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Sample records for negative radionuclide scan

  1. Radionuclide scanning

    Shapiro, B.

    1986-01-01

    Radionuclide scanning is the production of images of normal and diseased tissues and organs by means of the gamma-ray emissions from radiopharmaceutical agents having specific distributions in the body. The gamma rays are detected at the body surface by a variety of instruments that convert the invisible rays into visible patterns representing the distribution of the radionuclide in the body. The patterns, or images, obtained can be interpreted to provide or to aid diagnoses, to follow the course of disease, and to monitor the management of various illnesses. Scanning is a sensitive technique, but its specificity may be low when interpreted alone. To be used most successfully, radionuclide scanning must be interpreted in conjunction with other techniques, such as bone radiographs with bone scans, chest radiographs with lung scans, and ultrasonic studies with thyroid scans. Interpretation is also enhanced by providing pertinent clinical information because the distribution of radiopharmaceutical agents can be altered by drugs and by various procedures besides physiologic and pathologic conditions. Discussion of the patient with the radionuclide scanning specialist prior to the study and review of the results with that specialist after the study are beneficial

  2. Radionuclide brain scanning

    Abdel-Dayem, H.

    1992-01-01

    At one stage of medical imaging development, radionuclide brain scanning was the only technique available for imaging of the brain. Advent of CT and MRI pushed it to the background. It regained some of the grounds lost to ''allied advances'' with the introduction of brain perfusion radiopharmaceuticals. Positron emission tomography is a promising functional imaging modality that at present will remain as a research tool in special centres in developed countries. However, clinically useful developments will gradually percolate from PET to SPECT. The non-nuclear imaging methods are totally instrument dependent; they are somewhat like escalators, which can go that far and no further. Nuclear imaging has an unlimited scope for advance because of the new developments in radiopharmaceuticals. As the introduction of a radiopharmaceutical is less costly than buying new instruments, the recent advances in nuclear imaging are gradually perfusing through the developing countries also. Therefore, it is essential to follow very closely PET developments because what is research today might become routine tomorrow

  3. Radionuclide brain scanning

    Abdel-Dayem, H

    1993-12-31

    At one stage of medical imaging development, radionuclide brain scanning was the only technique available for imaging of the brain. Advent of CT and MRI pushed it to the background. It regained some of the grounds lost to ``allied advances`` with the introduction of brain perfusion radiopharmaceuticals. Positron emission tomography is a promising functional imaging modality that at present will remain as a research tool in special centres in developed countries. However, clinically useful developments will gradually percolate from PET to SPECT. The non-nuclear imaging methods are totally instrument dependent; they are somewhat like escalators, which can go that far and no further. Nuclear imaging has an unlimited scope for advance because of the new developments in radiopharmaceuticals. As the introduction of a radiopharmaceutical is less costly than buying new instruments, the recent advances in nuclear imaging are gradually perfusing through the developing countries also. Therefore, it is essential to follow very closely PET developments because what is research today might become routine tomorrow

  4. Transverse section radionuclide scanning system

    Kuhl, D.E.; Edwards, R.Q.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a transverse section radionuclide scanning system for high-sensitivity quantification of brain radioactivity in cross-section picture format in order to permit accurate assessment of regional brain function localized in three dimensions. High sensitivity crucially depends on overcoming the heretofore known raster type scanning, which requires back and forth detector movement involving dead-time or partial enclosure of the scan field. Accordingly, this invention provides a detector array having no back and forth movement by interlaced detectors that enclose the scan field and rotate as an integral unit around one axis of rotation in a slip ring that continuously transmits the detector data by means of laser emitting diodes, with the advantages that increased amounts of data can be continuously collected, processed and displayed with increased sensitivity according to a suitable computer program. 5 claims, 11 figures

  5. Radionuclide scan findings in delayed splenic rupture

    Flickinger, F.W.; Jackson, G.L.

    1978-01-01

    An initial liver/spleen scan performed on a patient with blunt abdominal trauma was negative 3 days following the accident. A follow-up scan 7 days later showed definite evidence of splenic rupture, proved surgically. The authors conclude that, in such cases, spleen scans may be negative initially because of delayed splenic ruptures

  6. The use of radionuclides in brain scan

    Boasquevisque, E.M.

    1979-01-01

    Brain scanning is easy to perform, safe and well tolerated by the patient. It has a high sensitivity, and accuracy (85-90%) in detecting focal lesions with a minimal size of 1.5-2cm, located superior to the brain stem; however, it lacks specificity. It does not compete with other procedures such as CT scan and angiography bit they rather complement one another. The brain scan is useful as a screening exam. (Author) [pt

  7. Radionuclides and the normal bone scan

    Mettler, F.A. Jr.; Monsein, L.; Rosenberg, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    Recently, Eisenhut and co-workers have described development of iodine-131 labeled diphosphonates for palliative treatment of bone metastases. The compound labeled was alpha-amino (4-hydroxybenzylidene) diphosphonate (BDP3). Other beta-emitting radionuclides have been used for treatment of intractable pain secondary to bone metastases. These include strontium-89, which has some difficulties, particularly in terms of disposal of the excretions due to the long physical half-life of the life of the radionuclide. Yttrium-90 has also been used but has a relatively high hepatic uptake. Phosphorus-32 labeled compounds have also been used. Although palliation has been described, bone marrow depression has also occurred. Rhenium-186 also has been suggested, however, high renal uptake is a problem. At present, the iodine-131 labeled BDP3 appears to be the best of the available therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. One of the major disadvantages in use of this compound is the production of gamma photons. While undesirable from a dosimetry viewpoint, gamma photons do, however, permit imaging if desired

  8. Radionuclide bone scanning of medullary chondrosarcoma

    Hudson, T.M.; Chew, F.S.; Manaster, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    Technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scans of 18 medullary chondrosarcomas of bone were correlated with pathologic macrosections of the resected tumors. There was increased scan intake by all 18 tumors, and the uptake in 15 scans corresponded accurately to the anatomic extent of the tumors. Only three scans displayed increased uptake beyond the true tumor margins; thus, the ''extended pattern of uptake'' beyond the true tumor extent is much less common in medullary chondrosarcomas than in many other primary bone tumors. Therefore, increased uptake beyond the apparent radiographic margin of the tumor suggests possible occult tumor spread. Pathologically, there was intense reactive new bone formation and hyperemia around the periphery of all 18 tumors, and there were foci of enchondral ossification, hyperemia, or calcification within the tumor itself in nearly every tumor. Three scans displayed less uptake in the center of the tumors than around their peripheries. One of these tumors was necrotic in the center, but the other two were pathologically no different from tumors that displayed homogenous uptake on the scan

  9. Radionuclide bone scanning of medullary chondrosarcoma

    Hudson, T.M.; Chew, F.S.; Manaster, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    /sup 99m/Tc methylene diphosphonate bone scans of 18 medullary chondrosarcomas of bone were correlated with pathologic macrosections of the resected tumors. There was increased scan uptake by all 18 tumors, and the uptake in 15 scans corresponded accurately to the anatomic extent of the tumors. Only three scans displayed increased uptake beyond the true tumor margins; thus, the extended pattern of uptake beyond the true tumor extent is much less common in medullary chondrosarcomas than in many other primary bone tumors. Therefore, increased uptake beyond the apparent radiographic margin of the tumor suggests possible occult tumor spread. Pathologically, there was intense reactive new bone formation and hyperemia around the periphery of all 18 tumors, and there were foci of enchondral ossification, hyperemia, or calcification within the tumor itself in nearly every tumor. Three scans displayed less uptake in the center of the tumors than around their peripheries. One of these tumors was necrotic in the center, but the other two were pathologically no different from tumors that displayed homogeneous uptake on the scan

  10. Clinical significant of three phase radionuclide bone scan

    Kim, Sun Hee; Suh, Jin Suck; Park, Chang Yun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-04-15

    Three phase radionuclide bone scan, consisting of a radionuclide angiogram, an immediate postinjection blood pool image, and 4hr delayed images, was randomly performed in 182 patients, who had been suffered from either local pain or tenderness. Authors analysed 3 phase bone scan in 74 patients with correct diagnosis proven surgically or clinically, from July 1987 to August, 1988. The results were as follows: 1. Overall sensitivity of 3 phase bone scan was 85.4%: sensitivity in patients with an osseous lesion was 90.4% as opposed to 72.7% in patients with a nonosseous lesion. 2. There was no difference in the detection rate of the osseous lesions between the 3 phase bone scan and the delayed image bone scan. However, because the detection rate was higher on the 3 phase bone scan than it was on only the delayed image bone scan (55%) in instance of the nonosseous lesion, we would suggest that 3 phase bone scan might be obtained in cases suspected of the nonosseous lesions. 3. When the presumptive diagnosis was a bone tumor, sensitivity and specificity for malignancy were 67%, 100% respectively. 4. In differentiating osteomyelitis from cellulitis, sensitivity was 94%, specificity was 100%. 5. 3 phase bone scan was able to provide the precise information about either vasculaturity or localization of lesion in some cases of soft tissue mass and avascular necrosis of hips.

  11. Radionuclide Imaging of Musculoskeletal Injuries in Athletes with Negative Radiographs.

    Nagle, C E; Freitas, J E

    1987-06-01

    In brief: Radionuclide bone scans can be useful in the diagnostic evaluation of musculoskeletal injuries in athletes. Bone scans can detect shinsplints, stress fractures, and muscle injuries before they are detectable on radiographs. Prognosis can be accurately assessed, allowing appropriate treatment to proceed without delay. The authors discuss the use of bone scans and identify musculoskeletal injuries that are associated with specific sports, such as stress fracture of the femur (soccer), tibia (running), scapula (gymnastics), and pars interarticularis (football or lacrosse).

  12. Reappraisal of radionuclide liver scans for preoperative gastric cancer patients

    Kondo, Makoto; Yonahara, Yoshio; Yamashita, Shoji; Ando, Yutaka; Mohri, Makoto [National Second Hospital of Tokyo (Japan)

    1983-04-01

    Radionuclide liver scans were obtained in 89 preoperative patients with gastric cancer. Eight showed definite defects on liver scans. At laparotomy, 14 patients were found to have liver involvement secondary to gastric cancer. The sensitivity of liver scans to predict liver involvement is 57% (8/14), and the specificity is 100% (75/75). The patients with definite defects on liver scans had a lower rate of palliative resection of the primary tumors (2/8) than the patients with liver involvement and no scan abnormality (4/6). The patients with advanced lesions but without liver involvement had the highest probability of resecting the primary tumors (57/63 : 47 radical, and 10 palliative). Normal serum levels of liver chemistries did not preclude the presence of defects on liver scans. Additional three patients were found to have cirrhosis of the liver solely based on liver scans, which was confirmed at laparotomy. Radionuclide liver scans can predict liver involvement with very few false positives, and may discriminate patients unsuitable for laparotomy even with palliative intent.

  13. Comparison of radionuclide scans with computer-assisted tomography in diagnosis of intracranial disease

    Clifford, J.R.; Connolly, E.S.; Voorhies, R.M.

    1976-01-01

    Radionuclide brain scans were compared with computer-assisted tomography (CAT) for the diagnosis of intracranial disorders in 297 patients. The diagnosis was confirmed in 281 patients who formed the population for the study. The radionuclide scan was false positive for 12 patients (3.9 percent) and false negative for eight (2.6 percent). The CAT was false positive for three patients (1 percent) and false negative for one (0.3 percent). In the 133 patients in whom both tests were negative, no evidence of central nervous system pathology has been found during the 6 to 18 month follow-up. Brain tumors and intracerebral hemorrhage are more readily detectable with CAT

  14. Investigations of Differential Scanning Techniques using Two Radionuclides

    Cottrall, M. F.; French, Rosemary J.; Trott, N. G. [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    1969-01-15

    In the development of scanning procedures difficulties sometimes arise because a particular radiopharmaceutical, which is selectively concentrated in an organ of interest, is also widely distributed in neighbouring sites in the body. Investigations have been made of a method which involves the use of a second radioactive substance to label such sites. By means of suitable electrical circuits fitted to a conventional mechanical scanner (Picker Magnascanner III), a direct colour scan of the organ under study can be obtained. Signals from the two radionuclides are distinguished by pulse-height analysis and used to operate the colour shift mechanism. Experimental studies with phantoms and clinical trials are reported. An analysis of the statistical limitations of the technique is given, including a discussion of the most suitable operating conditions for particular pairs of radionuclides. Illustrations include the use of {sup 75}Se selenomethionine and {sup 99m}Tc sulphur colloid or {sup 198}Au colloid in the delineation of the pancreas, and reference is also made to work with {sup 18}F, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 133m}In and {sup 197}Hg, which are used in various chemical forms to visualize specific types of tumours in vascular surroundings labelled with other suitable tracers. Some discussion of the dosimetry of these procedures is made, since the extent to which the technique can be applied may be limited by the activities which can be administered. However, successful results are being obtained using activities within the range generally accepted for single radionuclide scanning procedures. For example, the pancreas can be successfully visualised using 250 {mu}Ci {sup 75}Se selenomethionine in combination with 1 mCi {sup 99m}TC sulphur colloid. (author)

  15. Diagnosis of hydronephrosis: comparison of radionuclide scanning and sonography

    Malave, S.R.; Neiman, H.L.; Spies, S.M.; Cisternino, S.J.; Adamo, G.

    1980-01-01

    Diagnostic sonographic and radioisotope scanning techniques have been shown to be useful in the diagnosis of obstructive uropathy. The accuracy of both methods was compared and sonography was found to provide the more accurate data (sensitivity, 90%, specificity, 98%; accuracy, 97%). Sonography provides excellent anatomic information and enables one to grade the degree of dilatation. Renal radionuclide studies were less sensitive in detecting obstruction, particularly in the presence of chronic renal disease, but offered additional information regarding relative renal blood flow, total effective renal plasma flow, and interval change in renal parenchymal function

  16. Comparison of CT scanning and radionuclide imaging in liver disease

    Friedman, M.L.; Esposito, F.S.

    1980-01-01

    Early experience with body CT suggested its usefulness in many diagnostic problems; jaundice, renal and pancreatic masses, and in the evaluation of relatively inaccessible parts of the body, such as the retroperitineum, mediastinum, and pelvis. Investigation of hepatic disease by CT was not unexpectedly compared to radionuclide liver scanning, the major preexisting modality for imaging the liver. In the evaluation of the jaundiced patient, CT rapidly assumed a major role, providing more specific information about the liver than the RN liver scan, as well as demonstrating adjacent organs. CT differentiate obstructive from non-obstructive jaundice. With respect to mass lesions of the liver, the RN liver scan is more sensitive than CT but less specific. The abnormalities on an isotope image of the liver consist of normal variants in configuration, extrinsic compression by adjacent structures, cysts, hemangiomata, abscesses, and neoplasms. These suspected lesions may then be better delineated by the CT image, and a more precise diagnosis made. The physiologic information provided by the RN liver scan is an added facet which is helpful in the patient with diffuse hepatic disease. The CT image will be normal in many of these patients, however, hemochromatosis and fatty infiltration lend themselves especially to density evaluation by CT. The evaluation of lymphoma is more thorough with CT. Structures other than the liver, such as lymph nodes, are visualized. Gallium, however, provides additional isotopic information in patients with lymphoma, and in addition, is known to be useful in the investigation of a febrile patient with an abscess. Newer isotopic agents expand hepatic imaging in other directions, visualizing the biliary tree and evaluating the jaundiced patient

  17. Prospective evaluation of radionuclide scanning in detection of intestinal necrosis in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis

    Haase, G.M.; Sfakianakis, G.N.; Lobe, T.E.; Boles, E.T.

    1981-01-01

    The ability of external imaging to demonstrate intestinal infarction in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) was prospectively evaluated. The radiopharmaceutical technetium--99m diphosphonate was injected intravenously and the patients subsequently underwent abdominal scanning. Clinical patient care and interpretation of the images were entirely independent throughout the study. Of 33 studies, 7 were positive, 4 were suspicious, and 22 were negative. One false positive study detected ischemia without transmural infarction. The second false positive scan occurred postoperatively and was due to misinterpretation of the hyperactivity along the surgical incision. None of the suspicious cases had damaged bowel. The two false negative studies clearly failed to demonstrate frank intestinal necrosis. The presence of very small areas of infarction, errors in technical settings, subjective interpretation of scans and delayed clearance of the radionuclide in a critically ill neonate may all limit the accuracy of external abdominal scanning. However, in spite of an error rate of 12%, it is likely that this technique will enhance the present clinical, laboratory, and radiologic parameters of patient management in NEC

  18. The utility of repeat sestamibi scans in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism after an initial negative scan.

    Krishnamurthy, Vikram D; Sound, Sara; Okoh, Alexis K; Yazici, Pinar; Yigitbas, Hakan; Neumann, Donald; Doshi, Krupa; Berber, Eren

    2017-06-01

    We analyzed the utility of repeated sestambi scans in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and its effects on operative referral. We carried out a retrospective review of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism who underwent repeated sestambi scans exclusively within our health system between 1996-2015. Patient demographic, presentation, laboratory, imaging, operative, and pathologic data were reviewed. Univariate analysis with JMP Pro v12 was used to identify factors associated with conversion from an initial negative to a subsequent positive scan. After exclusion criteria (including reoperations), we identified 49 patients in whom 59% (n = 29) of subsequent scans remained negative and 41% (n = 20) converted to positive. Factors associated with an initial negative to a subsequent positive scan included classic presentation and second scans with iodine subtraction (P = .04). Nonsurgeons were less likely to order an iodine-subtraction scan (P < .05). Fewer patients with negative imaging were referred to surgery (33% vs 100%, P = .005), and median time to operation after the first negative scan was 25 months (range 1.4-119). Surgeon-performed ultrasonography had greater sensitivity and positive predictive value than repeated sestamibi scans. Negative sestambi scans decreased and delayed operative referral. Consequently, we identified several process improvement initiatives, including education regarding superior institutional imaging. Combining all findings, we created an algorithm for evaluating patients with primary hyperparathyroidism after initially negative sestamibi scans, which incorporates surgeon-performed ultrasonography. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Osmotic blood-brain barrier modification: clinical documentation by enhanced CT scanning and/or radionuclide brain scanning

    Neuwelt, E.A.; Specht, H.D.; Howieson, J.; Haines, J.E.; Bennett, M.J.; Hill, S.A.; Frenkel, E.P.

    1983-01-01

    Results of initial clinical trials of brain tumor chemotherapy after osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption are promising. In general, the procedure is well tolerated. The major complication has been seizures. In this report, data are presented which indicate that the etiology of these seizures is related to the use of contrast agent (meglumine iothalamate) to monitor barrier modification. A series of 19 patients underwent a total of 85 barrier modification procedures. Documentation of barrier disruption was monitored by contrast-enhanced computed tomographic (CT) scanning, radionuclide brain scanning, or a combination of both techniques. In 56 procedures (19 patients) monitored by enhanced CT, seizures occurred a total of 10 times in eight patients. Twenty-three barrier modification procedures (in nine of these 19 patients) documented by nuclear brain scans alone, however, resulted in only one focal motor seizure in each of two patients. In eight of the 19 patients who had seizures after barrier disruption and enhanced CT scan, four subsequently had repeat procedures monitored by radionuclide scan alone. In only one of these patients was further seizure activity noted; a single focal motor seizure was observed. Clearly, the radionuclide brain scan does not have the sensitivity and spatial resolution of enhanced CT, but at present it appears safer to monitor barrier modification by this method and to follow tumor growth between barrier modifications by enhanced CT. Four illustrative cases showing methods, problems, and promising results are presented

  20. Abnormal radionuclide cerebral angiograms and scans due to seizures

    Stevens, J.S.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of recent seizures on the brain scan was determined in a retrospective study of patients who had had seizures. All patients who underwent brain scanning within eight days of seizures and who did not have a specific intracranial lesion were included. The /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate cerebral angiogram and/or delayed scan was abnormal in 73 percent of 22 patients. The data suggest that if seizures occur within six days of the brain imaging, the image is likely to be abnormal. (auth)

  1. Radionuclide scanning after total knee replacement: correlation with pain and radiolucent lines. A prospective study

    Duus, B R; Boeckstyns, M; Kjaer, L

    1987-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships among Tc-99m radionuclide bone scan findings, pain, and radiolucent lines in 35 postsurgical knees. Our prospective study included bone scans, as well as radiographic and clinical examination three, seven, and 12 months after knee replacement surgery in 35...... and nonpainful knees, and the degree of isotope uptake did not correlate with the development of radiolucent lines around the prosthetic components....

  2. Radionuclide scanning in the diagnosis of splenic injury: a case report

    Naga, A.H.; Boyette, E.L.; Broadrick, G.L.

    1977-01-01

    Blunt abdominal trauma may lead to rupture of the spleen with major bleeding, minor laceration or intracapsular damage with delayed bleeding. At times diagnosis may be difficult delaying treatment. The safety, simplicity, rapidity and accuracy of radionuclide scanning when splenic injury is suspected are demonstrated in the case of a 7-year-old boy

  3. Detection of coronary artery disease - comparison of exercise stress radionuclide angiocardiography and thallium stress perfusion scanning

    Jengo, J.A.; Freeman, R.; Brizendine, M.; Mena, I.; St. Mary Medical Center, Long Beach, Calif.)

    1980-01-01

    Exercise thallium scanning and stress radionuclide angiography were compared in 16 normal subjects and 42 patients with more than 75% coronary arterial obstruction in studies using upright exercise on a bicycle ergometer. Studies at rest were subsequently obtained. Exercise thallium scans in the control group were normal in 15 and showed a defect in 1. Ejection fraction increased in all 16. During exercise, regional wall motion increased uniformly. In the group with coronary artery disease, thallium scanning revealed a new defect in the distribution of the involved arteries in 24 patients. In 15 who had a defect at rest, no new defect developed, but in 9 of the 15 new segmental wall motion defects were evident on radionuclide angiography. With exercise, ejection fraction decreased slightly. Regional wall motion abnormalities developed in the areas corresponding to thallium defects in all. Thallium scanning had a 93% and radionuclide angiography a 98% sensitivity value in detecting coronary artery disease. The respective specificity values were 94 and 100%. In patients with prior myocardial infarction who manifested new exercise abnormalities, 50% showed new thallium defects and 81% new wall motion defects

  4. Scanning negatives and slides digitizing your photographic archive

    Steinhoff, Sascha

    2009-01-01

    Many photographers have either moved into digital photography exclusively or use both analog and digital media in their work. In either case, there is sure to be an archive of slides and negatives that cannot be directly integrated into the new digital workflow, nor can it be archived in a digital format. Increasingly, photographers are trying to bridge this gap with the use of high-performance film scanners. In this 2nd edition, you will learn how to achieve the best possible digital image from a negative or a slide, and how to build a workflow to make this process efficient, repeatable, and reliable. The author uses Nikon's film scanners, but all steps can easily be accomplished while using a different scanner. The most common software tools for scanning (SilverFast, VueScan, NikonScan) are not only covered extensively in the book, but trial versions are also provided on a DVD, which also contains other useful tools for image editing, as well as numerous sample scans.

  5. Design and application of the MARK IV scanning system for radionuclide computed tomography of the brain

    Kuhl, D.E.; Hoffman, E.J.; Phelps, M.E.; Ricci, A.; Reivich, M.

    1976-01-01

    The MARK IV radioisotope scanning system was built to provide fast and accurate radionuclide computed tomography (RCT). It is designed primarily for detecting commonly available radioactive labels such as /sup 99m/Tc, but it is also adapted to detecting positron emitters such as 18 F. The system has interlaced convergent collimation in a 4-sided arrangement of 32-independent detectors which continuously rotate as a unit, detecting, processing, and displaying the reconstructed data while the study progresses

  6. A negative bone scan leads to an unusual diagnosis

    O'Brien, L.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: A bone scan looking for osteomyelitis or a more sinister pathology was performed on a 7-year-old boy with Von Willebrand''s disease. He presented with symptoms of pain in the left groin and a lump, although there had been no history of direct trauma, and an X-ray report stating that there was an irregular ill-defined area of bony destruction seen in the lower aspect of the left ischium. Blood pool images of the pelvis were acquired soon after an injection of MDP and three hours later a whole body bone scan was done. Results of the bone scan showed that the radiolucent lesion in the left ilium seen on the plain radiographs was not metabolically active on the technetium MDP study. Features compatible with a response to an intraosseous or sub-periosteal haematoma were seen when reviewing the original X-rays and, as there was a spontaneous resolution of the patient''s symptoms, this was considered to be the diagnosis. This study shows that a negative bone scan, which rules out an active bone lesion, is of value in making a diagnosis when used in conjunction with X-rays and a knowledge of the patient''s history

  7. A comparative study of radionuclide bone scan, X-ray and MRI on early femoral head necrosis in adults

    Liu Jihua; Ji Qinglian; Xu Aide; Zuo Shuyao; Gao Zhenhua

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To summarize radionuclide bone scan signs in the early femoral head necrosis (FHN) in adults, to compare them with MRI and X-ray findings and to discuss the pathological basis of radionuclide bone scan findings from the view of MRI. Methods: Forty cases (63 hips) with early FHN in adult patients proved by follow-up studies or pathology were analyzed. All patients underwent radionuclide bone scan, MRI and X-ray examination within a period of less than 7 d separately. Results: 1) Radionuclide bone scan manifestations of the early FHN corresponding to different MRI signs included: focally decreased uptake of radioisotope, focally increased uptake, atypical or typical doughnut sign, mildly increased uptake in the superior part of femoral head with band-like region of obviously increased uptake in inferior part of femoral head or femoral neck, and diffused increase of uptake in the whole head. 2) In 40 cases (63 hips), there was statistical difference in diagnosis early FHN in adults not only between radionuclide bone scan and X-ray but also between MRI and X-ray in sensitivity (P 0.05). Conclusions: 1) The atypical or typical doughnut sign and mildly increased uptake in the superior part of femoral head with band-like region of obviously increased uptake in inferior part of femoral head or neck are specific signs for diagnosing early FHN. 2) For sensitivity, radionuclide bone scan and MRI are equally superior to X-ray. (authors)

  8. Changes observed in radionuclide bone scans during and after teriparatide treatment for osteoporosis

    Moore, Amelia E.B.; Blake, Glen M.; Fogelman, Ignac; Taylor, Kathleen A.; Ruff, Valerie A.; Rana, Asad E.; Wan, Xiaohai

    2012-01-01

    Visual changes on radionuclide bone scans have been reported with teriparatide treatment. To assess this, serial studies were evaluated and quantified in ten postmenopausal women with osteoporosis treated with teriparatide (20 μg/day subcutaneous) who had 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scans (baseline, 3 and 18 months, then after 6 months off therapy). Women were injected with 600 MBq 99m Tc-MDP, and diagnostic bone scan images were assessed at 3.5 h. Additional whole-body scans (10 min, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h) were analysed for 99m Tc-MDP skeletal plasma clearance (K bone ). Regional K bone differences were obtained for the whole skeleton and six regions (calvarium, mandible, spine, pelvis, upper and lower extremities). Bone turnover markers (BTM) were also measured. Most subjects showed visual changes on 3- and 18-month bone scan images that disappeared after 6 months off therapy. Enhanced uptake was seen predominantly in the calvarium and lower extremities. Whole skeleton K bone displayed a median increase of 22% (3 months, p = 0.004) and 34% (18 months, p = 0.002) decreasing to 0.7% (6 months off therapy). Calvarium K bone changes were three times larger than other sites. After 6 months off therapy, all K bone and BTM values returned towards baseline. The increased 99m Tc-MDP skeletal uptake with teriparatide indicated increased bone formation which was supported by BTM increases. After 6 months off therapy, metabolic activity diminished towards baseline. The modulation of 99m Tc-MDP skeletal uptake during treatment was the result of teriparatide's metabolic activity. These findings may aid the radiological evaluation of similar teriparatide patients having radionuclide bone scans. (orig.)

  9. Changes observed in radionuclide bone scans during and after teriparatide treatment for osteoporosis

    Moore, Amelia E.B.; Blake, Glen M.; Fogelman, Ignac [King' s College London, School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Taylor, Kathleen A.; Ruff, Valerie A.; Rana, Asad E.; Wan, Xiaohai [Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Visual changes on radionuclide bone scans have been reported with teriparatide treatment. To assess this, serial studies were evaluated and quantified in ten postmenopausal women with osteoporosis treated with teriparatide (20 {mu}g/day subcutaneous) who had {sup 99m}Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scans (baseline, 3 and 18 months, then after 6 months off therapy). Women were injected with 600 MBq {sup 99m}Tc-MDP, and diagnostic bone scan images were assessed at 3.5 h. Additional whole-body scans (10 min, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h) were analysed for {sup 99m}Tc-MDP skeletal plasma clearance (K{sub bone}). Regional K{sub bone} differences were obtained for the whole skeleton and six regions (calvarium, mandible, spine, pelvis, upper and lower extremities). Bone turnover markers (BTM) were also measured. Most subjects showed visual changes on 3- and 18-month bone scan images that disappeared after 6 months off therapy. Enhanced uptake was seen predominantly in the calvarium and lower extremities. Whole skeleton K{sub bone} displayed a median increase of 22% (3 months, p = 0.004) and 34% (18 months, p = 0.002) decreasing to 0.7% (6 months off therapy). Calvarium K{sub bone} changes were three times larger than other sites. After 6 months off therapy, all K{sub bone} and BTM values returned towards baseline. The increased {sup 99m}Tc-MDP skeletal uptake with teriparatide indicated increased bone formation which was supported by BTM increases. After 6 months off therapy, metabolic activity diminished towards baseline. The modulation of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP skeletal uptake during treatment was the result of teriparatide's metabolic activity. These findings may aid the radiological evaluation of similar teriparatide patients having radionuclide bone scans. (orig.)

  10. Analytical sensitivity of Tc99m radionuclide 'milk' scanning in the detection of gastro-oesophageal reflux

    Paton, J.Y.; Nanayakkara, C.S.; Cosgriff, P.S.

    1985-09-01

    The analytical sensitivity of radionuclide ''milk'' scans for detecting gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) has been assessed using an in vitro simulation test. Five factors were found to affect the ability to detect simulated reflux: isotope concentration, absolute gamma camera sensitivity, absorber thickness overlying the ''oesophagus'' and volume and duration of reflux. We found that a critical volume-duration product must be exceeded for reflux to be detected. Radionuclide milk scanning appears to be much less sensitive in detecting transient events like GOR than might be expected from previously reported static simulation studies.

  11. Design and application of Mark IV scanning system for radionuclide computed tomography of the brain

    Kuhl, D.E.; Hoffman, E.J.; Phelps, M.E.; Ricci, A.; Reivich, M.

    1977-01-01

    The MARK IV system was built in our laboratory to provide fast and accurate radionuclide computed tomography (RCT). It is designed primarily for detecting commonly available radioactive labels such as 99 Tcsup(m), but it is also adapted to detecting positron emitters such as 18 F. The system has interlaced convergent collimation in a four-sided arrangement of 32 independent detectors which continuously rotate as a unit, detecting, processing and displaying the reconstructed data while the study progresses. During the scanning procedure, accumulated data are transferred to a digital computer for reconstruction processing. Data are corrected to equalize detector response and compensate for photon attenuation in the head. This program requires 30 seconds for completion, whereupon the final reconstruction, a 64 x 64 matrix from the single revolution, outputs to a core store and is displayed on the screen of a cathode-ray tube. As the rotation sequence continues, new data from each revolution are added to previous data and reprocessed for a new picture. Since the instrument operates at 50 s per revolution, the continuous collection and processing of data causes a new picture to appear on the display every 50 s as the study progresses. The operator may extend or curtail the duration of the examination according to the appearance of the picture. In practice, a five revolution (4.2 min.) scan is commonly used in most clinical studies. The instrument is a high sensitivity device with approximately uniform resolution (1.7 cm FWHM) throughout the section plane. Quantification of concentration of radioactivity in small regions is accurate and reproducible. The instrument has been applied to the study of alterations in cerebral vascular permeability, blood flow and blood volume, and to the study of cerebral glucose metabolism and cerebral spinal fluid distribution. (author)

  12. Radiographic skeletal survey and radionuclide bone scan in Langerhans cell histiocytosis of bone

    Nieuwenhuyse, J.P. van; Clapuyt, P.; Malghem, J.; Everarts, P.; Melin, J.; Pauwels, S.; Brichard, B.; Ninane, J.; Vermylen, C.; Cornu, G.

    1996-01-01

    Background. The lack of a consensus in the literature on the imaging strategy in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) bone lesions in childhood. Objective. To evaluate the relative value of radionuclide bone scan (RBS) and radiographic skeletal survey (RSS) in the detection of LCH bone lesions, both in the initial work-up of the disease and during the follow-up period. Materials and methods. Ten children with bone lesions evaluated by means of RSS and RBS in a retrospective study (1984-1993). Results. Fifty radiologically and/or scintigraphically abnormal foci were detected: 27 anomalies in the initial work-up (12 by both RSS and RBS, 8 by RSS only and 7 by RBS only) and 23 additional anomalies during follow-up (10 by both RSS and RBS, 10 by RSS only and 3 by RBS only). RSS+/RBS- lesions (n = 18) are more frequently encountered in the skull (P = 0.038), and more frequently lack radiologic signs of osteoblastic activity (P = 0.020), than RSS+/RBS+ lesions (n = 22). RSS-/RBS+ abnormalities (n = 10) were most frequently insignificant. Conclusion. In the initial work-up both RSS and RBS should be carried out, while in the follow-up only RSS should be performed. (orig.). With 2 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Ventilation and perfusion imaging by electrical impedance tomography: a comparison with radionuclide scanning.

    Kunst, P W; Vonk Noordegraaf, A; Hoekstra, O S; Postmus, P E; de Vries, P M

    1998-11-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a technique that makes it possible to measure ventilation and pulmonary perfusion in a volume that approximates to a 2D plane. The possibility of using EIT for measuring the left-right division of ventilation and perfusion was compared with that of radionuclide imaging. Following routine ventilation (81mKr) and perfusion scanning (99mTc-MAA), EIT measurements were performed at the third and the sixth intercostal level in 14 patients with lung cancer. A correlation (r = 0.98, p RC) was calculated for estimating the left-right division with EIT. The RC for the ventilation measurements was 94% and 96% for the perfusion measurements. The correlation analysis for reproducibility of the EIT measurements was 0.95 (p < 0.001) for the ventilation and 0.93 (p < 0.001) for the perfusion measurements. In conclusion, EIT can be regarded as a promising technique to estimate the left-right division of pulmonary perfusion and ventilation.

  14. Improved radionuclide method for the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux and aspiration in children (milk scan)

    Heyman, S.; Kirkpatrick, J.A.; Winter, H.S.; Treves, S.

    1979-01-01

    A radionuclide study using technetium-99m-labelled milk feeding is described for the detection of gastroesophageal reflux and aspiration in children. A comparison of findings in 39 patients referred for both radiographic and radionuclide studies showed that barium studies were positive in 25.6% and radionuclide studies in 59% of cases, reflecting the sensitivity of the radionuclide technique. This technique is also physiological and allows prolonged patient monitoring. It is simple to perform and should prove useful in the evaluation of patients suspected of having gastroesophageal reflux and aspiration

  15. The influence of volatile anesthetics on alveolar epithelial permeability measured by noninvasive radionuclide lung scan

    Hung, Chih-Jen; Wu, Rick Sai-Chuen; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Kao, Albert; Tsai, Jeffrey J.P.

    2003-01-01

    Many volatile anesthetics have long been thought to affect pulmonary functions including lung ventilation (LV) and alveolar epithelial permeability (AEP). The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of volatile anesthetics on LV and AEP by noninvasive radionuclide lung imaging of technetium-99m labeled diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid radioaerosol inhalation lung scan (DTPA lung scan). Twenty patients undergoing surgery and receiving volatile anesthesia with 1% halothane were enrolled as the study group 1. The other 20 patients undergoing surgery and receiving volatile anesthesia with 1.5% isoflurane were enrolled as the study group 2. At the same time, 20 patients undergoing surgery with intravenous anesthesia drugs were included as a control group. Before surgery, 1 hour after surgery, and 1 week after surgery, we investigated the 3 groups of patients with DTPA lung scan to evaluate LV and AEP by 99m Tc DTPA clearance halftime (T1/2). No significant change or abnormality of LV before surgery, 1 hour after surgery, or 1 week after surgery was found among the 3 groups of patients. In the control group, the 99m Tc DTPA clearance T1/2 was 63.5±16.4, 63.1±18.4, and 62.8±17.0 minutes, before surgery, 1 hour after surgery, and 1 week after surgery, respectively. In group 1, it was 65.9±9.3, 62.5±9.1, and 65.8±10.3 minutes, respectively. No significant change in AEP before surgery, 1 hour after surgery, or 1 week after surgery was found. However, in group 2, the 99m Tc DTPA clearance T1/2 was 65.5±13.2, 44.9±10.5, and 66.1±14.0 minutes, respectively. A significant transient change in AEP was found 1 hour after surgery, but it recovered 1 week after surgery. We conclude that volatile anesthesia is safe for LV and AEP, and only isoflurane can induce transient change of AEP. (author)

  16. Experimental peptide receptor radionuclide therapy in radioiodine negative somatostatin receptor positive thyroid cancer

    Nilica, B.; Kroiss, A.; Putzer, D.; Uprimmy, C.; Warwitz, B.; Kendler, D.; Waitz, D.; Virgolini, I.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Purpose: This retrospective analysis evaluated the time to progression (TTP), progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with radioiodine negative thyroid cancer who had undergone peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE, 177 Lu-DOTA-LAN, 90 Y-DOTA-TOC or 90 Y-DOTA-LAN after tumor progression. Methods: Data derived from twenty patients with either differentiated (n=15), anaplastic (n=1) or medullary (n=4) somatostatin receptor positive thyroid cancer who had received treatment with PRRT after tumor progression. TTP, PFS and OS were defined according to the clinical trial endpoints suggested by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration). Progressive disease was defined by sonography, FDG-PET, Ga-DOTA-TOC-PET, or CT (RECIST Criteria). Results: In 17 patients the median overall survival time after the first PRRT was 17.3 (range: 0.1 - 109.7) months. Three patients still alive are actually showing stable disease. The median of PFS in 20 Patients (6 with more than one PRRT-cycle or PRRT-substance) has been 10.9 (range: 0.1 - 44.0) months. The median TTP was 15.6 (range 4.4 to 29.2) months. Conclusion: PRRT appears to be useful in patients with somatostatin receptor positive but radioiodine negative thyroid cancer as a complementary palliative cytotoxic therapy. (authors)

  17. MR imaging of avascular necrosis of the femoral head: Correlation with radiography, radionuclide scan and clinical finding

    Kim, Jung Sik; Woo, Young Hoon; Joo, Yang Goo; Lee, Sung Moon; Zeon, Seok Kil; Suh, Soo Jhi; Kang, Chang Soo [School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-03-15

    To explore the ability of magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) in the diagnosis of avascular necrosis(AVN) of the femoral head, we compared appearances on MRI of 85 proven AVN lesions with those on radiographs(n=79) and radionuclide scans(n=75). Clinical symptoms(n=85) were also correlated. All MR studies included coronal and axial T1WI and coronal T2WI. All lesions involved the anterosuperterior aspect of the femoral head and were surrounded by a low signal intensity rim on both T1 and T2WI. The signal intensity of the lesions was variable depending on the disease course, and the lesions were divided into four classes according to the classification suggested by Mitchell. Radiographs were normal in 16%(13/79) of the lesions which were in MR class A(10), B(1), C(2). The radionuclide scans showed normal in 16%(12/75) of the lesions which were in MR class A(8). B(1), C(2), D(1). On the other hand, 93% of the lesions with MR class A(27/29) showed stage 1 and 2 lesions on radiographs. Clinical symptoms were absent in 25%(21/85) of the lesions, and among these,81%(17/21) were MR class A. Conclusively, MR is superior to the radiography and radionuclide scan in the early detection of AVN, and can also show the exact location, extent and signal characteristic of the lesion. Therefore, Mr is essential in diagnosis and management of AVN.

  18. MR imaging of avascular necrosis of the femoral head: Correlation with radiography, radionuclide scan and clinical finding

    Kim, Jung Sik; Woo, Young Hoon; Joo, Yang Goo; Lee, Sung Moon; Zeon, Seok Kil; Suh, Soo Jhi; Kang, Chang Soo

    1992-01-01

    To explore the ability of magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) in the diagnosis of avascular necrosis(AVN) of the femoral head, we compared appearances on MRI of 85 proven AVN lesions with those on radiographs(n=79) and radionuclide scans(n=75). Clinical symptoms(n=85) were also correlated. All MR studies included coronal and axial T1WI and coronal T2WI. All lesions involved the anterosuperterior aspect of the femoral head and were surrounded by a low signal intensity rim on both T1 and T2WI. The signal intensity of the lesions was variable depending on the disease course, and the lesions were divided into four classes according to the classification suggested by Mitchell. Radiographs were normal in 16%(13/79) of the lesions which were in MR class A(10), B(1), C(2). The radionuclide scans showed normal in 16%(12/75) of the lesions which were in MR class A(8). B(1), C(2), D(1). On the other hand, 93% of the lesions with MR class A(27/29) showed stage 1 and 2 lesions on radiographs. Clinical symptoms were absent in 25%(21/85) of the lesions, and among these,81%(17/21) were MR class A. Conclusively, MR is superior to the radiography and radionuclide scan in the early detection of AVN, and can also show the exact location, extent and signal characteristic of the lesion. Therefore, Mr is essential in diagnosis and management of AVN

  19. The natural course of radionuclide bone scanning in the evaluation of total knee replacement--a 2 year prospective study

    Duus, B R; Boeckstyns, M; Stadeager, Carsten Preben

    1990-01-01

    In order to establish the natural course of radionuclide bone scanning images after total knee replacement 41 consecutive patients were scheduled for examination 3, 7, 12 and 24 months after surgery. The mean age was 69 years (range 50-80 years); the female:male ratio was 4:1. Thirty-two patients...... completed the entire program. A total of 143 99Tcm medronic acid complex scintigrams was performed. No significant difference between the grades of total scintigraphic uptake at any of the four examinations nor any difference between the first and the last examinations could be demonstrated (P = 0...

  20. False positive and false negative FDG-PET scans in various thoracic diseases

    Chang, Jung Min; Lee, Hyun Ju; Goo, Jin Mo; Lee, Ho Young; Lee, Jong Jin; Chung, June Key; Im, Jung Gi

    2006-01-01

    Fluorodeoxygucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) is being used more and more to differentiate benign form malignant focal lesions and it has been shown to be more efficacious than conventional chest computed tomography (CT). However, FDG is not a cancer-specific agent, and false positive findings in benign diseases have been reported. Infectious diseases (mycobacterial, fungal, bacterial infection), sarcoidosis, radiation pneumonitis and post-operative surgical conditions have shown intense uptake on PET scan. On the other hand, tumors with low glycolytic activity such as adenomas, bronchioloalveolar carcinomas, carcinoid tumors, low grade lymphomas and small sized tumors have revealed false negative findings on PET scan, Furthermore, in diseases located near the physiologic uptake sites (heart, bladder, kidney, and liver), FDG-PET should be complemented with other imaging modalities to confirm results and to minimize false negative findings. Familiarity with these false positive and negative findings will help radiologists interpret PET scans more accurately and also will help to determine the significance of the findings. In this review, we illustrate false positive and negative findings of PET scan in a variety of diseases

  1. Gastric visualization and image quality in radionuclide bone scanning: concise communication

    Wilson, M.A.; Pollack, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    In a 12-mo study period, there were 14 days identified when the stomach was visualized in routine bone imaging. On these days, 44% of the 110 patients imaged demonstrated this effect. Only the quality control, binding efficiency, and scan quality differed (p less than 0.005) when the study population was compared with a reference population of 162 patients. However, on the days when this effect was noted, there was a significant (p less than 0.001) linear correlation between the presence and degree of gastric visualization and the radiopharmaceutical incubation and quality control parameters. The study suggests a sporadic phenomenon that appears to result from partial oxidation of the agent during incubation, producing (a) different species of labeled diphosphonate that display altered affinity for bone (scan quality) and (b) free pertechnetate

  2. Gastric visualization and image quality in radionuclide bone scanning: concise communication

    Wilson, M.A.; Pollack, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    In a 12-mo study period, there were 14 days identified when the stomach was visualized in routine bone imaging. On these days, 44% of the 110 patients imaged demonstrated this effect. There was a significant linear correlation between the presence and degree of gastric visualization and the radiopharmaceutical incubation and quality control parameters. The study suggests a sporadic phenomenon that appears to result from partial oxidation of the agent during incubation, producing (a) different species of labeled diphosphonate that display altered affinity for bone (scan quality) and (b) free pertechnetate

  3. Radionuclide scanning in a study of the pulmonary blood flow with the open arterial canal

    Rizaev, M.N.; Gulyamov, D.S.; Khodzhibekov, M.Kh.; Anvarov, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    Characteristic features of the distribution of the arterial pulmonary blood flow have been studied in 32 patients with the open arterial flow by lung scanning with albumin macroaggregate and 131 I. Research was conducted using the gamma-Ochamber ''Fo Gamma LFV'' and the scanner ''Magnaskaner 500I''. Disordered distribution of the pulmonary blood flow expressed in its unilateral decrease was detected in 17 patients (52.9%). A higher frequency of pulmonary hypertension was noted in these patients versus those with a relatively normal distribution of the pulmonary blood flow. A severe course of the disease was observed in high pulmonary hypertension combined with sharp suppression of the blood flow in one of the lungs or with signs of the shift from the right to the left side

  4. Magnetic-field-controlled negative differential conductance in scanning tunneling spectroscopy of graphene npn junction resonators

    Li, Si-Yu; Liu, Haiwen; Qiao, Jia-Bin; Jiang, Hua; He, Lin

    2018-03-01

    Negative differential conductance (NDC), characterized by the decreasing current with increasing voltage, has attracted continuous attention for its various novel applications. The NDC typically exists in a certain range of bias voltages for a selected system and controlling the regions of NDC in curves of current versus voltage (I -V ) is experimentally challenging. Here, we demonstrate a magnetic-field-controlled NDC in scanning tunneling spectroscopy of graphene npn junction resonators. The magnetic field not only can switch on and off the NDC, but also can continuously tune the regions of the NDC in the I -V curves. In the graphene npn junction resonators, magnetic fields generate sharp and pronounced Landau-level peaks with the help of the Klein tunneling of massless Dirac fermions. A tip of scanning tunneling microscope induces a relatively shift of the Landau levels in graphene beneath the tip. Tunneling between the misaligned Landau levels results in the magnetic-field-controlled NDC.

  5. Occupational Radiation Exposure to the Extremities of Medical Staff during Hysterosalpingography and Radionuclide Bone Scan Procedures in Several Nigerian Hospitals

    Nnamdi Norbert Jibiri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The practice of regular dose measurement helps to ascertain the level of occupational dose delivered to the staff involved in diagnostic procedures. This study was carried out to evaluate the dose exposed to the hands of radiologists and a radiologic technologist carrying out HSG and radionuclide bone scan examinations in several hospitals in Nigeria. Methods: Radiation doses exposed to the hands of radiologists and a technician carrying out hysterosalpingography (HSG and bone scan procedures were measured using calibrated thermo-luminescent dosimeters. Five radiologists and a radiologic technologist were included in the study for dose measurement. Results: The study indicates that each radiologist carried out approximately 2 examinations per week with the mean dose ranging between 0.49-0.62 mSv per week, resulting in an annual dose of 191 mSv. Similarly, the occupational dose delivered to both the left and right hands of a radiologic technologist administering 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP without cannula and with cannula were 10.68 (720.2 and 13.82 (556.4 mSv per week (and per annum, respectively. It was determined that the left hand of the personnel received higher doses than their right hand. Conclusion: The estimated annual dose during HSG is far below the annual dose limit for deterministic effects, however, it is greater than 10% of the applicable annual dose limit. Hence, routine monitoring is required to ensure adequate protection of the personnel. The total annual dose received during the bone scan exceeds the annual dose limit for both hands, and the dose to either left or right hand is greater than the dose limit of 500 mSv/yr. The radiologists monitored are not expected to incur any deterministic effects during HSG examinations, however, accumulated doses arising from the scattered radiation to the eyes, legs, and neck could be substantial and might lead to certain effects. More staff are required to administer 99m

  6. Subdiffraction focusing of scanning beams by a negative-refraction layer combined with a nonlinear layer.

    Husakou, A; Herrmann, J

    2006-11-13

    We evaluate the possibility to focus scanning light beams below the diffraction limit by using the combination of a nonlinear material with a Kerr-type nonlinearity or two-photon absorption to create seed evanescent components of the beam and a negative-refraction material to enhance them. Superfocusing to spots with a FWHM in the range of 0.2 lambda is theoretically predicted both in the context of the effective-medium theory and by the direct numerical solution of Maxwell equations for an inhomogeneous pho-tonic crystal. The evolution of the transverse spectrum and the dependence of superfocusing on the parameters of the negative-refraction material are also studied. We show that the use of a Kerr-type nonlinear layer for the creation of seed evanescent components yields focused spots with a higher intensity compared with those obtained by the application of a saturable absorber.

  7. Multiple myeloma: radiology or bone scanning

    Leonard, R.C.F.; Owen, J.P.; Proctor, S.J.; Hamilton, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    A comparative study of radionuclide bone scanning and skeletal radiology in patients with multiple myeloma revealed four principal findings: (i) There were no cases of negative bone scans with positive skeletal radiographs. (ii) Lytic bone lesions were seriously underestimated by bone scans. (iii) Bone scans tended to pick up lesions in ribs missed on the skeletal surveys. (iv) Patients with bone pain were more likely to have positive bone scans and skeletal radiographs than asymptomatic patients. (author)

  8. External accumulation of radionuclide in hepatic hydrothorax

    Albin, R.J.; Johnston, G.S.

    1989-01-01

    Hepatic hydrothorax is a complication in approximately 5% of patients with cirrhosis. Ascites is almost always present and helps to suggest the correct diagnosis. However, when ascites is absent, radionuclide imaging has proven to be helpful in establishing that the pleural effusion originated from ascitic fluid. When pleural fluid is rapidly removed, such as by thoracostomy tube drainage, the radioisotope may accumulate outside the thorax and produce a negative scan of the chest. When the radionuclide scan is nondiagnostic and the pleural space is being rapidly drained, the pleural fluid collecting system should always be imaged before rejecting a diagnosis of hepatic hydrothorax

  9. Rare Case of Intratracheal Metastasis Detected on 68Ga-Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen PET/CT Scan in a Case of Thyroglobulin Elevated Negative Iodine Scan Syndrome.

    Sasikumar, Arun; Joy, Ajith; Pillai, M R A; Oommen, Karuna Elza; Jayakumar, R

    2018-04-01

    A 64-year-old woman underwent completion thyroidectomy with upper tracheal ring resection and right-sided neck dissection for papillary carcinoma of the thyroid infiltrating the trachea and was given I radioiodine treatment. Three years later, she presented with hemoptysis. On evaluation, she had increased serum thyroglobulin and negative iodine scan (TENIS). F-FDG PET/CT scan did not identify any site of disease. One year later, Ga-PSMA scan done revealed a moderate focal tracer-avid intratracheal soft tissue; biopsy revealed it to be metastatic papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. This case kindles the possibility of using Ga-PSMA PET/CT to reveal occult disease in cases of TENIS.

  10. Comparison of gated radionuclide scans and chest radiographs. Assessment of left ventricular impairment in patients with coronary disease.

    Bianco, J A; Reinke, D B; Makey, D G; Shafer, R B

    1980-03-01

    Diagnostic efficacy of gated cardiac blood pool imaging was studied in 41 consecutive patients with LV ejection fractions (LVEF) less than or equal to 0.50. Eighty percent of patients were receiving therapy for LV failure at the time of the study. All patients had documented coronary-artery disease (CAD). Chest x-ray films were interpreted blindly by a senior radiologist. Cardiothoracic ratio of less than or equal to 0.50 was recorded as normal. Radionuclide assessment of LV function contributes importantly to the diagnostic and screening value of chest x-ray films. Patients with coronary disease and clinical evidence of heart failure should have radioisotopic studies even if chest x-ray film findings are normal. In patients with coronary artery disease and enlarged LV on chest films, radionuclide study of left ventricular performance aids in defining LV impairment, and in the prognostication of subsequent clinical course.

  11. Radionuclide body function imager

    Stoddart, H.F.

    1983-01-01

    A transverse radionuclide scan field imaging apparatus is claimed. It comprises: a plurality of highly focused closely laterally adjacent collimators arranged inwardly focused in an array which surrounds a scan field, each collimator being moveable relative to its adjacent collimator; means for rotating the array about the scan field and means for imparting travel to the collimators

  12. Value of 201Tl imaging in predicting therapeutic 131I uptake in patients with thyroglobulin-positive but 131I scan-negative differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Conlu, R.A.O.; Obaldo, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Serum thyroglobulin assay and 131Iodine (1311) whole body scan are considered complementary in detecting malignant thyroid tissue or metastases. A large number of patients, however, are encountered presenting with scan-negative, thyroglobulin-positive differentiated thyroid carcinoma posing a dilemma in therapeutic management. One of the first alternative scanning agents to be employed is 201Thallium (201Tl). Recent studies have demonstrated its usefulness in identifying lesions that are not visualized with traditional 131I whole body scan. It is not clear, however, whether 201Tl scan helps in the decision-making for subsequent 131I therapy. This study was conducted to determine if 201Tl scan can predict therapeutic 131I uptake and to define the clinical role of 201Tl scanning in these patients. Methods and results: A total of 12 patients (20-63 y/o), 5 males and 7 females, underwent surgery for differentiated thyroid cancer and all had serum thyroglobulin values above 10 ng/ml and normal TPO autoantibodies. Pre-therapy 131I scan using 111 MBq (3mCi) of 131I were obtained. As required for inclusion, all patients had negative pre-therapy scan and negative TPO autoantibody results and underwent 20lTl scanning within 3 weeks. All patients were given 131I therapy (3.7-5.5 GBq or 100-150 mCi) between one to two months after 201Tl scanning. Within a week after therapy, all patients underwent whole body 1311 scanning. 201Tl imaging demonstrated thyroid remnants in 9 out of 12 patients having positive 201Tl scan but negative pre-therapy 1311 scan. However, only 2 of the positive 201Tl scans showed 131I uptake post-therapy (positive predictive value of 20%). None of the subjects presented with a negative 201Tl scan and a positive post-therapy 131I scan. Conclusion: Our study suggests that evidence of remnants or metastases on 201Tl scanning may be an inappropriate basis for the decision to proceed with 131I therapy. The role of 20lTl imaging in this subset of

  13. When are false-positive and false-negative 18F'FDG PET scans really false?

    Binns, D.S.; Hicks, R.J.; Fawcett, M.E.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: A 61-year-old male presented with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the base of tongue. In the absence of wider metastatic disease on conventional staging, he was enrolled in a phase I, dose escalation chemoradiotherapy trial. In this study, therapeutic response to radiotherapy combined with cisplatin and a chemotherapeutic agent which specifically targets hypoxic cells (tirapazamine) was evaluated with serial 18 F-FDG PET scans. Baseline 18 F-FDG PET confirmed locally advanced disease, although a previously undetected lower cervical lymph node was identified and included in the radiotherapy portal. Whole-body PET revealed a small metabolically active area adjacent to the right hemidiaphragm. Respiratory gated, high-resolution helical CT failed to find structural evidence of disease and, as a result, the patient was enrolled in the 7 week therapy regime on the assumption that the PET finding was a false-positive result. Repeat 18 F-FDG PET scans at the middle, end and 12 weeks post-treatment showed excellent therapeutic response in the head and neck which was discordant with clinical and CT findings, and resolution of the metabolically active chest lesion. Despite the negative PET scan, persistent clinical and CT evidence of a residual tumour mass suggested a false-negative result and resulted in a neck lymph node dissection. This showed no evidence of malignant cells. Five months following treatment, the patient presented with pleural effusion at the base on the right lung. Subsequent CT scanning showed a small pleural lesion at the site of initial 18 F-FDG uptake. Biopsy confirmed metastatic disease. The apparent transient resolution of 18 F-FDG uptake in the pleural lesion with treatment presumably reflected a combination of reduced metabolic activity and size due to the partial, but not complete, cytotoxic effects of cisplatin. In conclusion, this case emphasizes the importance of pathological review and clinical follow-up in reconciling

  14. Value of FibroScan in diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis in patients with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B

    LUO Junhua

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo evaluate the value of transient elastography (FibroScan, FS in predicting hepatic fibrosis in patients with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB. MethodsOne hundred and four patients with HBeAg-negative CHB, who were diagnosed and treated in Hubei Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine from June 2011 to May 2013, were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent FS for liver stiffness measurement before liver biopsy. Statistical analysis was applied to compare liver stiffness (kPa with fibrosis stage (determined by liver biopsy. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve of FS was constructed, and the area under the ROC curve (AUROC was calculated to analyze the accuracy of live stiffness in predicting significant fibrosis and cirrhosis. Comparison between groups was made by Kruskal-Wallis H test, followed by Mann-Whitney U test for multiple comparisons. The correlation between two variables was analyzed by Spearman rank and Pearson correlation test. ResultsLiver stiffness gradually rose as the degree of hepatic fibrosis increased, with significant differences between groups (P<0.01 or P<0.05. Liver stiffness was positively correlated with the stage of hepatic fibrosis (r=0.810, P<0.01. The AUROC of liver stiffness for detecting liver cirrhosis was 0.956; the cut-off value for diagnosing liver cirrhosis was 13.1 kPa; the sensitivity was 92.7%, and the specificity was 80%. ConclusionFS is a promising noninvasive method for the assessment of hepatic fibrosis in patients with HBeAg-negative CHB; particularly, it has high accuracy in the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. FS combined with direct or indirect markers may play an important role in differential diagnosis and efficacy evaluation in patients with hepatic fibrosis.

  15. Abscess detection with radionuclides

    Alavi, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    Radionuclide studies may aid in the diagnosis and localization of intra-abdominal infections. Despite the introduction of new radiographic and ultrasound methods, there are several clinical situations in which radionuclide scans have proved useful. Those include detection of postoperative intra-abdominal abscess, evaluation of liver abscess, differentiation between pancreatic pseudocyst or abscess, evaluation of fever of unknown origin, and evaluation of inflammatory bowel disease. Each clinical situation is discussed separately here

  16. Benefit of cerebrospinal fluid spectrophotometry in the assessment of CT scan negative suspected subarachnoid haemorrhage: a diagnostic accuracy study.

    Hann, Angus; Chu, Kevin; Greenslade, Jaimi; Williams, Julian; Brown, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine if performing cerebrospinal fluid spectrophotometry in addition to visual inspection detects more ruptured cerebral aneurysms than performing cerebrospinal fluid visual inspection alone in patients with a normal head CT scan but suspected of suffering an aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). We performed a single-centre retrospective study of patients presenting to the emergency department of a tertiary hospital who underwent both head CT scan and lumbar puncture to exclude SAH. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of an approach utilising both spectrophotometry and visual inspection (combined approach) was compared to visual inspection alone. A total of 409 patients (mean age 37.8 years, 56.2% female) were recruited and six (1.5%) had a cerebral aneurysm on angiography. The sensitivity of visual inspection was 50% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 12.4-82.6%), specificity was 99% (95% CI: 97.5-99.7%), PPV was 42.9% (95% CI: 10.4-81.3%) and NPV was 99.2% (95% CI: 97.8-99.8%). The combined approach had a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 54.1-100%), specificity of 79.7% (95% CI: 75.4-83.5%), PPV of 6.8% (95% CI: 2.6-14.3%) and a NPV of 100% (95% CI: 98.8-100%). The sensitivity of the combined approach was not significantly different to that of visual inspection alone (p=0.25). Visual inspection had a significantly higher specificity than the combined approach (p<0.01). The combined approach detected more cases of aneurysmal SAH than visual inspection alone, however the difference in sensitivity was not statistically significant. Visual xanthochromia should prompt angiography because of a superior specificity and PPV. Due to its reduced sensitivity, caution should be applied when using only visual inspection of the supernatant. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The value of repeat scintigraphy in patients with a high clinical suspicion for Meckel diverticulum after a negative or equivocal first Meckel scan

    Vali, Reza; Daneman, Alan; McQuattie, Susan; Shammas, Amer [Hospital for Sick Children, Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Technetium {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate is the most common and accurate noninvasive method of preoperative investigation for Meckel diverticulum. Despite introducing various methods to increase the sensitivity of the study, there are many case reports of false-negative Meckel scans. A repeat scan is sometimes requested in patients with a high suspicion for Meckel diverticulum and negative or equivocal first Meckel scan. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the value of repeat scintigraphy for these patients. Seven hundred fifty-three Meckel scans were recorded retrospectively. In 33 cases (22 male and 11 female; mean age: 6.8 years), the Meckel scintigraphy was repeated either due to a high clinical suspicion of Meckel diverticulum and a negative study (n = 21) or due to equivocal findings in the first scan (n = 12). The study was interpreted as positive if an abnormal focal activity was identified in the abdomen and pelvis during the procedure. The results were correlated with pathology and clinical symptoms. Seven out of 12 (58%) equivocal studies were positive on the second study. Six of them were proven to be positive at operation (confirmed by pathology) while one of them was negative on laparoscopy. From 21 negative first scans with a high suspicion for Meckel diverticulum, three (14%) were positive on the second study. All three were proven to be Meckel diverticulum on pathology. Repeat Meckel scans in patients with equivocal findings on the first study or a negative result with a high clinical suspicion for a Meckel diverticulum are useful especially in cases in which the first study had been done without appropriate preparation. (orig.)

  18. Comparison of sequential planar 177Lu-DOTA-TATE dosimetry scans with 68Ga-DOTA-TATE PET/CT images in patients with metastasized neuroendocrine tumours undergoing peptide receptor radionuclide therapy

    Sainz-Esteban, Aurora; Carril, Jose Manuel; Prasad, Vikas; Schuchardt, Christiane; Zachert, Carolin; Baum, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare sequential 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE planar scans ( 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE) in patients with metastasized neuroendocrine tumours (NET) acquired during peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) for dosimetry purposes with the pre-therapeutic 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE positron emission tomography (PET)/CT ( 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE) maximum intensity projection (MIP) images obtained in the same patients concerning the sensitivity of the different methods. A total of 44 patients (59 ± 11 years old) with biopsy-proven NET underwent 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE and 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE imaging within 7.9 ± 7.5 days between the two examinations. 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE planar images were acquired at 0.5, 2, 24, 48 and 72 h post-injection; lesions were given a score from 0 to 4 depending on the uptake of the radiopharmaceutical (0 being lowest and 4 highest). The number of tumour lesions which were identified on 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE scans (in relation to the acquisition time after injection of the therapeutic dose as well as with regard to the body region) was compared to those detected on 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE studies obtained before PRRT. A total of 318 lesions were detected; 280 (88%) lesions were concordant. Among the discordant lesions, 29 were 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE positive and 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE negative, whereas 9 were 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE negative and 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE positive. The sensitivity, positive predictive value and accuracy for 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE as compared to 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE were 91, 97 and 88%, respectively. Significantly more lesions were seen on the delayed (72 h) 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE images (91%) as compared to the immediate (30 min) images (68%). The highest concordance was observed for bone metastases (97%) and the lowest for head/neck lesions (75%). Concordant lesions (n = 77; mean size 3.8 cm) were significantly larger than discordant lesions (n = 38; mean size 1.6 cm) (p max ). However, concordant liver lesions with a score from 1 to 3 in the 72-h 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE scan had a lower SUV max

  19. Comparison of sequential planar {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE dosimetry scans with {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TATE PET/CT images in patients with metastasized neuroendocrine tumours undergoing peptide receptor radionuclide therapy

    Sainz-Esteban, Aurora; Carril, Jose Manuel [Hospital Universitario Marques de Valdecilla, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Santander (Spain); Prasad, Vikas; Schuchardt, Christiane; Zachert, Carolin; Baum, Richard P. [Zentralklinik Bad Berka, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Centre for PET/CT, Bad Berka (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    The aim of the study was to compare sequential {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE planar scans ({sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE) in patients with metastasized neuroendocrine tumours (NET) acquired during peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) for dosimetry purposes with the pre-therapeutic {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TATE positron emission tomography (PET)/CT ({sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TATE) maximum intensity projection (MIP) images obtained in the same patients concerning the sensitivity of the different methods. A total of 44 patients (59 {+-} 11 years old) with biopsy-proven NET underwent {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TATE and {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE imaging within 7.9 {+-} 7.5 days between the two examinations. {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE planar images were acquired at 0.5, 2, 24, 48 and 72 h post-injection; lesions were given a score from 0 to 4 depending on the uptake of the radiopharmaceutical (0 being lowest and 4 highest). The number of tumour lesions which were identified on {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE scans (in relation to the acquisition time after injection of the therapeutic dose as well as with regard to the body region) was compared to those detected on {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TATE studies obtained before PRRT. A total of 318 lesions were detected; 280 (88%) lesions were concordant. Among the discordant lesions, 29 were {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TATE positive and {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE negative, whereas 9 were {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TATE negative and {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE positive. The sensitivity, positive predictive value and accuracy for {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE as compared to {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TATE were 91, 97 and 88%, respectively. Significantly more lesions were seen on the delayed (72 h) {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE images (91%) as compared to the immediate (30 min) images (68%). The highest concordance was observed for bone metastases (97%) and the lowest for head/neck lesions (75%). Concordant lesions (n = 77; mean size 3.8 cm) were significantly larger than discordant lesions (n = 38; mean size 1.6 cm) (p < 0.05). No such significance was

  20. Clinical importance of technetium-99m-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) scintigraphy in differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients with elevated thyroglobulin levels and negative I-131 scanning results

    Kuecuek, N.O.; Kulak, H.A.; Aras, G.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential contribution of Tc-99m-MIBI scintigraphy to the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma, who had elevated Tg levels and negative I-131 whole-body scan (WBS) results. In this retrospective study, we evaluated 28 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma, who had total or near total thyroidectomy followed by an ablative dose of I-131 at various time intervals (15 women, 13 men; mean age 43±17 years). All patients were treated with T4 suppression. After a mean follow-up period of 6.1 years (range 3-15) all patients were determined to have a high serum Tg concentrations (>2 ng/ml) and previous negative I-131 WBS results. All patients were examined for metastatic sites using Tc-99m-MIBI scan. Scans were visually evaluated for detecting lymph node metastases and/or local recurrence, lung metastases and skeletal metastases. Tc-99m-MIBI scan demonstrated lesions in 23 patients (83.3%). In five patients with negative Tc-99m-MIBI scan findings (FN results): Chest CT showed small-sized mediastinal LN metastases in 2 patients and lung metastases in another 2 patients (<1 cm); Neck CT showed small-sized cervical LN involvement in 1 patient. The sensitivity of detection for neck was 94.4%, for lung 63.6%, and for bone lesions 100%. For all scan sites taken together, the sensitivity of disease detection was 83.3%, the specificity was 50%, positive predictive value (PPV) was 96.2%, and finally negative predictive value (NPV) was 16.7%. We concluded that Tc-99m-MIBI scan should be considered as a supplementary scintigraphic method for the follow-up of patients with high serum Tg levels and negative I-131 WBS results, and it can help clinicians in making the decision to treat these patients. (author)

  1. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scan may be helpful in the case of ductal variant prostate cancer when prostate specific membrane antigen ligand positron emission tomography scan is negative

    McEwan, Louise M.; Wong, David; Yaxley, John

    2017-01-01

    Gallium-68 prostate specific membrane antigen ligand (Ga-68 PSMA) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scanning is emerging as a useful imaging modality for the staging of suspected and known recurrent or metastatic prostate cancer and in staging of newly diagnosed higher grade prostate cancer. However, we have observed at our institution that in some cases of the more aggressive ductal variant, Ga-68 PSMA uptake has sometimes been poor compared with prominent 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) avidity seen in F-18 FDG PET/CT, which would suggest that FDG PET/CT scans are important in staging of ductal pattern prostate cancer.

  2. Radionuclide trap

    McGuire, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition

  3. Comparative study on skull CT scan and bone scintigraphy in chronic hemodialysed patients

    Ochi, Hironobu; Inoue, Yuichi; Fukuda, Teruo; Shibakiri, Ippei; Tsuda, Kazuyoshi

    1981-01-01

    A comparative study of computed tomography (XCT) scan utilizing EMI head unit and radionuclide bone scan was performed in 17 patients with chronic renal failure on maintenance hemodialysis. Bone scintigram was positive in 7 out of 17 patients. EMI number of the skull in the positive bone scintigram group was significantly lower than that of the negative bone scintigram. Radionuclide bone scan is the most useful method to detect early bone change and XCT scan will determine the grade of the bone mineral contents. XCT is especially useful to follow patients under the medical treatment (active vitamine D 3 therapy) in order to know the therapeutic effect. (author)

  4. Study on the serum levels of relevant cytokines IL-β, IL-6, IL-8 and tumor markers CEA, CA15-3, PRL in breast cancer patients with bone metastatic lesions shown on SPECT radio-nuclide bone scan

    Zhu Bao

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the correlationship between SPECT radionuclide bone scan and serum levels of three tumor markers as well as three cytokines in patients with breast cancer. Methods: Serum levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, CEA, CA15-3(with RIA) and PRL(with CLIA) were determined in 1)20 breast cancer patients with definite bone metastatic lesions shown on radio-nuclide bone scan 2) 20 breast cancer patients without bone metastasis 3) 30 patients with benign breast disorders and 4) 35 controls. Results: The serum tumor markers levels in patients osseous metastasis were significantly higher than those in the other three groups (P 0.05). The serum levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β in patients with osseous metastasis were also significantly higher than those in other groups(P<0.05). Conclusion: Over expression of CEA, CA15-3 and PRL as well as IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β were related with osseous metastasis from breast cancer. Determination of the levels of these six parameters would be helpful for dynamic monitoring of the extent of metastasis. (authors)

  5. Radionuclide toxicity

    Galle, P.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this symposium was to review the radionuclide toxicity problems. Five topics were discussed: (1) natural and artificial radionuclides (origin, presence or emission in the environment, human irradiation); (2) environmental behaviour of radionuclides and transfer to man; (3) metabolism and toxicity of radionuclides (radioiodine, strontium, rare gas released from nuclear power plants, ruthenium-activation metals, rare earths, tritium, carbon 14, plutonium, americium, curium and einsteinium, neptunium, californium, uranium) cancerogenous effects of radon 222 and of its danghter products; (4) comparison of the hazards of various types of energy; (5) human epidemiology of radionuclide toxicity (bone cancer induction by radium, lung cancer induction by radon daughter products, liver cancer and leukaemia following the use of Thorotrast, thyroid cancer; other site of cancer induction by radionuclides) [fr

  6. Preoperative F-18-FDG PET for the detection of metastatic cervical lymph nodes in recurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma patients with negative I-131 whole body scans

    Byun, Byung Hyun; Urn, Sang Moo; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Choi, Chang Woon; Lee, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Guk Haeng; Lee, Yong Sik; Shim, Youn Sang

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic performance of FDG-PET for the detection of metastatic cervical lymph nodes in recurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma patients with negative I-131 scan. All patients had total thyroidectomy and following I-131 ablation therapy. In the follow-up period, FDG-PET showed suspected cervical lymph nodes metastases and neck dissection was performed within 3 months after FDG-PET. It had shown for all patients the negative I-131 scan within 3 months before FDG-PET or negative I-131 scan during the period of cervical lymph nodes metastases suspected on the basis of FDG-PET, CT, or ultrasonography until the latest FDG-PET. Preoperative FDG-PET results were compared with the pathologic findings of lymph nodes specimens of 19 papillary thyroid carcinoma patients. Serum Tg, TSH, and Tg antibody levels at the time of latest I-131 scan were reviewed. The size of lymph node was measured by preoperative CT or ultrasonography. In 45 cervical lymph node groups dissected, 31 lymph node groups revealed metastasis. The sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET for metastasis were 74.2% (23 of 31) and 50.0% (7 of 14), respectively. Except for patients with elevated Tg antibody levels, all patients showed the elevated serum Tg levels than normal limits at the TSH of =30uIU/ml. 8 lesions without suspected metastatic findings on FDG-PET revealed metastasis (false negative), and none of them exceeded 8mm in size (4 to 8mm, median= 6mm). On the other hand, 23 true positive lesions on FDG-PET were variable in size (6 to 17mm, median=9mm). FDG-PET is suitable for the detection of metastatic cervical lymph nodes in patients with recurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma. However, false positive or false negative should be considered according to the size of lymph node

  7. Radionuclides in thyroid cancer

    Mahadev, V.

    1980-01-01

    The three main areas of application of radionuclides in thyroid disease will be reviewed. Firstly thyroid radionuclide imaging in thyroid swellings, in relationship to lumps in the neck and ectopic thyroid tissue such as retrosternal goitre, and lingual goitre will be described. Future developments in the field including tomographic scanning, using the coded aperture method, and fluorescent scans and ultrasound are reviewed. The second area of application is the assessment and evaluation of thyroid function and the therapy of Grave's Disease and Plummer's Disease using radioiodine. The importance of careful collection of the line of treatment, results of treatment locally and the follow-up of patients after radioiodine therapy will be described. The third area of application is in the diagnosis and therapy of thyroid cancer. Investigation of thyroid swelling, and the diagnosis of functioning metastases are reported. The therapeutic iodine scan as the sole evidence of functioning metastatic involvement is recorded. Histological thyroid cancer appears to be increasingly encountered in clinical practice and the plan of management in relation to choice of cases for therapeutic scanning is discussed with case reports. Lastly the role of whole body scanning in relationship to biochemical markers is compared. In the changing field of nuclear medicine radionuclide applications in thyroid disease have remained pre-eminent and this is an attempt to reassess its role in the light of newer developments and local experience in the Institute of Radiotherapy, Oncology and Nuclear Medicine. (author)

  8. 18F-FDG SPECT/CT in the diagnosis of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with elevated thyroglobulin and negative iodine-131 scans

    Ma, C.; Wu, Z.; Wang, H.; Wang, X.; Shao, M.; Zhao, L.; Jiawei, X.

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of 18 F-FDG SPECT/CT in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with elevated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) but negative iodine-131 scan. This retrospective review of patients with DTC recurrence who had 18 F-FDG SPECT/CT and 18 F-FDG PET/CT for elevated serum Tg but negative iodine-131 scan (March 2007-October 2012). After total thyroidectomy followed by radioiodine ablation, 86 consecutive patients with elevated Tg levels underwent 18 F-FDG SPECT/CT or 18 F-FDG PET/CT. Of these, 45 patients had 18 F-FDG SPECT/CT, the other 41 patients had 18 F-FDG PET/CT 3-4 weeks after thyroid hormone withdrawal. The results of 18 F-FDG PET/CT and SPECT/CT were correlated with patient follow-up information, which included the results from subsequent imaging modalities such as neck ultrasound, MRI and CT, Tg levels, and histologic examination of surgical specimens. The diagnostic accuracy of the two imaging modalities was evaluated. In 18 F-FDG SPECT/CT scans, 24 (24/45) patients had positive findings, 22 true positive in 24 patients, false positive in 2 patients, true-negative and false-negative in 6, 15 patients, respectively. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 18F-FDG SPECT/CT were 59.5%, 75% and 62.2%, respectively. Twenty six patients had positive findings on 18 F-FDG PET/CT scans, 23 true positive in 26 (26/41) patients, false positive in 3 patients, true-negative and false-negative in 9, 6 patients, respectively. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/CT were 79.3%, 81.8% and 78.1%, respectively. Clinical management changed for 13 (29%) of 45 patients by 18 F-FDG SPECT/CT, 14 (34%) of 41 patients by 18F-FDG PET/CT including surgery, radiation therapy, or multi kinase inhibitor. Based on the retrospective analysis of 86 patients, 18F-FDG SPECT/CT has lower sensitivity in the diagnosis of DTC recurrence with elevated Tg and negative iodine-131scan to 18F-FDG PET/CT. The clinical

  9. Radionuclide cisternography

    Song, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to show that radionuclide cisternography makes an essential contribution to the investigation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics, especially for the investigation of hydrocephalus. The technical details of radionuclide cisternography are discussed, followed by a description of the normal and abnormal radionuclide cisternograms. The dynamics of CFS by means of radionuclide cisternography were examined in 188 patients in whom some kind of hydrocephalus was suspected. This study included findings of anomalies associated with hydrocephalus in a number of cases, such as nasal liquorrhea, hygromas, leptomeningeal or porencephalic cysts. The investigation substantiates the value of radionuclide cisternography in the diagnosis of disturbances of CSF flow. The retrograde flow of radiopharmaceutical into the ventricular system (ventricular reflux) is an abnormal phenomenon indicating the presence of communicating hydrocephalus. (Auth.)

  10. Prospective evaluation of 68Ga-DOTANOC PET-CT in differentiated thyroid cancer patients with raised thyroglobulin and negative 131I-whole body scan: comparison with 18F-FDG PET-CT

    Kundu, Parveen; Lata, Sneh; Sharma, Punit; Singh, Harmandeep; Malhotra, Arun; Bal, Chandrasekhar

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the role of 68 Ga-DOTANOC PET-CT in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients with negative 131 I-whole body scan (WBS) along with serially increasing serum thyroglobulin (Tg), and compare the same with 18 F-FDG PET-CT. Sixty two DTC patients with serially rising Tg levels and negative 131 I-WBS were prospectively enrolled. All patients underwent 68 Ga-DOTANOC PET-CT and 18 F-FDG PET-CT within an interval of two weeks. PET-CT analysis was done on a per-patient basis, location wise and lesion wise. All PET-CT lesions were divided into four categories-local, nodal, pulmonary and skeletal. Histopathology and/or serial serum Tg level, clinical and imaging follow up (minimum-1 year) were used as a reference standard. Ga-DOTANOC PET-CT demonstrated disease in 40/62 (65 %) patients and 18 F-FDG PET-CT in 45/62 (72 %) patients, with no significant difference on McNemar analysis (p = 0.226). Per-patient sensitivity and specificity of 68 Ga-DOTANOC PET-CT was 78.4 %, 100 %, and for 18 F-FDG PET-CT was 86.3 %, 90.9 %, respectively. Out of 186 lesions detected by both PET-CTs, 121/186 (65 %) lesions were seen on 68 Ga-DOTANOC PET-CT and 168/186 (90.3 %) lesions on 18 F-FDG PET-CT (p 68 Ga-DOTANOC PET-CT and 18 F-FDG PET-CT for detection of local disease (k = 0.92), while moderate agreement was noted for nodal and pulmonary disease (k = 0.67). 68 Ga-DOTANOC PET-CT changed management in 21/62 (34 %) patients and 18 F-FDG PET-CT in 17/62 (27 %) patients. Ga-DOTANOC PET-CT is inferior to 18 F-FDG PET-CT on lesion based but not on patient based analysis for detection of recurrent/residual disease in DTC patients with negative WBS scan and elevated serum Tg levels. It can also help in selection of potential candidates for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy. (orig.)

  11. Recurrent/metastatic thyroid carcinomas false negative for serum thyroglobulin but positive by posttherapy I-131 whole body scans

    Park, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Myung Chul; Chung, June-Key; Lim, Il Han; Park, Do Joon; Cho, Bo Youn

    2009-01-01

    Serum Tg and I-131 WBS have been used to detect recurrent and metastatic thyroid cancers postoperatively. Tg is known to be more sensitive than I-131 WBS, and therefore, false-negative WBS cases with elevated Tg levels are frequently found. However, the clinical characteristics of false-negative Tg cases with positive WBS have not been clarified. The authors evaluated 824 postoperative patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma who underwent post-ablation/therapy I-131 WBS. Tg negativity was defined as a Tg level of ≤2 ng/mL without TgAb under thyroid-stimulating hormone stimulation. Remission, recurrence, and metastasis were confirmed using pathologic or clinically findings. Fifty-two patients (6.3%) with functioning metastasis and negativity for TgAb were Tg-negative and posttherapy I-131 WBS-positive (TgN group), and 128 patients with functioning metastases were Tg positive and WBS positive (TgP group). The TgN group consisted of 45 cases of cervical/mediastinal lymph node metastases (86.5%) and seven cases of distant metastasis to lung or bone by follow-up WBS. The TgN group demonstrated significantly higher profiles of regional involvement than the TgP group (P < 0.029). In 47 patients in the TgN group, metastatic uptake disappeared in 33, ameliorated in four, and persisted in ten during follow-up. A significant number of differentiated thyroid cancer patients were Tg-/TgAb-negative despite a positive WBS finding. Cervical and mediastinal lymph nodes were predominant sites of metastasis in the TgN group. WBS should be undertaken routinely as a complementary modality to detect functioning recurrence and metastasis regardless of serum Tg results. (orig.)

  12. [F-18-fluordeoxyglucose positron emission tomography on patients with differentiated thyroid cancer who present elevated human serum thyroglobulin levels and negative I-131 whole body scan].

    Ruiz Franco-Baux, J V; Borrego Dorado, I; Gómez Camarero, P; Rodríguez Rodríguez, J R; Vázquez Albertino, R J; Navarro González, E; Astorga Jiménez, R

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the role of Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET-FDG) in patients with elevated serum thyroglobulin (hTg) levels where thyroid cancer tissue does not concentrate radioiodine, rendering false-negative results on I-131 scanning. Whole-body PET imaging using FDG was performed in 54 patients (37 female, 17 male) aged 17-88 years: 45 with papillary tumors and 9 with follicular tumors who were suspected of having recurrent thyroid carcinoma due to elevated thyroglobulin levels (hTg > 2 ng/ml) under thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH > or = 30 microIU/ml) in whom the iodine scan was negative. All whole body scans were obtained with diagnostic doses (185 MBq). Whole body PET imaging was performed in fasting patients following i.v. administration of 370 MBq FDG while the patients were receiving full thyroid hormone replacement. Before PET, 99mTc methoxyisobutylisonitrile scintigraphy (99mTc-MIBI) was done in 14 patients and morphologic imaging in 26 by CT scan. Positive PET results confirmed the presence of hypermetabolic foci in 25/54 patients (46.29 %). Positive findings were found for PET-FDG in patients with hTg levels higher than 10 ng/ml receiving full thyroid hormone replacement. 99mTc-MIBI demonstrated lesions in 7/14 patients (50 %). PET-FDG and 99mTc-MIBI had congruent positive results in 4/7 patients. All the lesions found by CT were detected by PET-FDG, while recurrent disease was found in 12/21 patients with previous negative CT. These results suggest that PET-FDG seems to be a promising tool in the follow-up of thyroid cancer and should be considered in patients suffering from differentiated thyroid cancer with suspected recurrence and/or metastases by elevated thyroglobulin levels, and negative I-131 whole body scans. PET-FDG might be more useful at hTg levels > 10 ng/ml.

  13. Quantitation of size of myocardial infarctions by computerized transmission tomography. Comparison with hot-spot and cold-spot radionuclide scans

    Gerber, K.H.; Higgins, C.B.

    1983-01-01

    The current study evaluated the ability to quantitate the volume of myocardial infarctions when they are outlined by intravenously administered contrast media in the myocardial perfusion phase and in the phase of delayed contrast enhancement of the infarct. Quantitation by contrast media was assessed from computerized transmission tomography (CTT) scans of the ex situ heart and compared with quantitation by technetium-99m (/sup 99m/Tc)pyrophosphate (/sup 99m/Tc PYP) and thallium-201 (201Tl) scans of the same ex situ hearts. True volume was defined by histochemical morphometry. CTT during the contrast perfusion phase uniformly underestimated infarct size but had a good correlation with true volume. CTT during enhancement phase correlated closely with true volume (r . 0.98) and most precisely measured true size (y . 1.06 X 0.23). The /sup 99m/Tc PYP scan overestimated infarct volume (predictive overestimation of 6 to 199%) but had a good correlation with true volume. 201Tl underestimated infarct volume but correlated well with true volume. Thus, quantitation of infarct volume from CTT scans performed during either the perfusion or infarct enhancement phase after intravenous contrast media provides a good estimate of true infarct volume. Delineation of the infarct by contrast media in the ex situ heart is more precise during the phase of delayed enhancement of the infarct

  14. Radionuclide carrier

    Hartman, F.A.; Kretschmar, H.C.; Tofe, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    A physiologically acceptable particulate radionuclide carrier is described. It comprises a modified anionic starch derivative with 0.1% to 1.5% by weight of a reducing agent and 1 to 20% by weight of anionic substituents

  15. Clinical Usefulness of F-18 FDG PET/CT in papillary thyroid cancer with negative radioiodine scan and elevated thyroglobulin level or positive anti-thyroglobulin antibody

    Choi, Su Jung; Jung, Kyung Pyo; Lee, Sun Seong; Park, Yun Soo; Lee, Seok Mo [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sang Kyun [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Elevated thyroglobulin (Tg) levels, along with a negative radioiodine scan, present a clinical problem for the diagnosis of recurrence in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) patients. The purpose of this study was to assess (1) the usefulness of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) for PTC patients with negative diagnostic radioiodine scan and elevated serum Tg level or positive anti-thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb), and (2) the effect of endogenous thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation (ETS) on detecting recurrence in these circumstances. Eighty-four patients with negative diagnostic radioiodine scan and elevated serum Tg or positive TgAb under ETS were included. Correlation with clinicopathological features and recurrence, detectability of FDG PET/CT and cut-off value of serum Tg for recurrence in PTC patients with these circumstance were assessed. In addition, detectability of F-18 FDG PET/CT under ETS and suppression were compared. In Cox regression analysis, only serum Tg level was significantly associated with recurrence (P<0.001, HR  = 1.13; 95 % CI, 1.061–1.208). The cut-off level of Tg was 21.5 ng/mL (AUC, 0.919; P < 0.001) for discriminating the recurrence in the patients with positive PET/CT finding. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of F-18 FDG PET/CT for detecting recurrence were 64 %, 94 %, 86 %, 81 %, and 83 %. In the analysis of F-18 FDG PET/CT under ETS, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy was 64 %, 94 %, 88 %, 81 % and 83 %. Those under TSH suppression were 67 %, 92 %, 80 %, 85 % and 83 %. F-18 FDG PET/CT, although less sensitive, showed high specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy and therefore can be useful for the patients with negative diagnostic radioiodine scan and elevated serum Tg or positive TgAb. In addition, FDG PET/CT under ETS does not seem to have an additive role in detecting recurrence in these patients.

  16. Radionuclide data

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Chapter 8 presents tables on selected alpha, beta, gamma and x-ray emitters by increasing energy; information on specific activity for selected radionuclides; naturally occurring radionuclides; the natural decay series; and the artificially produced neptunium series. A table of alpha emitters is listed by increasing atomic number and by energy. The table of β emitters presented is useful in identifying β emitters whose energies and possibly half-lives have been determined by standard laboratory techniques. It is also a handy guide to β-emitting isotopes for applications requiring specific half-lives and/or energies. Gamma rays for radionuclides of importance to radiological assessments and radiation protection are listed by increasing energy. The energies and branching ratios are important for radionuclide determinations with gamma spectrometry detectors. This section also presents a table of x-ray energies which are useful for radiochemical analyses. A number of nuclides emit x-rays as part of their decay scheme. These x-rays may be counted with Ar proportional counters, Ge planar or n-type Ge co-axial detectors, or thin crystal NaI(T1) scintillation counters. In both cases, spectral measurements can be made and both qualitative and quantitative information obtained on the sample. Nuclear decay data (energy and probability by radiation type) for more than one hundred radionuclides that are important to health physicists are presented in a schematic manner

  17. Bone scans

    Hetherington, V.J.

    1989-01-01

    Oftentimes, in managing podiatric complaints, clinical and conventional radiographic techniques are insufficient in determining a patient's problem. This is especially true in the early stages of bone infection. Bone scanning or imaging can provide additional information in the diagnosis of the disorder. However, bone scans are not specific and must be correlated with clinical, radiographic, and laboratory evaluation. In other words, bone scanning does not provide the diagnosis but is an important bit of information aiding in the process of diagnosis. The more useful radionuclides in skeletal imaging are technetium phosphate complexes and gallium citrate. These compounds are administered intravenously and are detected at specific time intervals postinjection by a rectilinear scanner with minification is used and the entire skeleton can be imaged from head to toe. Minification allows visualization of the entire skeleton in a single image. A gamma camera can concentrate on an isolated area. However, it requires multiple views to complete the whole skeletal image. Recent advances have allowed computer augmentation of the data received from radionucleotide imaging. The purpose of this chapter is to present the current radionuclides clinically useful in podiatric patients

  18. Radionuclide generators

    Lambrecht, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    The status of radionuclide generators for chemical research and applications related to the life sciences and biomedical research are reviewed. Emphasis is placed upon convenient, efficient and rapid separation of short-lived daughter radionuclides in a chemical form suitable for use without further chemical manipulation. The focus is on the production of the parent, the radiochemistry associated with processing the parent and daughter, the selection and the characteristic separation methods, and yields. Quality control considerations are briefly noted. The scope of this review includes selected references to applications of radionuclide generators in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, and the life sciences, particularly in diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. The 99 Mo-sup(99m)Tc generator was excluded. 202 references are cited. (orig.)

  19. Comparison of Hemodynamic Effects and Negative Predictive Value of Normal Adenosine Gated Myocardial Perfusion Scan With or Without Caffeine Abstinence

    Zaman, Maseeh uz; Fatima, Nosheen; Zaman, Areeba; Zaman, Unaiza; Tahseen, Rabia

    2016-01-01

    For vasodilator stress, myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with at least 12-h caffeine abstinence is recommended, as it attenuates cardiovascular hyperemic response of adenosine and dipyridamole. However, many published conflicting results have shown no significant effect upon perfusion abnormalities in MPI performed without caffeine abstinence. The aim of this study was to compare the hemodynamic changes and negative predictive value (NPV) of normal MPIs with adenosine stress performed with or without caffeine abstinence. This was a prospective study that accrued 50 patients from May 2013 till September 2013 and followed till November 2014. These patients had a normal adenosine-gated MPI (GMPI) with technetium-99m methoxy isobutyl isonitrile ( 99m Tc-MIBI) after 12-h caffeine abstinence (no-caffeine). Next day, all patients had a repeat adenosine stress within 60 min after ingestion of a cup of coffee (about 80 mg of caffeine) followed by no MPI in 30 patients due to concern about radiation dose (prior-caffeine adenosine—no MPI; group A). Twenty patients opted for a repeat MPI (prior-caffeine adenosine—MPI; group B). Adenosine-induced hemodynamic response and NPV of the normal MPI with no-caffeine and prior-caffeine protocols were compared. The mean age of the study cohort was 57 ± 9 years with a male-to-female ratio of 76:24% and mean body mass index (BMI) of 26.915 ± 4.121 kg/m 2 . Prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and positive family history were 76%, 20%, 22%, and 17%, respectively. Comparison of group A with group B revealed no significant difference in demographic parameters, hemodynamic or electrocardiography (ECG) parameters, or left ventricular (LV) function parameters during adenosine intervention with prior-caffeine and no-caffeine protocols. During the follow-up, no fatal myocardial infarction (MI) was reported but 6 nonfatal MIs were reported based upon the history of short hospitalization for chest pain but without biochemical

  20. Utility of 99mTc-Hynic-TOC in 131I Whole-Body Scan Negative Thyroid Cancer Patients with Elevated Serum Thyroglobulin Levels

    Shinto, Ajit S.; Kamaleshwaran, K. K.; Mallia, Madhav; Korde, Aruna; Samuel, Grace; Banerjee, Sharmila; Velayutham, Pavanasam; Damodharan, Suresh; Sairam, Madhu

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported on the expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging abilities of a recently developed Technetium-99m labeled somatostatin analog, 99mTc-Hynic-TOC, in terms of precise localization of the disease. The study population consisted of 28 patients (16 men, 12 women; age range: 39-72 years) with histologically confirmed DTC, who presented with recurrent or persistent disease as indicated by elevated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels after initial treatment (serum Tg > 10 ng/ml off T4 suppression for 4-6 weeks). All patients were negative on the Iodine-131 posttherapy whole-body scans. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) was performed in all patients. SSTR scintigraphy was true positive in 23 cases (82.1%), true negative in two cases (7.1%) and false negative in three cases (10.7%) which resulted in a sensitivity of 88.46%, specificity of 100% and an accuracy of 89.2%. Sensitivity of 99mTc-Hynic-TOC scan was higher (93.7%) for patients with advanced stages, that is stages III and IV. 18F-FDG showed a sensitivity of 93.7%, a specificity of 50% and an accuracy of 89.3%. 18F-FDG PET was found to be more sensitive, with lower specificity due to false positive results in 2 patients. Analysis on a lesion basis demonstrated substantial agreement between the two imaging techniques with a Cohen's kappa of 0.66. Scintigraphy with 99mTc-Hynic-TOC might be a promising tool for treatment planning; it is easy to perform and showed sufficient accuracy for localization diagnostics in thyroid cancer patients with recurrent or metastatic disease. PMID:26097420

  1. Utility of (99m)Tc-Hynic-TOC in 131I Whole-Body Scan Negative Thyroid Cancer Patients with Elevated Serum Thyroglobulin Levels.

    Shinto, Ajit S; Kamaleshwaran, K K; Mallia, Madhav; Korde, Aruna; Samuel, Grace; Banerjee, Sharmila; Velayutham, Pavanasam; Damodharan, Suresh; Sairam, Madhu

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported on the expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging abilities of a recently developed Technetium-99m labeled somatostatin analog, (99m)Tc-Hynic-TOC, in terms of precise localization of the disease. The study population consisted of 28 patients (16 men, 12 women; age range: 39-72 years) with histologically confirmed DTC, who presented with recurrent or persistent disease as indicated by elevated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels after initial treatment (serum Tg > 10 ng/ml off T4 suppression for 4-6 weeks). All patients were negative on the Iodine-131 posttherapy whole-body scans. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET) was performed in all patients. SSTR scintigraphy was true positive in 23 cases (82.1%), true negative in two cases (7.1%) and false negative in three cases (10.7%) which resulted in a sensitivity of 88.46%, specificity of 100% and an accuracy of 89.2%. Sensitivity of (99m)Tc-Hynic-TOC scan was higher (93.7%) for patients with advanced stages, that is stages III and IV. (18)F-FDG showed a sensitivity of 93.7%, a specificity of 50% and an accuracy of 89.3%. (18)F-FDG PET was found to be more sensitive, with lower specificity due to false positive results in 2 patients. Analysis on a lesion basis demonstrated substantial agreement between the two imaging techniques with a Cohen's kappa of 0.66. Scintigraphy with (99m)Tc-Hynic-TOC might be a promising tool for treatment planning; it is easy to perform and showed sufficient accuracy for localization diagnostics in thyroid cancer patients with recurrent or metastatic disease.

  2. Utility of 99mTc-Hynic-TOC in 131I Whole-Body Scan Negative Thyroid Cancer Patients with Elevated Serum Thyroglobulin Levels

    Shinto, Ajit S.; Kamaleshwaran, K. K.; Mallia, Madhav; Korde, Aruna; Samuel, Grace; Banerjee, Sharmila; Velayutham, Pavanasam; Damodharan, Suresh; Sairam, Madhu

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported on the expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging abilities of a recently developed Technetium-99m labeled somatostatin analog, 99m Tc-Hynic-TOC, in terms of precise localization of the disease. The study population consisted of 28 patients (16 men, 12 women; age range: 39-72 years) with histologically confirmed DTC, who presented with recurrent or persistent disease as indicated by elevated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels after initial treatment (serum Tg > 10 ng/ml off T4 suppression for 4-6 weeks). All patients were negative on the Iodine-131 posttherapy whole-body scans. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ( 18 F-FDG PET) was performed in all patients. SSTR scintigraphy was true positive in 23 cases (82.1%), true negative in two cases (7.1%) and false negative in three cases (10.7%) which resulted in a sensitivity of 88.46%, specificity of 100% and an accuracy of 89.2%. Sensitivity of 99m Tc-Hynic-TOC scan was higher (93.7%) for patients with advanced stages, that is stages III and IV. 18 F-FDG showed a sensitivity of 93.7%, a specificity of 50% and an accuracy of 89.3%. 18 F-FDG PET was found to be more sensitive, with lower specificity due to false positive results in 2 patients. Analysis on a lesion basis demonstrated substantial agreement between the two imaging techniques with a Cohen's kappa of 0.66. Scintigraphy with 99m Tc-Hynic-TOC might be a promising tool for treatment planning; it is easy to perform and showed sufficient accuracy for localization diagnostics in thyroid cancer patients with recurrent or metastatic disease

  3. Radionuclide generators

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Wollongong Univ.; Tomiyoshi, K.; Sekine, T.

    1997-01-01

    The present status and future directions of research and development on radionuclide generator technology are reported. The recent interest to develop double-neutron capture reactions for production of in vivo generators; neutron rich nuclides for radio-immunotherapeutic pharmaceuticals: and advances with ultra-short lived generators is highlighted. Emphasis is focused on: production of the parent radionuclide; the selection and the evaluation of support materials and eluents with respect to the resultant radiochemical yield of the daughter, and the breakthrough of the radionuclide parent: and, the uses of radionuclide generators in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, biomedical and industrial applications. The 62 Zn → 62 Cu, 66 Ni → 66 Cu, 103m Rh → 103 Rh, 188 W → 188 Re and the 225 Ac → 221 Fr → 213 Bi generators are predicted to be emphasized for future development. Coverage of the 99 Mo → 99m Tc generator was excluded, as it the subject of another review. The literature search ended June, 1996. (orig.)

  4. Negative compressibility at LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interfaces explored with scanning force microscopy

    Tinkl, Veronika; Breitschaft, Martin; Hammerl, German; Kopp, Thilo [Experimentalphysik VI, Zentrum fuer Elektronische Korrelationen und Magnetismus, Universitaet Augsburg, Augsburg (Germany); Richter, Christoph; Mannhart, Jochen [Experimentalphysik VI, Zentrum fuer Elektronische Korrelationen und Magnetismus, Universitaet Augsburg, Augsburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The interface between the band insulators LaAlO{sub 3} and SrTiO{sub 3} is currently one of the most actively investigated structures in the field of oxide interfaces. If the LaAlO{sub 3}-film thickness exceeds three unit cells on a TiO{sub 2}-terminated SrTiO{sub 3} substrate a conducting layer is formed at the interface. This conducting layer can be driven insulating by electric fields. In this presentation we demonstrate that the interface exhibits negative compressibility as the carrier density is reduced. We investigated interfaces consisting of four unit cells LaAlO{sub 3} with a low temperature ultra-high vacuum scanning probe microscope. Contact potential difference measurements were performed at various carrier densities of the interface electron system. The difference in the work functions of interface and tip depends on the applied electric field. We show that the chemical potential at the interface increases with decreasing carrier density. This effect is caused by electron-electron interactions and corresponds to a negative compressibility. The negative compressibility gives rise to applications by, for example, making use of the resulting large enhancement of the capacitance.

  5. Does leaching of naturally occurring radionuclides from roadway pavements stabilised with coal fly ash have negative impacts on groundwater quality and human health?

    Almahayni, T; Vanhoudt, N

    2018-05-05

    We assessed the potential impact of using coal fly ash to stabilise roadway pavements on groundwater quality and human health. The leaching potential of naturally occurring radionuclides (NORs) typically present in the fly ash was assessed with the HYDRUS-1D code and data representative of a segment of the Wisconsin State Trunk Highway 60 as a case study. Our assessment suggests that the impact would be mainly from the chemical toxicity of uranium (U). In our particular case study, U concentration in the leachate exceeded the maximum contaminant level for this element (MCL = 30 μg L -1 ) in almost all the scenarios. In the groundwater, the MCL was only exceeded under conditions of high leaching and low dilution in the aquifer. The radiological toxicity from the consumption of the contaminated groundwater by a hypothetical adult, however, was at maximum 43% of the individual dose criterion (IDC = 0.1 mSv y -1 ). The results also highlight the need to consider site-specific conditions such as climate and hydrogeology when assessing the environmental impacts of utilising fly ash in roadway construction applications since they could have profound effects on the assessment findings. There is also a pressing need for reliable and representative data to support realistic assessments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Radionuclide examinations

    Lentle, B.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on radionuclide examinations of the pancreas. The pancreas, situated retroperitonally high in the epigastrium, was a particularly difficult organ to image noninvasively before ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) became available. Indeed the organ still remains difficult to examine in some patients, a fact reflected in the variety of methods available to evaluate pancreatic morphology. It is something of a paradox that the pancreas is metabolically active and physiologically important but that its examination by radionuclide methods has virtually ceased to have any role in day-to-day clinical practice. To some extent this is caused by the tendency of the pancreas's commonest gross diseases emdash carcinoma and pancreatitis, for example emdash to result in nonfunction of the entire organ. Disorders of pancreatic endocrine function have generally not required imaging methods for diagnosis, although an understanding of diabetes mellitus and its nosology has been advanced by radioimmunoassay of plasma insulin concentrations

  7. Radionuclide transfer

    Gerber, G.B.

    1993-01-01

    The research project described here had the aim to obtain further information on the transfer of nuclides during pregnancy and lactation. The tests were carried out in mini-pigs and rats receiving unchanging doses of radionuclides with the food. The following findings were revealed for the elements examined: Fe, Se, Cs and Zn were characterized by very high transfer levels in the mother, infant and foetus. A substantial uptake by the mother alone was observed for Co, Ag and Mn. The uptake by the foetus and infant here was 1 to 10 times lower. A preferential concentration in certain tissues was seen for Sr and Tc; the thyroid levels of Tc were about equally high in mothers and infants, while Sr showed less accumulation in the maternal bone. The lanthanide group of substances (Ce, Eu and Gd as well as Y and Ru) were only taken up to a very limited extent. The uptake of the examined radionuclides (Fe, Co, Ag, Ce) with the food ingested was found here to be ten times greater in rats as compared to mini-pigs. This showed that great caution must be observed, if the behaviour of radionuclides in man is extrapolated from relevant data obtained in rodents. (orig./MG) [de

  8. Osteopetrosis: Radiological & Radionuclide Imaging

    Sit, Cherry; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Fogelman, Ignac; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath

    2015-01-01

    Osteopetrosis is a rare inherited bone disease where bones harden and become abnormally dense. While the diagnosis is clinical, it also greatly relies on appearance of the skeleton radiographically. X-ray, radionuclide bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging have been reported to identify characteristics of osteopetrosis. We present an interesting case of a 59-year-old man with a history of bilateral hip fractures. He underwent 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate whole body scan supplemented with single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography of spine, which showed increased uptake in the humeri, tibiae and femora, which were in keeping with osteopetrosis

  9. Detection of subdural empyema with radionuclides

    McKillop, J.H.; Holtzman, D.S.; McDougall, I.R.

    1980-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is now the standard method of confirming a diagnosis of suspected subdural empyema. We report a case in which the radionuclide brain scan was abnormal at a time when the CT scan was normal. An 111 In-labeled leukocyte scan was also performed in this patient and demonstrated abnormal uptake in the empyema. The scintigraphic findings in a second case of subdural empyema are also described. The relative roles of radionuclide studies and CT scans in the patient with suspected subdural empyema are discussed

  10. 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC and (18)F-FDG in thyroid cancer patients with negative (131)I whole-body scans.

    Gabriel, Michael; Froehlich, Franz; Decristoforo, Clemens; Ensinger, Christian; Donnemiller, Eveline; von Guggenberg, Elisabeth; Heute, Dirk; Moncayo, Roy

    2004-03-01

    Several studies have reported on the expression of somatostatin receptors in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging abilities of a recently developed technetium-99m labelled somatostatin analogue, (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC ((99m)Tc-TOC), in terms of precise localisation of disease. The study population comprised 54 patients (24 men, 30 women; age range 22-90 years) with histologically confirmed DTC who presented with recurrent or persistent disease as indicated by elevated Tg levels after initial treatment. All patients were negative on the iodine-131 post-therapy whole-body scans. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET) was performed in a subgroup of 36 patients. The study population consisted of two groups: Group A ( n=22) comprised patients with disease recurrence as shown by elevated Tg levels but without detectable pathology. In group B ( n=32), pre-existing lesions were known. Among the 54 cases, SSTR scintigraphy was true positive in 33 (61.1%), true negative in 4 (7.4%) and false negative in 17 (31.5%) cases, which resulted in a sensitivity of 66%. A total of 138 tumour foci were localised in 33 patients. The fraction of true positive (99m)Tc-TOC findings was positively correlated ( P<0.01) with elevated Tg levels (higher than 30 ng/ml). Despite two false positive findings, analysis on a lesion basis demonstrated better diagnostic efficacy with (18)F-FDG PET ( P<0.001); however, it also revealed substantial agreement between the imaging techniques [Cohen's kappa of 0.62 (0.47-0.78)]. In conclusion, scintigraphy with (99m)Tc-TOC might be a promising tool for treatment planning; it is easy to perform and showed sufficient accuracy for localisation diagnostics in thyroid cancer patients with recurrent or metastatic disease.

  11. Radionuclide techniques for brain imaging

    Cowan, R.J.; Moody, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    Over the past decade, many of the prime indications for radionuclide brain scanning have become instead indications for CCT, and nuclear medicine studies of the brain have assumed more of a complementary, supportive role. However, there is great promise for improvement in central nervous system radionuclide applications with advances anticipated in both radiopharmaceuticals and instrumentation. Nuclear medicine is continuing to function as a powerful research tool and, in the relatively near future, may regain its role as a major clinical test of the central nervous system

  12. Radionuclide radiology

    Scarsbrook, A.F.; Graham, R.N.J.; Perriss, R.W.; Bradley, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of short reviews of internet-based radiological educational resources, and will focus on radionuclide radiology and nuclear medicine. What follows is a list of carefully selected websites to save time in searching them out. Most of the sites cater for trainee or non-specialist radiologists, but may also be of interest to specialists for use in teaching. This article may be particularly useful to radiologists interested in the rapidly expanding field of positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT). Hyperlinks are available in the electronic version of this article and were all active at the time of going to press (February 2006)

  13. Exclusion of pneumothorax by radionuclide lung scan

    Weiss, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    A case is reported in which ventilation lung imaging was useful in excluding a large pneumothorax. This technique may be helpful in patients with emphysema in whom exclusion of pneumothorax by radiographic criteria might be difficult

  14. Reliability of the MicroScan WalkAway PC21 panel in identifying and detecting oxacillin resistance in clinical coagulase-negative staphylococci strains.

    Olendzki, A N; Barros, E M; Laport, M S; Dos Santos, K R N; Giambiagi-Demarval, M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the MicroScan WalkAway PosCombo21 (PC21) system for the identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) strains and the detection of oxacillin resistance. Using molecular and phenotypic methods, 196 clinical strains were evaluated. The automated system demonstrated 100 % reliability for the identification of the clinical strains Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus hominis and Staphylococcus cohnii; 98.03 % reliability for the identification of Staphylococcus epidermidis; 70 % reliability for the identification of Staphylococcus lugdunensis; 40 % reliability for the identification of Staphylococcus warneri; and 28.57 % reliability for the identification of Staphylococcus capitis, but no reliability for the identification of Staphylococcus auricularis, Staphylococcus simulans and Staphylococcus xylosus. We concluded that the automated system provides accurate results for the more common CNS species but often fails to accurately identify less prevalent species. For the detection of oxacillin resistance, the automated system showed 100 % specificity and 90.22 % sensitivity. Thus, the PC21 panel detects oxacillin-resistant strains, but is limited by the heteroresistance that is observed when using most phenotypic methods.

  15. Hepatobiliary scan in neonatal Jaundice

    Nahar, Nurun; Hasan, Mizanul; Karim, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Jaundice is more or less common in newborn babies. Through physiological jaundice is most common cause of neonatal jaundice, possibility of obstructive jaundice especially biliary atresia should be kept in mind. Early diagnosis of biliary atresia followed by surgical treatment can save baby's life. Otherwise death is inevitable due to liver failure. Hepatobiliary scan is the imaging study of choice in neonatal jaundice especially when there is persistent conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia. Total 27 newborn babies of suspected biliary atresia, aged 14 days to 4 months were referred to Institute of Nuclear Medicine for Hepatobiliary scan. All of them had high serum bilirubin ranged from 6.0 mg/dl with an average of 9.35 ng/dl serum bilirubin level. Ultrasonography of hepatobiliary system was performed in 14 cases showing normal sized liver in 4 cases and hepatomegaly in 10 cases. Hepatobiliary scan was done with 99m Tc-Mebrofenin (Br IDA) after preparing the baby with phenobarbitone for 3-5 days. 20 (67%) cases were scan positive suggesting biliary atresia (BA) and 7(27%) cases were scan negative. In BA there will be increased hepatic uptake of the radionuclide without any significant excretion even in 24 hours delayed images. Presence of radiotracer in the bowel exclude the diagnosis of BA. Early diagnosis of biliary atresia is very important because in this condition surgery should be performed early (within 60 days of life). Studies suggest that hepatobiliary scan after hepatic stimulation with phenobarbitone for a period of 3-5 days is highly accurate for differentiating biliary atresia from other causes of neonatal jaundice. It is very important to perform hepatobiliary scan in a case of neonatal jaundice to exclude biliary atresia for the sake of baby's life.(author)

  16. Radionuclide imaging of non osseous infection

    Palestro, C.J.; New York, Yeshiva Univ., NY; Torres, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is an important tool in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with a variety of non osseous infections. In the immunocompetent population labeled leukocyte imaging is the radionuclide procedure of choice, with Gallium imaging reserved for those situations in which the leukocyte study is non diagnostic or cannot be performed. Fever of unknown origin is caused by infection in less than one-third of cases, and therefore the number of positive leukocyte studies will be relatively low. The negative leukocyte study is also useful as it has been demonstrated that a negative study excludes, with a high degree of certainty, focal infection as the cause of an FUO. In the cardiovascular system, labeled leukocyte scintigraphy is very useful for diagnosing mycotic aneurysms and infected prosthetic vascular grafts. The specificity of the study is somewhat more variable. In the central nervous system, labeled leukocyte imaging can provide important information about the etiology of contrast enhancing brain lesions identified on computed tomography. In the immunocompromised population, typified by the AIDS patient, Gallium scintigraphy is the radionuclide procedure of choice for diagnosing opportunistic diseases. In the thorax, a normal Gallium scan, in the setting of a negative chest X-ray, virtually excludes pulmonary disease. In the abdomen, Gallium is also useful for detecting nodal disease, but is not reliable for detecting large bowel disease. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be performed when colitis is a concern. Both 18 FDG PET and 201 T1 SPECT imaging of the brain are useful for distinguishing between central nervous system lymphoma and toxoplasmosis in the HIV (+) patient. On both studies, lymphoma manifests as a focus of increased tracer uptake, whereas toxoplasmosis shows little or no uptake of either tracer

  17. Radionuclide imaging of non osseous infection

    Palestro, C.J. (Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New York, NY, (United States). Dept. Nuclear Medicine New York, Yeshiva Univ., NY (United States). Albert Einstein College of Medicine); Torres, M.A. (Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New York, NY, (United States). Dept. Nuclear Medicine)

    1999-03-01

    Nuclear medicine is an important tool in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with a variety of non osseous infections. In the immunocompetent population labeled leukocyte imaging is the radionuclide procedure of choice, with Gallium imaging reserved for those situations in which the leukocyte study is non diagnostic or cannot be performed. Fever of unknown origin is caused by infection in less than one-third of cases, and therefore the number of positive leukocyte studies will be relatively low. The negative leukocyte study is also useful as it has been demonstrated that a negative study excludes, with a high degree of certainty, focal infection as the cause of an FUO. In the cardiovascular system, labeled leukocyte scintigraphy is very useful for diagnosing mycotic aneurysms and infected prosthetic vascular grafts. The specificity of the study is somewhat more variable. In the central nervous system, labeled leukocyte imaging can provide important information about the etiology of contrast enhancing brain lesions identified on computed tomography. In the immunocompromised population, typified by the AIDS patient, Gallium scintigraphy is the radionuclide procedure of choice for diagnosing opportunistic diseases. In the thorax, a normal Gallium scan, in the setting of a negative chest X-ray, virtually excludes pulmonary disease. In the abdomen, Gallium is also useful for detecting nodal disease, but is not reliable for detecting large bowel disease. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be performed when colitis is a concern. Both [sup 18]FDG PET and [sup 201]T1 SPECT imaging of the brain are useful for distinguishing between central nervous system lymphoma and toxoplasmosis in the HIV (+) patient. On both studies, lymphoma manifests as a focus of increased tracer uptake, whereas toxoplasmosis shows little or no uptake of either tracer.

  18. Radionuclide diagnosis of Meckel's diverticulum

    Conway, J.J.; Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL

    1980-01-01

    Meckel's diverticulum can be detected with a high degree of accuracy by radionuclide scintigraphy using technetium-99m pertechnetate. The technique is without risk and should precede roentgenographic studies when the diagnosis is suspected. The method is described and the causes for false positive and false negative examinations are discussed. False negatives are rare and false positives are usually secondary to other surgical entities. Overall accuracy is 85 to 90%. (orig.) [de

  19. Radionuclide transverse section imager

    Stoddart, H.F.

    1980-01-01

    A radioisotope scanning apparatus for use in nuclear medicine is described in detail. The apparatus enables the quantification and spatial location of the radioactivity in a body section of a patient to be determined with high sensitivity. It consists of an array of highly focussed collimators arranged such that adjacent collimators move in the same circumferential but opposite radial directions. The explicit movements of the gantry are described in detail and may be controlled by a general purpose computer. The use of highly focussed collimators allows both a reasonable solid angle of acceptance and also high target to background images; additionally, dual radionuclide pharmaceutical studies can be performed simultaneously. It is claimed that the high sensitivity of the system permits the early diagnosis of pathological changes and the images obtained show accurately the location and shape of physiological abnormalities. (UK)

  20. Bone stress: a radionuclide imaging perspective

    Roub, L.W.; Gumerman, L.W.; Hanley, E.N. Jr.; Clark, M.W.; Goodman, M.; Herbert, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    Thirty-five college athletes with lower leg pain underwent radiography and radionuclide studies to rule out a stress fracture. Their asymptomatic extremities and 13 pain-free athletes served as controls. Four main patterns were observed: (a) sharply marginated scintigraphic abnormalities and positive radiographs; (b) sharply marginated scintigraphic abnormalities and negatives radiographs; (c) ill-defined scintigraphic abnormalities and negative radiographs; and (d) negative radionuclide images and negative radiographs. Since the patients with the first two patterns were otherwise identical medically, the authors feel that this scintigraphic appearance is characterisic of bone stress in the appropriate clinical setting, regardless of the radiographic findings. A schema is proposed to explain the occurrence of positive radionuclide images and negative radiographs in the same patient, using a broad conceptual approach to the problem of bone stress

  1. Transverse section scanning mechanism

    Doherty, E.J.

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus is described for scanning a transverse, radionuclide scan-field using an array of focussed collimators. The collimators are movable tangentially on rails, driven by a single motor via a coupled screw. The collimators are also movable in a radial direction on rails driven by a step motor via coupled screws and bevel gears. Adjacent bevel gears rotate in opposite directions so adjacent collimators move in radially opposite directions. In use, the focal point of each collimator scans at least half of the scan-field, e.g. a human head located in the central aperture, and the electrical outputs of detectors associated with each collimator are used to determine the distribution of radioactive emission intensity at a number of points in the scan-field. (author)

  2. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    Allen, S.E.; Horrill, A.D.; Howard, B.J.; Lowe, V.P.W.; Parkinson, J.A.

    1983-07-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: concentration and spatial distribution of radionuclides in grazed and ungrazed saltmarshes; incorporation of radionuclides by sheep grazing on an estuarine saltmarsh; inland transfer of radionuclides by birds feeding in the estuaries and saltmarshes at Ravenglass; radionuclides in contrasting types of coastal pastures and taken up by individual plant species found in west Cumbria; procedures developed and used for the measurement of alpha and gamma emitters in environmental materials. (U.K.)

  3. Radionuclide bone imaging in suspected skeletal metastasis: does it contribute to diagnosis or treatment ?

    Reddy, K.G.; Subbarao, K.; Kumaresan, K.; Murthy, V.S.; Kishore, L.T.

    1988-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of 47 patients with suspected bone metastases is performed to evaluate the role of bone scan in diagnosis or treatment and to compare radionuclide images with radiographs. Scan revealed solitary lesions in 27.7 per cent, multiple lesions in 44.7 per cent and was normal in 10.6 per cent of patients studied. In 11 patients the scan was +ve and x-ray was -ve and scan was false negative in one patient. Role of bone scan is evaluated by a scoring method. Scan contributed to correct diagnosis in 25.5 per cent, altered the management in 21.3 per cent of patients. However, scan by itself did not contribute to final management in 48.6 per cent of patients. Scan had misled the diagnosis because of false positive result in 4.3 per cent of patients. It is highlighted that though bone scan is non-specific, it has contributed considerably to the management of majority of patients. (author). 10 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  4. Radionuclide shuntography in a hydrocephalic patient

    Fard Esfahani, A.; Taghavi, M.; Eftekhari, M.; Saghari, M.

    2002-01-01

    Radionuclide shuntography is a safe and simple method to determine shunt patency and analyze changes in cerebro- spinal fluid flow. We present a case of complicated cerebro- spinal fluid shunt, in which radioisotopic scan correctly identified disconnection of the shunt tubing system localizing the site of extravasation accurately. The findings were confirmed by surgery performed for correction of the shunt system

  5. Occult Candida thyroid abscess diagnosed by gallium-67 scanning

    Bach, M.C.; Blattner, S.

    1990-01-01

    A clinically silent fungal thyroid abscess was identified by Ga-67 citrate scanning and successfully drained surgically in a young leukemic patient. Whole-body radionuclide scanning remains a valuable method to help diagnose persistent fever in the immunocompromised host

  6. Speciation analysis of radionuclides

    Salbu, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Naturally occurring and artificially produced radionuclides in the environment can be present in different physico-chemical forms (i. e. radionuclide species) varying in size (nominal molecular mass), charge properties and valence, oxidation state, structure and morphology, density, complexing ability etc. Low molecular mass (LMM) species are believed to be mobile and potentially bioavailable, while high molecular mass (HMM) species such as colloids, polymers, pseudocolloids and particles are considered inert. Due to time dependent transformation processes such as mobilization of radionuclide species from solid phases or interactions of mobile and reactive radionuclide species with components in soils and sediments, however, the original distribution of radionuclides deposited in ecosystems will change over time and influence the ecosystem behaviour. To assess the environmental impact from radionuclide contamination, information on radionuclide species deposited, interactions within affected ecosystems and the time-dependent distribution of radionuclide species influencing mobility and biological uptake is essential. The development of speciation techniques to characterize radionuclide species in waters, soils and sediments should therefore be essential for improving the prediction power of impact and risk assessment models. The present paper reviews fractionation techniques which should be utilised for radionuclide speciation purposes. (author)

  7. Quantitative radionuclide angiocardiography

    Scholz, P.M.; Rerych, S.K.; Moran, J.F.; Newman, G.E.; Douglas, J.M.; Sabiston, D.C. Jr.; Jones, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    This study introduces a new method for calculating actual left ventricular volumes and cardiac output from data recorded during a single transit of a radionuclide bolus through the heart, and describes in detail current radionuclide angiocardiography methodology. A group of 64 healthy adults with a wide age range were studied to define the normal range of hemodynamic parameters determined by the technique. Radionuclide angiocardiograms were performed in patients undergoing cardiac catherization to validate the measurements. In 33 patients studied by both techniques on the same day, a close correlation was documented for measurement of ejection fraction and end-diastolic volume. To validate the method of volumetric cardiac output calcuation, 33 simultaneous radionuclide and indocyanine green dye determinations of cardiac output were performed in 18 normal young adults. These independent comparisons of radionuclide measurements with two separate methods document that initial transit radionuclide angiocardiography accurately assesses left ventricular function

  8. The role of FDG-PET/CT in differentiated thyroid cancer patients with negative iodine-131 whole-body scan and elevated anti-Tg level.

    Asa, Sertac; Aksoy, Sabire Yılmaz; Vatankulu, Betül; Aliyev, Anar; Uslu, Lebriz; Ozhan, Meftune; Sager, Sait; Halac, Metin; Sonmezoglu, Kerim

    2014-12-01

    In the follow-up of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) after a successful total-near total thyroidectomy and I-131 ablation therapy, anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (anti-Tg) may be persistently or progressively increased in the patients with an undetectable serum thyroglobulin (Tg) level. In these cases, further investigation was performed to search for recurrence/metastases. The aim of our study was clarifying the role of FDG-PET/CT in detecting recurrence/metastasis in patients with DTC with negative serum Tg and elevated anti-Tg level. A total of 40 patients (32 female, 8 male; mean age: 43.15 years (22-65); mean age at diagnosis: 39.08 (16-64)) with DTC who had undetectable serum Tg and elevated anti-Tg level after a successful initial therapy were included in the study. All of the patients had serum anti-Tg of >40 IU/ml and underwent FDG-PET/CT to search for recurrence/metastasis. Twenty patients (50 %) had recurrence/metastasis on FDG-PET/CT while the other 20 had no pathologic findings. Of the 20 patients who had positive FDG-PET/CT, 12 had a histopathological final diagnosis of which 11 were true positive (TP) and 1 was false positive (FP). On the other hand, 16 of the 40 patients had a histopathological final diagnosis of which 11/16 had TP, 1/16 FP, 3/16 false negative (FN) and 1/16 true negative (TN) findings by PET/CT. The final diagnosis was made by clinical follow-up in the remaining 24 patients. Of these, 8 patients were PET positive, and in 1 (12.5 %) of 8 patients a decrease in serum anti-Tg level, in 2 (25 %) patients a saw-toothed pattern and in 5 (62.5 %) a progressive increase in the serum anti-Tg level were noted during the follow-up. Of the 16 of 24 patients who were diagnosed by clinical follow-up, in 8 a (50 %) decrease in serum anti-Tg level, in 6 (37.5 %) a saw-toothed pattern, and in 2 (12.5 %) a progressively increased anti-Tg level was seen. Of the 40 patients, 14 (35 %) had a diagnosis of recurrence/metastasis finally, with

  9. Evaluation of the MicroScan ESBL plus confirmation panel for detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in clinical isolates of oxyimino-cephalosporin-resistant Gram-negative bacteria.

    Stürenburg, Enno; Lang, Melanie; Horstkotte, Matthias A; Laufs, Rainer; Mack, Dietrich

    2004-11-01

    We aimed to assess the performance of the MicroScan ESBL plus confirmation panel using a series of 87 oxyimino-cephalosporin-resistant Gram-negative bacilli of various species. Organisms tested included 57 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) strains comprising Enterobacter aerogenes (3), Enterobacter cloacae (10), Escherichia coli (11), Klebsiella pneumoniae (26), Klebsiella oxytoca (3) and Proteus mirabilis (4). Also included were 30 strains resistant to oxyimino cephalosporins but lacking ESBLs, which were characterized with other resistance mechanisms, such as inherent clavulanate susceptibility in Acinetobacter spp. (4), hyperproduction of AmpC enzyme in Citrobacter freundii (2), E. aerogenes (3), E. cloacae (3), E. coli (4), Hafnia alvei (1) and Morganella morganii (1), production of plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase in K. pneumoniae (3) and E. coli (3) or hyperproduction of K1 enzyme in K. oxytoca (6). The MicroScan MIC-based clavulanate synergy correctly classified 50 of 57 ESBL strains as ESBL-positive and 23 of 30 non-ESBL strains as ESBL-negative (yielding a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 76.7%, respectively). False negatives among ESBL producers were highest with Enterobacter spp. due to masking interactions between ESBL and AmpC beta-lactamases. False-positive classifications occurred in two Acinetobacter spp., one E. coli producing plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase and two K. oxytoca hyperproducing their chromosomal K1 beta-lactamase. The MicroScan clavulanate synergy test proved to be a valuable tool for ESBL confirmation. However, this test has limitations in detecting ESBLs in Enterobacter spp. and in discriminating ESBL-related resistance from the K1 enzyme and from inherent clavulanate susceptibility in Acinetobacter spp.

  10. Marine biogeochemistry of radionuclides

    Fowler, S.W.

    1997-01-01

    Radionuclides entering the ocean from runoff, fallout, or deliberate release rapidly become involved in marine biogeochemical cycles. Sources, sinks and transport of radionuclides and analogue elements are discussed with emphasis placed on how these elements interact with marine organisms. Water, food and sediments are the source terms from which marine biota acquire radionuclides. Uptake from water occurs by surface adsorption, absorption across body surfaces, or a combination of both. Radionuclides ingested with food are either assimilated into tissue or excreted. The relative importance of the food and water pathway in uptake varies with the radionuclide and the conditions under which exposure occurs. Evidence suggests that, compared to the water and food pathways, bioavailability of sediment-bound radionuclides is low. Bioaccumulation processes are controlled by many environmental and intrinsic factors including exposure time, physical-chemical form of the radionuclide, salinity, temperature, competitive effects with other elements, organism size, physiology, life cycle and feeding habits. Once accumulated, radionuclides are transported actively by vertical and horizontal movements of organisms and passively by release of biogenic products, e.g., soluble excreta, feces, molts and eggs. Through feeding activities, particles containing radionuclides are ''packaged'' into larger aggregates which are redistributed upon release. Most radionuclides are not irreversibly bound to such particles but are remineralized as they sink and/or decompose. In the pelagic zones, sinking aggregates can further scavenge particle-reactive elements thus removing them from the surface layers and transporting them to depth. Evidence from both radiotracer experiments and in situ sediment trap studies is presented which illustrates the importance of biological scavenging in controlling the distribution of radionuclides in the water column. (author)

  11. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    Bocock, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes information on the distribution and movement of radionuclides in semi-natural terrestrial ecosystems in north-west England with particular emphasis on inputs to, and outputs from ecosystems; on plant and soil aspects; and on radionuclides in fallout and in discharges by the nuclear industry. (author)

  12. Nuclear Scans

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  13. Process for encapsulating radionuclides

    Brownell, L.E.; Isaacson, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Radionuclides are immobilized in virtually an insoluble form by reacting at a temperature of at least 90 0 C as an aqueous alkaline mixture having a solution pH of at least 10, containing a source of silicon, the radionuclide waste, and a metal cation. The molar ratio of silicon to the metal cation is on the order of unity to produce a gel from which complex metalosilicates crystallize to entrap the radionuclides within the resultant condensed crystal lattice. The product is a silicious stone-like material which is virtually insoluble and nonleachable in alkaline or neutral environment. One embodiment provides for the formation of the complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by gel formation with subsequent calcination to the solid product; another embodiment utilizes a hydrothermal process, either above ground or deep within basalt caverns, at greater than atmospheric pressures and a temperature between 90 and 500 0 C to form complex metalo-silicates, such as strontium aluminosilicate. Another embodiment provides for the formation of complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by slurrying an alkaline mixture of bentonite or kaolinite with a source of silicon and the radionuclide waste in salt form. In each of the embodiments a mobile system is achieved whereby the metalo-silicate constituents reorient into a condensed crystal lattice forming a cage structure with the condensed metalo-silicate lattice which completely surrounds the radionuclide and traps the radionuclide therein; thus rendering the radionuclide virtually insoluble

  14. Comparison of planar scanning and single photon emission computed tomography in the diagnosis of avascular necrosis of the femoral head

    Feiglin, D.H.I.; Levine, M.; Stulberg, B.; Pflanze, W.; O'Donnell, J.K.; Belhobek, G.H.; Go, R.T.; MacIntyre, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-nine patients were investigated for avascular necrosis of the femoral head. All hips were studied by plain x-ray and MR imaging, 70 hips studied by radionuclide bone scanning, and 38 were studied by single photon emission CT (SPECT). Core biopsies of the femoral heads from 32 hips were examined. No one reference standard for noninvasive diagnosis of this disease is available. The sensitivity and specificity of the radionuclide studies with respect to SPECT were 77% and 100%; of SPECT with respect to pathologic confirmation, 100% and 57%; of MR imaging with respect to pathologic studies, 100% and 66%. Pathologic sampling is subject to error and may give false negative results with spuriously low specificities for imaging modalities. SPECT is recommended as the radionuclide imaging procedure of choice for detecting avascular necrosis of the femoral head

  15. Foodstuffs, radionuclides, monitoring

    Denisikov, A.I.

    2000-01-01

    Radionuclide contamination of water and food stuffs as a result of the Chernobyl accident and permissible contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs are considered in brief. A method of radiation monitoring of food stuffs and water for the radionuclides mentioned is suggested. The method permits employment of the simplest and cheapest radiometric equipment for analysis, whole the high degree of radionuclide concentration using fiber sorbents permits using the instrumentation without expensive shields against external radiation. A description of ion-exchange unit for radiation monitoring of liquid samples of food stuffs or water, is provided [ru

  16. Generator for radionuclide

    Weisner, P.S.; Forrest, T.R.F.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides a radionuclide generator of the kind in which a parent radionuclide, adsorbed on a column of particulate material, generates a daughter radionuclide which is periodically removed from the column. This invention is particularly concerned with technetium generators using single collection vials. The generator comprises a column, a first reservoir for the eluent, a second reservoir to contain the volume of eluent required for a single elution, and means connecting the first reservoir to the second reservoir and the second reservoir to the column. Such a generator is particularly suitable for operation by vacuum elution

  17. Scanning of bone metastases

    Robillard, J.

    1977-01-01

    The Centers against cancer of Caen, Angers, Montpellier, Strasbourg and 'the Curie Foundation' have confronted their experience in detection of bone metastases by total body scanning. From the investigation by this procedure, of 1,467 patients with cancer, it results: the confrontation between radio and scanning shows a rate of false positive and false negative identical to the literature ones; the countage scanning allows to reduce the number of false positive; scanning allows to direct bone biopsy and to improve efficiency of histological examination [fr

  18. Radionuclides in analytical chemistry

    Tousset, J.

    1984-01-01

    Applications of radionuclides in analytical chemistry are reviewed in this article: tracers, radioactive sources and activation analysis. Examples are given in all these fields and it is concluded that these methods should be used more widely [fr

  19. Radionuclide Basics: Iodine

    ... Centers Radiation Protection Contact Us Share Radionuclide Basics: Iodine Iodine (chemical symbol I) is a chemical element. ... in the environment Iodine sources Iodine and health Iodine in the Environment All 37 isotopes of iodine ...

  20. Radionuclide imaging and diagnosis of benign tumours of the liver

    Zerbib, E.

    1996-01-01

    Radionuclide scanning takes advantages of the function of the liver. Hepatic scintigraphy can be suggested in the evaluation of solid liver masses greater than 1.5 cm and whose diagnosis has not been established by another imaging technique. 99m Tc-labeled-red-blood-cell (RBC) scintigraphy is very specific of cavernous hepatic hemangioma (100 %). Sensibility increases with tumoral size: 85 % from 1.5 to 3 cm and near 100 % beyond 3 cm. RBC scintigraphy should be performed when MRI does not assert diagnosis or cannot be performed. With 99m Tc-nanocolloids, focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) can show intense concentration which is quite specific but appears in only 10 to 15 % of cases. A normal uptake is seen in 50 to 60 % of cases but only suggests FNH since almost 10 % of the adenomas get the same appearance. A negative defect, seen in 30 to 40 % of cases, does not allow any conclusion. Using hepatobiliary radiopharmaceuticals (IDA) FNH appears with an increased uptake during the perfusion phase, a normal uptake during the first 10 minutes and again an increased uptake during late images (hot spot). Hepatic adenoma can appear as a negative defect (over 90 % of cases) or with normal uptake (less than 10 % of cases). Increased uptake is never seen. Its aspect using hepatobiliary radio-hepatobiliary radio-pharmaceuticals is not well established but it appears as a negative defect on the perfusion phase which should discriminate it from FHN. (author)

  1. Gallium-67-citrate scanning in primary cancer of the liver: diagnostic value in the presence of cirrhosis and relation to alpha-fetoprotein

    Levin, J.; Kew, M.C.

    1975-01-01

    Gallium-67-citrate and /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid scans were performed in 38 South African blacks with primary hepatocellular cancer. Selective uptake of the radionuclide by the tumor occurred in 27 patients (70 percent). In 12 out of 18 patients with associated cirrhosis, 67 Ga was concentrated in the defect or defects visible on the /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid scan, but in the remaining 6 cases (33 percent), the 2 scans were identical and the defects may have been attributed wrongly to cirrhosis. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was detected by immunodiffusion in the serum of 26 patients. Twenty-one of these showed selective uptake of 67 Ga by the tumor as compared with 6 out of 12 patients in whom this protein could not be detected. We were therefore unable to confirm a previous finding of a greater uptake of the radionuclide in AFP-negative primary liver cancer. (auth)

  2. Renal scan

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003790.htm Renal scan To use the sharing features on this ... anaphylaxis . Alternative Names Renogram; Kidney scan Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Chernecky CC, ...

  3. CT Scan

    ... disease, lung nodules and liver masses Monitor the effectiveness of certain treatments, such as cancer treatment Detect ... scan done in a hospital or an outpatient facility. CT scans are painless and, with newer machines, ...

  4. Prediction of acute cardiac rejection using radionuclide techniques

    Novitzky, D.; Bonioszczuk, J.; Cooper, D.K.C.; Isaacs, S.; Rose, A.G.; Smith, J.A.; Uys, C.J.; Barnard, C.N.; Fraser, R.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide scanning of the donor left ventricle using technetium-99m-labelled red cells was used to monitor acute rejection after heterotopic heart transplantation and compared with histopathological evidence of rejection obtained at examination of an endomyocardial biopsy specimen. The ejection fraction and end-diastolic, end-systolic and stroke volumes were calculated at each examination; an equation was derived from these data to predict the degree of acute rejection, using histopathological examination of endomyocardial biopsy specimens as criteria of the presence and severity of rejection. A highly significant multiple correlation between radionuclide scanning parameters and endomyocardial biopsy was found. The advantages of non-invasive radionuclide scanning over the invasive procedure of endomyocardial biopsy are discussed

  5. Comparison of radiographic and radionuclide skeletal surveys in battered children

    Pickett, W.J.; Faleski, E.J.; Chacko, A.; Jarrett, R.V.

    1983-01-01

    A review of 13 cases of suspected child abuse in which radionuclide (RN) scans, radiographic skeletal surveys, and sufficient follow-up were available showed that the RN scans were insensitive, even though fractures were more than 48 hours old at the time of the scan. Frequently missed lesions included skull and extremity fractures. Furthermore, soft tissue and visceral abnormalities that were identified on radiographic examination went undetected on RN scan. We conclude that, although the RN scan may augment the radiographic examination, it should not be used alone to screen for the battered child

  6. Radionuclide fixation mechanisms in rocks

    Nakashima, S.

    1991-01-01

    In the safety evaluation of the radioactive waste disposal in geological environment, the mass balance equation for radionuclide migration is given. The sorption of radionuclides by geological formations is conventionally represented by the retardation of the radionuclides as compared with water movement. In order to quantify the sorption of radionuclides by rocks and sediments, the distribution ratio is used. In order to study quantitatively the long term behavior of waste radionuclides in geological environment, besides the distribution ratio concept in short term, slower radionuclide retention reaction involving mineral transformation should be considered. The development of microspectroscopic method for long term reaction path modeling, the behavior of iron during granite and water interaction, the reduction precipitation of radionuclides, radionuclide migration pathways, and the representative scheme of radionuclide migration and fixation in rocks are discussed. (K.I.)

  7. Separation of radionuclides from water by magnesium oxide adsorption

    Tseng, Chia-Lian; Lo, Jem-Mau; Yeh, Si-Jung

    1987-01-01

    Adsorption by magnesium oxide of more than forty radionuclides in respective ionic species in water was observed. Generally, the radionuclides in di-valent and/or multi-valent cations are favorably adsorbed by magnesium oxide; but not for the those in mono-valent cations. In addition, the adsorption by magnesium oxide was not effective to most of the radionuclides in negative ionic species. From the observations, the adsorption mechanism is more prominently by the ion exchange of the di- or multi-valent cation species with the hydrous magnesium oxide. Separation of the radionuclides related to the corrosion products possibly produced in a nuclear power plant from natural seawater was attempted by the magnesium oxide adsorption method. It should be emphasized that the adsorption method was found to be practical for separating radionuclides from a large quantity of natural seawater with high recovery and high reproducibility. (author)

  8. Radioactivity: radionuclides in foods

    Simpson, R.E.; Baratta, E.J.; Jelinek, C.F.

    1977-01-01

    The results are summarized of the analysis for strontium-90, cesium-137, iodine-131, ruthenium-106, and potassium-40, a naturally occurring radionuclide, in samples of total diet and selected import commodities in the foods compliance program of the Food and Drug Administration. On the basis of the radionuclide intake guidelines established by the Federal Radiation Council (FRC), the low content of radionuclides found in the total diet samples for fiscal years 1973 and 1974 demonstrates the need for surveillance only at the present level. The low levels of radionuclides found in a limited number of edible imported commodities indicate that their contribution to the total diet would not increase the levels of these radionuclides above those recommended for only periodic surveillance by the FRC. The potassium levels, determined from potassium-40 activity, found in meats and fish agree with the value for normal muscle tissue for the reference man reported by the International Commission on Radiation Protection. Of the other commodities, nuts contained the highest levels, while sugar, beverages, and processed foods contained the lowest levels of potassium. Although cesium and potassium are chemical analogs with similar metabolic properties, because of their variable content in some leafy samples as a result of surface contamination, a correlation between cesium-137 levels and the cesium-137-to-potassium ratio was inconclusive

  9. Metastatic calcification of the stomach imaged on a bone scan

    Goldstein, R.; Ryo, U.Y.; Pinsky, S.M.

    1984-10-01

    A whole body bone scan obtained on a 21-year-old woman with sickle cell disease and chronic renal failure showed localization of the radionuclide diffusely in the stomach. The localization of the radionuclide represented metastatic calcification of the stomach caused by secondary hyperparathyroidism.

  10. Radionuclides in house dust

    Fry, F A; Green, N; Hammond, D J

    1985-01-01

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, alt...

  11. Radionuclides in foods

    1994-01-01

    This report contains data on the levels of radionuclides in the UK foodchain. Most data derive from monitoring programmes that exist around nuclear sites, and in some cases date back to the 1960s. Some comparative data from site operator and government-run programmes are included. Data from monitoring undertaken after the Chernobyl accident are summarised. General monitoring of the foodchain for both artificial and natural radionuclides, and the results of relevant government-sponsored research are also described. The report includes basic information on radioactivity in the environment, radiation protection standards and describes what measures are taken to routinely monitor the foodchain and assess public risk. (Author)

  12. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    David Cheng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  13. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Ersahin, Devrim, E-mail: devrimersahin@yahoo.com; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, School of Medicine, Yale University, 333 Cedar St., New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2011-10-11

    Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  14. Radionuclide deposition control

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for controlling the deposition, on to the surfaces of reactor components, of the radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from a liquid stream containing the radionuclides. The method consists of disposing a getter material (nickel) in the liquid stream, and a non-getter material (tantalum, tungsten or molybdenum) as a coating on the surfaces where deposition is not desired. The process is described with special reference to its use in the coolant circuit in sodium cooled fast breeder reactors. (U.K.)

  15. Radionuclide examination in rheumatology

    Streda, A.; Kolar, J.; Valesova, M.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of twenty years of experience with the use of radionuclides in bone and articular rheumatic diseases indications for such examinations are summed up. The main advantage of the use of radionuclide methods is that they bring forward early diagnosis of tissue reconstruction which can thus be detected at the stage of microstructural changes. They also provide earlier and more reliable detection of the degree of the pathological process than is provided by X-ray examination. In some cases scintiscan may also be found useful as a method for following up the results of treatment of rheumatic diseases. (author)

  16. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Ersahin, Devrim; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David

    2011-01-01

    Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose

  17. Radionuclide patterns of femoral head disease

    Webber, M M; Wagner, J; Cragin, M D [California Univ., Los Angeles (USA). Dept. of Radiological Sciences

    1977-12-01

    The pattern of uptake of bone marrow specific radio-sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid and the pattern of uptake of bone mineral specific radio-sup(99m)Tc pryophosphate may be valuable in assessing bone vascularity in diseases suspected of causing impaired blood supply, or indicate the presence of reactive bone formation. The low energy of the technetium label has been shown to be superior to /sup 18/F and /sup 85/Sr, and leads to greater imaging detail on the scans. Femoral head scanning with mineral and/or marrow specific radionuclides offers the clinician a method of evaluating the status of the femoral head and possibly an early diagnosis of avascular necrosis before roentgenographic changes occur. This study, which reports on a 5-year experience using radionuclide scanning to assess femoral head vascularity, begins with baseline or normal studies followed by variations of the normal pattern. Typical scan patterns of hip pathology described above are also presented.

  18. Taking radionuclides to heart

    Kleynhans, P.H.T.; Lotter, M.G.; Van Aswegen, A.; Minnaar, P.C.; Iturralde, M.; Herbst, C.P.; Marx, D.

    1980-01-01

    Ischaemic heart disease is a main cause of death in South Africa. Non-invasive ECG gated radionuclide bloodpool imaging plays an increasingly useful role in the evalution of the function of the heart as a pump, and the extent of heart muscle perfusion defects is further pinpointed by invasive krypton-81m studies to improve patient management

  19. Radionuclides deposition over Antarctica

    Pourchet, M.; Magand, O.; Frezzotti, M.; Ekaykin, A.; Winther, J.-G.

    2003-01-01

    A detailed and comprehensive map of the distribution patterns for both natural and artificial radionuclides over Antarctica has been established. This work integrates the results of several decades of international programs focusing on the analysis of natural and artificial radionuclides in snow and ice cores from this polar region. The mean value (37±20 Bq m -2 ) of 241 Pu total deposition over 28 stations is determined from the gamma emissions of its daughter 241 Am, presenting a long half-life (432.7 yrs). Detailed profiles and distributions of 241 Pu in ice cores make it possible to clearly distinguish between the atmospheric thermonuclear tests of the fifties and sixties. Strong relationships are also found between radionuclide data ( 137 Cs with respect to 241 Pu and 210 Pb with respect to 137 Cs), make it possible to estimate the total deposition or natural fluxes of these radionuclides. Total deposition of 137 Cs over Antarctica is estimated at 760 TBq, based on results from the 90-180 deg. East sector. Given the irregular distribution of sampling sites, more ice cores and snow samples must be analyzed in other sectors of Antarctica to check the validity of this figure

  20. Soil burden by radionuclides

    Blum, W.E.H.; Wenzel, W.W.

    1989-01-01

    Natural radioactivity - half-lifes and radiation type of man-made nuclides, radionuclide behaviour in soils, effects on soil condition and soil functions are described. The only mode of decontamination is by decay and thus primarily dependent on the half-life of nuclides

  1. Radionuclides in house dust

    Fry, F A; Green, N; Dodd, N J; Hammond, D J

    1985-04-01

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate authorising Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, although radionuclides originating rom the BNFL site can be detected in house dust, this source of contamination is a negligible route of exposure for members of the public in West Cumbria. This report presents the results of the Board's study of house dust in twenty homes in Cumbria during the spring and summer of 1984. A more intensive investigation is being carried out by Imperial College. (author)

  2. Cooperative scans

    M. Zukowski (Marcin); P.A. Boncz (Peter); M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractData mining, information retrieval and other application areas exhibit a query load with multiple concurrent queries touching a large fraction of a relation. This leads to individual query plans based on a table scan or large index scan. The implementation of this access path in most

  3. Radionuclide evaluation of the liver in diabetes

    Abdel-Razzak, M.; El-Ashmawy, A.

    1982-01-01

    Hepatic involvement in diabetes has been previously demonstrated in experimental animals and in patients by clinical examination as well as by autopsy. The aim of the present work is to investigate the extent and type of hepatic involvement in diabetics by radionuclide scanning which is objective and not liable to the errors and difficulties inherent in the method of physical examination. The present study was performed on 40 diabetics, comprising 24 females and 16 males, aged between 17 and 80 years. Scanning was performed with 99m - Tc sulphur colloid using a rectilinear scanner and the gamma camera. The liver size was assessed from the scan pictures by the application of certain measurements and by surface area determination. The obtained results demonstrated marked discrepancy between the liver size as determined clinically and that evaluated by radionuclide scanning. By scintiscanning, the incidence of hepatic enlargement varied according to the parameter used. It amounted to 48% on the basis of the maximum vertical dimension and 37% with hepatic surface area measurement. Using the vertical dimension at halfway between the xiphoid and right lateral hepatic margin, the incidence of liver enlargement was 35%. Uneven distribution of radioactivity was seen in the right and/or left lobe in 20/40 patients. Furthermore, in 10 patients the ratio of hepatic to splenic radioactivity was below one. These changes could be explained by fatty infiltration and/or cirrhosis. Accordingly, hepatic scanning could be used to select diabetes having abnormal scan picture whether regarding liver dimensions or distribution of radioactivity and subjecting them to liver biopsy in order to define the nature of liver involvement. (Author)

  4. Radionuclide cardiography in medical practice

    Strangfeld, D.; Mohnike, W.; Schmidt, J.; Heine, H.; Correns, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    This publication is a compendium on all aspects of radionuclide diagnostics concerning cardiovascular system diseases. Starting with introductory remarks on the control of cardiovascular diseases the contribution of radionuclide cardiology to functional cardiovascular diagnostics as well as pathophysiological and pathobiochemical aspects of radiocardiography are outlined. Radiopharmaceuticals used in radiocardiography, physical and technical problems in application of radionuclides and their measuring techniques are discussed. In individual chapters radionuclide ventriculography, myocardial scintiscanning, circulatory diagnostics, radionuclide diagnostics of arterial hypertension, of thrombosis and in vitro diagnostics of thrombophilia are treated in the framework of clinical medicine

  5. Radionuclides in food

    Fernandez Gomez, Isis Maria

    2008-01-01

    The sources of the presence of radionuclides in food are presented: natural radiation and artificial radiation. The transfer of radionuclides through food chains, intakes of radionuclides to the body with its partners effective doses and typical consumption of basic foods of a rural adult population are exposed as main topics. Also the radiation doses from natural sources and exposure to man by ingestion of contaminated food with radionuclides of artificial origin are shown. The contribution of the food ingestion to the man exposure depends on: characteristics of radionuclide, natural conditions, farming practices and eating habits of the population. The principal international organizations in charge of setting guide levels for radionuclides in food are mentioned: standards, rules and the monitoring. It establishes that a guide is necessary for the food monitoring; the alone CODEX ALIMENTARIUS is applicable to emergency situations and the generic action levels proposed by the CODEX not satisfy all needs (no guiding international levels for planned or existing situations such as NORM). There are handled mainly socio-economic and political aspects. Among the actions to be taken are: to assure a public comprehensive information over the risk evaluation in food; to reinforce the collaboration among the different international organizations (WHO, IAEA, ICRP, EC) in relation with the food of set; to give follow-up to the control of the drinkable water and NORM's presence in the food. In addition, it is possible to create the necessary mechanisms to reduce the number of irrelevant measures and bureaucratic useless steps (certificates); to promote the exchange between the different institutions involved in the topic of the food, with relation to the acquired experiences and learned lessons. Likewise, it might examine the possibility of a multidisciplinary approximation (radioactive and not radioactive pollutants); to elaborate a technical guide to assure the

  6. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    J. Prouty

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  7. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  8. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Schreiner, R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other

  9. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    H. Miller

    2004-09-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement

  10. Radionuclide cisternographic findings in patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    Jung, Dong Jin; Kim, Jae Seung; Ryu, Jin Sook; Shin, Jung Woo; Im, Joo Hyuk; Lee, Myoung Chong; Jung, Sung Joo; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Lee, Hee Kyung

    1998-01-01

    Radionuclide cisternography may be helpful in understanding pathophysiology of postural headache and low CSF pressure in patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension. The purpose of this study was to characterize radionuclide cisternogrpahic findings of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. The study population consists of 15 patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Diagnosis was based on their clinical symptoms and results of lumbar puncture. All patients underwent radionuclide cisternography following injection of 111 to 222 MBq of Tc-99m DTPA into the lumbar subarachnoid space. Sequential images were obtained between 1/2 hour and 24 hour after the injection of Tc-99m DTPA. Radioactivity of the bladder, soft tissue uptake, migration of radionuclide in the subarachnoid space, and extradural leakage of radionuclide were evaluated according to the scan time. Radionuclide cisternogram showed delayed migration of radionuclide into the cerebral convexity (14/15), increased soft tissue uptake (11/15), and early visualization of bladder activity at 30 min (6/10) and 2 hr (13/13). Cisternography also demonstrated leakage site of CSF in 4 cases and 2 of these were depicted at 30min. Epidural blood patch was done in 11 patients and headache was improved in all cases. The characteristics findings of spontaneous intracranial hypotension were delayed migration of radionuclide and early visualization of the soft tissue and bladder activity. These scintigraphic findings suggest that CSF leakage rather than increased CSF absorption or decreased production may be the main pathophysiology of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Early and multiple imaging including the bladder and soft tissue is required to observe the entire dynamics of radionuclide migration

  11. Fukushima Daiichi Radionuclide Inventories

    Cardoni, Jeffrey N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jankovsky, Zachary Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Radionuclide inventories are generated to permit detailed analyses of the Fukushima Daiichi meltdowns. This is necessary information for severe accident calculations, dose calculations, and source term and consequence analyses. Inventories are calculated using SCALE6 and compared to values predicted by international researchers supporting the OECD/NEA's Benchmark Study on the Accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (BSAF). Both sets of inventory information are acceptable for best-estimate analyses of the Fukushima reactors. Consistent nuclear information for severe accident codes, including radionuclide class masses and core decay powers, are also derived from the SCALE6 analyses. Key nuclide activity ratios are calculated as functions of burnup and nuclear data in order to explore the utility for nuclear forensics and support future decommissioning efforts.

  12. Radionuclide table. Pt. 1

    Legrand, Jean; Perolat, J.-P.; Lagoutine, Frederic; Le Gallic, Yves.

    The evaluation of the following 29 radionuclides is presented: 22 Na, 24 Na, sup(24m)Na, 51 Cr, 54 Mn, 57 Co, 58 Co, sup(58m)Co, 60 Co, sup(60m)Co, 75 Se, 103 Ru, sup(103m)Rh, sup(110m)Ag- 110 Ag, 109 Cd, 125 Sb, sup(125mTe), 125 I, 133 Xe, sup(133m)Xe, 131 Cs, 134 Cs, sup(134m)Cs, 139 Ce, 144 Ce- 144 Pr, 144 Pr, 169 Er, 186 Re, 203 Hg. The introduction contains a brief description of radioactive processes and the evaluation rules followed. The best values and associated uncertainties are given for each radionuclide for the major parameters of the decay scheme and the radiation intensities emitted, together with a decay table. Gamma, X-rays and sometimes conversion electron spectra are also provided [fr

  13. Radionuclide co-precipitation

    Bruno, J.; Sandino, A.

    1987-12-01

    The thermodynamic and kinetic behaviour of the minor components of the spent fuel matrix has been theoretically and experimentally investigated. Two different situations have been studied: Part I, the near field scenario, where the release and migration of the minor components is dependent on the solubility behaviour of UO 2 (s); Part II, the far field, where the solubility and transport of the radionuclides is related to the major geochemical processes occurring. (orig.)

  14. Radionuclide fate and effects

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The studies reported here deal with the full range of contaminant behavior and fate, from the initial physicochemical factors that govern radionuclide availability in terrestrial and aquatic environments to studies of contaminant transport by biological means. By design, we focus more on the biologically and chemically mediated transport processes and food-chain pathways than on the purely physical forms of contaminant transport, such as transport by wind and water

  15. Role of bone scanning in neonatal rickets

    Saul, P.D.; Lloyd, D.J.; Smith, F.W.

    1983-03-01

    Preterm infants are at increased risk from rickets. Radionuclide bone scanning is a useful aid in suspected cases. It offers advantages over conventional radiology in terms of sensitivity, radiation dose and extent of examination. Unsuspected fractures of clinical or medicolegal significance may be detected. Two cases are described in which the technique confirmed the diagnosis and assisted management.

  16. Geochemistry and radionuclide migration

    Isherwood, D.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretically, the geochemical barrier can provide a major line of defense in protecting the biosphere from the hazards of nuclear waste. The most likely processes involved are easily identified. Preliminary investigations using computer modeling techniques suggest that retardation is an effective control on radionuclide concentrations. Ion exchange reactions slow radionuclide migration and allow more time for radioactive decay and dispersion. For some radionuclides, solubility alone may limit concentrations to less than the maximum permissible now considered acceptable by the Federal Government. The effectiveness of the geochemical barrier is ultimately related to the repository site characteristics. Theory alone tells us that geochemical controls will be most efficient in an environment that provides for maximum ion exchange and the precipitation of insoluble compounds. In site selection, consideration should be given to rock barriers with high ion exchange capacity that might also act as semi-permeable membranes. Also important in evaluating the site's potential for effective geochemical controls are the oxidation potentials, pH and salinity of the groundwater

  17. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    Howard, B.J.; Kennedy, V.H.; Nelson, A.

    1983-06-01

    A bibliographical database has been developed to provide quick access to research and background literature in the field of radioecology. This is a development of an earlier database described by Nelson (Bocock 1981). ITE's particular fields of interest have led to a subject bias in the bibliography towards studies in Cumbria, especially those concerned with radionuclides originating from the reprocessing plant at Sellafield, and towards ecological research studies that are complementary to radionuclide studies. Other subjects covered, include the chemistry of radionuclides, budgets and transfers within ecosystems and techniques for the analysis of environmental samples. ITE's research objectives have led to the establishment of a specialized database which is intended to complement rather than compete with the large international databases made available by suppliers such as IRS-DIALTECH or DIALOG. Currently the database holds about 1900 references which are stored on a 2 1/2 megabyte hard disk on a Digital PDP11/34 computer operating under a time shared system. The references follow a standard format. (author)

  18. Radionuclides in marine organisms

    Honda, Teruyuki

    2001-01-01

    The concentration and accumulation of radionuclides in marine organisms were explained in this paper. Secular change of the radioactivity concentration of 137 Cs in seaweed in coastal area of Japan showed more than 5Bq/kg-fresh in the first half of 1960, but decreased less than 1 Bq/kg-fresh after then and attained to less than 0.1 Bq/kg-fresh in 1990s. However, the value increased a while in 1986, which indicated the effect of Chernobyl accident. The accident increased 137 Cs of shellfish near Japan. The concentration of 239+240 Pu was the lowest value in muscles of fish, but increased from 1.7 to 42.3 mBq/kg wet wt in seaweed in 1999. 99 Tc concentration of seaweed showed from 100 to 1000 times as much as that of seawater. Radionuclides in the Irish Sea are originated from Sellafield reprocessing plant. The concentration factors of macro-algae and surface water fish (IAEA,1985) were shown. Analytical results of U in 61 kinds of marine organs showed that the concentration was different in the part of organ. The higher concentration of U was observed in hard tissue of fish. The concentration factor was different between chemical substances with the same radionuclides. (S.Y.)

  19. Proficiency testing for radionuclides

    Faanhof, A.; Kotze, O.; Louw, I.

    2010-01-01

    Proficiency testing in general is only useful when it suites a certain purpose. With regards to radionuclides basically three fields of interest can be identified: (I)Foodstuffs-Introduced in the early 1960's to monitor the fall-out of nuclear tests and eventually the pathway to foodstuffs fit for human consumption. The demand for analysis increased substantially after the Chernobyl accident. (II) Natural radioactivity-Associated with mining and mineral processing of uranium and thorium baring mineral resources throughout the world where the radionuclides from the natural uranium and thorium decay series are found to pose concern for professional and public exposure. (III) Artificial radioactivity-This category covers mostly the long-lived nuclides generated by nuclear fission of the fuel used in nuclear power plants, research reactors and nuclear bomb tests. All three categories require a specific approach for laboratories to test their ability to analyze specific radio nuclides of interest in a variety of matrices. In this lecture I will give a compiled overview of the required radioanalytical skills, analysis sensitivity needed and radionuclides of interest, with more specific emphasis on QAQC of water sources and the recommended monitoring approach. And provide information on available reference materials and organizations/institutes that provide regular exercises for participating laboratories. I will also briefly communicate on the advantages and disadvantages of ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation for test laboratories, which is these days a prerequisite in national and international trade especially where foodstuffs and mineral products are concerned.

  20. Radionuclide characterization of environmental air around nuclear facilities

    Gede Sutresna Wijaya; Anung Muharini

    2015-01-01

    Air is an important environmental component in human life. Presence of air pollutants or contaminants will have a negative impact on human health. According to the existence of a nuclear facility in Yogyakarta, the characterization of radionuclides in the air is absolutely necessary to ensure the safety of people and the environment and also to supervise the safe operation of the facility. In this research the characterization of radionuclides in the air was carried through the air sampling by using High Volume Air Sampler equipped with filter TFA 2133, followed by analysis using combination of a gamma and alpha spectrometers. The concentration of radioactivity in the air fluctuates depending on the time and duration of sampling. Characterization of gamma emitting radionuclides in the air is dominated by radon progeny radionuclides such as 214 Pb, 214 Bi with activity 20.09 ± 1.23 until 32.91 ± 4.87 Bq/m 3 and 31.22 ± 1.76 until 44.25 ± 4.91 Bq/m 3 . Alpha emitter radionuclide was dominated by 214 Po (7.69 MeV) which is also radon progeny and a primordial radionuclides. It can be concluded that the presence of radionuclides in the environmental air not as a product resulting from the operation of nuclear facilities in Yogyakarta. (author)

  1. Method and apparatus for scanning a transverse field

    Stoddart, H.F.

    1978-01-01

    A transverse radionuclide scan-field imaging apparatus is described for use in scanning with particular reference to the brain. It comprises a plurality of highly focussed collimators surrounding and being focussed inwardly with respect to the scan-field and means for imparting movement to the collimators. Adjacent collimators can be stepped in radially opposite directions after each tangential scan, so that the focal point of each collimator scans at least one half of the scan-field. Each collimator is associated with a scintillator crystal and photodetector whose output is used to calculate the radioactive emission intensity at a number of points in the scan-field. (author)

  2. Hyperparathyroidism: comparison of MR imaging with radionuclide scanning

    Peck, W.W.; Higgins, C.B.; Fisher, M.R.; Ling, M.; Okerlund, M.D.; Clark, O.H.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-three patients with hyperparathyroidism were evaluated preoperatively with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Twenty patients also underwent thallium-201/technetium-99m scintigraphy. Of 22 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, 12 had persistent or recurrent disease. One had secondary hyperparathyroidism due to end-stage renal disease. MR imaging allowed accurate localization of abnormal parathyroid glands in 64% evaluated prospectively and 82% evaluated retrospectively. Scintigraphy allowed localization of 60% evaluated prospectively and 70% retrospectively. The two imaging modalities together allowed detection of 68% evaluated prospectively and 91% retrospectively. MR imaging allowed detection of two of five mediastinal adenomas evaluated prospectively and four of five retrospectively. In patients who underwent both imaging studies, MR was more successful in those with previous neck surgery (73% evaluated prospectively and 91% retrospectively) than in those with no prior surgery (57% prospectively and 71% retrospectively). Scintigraphy allowed accurate localization in 64% evaluated prospectively and 64% retrospectively in patients with previous surgery versus 57% prospectively and 86% retrospectively in patients with no prior neck surgery. Four false-positive results were obtained with MR imaging and three with scintigraphy. MR imaging was useful for parathyroid localization in patients with hyperparathyroidism, particularly in patients requiring additional surgery

  3. Limitations of radionuclide flow studies in bilateral carotid thrombosis

    Messert, B.; Tyson, I.B.; Barron, S.A.

    1975-01-01

    Radionuclide angiography as a noninvasive procedure has become an important tool in the evaluation of cerebrovascular diseases. Determinations of arm-to-brain circulation times complemented by the transit times of the radionuclide bolus through the brain afford insight into the functional status of the vascular system of the brain. Delays in perfusion, asymmetries in appearance, and washout of the radionuclide material can be correlated with disease entities. However, as with many procedures elevated to the status of a screening test, the possibility of false-positive and false-negative results exists. Two cases of bilateral carotid occlusion are presented, showing normal or only delayed, fairly symmetrical brain perfusion. The appearance of the radionuclide flow in the neck in AP and lateral views gave no suggestion of the involved deficits. Even multiple-projection imaging might fail to demonstrate major vascular obstructions. However, attentive study of these projections might yield interesting evidence of unexpected collateral flow systems. (U.S.)

  4. Chapter 2. Radionuclides in the biosphere

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with role of radionuclides in the biosphere. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Natural radionuclides in biosphere; (2) Man-made radionuclides in the biosphere; (3) Ecologically important radionuclides; (4) Natural background; (5) Radiotoxicity and (6) Paths of transfer of radionuclides from the source to human

  5. Radionuclide diagnosis of emergency states

    Ishmukhametov, A.I.

    1985-01-01

    Solution of emergency state radionuclide diagnostics from the technical point of view is provided by the application of the mobile quick-operating equipment in combination with computers, by the use of radionuclides with acceptable for emergency medicine characteristics and by development of radionuclide investigation data propcessing express-method. Medical developments include the study of acute disease and injury radioisotope semiotics, different indication diagnostic value determining, comparison of the results, obtained during radionuclide investigation, with clinicolaboratory and instrumental data, separation of methodical complex series

  6. History of medical radionuclide production.

    Ice, R D

    1995-11-01

    Radionuclide production for medical use originally was incidental to isotope discoveries by physicists and chemists. Once the available radionuclides were identified they were evaluated for potential medical use. Hevesy first used 32P in 1935 to study phosphorous metabolism in rats. Since that time, the development of cyclotrons, linear accelerators, and nuclear reactors have produced hundreds of radionuclides for potential medical use. The history of medical radionuclide production represents an evolutionary, interdisciplinary development of applied nuclear technology. Today the technology is represented by a mature industry and provides medical benefits to millions of patients annually.

  7. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport

  8. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  9. Recent advances and future projections in clinical radionuclide imaging

    Peters, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    This outline review of recent advances in radionuclide imaging draws attention to developments in nuclear medicine of the urinary tract such as Captopril renography and the introduction of MAG-3, the technetium-99m labelled mimic of hippuran, the use of radionuclides for infection diagnosis, advances in lung perfusion scanning, new radiopharmaceuticals for cardiac imaging, and developments in radiopharmaceuticals for imaging tumours, including gallium-67, thallium-201, and the development of radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies. Attention is drawn to the wider use of nuclear medicine in child care. (author)

  10. Modifying radionuclide effects

    Sasser, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    This project involves a study of the relationship of physiological and environmental factors to the metabolism and effects of radionuclides. We have studied placental transfer and suckling as pathways of americium entry into the newborn or juvenile rat. Rats were injected intravenously with 5 μCi of 241 Am while nulliparous (30 days prior to mating), pregnant (day 19 of gestation), or lactating (1 day after parturition), and subsequent litters were killed to determine 241 Am retention. A deficit in reproductive performance was observed in the group injected before mating, as evidenced by reduced number and weight of offspring

  11. Radionuclides in the sea

    NONE

    1971-07-01

    Water covers a little more than two-thirds of the earth's surface. What is thrown into the sea from a ship may be washed up on a shore thousands of miles away; wastes discharged into the seas or into rivers flowing into them can affect marine life and possibly also the health of man. The study, prevention and control of pollution of the seas and oceans by radionuclides introduced as by-products of man's use of nuclear energy is thus of global interest. (author)

  12. Sherlock Holmes for radionuclides

    Schmitzer, C.

    2002-01-01

    At the end of 2001 ARC Seibersdorf research has taken the management of the first worldwide certified laboratory to control the realization of the international Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Altogether there will be 16 CTBT certified laboratories worldwide; therefore a global network of radionuclides measurements stations and test laboratories as well as seismic, radiation and hydroacustic measurements stations is necessary . In the future air samples will be taken from these stations and analyzed in one of these certified laboratories, when appears the suspicion that an atomic test was carried out. (nevyjel)

  13. Scanning table

    1960-01-01

    Before the invention of wire chambers, particles tracks were analysed on scanning tables like this one. Today, the process is electronic and much faster. Bubble chamber film - currently available - (links can be found below) was used for this analysis of the particle tracks.

  14. Scan Statistics

    Glaz, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Suitable for graduate students and researchers in applied probability and statistics, as well as for scientists in biology, computer science, pharmaceutical science and medicine, this title brings together a collection of chapters illustrating the depth and diversity of theory, methods and applications in the area of scan statistics.

  15. Radionuclide salivary imaging usefulness in a private otolaryngology practice

    Schall, G.L.; Smith, R.R.; Barsocchini, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    Radionuclide salivary gland scans were performed on 44 patients using sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m. The accuracy of the scans and their usefulness in the clinical treatment of the patients were reviewed. The scan provided helpful information in 31 of 38 cases in which adequate follow-up data were available, although it proved diagnostic in only six patients. It was particularly useful in the evaluation of primary salivary gland neoplasms, acute and chronic sialadenitis, and sialolithiasis, as well as in the differential diagnosis of xerostomia. The value of this procedure in the elucidation of a variety of morphologic and functional diseases of these glands warrants its greater application in private otolaryngologic practices

  16. 14'' x 17'' film recorder for computer-enhanced scans

    Morris, A.C. Jr.; Barclay, T.R.; Akin, T.E.; Hansard, M.C.; Gibbs, W.D.; Modzelewski, C.U.

    1976-01-01

    Physician acceptance of computer-enhanced radionuclide scan results, presented in the form of small Polaroid pictures, has been very limited for a number of subjective reasons. A new recorder was designed and constructed that presents the results of computer augmented scans through a medium that is quite familiar to doctors, the standard 14 in. x 17 in. x-ray film

  17. Radionuclide Therapy. Chapter 19

    Flux, G.; Du, Yong [Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Cancer has been treated with radiopharmaceuticals since the 1940s. The radionuclides originally used, including 131I and 32P, are still in use. The role of the physicist in radionuclide therapy encompasses radiation protection, imaging and dosimetry. Radiation protection is of particular importance given the high activities of the unsealed sources that are often administered, and must take into account medical staff, comforters and carers, and, as patients are discharged while still retaining activity, members of the public. Regulations concerning acceptable levels of exposure vary from country to country. If the administered radiopharmaceutical is a γ emitter, then imaging can be performed which may be either qualitative or quantitative. While a regular system of quality control must be in place to prevent misinterpretation of image data, qualitative imaging does not usually rely on the image corrections necessary to determine the absolute levels of activity that are localized in the patient. Accurate quantitative imaging is dependent on these corrections and can permit the distribution of absorbed doses delivered to the patient to be determined with sufficient accuracy to be clinically beneficial.

  18. Intervention procedures for radionuclides

    Adelstein, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    As in the case of smoking and lung cancer, for large radionuclide releases, an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. On the other hand, we feel compelled to do something sensible after an accident even if the principal benefit of intervention may be to comfort the population at risk. Of course, for populations near the site of an accident, evacuation should be considered, but it is unreasonable to apply this measure to distant populations, e.g., large segments of the European community could not be moved about as we observe the shifting of a radioactive cloud in response to changing winds. If the radionuclides are delivered as particulates, bringing people indoors and employing primitive air filters can temporarily reduce exposures, but these stratagems are not very effective against gaseous or volatile elements. What, then, can be done for populations downwind of a radioactive release whose air, water, and/or food supply are, or are about to become contaminated? 5 refs

  19. Bone scanning in patients with breast carcinoma

    Inoue, Y.; Nishi, T.; Hirose, T.; Schichijo, Y.; Ibukuro, K.

    1985-01-01

    Skeletal imaging using radionuclides has proved to be a sensitive method for the detection of early bony metastases from breast carcinoma. Recent studies have found a relatively low rate of abnormal scans in patients with stage I and II breast cancers, and therefore it is open to question whether bone scanning should be part of the preoperative evaluation of any patient prior to breast surgery. We reviewed our experience with bone scans in 329 patients out of 406 histologically proven breast cancer patients to determine if any or all patients should have this procedure done routinely prior to breast surgery. (orig.) [de

  20. Correlation between PSA, bone scan and Gleason score in patients with prostate cancer

    Mendoza, G.; Cano, R.; Morales, R.; Munoz, L.; Saavedra, P.; Aguilar, C.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Prostate cancer is the third most common cancer among Peruvian males. Although radionuclide bone scans (BS) are frequently recommended as part of the staging evaluation for newly diagnosed prostate cancer, most scans are negative for metastases. It has been suggested that a routine bone scan is unnecessary in recently diagnosed prostate cancer if serum PSA is under 10 ng/mL. We hypothesized that Gleason score plus prostate-specific antigen (PSA), could predict for a positive bone scan (better that PSA alone), and that a low - risk group of patients could be identified in whom BS might be omitted. All patients who had both pathologic review of their prostate cancer biopsies and radionuclide BS at our institution from 1/93 to 12/95 were studied. Gleason score, PSA, and bone scan (Soloway Index) were determined in 165 patients. Bivariate analysis using chi (x2) was performed. The mean age of the 165 patients was 71.3 years, 109/165 (66.1%) had a 7-9 Gleason score and only 9/165 (5.5%) were well differentiated prostrate cancer. 82/165 (49.7%) had negative BS. When classifying patients according to their histological grade, the PSA median values were 11.8 ng/mL, 74.8 ng/mL and 116.4 ng/mL in well, median and poorly differentiated prostate cancer respectively. Using a cut off point of 10 ng/mL of PSA, the probability of having a positive BS in Gleason 7, 8 and 9 tumors were 0.109, 0.121 and 0.133 respectively. By using a cut off point of 20 ng/mL of PSA the possibility to have a positive BS in Gleason 7, 8 and 9 tumours were 0.182, 0.206 and 0.224 respectively. Gleason score plus PSA were independent predictors for a positive radionuclide BS in newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients. Considering that most of our patients have Gleason 7-9, the risk of bone metastases despite PSA levels between 10 - 20 ng/mL is not negligible. In our opinion, it is important to continue including bone scan in the staging assessment of prostate cancer. (author)

  1. Some parameters of radionuclide kinetics

    Prokof'ev, O.N.; Smirnov, V.A.; Belen'kij, E.I.

    1978-01-01

    Numerical values of the rates of radionuclide absorption into, and elimination from, bovine organs were determined. Kinetic rate constants of radionuclides such as 89 Sr, 99 Mo, 131 I, 132 Tl, and 140 Be were calculated. The calculations were done for muscle, liver, and kidney

  2. Radionuclide - Soil Organic Matter Interactions

    Carlsen, Lars

    1985-01-01

    Interactions between soil organic matter, i.e. humic and fulvic acids, and radionuclides of primary interest to shallow land burial of low activity solid waste have been reviewed and to some extent studied experimentally. The radionuclides considered in the present study comprise cesium, strontium...

  3. Chapter 13. Radionuclides in medicine

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with problems connected with using of radionuclides in medicine. Methods of treatment with using of radionuclides are reviewed. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Remotion of thyroid gland; (2) Treatment of cerebrally tumour in nuclear reactor; (3) Artificial heart

  4. Scanning holograms

    Natali, S.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter reports on the scanning of 1000 holograms taken in HOBC at CERN. Each hologram is triggered by an interaction in the chamber, the primary particles being pions at 340 GeV/c. The aim of the experiment is the study of charm production. The holograms, recorded on 50 mm film with the ''in line'' technique, can be analyzed by shining a parallel expanded laser beam through the film, obtaining immediately above it the real image of the chamber which can then be scanned and measured with a technique half way between emulsions and bubble chambers. The results indicate that holograms can be analyzed as quickly and reliably as in other visual techniques and that to them is open the same order of magnitude of large scale experiments

  5. Radionuclide imaging of soft tissue neoplasms

    Chew, F.S.; Hudson, T.M.; Enneking, W.F.

    1981-01-01

    Two classes of radiopharmaceuticals may be used for imaging tumors of the musculoskeletal system. The first is comprised of soft tissue or tumor specific agents such as gallium-67, bleomycin, and radionuclide-labeled antibodies, which may be useful for detecting and localizing these tumors. The other class of tracer is comprised of those with avidity for bone. The 99mTc-labeled-phosphate skeletal imaging compounds have been found to localize in a variety of soft tissue lesions, including benign and malignant tumors. In 1972, Enneking began to include bone scans in the preoperative evaluation of soft tissue masses. Later, he and his associates reported that these scans were useful in planning operative treatment of sarcomas by detecting involvement of bone by the tumors. Nearly all malignant soft tissue tumors take up bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals, and bone involvement was indicated in two-thirds of the scans we reviewed. About half of benign soft tissue lesions had normal scans, but the other half showed uptake within the lesion and a few also showed bone involvement. Careful, thorough imaging technique is essential to proper evaluation. Multiple, high-resolution static gamma camera images in different projections are necessary to adequately demonstrate the presence or absence of soft tissue abnormality and to define the precise relationship of the tumor to the adjacent bone

  6. Radioactivity, radionuclides, radiation

    Magill, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    RADIOACTIVITY – RADIONUCLIDES – RADIATION is suitable for a general audience interested in topical environmental and human health radiological issues such as radiation exposure in aircraft, food sterilisation, nuclear medicine, radon gas, radiation dispersion devices ("dirty bombs")… It leads the interested reader through the three Rs of nuclear science, to the forefront of research and developments in the field. The book is also suitable for students and professionals in the related disciplines of nuclear and radiochemistry, health physics, environmental sciences, nuclear and astrophysics. Recent developments in the areas of exotic decay modes (bound beta decay of ‘bare’ or fully ionized nuclei), laser transmutation, nuclear forensics, radiation hormesis and the LNT hypothesis are covered. Atomic mass data for over 3000 nuclides from the most recent (2003) evaluation are included.

  7. Deep sea radionuclides

    Kanisch, G.; Vobach, M.

    1993-01-01

    Every year since 1979, either in sping or in summer, the fishing research vessel 'Walther Herwig' goes to the North Atlantic disposal areas of solid radioactive wastes, and, for comparative purposes, to other areas, in order to collect water samples, plankton and nekton, and, from the deep sea bed, sediment samples and benthos organisms. In addition to data on the radionuclide contents of various media, information about the plankton, nekton and benthos organisms living in those areas and about their biomasses could be gathered. The investigations are aimed at acquiring scientifically founded knowledge of the uptake of radioactive substances by microorganisms, and their migration from the sea bottom to the areas used by man. (orig.) [de

  8. Radionuclide reporter gene imaging

    Min, Jung Joon

    2004-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of non-invasive imaging technologies continues to strengthen the role of molecular imaging biological research. These tools have been validated recently in variety of research models, and have been shown to provide continuous quantitative monitoring of the location(s), magnitude, and time-variation of gene expression. This article reviews the principles, characteristics, categories and the use of radionuclide reporter gene imaging technologies as they have been used in imaging cell trafficking, imaging gene therapy, imaging endogenous gene expression and imaging molecular interactions. The studies published to date demonstrate that reporter gene imaging technologies will help to accelerate model validation as well as allow for clinical monitoring of human diseases

  9. Radionuclide reporter gene imaging

    Min, Jung Joon [School of Medicine, Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-04-01

    Recent progress in the development of non-invasive imaging technologies continues to strengthen the role of molecular imaging biological research. These tools have been validated recently in variety of research models, and have been shown to provide continuous quantitative monitoring of the location(s), magnitude, and time-variation of gene expression. This article reviews the principles, characteristics, categories and the use of radionuclide reporter gene imaging technologies as they have been used in imaging cell trafficking, imaging gene therapy, imaging endogenous gene expression and imaging molecular interactions. The studies published to date demonstrate that reporter gene imaging technologies will help to accelerate model validation as well as allow for clinical monitoring of human diseases.

  10. Natural radionuclides in groundwaters

    Laul, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The U-234 and Th-230 radionuclides are highly retarded by factors of 10 4 to 10 5 in basalt groundwater (Hanford) and briny groundwaters from Texas and geothermal brine from the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF). In basalt groundwaters (low ionic strength), Ra is highly sorbed, while in brines (high ionic strength), Ra is soluble. This is probably because the sorption sites are saturated with Na + and Cl - ions and RaCl 2 is soluble in brines. Pb-210 is soluble in SSGF brine, probably as a chloride complex. The U-234/Th-230 ratios in basalt groundwaters and brines from Texas and SSGF are nearly unity, indicating that U is in the +4 state, suggesting a reducing environment for these aquifers. 19 refs., 3 figs

  11. Natural radionuclides in groundwaters

    Laul, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The 234 U and 230 Th radionuclides are highly retarded by factors of 10 4 to 10 5 in basalt groundwater (Hanford) and briny groundwaters from Texas, and geothermal brine form the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF). In basalt groundwaters (low ionic strength), Ra is highly sorbed, while in brines (high ionic strength), Ra is soluble. This is probably because the sorption sites are saturated with Na + and Cl - ions, and RaCl 2 is soluble in brines. 210 Pb is soluble in SSGF brine, probably as a chloride complex. The 234 U/ 230 Th ratios in basalt groundwaters and brines from Texas and SSGF are nearly unity, indicating that U is in the +4 state, suggesting a reducing environment for these aquifers. (author) 19 refs.; 3 figs

  12. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  13. Radionuclide calibrators performance evaluation

    Mora Ramirez, E.; Zeledon Fonseca, P.; Jimenez Cordero, M.

    2008-01-01

    Radionuclide calibrators are used to estimate accurately activity prior to administration to a patient, so it is very important that this equipment meets its performance requirements. The purpose of this paper is to compare the commercially available 'Calicheck' (Calcorp. Inc), used to assess linearity, versus the well-known source decay method, and also to show our results after performing several recommended quality control tests. The parameters that we wanted to evaluate were carried on using the Capintec CRC-15R and CRC-15 β radionuclide calibrators. The evaluated tests were: high voltage, display, zero adjust, background, reproducibility, source constancy, accuracy, precision and linearity. The first six tests were evaluated on the daily practice, here we analyzed the 2007 recorded data; and the last three were evaluated once a year. During the daily evaluation both calibrators performance were satisfactory comparing with the manufacture's requirements. The accuracy test show result within the ± 10% allowed for a field instrument. Precision performance is within the ± 1 % allowed. On the other hand, the linearity test shows that using the source decay method the relative coefficient is 0.9998, for both equipment and using the Calicheck the relative coefficient is 0.997. However, looking the percentage of error, during the 'Calicheck' test, its range goes from 0.0 % up to -25.35%, and using the source decay method, the range goes from 0.0 % up to -31.05 %, taking into account both instruments. Checking the 'Calicheck' results we can see that the results varying randomly, but using the source decay method the percentage of error increase as the source activity decrease. We conclude that both devices meet its manufactures requirements, in the case of the linearity using the decay method, decreasing the activity source, increasing the percentage of error, this may happen because of the equipment age. (author)

  14. When negation is not negation

    Milicevic, Nataša

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I will discuss the formation of different types of yes/no questions in Serbian (examples in (1)), focusing on the syntactically and semantically puzzling example (1d), which involves the negative auxiliary inversion. Although there is a negative marker on the fronted auxiliary, the construction does not involve sentential negation. This coincides with the fact that the negative quantifying NPIs cannot be licensed. The question formation and sentential negation have similar synta...

  15. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides

    Quine, T.A.; Walling, D.

    1998-01-01

    Geomorphologists have shown increasing interest in environmental radionuclides since pioneering studies by Ritchie and McHenry in the USA and Campbell, Longmore and Loughran in Australia. Environmental radionuclides have attracted this interest because they provide geomorphologists with the means to trace sediment movement within the landscape. They, therefore, facilitate investigation of subjects at the core of geomorphology, namely the rates and patterns of landscape change. Most attention has been focussed on the artificial radionuclide caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) but more recently potential applications of the natural radionuclides lead-210 ( 210 Pb) and beryllium-7( 7 Be) have been investigated (Walling et al., 1995; Wallbrink and Murray, 1996a, 1996b). The origin, characteristics and applications of these radionuclides are summarised. These radionuclides are of value as sediment tracers because of three important characteristics: a strong affinity for sediment; a global distribution and the possibility of measurement at low concentration. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides provide unique access to detailed qualitative data concerning landscape change over a range of timescales

  16. Sorbent application on the base of chitosan for radionuclides separation

    Pivarciova, L.

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive waste contains enormous amounts of radionuclides, which pollute the environment and can cause serious chemical and radiological toxicity threats to lower and higher living organism. Alternative process for the removal of heavy metal ions and radionuclides is sorption, which utilizes various certain natural materials of biological origin. Amino-polysaccharide-based sorbents e.g. chitosan represent suitable materials for binding of metal oxo-anion species because of numerous functional groups -OH and -NH_2 because of their suitable H-bond donor and acceptor sites. The sorbents on the base chitosan prepared through chemical modification were used for removal and separation certain radionuclides from aqueous media. The aim of this work was the study of physicochemical properties of prepared sorbents. The specific surface of sorbents was characterized with BET methods. Point of zero charge was identified with potentiometric titration. The size of particles and shape of sorbents were determined by scanning electron microscope. The sorption experiments for selected radionuclides were conducted under static and dynamic conditions. The effect of various parameters on the sorption "9"9"mTc, "6"0Co and the effect of pH on the separation of radionuclide mixture in the solution were studied. (author)

  17. Radionuclides in Canada goose eggs

    Rickard, W.H.; Sweany, H.A.

    1975-01-01

    Low levels of radionuclides were measured in Canada goose eggs taken from deserted nests from Columbia River islands on the Energy Research and Development Administration's Hanford Reservation. Potassium-40, a naturally occurring radionuclide, was the most abundant radionuclide measured in egg contents and egg shell. Strontium-90 was incorporated into egg shells and cesium-137 into inner egg contents. Manganese-54, cobalt-60, and zinc-65 were more abundant in inner egg contents than in egg shell. Cerium-144 was detected in egg shell but not in inner shell

  18. Radionuclide migration in water reservoirs

    Rodionova, L.F.

    1983-01-01

    Toxicity degree and radiation effect of different radionuclides depend on multiple factors, whose interaction can strengthen or weaken the effects through the mechanism of nuclide accumulation by hydrobiontes. Stage of development of an aquatic organism, its age, mass and sex as well as lifetime and residence time of the organism in the given medium are of importance. The radionuclide build up depends on illumination, locale of the bioobject residence, on the residence nature. The concentration of radionuclides in aquatic organisms and bionts survival depend on a season, temperature of the residence medium, as well as salinity and mineral composition of water influence

  19. Artificial radionuclides in soil, flora and fauna

    Marej, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Sources and ways of soil contamination by radionuclides, as well as the main regularities of radionuclide behaviour in soils, are discussed. Ways of radionuclide uptake by plants are discussed in detail, since radionuclide contamination of vegetation, and agricultural plants and pastures in particular, is one of the main factors, determining sanitary value of environmental contamination by radioactive substances

  20. Radionuclide arthrogram to evaluate knee prostheses loosening

    Ahn, U.

    2009-01-01

    Full text:This case is about a 78 year old lady who had 3TKRs on her left knee. The 2nd revision surgery was performed due to infection. After 6 weeks long procedure, that patient was discharged with satisfactory movement without sign of infection. 15 months after the surgery, the orthopaedic surgeon found that some pressure wave effects and pain with walking. There was no sign of infection clinically. Once X-ray could not confirm any micro-loosening, the surgeon wanted to investigate with radionuclide arthrogram for this difficult case. 40 MBq in 2mls of Calcium phytate colloid (from RADPHARM Australia) was injected into the knee joint space. 30 minutes static views revealed the tracer started to travel below the tibial component. 4 hours statics views clearly indicate the tibial component loosening also there was leakage of tracer through anterior tibial osteotomy screws into the level of ankle subcutaneously. Cobalt57 flood images provided the anatomical localisation. While the surgeon was planning new component for the 3rd revision surgery, the patient's pain disappeared with time. No more revision was considered with satisfactory level of movement. This was the first and only case of radio arthogram to our department, although we perform many bone scans with same reason. On published articles, overall sensitivity and specificity are variable from 85% to 100%. When we take look at other clinical experience, there are a number of reasons in the high accuracy and reliability of radionuclide arthrogram especially for knee prosthesis loosening. Therefore I want to emphasise the benefit of radionuclide arthrogram for both patient and surgeon as a reliable diagnosis with minimum discomfort.

  1. Radionuclide methods in pediatric cardiology

    Reich, O.; Ruth, C.; Samanek, M.

    1990-01-01

    The use of radionuclide methods in pediatric cardiology is discussed for non-invasive evaluation of myocardial function and perfusion, regional lung perfusion and ventilation, and for measuring central and peripheral hemodynamics. (H.W.). 16 refs

  2. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

  3. Radionuclides in the food chain

    Harley, J.H.; Schmidt, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    Radionuclides in the Food Chain reviews past experience in meeting the challenge of radionuclide contamination of foodstuffs and water sources and, in the wake of the reactor accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island, presents current concepts and programs relating to measurement, surveillance, effects, risk management, evaluation guidelines, and control and regulatory activities. This volume, based on a symposium sponsored by the International Life Sciences Institute in association with the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, which brought together both radiation experts and food industry policymakers, examines such vital topics as structural problems in large-scale crisis-managment systems; dose assessment from man-made sources; international recommendations on radiation protection; airborne contamination, as well as aquatic and soilborne radionuclides; food-chain contamination from testing nuclear devices; long-term health effects of radionuclides in food and water supplies; and use of mathematical models in risk assessment and management. (orig.)

  4. Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport

    Houseworth, J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of the

  5. Surface diffusion of sorbed radionuclides

    Berry, J.A.; Bond, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Surface diffusion has in the past been invoked to explain rates of radionuclide migration which were greater than those predicted. Results were generally open to interpretation but the possible existence of surface diffusion, whereby sorbed radionuclides could potentially migrate at much enhanced rates, necessitated investigation. In this work through-diffusion experiments have shown that although surface diffusion does exist for some nuclides, the magnitude of the phenomenon is not sufficient to affect repository safety assessment modelling. (author)

  6. Radionuclide generators for biomedical applications

    Finn, R.D.; Molinski, V.J.; Hupf, H.B.; Kramer, H.

    1983-10-01

    This document reviews the chemical literature of those radionuclide generators that have gained or appear to possess utility in medical imaging. The text represents a conscientious effort to peruse the scientific literature through 1980. The intent of this work is to provide a reference point for the investigator who is interested in the development of a particular generator system and the refinements which have been reported. Moreover, the incorporation of the particular daughter radionuclide into a suitable radiodiagnostic agent is presented

  7. Radionuclide migration in soils

    Demir, M [Ingenieurgesellschaft Bonnenberg und Drescher, Juelich (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-01-01

    Unplanned releases from a nuclear installation - e.g., leakage from a storage tank or other incident - can result in the escape of contaminants such as U, Pu, Cs, Sr, T etc. Nuclide transport through the ground is governed by characteristics of the subsurface hydrology and the specific nuclides under consideration. Unsaturated soil layers result in a transport rate so low as to negligible. Radionuclides reaching the ground water are assumed to endanger human life because of potential uncontrolled ingestion. The most dangerous nuclides are long-lived and not absorbed, or very poorly absorbed, in the soil. During migration of nuclides through saturated soil layers, the concentration can be reduced by dilution. Preliminary results indicate that tritium is spread with ground water velocity. Its concentration can be reduced only by diffusion, dispersion and radioactive decay. Alpha-emitters are strongly retained velocities of alpha-emitters are approximately one thousandth (10/sup -3/) that of T. Transport velocities of Cs and Sr are approximately one hundreth (10/sup -2/) and one tenth (10/sup -1/) that of T respectively.

  8. Radionuclide migration in soils

    Demir, M.

    1979-01-01

    Unplanned releases from a nuclear installation - e.g., leakage from a storage tank or other incident - can result in the escape of contaminants such as U, Pu, Cs, Sr, T etc. Nuclide transport through the ground is governed by characteristics of the subsurface hydrology and the specific nuclides under consideration. Unsaturated soil layers result in a transport rate so low as to negligible. Radionuclides reaching the ground water are assumed to endanger human life because of potential uncontrolled ingestion. The most dangerous nuclides are long-lived and not absorbed, or very poorly absorbed, in the soil. During migration of nuclides through saturated soil layers, the concentration can be reduced by dilution. Preliminary results indicate that tritium is spread with ground water velocity. Its concentration can be reduced only by diffusion, dispersion and radioactive decay. Alpha-emitters are strongly retained velocities of alpha-emitters are approximately one thousandth (10 -3 ) that of T. Transport velocities of Cs and Sr are approximately one hundreth (10 -2 ) and one tenth (10 -1 ) that of T respectively. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  10. Radionuclides migration or isolation?

    Toulhoat, P.; Grambow, B.; Simoni, E.

    2005-01-01

    After 20 years of research, the chemical behaviour of actinides and fission products in nuclear waste disposal environments is much better understood. Consistent thermodynamic data have been gathered and allow much more accurate previsions. Through the considerable development of analytical spectroscopy, including time resolved laser fluorescence and X ray absorption, a better understanding of the chemical reactivity (complexation, sorption) of actinides and fission products at a molecular scale has been possible. Chemically reducing conditions are found in most selected disposal host rock formations, generally chosen for their high sorption capacity (clays); such conditions favour the chemical confinement of most radionuclides through precipitation or sorption. Low permeability host rocks participate to this confinement, as convective fluxes are lower than diffusive fluxes. The most recent performance assessment exercises have taken into account the recent progress of knowledge in the chemical evolution of the near field. They show that the dose rates at the outlet are far lower than existing recommendations for normal and most altered evolution scenarios. (authors)

  11. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-01-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific

  12. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    Hu, Q; Weng, J; Wang, J

    2007-11-15

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview of anthropogenic radionuclide contamination in the environment, as well as the salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current development that contribute to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) commercial fuel reprocessing; (5) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes, and (6) nuclear accidents. Then, we summarize the geochemical behavior for radionuclides {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 237}Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment. Biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  13. Kinetic approach for interactive reactions of radionuclide, bacteria and granitic crushed rock

    Kim, Jung Woo; Baik, Min Hoon; Lee, Seung Yeop; Lee, Jae Kwang; Kim, Seung Soo; Oh, Jong Min; Lee, Tae Yup

    2011-01-01

    For many radionuclides, sorption is an important phenomenon as their migration rates in groundwater are reduced in both engineered barrier and fractured rock matrix. Sorption of radionuclides is strongly dependent on the chemistry of the surrounding groundwater, such as pH, Eh, ionic strength, etc., by changing their valence states (e.g.,). In addition, it is also known that some bacteria can change the mobility and speciation of a radionuclide in groundwater. Biological immobilization mechanisms of radionuclides include precipitation, transformation to less soluble forms and so on. On the other hand, bacteria can also play a role of sorbent for radionuclides. Since bacteria can not only be mobile as a colloid but also be immobile as biofilm in the rock fracture, the bacteria as the sorbents of radionuclides in the groundwater can have both positive and negative effects on the radionuclide migration. In this study, therefore, sorption of radionuclide onto rock surface in the presence of bacteria was investigated via batch experiments. Although sorption equilibrium state can be expected in the transport of weakly sorbing (distribution coefficient, K d -3 m 3 kg -1 ) or strongly adsorbing (K d > ∼4.6 m 3 kg -1 ) nuclides in fractured rock, sorption kinetics needs to be considered in the intermediate range. Therefore, the sorption of radionuclide whose valence state is expected to be changed by biological reduction was evaluated in a kinetic approach

  14. Role of radionuclide imaging in the diagnosis of chondrosarcoma

    McLean, R.G.; Choy, D.; Hoeschl, R.; Nayanar, V.; Murray, I.P.

    1985-01-01

    The diagnosis of chondrosarcoma may be difficult if there is an atypical radiographic appearance or an inconclusive biopsy. Radionuclide bone scans of 13 patients with chondrosarcoma were reviewed to assess if a pattern of scan features could be recognized in association with this tumor. A combination, including increased blood pool activity, moderate intensity of uptake, patchy uptake with cortical predominance of activity, minimal distortion of bony outline, and a well-defined scintigraphic margin, occurred regularly in the series. Recognition of this characteristic pattern of scintigraphic features in cases of suspected chondrosarcoma may assist in the diagnostic assessment

  15. Negative mass

    Hammond, Richard T

    2015-01-01

    Some physical aspects of negative mass are examined. Several unusual properties, such as the ability of negative mass to penetrate any armor, are analysed. Other surprising effects include the bizarre system of negative mass chasing positive mass, naked singularities and the violation of cosmic censorship, wormholes, and quantum mechanical results as well. In addition, a brief look into the implications for strings is given. (paper)

  16. Marine sediments as a sink, and contaminated sediments as a diffuse source of radionuclides

    Salbu, B.; Borretzen, P.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Marine sediments may act as a sink for radionuclides originating from atmospheric fallout (e.g. Chernobyl accident), for radionuclides in discharges from nuclear installations (e.g. Sellafield, UK) for river transported radionuclides, and radionuclides released from nuclear waste dumped at sea (e.g. fjords at Novaya Zemlya). In order to assess short and long term consequences of radionuclides entering the marine ecosystem, the role of sediments as a relatively permanent sink and the potential for contaminated sediments to act as a diffuse source should be focused. The retention of radionuclides in sediments will depend on the source term, i.e. the physico-chemical forms of radionuclides entering the system and on interactions with various sediment components. Radionuclides associated with particles or aggregating polymers are removed from the water phase by sedimentation, while sorption to surface sediment layers is of relevance for ionic radionuclide species including negatively charged colloids. With time, transformation processes will influence the mobility of radionuclides in sediments. The diffusion into mineral lattices will increase fixation, while the influence of for instance red/ox conditions and bio-erosion may mobilize radionuclides originally fixed in radioactive particles. Thus, information of radionuclides species, surface interactions, transformation processes and kinetics is essential for reducing the uncertainties in marine transfer models. Dynamic model experiments where chemically well defined tracers are added to a sea water-marine sediment system are useful for providing information on time dependent interactions and distribution coefficients. When combined with sequential extraction techniques, information on mobility and rate of fixation is subsequently attained. In the present work experimental results from the Irish Sea and the Kara Sea will be discussed

  17. Bone scan features in spontaneous knee pain.

    Vattimo, A; Merlo, F; Bertelli, P; Burroni, L

    1992-01-01

    In 21 patients with "spontaneous" knee pain, 99mTc-MDP bone scan was found to be more sensitive than clinical and radiographic examination in detecting alterations of the joint components. These alterations were shown by increased radionuclide uptake in the compartments where pain was present, which was most commonly the medial femorotibial compartment, although the femoropatellar compartment was also frequently affected. The authors conclude that bone scan should be the first imaging study performed on the knee in order to establish if further tests are necessary.

  18. Protocol of plain radiographs, hip ultrasound, and triple phase bone scans in the evaluation of the painful pediatric hip

    Alexander, J.E.; Seibert, J.J.; Aronson, J.; Williamson, S.L.; Glasier, C.M.; Rodgers, A.B.; Corbitt, S.L.

    1988-01-01

    A useful protocol for the evaluation of hip pain in the pediatric patient, using a combination of plain radiographs, hip ultrasound (US), and triple phase radionuclide bone scans is presented. Patients with hip pain were initially evaluated by plain radiographs of the pelvis and hips. If no diagnosis was reached, the hips were studied for effusions by real-time hip ultrasonography. If an effusion was present, the joint was aspirated for diagnosis. If no effusion was present by US or if no diagnosis was reached by aspiration, triple phase radionuclide bone scans were performed. Fifty patients were evaluated by this prospective protocol, and the diagnosis was reached in 48 of the 50 cases (10 by plain radiographs, 16 by US, and aspiration of the joint, and 22 by triple phase bone scans). Hip effusions were found in 20 patients by US, with no false positives or false negatives. Previous studies for detecting effusions by US have emphasized absolute measurements of the capsular width, but we report a typical appearance of the hip capsule when fluid is present (a bulging convex capsule). When no effusion is present, the capsule is concave and parallels the long axis of the femoral neck

  19. Dosimetry in radionuclide therapy

    Riccabona, G.

    2001-01-01

    While it is known that therapeutic effects of radionuclides are due to absorbed radiation dose and to radiosensitivity, individual dosimetry in 'Gy' is practiced rarely in clinical Nuclear Medicine but 'doses' are described in 'mCi' or 'MBq', which is only indirectly related to 'Gy' in the target. To estimate 'Gy', the volume of the target, maximum concentration of the radiopharmaceutical in it and residence time should be assessed individually. These parameters can be obtained usually only with difficulty, involving possibly also quantitative SPET or PET, modern imaging techniques (sonography, CT, MRT), substitution of y- or positron emitting radiotracers for β - emitting radiopharmaceuticals as well as whole-body distribution studies. Residence time can be estimated by obtaining data on biological half-life of a comparable tracer and transfer of these data in the physical characteristics of the therapeutic agent. With all these possibilities for gross dosimetry the establishment of a dose-response-relation should be possible. As distribution of the radiopharmaceutical in lesions is frequently inhomogenous and microdosimetric conditions are difficult to assess in vivo as yet, it could be observed since decades that empirically set, sometimes 'fixed' doses (mCi or MBq) can also be successful in many diseases. Detailed dosimetric studies, however, are work- and cost-intensive. Nevertheless, one should be aware at a time when more sophisticated therapeutic possibilities in Nuclear Medicine arise, that we should try to estimate radiation dose (Gy) in our new methods even as differences in individual radiosensitivity cannot be assessed yet and studies to define individual radiosensitivity in lesions should be encouraged. (author)

  20. Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem that requires monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to an analytical laboratory, where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and various actinides of interest. The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for loW--level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors are based on radiometric detection. As a means to address the fundamental challenge of the short ranges of beta and alpha particle s in water, our overall approach is based on localization of preconcentration/separation chemistries directly on or within the active area of a radioactivity detector. Automated microfluidics is used for sample manipulation and sensor regeneration or renewal. The outcome of these investigations will be the knowledge necessary to choose appropriate chemistries for selective preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples, new materials that combine chemical selectivity with scintillating properties, new materials that add chemical selectivity to solid-state diode detectors, new preconcentrating column sensors, and improved instrumentation and signal processing for selective radionuclide sensors. New knowledge will provide the basis for designing effective probes and instrumentation for field and in situ measurements

  1. Negative Leadership

    2013-03-01

    Negative Leadership by Colonel David M. Oberlander United States Army United States Army War...SUBTITLE Negative Leadership 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Colonel David M...Dr. Richard C. Bullis Department of Command Leadership , and Management 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING

  2. Negative liability

    Dari-Mattiacci, G.

    2009-01-01

    Negative and positive externalities pose symmetrical problems to social welfare. The law internalizes negative externalities by providing general tort liability rules. According to such rules, those who cause harm to others should pay compensation. In theory, in the presence of positive

  3. Negative ... concord?

    Giannakidou, A

    The main claim of this paper is that a general theory of negative concord (NC) should allow for the possibility of NC involving scoping of a universal quantifier above negation. I propose that Greek NC instantiates this option. Greek n-words will be analyzed as polarity sensitive universal

  4. Head CT scan

    ... scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... head size in children Changes in thinking or behavior Fainting Headache, when you have certain other signs ...

  5. Inverse problem in radionuclide transport

    Yu, C.

    1988-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste must comply with the performance objectives set forth in 10 CFR 61 for low-level waste (LLW) and 10 CFR 60 for high-level waste (HLW). To determine probable compliance, the proposed disposal system can be modeled to predict its performance. One of the difficulties encountered in such a study is modeling the migration of radionuclides through a complex geologic medium for the long term. Although many radionuclide transport models exist in the literature, the accuracy of the model prediction is highly dependent on the model parameters used. The problem of using known parameters in a radionuclide transport model to predict radionuclide concentrations is a direct problem (DP); whereas the reverse of DP, i.e., the parameter identification problem of determining model parameters from known radionuclide concentrations, is called the inverse problem (IP). In this study, a procedure to solve IP is tested, using the regression technique. Several nonlinear regression programs are examined, and the best one is recommended. 13 refs., 1 tab

  6. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2012-09-24

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  7. Radionuclide injury to the lung

    Dagle, G.E.; Sanders, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide injury to the lung has been studied in rats, hamsters, dogs, mice and baboons. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels of radionuclides produces a spectrum of progressively more severe functional and morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis to lung tumors. These changes are somewhat similar for different species. Their severity can be related to the absorbed radiation dose (measured in rads) produced by alpha, beta or gamma radiation emanating from various deposited radionuclides. The chemicophysical forms of radionuclides and spatial-temporal factors are also important variables. As with other forms of injury to the lung, repair attempts are highlighted by fibrosis and proliferation of pulmonary epithelium. Lung tumors are the principal late effect observed in experimental animals following pulmonary deposition of radionuclides at dose levels that do not result in early deaths from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. The predominant lung tumors described have been of epithelial origin and have been classified, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, as adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, epidermoid carcinomas and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma. Mesothelioma and fibrosarcoma have been observed in rats, but less commonly in other species. Hemangiosarcomas were frequently observed in dogs exposed to beta-gamma emitters, and occasionally in rats exposed to alpha emitters. These morphologic changes in the lungs of experimental animals were reviewed and issues relevant to the prediction of human hazards discussed. 88 references

  8. 111In-labeled nonspecific immunoglobulin scanning in the detection of focal infection

    Rubin, R.H.; Fischman, A.J.; Callahan, R.J.; Khaw, B.A.; Keech, F.; Ahmad, M.; Wilkinson, R.; Strauss, H.W.

    1989-01-01

    We performed radionuclide scanning after the intravenous injection of human IgG labeled with indium-111 in 128 patients with suspected focal sites of inflammation. Localization of 111In-labeled IgG correlated with clinical findings in 51 infected patients (21 with abdominal or pelvic infections, 11 with intravascular infections, 7 with pulmonary infections, and 12 with skeletal infections). Infecting organisms included gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, Pneumocystis carinii, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Candida albicans. No focal localization of 111In-labeled IgG was observed in 63 patients without infection. There were five false negative results, and nine results were unusable. Serial scans were carried out in eight patients: continued localization correctly predicted relapse in six, and the absence of localization indicated resolution in two. To determine whether 111In-labeled IgG localization was specific for inflammation, we studied 16 patients with cancer. Focal localization occurred in 13 of these patients (5 with melanomas, 5 with gynecologic cancers, and 1 each with lymphoma, prostate cancer, and malignant fibrous histiocytoma). No localization was seen in patients with renal or colon cancer or metastatic medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. We conclude that 111In-labeled IgG imaging is effective for the detection of focal infection and that serial scans may be useful in assessing therapeutic efficacy. This technique may also be helpful in the evaluation of certain cancers

  9. Radionuclide therapy of endocrine-related cancer

    Kratochwil, C.; Giesel, F.L.

    2014-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the established radionuclide therapies for endocrine-related cancer that already have market authorization or are currently under evaluation in clinical trials. Radioiodine therapy is still the gold standard for differentiated iodine-avid thyroid cancer. In patients with bone and lung metastases (near) total remission is seen in approximately 50 % and the 15-year survival rate for these patients is approximately 90 %. In contrast to the USA, meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) therapy has market approval in Europe. According to the current literature, in the setting of advanced stage neuroblastoma and malignant pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma, radiological remission can be achieved in > 30 % and symptom control in almost 80 % of the treated patients. Somatostatin receptor targeted radionuclide therapies (e.g. with DOTATATE or DOTATOC) demonstrated promising results in phase 2 trials, reporting progression-free survival in the range of 24-36 months. A first phase 3 pivotal trial for intestinal carcinoids is currently recruiting and another trial for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors is planned. Radiopharmaceuticals based on glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) or minigastrins are in the early evaluation stage for application in the treatment of insulinomas and medullary thyroid cancer. In general, radiopharmaceutical therapy belongs to the group of so-called theranostics which means that therapy is tailored for individual patients based on molecular imaging diagnostics to stratify target positive or target negative tumor phenotypes. (orig.) [de

  10. Preoperative nuclear scans in patients with melanoma

    Au, F.C.; Maier, W.P.; Malmud, L.S.; Goldman, L.I.; Clark, W.H. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    One hundred forty-one liver scans, 137 brain scans, and 112 bone scans were performed in 192 patients with clinical Stage 1 melanoma. One liver scan was interpreted as abnormal; liver biopsy of that patient showed no metastasis. There were 11 suggestive liver scans; three of the patients with suggestive liver scans had negative liver biopsies. The remaining eight patients were followed from 4 to 6 years and none of those patients developed clinical evidence of hepatic metastases. All of the brain scans were normal. Five patients had suggestive bone scans and none of those patients had manifested symptoms of osseous metastases with a follow-up of 2 to 4.5 years. This study demonstrates that the use of preoperative liver, brain and bone scan in the evaluation of patients with clinical Stage 1 melanoma is virtually unproductive

  11. Luminescence imaging using radionuclides: a potential application in molecular imaging

    Park, Jeong Chan; Il An, Gwang; Park, Se-Il; Oh, Jungmin; Kim, Hong Joo; Su Ha, Yeong; Wang, Eun Kyung; Min Kim, Kyeong; Kim, Jung Young; Lee, Jaetae; Welch, Michael J.; Yoo, Jeongsoo

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Nuclear and optical imaging are complementary in many aspects and there would be many advantages when optical imaging probes are prepared using radionuclides rather than classic fluorophores, and when nuclear and optical dual images are obtained using single imaging probe. Methods: The luminescence intensities of various radionuclides having different decay modes have been assayed using luminescence imaging and in vitro luminometer. Radioiodinated Herceptin was injected into a tumor-bearing mouse, and luminescence and microPET images were obtained. The plant dipped in [ 32 P]phosphate solution was scanned in luminescence mode. Radio-TLC plate was also imaged in the same imaging mode. Results: Radionuclides emitting high energy β + /β - particles showed higher luminescence signals. NIH3T6.7 tumors were detected in both optical and nuclear imaging. The uptake of [ 32 P]phosphate in plant was easily followed by luminescence imaging. Radio-TLC plate was visualized and radiochemical purity was quantified using luminescence imaging. Conclusion: Many radionuclides with high energetic β + or β - particles during decay were found to be imaged in luminescence mode due mainly to Cerenkov radiation. 'Cerenkov imaging' provides a new optical imaging platform and an invaluable bridge between optical and nuclear imaging. New optical imaging probes could be easily prepared using well-established radioiodination methods. Cerenkov imaging will have more applications in the research field of plant science and autoradiography.

  12. Method of preparing radionuclide doses

    Kuperus, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    A method is described of preparing aliquot dosea of a tracer material useful in diagnostic nuclear medicine comprising: storing discrete quantities of a lyophilized radionuclide carrier in separate tubular containers from which air and moisture is excluded, selecting from the tubular containers a container in which is stored a carrier appropriate for a nuclear diagnostic test to be performed, interposing the selected container between the needle and the barrel of a hypodermic syringe, and drawing a predetermined amount of a liquid containing a radionuclide tracer in known concentration into the hypodermic syringe barrel through the hypodermic needle and through the selected container to dissolve the discrete quantity of lyophilized carrier therein to combine the carrier with the radionuclide tracer to form an aliquot dose of nuclear diagnostic tracer material, as needed

  13. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of 223 Ra and 225 Ac, from a radionuclide ''cow'' of 227 Ac or 229 Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of (a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide ''cow'' forming an ingrown mixture; (b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; (c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the ''cow'' from at least one radionuclide daughter; (d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; (e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and (f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the ''cow''. In one embodiment the radionuclide ''cow'' is the 227 Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a 227 Th and the product radionuclide is the 223 Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the 227 Ac and retains the 227 Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide ''cow'' is the 229 Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a 225 Ra and said product radionuclide is the 225 Ac and the 225 Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the 229 Th and passes the 225 Ra/Ac. 8 figs

  14. Producing new radionuclides for medicine

    Michaut, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Arronax cyclotron, a new particle accelerator dedicated to the production of radionuclides for medicine and research has been commissioned in Nantes (France). Because of its unique features: an energy of 70 MeV and an intensity of 750 μA, Arronax will produce radionuclides that can not be produce in present cyclotrons. Among others it will produce Strontium-82 and Germanium-68 that are the precursors for Rubidium-82 and Gallium-68 respectively. 20 per cent of the research works will be dedicated to other domains like radioactive wastes, the radiation biological damage and the radiation damage on electronic devices. (A.C.)

  15. Radionuclide migration in geological formations

    Barbreau, A.; Heremans, R.; Skytte Jensen, B.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive waste disposal into geological formation is based on the capacity of rocks to confine radioactivity for a long period of time. Radionuclide migration from the repository to the environment depends on different mechanisms and phenomena whose two main ones are groundwater flow and the retention and ion-exchange property of rocks. Many studies are underway presently in EEC countries concerning hydrodynamic characteristics of deep geological formations as well as in radionuclide retention capacity and modelling. Important results have already been achieved which show the complexity of some phenomena and further studies shall principally be developed taking into account real conditions of the repository and its environment

  16. Automatic alignment of radionuclide images

    Barber, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    The variability of the position, dimensions and orientation of a radionuclide image within the field of view of a gamma camera hampers attempts to analyse the image numerically. This paper describes a method of using a set of training images of a particular type, in this case right lateral brain images, to define the likely variations in the position, dimensions and orientation for that type of image and to provide alignment data for a program that automatically aligns new images of the specified type to a standard position, size and orientation. Examples are given of the use of this method on three types of radionuclide image. (author)

  17. Behaviour and fate radionuclides in soils. Mathematical modelling and experimental investigations

    Rovdan, E.N.

    2003-01-01

    The uncontrolled release of radionuclides as result of Chernobyl accident has led to contamination of 23% of territory of Republic of Belarus. Soil has high capacity to adsorb radionuclides and their intensive sorption provides the creation of a long-lived radionuclide source in a terrestrial environment. In the management of the contaminated areas and application of a countermeasure strategy it is extremely important to know the environmental mechanisms governing the behaviour of radionuclides in soils. Basic attention in the work is paid to the study of 137 Cs and 90 Sr because they are the main radionuclides from the view point of radioactive danger in polluted areas. The main features and processes that control radionuclide behaviour in soil have been analysed. On the basis of natural researches, lab test and mathematical modelling the impact of physical-chemical factors and the soil component composition changes upon the radionuclides migration and sorption in natural dispersed systems (peat, sand, bentonite, kaolin, sapropel) has been investigated. The investigations done allowed to substantiate the mathematical models of the radionuclides migration in the regions of positive and negative temperatures, to develop methods of experimental identification of main transfer characteristics and to compile a data base for these models. (orig.)

  18. Generalized skeletal pathology: Results of radionuclide studies

    Fueger, G.F.; Aigner, R.

    1987-01-01

    Generalized pathological changes may involve the skeleton systematically (bone tissue, bone marrow) or at multiple sites involving destruction or infiltration. Appropriate radionuclide studies include total-body bone or bone marrow scintigraphy, absorptiometry (osteodensitometry) and the 24 h whole-body retention measurement. Established radioindicators are 99m-Tc-(hydroxy)methylendiphosphonate (HMDP or MDP) and 99m-Tc-human serumalbumin-nanocolloid. Absorptiometry of the forearm, extended by computer-assisted transaxial tomography, may be expected to prove as the most efficient method of bone density measurement. The 24 h whole-body retention measurement is useful for the diagnosis and follow-up of metabolic and endocrine osteopathies, if the very same osteotropic 99m-Tc-chelate is used. Whole-body bone scintigraphy today is one of the most important radionuclide studies for diagnosis and follow-up of skeletal metastases. Scintigraphy provides evidence of skeletal metastases several months earlier than radiological examinations. In about 40 percent of patients with cancer of the prostate, scintigraphy provided positive findings of skeletal metastases in the absence of both pain and increased levels of phosphatase. In patients with a history of malignancy, 60 percent of solitary findings on skeletal scintigraphy are metastases. The frequency of false negative findings obtained by whole-body skeletal scintigraphy are metastases. The frequency of false negative findings obtained by whole-body skeletal scintigraphy ranges from 2 to 4%. Compared to skeletal scintigraphy, bone marrow scintigraphy frequently yields significant additional findings in cases of plasmocytoma, histiocytoma, lymphoma and haemoblastoses. (orig.) [de

  19. Determination of alpha radionuclides in fish

    Pernicka, L.; Matel, L.; Rosskopfova, O.

    2001-01-01

    In atmospheric water, external water and undercurrent the occurrence of radionuclides is usual. It is an important factor of quality of the environment. Plants ingest radionuclides from water and with they everyone. And it arises radioactivity infest food-chain. Radiotoxicity of this radionuclides is very deer sometimes. The sensitive radiochemical procedures for their determination are necessarily important. The poster presents the combined procedure used at our laboratory for determination of alpha radionuclides in biological samples. (authors)

  20. The role of bone scanning in neonatal rickets

    Saul, P.D.; Lloyd, D.J.; Smith, F.W.

    1983-01-01

    Preterm infants are at increased risk from rickets. Radionuclide bone scanning is a useful aid in suspected cases. It offers advantages over conventional radiology in terms of sensitivity, radiation dose and extent of examination. Unsuspected fractures of clinical or medicolegal significance may be detected. Two cases are described in which the technique confirmed the diagnosis and assisted management. (orig.)

  1. Naturally occurring radionuclides in food

    Djujic, I.

    1995-01-01

    The naturally occurring radionuclides are the major source of radiation exposure to humans. The principal way of natural radiation exposure is the inhalation of 222 Rn decay products (about 85% of the total). The remainder is equally divided between internally deposited radionuclides, cosmic and terrestrial sources. In the present study, the content of 40 K, 210 Pb, 226 Ra, 230 Th, 232 Th and 238 U in representative food samples (milk, pork, beef, potatoes, wheat and corn flour) and samples of different food items that do not represent entire national production but provide interesting additional data for approximative calculation of naturally occurring radionuclide intake is presented. Daily weight of food eaten, participation of food groups, as well as daily intake by food of mentioned naturally occurring radionuclides in the Serbian diet was obtained on the base of house hold budget surveys. The result obtained for daily intake estimates in mBq for Serbian population are 78.1 ( 40 K), 38.2( 210 Pb), 52.3( 226 Ra), 2.0( 230 Th) and 12.5( 238 U). (author)

  2. 100 Years of radionuclide metrology

    Judge, S.M.; Arnold, D.; Chauvenet, B.; Collé, R.; De Felice, P.; García-Toraño, E.; Wätjen, U.

    2014-01-01

    The discipline of radionuclide metrology at national standards institutes started in 1913 with the certification by Curie, Rutherford and Meyer of the first primary standards of radium. In early years, radium was a valuable commodity and the aim of the standards was largely to facilitate trade. The focus later changed to providing standards for the new wide range of radionuclides, so that radioactivity could be used for healthcare and industrial applications while minimising the risk to patients, workers and the environment. National measurement institutes responded to the changing demands by developing new techniques for realising primary standards of radioactivity. Looking ahead, there are likely to be demands for standards for new radionuclides used in nuclear medicine, an expansion of the scope of the field into quantitative imaging to facilitate accurate patient dosimetry for nuclear medicine, and an increasing need for accurate standards for radioactive waste management and nuclear forensics. - Highlights: • The driving forces for the development of radionuclide metrology. • Radium standards to facilitate trade of this valuable commodity in the early years. • After 1950, focus changes to healthcare and industrial applications. • National Measurement Institutes develop new techniques, standards, and disseminate the best practice in measurement. • Challenges in nuclear medicine, radioactive waste management and nuclear forensics

  3. Chemistry and analysis of radionuclides

    Lehto, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    Written by chemists for chemists, this is a comprehensive guide to the important radionuclides as well as techniques for their separation and analysis. It introduces readers to the important laboratory techniques and methodologies in the field, providing practical instructions on how to handle nuclear waste and radioactivity in the environment.

  4. Radionuclide migration studies in soil

    Marumo, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    In this work a brief description about retention and migration parameters of radionuclides in soil, including main methods to determine the distribution coefficient (K) are given. Some of several factors that can act on the migration are also mentioned. (author) [pt

  5. Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages

    Brodzinski, R.L.; Perkins, R.W.; Rieck, H.G.; Wogman, N.A.

    1984-09-12

    A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

  6. Direct measurement of γ-emitting radionuclides in waste drum

    Ma Ruwei; Mao Yong; Zhang Xiuzhen; Xia Xiaobin; Guo Caiping; Han Yueqin

    1993-01-01

    The low-level rad waste produced from nuclear power plant, nuclear facilities, and in the process of their decommissioning is stored in waste depository. For the safety of transport and storage of these wastes, some test must be done. One of them is to analyse the kinds and activities of radionuclides in each waste drum. Segmented scanning gamma spectrum analysis can be used for direct measurement of gamma-emitting radionuclides in drum. Gamma emitters such as Co-60, Cs-137, Ra-226 can be measured directly from outside of drum. A method and system for direct measuring gamma emitters in waste drum are described, and measuring apparatus and measurement results as well

  7. Rapid monitoring of gaseous radionuclides using a portable spectrometer

    Chung, C.; Tsai, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    A field gamma ray spectrometer, consisting of a portable high purity germanium detector, portable multichannel analyser, and a notebook computer, was used to conduct in situ rapid scanning of radioactive Ar, Kr and Xe isotopes in the air around a nuclear facility. The portable gamma ray spectrometer was calibrated using Ar, Kr, and Xe radioisotopes, activated in a research reactor and released in a sealed chamber. The unit was further tested inside the reactor containment to monitor the concentration of 41 Ar. In a typical one hour field measurement, the detection limits for some rare gas radionuclides corresponded to dose rates around 0.1 nSv.h -1 , which is far less than the dose rate induced by derived air concentrations imposed by the authority. The dose rate due to ground level concentrations of gaseous radionuclides dispersed from a source, such a nuclear facility or nuclear test, can be monitored in a short period using the portable unit. (Author)

  8. A dynamic phantom for radionuclide renography

    Heikkinen, J.O.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop and test a dynamic phantom simulating radionuclide renography. The phantom consisted of five partly lead covered plastic containers simulating kidneys, heart, bladder and background (soft tissues, liver and spleen). Dynamics were performed with multiple movable steel plates between containers and a gamma camera. Control of the plates is performed manually with a stopwatch following exact time schedules. The containers were filled with activities ( 99m Tc) which produce count rates close to clinical situations. Count rates produced by the phantom were compared with ten clinical renography cases: five 99m Tc MAG3 and five 99m Tc DTPA examinations. Two phantom simulations were repeated three times with separate fillings, acquisitions and analyses. Precision errors as a coefficient of variation (CV) of repeated measurements were calculated and theoretical values were compared with the corresponding measured ones. A multicentre comparison was made between 19 nuclear medicine laboratories and three clinical cases were simulated with the phantom. Correlations between count rates produced by the phantom and clinical studies were r=0.964 for 99m Tc MAG3 (p 99m Tc DTPA (p max was 4.0±1.6%. Images and curves of the scanned phantom were close to a real patient in all 19 laboratories but calculated parameters varied: the difference between theoretical and measured values for T max was 6.8±6.2%. The difference between laboratories is most probably due to variations in acquisition protocols and analysis programs: 19 laboratories with 18 different protocols and 8 different programs. The dynamics were found to be repeatable and suitable for calibration purposes for radionuclide renography programs and protocols as well as for multicentre comparisons. (author)

  9. Negative CO

    Meysman, F.J.R.; Montserrat, F.

    2017-01-01

    Negative emission technologies (NETs) target the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere, and are being actively investigated as a strategy to limit global warming to within the 1.5–2°C targets of the 2015 UN climate agreement. Enhanced silicate weathering (ESW) proposes to

  10. Negative Certainty

    Ariso, José María

    2017-01-01

    The definitions of "negative knowledge" and the studies in this regard published to date have not considered the categorial distinction Wittgenstein established between knowledge and certainty. Hence, the important role that certainty, despite its omission, should have in these definitions and studies has not yet been shown. In this…

  11. Status report on radionuclide transfer

    1980-01-01

    At the suggestion of the Federal Minstry of the Interior, in June 1978, a group of scientists from several institutions who are active in the field of radionuclide transfer or are interested in these problems got together. During the discussions of the work team, especially the transfer soil/plants was emphasized. Then the work team set up a status report on the transfer of the radionuclides relevant in the sense of the radiation protection act. The nuclides H 3 and C14, the isotopes of the Sr, J, and Cs, Tc99, the so-called corrosion nuclides Mn54, Fe59, co-isotopes and Zn65, and isotopes of Pu, Am, and Cm were regarded as important for a possible radiation exposition. Recent investigations revealed that also the natural radionuclides Ra226, Po210, and Pb210 should be covered by the investigations. The goal of this status report is to present the level of knowledge on the transfer of these radionuclides to man in a brief form, giving hints at the most important literature. It was requested by the Federal Ministry of the Interior, as fas as possible, to indicate transfer factors which are necessary for the radio-occology act to be decreed according to Para. 45 of the radiation protection act. Another goal of the report was to show the gap in the knowledge on the radio nuclide transfer. This was thought to help to create a basis for the decisions of the Federal Ministry concerning the support of other investigation projects in the field of transfer of radionuclides. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Radionuclide assessment of heterotopic ossification in spinal cord injury patients

    Prakash, V.

    1983-01-01

    Whole body /sup 99m/T-pyrophosphate bone scans were obtained and correlated with skeletal radiographs for detection of heterotopic ossification in 135 spinal injury patients. There were 40 patients with recent injury (less than 6 months) and 95 with injury of over 6 months duration. Heterotopic new bone was detected on the bone scan in 33.7% of 95 patients with spinal cord injuries of more than 6 months duration and 30% of 40 patients with injuries of less than 6 months. The radionuclide scan was found to be useful in detection of heterotopic ossification at its early stage and in its differentiation from other complications in spinal cord injury patients

  13. Radionuclide transport behavior in a generic geological radioactive waste repository.

    Bianchi, Marco; Liu, Hui-Hai; Birkholzer, Jens T

    2015-01-01

    We performed numerical simulations of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport to study the influence of several factors, including the ambient hydraulic gradient, groundwater pressure anomalies, and the properties of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ), on the prevailing transport mechanism (i.e., advection or molecular diffusion) in a generic nuclear waste repository within a clay-rich geological formation. By comparing simulation results, we show that the EDZ plays a major role as a preferential flowpath for radionuclide transport. When the EDZ is not taken into account, transport is dominated by molecular diffusion in almost the totality of the simulated domain, and transport velocity is about 40% slower. Modeling results also show that a reduction in hydraulic gradient leads to a greater predominance of diffusive transport, slowing down radionuclide transport by about 30% with respect to a scenario assuming a unit gradient. In addition, inward flow caused by negative pressure anomalies in the clay-rich formation further reduces transport velocity, enhancing the ability of the geological barrier to contain the radioactive waste. On the other hand, local high gradients associated with positive pressure anomalies can speed up radionuclide transport with respect to steady-state flow systems having the same regional hydraulic gradients. Transport behavior was also found to be sensitive to both geometrical and hydrogeological parameters of the EDZ. Results from this work can provide useful knowledge toward correctly assessing the post-closure safety of a geological disposal system. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  14. Brain PET scan

    ... results on a PET scan. Blood sugar or insulin levels may affect the test results in people with diabetes . PET scans may be done along with a CT scan. This combination scan is called a PET/CT. Alternative Names Brain positron emission tomography; PET scan - brain References Chernecky ...

  15. Conditions and processes affecting radionuclide transport

    Simmons, Ardyth M.; Neymark, Leonid A.

    2012-01-01

    Characteristics of host rocks, secondary minerals, and fluids would affect the transport of radionuclides from a previously proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Minerals in the Yucca Mountain tuffs that are important for retarding radionuclides include clinoptilolite and mordenite (zeolites), clay minerals, and iron and manganese oxides and hydroxides. Water compositions along flow paths beneath Yucca Mountain are controlled by dissolution reactions, silica and calcite precipitation, and ion-exchange reactions. Radionuclide concentrations along flow paths from a repository could be limited by (1) low waste-form dissolution rates, (2) low radionuclide solubility, and (3) radionuclide sorption onto geological media.

  16. Development of scan analysis techniques employing a small computer. Final report, February 1, 1963--July 31, 1976

    Kuhl, D.E.

    1976-01-01

    During the thirteen year duration of this contract the goal has been to develop and apply computer based analysis of radionuclide scan data so as to make available improved diagnostic information based on a knowledge of localized quantitative estimates of radionuclide concentration. Results are summarized

  17. Development of scan analysis techniques employing a small computer. Final report, February 1, 1963--July 31, 1976

    Kuhl, D.E.

    1976-08-05

    During the thirteen year duration of this contract the goal has been to develop and apply computer based analysis of radionuclide scan data so as to make available improved diagnostic information based on a knowledge of localized quantitative estimates of radionuclide concentration. Results are summarized. (CH)

  18. Radionuclide transfer from mother to embryo

    Toader, M.; Vasilache, R.A.; Scridon, R.; Toader, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    The transfer of radionuclides from mother to embryo is still a matter of high interest. Therefore, the relation was investigated between the amount of radionuclides in the embryo and the dietary intake of the mother, this for two scenarios: a recurrent intake of variable amounts of radionuclides, and a long-term intake of a relatively constant amount of radionuclides, the radionuclide being 137 Cs. In the first case, the amount of radionuclides present in the embryo increases with the age of the embryo and with the intake of the mother. In the second case, no correlation could be found between the age of the embryo and its radioactive content; only the correlation between the intake of the mother and the radionuclide content of the embryo remained. (A.K.)

  19. Heart PET scan

    ... nuclear medicine scan; Heart positron emission tomography; Myocardial PET scan ... A PET scan requires a small amount of radioactive material (tracer). This tracer is given through a vein (IV), ...

  20. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-03-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal

  1. Choice of radionuclides for radioimmunotherapy

    DeNardo, S.J.; Jungerman, J.A.; DeNardo, G.L.; Lagunas-Solar, M.C.; Cole, W.C.; Meares, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    Innumerable questions need to be answered and obstacles overcome before radioimmunotherapy can be generally successful in cancer patients. Major developments have greatly enhanced the likelihood of success. The important development of appropriate radionuclides and radiochemistry for this therapy must be intimately linked with the biological and biochemical realities. All aspects must be considered, such as the specific nature of the antigenic target, the pharmacokinetics of the antibody fragment carrier, the capability of in vivo quantitation of tumor uptake and turnover time, as well as total body kinetics. With this knowledge, then, practical radiochemistry methods can be integrated with the suitable radionuclide choices, and production methods can be developed which will deliver effective and dependable products for patient therapy

  2. Radionuclide transfer in terrestrial animals

    DiGregorio, D.; Kitchings, T.; Van Voris, P.

    1978-01-01

    The analysis of dispersion of radionuclides in terrestrial food chains, generally, is a series of equations identifying the fractional input and outflow rates from trophic level to trophic level. Data that are prerequisite inputs for these food chain transport models include: (1) identification of specific transport pathway, (2) assimilation at each pathway link, and (3) the turnover rate or retention function by successive receptor species in the appropriate food chain. In this report, assimilation coefficients, biological half-lives, and excretion rates for a wide variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species and radionuclides have been compiled from an extensive search of the available literature. Using the information accumulated from the literature, correlations of nuclide metabolism and body weight are also discussed. (author)

  3. Applications of radionuclides in industry

    Leveque, P.

    1955-01-01

    After a brief recall of a few concepts (mass number, charge and beams properties) and the description of used detectors (ionization chamber, Geiger-Mueller counter, scintillation counters), some radionuclides applications are described. In a first part, the well-developed applications are presented in three distinct groups: continuous applications such as β and γ gauges (determination hydrogen content of an hydrocarbon and content of an emulsion; discharge of static electricity), discontinuous applications such as radiography and autoradiography, wear or manufacture problems (distribution of a fungicide on tobacco) and finally, applications in research laboratories such as diffusion, exchange and solubility. It also describes the applications which are still in development such as the action of beams on matter (reticulation and degradation of polymers, monomers polymerisation, cold sterilization). In conclusion, few advices on the opportunity of such applications and the choice of the radionuclides are given. (M.P.)

  4. Radionuclide imaging of musculoskeletal infection

    Palestr, Christopher J.; North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset and New Hyde Park, NY; Love, Charito

    2007-01-01

    Radionuclide imaging studies are routinely used to evaluate patients suspected of having musculoskeletal infection. Three-phase bone imaging is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and very accurate in the setting of otherwise normal bone. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be used in cases of 'complicating osteomyelitis' such as prosthetic joint infection. This test also is useful in clinically unsuspected diabetic pedal osteomyelitis as well as in the neuropathic joint. It is often necessary, however, to perform complementary bone marrow imaging, to maximize the accuracy of labeled leukocyte imaging. In contrast to other regions in the skeleton, labeled leukocyte imaging is not useful for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis. At the moment, gallium is the preferred radionuclide procedure for this condition and is a useful adjunct to magnetic resonance imaging. FDG-PET likely will play an important role in the evaluation of musculoskeletal infection, especially spinal osteomyelitis, and may replace gallium imaging for this purpose. (author)

  5. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-03-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal.

  6. Radionuclide imaging of musculoskeletal infection

    Palestr, Christopher J. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset and New Hyde Park, NY (United States). Div. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; E-mail: palestro@lij.edu; Love, Charito [North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset and New Hyde Park, NY (United States). Div. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

    2007-09-15

    Radionuclide imaging studies are routinely used to evaluate patients suspected of having musculoskeletal infection. Three-phase bone imaging is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and very accurate in the setting of otherwise normal bone. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be used in cases of 'complicating osteomyelitis' such as prosthetic joint infection. This test also is useful in clinically unsuspected diabetic pedal osteomyelitis as well as in the neuropathic joint. It is often necessary, however, to perform complementary bone marrow imaging, to maximize the accuracy of labeled leukocyte imaging. In contrast to other regions in the skeleton, labeled leukocyte imaging is not useful for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis. At the moment, gallium is the preferred radionuclide procedure for this condition and is a useful adjunct to magnetic resonance imaging. FDG-PET likely will play an important role in the evaluation of musculoskeletal infection, especially spinal osteomyelitis, and may replace gallium imaging for this purpose. (author)

  7. Terrestrial pathways of radionuclide particulates

    Boone, F.W.; Ng, Y.C.

    1981-01-01

    Formulations are developed for computing potential human intake of 13 radionuclides via the terrestrial food chains. The formulations are an extension of the NRC methodology. Specific regional crop and livestock transfer and fractional distribution data from the southern part of the U.S.A. are provided and used in the computation of comparative values with those computed by means of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109 formulations. In the development of the model, emphasis was also placed on identifying the various time-delay compartments of the food chains and accounting for all of the activity initially deposited. For all radionuclides considered, except 137 Cs, the new formulations predict lower potential intakes from the total of all food chains combined than do the comparable Regulatory Guide formulations by as much as a factor of 40. For 137 Cs the new formulations predict 10% higher potential intakes. (author)

  8. Radionuclide cinematography of the heart

    Adam, W.E.; Sigel, H.; Geffers, H.; Bitter, F.; Meyer, G.; Kampmann, H.; Stauch, M.

    1976-01-01

    Radionuclide cinematography is described as a procedure making use of radiation-level variations above the heart after equipartitioning of sup(99m)Tc-labelled human serum albumin in the blood pool. Regional ventricular and vestibular variations are phase-shifted. This procedure permits delineation of aneurysmas with interphasic course, cicatrization of the cardiac wall not producing any cyclical variation. The study included normal subjects and 16 patients with full course infarction. Characteristic disturbances of motility distribution were found in all cases of scarred or aneurysmic alterations in the frontal and side walls of the left ventricle. The procedure was unable to detect two small infarction scars on the rear wall. The possibility of using radionuclide cinematography to prove coronary insufficiency as well as a comparison with other methods are discussed

  9. Radionuclide 252Cf neutron source

    Kolevatov, Yu.I.; Trykov, L.A.

    1979-01-01

    Characteristics of radionuclide neutron sourses of 252 Cf base with the activity from 10 6 to 10 9 n/s have been investigated. Energetic distributions of neutrons and gamma-radiation have been presented. The results obtained have been compared with other data available. The hardness parameter of the neutron spectrum for the energy range from 3 to 15 MeV is 1.4 +- 0.02 MeV

  10. Radionuclides for therapy: a review

    Roesler, H.; Noelpp, U.; Triller, K.J.; Steffen, R.

    1986-01-01

    Progress in angiographic techniques has been a gradual evolutionary development which now permits the selective and superselective access to a tumor's vascular bed. A diagnostic angiographic procedure can be supplemented by a one-step, quick application of embolizing radioactive material. This endoarterial radionuclide embolizing tumor therapy has the maximum selectivity among radiotherapeutic methods, with the highest radiation doses to the tumor and neglectible exposure of normal tissue. Spread of radioactivity by diffusion or leaching can be prevented

  11. Radionuclide dispersion in the atmosphere

    Moura Neto, C. de; Amorim, E.S. do; Panetta, J.

    1979-05-01

    The instantaneous liberation of radionuclides in the atmosphere is studied in three dimensions, according to the formalism of the diffusion theory. The analytical solution, expose to gravitational and an atmospherical effects, is combined with the discretization of space and time in the calculation of levels of exposure. A typical inventory (for a PWR) was considered in the calculation of immersion doses, and the results permitted a comparative analysis among the different existing models. (Author) [pt

  12. Radiation protection in radionuclide investigations

    Taylor, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction; radiation and radioactivity; alpha particles; beta particles; neutrons; electromagnetic radiation; units of radioactivity and radiation; biological effects of radiation; the philosophy of radiation protection (ALARA principle); practical aspects of radiation protection; work with unsealed radiation sources; radionuclide studies in experimental animals; radiation safety during clinical investigations; legislative control of radiation work; radioactive waste disposal; emergency procedures; conclusion. (U.K.)

  13. Radionuclide evaluation of renal transplants

    Yang Hong; Zhao Deshan

    2000-01-01

    Radionuclide renal imaging and plasma clearance methods can quickly quantitate renal blood flow and function in renal transplants. They can diagnose acute tubular necrosis and rejection, renal scar, surgical complications such as urine leaks, obstruction and renal artery stenosis after renal transplants. At the same time they can assess the therapy effect of renal transplant complications and can also predict renal transplant survival from early post-operative function studies

  14. Cosmogenic radionuclide carriers in the atmosphere

    Lujaniene, G.; Lujanas, V.

    1998-01-01

    The investigation of radionuclides ( 7 Be 32,33 P and 35 S) and stable sulfur and phosphorus forms was based on the Tessier sequential extraction method. The properties of radionuclide carriers can be transformed in the atmosphere in a very short time (days, hours), in contrast to soil and the hydrosphere. Oxidation processes proceeding in the atmosphere induce changes in the aerosol carrier properties. The aerosol can be characterized by low pH and high Eh values corresponding to high 7Be solubility. The unexpectedly high negative Eh values obtained in dry summer period indicate that the 7 Be 32,33 P aerosol is bound to insoluble carriers. 137 Cs solubility does not depend on changes in pH. This can be explained by the fact that in contrast to 7 Be, 137 Cs is associated with the exchangeable fraction. Cs ions can be replaced not only by H + but also by NH 4 + and other ions. 7 Be aerosols collected at the seaside of the Baltic sea (Preila) were found to be more soluble than those in Vilnius, their solubility was up to 50-90 % and clear dependence between 7 Be solubility, pH and Eh was not observed. It can be attributed to differences in the atmospheric aerosol composition (e.g. soluble chlorides) in Vilnius and Preila. A great variety of 7 Be carriers properties as well as their dependence on the season and the existence of admixtures in the atmosphere require great caution in applying this isotope in tracer investigations. Soluble carriers are removed faster from the atmosphere by precipitation. The significance of this fact is confirmed by the ratio of 7 Be/ 32 P in the air and precipitation. Both soluble and insoluble aerosols can be formed depending on the environmental conditions

  15. Radionuclide behavior in the environment

    Tveten, U.

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the following task: Review for quality and consistency the available data on measurements of initial ground contamination of Chernobyl radionuclides in various parts of Norway and subsequent concentrations of these radionuclides in various environmental media as functions of time. Utilize the data obtained to verify the existing models, or to improve them, for describing radionuclide behavior in the environment. Some of the processes standard were: migration into soil; weathering; resuspension; food-chain contamination; and loss or reconcentration by run-off. The task performed within this contract has been to use post-Chernobyl data from Norway to verify or find areas for possible improvement in the chronic exposure pathway models utilized in MACCS. Work has consisted mainly of collecting and evaluating post-Chernobyl information from Norway or other countries when relevant; but has also included experimental work performed specifically for the current task. In most connections the data available show the models and data in MACCS to be appropriate. A few areas where the data indicate that the MACCS approach is faulty or inadequate are, however, pointed out in the report. These should be examined carefully, and appropriate modifications should eventually be made. 14 refs., 12 figs., 22 tabs

  16. Sequential radionuclide bone imaging in avascular pediatric hip conditions

    Minikel, J.; Sty, J.; Simons, G.

    1983-01-01

    Radionuclide bone imaging was performed on six patients with various hip conditions. Initial bone images revealed diminished uptake of isotope /sup 99m/Tc-MDP in the capital femoral epiphysis. Following therapeutic intervention, repeat bone scans revealed normal uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-MDP in the capital femoral epiphysis. Subsequent radiographs revealed that avascular necrosis had not occurred. There are two types of avascularity: the potentially reversible, and the irreversible. Attempts should be made toward early recognition of the potentially reversible avascular insult. With early recognition, surgical reconstruction prior to osteophyte death may result in revascularization. If this can be accomplished, avascular necrosis can be avoided

  17. Role of radionuclide studies in cases of enlarged prostate

    Singhvi, S.D.; Shrimali, R.; Singhal, N.C.

    1985-01-01

    The present study of radionuclide 131 I hyppuran in 30 positive cases of enlarged prostate and 10 normal subjects has been found effective in giving information about functional status of the kidneys and presence of obstructive unropathy by renography, enlargement of the prostate causing bladder base contour deformity in bladder scan and the presence of residual urine by external counting method over bladder. It is a non-invasive method of investigation and can be undertaken safely in cases sensitive iodine-containing contrast medium. It is also cheap, easy to perform and does not require any pre-examination preparation and can be repeated frequently. (author)

  18. Radionuclide daughter inventory generator code: DIG

    Fields, D.E.; Sharp, R.D.

    1985-09-01

    The Daughter Inventory Generator (DIG) code accepts a tabulation of radionuclide initially present in a waste stream, specified as amounts present either by mass or by activity, and produces a tabulation of radionuclides present after a user-specified elapsed time. This resultant radionuclide inventory characterizes wastes that have undergone daughter ingrowth during subsequent processes, such as leaching and transport, and includes daughter radionuclides that should be considered in these subsequent processes or for inclusion in a pollutant source term. Output of the DIG code also summarizes radionuclide decay constants. The DIG code was developed specifically to assist the user of the PRESTO-II methodology and code in preparing data sets and accounting for possible daughter ingrowth in wastes buried in shallow-land disposal areas. The DIG code is also useful in preparing data sets for the PRESTO-EPA code. Daughter ingrowth in buried radionuclides and in radionuclides that have been leached from the wastes and are undergoing hydrologic transport are considered, and the quantities of daughter radionuclide are calculated. Radionuclide decay constants generated by DIG and included in the DIG output are required in the PRESTO-II code input data set. The DIG accesses some subroutines written for use with the CRRIS system and accesses files containing radionuclide data compiled by D.C. Kocher. 11 refs

  19. Radionuclide migration test using undisturbed aerated soil

    Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Ohtsuka, Yoshiro; Ogawa, Hiromichi; Wadachi, Yoshiki

    1988-01-01

    As one of the most important part of safety assessment on the shallow land disposal of lowlevel radioactive waste, the radionuclide migration was studied using undisturbed soil samples, in order to evaluate an exact radionuclide migration in an aerated soil layer. Soil samples used in the migration test were coastal sand and loamy soil which form typical surface soil layers in Japan. The aqueous solution containing 60 CoCl 2 , 85 SrCl 2 and 137 CsCl was fed into the soil column and concentration of each radionuclide both in effluent and in soil was measured. Large amount of radionuclides was adsorbed on the surface of soil column and small amount of radionuclides moved deep into the soil column. Difference in the radionuclide profile was observed in the low concentration portion particularly. It is that some fractions of 60 Co and 137 Cs are stable in non-ionic form and move downward through the soil column together with water. The radionuclide distribution in the surface of soil column can be fairly predicted with a conventional migration equation for ionic radionuclides. As a result of radionuclide adsorption, both aerated soil layers of coastal sand and loamy soil have large barrier ability on the radionuclide migration through the ground. (author)

  20. Metabolism of radionuclides in domestic animals

    Wirth, E.; Leising, C.

    1986-01-01

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl has shown that shortly after the contamination of the environment radionuclides can be found in animal products. The main contamination pathways of domestic animas are: uptake of radionuclides by foodstuffs; uptake of radionuclides by contaminated drinking water; uptake of radionuclides by inhalation; uptake of radionuclides through skin; uptake of radionuclides by ingestion of soil particles. Generally the uptake of radionuclides by food is the dominant exposure pathway. In rare cases the inhalation of radionuclides or the uptake by drinking water may be of importance. The metabolism of incorporated radionuclides is comparable to the respective metabolism of essential mass or trace elements or heavy metals. Radioisotopes of essential elements are for instance iron 55, manganese 54, cobalt 58 and cobalt 60. Other elements are typical antagonists to essential elements, e.g. strontium 90 is an antagonist to calcium or cesium 137 to potassium. Lead 210 and plutonium 239 behave similarly as heavy metals. Generally the knowledge of the metabolism of trace and mass elements, of antagonistic and synergistic elements and heavy metals can be applied to these radionuclides

  1. Endotoxin as a cause of aseptic meningitis after radionuclide cisternography

    Cooper, J.F.; Harbert, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    The role of pyrogens in aseptic meningitis after radionuclide cisternography was studied by means of the Limulus test, a sensitive detector of endotoxin. During a 15-month period, 39 reactions associated with cisternography were reported. Ten samples of specific lots of the radioactive drugs implicated in 20 of these reactions were tested and all reacted strongly positive to the Limulus test. The less sensitive rabbit pyrogen test was negative for these preparations when tested on a dose-per-weight basis. Our findings apparently provide clinical evidence for the observation made in animals that endotoxin is at least 1,000 times more toxic intrathecally than intravenously. The data implicate endotoxin contamination as a cause of adverse reactions to radionuclide cisternography. We conclude that the USP pyrogen test is insufficiently sensitive for intrathecal injectables and should be supplemented by the Limulus test. (auth)

  2. HUMAN EXPOSURE TO THE ARTIFICIAL RADIONUCLIDES IN ENVIRONMENT

    Ivana Vukanac

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Artificial radionuclides are product of different human activities and their presence in the environment is negative side effect of civilization progress. They have been spread in the environment by events such as nuclear weapon tests, nuclear accidents and by deliberate and negligent discharge of radioactive waste from nuclear and other installation. Once released in to the nature, the artificial radionuclides start to circle in the same manner as naturally occurring ones, and finally they fall out from air and water onto the ground and build into the foodstuff and drinking water resulting in radiation doses to human beings. The short overview of presence of artificial radioactivity in human environment and its impact on human life is presented in this paper.

  3. HUMAN EXPOSURE TO THE ARTIFICIAL RADIONUCLIDES IN ENVIRONMENT

    Ivana Vukanac

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Artificial radionuclides are product of different human activities and their presence in the environment is negative side effect of civilization progress. They have been spread in the environment by events such as nuclear weapon tests, nuclear accidents and by deliberate and negligent discharge of radioactive waste from nuclear and other installation. Once released in to the nature, the artificial radionuclides start to circle in the same manner as naturally occurring ones, and finally they fall out from air and water onto the ground and build into the foodstuff and drinking water resulting in radiation doses to human beings. The short overview of presence of artificial radioactivity in human environment and its impact on human life is presented in this paper

  4. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    Bray, Lane A.; Ryan, Jack L.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of .sup.223 Ra and .sup.225 Ac, from a radionuclide "cow" of .sup.227 Ac or .sup.229 Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide "cow" forming an ingrown mixture; b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the "cow" from at least one radionuclide daughter; d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the "cow". In one embodiment the radionuclide "cow" is the .sup.227 Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.227 Th and the product radionuclide is the .sup.223 Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the .sup.227 Ac and retains the .sup.227 Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide "cow"is the .sup.229 Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.225 Ra and said product radionuclide is the .sup.225 Ac and the .sup.225 Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the .sup.229 Th and passes the .sup.225 Ra/Ac.

  5. Use of labelled dextran in radionuclide lymphography

    Kafka, P.; Kubicek, J.; Duska, F.; Vizda, J.

    1986-01-01

    Dextran labelled with 99m Tc is a new promising radiopharmaceutical for radionuclide lymphography. So far colloids were mainly used which either had an unsuitable type of emitted radiation or the particles were too large. Dextran with a molecular weight of 70,000 was used. This weight is optimal with regard to the quality of imaging and the risk of adverse reactions. The procedure of labelling is described in detail. The properties of labelled dextran were studied in experiments on dogs weighing 8 to 12 kg to whom 14.8 to 22.2 MBq was administered subcutaneously into the front or hind paws. Scans were made immediately on application and after 45 mins. A quick passage was detected of the labelled dextran from interstitial spaces to the lymphatic vessels. Lymph nodes were well visualized within 1 hour. The quality control of the prepared 99m Tc-dextran was made using paper chromatography; 10 to 20% of free technetium was found. The replacement of colloids used so far with the new preparation seems to be feasible. Examinations using colloids with 198 Au require the patient to be present for 2 days, while dextran tests will be a matter of 1 to 2 hours. (A.K.)

  6. Experimental analysis of plastic materials containing radionuclides for decontamination viability

    Tazaki, Kazue; Nakano, Mikio; Takehara, Teruaki; Ishigaki, Yasuhito; Nakagawa, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident on 11 March, 2011, the high radioactive dosage was found in polluted water for agriculture use at Baba, Haramachi, Minami-Soma, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Field experiment for decontamination of water had been studied by using commercial plastic materials. The agricultural water comes from Tetsuzan dam is full of radioactive-contaminated water. Experimental analysis showed that the plastic materials can take up radioactive elements for several months soaked in the polluted agricultural water. The quantitative analyses using X-ray fluorescence analysis, Ge semiconductor and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS), revealed the detection of the radionuclides on the plastic materials with diatom and clays. The results suggest the adsorption of radionuclides on the surface of plastic materials due to FDNPP accident. The plastic materials associated with clays and diatoms could be stronger carriers of radionuclides in the polluted water. Adherence of diatoms to the plastic fiber in the water for 7 months suggested that some plastic materials were taking up heavy metals (Zn, Ba, Pb, Sb) with radioactive elements (Cs etc.). Mechanisms by which radioactive pollutants and microorganisms are adsorbed onto and desorbed from clays at aqueous interface can be understood by combining chemical analysis with electron microscopy observation. (author)

  7. Radiation-Induced Second Cancer Risk Estimates From Radionuclide Therapy

    Bednarz, Bryan; Besemer, Abigail

    2017-09-01

    The use of radionuclide therapy in the clinical setting is expected to increase significantly over the next decade. There is an important need to understand the radiation-induced second cancer risk associated with these procedures. In this study the radiation-induced cancer risk in five radionuclide therapy patients was investigated. These patients underwent serial SPECT imaging scans following injection as part of a clinical trial testing the efficacy of a 131Iodine-labeled radiopharmaceutical. Using these datasets the committed absorbed doses to multiple sensitive structures were calculated using RAPID, which is a novel Monte Carlo-based 3D dosimetry platform developed for personalized dosimetry. The excess relative risk (ERR) for radiation-induced cancer in these structures was then derived from these dose estimates following the recommendations set forth in the BEIR VII report. The radiation-induced leukemia ERR was highest among all sites considered reaching a maximum value of approximately 4.5. The radiation-induced cancer risk in the kidneys, liver and spleen ranged between 0.3 and 1.3. The lifetime attributable risks (LARs) were also calculated, which ranged from 30 to 1700 cancers per 100,000 persons and were highest for leukemia and the liver for both males and females followed by radiation-induced spleen and kidney cancer. The risks associated with radionuclide therapy are similar to the risk associated with external beam radiation therapy.

  8. Radionuclides release possibility analysis of MSR at various accident conditions

    Lee, Choong Wie; Kim, Hee Reyoung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    There are some accidents which go beyond our expectation such as Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster and amounts of radionuclides release to environment, so more effort and research are conducted to prevent it. MSR (Molten Salt Reactor) is one of GEN-IV reactor types, and its coolant and fuel are mixtures of molten salt. MSR has a schematic like figure 1 and it has different features with the solid fuel reactor, but most important and interesting feature of MSR is its many safety systems. For example, MSR has a large negative void coefficient. Even though power increases, the reactor slows down soon. Radionuclides release possibility of MSR was analyzed at various accident conditions including Chernobyl and Fukushima ones. The MSR was understood to prevent the severe accident by the negative reactivity coefficient and the absence of explosive material such as water at the Chernobyl disaster condition. It was expected to contain fuel salts in the reactor building and not to release radionuclides into environment even if the primary system could be ruptured or broken and fuel salts would be leaked at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster condition of earthquake and tsunami. The MSR, which would not lead to the severe accident and therefore prevents the fuel release to the environment at many expected scenarios, was thought to have priority in the aspect of accidents. A quantitative analysis and a further research are needed to evaluate the possibility of radionuclide release to the environment at the various accident conditions based on the simple comparison of the safety feature between MSR and solid fuel reactor.

  9. PET SUV correlates with radionuclide uptake in peptide receptor therapy in meningioma

    Haenscheid, Heribert; Buck, Andreas K.; Samnick, Samuel; Kreissl, Michael [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Sweeney, Reinhart A.; Flentje, Michael [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Loehr, Mario [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Neurosurgery, Wuerzburg (Germany); Verburg, Frederik A. [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); RWTH University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    To investigate whether the tumour uptake of radionuclide in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) of meningioma can be predicted by a PET scan with {sup 68}Ga-labelled somatostatin analogue. In this pilot trial, 11 meningioma patients with a PET scan indicating somatostatin receptor expression received PRRT with 7.4 GBq {sup 177}Lu-DOTATOC or {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE, followed by external beam radiotherapy. A second PET scan was scheduled for 3 months after therapy. During PRRT, multiple whole-body scans and a SPECT/CT scan of the head and neck region were acquired and used to determine the kinetics and dose in the voxel with the highest radionuclide uptake within the tumour. Maximum voxel dose and retention of activity 1 h after administration in PRRT were compared to the maximum standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max}) in the meningiomas from the PET scans before and after therapy. The median SUV{sub max} in the meningiomas was 13.7 (range 4.3 to 68.7), and the maximum fractional radionuclide uptake in voxels of size 0.11 cm{sup 3} was a median of 23.4 x 10{sup -6} (range 0.4 x 10{sup -6} to 68.3 x 10{sup -6}). A strong correlation was observed between SUV{sub max} and the PRRT radionuclide tumour retention in the voxels with the highest uptake (Spearman's rank test, P < 0.01). Excluding one patient who showed large differences in biokinetics between PET and PRRT and another patient with incomplete data, linear regression analysis indicated significant correlations between SUV{sub max} and the therapeutic uptake (r = 0.95) and between SUV{sub max} and the maximum voxel dose from PRRT (r = 0.76). Observed absolute deviations from the values expected from regression were a median of 5.6 x 10{sup -6} (maximum 9.3 x 10{sup -6}) for the voxel fractional radionuclide uptake and 0.40 Gy per GBq (maximum 0.85 Gy per GBq) {sup 177}Lu for the voxel dose from PRRT. PET with {sup 68}Ga-labelled somatostatin analogues allows the pretherapeutic assessment of tumour

  10. PET SUV correlates with radionuclide uptake in peptide receptor therapy in meningioma

    Haenscheid, Heribert; Buck, Andreas K.; Samnick, Samuel; Kreissl, Michael; Sweeney, Reinhart A.; Flentje, Michael; Loehr, Mario; Verburg, Frederik A.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether the tumour uptake of radionuclide in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) of meningioma can be predicted by a PET scan with 68 Ga-labelled somatostatin analogue. In this pilot trial, 11 meningioma patients with a PET scan indicating somatostatin receptor expression received PRRT with 7.4 GBq 177 Lu-DOTATOC or 177 Lu-DOTATATE, followed by external beam radiotherapy. A second PET scan was scheduled for 3 months after therapy. During PRRT, multiple whole-body scans and a SPECT/CT scan of the head and neck region were acquired and used to determine the kinetics and dose in the voxel with the highest radionuclide uptake within the tumour. Maximum voxel dose and retention of activity 1 h after administration in PRRT were compared to the maximum standardized uptake values (SUV max ) in the meningiomas from the PET scans before and after therapy. The median SUV max in the meningiomas was 13.7 (range 4.3 to 68.7), and the maximum fractional radionuclide uptake in voxels of size 0.11 cm 3 was a median of 23.4 x 10 -6 (range 0.4 x 10 -6 to 68.3 x 10 -6 ). A strong correlation was observed between SUV max and the PRRT radionuclide tumour retention in the voxels with the highest uptake (Spearman's rank test, P max and the therapeutic uptake (r = 0.95) and between SUV max and the maximum voxel dose from PRRT (r = 0.76). Observed absolute deviations from the values expected from regression were a median of 5.6 x 10 -6 (maximum 9.3 x 10 -6 ) for the voxel fractional radionuclide uptake and 0.40 Gy per GBq (maximum 0.85 Gy per GBq) 177 Lu for the voxel dose from PRRT. PET with 68 Ga-labelled somatostatin analogues allows the pretherapeutic assessment of tumour radionuclide uptake in PRRT of meningioma and an estimate of the achievable dose. (orig.)

  11. Phytoremediation of radionuclides: an emerging alternative

    Singh, Shraddha

    2013-01-01

    Proliferation of nuclear power industry, nuclear weapon testing, dismantling of existing nuclear weapons and occasional accidents have contributed to an enhancement in the level of radionuclides in the environment. The radionuclides due to their long half life and transfer through the food chain effect adversely to normal biological systems. Hence, it is essential to effectively remove the radionuclides from contaminated soils and solutions. Phytoremediation - the use of plants for remediation of toxic metals and radionuclides has been recognized as an aesthetically pleasing, low cost and environment friendly in situ method. Phytoremediation is an umbrella term which covers several plant based approaches. Plants have shown the potential of remediation of these radionuclides from spiked solutions, low level nuclear waste and soil. Various aspects of phytoremediation as well as potential of various plants for remediation of radionuclides will be discussed here. (author)

  12. Radionuclide transport processes in terrestrial ecosystems

    Whicker, F.W.

    1983-01-01

    Some major principles and the status of knowledge concerning the transport of radionuclides through terrestrial ecosystems are reviewed. Fundamental processes which control the flow of radionuclides between ecosystem components such as air, soil, plants, and animals are described, with emphasis on deposition, resuspension, plant uptake, ingestion, and assimilation. Properties of radionuclides, organisms, and ecosystems are examined in relation to their influence on the accumulation of radioactive materials by plants and animals. The effects of the physicochemical nature of the radionuclide; morphology, physiology, and behavior of the organism; and soil, nutrient, and trophic characteristics of the ecosystem are highlighted. Observations in natural ecosystems on radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 131 I, 3 H, and 239 Pu are used to illustrate current concepts. An assessment of the degree to which the processes controlling radionuclide behavior are understood and of our ability to simulate and predict such behavior with computerized models is offered. Finally, brief comments are made on research needs

  13. Radionuclides in the study of marine processes

    Kershaw, P.J.; Woodhead, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    For many years, the radioactive properties of the naturally occurring radionuclides have been used to determine their distributions in the marine environment and, more generally, to gain an understanding of the dynamic processes which control their behaviour in attaining these distributions. More recently the inputs from human activities of both natural and artificial (i.e. man-made) radionuclides have provided additional opportunities for the study of marine processes on local, regional and global scales. The primary objective of the symposium is to provide a forum for an open discussion of the insights concerning processes in the marine environment which can be gained from studies of radionuclide behaviour. Papers have been grouped within the following principal themes; the uses of radionuclides as tracers of water transport; scavenging and particulate transport processes in the oceans as deduced from radionuclide behaviour; processes in the seabed and radionuclides in biological systems. (Author)

  14. Chemical speciation of radionuclides migrating in groundwaters

    Robertson, D.; Schilk, A.; Abel, K.; Lepel, E.; Thomas, C.; Pratt, S.; Cooper, E.; Hartwig, P.; Killey, R.

    1994-04-01

    In order to more accurately predict the rates and mechanisms of radionuclide migration from low-level waste disposal facilities via groundwater transport, ongoing studies are being conducted at field sites at Chalk River Laboratories to identify and characterize the chemical speciation of mobile, long-lived radionuclides migrating in groundwaters. Large-volume water sampling techniques are being utilized to separate and concentrate radionuclides into particular, cationic, anionic, and nonionic chemical forms. Most radionuclides are migrating as soluble, anionic species that appear to be predominantly organoradionuclide complexes. Laboratory studies utilizing anion exchange chromatography have separated several anionically complexed radionuclides, e.g., 60 Co and 106 Ru, into a number of specific compounds or groups of compounds. Further identification of the anionic organoradionuclide complexes is planned utilizing high resolution mass spectrometry. Large-volume ultra-filtration experiments are characterizing the particulate forms of radionuclides being transported in these groundwaters

  15. Production of radionuclides with generators

    Khujaev, S.; Egamediev, S.Kh.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The radionuclide generator provides a convenient means for researchers and clinicians to obtain a source of radionuclides without dependence on nuclear facilities (nuclear reactor or cyclotron). It should be noted that radionuclide generator technique yields products of very high purity and it offers moreover the only possible way of obtaining very short-lived radionuclides for practical applications. Therefore at present radionuclide generators have found important uses in nuclear medicine. This talk reviews the development of preparation methods for radionuclide generators of current interest: 99 Mo- 99m Tc, 188 W- 188 Re and 68 Ge- 68 Ga. 99 Mo- 99m Tc generator. 99m Tc is presently the most widely used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine. The reason for such a preeminent position of 99m Tc in clinical uses is its extremely favorable nuclear properties with γ-energy of 140 keV and short half-life of 6 hours. Chromatographic generator of 99 Mo- 99m Tc based on aluminium oxide using as eluent of isotonic saline solution, containing nitrate-ions has been produced in INP AS RU. However, the main disadvantage of this generator is that the eluent-saline solution contains some amount of nitrate-ions. Nitrate-ions added to maximize and stabilize 99m Tc yields would interfere with the chemical reactions which involve Sn(II) reduction of the pertechnetate ion and which are used subsequently in the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. Therefore we proposed the new method for preliminary treatment of aluminium oxide by the external gamma (Co-60) irradiation. It is found that the aluminium oxide has got electron-acceptor properties after gamma-irradiation. Adsorption of 99 Mo radionuclide as isopolymolybdate on gamma-irradiated aluminium oxide is very high and molybdenum is firmly retained. Adsorption capacity of gamma-irradiated aluminium oxide at pH 2-4 is 60-80 mg Mo per gram of Al 2 O 3 . The yields of 99m Tc from experimental generators remained high

  16. DKPRO: A radionuclide decay and reprocessing code

    Wootan, D.; Schmittroth, F.A.

    1997-01-01

    The DKPRO code solves the general problem of modeling complex nuclear wastes streams using ORIGEN2 radionuclide production files. There is a continuing need for estimates of Hanford radionuclides. Physical measurements are one basis; calculational estimates, the approach represented here, are another. Given a known nuclear fuel history, it is relatively straightforward to calculate radionuclide inventories with codes such as the widely-used Oak Ridge National Laboratory code ORIGEN2

  17. Radionuclide usage survey 1979-80

    Woods, M.J.

    1980-08-01

    Details of a survey by the Life Sciences Working Group of the International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology (ICRM) on radionuclide usage by medical physicists in 11 countries are presented. The results indicate that the radionuclide which will be of most significance in the future will be F-18, Fe-52, Ga-67, Ga-68, Kr-81m, Tc-99m, In-111, I-123, Xe-127 and Tl-201, (U.K.)

  18. Preparation of porous materials for radionuclides capture

    Bajzikova, Anna; Smrcek, Stanislav; Kozempel, Jan; Vlk, Martin; Barta, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Porous materials showing promise for radionuclide capture from water at contaminated sites were prepared. Nanoporous materials (size of pores 1-100 nm) and some polymers are well suited to this purpose owing their affinity for selected radionuclides. Nanoporous metal oxides and silica gel with styrene-divinylbenzene-TODGA-modified surface were prepared, characterized and tested for radionuclide ( 227 Ac, 227 Th, 223 Ra) capture efficiency. (orig.)

  19. Diagnostic value of positron emission tomography/computed tomography with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose in patients with differentiated thyroid gland carcinoma, high thyroglobulin serum levels and negative iodine whole body scan; Valor diagnostico da tomografia por emissao de positrons/tomografia computadorizada (PET-CT) com fluor-18 fluordeoxiglicose (FDG-{sup 18}F) em pacientes com carcinoma diferenciado da tireoide, niveis sericos de tireoglobulina elevados e pesquisa de corpo inteiro com iodo negativa

    Yamaga, Lilian Yuri Itaya; Cunha, Marcelo Livorsi da; Wagner, Jairo; Thom, Annelise Fischer; Daniel, Mauro Miguel; Funari, Marcelo B. de Gusmao [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Imagem]. E-mail: itaya@einstein.br

    2007-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of PET-CT with FDG-{sup 18}F in the detection of recurrence and/or metastasis of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) in patients with elevated levels of thyroglobulin (TG) and negative whole body scan (WBS). Patients and method: PET-CT findings of 25 patients were compared to histopathology evaluation and conventional imaging (CI). Results: PET-CT scan was positive in 16 patients finding 14 true-positive and 2 false-positive cases (positive predictive value 87.5%). Nine patients had negative PET-CT; two had decrease of TG to undetectable levels. One patient had residual disease detected by post-therapeutic WBS. Six patients had no evidence of tumor during follow-up (mean time 16 months). PET-CT was concordant with CI in 52%, partially concordant in 12% and discordant in 36% (6 false-negatives and 3 false-positive of CI). We observed a tendency of increasing proportion of positive PET-CT with increasing TG. Conclusion: PET-CT scan with FDG-{sup 18}F is useful in the detection of recurrence and/or metastases of DTC with high TG levels but negative WBS. It presents elevated positive predictive value and is superior to CI being more effective as higher the serum TG levels. (author)

  20. Health effects of internally deposited radionuclides

    Raabe, Otto G.

    2008-01-01

    A comparative evaluation has been conducted of the ionizing radiation dose-response relationships in both human and laboratory animal studies involving internal deposition of radionuclides including alpha-emitters 226 Ra, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, and 241 Am and beta-emitters 90 Sr, 90 Y and 144 Ce. Intake routes included inhalation, injection, and ingestion. The preeminent importance of dose rate was revealed in this analysis. The lifetime effects of the ionizing radiation from internal emitters are described by three-dimensional dose rate/ time/response surfaces that compete with other causes of death during an individual's lifetime. Using maximum likelihood survival regression methods, the characteristic logarithmic slope for cancer induction was found to be about negative one-third for alpha-emitters or about negative two-thirds for beta-emitters. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of alpha versus beta radiations for cancer induction is a strong function of dose rate, near one at high dose rates and greater than 20 at low dose rates. The cumulative dose required to yield any level of induced-cancer risk is less at lower dose rates than at higher dose rates showing an apparent inverse-dose effect (up to a factor of 10 for high LET alpha radiation and a factor of 2 for low LET beta radiation). The competing risks of death associated with radiation injury, radiation-induced cancer, and natural aging are graphically shown using three-dimensional illustrations. At the higher average dose rates the principal deleterious effects are those associated with radiation-induced injury while at intermediate average dose rates radiation-induced cancer predominates. At the lower average dose rates the long latency time required for radiation-induced cancer may exceed natural life span, yielding an apparent lifespan effective threshold for death associated with radiation-induced cancer for cumulative doses to the target tissue below from 1.1 to 1.4 Gy for alpha-emitters or below

  1. Health effects of internally deposited radionuclides

    Raabe, Otto G., E-mail: ograabe@ucdavis.edu [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Center for Health and the Environment

    2008-07-01

    A comparative evaluation has been conducted of the ionizing radiation dose-response relationships in both human and laboratory animal studies involving internal deposition of radionuclides including alpha-emitters {sup 226}Ra, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 241}Am and beta-emitters {sup 90}Sr, {sup 90}Y and {sup 144}Ce. Intake routes included inhalation, injection, and ingestion. The preeminent importance of dose rate was revealed in this analysis. The lifetime effects of the ionizing radiation from internal emitters are described by three-dimensional dose rate/ time/response surfaces that compete with other causes of death during an individual's lifetime. Using maximum likelihood survival regression methods, the characteristic logarithmic slope for cancer induction was found to be about negative one-third for alpha-emitters or about negative two-thirds for beta-emitters. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of alpha versus beta radiations for cancer induction is a strong function of dose rate, near one at high dose rates and greater than 20 at low dose rates. The cumulative dose required to yield any level of induced-cancer risk is less at lower dose rates than at higher dose rates showing an apparent inverse-dose effect (up to a factor of 10 for high LET alpha radiation and a factor of 2 for low LET beta radiation). The competing risks of death associated with radiation injury, radiation-induced cancer, and natural aging are graphically shown using three-dimensional illustrations. At the higher average dose rates the principal deleterious effects are those associated with radiation-induced injury while at intermediate average dose rates radiation-induced cancer predominates. At the lower average dose rates the long latency time required for radiation-induced cancer may exceed natural life span, yielding an apparent lifespan effective threshold for death associated with radiation-induced cancer for cumulative doses to the target tissue below from 1.1 to

  2. Environmental behaviour of radionuclides and transfer to man

    Smith, H.

    1982-01-01

    The environmental behaviour of the radionuclides making the major contribution to man's irradiation through diet is described. The following stages are emphasized: transfer of radionuclides to plants; transfer of radionuclides to animals; metabolism of inhaled or ingested radionuclides in animals providing food for man; transfer of radionuclides through the aquatic environment; application of food chain models. (43 references)

  3. Radionuclide accumulation peculiarities demonstrated by vegetable varieties

    Kruk, A.V.; Goncharenko, G.G.; Kilchevsky, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    This study focused on ecological and genetic aspects of radionuclide accumulation demonstrated by a number of vegetable varieties. The researches resulted in determining the cabbage varieties which were characterised by the minimal level of radionuclide accumulation. It was shown that the above varieties manifested the relation between radionuclide accumulation and morphobiological characteristics such as vegetation period duration and yield criteria. The study specified the genotypes with high ecological stability as regards to radionuclide accumulation: 'Beloruskaya 85' cabbage and 'Dokhodny' tomato showed the best response to Cs 137, while 'Beloruskaya 85', 'Rusinovka', 'Amager 611' cabbage varieties and 'Sprint' tomato showed the minimal level of Sr 90 accumulation. (authors)

  4. Therapy for incorporated radionuclides: scope and need

    Smith, V.H.

    1981-03-01

    In the United States the recent termination of funding for research on therapy for incorporated radionuclides has virtually halted progress on improved or new agents and procedures for removing radioactivity from the body. Research was eliminated, but is still needed on new removal agents, improved delivery system, in vitro test systems, and the toxicology of treatments. For many radionuclides, no adequate therapy exists. The relationship between radionuclide removal and reduction in cancer risk is still unanswered. Without proper research support, needed improvements in the treatment for incorporated radionuclides in the US are uncertain

  5. Biomedical research and application utilizing cyclotron produced radionuclides. Progress report, January 1 1977--December 31, 1977

    Laughlin, J.S.; Benua, R.S.; Tilbury, R.S.

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported on cyclotron production of short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides ( 18 F, 15 O, 11 C, 13 N, 52 Fe, 38 K, 206 Bi, 73 Se, and 48 Cr) for use in the preparation labelled compounds for metabolic research in patients and animals. The chemical preparation of radiopharmaceuticals labelled with cyclotron-produced radionuclides for pancreas and tumor scanning is discussed. The imaging capabilities of a total organ kinetic imaging monitor (TOKIM) gamma camera system operated in the positron coincidence mode were improved with the addition of computerized iterative correction procedures

  6. Radionuclide transport through heteogeneous media

    Hadermann, J.

    1980-01-01

    One-dimensional radionuclide migration for conevective water transport with sorption and longitudinal dispersion is investigated. A semianalytic solution for layered media with piecewise constant parametes can be written when taking into account mass conservation and approximate flux conservation at interlayer boundaries. The solution is analytic in the first layer and allows for a recursive calculation in the following layers. Scaling laws for the relevant parameters can be formulated. Numerical examples exhibit the importance of at least a single highly sorbing layer. Small values of dispersivity may not lead to a conservative estimate of conservation at the geological column's end

  7. Radionuclide transfer to meadow vegetation

    Goncharova, N.; Matsko, N.; Zhebrakova, I.; Montik, T.

    1999-01-01

    In the paper results of radioecological monitoring of natural plant populations in the 30 km zone of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (Polesky State Radioecological Reserve) during the period from 1987 to 1998 are presented. The level of radiation background in experimental areas varied from 0.1 to 30 mR/h that correspond to the total soil activity of 300-24000 kBq/m 2 (for May 1997). Monitoring was carried out including the radionuclide migration in natural plant complexes and transfer of 137 Cs between some plant organs. Refs. 3 (author)

  8. Dosimetry of incorporated transuranic radionuclides

    Loessner, V.

    1983-01-01

    Modern in vivo and in vitro techniques for detecting transuranic radionuclides within the human body are described with special emphasis on multiparameter measuring methods developed at the National Board of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection. Furthermore, problems related to calibration and interpretation of measuring data are discussed and new methods presented for the calculation of committed dose equivalents on the basis of data from ICRP Publication 30. Also included is an introductory chapter on radiobiological fundamentals of intake, translocation and metabolism of these nuclides. (author)

  9. Dietary intake of natural radionuclides

    Smith-Briggs, J L; Bradley, E J [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (UK)

    1984-09-01

    The levels of the natural radionuclides, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 were measured in food samples collected for a National Food Survey, thus reflecting current consumption patterns in the UK. Daily intakes of radium-226, lead-210 and inferred values of polonium-210 were calculated for 20 food groups. From these data, the annual effective dose equivalents from radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in the UK diet were estimated to be 3..mu..Sv, 41..mu..Sv and 13..mu..Sv respectively.

  10. Dietary intake of natural radionuclides

    Smith-Briggs, J.L.; Bradley, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    The levels of the natural radionuclides, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 were measured in food samples collected for a National Food Survey, thus reflecting current consumption patterns in the UK. Daily intakes of radium-226, lead-210 and inferred values of polonium-210 were calculated for 20 food groups. From these data, the annual effective dose equivalents from radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in the UK diet were estimated to be 3μSv, 41μSv and 13μSv respectively. (U.K.)

  11. Dental diseases and radionuclide imaging of the jaws.

    Arias, Jose A; Pardo, Carlos; Olmos, Antonio; Cuadrado, Maria L; Ruibal, Alvaro

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the results of radionuclide bone scans of the jaws with data obtained at the nuclear medicine department from a brief and feasible dental history, taking special account of cases with a positive scan and no recent dental events. Ninety-eight patients undergoing radionuclide bone scan as part of their diagnosis in non-dental, oncological and non-oncological diseases were imaged with 99mTc-labelled oxidronate. Superior and inferior halves of the mandible and maxilla (392 quadrants) were regarded as normal or having an abnormally high uptake. A recent (1 year) dental history was also obtained through a brief questionnaire and data were referred to each quadrant of the jaws. The association between the bone scan and dental disease was assessed by means of the chi-squared test. The overall results of scintigraphy and history coincided in 66 patients (46 with abnormal and 20 with normal findings; P = 0.002). Twenty-five patients had a positive scintigram without any known dental disorder. Results of scintigraphy and history coincided in 254 quadrants (78 with abnormal and 176 with normal findings; P < 0.001). Eighty-three quadrants had hot spots in the scintigram without any known dental lesion. It can be concluded that abnormal jaw scintigrams are frequent in patients without known dental disease, and this may indicate silent osteoblastic activity. These observations should be reported to the dentist for several reasons. First, they may reveal asymptomatic dental lesions. Second, the use of oral prostheses and implants is increasing and they require the support of healthy alveolar bone.

  12. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Park, Hyun Soo

    2003-04-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. This project is composed of 6 subjects such as data production required for safety assessments, sorption properties and mechanisms, nuclide migration in the fractured rock, colloid formation and migration, nuclide speciation in deep geological environments, and total evaluation of geochemical behaviors considering multi-factors. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal

  13. Radionuclide diagnostics of right ventricle

    Zaorska-Rajca, J.

    1993-01-01

    Difficulties in evaluating the right ventricle function motivate to making research into new non-invasive methods. Four radionuclide methods that are used to access the right ventricle have been discussed in this paper: first-pass angiocardiography, gated equilibrium ventriculography with red blood cells labelled in vivo technetium- 99 Tc, ventriculography with radioactive xenon 133 and a computerized single probe. Advantages and disadvantages of using each method have been discussed. RNV 99m Tc method has been recognized as the best one to evaluate RV function. Results of the right ventricle assessment in patients have been discussed in the following clinical groups: chronic cor pulmonale (CP), chronic lung disease without pulmonary arterial hypertension (LD), coronary artery disease (CAD), in patients after infarction (IMA and IMi), dilated cardiomyopathy (KZ) and valvular heart diseases (Wm and Wa). Abnormals in right ventricle function occur with different intensity in all groups, although they no specificity. The highest abnormality occurs in patients with KZ, CP, IMi and Wm, the lowest one - in patients with CAD. Abnormalities are higher in patients with congestive heart failure. In most pathological groups the right ventricle dysfunction is connected with the left ventricle insufficiency. The interdependence between the dysfunction of both ventricles is differs in particular diseases. Assessment of right ventricle function with radionuclide methods plays an important role in diagnosis and control therapy of cardiopulmonary diseases. (author). 385 refs, 48 figs, 6 tabs

  14. Miscellaneous applications of radionuclide imaging

    Mishkin, F.S.; Freeman, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    The procedures discussed in this chapter are either developmental, in limited clinical use, or frankly moribund. A number of radionuclide imaging techniques have proved disappointing when approached from a purely anatomic point of view. This is particularly evident to our colleagues with the explosive growth of the noninvasive imaging procedures, magnetic resonance imaging (NMR), CT, and ultrasound, and the introduction of the less invasive digital radiographic approach to vascular opacification, all of which are capable of providing exquisite anatomic or tissue detail beyond the reach of current or reasonably priced nuclear medicine imaging systems. Yet, most nuclear medicine procedures possess the unique advantage of portraying a physiologic function without interfering with that function. Moreover, the procedures can be employed under conditions of stress, which are likely to bring out pathophysiologic abnormalities that remain masked when unchallenged. Information concerning form without functional data has less meaning than both together. The physiologic information inherent in nuclear medicine imaging may often provide not only key diagnostic information but also illuminate a therapeutic trail. Yet, it is often slighted in favor of the anatomic quest. While mastery of the nuances of imaging details remains critical, radionuclide image interpretation must rest upon a firm physiologic foundation. For this reason, this chapter emphasizes the physiologic approach

  15. Stochastic approach for radionuclides quantification

    Clement, A.; Saurel, N.; Perrin, G.

    2018-01-01

    Gamma spectrometry is a passive non-destructive assay used to quantify radionuclides present in more or less complex objects. Basic methods using empirical calibration with a standard in order to quantify the activity of nuclear materials by determining the calibration coefficient are useless on non-reproducible, complex and single nuclear objects such as waste packages. Package specifications as composition or geometry change from one package to another and involve a high variability of objects. Current quantification process uses numerical modelling of the measured scene with few available data such as geometry or composition. These data are density, material, screen, geometric shape, matrix composition, matrix and source distribution. Some of them are strongly dependent on package data knowledge and operator backgrounds. The French Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA) is developing a new methodology to quantify nuclear materials in waste packages and waste drums without operator adjustment and internal package configuration knowledge. This method suggests combining a global stochastic approach which uses, among others, surrogate models available to simulate the gamma attenuation behaviour, a Bayesian approach which considers conditional probability densities of problem inputs, and Markov Chains Monte Carlo algorithms (MCMC) which solve inverse problems, with gamma ray emission radionuclide spectrum, and outside dimensions of interest objects. The methodology is testing to quantify actinide activity in different kind of matrix, composition, and configuration of sources standard in terms of actinide masses, locations and distributions. Activity uncertainties are taken into account by this adjustment methodology.

  16. Infusion of radionuclides throughout pregnancy

    Mountford-Lister, P.G.; Lambert, B.E.; Milner, A.C.; Kang, X.Z.

    1992-01-01

    This work is part of a long-term study to examine the cancer incidence in the offspring of mice exposed to 239 Pu or 147 Pm throughout pregnancy. The need to model the human intake scenario and the possibility of a critical period during uterine development necessitates constant availability of radionuclides throughout pregnancy. Various methods (multiple daily injections, infusion by external cannula and infusion by indwelling osmotic pump) have been examined and osmotic infusion pumps chosen. These pumps result in a near-constant blood concentration for up to 21 days. Part of the study is the estimation of dose to the critical haemopoietic tissues of the pup from a knowledge of the radionuclide distribution and kinetics. At present the distribution has been followed from birth to 180 days. Activity in the suckling pups at 7 days old is around 1 percent of the infused activity, though most of this is accounted for by the contents of the stomach and gastrointestinal tract. The liver and femur account for around 0.025 percent and 0.012 percent respectively per pup. Activity increases in both liver and femur during lactation after which both concentration and activity fall with time. Long-term studies with the pups of dams exposed to a range of 239 Pu concentrations between 0-70 kBq/kg are underway. Correlation of average organ dose with tumour incidence will be determined at completion of the life-span study. (Author) 39 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  17. Sedimentary Processes. Quantification Using Radionuclides

    Carroll, J.; Lerche, I.

    2003-01-01

    The advent of radionuclide methods in geochronology has revolutionized our understanding of modern sedimentary processes in aquatic systems. This book examines the principles of the method and its use as a quantitative tool in marine geology, with emphasis on the Pb-210 method. The assumptions and consequences of models and their behaviour are described providing the necessary background to assess the advantages and trade-offs involved when choosing a particular model for application. One of the purposes of this volume is to disentangle the influences of complicating factors, such as sediment flux variations, post-depositional diffusion of radionuclides, and bio-irrigation of sediments, to arrive at sediment ages and to properly assess the attendant data uncertainty. Environmental impacts of chemical, nuclear, or other waste material are of concern in a variety of areas around the world today. A number of relevant examples are included, demonstrating how dating models are useful for determining sources of contaminants and interpreting their influence on the environment. The book is set at a level so that an able student or professional should have no difficulty in following the procedures and methods developed. Each chapter includes case histories showing the strengths and weaknesses of a given procedure with respect to a data example. Included with this volume is the computer source code of a new generation of modelling tools based on inverse numerical analysis techniques. This first generation of the modelling tool is included, along with detailed instructions and examples for its use, in an appendix

  18. Radionuclide transit in esophageal varices

    Yeh, S.H.; Wang, S.J.; Wu, L.C.; Liu, R.S.; Tsai, Y.T.; Chiang, T.T.

    1985-01-01

    This study assessed esophageal motility in patients with esophageal varices by radionuclide transit studies. Data were acquired in list mode after an oral dose of 0.5 mCi Tc-99m sulfur colloid in 10 ml of water in the supine position above a low-energy all-purpose collimator of a gamma camera. The condensed image (CI) superimposed with a centroid curve was also produced in each case. Twenty-five normal subjects (N) and 32 patients (pts) with esophageal varices by endoscopy (large varices in Grades IV and V in 8 and small varices in Grade III or less in 24) were studied. TMTT, RTT, RF, and RI were all significantly increased in pts as compared to N. Especially, the transit time for the middle third (6.7 +- 2.6 sec vs 3.5 +- 0.9 sec in N, rho < 0.005) had the optimal sensitivy and specificity of 88% each at the cutoff value of 4.2 sec as determined by ROC analysis. In summary, radionuclide transit disorders occur in the majority of pts with esopageal varices. The middle RTT and CI are both optimal in sensitivity and specificity for detecting the abnormalities

  19. Radionuclide analysis of bush food

    Koperski, J.; Bywater, J.

    1985-01-01

    A model diet for an Aboriginal adult living entirely on bush foods collected from the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory has been established. Results of investigations of the specific activities of thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in 123 samples of bush foods collected by Ranger Uranium Mines Pty Ltd during pre-production and production periods are presented. For all the investigated bush food items, excluding freshwater mussels (Velesunio angasi), no systematic differences were found between the specific activities of the radionuclides monitored in food items sampled during preproduction and production periods. Preliminary estimates of annual effective dose equivalent (DE) rates for stochastic effects on an adult living entirely on the model bush diet are presented. Of the four radionuclides monitored the major contributor to the effective DE rates appears to be lead-210 followed by radium-226. Among the selected nine components of the diet the major contributor to the effective DE rates appear to be mussels, water lilies and fish

  20. Radionuclide analysis of bush food

    Koperski, J; Bywater, J [Ranger Uranium Mines Proprietary Ltd., Chatswood (Australia)

    1985-04-01

    A model diet for an Aboriginal adult living entirely on bush foods collected from the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory has been established. Results of investigations of the specific activities of thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in 123 samples of bush foods collected by Ranger Uranium Mines Pty. Ltd. during pre-production and production periods are presented. For all the investigated bush food items, excluding freshwater mussels (Velesunio angasi), no systematic differences were found between the specific activities of the radionuclides monitored in food items sampled during preproduction and production periods. Preliminary estimates of annual effective dose equivalent (DE) rates for stochastic effects on an adult living entirely on the model bush diet are presented. Of the four radionuclides monitored the major contributor to the effective DE rates appears to be lead-210 followed by radium-226. Among the selected nine components of the diet the major contributor to the effective DE rates appear to be mussels, water lilies and fish.

  1. Radiopharmaceutical scanning agents

    1976-01-01

    This invention is directed to dispersions useful in preparing radiopharmaceutical scanning agents, to technetium labelled dispersions, to methods for preparing such dispersions and to their use as scanning agents

  2. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Full Text Available ... Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses small amounts of radioactive materials called radiotracers, a special ... is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material to diagnose and determine ...

  3. Nuclear Heart Scan

    ... Home / Nuclear Heart Scan Nuclear Heart Scan Also known as Nuclear Stress Test , ... Learn More Connect With Us Contact Us Directly Policies Privacy Policy Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Accessibility ...

  4. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Full Text Available ... of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan and thyroid uptake ... you otherwise, you may resume your normal activities after your nuclear medicine scan. If any special instructions ...

  5. RBC nuclear scan

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003835.htm RBC nuclear scan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An RBC nuclear scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to ...

  6. Radionuclide Diagnosis of Pulmonary Embolism

    Hess, Søren; Madsen, Poul Henning

    2017-01-01

    angiography (CTA) and ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy (V/Q-scan). Both methods display advantages and shortcomings, and while we provide some insights into CTA and alternative methods, the paper's main focus is a review of the V/Q-scan. We discuss basic considerations, interpretation criteria, clinical...... value, and controversies of conventional planar lung scintigraphy as well as the more contemporary 3-dimensional imaging technique of single photon emission tomography (SPECT) with or without CT....

  7. The radionuclide migration model in river system

    Zhukova, O.M.; Shiryaeva, N.M.; Myshkina, M.K.; Shagalova, Eh.D.; Denisova, V.V.; Skurat, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    It was propose the model of radionuclide migration in river system based on principle of the compartmental model at hydraulically stationary and chemically equilibrium conditions of interaction of radionuclides in system water-dredge, water-sediments. Different conditions of radioactive contamination entry in river system were considered. The model was verified on the data of radiation monitoring of Iput' river

  8. Modeling Radionuclide Decay Chain Migration Using HYDROGEOCHEM

    Lin, T. C.; Tsai, C. H.; Lai, K. H.; Chen, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear technology has been employed for energy production for several decades. Although people receive many benefits from nuclear energy, there are inevitably environmental pollutions as well as human health threats posed by the radioactive materials releases from nuclear waste disposed in geological repositories or accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear facilities. Theoretical studies have been undertaken to understand the transport of radionuclides in subsurface environments because that the radionuclide transport in groundwater is one of the main pathway in exposure scenarios for the intake of radionuclides. The radionuclide transport in groundwater can be predicted using analytical solution as well as numerical models. In this study, we simulate the transport of the radionuclide decay chain using HYDROGEOCHEM. The simulated results are verified against the analytical solution available in the literature. Excellent agreements between the numerical simulation and the analytical are observed for a wide spectrum of concentration. HYDROGECHEM is a useful tool assessing the ecological and environmental impact of the accidental radionuclide releases such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster where multiple radionuclides leaked through the reactor, subsequently contaminating the local groundwater and ocean seawater in the vicinity of the nuclear plant.

  9. Fire fighting in a radionuclide laboratory

    Wenzel, H.

    1991-01-01

    A fire-brigade was called to a laboratory which held a handling licence for the radionuclides C-14, T, P-32, Se-75, Mo-99, and S-35. The fire-brigade was unaware of a release of radionuclides. Therefore they used respiratory equipment, and all persons present were subsequently examined for contamination. (DG) [de

  10. Mechanisms of radionuclide transition in natural environment

    Pacyna, J.

    1974-01-01

    Mechanisms of radionuclide transition in various elements of the environment have been dealt with in an ecological aspect. The knowledge of the radionuclide propagation tracks will make possible to ascertain precisely causes and effects of the radiation and to reduce the contamination value. Particular attention has been paid to test methods. (author)

  11. Scanning gamma camera

    Engdahl, L.W.; Batter, J.F. Jr.; Stout, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    A scanning system for a gamma camera providing for the overlapping of adjacent scan paths is described. A collimator mask having tapered edges provides for a graduated reduction in intensity of radiation received by a detector thereof, the reduction in intensity being graduated in a direction normal to the scanning path to provide a blending of images of adjacent scan paths. 31 claims, 15 figures

  12. Sensors and Automated Analyzers for Radionuclides

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.

    2003-01-01

    The production of nuclear weapons materials has generated large quantities of nuclear waste and significant environmental contamination. We have developed new, rapid, automated methods for determination of radionuclides using sequential injection methodologies to automate extraction chromatographic separations, with on-line flow-through scintillation counting for real time detection. This work has progressed in two main areas: radionuclide sensors for water monitoring and automated radiochemical analyzers for monitoring nuclear waste processing operations. Radionuclide sensors have been developed that collect and concentrate radionuclides in preconcentrating minicolumns with dual functionality: chemical selectivity for radionuclide capture and scintillation for signal output. These sensors can detect pertechnetate to below regulatory levels and have been engineered into a prototype for field testing. A fully automated process monitor has been developed for total technetium in nuclear waste streams. This instrument performs sample acidification, speciation adjustment, separation and detection in fifteen minutes or less

  13. Speciation of radionuclides in the environment

    Gunten, H.R. von; Benes, P.

    1994-02-01

    Methods for the determination of the speciation of radionuclides in aerosols, in aquatic solutions, in sediments, soils and rocks are reviewed. At present, most of the results about speciation are deduced from model calculations, model experiments, and separation of species (forms) of radionuclides, e.g., by sequential extraction procedures. Methods of direct determination of speciation of radionuclides (e.g. by laser induced spectroscopy) are in general not yet sensitive enough for a measurement of the very low concentrations of radionuclides in the environment. The methodological part of this paper is followed by a review of the very abundant literature about speciation of important radionuclides in the environment, i.e. in the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. The review does not include the biosphere. Literature up to spring 1993 is included (with a few more recent additions). (author)

  14. Radionuclide transport in a single fissure

    Eriksen, T.E.

    1983-01-01

    Radionuclide migration have been studied in natural fissures orieted parallel to the axis of granite drill cores. A short pulse of the radionuclides solution was injected at one end of the fissure and the temporal change in radionuclide concentration of the eluate measured. After several hundred fissure volumes water had been pumped through the fissure following the radionuclide pulse the activity distribution on the fissure surfaces was measured. From the retardation of 152 Eu, 235 Np and 237 Pu it is concluded that these radionuclides are transported in the oxidation states Eu(III), Pu(IV) and Np(V). The distribution coefficients K sub (d) calculated from flow and activity distribution data on the basis of geometric surface area/volume ratios are of the same order as published K sub (d) values obtained from batch equilibrium experiments. (Author)

  15. Radionuclides in the environment: Risks and opportunities

    Elzerman, A.W.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental chemistry plays a critical role in the open-quotes nuclear ageclose quotes. It makes a vital contribution to understanding of the sources, fate and effects of radionuclides in the environment, both man-made and natural. Risk assessment of radionuclides in the environment relies heavily on the tools of environmental chemistry. On the other hand, radionuclides provide unique opportunities to exploit in environmental chemistry investigations due to their well-defined sources, traceability in environmental processes, analytical sensitivities, and open-quotes built-inclose quotes radioactive decay open-quotes clocksclose quotes. In some cases naturally present radionuclides are utilized, while in others tracers are deliberately added or have already been added by the nuclear fuel cycle or nuclear testing. Several examples in each of these categories are discussed to spotlight the current status of environmental chemistry and radionuclides in the environment as an example application

  16. Mobility and Bioavailability of Radionuclides in Soils

    Iurian, A.; Olufemi Phaneuf, M.; Mabit, L.

    2016-01-01

    It is crucial to understand the behavior of radionuclides in the environment, their potential mobility and bioavailability related to long-term persistence, radiological hazards, and impact on human health. Such key information is used to develop strategies that support policy decisions. The environmental behavior of radionuclides depends on ecosystem characteristics. A given soil’s capacity to immobilize radionuclides has been proved to be the main factor responsible for their resulting activity concentrations in plants. The mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides in soils is complex, depending on clay-sized soil fraction, clay mineralogy, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, pH and quantities of competing cations. Moreover, plant species have different behaviors regarding radionuclide absorption depending on soil and plan characteristics

  17. Clinical role of skeletal scanning

    Ell, P J

    1975-12-01

    Malignant disease very often spreads to the skeleton. This is particularly true for carcinomas of the breast, the lungs, the prostate, and the thyroid. Knowledge of the state of the skeleton in these disorders is therefore desirable since patient management will largely depend on the early detection of bony deposits. Primary bone disease often spreads to soft tissue (lungs), and the early detection of this may alter significantly the therapeutic approach to the primary lesion. Traditionally, x-ray skeletal surveys and serum enzyme measurements provide indices which can be used in the staging of these disorders. Complementary techniques such as mammography, xeroradiography, thermography, and radionuclide imaging have been used to provide further relevant information. A number of benign bone diseases need early assessment in order to institute the best form of treatment. It is of importance to assess the circulation in localized areas of bone and to predict the appearance of avascular necrosis, to understand the healing mechanisms involved in fractures, and to predict the outcome of bone grafting. In this paper the clinical role of bone scanning is reviewed, particular attention being given to the recent advances brought about by the introduction of the /sup 99m/Tc compounds. It is important that the non-specialist should be aware of the great improvement in the results obtained and in the help they can give him in deciding on the best management of each patient as an individual.

  18. Applications of radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging in acute coronary syndrome

    Han Pingping; Tian Yueqin

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, acute coronary syndrome(ACS) has been getting more and more attentions. Radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) can make a quick accurate diagnosis for patients with acute chest pain who cann't be diagnosed by conventional methods. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of MPI are relatively high. Besides, MPI can be applicated in the detection of ischemic and infarct size and degree, the risk stratification and the assessment of prognosis of the patients with ACS, and the appraisal of the effect of strategies. (authors)

  19. Quantification of left to right shunts in adults with atrial septal defects of secundum type, using radionuclide technique

    Sire, S.; Rootwelt, K.; Mangschau, A.

    1991-01-01

    Quantification of left to right shunt was carried out in 15 adult patients with a suspected ostium secundum atrial septal defect (ASD II). Radionuclide shunt quantitation correlated well with the results of righ heart catheterization. The radionuclide technique failed in two patients for technical reasons, but revealed no false negative or false positive results when technically satisfactory. The diagnosis was confirmed at operation. It is concluded that the radionuclide technique is a useful and reliable method which can also be used at follow-up after surgery in patients with artrial septal defects of secundum type. 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  20. The clinical research of bone scan in patients with fibrous dysplasia of bone

    Yuan Zhibin; Yu Jianfang; Luo Quanyong; Lu Hankui; Zhu Jifang; Zhu Ruisen

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the characteristics of fibrous dysplasia of bone in bone imaging and evaluate the diagnostic value of radionuclide bone scan in fibrous dysplasia of bone. Methods: All 42 cases of fibrous dysplasia of bone patients had radionuclide bone scan performed and compared with other imaging modalities. A retrospective study method was used to analyze the imaging results. Results: Although fibrous dysplasia of bone showed uptake of 99m Tc-MDP in the images, its appearance characteristic was different from those metastatic bone tumors and other bone diseases. Combining with X rays and other imaging modalities can improve the diagnostic accuracy of this disease. Conclusion: Radionuclide bone scan has got certain value in the diagnosis of fibrous dysplasia of bone. Combining with other imaging modality can make up its disadvantage of low specificity

  1. Radionuclide imaging of spinal infections

    Gemmel, Filip; Dumarey, Nicolas; Palestro, Christopher J.

    2006-01-01

    The diagnosis of spinal infection, with or without implants, has been a challenge for physicians for many years. Spinal infections are now being recognised more frequently, owing to aging of the population and the increasing use of spinal-fusion surgery. The diagnosis in many cases is delayed, and this may result in permanent neurological damage or even death. Laboratory evidence of infection is variable. Conventional radiography and radionuclide bone imaging lack both sensitivity and specificity. Neither in vitro labelled leucocyte scintigraphy nor 99m Tc-anti-granulocyte antibody scintigraphy is especially useful, because of the frequency with which spinal infection presents as a non-specific photopenic area on these tests. Sequential bone/gallium imaging and 67 Ga-SPECT are currently the radionuclide procedures of choice for spinal osteomyelitis, but these tests lack specificity, suffer from poor spatial resolution and require several days to complete. [ 18 F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET is a promising technique for diagnosing spinal infection, and has several potential advantages over conventional radionuclide tests. The study is sensitive and is completed in a single session, and image quality is superior to that obtained with single-photon emitting tracers. The specificity of FDG-PET may also be superior to that of conventional tracers because degenerative bone disease and fractures usually do not produce intense FDG uptake; moreover, spinal implants do not affect FDG imaging. However, FDG-PET images have to be read with caution in patients with instrumented spinal-fusion surgery since non-specific accumulation of FDG around the fusion material is not uncommon. In the future, PET-CT will likely provide more precise localisation of abnormalities. FDG-PET may prove to be useful for monitoring response to treatment in patients with spinal osteomyelitis. Other tracers for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis are also under investigation, including radiolabelled

  2. Radionuclide imaging of spinal infections

    Gemmel, Filip [Ghent Maria-Middelares, General Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Medical Center Leeuwarden (MCL), Division of Nuclear Medicine, Henri Dunantweg 2, Postbus 888, Leeuwarden (Netherlands); Dumarey, Nicolas [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Hopital Erasme, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Brussels (Belgium); Palestro, Christopher J. [Long Island Jewish Medical Center, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Long Island, NY (United States)

    2006-10-15

    The diagnosis of spinal infection, with or without implants, has been a challenge for physicians for many years. Spinal infections are now being recognised more frequently, owing to aging of the population and the increasing use of spinal-fusion surgery. The diagnosis in many cases is delayed, and this may result in permanent neurological damage or even death. Laboratory evidence of infection is variable. Conventional radiography and radionuclide bone imaging lack both sensitivity and specificity. Neither in vitro labelled leucocyte scintigraphy nor {sup 99m}Tc-anti-granulocyte antibody scintigraphy is especially useful, because of the frequency with which spinal infection presents as a non-specific photopenic area on these tests. Sequential bone/gallium imaging and {sup 67}Ga-SPECT are currently the radionuclide procedures of choice for spinal osteomyelitis, but these tests lack specificity, suffer from poor spatial resolution and require several days to complete. [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET is a promising technique for diagnosing spinal infection, and has several potential advantages over conventional radionuclide tests. The study is sensitive and is completed in a single session, and image quality is superior to that obtained with single-photon emitting tracers. The specificity of FDG-PET may also be superior to that of conventional tracers because degenerative bone disease and fractures usually do not produce intense FDG uptake; moreover, spinal implants do not affect FDG imaging. However, FDG-PET images have to be read with caution in patients with instrumented spinal-fusion surgery since non-specific accumulation of FDG around the fusion material is not uncommon. In the future, PET-CT will likely provide more precise localisation of abnormalities. FDG-PET may prove to be useful for monitoring response to treatment in patients with spinal osteomyelitis. Other tracers for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis are also under investigation, including

  3. A new approach to nuclear fuel safeguard enhancement through radionuclide profiling

    Peterson, Aaron Dawon

    The United States has led the effort to promote peaceful use of nuclear power amongst states actively utilizing it as well as those looking to deploy the technology in the near future. With the attraction being demonstrated by various countries towards nuclear power comes the concern that a nation may have military aspirations for the use of nuclear energy. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established nuclear safeguard protocols and procedures to mitigate nuclear proliferation. The work herein proposed a strategy to further enhance existing safeguard protocols by considering safeguard in nuclear fuel design. The strategy involved the use of radionuclides to profile nuclear fuels. Six radionuclides were selected as identifier materials. The decay and transmutation of these radionuclides were analyzed in reactor operation environment. MCNPX was used to simulate a reactor core. The perturbation in reactivity of the core due to the loading of the radionuclides was insignificant. The maximum positive and negative reactivity change induced was at day 1900 with a value of 0.00185 +/- 0.00256 and at day 2000 with -0.00441 +/- 0.00249, respectively. The mass of the radionuclides were practically unaffected by transmutation in the core; the change in radionuclide inventory was dominated by natural decay. The maximum material lost due to transmutation was 1.17% in Eu154. Extraneous signals from fission products identical to the radionuclide compromised the identifier signals. Eu154 saw a maximum intensity change at EOC and 30 days post-irradiation of 1260% and 4545%, respectively. Cs137 saw a minimum change of 12% and 89%, respectively. Mitigation of the extraneous signals is cardinal to the success of the proposed strategy. The predictability of natural decay provides a basis for the characterization of the signals from the radionuclide.

  4. Radionuclide interactions with marine sediments

    Higgo, J.J.W.

    1987-09-01

    A critical review of the literature on the subject of the interactions of radionuclides with marine sediments has been carried out. On the basis of the information available, an attempt has been made to give ranges and 'best estimates' for the distribution ratios between seawater and sediments. These estimates have been based on an understanding of the sediment seawater system and the porewater chemistry and mineralogy. Field measurements, laboratory measurements and estimates based on stable-element geochemical data are all taken into account. Laboratory measurements include distribution-ratio and diffusion-coefficient determinations. The elements reviewed are carbon, chlorine, calcium, nickel, selenium, strontium, zirconium, niobium, technetium, tin, iodine, caesium, lead, radium, actinium, thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium. (author)

  5. Expert system based radionuclide identification

    Aarnio, P.A.; Ala-Heikkil, J.J.; Hakulinen, T.T.; Nikkinen, M.T.

    1998-01-01

    An expert system coupled with the gamma spectrum analysis system SAMPO has been developed for automating the qualitative identification of radionuclides as well as for determining the quantitative parameters of the spectrum components. The program is written in C-language and runs in various environments ranging from PCs to UNIX workstations. The expert system utilizes a complete gamma library with over 2600 nuclides and 80,000 lines, and a rule base of about fifty criteria including energies, relative peak intensities, genesis modes, half lives, parent-daughter relationships, etc. The rule base is furthermore extensible by the user. This is not an original contribution but a somewhat updated version of papers and reports previously published elsewhere. (author)

  6. Radionuclide diagnosis of allograft rejection

    George, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    Interaction with one or more anatomical and physiopathological characteristics of the rejecting renal allograft is suggested by those radioagents utilized specifically for the diagnosis of allograft rejection. Rejection, the most common cause of declining allograft function, is frequently mimicked clinically or masked by other immediate or long term post transplant complications. Understanding of the anatomical pathological features and kinetics of rejection and their modification by immunosuppressive maintenance and therapy are important for the proper clinical utilization of these radioagents. Furthermore, in selecting these radionuclides, one has to consider the comparative availability, preparatory and procedural simplicity, acquisition and display techniques and the possibility of timely report. The clinical utilities of radiofibrinogen, /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid and 67 Ga in the diagnosis of allograft rejection have been evaluated to a variable extent in the past. The potential usefulness of the recently developed preparations of 111 In labeled autologous leukocytes and platelets are presently under investigation

  7. Quality assurance in radionuclide laboratories

    Otto, R.; Voelkle, H.; Wershofen, H.; Wilhelm, C.

    2003-01-01

    The authors are members of an ad-hoc working group preparing a contribution to the procedures manual (''Loseblattsammlung'') dealing with quality assurance and quality control in radionuclide laboratories. The Loseblattsammlung is edited by the working group ''Environmental Monitoring'' of the German-Swiss Radiological Protection Association. The intention of the manual under preparation is not to give a procedure on how to establish a quality management system allowing for an accreditation in accordance with the international standard DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025:2000 04 (''ISO 17025'') [1] but to compile routine quality control procedures necessary for reliable measurements and to give tips to the practitioner on how to keep both the extent and the frequency of procedures on a reasonable level. A short version of the Loseblatt is presented here. (orig.)

  8. Placental transfer of other radionuclides

    Stieve, F.-E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper comments upon some basic principles of the transfer of radioactive substances in human beings to the embryo and fetus and their age-dependence. These principles may apply to the main effects currently known from the uptake, accumulation, retention and excretion of those radioactive substances, which may be of special interest in assessing the dose and therefore the risk of exposure in nuclear medicine, in connection with environmental problems of nuclear power production as well as nuclear explosions. As an example the age-dependence of several typical radionuclides and their age-dependence during the development of the human embryo and fetus and its correlation to observations on several animal species are presented. 30 refs.; 5 figs

  9. Radionuclide evaluation of brain death

    Pjura, G.A.; Kim, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    The criteria employed for clinical determination of death have evolved in response to advances in life support and other medical technology. The technical feasibility of organ transplantation has amplified the need for a definition of brain death that can be applied in the shortest possible time in the presence of artificial maintenance of vegetative functions, including circulation. Radionuclide cerebral angiography is one of a group of diagnostic procedures that can be employed to confirm the clinical diagnosis of brain death through demonstration of absence of cerebral blood flow. The focus of this work is to assess its use as a confirmatory test for determination of brain death in the context of currently available alternative technologies

  10. Radionuclide diagnosis of vasculogenic impotence

    Sorokin, A.I.; Gerasimov, V.G.; Lenskaya, O.P.; Narkevich, B.Ya.; Bogdasarov, Yu.B.; Krotovskij, G.S.

    1988-01-01

    Pathogenesis of vasculogenic impotence is most adequately revealed by modern methods of the investigation of the hemodynamic mechanisms of erection with the enhancement of arterial perfusion of corpora cavernosa by artificial sexual stimulation. Radionuclide diagnostic methods effectively differ from the methods of radiocontrast phalloangiography by the simplicity of investigation and the absence of traumatism for a patient. The authors have proposed a mathematical model of a process of filling in the functioning volume of the penile vascular bed with a radiopharmaceutical prepation against the background of erection induced by intracavernous administration of papaverine hydrochloride solution. Parameters of the model determine the ratio of blood flow volumetric rates in the penis at rest and when erect

  11. Liver-lung scan in the diagnosis of right subphrenic abscess

    Middleton, H.M. III; Patton, D.D.; Hoyumpa, A.M. Jr.; Schenker, S.

    1976-01-01

    To assess the value of liver-lung scanning in the diagnosis of right subphrenic abscess, 148 scans were reviewed against corresponding charts. Of 91 scans with adequate clinical data, overall scanning error was 19.3 percent with 14 false positive and 3 false negative scans. Among 49 scans (of the initial group of 91 studies) with presence or absence of actual pathology proved by surgery and/or autopsy, there were 3 true positive, 12 false positive, 29 true negative, and 3 false negative scans. Analysis of data indicated lower accuracy of scan interpretation than generally reported, low specificity for positive scans and high specificity for negative scans, correlation of false interpretations with atypical degrees of liver-lung separation and with scanning defects in liver and lung, and failure of rereading significantly to improve accuracy of interpretation

  12. Decontamination of radionuclides in food

    Ohmomo, Yoichiro [Institute for Environmental Sciences, Aomori (Japan)

    1994-03-01

    The release of radionuclides arising from the Chernobyle accident led to widespread contamination of the northern hemisphere through fallout. This accident provided again an opportunity to investigate how and to what extent the radionuclides contamination in crops and animal derived foods could be reduced. The following topics are included in this paper. (1) How to reduce the transfer of radiostrontium and/or cesium from soil to crops: A pH increase of soil is effective for reducing their plant uptake. (2) How to reduce the transfer of radiocesium to animal derived foods: Ammonium-ferric-cyanoferrate (AFCF) should be the most effective compound for radiocesium excretion in the feces. Experiments with lactating cows and/or poultry gave extremely good results with respect to low radiocesium concentrations in milk, meat and eggs. (3) Removal coefficients of radiostrontium, cesium and iodine from contaminated leaf vegetables and cereals during food processing and culinary preparation: Though different by species, more than 80% of cesium and about 50% of strontium and iodine can be removed during culinary preparation of washing and boiling. (4) Simultaneous decontamination of radiocesium and iodine from drinking water and liquid milk: Metal ferrocyanide-anion exchange resin, specifically Fe ferrocyanide one, was successfully used for a rapid and simple decontamination of radiocesium and iodine in the liquid samples arising from the Chernobyle accident. (5) Removal of radiocesium from meat: The meat structurally contaminated with radiocesium is easily and very successfully decontaminated by pickling in NaCl solution and the decontamination is much speeded up by freezing meat before pickling. (author).

  13. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-01-01

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium ( 20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces

  14. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  15. Decontamination of radionuclides in food

    Ohmomo, Yoichiro

    1994-01-01

    The release of radionuclides arising from the Chernobyle accident led to widespread contamination of the northern hemisphere through fallout. This accident provided again an opportunity to investigate how and to what extent the radionuclides contamination in crops and animal derived foods could be reduced. The following topics are included in this paper. (1) How to reduce the transfer of radiostrontium and/or cesium from soil to crops: A pH increase of soil is effective for reducing their plant uptake. (2) How to reduce the transfer of radiocesium to animal derived foods: Ammonium-ferric-cyanoferrate (AFCF) should be the most effective compound for radiocesium excretion in the feces. Experiments with lactating cows and/or poultry gave extremely good results with respect to low radiocesium concentrations in milk, meat and eggs. (3) Removal coefficients of radiostrontium, cesium and iodine from contaminated leaf vegetables and cereals during food processing and culinary preparation: Though different by species, more than 80% of cesium and about 50% of strontium and iodine can be removed during culinary preparation of washing and boiling. (4) Simultaneous decontamination of radiocesium and iodine from drinking water and liquid milk: Metal ferrocyanide-anion exchange resin, specifically Fe ferrocyanide one, was successfully used for a rapid and simple decontamination of radiocesium and iodine in the liquid samples arising from the Chernobyle accident. (5) Removal of radiocesium from meat: The meat structurally contaminated with radiocesium is easily and very successfully decontaminated by pickling in NaCl solution and the decontamination is much speeded up by freezing meat before pickling. (author)

  16. Application of radionuclide infarct scintigraphy to diagnose perioperative myocardial infarction following revascularization

    Klausner, S.C.; Botvinick, E.H.; Shames, D.; Ullyot, D.J.; Fishman, N.H.; Roe, B.B.; Ebert, P.A.; Chatterjee, K.; Parmley, W.W.

    1977-01-01

    To evaluate the application of radionuclide infarct scintigraphy to diagnose myocardial infarction after revascularization, we obtained postoperative technetium 99m pyrophosphate myocardial scintigrams, serial electrocardiograms and CPK-MB isoenzymes in ten control and 51 revascularized patients. All control patients had negative electrocardiograms and scintigrams, but eight had positive isoenzymes. Eight revascularized patients had positive electrocardiograms, images and enzymes and two had positive scintigrams and enzymes with negative electrocardiograms. Thirty-four patients with negative electrocardiograms and scintigrams had positive isoenzymes; in only seven patients were all tests negative. Our data suggest radionuclide infarct scintigraphy is a useful adjunct to the electrocardiogram in diagnosing perioperative infarction. The frequent presence of CPK-MB in postoperative patients without other evidence of infarction suggests that further studies are required to identify all factors responsible for its release

  17. Radionuclide bone scintigraphy in the detection of significant complications after total knee joint replacement

    Smith, S.L.; Wastie, M.L.; Forster, I

    2001-03-01

    AIM: Post-arthroplasty knee pain is common and clinically it can be difficult to identify those patients with complications requiring active treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of{sup 99}Tc{sup m}-MDP bone scintigraphy. METHOD: A retrospective study of all patients having a{sup 99}Tc{sup m}-MDP bone scintigram for a painful knee arthroplasty between 1993 and 1999 was performed. Bone scintigrams were classified as normal or abnormal by a single observer. The results of these investigations were correlated with clinical outcome. RESULTS: Seventy-five patients with painful knee arthroplasties were referred for investigation. A total of 80 bone scintigrams were performed. The average patient age was 66.2 years (42 female and 33 male). The mean time period between surgery and onset of knee pain was 3 years. A final clinical diagnosis based on arthroscopy, open surgery, and extended clinical follow-up was available for all patients. Forty-three (53.8%) of the scintigrams were normal and 37 (46.3%) abnormal. Two patients with a normal bone scintigram has loose prostheses. Thirteen patients with an abnormal study had normal prostheses on follow-up and these tended to be patients scanned less than a year after surgery. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of an unequivocally normal or abnormal bone scintigram was 92.3, 75.9, 64.9 and 95.0%, respectively. The pattern of isotope uptake in the abnormal studies was not specific enough to reliably differentiate aseptic from septic loosening. CONCLUSION: Radionuclide bone scintigraphy is useful in the assessment of the painful knee arthroplasty. A negative bone scintigram is reassuring and makes loosening or infection unlikely. Smith, S.L. et al. (2001)

  18. Radionuclide bone scintigraphy in the detection of significant complications after total knee joint replacement

    Smith, S.L.; Wastie, M.L.; Forster, I.

    2001-01-01

    AIM: Post-arthroplasty knee pain is common and clinically it can be difficult to identify those patients with complications requiring active treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of 99 Tc m -MDP bone scintigraphy. METHOD: A retrospective study of all patients having a 99 Tc m -MDP bone scintigram for a painful knee arthroplasty between 1993 and 1999 was performed. Bone scintigrams were classified as normal or abnormal by a single observer. The results of these investigations were correlated with clinical outcome. RESULTS: Seventy-five patients with painful knee arthroplasties were referred for investigation. A total of 80 bone scintigrams were performed. The average patient age was 66.2 years (42 female and 33 male). The mean time period between surgery and onset of knee pain was 3 years. A final clinical diagnosis based on arthroscopy, open surgery, and extended clinical follow-up was available for all patients. Forty-three (53.8%) of the scintigrams were normal and 37 (46.3%) abnormal. Two patients with a normal bone scintigram has loose prostheses. Thirteen patients with an abnormal study had normal prostheses on follow-up and these tended to be patients scanned less than a year after surgery. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of an unequivocally normal or abnormal bone scintigram was 92.3, 75.9, 64.9 and 95.0%, respectively. The pattern of isotope uptake in the abnormal studies was not specific enough to reliably differentiate aseptic from septic loosening. CONCLUSION: Radionuclide bone scintigraphy is useful in the assessment of the painful knee arthroplasty. A negative bone scintigram is reassuring and makes loosening or infection unlikely. Smith, S.L. et al. (2001)

  19. Stabilized radiographic scanning agents

    Fawzi, M.B.

    1982-01-01

    Stable compositions useful as technetium 99m-based scintigraphic agents comprise gentisic acid or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt or ester thereof in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcOsub(4)sup(-)) solution. The compositions are especially useful in combination with a phosphate or phosphonate material that carries the radionuclide to bone, thus providing a skeletal imaging agent

  20. Human dose pathways of radionuclides in forests

    Rantavaara, A.

    2009-01-01

    Forest soil, understorey vegetation and trees are all sources of radionuclides and human radiation doses after contaminating atmospheric deposition. People are exposed to radiation externally from sources outside the body and internally via ingestion and inhalation of radionuclides. Understorey vegetation contributes to ingestion doses through berries, herbs, wild honey, mushrooms and game meat; also trees provide feed to terrestrial birds and big game. During stay in forests people are subject to external radiation from forest floor and overstorey, and they may inhale airborne radioactive aerosol or gaseous radionuclides in ground level air. In the early phase of contamination also resuspended radionuclides may add to the internal dose of people via inhalation. People in Nordic countries are most exposed to radiation via ingestion of radionuclides in wild foods. The distribution of radionuclides in forests is changed by environmental processes, and thereby also the significance of various dose pathways to humans will change with time. External exposure is received in living environment from contaminated stemwood used as building timber and for manufacturing of furniture and other wood products. The aim of this paper is to outline the significance of various human dose pathways of radionuclides in forests considering the public and workers in forestry and production of bioenergy. Examples on effective doses are given based on two historical events, atmospheric nuclear weapon tests (mostly in 1950's and in 1960's) and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. (au)

  1. Radionuclides: Accumulation and Transport in Plants.

    Gupta, D K; Chatterjee, S; Datta, S; Voronina, A V; Walther, C

    Application of radioactive elements or radionuclides for anthropogenic use is a widespread phenomenon nowadays. Radionuclides undergo radioactive decays releasing ionizing radiation like gamma ray(s) and/or alpha or beta particles that can displace electrons in the living matter (like in DNA) and disturb its function. Radionuclides are highly hazardous pollutants of considerable impact on the environment, food chain and human health. Cleaning up of the contaminated environment through plants is a promising technology where the rhizosphere may play an important role. Plants belonging to the families of Brassicaceae, Papilionaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Poaceae, and Asteraceae are most important in this respect and offer the largest potential for heavy metal phytoremediation. Plants like Lactuca sativa L., Silybum marianum Gaertn., Centaurea cyanus L., Carthamus tinctorius L., Helianthus annuus and H. tuberosus are also important plants for heavy metal phytoremediation. However, transfer factors (TF) of radionuclide from soil/water to plant ([Radionuclide]plant/[Radionuclide]soil) vary widely in different plants. Rhizosphere, rhizobacteria and varied metal transporters like NRAMP, ZIP families CDF, ATPases (HMAs) family like P1B-ATPases, are involved in the radio-phytoremediation processes. This review will discuss recent advancements and potential application of plants for radionuclide removal from the environment.

  2. Radionuclides in air, water, and biota

    Seymour, A.H.; Nelson, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    Air, water, and biological samples collected before and after the 1965, 1969, and 1971 underground nuclear detonations at Amchitka Island were analyzed for natural and fallout radionuclides by gamma spectrometry. Selected samples were also analyzed for tritium, 55 Fe, and 90 Sr. The objectives were to search for and identify radionuclides of Amchitka origin in the samples and to contribute to the general knowledge of the distribution of radionuclides in the environment. The studies showed that there has been no escape of radionuclides from the underground sites of the three nuclear detonations at Amchitka Island except for trace quantities of radionuclides, principally tritium, in water and soil gas samples from the immediate vicinity of the surface ground zero for the 1965 event. Two naturally occurring radionuclides, 40 K and 7 Be, were the most abundant radionuclides in the samples, usually by a factor of 10 or more, except for 137 Cs in lichen samples. All levels were well below applicable Radiation Protction Guides, often being near the statistical limit of detection

  3. Bone scanning in the child and young adult. Pt. 2

    Murray, I P.C. [Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick (Australia). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    1980-01-01

    The sensitivity of the radionuclide bone scan in identifying osteoblastic reaction in bone and in detecting local alterations in blood flow is valuable in many benign diseases involving bone, particularly those which are more common in children and young adults, and in which early detection may be critical to future health. Bone scanning offers a simple yet reliable means for establishing an early diagnosis, evaluating the extent of the disease, and assessing the therapeutic response in disorders resulting from infection, trauma, or vascular insult. Useful information may also be obtained in disturbances of growth and development, and in congenital lesions.

  4. Tumoral calcinoses in bone scanning: A case study

    Cook, P.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Tumoral calcinosis (TC) is a rare disorder characterised by hyperphosphateamia, normocalceamia and calcified para-articular masses as seen on X-ray. At present, an inborn error of phosphorous metabolism is accepted as the primary cause. Symptoms include pain, swelling, infection and single- or multi-focal lesions. Radionuclide imaging was recently described as the most reliable and simplest method for detection, localisation and assessment of the calcific masses. Bone scintigraphy may demonstrate unsuspected masses even when clinical examination is negative. It is also useful in assessing the effects of surgery and therapy. A 55-year-old male with an 18-year history of TC presented to our department on two occasions. He was first referred to assess the extent of his calcinosis. He had known involvement of the hands, shoulders and pelvis, with little restriction of movement. He had a 6-8 year history of polio which was currently stable. Seven years later he again presented to our department, this time for the evaluation of a suspected fractured hip. On both occasions 800 MBq of 99 mTc-MDP was injected IV and whole body and planar images were obtained at three hours. In the second study, additional dynamic and blood pool images were obtained over the anterior aspect of both hips. Both scans were grossly abnormal and typical of the appearance of widespread TC or calcinosis universalis. Multiple areas of extra osseous uptake involving subcutaneous tissue and muscle of the hands, para-articular regions of both elbows, shoulders and hips were seen and confirmed by X-ray. Localised abnormalities were noted involving left lower neck, left forearm and left foot. Marked progression of the disease was seen in the region of the left shoulder on the second scan. No abnormalities were noted within the skeleton itself. Neither the dynamic nor blood pool phase of the study demonstrated significant hyperaemia in the region of the left proximal femur. Although the second

  5. Tumoral calcinoses in bone scanning: A case study

    Cook, P. [Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine

    1998-03-01

    Full text: Tumoral calcinosis (TC) is a rare disorder characterised by hyperphosphateamia, normocalceamia and calcified para-articular masses as seen on X-ray. At present, an inborn error of phosphorous metabolism is accepted as the primary cause. Symptoms include pain, swelling, infection and single- or multi-focal lesions. Radionuclide imaging was recently described as the most reliable and simplest method for detection, localisation and assessment of the calcific masses. Bone scintigraphy may demonstrate unsuspected masses even when clinical examination is negative. It is also useful in assessing the effects of surgery and therapy. A 55-year-old male with an 18-year history of TC presented to our department on two occasions. He was first referred to assess the extent of his calcinosis. He had known involvement of the hands, shoulders and pelvis, with little restriction of movement. He had a 6-8 year history of polio which was currently stable. Seven years later he again presented to our department, this time for the evaluation of a suspected fractured hip. On both occasions 800 MBq of {sup 99}mTc-MDP was injected IV and whole body and planar images were obtained at three hours. In the second study, additional dynamic and blood pool images were obtained over the anterior aspect of both hips. Both scans were grossly abnormal and typical of the appearance of widespread TC or calcinosis universalis. Multiple areas of extra osseous uptake involving subcutaneous tissue and muscle of the hands, para-articular regions of both elbows, shoulders and hips were seen and confirmed by X-ray. Localised abnormalities were noted involving left lower neck, left forearm and left foot. Marked progression of the disease was seen in the region of the left shoulder on the second scan. No abnormalities were noted within the skeleton itself. Neither the dynamic nor blood pool phase of the study demonstrated significant hyperaemia in the region of the left proximal femur. Although the

  6. Radionuclide arthrogram with SPECT/CT for the evaluation of mechanical loosening of hip and knee prostheses

    Chew, C.G.; Lewis, P.; Middleton, F.; Wijngaard, R. van den; Deshaies, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Objective of this study was to evaluate the value of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT in radionuclide arthrogram (RNA) for the assessment of mechanical loosening of hip and knee prostheses. A retrospective audit of 117 RNA SPECT/CTs evaluated by a single reader- 40 hips, (1 hemiarthroplasty) and 77 knees (12 unicompartmental). The detection of any radiotracer within the bone/prosthetic interface was deemed positive for loosening. The operative assessment of 29 hip and 44 knee prosthetic joints was known and used as the gold standard. A subsequent blinded reassessment of the planar images was performed and compared with the SPECT/CT results for 26 of the 29 hip and 42 of the 44 knee prostheses. The respective SPECT/CT versus planar results were as follows: hips- acetabular cup: sensitivity: 73 versus 0%; specificity: 71 versus 100%; positive predictive value: 62% versus indeterminate; negative predictive value: 80% versus 72% (p=0.0044). Hips- femoral component: sensitivity: 78 versus 63%; specificity: 90 versus 94%; positive predictive value: 78 versus 83%; negative predictive value: 90 versus 85% (p=0.2482). Knees- femoral component: sensitivity: 75 versus 17%; specificity 63 versus 97%; positive predictive value: 43 versus 67%; negative predictive value: 87 versus 74% (p=0.0001). Knees- tibial component: sensitivity: 86 versus 63%; specificity: 86 versus 76%; positive predictive value: 55 versus 38%; negative predictive value: 97 versus 90% (p=0.6831). For evaluation of mechanical loosening of the hip prosthesis SPECT/CT was significantly better than planar scanning for the acetabular cup, but not for the femoral stem. For evaluation of the knee prosthesis, a significant improvement was noted using SPECT/CT for the femoral component, and although superior results were also noted for the tibial component, statistical significance was not reached. Taking into account the limitations of this retrospective audit, the value of using RNA SPECT

  7. Significance of leukocyte scanning in infected endoprostheses

    Becker, W.; Pasurka, B.; Boerner, W.

    1989-03-01

    31 patients with suspected septic loosening of an endoprosthesis (hip endoprosthesis n=30; knee endoprosthesis n=1) were examined with leukocyte scans (10 MBq /sup 111/In-oxine: n=22; 300 MBq /sup 99m/Tc-HMPAO: n=9). The results were compared with results of the bacterial growth (n=22), the histology (n=12) and of the bone scans (/sup 99m/Tc-MDP: n=20) which were performed within 4 days. The sensitivity of the bone scan was 100%, the specificity 30% and the diagnostic accuracy regarding a septic loosening of the arthroplasty was 55%. For the leukocyte scans a comparable sensitivity of 100%, but a higher specificity (86%) and accuracy (91%) could be calculated. A false positive leukocyte scan could be observed in a periprosthetic granuloma, an ossifying periarthritis and in a patient with negative bacterial growth with the histological proof of an inflammation.

  8. Gastroesophageal reflux in children: radionuclide gastroesophagography

    Blumhagen, J.D.; Rudd, T.G.; Christie, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Sixty-five symptomatic infants and children underwent radionuclide gastroesophagography, acid reflux testing, and barium esophagography with water-siphon testing to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the scintigraphic technique in detecting gastroesophageal reflux. After ingesting /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid in fruit juice, patients rested beneath the gamma camera for 30 to 60 min while esophageal activity was monitored continuously. By using the acid reflux test as a standard of comparison, the senstivity of radionuclide gastroesophagography was 75%. Because of its physiologic nature, low radiation exposure, and convenience, radionuclide gastroesophagography warrants further evaluation as a screening test for gastroesophageal reflux

  9. Determination of natural occurring radionuclides concentrations

    Stajic, J.; Markovic, V.; Krstic, D.; Nikezic, D.

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco smoke contains certain concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from radioactive chains of uranium and thorium - 214 Pb, 214 Bi, 228 Ac, 208 Tl, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K. Inhaling of tobacco smoke leads to internal exposure of man. In order to estimate absorbed dose of irradiation it is necessary to determine concentrations of radionuclides present in the tobacco leaves. In this paper specific activities of naturally occurring radionuclides were measured in tobacco samples from cigarettes which are used in Serbia. [sr

  10. 2008 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    Fuehne, David P.

    2009-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2008. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  11. 2010 LANL radionuclide air emissions report /

    Fuehne, David P.

    2011-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2010. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  12. Manual of bioassay procedures for radionuclides

    Pleskach, S.; Petkau, A.

    1986-06-01

    A monitoring program is described by which atomic radiation workers ar monitored for internal contamination with radionuclides in the workplace. The program involves analytical procedures for measuring alpha, beta and gamma activity in biological specimens, usually urine. Radionuclides are identified by their characteristic radiation using liquid scintillation counting, and alpha, beta and gamma spectrometry. Examples of calculating the minimum detectable activity for specific radionuclides are given and used to derive call-in-criteria in accordance with which the different groups of workers are monitored each month

  13. Solubility limited radionuclide transport through geologic media

    Muraoka, Susumu; Iwamoto, Fumio; Pigford, T.H.

    1980-11-01

    Prior analyses for the migration of radionuclides neglect solubility limits of resolved radionuclide in geologic media. But actually some of the actinides may appear in chemical forms of very low solubility. In the present report we have proposed the migration model with no decay parents in which concentration of radionuclide is limited in concentration of solubility in ground water. In addition, the analytical solutions of the space-time-dependent concentration are presented in the case of step release, band release and exponential release. (author)

  14. Soil - plant experimental radionuclide transfer factors

    Dobrin, R.I.; Dulama, C.N.; Toma, Al.

    2006-01-01

    Some experimental research was performed in our institute to assess site specific soil-plant transfer factors. A full characterization of an experimental site was done both from pedo-chemical and radiological point of view. Afterwards, a certain number of culture plants were grown on this site and the evolution of their radionuclide burden was then recorded. Using some soil amendments one performed a parallel experiment and the radionuclide root uptake was evaluated and recorded. Hence, transfer parameters were calculated and some conclusions were drawn concerning the influence of site specific conditions on the root uptake of radionuclides. (authors)

  15. DNA damage induced by radionuclide internal irradiation

    Cui Fengmei; Zhao Jingyong; Hong Chengjiao; Lao Qinhua; Wang Liuyi; Yang Shuqin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the DNA damage of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) in rats exposed to radionuclide internal irradiation. Methods: The radionuclides were injected into the rats and single cell get electrophoresis (SCGE) was performed to detect the length of DNA migration in the rat PBMC. Results: DNA migration in the rat PBMC increased with accumulative dose or dose-rate. It showed good relationship of dose vs. response and of dose-rate vs. response, both relationship could be described as linear models. Conclusion: Radionuclide internal irradiation could cause DNA damage in rat PBMC. (authors)

  16. “Pseudo-thyroid lobe”: A diagnostic conundrum caused by ossified anterior longitudinal ligament on bone scan

    Zaman, Maseeh Uz; Fatima, Nosheen; Sajjad, Zafar; Zaman, Unaiza; Zaman, Areeba; Tahseen, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    Radionuclide bone imaging is one of the most commonly performed nuclear medicine procedure around the world and characterized by its high sensitivity and relatively low specificity. False positive findings on a bone scan are very common; however, dense uptake over unilateral ossified anterior longitudinal ligament appearing as single thyroid lobe on a bone scan has not been described in the literature

  17. Lung PET scan

    ... Chest PET scan; Lung positron emission tomography; PET - chest; PET - lung; PET - tumor imaging; ... Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  18. Bone scan and joint scan of hands and feet in rheumatoid arthritis

    Carpentier, N.; Verbeke, S.; Perdrisot, R.; Grilo, R.M.; Quenesson, E.; Bonnet, C.; Vergne, P.; Treves, R.; Bertin, P.; Boutros-Toni, F.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the ability of joint scan and bone scan of hands and feet, in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, to localize the altered joints. The sensitivity, the specificity, the positive predictive value (PPV) and the negative predictive value (NPV) of joint scan were determined in comparison with clinical joint assessment. Fifteen patients (780 joints) were clinically examined (pain and synovitis); during the same day, a bone scan and a joint scan were realized by oxidronate 99m Tc intravenous injection. Patients were scanned 5 minutes (tissual time, T t ) and 3 hours 1/4 (bone time, T 0 ) after the administration. The uptake of the bi-phosphonate was evaluated with a qualitative method using a grey scale. The uptake of 99m Tc oxidronate was quantitated using an extra-articular region of interest. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the scan at Tt were 46%, 96%, 85% et 78%. The same parameters were 75%, 66%, 53% and 84% for the scan realized at T 0 . The joint scan has showed 22% of false positive. These false positives could be a consequence of an earlier detection of joint alterations by scan. The joint scan should forecast the evolution of joints in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (author)

  19. Research progess on treatment of cancer with targeted radionuclide therapy

    Luo Jiawen; Zhang Caixia

    2008-01-01

    The new development and situation of targeted radionuclide therapy in oncology is described, which include radioimmunotherapy, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, gene therapy and radionuclide labled chemotherapeutics therapy. The application research on labled carrier of those therapy is emphasized. Meanwhile, the research progess of indomethacin and its combined with targeted radionuclide therapy is also described. (authors)

  20. Quantification of radionuclide uptake levels for primary bone tumors

    Hasford Francis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to quantify the level of uptake of administered radionuclide in primary bone tumors for patients undergoing bone scintigraphy. Retrospective study on 48 patient's scintigrams to quantify the uptake levels of administered radiopharmaceuticals was performed in a nuclear medicine unit in Ghana. Patients were administered with activity ranging between 0.555 and 1.110 MBq (15–30 mCi, and scanned on Siemens e.cam SPECT system. Analyses on scintigrams were performed with Image J software by drawing regions of interest (ROIs over identified hot spots (pathologic sites. Nine skeletal parts namely cranium, neck, shoulder, sacrum, sternum, vertebra, femur, ribcage, and knee were considered in the study, which involved 96 identified primary tumors. Radionuclide uptakes were quantified in terms of the estimated counts of activity per patient for identified tumor sites. Average normalized counts of activity (nGMC per patient ranged from 5.2759 ± 0.6590 cts/mm2/MBq in the case of cranium tumors to 72.7569 ± 17.8786 cts/mm2/MBq in the case of ribcage tumors. The differences in uptake levels could be attributed to different mechanisms of Tc-99m MDP uptake in different types of bones, which is directly related to blood flow and degree of osteoblastic activity. The overall normalized count of activity for the 96 identified tumors was estimated to be 23.0350 ± 19.5424 cts/mm2/MBq. The study revealed highest uptake of activity in ribcage and least uptake in cranium. Quantification of radionuclide uptakes in tumors is important and recommended in assessing patient's response to therapy, doses to critical organs and in diagnosing tumors.

  1. SR 97 - Radionuclide transport calculations

    Lindgren, Maria [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Lindstroem, Fredrik [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    An essential component of a safety assessment is to calculate radionuclide release and dose consequences for different scenarios and cases. The SKB tools for such a quantitative assessment are used to calculate the maximum releases and doses for the hypothetical repository sites Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg for the initial canister defect scenario and also for the glacial melting case for Aberg. The reasonable cases, i.e. all parameters take reasonable values, results in maximum biosphere doses of 5x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Aberg, 3x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Beberg and 1x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Ceberg for peat area. These doses lie significantly below 0.15 mSv/yr. (A dose of 0.15 mSv/yr for unit probability corresponds to the risk limit of 10{sup -5} per year for the most exposed individuals recommended in regulations.) The conclusion that the maximum risk would lie well below 10{sup -5} per year is also demonstrated by results from the probabilistic calculations, which directly assess the resulting risk by combining dose and probability estimates. The analyses indicate that the risk is 2x10{sup -5} Sv/yr for Aberg, 8x10{sup -7} Sv/yr for Beberg and 3x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Ceberg. The analysis shows that the most important parameters in the near field are the number of defective canisters and the instant release fraction. The influence from varying one parameter never changes the doses as much as an order of magnitude. In the far field the most important uncertainties affecting release and retention are associated with permeability and connectivity of the fractures in the rock. These properties affect several parameters. Highly permeable and well connected fractures imply high groundwater fluxes and short groundwater travel times. Sparsely connected or highly variable fracture properties implies low flow wetted surface along migration paths. It should, however, be remembered that the far-field parameters have little importance if the near-field parameters take their reasonable

  2. SR 97 - Radionuclide transport calculations

    Lindgren, Maria; Lindstroem, Fredrik

    1999-12-01

    An essential component of a safety assessment is to calculate radionuclide release and dose consequences for different scenarios and cases. The SKB tools for such a quantitative assessment are used to calculate the maximum releases and doses for the hypothetical repository sites Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg for the initial canister defect scenario and also for the glacial melting case for Aberg. The reasonable cases, i.e. all parameters take reasonable values, results in maximum biosphere doses of 5x10 -8 Sv/yr for Aberg, 3x10 -8 Sv/yr for Beberg and 1x10 -8 Sv/yr for Ceberg for peat area. These doses lie significantly below 0.15 mSv/yr. (A dose of 0.15 mSv/yr for unit probability corresponds to the risk limit of 10 -5 per year for the most exposed individuals recommended in regulations.) The conclusion that the maximum risk would lie well below 10 -5 per year is also demonstrated by results from the probabilistic calculations, which directly assess the resulting risk by combining dose and probability estimates. The analyses indicate that the risk is 2x10 -5 Sv/yr for Aberg, 8x10 -7 Sv/yr for Beberg and 3x10 -8 Sv/yr for Ceberg. The analysis shows that the most important parameters in the near field are the number of defective canisters and the instant release fraction. The influence from varying one parameter never changes the doses as much as an order of magnitude. In the far field the most important uncertainties affecting release and retention are associated with permeability and connectivity of the fractures in the rock. These properties affect several parameters. Highly permeable and well connected fractures imply high groundwater fluxes and short groundwater travel times. Sparsely connected or highly variable fracture properties implies low flow wetted surface along migration paths. It should, however, be remembered that the far-field parameters have little importance if the near-field parameters take their reasonable values. In that case almost all

  3. Radionuclide imaging of musculoskeletal infection

    Christopher J. Palestro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Radionuclide imaging studies are routinely used to evaluate patients suspected of having musculoskeletal infection. Three-phase bone imaging is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and very accurate in the setting of otherwise normal bone. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be used in cases of "complicating osteomyelitis" such as prosthetic joint infection. This test also is useful in clinically unsuspected diabetic pedal osteomyelitis as well as in the neuropathic joint. It is often necessary, however, to perform complementary bone marrow imaging, to maximize the accuracy of labeled leukocyte imaging. In contrast to other regions in the skeleton, labeled leukocyte imaging is not useful for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis. At the moment, gallium is the preferred radionuclide procedure for this condition and is a useful adjunct to magnetic resonance imaging. FDG-PET likely will play an important role in the evaluation of musculoskeletal infection, especially spinal osteomyelitis, and may replace gallium imaging for this purpose.Estudos através de imagens com o uso de radionuclídeos são rotineiramente usadas para avaliar pacientes suspeitos de terem infecção músculo-esquelética. A imagem óssea em tridimensional é facilmente avaliável, relativamente de baixo custo, e muito precisa na localização de alterações ósseas. Imagem com leucócito marcado poderia ser usada nos casos de "osteomielite com complicações" tais como infecção prostética articular. Esse teste também é útil na não suspeita clinica de osteomielite associada ao pé diabético tanto quanto nas junções neuropáticas. É sempre necessário, por outro lado, realizar imagem complementar da medula óssea para aumentar a precisão da imagem com leucócito marcado. Em contraste com outras regiões no esqueleto, imagem com leucócito marcado não é útil para diagnosticar osteomielite da coluna vertebral. Até agora, o gálio é o radionuclídeo preferido para

  4. Determination of alpha radionuclides in fish

    Pernicka, L.; Matel, L.; Rosskopfova, O.

    2002-01-01

    The specific activity of alpha radionuclides was determined in biological samples. The biological samples were chosen in kinds of fish, concretely mackerels, herrings and haddocks. Experimental data were presented on the poster

  5. Phytoremediation of soils contaminated with radionuclides

    Yamaguchi, Isamu

    2004-01-01

    Aiming at efficient phytoremediation of soils contaminated with radionuclides, we examined the effect of soil microbes on the uptake ability of plants using the multitracer technique to find that tomato rhizofungi in Fusarium spp. can stimulate the uptake of 85 Sr and 137 Cs by the plants. The synergic effect of a nonpathogenic strain of F. oxysporum on the uptake of radionuclides by plants proved to be enhanced by introducing a phytochelatin synthase gene into the fungus. Since soil contamination by radionuclides is still an unsolved problem in many parts of the world. Studies on phytoremediation of polluted soil environment will be important for developing effective strategies and devising adequate techniques to reduce human risks caused by food contamination of radionuclides. (author)

  6. Radiation safety requirements for radionuclide laboratories

    2000-01-01

    The guide lays down the requirements for laboratories and storage rooms in which radioactive substances are used or stored as unsealed sources. In addition, some general instructions concerning work in radionuclide laboratories are set out

  7. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    Hille, R.

    1984-01-01

    A survey is given on the actual knowledge about occurence and environmental relevancy of the most important radionuclides from natural and anthropogenic origin. The contribution of AGF installation is emphasized. (orig.) [de

  8. Application of radionuclides in nuclear technology

    Boeck, H.

    1983-07-01

    Four main applications of radionuclides in nuclear technology are presented which are level-, density- and thickness gauging and moisture determination. Each method is surveyed for its general principle, various designs, accuracy, errors and practical designs. (Author)

  9. Transfer of radionuclides into human milk

    Steiner, M.; Wirth, E.

    1998-01-01

    Up until now the potential radiation exposure to breast-fed babies due to contaminated human milk has not been taken into account, when deriving international limit values and reference levels for radionuclides in foodstuffs, in air at monitored work places or for exposures in the medical field. It was the aim of the research project 'Transfer of radionuclides into human milk' to quantify the transfer of incorporated radionuclides into mother's milk, and develop simple models to estimate the radiation exposure of babies through the ingestion of human milk. The study focused on considerations of the radiation exposure due to the ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs by the mother, the inhalation of radionuclides at monitored work places, and the administration of radiopharmaceuticals to breast-feeding mothers. The blocking of infant thyroid glands by stable iodine in the case of accidental releases of radioiodine was considered as well. (orig.) [de

  10. Radiation safety requirements for radionuclide laboratories

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The guide lays down the requirements for laboratories and storage rooms in which radioactive substances are used or stored as unsealed sources. In addition, some general instructions concerning work in radionuclide laboratories are set out.

  11. Radionuclide transport in a single fissure

    Eriksen, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide migration has been studied in natural fissures running parallel to the axes of granitic drill cores. A short pulse of radionuclide solution was injected at one end of the fissure and the temporal change in radionuclide concentration of the eluate measured. At the end of each experiment the fissure was opened and the radionuclide distribution on the fissure surfaces measured. The retardation of 241 Am(III) at pH 8.2 as well as the variation in 235 Np(V) retardation with pH are found to be in good agreement with K d-values obtained in batch experiments. The reduction of (TcO - 4 ) to Tc(IV) leads as expected to increasing retardation.(author)

  12. Metabolic transformation of radionuclides in marine organisms

    Koyanagi, Taku

    1987-01-01

    Physico-chemical form of radionuclides is one of the important factors governing the concentration by marine organisms, whereas biological activities affect the existing states of radionuclides especially in coastal waters. Radioiodine in the form of iodate which is predominant species in seawater is reduced to iodide ion by biological activities and concentration factor of iodide is an order of magnitude higher than those of iodate. Extremely high accumulation of transition elements, actinides, or natural radionuclides in branchial heart of octopus is explained by the fuction of adenochrome, a glandular pigment in the organ as a natural complexing agent, and similar metal-binding proteins with relatively low molecular weight have been found in various marine invertebrates. High accumulation of some elements also found in mollusk kidney is considered to be caused by the intracellular concretions composed of calcium phosphate. All these biological processes suggest the significance of further investigations on metabolic transformation of radionuclides in marine organisms. (author)

  13. Relating β+ radionuclides' properties by order theory

    Quintero, N.Y.; Guillermo Restrepo; Cohen, I.M.; Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Buenos Aires

    2013-01-01

    We studied 27 β + radionuclides taking into account some of their variants encoding information of their production, such as integral yield, threshold energy and energy of projectiles used to generate them; these radionuclides are of current use in clinical diagnostic imaging by positron emission tomography (PET). The study was conducted based on physical, physico-chemical, nuclear, dosimetric and quantum properties, which characterise the β + radionuclides selected, with the aim of finding meaningful relationships among them. In order to accomplish this objective the mathematical methodology known as formal concept analysis was employed. We obtained a set of logical assertions (rules) classified as implications and associations, for the set of β + radionuclides considered. Some of them show that low mass defect is related to high and medium values of maximum β + energy, and with even parity and low mean lives; all these parameters are associated to the dose received by a patient subjected to a PET analysis. (author)

  14. Behaviour of the radionuclides in the environment

    Lauria, Dejanira da Costa

    2007-01-01

    This chapter approaches the behaviour of radionuclides in the environment, the isotopes of the natural radioactive series, some aspects of the isotope behaviour on the environment and fission and activation radioactive isotopes

  15. Natural and Synthetic Barriers to Immobilize Radionuclides

    Um, W.

    2011-01-01

    The experiments of weathering of glass waste form and the reacted sediments with simulated glass leachates show that radionuclide sequestration can be significantly enhanced by promoting the formation of secondary precipitates. In addition, synthetic phosphate-bearing nanoporous material exhibits high stability at temperature and has a very high K d value for U(VI) removal. Both natural and synthetic barrier materials can be used as additional efficient adsorbents for retarding transport of radionuclides for various contaminated waste streams and waste forms present at U. S. Department of Energy clean-up sites and the proposed geologic radioactive waste disposal facility. In the radioactive waste repository facility, natural or synthetic materials are planned to be used as a barrier material to immobilize and retard radionuclide release. The getter material can be used to selectively scavenge the radionuclide of interest from a liquid waste stream and subsequently incorporate the loaded getters in a cementitious or various monolithic waste forms. Also, the getter material is to reduce the release of radionuclides from monolithic waste forms. Also, the getter material is to reduce the release of radionuclides from monolithic waste forms. Also, the getter material is to reduce the release of radionuclides form monolithic waste forms by being emplaced as a backfill barrier material around the wastes or waste form to minimize the potential around the wastes or waste form to minimize the potential hazard of leached radioactive wastes. The barrier material should be highly efficient to sequester radionuclides and possess physical and chemical stability for long-term exposure to severe weathering conditions. Because potential leaching of radionuclides depends on various environmental and weathering conditions of the near-field repository, the barrier materials must be durable and not disintegrate under a range of moisture, temperature, pressure, radiation, Eh, ph. and

  16. Radionuclides in plants in urban areas

    Todorovic, D.; Ajtic, J.; Popovic, D.; Nikolic, J.

    2009-01-01

    The results of a long-term study (from 2002 to 2008) on the concentrations of natural ( 7 Be, 210 Pb, 40 K) and fission ( 137 Cs) radionuclides in leaves of higher plants (linden and chestnut) in an urban area (city of Belgrade) are presented. The activity of the radionuclides was determined on an HPGe detector by standard gamma spectrometry. The study is a part of the ongoing air quality monitoring programme in urban areas in the Republic of Serbia. (author) [sr

  17. Limit of the radionuclides in granite

    Wang Shaling; Jiang Rangrong

    2003-01-01

    Granite is an important sort of building materials. Their radionuclide contents are limited by the national standard GB6566-2001 just as other building materials. This standard divides them into main materials and decorative materials, and relaxes the limit of the latter obviously. Owing to the consideration of public dose limit and environment protection, this method needs discussion. Otherwise, red granite contains high radionuclide contents relatively, especially the sort of Indian Red, and need be paid more attention

  18. Biogeochemistry of radionuclides in ecosystems (historical aspect)

    Ivanov, V.I.

    1991-01-01

    The paper presents the most important results of the study on the radionuclides' behaviour in natural and model biogeocenoses(ecosystems) obtained by N.W.Timofeev-Ressovskij and co-workers during the period 1947-1968. As early as at that period, radionuclides were classified according to the types of distribution, accumulation and migration within the surface and freshwater ecosystems, and the methods of biological purification of radioactive sewage were proposed

  19. Livermore Accelerator Source for Radionuclide Science (LASRS)

    Anderson, Scott [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bleuel, Darren [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Johnson, Micah [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rusnak, Brian [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Soltz, Ron [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tonchev, Anton [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-05-05

    The Livermore Accelerator Source for Radionuclide Science (LASRS) will generate intense photon and neutron beams to address important gaps in the study of radionuclide science that directly impact Stockpile Stewardship, Nuclear Forensics, and Nuclear Material Detection. The co-location of MeV-scale neutral and photon sources with radiochemical analytics provides a unique facility to meet current and future challenges in nuclear security and nuclear science.

  20. The uptake of radionuclides by plants

    Cawse, P.A.; Turner, G.S.

    1982-02-01

    A review of the literature, since 1970, on the research into the uptake of radionuclides by plants, with references to earlier soil and plant studies on the fate of nuclear weapons fallout. Experimental data on the uptake of plutonium isotopes, americium 241, cesium 137, radium 226, curium 244 and neptunium 237 and details of the chemical form of the radionuclide, soil type and plant growth period are tabulated. (U.K.)

  1. Transport of radionuclides from the LAMPF lagoons

    Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Purtymun, W.D.

    1985-01-01

    Monitoring of the discharge water from the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility lagoons continued during June and December of 1983. The list of radionuclides being monitoring includes 7 Be, 57 Co, 134 Cs, 3 H, 54 Mn, 22 Na, and 83 Rb. The sampling locations and the data obtained to date are presented. Movement of radionuclides around the lagoons has been described in a previous report. 1 reference, 1 table

  2. Translational Applications of Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy

    Welch, Michael J.; Eckelman, William C.; Vera, David

    2005-01-01

    Molecular imaging is becoming a larger part of imaging research and practice. The Office of Biological and Environmental Research of the Department of Energy funds a significant number of researchers in this area. The proposal is to partially fund a workshop to inform scientists working in nuclear medicine and nuclear medicine practitioners of the recent advances of molecular imaging in nuclear medicine as well as other imaging modalities. A limited number of topics related to radionuclide therapy will also be discussed. The proposal is to request partial funds for the workshop entitled ''Translational Applications of Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy'' to be held prior to the Society of Nuclear Medicine Annual Meeting in Toronto, Canada in June 2005. The meeting will be held on June 17-18. This will allow scientists interested in all aspects of nuclear medicine imaging to attend. The chair of the organizing group is Dr. Michael J. Welch. The organizing committee consists of Dr. Welch, Dr. William C. Eckelman and Dr. David Vera. The goal is to invite speakers to discuss the most recent advances of modern molecular imaging and therapy. Speakers will present advances made in in vivo tagging imaging assays, technical aspects of small animal imaging, in vivo imaging and bench to bedside translational study; and the role of a diagnostic scan on therapy selection. This latter topic will include discussions on therapy and new approaches to dosimetry. Several of these topics are those funded by the Department of Energy Office of Biological and Environmental Research

  3. Radionuclides in forest biogeocenose elements

    Bulavik, I.M.; Zhuchenko, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    In 1991 year investigations are made on a studying of the radionuclide distribution (CS-137 and Sr-90) through the main forest biogeocenose elements (a litter a mineral soil layer, overground trees parts) on 5 experimental objects of Gomel' region with a various contamination. Radiation characters of the objects are done. As compared with 1989 year cesium and strontium migration from tress into the litter and from the litter to the soil is shown. In the litter and upper soil layer (5 m) contents of Cs-137 and Sr-90 are 95 and 80% accordingly. The Sr-90 concentration in the wood and the isotope concentration change through yearly layers (1986-1991 years) are studied. Wood layers formed to the accident have a lesser cesium concentration, especially in the oax-tree. The highest Cs and Se translocation, into the wood is noted in the pine the lesse one in the oax-tree. Among all elements of the biogeocenose the highest Cs-137 concentration the litter has and then one-year-old shoots, needles, lives, the bark and the wood go on. Even on the sixth year after the accident Cs concentration in the wood was 20-30 times less, than the one in needes and one-year-old shoot of this year. 4 refs.; 5 tabs

  4. Radionuclide transport in fractured media

    Williams, M.M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Until recently, the classical advective-dispersive transport equation was considered to be an adequate model for describing the motion of a solute (e.g. radionuclides) in porous and fractured media. In this model, the dispersion coefficient is either obtained from a microscopic model of the porous medium or by carefully controlled experiments. As a result of such experiments, a large body of data has been accumulated on the dispersivity. Detailed examination of these data has resulted in a curious phenomenon being discovered; namely, that the longitudinal dispersion length is 'scale-dependent'. That is to say the value deduced depends on the 'size' of the experiment, i.e. on the distance over which measurements are made. Several interesting attempts have been made to develop theories which explain this phenomenon, all based on treating the velocity of the water in the porous medium as a spatially random variable, but retaining the advective-dispersive balance equation. In this work we present an entirely new approach to the problem of solute transport in fractured media based upon an analogy with neutron transport. The new method has several advantages over the previous theories and these will be explained below. Results from the new theory are in agreement with experimental trends and do not require any further adjustment to explain the scale-dependent effect

  5. Monitoring radionuclides in marine organisms

    Ishii, T.; Matsuba, M.; Kurosawa, M.; Koyanagi, T.

    1990-01-01

    Concentration of stable elements corresponding to important radionuclides was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for various marine organisms to find indicator organisms for environmental monitoring. Both analytical techniques indicated linearity over a range of concentrations covering 2-4 orders of magnitude. Detection limits of elements by ICP-MS were 10 or 100 times higher than those of ICP-AES, although the precision and accuracy of ICP-MS was slightly inferior to that of ICP-AES. For quantitative analysis of elements with medium mass numbers (chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, etc.), matrix interferences in ICP-MS were caused mainly by overlaps of spectra from coexisting elements in biological samples. The presence of background ions from atmosphere, water, and argon plasma interfered with determination of some isotopes. Most elements of high mass number could not be determined by ICP-AES because of its poor detection limits, whereas ICP-MS indicated high sensitivity and low background for elements of interest. We used ICP-MS analysis to determine the specific accumulation of certain elements in organs or tissues of 30 marine organisms

  6. Gut-related radionuclide studies

    Sullivan, M.F.

    1982-01-01

    This project is concerned with the behavior of radioactive materials that may be ingested as a consequence of a reactor accident, unavoidable occupational exposure, or after release to the environment and incorporation into the food chain. Current emphasis is directed toward evaluating hazards from ingested actinides as a function of animal age, species, nutrition, and diet, or chemicophysical state of the actinide. Recent observations indicate that the influence of chemical form on plutonium absorption observed at high mass levels does not occur at low mass concentrations. For example, at doses of 0.6 μg/kg there was no difference between absorption of the carbonate, citrate or nitrate forms of plutonium. However, at 1.5 mg/kg, the citrate was absorbed in quantities 30 times higher than the nitrate. The opposite effect occurred for neptunium GI absorption. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that materials such as citrus fruit juices and calcium, as well as drugs that affect GI function (such as aspirin and DTPA), markedly influence GI absorption of plutonium. Such studies provide evidence that diet and nutritional state should be considered in establishing safe limits for radionuclides that may be ingested

  7. Solubility limits on radionuclide dissolution

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1984-12-31

    This paper examines the effects of solubility in limiting dissolution rates of a number of important radionuclides from spent fuel and high-level waste. Two simple dissolution models were used for calculations that would be characteristics of a Yucca Mountain repository. A saturation-limited dissolution model, in which the water flowing through the repository is assumed to be saturated with each waste element, is very conservative in that it overestimates dissolution rates. A diffusion-limited dissolution model, in which element-dissolution rates are limited by diffusion of waste elements into water flowing past the waste, is more realistic, but it is subject to some uncertainty at this time. Dissolution rates of some elements (Pu, Am, Sn, Th, Zr, Sm) are always limited by solubility. Dissolution rates of other elements (Cs, Tc, Np, Sr, C, I) are never solubility limited; their release would be limited by dissolution of the bulk waste form. Still other elements (U, Cm, Ni, Ra) show solubility-limited dissolution under some conditions. 9 references, 3 tables.

  8. Radionuclides in an underground environment

    Thompson, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    In the 100 years since Becquerel recognized radioactivity, mankind has been very successful in producing large amounts of radioactive materials. We have been less successful in reaching a consensus on how to dispose of the billions of curies of fission products and transuranics resulting from nuclear weapons testing, electrical power generation, medical research, and a variety of other human endeavors. Many countries, including the United States, favor underground burial as a means of disposing of radioactive wastes. There are, however, serious questions about how such buried wastes may behave in the underground environment and particularly how they might eventually contaminate water, air and soil resources on which we are dependent. This paper describes research done in the United States in the state of Nevada on the behavior of radioactive materials placed underground. During the last thirty years, a series of ''experiments'' conducted for other purposes (testing of nuclear weapons) have resulted in a wide variety of fission products and actinides being injected in rock strata both above and below the water table. Variables which seem to control the movement of these radionuclides include the physical form (occlusion versus surface deposition), the chemical oxidation state, sorption by mineral phases of the host rock, and the hydrologic properties of the medium. The information gained from these studies should be relevant to planning for remediation of nuclear facilities elsewhere in the world and for long-term storage of nuclear wastes

  9. Radionuclides sorption in clay soils

    Siraky, G.; Lewis, C.; Hamlat, S.; Nollmann, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    The sorption behaviour of clay soils is examined through a parametric study of the distribution coefficient (Kd) for the radionuclides of interest, Cs and Sr. This work is a preliminary stage of the migration studies of these nuclides in a porous medium (ground of Ezeiza, Argentina) and the evaluation of radiologic impact of the removal of low and intermediate activity wastes in shallow trenches. The determination of Kd is performed by a static technique or batch. The phases are separated by centrifugation at 20000 g during 1 hour. The activity of supernatant solution of Cs-137 and Sr-85 is measured in a detecting system of I Na(Tl) well-type. Two types of parameters were changed: a) those related to the determination method: phase separation (centrifugation vs. centrifugation plus filtration); equilibrium period, ratio solid/liquid; b) those related to the geochemical system: pH of contact solution, carrier concentration, competitive ions, ionic strength, desorption. It was observed that the modification of parameters in the Kd-measurement does not change the order of magnitude of results. (Author)

  10. Model PET Scan Activity

    Strunk, Amber; Gazdovich, Jennifer; Redouté, Oriane; Reverte, Juan Manuel; Shelley, Samantha; Todorova, Vesela

    2018-05-01

    This paper provides a brief introduction to antimatter and how it, along with other modern physics topics, is utilized in positron emission tomography (PET) scans. It further describes a hands-on activity for students to help them gain an understanding of how PET scans assist in detecting cancer. Modern physics topics provide an exciting way to introduce students to current applications of physics.

  11. Scanning laser Doppler vibrometry

    Brøns, Marie; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    With a Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer (SLDV) a vibrating surface is automatically scanned over predefined grid points, and data processed for displaying vibration properties like mode shapes, natural frequencies, damping ratios, and operational deflection shapes. Our SLDV – a PSV-500H from...

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses ...

  13. Migration of radionuclides through a river system

    Matsunaga, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    Migration behavior of several atmospherically-derived radionuclides in a river watershed was studied. A main interest was in their relocation from the ground soil of the watershed to a downstream region through a river. Studied radionuclides are: {sup 137}Cs generated by weapon tests in the atmosphere; {sup 210}Pb and {sup 7}Be of naturally occurring radionuclides; {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am released by the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Dominance of the form in suspended solid in river water (particulate form) was qualified for the radionuclides in the Kuji river watershed. An importance of discharge in flooding was also confirmed. A historical budget analysis for weapon test derived {sup 137}Cs was presented for the Hi-i river watershed and its accompanied lake sediment (Lake Shinji). The work afforded a scheme of a fate of {sup 137}Cs after falling on the ground soil and on the lake surface. Several controlling factors, which can influence on the chemical form of radionuclides discharged to a river, were also investigated in the vicinity of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. A special attention was paid on the association of the radionuclides with dissolved species in water. Preferential association of Pu and Am isotopes to a large molecular size of dissolved matrices, probably of humic substances, was suggested. (author)

  14. Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for 2012

    Wahl, Linnea [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are produced, handled, store d, and potentially emitted . These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989a). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2012, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]) . These minor sources include d about 140 stack sources and no diffuse sources . T here were no unplanned airborne radionuclide emissions from Berkeley Lab operations . Emissions from minor sources were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building- specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA -approved computer code s, CAP88-PC and COMPLY , to calculate doses to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) at any offsite point where there is a residence, school, business, or office. Because radionuclides are used at three noncontiguous locations (the main site, Berkeley West Bio center, and Joint BioEnergy Institute), three different MEIs were identified.

  15. Radionuclide therapy practice and facilities in Europe

    Hoefnagel, C.A.; Clarke, S.E.M.; Fischer, M.; Chatal, J.F.; Lewington, V.J.; Nilsson, S.; Troncone, L.; Vieira, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    Using a questionnaire the EANM Task Group Radionuclide Therapy in 1993 collected data on the current practice of radionuclide therapy in European countries. Subsequently, at the request of the EANM Executive Committee, the EANM Radionuclide Therapy Committee has made an inventory of the distribution of facilities for radionuclide therapy and undertaken an assessment of the total number of patients treated throughout Europe and of the types of treatment provides, with the aim of supporting the development of policy to adjust the available capacity to the needs by the year 2000. For this purpose, a second, more detailed questionnaire was sent out the members and national advisors of the Committee (see below), who gathered the data for each country that was a member of the EANM at the time. It is concluded that a wide bariation in therapy practice exists across Europe, particularly in the utilisation of radionuclide therapy, the requirement and availability of proper isolation facilities and the background training of those undertaking therapy. More uniform guidelines and legislation are required, although changes in legislation may have a significant impact in some countries. Although there is wide variation in the therapies used in each country, one the whole it appears that there is an underutilisation of nuclear medicine as a therapeutic modality. A rapidly increasing role may be expected, in particular for oncological indications requiring high-dose radionuclide treatment. Therefore there is an urgent need for a greater number of isolation beds in dedicated centers throughout Europe

  16. Inventories of selected radionuclides in the oceans

    1988-10-01

    In March 1984 an ad hoc Review Committee composed of senior experts in the marine radioactivity field made recommendations that ''the Monaco Laboratory should be engaged in compiling and evaluating the input of radionuclides into the marine environment''. The Committee recommended that work should commence on selected radionuclides, viz., 14 C, caesium isotopes, plutonium isotopes, 210 Po and 210 Pb followed by 226 Ra. Depending on the radionuclides involved the assistance of competent experts from outside as well as inside the IAEA was sought. The present document is a product of the work carried out within the framework of the above-mentioned task and contains reports on 14 C, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu, 210 Pb, 210 Po and 226 Ra. Although the estimation of the inventory in the marine environment and related input and output fluxes, is the same for all radionuclides concerned, different approaches were followed to achieve this objective. These approaches depended on the geochemical characteristics of the radionuclides and the availability of data for different times and locations. For regions where data were lacking, extrapolation on the basis of specific assumptions has often been necessary. As the work was initiated during the pre-Chernobyl period, the radionuclides derived from the Chernobyl incident were not, in general, considered. Since the work for preparing the forthcoming report of the UNSCEAR is scheduled to be completed by 1991, it is hoped that the information contained in this volume will be beneficial. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Radionuclide cisternography: SPECT and 3D-rendering

    Henkes, H.; Huber, G.; Piepgras, U.; Hierholzer, J.; Cordes, M.

    1991-01-01

    Radionuclide cisternography is indicated in the clinical work-up for hydrocephalus, when searching for CSF leaks, and when testing whether or not intracranial cystic lesions are communicating with the adjacent subarachnoid space. This paper demonstrates the feasibility and diagnostic value of SPECT and subsequent 3D surface rendering in addition to conventional rectilinear CSF imaging in eight patients. Planar images allowed the evaluation of CSF circulation and the detection of CSF fistula. They were advantageous in examinations 48 h after application of 111 In-DTPA. SPECT scans, generated 4-24 h after tracer application, were superior in the delineation of basal cisterns, especially in early scans; this was helpful in patients with pooling due to CSF fistula and in cystic lesions near the skull base. A major drawback was the limited image quality of delayed scans, when the SPECT data were degraded by a low count rate. 3D surface rendering was easily feasible from SPECT data and yielded high quality images. The presentation of the spatial distribution of nuclide-contaminated CSF proved especially helpful in the area of the basal cisterns. (orig.) [de

  18. Radionuclide investigations in clinical cardiology - 10 years of cooperation in Frankfurt/FRG

    Klepzig, H. Jr.; Kaltenbach, M.

    1989-01-01

    Radionuclide investigations today are an important tool in cardiology. They close the diagnostic gap in cases where non-invasive procedures of cardiological diagnosis such as ecg, exercise-ecg, echocardiography and chest-x-ray remains unrevealing. Further, they are helpful when an exact quantitation of the disease or a precise follow-up is required. Radionuclide techniques are very useful to detect myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary heart disease and to judge myocardial function in patients with aortic or mitral regurgitation. Follow-up investigations after therapy (aortocoronary bypass, PTCA, valve replacement) permit conclusions regarding the benefit of these measures. Results of radionuclide investigations should consider the Bayes' theorem in order to keep false-negative and false-positive reports as low as possible. (orig.) [de

  19. Assessment of right ventricular afterload in mitral valve diseases with radionuclide angiography

    Shimizu, Mitsuharu; Nakagawa, Tomio; Kohno, Yoshihiro; Kuroda, Masahiro; Takeda, Yoshihiro; Hiraki, Yoshio; Nagaya, Isao; Senoh, Yoshimasa; Teramoto, Shigeru

    1991-01-01

    Right ventricular function at rest and during exercise was studied in 33 patients with mitral valve disease by equilibrium gated radionuclide angiography using 99m Tc in vivo labeled red blood cells. Radionuclide measurements of right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) were correlated with mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP). RVEF decreased significantly with exercise. There was no significant correlation between RVEF at rest and mPAP. However, mPAP showed significant negative correlation with RVEF during exercise and with the changes of RVEF from rest to exercise. It is concluded that RVEF during exercise in mitral valve disease is affected by right ventricular afterload, and the measurements of RVEF at rest and during exercise by equilibrium gated radionuclide angiography is useful to assess right ventricular afterload. (author)

  20. LIDAR COMBINED SCANNING UNIT

    V. V. Elizarov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The results of lidar combined scanning unit development for locating leaks of hydrocarbons are presented The unit enables to perform high-speed scanning of the investigated space in wide and narrow angle fields. Method. Scanning in a wide angular field is produced by one-line scanning path by means of the movable aluminum mirror with a frequency of 20Hz and amplitude of 20 degrees of swing. Narrowband scanning is performed along a spiral path by the deflector. The deflection of the beam is done by rotation of the optical wedges forming part of the deflector at an angle of ±50. The control function of the scanning node is performed by a specialized software product written in C# programming language. Main Results. This scanning unit allows scanning the investigated area at a distance of 50-100 m with spatial resolution at the level of 3 cm. The positioning accuracy of the laser beam in space is 15'. The developed scanning unit gives the possibility to browse the entire investigated area for the time not more than 1 ms at a rotation frequency of each wedge from 50 to 200 Hz. The problem of unambiguous definition of the beam geographical coordinates in space is solved at the software level according to the rotation angles of the mirrors and optical wedges. Lidar system coordinates are determined by means of GPS. Practical Relevance. Development results open the possibility for increasing the spatial resolution of scanning systems of a wide range of lidars and can provide high positioning accuracy of the laser beam in space.

  1. Experimental fracture healing: evaluation using radionuclide bone imaging: concise communication

    Gumerman, L.W.; Fogel, S.R.; Goodman, M.A.; Hanley, E.N. Jr.; Kappakas, G.S.; Rutkowski, R.; Levine, G.

    1978-01-01

    Radionuclide bone imaging was performed in a rabbit model to observe the course of fracture healing and to establish criteria for distinguishing nonunion and delayed healing from normal healing. Sequential gamma-camera images (with pinhole collimator) were collected and subjected to computer analysis. Five groups were established: (a) control--immobilization; (b) control--immobilization plus periosteal stripping; (c) simple fracture--osteotomy; (d) delayed union--osteotomy plus periosteal stripping; and (e) nonunion--osteotomy, periosteal stripping and polymethyl methacrylate interposed between fracture fragments. Histographic representation of absolute count rates along rabbit tibias followed a predictable pattern in the simple-fracture and delayed-union groups. They differed only in the time of appearance of phases. The non-union group demonstrated no recognizable sequential pattern. In this experimental model, serial bone scanning the quantitative data analysis has shown potential for indicating the course of healing in fractures and for serving as a guide to treatment

  2. Application of computer-generated functional (parametric) maps in radionuclide renography

    Agress, H. Jr.; Levenson, S.M.; Gelfand, M.J.; Green, M.V.; Bailey, J.J.; Johnston, G.S.

    1975-01-01

    A functional (parametric) map is a single visual display of regional dynamic phenomena which facilitates interpretation of the nature of focal abnormalities in renal function. Methods for producing several kinds of functional maps based on computer calculations of radionuclide scan data are briefly described. Three abnormal cases are presented to illustrate the use of functional maps to separate focal lesions and to specify the dynamic nature of the abnormalities in a way which is difficult to achieve with conventional sequential renal scans and renograms alone

  3. Metallic radionuclides: applications in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine

    Weiner, R.E.; Thakur, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine is a medical modality that utilizes radioactivity (radiopharmaceutical) to diagnose and treat disease. Radiopharmaceuticals contain a component which directs the radionuclide to the desire physiological target. For diagnostic applications, these nuclides must emit a γ ray that can penetrate the body and can be detected externally while for therapeutic purposes nuclides are preferred that emit β particles and deliver highly localized tissue damage. 67 Ga citrate is employed to detect chronic occult abscesses, Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, lung cancer, hepatoma and melanoma and localizes in these tissues utilizing iron-binding proteins. 201 Thallous chloride, a potassium analogue, used to diagnosis coronary artery disease, is incorporated in muscle tissue via the Na + -K + -ATPase. 111 In labeled autologous white blood cells, used for the diagnosis of acute infections and inflammations, takes advantage of the white cell's role in fighting infections. 111 In is incorporated in other radiopharmaceuticals e.g. polyclonal IgG, OncoScint CR/OV, OctreoScan and Myoscint by coupling diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, a chelate, covalently to these molecules. OncoScint CR/OV and Myoscint localize by antigen-antibody interactions while OctreoScan is taken up by malignant cells in a receptor based process. Polyclonal IgG may share some localization characteristics with 67 Ga. 89 Sr, a pure β emitter, is used for palliation of bone pain due to metastatic bone lesions. Bone salts [Ca(PO) 4 ] are increased in these lesions and this radionuclide is taken up similarly to Ca 2+ . 186 Re and 153 Sm bound to polydentate phosphonate chelates are used similarly and follow the phosphate pathway in lesion incorporation. (orig.)

  4. Metallic radionuclides: Applications in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine

    Werner, R.E.; Thakur, M. L.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine is a medical modality that utilizes radioactivity (radiopharmaceutical) to diagnose and treat disease. Radiopharmaceuticals contain a component which directs the radionuclide to the desire physiological target. For diagnostic applications, these nuclides must emit a gamma ray that can penetrate the body and can be detected externally while for therapeutic purposes nuclides are preferred that emit beta particles and deliver highly localized tissue damage. sup 6 sup 7 Ga citrate is employed to detect chronic occult abscesses, Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, lung cancer, hepatoma and melanoma and localizes in these tissues utilizing iron-binding proteins. sup 2 sup 0 sup 1 Thallous chloride, a potassium analogue, used to diagnosis coronary artery disease, is incorporated in muscle tissue via the Na sup + -K sup + -ATPase. sup 1 sup 1 sup 1 In labeled autologous white blood cells, used for the diagnosis of acute infections and inflammations, takes advantage of the white cell's role in fighting infections. sup 1 sup 1 sup 1 In is incorporated in other radiopharmaceuticals e.g. polyclonal IgG, OncoScint CR/OV, OctreoScan and Myoscint by coupling diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, a chelate, covalently to these molecules. OncoScint CR/OV and Myoscint localize by antigen-antibody interactions while OctreoScan is taken up by malignant cells in a receptor based process. Polyclonal IgG may share some localization characteristics with sup 6 sup 7 Ga. sup 8 sup 9 Sr, a pure beta emitter, is used for palliation of bone pain due to metastatic bone lesions. Bone salts [Ca(PO) sub 4] are increased in these lesions and this radionuclide is taken up similarly to Ca sup 2 sup +. sup 1 sup 8 sup 6 Re and sup 1 sup 5 sup 3 Sm bound to polydentate phosphonate chelates are used similarly and follow the phosphate pathway in lesion incorporation. (author)

  5. Laser Scanning in Forests

    Håkan Olsson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS to forests has been revolutionary during the last decade. This development was facilitated by combining earlier ranging lidar discoveries [1–5], with experience obtained from full-waveform ranging radar [6,7] to new airborne laser scanning systems which had components such as a GNSS receiver (Global Navigation Satellite System, IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit and a scanning mechanism. Since the first commercial ALS in 1994, new ALS-based forest inventory approaches have been reported feasible for operational activities [8–12]. ALS is currently operationally applied for stand level forest inventories, for example, in Nordic countries. In Finland alone, the adoption of ALS for forest data collection has led to an annual savings of around 20 M€/year, and the work is mainly done by companies instead of governmental organizations. In spite of the long implementation times and there being a limited tradition of making changes in the forest sector, laser scanning was commercially and operationally applied after about only one decade of research. When analyzing high-ranked journal papers from ISI Web of Science, the topic of laser scanning of forests has been the driving force for the whole laser scanning research society over the last decade. Thus, the topic “laser scanning in forests” has provided a significant industrial, societal and scientific impact. [...

  6. Bone scan in pediatrics

    Gordon, I.; Peters, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    In 1984, a survey carried out in 21 countries in Europe showed that bone scintigraphy comprised 16% of all paediatric radioisotope scans. Although the value of bone scans in paediatrics is potentially great, their quality varies greatly, and poor-quality images are giving this valuable technique a bad reputation. The handling of children requires a sensitive staff and the provision of a few simple inexpensive items of distraction. Attempting simply to scan a child between two adult patients in a busy general department is a recipe for an unhappy, uncooperative child with the probable result of poor images. The intravenous injection of isotope should be given adjacent to the gamma camera room, unless dynamic scans are required, so that the child does not associate the camera with the injection. This injection is best carried out by someone competent in paediatric venipunture; the entire procedure should be explained to the child and parent, who should remain with child throughout. It is naive to think that silence makes for a cooperative child. The sensitivity of bone-seeking radioisotope tracers and the marked improvement in gamma camera resolution has allowed the bone scanning to become an integrated technique in the assessment of children suspected of suffering from pathological bone conditions. The tracer most commonly used for routine bone scanning is 99m Tc diphosphonate (MDP); other isotopes used include 99m Tc colloid for bone marrow scans and 67 Ga citrate and 111 In white blood cells ( 111 In WBC) for investigation of inflammatory/infective lesions

  7. Anthropogenic radionuclides in sea water

    Honda, Teruyuki

    1999-01-01

    On the basis of data base of IAEA-MEL (International Atomic Energy Agency, Marine Environment Laboratory) and other organizations, the distribution and behavior of anthropogenic radionuclides in sea water, 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am and 3 H, are explained. 137 Cs (β - , γ: 30.2 y half life) is the most important pollution source and tracer to make clear mixture and diffusion process in seawater. The concentration of 137 Cs in surface seawater of Northern Hemisphere is larger than that of Southern Hemisphere, because many inner space nuclear tests were carried out in the Northern Hemisphere. Especially, the concentration of Northern-east Ocean and Mediterranean Sea are 21 Bq/m 3 and 13 Bq/m 3 , respectively, ten times as much as the other, because of discharge of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants and Chernobyl accident. 2.5 Bq/m 3 137 Cs was observed in North Atlantic Ocean. Behavior of 90 Sr (β - : 29.0 y half life) is the same as 137 Sr in seawater. Secular change of 137 Sr and 90 Sr in seawater in coastal areas of Japan shows decrease of the values from 1964 and reached to 2 to 4 mBq/l and 1 to 3 mBq/l, respectively. 239+240 Pu is the most large load of transuranic elements (TRU) in the earth and originated from nuclear tests. The concentration of 239+240 Pu is 20 to 30 (10 -4 pCi/l, 1968) in the Pacific Ocean and 2.5 to 10.0 μBq/l (1982 to 1993). 241 Am (α: 433 y half life) is generated by decay of 241 Pu. Accordingly, the maximum value is observed after about 100 years. 241 Am/ 239+240 Pu showed less than about 0.3 of fall out, so that emission of 241 Am increases much more than 239+240 Pu. 3 H (β - : 12.3 y half life) has the most short half life in the anthropogenic radionuclides and exists the form as water (HTO) in the sea. The origin of 3 H is hydrogen bomb tests during 1952 and 1975. The concentration of 3 H in sea is average 3.6 TU (1994). The vertical profile of 137 Cs and 90 Sr is similar to each other since both nuclides become ions such

  8. External exposure from airborne radionuclides

    Le Grand, J.; Roux, Y.

    1991-01-01

    Shielding factors have been calculated by the point kernel method by Riso National Laboratory for indoor residences in selected European single-family and multistory houses and outdoor residences in built-up urban areas. Parametric variations (thickness of outer and inner walls, floors and roofs) have been performed to identify the most important factors responsible for affording protection indoors against plume gamma radiation. Recommendations have been made for representative shielding factors. G S F considers three types of buildings: a house of prefabricated parts, a two storey semi-detached house, and a houseblock in two different urban surroundings. The calculations were performed using the Monte Carlo photon transport code SAM-CE. Shielding factors are calculated for the living rooms, basements and outside locations of the buildings. In France a representative sample of about twenty dwellings is defined in each of the 31 French 'departements' where a survey on housing characteristics has been conducted. Using Monte-Carlo techniques the shielding factors are calculated in these houses. The shielding factor distribution for a radionuclide is summarized in each 'departement' by a conservative average and by the two extreme values: the worst shielded apartment and the best one's. Furthermore two experimental campaigns have been made to validate the computer codes. These results are discussed not only according to the respective calculation method, but also to the considered housing characteristics. The differences which come from the methods are not negligible, but they are small compared to those which come from the housing characteristics. For similar main house parameters, a relatively good agreement between the results from the different calculation methods is found

  9. Hydrology and radionuclide migration program

    Marsh, K.V.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents results from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's participation in the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during fiscal year 1988. The report discusses studies at a new well 100 m down the hydrologic gradient from the previous sampling point at the Cheshire site; laboratory investigations of the mineralogical composition of NTS colloids; the strength of colloidal deposits and parameters affecting their formation and release; accelerator mass spectrometric measurements of 129 I in water from the Cheshire stie; 222 Rn concentrations in water from several pumped wells at the NTS; and a description of a new well (PM3) drilled off the NTS near Area 20. Further studies on groundwater sampled show that both technetium and iodine are quite mobile; both closely track the trend of the decreasing tritium concentration with increasing distance. Antimony and cesium concentrations decrease much more rapidly than tritium, and europium was not detected at all in the new well. Colloidal particles found in water collected from the Cheshire cavity are in size range of 0.050 to 0.003 μm and are dominated by quartz and (Ca, K) feldspars. A new well was drilled on US Air Force land adjacent to the NTS Area 20. Static water level measurements and geochemical data from this well will help to determine the extent to which Pahute Mesa base flow infiltrates Oasis Valley. Preliminary results indicate tritium concentrations in water samples from this well to be in the range of 0.1 to 0.4 pCi/ml as measured under field conditions

  10. Innovative methodology for intercomparison of radionuclide calibrators using short half-life in situ prepared radioactive sources

    Oliveira, P. A.; Santos, J. A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: An original radionuclide calibrator method for activity determination is presented. The method could be used for intercomparison surveys for short half-life radioactive sources used in Nuclear Medicine, such as 99m Tc or most positron emission tomography radiopharmaceuticals. Methods: By evaluation of the resulting net optical density (netOD) using a standardized scanning method of irradiated Gafchromic XRQA2 film, a comparison of the netOD measurement with a previously determined calibration curve can be made and the difference between the tested radionuclide calibrator and a radionuclide calibrator used as reference device can be calculated. To estimate the total expected measurement uncertainties, a careful analysis of the methodology, for the case of 99m Tc, was performed: reproducibility determination, scanning conditions, and possible fadeout effects. Since every factor of the activity measurement procedure can influence the final result, the method also evaluates correct syringe positioning inside the radionuclide calibrator. Results: As an alternative to using a calibrated source sent to the surveyed site, which requires a relatively long half-life of the nuclide, or sending a portable calibrated radionuclide calibrator, the proposed method uses a source preparedin situ. An indirect activity determination is achieved by the irradiation of a radiochromic film using 99m Tc under strictly controlled conditions, and cumulated activity calculation from the initial activity and total irradiation time. The irradiated Gafchromic film and the irradiator, without the source, can then be sent to a National Metrology Institute for evaluation of the results. Conclusions: The methodology described in this paper showed to have a good potential for accurate (3%) radionuclide calibrators intercomparison studies for 99m Tc between Nuclear Medicine centers without source transfer and can easily be adapted to other short half-life radionuclides

  11. Characterizing the geomorphic setting of precariously balanced rocks using terrestrial laser scanning technology

    Haddad, D. E.; Arrowsmith, R.

    2009-12-01

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) technology is rapidly becoming an effective three-dimensional imaging tool. Precariously balanced rocks are a subset of spheroidally weathered boulders. They are balanced on bedrock pedestals and are formed in upland drainage basins and pediments of exhumed plutons. Precarious rocks are used as negative evidence of earthquake-driven extreme ground motions. Field surveys of PBRs are coupled with cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) surface exposure dating techniques to determine their exhumation rates. These rates are used in statistical simulations to estimate the magnitudes and recurrences of earthquake-generated extreme ground shaking as a means to physically validate seismic hazard analyses. However, the geomorphic setting of PBRs in the landscape is poorly constrained when interpreting their exhumation rates from CRN surface exposure dates. Are PBRs located on steep or gentle hillslopes? Are they located near drainages or hillslope crests? What geomorphic processes control the spatial distribution of PBRs in a landscape, and where do these processes dominate? Because the fundamental hillslope transport laws are largely controlled by local hillslope gradient and contributing area, the location of a PBR is controlled by the geomorphic agents and their rates acting on it. Our latest efforts involve using a combination of TLS and airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM) to characterize the geomorphic situation of PBRs. We used a Riegl LPM 800i (LPM 321) terrestrial laser scanner to scan a ~1.5 m tall by ~1 m wide precariously balanced rock in the Granite Dells, central Arizona. The PBR was scanned from six positions, and the scans were aligned to a point cloud totaling 3.4M points. We also scanned a ~50 m by ~150 m area covering PBR hillslopes from five scan positions. The resulting 5.5M points were used to create a digital terrain model of precarious rocks and their hillslopes. Our TLS- and ALSM-generated surface models and DEMs provide a

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Full Text Available ... for a thyroid scan is 30 minutes or less. Thyroid Uptake You will be given radioactive iodine ( ... for each thyroid uptake is five minutes or less. top of page What will I experience during ...

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Full Text Available ... evaluate changes in the gland following medication use, surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy top of page How should ... such as an x-ray or CT scan, surgeries or treatments using iodinated contrast material within the ...

  14. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Full Text Available ... abnormal was found, and should not be a cause of concern for you. If you had an ... abnormal was found, and should not be a cause of concern for you. Actual scanning time for ...

  15. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    1981-01-01

    Details are given of a tomographic scanning apparatus, with particular reference to a multiplexer slip ring means for receiving output from the detectors and enabling interfeed to the image reconstruction station. (U.K.)

  16. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    1981-01-01

    Details are presented of a tomographic scanning apparatus, its rotational assembly, and the control and circuit elements, with particular reference to the amplifier and multiplexing circuits enabling detector signal calibration. (U.K.)

  17. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    1981-01-01

    This patent specification relates to a tomographic scanning apparatus using a fan beam and digital output signal, and particularly to the design of the gas-pressurized ionization detection system. (U.K.)

  18. Pediatric CT Scans

    The Radiation Epidemiology Branch and collaborators have initiated a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the relationship between radiation exposure from CT scans conducted during childhood and adolescence and the subsequent development of cancer.

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Full Text Available ... which are encased in metal and plastic and most often shaped like a box, attached to a ... will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan and thyroid uptake procedures are painless. ...

  20. Heart CT scan

    ... make to decrease the risk of heart disease. Risks Risks of CT scans include: Being exposed to ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Full Text Available ... eat for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. ... often unattainable using other imaging procedures. For many diseases, nuclear medicine scans yield the most useful information ...

  2. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Full Text Available ... A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is ... thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses ...

  3. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Full Text Available ... that help physicians diagnose and evaluate medical conditions. These imaging scans use radioactive materials called radiopharmaceuticals or ... or had thyroid cancer. A physician may perform these imaging tests to: determine if the gland is ...

  4. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Full Text Available ... Because nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity within the body, they offer the potential ... or imaging device that produces pictures and provides molecular information. The thyroid scan and thyroid uptake provide ...

  5. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Full Text Available ... Actual scanning time for each thyroid uptake is five minutes or less. top of page What will ... diagnostic procedures have been used for more than five decades, and there are no known long-term ...

  6. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Full Text Available ... top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer top ... Scan and Uptake Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ...

  7. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Full Text Available ... often unattainable using other imaging procedures. For many diseases, nuclear medicine scans yield the most useful information needed to make a diagnosis or to determine appropriate treatment, if any. Nuclear medicine is less expensive and ...

  8. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Full Text Available ... the gamma camera and single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT). The gamma camera, also called a scintillation ... high as with other imaging techniques, such as CT or MRI. However, nuclear medicine scans are more ...

  9. Scanning Auger Electron Microscope

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A JEOL model 7830F field emission source, scanning Auger microscope.Specifications / Capabilities:Ultra-high vacuum (UHV), electron gun range from 0.1 kV to 25 kV,...

  10. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Full Text Available ... as an overactive thyroid gland, a condition called hyperthyroidism , cancer or other growths assess the nature of ... an x-ray or CT scan, surgeries or treatments using iodinated contrast material within the last two ...

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Full Text Available ... painless. However, during the thyroid scan, you may feel uncomfortable when lying completely still with your head ... When the radiotracer is given intravenously, you will feel a slight pin prick when the needle is ...

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Full Text Available ... energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Full Text Available ... scan and thyroid uptake provide information about the structure and function of the thyroid. The thyroid is ... computer, create pictures offering details on both the structure and function of organs and tissues in your ...

  14. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Full Text Available ... found, and should not be a cause of concern for you. If you had an intravenous line ... found, and should not be a cause of concern for you. Actual scanning time for each thyroid ...

  15. Body CT (CAT Scan)

    ... a CT scan can be reformatted in multiple planes, and can even generate three-dimensional images. These ... other medical conditions and whether you have a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or ...

  16. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Full Text Available ... the gland following medication use, surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy top of page How should I prepare? You ... You will receive specific instructions based on the type of scan you are undergoing. top of page ...

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Full Text Available ... Uptake? A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) ... of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that ...

  18. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    1981-01-01

    This patent specification describes a tomographic scanning apparatus, with particular reference to the adjustable fan beam and its collimator system, together with the facility for taking a conventional x-radiograph without moving the patient. (U.K.)

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Full Text Available ... exam of any medications you are taking, including vitamins and herbal supplements. You should also inform them ... of scan you are undergoing. top of page What does the equipment look like? The special camera ...

  20. The Scanning Optical Microscope.

    Sheppard, C. J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the principle of the scanning optical microscope and explains its advantages over the conventional microscope in the improvement of resolution and contrast, as well as the possibility of producing a picture from optical harmonies generated within the specimen.

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Full Text Available ... the gland following medication use, surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy top of page How should I prepare? You ... but is often performed on hospitalized patients as well. Thyroid Scan You will be positioned on an ...

  2. Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals Labeled with Metal Radionuclides

    Welch, M.J.

    2012-02-16

    The overall goal of this project was to develop methods for the production of metal-based radionuclides, to develop metal-based radiopharmaceuticals and in a limited number of cases, to translate these agents to the clinical situation. Initial work concentrated on the application of the radionuclides of Cu, Cu-60, Cu-61 and Cu-64, as well as application of Ga-68 radiopharmaceuticals. Initially Cu-64 was produced at the Missouri University Research Reactor and experiments carried out at Washington University. A limited number of studies were carried out utilizing Cu-62, a generator produced radionuclide produced by Mallinckrodt Inc. (now Covidien). In these studies, copper-62-labeled pyruvaldehyde Bis(N{sup 4}-methylthiosemicarbazonato)-copper(II) was studied as an agent for cerebral myocardial perfusion. A remote system for the production of this radiopharmaceutical was developed and a limited number of patient studies carried out with this agent. Various other copper radiopharmaceuticals were investigated, these included copper labeled blood imaging agents as well as Cu-64 labeled antibodies. Cu-64 labeled antibodies targeting colon cancer were translated to the human situation. Cu-64 was also used to label peptides (Cu-64 octriatide) and this is one of the first applications of a peptide radiolabeled with a positron emitting metal radionuclide. Investigations were then pursued on the preparation of the copper radionuclides on a small biomedical cyclotron. A system for the production of high specific activity Cu-64 was developed and initially the Cu-64 was utilized to study the hypoxic imaging agent Cu-64 ATSM. Utilizing the same target system, other positron emitting metal radionuclides were produced, these were Y-86 and Ga-66. Radiopharmaceuticals were labeled utilizing both of these radionuclides. Many studies were carried out in animal models on the uptake of Cu-ATSM in hypoxic tissue. The hypothesis is that Cu-ATSM retention in vivo is dependent upon the

  3. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms - FY13

    Snyder, Michelle MV; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Lapierre, Robert; Dage, Denomy C.; Parker, Kent E.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2013-10-15

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  4. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Waste Forms

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2010-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how waste form performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of waste form aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of waste form aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. The information presented in the report provides data that 1) quantify radionuclide retention within concrete waste form materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG); 2) measure the effect of concrete waste form properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and 3) quantify the stability of uranium-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

  5. Idaho radionuclide exposure study: Literature review

    Baker, E.G.; Freeman, H.D.; Hartley, J.N.

    1987-10-01

    Phosphate ores contain elevated levels of natural radioactivity, some of which is released to the environment during processing or use of solid byproducts. The effect of radionuclides from Idaho phosphate processing operations on the local communities has been the subject of much research and study. The literature is reviewed in this report. Two primary radionuclide pathways to the environment have been studied in detail: (1) airborne release of volatile radionuclides, primarily 210 Po, from calciner stacks at the two elemental phosphorus plants; and (2) use of byproduct slag as an aggregate for construction in Soda Springs and Pocatello. Despite the research, there is still no clear understanding of the population dose from radionuclide emissions, effluents, and solid wastes from phosphate processing plants. Two other potential radionuclide pathways to the environment have been identified: radon exhalation from phosphogypsum and ore piles and contamination of surface and ground waters. Recommendations on further study needed to develop a data base for a complete risk assssment are given in the report

  6. Accumulation of radionuclides by lichen symbionts

    Nifontova, M G; Kulikov, N V [AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Ehkologii Rastenij i Zhivotnykh

    1983-01-01

    The aim of investigation is the quantitative estimation of ability and role of separate symbionts in the accumulation of radionuclides. As investigation volumes, durably cultivated green lichen alga Trebouxia erici and lichen fungi extracted from Cladonia rangiferina, Parmelia caperata and Acarospora fuscata are used. The accumulation of radioactive isotopes with fungi and seaweeds is estimated according to accumulation coefficients (AC) which are the ratio of radiation concentration in plants and agarized medium. Radionuclide content (/sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs) is determined radiometrically. A special series of experiments is done to investigate radionuclide accumulation dependences with lichen seaweed and fungi on light conditions. It is shown that both symbionts of lichen-seaweed and fungus take part in the accumulation of radionuclide from outer medium (atmospheric fall-out and soil). However fungus component constituting the base of structural organization of thallus provides the greater part of radionuclides accumulated by the plant. Along with this the violation of viability of seaweed symbionts particularly in the case of light deficiency brings about the reduction of /sup 137/Cs sorption by seaweeds and tells on the total content of radiocesium in plant thallus.

  7. Radionuclides incorporation in activated natural nanotubes

    Silva, Jose Parra

    2016-01-01

    Natural palygorskite nanotubes show suitable physical and chemical properties and characteristics to be use as potential nanosorbent and immobilization matrix for the concentration and solidification of radionuclides present in nuclear wastes. In the development process of materials with sorption properties for the incorporation and subsequent immobilization of radionuclides, the most important steps are related with the generation of active sites simultaneously to the increase of the specific surface area and suitable heat treatment to producing the structural folding. This study evaluated the determining parameters and conditions for the activation process of the natural palygorskite nanotubes aiming at the sorption of radionuclides in the nanotubes structure and subsequent evaluation of the parameters involve in the structural folding by heat treatments. The optimized results about the maximum sorption capacity of nickel in activated natural nanotubes show that these structures are apt and suitable for incorporation of radionuclides similar to nickel. By this study is verified that the optimization of the acid activation process is fundamental to improve the sorption capacities for specifics radionuclides by activated natural nanotubes. Acid activation condition optimized maintaining structural integrity was able to remove around 33.3 wt.% of magnesium cations, equivalent to 6.30·10 -4 g·mol -1 , increasing in 42.8% the specific surface area and incorporating the same molar concentration of nickel present in the liquid radioactive waste at 80 min. (author)

  8. Gallium-67 citrate scan in extrapulmonary tuberculosis

    Lin Wanyu

    1999-01-01

    Aim: Whole-body gallium scan was performed to evaluate the usefulness of gallium scan for detecting extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) lesions. Methods: Thirty-seven patients with extrapulmonary TB were included in this study. Four patients were found to have two lesions. Totally, 41 lesions were identified, including 19 TB arthritis, 8 spinal TB, 5 TB meningitis, 3 TB lymphadenopathy, 2 TB pericarditis, 1 TB peritonitis, 1 intestinal TB, 1 skin TB and 1 renal TB. Results: Of the 41 extrapulmonary TB lesions, gallium scan detected 32 lesions with a sensitivity of 78%. All the patients with TB meningitis showed negative gallium scan. When the five cases of TB meningitis were excluded, the detection sensitivity of gallium scan increased to 88.9% (32/36). Conclusion: Our data revealed that gallium scan is a convenient and useful method for evaluating extrapulmonary TB lesions other than TB-meningitis. We suggest that gallium scan be included in the clinical routine for patients with suspected extrapulmonary TB. (orig.) [de

  9. Radionuclide therapy for true polycythemia

    Afanasieva, N.I.; Grushka, G.V.; Vasiliev, L.Ya.

    2005-01-01

    remission was achieved in 102 (67%). In these patients, the general condition improved, angina and thrombophlebitis course became more favorable, and ability to work improved. Mean remission duration after the first course of treatment with P-32 was 42 months and 26 months after two courses. Mean life span made up 9.3 years. Thus, radionuclide therapy for true polycythemia with P-32 improves the quality of life and increases mean life span in the patients. (author)

  10. Three phase bone scan , Ga-67 and Tc-99m nanocoll scan in detection of osteomyelitis caused by war injuries

    Banek, T.; Reljica-Kostic, Z.; Kurnik, G.

    1994-01-01

    Thirty three injured soldiers were surgically treated because of pierce wounds of extremities. Treatment was either osteosynthesis or external fixation. Two to four weeks post treatment clinical signs of osteomyelitis appeared. X-ray was negative in all patients. Three-phase bone scan was performed in order to establish diagnosis. Bone scan was positive in all patients. For 11 patients only bone scan was sufficient for decision of further treatment. In 22 patients Ga-67 or Tc-99m- nanocoll or both examinations were performed on surgeon's request. In 2 patients out of 5 with additional Ga-67 scan, Ga-67 scan showed more lesions than it was seen on bone scan. In 3 patients out of 5 with additional Tc-99m-nanocoll scan, Tc-99m-nanocoll scan showed more lesions than it was seen on bone scan. In 12 patients with positive bone scan and negative or unclear Ga-67, Tc-99m-nanocoll scan was performed. In 5 out of 12 patients Tc-99m- nanocoll scan established diagnosis in others confirmed finding on bone and Ga-67 scan. Our results showed that in one third of our causes bone scan was sufficient for diagnosing of osteomyelitis caused by war injuries. In selected cases where bone scan was not sufficient for diagnosis and decision for treatment Tc-99m-nanocoll was more sensitive than Ga-67. In our experience three-phase bone scan is more sensitive than Ga-67. In our opinion three-phase bone scan is the method of choice for diagnosing osteomyelitis in war situation with a lot of casualties. (author)

  11. Measurements for modeling radionuclide transfer in the aquatic environment

    Kahn, B.

    1976-01-01

    Analytical methods for measuring radionuclides in the aquatic environment are discussed for samples of fresh water and seawater, fish and shellfish, biota such as algae, plankton, seaweed, and aquatic plants, and sediment. Consideration is given to radionuclide collection and concentration, sample preservation, radiochemical and instrumental analysis, and quality assurance. Major problems are the very low environmental levels of the radionuclides of interest, simultaneous occurrence of radionuclides in several chemical and physical forms and the numerous factors that affect radionuclide levels in and transfers among media. Some radionuclides of importance in liquid effluents from nuclear power stations are listed, and sources of radiochemical analytical methods are recommended

  12. Computer assisted radionuclide angiography to confirm reversible ischemic cerebral dysfunction

    Buell, U.; Lanksch, W.; Tosch, U.; Kleinhans, E.; Steinhoff, H.

    1982-01-01

    Computer assisted radionuclide angiography (CARNA) was employed in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) or prolonged reversible ischemic neurologic deficit (PRIND) to establish the sensitivity of CARNA in detecting and quantifying changes of cerebral perfusion in such selected patients. Moreover, results of CARNA were compared with findings of cranial radiographic angiography (RGA) to obtain data on combined sensitivities of these methods. CARNA may be the preferred noninvasive procedure employed because it detects and quantifies the vascular supply disorder in patients with TIA and PRIND. If no computer assistance is used to evaluate cranial radionuclide angiography, results are considerable less accurate. Specifity of CARNA is 84.6%. If CARNA is negative (25.2% in TIA; 12.7% in PRIND), a further method must be employed to confirm the cranial vascular origin of the attack. This may be RGA in TIA and transmission computed axial tomography (T-CAT) T-CAT in PRIND. This diagnos - tic sequence lead to 92.4% true positive in TIA and to 93.2% true positives in PRIND

  13. Application od scaling technique for estimation of radionuclide inventory in radioactive waste

    Hertelendi, E.; Szuecs, Z.; Gulyas, J.; Svingor, E.; Csongor, J.; Ormai, P.; Fritz, A.; Solymosi, J.; Gresits, I.; Vajda, N.; Molnar, Zs.

    1996-01-01

    Safety studies related to the disposal of low- and intermediate waste indicate that the long term risk is determined by the presence of long-lived nuclides such as 14 C, 59 Ni, 63 Ni, 99 Tc, 129 I and the transuranium elements. As most of these nuclides are difficult to measure, the correlation between these critical nuclides and some other easily measurable key nuclides such as 60 Co and 137 Cs has been investigated for typical waste streams of Paks Nuclear Power Plant (Hungary) and scaling factors have been proposed. An automated gamma-scanning monitor has been purchased and calibrated to determine the gamma-emitting radionuclides. Radiochemical methods have been developed to determine significant difficult-to-measure radionuclides. The radionuclides of interest have been 3 H, 14 C, 90 Sr, 55 Fe, 59 Ni, 99 Tc, 129 I and TRUs. The measurements taken so far have revealed brand new information and data on radiological composition of waste of WWER-type reactors. The reliability of the radioanalytical methods was checked by an international intercomparison test. For all radionuclides the Hungarian results were in the average range of the total data set. (author)

  14. Radionuclide withdrawal from animal and human body

    Arkhipov, A.S.; Sidorova, T.F.

    1995-01-01

    The authors review the history of the problem of radionuclide withdrawal from animal and human body and discuss methodological approaches to it. Results of studies of radionuclide elimination by means of chemical and bioactive substances are analyzed. Special attention is paid to decorporation of radioactive elements which are the most hazardous as regards intoxication in connection with the Chernobyl accident: 131 I, 89 St and 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, and 241 Am. The authors analyze the results of studies of radionuclide withdrawal based on the dissolution effect, ionic antagonism, and by means of complexons, carried out in humans and animals. Efficacies of alimentary fibers and other adsorbents, foodstuffs and drinks are demonstrated. 48 refs

  15. Some considerations on the mobility of radionuclides

    Gera, F.

    1978-01-01

    The existence of radioactive substances is usually assumed to present some risk for man and the environment. As long as radionuclides are successfully contained, no harm can occur; but every containment system has a finite probability of failure. Therefore, the mobility of radionuclides along the pathways that lead from the locations of large accumulations of radioactive substances to human populations is one of the critical parameters in any realistic risk evaluation. The largest inventories of radioactive substances are in nuclear facilities such as reactors and reprocessing plants and in storage or disposal facilities for waste or spent fuel. Eventually, most radioactive materials will end up in geologic disposal facilities; therefore, the long-term risk is particularly dependent on the mobility of long-lived radionuclides in geological media. (author)

  16. The behaviour of radionuclides in soil

    Bunzl, K.

    1987-01-01

    Radionuclides in soil are of natural as well as of artificial origin. Their migration in the soil and their availability for ecological processes depend considerably on the extent at which they are sorbed. The methods for the determination of the vertical rate of migration are described. For most radionuclides this transport is very slow (a few cm per year). Cs-137 is of especial interest. It is sorbed strongly by most soils and, as a consequence, its root uptake is small. However, as a result of the sorption, this radionuclide is eluted from the root zone only very slowly and its thus available for the root uptake for many years. The Cs-137 concentrations in plants to be expected in the coming years as a result of the fallout from Chernobyl are small. (orig.) [de

  17. Other impacts of soil-borne radionuclides

    Sheppard, S.C.; Macdonald, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    Soils surround us daily, and humans and animals are exposed to soil in more ways than simply through ingestion of plants. Despite strict personal and food-industry hygiene, some soil will always be present in our diet. This often involves the very fine soil particles known to be especially effective in sorbing radionuclides. The soil we ingest may come through skin contact or through soil adhering to crop plants and other foods. Inhalation of soil particles by humans and other animals must also be considered. Throughout the consideration of the impacts of soil-borne radionuclides, there must be recognition of potential impacts on non-human biota, and of non-radiological impacts. The chemical toxicity of long-lived radionuclides may be just as important as their radiological impact for non-human biota. These issues and associated assessment modelling approaches are discussed, with examples and data drawn from our research programs. (J.P.N.)

  18. Radionuclides in ground-level air

    Sinkko, K.

    1987-01-01

    In the air surveillance programme the concentrations of artificial radionuclides are monitored in the air close to the ground to obtain the necessary basic data for estimating the exposure of the Finnish population to fall-out radionuclides and also to detect atmospheric traces of radioactive materials caused by their use or production. Airborne dust is collected on filters with high-volume air samplers and the concentrations of gamma-emitting radionuclides in the air are evaluated. In the first quarter of 1986 only long-lived cesium, caused by earlier atmospheric nuclear explosions was detected. The concentrations of cesium were very low. In January and March a small amount of short-lived, fresh fission and activation products were also observed

  19. 2014 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    Fuehne, David Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-21

    This report describes the emissions of airborne radionuclides from operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2014, and the resulting off-site dose from these emissions. This document fulfills the requirements established by the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H – Emissions of Radionuclides other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities, commonly referred to as the Radionuclide NESHAP or Rad-NESHAP. Compliance with this regulation and preparation of this document is the responsibility of LANL’s RadNESHAP compliance program, which is part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 6.

  20. Peculiarities of radionuclide transfer to plants

    Butkus, D.; Andriulaityte, I.; Luksiene, B.; Druteikiene, R.

    2003-01-01

    The biosphere and its interacting components (air, soil, bottom sediments, flora, fauna, human beings) are constantly affected by ionizing radiation. One of the ionizing radiation sources is noble radioactive gas that is continually released into the environment because of the normal operation of nuclear power plants (short-lived and long-lived noble gas) and nuclear fuel-reprocessing plants (long-lived noble gas). Another source is related to nuclear tests and the Chernobyl NPP accident, when long-lived gaseous and aerosol radionuclides ( 85 Kr, transuranics, 137 Cs, 90 Sr, etc) were spread in all environmental systems. In order to evaluate the mechanism of radionuclide transfer to plants, model experimental investigation using gaseous 85 Kr and ionic state 137 Cs was undertaken. For this purpose specific chambers with defined physical parameters were applied. The gained tentative results show the importance of these experiments for the estimation of radionuclide transfer to plants and for the prognosis of human internal irradiation. (author)

  1. Transport of radionuclides in the biosphere

    Bundi, A.

    1983-10-01

    The dispersion of radionuclides in the biosphere and their uptake by man via various nutritional pathways is studied using a compartment model. The sample environment is the area of the lower Limmat and Aare valleys. General considerations of the compartmental description of the biosphere are made. The problem of the description of surface features, in particular soil, sediment and water, is studied in detail using the code BIOPATH. This study is intended to be an example of how a model of the biosphere could be constructed. It is shown that this is a reasonable model to calculate the spreading of radionuclides in the biosphere and that it indicates the relative significance of individual compartments, pathways and radionuclides. Calculated values of dose committment, however, should not be used as reference data for safety analyses. (Auth.)

  2. EPA perspective on radionuclide aerosol sampling

    Karhnak, J.M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is concerned with radionuclide aerosol sampling primarily at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities in order to insure compliance with national air emission standards, known as NESHAPs. Sampling procedures are specified in {open_quotes}National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides other than Radon from Department of Energy Sites{close_quotes} (Subpart H). Subpart H also allows alternate procedures to be used if they meet certain requirements. This paper discusses some of the mission differences between EPA and Doe and how these differences are reflected in decisions that are made. It then describes how the EPA develops standards, considers alternate sampling procedures, and lists suggestions to speed up the review and acceptance process for alternate procedures. The paper concludes with a discussion of the process for delegation of Radionuclide NESHAPs responsibilities to the States, and responsibilities that could be retained by EPA.

  3. Therapeutic radionuclides: Making the right choice

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1996-01-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in nuclear medicine therapeutic procedures. Using unsealed sources for therapy is not a new concept; it has been around since the beginnings of nuclear medicine. Treatment of thyroid disorders with radioiodine is a classic example. The availability of radionuclides with suitable therapeutic properties for specific applications, as well as methods for their selective targeting to diseased tissue have, however, remained the main obstacles for therapy to assume a more widespread role in nuclear medicine. Nonetheless, a number of new techniques that have recently emerged, (e.g., tumor therapy with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, treatment of metastatic bone pain, etc.) appear to have provided a substantial impetus to research on production of new therapeutic radionuclides. Although there are a number of new therapeutic approaches requiring specific radionuclides, only selected broad areas will be used as examples in this article

  4. Radionuclide transfer from contaminated field to crops

    Ohmomo, Yoichiro; Tanaka, Giichiro

    1987-03-01

    Since the policy for land disposal of radioactive wastes were proposed, the importance of terrestrial radioecology has been re-recognized in Japan. The National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) held a Two-Day Seminar concerning terrestrial transfer of radionuclides. This is a compilation of papers presented at the seminar. The purpose of the seminar is twofold: firstly, to raise basic problems concerning transfer of not only radionuclides but also elements into crops, as well as to present NIRS's studies on radionuclide transfer; and secondly, to discuss in depth the topics about possible transfer of I-129 into rice plant arising from the commercial fuel reprocessing plant, the construction of which is under planning. Finally, general discussion of further issues on radioecology is given. (Namekawa, K.)

  5. Technetium 99m methylene diphosphonate bone scanning in osteoarthritic hands

    Buckland-Wright, J.C.; Lynch, J.A.; Macfarlane, D.G.; Homoeopathic Hospital, Tunbridge; Fogelman, I.; Emery, P.

    1991-01-01

    In this prospective study, the radiological features characteristic of osteoarthritis of the hand were compared with the radionuclide bone scan images. A total of 32 patients was assessed at 6-monthly intervals for 18 months. Microfocal radiographs were taken at each visit. The high magnification and resolution of this technique permitted direct measurement of joint space width, subchondral sclerosis, osteophyte number and area and juxta-articular radiolucency area for each joint in the hand. Four-hour technetium 99m methylene diphosphonate bone scans were taken at 0 and 12 months and the activity of tracer uptake at each joint scored. The latter was compared with each X-radiographic feature at every visit and the changes between visits analysed. The scan scores did not correlate with any of the X-radiographic features other than osteophyte size. During the study the size of growing and remodelling osteophytes increased significantly at joints with raised or increased isotope uptake. (orig.)

  6. Technetium 99m methylene diphosphonate bone scanning in osteoarthritic hands

    Buckland-Wright, J.C.; Lynch, J.A. (United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy' s and Saint Thomas' , London (UK). Dept. of Anatomy); Macfarlane, D.G. (United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy' s and Saint Thomas' , London (UK). Dept. of Anatomy Homoeopathic Hospital, Tunbridge (UK). Dept. of Rheumatology); Fogelman, I. (United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy' s and Saint Thomas' , London (UK). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Emery, P. (United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy' s and Saint Thomas' , London (UK). Dept. of Rheumatology)

    1991-01-01

    In this prospective study, the radiological features characteristic of osteoarthritis of the hand were compared with the radionuclide bone scan images. A total of 32 patients was assessed at 6-monthly intervals for 18 months. Microfocal radiographs were taken at each visit. The high magnification and resolution of this technique permitted direct measurement of joint space width, subchondral sclerosis, osteophyte number and area and juxta-articular radiolucency area for each joint in the hand. Four-hour technetium 99m methylene diphosphonate bone scans were taken at 0 and 12 months and the activity of tracer uptake at each joint scored. The latter was compared with each X-radiographic feature at every visit and the changes between visits analysed. The scan scores did not correlate with any of the X-radiographic features other than osteophyte size. During the study the size of growing and remodelling osteophytes increased significantly at joints with raised or increased isotope uptake. (orig.).

  7. Field surveying of radionuclide contamination in forests

    Turunen, J.; Rantavaara, A.; Ammann, M.

    2009-01-01

    Field measurements of radionuclides after an accidental contamination of forests assume the capacity for identification of a number of nuclides in varying source geometries. The continuous redistribution of radionuclides in forests through natural processes implies a decrease of prevailing surface contamination of trees and an increase in activity density on the ground. Portable gamma spectrometers have long been based on Na(I) detectors which, due to their low energy resolution, are not the tool for analysis of contamination from accidental releases of fission and activation products in the first days or weeks after a deposition. Data of airborne radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident in April 1986 were used for demonstration of initial and later distribution of radionuclides as sources of air Kerma in forests. Forest model (FDMF, PV. 6.0) of the RODOS system was used for the assessment of time-dependent Kerma rate from different forest compartments. The results show the fast reduction of activities of short-lived nuclides and their contributions to the Kerma rate in the first weeks and months. The results also give an estimate for the time needed until a gamma spectrometer with a low energy resolution would give useful information about long-lived radioactivity on the forest floor. An example is given on a portable high resolution semiconductor spectrometer that has suitable characteristics for field surveying also during occurrence of a great number of radionuclides contributing to the gamma spectrum. The needs for further research of a recently deposited radionuclide contamination on forest vegetation and soil, and the efforts for improvement of portable radiation meters and their use in management planning and radioecological research on contaminated forests are discussed. (au)

  8. TURVA-2012: Formulation of radionuclide release scenarios

    Marcos, Nuria; Hjerpe, Thomas; Snellman, Margit; Ikonen, Ari; Smith, Paul

    2014-01-01

    TURVA-2012 is Posiva's safety case in support of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) and application for a construction licence for a repository for disposal of spent nuclear fuel at the Olkiluoto site in south-western Finland. This paper gives a summary of the scenarios and the methodology followed in formulating them as described in TURVA-2012: Formulation of Radionuclide Release Scenarios (Posiva, 2013). The scenarios are further analysed in TURVA-2012: Assessment of Radionuclide Release Scenarios for the Repository System and TURVA-2012: Biosphere Assessment (Posiva, 2012a, 2012b). The formulation of scenarios takes into account the safety functions of the main barriers of the repository system and the uncertainties in the features, events, and processes (FEP) that may affect the entire disposal system (i.e. repository system plus the surface environment) from the emplacement of the first canister until the far future. In the report TURVA-2012: Performance Assessment (2012d), the performance of the engineered and natural barriers has been assessed against the loads expected during the evolution of the repository system and the site. Uncertainties have been identified and these are taken into account in the formulation of radionuclide release scenarios. The uncertainties in the FEP and evolution of the surface environment are taken into account in formulating the surface environment scenarios used ultimately in estimating radiation exposure. Formulating radionuclide release scenarios for the repository system links the reports Performance Assessment and Assessment of Radionuclide Release Scenarios for the Repository System. The formulation of radionuclide release scenarios for the surface environment brings together biosphere description and the surface environment FEP and is the link to the assessment of the surface environment scenarios summarised in TURVA-2012: Biosphere Assessment. (authors)

  9. Radionuclide exercise ventriculography and levels of workload

    Wynchank, S.

    1982-01-01

    The wealth of useful information made available from the utilization of radionuclide cardiological investigations by non-invasive means is outlined and reasons for investigating results obtained under conditions of increased heart workload are explained. The lack of an accepted protocol for the determination of exercise levels is noted. A format for obtaining increasing heart loads dependent on increasing pulse rate is offered, with justification. Exercise radionuclide ventriculography examinations can be conducted which are simple, reproducible and allow appropriate levels of stress in patients who can benefit from such investigations

  10. Radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis

    Cechak, T.

    1994-01-01

    The author's achievements in the title field are summarized and discussed. The following topics are dealt with: (i) principles of radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis; (ii) mathematical methods in X-ray fluorescence analysis; (iii) Ross differential filters; (iv) application of radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis in the coal industry (with emphasis on the determination of the ash content, sulfur content, and arsenic content of coal); and (v) evaluation of the X-ray fluorescence analyzer from the radiological safety point of view. (P.A.)

  11. Migration of radionuclides in fissured rock

    Neretnieks, I.

    1982-01-01

    Some computed results of radionuclide migration in fissured rock are presented. The computations are based on a model which describes flow as occurring in a multitude of independent fissures (stratified flow). This gives rise to strong dispersion of channeling. The radionuclide migration in the individual fissures is modelled by the advection equation on a parallel walled channel with porous walls. The nuclides may diffuse into the pores and sorb reversibly on the pore surfaces. The effluent rates of 23 important nuclides are presented as functions of distance and time for various of important parameters such as rock permeability, diffusion coefficients, release rates, time of first release, fissure spacing and fissure width distribution. (Author)

  12. Biological effect of radionuclides on plants

    Prister, B.S.; Khal'chenko, V.A.; Polyakova, V.Y.; Shevchenko, V.A.; Shejn, G.P.; Aleksakhin, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    Stated are dosimetry principles and given is an analysis of biological radionuclide effect on plants in aerial and root intakes. A comparative barley radiosensitivity characteristic depending on plant development phases during irradiation is given using LD 50 criteria. Considered is a possibility for using generalized bioinformation parameters as sensitive indications for estimating biological effects due to the influence of low radiation doses. On the grounds of data obtained generalization are forecasted probable losses of crops when getting radionuclides into plants during various vegetation periods

  13. Microbiological Transformations of Radionuclides in the Subsurface

    Marshall, Matthew J.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2010-01-01

    Microorganisms are ubiquitous in subsurface environments although their populations sizes and metabolic activities can vary considerably depending on energy and nutrient inputs. As a result of their metabolic activities and the chemical properties of their cell surfaces and the exopolymers they produce, microorganisms can directly or indirectly facilitate the biotransformation of radionuclides, thus altering their solubility and overall fate and transport in the environment. Although biosorption to cell surfaces and exopolymers can be an important factor modifying the solubility of some radionuclides under specific conditions, oxidation state is often considered the single most important factor controlling their speciation and, therefore, environmental behavior.

  14. Radiation protection for pacemakers with radionuclide batteries

    Stieve, F.E.

    1976-01-01

    Radionuclide batteries ( 147 Pm, 238 Pu) in pacemakers bring risks for the patient and the environment, if the radioactive material cannot be secured for subsequent application or for safe end storage. This is why the expenditure connected with pacemakers is very high. So the application of such pacemakers is only indicated when the patient's expectation of life is presumably higher than 5-10 years, when there are no other diseases besides cardiac dysrhytmia, and when the securing of the radionuclide batteries is guaranteed. (orig.) [de

  15. Laboratory studies of radionuclide migration in tuff

    Rundberg, R.S.; Mitchell, A.J.; Ott, M.A.; Thompson, J.L.; Triay, I.R.

    1989-01-01

    The movement of selected radionuclides has been observed in crushed tuff, intact tuff, and fractured tuff columns. Retardation factors and dispersivities were determined from the elution profiles. Retardation factors have been compared with those predicted on the basis of batch sorption studies. This comparison forms a basis for either validating distribution coefficients or providing evidence of speciation, including colloid formation. Dispersivities measured as a function of velocity provide a means of determining the effect of sorption kinetics or mass transfer on radionuclide migration. Dispersion is also being studied in the context of scaling symmetry to develop a basis for extrapolating from the laboratory scale to the field. 21 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Instant detection of incorporated radio-nuclides

    Dolgirev, E.I.; Porozov, N.V.

    1978-01-01

    A method is described for rapid estimation of radionuclides both in the whole human body and in individual human organs beginning from levels equal to 0.1-0.01 of the maxium permissible value of annual absorption by personnel. In post-accident radiation exposure surveys, the whole-body content of gamma-emitting nuclides is monitored by measuring the flow of gamma quanta by use of a gas-discharge counter cassette placed at a distance of 0.5 m from the subject. Relationships for determining radionuclides in the human body are presented

  17. Migration of radionuclide chains in subseabed disposal

    Ray, A.K.; Nuttall, H.E.

    1982-01-01

    In this study of subseabed disposal, the two dimensional (axial and radial) migration of radionuclide chains released from a canister located in a sedimentary layer bounded at the top by the ocean and at the bottom by an impermeable basalt zone is analyzed to determine the escape rate of radionuclides into the seawater. Analytical solutions have been derived to represent the transient concentration profiles within the sediment, flux and discharge rates to the water column of each member present in a decay chain. Using the properties of chain members present in actinide decay systems, the effects of half-life, adsorption equilibrium and other relevant parameters are elucidated. 4 figures, 1 table

  18. Granulometric analysis of sediments containing transuranic radionuclides

    Smith, R.M.; Additon, M.K.

    1980-11-01

    A dry sieving technique using a sonic sifter was selected for the granulometric analysis of sediment samples containing radionuclide contamination. A sieve facility was established in the 234-5Z building for this purpose. Fifty-two contaminated sediment samples from the 216-Z-1A crib were sieved in the facility at a rate of two to four samples per day with no major problems. A comparison of particle size and radionuclide concentration indicated that there is no obvious benefit to particle size separation as a means of sediment decontamination, though an economic analysis will have to be conducted before a final decision can be made

  19. Radionuclide accumulations in Clinch River fish

    Oakes, T.W.; Easterly, C.E.; Shank, K.E.

    1976-01-01

    Fish samples were collected from several locations above Melton Hill Dam, which is upstream from the liquid effluent release point of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The sampling locations were chosen to determine the accumulation of natural and man-made radionuclides in fish from areas in the Clinch River not influenced by the Laboratory's liquid effluents. Bass, carp, crappie, shad, bluegill, and other sunfish were collected; ten fish per species were composited to form a single sample for each location. The gamma-emitting radionuclide concentrations were determined by gamma-ray spectroscopy. Estimates of radiological dose to man subsequent to ingestion of these fish are made

  20. Radionuclide Geomicrobiology of the Deep Biosphere

    Anderson, Craig; Johnsson, Anna; Moll, Henry

    2011-01-01

    aerobic bacterial metabolism, microbial proliferation, biofilm development, and iron oxide formation. In these environments, the stalk-forming bacterium Gallionella may act as a scaffold for iron oxide precipitation on biological material. In situ work in the Aspo Hard Rock Laboratory tunnel indicated......This review summarizes research into interactions between microorganisms and radionuclides under conditions typical of a repository for high-level radioactive waste in deep hard rock environments at a depth of approximately 500 m. The cell-radionuclide interactions of strains of two bacterial...