (CINAHL), PSYCHINFO, the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC), the National Agricultural Library (AGRICOLA), and Cochrane Collaboration libraries. REVIEW METHODS We reviewed each study against a priori inclusion/exclusion criteria. For included articles, a primary reviewer abstracted data directly into evidence tables; a second senior reviewer confirmed accuracy. We included studies published from 1980 to September 2005, in all languages. Studies had to involve populations diagnosed primarily with AN, BN, or BED and report on eating, psychiatric or psychological, or biomarker outcomes. RESULTS We report on 30 treatment studies for AN, 47 for BN, 25 for BED, and 34 outcome studies for AN, 13 for BN, 7 addressing both AN and BN, and 3 for BED. The AN literature on medications was sparse and inconclusive. Some forms of family therapy are efficacious in treating adolescents. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) may reduce relapse risk for adults after weight restoration. For BN, fluoxetine (60 mg/day) reduces core bulimic symptoms (binge eating and purging) and associated psychological features in the short term. Individual or group CBT decreases core behavioral symptoms and psychological features in both the short and long term. How best to treat individuals who do not respond to CBT or fluoxetine remains unknown. In BED, individual or group CBT reduces binge eating and improves abstinence rates for up
Sayed Shahabuddin Hoseini
Full Text Available Night eating syndrome is a common disorder in eating behaviors that occurs in close relation to the night time sleep cycle. Although eating disorders are common in society, night eating syndrome has been left neglected by health care professionals. In this report we present a case of eating disorder that exhibits some novel features of night eating syndrome. Our case was a progressed type of eating disorder which may increase awareness among physicians about sleep-related eating disorders.
Holm, Lotte; Lund, Thomas Bøker; Niva, Mari
that are found in parts of the populations, the association was substantial. Conclusions: Daily practices related to eating are correlated with diet quality. Practices that are important are in part universal but also country-specific. Efforts to promote healthy eating should address not only cognitive factors......Background/objectives: Daily practices related to eating are embedded in the social and cultural contexts of everyday life. How are such factors associated with diet quality relative to motivational factors? And, are associations universal or context-specific? We analyze the relationship between...... diet quality and the following practices: social company while eating, the regularity and duration of eating and the activity of watching TV while eating. Subjects/methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based internet survey was conducted in April 2012 with stratified random samples...
Thome, Jennifer; Espelage, Dorothy L
Researchers have long been interested in the coping styles of individuals who display disordered eating characteristics. Recently, exercise has been recognized as both a behavior and coping strategy that might be present among individuals with disordered eating. The present study evaluates the role of exercise as both a coping mechanism and as a health behavior in relation to eating pathology and other measures of psychological health in a nonclinical university population. Female (n=235) and male (n=86) undergraduate students completed questionnaires that assessed exercise behavior, coping strategies, eating attitudes, self-esteem, life satisfaction, affect, depression, and anxiety. The results indicate that the relations among exercise, coping, and eating pathology is complex. Exercise was related to positive psychological health in males, whereas exercise in females was associated with both positive and negative psychological health. For women with high Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) scores, exercise was significantly associated with negative affect, and a trend existed in this group such that exercise was associated with higher levels of depression and anxiety. Conversely, for women with low EAT scores, exercise was associated with positive affect. This suggests that exercise might be differentially associated with mental health based on the presence or absence of eating pathology.
Panek-Scarborough, Leah M; Dewey, Amber M; Temple, Jennifer L
Chronic overeating can lead to weight gain and obesity. Sensory system function may play a role in the types of foods people select and the amount of food people eat. Several studies have shown that the orosensory components of eating play a strong role in driving food intake and food selection. In addition, previous work has shown that motivation to get food, or the reinforcing value of food, is a predictor of energy intake. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that higher detection thresholds and lower suprathreshold intensity ratings of sweet and fat stimuli are associated with greater reinforcing value of food. In addition, we sought to determine if the sensory ratings of the stimuli would differ depending on whether they were expectorated or swallowed. The reinforcing value of food was measured by having participants perform operant responses for food on progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement. Taste detection thresholds and suprathresholds for solutions containing varied concentrations of sucrose and fat were also measured in two different Experiments. In Experiment 1, we found that sucrose, but not fat, detection predicted the reinforcing value of food with the reinforcing value of food increasing as sucrose detection threshold increased (indicating poorer detection). In Experiment 2, we found that lower suprathreshold ratings of expectorated fat and sucrose predicted greater reinforcing value of food. In addition, higher detection thresholds for fat stimuli (indicating poorer detection) were associated with greater reinforcing value of food. When taken together, these studies suggest that there is a relationship between taste detection and perception and reinforcing value of food and that these relationships vary based on whether the stimulus is swallowed or expectorated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ålgars, Monica; Ramberg, Carin; Moszny, Josefine; Hagman, Jessica; Rintala, Hanna; Santtila, Pekka
Readiness and motivation for change were examined in 32 women with broadly defined eating disorders who took part in a 10-week Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)-based group intervention. Readiness for change and eating disorder psychopathology were assessed before and after the intervention. The results revealed significant negative associations between degree of eating disorder symptoms and degree of readiness for change before the intervention started. In particular, higher levels of eating concern, shape concern, and body dissatisfaction were associated with lower motivation for change. No significant associations between degree of readiness for change before the intervention started and changes in eating disorder symptoms at the end of intervention were found. Readiness for change increased from the beginning to the end of the intervention, indicating that group CBT may be a cost-effective and time-efficient way of enhancing readiness and motivation for change in individuals with eating psychopathology.
Hilt, Lori M; Roberto, Christina A; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan
This study examined whether rumination, the tendency to passively and repeatedly dwell on negative events, mediated the relationship between peer alienation and eating disorder symptoms among adolescent girls. Participants included 101 girls (ages 10-14; 47% Hispanic, 24% African American) who completed questionnaires regarding peer relationships, symptoms of eating pathology, rumination, and depressive symptoms. Girls who reported experiencing more peer alienation reported a higher degree of pathological eating symptoms. The relationship between peer alienation and eating pathology was mediated by rumination, even after controlling for depressive symptoms. This study extends previous work indicating that rumination is a cognitive mechanism that may contribute to the development and/or maintenance of eating pathology. The findings suggest that adolescents who feel alienated by their peers might be particularly susceptible to engaging in ruminative thinking that can lead to or exacerbate eating problems.
Stojek, Monika Kardacz; Fischer, Sarah; MacKillop, James
Eating patterns that lead to overconsumption of high fat, high sugar (HFHS) foods share similar features with addictive behaviors. Application of addiction paradigms, such as stress inductions, cue reactivity and behavioral economic assessments, to the study of motivation for HFHS food consumption may be a promising means of understanding food consumption. To date, few studies have investigated the interaction of stress and environmental cues on craving, and no study leveraged the state relative reinforcing value of foods (RRVfood) under varying conditions of affective states, the foci of the current study. This study used a mixed factorial design (Mood Induction: Neutral, Stress; Cues: Neutral, Food) with repeated measures on time (Baseline, Post-Mood Induction, Post-Cue Exposure). Participants (N = 133) were community adults who endorsed liking of HFHS snacks but denied eating pathology. The primary DVs were subjective craving and RRVfood. Negative and positive affect (NA, PA), the amount of food consumed, and latency to first bite were also examined. Participants in the Stress condition reported no change in craving or RRVfood. Exposure to food cues significantly increased participants' craving and RRVfood, but an interaction of stress and cues was not present. Participants did not differ on how many calories they consumed based on exposure to stress or food cues, but participants in the food cues condition had a shorter latency to the first bite of food. This study highlights the importance of environmental cues in food motivation. It also demonstrates the utility of using RRVfood to further characterize food motivation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: Eating disorder symptomatology, comprising both psychological and behavioral aspects of subclinical eating concerns, constitutes a clear precursor of developing eating disorders. It is crucial to investigate its antecedents and correlates to subsequently inform eating disorder prevention programs. The present study focused on identity formation, a core developmental task in adolescence, that has increasingly been linked to eating disorder development. Our main aim was to examine the temporal sequence between eating disorder symptomatology and identity formation.Methods: Data on eating disorder symptomatology and identity formation were collected in 530 high school students (at Time 1: mean age = 15 years; SD = 1.84; range: 12–18 years; 50.6% females using self-report questionnaires at three annual measurement points. Cross-lagged structural equation modeling was performed to examine the directionality of effects.Results: Results indicated bidirectional effects between eating disorder symptomatology and identity formation. Identity confusion seemed to increase vulnerability to body dissatisfaction and bulimia symptoms, whereas identity synthesis seemed to protect against their development. Additionally, identity synthesis seemed to protect against the development of drive for thinness as well. At the same time, body dissatisfaction and bulimia symptoms positively predicted identity confusion and negatively predicted identity synthesis over time.Conclusion: The present study adds to the growing body of literature on identity and eating disorders by focusing on their temporal interplay in a community sample of adolescents. As bidirectional effects emerged, a greater emphasis on identity formation in eating disorder prevention programs is advocated.
Verschueren, Margaux; Claes, Laurence; Bogaerts, Annabel; Palmeroni, Nina; Gandhi, Amarendra; Moons, Philip; Luyckx, Koen
Introduction: Eating disorder symptomatology, comprising both psychological and behavioral aspects of subclinical eating concerns, constitutes a clear precursor of developing eating disorders. It is crucial to investigate its antecedents and correlates to subsequently inform eating disorder prevention programs. The present study focused on identity formation, a core developmental task in adolescence, that has increasingly been linked to eating disorder development. Our main aim was to examine the temporal sequence between eating disorder symptomatology and identity formation. Methods: Data on eating disorder symptomatology and identity formation were collected in 530 high school students (at Time 1: mean age = 15 years; SD = 1.84; range: 12-18 years; 50.6% females) using self-report questionnaires at three annual measurement points. Cross-lagged structural equation modeling was performed to examine the directionality of effects. Results: Results indicated bidirectional effects between eating disorder symptomatology and identity formation. Identity confusion seemed to increase vulnerability to body dissatisfaction and bulimia symptoms, whereas identity synthesis seemed to protect against their development. Additionally, identity synthesis seemed to protect against the development of drive for thinness as well. At the same time, body dissatisfaction and bulimia symptoms positively predicted identity confusion and negatively predicted identity synthesis over time. Conclusion: The present study adds to the growing body of literature on identity and eating disorders by focusing on their temporal interplay in a community sample of adolescents. As bidirectional effects emerged, a greater emphasis on identity formation in eating disorder prevention programs is advocated.
Lähteenmäki, Sini; Saarni, Suoma; Suokas, Jaana; Saarni, Samuli; Perälä, Jonna; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Suvisaari, Jaana
This study investigated the epidemiology of eating disorders in a population-based sample of young adults. A mental health questionnaire was sent to a nationally representative two-stage cluster sample of 1863 Finns aged 20-35 years. All screen-positives and a random sample of screen-negatives were invited to participate in a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) interview. Case records from all lifetime mental health treatments were also obtained and were used to complement the diagnostic assessment. The lifetime prevalence of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorder not otherwise specified and any eating disorder among women were 2.1%, 2.3%, 2.0% and 6.0%, respectively, while there was only one man with an eating disorder. Unlike other mental disorders, they are associated with high education. Of women diagnosed with lifetime eating disorder, 67.9% had at least one comorbid Axis I psychiatric disorder, most commonly depressive disorder. While 79.3% of women with lifetime eating disorder had had a treatment contact, only one third of persons with current eating disorder had a current treatment contact. Women whose eating disorder had remitted still experienced more psychological distress and had lower psychosocial functioning that women without lifetime Axis I disorders. Eating disorders are the fourth largest group of mental disorders among young women. They tend to be comorbid, often remain untreated and are associated with residual symptoms after the remission of eating disorder symptoms.
King, M B
A total of 748 patients who attended four south London group practices were screened using the eating attitudes test; 1% of women had bulimia nervosa and a further 3% a partial syndrome eating disorder. Eating and weight control behaviour and psychiatric indicators for an eating disorder were analysed. Patients with bulimia nervosa and partial syndromes were remarkably similar. They were mainly women, from the middle to upper classes, in the normal weight range but having had considerable weight fluctuation in the past, more likely to have had a history of menstrual irregularity, often psychologically troubled, and tended to have more family psychopathology. PMID:3099893
White, J H
Eating disorders are prevalent health problems for women today. The traditional biomedical or psychiatric approaches offer a narrow perspective of the problem, its courses, and its treatment. Analyzing disordered eating from a feminist perspective, this article discusses cultural, political, and social phenomena that have had a significant impact on the development of these disorders. Parallels of eating disorders and other women's mental illnesses and the medicalization of their symptoms is explored. A "new view" of disordered eating in women is proposed that can be advanced only through feminist research.
Manasse, Stephanie M; Espel, Hallie M; Schumacher, Leah M; Kerrigan, Stephanie G; Zhang, Fengqing; Forman, Evan M; Juarascio, Adrienne S
Multiple dimensions of impulsivity (e.g., affect-driven impulsivity, impulsive inhibition - both general and food-specific, and impulsive decision-making) are associated with binge eating pathology cross-sectionally, yet the literature on whether impulsivity predicts treatment outcome is limited. The present pilot study explored impulsivity-related predictors of 20-week outcome in a small open trial (n = 17) of a novel treatment for binge eating disorder. Overall, dimensions of impulsivity related to emotions (i.e., negative urgency) and food cues emerged as predictors of treatment outcomes (i.e., binge eating frequency and global eating pathology as measured by the Eating Disorders Examination), while more general measures of impulsivity were statistically unrelated to global eating pathology or binge frequency. Specifically, those with higher levels of negative urgency at baseline experienced slower and less pronounced benefit from treatment, and those with higher food-specific impulsivity had more severe global eating pathology at baseline that was consistent at post-treatment and follow-up. These preliminary findings suggest that patients high in negative urgency and with poor response inhibition to food cues may benefit from augmentation of existing treatments to achieve optimal outcomes. Future research will benefit from replication with a larger sample, parsing out the role of different dimensions of impulsivity in treatment outcome for eating disorders, and identifying how treatment can be improved to accommodate higher levels of baseline impulsivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vannucci, A; Tanofsky-Kraff, M; Shomaker, L B; Ranzenhofer, L M; Matheson, B E; Cassidy, O L; Zocca, J M; Kozlosky, M; Yanovski, S Z; Yanovski, J A
Emotional eating, defined as eating in response to a range of negative emotions, is common in youths. Yet, there are few easily administered and well-validated methods to assess emotional eating in pediatric populations. The current study tested the construct validity of the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) Adapted for Children and Adolescents (EES-C) by examining its relationship to observed emotional eating at laboratory test meals. A total of 151 youths (8-18 years) participated in two multi-item lunch buffet meals on separate days. They ate ad libitum after being instructed to 'eat as much as you would at a normal meal' or to 'let yourself go and eat as much as you want'. State negative affect was assessed immediately before each meal. The EES-C was completed 3 months, on average, before the first test meal. Among youths with high EES-C total scores, but not low EES-C scores, higher pre-meal state negative affect was related to greater total energy intake at both meals, with and without the inclusion of age, race, sex and body mass index (BMI) standard deviation as covariates (psmeals designed to capture both normal and disinhibited eating. Future research is required to evaluate the construct validity of the EES-C in the natural environment and the predictive validity of the EES-C longitudinally.
Davis, Ron; And Others
Investigated parameters of eating behavior in subjects with bulimia nervosa (BN). BN and female comparison (FC) subjects monitored hourly over several days their food intake, mood, hunger, social circumstances, and experiences of unpleasant events. BN subjects reported more positive moods prior to consuming a meal, and more negative moods prior to…
Petersen, Jennifer L.; Hyde, Janet S.
Peer sexual harassment is a pervasive problem in schools and is associated with a variety of negative mental health outcomes. Objectification theory suggests that sexual attention in the form of peer harassment directs unwanted attention to the victim's body and may lead to a desire to alter the body via disordered eating. In the current study, we…
Strien, T. van
Purpose of the Review: Eating in response to negative emotions (EE) may be an explanatory factor of the weight regain of many dieters. This narrative review presents evidence on possible causes of EE and the association of EE with depression and obesity and discusses implications of these findings
Full Text Available One of the widely used methods for classification that is a decision-making process is artificial immune systems. Artificial immune systems based on natural immunity system can be successfully applied for classification, optimization, recognition, and learning in real-world problems. In this study, a reinforcement learning based artificial immune classifier is proposed as a new approach. This approach uses reinforcement learning to find better antibody with immune operators. The proposed new approach has many contributions according to other methods in the literature such as effectiveness, less memory cell, high accuracy, speed, and data adaptability. The performance of the proposed approach is demonstrated by simulation and experimental results using real data in Matlab and FPGA. Some benchmark data and remote image data are used for experimental results. The comparative results with supervised/unsupervised based artificial immune system, negative selection classifier, and resource limited artificial immune classifier are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed new method.
Derenne, Jennifer L; Beresin, Eugene V
Eating disorders, including obesity, are a major public health problem today. Throughout history, body image has been determined by various factors, including politics and media. Exposure to mass media (television, movies, magazines, Internet) is correlated with obesity and negative body image, which may lead to disordered eating. The authors attempt to explain the historical context of the problem and explore potential avenues for change. The authors review changes in ideal female body type throughout history, comment on current attitudes toward shape and weight in both men and women, and outline interventions aimed at increasing healthy habits and fostering self-esteem in youth. Throughout history, the ideal of beauty has been difficult to achieve and has been shaped by social context. Current mass media is ubiquitous and powerful, leading to increased body dissatisfaction among both men and women. Parents need to limit children's exposure to media, promote healthy eating and moderate physical activity, and encourage participation in activities that increase mastery and self-esteem. Funding for high-quality, visible advertising campaigns promoting healthy life styles may increase awareness.
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Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard; Grønhøj, Alice
/methodology/approach - Four focus group interview sessions were conducted with 22 eighth and ninth grade adolescents (aged 13 to 15) in Hong Kong. Findings - The participants perceived a balanced diet and regular meal times as the most important attributes of healthy eating. Participants were most likely to eat unhealthy...
Huang, Yu-Hung; Lin, Chao-Cheng; Lin, Ching-I; Lin, Shyh-Hsiang
The present study analysed data derived from the 2004-2008 Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan, conducted by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, to understand the relationship among eating-out behaviour, related non-nutritional factors and osteopenia in the Taiwanese population. Design/Setting/Subjects Data of 1140 adults who had been evaluated with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in June 2007 were included. The data were analysed through descriptive and inferential statistics to determine the association of osteopenia with the frequency of eating out, demographic variables (i.e. age, sex, level of education, marital status and place of birth), BMI, waist circumference and food consumption. Gender, age, education level, personal income and waist circumference were all factors found to be significantly associated with eating-out frequency and the incidence of osteopenia. Eating-out frequency was negatively associated with the incidence of osteopenia. Individuals with BMI>27 kg/m2 had a lower frequency of eating out and a lower incidence of osteopenia. Individuals with a lower monthly income had a significantly greater chance of developing osteopenia. Men living without spouses had significantly higher chances of osteopenia. Ca intake was negatively associated with breakfast eating-out frequency. Eating-out frequency was not associated with an increasing incidence of osteopenia, but affected the Ca intake in the Taiwanese population. Having a balanced selection of food is crucial to reduce the incidence of osteopenia. Improving nutritional knowledge for those under higher risk of osteopenia is necessary to prevent osteopenia and Ca deficiency.
Full Text Available Objective. Eating disorders commonly present with nonspecific findings, masquerading as other, more common etiologies of malnutrition and wasting. In low-prevalence populations, these ambiguities can complicate clinicians’ diagnostic reasoning, resulting in delayed or missed diagnoses. Method. We report the atypical case of a 51-year-old male with a five-year history of unexplained weight loss despite extensive past medical evaluation. Previous documentation of profound lymphopenia and bone marrow atrophy had not been linked to a known association with eating disorders. Results. Evaluation for medical etiologies of wasting was negative. Following psychiatric evaluation, the patient was diagnosed with an eating disorder, not otherwise specified, and admitted to a specialized nutritional rehabilitation program. Conclusion. The nonspecific clinical history, physical exam, and laboratory abnormalities of eating disorders can make these diagnoses challenging and delay appropriate treatment. Clinicians should consider eating disorders in patients with malnutrition, severe lymphopenias, and gelatinous marrow transformation early in their workup, so as to avoid potentially negative outcomes.
Michels, Nathalie; Sioen, Isabelle; Ruige, Johannes; De Henauw, Stefaan
Psychosocial stress can be a health threat by stimulating unhealthier eating behaviors. We aim to test the role of the hormone leptin in the association between stress and diet/emotional eating as detected in primary school children. In a two-wave longitudinal study with 308 Belgian children (5-12y) in 2010-2012, the association of fasting serum leptin with reported stress (negative events and emotional problems), measured stress by salivary cortisol (overall cortisol output and awakening response), emotional eating and food consumption frequency was examined. Analyses were split by sex. Mediation and moderation by leptin change were tested. One stress marker (overall cortisol output) was significantly correlated with high leptin levels, but only in girls and cross-sectionally. Only in boys, leptin was associated with low emotional eating. Leptin was not a significant predictor of unhealthy food consumption. Leptin change was not a mediator but an enhancing moderator in the link between stress (high cortisol output and emotional problems) and emotional eating in girls: high reports of emotional eating in 2012 were present in the case of combined high 2-year leptin increase and high stress at baseline. Stress (represented by emotional problems and high daily cortisol) seems to lead to hyperleptinemia in girls; and the combination of high stress and hyperleptinemia might make girls more vulnerable to stress-induced eating. No functional data on leptin sensitivity were present, but results might suggest that stress induces lower sensitivity to the anorexigenic leptin activity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:471-480). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Perpiñá, Conxa; Roncero, María
Virtual reality has demonstrated promising results in the treatment of eating disorders (ED); however, few studies have examined its usefulness in treating obesity. The aim of this study was to compare ED and obese patients on their reality judgment of a virtual environment (VE) designed to normalize their eating pattern. A second objective was to study which variables predicted the reality of the experience of eating a virtual forbidden-fattening food. ED patients, obese patients, and a non-clinical group (N=62) experienced a non-immersive VE, and then completed reality judgment and presence measures. All participants rated the VE with similar scores for quality, interaction, engagement, and ecological validity; however, ED patients obtained the highest scores on emotional involvement, attention, reality judgment/presence, and negative effects. The obese group gave the lowest scores to reality judgment/presence, satisfaction and sense of physical space, and they held an intermediate position in the attribution of reality to virtually eating a "fattening" food. The palatability of a virtual food was predicted by attention capturing and belonging to the obese group, while the attribution of reality to the virtual eating was predicted by engagement and belonging to the ED group. This study offers preliminary results about the differential impact on ED and obese patients of the exposure to virtual food, and about the need to implement a VE that can be useful as a virtual lab for studying eating behavior and treating obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Leidy, Heather J; Campbell, Wayne W
Increased eating frequency is postulated to increase metabolism, reduce hunger, improve glucose and insulin control, and reduce body weight, making it an enticing dietary strategy for weight loss and/or the maintenance of a healthy body weight. Because past research has primarily focused on the effects of eating frequency on changes in energy expenditure and body weight, limited data exist surrounding the impact of eating frequency on appetite control and energy intake. We provide a brief review of the controlled-feeding studies that primarily targeted the appetitive, hormonal, and food intake responses potentially altered with eating frequency. The 3 meal/d pattern served as the reference for defining increased or reduced eating frequency. In general, increased eating frequency led to lower peaks (P frequency. However, when examining these responses over the course of the day (i.e. using area under the curve assessments), no differences in any of these outcomes were observed. The rate of gastric emptying also appears to be unaltered with increased eating frequency. Subsequent food intake was examined in several studies with conflicting results. Regarding the effect of reduced eating frequency, several studies indicate significant increases in perceived appetite and reductions in perceived satiety when 1 or 2 meals were eliminated from the daily diet. Taken together, these findings suggest that increased eating frequency (>3 eating occasions/d) has minimal, if any, impact on appetite control and food intake, whereas reduced eating frequency(<3 eating occasions/d) negatively effects appetite control.
Food in the lab is a special kind of diet translated into natural science terms and parameters but also I find ‘food as nutrients' show itself as so much more than nourishment when prescribed or eaten as such. In this paper I interrogate the facts and measuring practices of nutritional scientists...... an eater who: ”shouldn't restrain herself”. Practices of food and eating in the test meal I suggest, will allow us to tackle reductionism by showing the complex cultural context shaping clinical intervention....
Brock, Steen; Christiansen, Tenna Holdorff
In this paper we examine how the policies formulated by Danish school authorities concerning eating at school are implemented by staff and interpreted by schoolchildren. We use positioning theory in order to analyse how authorities, staff, and children engage in a mutual positioning, within...... and between different moral orders. We conclude that the official food policies are off-target and that school children should instead develop a kind of local citizenship displaying an ability to manoeuvre in between different positions such that this participation expresses a way of belonging to the school...
Koefoed, Maja Schølarth; Clausen, Loa; Rokkedal, Kristian
Objective In general eating disorder pathology in men shows more similarities than differences compared to women though with an overall lower level of pathology. In community studies men have been found to have more excessive exercise and more binge eating and in clinical populations men have been...... found to have more vomiting. Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) is “the golden standard” of diagnostic interviewing in eating disorder but analysis of gender differences in scores on the EDE have never been reported. The present study aim to explore gender differences on the EDE among adolescents...
Tan, Tina; Kuek, Angeline; Goh, Shih Ee; Lee, Ee Lian; Kwok, Victor
Eating disorders are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The Internet is a popular medium for individuals with eating disorders to discuss and reinforce their affliction. However, the available literature on Internet usage and eating disorders is scarce, especially in the area of social media and smartphone application ("app") usage. This study looked at the Internet and smartphone app usage patterns of participants who presented with an eating disorder in Singapore, and whether it corresponded to severity of illness. Individuals who presented to the Eating Disorders clinic at the Singapore General Hospital completed a self-reported questionnaire on Internet and app usage. They also completed the EDE-Q, EAT-26 and CIA 3.0. 55 participants completed the study. 41.8% had anorexia nervosa, 34.5% had bulimia nervosa, and 9.1% were ED-NOS. 41.8% felt that apps helped to perpetuate their illness while 32.7% felt that the apps were helpful for recovery. Overall, any smartphone application usage was associated with younger age and greater eating disorder psychopathology and psychosocial impairment. While 30.9% had encountered eating disorder-related content on Facebook, only 12.7% visited Facebook groups related to eating disorders. For YouTube, "Cooking and Food" and "Beauty and Fashion" videos were among the top 3 types of videos that participants watched. In conclusion, Internet and smartphone app usage is significant, and they are associated with greater severity of illness. It is necessary to include interventions in this aspect as part of treatment of eating disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine temporal trends in the burden of eating disorder (ED features, as estimated by the composite of their prevalence and impact upon quality of life (QoL over a period of 10 years. METHODOLOGY: Representative samples of 3010 participants in 1998 and 3034 participants in 2008 from the South Australian adult population were assessed for endorsement of ED features (objective binge eating, extreme dieting, and purging were assessed in both years; subjective binge eating and extreme weight/shape concerns were also assessed in 2008 and QoL using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (SF-36. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From 1998 to 2008 significant increases in the prevalence of objective binge eating (2.7% to 4.9%, p0.05. Multiple linear regressions found that in 1998 only objective binge eating significantly predicted scores on the mental health summary scale of the SF-36; however, in 2008 extreme weight/shape concerns, extreme dieting, and subjective binge eating were also significant predictors. Objective binge eating and extreme dieting were significant predictors of scores on the physical health summary scale of the SF-36 in both 1998 and 2008. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The prevalence of ED behaviors increased between 1998 and 2008, while their impact on QoL remained stable. This suggests an overall increase in the burden of disordered eating from 1998 to 2008. Given that binge eating and extreme dieting predict impairment in QoL, the necessity of interventions to prevent both under- and over-eating is reinforced.
Bickel, Warren K.; Johnson, Matthew W.; Koffarnus, Mikhail N.; MacKillop, James; Murphy, James G.
The field of behavioral economics has made important inroads into the understanding of substance use disorders through the concept of reinforcer pathology. Reinforcer pathology refers to the joint effects of (a) the persistently high valuation of a reinforcer, broadly defined to include tangible commodities and experiences, and/or (b) the excessive preference for the immediate acquisition or consumption of a commodity despite long-term negative outcomes. From this perspective, reinforcer pathology results from the recursive interactions of endogenous person-level variables and exogenous environment-level factors. The current review describes the basic principles of behavioral economics that are central to reinforcer pathology, the processes that engender reinforcer pathology, and the approaches and procedures that can repair reinforcement pathologies. The overall goal of this review is to present a new understanding of substance use disorders as viewed by recent advances in behavioral economics. PMID:24679180
Bickel, Warren K; Johnson, Matthew W; Koffarnus, Mikhail N; MacKillop, James; Murphy, James G
The field of behavioral economics has made important inroads into the understanding of substance use disorders through the concept of reinforcer pathology. Reinforcer pathology refers to the joint effects of (a) the persistently high valuation of a reinforcer, broadly defined to include tangible commodities and experiences, and/or (b) the excessive preference for the immediate acquisition or consumption of a commodity despite long-term negative outcomes. From this perspective, reinforcer pathology results from the recursive interactions of endogenous person-level variables and exogenous environment-level factors. The current review describes the basic principles of behavioral economics that are central to reinforcer pathology, the processes that engender reinforcer pathology, and the approaches and procedures that can repair reinforcement pathologies. The overall goal of this review is to present a new understanding of substance use disorders as viewed by recent advances in behavioral economics.
Paganini, Chiara; Peterson, Gregory; Stavropoulos, Vasilis; Krug, Isabel
Studies indicate that Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) features (e.g. insulin instability, food cravings, overproduction of androgens and menstrual irregularities) associate with increased appetite, impaired impulse control and feelings of body dissatisfaction. Counter intuitively, binge eating behaviors have been shown to reinforce PCOS symptomatology, precipitating concurrently body dissatisfaction, weight gain, insulin instability and overproduction of androgens. The present systematic literature review aspires to investigate the relationship between binge eating, in the broader context of eating disorder behaviors, and Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS), taking into account shared characteristics between EDs (Eating Disorders) and PCOS. To address this aim the PRISMA guidelines are adopted. A total of 21 studies, which investigated the presence of binge eating in PCOS population and the presence of PCOS in EDs population, were synthesized. Findings suggested that an increased prevalence of binge eating has been reported in women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS); and that women suffering from BN (Bulimia Nervosa) and BED (Binge Eating Disorder) are more likely to display polycystic ovaries. Further research on their shared liability is required in order to inform more efficient prevention and treatment initiatives for populations presenting with comorbid features. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
Full Text Available Debate continues regarding the nosological status of binge eating disorder (BED and the specific diagnostic criteria, including whether, like anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, it should be characterized by body image disturbances in addition to abnormal eating behaviour. The aims of this article are: a to concisely review the main points of the literature that has developed on diagnosis and treatment (especially pharmacological of BED and b to present the results of an original research on body image in obese patients with BED. The study was aimed to verify the following hypothesis: in persons with obesity, BED is associated with greater body uneasiness independently of some possible modulating factors. We studied a clinical sample of 159 (89 females and 70 males adult obese patients who fulfilled DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for BED matched to 159 non-BED obese patients for gender, ethnicity, BMI class, age, weight, stature, onset age of obesity, education level, and marital status. We used the Body Uneasiness Test (BUT, a valuable multidimensional tool for the clinical assessment of body uneasiness in subjects suffering from eating disorders and/or obesity. Obese patients with BED reported higher scores than non-BED patients in the General Severity Index (BUT-A GSI and in every BUT-A subscale. All differences were statistically significant in both sexes. As expected women obtained higher scores than men. According to some other studies, our findings suggest that a negative body image should be included among diagnostic criteria for BED. Consequently, treatment should be focused not simply on eating behaviour and outcome studies should evaluate changes of body image as well.
Jeanson, G.M.; Odent, R.P.
The invention concerns a seal component of the kind comprising a soft sheath and a flexible reinforcement housed throughout the entire length of the sheath. The invention enables O ring seals to be made capable of providing a radial seal, that is to say between two sides or flat collars of two cylindrical mechanical parts, or an axial seal, that is to say between two co-axial axisymmetrical areas. The seal so ensured is relative, but it remains adequately sufficient for many uses, for instance, to ensure the separation of two successive fixed blading compartments of axial compressors used in gas diffusion isotope concentration facilities [fr
Li, Hongliang; Liu, Derong; Wang, Ding
This paper introduces a novel manifold regularized reinforcement learning scheme for continuous Markov decision processes. Smooth feature representations for value function approximation can be automatically learned using the unsupervised manifold regularization method. The learned features are data-driven, and can be adapted to the geometry of the state space. Furthermore, the scheme provides a direct basis representation extension for novel samples during policy learning and control. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated on two benchmark control tasks, i.e., the inverted pendulum and the energy storage problem. Simulation results illustrate the concepts of the proposed scheme and show that it can obtain excellent performance.
van der Horst, Klazine; Deming, Denise M; Lesniauskas, Ruta; Carr, B Thomas; Reidy, Kathleen C
Food rejection behaviors such as picky eating are of concern for many parents and attempts to increase healthy food intake can cause distress at mealtimes. An important limitation in most of the picky eating studies is that they cover few characteristics of picky eating behaviors and use limited measures of food intake. The objective of this study was to explore the associations between picky eating, child eating characteristics, and food intake among toddlers 12-47.9 months old (n = 2371) using data from the 2008 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS). Logistic regression was used to examine associations between demographic and feeding characteristics and picky eater status. Differences in food group intake between picky and non-picky eaters were analyzed. Picky eaters were more likely to be neophobic, texture resistant, and to eat only favorite foods, In addition, the parents of picky eaters tend to offer new food a greater number of times than those of non-picky eaters before deciding that the child does not like it. Picky eaters showed significant lower intakes of eggs, burritos/tacos/enchiladas/nachos and sandwiches than non-picky eaters. Picky eaters consumed fewer vegetables from the "other vegetables" category and less raw vegetables than non-picky eaters. Neophobia, eating only favorite foods and difficulties with texture are all important characteristics of picky eaters which need to be integrated in studies measuring picky eating behaviors. Food intake of picky eaters differs only slightly from non-picky eaters. Because picky eating is a major parental concern, feeding strategies and advice related to the relevant characteristics of picky eating behavior need to be developed and assessed for their effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Handford, Charlotte M; Rapee, Ronald M; Fardouly, Jasmine
Research suggests that mothers may influence the development of body image concerns and eating disturbances in their daughters by modeling negative body image beliefs and unhealthy eating behaviors. However, the causal nature of that mode of influence is yet to be established. This study implemented an experimental design to examine the impact of mothers' modeling of negative comments about their own appearance and diet on their daughters' body image concerns and eating behaviors. Participants were 8-12 year old girls and their mothers (N = 50). While viewing thin-ideal magazine advertisements with their daughter, mothers were instructed to make either negative comments about their own weight, shape, and diet or to make no appearance or diet related comments. Daughters' levels of body esteem, body satisfaction, and eating attitudes were assessed pre- and post-manipulation, and their actual eating habits were measured post-manipulation. Girls whose mothers had made self-critical comments about their own appearance and diet reported lower body esteem, lower body satisfaction, more problematic eating attitudes, and ate significantly fewer sweets than girls whose mothers had not made self-critical comments. These results have implications for disordered eating prevention programs, suggesting that greater emphasis be placed on discouraging negative modeling behaviors among mothers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nicholls, W; Devonport, T J; Blake, M
There is utility in understanding the antecedents of binge eating (BE), with a view to explaining poorer weight loss treatment responses in this subgroup. A systematic review was completed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines with the aim of exploring associations between emotions and eating behaviour in a population affected by obesity and binge eating disorder (BED). A comprehensive literature search of four electronic databases (2004-2014) yielded 15 studies for inclusion. Included studies performed poorly on data quality analysis with respect to controlling for confounding variables, and sample size. Included papers largely focused on negative emotions as antecedents of BE; depression was consistently associated with a BED-obese classification and BE. Negative mood, sadness, tension and instability of emotions were found to be antecedents of BE in an adult BED-obese sample. However, findings were mixed regarding the role of stress, anger and positive emotions within the BED-obese population. Recommendations are presented for the identification of BED, and ecologically valid experimental designs that further understanding of the complex and varied emotions that associate with BE. The implications of these and other limitations for both researchers and practitioners are discussed. The paper concludes with recommendations for future research alongside suggestions for practitioners. © 2015 World Obesity. © 2015 World Obesity.
Davidsen, Annika Helgadóttir; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht
Researchers at the Stolpegaard Psychotherapy Centre are seeking to improve outcomes for patients with eating disorders by gathering their feedback on group psychotherapy sessions with the aim of optimising treatment.......Researchers at the Stolpegaard Psychotherapy Centre are seeking to improve outcomes for patients with eating disorders by gathering their feedback on group psychotherapy sessions with the aim of optimising treatment....
Full Text Available ... teen athletes get plenty of protein through regular eating. It's a myth that athletes need a huge daily intake of ... such as candy bars or sodas are less healthy for athletes because they don't ... need. In addition, eating candy bars or other sugary snacks just before ...
Full Text Available ... is that eating to reach your peak performance level likely doesn't require a special diet or supplements. It's all about working ... the U.S. government's website ChooseMyPlate.gov , which tells a person how much to eat ... level. Reviewed by: Sarah R. Gibson, MD Date reviewed: ...
Slof-Op 't Landt, Margarita Cornelia Theodora
In this thesis, a series of studies on different aspects of the genetics of eating disorders is presented. The heritability of disordered eating behavior and attitudes in relation with body mass index (BMI) was evaluated in a large adolescent twin-family sample ascertained through the Netherlands
Wagener, Amy M.; Much, Kari
This article focuses on the complex nature of eating disorders, specifically highlighting their use as coping mechanisms for underlying emotional and psychological concerns. Case examples of college counseling center clients are discussed in order to illustrate common ways in which eating disorders are utilized by clients with varying…
Full Text Available ... Strive for a game-day diet rich in carbohydrates, moderate in protein, and low in fat. Here are some guidelines on what to eat and when: Eat a meal 2 to 4 hours before the game or event: Choose a protein and carbohydrate meal (like a turkey or chicken sandwich, cereal ...
Wilson, G. Terence; Fairburn, Christopher G.
Sees cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) as applicable to all eating disorders but most intensively studied in treatment of bulimia nervosa. Briefly reviews most commonly used cognitive treatments for eating disorders, provides critical evaluation of their effectiveness, and speculates about their mechanisms of action. Notes that CBT has not been…
Full Text Available ... amount of caffeine and other ingredients that have caffeine-like effects. Game-Day Eats Your performance on game day will depend on the foods you've eaten over the past several days and weeks. But you can boost your performance even more by paying attention to the food you eat on game day. ...
Full Text Available ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español A Guide to Eating for Sports KidsHealth / For Teens / A ... is that eating to reach your peak performance level likely doesn't require a special diet or ...
Full Text Available ... digestion, so it's a good idea to avoid eating these foods for a few hours before and after exercising. ... that you want to use to win. Also, eating too soon before any kind of activity can leave food in the stomach, making you feel full, bloated, ...
Full Text Available ... and other ingredients that have caffeine-like effects. Game-Day Eats Your performance on game day will depend on the foods you've ... paying attention to the food you eat on game day. Strive for a game-day diet rich ...
Full Text Available ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español A Guide to Eating for Sports KidsHealth / For Teens / A Guide to Eating for ...
Full Text Available ... or pasta with tomato sauce). Eat a snack less than 2 hours before the game: If you haven't had ... fat yogurt. Consider not eating anything for the hour before you ... different, so get to know what works best for you. You may want to experiment ...
Full Text Available ... for Educators Search English Español A Guide to Eating for Sports KidsHealth / For Teens / A Guide to ... can boost your performance even more by paying attention to the food you eat on game day. ...
Full Text Available ... Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health ... A Guide to Eating for Sports KidsHealth / For Teens / A Guide to Eating for Sports What's in ...
The purpose of this pilot study was to explore and interpret the way that individuals with acquired brain injury, admitted to inpatient neurorehabilitation with severe eating difficulties, experienced eating nine to fifteen months after discharge. Four individuals with acquired brain injury were ...... the patient perspective of adapting to and developing new strategies for activities related to eating, however, further prospective, longitudinal research in a larger scale and with repeated interviews is needed....... interviewed via qualitative semi-structured interviews. An explorative study was conducted to study eating difficulties. Qualitative content analysis was used. Four main themes emerged from the analysis: personal values related to eating, swallowing difficulties, eating and drinking, meals and social life...... the ability to eat reduced or lost completely, even temporarily, was unexpected and difficult, and caused strong emotional reactions, even 18 months after injury. Time spent using a feeding tube had a negative, but not persistent, impact on quality-of-life. The preliminary findings provide knowledge regarding...
Michel, Alexander; Geiker, Mette Rica; Stang, Henrik
A physio-chemical model for the simulation of reinforcement corrosion in concrete struc-tures was developed. The model allows for simulation of initiation and subsequent propaga-tion of reinforcement corrosion. Corrosion is assumed to be initiated once a defined critical chloride threshold......, a numerical example is pre-sented, that illustrates the formation of corrosion cells as well as propagation of corrosion in a reinforced concrete structure....
Dimitrakakis, Christos; Li, Guangliang; Tziortziotis, Nikoalos
Reinforcement learning is one of the most general problems in artificial intelligence. It has been used to model problems in automated experiment design, control, economics, game playing, scheduling and telecommunications. The aim of the reinforcement learning competition is to encourage the development of very general learning agents for arbitrary reinforcement learning problems and to provide a test-bed for the unbiased evaluation of algorithms.
Hunter, K M
The alimentary metaphor--learning as ingestion--is well established in medical education: students are spoonfed, forcefed; they cram, digest, and metabolize information; and they regurgitate it on tests. In the author's experience, these metaphors are inextricably bound with the attitudes and information they describe, organize, and sometimes generate in medical education. Alimentary imagery shapes discussions of the curriculum, and its perversities characterize and help perpetuate much that needs changing in North American medical education. Medical school teachers speak of their life's work as feeding students, not as chiefs but as the anxious caretakers of problem eaters, and the images used most often to describe the teacher-learner relationship suggest an underlying infantilization of medical students. Alimentary metaphors are not in themselves evil. A closer look at medicine's uses of the metaphor of learning as eating suggests a healthier educational philosophy. Despite the "full plate" that students are served, they are metaphorically starving. Fundamental curriculum reform should help them learn to be healthy eaters-using lessons from parents, pediatricians, and child psychologists about how to do this, which are discussed in detail. The difficult-to-achieve but imperative goal of medical education should be to put students in charge of their own "eating" and thereby produce intellectually curious, self-motivated, active, and "well-nourished" physicians who know how to feed themselves in the right amounts and at reasonable levels, maintain a healthy skepticism about the information they consume, and periodically check that information for freshness.
Wolf, L M; Houdent, C
In most cases, obesity does not stem from a specific psychologic disturbance. Some obese people overeat, as do their family or their socio-professional peers, and this cannot be considered a pathologic behaviour. Many obese patients increase their energy intake when frustrated, anxious, or tired, like many normal individuals who enjoy a better weight regulation. But when obesity increases suddenly and/or severely in these circumstances, and in gross obesity, abnormal feeding behaviour is usually responsible: prandial or, more often extraprandial overeating (nibbling, gorging, binge eating, night eating, excess alcohol, carbohydrate craving). Serotoninergic mechanisms of the latter have focused wide interest. Conflicting situations and/or anxiety are usually a factor in child obesity. Deppreciated self-image and feelings of culpability, partly secondary to obesity itself and dietary failures often contribute to feeding disturbances, sometimes surreptitious, carrying a risk of vicious circle. But weight reduction itself, while improving self image, carries a risk of unmasking depressive tendencies, especially when too quick. Hence the importance of careful and comprehensive management.
Full Text Available This article reviews several most important evolutionary mechanisms that underlie eating disorders. The first part clarifies evolutionary foundations of mental disorders and various mechanisms leading to their development. In the second part selective pressures and evolved adaptations causing contemporary epidemic of obesity as well as differences in dietary regimes and life-style between modern humans and their ancestors are described. Concerning eating disorders, a number of current evolutionary explanations of anorexia nervosa are presented together with their main weaknesses. Evolutionary explanations of eating disorders based on the reproductive suppression hypothesis and its variants derived from kin selection theory and the model of parental manipulation were elaborated. The sexual competition hypothesis of eating disorder, adapted to flee famine hypothesis as well as explanation based on the concept of social attention holding power and the need to belonging were also explained. The importance of evolutionary theory in modern conceptualization and research of eating disorders is emphasized.
Adams, R. D.; Collins, Andrew; Cooper, Duncan; Wingfield-Digby, Mark; Watts-Farmer, Archibald; Laurence, Anna; Patel, Kayur; Stevens, Mark; Watkins, Rhodri
This work has shown is that it is possible to recycle continuous and short fibre reinforced thermosetting resins while keeping almost the whole of the original material, both fibres and matrix, within the recyclate. By splitting, crushing hot or cold, and hot forming, it is possible to create a recyclable material, which we designate a Remat, which can then be used to remanufacture other shapes, examples of plates and tubes being demonstrated. Not only can remanufacturing be done, but it has been shown that over 50 % of the original mechanical properties, such as the E modulus, tensile strength, and interlaminar shear strength, can be retained. Four different forms of composite were investigated, a random mat Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) bathroom component and boat hull, woven glass and carbon fibre cloth impregnated with an epoxy resin, and unidirectional carbon fibre pre-preg. One of the main factors found to affect composite recyclability was the type of resin matrix used in the composite. Thermoset resins tested were shown to have a temperature range around the Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) where they exhibit ductile behaviour, hence aiding reforming of the material. The high-grade carbon fibre prepreg was found to be less easy to recycle than the woven of random fibre laminates. One method of remanufacturing was by heating the Remat to above its glass transition temperature, bending it to shape, and then cooling it. However, unless precautions are taken, the geometric form may revert. This does not happen with the crushed material.
Boggiano, Mary M.; Turan, Bulent; Maldonado, Christine R.; Oswald, Kimberly D.; Shuman, Ellen S.
Objective Food concocting, or making strange food mixtures, is well documented in the famine and experimental semistarvation literature and appears anecdotally in rare descriptions of eating disorder (ED) patients but has never been scientifically investigated. Here we do so in the context of binge-eating using a “famine hypothesis of concocting.” Method A sample of 552 adults varying in binge eating and dieting traits completed a Concocting Survey created for this study. Exploratory ED groups were created to obtain predictions as to the nature of concocting in clinical populations. Results Binge eating predicted the 24.6% of participants who reported having ever concocted but dietary restraint, independently, even after controlling for binge eating, predicted its frequency and salience. Craving was the main motive. Emotions while concocting mirrored classic high-arousal symptoms associated with drug use; while eating the concoctions were associated with intensely negative/self-deprecating emotions. Concocting prevalence and salience was greater in the anorexia > bulimia > BED > no ED groups, consistent with their respectively incrementing dieting scores. Discussion Concocting distinguishes binge eating from other overeating and, consistent with the famine hypothesis, is accounted for by dietary restraint. Unlike its adaptive function in famine, concocting could worsen binge-eating disorders by increasing negative effect, shame, and secrecy. Its assessment in these disorders may prove therapeutically valuable. PMID:23255044
Neidert, Pamela L.; Iwata, Brian A.; Dozier, Claudia L.
We describe the assessment and treatment of 2 children with autism spectrum disorder whose problem behaviors (self-injury, aggression, and disruption) were multiply controlled. Results of functional analyses indicated that the children's problem behaviors were maintained by both positive reinforcement (attention) and negative reinforcement (escape…
Bernardi, Fabiana; Harb, Ana Beatriz Cauduro; Levandovski, Rosa Maria; Hidalgo, Maria Paz Loayza
Este artigo tem como objetivo revisar aspectos relacionados a transtornos alimentares e suas relações com as alterações no ritmo circadiano. Realizou-se uma busca sistematizada das informações nas bases de dados PubMed usando os seguintes descritores: eating disorders, circadian rhythm, night eating syndrome, binge eating disorder e sleep patterns. Os transtornos alimentares, como a síndrome do comer noturno e o transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica, têm sido considerados e relacionados...
Ciarma, Jessica Lyn; Mathew, Jaya Miriam
While previous research indicates a strong link between social anxiety and disordered eating, more research is needed in order to understand the mechanisms that underlie this relationship. Given that stress is often implicated in disordered eating, it was hypothesised that ones reaction to stress (i.e. stress reactivity) would mediate the relationship between social anxiety and disordered eating. Similarly, given that low self-esteem is commonly reported in both those with social anxiety and eating disorders, it was hypothesised that self-esteem would also mediate the relationship between social anxiety and disordered eating. In order to test this, an online survey measuring social anxiety, disordered eating, stress reactivity and self-esteem, was administered to 282 participants in the community, aged between 18 and 35years. Results showed that self-esteem and a reactivity to stress during social conflict - but not during negative social evaluations - partially mediated the relationship between social anxiety and disordered eating. These findings demonstrate that low self-esteem and interpersonal conflict are powerful mechanisms that can maintain eating disorder psychopathology in those who are socially anxious. This highlights the importance of ensuring that these mechanisms are sufficiently addressed in eating disorder prevention and treatment programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ruzanska, Ulrike Alexandra; Warschburger, Petra
Intuitive eating is based on a strong physical connection with the body, aligned to internal cues of hunger and satiety, and a low preoccupation with food. The aim of this study was to provide a German version of the Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2) and to examine its psychometric properties with data collected from 532 participants aged 18-91 years. The IES-2 was translated into German following the World Health Organization guidelines (2016). Cronbach's alpha as a measure of internal consistency was 0.89 for the IES-2 total score, as well as 0.73 - 0.92 for the IES-2 subscale scores. For group differences, the results were as hypothesized: men had higher IES-2 scores than women, and participants with under- and average weight showed higher IES-2 scores than participants with overweight and obesity. Participants without a dieting history had higher IES-2 scores than former or current dieters. In line with our hypotheses regarding construct validity, the IES-2 score had negative associations with emotional eating, restraint eating, external eating, binge eating and eating disorder symptomatology, as well as positive associations with self-efficacy and mental health-related quality of life. Second-order confirmatory factor analysis replicated the four-factor solution, with intuitive eating as a higher-order factor. These findings demonstrate that the German version of the IES-2 is a useful tool to assess intuitive eating in the general German population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bongers, Peggy; Jansen, Anita
In eating research, it is common practice to group people into different eater types, such as emotional, external and restrained eaters. This categorization is generally based on scores on self-report questionnaires. However, recent studies have started to raise questions about the validity of such questionnaires. In the realm of emotional eating, a considerable number of studies, both in the lab and in naturalistic settings, fail to demonstrate increased food intake in emotional situations in self-described emotional eaters. The current paper provides a review of experimental and naturalistic studies investigating the relationships between self-reported emotional eater status, mood, and food consumption. It is concluded that emotional eating scales lack predictive and discriminative validity; they cannot be assumed to measure accurately what they intend to measure, namely increased food intake in response to negative emotions. The review is followed by a discussion of alternative interpretations of emotional eating scores that have been suggested in the past few years, i.e., concerned eating, uncontrolled eating, a tendency to attribute overeating to negative affect, and cue-reactive eating. PMID:28008323
Levinson, Cheri A; Brosof, Leigh C; Ma, Jackie; Fewell, Laura; Lenze, Eric J
Fears of food are common in individuals with eating disorders and contribute to the high relapse rates. However, it is unknown how fears of food contribute to eating disorder symptoms across time, potentially contributing to an increased likelihood of relapse. Participants diagnosed with an eating disorder (N=168) who had recently completed intensive treatment were assessed after discharge and one month later regarding fear of food, eating disorder symptoms, anxiety sensitivity, and negative affect. Cross lagged path analysis was utilized to determine if fear of food predicted subsequent eating disorder symptoms one month later. Fear of food-specifically, anxiety about eating and feared concerns about eating-predicted drive for thinness, a core symptom domain of eating disorders. These relationships held while accounting for anxiety sensitivity and negative affect. There is a specific, direct relationship between anxiety about eating and feared concerns about eating and drive for thinness. Future research should test if interventions designed to target fear of food can decrease drive for thinness and thereby prevent relapse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Are you curious to know whether you’re doing enough daily exercise…? Test yourself with a pedometer! Through the Move! Eat better campaign, launched in May 2012, the CERN medical service is aiming to improve the health of members of the personnel by encouraging them to prioritise physical activity in conjunction with a balanced diet. Various successful activities have already taken place: relay race/Nordic walk, Bike2work, Zumba and fitness workshops, two conferences (“Physical activity for health” and “Good nutrition every day”), events in the restaurants, as well as posters and a website. Although everyone has got the message from our various communications that physical activity is good for your health, there is still a relevant question being asked: “What is the minimum amount of exercise recommended?” 10,000 steps per day is the ideal figure, which has been demonstrated as beneficial by scientific studies ...
Eating disorders (EDs), including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder, constitute a class of common and deadly psychiatric disorders. While numerous studies in humans highlight the important role of neurobiological alterations in the development of ED-related behaviors, the precise neural substrate that mediates this risk is unknown. Historically, pharmacological interventions have played a limited role in the treatment of eating disorders, typically providing symptomatic relief of comorbid psychiatric issues, like depression and anxiety, in support of the standard nutritional and psychological treatments. To date there are no Food and Drug Administration-approved medications or procedures for anorexia nervosa, and only one Food and Drug Administration-approved medication each for bulimia nervosa (fluoxetine) and binge-eating disorder (lisdexamfetamine). While there is little primary interest in drug development for eating disorders, postmarket monitoring of medications and procedures approved for other indications has identified several novel treatment options for patients with eating disorders. In this review, I utilize searches of the PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov databases to highlight emerging treatments in eating disorders.
Feenstra, P.H.; Borst, de R.
A numerical model is proposed for reinforced-concrete behavior that combines the commonly accepted ideas from modeling plain concrete, reinforcement, and interaction behavior in a consistent manner. The behavior of plain concrete is govern by fracture-energy-level-based formulation both in tension
Hertz, Kristian Dahl
.0% is seldom found in “slack” (not prestressed) reinforcement, but 2.0% stresses might be relevant for reinforcement in T shaped cross sections and for prestressed structures, where large strains can be applied. All data are provided in a “HOT” condition during a fire and in a “COLD” condition after a fire...
O'Leary, K. Daniel; And Others
Objections to the use of tangible reinforcers, such as prizes, candy, cigarettes, and money, are discussed. Treatment programs using tangible reinforcers are recommended as powerful modifers of behavior to be implemented only after less powerful means of modification have been tried. (Author)
Harris, Sarah; Gilbert, Matthew; Beasant, Lucy; Linney, Catherine; Broughton, Jessica; Crawley, Esther
An estimated 10% of children and adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) experience eating difficulties; however, little is known about why these difficulties develop, what the impact is or how to manage them. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with adolescents (aged 12-17 years) attending a specialist service who have a primary diagnosis of CFS/ME and experience nausea, abdominal pain and/or eating difficulties. A total of 11 adolescents were interviewed (eight female, mean age: 15 years). Transcripts were analysed thematically using techniques of constant comparison which commenced soon after data collection and informed further interview protocols. Adolescents perceived their eating difficulties were caused by abdominal symptoms, being too fatigued to eat and changes to their senses of taste and smell. Some of the adolescents recognised how their eating difficulties were exacerbated and maintained by psychological factors of low mood and anxiety. The adolescents eating difficulties had a negative impact on their weight, fatigue, socialising and family life. They perceived helpful interventions to include modifying their diets, families adjusting and also medical interventions (e.g. medication). Adolescents identified that early education and support about diet and eating habits would have been helpful. If adolescents diagnosed with CFS/ME develop eating difficulties, this has a significant impact on their quality of life, illness and on their families. Not eating increases fatigue, low mood and anxiety which further exacerbates the eating difficulties. Clinicians should screen for eating difficulties in those with symptoms of nausea and abdominal pain, warn adolescents and their families of the risk of developing eating difficulties and provide interventions and support as early as possible.
Docet, M F; Larrañaga, A; Pérez Méndez, L F; García-Mayor, R V
To determine the rate of abnormal eating behaviours in obese adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in comparison with obese adult patients without ADHD. This case-control study includes: obese adult patients defined by a body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m², screening positive in the adult ADHD self-report scale-V1.1. (ASRS-V1.1), attending the Nutrition Section, as cases; and obese adult patients screening negative, as controls. Weight, height and BMI were determined in all the participants. The rate of abnormal eating behaviours was determined using an eating pattern questionnaire. Forty-five out of 51 (88.2%) cases vs 127 out of 179 (70.9%) controls had abnormal eating behaviours (p=0.01). Eating between-meal snacks was found in 39 (76.5%) cases vs 107 (59.8%) controls (p=0.03), going on binge eating episodes in 28 (54.9%) vs 42 (23.5%) (p=0.00), waking up at night to eat in 11 (21.6%) vs 16 (8.9%) (p=0.01), eating large amounts of food in 13 (25.5%) vs 38 (21.2%) (p=0.52), and eating in secret in 11 (21.6%) vs 16 (8.9%) (p=0.01), respectively. This is the first study that determines the rate of these abnormal eating behaviours in obese adult patients with ADHD in comparison with obese adult patients without ADHD. A high rate of abnormal eating behaviours was observed in obese patients with ADHD. Our results suggest that ADHD is a risk factor for the development of these abnormal eating behaviours, which may be contributing factors of obesity and the unsuccessful treatment of obese patients.
Lund, T B; Kjærnes, U; Holm, L
Using a survey conducted in four Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden) in 2012, we investigated whether eating out in cafés and restaurants in these countries is best characterized as a workday pattern activity or a leisure activity; and, whether frequent eating at cafés and restaurants is related to socio-demographic factors and factors relevant to the organization of daily life. We found that eating out is not a fundamental part of everyday eating. It is something which takes place occasionally. This may be taken to suggest that eating out in the Nordic countries is primarily a leisure activity. However, while this is an accurate portrayal of Denmark and Norway, eating out in Finland and Sweden is somewhat more common and linked to work-life. This difference probably reflects contrasting historical-institutional paths: in Finland and Sweden a food culture emphasizing cooked lunches and dedicated public policies supporting the provisioning of lunches outside the home may have promoted eating out. Multivariate analysis revealed that eating out declines with age. An urbanization effect exists, as residence in a capital city increases the propensity to eat out. There were socio-economic differences in all countries. We hypothesized that education and status would not significantly explain eating out activity after people's gastronomic interest had been controlled for. However, education was statistically significant in Sweden and Norway, and surprisingly status was negatively associated with eating out in Sweden. As expected, eating out was positively associated with income, and it was more frequent among the higher salariat and the self-employed (although not in Norway). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
But this paper argues that there are unnoticed ways in which migration negatively affects development and low income economies. For this paper, the relationship between ... But to see that migration in turn reinforces underdevelopment, one needs to engage in some complex analysis. Alarmingly, the end-result of the ...
Mata, Fernanda; Verdejo-Roman, Juan; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio
This study was aimed to examine if adolescent obesity is associated with alterations of insula function as indexed by differential correlations between insula activation and perception of interoceptive feedback versus external food cues. We hypothesized that, in healthy weight adolescents, insula activation will positively correlate with interoceptive sensitivity, whereas in excess weight adolescents, insula activation will positively correlate with sensitivity towards external cues. Fifty-four adolescents (age range 12-18), classified in two groups as a function of BMI, excess weight (n = 22) and healthy weight (n = 32), performed the Risky-Gains task (sensitive to insula function) inside an fMRI scanner, and completed the heartbeat perception task (measuring interoceptive sensitivity) and the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (measuring external eating as well as emotional eating and restraint) outside the scanner. We found that insula activation during the Risky-Gains task positively correlated with interoceptive sensitivity and negatively correlated with external eating in healthy weight adolescents. Conversely, in excess weight adolescents, insula activation positively correlated with external eating and negatively correlated with interoceptive sensitivity, arguably reflecting obesity related neurocognitive adaptations. In excess weight adolescents, external eating was also positively associated with caudate nucleus activation, and restrained eating was negatively associated with insula activation. Our findings suggest that adolescent obesity is associated with disrupted tuning of the insula system towards interoceptive input. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Robson, Shannon M.; Crosby, Lori E.; Stark, Lori J.
This study sought to understand barriers and facilitators for preparing and eating dinner at home in families who report eating dinner away from home ≥3 per week. Cross-sectional, mixed methods (focus groups, questionnaires) study. Twenty-seven parents with a child 3–10 years-old who reported eating dinner away from home ≥3 times per week from a pediatric medical center in the Midwest participated. The key concepts analytic framework guided focus group analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize parent demographics, anthropometrics, attitudes and confidence toward cooking, perceptions of dinner costs and portions, and parent and child dinners. Parents reported confidence in cooking a home prepared meal, but that eating away from home was reinforcing because it provided quality family time and diminished barriers such as picky eating and perceived costs. Home cooking was also hindered by early school lunch and after-school sports as children were not hungry or home at the typical dinner hour and parents did not want to cook after 8pm. Parents estimated preparing and eating a meal at home took significantly more time than driving and eating out (80.7 minutes vs. 30.3 minutes, peating out, interventions should address family factors (e.g., time management, quality time) and child behavior (e.g., picky eating). Innovative interventions that include experiential cooking opportunities that incorporate time management, address picky eating and enthusiasm for cooking with education on decreasing costs may be particularly beneficial for middle- to high-income families. PMID:26386299
Boggiano, M M; Wenger, L E; Turan, B; Tatum, M M; Morgan, P R; Sylvester, M D
The goals of this study were to determine if a change in certain motives to eat highly palatable food, as measured by the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS), could predict a change in body mass index (BMI) over time, to assess the temporal stability of these motive scores, and to test the reliability of previously reported associations between eating tasty foods to cope and BMI. BMI, demographics, and scores on the PEMS and the Binge Eating Scale were obtained from 192 college students. Test-retest analysis was performed on the PEMS motives in groups varying in three gap times between tests. Regression analyses determined what PEMS motives predicted a change in BMI over two years. The results replicated previous findings that eating palatable food for Coping motives (e.g., to forget about problems, reduce negative feelings) is associated with BMI. Test-retest correlations revealed that motive scores, while somewhat stable, can change over time. Importantly, among overweight participants, a change in Coping scores predicted a change in BMI over 2 years, such that a 1-point change in Coping predicted a 1.76 change in BMI (equivalent to a 10.5 lb. change in body weight) independent of age, sex, ethnicity, and initial binge-eating status (Cohen's f(2) effect size = 1.44). The large range in change of Coping scores suggests it is possible to decrease frequency of eating to cope by more than 1 scale point to achieve weight losses greater than 10 lbs. in young overweight adults, a group already at risk for rapid weight gain. Hence, treatments aimed specifically at reducing palatable food intake for coping reasons vs. for social, reward, or conformity reasons, should help achieve a healthier body weight and prevent obesity if this motive-type is identified prior to significant weight gain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alderson, M.A.H.G.; Bartley, R.; O'Brien, T.P.
The assessment of the safety of nuclear reactors has necessitated the study of the effect of missiles on reinforced concrete containment structures. Two simple theoretical calculational methods have been developed to provide basic information. The first is based on a crude energy balance approach in which that part of the kinetic energy of the missile which is transferred into the containment structure, is absorbed only as bending strain energy. To determine the energy transferred into the structure it is assumed that during the loading the target does not respond. The energy input to the structure is thus equal to the kinetic energy it will possess immediately the impulse has been removed. The boundary of the responding zone is defined by the distance travelled by the shear stress wave during the time in which the impact force increases to the load at which the shear capacity reaches the ultimate shear resistance. The second method is based on the equation of motion for an equivalent one-degree-of-freedom system assuming that only the peak value of deflection is important and that damping can be ignored. The spring stiffness of the equivalent system has been based upon the stiffness of the actual disc configuration responding in the flexural mode only. The boundaries of the disc have been defined by using the elastic plate formulae and equating those positive and negative moments which will produce a specified yield line pattern which may be inferred from plastic plate formulae. The equation of motion is solved to indicate how the quantity of reinforcement included in the structure may modify the peak deflection. By limiting the ductility ratio of the reinforcement to some prescribed level it is possible to indicate the quantity of reinforcement w
Sep 20, 2013 ... index of dietetic students versus non-dietetic majors: a South African ... personal eating problem, then working with similar problems may exacerbate the ..... emotional states, such as anxiety or depression, that tend to interfere.
El Ghoch, Marwan; Soave, Fabio; Calugi, Simona; Dalle Grave, Riccardo
Background: Eating disorders are health problems that are particularly prevalent in adolescents and young adults. They are associated with considerable physical health and psychosocial morbidity, and increased risk of mortality. We set out to conduct a systematic review to determine their effect on physical fitness in the general population and on sport performance in athletes. Methods/Design: A systematic review of the relevant peer-reviewed literature was performed. For inclusion, articles retrieved from PubMed had to be published in English between 1977 and 2013. Wherever possible, methods and reporting adhere to the guidelines outlined in the PRISMA statement. Some additional studies were retrieved from among those cited in the reference lists of included studies and from non-electronic databases. Literature searches, study selection, method and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Results: Of the 1183 articles retrieved, twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analysed. The available data indicate that eating disorders have a negative effect on physical fitness and sport performance by causing low energy availability, excessive loss of fat and lean mass, dehydration, and electrolyte disturbance. Discussion: Although the paucity of the available data mean that findings to date should be interpreted with caution, the information collated in this review has several practical implications. First, eating disorders have a negative effect on both physical fitness and sport performance. Second athletics coaches should be targeted for education about the risk factors of eating disorders, as deterioration in sport performance in athletes, particularly if they are underweight or show other signs of an eating disorder, may indicate the need for medical intervention. However, future studies are needed, especially to assess the direct effect of eating disorders on
Marwan El Ghoch
Full Text Available Background: Eating disorders are health problems that are particularly prevalent in adolescents and young adults. They are associated with considerable physical health and psychosocial morbidity, and increased risk of mortality. We set out to conduct a systematic review to determine their effect on physical fitness in the general population and on sport performance in athletes. Methods/Design: A systematic review of the relevant peer-reviewed literature was performed. For inclusion, articles retrieved from PubMed had to be published in English between 1977 and 2013. Wherever possible, methods and reporting adhere to the guidelines outlined in the PRISMA statement. Some additional studies were retrieved from among those cited in the reference lists of included studies and from non-electronic databases. Literature searches, study selection, method and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Results: Of the 1183 articles retrieved, twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analysed. The available data indicate that eating disorders have a negative effect on physical fitness and sport performance by causing low energy availability, excessive loss of fat and lean mass, dehydration, and electrolyte disturbance. Discussion: Although the paucity of the available data mean that findings to date should be interpreted with caution, the information collated in this review has several practical implications. First, eating disorders have a negative effect on both physical fitness and sport performance. Second athletics coaches should be targeted for education about the risk factors of eating disorders, as deterioration in sport performance in athletes, particularly if they are underweight or show other signs of an eating disorder, may indicate the need for medical intervention. However, future studies are needed, especially to assess the direct effect of
Jackson, Dylan B; Vaughn, Michael G
To examine whether parental incarceration is significantly associated with a number of sleep and eating behaviors among offspring during early childhood. Data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study, an at-risk sample of parents and their offspring, were employed to test this possibility. Both maternal and paternal incarceration history were examined as predictors of whether children manifested high levels of the following 7 health behaviors: sleep problems, short sleep duration, salty snack consumption, starch consumption, sweets consumption, soda consumption, and fast food consumption. Logistic regression techniques were used to carry out the analyses. Both maternal and paternal incarceration significantly increased the odds of a number of risky sleep and eating behaviors during childhood. Ancillary analysis also revealed that the predicted probability of exhibiting multiple risky behaviors across the sleep and eating domains was twice as large among children whose parents had both been incarcerated, relative to children whose parents had not been incarcerated. Parental incarceration may have important implications for the sleep and eating behaviors of offspring. Both scholars and practitioners may, therefore, want to consider the possible negative repercussions of parental incarceration for the sleep and eating behaviors of children, and the potential for these high-risk health behaviors to compromise the health and well-being of children as they age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Allan, Steven; Goss, Ken
To test for differences between diagnostic groups on the severity of eating disorder beliefs and behaviours, evaluate the clinical significance of such differences, and assess the extent to which these beliefs and behaviours may be present at clinically significant levels across eating disorder diagnoses. 136 adult women outpatients (aged 18-65, with a BMI over 15) were diagnosed with an eating disorder and completed the Stirling Eating Disorder Scale. The expected pattern of statistically significant differences was found between diagnostic groups on anorexic dietary beliefs and behaviours and bulimic dietary beliefs and behaviours. A high percentage of participants in each diagnostic group scored above the clinical cut-off on the eating disorder belief and behaviour measures and a very high percentage of participants in each group reported clinically significant levels of restricting beliefs. Transdiagnostic or functional analytic approaches to treatment planning may lead to more effective interventions than current, diagnostically-based, care pathways. The high prevalence of restricting beliefs reported suggested that this may need to be a key focus for intervention for the majority of individuals presenting with an eating disorder. © 2013.
Renner, Britta; Sproesser, Gudrun; Strohbach, Stefanie; Schupp, Harald T
Understanding why people select certain food items in everyday life is crucial for the creation of interventions to promote normal eating and to prevent the development of obesity and eating disorders. The Eating Motivation Survey (TEMS) was developed within a frame of three different studies. In Study 1, a total of 331 motives for eating behavior were generated on the basis of different data sources (previous research, nutritionist interviews, and expert discussions). In Study 2, 1250 respondents were provided with a set of motives from Study 1 and the Eating Motivation Survey was finalized. In Study 3, a sample of 1040 participants filled in the Eating Motivation Survey. Confirmatory factor analysis with fifteen factors for food choice yielded a satisfactory model fit for a full (78 items) and brief survey version (45 items) with RMSEA .048 and .037, 90% CI .047-.049 and .035-.039, respectively. Factor structure was generally invariant across random selected groups, gender, and BMI, which indicates a high stability for the Eating Motivation Survey. On the mean level, however, significant differences in motivation for food choice associated with gender, age, and BMI emerged. Implications of the fifteen distinct motivations to choose foods in everyday life are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Eating disorders are associated with physical morbidity and appear to have causal factors like stressful life events and negative affect. Binge eating disorder (BED is characterized by eating in a discrete period of time a larger than normal amount of food, a sense of lack of control over eating, and marked distress. There are still unmet needs for the identification of mechanisms regulating excessive eating, which is in part due to the lack of appropriate animal models. We developed a naturalistic murine model of subordination stress induced hyperphagia associated with the development of obesity. Here we tested the hypotheses that the eating responses of subordinate mice recapitulate the BED and that limiting hyperphagia could prevent stress-associated metabolic changes. Methods: Adult male mice were exposed to a model of chronic subordination stress associated with the automated acquisition of food intake and we performed a detailed meal pattern analysis. Additionally, using a pair-feeding protocol was test the hypothesis that the manifestation of obesity and the metabolic syndrome could be prevented by limiting hyperphagia. Results: The architecture of feeding of subordinate mice was disrupted during the stress protocol due to disproportionate amount of food ingested at higher rate and with shorter satiety ratio than control mice. Subordinate mice hyperphagia was further exacerbated in response to either hunger or to the acute application of a social defeat. Notably, the obese phenotype but not the fasting hyperglycemia of subordinate mice was abrogated by preventing hyperphagia in a pair feeding paradigm. Conclusion: Overall these results support the validity of our chronic subordination stress to model binge eating disorder allowing for the determination of the underlying molecular mechanisms and the generation of testable predictions for innovative therapies, based on the understanding of the regulation and the control of food
Racine, Sarah E; Keel, Pamela K; Burt, S Alexandra; Sisk, Cheryl L; Neale, Michael; Boker, Steven; Klump, Kelly L
Within-person changes in estradiol and progesterone predict changes in binge eating tendencies across the menstrual cycle. However, all women have menstrual-cycle fluctuations in hormones, but few experience binge eating. Personality traits may be critical individual difference factors that influence who will engage in emotional eating in the presence of a vulnerable hormonal environment. Women (N=239) provided self-reports of emotional eating and saliva samples for hormone measurement for 45 consecutive days. Negative urgency and negative emotionality were measured once and were examined as moderators of hormone-emotional eating associations. Consistent with prior research, within-person changes in the interaction between estradiol and progesterone predicted emotional eating. Neither negative urgency nor negative emotionality interacted with changes in estradiol and progesterone to predict changes in emotional eating. Additional factors, other than the two personality traits examined, may account for individual differences in within-person associations between hormones and emotional eating. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Haedt-Matt, Alissa A.; Keel, Pamela K.
The affect regulation model of binge eating, which posits that patients binge eat to reduce negative affect (NA), has received support from cross-sectional and laboratory-based studies. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involves momentary ratings and repeated assessments over time and is ideally suited to identify temporal antecedents and…
Farstad, Sarah M; von Ranson, Kristin M; Hodgins, David C; El-Guebaly, Nady; Casey, David M; Schopflocher, Don P
This study investigated the degree to which facets of impulsiveness predicted future binge eating and problem gambling, 2 theorized forms of behavioral addiction. Participants were 596 women and 406 men from 4 age cohorts randomly recruited from a Canadian province. Participants completed self-report measures of 3 facets of impulsiveness (negative urgency, sensation seeking, lack of persistence), binge-eating frequency, and problem-gambling symptoms. Impulsiveness was assessed at baseline, and assessments of binge eating and problem gambling were followed up after 3 years. Weighted data were analyzed using zero-inflated negative binomial and Poisson regression models. We found evidence of transdiagnostic and disorder-specific predictors of binge eating and problem gambling. Negative urgency emerged as a common predictor of binge eating and problem gambling among women and men. There were disorder-specific personality traits identified among men only: High lack-of-persistence scores predicted binge eating and high sensation-seeking scores predicted problem gambling. Among women, younger age predicted binge eating and older age predicted problem gambling. Thus, there are gender differences in facets of impulsiveness that longitudinally predict binge eating and problem gambling, suggesting that treatments for these behaviors should consider gender-specific personality and demographic traits in addition to the common personality trait of negative urgency. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Leahey, Tricia M.; Crowther, Janis H.; Irwin, Sharon R.
Binge eating is a negative indicator of post-surgical weight loss and health outcome in bariatric surgery patients (Hsu, Bentancourt, Sullivan, 1996). Cognitive-behavioral techniques and mindfulness-based practices have been shown to successfully treat binge eating (Agras, Telch, Arnow, Eldredge, & Marnell, 1997; Kristeller & Hallett, 1999). This…
Dassen, Fania C M; Houben, Katrijn; Jansen, Anita
Time orientation could play an important role in eating behavior. The current study investigated whether eating behavior is associated with the Consideration of Future Consequences scale (CFC). Specifically, it was examined whether unhealthy eaters consider the future less and are more concerned with immediate gratification. A related measure of time orientation is delay discounting, a process by which a reinforcer becomes less valuable when considered later in time. Recent research argues that the relation between time orientation and health behaviors is measured best at a behavior-specific level. In the current study, we explored the relationships between CFC and discount rate - both general and food-specific - and their influence on healthy eating. Participants with ages 18 to 60 (N = 152; final sample N = 146) filled in an online questionnaire consisting of the CFC, a food-specific version of the CFC (CFC-food), the Monetary Choice Questionnaire (MCQ) and an adapted MCQ version with snack food as a reinforcer. Self-reported healthy eating was positively related to the future subscale (r = .48, p .05). In order to predict behavior, measurements of time orientation should thus be tailored to the behavior of interest. Based on current results, shifting one's concern from the immediate consequences of eating to a more future-oriented perspective may present an interesting target for future interventions aimed at promoting healthy eating and reducing overweight. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Full Text Available ... tells a person how much to eat from different food groups based on age, gender, and activity level. Reviewed by: Sarah R. Gibson, ... of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. ...
Full Text Available ... to be healthy. Sugary carbs such as candy bars or sodas are less healthy for athletes because ... other nutrients you need. In addition, eating candy bars or other sugary snacks just before practice or ...
Full Text Available ... only one type of food. Carbohydrates are an important source of fuel, but they're only one ... butter. Choosing when to eat fats is also important for athletes. Fatty foods can slow digestion, so ...
Full Text Available ... as the unsaturated fat found in most vegetable oils, some fish, and nuts and seeds. Try to ... eat too much trans fat – like partially hydrogenated oils – and saturated fat, that is found in high ...
Full Text Available ... caffeine and exercise, it's good to weigh any benefits against potential problems. Although some studies find that ... Game-Day Eats Your performance on game day will depend on the foods you've eaten over ...
Full Text Available ... of nutrients, and perform your best while also losing weight. Eat a Variety of Foods You may have ... anxious or jittery. Caffeine can also cause trouble sleeping. All of these can drag down a person's ...
This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between healthy eating and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a healthy school nutrition environment to improve academic achievement.
Full Text Available ... minerals needed for good health and sports performance. Protein Power Athletes may need more protein than less-active teens, but most teen athletes get plenty of protein through regular eating. It's a myth that athletes ...
Full Text Available ... eat lean (not much fat) meat, fish, and poultry; green, leafy vegetables; and iron-fortified cereals. Calcium — ... sources of protein are fish, lean meats and poultry, eggs, dairy, nuts, soy, and peanut butter. Carb ...
Full Text Available ... while also losing weight. Eat a Variety of Foods You may have heard about "carb loading" before ... idea to focus on only one type of food. Carbohydrates are an important source of fuel, but ...
Full Text Available ... performance in these conditions, but otherwise your body will do just as well with water. Avoid drinking ... Game-Day Eats Your performance on game day will depend on the foods you've eaten over ...
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Full Text Available ... muscles. Most teens don't get enough of these minerals, and that's especially true of teen athletes ... so it's a good idea to avoid eating these foods for a few hours before and after ...
Full Text Available ... lean (not much fat) meat, fish, and poultry; green, leafy vegetables; and iron-fortified cereals. Calcium — a ... in high fat meat and high fat dairy products, like butter. Choosing when to eat fats is ...
Full Text Available ... news is that eating to reach your peak performance level likely doesn't require a special diet ... need extra calories to fuel both their sports performance and their growth. Depending on how active they ...
Full Text Available ... in dairy foods, such as low-fat milk, yogurt, and cheese. In addition to calcium and iron, ... sandwich, cereal and milk, chicken noodle soup and yogurt, or pasta with tomato sauce). Eat a snack ...
Full Text Available ... the strong bones that athletes depend on, and iron carries oxygen to muscles. Most teens don't ... than those of other teens. To get the iron you need, eat lean (not much fat) meat, ...
Full Text Available ... teens. To get the iron you need, eat lean (not much fat) meat, fish, and poultry; green, ... kidney problems. Good sources of protein are fish, lean meats and poultry, eggs, dairy, nuts, soy, and ...
Full Text Available ... you need, eat lean (not much fat) meat, fish, and poultry; green, leafy vegetables; and iron-fortified ... even kidney problems. Good sources of protein are fish, lean meats and poultry, eggs, dairy, nuts, soy, ...
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Full Text Available ... addition, eating candy bars or other sugary snacks just before practice or competition can give athletes a ... exercise. Ditch Dehydration Speaking of dehydration , water is just as important to unlocking your game power as ...
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Full Text Available ... person how much to eat from different food groups based on age, gender, and activity level. Reviewed ... for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours ...
Full Text Available ... able to maintain their weight. And extreme calorie restriction can lead to growth problems and other serious ... how much to eat from different food groups based on age, gender, and activity level. Reviewed by: ...
Full Text Available ... your best while also losing weight. Eat a Variety of Foods You may have heard about "carb ... grains (such as brown rice, oatmeal, whole-wheat bread) more often than their more processed counterparts like ...
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... Sexual, & Bladder Problems Clinical Trials Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity Nutrition and physical activity are important parts of ... feet before, during, and after physical activity. What physical activities should I do if I have diabetes? Most ...
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Full Text Available ... while also losing weight. Eat a Variety of Foods You may have heard about "carb loading" before ... grains (such as brown rice, oatmeal, whole-wheat bread) more often than their more processed counterparts like ...
Nureeva, Liliya; Brunsø, Karen; Lähteenmäki, Liisa
– Focusing on improving adolescents’ self-regulatory skills in the domain of eating behaviour is a promising approach in developing future interventions. Originality/value – The present article explores self-regulatory strategies for eating behaviour in adolescence and discusses their relevance.......Purpose – Healthy eating behaviour in adolescence may be negatively affected by lack of self-regulation. The purpose of this paper is to discuss strategies for regulating eating behaviour as formulated by adolescents themselves. Design/methodology/approach – Self-regulatory strategies were elicited...... with concept mapping, which is a group-based method. Three meetings were conducted with each of four school classes in Denmark. Participants in the 12-15-year age group were recruited for the study. At the first meeting, participants had to complete the phrase “Things I can do to ensure my healthy eating are...
Claudat, Kimberly; White, Emily K; Warren, Cortney S
The overarching purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among acculturative stress, self-esteem, and eating pathology in Asian American and Latina female college students. Participants (N = 638, mean age = 19.88) completed self-report measures of the variables of interest online. Bivariate correlations indicated that for women of both ethnic groups, acculturative stress was negatively correlated with self-esteem and positively correlated with eating pathology. Multigroup structural equation modeling indicated that for Asian American and Latina women, self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between acculturative stress and eating pathology. However, self-esteem did not serve as a significant moderator of this relationship for either ethnic group. Overall, data suggest that acculturative stress is associated with increased eating pathology and self-esteem may mediate this relationship. These relationships suggest that assessment of eating pathology and self-esteem may be indicated for women presenting clinically with acculturative stress concerns. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The transition from recreational drug use to addiction can be conceptualized as a pathological timeline whereby the psychological mechanisms responsible for disordered drug use evolve from positive reinforcement to favor elements of negative reinforcement. Abused substances (ranging from alcohol to psychostimulants) are initially ingested at regular occasions according to their positive reinforcing properties. Importantly, repeated exposure to rewarding substances sets off a chain of secondary reinforcing events, whereby cues and contexts associated with drug use may themselves become reinforcing and thereby contribute to the continued use and possible abuse of the substance(s) of choice. Indeed, the powerful reinforcing efficacy of certain drugs may eclipse that of competing social rewards (such as career and family) and lead to an aberrant narrowing of behavioral repertoire. In certain vulnerable individuals, escalation of drug use over time is thought to drive specific molecular neuroadaptations that foster the development of addiction. Research has identified neurobiological elements of altered reinforcement following excessive drug use that comprise within-circuit and between-circuit neuroadaptations, both of which contribute to addiction. Central to this process is the eventual potentiation of negative reinforcement mechanisms that may represent the final definitive criterion locking vulnerable individuals into a persistent state of addiction. Targeting the neural substrates of reinforcement likely represents our best chances for therapeutic intervention for this devastating disease. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Amitabh Saha; Neha Sharma
This is a case of Eating Disorder, which is described in a teenage girl who presented with intractable vomiting, hydropneumothorax and pulmonary Koch′s. The patient′s initial presentation was markedpreoccupation with body shape and image, restrictive eating, which progressed to episodes of vomiting after every meal, and led to academic decline followed by amenorrhoea and deterioration of general medical condition. She was managed with nutritional restoration, ATT and Olanzapine with Fluoxetin...
Full Text Available This is a case of Eating Disorder, which is described in a teenage girl who presented with intractable vomiting, hydropneumothorax and pulmonary Koch′s. The patient′s initial presentation was markedpreoccupation with body shape and image, restrictive eating, which progressed to episodes of vomiting after every meal, and led to academic decline followed by amenorrhoea and deterioration of general medical condition. She was managed with nutritional restoration, ATT and Olanzapine with Fluoxetine, to which she responded poorly.
Coelho, Jennifer S; Ouellet-Courtois, Catherine; Purdon, Christine; Steiger, Howard
Thought-Shape Fusion (TSF) and Thought-Action Fusion (TAF) are cognitive distortions that are associated with eating and obsessional pathology respectively. Both involve the underlying belief that mere thoughts and mental images can lead to negative outcomes. TSF involves the belief that food-related thoughts lead to weight gain, body dissatisfaction, and perceptions of moral wrong-doing. TAF is more general, and involves the belief that merely thinking about a negative event (e.g., a loved one getting into a car accident) can make this event more likely to happen, and leads to perceptions of moral wrong-doing. However, the shared susceptibility across related cognitive distortions-TAF and TSF-has not yet been studied. The effects of TSF and TAF inductions in women with an eating disorder (n = 21) and a group of healthy control women with no history of an eating disorder (n = 23) were measured. A repeated-measures design was employed, with all participants exposed to a TSF, TAF and neutral induction during three separate experimental sessions. Participants' cognitive and behavioral responses were assessed. Individuals with eating disorders were more susceptible to TSF and TAF than were control participants, demonstrating more neutralization behavior after TSF and TAF inductions (i.e., actions to try to reduce the negative effects of the induction), and reporting higher levels of trait TAF and TSF than did controls. Individuals with eating disorders are particularly susceptible to both TAF and TSF. Clinical implications of these findings will be discussed.
Horesh, N; Sommerfeld, E; Wolf, M; Zubery, E; Zalsman, G
Mother-daughter relationship was the focus of studies on the development of eating disorders (ED) for many years. This study aimed to examine the association between the father-daughter relationship and ED and depressive symptoms. Fifty-three women diagnosed with ED were compared to a psychiatric control group (n=26) and to healthy participants (n=60) regarding their perception of their fathers and the relationship with them. Assessments were done using the Parental Bonding Instrument, the Eating Disorders Questionnaire, the Body Shape Questionnaire, the Eating Attitude Test, and the Beck Depression Inventory as well as narrative-based methods. Fathers' negative attributes were significantly associated with ED and depressive symptom. Two profiles of father-daughter relationship were found, the "caring and benevolent" relationship and the "overprotective and avoidant" one. In the latter, patients displayed significantly higher levels of food-restraint, more concerns about eating and about their body shape and appearance, and higher levels of depression. Negative perception of the father's parenting style as well as the quality of the relationship with him are crucial for the understanding of the development and persistence of ED. Therapeutic programs for ED should focus not only on the relationship with the mother but must also address the relationship with the father. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Patel, Meeta R; Piazza, Cathleen C; Martinez, Cheryl J; Volkert, Valerie M; Christine, M Santana
Consumption of solids and liquids occurs as a chain of behaviors that may include accepting, swallowing, and retaining the food or drink. In the current investigation, we evaluated the relative effectiveness of differential reinforcement of the first behavior in the chain (acceptance) versus differential reinforcement for the terminal behavior in the chain (mouth clean). Three children who had been diagnosed with a feeding disorder participated. Acceptance remained at zero when differential reinforcement contingencies were implemented for acceptance or mouth clean. Acceptance and mouth clean increased for all 3 participants once escape extinction was added to the differential reinforcement procedures, independent of whether reinforcement was provided for acceptance or for mouth clean. Maintenance was observed in 2 children when escape extinction was removed from the treatment package. The mechanism by which consumption increased is discussed in relation to positive and negative reinforcement contingencies.
Lavender, Jason M; Happel, Kate; Anestis, Michael D; Tull, Matthew T; Gratz, Kim L
Difficulties tolerating distress and the expectancy that eating will relieve negative affect have been linked with bulimic symptoms, which commonly co-occur with other forms of psychopathology characterized by emotion dysregulation (e.g., substance abuse). Indeed, problems with emotional functioning may be of particular relevance to bulimic symptoms in at-risk populations with heightened emotion dysregulation (such as substance use disorder patients). This study examined the interactive role of two emotion-related constructs (distress tolerance and the expectancy that eating relieves negative affect) in relation to bulimic symptoms among patients (N=93) recruited from a residential substance abuse treatment facility. Participants completed the Bulimia Test-Revised, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Distress Tolerance Scale, and the Eating Expectancy Inventory. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine the main effects and interaction of distress tolerance and negative affect eating expectancies in relation to bulimic symptoms, controlling for participant gender and overall negative affect. Significant main effects were found for both distress tolerance and negative affect eating expectancies, and these two constructs were found to significantly interact in the prediction of bulimic symptoms. Interventions that address these constructs may be useful in treating those with bulimic symptoms, as well as those with co-occurring bulimic symptoms and substance use disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lassen, Anne Dahl; Ernst, Lotte; Poulsen, Sanne
Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of a relatively novel concept of providing employees with healthy ready-to-heat meals to bring home to their families, here referred to as Canteen Take Away (CTA). Design: Employees’ dietary intake on two weekdays when they received free CTA was compare...... study shows that providing healthy take-away dinners has potential for promoting healthy dietary habits among employees. This reinforces the importance of availability and convenience as effective tools to promote healthy eating habits....
Haedt-Matt, Alissa A.; Keel, Pamela K.
The affect regulation model of binge eating, which posits that patients binge eat to reduce negative affect (NA), has received support from cross-sectional and laboratory-based studies. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involves momentary ratings and repeated assessments over time and is ideally suited to identify temporal antecedents and consequences of binge eating. This meta-analytic review includes EMA studies of affect and binge eating. Electronic database and manual searches produced 36 EMA studies with N = 968 participants (89% Caucasian women). Meta-analyses examined changes in affect before and after binge eating using within-subjects standardized mean gain effect sizes (ES). Results supported greater NA preceding binge eating relative to average affect (ES = .63) and affect before regular eating (ES = .68). However, NA increased further following binge episodes (ES = .50). Preliminary findings suggested that NA decreased following purging in Bulimia Nervosa (ES = −.46). Moderators included diagnosis (with significantly greater elevations of NA prior to bingeing in Binge Eating Disorder compared to Bulimia Nervosa) and binge definition (with significantly smaller elevations of NA before binge versus regular eating episodes for the DSM definition compared to lay definitions of binge eating). Overall, results fail to support the affect regulation model of binge eating and challenge reductions in NA as a maintenance factor for binge eating. However, limitations of this literature include unidimensional analyses of NA and inadequate examination of affect during binge eating as binge eating may regulate only specific facets of affect or may reduce NA only during the episode. PMID:21574678
Stinton, David P.; McLaughlin, Jerry C.; Lowden, Richard A.
A filter for removing particulate matter from high temperature flowing fluids, and in particular gases, that is reinforced with ceramic fibers. The filter has a ceramic base fiber material in the form of a fabric, felt, paper of the like, with the refractory fibers thereof coated with a thin layer of a protective and bonding refractory applied by chemical vapor deposition techniques. This coating causes each fiber to be physically joined to adjoining fibers so as to prevent movement of the fibers during use and to increase the strength and toughness of the composite filter. Further, the coating can be selected to minimize any reactions between the constituents of the fluids and the fibers. A description is given of the formation of a composite filter using a felt preform of commercial silicon carbide fibers together with the coating of these fibers with pure silicon carbide. Filter efficiency approaching 100% has been demonstrated with these filters. The fiber base material is alternately made from aluminosilicate fibers, zirconia fibers and alumina fibers. Coating with Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 is also described. Advanced configurations for the composite filter are suggested.
Fuglestad, Paul T.; Bruening, Meg; Graham, Dan J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R.
This study used balance theory to illuminate the relations of eating-related attitudinal consistency between self and friends to psychological well-being and eating behaviors. It was hypothesized that attitudinal inconsistency, relative to consistency, would predict lower well-being and poorer eating habits. A population-based sample of 2287 young adults participating in Project EAT-III (Eating Among Teens and Young Adults) completed measures of psychological well-being, eating behaviors, and...
Nisoli, E; Brunani, A; Borgomainerio, E; Tonello, C; Dioni, L; Briscini, L; Redaelli, G; Molinari, E; Cavagnini, F; Carruba, M O
Food is considered a reinforcing agent, like a variety of substances such as alcohol and other drugs of abuse that produce pleasure. Psychopathological traits related to food intake are demonstrated in eating disorders as in obesity with different genetic aspects for these diseases. Recently, the prevalence of TaqA1 allele has been associated to alcohol, drug abuse and carbohydrate preference. For this reason, the aim of this study was to evaluate if the presence of A1 allele, in eating disorders and obesity, is associated with some particular psycho-pathological characteristics. We studied the presence of TaqA1 in Italian subjects affected by obesity (n=71), anorexia (n=28), bulimia (n=20) and in control group (n=54). The Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI test) was used to evaluate the psychological profiles. Patients without alcohol and drugs abuse were selected (>125 ml/day). The A1+ allele, both in A1/A1 and A1/A2 genotypes, was not differently distributed among disease groups; on the contrary two EDI subscales (Drive for thinness and Ineffectiveness) resulted associated with A1+ allele without effect of the eating disease or obesity. These results confirm that the presence of A1+ allele is not simply related to body weight but the A1+ allele might be a marker of a genetic psychological condition in people with high risk to develop pathological eating behaviour.
CERN has many traditions, but in a week that’s seen the launch of the Medical Service’s ‘Move & eat better’ campaign, it’s refreshing to note that among the oldest is a sporting one. The CERN relay race dates back to 15 October 1971 when 21 pioneering teams set off to pound the pavements of CERN. Back then, the Focus users group came in first with a time of 12 minutes and 42 seconds. Today’s route is slightly different, and the number of teams has risen to over 100, with a new category of Nordic Walking introduced, as part of the campaign, for the first time. The relay has provided some memorable events, and perhaps one of the longest-standing records in the history of sport, with the UA1 strollers’ 10 minutes and 13 seconds unbeaten for thirty years. In the women’s category, the UN Gazelles set the fastest time of 13 minutes and 16 seconds in 1996, while in the veterans category, you wi...
Martin, A A; Davidson, T L; McCrory, M A
Despite a substantial amount of animal data linking deficits in memory inhibition to the development of overeating and obesity, few studies have investigated the relevance of memory inhibition to uncontrolled eating in humans. Further, although memory for recent eating has been implicated as an important contributor to satiety and energy intake, the possibility that variations in episodic memory relate to individual differences in food intake control has been largely neglected. To examine these relationships, we recruited ninety-three adult subjects to attend a single lab session where we assessed body composition, dietary intake, memory performance, and eating behaviors (Three Factor Eating Questionnaire). Episodic recall and memory inhibition were assessed using a well-established measure of memory interference (Retrieval Practice Paradigm). Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that memory inhibition was largely unrelated to participants' eating behaviors; however, episodic recall was reliably predicted by restrained vs. uncontrolled eating: recall was positively associated with strategic dieting (β = 2.45, p = 0.02), avoidance of fatty foods (β = 3.41, p = 0.004), and cognitive restraint (β = 1.55, p = 0.04). In contrast, recall was negatively associated with uncontrolled eating (β = -1.15, p = 0.03) and emotional eating (β = -2.46, p = 0.04). These findings suggest that episodic memory processing is related to uncontrolled eating in humans. The possibility that deficits in episodic memory may contribute to uncontrolled eating by disrupting memory for recent eating is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keating, Leah; Tasca, Giorgio A; Hill, Robert
Patients with eating disorders tend to experience low levels of body esteem. To assess the psychosocial processes that may predict low body esteem in these individuals, we assessed the structural interrelations among attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance, alexithymia, and body esteem in a cross-sectional sample of patients with eating disorders. We tested a model in which alexithymia mediates the relationship between attachment insecurity and body esteem. Participants were 300 women with anorexia nervosa (n = 109), bulimia nervosa (n = 130), and eating disorders not otherwise specified (n = 61) who completed pretreatment self-report questionnaires at intake for a day hospital treatment program. We found a direct and negative relationship between attachment anxiety and body esteem. Additionally, attachment avoidance had an indirect negative relationship to body esteem through alexithymia. These results indicate that therapists may attend to attachment insecurity and affective regulation strategies when addressing body image issues in patients with eating disorders. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fuglestad, Paul T.; Bruening, Meg; Graham, Dan J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R.
This study used balance theory to illuminate the relations of eating-related attitudinal consistency between self and friends to psychological well-being and eating behaviors. It was hypothesized that attitudinal inconsistency, relative to consistency, would predict lower well-being and poorer eating habits. A population-based sample of 2287 young adults participating in Project EAT-III (Eating Among Teens and Young Adults) completed measures of psychological well-being, eating behaviors, and eating-related attitudes from the standpoint of self and friends. Of participants who cared about healthy eating, those who perceived that their friends did not care about healthy eating had lower well-being and less-healthy eating behaviors (fewer fruits and vegetables and more sugary beverages per day) than those who perceived that their friends cared about healthy eating. Conversely, among participants who did not care about healthy eating, those who perceived that their friends cared about healthy eating had lower well-being and less-healthy eating behaviors (more snacks per day) than those who perceived that their friends did not care about healthy eating. In accord with balance theory, young adults who perceived inconsistent eating attitudes between themselves and their friends had lower psychological well-being and generally less-healthy eating behaviors than people who perceived consistent eating attitudes. PMID:24587589
Many Florida bridges are built of steel-reinforced concrete. Floridas humid and marine : environments subject steel in these structures : to corrosion once water and salt penetrate the : concrete and contact the steel. Corroded steel : takes up mo...
Whiteson, S.; Wiering, M.; van Otterlo, M.
Algorithms for evolutionary computation, which simulate the process of natural selection to solve optimization problems, are an effective tool for discovering high-performing reinforcement-learning policies. Because they can automatically find good representations, handle continuous action spaces,
Lydecker, Janet A; Riley, Kristen E; Grilo, Carlos M
Fat talk, negative communication about weight, is common in the media, peer groups, and families. Little is known about parental fat talk directed at oneself or others. This study examined associations between different forms of parental fat talk and child disordered eating behaviors and weight, and differences by child sex and age. Parents of preadolescents or adolescents (n = 581) reported fat talk about themselves (self-fat talk), others (obesity-fat talk), and their child (child-fat talk). 76.0% of parents reported regular self-fat talk in front of children, 51.5% reported obesity-fat talk, and 43.6% reported child-fat talk. Fat talk did not differ significantly between parents of preadolescents and adolescents but was more common with sons than daughters. Of the three forms of fat talk, only child-fat talk was associated with all child eating and weight variables (binge eating, overeating, secretive eating, and overweight/obesity); associations were strongest for adolescent girls. Child sex was associated with secretive eating and overweight/obesity. Parents reported using different forms of fat talk frequently. Parent self- and obesity-fat talk were reported more frequently, but child-fat talk was the most strongly associated with children's eating and weight. Because of associations with disordered eating behaviors, intervening to reduce fat talk might contribute to improving pediatric disordered eating and weight-related interventions. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Behavioral and personality characteristics are factors that may jointly regulate body weight. This study explored the relationship between body mass index (BMI and self-reported behavioral and personality measures. These measures included eating behavior (based on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire- TFEQ (Stunkard and Messick, 1985, sensitivity to reward and punishment (based on the BIS/BAS Scales (Carver and White, 1994 and self-reported impulsivity (based on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (Patton et al., 1995. We found an inverted U-shaped relationship between restrained eating and BMI. This relationship was moderated by the level of disinhibited eating. Independent of eating behavior, BIS and BAS responsiveness were associated with BMI in a gender-specific manner with negative relationships for men and positive relationships for women. Together, eating behavior and BIS/BAS responsiveness accounted for a substantial proportion of BMI variance (men: ~25%, women: ~32%. A direct relationship between self-reported impulsivity and BMI was not observed. In summary, our results demonstrate a system of linear and non-linear relationships between the investigated factors and BMI. Moreover, body weight status was not only associated with eating behavior (cognitive restraint and disinhibition, but also with personality factors not inherently related to an eating context (BIS/BAS. Importantly, these relationships differ between men and women.
Ouwens, M A; Schiffer, A A; Visser, L I; Raeijmaekers, N J C; Nyklíček, I
Morbid obesity is a highly prevalent condition that is associated with a high risk of various diseases and high health care costs. Understanding determinants of eating behaviours that are characteristic of many morbidly obese persons is important for the development of new interventions aimed at changing eating behaviour after bariatric surgery. Dispositional mindfulness seems promising as one such potential determinant. Therefore, the association between mindfulness and eating behaviour was examined in females and males with morbid obesity. Outpatients with morbid obesity who were candidates for bariatric surgery (N = 335; 78.8% female) completed the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ), the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), in addition to the collection of relevant demographic and medical data. Three separate multiple regression analyses with three eating behaviour styles (restrained, emotional, external) as dependent variables showed that mindfulness was positively associated with restrained eating behaviour (Beta = .28, p ≤ .001), and negatively associated with emotional (Beta = -.22, p ≤ .001) and external (Beta = -.32, p ≤ .001) eating behaviours, independent of sex, age, educational level, Body Mass Index and affective symptoms. Dispositional mindfulness was associated with more restrained, and less emotional and external eating behaviour in morbidly obese outpatients, above and beyond affective symptoms. Future studies, establishing the causal direction of the associations, are needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Arredondo, Elva M; Elder, John P; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Campbell, Nadia; Baquero, Barbara; Duerksen, Susan
Parenting styles influence a child's risk for obesity. The goals of this study are to evaluate the influence of (i) parenting style on children's health behaviors (physical activity and dietary intake), (ii) children's sociodemographic characteristics on parenting style and on children's health behaviors and (iii) parents' sociodemographic characteristics on their use of controlling styles to promote a healthy home environment. Survey and anthropometric data were collected from a community sample of Latino parents (n = 812) and their children in kindergarten through second grade. Parental use of positive reinforcement and monitoring was associated with children's healthy eating and exercise. Also, parents' use of appropriate disciplining styles was associated with healthier eating, while parental use of control styles was associated with unhealthy eating. The daughters of parents who used controlling styles ate more unhealthy foods than did the sons. Older, employed and more acculturated parents used less controlling styles than their counterparts. Parenting interventions targeting children's dietary intake and physical activity should encourage parents to use more positive reinforcement and monitor their children's health behaviors as these parenting styles are associated with healthier behaviors. Moreover, intervention researchers may want to encourage Latino parents to use less controlling styles with girls as this parenting style increased girls' risk for unhealthy eating.
Thivel, David; David, Thivel; Aucouturier, Julien; Julien, Aucouturier; Isacco, Laurie; Laurie, Isacco; Lazaar, Nordine; Nordine, Lazaar; Ratel, Sébastien; Sébastien, Ratel; Doré, Eric; Eric, Doré; Meyer, Martine; Martine, Meyer; Duché, Pascale; Pascale, Duché
Children's eating habits have mainly been related to anthropometric characteristics but less is known about their association with physical fitness. 278 French school children (131 boys and 147 girls) filled in eating habit questionnaires and completed anthropometric measurement (weight, height, skinfolds) and physical fitness tests. The 20-m Shuttle run test and the Squat Jump test were used to assess aerobic fitness and anaerobic (lower limb muscle power) fitness respectively. Breakfast consumption was associated with both aerobic fitness (ppower (phabits was negatively associated with CRF stages and lower limb muscle power performances (phabits and decreases with the number of unhealthy eating behaviors cumulated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Eating patterns are important for building sustainable food and agricultural systems. This paper begins by presenting the main features of eating patterns worldwide. These eating patterns include the relative convergence of diets, more rapid food transition in emerging and developing countries, development of a more complex food chain, and substantial food losses and waste at distribution and final consumption stages. These patterns have negative consequences on health and the environment. The drivers of these patterns are examined to identify knowledge gaps, the filling of which should facilitate the design and implementation of actions and policies aimed at making food systems more sustainable.
Macht, Michael; Dettmer, Dorothee
Emotional changes after eating chocolate were examined in everyday life. Thirty-seven healthy, normal-weight women ate a chocolate bar, an apple or nothing and rated their subjective state 5, 30, 60 and 90min after eating. Both chocolate and the apple reduced hunger, elevated mood and increased activation, but the effects of the chocolate were stronger. Eating chocolate was also followed by joy and, in some women, by guilt. Guilt responders experienced less intense positive emotions. Whereas positive emotional responses appear to be due to sensory pleasure and it's anticipation and may also be related to reduced hunger, guilt responses are probably induced by negative food-related cognitions.
Masuda, Akihiko; Wendell, Johanna W
The present study investigated whether mindfulness mediates the relation between disordered eating-related cognitions and negative psychological outcomes within a non-clinical college sample. Disordered eating-related cognitions were positively associated with general psychological ill-health and emotional distress in interpersonal contexts and inversely related to mindfulness. Mindfulness, which was also inversely related to general psychological ill-health and emotional distress, was found to partially mediate the relations between disordered eating-related cognitions and the two predicted variables. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
We give an overview of recent exciting achievements of deep reinforcement learning (RL). We discuss six core elements, six important mechanisms, and twelve applications. We start with background of machine learning, deep learning and reinforcement learning. Next we discuss core RL elements, including value function, in particular, Deep Q-Network (DQN), policy, reward, model, planning, and exploration. After that, we discuss important mechanisms for RL, including attention and memory, unsuperv...
Wang, Shirley B; Lydecker, Janet A; Grilo, Carlos M
Overvaluation of shape and weight in binge-eating disorder (BED) is associated with greater eating-disorder psychopathology and greater weight-bias internalization, which are-in turn-associated with poorer mental and physical health. Little is known, however, about the significance of other cognitive processes, such as rumination, in BED. This study examined rumination and overvaluation of shape/weight with eating-disorder psychopathology and weight-bias internalization among 237 treatment-seeking patients with BED and comorbid obesity. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that rumination was associated with eating-disorder psychopathology and weight-bias internalization above and beyond the influence of overvaluation of shape/weight. Findings suggest that, among patients with BED/obesity, rumination is an important cognitive process associated with severity of eating-disorder psychopathology even after accounting for overvaluation of shape/weight. Patients with greater rumination might be more likely to dwell on weight-based discrimination experiences and internalize these negative attitudes. Additional controlled examination could determine whether rumination represents another potential target for BED/obesity treatment. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Full Text Available Beatriz Jáuregui-Garrido1, Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera2,31Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Virgen del Rocío, 2Behavioral Sciences Institute, 3Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Eating disorders are usually associated with an increased risk of premature death with a wide range of rates and causes of mortality. “Sudden death” has been defined as the abrupt and unexpected occurrence of fatality for which no satisfactory explanation of the cause can be ascertained. In many cases of sudden death, autopsies do not clarify the main cause. Cardiovascular complications are usually involved in these deaths. The purpose of this review was to report an update of the existing literature data on the main findings with respect to sudden death in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. The most relevant conclusion of this review seems to be that the main causes of sudden death in eating disorders are those related to cardiovascular complications. The predictive value of the increased QT interval dispersion as a marker of sudden acute ventricular arrhythmia and death has been demonstrated. Eating disorder patients with severe cardiovascular symptoms should be hospitalized. In general, with respect to sudden death in eating disorders, some findings (eg, long-term eating disorders, chronic hypokalemia, chronically low plasma albumin, and QT intervals >600 milliseconds must be taken into account, and it must be highlighted that during refeeding, the adverse effects of hypophosphatemia include cardiac failure. Monitoring vital signs and performing electrocardiograms and serial measurements of plasma potassium are relevant during the treatment of eating disorder patients.Keywords: sudden death, cardiovascular complications, refeeding syndrome, QT interval, hypokalemia
Despain, Kelsey; Miyairi, Maya
As one of the Healthy Campus 2020 initiatives, college campuses nationwide are encouraged to focus on reducing the proportion of students who report experiencing an eating disorder/problem within the last 12 months from 5.3% to 4.8% (American College Health Association, 2015). In a survey of 639 Utah State University (USU) students, 0.6% of respondents reported an eating disorder/problem having a negative impact on their academic performance (American College Health Association, 2015). Althou...
MICALI,Flávia Gonçalves; DIEZ-GARCIA,Rosa Wanda
ABSTRACT To trace the course of building a pictorial instrument that explores semiotic resources about food and nutrition education. The instrument is directed at the treatment and prevention of obesity, considering the food and nutrition problems of the Brazilian population. The criteria for photo production were: images that could cause visual impact and transmit applied nutrition information, insinuating positive and negative eating practices for promoting healthy eating, and preventing an...
Lund, Thomas Bøker; Kjærnes, U.; Holm, Lotte
and restaurants is related to socio-demographic factors and factors relevant to the organization of daily life.We found that eating out is not a fundamental part of everyday eating. It is something which takes place occasionally. This may be taken to suggest that eating out in the Nordic countries is primarily...... lunches and dedicated public policies supporting the provisioning of lunches outside the home may have promoted eating out.Multivariate analysis revealed that eating out declines with age. An urbanization effect exists, as residence in a capital city increases the propensity to eat out. There were socio...
Haycraft, Emma; Blissett, Jackie
This study aimed to examine associations between symptoms of eating disorders and parenting style, in a non-clinical sample. One hundred and five mothers completed self-report measures of eating disorder symptoms and parenting style. Higher levels of eating disorder symptoms were associated with more authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. Authoritative parenting was not significantly related to eating disorder symptoms. The findings demonstrate that eating disorder symptoms in non-clinical individuals are related to less adaptive parenting styles. These findings have potential implications for clinicians working with mothers with eating disorders. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stotts Krall, Jodi; Lohse, Barbara
Continuation of unhealthful dietary patterns and poor diet-related health outcomes among socioeconomically disadvantaged populations underscores the need to improve diet quality for this group. Enhancing eating competence, based on the Satter model of eating competence (ecSatter), may be one effective method to reach this goal, but requires substantiation in a low-income audience. This study utilized a qualitative approach to examine the congruence of the ecSatter model with the cognitive eating behaviors of a low-income audience. Structured interviews were conducted during summer of 2006 with 70 low-income adults in Pennsylvania. Themes about decisional factors that guide food selection, nutrition/health interests, and cognitive and affective responses to eating experiences were generated through content analysis. Thematic differences among eating competence levels and food security categories were examined. Nutrition information access preferences were also obtained. Eating competence, measured with the ecSatter Inventory, was low for this sample (mean 28.8+/-8.3). Convenience, mood, family, and availability of food at home, but not nutrition, were salient factors guiding meal and snack planning for both eating competent and noneating competent participants. Nearly equal proportions of persons with eating competence and without eating competence reported that they would make changes to their food purchases if they had more money to spend on food. Interestingly, for participants without eating competence, but not for those with eating competence, weight management played an important role in meal/snack planning, food purchases, and nutrition/health interests. ecSatter provided a tenable framework for rationalizing participants' cognitive and affective responses to eating experiences. Participants without eating competence were more likely to express negative thoughts and feelings associated with eating, regardless of food security status. The Internet, which was
Schebendach, Janet; Broft, Allegra; Foltin, Richard W; Walsh, B Timothy
Binge eating is a core clinical feature of bulimia nervosa (BN). Enhanced reinforcing value of food may play a role in this behavioral disturbance, but a systematic behavioral assessment of objective measures of the rewarding value of binge eating is lacking. The purpose of this study was to quantify the reinforcing value of food in BN patients as compared with normal controls. A progressive ratio (PR) computerized work task was completed under binge and non-binge instruction. The task consisted of 12 trials. The first trial required 50 keyboard taps to earn one portion of yogurt shake, and subsequent trials required progressive work increments of 200 taps for each additional portion. Completion of all 12 trials required 13,800 taps to earn 2100ml of shake. The breakpoint, defined as the largest ratio completed before a participant stopped working, was the measure of reinforcing efficacy. Ten patients and 10 controls completed the experiment. Under binge instruction, patients completed more trials and taps, and had a higher breakpoint than controls. The non-binge instruction yielded opposite findings; compared to controls, patients completed fewer trials and taps, and had a lower breakpoint. These results support the feasibility and potential utility of a PR task to quantify the reinforcing value of food in patients with BN. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available : One of the defining goals of this paper is getting new resistant material which combine the qualities of basic materials that get into its composition but not to borrow from them their negative properties. Specifically, the use of GFRP composite materials as reinforcement for wood beams under bending loads requires paying attention to several aspects of the problem such as the number of the composite layers applied on the wood beams. The results obtained in this paper indicate that the behavior of reinforced beams is totally different from that of un-reinforced one. The main conclusion of the tests is that the tensioning forces allow beam taking a maximum load for a while, something that is particularly useful when we consider a real construction, The experiments have shown that the method of increasing resistance of wood constructions with composite materials is good for it and easy to implement.
Scoffier-Mériaux, Stéphanie; Falzon, Charlène; Lewton-Brain, Peter; Filaire, Edith; d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne
Dancers are at high risk of developing disordered eating attitudes, notably because of internalized thinness norms. Although the big five personality traits have been shown to be associated with eating attitudes in daily life, in dancers where eating issues and thinness norms internalization could be salient little is known about these associations and the role of the internalization of thinness norms in this relationship. The main objectives of this study were thus to examine the relationships between the personality traits defined in the big five model and the self-regulation of eating attitudes, and to assess the role of internalized thinness norms in this association. The study included 180 intensively training dancers with an average age of 15.6 years (SD = 2.8). Dancers completed questionnaires measuring the big five personality traits, internalization of thinness norms and self-regulation of eating attitudes in sport. Bootstrapped mediation analyses showed that neuroticism was negatively associated with self-regulation of eating attitudes, both directly and indirectly through the mediating role of internalized thinness norms. This study suggested that: (a) neuroticism is a vulnerability factor for self-regulation of eating attitudes in dancers, as already evidenced in the general population, and (b) the internalization of thinness norms is a pathway through which neuroticism affects self-regulation of eating attitudes. The big five model is therefore partially related to the internalization of thinness norms and eating attitudes in dancers. Key pointsThe big five model relates to the internalization of thinness norms and eating attitudes in dancers.Neuroticism is negatively related to the self-regulation of eating attitudes.The internalization of thinness norms is correlated to the relationship between neuroticism and self-regulation of eating attitudes.
Mantzios, Michail; Egan, Helen; Bahia, Henna; Hussain, Misba; Keyte, Rebecca
Contemporary research investigating obesity has focused on grazing (i.e. an uncontrolled and repetitive consumption of small amounts of food). Meanwhile, constructs such as mindfulness, mindful eating and self-compassion have received much attention in assisting individuals with eating behaviours and weight regulation. The association between those constructs and grazing, however, has not been explored. In a cross-sectional study, university students ( n = 261) were recruited to explore the relationship of mindfulness, mindful eating and self-compassion with current weight and grazing. Results indicated that all constructs were negatively related to grazing, but only mindful eating related negatively to current weight. In addition, mindful eating mediated the relationship between grazing and current weight. Possible explanations and future directions are discussed further with an emphasis on the need for more empirical work.