WorldWideScience

Sample records for negative psychological responses

  1. Negative psychological responses of injury and rehabilitation adherence effects on return to play in competitive athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivarsson A

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Andreas Ivarsson,1 Ulrika Tranaeus,2,3 Urban Johnson,1 Andreas Stenling 4 1Center of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport, School of Health and Welfare, Halmstad University, Halmstad, 2Performance and Training Unit, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (GIH, 3Musculoskeletal & Sports Injury Epidemiology Center, IMM, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, 4Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden Abstract: Previous research offers evidence that psychological factors influence an injured athlete during the rehabilitation process. Our first objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the results from all published studies that examined the relationships among negative affective responses after sport injuries, rehabilitation adherence, and return to play (RTP. The second objective was to use a meta-analytic path analysis to investigate whether an indirect effect existed between negative affective responses and RTP through rehabilitation adherence. This literature review resulted in seven studies providing 14 effect sizes. The results from the meta-analysis showed that negative affective responses had a negative effect on successful RTP, whereas rehabilitation adherence had a positive effect on RTP. The results from the meta-analytic path analysis showed a weak and nonsignificant indirect effect of negative affective responses on RTP via rehabilitation adherence. These results underline the importance of providing supportive environments for injured athletes to increase the chances of successful RTP via a decrease in negative affective responses and increase in rehabilitation adherence. Keywords: affective responses, rehabilitation behaviors, return to play, sport injuries

  2. Exploring the Psychological Influence of Perceived Negative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    2017-10-14

    Oct 14, 2017 ... This paper critically examined the psychological influence of ... development, there are some perceived negative foreign factors that have constituted ..... essence, it is the sum total of the individual's cognitive, intellectual and ...

  3. Exploring the Psychological Influence of Perceived Negative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper critically examined the psychological influence of perceived negative foreign factors which were those obstacles brought to Nigeria and Nigerians since our first contact with the European colonialists. The obstacles have constituted formidable barriers to indigenous organisational performance and national ...

  4. Psychological response of accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, V.S.; Nikiforov, A.M.; Cheprasov, V.Yu.

    1996-01-01

    The psychological status of rescuers of consequences of Chernobyl[s accidents, having planned stationary examination and treatment of common somatic diseases, has been examined. THe age of men represented the study group was 35-54 years old. The results of medical-psychological examination showed the development in rescuers of common dysadaptation and stress state, characterized by depressive-hypochondriac state with high anxiety. The course of psychotherapeutic activities made possible to improve essentionally the psychological status of the patients. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  5. Children's psychological responses to hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessey, Judith A

    2003-01-01

    The data-based literature addressing children's psychological responses to hospitalization was reviewed using methods outlined by Cooper (1989). Using a developmental science perspective, early research was reviewed and a model of variables that contribute to children's responses was constructed. This model consists of three major foci, including maturational and cognitive variables (developmental level, experience, coping style), ecological variables (family and hospital milieu), and biological variables (inborn factors and pathophysiology). Coping serves as the overarching framework for examining these variables and their contributions to children's responses to hospitalization. A variety of theoretical perspectives from the social sciences have been used, with psychoanalytic and stress and adaptation theories predominating. The majority of the research used simple case study, descriptive, or pre- and post-test designs. Methodologic issues were common. Little qualitative work has been done. Future research directions call for studies to adopt new theoretical and empirical models that are methodologically rigorous and clinically relevant and that embrace the precepts of developmental science.

  6. Negative symptoms and social cognition: identifying targets for psychological interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Tania M; Mehl, Stephanie; Kesting, Marie-Luise; Rief, Winfried

    2011-09-01

    How to improve treatment for negative symptoms is a continuing topic of debate. Suggestions have been made to advance psychological understanding of negative symptoms by focusing on the social cognitive processes involved in symptom formation and maintenance. Following the recommendations by the National Institute of Mental Health workshop on social cognition in schizophrenia, this study investigated associations between negative symptoms and various aspects of social cognition including Theory of Mind (ToM), attribution, empathy, self-esteem, and interpersonal self-concepts in 75 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 75 healthy controls. Negative symptoms were significantly associated with difficulties in ToM, less readiness to be empathic, lower self-esteem, less self-serving bias, negative self-concepts related to interpersonal abilities, and dysfunctional acceptance beliefs. Different aspects of social cognition were mildly to moderately correlated and interacted in their impact on negative symptoms: Difficulties in ToM were associated with negative symptoms in persons with low but not in persons with medium or high levels of self-esteem. Taken together, the social cognition variables and their hypothesized interaction explained 39% of the variance in negative symptoms after controlling for neurocognition and depression. The results highlight the relevance of self-concepts related to social abilities, dysfunctional beliefs, and global self-worth alone and in interaction with ToM deficits for negative symptoms and thereby provide a helpful basis for advancing psychosocial interventions.

  7. Negative cognitive errors and positive illusions for negative divorce events: predictors of children's psychological adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, E; Wolchik, S A; Sandler, I N

    1992-12-01

    This study examined the relations among negative cognitive errors regarding hypothetical negative divorce events, positive illusions about those same events, actual divorce events, and psychological adjustment in 38 8- to 12-year-old children whose parents had divorced within the previous 2 years. Children's scores on a scale of negative cognitive errors (catastrophizing, overgeneralizing, and personalizing) correlated significantly with self-reported symptoms of anxiety and self-esteem, and with maternal reports of behavior problems. Children's scores on a scale measuring positive illusions (high self-regard, illusion of personal control, and optimism for the future) correlated significantly with less self-reported aggression. Both appraisal types accounted for variance in some measures of symptomatology beyond that explained by actual events. There was no significant association between children's negative cognitive errors and positive illusions. The implications of these results for theories of negative cognitive errors and of positive illusions, as well as for future research, are discussed.

  8. corporate social responsibility and psychological contract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    2017-07-04

    Jul 4, 2017 ... KEYWORDS: Corporate social responsibilities, Psychological contract, Nigeria, Niger delta, ... The concept of Corporate Social ... CSR initiatives rather than mere financial ..... fundamental idea in such a contract (PC) is the.

  9. Negative Thinking versus Positive Thinking in a Singaporean Student Sample: Relationships with Psychological Well-Being and Psychological Maladjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Shyh Shin

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationships of positive thinking versus negative thinking with psychological well-being and psychological maladjustment. Three hundred and ninety-eight undergraduate students from Singapore participated in this study. First, positive thinking were positively correlated with indicators psychological well-being--life…

  10. Psychiatric framing affects positive but not negative schizotypy scores in psychology and medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Christine; Schofield, Kerry; Leonards, Ute; Wilson, Marc S; Grimshaw, Gina M

    2018-08-01

    When testing risk for psychosis, we regularly rely on self-report questionnaires. Yet, the more that people know about this condition, the more they might respond defensively, in particular with regard to the more salient positive symptom dimension. In two studies, we investigated whether framing provided by questionnaire instructions might modulate responses on self-reported positive and negative schizotypy. The O-LIFE (UK study) or SPQ (New Zealand study) questionnaire was framed in either a "psychiatric", "creativity", or "personality" (NZ only) context. We tested psychology students (without taught knowledge about psychosis) and medical students (with taught knowledge about psychosis; UK only). We observed framing effects in psychology students in both studies: positive schizotypy scores were lower after the psychiatric compared to the creativity instruction. However, schizotypy scores did not differ between the creativity and personality framing conditions, suggesting that the low scores with psychiatric framing reflect defensive responding. The same framing effect was also observed in medical students, despite their lower positive schizotypy scores overall. Negative schizotypy scores were not affected by framing in either study. These results highlight the need to reduce response biases when studying schizotypy, because these might blur schizotypy-behaviour relationships. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Psychological and physiological responses to odor-evoked autobiographic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Isowa, Tokiko; Yamakawa, Kaori; Kawanishi, Yoko; Tsuboi, Hirohito; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Sadato, Norihiro; Oshida, Akiko; Katayama, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Mitsuyoshi; Ohira, Hideki

    2011-01-01

    The "Proust phenomenon" occurs when a certain smell evokes a specific memory. Recent studies have demonstrated that odor-evoked autobiographic memories are more emotional than those elicited by other sensory stimuli because of the direct neural communication between the olfactory system and the amygdala. The amygdala is known to regulate various physiological activities including the endocrine and immune systems; therefore, odor-evoked autobiographic memory may trigger various psychological and physiological responses; however, the responses elicited by this memory remains obscure. In this study, we aimed to investigate the psychological and physiological responses accompanying odor-evoked autobiographic memory. We recruited healthy male and female volunteers and investigated changes in their mood states and autonomic nervous, endocrine, and immune activities when autobiographic memory was evoked in the participants by asking them to smell an odor(s) that was nostalgic to them. The autobiographic memories associated with positive emotion resulted in increased positive mood states, such as comfort and happiness, and decreased negative mood states, such as anxiety. Furthermore, heart rate was decreased, skin-conductance level was increased, and peripheral interleukin-2 level was decreased after smelling the nostalgic odor. These psychological and physiological responses were significantly correlated. The present study suggests that odor-evoked autobiographic memory along with a positive feeling induce various physiological responses, including the autonomic nervous and immune activities. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to observe an interaction between odor-evoked autobiographic memories and immune function.

  12. Negative Affect Mediates Effects of Psychological Stress on Disordered Eating in Young Chinese Women

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jue; Wang, Zhen; Guo, Boliang; Arcelus, Jon; Zhang, Haiyin; Jia, Xiuzhen; Xu, Yong; Qiu, Jianyin; Xiao, Zeping; Yang, Min

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The bi-relationships between psychological stress, negative affect and disordered eating has been well studied in western culture, while tri-relationship among them, i.e. how some of those factors influence these bi-relationships, has rarely been studied. However, there has been little related study in the different Chinese culture. This study was conducted to investigate the bi-relationships and tri-relationship between psychological stress, negative affect, and disordered eating...

  13. Relationship between obesity, negative affect and basal heart rate in predicting heart rate reactivity to psychological stress among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Andres E; Huynh, Pauline; Schell, Anne M; Baker, Laura A

    2015-08-01

    Reduced cardiovascular responses to psychological stressors have been found to be associated with both obesity and negative affect in adults, but have been less well studied in children and adolescent populations. These findings have most often been interpreted as reflecting reduced sympathetic nervous system response, perhaps associated with heightened baseline sympathetic activation among the obese and those manifesting negative affect. However, obesity and negative affect may themselves be correlated, raising the question of whether they both independently affect cardiovascular reactivity. The present study thus examined the separate effects of obesity and negative affect on both cardiovascular and skin conductance responses to stress (e.g., during a serial subtraction math task) in adolescents, while controlling for baseline levels of autonomic activity during rest. Both obesity and negative affect had independent and negative associations with cardiovascular reactivity, such that reduced stress responses were apparent for obese adolescents and those with high levels of negative affect. In contrast, neither obesity nor negative affect was related to skin conductance responses to stress, implicating specifically noradrenergic mechanisms rather than sympathetic mechanisms generally as being deficient. Moreover, baseline heart rate was unrelated to obesity in this sample, which suggests that heightened baseline of sympathetic activity is not necessary for the reduced cardiovascular reactivity to stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Psychological responses of women after first-trimester abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, B; Cozzarelli, C; Cooper, M L; Zubek, J; Richards, C; Wilhite, M; Gramzow, R H

    2000-08-01

    Controversy exists over psychological risks associated with abortion. The objectives of this study were to examine women's emotions, evaluations, and mental health after an abortion, as well as changes over time in these responses and their predictors. Women arriving at 1 of 3 sites for an abortion of a first-trimester unintended pregnancy were randomly approached to participate in a longitudinal study with 4 assessments-1 hour before the abortion, and 1 hour, 1 month, and 2 years after the abortion. Eight hundred eighty-two (85%) of 1043 eligible women approached agreed; 442 (50%) of 882 were followed for 2 years. Preabortion and postabortion depression and self-esteem, postabortion emotions, decision satisfaction, perceived harm and benefit, and posttraumatic stress disorder were assessed. Demographic variables and prior mental health were examined as predictors of postabortion psychological responses. Two years postabortion, 301 (72%) of 418 women were satisfied with their decision; 306 (69%) of 441 said they would have the abortion again; 315 (72%) of 440 reported more benefit than harm from their abortion; and 308 (80%) of 386 were not depressed. Six (1%) of 442 reported posttraumatic stress disorder. Depression decreased and self-esteem increased from preabortion to postabortion, but negative emotions increased and decision satisfaction decreased over time. Prepregnancy history of depression was a risk factor for depression, lower self-esteem, and more negative abortion-specific outcomes 2 years postabortion. Younger age and having more children preabortion also predicted more negative abortion evaluations. Most women do not experience psychological problems or regret their abortion 2 years postabortion, but some do. Those who do tend to be women with a prior history of depression.

  15. How psychological and behavioral team states change during positive and negative momentum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Hartigh, Ruud J.R.; Gernigon, Christophe; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Marin, Ludovic; Van Geert, Paul

    In business and sports, teams often experience periods of positive and negative momentum while pursuing their goals. However, researchers have not yet been able to provide insights into how psychological and behavioral states actually change during positive and negative team momentum. In the current

  16. Beyond Negative Pain-Related Psychological Factors: Resilience Is Related to Lower Pain Affect in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemington, Kasey S; Cheng, Joshua C; Bosma, Rachael L; Rogachov, Anton; Kim, Junseok A; Davis, Karen D

    2017-09-01

    Resilience, a characteristic that enhances adaptation in response to stressful events, is a positive psychological factor that can predict and modulate health outcomes. However, resilience is rarely considered in pain research. Conversely, negative psychological factors (eg, anxiety, depression) are known to be related to the affective dimension of pain. It is critical to understand all potential psychological drivers of pain affect, a prominent component of chronic pain. We tested the hypothesis that higher resilience is associated with lower pain affect, above and beyond the predictive value of negative psychological factors. Healthy adults underwent psychophysical testing to acquire ratings of heat pain intensity and unpleasantness and completed the Resilience Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (trait form), Beck Depression Inventory, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and the Pain Vigilance and Attention Questionnaire. Multiple regression modeling (n = 68) showed resilience to be a negatively associated with pain affect (unpleasantness). Furthermore, in individuals with higher anxiety scores, resilience was protective against higher pain affect. This highlights the importance of resilience, a positive psychological factor, in the affective dimension of pain. This study is the first to assess a positive psychological factor and experimental pain affect, and has the potential to improve prediction of and treatment strategies for clinical pain. We report that resilience, a positive psychological factor, interacts with anxiety and is associated with heat pain affect (unpleasantness) in healthy individuals. Resilience may provide predictive value of chronic pain affect and treatment outcomes, and could be a target for behavioral therapy. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Athlete social support, negative social interactions and psychological health across a competitive sport season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFreese, J D; Smith, Alan L

    2014-12-01

    Social support and negative social interactions have implications for athlete psychological health, with potential to influence the links of stress-related experiences with burnout and well-being over time. Using a longitudinal design, perceived social support and negative social interactions were examined as potential moderators of the temporal stress-burnout and burnout-well-being relationships. American collegiate athletes (N = 465) completed reliable and valid online assessments of study variables at four time points during the competitive season. After controlling for dispositional and conceptually important variables, social support and negative social interactions did not moderate the stress-burnout or burnout-well-being relationships, respectively, but did simultaneously contribute to burnout and well-being across the competitive season. The results showcase the importance of sport-related social perceptions to athlete psychological outcomes over time and inform development of socially driven interventions to improve the psychological health of competitive athletes.

  18. Cognitive Resilience and Psychological Responses across a Collegiate Rowing Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Morgan R; Brooks, M Alison; Koltyn, Kelli F; Kim, Jee-Seon; Cook, Dane B

    2017-11-01

    Student-athletes face numerous challenges across their competitive season. Although mood states have been previously studied, little is known about adaptations in other psychological responses, specifically cognition. The purpose of this study was to characterize cognitive function, mood, sleep, and stress responses at select time points of a season in collegiate rowers. It was hypothesized that during baseline, typical training, and recovery, athletes would show positive mental health profiles, in contrast to decreases in cognition with increases in negative mood and measurements of stress during peak training. Male and female Division I rowers (N = 43) and healthy controls (N = 23) were enrolled and assessed at baseline, typical training, peak training, and recovery. At each time point, measures of cognitive performance (Stroop color-naming task), academic and exercise load, perceived cognitive deficits, mood states, sleep, and stress (via self-report and salivary cortisol) were recorded. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed significant group-time interactions for perceived exercise load, cognitive deficits, mood states, and perceived stress (P cognitive deficits was positively correlated with mood disturbance (r = 0.54, P Cognitive performance did not change over the course of the season for either group. Cortisol and sleepiness changed over the course of the season but no significant interactions were observed. These results demonstrate that various psychological responses change over the course of a season, but they also highlight adaptation indicative of cognitive resilience among student-athletes.

  19. How psychological and behavioral team states change during positive and negative momentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Hartigh, Ruud J R; Gernigon, Christophe; Van Yperen, Nico W; Marin, Ludovic; Van Geert, Paul L C

    2014-01-01

    In business and sports, teams often experience periods of positive and negative momentum while pursuing their goals. However, researchers have not yet been able to provide insights into how psychological and behavioral states actually change during positive and negative team momentum. In the current study we aimed to provide these insights by introducing an experimental dynamical research design. Rowing pairs had to compete against a virtual opponent on rowing ergometers, while a screen in front of the team broadcasted the ongoing race. The race was manipulated so that the team's rowing avatar gradually progressed (positive momentum) or regressed (negative momentum) in relation to the victory. The participants responded verbally to collective efficacy and task cohesion items appearing on the screen each minute. In addition, effort exertion and interpersonal coordination were continuously measured. Our results showed negative psychological changes (perceptions of collective efficacy and task cohesion) during negative team momentum, which were stronger than the positive changes during positive team momentum. Moreover, teams' exerted efforts rapidly decreased during negative momentum, whereas positive momentum accompanied a more variable and adaptive sequence of effort exertion. Finally, the interpersonal coordination was worse during negative momentum than during positive momentum. These results provide the first empirical insights into actual team momentum dynamics, and demonstrate how a dynamical research approach significantly contributes to current knowledge on psychological and behavioral processes.

  20. Negative life events and school adjustment among Chinese nursing students: The mediating role of psychological capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunqin; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Tian, Xiaohong; Zou, Guiyuan; Li, Ping

    2015-06-01

    Adjustment difficulties of college students are common and their school adjustment has gained wide concern in recent years. Negative life events and psychological capital (PsyCap) have been associated with school adjustment. However, the potential impact of negative life events on PsyCap, and whether PsyCap mediates the relationship between negative life events and school adjustment among nursing students have not been studied. To investigate the relationship among negative life events, PsyCap, and school adjustment among five-year vocational high school nursing students in China and the mediating role of PsyCap between negative life events and school adjustment. A cross-sectional survey design was conducted. 643 five-year vocational high school nursing students were recruited from three public high vocational colleges in Shandong of China. Adolescent Self-Rating Life Event Checklist (ASLEC), the Psychological Capital Questionnaire for Adolescent Students scale (PCQAS), and the Chinese College Student Adjustment Scale (CCSAS) were used in this study. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the mediating role of PsyCap. Negative life events were negatively associated with the dimensions of school adjustment (interpersonal relationship adaptation, learning adaptation, campus life adaptation, career adaptation, emotional adaptation, self-adaptation, and degree of satisfaction). PsyCap was positively associated with the dimensions of school adjustment and negatively associated with negative life events. PsyCap partially mediated the relationship between negative life events and school adjustment. Negative life events may increase the risk of school maladjustment in individuals with low PsyCap. Interventions designed to increase nursing students' PsyCap might buffer the stress of adverse life events, and thereby, enhance students' positive adjustment to school. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Psychological and hormonal stress response patterns during a blood donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerwerf, M. D.; Veldhuizen, I. J. T.; Merz, E.-M.; de Kort, W. L. A. M.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Sluiter, J. K.

    2017-01-01

    Background and ObjectivesDonating blood has been associated with increased stress responses, with scarce evidence indicating that levels of psychological and hormonal stress are higher pre-donation than post-donation. We investigated whether a blood donation induces psychological and/or hormonal

  2. Psychological and Physiological Responses to Depressed Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-18

    psychological pain and anguish experienced by depressed persons and their families is underscored by the significant number of suicides related to...Statistical analyses were pertormed using the SPSS -X statistical package. These analyses included examination of the sex of target, affect of target, and sex

  3. Correlations among Psychological Resilience, Self-Efficacy, and Negative Emotion in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Neng; Liu, Shaohui; Yu, Nan; Peng, Yunhua; Wen, Yumei; Tang, Jie; Kong, Lingyu

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the influencing factors of the psychological resilience and self-efficacy of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and the relationships of psychological resilience and self-efficacy with negative emotion. Eighty-eight participants were enrolled. Psychological resilience, self-efficacy, and negative emotion were assessed with the Psychological Resilience Scale, Self-Efficacy Scale, Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), respectively. Furthermore, the relationships of psychological resilience and self-efficacy with negative emotion were investigated. The average scores of psychological resilience, self-efficacy, anxiety, and depression were 70.08 ± 13.26, 21.56 ± 9.66, 53.68 ± 13.10, and 56.12 ± 12.37, respectively. The incidences of anxiety and depression were 23.90% (21/88) and 28.40% (25/88), respectively. The psychological resilience and self-efficacy scores of AMI patients after PCI varied significantly with age and economic status. SAS scores and SDS scores were significantly negatively correlated with psychological resilience and self-efficacy. Negative emotions in AMI patients after PCI are closely related to psychological resilience and self-efficacy. Therefore, anxiety and depression could be alleviated by improving the psychological resilience and self-efficacy of patients undergoing PCI, thus improving patients' quality of life.

  4. Psychological distress, cortisol stress response and subclinical coronary calcification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldenrijk, A.; Hamer, M.; Lahiri, A.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Steptoe, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Poor mental health has been associated with coronary heart disease (CHD). One hypothesized underlying mechanism is hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis dysfunction. We examined the associations between psychological distress, cortisol response to laboratory-induced mental stress and

  5. Early response to psychological trauma--what GPs can do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Darryl; Howard, Alexandra; Fletcher, Susan; Cooper, John; Forbes, David

    2013-09-01

    There is a high prevalence of psychological trauma exposure among primary care patients. General practitioners are well placed to provide appropriate support for patients coping with trauma. This article outlines an evidence-based early response to psychological trauma. Psychological first aid is the preferred approach in providing early assistance to patients who have experienced a traumatic event. General practitioners can be guided by five empirically derived principles in their early response: promoting a sense of safety, calming, self efficacy, connectedness and hope. Structured psychological interventions, including psychological debriefing, are not routinely recommended in the first few weeks following trauma exposure. General practitioner self care is an important aspect of providing post-trauma patient care.

  6. Positive and negative psychological impact after secondary exposure to politically motivated violence among body handlers and rehabilitation workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Shimon; Wexler, Isaiah D; Alkalay, Yasmin; Meiner, Zeev; Kreitler, Shulamith

    2008-12-01

    The positive and negative psychological impact of secondary exposure to politically motivated violence was examined among body handlers and hospital rehabilitation workers, 2 groups that differed in their proximity and immediacy to violent events. Survivors of politically motivated violence served as a comparison group. Body handlers experienced high levels of positive psychological impact and traumatic stress symptoms. Levels of positive psychological impact among on-scene body handlers were higher than those experienced by rehabilitation workers. Traumatic stress symptoms predicted positive psychological impact among body handlers. These findings indicate that proximity to stressors is associated with higher levels of positive and negative psychological impact. Physical proximity is a major contributory factor to both positive and negative psychological effects of secondary exposure to trauma.

  7. The effect of social support derived from World of Warcraft on negative psychological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longman, Huon; O'Connor, Erin; Obst, Patricia

    2009-10-01

    Previous research examining players of massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs) suggests that players form meaningful relationships with each other. Other research indicates that people may derive social support from online sources, and this social support has been associated with greater well-being. This study used an online survey of players (N = 206) of the MMOG World of Warcraft (WoW) to examine if social support can be derived from MMOGs and to examine its relationship with negative psychological symptoms. Players of WoW were found to derive social support from playing and a positive relationship was found between game engagement and levels of in-game social support. Higher levels of in-game social support were associated with fewer negative psychological symptoms, although this effect was not maintained after accounting for social support derived from the offline sources. Additionally, a small subsample of players (n = 21) who played for 44 to 82 hours per week (M = 63.33) was identified. These players had significantly lower levels of offline social support and higher levels of negative symptoms compared to the rest of the sample. This study provides evidence that social support can be derived from MMOGs and the associated potential to promote well-being but also highlights the potential harm from spending excessive hours playing.

  8. Work stressors and partner social undermining: Comparing negative affect and psychological detachment as mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Laurenz L; Cho, Eunae

    2018-05-14

    With the mounting evidence that employees' work experiences spill over into the family domain and cross over to family members, it is important to understand the underlying mechanism through which work experiences affect the family domain and what factors may alleviate the adverse impact of work stress. Expanding previous research that mainly focused on the affect-based mechanism (negative affect), the present research investigated a resource-based mechanism (psychological detachment from work) in the relationship linking two work stressors (high workload and workplace incivility) with social undermining toward the partner at home. We also explored the relative strength of the mediating effects of the two mechanisms. In addition, we tested whether relationship satisfaction moderates the proposed effect of detachment on partner undermining. We tested these research questions using two studies with differing designs: a five-wave longitudinal study (N = 470) and a multisource study (N = 131). The results suggest that stressful work experiences affect the family domain via lack of detachment as well as negative affect, that the two pathways have comparable strength, and that high relationship satisfaction mitigates the negative effect of lack of detachment on partner undermining. In sum, this research extends the spillover-crossover model by establishing that poor psychological detachment from work during leisure time is an additional mechanism that links work and family. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Psychological distress negatively affects self-assessment of shoulder function in patients with rotator cuff tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Michael Q; Wylie, James D; Greis, Patrick E; Burks, Robert T; Tashjian, Robert Z

    2014-12-01

    In many areas of orthopaedics, patients with greater levels of psychological distress report inferior self-assessments of pain and function. This effect can lead to lower-than-expected baseline scores on common patient-reported outcome scales, even those not traditionally considered to have a psychological component. This study attempts to answer the following questions: (1) Are higher levels of psychological distress associated with clinically important differences in baseline scores on the VAS for pain, the Simple Shoulder Test, and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score in patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair? (2) Does psychological distress remain a negative predictor of baseline shoulder scores when other clinical variables are controlled? Eighty-five patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears were prospectively enrolled. Psychological distress was quantified using the Distress Risk Assessment Method questionnaire. Patients completed baseline self-assessments including the VAS for pain, the Simple Shoulder Test, and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score. Age, sex, BMI, smoking status, American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, tear size, and tear retraction were recorded for each patient. Bivariate correlations and multivariate regression models were used to assess the effect of psychological distress on patient self-assessment of shoulder pain and function. Distressed patients reported higher baseline VAS scores (6.7 [95% CI, 4.4-9.0] versus 2.9 [95% CI, 2.3-3.6], p = 0.001) and lower baseline Simple Shoulder Test (3.7 [95% CI, 2.9-4.5] versus 5.7 [95% CI 5.0-6.4], p = 0.001) and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores (39 [95% CI, 34-45] versus 58 [95% CI, 53-63], p psychological distress are associated with inferior baseline patient self-assessment of shoulder pain and function using the VAS, the Simple Shoulder Test, and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score. Longitudinal followup is

  10. The Perceived Psychological Responsibilities Of A Strength And Conditioning Coach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliffe, Jon N; Comfort, Paul; Fawcett, Tom

    2016-09-22

    Research is limited in exploring the specific psychology oriented responsibilities of the strength and conditioning professional. The present research explored the psychological responsibilities adopted by accredited strength and conditioning coaches. Participants comprised 10 participants working within the UK, 3 within the USA and 5 within Australia offering a cross section of experience from raging sport disciplines and educational backgrounds. Participants were interviewed either in person or via Skype. Thematic clustering was employed utilizing interpretative phonological analysis to identify common themes. Over half (61%) of the respondents reported that their position as a strength and conditioning coach required additional psychology orientated responsibilities. These comprised a counselling role in the absence of psychologist the use of 'softer skills' in a mentoring role of the athlete during a challenging situation. The coach could play an influential role in shaping the mentality of the team. The coach identifies how the role results in working to relay information for the athlete to other support staff and similarly from the support staff through the athlete. The coach identifies how the role results in working to relay information for the athlete to other support staff and similarly from the support staff to the athlete. In addition to identifying the resonant psychological orientated responsibilities discussion is made with specific focus on the ethical boundary to which strength and conditioning coaches must reside regarding the competencies to provide psychological support.

  11. The meaning of collective terrorist threat : Understanding the subjective causes of terrorism reduces its negative psychological impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat.

  12. Parental reactions to children's negative emotions: prospective relations to Chinese children's psychological adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Annie; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Yun

    2010-04-01

    The prospective relations between five types of parental reactions to children's negative emotions (PRCNE) and children's psychological adjustment (behavioral problems and social competence) were examined in a two-wave longitudinal study of 425 school-age children in China. Parents (mostly mothers) reported their own PRCNE. Parents, teachers, and children or peers reported on children's adjustment. Parental punitive reactions positively predicted externalizing problems (controlling for baseline), whereas emotion- and problem-focused reactions were negatively related to internalizing problems. Parental minimizing and encouragement of emotion expression were unrelated to adjustment. Concurrent relations were found between PRCNE and parents' authoritative and authoritarian parenting dimensions. However, PRCNE did not uniquely predict adjustment controlling for global parenting dimensions. The findings have implications for cultural adaptation of parent-focused interventions for families of Chinese origin. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  13. Corporate Social Responsibility and Organizational Psychology: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavas, Ante

    2016-01-01

    The author reviews the corporate social responsibility (CSR) literature that includes the individual level of analysis (referred to as micro CSR in the article) based on 166 articles, book chapters, and books. A framework is provided that integrates organizational psychology and CSR, with the purpose of highlighting synergies in order to advance scholarship and practice in both fields. The review is structured so that first, a brief overview is provided. Second, the literatures on organizational psychology and CSR are integrated. Third, gaps are outlined illuminating opportunities for future research. Finally, a research agenda is put forward that goes beyond addressing gaps and focuses on how organizational psychology and CSR can be partners in helping move both fields forward-specifically, through a humanistic research agenda rooted in positive psychology.

  14. Corporate Social Responsibility and Organizational Psychology: An Integrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavas, Ante

    2016-01-01

    The author reviews the corporate social responsibility (CSR) literature that includes the individual level of analysis (referred to as micro CSR in the article) based on 166 articles, book chapters, and books. A framework is provided that integrates organizational psychology and CSR, with the purpose of highlighting synergies in order to advance scholarship and practice in both fields. The review is structured so that first, a brief overview is provided. Second, the literatures on organizational psychology and CSR are integrated. Third, gaps are outlined illuminating opportunities for future research. Finally, a research agenda is put forward that goes beyond addressing gaps and focuses on how organizational psychology and CSR can be partners in helping move both fields forward—specifically, through a humanistic research agenda rooted in positive psychology. PMID:26909055

  15. The relationship between personality and the response to acute psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yuanyuan; Wu, Jianhui; Yao, Zhuxi; Guan, Qing; Aleman, André; Luo, Yuejia

    2017-12-04

    The present study examined the relationship between personality traits and the response to acute psychological stress induced by a standardized laboratory stress induction procedure (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST). The stress response was measured with a combination of cardiovascular reactivity, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity, and subjective affect (including positive affect, negative affect and subjective controllability) in healthy individuals. The Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) approach was applied to account for the relationship between personality traits and stress responses. Results suggested that higher neuroticism predicted lower heart rate stress reactivity, lower cortisol stress response, more decline of positive affect and lower subjective controllability. Individuals higher in extraversion showed smaller cortisol activation to stress and less increase of negative affect. In addition, higher openness score was associated with lower cortisol stress response. These findings elucidate that neuroticism, extraversion and openness are important variables associated with the stress response and different dimensions of personality trait are associated with different aspects of the stress response.

  16. Corporate social responsibility and psychological contract: towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is growing concern about the activities of business in society. Much attention is drawn to the changing nature of the relationship between corporations and society which has increased the demand for organisations to recognise their corporate social responsibility (CSR). This research explores an understanding of the ...

  17. Negative affect mediates effects of psychological stress on disordered eating in young Chinese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The bi-relationships between psychological stress, negative affect and disordered eating has been well studied in western culture, while tri-relationship among them, i.e. how some of those factors influence these bi-relationships, has rarely been studied. However, there has been little related study in the different Chinese culture. This study was conducted to investigate the bi-relationships and tri-relationship between psychological stress, negative affect, and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in young Chinese women. METHODOLOGY: A total of 245 young Chinese policewomen employed to carry out health and safety checks at the 2010 Shanghai World Expo were recruited in this study. The Chinese version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10, Beck Depression Inventory Revised (BDI-II, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, and Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26 were administered to all participants. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The total scores of PSS-10, BDI-II and BAI were all highly correlated with that of EAT-26. The PSS-10 score significantly correlated with both BDI-II and BAI scores. There was no statistically significant direct effect from perceived stress to disordered eating (-0.012, 95%CI: -.038~0.006, p=0.357, however, the indirect effects from PSS-10 via affect factors were statistically significant, e.g. the estimated mediation effects from PSS to EAT-26 via depression and anxiety were 0.036 (95%CI: 0.022~0.044, p<0.001 and 0.015 (95%CI: 0.005~0.023, p<0.01, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Perceived stress and negative affects of depression and anxiety were demonstrated to be strongly associated with disordered eating. Negative affect mediated the relationship between perceived stress and disordered eating. The findings suggest that effective interventions and preventative programmes for disordered eating should pay more attention to depression and anxiety among the young Chinese female population.

  18. Liver enzymes and psychological well-being response to aerobic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... Background: Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is a medical condition that has broad implications for a person's physical and ... Objective: The aim of this study was to detect changes in liver enzymes and psychological well-being in response to aerobic .... of mood that can be used to calculate a Total Mood.

  19. The relationship between negative responses to HIV status disclosure and psychosocial outcomes among people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cama, Elena; Brener, Loren; Slavin, Sean; de Wit, John

    2017-07-01

    This report examines rates of HIV status disclosure and negative responses to disclosure among people living with HIV in Australia. Among 697 people living with HIV, most (>90%) had disclosed their status to friends, sexual partners and health providers. Almost a third had not disclosed to family, and half had not told any work colleagues. Negative responses to disclosure (e.g. blame, rejection) by all groups were associated with increased HIV-related stigma, psychological distress and diminished social support and health satisfaction. These results shed light on rates of disclosure among people living with HIV in Australia and the adverse health impacts of negative responses to disclosure.

  20. Psychological and physiological responses following repeated peer death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Pizarro Andersen

    Full Text Available Undergraduates at a university in the United States were exposed - directly and indirectly - to 14 peer deaths during one academic year. We examined how individual and social factors were associated with psychological (e.g., anxiety, depression, somatization and physiological (i.e., cortisol distress responses following this unexpected and repeated experience with loss.Two to three months after the final peer death, respondents (N = 122, 61% female, 18-23 years, M = 20.13, SD = 1.14 reported prior adverse experiences, degree of closeness with the deceased, acute responses to the peer deaths, ongoing distress responses, social support, support seeking, and media viewing. A subset (n = 24 returned hair samples for evaluation of cortisol responses during the previous 3 months.Ongoing psychological distress was associated with a prior interpersonal trauma, b fewer social supports, and c media exposure to news of the deaths (p's25 p/mg compared to individuals with one or two prior bereavement experiences (who were, on average, within the normal range, 10 to 25 p/mg (p<.05. Only 8% of the sample utilized available university psychological or physical health resources and support groups.Limited research has examined the psychological and physiological impact of exposure to chronic, repeated peer loss, despite the fact that there are groups of individuals (e.g., police, military soldiers that routinely face such exposures. Prior adversity appears to play a role in shaping psychological and physiological responses to repeated loss. This topic warrants further research given the health implications of repeated loss for individuals in high-risk occupations and university settings.

  1. The influence of a motivational climate intervention on participants' salivary cortisol and psychological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Candace M; Fry, Mary D; Fry, Andrew C; Pressman, Sarah D

    2013-02-01

    Research in achievement goal perspective theory suggests that the creation of a caring/task-involving (C/TI) climate results in more advantageous psychological and behavioral responses relative to an ego-involving (EI) climate; however, research has not yet examined the physiological consequences associated with psychological stress in relation to climate. Given the possible health and fitness implications of certain physiological stress responses, it is critical to understand this association. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine whether an EI climate procures increases in the stress-responsive hormone cortisol, as well as negative psychological changes, following the learning of a new skill, compared with a C/TI climate. Participants (n = 107) were randomized to a C/TI or an EI climate in which they learned how to juggle for 30 min over the course of 2 hr. Seven salivary cortisol samples were collected during this period. Results indicated that EI participants experienced greater cortisol responses after the juggling session and significantly greater anxiety, stress, shame, and self-consciousness relative to C/TI participants. In contrast, the C/TI participants reported greater enjoyment, effort, self-confidence, and interest and excitement regarding future juggling than the EI participants. These findings indicate that motivational climates may have a significant impact on both the physiological and psychological responses of participants.

  2. Negative affect mediates effects of psychological stress on disordered eating in young Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jue; Wang, Zhen; Guo, Boliang; Arcelus, Jon; Zhang, Haiyin; Jia, Xiuzhen; Xu, Yong; Qiu, Jianyin; Xiao, Zeping; Yang, Min

    2012-01-01

    The bi-relationships between psychological stress, negative affect and disordered eating has been well studied in western culture, while tri-relationship among them, i.e. how some of those factors influence these bi-relationships, has rarely been studied. However, there has been little related study in the different Chinese culture. This study was conducted to investigate the bi-relationships and tri-relationship between psychological stress, negative affect, and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in young Chinese women. A total of 245 young Chinese policewomen employed to carry out health and safety checks at the 2010 Shanghai World Expo were recruited in this study. The Chinese version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), Beck Depression Inventory Revised (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) were administered to all participants. The total scores of PSS-10, BDI-II and BAI were all highly correlated with that of EAT-26. The PSS-10 score significantly correlated with both BDI-II and BAI scores. There was no statistically significant direct effect from perceived stress to disordered eating (-0.012, 95%CI: -.038~0.006, p=0.357), however, the indirect effects from PSS-10 via affect factors were statistically significant, e.g. the estimated mediation effects from PSS to EAT-26 via depression and anxiety were 0.036 (95%CI: 0.022~0.044, peffective interventions and preventative programmes for disordered eating should pay more attention to depression and anxiety among the young Chinese female population.

  3. The wandering mood: psychological and neural determinants of rest-related negative affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal eGruberger

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rest related negative affect (RRNA has gained scientific interest in the past decade. However, it is mostly studied within the context of mind-wandering (MW, and the relevance of other psychological and neural aspects of the resting state to its' occurrence has never been studied. Several indications associate RRNA with internally directed attention, yet the nature of this relation remains largely unknown. Moreover, the role of neural networks associated with rest related phenomenology - the default mode (DMN, executive (EXE and salience (SAL networks, has not been studied in this context. To this end, we explored two 5- (baseline and 15-minute resting-state simultaneous fMRI-EEG scans of 29 participants. As vigilance has been shown to affect attention, and thus its availability for inward allocation, EEG-based vigilance levels were computed for each participant. Questionnaires for affective assessment were administered before and after scans, and retrospective reports of MW were additionally collected. Results revealed increased negative affect following rest, but only among participants who retained high vigilance levels. Among low-vigilance participants, changes in negative affect were negligible, despite reports of MW occurrence in both groups. In addition, in the high-vigilance group only, a significant increase in functional connectivity (FC levels was found between the DMN-related ventral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC,associated with emotional processing, and the EXE-related dorsal ACC, associated with monitoring of self and other's behavior. These heightened FC levels further correlated with reported negative affect among this group. Taken together, these results demonstrate that, rather than an unavoidable outcome of the resting state, RRNA depends on internal allocation of attention at rest. Results are discussed in terms of two rest-related possible scenarios which defer in mental and neural processing, and subsequently, in the

  4. The wandering mood: psychological and neural determinants of rest-related negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruberger, Michal; Maron-Katz, Adi; Sharon, Haggai; Hendler, Talma; Ben-Simon, Eti

    2013-01-01

    Rest related negative affect (RRNA) has gained scientific interest in the past decade. However, it is mostly studied within the context of mind-wandering (MW), and the relevance of other psychological and neural aspects of the resting state to its' occurrence has never been studied. Several indications associate RRNA with internally directed attention, yet the nature of this relation remains largely unknown. Moreover, the role of neural networks associated with rest related phenomenology - the default mode (DMN), executive (EXE), and salience (SAL) networks, has not been studied in this context. To this end, we explored two 5 (baseline) and 15-minute resting-state simultaneous fMRI-EEG scans of 29 participants. As vigilance has been shown to affect attention, and thus its availability for inward allocation, EEG-based vigilance levels were computed for each participant. Questionnaires for affective assessment were administered before and after scans, and retrospective reports of MW were additionally collected. Results revealed increased negative affect following rest, but only among participants who retained high vigilance levels. Among low-vigilance participants, changes in negative affect were negligible, despite reports of MW occurrence in both groups. In addition, in the high-vigilance group only, a significant increase in functional connectivity (FC) levels was found between the DMN-related ventral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), associated with emotional processing, and the EXE-related dorsal ACC, associated with monitoring of self and other's behavior. These heightened FC levels further correlated with reported negative affect among this group. Taken together, these results demonstrate that, rather than an unavoidable outcome of the resting state, RRNA depends on internal allocation of attention at rest. Results are discussed in terms of two rest-related possible scenarios which defer in mental and neural processing, and subsequently, in the occurrence of

  5. Effects of CEOs’ Negative Traits on Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Kyu Myung

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The dark triad, composed of Machiavellianism, psychopathy and narcissism, refers to negative personality traits, which may influence business processes. While negative traits could be an important factor explaining the relationship between a CEO’s immoral and unethical behavior and corporate social responsibility (CSR, there has been minimal research focusing on this relationship. This paper thus attempts to investigate how a CEO exhibiting these negative traits affects CSR, and if an employee’s perception of ethics and social responsibility would mediate the relationship. In addition, this paper considers the moderating effects of an individual performance-based compensation system (IPBCS between employee’s CSR perception and CSR activities. The data are collected through a survey conducted on 165 employees (companies in twelve industries. The regression result indicates an inverse relationship between the negative traits of a CEO and an employee’s perception of ethics and social responsibility and CSR activities, and the mediating effect of the perception in the relationship between the negative traits and CSR activities. It also indicates that an IPBCS moderates the relationship between CSR perception and activities. Implications for the study, future research directions, and management approach are discussed.

  6. Effects of continued psychological care toward brain tumor patients and their family members' negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ning; Zhu, Dan; Xiao, Shuiyuan

    2018-01-01

    Numerous studies have confirmed that brain tumor patients and their family members frequently exhibit negative emotional reactions, such as anxiety and depression, during diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Family members experience increasing pressure as the year of survival of patient progress. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the continued psychological care (CPC) toward the brain tumor patients and their family members' emotions. The asynchronous clinical control trial was performed, and 162 brain tumor patients and their family members were divided into the control group and the intervention group. The control group was only performed the telephone follow-up toward the patients. Beside this way, the intervention group was performed the CPC toward the patients and their family member. The self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and the self-rating depression scale (SDS) were used to measure the negative emotions of the patients and their family members, and the patients' treatment compliance and the incidence of seizures were compared. The SAS and SDS scores of the intervention group on the 14 days, 28 days and 3 months of the CPC were significantly lower than the control group (P family members.

  7. Modeling the Relationship Between Trauma and Psychological Distress Among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Women

    OpenAIRE

    Delany-Brumsey, A; Joseph, NT; Myers, HF; Ullman, JB; Wyatt, GE

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the association between cumulative exposure to multiple traumatic events and psychological distress, as mediated by problematic substance use and impaired psychosocial resources. A sample of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women were assessed for a history of childhood and adult sexual abuse and non-sexual trauma as predictors of psychological distress (i.e., depression, non-specific anxiety, and posttraumatic stress), as mediated by problematic alcohol and drug use and ...

  8. The opportunity cost of negative screening in socially responsible investing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trinks, Pieter Jan; Scholtens, Bert

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of negative screening on the investment universe as well as on financial performance. We come up with a novel identification process and as such depart from mainstream Socially Responsible Investing (SRI) literature by concentrating on individual firms’ conduct and

  9. Psychological and hormonal stress response patterns during a blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogerwerf, M D; Veldhuizen, I J T; Merz, E-M; de Kort, W L A M; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K

    2017-11-01

    Donating blood has been associated with increased stress responses, with scarce evidence indicating that levels of psychological and hormonal stress are higher pre-donation than post-donation. We investigated whether a blood donation induces psychological and/or hormonal stress during the course of a blood donation, and whether responses differed between men and women, first-time and experienced donors and donors with high or low non-acute stress. In 363 donors, psychological (donation-stress and arousal) and hormonal (cortisol) stress were measured by questionnaire and salivary sample at seven key moments during a routine donation. Non-acute stress was assessed by a questionnaire. Repeated measurement analyses were performed, using the last measurement (leaving the donation center) as reference value. Levels of donation-stress, arousal and cortisol were significantly higher during donation than when leaving the donation center. When compared with men, women reported higher levels of donation-stress and cortisol in the first part of the visit. When compared with first-time donors, experienced donors reported lower levels of donation-stress during the first part of the visit, and higher levels of arousal but less reactivity throughout the visit. When compared to donors high on non-acute stress, donors low on non-acute stress reported lower levels of donation-stress during the first part of the visit, and showed less cortisol reactivity throughout the visit. Donating blood influences psychological and hormonal stress response patterns. The response patterns differ between women and men, first-time and experienced donors and between donors high and low on non-acute stress. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  10. Coping as a mediator of the relationship between stress mindset and psychological stress response: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Satoshi; Tsuda, Akira; Aoki, Shuntaro; Yoneda, Kenichiro; Sawaguchi, Yusuke

    2018-01-01

    Coping, the cognitive and behavioral effort required to manage the effects of stressors, is important in determining psychological stress responses (ie, the emotional, behavioral, and cognitive responses to stressors). Coping was classified into categories of emotional expression (eg, negative feelings and thoughts), emotional support seeking (eg, approaching loved ones to request encouragement), cognitive reinterpretation (eg, reframing a problem positively), and problem solving (eg, working to solve the problem). Stress mindset refers to the belief that stress has enhancing (stress-is-enhancing mindset) or debilitating consequences (stress-is-debilitating mindset). This study examined whether coping mediated the relationship between stress mindset and psychological stress responses. Psychological stress responses were conceptualized as depression-anxiety, irritability-anger, and helplessness. The following two hypotheses were tested: 1) a stronger stress-is-enhancing mindset is associated with less frequent use of emotional expression, emotional support seeking, and problem solving, which in turn is associated with lower levels of depression-anxiety, irritability-anger, and helplessness; 2) a stronger stress-is-debilitating mindset is associated with more frequent use of these coping strategies, which in turn is associated with higher levels of these psychological stress responses. The participants were 30 male and 94 female undergraduate and graduate students (mean age =20.4 years). Stress mindset, coping, and psychological stress responses were measured using self-report questionnaires. Six mediation analyses were performed with stress-is-enhancing mindset or stress-is-debilitating mindset as the independent variable, one of the psychological stress responses as the dependent variable, and the four coping strategies as mediators. Emotional expression partially mediated the relationship between a strong stress-is-debilitating mindset and higher irritability

  11. Modeling the Relationship between Trauma and Psychological Distress among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumsey, Ayesha Delany; Joseph, Nataria T; Myers, Hector F; Ullman, Jodie B; Wyatt, Gail E

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the association between cumulative exposure to multiple traumatic events and psychological distress, as mediated by problematic substance use and impaired psychosocial resources. A sample of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women were assessed for a history of childhood and adult sexual abuse and non-sexual trauma as predictors of psychological distress (i.e., depression, non-specific anxiety, and posttraumatic stress), as mediated by problematic alcohol and drug use and psychosocial resources (i.e., social support, self-esteem and optimism). Structural equation modeling confirmed that cumulative trauma exposure is positively associated with greater psychological distress, and that this association is partially mediated through impaired psychosocial resources. However, although cumulative trauma was associated with greater problematic substance use, substance use did not mediate the relationship between trauma and psychological distress.

  12. Creativity as an Attribute of Positive Psychology: The Impact of Positive and Negative Affect on the Creative Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charyton, Christine; Hutchison, Shannon; Snow, Lindsay; Rahman, Mohammed A.; Elliott, John O.

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology explores how optimism can lead to health, happiness, and creativity. However, questions remain as to how affective states influence creativity. Data on creative personality, optimism, pessimism, positive and negative affect, and current and usual happiness ratings were collected on 161 college students enrolled in an…

  13. The Effect of Positive or Negative Frame on the Choices of Students in School Psychology and Educational Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagley, N. S.; Miller, Paul M.; Jones, Robert N.

    1999-01-01

    Doctoral students (N=109) in school psychology and educational administration responded to five decision problems whose outcomes were framed either positively as gains or negatively as losses. Frame and profession significantly affected the number of risky choices. Educational administration students made more risky choices than school psychology…

  14. Coping as a mediator of the relationship between stress mindset and psychological stress response: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horiuchi S

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Satoshi Horiuchi,1 Akira Tsuda,2 Shuntaro Aoki,3,4 Kenichiro Yoneda,5 Yusuke Sawaguchi6 1Faculty of Social Welfare, Iwate Prefectural University, Iwate, 2Department of Psychology, Kurume University, Fukuoka, 3Research Fellow of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, 4Graduate School of Psychological Science, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, Hokkaido, 5Graduate School of Psychology, Kurume University, Fukuoka, 6Graduate School of Social Welfare, Iwate Prefectural University, Iwate, Japan Background: Coping, the cognitive and behavioral effort required to manage the effects of stressors, is important in determining psychological stress responses (ie, the emotional, behavioral, and cognitive responses to stressors. Coping was classified into categories of emotional expression (eg, negative feelings and thoughts, emotional support seeking (eg, approaching loved ones to request encouragement, cognitive reinterpretation (eg, reframing a problem positively, and problem solving (eg, working to solve the problem. Stress mindset refers to the belief that stress has enhancing (stress-is-enhancing mindset or debilitating consequences (stress-is-debilitating mindset. This study examined whether coping mediated the relationship between stress mindset and psychological stress responses. Psychological stress responses were conceptualized as depression-anxiety, irritability-anger, and helplessness. The following two hypotheses were tested: 1 a stronger stress-is-enhancing mindset is associated with less frequent use of emotional expression, emotional support seeking, and problem solving, which in turn is associated with lower levels of depression-anxiety, irritability-anger, and helplessness; 2 a stronger stress-is-debilitating mindset is associated with more frequent use of these coping strategies, which in turn is associated with higher levels of these psychological stress responses. Materials and methods: The participants were 30 male and

  15. The mediating role of emotional intelligence between negative life events and psychological distress among nursing students: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pan; Li, Chang-Zai; Zhao, Ya-Ning; Xing, Feng-Mei; Chen, Chang-Xiang; Tian, Xi-Feng; Tang, Qi-Qun

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have highlighted that negative life events and emotional intelligence are significant predictors of mental health. However, whether emotional intelligence mediates the relationship between negative life events and psychological distress among nursing students have not been given adequate attention. To explore the relationship among negative life events, emotional intelligence and psychological distress and to examine the mediating role of emotional intelligence in psychological distress among Chinese nursing students. A cross-sectional survey using convenience sampling. A total of 467 nursing students who were enrolled in a university in mainland of China. A structured questionnaire was administered from September-November in 2013 to participants who consented to participate in the study. Independent variables were personal variables, emotional intelligence and negative life events. Outcome variable was psychological health. The means and standard deviations were computed. Student's t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were performed, to test the differences among the demographic characteristics on the psychological distress scores. Pearson correlation analyses and hierarchical regression analyses were performed. Negative life events were positively associated with psychological distress. Emotional intelligence was negatively associated with psychological distress and negative life events. Emotional intelligence mediated the relationship between negative life events and psychological distress. The findings support the theory of Salovey and his colleagues, and provide evidence for emotional intelligence as a factor that buffers effects of negative life events on psychological distress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Effectiveness of Psychological Services of Rehabilitation Period on Addictions’ Negative Self Concept, Anxiety, Depression and Self Esteem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasan Bavi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Psychological services of rehabilitation period on negative self concept, anxiety, depression and self esteem of T.C. addicts of Ahwaz city in 1386-1387. Method: The research design was semi experimental namely: pretest-posttest with one group. Population was all self reported addicts that accepted in Ahwaz T.C. center for 4 months period. The sample was 50 addicts who were selected by available sampling. Before psychological services pre test was administered. The questionnaires were administered in this research were Rogers's self concept, Cattle’s anxiety, Beck's depression and Copper Smith's self esteem questionnaire. Results: the results showed that the psychological services were effective on reduction of addicts’ negative self concept, depression, and anxiety also, on increasing of their self esteem. Conclusion: The results showed that participation of T.C. and using of psychological services can be affected on reduction of negative self concept, depression, and anxiety also, on increasing of self esteem.

  17. Fulfilling Desire: Evidence for negative feedback between men’s testosterone, sociosexual psychology, and sexual partner number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puts, David A.; Pope, Lauramarie E.; Hill, Alexander K.; Cárdenas, Rodrigo A.; Welling, Lisa L. M.; Wheatley, John R.; Breedlove, S. Marc

    2015-01-01

    Across human societies and many nonhuman animals, males have greater interest in uncommitted sex (more unrestricted sociosexuality) than do females. Testosterone shows positive associations with male-typical sociosexual behavior in nonhuman animals. Yet, it remains unclear whether the human sex difference in sociosexual psychology (attitudes and desires) is mediated by testosterone, whether any relationships between testosterone and sociosexuality differ between men and women, and what the nature of these possible relationships might be. In studies to resolve these questions, we examined relationships between salivary testosterone concentrations and sociosexual psychology and behavior in men and women. We measured testosterone in all men in our sample, but only in those women taking oral contraception (OC-using women) in order to reduce the influence of ovulatory cycle variation in ovarian hormone production. We found that OC-using women did not differ from normally-ovulating women in sociosexual psychology or behavior, but that circulating testosterone mediated the sex difference in human sociosexuality and predicted sociosexual psychology in men but not OC-using women. Moreover, when sociosexual psychology was controlled, men’s sociosexual behavior (number of sexual partners) was negatively related to testosterone, suggesting that testosterone drives sociosexual psychology in men and is inhibited when those desires are fulfilled. This more complex relationship between androgen and male sexuality may reconcile some conflicting prior reports. PMID:25644313

  18. Physical fitness and cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, P. B.; Rohm-Young, D.; Blomqvist, C. G.

    1984-01-01

    Klein et al. (1977) have questioned the concept of endurance training as an appropriate means of preparing for prolonged space flights. Their opinion was mainly based on reports of endurance athletes who had a decreased tolerance to orthostatic or gravitational stress induced by lower body negative pressure (LBNP), upright tilt, or whole body water immersion. The present investigation had the objective to determine if the hemodynamic response to LBNP is different between a high and average fit group of subjects. In addition, the discrete aspect of cardiovascular function which had been altered by chronic training was to be identified. On the basis of the results of experiments conducted with 14 young male volunteers, it is concluded that the reflex response to central hypovolemia is altered by endurance exercise training.

  19. The Analysis of the Science and Technology Enterprise Core Employee Turnover Negative Effects – Based on the theory of psychological contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Xin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the problem of negative effect of resignation of core employees from scientific enterprise based on psychological contract theory and summary of references. It uses questionnaires to analyze the data and construct a model of negative effect of resignation caused by psychological contract violation. It also makes an analysis on resignation tendency and negative effect of resignation in two perspectives to provide a basis for reduction of the negative effect.

  20. Responses to negative pressure surrounding the neck in anesthetized animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolin, A D; Strohl, K P; Acree, B N; Fouke, J M

    1990-01-01

    Continuous positive pressure applied at the nose has been shown to cause a decrease in upper airway resistance. The present study was designed to determine whether a similar positive transmural pressure gradient, generated by applying a negative pressure at the body surface around the neck, altered upper airway patency. Studies were performed in nine spontaneously breathing anesthetized supine dogs. Airflow was measured with a pneumotachograph mounted on an airtight muzzle placed over the nose and mouth of each animal. Upper airway pressure was measured as the differential pressure between the extrathoracic trachea and the inside of the muzzle. Upper airway resistance was monitored as an index of airway patency. Negative pressure (-2 to -20 cmH2O) was applied around the neck by using a cuirass extending from the jaw to the thorax. In each animal, increasingly negative pressures were transmitted to the airway wall in a progressive, although not linear, fashion. Decreasing the pressure produced a progressive fall in upper airway resistance, without causing a significant change in respiratory drive or respiratory timing. At -5 cmH2O pressure, there occurred a significant fall in upper airway resistance, comparable with the response of a single, intravenous injection of sodium cyanide (0.5-3.0 mg), a respiratory stimulant that produces substantial increases in respiratory drive. We conclude that upper airway resistance is influenced by the transmural pressure across the airway wall and that such a gradient can be accomplished by making the extraluminal pressure more negative.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Negative Academic Emotion and Psychological Well-being in Chinese Rural-to-Urban Migrant Adolescents: Examining the Moderating Role of Cognitive Reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daoyang; Li, Shuting; Hu, Mingming; Dong, Dan; Tao, Sha

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to explore the relationship among negative academic emotions (e.g., anxiety, shame, anger, boredom, hopelessness, disappointment, and hatred), psychological well-being (including life vitality, health concern, altruism commitment, self-value, friendly relationship, and personal development), and cognitive reappraisal in rural-to-urban migrant adolescents in China. Specifically, it was hypothesized that the relationship between psychological well-being and negative academic emotions is moderated by cognitive reappraisal. A total of 311 migrant adolescents aged 14-20 years were selected, including 132 boys and 179 girls. Results of a regression analysis showed that cognitive reappraisal (positive) and negative academic emotions were significant predictors of psychological well-being. The interaction effect between cognitive reappraisal and negative academic emotion was also a significant predictor of psychological well-being. In the simple slope analysis the group with a below average cognitive reappraisal score the negative academic emotions were associated with lower psychological well-being, whereas in the group with above average cognitive reappraisal the effect of negative academic emotions on psychological well-being was not significant. However, for those with a cognitive reappraisal score of 1 standard deviation above the average, the effect of negative academic emotions on psychological well-being was not significant. These results suggest that cognitive reappraisal was a significant moderator in the relationship between negative academic emotion and psychological well-being.

  2. Negative Academic Emotion and Psychological Well-being in Chinese Rural-to-Urban Migrant Adolescents: Examining the Moderating Role of Cognitive Reappraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoyang Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to explore the relationship among negative academic emotions (e.g., anxiety, shame, anger, boredom, hopelessness, disappointment, and hatred, psychological well-being (including life vitality, health concern, altruism commitment, self-value, friendly relationship, and personal development, and cognitive reappraisal in rural-to-urban migrant adolescents in China. Specifically, it was hypothesized that the relationship between psychological well-being and negative academic emotions is moderated by cognitive reappraisal. A total of 311 migrant adolescents aged 14–20 years were selected, including 132 boys and 179 girls. Results of a regression analysis showed that cognitive reappraisal (positive and negative academic emotions were significant predictors of psychological well-being. The interaction effect between cognitive reappraisal and negative academic emotion was also a significant predictor of psychological well-being. In the simple slope analysis the group with a below average cognitive reappraisal score the negative academic emotions were associated with lower psychological well-being, whereas in the group with above average cognitive reappraisal the effect of negative academic emotions on psychological well-being was not significant. However, for those with a cognitive reappraisal score of 1 standard deviation above the average, the effect of negative academic emotions on psychological well-being was not significant. These results suggest that cognitive reappraisal was a significant moderator in the relationship between negative academic emotion and psychological well-being.

  3. Salivary kynurenic acid response to psychological stress: inverse relationship to cortical glutamate in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappelli, Joshua; Rowland, Laura M; Notarangelo, Francesca M; Wijtenburg, S Andrea; Thomas, Marian A R; Pocivavsek, Ana; Jones, Aaron; Wisner, Krista; Kochunov, Peter; Schwarcz, Robert; Hong, L Elliot

    2018-04-18

    Frontal glutamatergic synapses are thought to be critical for adaptive, long-term stress responses. Prefrontal cortices, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) contribute to stress perception and regulation, and are involved in top-down regulation of peripheral glucocorticoid and inflammatory responses to stress. Levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA) in saliva increase in response to psychological stress, and this stress-induced effect may be abnormal in people with schizophrenia. Here we test the hypothesis that ACC glutamatergic functioning may contribute to the stress-induced salivary KYNA response in schizophrenia. In 56 patients with schizophrenia and 58 healthy controls, our results confirm that levels of KYNA in saliva increase following psychological stress. The magnitude of the effect correlated negatively with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) glutamate + glutamine (r = -.31, p = .017) and glutamate (r = -0.27, p = .047) levels in the ACC in patients but not in the controls (all p ≥ .45). Although, a causal relationship cannot be ascertained in this cross-sectional study, these findings suggest a potentially meaningful link between central glutamate levels and kynurenine pathway response to stress in individuals with schizophrenia.

  4. Effects of acute psychological stress on placebo and nocebo responses in a clinically relevant model of visceroception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderigo, Till; Benson, Sven; Schöls, Margarita; Hetkamp, Madeleine; Schedlowski, Manfred; Enck, Paul; Elsenbruch, Sigrid

    2017-08-01

    There is evidence to suggest a role of emotions in placebo and nocebo effects, but whether acute psychological stress changes the magnitude of placebo or nocebo responses has not been tested. In a clinically relevant model of visceroception, we assessed effects of acute psychological stress on changes in urgency and pain in response to positive or negative treatment suggestions. In 120 healthy volunteers, perceived urge-to-defecate and pain in response to individually calibrated rectal distensions were measured with visual analogue scales during a BASELINE. Participants then underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (N = 60) or a simple cognitive task (control, N = 60) and were randomized to positive (placebo), negative (nocebo), or neutral treatment information regarding intravenous administration of saline. The series of distensions was repeated, and changes in visual analogue scales from BASELINE to TEST were compared between groups using analysis of covariance and planned post hoc tests. Treatment information emerged as a main factor (P effects for both urgency and pain. Effects for urgency were modulated by stress (interaction effect: P stressed groups. For pain, effects of stress emerged for nocebo responses, which were only evident in stressed groups (P = 0.009). This is the first experimental study supporting effects of acute psychological stress on placebo and nocebo responses in visceroception. Results call for mechanistic as well as patient studies to assess how psychological stress shapes patients' treatment expectations and thereby affects health outcomes.

  5. Interrelation and independence of positive and negative psychological constructs in predicting general treatment adherence in coronary artery patients - Results from the THORESCI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Montfort, Eveline; Denollet, Johan; Widdershoven, Jos; Kupper, Nina

    2016-09-01

    In cardiac patients, positive psychological factors have been associated with improved medical and psychological outcomes. The current study examined the interrelation between and independence of multiple positive and negative psychological constructs. Furthermore, the potential added predictive value of positive psychological functioning regarding the prediction of patients' treatment adherence and participation in cardiac rehabilitation (CR) was investigated. 409 percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) patients were included (mean age = 65.6 ± 9.5; 78% male). Self-report questionnaires were administered one month post-PCI. Positive psychological constructs included positive affect (GMS) and optimism (LOT-R); negative constructs were depression (PHQ-9, BDI), anxiety (GAD-7) and negative affect (GMS). Six months post-PCI self-reported general adherence (MOS) and CR participation were determined. Factor Analysis (Oblimin rotation) revealed two components (r = − 0.56), reflecting positive and negative psychological constructs. Linear regression analyses showed that in unadjusted analyses both optimism and positive affect were associated with better general treatment adherence at six months (p psychological constructs (i.e. optimism) may be of incremental value to negative psychological constructs in predicting patients' treatment adherence. A more complete view of a patients' psychological functioning will open new avenues for treatment. Additional research is needed to investigate the relationship between positive psychological factors and other cardiac outcomes, such as cardiac events and mortality.

  6. Psychological stress during exercise: immunoendocrine and oxidative responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Webb, Heather E; Evans, Ronald K; McCleod, Kelly A; Tangsilsat, Supatchara E; Kamimori, Gary H; Acevedo, Edmund O

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in catecholamines (epinephrine [EPI] and norepinephrine [NE]), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and a biomarker of oxidative stress (8-isoprostane) in healthy individuals who were exposed to a dual challenge (physical and psychological stress). Furthermore, this study also examined the possible relationships between catecholamines (NE and EPI) and 8-isoprostane and between IL-2 and 8-isoprostane following a combined physical and psychological challenge. Seven healthy male subjects completed two experimental conditions. The exercise-alone condition (EAC) consisted of cycling at 60% VO(2max) for 37 min, while the dual-stress condition (DSC) included 20 min of a mental challenge while cycling. DSC showed greater EPI and 8-isoprostane levels (significant condition by time interaction). NE and IL-2 revealed significant change across time in both conditions. In addition, following dual stress, EPI area-under-the-curve (AUC) demonstrated a positive correlation with NE AUC and IL-2 AUC. NE AUC was positively correlated with IL-2 AUC and peak 8-isoprostane, and peak IL-2 was positively correlated with peak 8-isoprostane in response to a dual stress. The potential explanation for elevated oxidative stress during dual stress may be through the effects of the release of catecholamines and IL-2. These findings may further provide the potential explanation that dual stress alters physiological homeostasis in many occupations including firefighting, military operations and law enforcement. A greater understanding of these responses to stress can assist in finding strategies (e.g. exercise training) to overcome the inherent psychobiological challenges associated with physically and mentally demanding professions.

  7. Negative Effects of Psychological Treatments: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Negative Effects Questionnaire for Monitoring and Reporting Adverse and Unwanted Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottorp, Anders; Boettcher, Johanna; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per

    2016-01-01

    Research conducted during the last decades has provided increasing evidence for the use of psychological treatments for a number of psychiatric disorders and somatic complaints. However, by focusing only on the positive outcomes, less attention has been given to the potential of negative effects. Despite indications of deterioration and other adverse and unwanted events during treatment, little is known about their occurrence and characteristics. Hence, in order to facilitate research of negative effects, a new instrument for monitoring and reporting their incidence and impact was developed using a consensus among researchers, self-reports by patients, and a literature review: the Negative Effects Questionnaire. Participants were recruited via a smartphone-delivered self-help treatment for social anxiety disorder and through the media (N = 653). An exploratory factor analysis was performed, resulting in a six-factor solution with 32 items, accounting for 57.64% of the variance. The derived factors were: symptoms, quality, dependency, stigma, hopelessness, and failure. Items related to unpleasant memories, stress, and anxiety were experienced by more than one-third of the participants. Further, increased or novel symptoms, as well as lack of quality in the treatment and therapeutic relationship rendered the highest self-reported negative impact. In addition, the findings were discussed in relation to prior research and other similar instruments of adverse and unwanted events, giving credence to the items that are included. The instrument is presently available in eleven different languages and can be freely downloaded and used from www.neqscale.com. PMID:27331907

  8. Negative Effects of Psychological Treatments: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Negative Effects Questionnaire for Monitoring and Reporting Adverse and Unwanted Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozental, Alexander; Kottorp, Anders; Boettcher, Johanna; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per

    2016-01-01

    Research conducted during the last decades has provided increasing evidence for the use of psychological treatments for a number of psychiatric disorders and somatic complaints. However, by focusing only on the positive outcomes, less attention has been given to the potential of negative effects. Despite indications of deterioration and other adverse and unwanted events during treatment, little is known about their occurrence and characteristics. Hence, in order to facilitate research of negative effects, a new instrument for monitoring and reporting their incidence and impact was developed using a consensus among researchers, self-reports by patients, and a literature review: the Negative Effects Questionnaire. Participants were recruited via a smartphone-delivered self-help treatment for social anxiety disorder and through the media (N = 653). An exploratory factor analysis was performed, resulting in a six-factor solution with 32 items, accounting for 57.64% of the variance. The derived factors were: symptoms, quality, dependency, stigma, hopelessness, and failure. Items related to unpleasant memories, stress, and anxiety were experienced by more than one-third of the participants. Further, increased or novel symptoms, as well as lack of quality in the treatment and therapeutic relationship rendered the highest self-reported negative impact. In addition, the findings were discussed in relation to prior research and other similar instruments of adverse and unwanted events, giving credence to the items that are included. The instrument is presently available in eleven different languages and can be freely downloaded and used from www.neqscale.com.

  9. Identifying psychological responses of stigmatized groups to referendums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Andrew R; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Gates, Gary J

    2018-04-10

    Public votes and referendums on the rights of marginalized communities are utilized in 27 states and occur with some regularity. However, research has only recently begun to examine the psychological consequences of these voter referendums for members of stigmatized groups, and a number of important questions remain regarding the internal validity and generalizability of the existing evidence. The current study advances this literature by combining survey data from a large probability-based sample conducted in 2012 [lesbian, gay, bisexual, and/or transgender (LGBT) n = 939; non-LGBT n = 31,067] with media market ad-buy data in states where marriage equality was on the ballot. Television media markets cross state boundaries, ensuring that there was an unintended group of people in 12 states who were exposed to the same-sex marriage discourse but who did not live in states with the voter referendum ("media market spillovers"). We take advantage of this unique data structure by comparing LGBT people in the media market spillovers to those residing in the same state but in nonspillover markets with no ad exposure. LGBT people are emotionally affected by these campaigns, and non-LGBT people are unaffected. LGBT people in markets with a cumulative total of 400 ads have a 34.0% greater probability of reporting stress than LGBT people not exposed to ads. Additionally, while the negative ads evoked sadness, positive ads evoked enjoyment and happiness. Thus, public votes on minority rights represent both a source of minority stress and resilience.

  10. Urban green spaces' effectiveness as a psychological buffer for the negative health impact of noise pollution: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhambov, Angel Mario; Dimitrova, Donka Dimitrova

    2014-01-01

    Noise pollution is one of the four major pollutions in the world. Little evidence exists about the actual preventive benefits of psychological noise attenuation by urban green spaces, especially from the perspective of environmental medicine and, to the best of our knowledge, there is not a systematic analysis on this topic. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate whether there is conclusive scientific evidence for the effectiveness of urban green spaces as a psychological buffer for the negative impact of noise pollution on human health and to promote an evidence-based approach toward this still growing environmental hazard. MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for experimental and epidemiological studies published before June 04, 2013 in English and Spanish. Data was independently extracted in two step process by the authors. Due to the heterogeneity of the included studies qualitative assessment was performed. We found moderate evidence that the presence of vegetation can generally reduce the negative perception of noise (supported with an electroencephalogram test in one of the experimental studies; consistent with the data from two epidemiological studies; one experiment found no effect and one was inconclusive about the positive effect). This review fills a gap in the literature and could help researchers further clarify the proper implementation of urban green spaces as a psychological buffer in areas with population exposed to chronic noise pollution.

  11. Negative Life Events Vary by Neighborhood and Mediate the Relation Between Neighborhood Context and Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although a considerable amount of neighborhood research has addressed how fear of negative events may activate stress responses, few studies have noted the potentially embedded nature of negative life events within spatial riskscapes. Co-occurring contextual social and physical h...

  12. Associations of Physical and Psychologic Symptom Burden in Patients With Philadelphia Chromosome-Negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Daniel C; Shaffer, Kelly M; Polizzi, Heather; Mascarenhas, John; Kremyanskaya, Marina; Holland, Jimmie; Hoffman, Ronald

    2018-01-31

    The physical symptom burden of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) may last for extended periods during their disease trajectories and lead to psychologic distress, anxiety, or depression or all of these. This study evaluated the relationship between physical symptom burden captured by the Physical Problem List (PPL) on the Distress Thermometer and Problem List and psychologic outcomes (distress, anxiety, and depression) in the MPN setting. Patients (N = 117) with MPNs completed questionnaires containing the Distress Thermometer and Problem List and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in a dedicated MPN clinic within an academic medical center. They reported symptoms from any of 22 physical problems on the PPL. Items endorsed by more than 10% of participants were assessed for their associations with distress (Distress Thermometer and Problem List), anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety), and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression). The total number of endorsed PPL items per participant was also evaluated. Nine of 22 PPL items (fatigue, sleep, pain, dry skin/pruritus, memory/concentration, feeling swollen, breathing, and sexual) were reported by >10% of participants. In univariate analyses, all PPL items but one were associated with distress and depression, and all but 2 were associated with anxiety. In multivariate analyses, the total number of PPL items was associated with depression only (p symptom burden in MPN patients was clearly associated with psychologic symptoms. Depression was uniquely associated with overall physical symptom burden. As such, the endorsement of multiple PPL items on the Distress Thermometer and Problem List should prompt an evaluation for psychologic symptoms to improve MPN patients' overall morbidity and quality of life. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The response of South African professional psychology associations to apartheid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, L J

    1990-01-01

    Professional psychology associations in South Africa have overtly and covertly furthered the aims of apartheid. Guidance about the ethical obligations of psychologists in the South African context has been singularly lacking, and as a result blacks have not been attracted to the profession of psychology in sufficient numbers to administer to psychological needs of the client population. The political dimension of psychological practice in South Africa needs to be addressed directly so that healing strategies relevant to the burgeoning racial conflict in South Africa can be implemented.

  14. Social and psychological state of the Chornobyl clean up workers. Risk factors for negative changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzunov, V O; Loganovsky, K N; Krasnikova, L I; Bomko, M O; Belyaev, Yu M; Yaroshenko, Zh S; Domashevska, T Ye

    2016-12-01

    It is generally recognized that the Chornobyl nuclear accident caused strong psychosocial stress affecting the entire population of Ukraine, primarily people involved in recovery operations. But what are the reasons? What is the struc ture of stressors? What are their social, medical and biological consequences, what are strategy and preventive meas ures? Issues that require special research and development. To study social and psychological state of the Chornobyl cleanup workers 1986-1987, and to determine regularities of changes and dangerous risk factors. On the basis of Polyclinic of Radiation Registry, NRCRM, we conducted sample epidemiolog ical study of social and psychological state of the Chornobyl clean up workers 1986-1987. We used method of inter viewing based on «questionnaire», specially developed for this purpose. The study was conducted in October 2013 - May 2015. The sample numbered 235 males aged 18-50 at the time of the accident. Their average age was (31.3 ± 5.3) years at the time of the accident and (58.9 ± 5.3) at the time of survey. The results revealed that the Chornobyl nuclear accident and its consequences caused strong social and psychological stress among clean up workers 1986-1987. We have identified a set of factors closely related to the Chornobyl accident, they have caused a sustainable development of mental syndrome - «Anxiety about their own health and the health of family members, especially children». The other set of stressors which are not closely relat ed to the Chornobyl accident but are the result of the social and economic, social and political situation in the coun try. However the former was found to be the cause of such a psychological state as «dissatisfaction with the com pleteness and quality of life». Social and psychological state of the Chornobyl clean up workers 1986-1987 is estimated as «poor» and it integrally can be characterized as a state of chronic psychosocial stress. Mental syndrome

  15. The Relationship Between Psychological Distress, Negative Cognitions, and Expectancies on Problem Drinking: Exploring a Growing Problem Among University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obasi, Ezemenari M; Brooks, Jessica J; Cavanagh, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have sought to understand the concurrent relationship between cognitive and affective processes on alcohol use and negative alcohol-related consequences, despite both being identified as predictive risk factors in the college population. More research is needed to understand the relationships between identified factors of problem drinking among this at-risk population. The purpose of this study was to test if the relationship between psychological distress and problem drinking among university students (N = 284; M-age = 19.77) was mediated by negative affect regulation strategies and positive alcohol-related expectancies. Two latent mediation models of problem drinking were tested using structural equation modeling (SEM). The parsimonious three-path mediated latent model was supported by the data, as evidenced by several model fit indices. Furthermore, the alternate saturated model provided similar fit to the data, but contained several direct relationships that were not statistically significant. The relationship between psychological distress and problem drinking was mediated by an extended contributory chain, including negative affect regulation and positive alcohol-related expectancies. Implications for prevention and treatment, as well as future directions, are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Test-retest reliability of the multifocal photopic negative response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Alstine, Anthony W; Viswanathan, Suresh

    2017-02-01

    To assess the test-retest reliability of the multifocal photopic negative response (mfPhNR) of normal human subjects. Multifocal electroretinograms were recorded from one eye of 61 healthy adult subjects on two separate days using a Visual Evoked Response Imaging System software version 4.3 (EDI, San Mateo, California). The visual stimulus delivered on a 75-Hz monitor consisted of seven equal-sized hexagons each subtending 12° of visual angle. The m-step exponent was 9, and the m-sequence was slowed to include at least 30 blank frames after each flash. Only the first slice of the first-order kernel was analyzed. The mfPhNR amplitude was measured at a fixed time in the trough from baseline (BT) as well as at the same fixed time in the trough from the preceding b-wave peak (PT). Additionally, we also analyzed BT normalized either to PT (BT/PT) or to the b-wave amplitude (BT/b-wave). The relative reliability of test-retest differences for each test location was estimated by the Wilcoxon matched-pair signed-rank test and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Absolute test-retest reliability was estimated by Bland-Altman analysis. The test-retest amplitude differences for neither of the two measurement techniques were statistically significant as determined by Wilcoxon matched-pair signed-rank test. PT measurements showed greater ICC values than BT amplitude measurements for all test locations. For each measurement technique, the ICC value of the macular response was greater than that of the surrounding locations. The mean test-retest difference was close to zero for both techniques at each of the test locations, and while the coefficient of reliability (COR-1.96 times the standard deviation of the test-retest difference) was comparable for the two techniques at each test location when expressed in nanovolts, the %COR (COR normalized to the mean test and retest amplitudes) was superior for PT than BT measurements. The ICC and COR were comparable for the BT/PT and

  17. Preadolescents' Emotional and Prosocial Responses to Negative TV News: Investigating the Beneficial Effects of Constructive Reporting and Peer Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleemans, Mariska; Schlindwein, Luise F; Dohmen, Roos

    2017-09-01

    Watching news is important for preadolescents, but it may also harm their well-being. This study examined whether applying insights from positive psychology to news production can reduce this potential harm, by reducing negative emotional responses and enhancing positive emotional responses to negative news, and by encouraging prosocial intentions. Moreover, we explored whether peer discussion strengthened these effects. Preadolescents (n = 336; 9-13 years old; 48.5% female) were exposed to either constructive (solution-based news including positive emotions) or nonconstructive news. Subsequently, half of the children assigned to the constructive and the nonconstructive condition participated in a peer discussion. The findings showed that exposure to constructive news resulted in more positive emotional responses and less negative emotional responses as compared to nonconstructive news. Moreover, discussing the news with peers led to more positive and less negative emotional responses among preadolescents who watched the nonconstructive newscast, and to more prosocial intentions among preadolescents who watched constructive news. In all, constructive news reporting and peer discussion could function as tools to make negative news less harmful for preadolescents.

  18. Contemplative/emotion training reduces negative emotional behavior and promotes prosocial responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemeny, Margaret E; Foltz, Carol; Cavanagh, James F; Cullen, Margaret; Giese-Davis, Janine; Jennings, Patricia; Rosenberg, Erika L; Gillath, Omri; Shaver, Phillip R; Wallace, B Alan; Ekman, Paul

    2012-04-01

    Contemplative practices are believed to alleviate psychological problems, cultivate prosocial behavior and promote self-awareness. In addition, psychological science has developed tools and models for understanding the mind and promoting well-being. Additional effort is needed to combine frameworks and techniques from these traditions to improve emotional experience and socioemotional behavior. An 8-week intensive (42 hr) meditation/emotion regulation training intervention was designed by experts in contemplative traditions and emotion science to reduce "destructive enactment of emotions" and enhance prosocial responses. Participants were 82 healthy female schoolteachers who were randomly assigned to a training group or a wait-list control group, and assessed preassessment, postassessment, and 5 months after training completion. Assessments included self-reports and experimental tasks to capture changes in emotional behavior. The training group reported reduced trait negative affect, rumination, depression, and anxiety, and increased trait positive affect and mindfulness compared to the control group. On a series of behavioral tasks, the training increased recognition of emotions in others (Micro-Expression Training Tool), protected trainees from some of the psychophysiological effects of an experimental threat to self (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST), appeared to activate cognitive networks associated with compassion (lexical decision procedure), and affected hostile behavior in the Marital Interaction Task. Most effects at postassessment that were examined at follow-up were maintained (excluding positive affect, TSST rumination, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia recovery). Findings suggest that increased awareness of mental processes can influence emotional behavior, and they support the benefit of integrating contemplative theories/practices with psychological models and methods of emotion regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Environmental psychology: Human responses and relationships to natural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Williams

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to present a thorough assessment of environmental psychology as a way to understand relationships between people and natural landscapes, and to describe how this knowledge can be applied to natural resource management. Environmental psychology seeks to clarify how individuals perceive, experience and create meaning in the environment. In...

  20. Negative Effects of Psychological Treatments: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Negative Effects Questionnaire for Monitoring and Reporting Adverse and Unwanted Events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rozental

    Full Text Available Research conducted during the last decades has provided increasing evidence for the use of psychological treatments for a number of psychiatric disorders and somatic complaints. However, by focusing only on the positive outcomes, less attention has been given to the potential of negative effects. Despite indications of deterioration and other adverse and unwanted events during treatment, little is known about their occurrence and characteristics. Hence, in order to facilitate research of negative effects, a new instrument for monitoring and reporting their incidence and impact was developed using a consensus among researchers, self-reports by patients, and a literature review: the Negative Effects Questionnaire. Participants were recruited via a smartphone-delivered self-help treatment for social anxiety disorder and through the media (N = 653. An exploratory factor analysis was performed, resulting in a six-factor solution with 32 items, accounting for 57.64% of the variance. The derived factors were: symptoms, quality, dependency, stigma, hopelessness, and failure. Items related to unpleasant memories, stress, and anxiety were experienced by more than one-third of the participants. Further, increased or novel symptoms, as well as lack of quality in the treatment and therapeutic relationship rendered the highest self-reported negative impact. In addition, the findings were discussed in relation to prior research and other similar instruments of adverse and unwanted events, giving credence to the items that are included. The instrument is presently available in eleven different languages and can be freely downloaded and used from www.neqscale.com.

  1. Effects of Response Styles on the Report of Psychological and Somatic Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Wolfgang; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Assessed the impact of two major response style dimensions (self-deception and impression management) on the report of psychological and somatic symptoms. Results confirmed that response styles were more predictive of psychological than somatic symptoms. Both anxiety and depression were associated with a high rate of physical symptoms,…

  2. Human thermal physiological and psychological responses under different heating environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaojun; Ning, Haoran; Ji, Yuchen; Hou, Juan; He, Yanan

    2015-08-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that many residents of severely cold areas of China who use floor heating (FH) systems feel warmer but drier compared to those using radiant heating (RH) systems. However, this phenomenon has not been verified experimentally. In order to validate the empirical hypothesis, and research the differences of human physiological and psychological responses in these two asymmetrical heating environments, an experiment was designed to mimic FH and RH systems. The subjects participating in the experiment were volunteer college-students. During the experiment, the indoor air temperature, air speed, relative humidity, globe temperature, and inner surface temperatures were measured, and subjects' heart rate, blood pressure and skin temperatures were recorded. The subjects were required to fill in questionnaires about their thermal responses during testing. The results showed that the subjects' skin temperatures, heart rate and blood pressure were significantly affected by the type of heating environment. Ankle temperature had greatest impact on overall thermal comfort relative to other body parts, and a slightly cool FH condition was the most pleasurable environment for sedentary subjects. The overall thermal sensation, comfort and acceptability of FH were higher than that of RH. However, the subjects of FH felt drier than that of RH, although the relative humidity in FH environments was higher than that of the RH environment. In future environmental design, the thermal comfort of the ankles should be scrutinized, and a FH cool condition is recommended as the most comfortable thermal environment for office workers. Consequently, large amounts of heating energy could be saved in this area in the winter. The results of this study may lead to more efficient energy use for office or home heating systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The relationship between personality and the response to acute psychological stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xin, Yuanyuan; Wu, Jianhui; Yao, Zhuxi; Guan, Qing; Aleman, Andre; Luo, Yuejia

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between personality traits and the response to acute psychological stress induced by a standardized laboratory stress induction procedure (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST). The stress response was measured with a combination of cardiovascular

  4. Psychological stress during exercise: cardiorespiratory and hormonal responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Heather E; Weldy, Michael L; Fabianke-Kadue, Emily C; Orndorff, G R; Kamimori, Gary H; Acevedo, Edmund O

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cardiorespiratory (CR) and stress hormone responses to a combined physical and mental stress. Eight participants (VO2(max) = 41.24 +/- 6.20 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) completed two experimental conditions, a treatment condition including a 37 min ride at 60% of VO2(max) with participants responding to a computerized mental challenge dual stress condition (DSC) and a control condition of the same duration and intensity without the mental challenge exercise alone condition (EAC). Significant interactions across time were found for CR responses, with heart rate, ventilation, and respiration rate demonstrating higher increases in the DSC. Additionally, norepinephrine was significantly greater in the DSC at the end of the combined challenge. Furthermore, cortisol area-under-the-curve (AUC) was also significantly elevated during the DSC. These results demonstrate that a mental challenge during exercise can exacerbate the stress response, including the release of hormones that have been linked to negative health consequences (cardiovascular, metabolic, autoimmune illnesses).

  5. Vantage sensitivity: a framework for individual differences in response to psychological intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, Bernadette; Lionetti, Francesca; Pluess, Michael

    2018-06-01

    People differ significantly in their response to psychological intervention, with some benefitting more from treatment than others. According to the recently proposed theoretical framework of vantage sensitivity, some of this variability may be due to individual differences in environmental sensitivity, the inherent ability to register, and process external stimuli. In this paper, we apply the vantage sensitivity framework to the field of psychiatry and clinical psychology, proposing that some people are more responsive to the positive effects of psychological intervention due to heightened sensitivity. After presenting theoretical frameworks related to environmental sensitivity, we review a selection of recent studies reporting individual differences in the positive response to psychological intervention. A growing number of studies report that some people benefit more from psychological intervention than others as a function of genetic, physiological, and psychological characteristics. These studies support the vantage sensitivity proposition that treatment response is influenced by factors associated with heightened sensitivity to environmental influences. More recently, studies have also shown that sensitivity can be measured with a short questionnaire which appears to predict the response to psychological intervention. Vantage sensitivity is a framework with significant relevance for our understanding of widely observed heterogeneity in treatment response. It suggests that variability in response to treatment is partly influenced by people's differing capacity for environmental sensitivity, which can be measured with a short questionnaire. Application of the vantage sensitivity framework to psychiatry and clinical psychology may improve our knowledge regarding when, how, and for whom interventions work.

  6. Long-Term Positive and Negative Psychological Late Effects for Parents of Childhood Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungman, Lisa; Cernvall, Martin; Grönqvist, Helena; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Ljungman, Gustaf; von Essen, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Increasing survival rates in childhood cancer have yielded a growing population of parents of childhood cancer survivors (CCSs). This systematic review compiles the literature on positive and negative long-term psychological late effects for parents of CCSs, reported at least five years after the child's diagnosis and/or two years after the end of the child's treatment. Systematic searches were made in the databases CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and PubMed. Fifteen studies, published between 1988 and 2010, from 12 projects were included. Thirteen studies used quantitative methodology, one quantitative and qualitative methodology, and one qualitative methodology. A total of 1045 parents participated in the reviewed studies. Mean scores were within normal ranges for general psychological distress, coping, and family functioning. However, a substantial subgroup reported a clinical level of general psychological distress, and 21–44% reported a severe level of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Worry, disease-related thoughts and feelings, marital strains, as well as posttraumatic growth was reported. Several factors were associated with the long-term late effects, such as parents' maladaptive coping during earlier stages of the childs disease trajectory and children's current poor adjustment. Quality assessments of reviewed studies and clinical implications of findings are discussed and recommendations for future research are presented. PMID:25058607

  7. Narrative perspective shift at retrieval: The psychological-distance-mediated-effect on emotional intensity of positive and negative autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xuan; Tse, Chi-Shing

    2016-10-01

    The present study manipulated participants' narrative perspectives (1st-personal pronoun "I" and 3rd-personal pronoun "He/She") to vary their field and observer visual perspectives that they took to retrieve autobiographical events and examine how the shifts in narrative perspective could influence the self-rated emotional intensity of autobiographical memory. Results showed that when narrative perspectives effectively shifted participants' visual perspectives from field to observer, they felt attenuated emotional intensities of positive and negative autobiographical memories. However, this did not occur when narrative perspectives effectively shifted the visual perspectives from observer to field. Multiple mediator models further showed that the changes in psychological distance and imagery vividness (a distance-related construct) of autobiographical memory mediated the relationship between the narrative perspective shift from the 1st- to 3rd-person and the reduction in the intensities of negative and positive emotion. This provides support for the role of psychological distancing in reducing the emotional intensity of autobiographical memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Assault-related shame mediates the association between negative social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCou, Christopher R; Cole, Trevor T; Lynch, Shannon M; Wong, Maria M; Matthews, Kathleen C

    2017-03-01

    Several studies have identified associations between social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and psychological distress; however, no studies have evaluated shame as a mediator of this association. This study evaluated assault-related shame as a mediator of the associations between negative social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and global distress and hypothesized that there would be an indirect effect of social reactions to disclosure upon symptoms of psychopathology via assault-related shame. Participants were 207 female psychology undergraduates who reported past history of completed or attempted sexual assault and had disclosed the assault to at least 1 other person. Participants completed self-report measures of social reactions to sexual assault disclosure, assault-related shame, and symptoms of psychopathology. Participants reported significant histories of attempted or completed sexual assault and indicated clinically significant symptoms of depression and subthreshold symptoms of PTSD and global distress, on average. Evaluation of structural models confirmed the hypothesized indirect effect of negative social reactions to sexual assault disclosure upon symptoms of PTSD (z = 5.85, p distress (z = 4.82, p disclosure among survivors of attempted or completed sexual assault. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Sense of coherence is associated with reduced psychological responses to job stressors among Japanese factory workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urakawa Kayoko

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Job stress is associated with adverse health effects. The present study was conducted to examine the association between sense of coherence (SOC, as advocated by Antonovsky, and psychological responses to job stressors among Japanese workers. Methods A self-administered questionnaire containing a Japanese version of the 13-item SOC scale, the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire, and a self-rated health item were distributed to 1968 workers in X Prefecture. Anonymous responses were recovered by postal mail. Results Complete responses were received from 299 workers (response rate 15.2%, 191 males and 108 females who consented to participate in the study. Participants were 186 office clerks, 38 sales representatives, 22 technical engineers, 16 service trade workers, eight information processing workers, eight technical experts, and 21 other workers of various types. SOC scores were associated with age, self-rated health, job title, and marriage status. According to regression analyses stratified by gender, SOC was inversely associated with tension, fatigue, anxiety, depression and subjective symptoms in males, and tension, depression and subjective symptoms in females. SOC was positively associated with vigor in both males and females. Conclusions Having a strong SOC may reduce worker’s negative job stress responses and increase their vigor. Longitudinal studies are required to confirm this finding.

  10. Linking and Psychological Functioning in a Chinese Sample: The Multiple Mediation of Response to Positive Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongfei; Li, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the associations between linking, response to positive affect, and psychological functioning in Chinese college students. The results of conducting multiple mediation analyses indicated that emotion- and self-focused positive rumination mediated the relationship between linking and psychological functioning, whereas…

  11. Psychological and behavioral responses to interval and continuous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, Matthew J; Gibala, Martin J; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A

    2018-05-16

    To compare psychological responses to, and preferences for, moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), high-intensity interval training (HIIT), and sprint interval training (SIT) among inactive adults; and to investigate the relationships between affect, enjoyment, exercise preferences, and subsequent exercise behavior over a 4-wk follow-up period. Thirty inactive men and women (21.23±3.81 y), inexperienced with HIIT or SIT, completed three trials of cycle ergometer exercise in random order on separate days: MICT (45min continuous; ~70-75% of heart rate maximum (HRmax)); HIIT (10x1 min bouts at ~85-90%HRmax with 1-min recovery periods); and SIT (3x20-s "all-out" sprints with 2-min recovery periods). Perceived exertion (RPE), affect, and arousal were measured throughout the trials and enjoyment was measured post-exercise. Participants rank-ordered the protocols (#1-3) according to preference and logged their exercise over a 4-week follow-up. Despite elevated HR, RPE, and arousal during work periods (psHIIT and SIT, enjoyment and preferences for MICT, HIIT, and SIT were similar (ps>0.05). In-task affect was predictive of post-exercise enjoyment for each type of exercise (rs=0.32 to 0.47; psHIIT and SIT (rss=-0.34 to -0.61; ps0.05), respectively. Over the follow-up, participants completed more MICT (M=6.11±4.12) than SIT sessions (M=1.39±1.85; pHIIT (M=3.54±4.23; p=0.16, d=0.56), and more sessions of HIIT than SIT (p=0.07, d=0.60), differences were not significant. In-task affect predicted the number of sessions of MICT (r=0.40; pHIIT or SIT (ps>0.05). This study provides new evidence that a single session of HIIT and SIT can be as enjoyable and preferable as MICT among inactive individuals and that there may be differences in the exercise affect-behavior relationship between interval and continuous exercise.

  12. A cognitive-perceptual model of symptom perception in males and females: the roles of negative affect, selective attention, health anxiety and psychological job demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Laura; Fairclough, Stephen H; Poole, Helen M

    2013-06-01

    Kolk et al.'s model of symptom perception underlines the effects of trait negative affect, selective attention and external stressors. The current study tested this model in 263 males and 498 females from an occupational sample. Trait negative affect was associated with symptom reporting in females only, and selective attention and psychological job demands were associated with symptom reporting in both genders. Health anxiety was associated with symptom reporting in males only. Future studies might consider the inclusion of selective attention, which was more strongly associated with symptom reporting than negative affect. Psychological job demands appear to influence symptom reporting in both males and females.

  13. Toward a Psychology of Responses to Dance Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervasio, Amy Herstein

    2012-01-01

    This paper applies contemporary principles in cognitive and social psychology to understand how Western ballet and modern dance is imbued with emotional and narrative meaning by an audience. These include nine Gestalt concepts of visual form perception as well as cognitive heuristics of representativeness and availability in concept formation and…

  14. Simulating the Earth System Response to Negative Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R. B.; Milne, J.; Littleton, E. W.; Jones, C.; Canadell, J.; Peters, G. P.; van Vuuren, D.; Davis, S. J.; Jonas, M.; Smith, P.; Ciais, P.; Rogelj, J.; Torvanger, A.; Shrestha, G.

    2016-12-01

    The natural carbon sinks of the land and oceans absorb approximately half the anthropogenic CO2 emitted every year. The CO2 that is not absorbed accumulates in the Earth's atmosphere and traps the suns rays causing an increase in the global mean temperature. Removing this left over CO2 using negative emissions technologies (NETs) has been proposed as a strategy to lessen the accumulating CO2 and avoid dangerous climate change. Using CMIP5 Earth system model simulations this study assessed the impact on the global carbon cycle, and how the Earth system might respond, to negative emissions strategies applied to low emissions scenarios, over different times horizons from the year 2000 to 2300. The modeling results suggest that using NETs to remove atmospheric CO2 over five 50-year time horizons has varying effects at different points in time. The effects of anthropogenic and natural sources and sinks, can result in positive or negative changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration. Results show that historic emissions and the current state of the Earth System have impacts on the behavior of atmospheric CO2, as do instantaneous anthropogenic emissions. Indeed, varying background scenarios seemed to have a greater effect on atmospheric CO2 than the actual amount and timing of NETs. These results show how NETs interact with the physical climate-carbon cycle system and highlight the need for more research on earth-system dynamics as they relate to carbon sinks and sources and anthropogenic perturbations.

  15. Ethylene response factor AtERF72 negatively regulates Arabidopsis thaliana response to iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Li, Qiwei; Wang, Yi; Wu, Ting; Yang, Yafei; Zhang, Xinzhong; Han, Zhenhai; Xu, Xuefeng

    2017-09-23

    Ethylene regulates the plant's response to stress caused by iron (Fe) deficiency. However, specific roles of ERF proteins in response to Fe deficiency remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of ERF72 in response to iron deficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, the levels of the ethylene response factor AtERF72 increased in leaves and roots induced under the iron deficient conditions. erf72 mutant plants showed increased growth compared to wild type (WT) when grown in iron deficient medium for 5 d. erf72 mutants had increased root H + velocity and the ferric reductase activity, and increase in the expression of the iron deficiency response genes iron-regulated transporter 1 (IRT1) and H + -ATPase (HA2) levels in iron deficient conditions. Compared to WT plants, erf72 mutants retained healthy chloroplast structure with significantly higher Fe and Mg content, and decreased chlorophyll degradation gene pheophorbide a oxygenase (PAO) and chlorophyllase (CLH1) expression when grown in iron deficient media. Yeast one-hybrid analysis showed that ERF72 could directly bind to the promoter regions of iron deficiency responses genes IRT1, HA2 and CLH1. Based on our results, we suggest that ethylene released from plants under iron deficiency stress can activate the expression of ERF72, which responds to iron deficiency in the negative regulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Self-esteem moderates neuroendocrine and psychological responses to interpersonal rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Máire B; Collins, Nancy L

    2010-03-01

    In this study, the authors investigated self-esteem as a moderator of psychological and physiological responses to interpersonal rejection and tested an integrative model detailing the mechanisms by which self-esteem may influence cognitive, affective, and physiological responses. Seventy-eight participants experienced an ambiguous interpersonal rejection (or no rejection) from an opposite sex partner in the context of an online dating interaction. Salivary cortisol was assessed at 5 times, and self-reported cognitive and affective responses were assessed. Compared with those with high self-esteem, individuals with low self-esteem responded to rejection by appraising themselves more negatively, making more self-blaming attributions, exhibiting greater cortisol reactivity, and derogating the rejector. Path analysis indicated that the link between low self-esteem and increased cortisol reactivity was mediated by self-blame attributions; cortisol reactivity, in turn, mediated the link between low self-esteem and increased partner derogation. Discussion centers on the role of self-esteem as part of a broader psychobiological system for regulating and responding to social threat and on implications for health outcomes.

  17. Assessment of psychological responses in patients about to receive radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasawa, Kumiko; Horikawa, Naoshi; Kawase, Eri

    2005-01-01

    Radiotherapy is considered to be associated with psychological distress. We assessed the mental status, anxiety, and the factors associated with these in cancer patients about to receive radiotherapy. Hospitalized patients about to receive radiotherapy participated. Psychological status was assessed by a psychiatrist, based on interview about the type of anxiety related to cancer or radiotherapy as well as self-rating questionnaires. Eligible data were collected from 94 patients. The incidence of mental disorders was 20%. The total mood disturbance scores were significantly higher in patients with poor performance status. The most common type of anxiety regarding radiotherapy was acute adverse effect, and the predictors were palliative treatment and living alone. Mental disorders, mood disturbance, and anxiety in patients cannot be neglected in radiation oncology practice. Especially careful attention should be paid to patients with these predictive factors. (author)

  18. Psychological responses to the proximity of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brügger, Adrian; Dessai, Suraje; Devine-Wright, Patrick; Morton, Thomas A.; Pidgeon, Nicholas F.

    2015-12-01

    A frequent suggestion to increase individuals' willingness to take action on climate change and to support relevant policies is to highlight its proximal consequences, that is, those that are close in space and time. But previous studies that have tested this proximizing approach have not revealed the expected positive effects on individual action and support for addressing climate change. We present three lines of psychological reasoning that provide compelling arguments as to why highlighting proximal impacts of climate change might not be as effective a way to increase individual mitigation and adaptation efforts as is often assumed. Our contextualization of the proximizing approach within established psychological research suggests that, depending on the particular theoretical perspective one takes on this issue, and on specific individual characteristics suggested by these perspectives, proximizing can bring about the intended positive effects, can have no (visible) effect or can even backfire. Thus, the effects of proximizing are much more complex than is commonly assumed. Revealing this complexity contributes to a refined theoretical understanding of the role that psychological distance plays in the context of climate change and opens up further avenues for future research and for interventions.

  19. Contingent self-worth moderates the relationship between school stressors and psychological stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizu, Kenichiro

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the moderating role of contingent self-worth on the relationships between school stressors and psychological stress responses among Japanese adolescents. A total of 371 Japanese junior high school students (184 boys and 187 girls, M age  = 12.79 years, SD = 0.71) completed the Japanese version of the Self-Worth Contingency Questionnaire and a mental health checklist at two points separated by a two-month interval. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were then used to determine whether contingent self-worth moderated the relationship between school stressors and psychological stress responses. The results indicated that, when psychological stress responses were controlled for at Time 1, contingent self-worth did not predict the psychological stress responses at Time 2. However, a two-way interaction between contingent self-worth and stressors was found to significantly influence psychological stress responses, thus indicating that stressors had a stronger impact on psychological stress responses among those with high contingent self-worth compared to those with low contingent self-worth. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Positive and negative emotional responses to work-related trauma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were gathered via the Professional Quality of Life Scale: Compassion Satisfaction and Fatigue Subscales – Revision IV (ProQOL – R-IV) and the Silencing Response Scale and were analysed according to descriptive statistics and correlation coefficients. Findings suggest a high risk for compassion fatigue, a moderate ...

  1. Backward Response-Level Crosstalk in the Psychological Refractory Period Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeff; Alderton, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Bottleneck models of psychological refractory period (PRP) tasks suggest that a Task 1 response should be unaffected by the Task 2 response in the same trial, because selection of the former finishes before selection of the latter begins. Contrary to this conception, the authors found backward response-level crosstalk effects in which Task 2…

  2. Modulation of immune response to rDNA hepatitis B vaccination by psychological stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Jabaaij (Lea); J. van Hattum (Jan); A.J.J.M. Vingerhoets (Ad); F.G. Oostveen (Frank); H.J. Duivenvoorden (Hugo); R.E. Ballieux (Rudy)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn a previous study it was shown that antibody formation after vaccination with a low-dose recombinant DNA (rDNA) hepatitis B vaccine was negatively influenced by psychological stress. The present study was designed to assess whether the same inverse relation between HBs-antibody levels

  3. A new Integrated Negative Symptom structure of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) in schizophrenia using item response analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Anzalee; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre; Opler, Mark; Yavorsky, Christian; Rothman, Brian; Lucic, Luka

    2013-10-01

    Debate persists with regard to how best to categorize the syndromal dimension of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. The aim was to first review published Principle Components Analysis (PCA) of the PANSS, and extract items most frequently included in the negative domain, and secondly, to examine the quality of items using Item Response Theory (IRT) to select items that best represent a measurable dimension (or dimensions) of negative symptoms. First, 22 factor analyses and PCA met were included. Second, using a large dataset (n=7187) of participants in clinical trials with chronic schizophrenia, we extracted items loading on one or more PCA. Third, items not loading with a value of ≥ 0.5, or loading on more than one component with values of ≥ 0.5 were discarded. Fourth, resulting items were included in a non-parametric IRT and retained based on Option Characteristic Curves (OCCs) and Item Characteristic Curves (ICCs). 15 items loaded on a negative domain in at least one study, with Emotional Withdrawal loading on all studies. Non-parametric IRT retained nine items as an Integrated Negative Factor: Emotional Withdrawal, Blunted Affect, Passive/Apathetic Social Withdrawal, Poor Rapport, Lack of Spontaneity/Conversation Flow, Active Social Avoidance, Disturbance of Volition, Stereotyped Thinking and Difficulty in Abstract Thinking. This is the first study to use a psychometric IRT process to arrive at a set of negative symptom items. Future steps will include further examination of these nine items in terms of their stability, sensitivity to change, and correlations with functional and cognitive outcomes. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Somatostatin Negatively Regulates Parasite Burden and Granulomatous Responses in Cysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Khumbatta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is an infection of tissues with the larval cysts of the cestode, Taenia  solium. While live parasites elicit little or no inflammation, dying parasites initiate a granulomatous reaction presenting as painful muscle nodules or seizures when cysts are located in the brain. We previously showed in the T. crassiceps murine model of cysticercosis that substance P (SP, a neuropeptide, was detected in early granulomas and was responsible for promoting granuloma formation, while somatostatin (SOM, another neuropeptide and immunomodulatory hormone, was detected in late granulomas; SOM’s contribution to granuloma formation was not examined. In the current studies, we used somatostatin knockout (SOM−/− mice to examine the hypothesis that SOM downmodulates granulomatous inflammation in cysticercosis, thereby promoting parasite growth. Our results demonstrated that parasite burden was reduced 5.9-fold in SOM−/− mice compared to WT mice (P<0.05. This reduction in parasite burden in SOM−/− mice was accompanied by a 95% increase in size of their granulomas (P<0.05, which contained a 1.5-fold increase in levels of IFN-γ and a 26-fold decrease in levels of IL-1β (P<0.05 for both compared to granulomas from WT mice. Thus, SOM regulates both parasite burden and granulomatous inflammation perhaps through modulating granuloma production of IFN-γ and IL-1β.

  5. Adult attachment styles and the psychological response to infant bereavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Shevlin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Based on Bowlby's attachment theory, Bartholomew proposed a four-category attachment typology by which individuals judged themselves and adult relationships. This explanatory model has since been used to help explain the risk of psychiatric comorbidity. Objective: The current study aimed to identify attachment typologies based on Bartholomew's attachment styles in a sample of bereaved parents on dimensions of closeness/dependency and anxiety. In addition, it sought to assess the relationship between the resultant attachment typology with a range of psychological trauma variables. Method: The current study was based on a sample of 445 bereaved parents who had experienced either peri- or post-natal death of an infant. Adult attachment was assessed using the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS while reaction to trauma was assessed using the Trauma Symptom Checklist (TSC. A latent profile analysis was conducted on scores from the RAAS closeness/dependency and anxiety subscales to ascertain if there were underlying homogeneous attachment classes. Emergent classes were used to determine if these were significantly different in terms of mean scores on TSC scales. Results: A four-class solution was considered the optimal based on fit statistics and interpretability of the results. Classes were labelled “Fearful,” “Preoccupied,” “Dismissing,” and “Secure.” Females were almost eight times more likely than males to be members of the fearful attachment class. This class evidenced the highest scores across all TSC scales while the secure class showed the lowest scores. Conclusions: The results are consistent with Bartholomew's four-category attachment styles with classes representing secure, fearful, preoccupied, and dismissing types. While the loss of an infant is a devastating experience for any parent, securely attached individuals showed the lowest levels of psychopathology compared to fearful, preoccupied, or dismissing

  6. Children’s experiences and responses towards an intervention for psychological preparation for radiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Engvall, Gunn; Lindh, Viveca; Mullaney, Tara; Nyholm, Tufve; Lindh, Jack; Ångström-Brännström, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    Background: Children can experience distress when undergoing radiotherapy as a reaction to being scared of and unfamiliar with the procedure. The aim was to evaluate children's experiences and responses towards an intervention for psychological preparation for radiotherapy. Methods: A case control design with qualitative content analysis of semi-structured interviews and statistical analysis of anxiety ratings were used for evaluating a strategy for psychological preparation and distraction. ...

  7. Use of Portable Digital Devices to Analyze Autonomic Stress Response in Psychology Objective Structured Clinical Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Velasco, Ana Isabel; Bellido-Esteban, Alberto; Ruisoto-Palomera, Pablo; Clemente-Suárez, Vicente Javier

    2018-01-12

    The aim of the present study was to explore changes in the autonomic stress response of Psychology students in a Psychology Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) and their relationship with OSCE performance. Variables of autonomic modulation by the analysis of heart rate variability in temporal, frequency and non-linear domains, subjective perception of distress strait and academic performance were measured before and after the two different evaluations that composed the OSCE. A psychology objective structured clinical examination composed by two different evaluation scenarios produced a large anxiety anticipatory response, a habituation response in the first of the evaluation scenarios and a in the entire evaluation, and a no habituation response in the second evaluation scenario. Autonomic modulation parameters do not correlate with academic performance of students.

  8. Cortisol response and desire to binge following psychological stress: comparison between obese subjects with and without binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Noa; Bloch, Miki; Ben Avi, Irit; Rouach, Vanessa; Schreiber, Shaul; Stern, Naftali; Greenman, Yona

    2013-07-30

    While stress and negative affect are known to precede "emotional eating", this relationship is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between induced psychological stress, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, and eating behavior in binge eating disorder (BED). The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was applied in obese participants with (n=8) and without BED (n=8), and normal weight controls (n=8). Psychological characteristics, eating-related symptoms, and cortisol secretion were assessed. Baseline stress, anxiety and cortisol measures were similar in all groups. At baseline desire to binge was significantly higher among the BED group. While the TSST induced an increase in cortisol levels, a blunted cortisol response was observed in the BED group. In the BED group, a positive correlation was found between cortisol (area under the curve) levels during the TSST and the change in VAS scores for desire to binge. Post-TSST desire to binge and sweet craving were significantly higher in the BED group and correlated positively with stress, anxiety, and cortisol response in the BED group only. These results suggest chronic down-regulation of the HPA axis in participants with BED, and a relationship between psychological stress, the acute activation of the HPA axis, and food craving. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. How Do Politicians Attribute Bureaucratic Responsibility for Performance? Negativity Bias and Interest Group Advocacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Poul A.; Moynihan, Donald P.

    2017-01-01

    Voters reward or punish politicians by deeming them responsible for positive and negative outcomes, but how, in turn, do politicians attribute responsibility to those who actually deliver public services? Inattention to this question renders incomplete current perspectives on democratic processes...... to attribute causal responsibility to bureaucratic leaders, but only in cases of low performance, suggesting a negativity bias in public sector responsibility attribution processes. Additionally, we offer evidence that interest group advocates influence how elected officials use performance information...... to attribute responsibility, but contingent on ideological alignment....

  10. Effect of Large Negative Phase of Blast Loading on Structural Response of RC Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Zubair Iman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural response of reinforced concrete (RC elements for analysis and design are often obtained using the positive phase of the blast pressure curve disregarding the negative phase assuming insignificant contribution from the negative phase of the loading. Although, some insight on the effect of negative phase of blast pressure based on elastic single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF analysis was presented before, the influence of negative phase on different types of resistance functions of SDOF models and on realistic finite element analysis has not been explored. In this study, the effects of inclusion of pulse negative phase on structural response of RC elements from SDOF analysis and from more detailed finite element analysis have been investigated. Investigation of SDOF part has been conducted using MATLAB code that utilizes non-linear resistance functions of SDOF model. Detailed numerical investigation using finite element code DIANA was conducted on the significance of the negative phase on structural response. In the FE model, different support stiffness was used to explore the effect of support stiffness on the structural response due to blast negative phase. Results from SDOF and FE analyses present specific situations where the effect of large negative phase was found to be significant on the structural response of RC elements.

  11. Marital conflict and parental responses to infant negative emotions: Relations with toddler emotional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Leslie A; Umemura, Tomo; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Hazen, Nancy

    2015-08-01

    According to family systems theory, children's emotional development is likely to be influenced by family interactions at multiple levels, including marital, mother-child, and father-child interactions, as well as by interrelations between these levels. The purpose of the present study was to examine parents' marital conflict and mothers' and fathers' distressed responses to their infant's negative emotions, assessed when their child was 8 and 24 months old, in addition to interactions between parents' marital conflict and their distressed responses, as predictors of their toddler's negative and flat/withdrawn affect at 24 months. Higher marital conflict during infancy and toddlerhood predicted both increased negative and increased flat/withdrawn affect during toddlerhood. In addition, toddlers' negative (but not flat) affect was related to mothers' distressed responses, but was only related to father's distressed responses when martial conflict was high. Implications of this study for parent education and family intervention were discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The role of multiple negative social relationships in inflammatory cytokine responses to a laboratory stressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunmi Song

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the unique impact of perceived negativity in multiple social relationships on endocrine and inflammatory responses to a laboratory stressor. Via hierarchical cluster analysis, those who reported negative social exchanges across relationships with a romantic partner, family, and their closest friend had higher mean IL-6 across time and a greater increase in TNF-α from 15 min to 75 min post stress. Those who reported negative social exchanges across relationships with roommates, family, and their closest friend showed greater IL-6 responses to stress. Differences in mean IL-6 were accounted for by either depressed mood or hostility, whereas differences in the cytokine stress responses remained significant after controlling for those factors. Overall, this research provides preliminary evidence to suggest that having multiple negative relationships may exacerbate acute inflammatory responses to a laboratory stressor independent of hostility and depressed mood.

  13. Relations among child negative emotionality, parenting stress, and maternal sensitive responsiveness in early childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulussen-Hoogeboom, M.C.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Hermanns, J.M.A.; Peetsma, T.T.D.

    2008-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study focuses on relations between preschool-aged childrens' perceived "difficult" temperament (defined as high negative emotionality) and observed maternal sensitive responsiveness in the context of maternal parenting stress. Design. Participants were fifty-nine

  14. The role of multiple negative social relationships in inflammatory cytokine responses to a laboratory stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sunmi; Graham-Engeland, Jennifer E; Corwin, Elizabeth J; Ceballos, Rachel M; Taylor, Shelley E; Seeman, Teresa; Klein, Laura Cousino

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the unique impact of perceived negativity in multiple social relationships on endocrine and inflammatory responses to a laboratory stressor. Via hierarchical cluster analysis, those who reported negative social exchanges across relationships with a romantic partner, family, and their closest friend had higher mean IL-6 across time and a greater increase in TNF-α from 15 min to 75 min post stress. Those who reported negative social exchanges across relationships with roommates, family, and their closest friend showed greater IL-6 responses to stress. Differences in mean IL-6 were accounted for by either depressed mood or hostility, whereas differences in the cytokine stress responses remained significant after controlling for those factors. Overall, this research provides preliminary evidence to suggest that having multiple negative relationships may exacerbate acute inflammatory responses to a laboratory stressor independent of hostility and depressed mood.

  15. Rapid Response in Psychological Treatments for Binge-Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Agras, W. Stewart; Wilfley, Denise E.; Wilson, G. Terence

    2015-01-01

    Objective Analysis of short- and long-term effects of rapid response across three different treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED). Method In a randomized clinical study comparing interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), cognitive-behavioral guided self-help (CBTgsh), and behavioral weight loss (BWL) treatment in 205 adults meeting DSM-IV criteria for BED, the predictive value of rapid response, defined as ≥ 70% reduction in binge-eating by week four, was determined for remission from binge-eating and global eating disorder psychopathology at posttreatment, 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-up. Results Rapid responders in CBTgsh, but not in IPT or BWL, showed significantly greater rates of remission from binge-eating than non-rapid responders, which was sustained over the long term. Rapid and non-rapid responders in IPT and rapid responders in CBTgsh showed a greater remission from binge-eating than non-rapid responders in CBTgsh and BWL. Rapid responders in CBTgsh showed greater remission from binge-eating than rapid responders in BWL. Although rapid responders in all treatments had lower global eating disorder psychopathology than non-rapid responders in the short term, rapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT were more improved than those in BWL and non-rapid responders in each treatment. Rapid responders in BWL did not differ from non-rapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT. Conclusions Rapid response is a treatment-specific positive prognostic indicator of sustained remission from binge-eating in CBTgsh. Regarding an evidence-based stepped care model, IPT, equally efficacious for rapid and non-rapid responders, could be investigated as a second-line treatment in case of non-rapid response to first-line CBTgsh. PMID:25867446

  16. Rapid response in psychological treatments for binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Agras, W Stewart; Wilfley, Denise E; Wilson, G Terence

    2015-06-01

    Analysis of short- and long-term effects of rapid response across 3 different treatments for binge eating disorder (BED). In a randomized clinical study comparing interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), cognitive-behavioral therapy guided self-help (CBTgsh), and behavioral weight loss (BWL) treatment in 205 adults meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; APA, 1994) criteria for BED, the predictive value of rapid response, defined as ≥70% reduction in binge eating by Week 4, was determined for remission from binge eating and global eating disorder psychopathology at posttreatment, 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-ups. Rapid responders in CBTgsh, but not in IPT or BWL, showed significantly greater rates of remission from binge eating than nonrapid responders, which was sustained over the long term. Rapid and nonrapid responders in IPT and rapid responders in CBTgsh showed a greater remission from binge eating than nonrapid responders in CBTgsh and BWL. Rapid responders in CBTgsh showed greater remission from binge eating than rapid responders in BWL. Although rapid responders in all treatments had lower global eating disorder psychopathology than nonrapid responders in the short term, rapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT were more improved than those in BWL and nonrapid responders in each treatment. Rapid responders in BWL did not differ from nonrapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT. Rapid response is a treatment-specific positive prognostic indicator of sustained remission from binge eating in CBTgsh. Regarding an evidence-based, stepped-care model, IPT, equally efficacious for rapid and nonrapid responders, could be investigated as a second-line treatment in case of nonrapid response to first-line CBTgsh. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Integrating Positive and Clinical Psychology: Viewing Human Functioning as Continua from Positive to Negative Can Benefit Clinical Assessment, Interventions and Understandings of Resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, J; Wood, AM

    2017-01-01

    In this review we argue in favour of further integration between the disciplines of positive and clinical psychology. We argue that most of the constructs studied by both positive and clinical psychology exist on continua ranging from positive to negative (e.g., gratitude to ingratitude, anxiety to calmness) and so it is meaningless to speak of one or other field studying the “positive” or the “negative”. However, we highlight historical and cultural factors which have led positive and clinic...

  18. What impact do questionnaire length and monetary incentives have on mailed health psychology survey response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Kathryn A; Gatting, Lauren; Wardle, Jane

    2017-11-01

    Response rates to health-related surveys are declining. This study tested two strategies to improve the response rate to a health psychology survey mailed through English general practices: (1) sending a shortened questionnaire and (2) offering a monetary incentive to return a completed questionnaire. Randomized controlled trial. Adults (n = 4,241) aged 45-59 years, from four General Practices in South-East England, were mailed a survey on attitudes towards bowel cancer screening. Using a 2 × 4 factorial design, participants were randomized to receive a 'short' (four A4 pages) or a 'long' (seven A4 pages) questionnaire, and one of four monetary incentives to return a completed questionnaire - (1) no monetary incentive, (2) £2.50 shop voucher, (3) £5.00 shop voucher, and (4) inclusion in a £250 shop voucher prize draw. Age, gender, and area-level deprivation were obtained from the General Practices. The overall response rate was 41% (n = 1,589). Response to the 'short' questionnaire (42%) was not significantly different from the 'long' questionnaire (40%). The £2.50 incentive (43%) significantly improved response rates in univariate analyses, and remained significant after controlling for age, gender, area-level deprivation, and questionnaire length. The £5.00 (42%) and £250 prize draw (41%) incentives had no significant impact on response rates compared to no incentive (38%). A small monetary incentive (£2.50) may slightly increase response to a mailed health psychology survey. The length of the questionnaire (four pages vs. seven pages) did not influence response. Although frequently used, entry into a prize draw did not increase response. Achieving representative samples remains a challenge for health psychology. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject Response rates to mailed questionnaires continue to decline, threatening the representativeness of data. Prize draw incentives are frequently used but there is little evidence

  19. Patients' Positive and Negative Responses to Reading Mental Health Clinical Notes Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denneson, Lauren M; Chen, Jason I; Pisciotta, Maura; Tuepker, Anais; Dobscha, Steven K

    2018-05-01

    This study describes responses to OpenNotes, clinical notes available online, among patients receiving mental health care and explores whether responses vary by patient demographic or clinical characteristics. Survey data from 178 veterans receiving mental health treatment at a large Veterans Affairs medical center included patient-reported health self-efficacy, health knowledge, alliance with clinicians, and negative emotional responses after reading OpenNotes. Health care data were extracted from the patient care database. Reading OpenNotes helped many participants feel in control of their health care (49%) and have more trust in clinicians (45%), although a few (8%) frequently felt upset after reading their notes. In multivariate models, posttraumatic stress disorder was associated with increased patient-clinician alliance (p=.046) but also with negative emotional responses (p<.01). Patients receiving mental health care frequently reported benefits from reading OpenNotes, yet some experienced negative responses.

  20. Effects of work-related sleep restriction on acute physiological and psychological stress responses and their interactions: A review among emergency service personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Wolkow

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Emergency work can expose personnel to sleep restriction. Inadequate amounts of sleep can negatively affect physiological and psychological stress responses. This review critiqued the emergency service literature (e.g., firefighting, police/law enforcement, defense forces, ambulance/paramedic personnel that has investigated the effect of sleep restriction on hormonal, inflammatory and psychological responses. Furthermore, it investigated if a psycho-physiological approach can help contextualize the significance of such responses to assist emergency service agencies monitor the health of their personnel. The available literature suggests that sleep restriction across multiple work days can disrupt cytokine and cortisol levels, deteriorate mood and elicit simultaneous physiological and psychological responses. However, research concerning the interaction between such responses is limited and inconclusive. Therefore, it is unknown if a psycho-physiological relationship exists and as a result, it is currently not feasible for agencies to monitor sleep restriction related stress based on psycho- physiological interactions. Sleep restriction does however, appear to be a major stressor contributing to physiological and psychological responses and thus, warrants further investigation.

  1. Effects of work-related sleep restriction on acute physiological and psychological stress responses and their interactions: A review among emergency service personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkow, Alexander; Ferguson, Sally; Aisbett, Brad; Main, Luana

    2015-01-01

    Emergency work can expose personnel to sleep restriction. Inadequate amounts of sleep can negatively affect physiological and psychological stress responses. This review critiqued the emergency service literature (e.g., firefighting, police/law enforcement, defense forces, ambulance/paramedic personnel) that has investigated the effect of sleep restriction on hormonal, inflammatory and psychological responses. Furthermore, it investigated if a psycho-physiological approach can help contextualize the significance of such responses to assist emergency service agencies monitor the health of their personnel. The available literature suggests that sleep restriction across multiple work days can disrupt cytokine and cortisol levels, deteriorate mood and elicit simultaneous physiological and psychological responses. However, research concerning the interaction between such responses is limited and inconclusive. Therefore, it is unknown if a psycho-physiological relationship exists and as a result, it is currently not feasible for agencies to monitor sleep restriction related stress based on psycho- physiological interactions. Sleep restriction does however, appear to be a major stressor contributing to physiological and psychological responses and thus, warrants further investigation. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  2. Children's expressions of negative emotions and adults' responses during routine cardiac consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatne, Torun M; Ruland, Cornelia M; Ørnes, Knut; Finset, Arnstein

    2012-03-01

    One function of expressing emotion is to receive support. The aim of this study was to assess how children with heart disease express negative emotions during routine consultations, and examine the interaction between children's expressions and adults' responses. Seventy children, aged 7-13 years, completed measures of anxiety and were videotaped during cardiology visits. Adult-child interactions were analyzed using the Verona Definitions of Emotional Sequences. Children expressed negative emotion, mainly in subtle ways; however, adults rarely recognized and responded to these expressions. The frequency of children's expressions and adults' responses were related to the child's age, level of anxiety, and verbal participation. Children do not openly express negative emotions frequently during routine cardiac consultations; they are more likely to provide subtle cues of negative emotion. When expression of negative emotions does occur, adults may consider using the opportunity to explore the child's emotional experiences.

  3. Anxiety and perceived psychological stress play an important role in the immune response after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jason P; Walsh, Neil P; Diment, Philip C; Roberts, Ross

    2018-01-01

    There are common pathways by which psychological stress and exercise stress alter immunity. However, it remains unknown whether psychological stress plays a role in the in vivo immune response to exercise. We examined the relationship between anxiety and perceived psychological stress reported before exercise and in vivo immunity after exercise using skin sensitisation with Diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP). In a randomised design, sixty four, thoroughly familiarised, males completed widely used psychological instruments to assess state-anxiety and perceived psychological stress before exercise, and ran either 30 minutes at 60% (30MI) or 80% (30HI) V . O2peak, 120 minutes at 60% (120MI) V . O2peak or rested (CON) before DPCP sensitisation. Cutaneous recall to DPCP was measured as the dermal thickening response to a low-dose series DPCP challenge 4-weeks after sensitisation. After accounting for exercise (R2 = 0.20; P stress (ΔR2 = 0.13; P stress on in vivo immunity after exercise. Moreover, correlations were of comparable strength for the relationship between physiological stress (heart rate training impulse) and the summed dermal response to DPCP (r = -0.37; 95% CI: -0.05 to -0.62; P = 0.01), and state-anxiety and the summed dermal response to DPCP (r = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.63; P stress levels before exercise play animportant role in determining the strength of the in vivo immune response after exercise. These findings indicate a similar strength relationship for the level of state-anxiety prior to exercise and the level of physiological stress during exercise with the in vivo immune response after exercise. Future research is required to investigate exercise-immune responses in athletes, military personnel and others in physically demanding occupations experiencing higher levels of psychological stress than those reported in this study e.g. related to important competition, military operations and major life events. Nevertheless, the present findings support the

  4. Chronic stress affects immunologic but not cardiovascular responsiveness to acute psychological stress in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benschop, R. J.; Brosschot, J. F.; Godaert, G. L.; de Smet, M. B.; Geenen, R.; Olff, M.; Heijnen, C. J.; Ballieux, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    This study deals with the effect of chronic stress on physiological responsiveness to an acute psychological stressor in male high school teachers. Chronic stress was operationalized as the self-reported number of everyday problems. Twenty-seven subjects reporting extremely low or high numbers of

  5. Elite Athletes’ In-event Competitive Anxiety Responses and Psychological Skills Usage under Differing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, John E.; Pollmann, Dietmar; Schack, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Even though the assessment of competitive anxiety responses (intensity, interpretation, and frequency) using the time-to-event paradigm has gained much attention, literature on the account of these same experiences in-event and their corresponding psychological skills adopted under differing conditions is limited. This is a follow up investigation to establish the extent to which associated anxiety responses are stable or dynamic and whether this pattern could be related to reported psychological skills under low or high stressful conditions across gender. Methods: Twenty-three high level (N = 13 males and 10 females) Ghanaian Table Tennis players provided data through completion of modified versions of Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2, incorporated with directional and frequency of intrusion scales and the Test of Performance Strategies inventory during breaks within competitive fixtures. Results: MANCOVAs (gender × stress condition) with follow-up analyses revealed no significant interactions and no main effect for gender but significant main effects were realized for all anxiety dimensions and psychological skills for only the second factor. Specifically, the intensity and frequency of cognitive and somatic state anxiety symptoms increased and were interpreted as debilitative under the high stress condition, although self-confidence and other array of psychological skills were highly displayed under the same stressful condition. Conclusion: Findings highlight the dynamic characteristics of in-event associated anxiety responses and ineffectiveness of deployed psychological skills regardless of gender. These perhaps show the exceptionality of affective experiences in an African setting, suggesting a culturally diversified approach to psychological skills application, if desirable effects are to be attained. PMID:29312103

  6. First year Health Psychology students perception of responsibility as a value in their professors

    OpenAIRE

    José Antonio Pomares Alfonso; Ana María Molina Gómez

    2010-01-01

    Background: as teachers are able to express in their conduct and relationships with the students values such as responsibility, love for their country and profession, honesty and sense of justice, among others, they will enhance their preparation as a learning motive. Objective: to assess the perception of first year Health Psychology students on their professor’s responsibility value. Methods: a descriptive study conducted at the University of Medical Sciences of Cienfuegos in March, 2010 th...

  7. Cancer: brain-regulated biphasic stress response induces cell growth or cell death to adapt to psychological stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Charles; Bhatia, Shruti

    2014-01-01

    According to Indian Vedic philosophy, a human being contains 3 major bodies: (1) the matter body--brain, organs, and senses; (2) the mental body--mind, individual consciousness, intellect, and ego; and (3) the soul or causal body--universal consciousness. The third, which is located in the heart according to all spiritual traditions and recent scientific literature, can be seen as the information body that contains all memories. The mental body, which can interface with the matter and information bodies, can be seen as a field of immaterial energy that can carry, regulate, and strengthen all information (eg, thoughts or emotions) both positively and negatively. This body of information may store ancestral and/or autobiographical memories: unconscious memories from inner traumas--inner information (Ii) or samskaras in Vedic philosophy--and conscious memories from outer traumas--outer information (Io). These conscious and unconscious memories can be seen as potential psychological stressors. Resonance between Ii and Io may induce active conflicts if resistance occurs in the mental body; this conflict may cause specific metabolic activity in the brain and a stress response in the physical body, which permits adjustment to psychological stressors. The brainregulated stress response may be biphasic: cell death or growth induced by adrenergic molecular pathways during the conflict's unresolved phase and reversion to cell growth or death induced by cholinergic molecular pathways during the conflict's resolved phase. Case studies and data mining from PubMed suggest that this concept complies with the principles of holistic medicine and the scientific literature supporting its benefits. We suggest that the evolution of cancer can be seen as a biphasic stress response regulated by the brain to adapt to psychological stressors, which produce imbalance among the physical, mental, and information bodies.

  8. Response-Retrieval in Identity Negative Priming is Modulated by Temporal Discriminability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias eMittner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Reaction times to previously ignored information are often delayed, a phenomenon referred to as negative priming (NP. Rothermund, Wentura & De Houwer (2005 proposed that negative priming is caused by the retrieval of incidental stimulus-response associations when consecutive displays share visual features but require different responses. In two experiments we examined whether the features (color, shape that reappear in consecutive displays, or their level of processing (early-perceptual, late-semantic moderate the likelihood that stimulus-response associations are retrieved. Using a perceptual matching task (experiment 1, negative priming occurred independently of whether responses were repeated or switched. Only when implementing a semantic-matching task (experiment 2, negative priming was determined by response-repetition as predicted by response-retrieval theory. The results can be explained in terms of a task-dependent temporal discrimination process (Milliken et al., 1998: Response-relevant features are encoded more strongly and/or are more likely to be retrieved than irrelevant features.

  9. [Agustín Moreno: scientific psychology and women's legal responsibility in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrés, Javier; Llavona, Rafael

    2011-11-01

    Agustín Moreno Rodríguez (1886-1967) studied Medicine and Natural Sciences at the Central University of Spain, in Madrid. He was a student of Dr. Luis Simarro, the University's professor of Experimental Psychology and of Tomas Maestre, the University's professor of Medical Law, Toxicology and Psychiatry. In 1910, he published the text The woman's civil and penal responsibility during the menstrual period. In this work, he approaches the question of the legal responsibility of women, based on the principle of excitation/reaction of Claude Bernard and on his personal version of the concept of iteration elaborated by Luis Simarro. Dr. Moreno also defends the thesis that menstruation adds some uniqueness to the function of the feminine psyche and, therefore, modifies the responsibility of a woman's actions. We also comment on the predominant approach to the mind of women in the Spanish scientific psychology of that time and the reaction of the Spanish feminist intellectuals.

  10. Negative affect and neural response to palatable food intake in bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohon, Cara; Stice, Eric

    2012-06-01

    Binge eating is often preceded by reports of negative affect, but the mechanism by which affect may lead to binge eating is unclear. This study evaluated the effect of negative affect on neural response to anticipation and receipt of palatable food in women with bulimia nervosa (BN) versus healthy controls. We also evaluated connectivity between the amygdala and reward-related brain regions. Females with and without BN (n=26) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during receipt and anticipated receipt of chocolate milkshake and a tasteless solution. We measured negative affect just prior to the scan. Women with BN showed a positive correlation between negative affect and activity in the putamen, caudate, and pallidum during anticipated receipt of milkshake (versus tasteless solution). There were no significant relations between negative affect and receipt of milkshake. Connectivity analyses revealed a greater relation of amygdala activity to activation in the left putamen and insula during anticipated receipt of milkshake in the bulimia group relative to the control group. The opposite pattern was found for the taste of milkshake; the control group showed a greater relation of amygdala activity to activation in the left putamen and insula in response to milkshake receipt than the bulimia group. Results show that as negative affect increases, so does responsivity of reward regions to anticipated intake of palatable food, implying that negative affect may increase the reward value of food for individuals with bulimia nervosa or that negative affect has become a conditioned cue due to a history of binge eating in a negative mood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Amygdala response to negative images in postpartum vs nulliparous women and intranasal oxytocin

    OpenAIRE

    Rupp, Heather A.; James, Thomas W.; Ketterson, Ellen D.; Sengelaub, Dale R.; Ditzen, Beate; Heiman, Julia R.

    2012-01-01

    The neuroendocrine state of new mothers may alter their neural processing of stressors in the environment through modulatory actions of oxytocin on the limbic system. We predicted that amygdala sensitivity to negatively arousing stimuli would be suppressed in postpartum compared to nulliparous women and that this suppression would be modulated by administration of oxytocin nasal spray. We measured brain activation (fMRI) and subjective arousal in response to negatively arousing pictures in 29...

  12. Associations between maternal negative affect and adolescent's neural response to peer evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Patricia Z.; Lee, Kyung Hwa; Dahl, Ronald E.; Nelson, Eric E.; Stroud, Laura J.; Siegle, Greg J.; Morgan, Judith K.; Silk, Jennifer S.

    2016-01-01

    Parenting is often implicated as a potential source of individual differences in youths’ emotional information processing. The present study examined whether parental affect is related to an important aspect of adolescent emotional development, response to peer evaluation. Specifically, we examined relations between maternal negative affect, observed during parent–adolescent discussion of an adolescent-nominated concern with which s/he wants parental support, and adolescent neural responses to peer evaluation in 40 emotionally healthy and depressed adolescents. We focused on a network of ventral brain regions involved in affective processing of social information: the amygdala, anterior insula, nucleus accumbens, and subgenual anterior cingulate, as well as the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. Maternal negative affect was not associated with adolescent neural response to peer rejection. However, longer durations of maternal negative affect were associated with decreased responsivity to peer acceptance in the amygdala, left anterior insula, subgenual anterior cingulate, and left nucleus accumbens. These findings provide some of the first evidence that maternal negative affect is associated with adolescents’ neural processing of social rewards. Findings also suggest that maternal negative affect could contribute to alterations in affective processing, specifically, dampening the saliency and/or reward of peer interactions during adolescence. PMID:24613174

  13. Associations between maternal negative affect and adolescent's neural response to peer evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Z. Tan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Parenting is often implicated as a potential source of individual differences in youths’ emotional information processing. The present study examined whether parental affect is related to an important aspect of adolescent emotional development, response to peer evaluation. Specifically, we examined relations between maternal negative affect, observed during parent–adolescent discussion of an adolescent-nominated concern with which s/he wants parental support, and adolescent neural responses to peer evaluation in 40 emotionally healthy and depressed adolescents. We focused on a network of ventral brain regions involved in affective processing of social information: the amygdala, anterior insula, nucleus accumbens, and subgenual anterior cingulate, as well as the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. Maternal negative affect was not associated with adolescent neural response to peer rejection. However, longer durations of maternal negative affect were associated with decreased responsivity to peer acceptance in the amygdala, left anterior insula, subgenual anterior cingulate, and left nucleus accumbens. These findings provide some of the first evidence that maternal negative affect is associated with adolescents’ neural processing of social rewards. Findings also suggest that maternal negative affect could contribute to alterations in affective processing, specifically, dampening the saliency and/or reward of peer interactions during adolescence.

  14. Negative emotions in cancer care: do oncologists' responses depend on severity and type of emotion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennifer, Sarah L; Alexander, Stewart C; Pollak, Kathryn I; Jeffreys, Amy S; Olsen, Maren K; Rodriguez, Keri L; Arnold, Robert M; Tulsky, James A

    2009-07-01

    To examine how type and severity of patients' negative emotions influence oncologists' responses and subsequent conversations. We analyzed 264 audio-recorded conversations between advanced cancer patients and their oncologists. Conversations were coded for patients' expressions of negative emotion, which were categorized by type of emotion and severity. Oncologists' responses were coded as using either empathic language or blocking and distancing approaches. Patients presented fear more often than anger or sadness; severity of disclosures was most often moderate. Oncologists responded to 35% of these negative emotional disclosures with empathic language. They were most empathic when patients presented intense emotions. Responding empathically to patients' emotional disclosures lengthened discussions by an average of only 21s. Greater response rates to severe emotions suggest oncologists may recognize negative emotions better when patients express them more intensely. Oncologists were least responsive to patient fear and responded with greatest empathy to sadness. Oncologists may benefit from additional training to recognize negative emotions, even when displayed without intensity. Teaching cancer patients to better articulate their emotional concerns may also enhance patient-oncologist communication.

  15. Paternal psychological response after ultrasonographic detection of structural fetal anomalies with a comparison to maternal response: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasen, Anne; Helbig, Anne; Malt, Ulrik Fredrik; Naes, Tormod; Skari, Hans; Haugen, Guttorm Nils

    2013-07-12

    In Norway almost all pregnant women attend one routine ultrasound examination. Detection of fetal structural anomalies triggers psychological stress responses in the women affected. Despite the frequent use of ultrasound examination in pregnancy, little attention has been devoted to the psychological response of the expectant father following the detection of fetal anomalies. This is important for later fatherhood and the psychological interaction within the couple. We aimed to describe paternal psychological responses shortly after detection of structural fetal anomalies by ultrasonography, and to compare paternal and maternal responses within the same couple. A prospective observational study was performed at a tertiary referral centre for fetal medicine. Pregnant women with a structural fetal anomaly detected by ultrasound and their partners (study group,n=155) and 100 with normal ultrasound findings (comparison group) were included shortly after sonographic examination (inclusion period: May 2006-February 2009). Gestational age was >12 weeks. We used psychometric questionnaires to assess self-reported social dysfunction, health perception, and psychological distress (intrusion, avoidance, arousal, anxiety, and depression): Impact of Event Scale. General Health Questionnaire and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Fetal anomalies were classified according to severity and diagnostic or prognostic ambiguity at the time of assessment. Median (range) gestational age at inclusion in the study and comparison group was 19 (12-38) and 19 (13-22) weeks, respectively. Men and women in the study group had significantly higher levels of psychological distress than men and women in the comparison group on all psychometric endpoints. The lowest level of distress in the study group was associated with the least severe anomalies with no diagnostic or prognostic ambiguity (p < 0.033). Men had lower scores than women on all psychometric outcome variables. The correlation in

  16. Visual and psychological stress during computer work in healthy, young females-physiological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mork, Randi; Falkenberg, Helle K; Fostervold, Knut Inge; Thorud, Hanne Mari S

    2018-05-30

    Among computer workers, visual complaints, and neck pain are highly prevalent. This study explores how occupational simulated stressors during computer work, like glare and psychosocial stress, affect physiological responses in young females with normal vision. The study was a within-subject laboratory experiment with a counterbalanced, repeated design. Forty-three females performed four 10-min computer-work sessions with different stress exposures: (1) minimal stress; (2) visual stress (direct glare); (3) psychological stress; and (4) combined visual and psychological stress. Muscle activity and muscle blood flow in trapezius, muscle blood flow in orbicularis oculi, heart rate, blood pressure, blink rate and postural angles were continuously recorded. Immediately after each computer-work session, fixation disparity was measured and a questionnaire regarding perceived workstation lighting and stress was completed. Exposure to direct glare resulted in increased trapezius muscle blood flow, increased blink rate, and forward bending of the head. Psychological stress induced a transient increase in trapezius muscle activity and a more forward-bent posture. Bending forward towards the computer screen was correlated with higher productivity (reading speed), indicating a concentration or stress response. Forward bent posture was also associated with changes in fixation disparity. Furthermore, during computer work per se, trapezius muscle activity and blood flow, orbicularis oculi muscle blood flow, and heart rate were increased compared to rest. Exposure to glare and psychological stress during computer work were shown to influence the trapezius muscle, posture, and blink rate in young, healthy females with normal binocular vision, but in different ways. Accordingly, both visual and psychological factors must be taken into account when optimizing computer workstations to reduce physiological responses that may cause excessive eyestrain and musculoskeletal load.

  17. Empirical psychology, common sense, and Kant's empirical markers for moral responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frierson, Patrick

    2008-12-01

    This paper explains the empirical markers by which Kant thinks that one can identify moral responsibility. After explaining the problem of discerning such markers within a Kantian framework I briefly explain Kant's empirical psychology. I then argue that Kant's empirical markers for moral responsibility--linked to higher faculties of cognition--are not sufficient conditions for moral responsibility, primarily because they are empirical characteristics subject to natural laws. Next. I argue that these markers are not necessary conditions of moral responsibility. Given Kant's transcendental idealism, even an entity that lacks these markers could be free and morally responsible, although as a matter of fact Kant thinks that none are. Given that they are neither necessary nor sufficient conditions, I discuss the status of Kant's claim that higher faculties are empirical markers of moral responsibility. Drawing on connections between Kant's ethical theory and 'common rational cognition' (4:393), I suggest that Kant's theory of empirical markers can be traced to ordinary common sense beliefs about responsibility. This suggestion helps explain both why empirical markers are important and what the limits of empirical psychology are within Kant's account of moral responsibility.

  18. Cortisol as a predictor of psychological therapy response in depressive disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Susanne; Strawbridge, Rebecca; Vives, Andres Herane; Cleare, Anthony J

    2017-02-01

    Many patients with depressive disorders demonstrate resistance to psychological therapy. A frequent finding is hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis alterations. As cortisol is known to modulate cognitive processes, those patients may be less likely to profit from psychological therapy. To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on cortisol as a predictor of psychological therapy response. The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched. Records were included if they looked at patients with any depressive disorder engaging in psychological therapy, with a pre-treatment cortisol and a post-treatment symptom measure. Eight articles satisfied our selection criteria. The higher the cortisol levels before starting psychological therapy, the more symptoms patients with depression experienced at the end of treatment and/or the smaller their symptom change. Our findings suggest that patients with depression with elevated HPA functioning are less responsive to psychological therapy. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  19. Association of psychological stress response of fatigue with white blood cell count in male daytime workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishitani, Naoko; Sakakibara, Hisataka

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between work-related psychological and physical stress responses and counts of white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils, and lymphocytes were investigated in 101 daytime workers. Counts of WBCs and neutrophils were positively associated with smoking and inversely correlated with high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Additionally, general fatigue score as measured by the profile of mood state was positively correlated with WBC and neutrophil counts whereas lymphocyte counts was not significantly associated with fatigue score. Multiple regression analysis showed that WBC count was significantly related to general fatigue, age, and HDL-cholesterol levels. Neutrophil count was significantly related to HDL-cholesterol levels and fatigue score. Among various psychological stress response variables, general fatigue may be a key determinant of low-grade inflammation as represented by increases of WBC and neutrophil counts.

  20. Infant pupil diameter changes in response to others' positive and negative emotions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Geangu

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that infants resonate emotionally to others' positive and negative affect displays, and that these responses become stronger towards emotions with negative valence around the age of 12-months. In this study we measured 6- and 12-month-old infants' changes in pupil diameter when presented with the image and sound of peers experiencing happiness, distress and an emotionally neutral state. For all participants the perception of another's distress triggered larger pupil diameters. Perceiving other's happiness also induced larger pupil diameters but for shorter time intervals. Importantly, we also found evidence for an asymmetry in autonomous arousal towards positive versus negative emotional displays. Larger pupil sizes for another's distress compared to another's happiness were recorded shortly after stimulus onset for the older infants, and in a later time window for the 6-month-olds. These findings suggest that arousal responses for negative as well as for positive emotions are present in the second half of the first postnatal year. Importantly, an asymmetry with stronger responses for negative emotions seems to be already present at this age.

  1. Amygdala response to negative images in postpartum vs nulliparous women and intranasal oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Heather A; James, Thomas W; Ketterson, Ellen D; Sengelaub, Dale R; Ditzen, Beate; Heiman, Julia R

    2014-01-01

    The neuroendocrine state of new mothers may alter their neural processing of stressors in the environment through modulatory actions of oxytocin on the limbic system. We predicted that amygdala sensitivity to negatively arousing stimuli would be suppressed in postpartum compared to nulliparous women and that this suppression would be modulated by administration of oxytocin nasal spray. We measured brain activation (fMRI) and subjective arousal in response to negatively arousing pictures in 29 postpartum and 30 nulliparous women who received either oxytocin nasal spray or placebo before scanning. Pre- and post-exposure urinary cortisol levels were also measured. Postpartum women (placebo) demonstrated lower right amygdala activation in response to negative images, lower cortisol and lower negative photo arousal ratings to nulliparous women. Nulliparous women receiving oxytocin had lower right amygdala activation compared to placebo. Cortisol levels in the placebo group, and ratings of arousal across all women, were positively associated with right amygdala activation. Together, these findings demonstrate reductions in both amygdala activation and subjective negative arousal in untreated postpartum vs nulliparous women, supporting the hypothesis of an attenuated neural response to arousing stimuli in postpartum women. A causal role of oxytocin and the timing of potential effects require future investigation.

  2. Understanding Response Rates to Surveys About Family Members' Psychological Symptoms After Patients' Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ann C; Downey, Lois; Engelberg, Ruth A; Nielsen, Elizabeth; Ciechanowski, Paul; Curtis, J Randall

    2017-07-01

    Achieving adequate response rates from family members of critically ill patients can be challenging, especially when assessing psychological symptoms. To identify factors associated with completion of surveys about psychological symptoms among family members of critically ill patients. Using data from a randomized trial of an intervention to improve communication between clinicians and families of critically ill patients, we examined patient-level and family-level predictors of the return of usable surveys at baseline, three months, and six months (n = 181, 171, and 155, respectively). Family-level predictors included baseline symptoms of psychological distress, decisional independence preference, and attachment style. We hypothesized that family with fewer symptoms of psychological distress, a preference for less decisional independence, and secure attachment style would be more likely to return questionnaires. We identified several predictors of the return of usable questionnaires. Better self-assessed family member health status was associated with a higher likelihood and stronger agreement with a support-seeking attachment style with a lower likelihood, of obtaining usable baseline surveys. At three months, family-level predictors of return of usable surveys included having usable baseline surveys, status as the patient's legal next of kin, and stronger agreement with a secure attachment style. The only predictor of receipt of surveys at six months was the presence of usable surveys at three months. We identified several predictors of the receipt of surveys assessing psychological symptoms in family of critically ill patients, including family member health status and attachment style. Using these characteristics to inform follow-up mailings and reminders may enhance response rates. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Links between Chinese Mothers' Parental Beliefs and Responses to Children's Expression of Negative Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Siu Mui

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated relations between parental beliefs and mothers' reported responses to their children's negative emotions. Altogether 189 Chinese mothers of children aged six to eight years were interviewed in group sessions using structured questionnaires. It was found that Chinese mothers endorsed Guan, the Chinese parental beliefs. They…

  4. Negative affectivity in cardiovascular disease: Evaluating Type D personality assessment using item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emons, Wilco H.M.; Meijer, R.R.; Denollet, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Individuals with increased levels of both negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI)—referred to as type-D personality—are at increased risk of adverse cardiac events. We used item response theory (IRT) to evaluate NA, SI, and type-D personality as measured by the DS14. The

  5. Resting RSA Is Associated with Natural and Self-Regulated Responses to Negative Emotional Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaree, Heath A.; Robinson, Jennifer L.; Everhart, D. Erik; Schmeichel, Brandon J.

    2004-01-01

    Resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was assessed among 111 adult participants. These individuals were then asked to watch a positive or negative affective film in either a natural manner or while exaggerating their facial response. Facial reactions to the film were video-recorded and subsequently rated in terms of facial affect.…

  6. Relationships among Negative Emotionality, Responsive Parenting and Early Socio-Cognitive Development in Korean Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Kijoo

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the interplay among negative emotionality, responsive parenting and socio-cognitive developmental outcomes (i.e., communication, personal-social and problem-solving outcomes) in about 1620 Korean children using three waves of longitudinal data spanning the first 2 years of their life. Results from the Structural Equation…

  7. Fear of Failure, Self-Handicapping, and Negative Emotions in Response to Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Jared M.; Herman, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that students who fear failure are likely to utilize cognitive strategies such as self-handicapping that serve to perpetuate failure. Such devastating motivational dispositions clearly limit academic success. The present study examined negative emotional responses to scenarios involving academic failure among a sample of…

  8. Competitive active video games: Physiological and psychological responses in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisón, Juan F; Cebolla, Ausias; Guixeres, Jaime; Álvarez-Pitti, Julio; Escobar, Patricia; Bruñó, Alejandro; Lurbe, Empar; Alcañiz, Mariano; Baños, Rosa

    2015-10-01

    Recent strategies to reduce sedentary behaviour in children include replacing sedentary screen time for active video games. Active video game studies have focused principally on the metabolic consumption of a single player, with physiological and psychological responses of opponent-based multiplayer games to be further evaluated. To determine whether adding a competitive component to playing active video games impacts physiological and psychological responses in players. Sixty-two healthy Caucasian children and adolescents, nine to 14 years years of age, completed three conditions (8 min each) in random order: treadmill walking, and single and opponent-based Kinect active video games. Affect, arousal, rate of perceived exertion, heart rate and percentage of heart rate reserve were measured for each participant and condition. Kinect conditions revealed significantly higher heart rate, percentage of heart rate reserve, rate of perceived exertion and arousal when compared with treadmill walking (Pvideo games improved children's psychological responses (affect and rate of perceived exertion) compared with single play, providing a solution that may contribute toward improved adherence to physical activity.

  9. Positive and negative psychological correlates, gender specific and traditional factors for first onset angina in a sample of pakistani women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafiq, R.; Anjum, A.

    2015-01-01

    Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) occurs to a greater extent in developed than developing countries like Pakistan. Our understanding of risk factors leading to this disease in women, are largely derived from studies carried out on samples obtained from developed countries. Since prevalence of CHD in Pakistan is growing, it seems pertinent to infer risk and protective factors prevalent within the Pakistani women. This case control study investigated the role of psychological, traditional and gender specific risk and protective factors for Angina in a sample of Pakistani women aged between 35-65 years. Methods: Female patients admitted with first episode of Angina fulfilling the study inclusion/exclusion criteria were recruited within the first three days of stay in the hospital. One control per case matched on age was recruited. Translated versions of standardized tools: Life Orientation Test (LOT), The Hope Scale, Subjective Happiness Scale and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) were used to measure the psychological variables. Information on medical conditions like diabetes, hypertension, family history of IHD, presence and absence of menopause and use of oral contraceptive pills was obtained from the participants. Body Mass Index for cases and controls was calculated separately with the help of height and weight recorded for the participants. Results: Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that depression, anxiety and stress are risk factors, were as optimism and hope are protective predictors of Angina. 64% and 85 % of variance in Angina were attributed to psychological factors. Menopause, diabetes and hypertension are significantly associated with the risk of Angina, explaining 37% and 49 % of variance in Angina. The study provides evidence for implementation of gender specific risk assessment and preventive strategies for Angina. The study gives directions for large scale prospective, epidemiological, longitudinal as well as interventional

  10. POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE PSYCHOLOGICAL CORRELATES, GENDER SPECIFIC AND TRADITIONAL FACTORS FOR FIRST ONSET ANGINA IN A SAMPLE OF PAKISTANI WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Rafia; Anjum, Afifa

    2015-01-01

    Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) occurs to a greater extent in developed than developing countries like Pakistan. Our understanding of risk factors leading to this disease in women, are largely derived from studies carried out on samples obtained from developed countries. Since prevalence of CHD in Pakistan is growing, it seems pertinent to infer risk and protective factors prevalent within the Pakistani women. This case control study investigated the role of psychological, traditional and gender specific risk and protective factors for Angina in a sample of Pakistani women aged between 35-65 years. Female patients admitted with first episode of Angina fulfilling the study inclusion/exclusion criteria were recruited within the first three days of stay in the hospital. One control per case matched on age was recruited. Translated versions of standardized tools: Life Orientation Test (LOT), The Hope Scale, Subjective Happiness Scale and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) were used to measure the psychological variables. Information on medical conditions like diabetes, hypertension, family history of IHD, presence and absence of menopause and use of oral contraceptive pills was obtained from the participants. Body Mass Index for cases and controls was calculated separately with the help of height and weight recorded for the participants. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that depression, anxiety and stress are risk factors, were as optimism and hope are protective predictors of Angina. 64% and 85% of variance in Angina were attributed to psychological factors. Menopause, diabetes and hypertension are significantly associated with the risk of Angina, explaining 37% and 49% of variance in Angina. The study provides evidence for implementation of gender specific risk assessment and preventive strategies for Angina. The study gives directions for large scale prospective, epidemiological, longitudinal as well as interventional studies, to be tailored

  11. Congruence and Incongruence in Adolescents' and Parents' Perceptions of the Family: Using Response Surface Analysis to Examine Links with Adolescents' Psychological Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Lauren J; Dirks, Melanie A; DeLongis, Anita; Chen, Edith

    2016-10-01

    Parents and adolescents often hold discrepant views about the family environment and these discrepancies may in turn influence adolescents' psychological adjustment. The current study examined how adolescent-parent perceptions of family routines and chaos, and their congruence and incongruence, relate to adolescents' self-reported psychological adjustment (depressive symptoms and perceived stress), both concurrently (N dyads = 261; 53 % female) and 2 years later (N dyads = 118; 50 % female). Using polynomial regression and response surface analysis, results indicated that adolescents' perceptions of the family environment were a stronger predictor of adolescents' adjustment than parents' perceptions (76 % mothers), concurrently and over time. However, both congruence and incongruence in adolescent-parent perceptions were also related to adolescents' adjustment. Specifically, congruently negative adolescent-parent perceptions were associated with worse concurrent adolescent adjustment. Further, incongruence defined by more negativity in adolescents' versus parents' perceptions was associated with worse adolescent psychological adjustment, concurrently and over time. In sum, in addition to the strong links between adolescents' perceptions of the family and their own psychological adjustment, examining how congruent and incongruent adolescents' perceptions are with parents' perceptions may shed additional light on how the family environment relates to adolescent adjustment.

  12. Molecular essence and endocrine responsiveness of estrogen receptor-negative, progesterone receptor-positive, and HER2-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ke-Da; Jiang, Yi-Zhou; Hao, Shuang; Shao, Zhi-Ming

    2015-10-05

    The clinical significance of progesterone receptor (PgR) expression in estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) breast cancer is controversial. Herein, we systemically investigate the clinicopathologic features, molecular essence, and endocrine responsiveness of ER-/PgR+/HER2- phenotype. Four study cohorts were included. The first and second cohorts were from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (n = 67,932) and Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (n = 2,338), respectively, for clinicopathologic and survival analysis. The third and fourth cohorts were from two independent publicly available microarray datasets including 837 operable cases and 483 cases undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy, respectively, for clinicopathologic and gene-expression analysis. Characterized genes defining subgroups within the ER-/PgR+/HER2- phenotype were determined and further validated. Clinicopathologic features and survival outcomes of the ER-/PgR+ phenotype fell in between the ER+/PgR+ and ER-/PgR- phenotypes, but were more similar to ER-/PgR-. Among the ER-/PgR+ phenotype, 30% (95% confidence interval [CI] 17-42%, pooled by a fixed-effects method) were luminal-like and 59% (95% CI 45-72%, pooled by a fixed-effects method) were basal-like. We further refined the characterized genes for subtypes within the ER-/PgR+ phenotype and developed an immunohistochemistry-based method that could determine the molecular essence of ER-/PgR+ using three markers, TFF1, CK5, and EGFR. Either PAM50-defined or immunohistochemistry-defined basal-like ER-/PgR+ cases have a lower endocrine therapy sensitivity score compared with luminal-like ER-/PgR+ cases (P defined basal-like ER-/PgR+ cases might not benefit from adjuvant endocrine therapy (log-rank P = 0.61 for sufficient versus insufficient endocrine therapy). The majority of ER-/PgR+/HER2- phenotype breast cancers are basal-like and associated with a lower endocrine therapy sensitivity score. Additional studies are needed

  13. Psychological intervention in medical preparedness and response to nuclear and radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Cuiping; Liu, Ying

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Although the incidence rate of nuclear or radiological accident and their terror attack is very low, their influence is tremendous because of the unexpected of their occurrence and uncertainty of their damage degree. An attack involving the release of radiation will create uncertainty, fear, and terror. Therefore, the management of acute psychological and behavioral responses is likely to be as important and challenging as the treatment of radiation-related injuries and illnesses. In this paper, we introduce the principle of psychological intervention at the preparation stage and during and after emergency. At the preparation stage, people should be educated by various means to prevent them from the impact of accident. When accident happens, effective action should be taken immediately to reduce the psychological influence. Special groups such as children and pregnant women must be considered. Furthermore, we analyze the symptom of different groups including victims, the public and responders and put forward the methods to prevent and treat psychological damage. After radiation accident, victims who have been exposed or anticipate possible exposure may experience feelings of vulnerability, anxiety, and lack of control. The most important element is providing good medical care. Moreover, communication between patients and their family is very important too. The public in the affected community is likely to be anxious and terrified. Trusted and informed leadership should be assigned to give psychological support in counselling center established at monitoring and evacuation centers. Government must be honest in communication with public and media. Responders have to perform their duty under stressful condition. Some of them are unable to deal with such stress could develop mental health problems such as post traumatic stress disorder, substance abuse or depression. Protective clothing and dosimeters must be provided to ensure responders' safety. Moreover

  14. Brief mindfulness meditation training alters psychological and neuroendocrine responses to social evaluative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, J David; Pacilio, Laura E; Lindsay, Emily K; Brown, Kirk Warren

    2014-06-01

    To test whether a brief mindfulness meditation training intervention buffers self-reported psychological and neuroendocrine responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in young adult volunteers. A second objective evaluates whether pre-existing levels of dispositional mindfulness moderate the effects of brief mindfulness meditation training on stress reactivity. Sixty-six (N=66) participants were randomly assigned to either a brief 3-day (25-min per day) mindfulness meditation training or an analytic cognitive training control program. All participants completed a standardized laboratory social-evaluative stress challenge task (the TSST) following the third mindfulness meditation or cognitive training session. Measures of psychological (stress perceptions) and biological (salivary cortisol, blood pressure) stress reactivity were collected during the social evaluative stress-challenge session. Brief mindfulness meditation training reduced self-reported psychological stress reactivity but increased salivary cortisol reactivity to the TSST, relative to the cognitive training comparison program. Participants who were low in pre-existing levels of dispositional mindfulness and then received mindfulness meditation training had the greatest cortisol reactivity to the TSST. No significant main or interactive effects were observed for systolic or diastolic blood pressure reactivity to the TSST. The present study provides an initial indication that brief mindfulness meditation training buffers self-reported psychological stress reactivity, but also increases cortisol reactivity to social evaluative stress. This pattern may indicate that initially brief mindfulness meditation training fosters greater active coping efforts, resulting in reduced psychological stress appraisals and greater cortisol reactivity during social evaluative stressors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Conceptualizing psychological processes in response to globalization: Components, antecedents, and consequences of global orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sylvia Xiaohua; Lam, Ben C P; Hui, Bryant P H; Ng, Jacky C K; Mak, Winnie W S; Guan, Yanjun; Buchtel, Emma E; Tang, Willie C S; Lau, Victor C Y

    2016-02-01

    The influences of globalization have permeated various aspects of life in contemporary society, from technical innovations, economic development, and lifestyles, to communication patterns. The present research proposed a construct termed global orientation to denote individual differences in the psychological processes of acculturating to the globalizing world. It encompasses multicultural acquisition as a proactive response and ethnic protection as a defensive response to globalization. Ten studies examined the applicability of global orientations among majority and minority groups, including immigrants and sojourners, in multicultural and relatively monocultural contexts, and across Eastern and Western cultures. Multicultural acquisition is positively correlated with both independent and interdependent self-construals, bilingual proficiency and usage, and dual cultural identifications. Multicultural acquisition is promotion-focused, while ethnic protection is prevention-focused and related to acculturative stress. Global orientations affect individuating and modest behavior over and above multicultural ideology, predict overlap with outgroups over and above political orientation, and predict psychological adaptation, sociocultural competence, tolerance, and attitudes toward ethnocultural groups over and above acculturation expectations/strategies. Global orientations also predict English and Chinese oral presentation performance in multilevel analyses and the frequency and pleasantness of intercultural contact in cross-lagged panel models. We discuss how the psychological study of global orientations contributes to theory and research on acculturation, cultural identity, and intergroup relations. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Perceptions of Psychological Abuse: The Role of Perpetrator Gender, Victim's Response, and Sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capezza, Nicole M; D'Intino, Lauren A; Flynn, Margaret A; Arriaga, Ximena B

    2017-11-01

    It is commonly assumed that male abuse is more damaging than female abuse, just as it previously has been assumed that physical abuse is more harmful than psychological abuse. We sought to examine gender assumptions given that they may cause people to overlook the harm that men experience with a psychologically abusive partner. The current experiment compared perceptions of male and female perpetrators of psychological abuse, and examined whether gendered perceptions were affected by sexist beliefs or participants' own sex. The experiment also explored the effect of the victim's response to a perpetrator's abuse. College participants ( N = 195) read a scenario depicting a hypothetical marital conflict that manipulated the sex of the perpetrator, the level of abuse (abuse or no abuse), and whether the victim did or did not respond with some aggression. In scenarios that featured abuse (relative to no-abuse conditions), a male perpetrator was consistently perceived more harshly than a female perpetrator. Participant sex and sexism did not moderate this gender-based perception. Varying the victim's response in the scenario affected perceptions more in the no-abuse condition than in the abuse condition. The findings are discussed in terms of robust gender assumptions and the difficulties in challenging such assumptions.

  17. Education in the responsible conduct of research in psychology: methods and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLorenzo, Terry A; Becker-Fiegeles, Jill; Gibelman, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    In this mixed-method study of education in the responsible conduct of research (RCR) in psychology, phase one survey respondents (n = 141) reported that faculty and students were familiar with RCR standards and procedures to educate them were believed to be adequate. However, educational methods varied widely. In phase two, seven survey respondents completed in-depth interviews assessing RCR training and education and research review procedures. Educational methods through which RCR content was presented included the following ones: traditional (lectures), technical (web-based), and experiential (internships), but RCR was often minimally considered in the formal curriculum. Our results suggest that psychology training programs might benefit from more formal consideration of RCR education and training in the curriculum.

  18. The negativity bias predicts response rate to Behavioral Activation for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Jackie K; Hoxha, Denada; Hunnicutt-Ferguson, Kallio; Norris, Catherine J; Rosebrock, Laina; Sankin, Lindsey; Cacioppo, John

    2016-09-01

    This treatment study investigated the extent to which asymmetric dimensions of affective responding, specifically the positivity offset and the negativity bias, at pretreatment altered the rate of response to Behavioral Activation treatment for depression. Forty-one depressed participants were enrolled into 16 weekly sessions of BA. An additional 36 lifetime healthy participants were evaluated prospectively for 16 weeks to compare affective responding between healthy and remitted patients at post-treatment. All participants were assessed at Weeks 0, 8 and 16 using repeated measures, involving a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders, questionnaires, and a computerized task designed to measure affective responses to unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant images. The negativity bias at pre-treatment predicted the rate of response to BA, while the positivity offset did not. Only one treatment condition was used in this study and untreated depressed participants were not enrolled, limiting our ability to compare the effect of BA. Baseline negativity bias may serve as a signal for patients to engage in and benefit from the goal-directed BA strategies, thereby accelerating rate of response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Attachment style impacts behavior and early oculomotor response to positive, but not negative, pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Catarina; Chaminade, Thierry; David, Da Fonseca; Santos, Andreia; Esteves, Francisco; Soares, Isabel; Deruelle, Christine

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigated whether oculomotor behavior is influenced by attachment styles. The Relationship Scales Questionnaire was used to assess attachment styles of forty-eight voluntary university students and to classify them into attachment groups (secure, preoccupied, fearful, and dismissing). Eye-tracking was recorded while participants engaged in a 3-seconds free visual exploration of stimuli presenting either a positive or a negative picture together with a neutral picture, all depicting social interactions. The task consisted in identifying whether the two pictures depicted the same emotion. Results showed that the processing of negative pictures was impermeable to attachment style, while the processing of positive pictures was significantly influenced by individual differences in insecure attachment. The groups highly avoidant regarding to attachment (dismissing and fearful) showed reduced accuracy, suggesting a higher threshold for recognizing positive emotions compared to the secure group. The groups with higher attachment anxiety (preoccupied and fearful) showed differences in automatic capture of attention, in particular an increased delay preceding the first fixation to a picture of positive emotional valence. Despite lenient statistical thresholds induced by the limited sample size of some groups (p < 0.05 uncorrected for multiple comparisons), the current findings suggest that the processing of positive emotions is affected by attachment styles. These results are discussed within a broader evolutionary framework. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Mothers' responses to children's negative emotions and child emotion regulation: the moderating role of vagal suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Nicole B; Calkins, Susan D; Nelson, Jackie A; Leerkes, Esther M; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2012-07-01

    The current study examined the moderating effect of children's cardiac vagal suppression on the association between maternal socialization of negative emotions (supportive and nonsupportive responses) and children's emotion regulation behaviors. One hundred and ninety-seven 4-year-olds and their mothers participated. Mothers reported on their reactions to children's negative emotions and children's regulatory behaviors. Observed distraction, an adaptive self-regulatory strategy, and vagal suppression were assessed during a laboratory task designed to elicit frustration. Results indicated that children's vagal suppression moderated the association between mothers' nonsupportive emotion socialization and children's emotion regulation behaviors such that nonsupportive reactions to negative emotions predicted lower observed distraction and lower reported emotion regulation behaviors when children displayed lower levels of vagal suppression. No interaction was found between supportive maternal emotion socialization and vagal suppression for children's emotion regulation behaviors. Results suggest physiological regulation may serve as a buffer against nonsupportive emotion socialization. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Negative life events vary by neighborhood and mediate the relation between neighborhood context and psychological well-being.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine King

    Full Text Available Researchers have speculated that negative life events are more common in troubled neighborhoods, amplifying adverse effects on health. Using a clustered representative sample of Chicago residents (2001-03; n = 3,105 from the Chicago Community Adult Health Survey, we provide the first documentation that negative life events are highly geographically clustered compared to health outcomes. Associations between neighborhood context and negative life events were also found to vary by event type. We then demonstrate the power of a contextualized approach by testing path models in which life events mediate the relation between neighborhood characteristics and health outcomes, including self-rated health, anxiety, and depression. The indirect paths between neighborhood conditions and health through negative life event exposure are highly significant and large compared to the direct paths from neighborhood conditions to health. Our results indicate that neighborhood conditions can have acute as well as chronic effects on health, and that negative life events are a powerful mechanism by which context may influence health.

  2. Negative life events vary by neighborhood and mediate the relation between neighborhood context and psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Katherine; Ogle, Christin

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have speculated that negative life events are more common in troubled neighborhoods, amplifying adverse effects on health. Using a clustered representative sample of Chicago residents (2001-03; n = 3,105) from the Chicago Community Adult Health Survey, we provide the first documentation that negative life events are highly geographically clustered compared to health outcomes. Associations between neighborhood context and negative life events were also found to vary by event type. We then demonstrate the power of a contextualized approach by testing path models in which life events mediate the relation between neighborhood characteristics and health outcomes, including self-rated health, anxiety, and depression. The indirect paths between neighborhood conditions and health through negative life event exposure are highly significant and large compared to the direct paths from neighborhood conditions to health. Our results indicate that neighborhood conditions can have acute as well as chronic effects on health, and that negative life events are a powerful mechanism by which context may influence health.

  3. Psychological and physiological human responses to simulated and real environments: A comparison between Photographs, 360° Panoramas, and Virtual Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuera-Trujillo, Juan Luis; López-Tarruella Maldonado, Juan; Llinares Millán, Carmen

    2017-11-01

    Psychological research into human factors frequently uses simulations to study the relationship between human behaviour and the environment. Their validity depends on their similarity with the physical environments. This paper aims to validate three environmental-simulation display formats: photographs, 360° panoramas, and virtual reality. To do this we compared the psychological and physiological responses evoked by simulated environments set-ups to those from a physical environment setup; we also assessed the users' sense of presence. Analysis show that 360° panoramas offer the closest to reality results according to the participants' psychological responses, and virtual reality according to the physiological responses. Correlations between the feeling of presence and physiological and other psychological responses were also observed. These results may be of interest to researchers using environmental-simulation technologies currently available in order to replicate the experience of physical environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Adaptive response and genomic instability: allosteric response of genome to negative impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Masao S.

    2010-01-01

    Currently, there is an upsurge concern on the unique response of living cells to low dose ionizing radiation for its inconformity to the existing paradigm of the biological action of radiation and its impact on the current understanding of risk evaluation of health effect of radiation in our workplace and environment. For the allosteric response to have significance, the cells must have an excellent sensing mechanism to discriminate tolerable and intolerable signals. In a series of experiments with mammalian, including human, cells, we demonstrated a novel sensing and signaling mechanism in the low-dose irradiated cells that was mediated by a PKCα-p3BMAPK-PLCδ1 feedback regulatory loop. Upon irradiation, PKCα is immediately activated, which in turn activate p38MAPK. The activation of p38MAPK is feedbacked to the activation of PKCα via PLCδ1, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of PtdInsP2 to generate PKCα-directed second messengers DAG and lnsP3. At low doses, the PKCα and p38MAPK continue to be activated for long time through this feedback loop, but when the cells encounter the high dose (>10 cGy or equivalent), the feedback loop is immediately comes to shutdown by deprivation of PKCα protein, known as down-regulation of PKC signaling. Thus, PKCα plays a key role in the long lasting nature of adaptive response to low doses and a binary switch to the genomic instability by too much signals. Tumor suppressor protein, p53, is a downstream effecter

  5. Twice the negativity bias and half the positivity offset: Evaluative responses to emotional information in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Jackie K; Hoxha, Denada; Hunnicutt-Ferguson, Kallio; Norris, Catherine J; Rosebrock, Laina; Sankin, Lindsey; Cacioppo, John

    2016-09-01

    Humans have the dual capacity to assign a slightly pleasant valence to neutral stimuli (the positivity offset) to encourage approach behaviors, as well as to assign a higher negative valence to unpleasant images relative to the positive valence to equally arousing and extreme pleasant images (the negativity bias) to facilitate defensive strategies. We conducted an experimental psychopathology study to examine the extent to which the negativity bias and the positivity offset differ in participants with and without major depression.. Forty-one depressed and thirty-six healthy participants were evaluated using a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders, questionnaires, and a computerized task designed to measure implicit affective responses to unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant stimuli. The negativity bias was significantly higher and the positivity offset was significantly lower in depressed relative to healthy participants.. Entry criteria enrolling medication-free participants with minimal DSM-IV comorbidity may limit generalizability of the findings. This study advances our understanding of the positive and negative valence systems in depression, highlighting the irregularities in the positive valence system.. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mindfulness during romantic conflict moderates the impact of negative partner behaviors on cortisol responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Hertz, Robin; Nelson, Benjamin; Laurent, Sean M

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to test whether romantic partners' mindfulness-present moment, nonjudgmental awareness-during a conflict discussion could buffer the effects of negative partner behaviors on neuroendocrine stress responses. Heterosexual couples (n=88 dyads) provided 5 saliva samples for cortisol assay during a laboratory session involving a conflict discussion task. Conflict behaviors were coded by outside observers using the System for Coding Interactions in Dyads, and partners rated their mindfulness during the task using the Toronto Mindfulness Scale. Interactions tested using multilevel modeling revealed that participants with higher levels of mindfulness during the conflict showed either quicker cortisol recovery or an absence of slowed recovery in the presence of more negative partner behaviors. Whereas the attitudinal component of mindfulness (curiosity) moderated effects of negative partner engagement in the conflict (i.e., attempts to control, coerciveness, negativity and conflict), the attentional component of mindfulness (decentering) moderated the effect of partner disengagement (i.e., withdrawal). These findings lend support to the idea that mindfulness during a stressful interaction can mitigate the physiological impacts of negative behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pathologic response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy predicts locoregional control in patients with triple negative breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Victor E.; Gillespie, Erin F.; Zakeri, Kaveh; Murphy, James D.; Yashar, Catheryn M.; Lu, Sharon; Einck, John P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Our goal was to determine the impact of pathologic response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) on the subsequent risk of locoregional recurrence (LRR) and disease-free survival (DFS) in the setting of adjuvant radiation therapy. Methods and materials: This was an institutional review board–approved retrospective chart review of patients with clinical stage I-III breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, local surgery (breast conservat...

  8. "Assault-related shame mediates the association between negative social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and psychological distress": Correction to Decou et al. (2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    Reports an error in "Assault-related shame mediates the association between negative social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and psychological distress" by Christopher R. DeCou, Trevor T. Cole, Shannon M. Lynch, Maria M. Wong and Kathleen C. Matthews ( Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy , 2017[Mar], Vol 9[2], 166-172). In the article, there was an error in the coding of missing values thus effecting the abstract, Methods, Results, and Discussion sections. The frequency counts for sexual assault victimization, reactions to social disclosure, and assault-related shame were calculated incorrectly due to an error in the coding of missing values, and have been corrected in the description of participants and in the results and discussion sections. In addition, the sample size was incorrectly reported as N = 207, and should have appeared as "N = 208." The sample size and corresponding percentages have been corrected throughout the text. Two transcription errors for the indirect effects via PTSD and global distress were also corrected. These indirect effects were incorrectly reported as "PCL-C; β = .27," and "OQ-45.2;β = .21," and should have appeared as "PCL-C;β = .26," and "OQ-45.2; β = .20." (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-43136-001.) Objective: Several studies have identified associations between social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and psychological distress; however, no studies have evaluated shame as a mediator of this association. This study evaluated assault-related shame as a mediator of the associations between negative social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and global distress and hypothesized that there would be an indirect effect of social reactions to disclosure upon symptoms of psychopathology via assault-related shame. Participants were 207 female psychology undergraduates who reported past

  9. An exploratory study of adolescent response to fluoxetine using psychological and biological predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada H. Zohar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Not enough is known about predicting therapeutic response to serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors, and specifically to fluoxetine. This exploratory study used psychological and biological markers for (retrospective prediction of treatment-response to fluoxetine in depressed and/or anxious adolescents. Methods Forty-one consecutive adolescent outpatients with a primary diagnosis of severe affective and/or anxiety disorders were assessed and treated with an open-label 8-week trial of fluoxetine. Type D personality was assessed with the 14-item questionnaire, the DS14. In addition, TNFα, IL-6, and IL-1b were measured pre- and post-treatment. Results There was an elevation of Type D personality in patients, compared to the adolescent population rate. Post-treatment, 44% of patients were classified as non-responders; the relative risk of non-response for Type D personality patients was 2.8. Binary logistic regression predicting response vs. non-response showed a contribution of initial TNFα levels as well as Type D personality to non-response. Conclusions In this exploratory study, the most significant contributor to non-response was Type D personality. However, the measurement of Type D was not prospective, and thus may be confounded with psychiatric morbidity. The measurement of personality in psychiatric settings may contribute to the understanding of treatment response and have clinical utility.

  10. Neural Correlates of Biased Responses: The Negative Method Effect in the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale Is Associated with Right Amygdala Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinan; Kong, Feng; Huang, Lijie; Liu, Jia

    2016-10-01

    Self-esteem is a widely studied construct in psychology that is typically measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). However, a series of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested that a simple and widely used unidimensional factor model does not provide an adequate explanation of RSES responses due to method effects. To identify the neural correlates of the method effect, we sought to determine whether and how method effects were associated with the RSES and investigate the neural basis of these effects. Two hundred and eighty Chinese college students (130 males; mean age = 22.64 years) completed the RSES and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Behaviorally, method effects were linked to both positively and negatively worded items in the RSES. Neurally, the right amygdala volume negatively correlated with the negative method factor, while the hippocampal volume positively correlated with the general self-esteem factor in the RSES. The neural dissociation between the general self-esteem factor and negative method factor suggests that there are different neural mechanisms underlying them. The amygdala is involved in modulating negative affectivity; therefore, the current study sheds light on the nature of method effects that are related to self-report with a mix of positively and negatively worded items. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Transforming Water: Social Influence Moderates Psychological, Physiological, and Functional Response to a Placebo Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum, Alia J; Phillips, Damon J; Goyer, J Parker; Akinola, Modupe; Higgins, E Tory

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates how social influence can alter physiological, psychological, and functional responses to a placebo product and how such responses influence the ultimate endorsement of the product. Participants consumed a product, "AquaCharge Energy Water," falsely-labeled as containing 200 mg of caffeine but which was actually plain spring water, in one of three conditions: a no social influence condition, a disconfirming social influence condition, and a confirming social influence condition. Results demonstrated that the effect of the product labeling on physiological alertness (systolic blood pressure), psychological alertness (self-reported alertness), functional alertness (cognitive interference), and product endorsement was moderated by social influence: participants experienced more subjective, physiological and functional alertness and stronger product endorsement when they consumed the product in the confirming social influence condition than when they consumed the product in the disconfirming social influence condition. These results suggest that social influence can alter subjective, physiological, and functional responses to a faux product, in this case transforming the effects of plain water.

  12. Psychological Assessment of Patients With Biotin-Thiamine-Responsive Basal Ganglia Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfadhel, Majid; Al-Bluwi, Amal

    2017-01-01

    Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease is a devastating autosomal recessive inherited neurological disorder. We conducted a retrospective chart review of all patients with biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease who underwent a formal psychological assessment. Six females and 3 males were included. Five patients (56%) had an average IQ, two patients (22%) had mild delay, and two (22%) had severe delay. A normal outcome was directly related to the time of diagnosis and initiation of treatment. Early diagnosis and immediate commencement of treatment were associated with a favorable outcome and vice versa. The most affected domain was visual motor integration, while understanding and mathematical problem-solving were the least affected. In summary, this is the first study discussing the psychological assessment of patients with biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease. The results of this study alert clinicians to consider prompt initiation of biotin and thiamine in any patient presenting with neuroregression and a basal ganglia lesion on a brain magnetic resonance imaging.

  13. Pulmonary and systemic inflammatory responses in rabbits with gram-negative pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox-Dewhurst, R; Alberts, M K; Kajikawa, O; Caldwell, E; Johnson, M C; Skerrett, S J; Goodman, R B; Ruzinski, J T; Wong, V A; Chi, E Y; Martin, T R

    1997-06-01

    The major goals of this study were to define the relationships between intrapulmonary and systemic inflammatory responses in animals with gram-negative pneumonia. We treated rabbits with intrapulmonary Escherichia coli (1 x 10(7) to 1 x 10(10) cfu/ml), and then measured physiologic, cellular, and molecular events in the lungs and systemic circulation for 24 h. The treatment protocols resulted in groups of animals that mimicked the stages of the septic inflammatory response in humans. Animals treated with low inocula had systemic changes consistent with systemic inflammatory response syndrome and cleared the bacteria and inflammatory products from the lungs. Animals treated with high inocula failed to clear bacteria from the lungs, had severe intrapulmonary inflammatory responses, and developed septic shock. Intrapulmonary leukocyte recruitment was directly related to the size of the bacterial inoculum, but lung protein accumulation was not. Tumor neurosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and GRO were detectable in lung lavage fluid at 4 h and declined by 24 h in animals that cleared intrapulmonary E. coli. In contrast, lavage TNF-alpha, IL-8, and GRO increased over 24 h in animals that failed to clear intrapulmonary bacteria. MCP-1 increased between 4 h and 24 h in the lungs of all of the animals as the histologic response evolved from neutrophilic to mononuclear cell predominance. Thus, the intensity of systemic inflammatory and physiologic responses to intrapulmonary gram-negative infection depends on the inoculum size and whether the bacteria are cleared from or proliferate in the lungs. The results provide experimental support for the recently proposed classification of septic responses in humans.

  14. Daily Exposure to Negative Campaign Messages Decreases Same-Sex Couples’ Psychological and Relational Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, D; Fingerhut, A

    2016-01-01

    Throughout history, the rights of stigmatized minority group members have been subject to popular debate and voter referenda. The impact of the resulting devaluing social discourse on the well-being of minority group members remains unknown. For example, exposure to the discourse leading up to decisions on same-sex marriage may have negative consequences for sexual minority individuals and same-sex couples. We examined the impact of exposure to same-sex marriage campaign messages (e.g., comme...

  15. Facial expression judgments support a socio-relational model, rather than a negativity bias model of political psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Jacob M; Strenth, Chance

    2014-06-01

    Self-reported opinions and judgments may be more rooted in expressive biases than in cognitive processing biases, and ultimately operate within a broader behavioral style for advertising the capacity - versus the trustworthiness - dimension of human reciprocity potential. Our analyses of facial expression judgments of likely voters are consistent with this thesis, and directly contradict one major prediction from the authors' "negativity-bias" model.

  16. Pupillary Response to Negative Emotional Stimuli Is Differentially Affected in Meditation Practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Vasquez-Rosati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Clinically, meditative practices have become increasingly relevant, decreasing anxiety in patients and increasing antibody production. However, few studies have examined the physiological correlates, or effects of the incorporation of meditative practices. Because pupillary reactivity is a marker for autonomic changes and emotional processing, we hypothesized that the pupillary responses of mindfulness meditation practitioners (MP and subjects without such practices (non-meditators (NM differ, reflecting different emotional processing. In a group of 11 MP and 9 NM, we recorded the pupil diameter using video-oculography while subjects explored images with emotional contents. Although both groups showed a similar pupillary response for positive and neutral images, negative images evoked a greater pupillary contraction and a weaker dilation in the MP group. Also, this group had faster physiological recovery to baseline levels. These results suggest that mindfulness meditation practices modulate the response of the autonomic nervous system, reflected in the pupillary response to negative images and faster physiological recovery to baseline levels, suggesting that pupillometry could be used to assess the potential health benefits of these practices in patients.

  17. Spectral response variation of a negative-electron-affinity photocathode in the preparation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lei; Du Yujie; Chang Benkang; Yunsheng Qian

    2006-01-01

    In order to research the spectral response variation of a negative electron affinity (NEA) photocathode in the preparation process, we have done two experiments on a transmission-type GaAs photocathode.First, an automatic spectral response recording system is described, which is used to take spectral response curves during the activation procedure of the photocathode. By this system, the spectral response curves of a GaAs:Cs-Ophotocathode measured in situ are presented. Then, after the cathode is sealed with a microchannel plate and a fluorescence screen into the image tube, we measure the spectral response of the tube by another measurement instrument. By way of comparing and analyzing these curves, we can find the typical variation in spectral-responses.The reasons for the variation are discussed. Based on these curves, spectral matching factors of a GaAs cathode for green vegetation and rough concrete are calculated. The visual ranges of night-vision goggles under specific circumstances are estimated. The results show that the spectral response of the NEA photocathode degraded in the sealing process, especially at long wavelengths. The variation has also influenced the whole performance of the intensifier tube

  18. Amygdala and fusiform gyrus temporal dynamics: Responses to negative facial expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauch Scott L

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amygdala habituates in response to repeated human facial expressions; however, it is unclear whether this brain region habituates to schematic faces (i.e., simple line drawings or caricatures of faces. Using an fMRI block design, 16 healthy participants passively viewed repeated presentations of schematic and human neutral and negative facial expressions. Percent signal changes within anatomic regions-of-interest (amygdala and fusiform gyrus were calculated to examine the temporal dynamics of neural response and any response differences based on face type. Results The amygdala and fusiform gyrus had a within-run "U" response pattern of activity to facial expression blocks. The initial block within each run elicited the greatest activation (relative to baseline and the final block elicited greater activation than the preceding block. No significant differences between schematic and human faces were detected in the amygdala or fusiform gyrus. Conclusion The "U" pattern of response in the amygdala and fusiform gyrus to facial expressions suggests an initial orienting, habituation, and activation recovery in these regions. Furthermore, this study is the first to directly compare brain responses to schematic and human facial expressions, and the similarity in brain responses suggest that schematic faces may be useful in studying amygdala activation.

  19. CBL-interacting protein kinase 6 negatively regulates immune response to Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardar, Atish; Nandi, Ashis Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Debasis

    2017-06-15

    Cytosolic calcium ion (Ca2+) is an essential mediator of the plant innate immune response. Here, we report that a calcium-regulated protein kinase Calcineurin B-like protein (CBL)-interacting protein kinase 6 (CIPK6) functions as a negative regulator of immunity against the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis lines with compromised expression of CIPK6 exhibited enhanced disease resistance to the bacterial pathogen and to P. syringae harboring certain but not all avirulent effectors, while restoration of CIPK6 expression resulted in abolition of resistance. Plants overexpressing CIPK6 were more susceptible to P. syringae. Enhanced resistance in the absence of CIPK6 was accompanied by increased accumulation of salicylic acid and elevated expression of defense marker genes. Salicylic acid accumulation was essential for improved immunity in the absence of CIPK6. CIPK6 negatively regulated the oxidative burst associated with perception of pathogen-associated microbial patterns (PAMPs) and bacterial effectors. Accelerated and enhanced activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in response to bacterial and fungal elicitors was observed in the absence of CIPK6. The results of this study suggested that CIPK6 negatively regulates effector-triggered and PAMP-triggered immunity in Arabidopsis. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  20. Climate Response to Negative Greenhouse Gas Radiative Forcing in Polar Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanner, M. G.; Huang, X.; Chen, X.; Krinner, G.

    2018-02-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) additions to Earth's atmosphere initially reduce global outgoing longwave radiation, thereby warming the planet. In select environments with temperature inversions, however, increased GHG concentrations can actually increase local outgoing longwave radiation. Negative top of atmosphere and effective radiative forcing (ERF) from this situation give the impression that local surface temperatures could cool in response to GHG increases. Here we consider an extreme scenario in which GHG concentrations are increased only within the warmest layers of winter near-surface inversions of the Arctic and Antarctic. We find, using a fully coupled Earth system model, that the underlying surface warms despite the GHG addition exerting negative ERF and cooling the troposphere in the vicinity of the GHG increase. This unique radiative forcing and thermal response is facilitated by the high stability of the polar winter atmosphere, which inhibit thermal mixing and amplify the impact of surface radiative forcing on surface temperature. These findings also suggest that strategies to exploit negative ERF via injections of short-lived GHGs into inversion layers would likely be unsuccessful in cooling the planetary surface.

  1. Psychological and physiological stress negatively impacts early engagement and retention of opioid-dependent individuals on methadone maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaremko, Kellie M; Sterling, Robert C; Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated whether psychological and/or physiological measures of stress would impede induction onto methadone maintenance and predict early (scale (PSS) and post-traumatic stress disorder checklist (PCLC); 60% exhibited abnormal cortisol. Addiction severity index (ASI), drug-use, and stress indices explained between 17 and 37% of the variance in engagement including attendance, opioid abstinence, and methadone stabilization. Participants who discontinued treatment displayed poor engagement, abnormal cortisol, elevated withdrawal symptoms, higher distress, and increased ongoing opioid use versus compliant individuals. Discontinuation was initially related to drug-use severity; however, by 6 months, retention depended primarily upon cortisol abnormalities, which increased an individual's discontinuation risk by 7.7-fold. These findings support admission screening with the ASI/cortisol for drop out, and stress/drug-use indices for engagement that together may enable clinically-relevant early recognition and interventions for prevention of stress-induced relapse in opioid-dependent populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Preliminary Validation of a New Measure of Negative Response Bias: The Temporal Memory Sequence Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedish, Omer; Kivilis, Naama; Hoofien, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The Temporal Memory Sequence Test (TMST) is a new measure of negative response bias (NRB) that was developed to enrich the forced-choice paradigm. The TMST does not resemble the common structure of forced-choice tests and is presented as a temporal recall memory test. The validation sample consisted of 81 participants: 21 healthy control participants, 20 coached simulators, and 40 patients with acquired brain injury (ABI). The TMST had high reliability and significantly high positive correlations with the Test of Memory Malingering and Word Memory Test effort scales. Moreover, the TMST effort scales exhibited high negative correlations with the Glasgow Coma Scale, thus validating the previously reported association between probable malingering and mild traumatic brain injury. A suggested cutoff score yielded acceptable classification rates in the ABI group as well as in the simulator and control groups. The TMST appears to be a promising measure of NRB detection, with respectable rates of reliability and construct and criterion validity.

  3. Recommendations to improve the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) based on item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Stephen Z; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Rizopoulos, Dimitris

    2011-08-15

    The adequacy of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) items in measuring symptom severity in schizophrenia was examined using Item Response Theory (IRT). Baseline PANSS assessments were analyzed from two multi-center clinical trials of antipsychotic medication in chronic schizophrenia (n=1872). Generally, the results showed that the PANSS (a) item ratings discriminated symptom severity best for the negative symptoms; (b) has an excess of "Severe" and "Extremely severe" rating options; and (c) assessments are more reliable at medium than very low or high levels of symptom severity. Analysis also showed that the detection of statistically and non-statistically significant differences in treatment were highly similar for the original and IRT-modified PANSS. In clinical trials of chronic schizophrenia, the PANSS appears to require the following modifications: fewer rating options, adjustment of 'Lack of judgment and insight', and improved severe symptom assessment. 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A negative relationship between ventral striatal loss anticipation response and impulsivity in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbort, Maike C; Soch, Joram; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Krauel, Kerstin; Pujara, Maia; Koenigs, Michael; Gallinat, Jürgen; Walter, Henrik; Roepke, Stefan; Schott, Björn H

    2016-01-01

    Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) frequently exhibit impulsive behavior, and self-reported impulsivity is typically higher in BPD patients when compared to healthy controls. Previous functional neuroimaging studies have suggested a link between impulsivity, the ventral striatal response to reward anticipation, and prediction errors. Here we investigated the striatal neural response to monetary gain and loss anticipation and their relationship with impulsivity in 21 female BPD patients and 23 age-matched female healthy controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants performed a delayed monetary incentive task in which three categories of objects predicted a potential gain, loss, or neutral outcome. Impulsivity was assessed using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). Compared to healthy controls, BPD patients exhibited significantly reduced fMRI responses of the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/NAcc) to both reward-predicting and loss-predicting cues. BIS-11 scores showed a significant positive correlation with the VS/NAcc reward anticipation responses in healthy controls, and this correlation, while also nominally positive, failed to reach significance in BPD patients. BPD patients, on the other hand, exhibited a significantly negative correlation between ventral striatal loss anticipation responses and BIS-11 scores, whereas this correlation was significantly positive in healthy controls. Our results suggest that patients with BPD show attenuated anticipation responses in the VS/NAcc and, furthermore, that higher impulsivity in BPD patients might be related to impaired prediction of aversive outcomes.

  5. Psychological contract breach in the anticipatory stage of change : Employee responses and the moderating role of supervisory informational justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Ruiter, M.; Schaveling, J.; Schalk, R.; Gelder, van D.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the impact of two types of psychological contract breach (organizational policies and social atmosphere breach) on resistance to change and engagement in the anticipatory phase of change and assessed whether supervisory informational justice mitigated the negative effects of

  6. Psychological contract breach in the anticipatory stage of change : Employee responses and the moderating role of supervisory informational justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, M.; Schalk, R.; Schaveling, Jaap; van Gelder, Daniel

    This study examined the impact of two types of psychological contract breach (organizational policies and social atmosphere breach) on resistance to change and engagement in the anticipatory phase of change and assessed whether supervisory informational justice mitigated the negative effects of

  7. Shame, Catastrophizing, and Negative Partner Responses Are Associated With Lower Sexual and Relationship Satisfaction and More Negative Affect in Men With Peyronie's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Seth; Ferrar, Saskia; Sadikaj, Gentiana; Binik, Yitzchak; Carrier, Serge

    2017-04-03

    Peyronie's disease (PD) has a negative impact on men's sexual functioning and quality of life, but little is known about why some men cope better than others and what the effects of PD are on their relationships. The aims of the present study were to describe negative affect, pain, and relationship and sexual satisfaction in men with PD, and to explore their psychosocial correlates. Participants were 110 men diagnosed with PD. All men completed questionnaires. The main outcome measures were as follows: Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, McGill Pain Questionnaire, and Negative Affect Scale. The predictor variables were the following: Experience of Shame Scale, Body Esteem Scale, Body Image Self-Consciousness Scale, Index of Male Genital Image, a modified Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and a modified Multidimensional Pain Inventory. Although men with PD had mean sexual/relationship satisfaction and negative affect scores indicating mild impairment, there was a wide range of variation, with 42% to 52% scoring in the clinical range. Catastrophizing was significantly associated with reduced sexual satisfaction and increased negative affect and pain. Shame was also associated with increased negative affect. The significant associations of relationship satisfaction were partner responses and shame. Given the lack of curative treatment in PD, understanding why some men cope better than others may guide therapy. Shame, catastrophizing, and partner responses may be important therapeutic targets.

  8. Metabolomics Analysis of Hormone-Responsive and Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cell Responses to Paclitaxel Identify Key Metabolic Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Delisha A; Winnike, Jason H; McRitchie, Susan L; Clark, Robert F; Pathmasiri, Wimal W; Sumner, Susan J

    2016-09-02

    To date, no targeted therapies are available to treat triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), while other breast cancer subtypes are responsive to current therapeutic treatment. Metabolomics was conducted to reveal differences in two hormone receptor-negative TNBC cell lines and two hormone receptor-positive Luminal A cell lines. Studies were conducted in the presence and absence of paclitaxel (Taxol). TNBC cell lines had higher levels of amino acids, branched-chain amino acids, nucleotides, and nucleotide sugars and lower levels of proliferation-related metabolites like choline compared with Luminal A cell lines. In the presence of paclitaxel, each cell line showed unique metabolic responses, with some similarities by type. For example, in the Luminal A cell lines, levels of lactate and creatine decreased while certain choline metabolites and myo-inositol increased with paclitaxel. In the TNBC cell lines levels of glutamine, glutamate, and glutathione increased, whereas lysine, proline, and valine decreased in the presence of drug. Profiling secreted inflammatory cytokines in the conditioned media demonstrated a greater response to paclitaxel in the hormone-positive Luminal cells compared with a secretion profile that suggested greater drug resistance in the TNBC cells. The most significant differences distinguishing the cell types based on pathway enrichment analyses were related to amino acid, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism pathways, whereas several biological pathways were differentiated between the cell lines following treatment.

  9. Loss of melanocortin-4 receptor function attenuates HPA responses to psychological stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryan, Karen K; Mul, Joram D; Clemmensen, Christoffer

    2014-01-01

    function. These results support the hypothesis that endogenous MC4R signaling contributes to the HPA axis response to stress. Because MC4R plays a critical role in the regulation of energy balance, the present work suggests that it may also serve as an important communication link between brain metabolic...... in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (HPA) regulation. The present work investigated the role of chronic Mc4r function to modulate basal HPA axis tone and to facilitate acute HPA responses to psychological stress, using a novel rat model with Mc4r loss-of-function. In this study, adult male rats were......The melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), well-known for its role in the regulation of energy balance, is widely expressed in stress-regulatory brain regions, including the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) and the medial amygdala (MeA). In agreement with this, MC4R has been implicated...

  10. FcεRI γ-Chain Negatively Modulates Dectin-1 Responses in Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Gen Pan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory effect of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM-containing adapters DAP12 and FcεRI γ-chain (FcRγ has been found in many immune functions. Herein, we have further explored the role of these adapters in C-type lectin receptors response. We identified that FcRγ, but not DAP12, could negatively regulate the Dectin-1 responses in dendritic cells (DCs. Loss of FcRγ or both DAP12 and FcRγ enhanced the maturation and cytokine production in DCs upon Dectin-1 activation compared to normal cells, whereas DCs lacking only DAP12 showed little changes. In addition, increments of T cell activation and T helper 17 polarization induced by FcRγ-deficient DCs were observed both in vitro and in vivo. Examining the Dectin-1 signaling, we revealed that the activations of several signaling molecules were augmented in FcRγ-deficient DCs stimulated with Dectin-1 ligands. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the association of phosphatases SHP-1 and PTEN with FcRγ may contribute to the negative regulation of FcRγ in Dectin-1 activation in DCs. These results extend the inhibitory effect of ITAM-containing adapters to Dectin-1 response in immune functions, even though Dectin-1 contains an ITAM-like intracellular domain. According to the role of Dectin-1 in responding to microbes and tumor cells, our finding may have applications in the development of vaccine and cancer therapy.

  11. Identifying clinically meaningful symptom response cut-off values on the SANS in predominant negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Stephen Z; Leucht, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    The treatment and measurement of negative symptoms are currently at issue in schizophrenia, but the clinical meaning of symptom severity and change is unclear. To offer a clinically meaningful interpretation of severity and change scores on the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS). Patients were intention-to-treat participants (n=383) in two double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials that compared amisulpride with placebo for the treatment of predominant negative symptoms. Equipercentile linking was used to examine extrapolation from (a) CGI-S to SANS severity ratings, and (b) CGI-I to SANS percentage change (n=383). Linking was conducted at baseline, 8-14 days, 28-30 days, and 56-60 days of the trials. Across visits, CGI-S ratings of 'not ill' linked to SANS scores of 0-13, and ranged to 'extreme' ratings that linked to SANS scores of 102-105. The relationship between the CGI-S and the SANS severity scores assumed a linear trend (1=0-13, 2=15-56, 3=37-61, 4=49-66, 5=63-75, 6=79-89, 7=102-105). Similarly the relationship between CGI-I ratings and SANS percentage change followed a linear trend. For instance, CGI-I ratings of 'very much improved' were linked to SANS percent changes of -90 to -67, 'much improved' to -50 to -42, and 'minimally improved' to -21 to -13. The current results uniquely contribute to the debate surrounding negative symptoms by providing clinical meaning to SANS severity and change scores and so offer direction regarding clinically meaningful response cut-off scores to guide treatment targets of predominant negative symptoms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test: Validity and Relationship with Cardiovascular Stress-Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Melanie M; Brosschot, Jos F; Thayer, Julian F; Verkuil, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Self-report, i.e., explicit, measures of affect cannot fully explain the cardiovascular (CV) responses to stressors. Measuring affect beyond self-report, i.e., using implicit measures, could add to our understanding of stress-related CV activity. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test (IPANAT) was administered in two studies to test its ecological validity and relation with CV responses and self-report measures of affect. In Study 1 students (N = 34) viewed four film clips inducing anger, happiness, fear, or no emotion, and completed the IPANAT and the Positive And Negative Affect Scale at baseline and after each clip. Implicit negative affect (INA) was higher and implicit positive affect (IPA) was lower after the anger inducing clip and vice versa after the happiness inducing clip. In Study 2 students performed a stressful math task with (n = 14) or without anger harassment (n = 15) and completed the IPANAT and a Visual Analog Scale as an explicit measure afterwards. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were recorded throughout. SBP and DBP were higher and TPR was lower in the harassment condition during the task with a prolonged effect on SBP and DBP during recovery. As expected, explicit negative affect (ENA) was higher and explicit positive affect (EPA) lower after harassment, but ENA and EPA were not related to CV activity. Although neither INA nor IPA differed between the tasks, during both tasks higher INA was related to higher SBP, lower HRV and lower TPR and to slower recovery of DBP after both tasks. Low IPA was related to slower recovery of SBP and DBP after the tasks. Implicit affect was not related to recovery of HR, HRV, and TPR. In conclusion, the IPANAT seems to respond to film clip-induced negative and positive affect and was related to CV activity during and after stressful tasks. These findings support the theory that implicitly measured affect

  13. A non-linear association between self-reported negative emotional response to stress and subsequent allostatic load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Nadya; Doan, Stacey N; Kivimäki, Mika

    2014-01-01

    dysregulation. Allostatic load also increased with age, but the association between negative emotional response and allostatic load remained stable over time. These results provide evidence for a more nuanced understanding of the role of negative emotions in long-term physical health....... response to major life events and allostatic load, a multisystem indicator of physiological dysregulation. Study sample was 6764 British civil service workers from the Whitehall II cohort. Negative emotional response was assessed by self-report at baseline. Allostatic load was calculated using...... cardiovascular, metabolic and immune function biomarkers at three clinical follow-up examinations. A non-linear association between negative emotional response and allostatic load was observed: being at either extreme end of the distribution of negative emotional response increased the risk of physiological...

  14. Psychological traits and the cortisol awakening response: results from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Santen, Aafke; Vreeburg, Sophie A; Van der Does, A J Willem; Spinhoven, Philip; Zitman, Frans G; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2011-02-01

    Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation is often seen in major depression, and is thought to represent a trait vulnerability - rather than merely an illness marker - for depressive disorder and possibly anxiety disorder. Vulnerability traits associated with stress-related disorders might reflect increased sensitivity for the development of psychopathology through an association with HPA axis activity. Few studies have examined the association between psychological trait factors and the cortisol awakening response, with inconsistent results. The present study examined the relationship between multiple psychological trait factors and the cortisol awakening curve, including both the dynamic of the CAR and overall cortisol awakening levels, in a sample of persons without psychopathology, hypothesizing that persons scoring high on vulnerability traits demonstrate an elevated cortisol awakening curve. From 2981 participants of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), baseline data from 381 controls (aged 18-65) without previous, current and parental depression and anxiety disorders were analyzed. Psychological measures included the Big Five personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, conscientiousness, and agreeableness) measured using the NEO-FFI, anxiety sensitivity assessed by the Anxiety Sensitivity Index, cognitive reactivity to sadness (hopelessness, acceptance/coping, aggression, control/perfectionism, risk aversion, and rumination) as measured by the LEIDS-R questionnaire, and mastery, assessed using the Pearlin and Schooler Mastery scale. Salivary cortisol levels were measured at awakening, and 30, 45, and 60 min afterwards. In adjusted analyses, high scores of hopelessness reactivity (β=.13, p=.02) were consistently associated with a higher cortisol awakening response. In addition, although inconsistent across analyses, persons scoring higher on extraversion, control/perfectionism reactivity, and

  15. HPV-16 L1 genes with inactivated negative RNA elements induce potent immune responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollman, Erik; Arnheim, Lisen; Collier, Brian; Oeberg, Daniel; Hall, Haakan; Klingstroem, Jonas; Dillner, Joakim; Pastrana, Diana V.; Buck, Chris B.; Hinkula, Jorma; Wahren, Britta; Schwartz, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    Introduction of point mutations in the 5' end of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) L1 gene specifically inactivates negative regulatory RNA processing elements. DNA vaccination of C57Bl/6 mice with the mutated L1 gene resulted in improved immunogenicity for both neutralizing antibodies as well as for broad cellular immune responses. Previous reports on the activation of L1 by codon optimization may be explained by inactivation of the regulatory RNA elements. The modified HPV-16 L1 DNA that induced anti-HPV-16 immunity may be seen as a complementary approach to protein subunit immunization against papillomavirus

  16. Negative Effects on Psychological Health and Quality of Life of Genuine Irritable Bowel Syndrome-type Symptoms in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracie, David J; Williams, Christopher J M; Sood, Ruchit; Mumtaz, Saqib; Bholah, M Hassan; Hamlin, P John; Ford, Alexander C

    2017-03-01

    Symptoms compatible with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but it is unclear whether this relates to occult IBD activity. We attempted to resolve this issue in a secondary care population by using a cross-sectional study design. We analyzed Rome III IBS symptoms, disease activity indices, and psychological, somatization, and quality of life data from 378 consecutive, unselected adult patients with IBD seen in clinics at St James's University Hospital in Leeds, United Kingdom from November 2012 through June 2015. Participants provided a stool sample for fecal calprotectin (FC) analysis; levels ≥250 μg/g were used to define mucosal inflammation. By using symptom data and FC levels we identified 4 distinct groups of patients: those with true IBS-type symptoms (IBS-type symptoms with FC levels life levels were also significantly reduced compared with patients with quiescent disease or occult inflammation and were similar to those of patients with active IBD. By using FC levels ≥100 μg/g to define mucosal inflammation, we found a similar effect of IBS-type symptoms on psychological health and quality of life. In a cross-sectional study, we identified a distinct group of patients with IBD and genuine IBS-type symptoms in the absence of mucosal inflammation. These symptoms had negative effects on psychological well-being and quality of life to the same degree as active IBD. New management strategies are required for this patient group. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. β2-adrenergic receptor-mediated negative regulation of group 2 innate lymphoid cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Saya; Brestoff, Jonathan R; Flamar, Anne-Laure; Moeller, Jesper B; Klose, Christoph S N; Rankin, Lucille C; Yudanin, Naomi A; Monticelli, Laurel A; Putzel, Gregory Garbès; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Artis, David

    2018-03-02

    The type 2 inflammatory response is induced by various environmental and infectious stimuli. Although recent studies identified group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) as potent sources of type 2 cytokines, the molecular pathways controlling ILC2 responses are incompletely defined. Here we demonstrate that murine ILC2s express the β 2 -adrenergic receptor (β 2 AR) and colocalize with adrenergic neurons in the intestine. β 2 AR deficiency resulted in exaggerated ILC2 responses and type 2 inflammation in intestinal and lung tissues. Conversely, β 2 AR agonist treatment was associated with impaired ILC2 responses and reduced inflammation in vivo. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that the β 2 AR pathway is a cell-intrinsic negative regulator of ILC2 responses through inhibition of cell proliferation and effector function. Collectively, these data provide the first evidence of a neuronal-derived regulatory circuit that limits ILC2-dependent type 2 inflammation. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  18. Psychological and socio-cultural risk factors for developing negative attitude and anti-health behaviour toward the body in young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izydorczyk Bernadetta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to present the results of research concerning psychological and socio-cultural risk factors for development of negative anti-health (that is too restrictive and compensatory attitude toward one’s body in young Polish women. The study comprised 120 women, of 20 to 25 years of age, with similar socio-demographic status (marital status, living and having been brought up in multi-generation families who so far in the course of their lives have not disclosed mental or somatic disturbances (having accompanying manifestations of body image distortion. The theoretical theses for the research model were the contemporary cognitive concepts (multifactor models of body image dissatisfaction, as well as socio-cultural concepts.

  19. Social networks: a new source of psychological stress or a way to enhance self-esteem? Negative and positive implications in bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, G; Cecchi, L; Liccardi, G; Pellegrino, F; D'Amato, M; Sofia, M

    2012-01-01

    The Internet and, in particular, social networks are an increasingly important part of daily life for both adolescents and adults who maintain a virtual relationship with others sharing interests and goals. Very often, they disclose more about themselves online than they do in person. However, cyberbullying and cyberostracism can be problematic for adolescents and sensitive individuals, who might be negatively affected by social networks. Some studies have shown an increased risk of depression, whereas others suggest beneficial effects through enhanced communication, social connection, and self-esteem. Bronchial asthma is an increasingly frequent disease in the industrialized world, and psychological implications play a role in increasing or in reducing its severity. One year after the case report of an asthma exacerbation that may have been triggered by Facebook, it seems reasonable to analyze the effects of social networks on bronchial asthma.

  20. NKG2H-Expressing T Cells Negatively Regulate Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Dukovska

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The biology and function of NKG2H receptor, unlike the better characterized members of the NKG2 family NKG2A, NKG2C, and NKG2D, remains largely unclear. Here, we show that NKG2H is able to associate with the signaling adapter molecules DAP12 and DAP10 suggesting that this receptor can signal for cell activation. Using a recently described NKG2H-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb, we have characterized the expression and function of lymphocytes that express this receptor. NKG2H is expressed at the cell surface of a small percentage of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC and is found more frequently on T cells, rather than NK cells. Moreover, although NKG2H is likely to trigger activation, co-cross-linking of this receptor with an NKG2H-specific mAb led to decreased T cell activation and proliferation in polyclonal PBMC cultures stimulated by anti-CD3 mAbs. This negative regulatory activity was seen only after cross-linking with NKG2H, but not NKG2A- or NKG2C-specific monoclonal antibodies. The mechanism underlying this negative effect is as yet unclear, but did not depend on the release of soluble factors or recognition of MHC class I molecules. These observations raise the intriguing possibility that NKG2H may be a novel marker for T cells able to negatively regulate T cell responses.

  1. Canine antibody response to Phlebotomus perniciosus bites negatively correlates with the risk of Leishmania infantum transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Vlkova

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phlebotomine sand flies are blood-sucking insects that can transmit Leishmania parasites. Hosts bitten by sand flies develop an immune response against sand fly salivary antigens. Specific anti-saliva IgG indicate the exposure to the vector and may also help to estimate the risk of Leishmania spp. transmission. In this study, we examined the canine antibody response against the saliva of Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main vector of Leishmania infantum in the Mediterranean Basin, and characterized salivary antigens of this sand fly species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sera of dogs bitten by P. perniciosus under experimental conditions and dogs naturally exposed to sand flies in a L. infantum focus were tested by ELISA for the presence of anti-P. perniciosus antibodies. Antibody levels positively correlated with the number of blood-fed P. perniciosus females. In naturally exposed dogs the increase of specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 was observed during sand fly season. Importantly, Leishmania-positive dogs revealed significantly lower anti-P. perniciosus IgG2 compared to Leishmania-negative ones. Major P. perniciosus antigens were identified by western blot and mass spectrometry as yellow proteins, apyrases and antigen 5-related proteins. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that monitoring canine antibody response to sand fly saliva in endemic foci could estimate the risk of L. infantum transmission. It may also help to control canine leishmaniasis by evaluating the effectiveness of anti-vector campaigns. Data from the field study where dogs from the Italian focus of L. infantum were naturally exposed to P. perniciosus bites indicates that the levels of anti-P. perniciosus saliva IgG2 negatively correlate with the risk of Leishmania transmission. Thus, specific IgG2 response is suggested as a risk marker of L. infantum transmission for dogs.

  2. Incorporating Psychological Predictors of Treatment Response into Health Economic Simulation Models: A Case Study in Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Jen; Pollard, Daniel; Basarir, Hasan; Thokala, Praveen; Cooke, Debbie; Clark, Marie; Bond, Rod; Heller, Simon; Brennan, Alan

    2015-10-01

    . Health economic modeling has paid limited attention to the effects that patients' psychological characteristics have on the effectiveness of treatments. This case study tests 1) the feasibility of incorporating psychological prediction models of treatment response within an economic model of type 1 diabetes, 2) the potential value of providing treatment to a subgroup of patients, and 3) the cost-effectiveness of providing treatment to a subgroup of responders defined using 5 different algorithms. . Multiple linear regressions were used to investigate relationships between patients' psychological characteristics and treatment effectiveness. Two psychological prediction models were integrated with a patient-level simulation model of type 1 diabetes. Expected value of individualized care analysis was undertaken. Five different algorithms were used to provide treatment to a subgroup of predicted responders. A cost-effectiveness analysis compared using the algorithms to providing treatment to all patients. . The psychological prediction models had low predictive power for treatment effectiveness. Expected value of individualized care results suggested that targeting education at responders could be of value. The cost-effectiveness analysis suggested, for all 5 algorithms, that providing structured education to a subgroup of predicted responders would not be cost-effective. . The psychological prediction models tested did not have sufficient predictive power to make targeting treatment cost-effective. The psychological prediction models are simple linear models of psychological behavior. Collection of data on additional covariates could potentially increase statistical power. . By collecting data on psychological variables before an intervention, we can construct predictive models of treatment response to interventions. These predictive models can be incorporated into health economic models to investigate more complex service delivery and reimbursement strategies.

  3. Endoglin negatively regulates transforming growth factor beta1-induced profibrotic responses in intestinal fibroblasts.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, J P

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Fibroblasts isolated from strictures in Crohn\\'s disease (CD) exhibit reduced responsiveness to stimulation with transforming growth factor (TGF) beta1. TGF-beta1, acting through the smad pathway, is critical to fibroblast-mediated intestinal fibrosis. The membrane glycoprotein, endoglin, is a negative regulator of TGF-beta1. METHODS: Intestinal fibroblasts were cultured from seromuscular biopsies of patients undergoing intestinal resection for CD strictures or from control patients. Endoglin expression was assessed using confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and western blot. The effect of small interfering (si) RNA-mediated knockdown and plasmid-mediated overexpression of endoglin on fibroblast responsiveness to TGF-beta1 was assessed by examining smad phosphorylation, smad binding element (SBE) promoter activity, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression and ability to contract collagen. RESULTS: Crohn\\'s stricture fibroblasts expressed increased constitutive cell-surface and whole-cell endoglin relative to control cells. Endoglin co-localized with filamentous actin. Fibroblasts treated with siRNA directed against endoglin exhibited enhanced TGF-beta1-mediated smad-3 phosphorylation, and collagen contraction. Cells transfected with an endoglin plasmid did not respond to TGF-beta1 by exhibiting SBE promoter activity or producing CTGF. CONCLUSION: Fibroblasts from strictures in CD express increased constitutive endoglin. Endoglin is a negative regulator of TGF-beta1 signalling in the intestinal fibroblast, modulating smad-3 phosphorylation, SBE promoter activity, CTGF production and collagen contraction.

  4. The neuroendocrine response to stress under the effect of drugs: Negative synergy between amphetamine and stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Román, Almudena; Ortega-Sánchez, Juan A; Rotllant, David; Gagliano, Humberto; Belda, Xavier; Delgado-Morales, Raúl; Marín-Blasco, Ignacio; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    There have been numerous studies into the interaction between stress and addictive drugs, yet few have specifically addressed how the organism responds to stress when under the influence of psychostimulants. Thus, we studied the effects of different acute stressors (immobilization, interleukin-1β and forced swimming) in young adult male rats simultaneously exposed to amphetamine (AMPH, 4 mg/kg SC), evaluating classic biological markers. AMPH administration itself augmented the plasma hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) hormones, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone, without affecting plasma glucose levels. By contrast, this drug dampened the peripheral HPA axis, as well as the response of glucose to the three stressors. We also found that AMPH administration completely blocked the forced swim-induced expression of the corticotropin-releasing hormone (hnCRH) and it partially reduced c-fos expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Indeed, this negative synergy in the forced swim test could even be observed with a lower dose of AMPH (1mg/kg, SC), a dose that is usually received in self-administration experiments. In conclusion, when rats that receive AMPH are subjected to stress, a negative synergy occurs that dampens the prototypic peripheral physiological response to stress and activation of the PVN. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Self-construal differences in neural responses to negative social cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddell, Belinda J; Felmingham, Kim L; Das, Pritha; Whitford, Thomas J; Malhi, Gin S; Battaglini, Eva; Bryant, Richard A

    2017-10-01

    Cultures differ substantially in representations of the self. Whereas individualistic cultural groups emphasize an independent self, reflected in processing biases towards centralized salient objects, collectivistic cultures are oriented towards an interdependent self, attending to contextual associations between visual cues. It is unknown how these perceptual biases may affect brain activity in response to negative social cues. Moreover, while some studies have shown that individual differences in self-construal moderate cultural group comparisons, few have examined self-construal differences separate to culture. To investigate these issues, a final sample of a group of healthy participants high in trait levels of collectivistic self-construal (n=16) and individualistic self-construal (n=19), regardless of cultural background, completed a negative social cue evaluation task designed to engage face/object vs context-specific neural processes whilst undergoing fMRI scanning. Between-group analyses revealed that the collectivistic group exclusively engaged the parahippocampal gyrus (parahippocampal place area) - a region critical to contextual integration - during negative face processing - suggesting compensatory activations when contextual information was missing. The collectivist group also displayed enhanced negative context dependent brain activity involving the left superior occipital gyrus/cuneus and right anterior insula. By contrast, the individualistic group did not engage object or localized face processing regions as predicted, but rather demonstrated heightened appraisal and self-referential activations in medial prefrontal and temporoparietal regions to negative contexts - again suggesting compensatory processes when focal cues were absent. While individualists also appeared more sensitive to negative faces in the scenes, activating the right middle cingulate gyrus, dorsal prefrontal and parietal activations, this activity was observed relative to the

  6. Periodic and chaotic psychological stress variations as predicted by a social support buffered response model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Richard J.; Gallas, Jason A. C.; Schuldberg, David

    2017-08-01

    Recent work has introduced social dynamic models of people's stress-related processes, some including amelioration of stress symptoms by support from others. The effects of support may be ;direct;, depending only on the level of support, or ;buffering;, depending on the product of the level of support and level of stress. We focus here on the nonlinear buffering term and use a model involving three variables (and 12 control parameters), including stress as perceived by the individual, physical and psychological symptoms, and currently active social support. This model is quantified by a set of three nonlinear differential equations governing its stationary-state stability, temporal evolution (sometimes oscillatory), and how each variable affects the others. Chaos may appear with periodic forcing of an environmental stress parameter. Here we explore this model carefully as the strength and amplitude of this forcing, and an important psychological parameter relating to self-kindling in the stress response, are varied. Three significant observations are made: 1. There exist many complex but orderly regions of periodicity and chaos, 2. there are nested regions of increasing number of peaks per cycle that may cascade to chaos, and 3. there are areas where more than one state, e.g., a period-2 oscillation and chaos, coexist for the same parameters; which one is reached depends on initial conditions.

  7. The Museum as 'Dream Space': Psychology and Aesthetic Response in George Eliot’s Middlemarch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Mills

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the relationship between aesthetics and psychology through the idea of the museum as a ‘dream space’ in George Eliot’s 'Middlemarch.' It' 'begins with a discussion of Charles Dickens’s Amy Dorrit and Hilda in Nathaniel Hawthorne’s 'The Marble Faun', two women who, like Dorothea Brooke, dream their way around Italian museums and the fragment-rich spaces of Rome. Pregnant moments of female subjectivity take place in museum spaces characterised by their oneiric qualities. Such fictional depictions extend Sheldon Annis’s notion of the museum as ‘dream space’, taking account of a variety of sleep states associated with the museum that include mesmeric trance and double consciousness. 'Middlemarch,' in particular, draws on contemporary psychological accounts of such phenomena developed by John Addington Symonds, Enaeas Sweetland Dallas and Frances Power Cobbe. Eliot’s depiction of Dorothea’s responses to the museum of Rome engages with theories of consciousness and debates about the nature of spontaneous, individual will. In 'Middlemarch' the creative potential of the unconscious mind is explored through the idea of the museum as a dream space.

  8. Investigating psychological and physiological responses to the Trier Social Stress Test in young adults with insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ivy Y; Jarrin, Denise C; Ivers, Hans; Morin, Charles M

    2017-12-01

    Stress and hyperarousal both contribute to insomnia. Elevated stress-related sleep reactivity is associated with hyperarousal, and might constitute a vulnerability to future insomnia. The present study examined acute stress-induced arousal and its association with nocturnal sleep. Participants were 30 healthy adults (66.7% female, M age  = 26.7 years): 10 with insomnia (INS) and 20 good sleepers with high vulnerability (HV) or low vulnerability (LV) to insomnia. They underwent two consecutive nights of polysomnography. During the evening preceding the second night, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was administered, and psychological and physiological arousal indices were assessed. The TSST elicited an increase in psychological and physiological arousal in all three groups. The INS group showed greater acute cortisol response (p stress reactivity and bedtime hyperarousal might represent a trait-like vulnerability in certain good sleepers. More research is warranted to validate and expand these preliminary findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Intra-individual psychological and physiological responses to acute laboratory stressors of different intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoluda, Nadine; Strahler, Jana; Schlotz, Wolff; Niederberger, Larissa; Marques, Sofia; Fischer, Susanne; Thoma, Myriam V; Spoerri, Corinne; Ehlert, Ulrike; Nater, Urs M

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of stress is understood as a multidimensional concept which can be captured by psychological and physiological measures. There are various laboratory stress protocols which enable stress to be investigated under controlled conditions. However, little is known about whether these protocols differ with regard to the induced psycho-physiological stress response pattern. In a within-subjects design, 20 healthy young men underwent four of the most common stress protocols (Stroop test [Stroop], cold pressor test [CPT], Trier Social Stress Test [TSST], and bicycle ergometer test [Ergometer]) and a no-stress control condition (rest) in a randomized order. For the multidimensional assessment of the stress response, perceived stress, endocrine and autonomic biomarkers (salivary cortisol, salivary alpha-amylase, and heart rate) were obtained during the experiments. All stress protocols evoked increases in perceived stress levels, with the highest levels in the TSST, followed by Ergometer, Stroop, and CPT. The highest HPA axis response was found in the TSST, followed by Ergometer, CPT, and Stroop, whilst the highest autonomic response was found in the Ergometer, followed by TSST, Stroop, and CPT. These findings suggest that different stress protocols differentially stimulate various aspects of the stress response. Physically demanding stress protocols such as the Ergometer test appear to be particularly suitable for evoking autonomic stress responses, whereas uncontrollable and social-evaluative threatening stressors (such as the TSST) are most likely to elicit HPA axis stress responses. The results of this study may help researchers in deciding which stress protocol to use, depending on the individual research question. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Consequences of 'tiger' parenting: a cross-cultural study of maternal psychological control and children's cortisol stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Stacey N; Tardif, Twila; Miller, Alison; Olson, Sheryl; Kessler, Daniel; Felt, Barbara; Wang, Li

    2017-05-01

    Parenting strategies involving psychological control are associated with increased adjustment problems in children. However, no research has examined the extent to which culture and psychological control predict children's stress physiology. We examine cultural differences in maternal psychological control and its associations with children's cortisol. Chinese (N = 59) and American (N = 45) mother-child dyads participated in the study. Mothers reported on psychological control. Children's cortisol was collected during a stressor and two indices of Area Under the Curve (AUC) were computed: AUCg which accounts for total output, and AUCi, which captures reactivity. Results indicate that Chinese mothers reported higher levels of psychological control and Chinese children had higher levels of AUCg than their American counterparts. Across both cultures, psychological control was significantly associated with increased cortisol levels as indexed by AUCg. There were no associations for AUCi. Finally, mediation analyses demonstrated that psychological control fully explained cultural differences in children's cortisol stress response as indexed by AUCg. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. [Effects of the recipient's response on the emotions and cognitions of female undergraduates disclosing negative emotional experiences in interpersonal relationships].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Hiroko; Yukawa, Shintaro

    2013-04-01

    The relationship between a recipient's response to a disclosure of negative emotional experiences, and the resulting negative emotions, hesitation in self-disclosure (interpersonal and intra-personal hesitation), and negatively-confused thoughts of the person making the disclosure were investigated. Female undergraduates (N=271) were asked to write about angry or sad events in their interpersonal relationships that they had disclosed to someone. Then they completed a questionnaire assessing the recipient's responses, negative emotions such as anger and depression caused by the recipient's responses, hesitation in self-disclosure about the events, and negatively-confused thoughts about the events. The results of covariance structure analysis indicated that a recipient's rejection in response to the disclosure of negative emotional experiences resulted in negative thoughts caused by an increase of negative emotions and hesitation in self-disclosure. The results also showed that a recipient's acceptance also increased depression in the person making the self-disclosure, which intensified the intra-personal hesitation, and increased negatively-confused thoughts.

  12. Problematic Internet Use among Greek university students: an ordinal logistic regression with risk factors of negative psychological beliefs, pornographic sites, and online games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangos, Christos C; Frangos, Constantinos C; Sotiropoulos, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationships between Problematic Internet Use (PIU) among university students in Greece and factors such as gender, age, family condition, academic performance in the last semester of their studies, enrollment in unemployment programs, amount of Internet use per week (in general and per application), additional personal habits or dependencies (number of coffees, alcoholic drinks drunk per day, taking substances, cigarettes smoked per day), and negative psychological beliefs. Data were gathered from 2,358 university students from across Greece. The prevalence of PIU was 34.7% in our sample, and PIU was significantly associated with gender, parental family status, grade of studies during the previous semester, staying or not with parents, enrollment of the student in an unemployment program, and whether the student paid a subscription to the Internet (p pornographic sites, chat rooms, advertisement sites, Google, Yahoo!, their e-mail, ftp, games, and blogs more than non-problematic Internet users. PIU was also associated with other potential addictive personal habits of smoking, drinking alcohol or coffee, and taking drugs. Significant risk factors for PIU were being male, enrolment in unemployment programs, presence of negative beliefs, visiting pornographic sites, and playing online games. Thus PIU is prevalent among Greek university students and attention should be given to it by health officials.

  13. A Negative Feedback Loop Between Autophagy and Immune Responses in Mycobacterium leprae Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuelong; Zhang, Li; Lu, Jie; Shui, Tiejun; Chen, Jia; Yang, Jun; Yuan, Joanna; Liu, Yeqiang; Yang, Degang

    2017-01-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterium Mycobacterium leprae is the causative agent of leprosy and primarily infects macrophages, leading to irreversible nerve damage and deformities. So far, the underlying reasons allowing M. leprae to persist and propagate in macrophages, despite the presence of cellular immunity, are still a mystery. Here, we investigated the role of autophagy, a cellular process that degrades cytosolic materials and intracellular pathogens, in M. leprae infection. We found that live M. leprae infection of macrophages resulted in significantly elevated autophagy level. However, macrophages with high autophagy levels preferentially expressed lower levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor-α, and preferentially primed anti-inflammatory T cells responses, characterized by high IL-10 and low interferon-γ, granzyme B, and perforin responses. These anti-inflammatory T cells could suppress further induction of autophagy, leading to improved survival of intracellular M. leprae in infected macrophages. Therefore, these data demonstrated that although autophagy had a role in eliminating intracellular pathogens, the induction of autophagy resulted in anti-inflammatory immune responses, which suppressed autophagy in a negative feedback loop and allowed the persistence of M. leprae.

  14. Fear of negative evaluation modulates electrocortical and behavioral responses when anticipating social evaluative feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melle J.W. Van Der Molen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive models posit that the fear of negative evaluation (FNE is a hallmark feature of social anxiety. As such, individuals with high FNE may show biased information processing when faced with social evaluation. The aim of the current study was to examine the neural underpinnings of anticipating and processing of social-evaluative feedback, and its correlates with FNE. We used a social judgment paradigm in which female participants (N=31 were asked to indicate whether they believed to be socially accepted or rejected by their peers. Anticipatory attention was indexed by the stimulus preceding negativity (SPN, while the feedback-related negativity and P3 were used to index the processing of social-evaluative feedback. Results provided evidence of an optimism bias in social peer evaluation, as participants more often predicted to be socially accepted than rejected. Participants with high levels of FNE needed more time to provide their judgments about the social-evaluative outcome. While anticipating social-evaluative feedback, SPN amplitudes were larger for anticipated social acceptance than for social rejection feedback. Interestingly, the SPN during anticipated social acceptance was larger in participants with high levels of FNE. None of the feedback-related brain potentials correlated with the FNE. Together, the results provide evidence of biased information processing in individuals with high levels of FNE when anticipating (rather than processing social-evaluative feedback. The delayed response times in high FNE individuals were interpreted to reflect augmented vigilance imposed by the upcoming social evaluative threat. Allegedly, the SPN constitutes a neural marker of this vigilance in females with higher FNE levels, particularly when anticipating social acceptance feedback.

  15. Fear of negative evaluation modulates electrocortical and behavioral responses when anticipating social evaluative feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Molen, Melle J. W.; Poppelaars, Eefje S.; Van Hartingsveldt, Caroline T. A.; Harrewijn, Anita; Gunther Moor, Bregtje; Westenberg, P. Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive models posit that the fear of negative evaluation (FNE) is a hallmark feature of social anxiety. As such, individuals with high FNE may show biased information processing when faced with social evaluation. The aim of the current study was to examine the neural underpinnings of anticipating and processing social-evaluative feedback, and its correlates with FNE. We used a social judgment paradigm in which female participants (N = 31) were asked to indicate whether they believed to be socially accepted or rejected by their peers. Anticipatory attention was indexed by the stimulus preceding negativity (SPN), while the feedback-related negativity and P3 were used to index the processing of social-evaluative feedback. Results provided evidence of an optimism bias in social peer evaluation, as participants more often predicted to be socially accepted than rejected. Participants with high levels of FNE needed more time to provide their judgments about the social-evaluative outcome. While anticipating social-evaluative feedback, SPN amplitudes were larger for anticipated social acceptance than for social rejection feedback. Interestingly, the SPN during anticipated social acceptance was larger in participants with high levels of FNE. None of the feedback-related brain potentials correlated with the FNE. Together, the results provided evidence of biased information processing in individuals with high levels of FNE when anticipating (rather than processing) social-evaluative feedback. The delayed response times in high FNE individuals were interpreted to reflect augmented vigilance imposed by the upcoming social-evaluative threat. Possibly, the SPN constitutes a neural marker of this vigilance in females with higher FNE levels, particularly when anticipating social acceptance feedback. PMID:24478667

  16. Functional analysis of rice HOMEOBOX4 (Oshox4) gene reveals a negative function in gibberellin responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Mingqiu; Hu, Yongfeng; Ma, Qian; Zhao, Yu; Zhou, Dao-Xiu

    2008-02-01

    The homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) putative transcription factor genes are divided into 4 families. In this work, we studied the function of a rice HD-Zip I gene, H OME O BO X4 (Oshox4). Oshox4 transcripts were detected in leaf and floral organ primordia but excluded from the shoot apical meristem and the protein was nuclear localized. Over-expression of Oshox4 in rice induced a semi-dwarf phenotype that could not be complemented by applied GA3. The over-expression plants accumulated elevated levels of bioactive GA, while the GA catabolic gene GA2ox3 was upregulated in the transgenic plants. In addition, over-expression of Oshox4 blocked GA-dependent alpha-amylase production. However, down-regulation of Oshox4 in RNAi transgenic plants induced no phenotypic alteration. Interestingly, the expression of YAB1 that is involved in the negative feedback regulation of the GA biosynthesis was upregulated in the Oshox4 over-expressing plants. One-hybrid assays showed that Oshox4 could interact with YAB1 promoter in yeast. In addition, Oshox4 expression was upregulated by GA. These data together suggest that Oshox4 may be involved in the negative regulation of GA signalling and may play a role to fine tune GA responses in rice.

  17. Interactions between negative energy balance, metabolic diseases, uterine health and immune response in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Giulia; Irons, Pete C; Webb, Edward C; Chapwanya, Aspinas

    2014-01-30

    The biological cycles of milk production and reproduction determine dairying profitability thus making management decisions dynamic and time-dependent. Diseases also negatively impact on net earnings of a dairy enterprise. Transition cows in particular face the challenge of negative energy balance (NEB) and/or disproportional energy metabolism (fatty liver, ketosis, subacute, acute ruminal acidosis); disturbed mineral utilization (milk fever, sub-clinical hypocalcemia); and perturbed immune function (retained placenta, metritis, mastitis). Consequently NEB and reduced dry matter intake are aggravated. The combined effects of all these challenges are reduced fertility and milk production resulting in diminishing profits. Risk factors such as NEB, inflammation and impairment of the immune response are highly cause-and-effect related. Thus, managing cows during the transition period should be geared toward reducing NEB or feeding specially formulated diets to improve immunity. Given that all cows experience a reduced feed intake and body condition, infection and inflammation of the uterus after calving, there is a need for further research on the immunology of transition dairy cows. Integrative approaches at the molecular, cellular and animal level may unravel the complex interactions between disturbed metabolism and immune function that predispose cows to periparturient diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The ethylene response factor AtERF4 negatively regulates the iron deficiency response in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe deficiency is one of many conditions that can seriously damage crops. Low levels of photosynthesis can lead to the degradation of chlorophyll content and impaired respiration in affected plants, which together cause poor growth and reduce quality. Although ethylene plays an important role in responses to Fe deficiency, a limited number of studies have been carried out on ethylene response factor (ERFs as components of plant regulation mechanisms. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the role of AtERF4 in plant responses to Fe deficiency. Results collected when Arabidopsis thaliana was grown under Fe deficient conditions as well as in the presence of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC revealed that leaf chlorosis did not occur over short timescales and that chloroplast structural integrity was retained. At the same time, expression of the chlorophyll degradation-related genes AtPAO and AtCLH1 was inhibited and net H+ root flux was amplified. Our results show that chlorophyll content was enhanced in the mutant erf4, while expression of the chlorophyll degradation gene AtCLH1 was reduced. Ferric reductase activity in roots was also significantly higher in the mutant than in wild type plants, while erf4 caused high levels of expression of the genes AtIRT1 and AtHA2 under Fe deficient conditions. We also utilized yeast one-hybrid technology in this study to determine that AtERF4 binds directly to the AtCLH1 and AtITR1 promoter. Observations show that transient over-expression of AtERF4 resulted in rapid chlorophyll degradation in the leaves of Nicotiana tabacum and the up-regulation of gene AtCLH1 expression. In summary, AtERF4 plays an important role as a negative regulator of Fe deficiency responses, we hypothesize that AtERF4 may exert a balancing effect on plants subject to nutrition stress.

  19. Mathematical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelder, William H

    2010-09-01

    Mathematical psychology is a sub-field of psychology that started in the 1950s and has continued to grow as an important contributor to formal psychological theory, especially in the cognitive areas of psychology such as learning, memory, classification, choice response time, decision making, attention, and problem solving. In addition, there are several scientific sub-areas that were originated by mathematical psychologists such as the foundations of measurement, stochastic memory models, and psychologically motivated reformulations of expected utility theory. Mathematical psychology does not include all uses of mathematics and statistics in psychology, and indeed there is a long history of such uses especially in the areas of perception and psychometrics. What is most unique about mathematical psychology is its approach to theory construction. While accepting the behaviorist dictum that the data in psychology must be observable and replicable, mathematical models are specified in terms of unobservable formal constructs that can predict detailed aspects of data across multiple experimental and natural settings. By now almost all the substantive areas of cognitive and experimental psychology have formal mathematical models and theories, and many of these are due to researchers that identify with mathematical psychology. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Effects of Potassium Channel Blockers on the Negative Inotropic Responses Induced by Cromakalim and Pinacidil in Guinea Pig Atrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    RD-A2•4 875 EFFECTS OF POTASSIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS ON THE NEGATIVE 1/1 INOTROPIC RESPONSES INDUCED BY CRONAKALIM RND PINACIDIL IN GUINEA PIG ATRIUM(U...INOTROPICTRSPONSES INDUCED BY CROMAKAUM AND PINACIDILIN GUINEA PIG ATRIUM a AUTHOR WAI-MAN LAU 7 FORMING ORG NAMES/ADDRESSES DEFENCE SCIENCE AND a...and Technology Organisaio Aot Val. Negative Inotropic Responses Victoria. Australia Induced by Cromakalim and Pinacidil in Guinea Pig Atrium Key

  1. Children's experiences and responses towards an intervention for psychological preparation for radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engvall, Gunn; Lindh, Viveca; Mullaney, Tara; Nyholm, Tufve; Lindh, Jack; Ångström-Brännström, Charlotte

    2018-01-22

    Children can experience distress when undergoing radiotherapy as a reaction to being scared of and unfamiliar with the procedure. The aim was to evaluate children's experiences and responses towards an intervention for psychological preparation for radiotherapy. A case control design with qualitative content analysis of semi-structured interviews and statistical analysis of anxiety ratings were used for evaluating a strategy for psychological preparation and distraction. Fifty-seven children aged 2 to 18 years and their parents participated - 30 children in the baseline group and 27 in the intervention group. Child interviews were performed and the child and their parents rated the child's anxiety. The intervention was most appropriate for the younger children, who enjoyed the digital story, the stuffed animal and training with their parents. There were some technical problems and the digital story was not detailed enough to fit exactly with various cancer diagnoses. Children described suggestions for improvement of the intervention. The ratings of the child's anxiety during radiation treatment showed no differences between the baseline group and the intervention group. The children of all the age groups experienced their interventions as positive. The strength of the intervention was that it encouraged interaction within the family and provided an opportunity for siblings and peers to take part in what the child was going through. Future research on children's experiences to interventions should be encouraged. The intervention and the technical solutions could improve by further development. The study design was structured as an un-matched case-control study, baseline group vs. intervention group. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02993978 , Protocol Record 2012-113-31 M. Retrospectively registered - 21 November 2016.

  2. Psychological response of family members of patients hospitalised for influenza A/H1N1 in Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizarrarás-Rivas, Jesús; Vargas-Mendoza, Jaime E; Mayoral-García, Maurilio; Matadamas-Zarate, Cuauhtémoc; Elizarrarás-Cruz, Anaid; Taylor, Melanie; Agho, Kingsley

    2010-12-03

    The A/H1N1 pandemic originated in Mexico in April 2009, amid high uncertainty, social and economic disruption, and media reports of panic. The aim of this research project was to evaluate the psychological response of family primary caregivers of patients hospitalised in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with suspected influenza A/H1N1 to establish whether there was empirical evidence of high adverse psychological response, and to identify risk factors for such a response. If such evidence was found, a secondary aim was to develop a specific early intervention of psychological support for these individuals, to reduce distress and possibly lessen the likelihood of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the longer term. Psychological assessment questionnaires were administered to the family primary caregivers of patients hospitalised in the ICU in the General Hospital of Zone 1 of the Mexican Institute for Social Security (IMSS), Oaxaca, Mexico with suspected influenza A/H1N1, during the month of November 2009. The main outcome measures were ratings of reported perceived stress (PSS-10), depression (CES-D), and death anxiety (DAQ). Data were subjected to simple and multiple linear regression analysis to identify risk factors for adverse psychological response. Elevated levels of perceived stress and depression, compared to population normative data, and moderate levels of death anxiety were noted. Levels of depression were similar to those found in comparable studies of family members of ICU patients admitted for other conditions. Multiple regression analysis indicated that increasing age and non-spousal family relationship were significantly associated with depression and perceived stress. Female gender, increasing age, and higher levels of education were significantly associated with high death anxiety. Comparisons with data collected in previous studies in the same hospital ICU with groups affected by a range of other medical conditions indicated that the

  3. Modelling psychological responses to the Great East Japan earthquake and nuclear incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Robin; Takahashi, Masahito; Sun, Shaojing; Gaines, Stanley O

    2012-01-01

    The Great East Japan (Tōhoku/Kanto) earthquake of March 2011 was followed by a major tsunami and nuclear incident. Several previous studies have suggested a number of psychological responses to such disasters. However, few previous studies have modelled individual differences in the risk perceptions of major events, or the implications of these perceptions for relevant behaviours. We conducted a survey specifically examining responses to the Great Japan earthquake and nuclear incident, with data collected 11-13 weeks following these events. 844 young respondents completed a questionnaire in three regions of Japan; Miyagi (close to the earthquake and leaking nuclear plants), Tokyo/Chiba (approximately 220 km from the nuclear plants), and Western Japan (Yamaguchi and Nagasaki, some 1000 km from the plants). Results indicated significant regional differences in risk perception, with greater concern over earthquake risks in Tokyo than in Miyagi or Western Japan. Structural equation analyses showed that shared normative concerns about earthquake and nuclear risks, conservation values, lack of trust in governmental advice about the nuclear hazard, and poor personal control over the nuclear incident were positively correlated with perceived earthquake and nuclear risks. These risk perceptions further predicted specific outcomes (e.g. modifying homes, avoiding going outside, contemplating leaving Japan). The strength and significance of these pathways varied by region. Mental health and practical implications of these findings are discussed in the light of the continuing uncertainties in Japan following the March 2011 events.

  4. Internet Addiction, Psychological Distress, and Coping Responses Among Adolescents and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicol, Michelle L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract As Internet use grows, so do the benefits and also the risks. Thus, it is important to identify when individuals' Internet use is problematic. In the present study, 449 participants aged from 16 to 71 years of age were sourced from a wide range of English-speaking Internet forums, including social media and self-help groups. Of these, 68.9% were classified as nonproblematic users, 24.4% as problematic users, and 6.7% as addictive Internet users. High use of discussion forums, high rumination levels, and low levels of self-care were the main contributing factors to Internet addiction (IA) among adolescents. For adults IA was mainly predicted through engagement in online video gaming and sexual activity, low email use, as well as high anxiety and high avoidant coping. Problematic Internet users scored higher on emotion and avoidance coping responses in adults and higher on rumination and lower on self-care in adolescents. Avoidance coping responses mediated the relationship between psychological distress and IA. These findings may assist clinicians with designing interventions to target different factors associated with IA. PMID:28414517

  5. Modelling psychological responses to the Great East Japan earthquake and nuclear incident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Goodwin

    Full Text Available The Great East Japan (Tōhoku/Kanto earthquake of March 2011 was followed by a major tsunami and nuclear incident. Several previous studies have suggested a number of psychological responses to such disasters. However, few previous studies have modelled individual differences in the risk perceptions of major events, or the implications of these perceptions for relevant behaviours. We conducted a survey specifically examining responses to the Great Japan earthquake and nuclear incident, with data collected 11-13 weeks following these events. 844 young respondents completed a questionnaire in three regions of Japan; Miyagi (close to the earthquake and leaking nuclear plants, Tokyo/Chiba (approximately 220 km from the nuclear plants, and Western Japan (Yamaguchi and Nagasaki, some 1000 km from the plants. Results indicated significant regional differences in risk perception, with greater concern over earthquake risks in Tokyo than in Miyagi or Western Japan. Structural equation analyses showed that shared normative concerns about earthquake and nuclear risks, conservation values, lack of trust in governmental advice about the nuclear hazard, and poor personal control over the nuclear incident were positively correlated with perceived earthquake and nuclear risks. These risk perceptions further predicted specific outcomes (e.g. modifying homes, avoiding going outside, contemplating leaving Japan. The strength and significance of these pathways varied by region. Mental health and practical implications of these findings are discussed in the light of the continuing uncertainties in Japan following the March 2011 events.

  6. Internet Addiction, Psychological Distress, and Coping Responses Among Adolescents and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicol, Michelle L; Thorsteinsson, Einar B

    2017-05-01

    As Internet use grows, so do the benefits and also the risks. Thus, it is important to identify when individuals' Internet use is problematic. In the present study, 449 participants aged from 16 to 71 years of age were sourced from a wide range of English-speaking Internet forums, including social media and self-help groups. Of these, 68.9% were classified as nonproblematic users, 24.4% as problematic users, and 6.7% as addictive Internet users. High use of discussion forums, high rumination levels, and low levels of self-care were the main contributing factors to Internet addiction (IA) among adolescents. For adults IA was mainly predicted through engagement in online video gaming and sexual activity, low email use, as well as high anxiety and high avoidant coping. Problematic Internet users scored higher on emotion and avoidance coping responses in adults and higher on rumination and lower on self-care in adolescents. Avoidance coping responses mediated the relationship between psychological distress and IA. These findings may assist clinicians with designing interventions to target different factors associated with IA.

  7. Dispositional fear, negative affectivity, and neuroimaging response to visually suppressed emotional faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizueta, Nathalie; Patrick, Christopher J; Jiang, Yi; Thomas, Kathleen M; He, Sheng

    2012-01-02

    "Invisible" stimulus paradigms provide a method for investigating basic affective processing in clinical and non-clinical populations. Neuroimaging studies utilizing continuous flash suppression (CFS) have shown increased amygdala response to invisible fearful versus neutral faces. The current study used CFS in conjunction with functional MRI to test for differences in brain reactivity to visible and invisible emotional faces in relation to two distinct trait dimensions relevant to psychopathology: negative affectivity (NA) and fearfulness. Subjects consisted of college students (N=31) assessed for fear/fearlessness along with dispositional NA. The main brain regions of interest included the fusiform face area (FFA), superior temporal sulcus (STS), and amygdala. Higher NA, but not trait fear, was associated with enhanced response to fearful versus neutral faces in STS and right amygdala (but not FFA), within the invisible condition specifically. The finding that NA rather than fearfulness predicted degree of amygdala reactivity to suppressed faces implicates the input subdivision of the amygdala in the observed effects. Given the central role of NA in anxiety and mood disorders, the current data also support use of the CFS methodology for investigating the neurobiology of these disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sustained negative BOLD response in human fMRI finger tapping task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadong Liu

    Full Text Available In this work, we investigated the sustained negative blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD response (sNBR using functional magnetic resonance imaging during a finger tapping task. We observed that the sNBR for this task was more extensive than has previously been reported. The cortical regions involved in sNBR are divided into the following three groups: frontal, somatosensory and occipital. By investigating the spatial structure, area, amplitude, and dynamics of the sNBR in comparison with those of its positive BOLD response (PBR counterpart, we made the following observations. First, among the three groups, the somatosensory group contained the greatest number of activated voxels and the fewest deactivated voxels. In addition, the amplitude of the sNBR in this group was the smallest among the three groups. Second, the onset and peak time of the sNBR are both larger than those of the PBR, whereas the falling edge time of the sNBR is less than that of the PBR. Third, the long distance between most sNBR foci and their corresponding PBR foci makes it unlikely that they share the same blood supply artery. Fourth, the couplings between the sNBR and its PBR counterpart are distinct among different regions and thus should be investigated separately. These findings imply that the origin of most sNBR foci in the finger-tapping task is much more likely to be neuronal activity suppression rather than "blood steal."

  9. Sustained negative BOLD response in human fMRI finger tapping task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yadong; Shen, Hui; Zhou, Zongtan; Hu, Dewen

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we investigated the sustained negative blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response (sNBR) using functional magnetic resonance imaging during a finger tapping task. We observed that the sNBR for this task was more extensive than has previously been reported. The cortical regions involved in sNBR are divided into the following three groups: frontal, somatosensory and occipital. By investigating the spatial structure, area, amplitude, and dynamics of the sNBR in comparison with those of its positive BOLD response (PBR) counterpart, we made the following observations. First, among the three groups, the somatosensory group contained the greatest number of activated voxels and the fewest deactivated voxels. In addition, the amplitude of the sNBR in this group was the smallest among the three groups. Second, the onset and peak time of the sNBR are both larger than those of the PBR, whereas the falling edge time of the sNBR is less than that of the PBR. Third, the long distance between most sNBR foci and their corresponding PBR foci makes it unlikely that they share the same blood supply artery. Fourth, the couplings between the sNBR and its PBR counterpart are distinct among different regions and thus should be investigated separately. These findings imply that the origin of most sNBR foci in the finger-tapping task is much more likely to be neuronal activity suppression rather than "blood steal."

  10. Lysophosphatidic acid receptor-5 negatively regulates cellular responses in mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Yan; Hirane, Miku; Araki, Mutsumi [Division of Cancer Biology and Bioinformatics, Department of Life Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1, Kowakae, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Fukushima, Nobuyuki [Division of Molecular Neurobiology, Department of Life Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1, Kowakae, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi, E-mail: ttujiuch@life.kindai.ac.jp [Division of Cancer Biology and Bioinformatics, Department of Life Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1, Kowakae, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • LPA{sub 5} inhibits the cell growth and motile activities of 3T3 cells. • LPA{sub 5} suppresses the cell motile activities stimulated by hydrogen peroxide in 3T3 cells. • Enhancement of LPA{sub 5} on the cell motile activities inhibited by LPA{sub 1} in 3T3 cells. • The expression and activation of Mmp-9 were inhibited by LPA{sub 5} in 3T3 cells. • LPA signaling via LPA{sub 5} acts as a negative regulator of cellular responses in 3T3 cells. - Abstract: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling via G protein-coupled LPA receptors (LPA{sub 1}–LPA{sub 6}) mediates a variety of biological functions, including cell migration. Recently, we have reported that LPA{sub 1} inhibited the cell motile activities of mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells. In the present study, to evaluate a role of LPA{sub 5} in cellular responses, Lpar5 knockdown (3T3-L5) cells were generated from 3T3 cells. In cell proliferation assays, LPA markedly stimulated the cell proliferation activities of 3T3-L5 cells, compared with control cells. In cell motility assays with Cell Culture Inserts, the cell motile activities of 3T3-L5 cells were significantly higher than those of control cells. The activity levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were measured by gelatin zymography. 3T3-L5 cells stimulated the activation of Mmp-2, correlating with the expression levels of Mmp-2 gene. Moreover, to assess the co-effects of LPA{sub 1} and LPA{sub 5} on cell motile activities, Lpar5 knockdown (3T3a1-L5) cells were also established from Lpar1 over-expressing (3T3a1) cells. 3T3a1-L5 cells increased the cell motile activities of 3T3a1 cells, while the cell motile activities of 3T3a1 cells were significantly lower than those of control cells. These results suggest that LPA{sub 5} may act as a negative regulator of cellular responses in mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells, similar to the case for LPA{sub 1}.

  11. Lysophosphatidic acid receptor-5 negatively regulates cellular responses in mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Yan; Hirane, Miku; Araki, Mutsumi; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • LPA 5 inhibits the cell growth and motile activities of 3T3 cells. • LPA 5 suppresses the cell motile activities stimulated by hydrogen peroxide in 3T3 cells. • Enhancement of LPA 5 on the cell motile activities inhibited by LPA 1 in 3T3 cells. • The expression and activation of Mmp-9 were inhibited by LPA 5 in 3T3 cells. • LPA signaling via LPA 5 acts as a negative regulator of cellular responses in 3T3 cells. - Abstract: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling via G protein-coupled LPA receptors (LPA 1 –LPA 6 ) mediates a variety of biological functions, including cell migration. Recently, we have reported that LPA 1 inhibited the cell motile activities of mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells. In the present study, to evaluate a role of LPA 5 in cellular responses, Lpar5 knockdown (3T3-L5) cells were generated from 3T3 cells. In cell proliferation assays, LPA markedly stimulated the cell proliferation activities of 3T3-L5 cells, compared with control cells. In cell motility assays with Cell Culture Inserts, the cell motile activities of 3T3-L5 cells were significantly higher than those of control cells. The activity levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were measured by gelatin zymography. 3T3-L5 cells stimulated the activation of Mmp-2, correlating with the expression levels of Mmp-2 gene. Moreover, to assess the co-effects of LPA 1 and LPA 5 on cell motile activities, Lpar5 knockdown (3T3a1-L5) cells were also established from Lpar1 over-expressing (3T3a1) cells. 3T3a1-L5 cells increased the cell motile activities of 3T3a1 cells, while the cell motile activities of 3T3a1 cells were significantly lower than those of control cells. These results suggest that LPA 5 may act as a negative regulator of cellular responses in mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells, similar to the case for LPA 1

  12. Discursive Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molder, te H.

    2015-01-01

    Discursive psychology was established in the United Kingdom by the end of the 1980s, mainly in response to the dominant cognitivist approach in social psychology. While it borrowed notions from poststructuralism and sociology of science, it is most akin to conversation analysis. Discursive

  13. microRNA-124 negatively regulates TLR signaling in alveolar macrophages in response to mycobacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chunyan; Li, Yong; Li, Min; Deng, Guangcun; Wu, Xiaoling; Zeng, Jin; Hao, Xiujing; Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Jing; Cho, William C S; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Yujiong

    2014-11-01

    The emerging roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating immune responses have attracted increasing attention in recent years; and the alveolar macrophages (AMs) are the main targets of mycobacterial infection, which play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. However, the immunoregulatory role of miRNAs in AMs has not been fully demonstrated. In this study, we find that miR-124 is up-regulated in the peripheral leukocytes of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis; furthermore, the expression miR-124 can be induced upon Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) infection in both RAW264.7 AM cells in vitro and murine AMs in vivo. Mechanistically, miR-124 is able to modulate toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling activity in RAW264.7 cells in response to BCG infection. In this regard, multiple components of TLR signaling cascade, including the TLR6, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), TNFR-associated factor 6 and tumor necrosis factor-α are directly targeted by miR-124. In addition, both overexpression of TLR signaling adaptor MyD88 and BCG infection are able to augment miR-124 transcription, while MyD88 expression silenced by small interfering RNA dramatically suppresses miR-124 expression in AMs in vitro. Moreover, the abundance of miR-124 transcript in murine AMs of MyD88 deficient mice is significantly less than that of their wild-type or heterozygous littermates; and the BCG infection fails to induce miR-124 expression in the lung of MyD88 deficient mouse. These results indicate a negative regulatory role of miR-124 in fine-tuning inflammatory response in AMs upon mycobacterial infection, in part through a mechanism by directly targeting TLR signaling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reduced object related negativity response indicates impaired auditory scene analysis in adults with autistic spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veema Lodhia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Auditory Scene Analysis provides a useful framework for understanding atypical auditory perception in autism. Specifically, a failure to segregate the incoming acoustic energy into distinct auditory objects might explain the aversive reaction autistic individuals have to certain auditory stimuli or environments. Previous research with non-autistic participants has demonstrated the presence of an Object Related Negativity (ORN in the auditory event related potential that indexes pre-attentive processes associated with auditory scene analysis. Also evident is a later P400 component that is attention dependent and thought to be related to decision-making about auditory objects. We sought to determine whether there are differences between individuals with and without autism in the levels of processing indexed by these components. Electroencephalography (EEG was used to measure brain responses from a group of 16 autistic adults, and 16 age- and verbal-IQ-matched typically-developing adults. Auditory responses were elicited using lateralized dichotic pitch stimuli in which inter-aural timing differences create the illusory perception of a pitch that is spatially separated from a carrier noise stimulus. As in previous studies, control participants produced an ORN in response to the pitch stimuli. However, this component was significantly reduced in the participants with autism. In contrast, processing differences were not observed between the groups at the attention-dependent level (P400. These findings suggest that autistic individuals have difficulty segregating auditory stimuli into distinct auditory objects, and that this difficulty arises at an early pre-attentive level of processing.

  15. Correlations of Male College Students' Verbal Response Mode Use in Psychotherapy with Measures of Psychological Disturbance and Psychotherapy Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Susan H.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Compared verbal response mode use by male students with measures of clients' psychological distress, disturbance, and change. Results indicated more distressed clients used a higher percentage of disclosures and lower percentage of edifications, clients who improved more participated more, no relationship between improvement in psychotherapy and…

  16. Sinoatrial tissue of crucian carp heart has only negative contractile responses to autonomic agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hälinen Mervi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the anoxia-tolerant crucian carp (Carassius carassius cardiac activity varies according to the seasons. To clarify the role of autonomic nervous control in modulation of cardiac activity, responses of atrial contraction and heart rate (HR to carbacholine (CCh and isoprenaline (Iso were determined in fish acclimatized to winter (4°C, cold-acclimated, CA and summer (18°C, warm-acclimated, WA temperatures. Results Inhibitory action of CCh was much stronger on atrial contractility than HR. CCh reduced force of atrial contraction at an order of magnitude lower concentrations (EC50 2.75-3.5·10-8 M in comparison to its depressive effect on HR (EC50 1.23-2.02·10-7 M (P -8 M and 10-7 M CCh, respectively (P + current, IK,CCh, with an EC50 value of 3-4.5·10-7 M and inhibited Ca2+ current (ICa by 28 ± 8% and 51 ± 6% at 10-7 M and 10-6 M, respectively. These currents can explain the shortening of AP. Iso did not elicit any responses in crucian carp sinoatrial preparations nor did it have any effect on atrial ICa, probably due to the saturation of the β-adrenergic cascade in the basal state. Conclusion In the crucian carp, HR and force of atrial contraction show cardio-depressive responses to the cholinergic agonist, but do not have any responses to the β-adrenergic agonist. The scope of inhibitory regulation by CCh is increased by the high basal tone of the adenylate cyclase-cAMP cascade. Higher concentrations of CCh were required to induce IK,CCh and inhibit ICa than was needed for CCh's negative inotropic effect on atrial muscle suggesting that neither IK,CCh nor ICa alone can mediate CCh's actions but they might synergistically reduce AP duration and atrial force production. Autonomic responses were similar in CA winter fish and WA summer fish indicating that cardiac sensitivity to external modulation by the autonomic nervous system is not involved in seasonal acclimatization of the crucian carp heart to cold and anoxic

  17. Comparison of Tuberculin Skin Test result and interferon gamma response to human PPD in BCG scar positive and negative children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyahfar, Shirin; Karimi, Abdollah; Fahimzad, Alireza; Shamshiri, Ahmad Reza

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study is to compare Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) result and interferon gamma response to human PPD (purified protein derivative), in scar positive and scar negative BCG-vaccinated children. Between August 2007 and May 2008 a total of 236 children aged 1-168 months (mean 21 months) admitted to Mofid Children's Hospital, Tehran, Iran, were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Each patient was examined for BCG vaccine scar and tested with TST and human PPD-based Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA). Two hundred and twenty one cases out of 236 (44% female, 1-168 months, mean age 21 months) were scar positive of whom 95% TST result was negative. Human PPD-based IGRA was positive in 110 (49.8%), negative in 85 (38.4 %) and indeterminate in 26 (11.8%) of scar positive patients. Fifteen children (40% female, 1-156 months; mean age 42 months) were scar negative. All the scar negative cases were TST negative. Human PPD-based IGRA was positive in 10 (66.7%), negative in 4 (26.7%) and indeterminate in 1 (6.7%) of scar negative patients. Immune responsiveness to human PPD antigens in scar positive and negative children may not correspond with results of the Tuberculin Skin Test. Copyright © 2013 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Negative role of malnutrition in cell-mediated immune response: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in a severely malnourished, HIV-negative patient with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanachi, Mouna; Bohem, Vanessa; Bemer, Pauline; Kayser, Nadja; de Truchis, Pierre; Melchior, Jean-Claude

    2018-06-01

    It is generally acknowledged that malnutrition is a propensity factor for secondary infections in different clinical situations (malnutrition-associated infections in hospitalized patients and malnourished children in developing countries). However, it is not clear how malnutrition might facilitate the development of opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patients without a definite etiology (disease or treatment) of impaired cell-mediated immune response. We report here on a case of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in an HIV-negative patient suffering from anorexia nervosa with extreme malnutrition, which had a favorable outcome despite the severity of her respiratory failure. This report indicates the need for the early screening of nutritional status and rapid treatment initiation in patients with malnutrition, as well as the determination of opportunistic infections in the event of a low lymphocyte count. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Negative emotional stimuli reduce contextual cueing but not response times in inefficient search

    OpenAIRE

    Kunar, Melina A.; Watson, Derrick G.; Cole, Louise (Researcher in Psychology); Cox, Angeline

    2014-01-01

    In visual search, previous work has shown that negative stimuli narrow the focus of attention and speed reaction times (RTs). This paper investigates these two effects by first asking whether negative emotional stimuli narrow the focus of attention to reduce the learning of a display context in a contextual cueing task and, second, whether exposure to negative stimuli also reduces RTs in inefficient search tasks. In Experiment 1, participants viewed either negative or neutral images (faces or...

  20. The log-linear response function of the bounded number-line task is unrelated to the psychological representation of quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Dale J; Quinlan, Philip T

    2018-02-01

    The bounded number-line task has been used extensively to assess the numerical competence of both children and adults. One consistent finding has been that young children display a logarithmic response function, whereas older children and adults display a more linear response function. Traditionally, these log-linear functions have been interpreted as providing a transparent window onto the nature of the participants' psychological representations of quantity (termed here a direct response strategy). Here we show that the direct response strategy produces the log-linear response function regardless of whether the psychological representation of quantity is compressive or expansive. Simply put, the log-linear response function results from task constraints rather than from the psychological representation of quantities. We also demonstrate that a proportion/subtraction response strategy produces response patterns that almost perfectly correlate with the psychological representation of quantity. We therefore urge researchers not to interpret the log-linear response pattern in terms of numerical representation.

  1. Responsible Opposition, Disruptive Voices: Science, Social Change, and the History of Feminist Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Alexandra; Vaughn-Blount, Kelli; Ball, Laura C.

    2010-01-01

    Feminist psychology began as an avowedly political project with an explicit social change agenda. However, over the last two decades, a number of critics have argued that feminist psychology has become mired in an epistemological impasse where positivist commitments effectively mute its political project, rendering the field acceptable to…

  2. Cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure stimulation before, during, and after space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisch, F.; Beck, L.; Blomqvist, G.; Wolfram, G.; Drescher, J.; Rome, J. L.; Drummer, C.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that space travel cause post-flight orthostatic hypotension and it was assumed that autonomic cardiovascular control deteriorates in space. Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) was used to assess autonomic function of the cardiovascular system. METHODS: LBNP tests were performed on six crew-members before and on the first days post-flight in a series of three space missions. Additionally, two of the subjects performed LBNP tests in-flight. LBNP mimics fluid distribution of upright posture in a gravity independent way. It causes an artificial sequestration of blood, reduces preload, and filtrates plasma into the lower part of the body. Fluid distribution was assessed by bioelectrical impedance and anthropometric measurements. RESULTS: Heart rate, blood pressure, and total peripheral resistance increased significantly during LBNP experiments in-flight. The decrease in stroke volume, the increased pooling of blood, and the increased filtration of plasma into the lower limbs during LBNP indicated that a plasma volume reduction and a deficit of the interstitial volume of lower limbs rather than a change in cardiovascular control was responsible for the in-flight response. Post-flight LBNP showed no signs of cardiovascular deterioration. The still more pronounced haemodynamic changes during LBNP reflected the expected behaviour of cardiovascular control faced with less intravascular volume. In-flight, the status of an intra-and extravascular fluid deficit increases sympathetic activity, the release of vasoactive substances and consequently blood pressure. Post-flight, blood pressure decreases significantly below pre-flight values after restoration of volume deficits. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the cardiovascular changes in-flight are a consequence of a fluid deficit rather than a consequence of changes in autonomic signal processing.

  3. [Connection between the evaluation of positive or negative valence and verbal responses to a lexical decision making task].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillet, Thibaut; Syssau, Arielle

    2005-12-01

    Evaluation of the positive or negative valence of a stimulus is an activity that is part of any emotional experience that has been mostly studied using the affective priming paradigm. When the prime and the target have the same valence (e.g. positive prime and positive target), the target response is facilitated as a function of opposing valence conditions (e.g. negative prime and positive target). These studies show that this evaluation is automatic but depends on the nature of the task's implied response because the priming effects are only observed for positive responses, not for negative responses. This result was explained in automatic judgmental tendency model put forth by Abelson and Rosenberg (1958) and Klauer and Stern (1992). In this model, affective priming assumes there is an overlap between both responses, the first response taking precedence as a function of the prime-target valence, and the second response one that is required by the task. We are assuming that another type of response was not foreseen under this model. In fact, upon activating the valence for each of the prime-target elements, two preliminary responses would be activated before the response on the prime-target valence relationship. These responses are directly linked to the prime and target evaluation independently of the prime-target relationship. This hypothesis can be linked to the larger hypothesis whereby the evaluative process is related to two distinct motivational systems corresponding to approach and avoidance behaviour responses (Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 1990; Neuman & Strack, 2000; Cacciopo, Piester & Bernston, 1993). In this study, we use the hypothesis that when a word leads to a positive valence evaluation, this favours a positive verbal response and inversely, a negative valence word favours a negative response. We are testing this hypothesis outside the affective priming paradigm to study to what extent evaluating a word, even when it is not primed, activates both

  4. The Influence of a Pacesetter on Psychological Responses and Pacing Behavior during a 1600 m Run

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L. Fullerton, Andrew M. Lane, Tracey J. Devonport

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effects of following a pacer versus following a self-paced plan on psychological responses and pacing behavior in well-trained distance runners. Pacing in the present study was individually tailored where each participant developed a personal strategy to ensure their goal time was achieved. We expected that following a pacer would associate with goal achievement, higher pre-run confidence, positive emotions and lower perceived exertion during performance. In a mixed-design repeated-measures study, nineteen well-trained runners completed two 1600m running time trials. Ten runners had a pacer (paced group who supported their individual pacing strategy, and nine participants self-paced running alone (control group. Both groups could check pace using their wrist watch. In contrast to our expectation, results indicated that the paced group reported higher pre-run anxiety with no significant differences in finish time, goal confidence, goal difficulty, perceived exertion, and self-rated performance between groups. We suggest that following a pacer is a skill that requires learning. Following a personalised pacer might associate with higher anxiety due to uncertainty in being able to keep up with the pacer and public visibility of dropping behind, something that is not so observable in a self-paced run completed alone. Future research should investigate mechanisms associated with effective pacing.

  5. Optimal color design of psychological counseling room by design of experiments and response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjuan; Ji, Jianlin; Chen, Hua; Ye, Chenyu

    2014-01-01

    Color is one of the most powerful aspects of a psychological counseling environment. Little scientific research has been conducted on color design and much of the existing literature is based on observational studies. Using design of experiments and response surface methodology, this paper proposes an optimal color design approach for transforming patients' perception into color elements. Six indices, pleasant-unpleasant, interesting-uninteresting, exciting-boring, relaxing-distressing, safe-fearful, and active-inactive, were used to assess patients' impression. A total of 75 patients participated, including 42 for Experiment 1 and 33 for Experiment 2. 27 representative color samples were designed in Experiment 1, and the color sample (L = 75, a = 0, b = -60) was the most preferred one. In Experiment 2, this color sample was set as the 'central point', and three color attributes were optimized to maximize the patients' satisfaction. The experimental results show that the proposed method can get the optimal solution for color design of a counseling room.

  6. Neurobiological response to EMDR therapy in clients with different psychological traumas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCO ePAGANI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We assessed cortical activation differences in real-time upon exposure to traumatic memory between two distinct groups of psychologically traumatised clients also in comparison with healthy controls. We used electroencephalography (EEG to compare neuronal activation throughout the bilateral stimulation phase of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR sessions. We compared activation between the first (T0 and the last (T1 session, the latter performed after processing the index trauma. The group including all clients showed significantly higher cortical activity in orbito-frontal cortex at T0 shifting at T1 towards posterior associative regions. However the subgroup of clients with chronic exposure to the traumatic event showed a cortical firing at both stages which was closer to that of controls. For the first time EEG monitoring enabled to disclose neurobiological differences between groups of clients with different trauma histories during the reliving of the traumatic event. Cortical activations in clients chronically exposed to traumatic memories were moderate, suggesting an association between social and environmental contexts with the neurobiological response to trauma exposure and psychotherapy.

  7. Uncovering the inertia of dislocation motion and negative mechanical response in crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yizhe

    2018-01-09

    Dislocations are linear defects in crystals and their motion controls crystals' mechanical behavior. The dissipative nature of dislocation propagation is generally accepted although the specific mechanisms are still not fully understood. The inertia, which is undoubtedly the nature of motion for particles with mass, seems much less convincing for configuration propagation. We utilize atomistic simulations in conditions that minimize dissipative effects to enable uncovering of the hidden nature of dislocation motion, in three typical model metals Mg, Cu and Ta. We find that, with less/no dissipation, dislocation motion is under-damped and explicitly inertial at both low and high velocities. The inertia of dislocation motion is intrinsic, and more fundamental than the dissipative nature. The inertia originates from the kinetic energy imparted from strain energy and stored in the moving core. Peculiar negative mechanical response associated with the inertia is also discovered. These findings shed light on the fundamental nature of dislocation motion, reveal the underlying physics, and provide a new physical explanation for phenomena relevant to high-velocity dislocations.

  8. Children's diurnal cortisol responses to negative events at school and home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Sunhye; Robles, Theodore F; Reynolds, Bridget M; Repetti, Rena L

    2017-09-01

    This study examined the within-and between-person associations between daily negative events - peer problems, academic problems and interparental conflict - and diurnal cortisol in school-age children. Salivary cortisol levels were assessed four times per day (at wakeup, 30min later, just before dinner and at bedtime) on eight days in 47 youths ages 8-13 years old (60% female; M age=11.28, SD=1.50). The relative contributions of within- and between-person variances in each stressor were estimated in models predicting same-day diurnal cortisol slope, same-day bedtime cortisol, and next morning wakeup cortisol. Children who reported more peer problems on average showed flatter slopes of cortisol decline from wakeup to bedtime. However, children secreted more cortisol at wakeup following days when they had reported more peer or academic problems than usual. Interparental conflict was not significantly associated with diurnal cortisol. Findings from this study extend our understanding of short-term cortisol responses to naturally occurring problems in daily life, and help to differentiate these daily processes from the cumulative effects of chronic stress. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Comparison of Photopic Negative Response of Full-Field and Focal Electroretinograms in Detecting Glaucomatous Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeki Machida

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare the photopic negative response (PhNR of the full-field electroretinogram (ERG to the PhNR of the focal ERGs in detecting glaucoma. Methods. One hundred and three eyes with glaucoma and 42 normal eyes were studied. Full-field ERGs were elicited by red stimuli on a blue background. The focal ERGs were elicited by a 15∘ white stimulus spot centered on the macula, the superotemporal or the inferotemporal areas of the macula. Results. In early glaucoma, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs were significantly larger for the focal PhNR (0.863–0.924 than those for the full-field PhNR (0.666–0.748 (P<.05. The sensitivity was significantly higher for the focal PhNR than for the full-field PhNR in early (P<.01 and intermediate glaucoma (P<.05. In advanced glaucoma, there was no difference in the AUCs and sensitivities between the focal and full-field PhNRs. Conclusions. The focal ERG has the diagnostic ability with higher sensitivity in detecting early and intermediate glaucoma than the full-field ERG.

  10. Pathway-Enriched Gene Signature Associated with 53BP1 Response to PARP Inhibition in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Saima; Esch, Amanda; Liby, Tiera; Gray, Joe W; Heiser, Laura M

    2017-12-01

    Effective treatment of patients with triple-negative (ER-negative, PR-negative, HER2-negative) breast cancer remains a challenge. Although PARP inhibitors are being evaluated in clinical trials, biomarkers are needed to identify patients who will most benefit from anti-PARP therapy. We determined the responses of three PARP inhibitors (veliparib, olaparib, and talazoparib) in a panel of eight triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. Therapeutic responses and cellular phenotypes were elucidated using high-content imaging and quantitative immunofluorescence to assess markers of DNA damage (53BP1) and apoptosis (cleaved PARP). We determined the pharmacodynamic changes as percentage of cells positive for 53BP1, mean number of 53BP1 foci per cell, and percentage of cells positive for cleaved PARP. Inspired by traditional dose-response measures of cell viability, an EC 50 value was calculated for each cellular phenotype and each PARP inhibitor. The EC 50 values for both 53BP1 metrics strongly correlated with IC 50 values for each PARP inhibitor. Pathway enrichment analysis identified a set of DNA repair and cell cycle-associated genes that were associated with 53BP1 response following PARP inhibition. The overall accuracy of our 63 gene set in predicting response to olaparib in seven breast cancer patient-derived xenograft tumors was 86%. In triple-negative breast cancer patients who had not received anti-PARP therapy, the predicted response rate of our gene signature was 45%. These results indicate that 53BP1 is a biomarker of response to anti-PARP therapy in the laboratory, and our DNA damage response gene signature may be used to identify patients who are most likely to respond to PARP inhibition. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(12); 2892-901. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Sharing Experiences Online: When Peer Responses Decrease the Negative Impact of Emotional Disclosure Writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batenburg, A.E.; Das, E.

    2012-01-01

    Online support group participation is beneficial for psychological and physical wellbeing, but little is known about the processes that bring about such positive changes. The present study tests the effects of two key-elements in forum use: (1) expressive writing and (2) the interactive aspect;

  12. A scoping review of the psychological responses to interval exercise: is interval exercise a viable alternative to traditional exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, Matthew J; Banfield, Laura E; Gibala, Martin J; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A

    2017-12-01

    While considerable evidence suggests that interval exercise confers numerous physiological adaptations linked to improved health, its psychological consequences and behavioural implications are less clear and the subject of intense debate. The purpose of this scoping review was to catalogue studies investigating the psychological responses to interval exercise in order to identify what psychological outcomes have been assessed, the research methods used, and the results. A secondary objective was to identify research issues and gaps. Forty-two published articles met the review inclusion/exclusion criteria. These studies involved 1258 participants drawn from various active/inactive and healthy/unhealthy populations, and 55 interval exercise protocols (69% high-intensity interval training [HIIT], 27% sprint interval training [SIT], and 4% body-weight interval training [BWIT]). Affect and enjoyment were the most frequently studied psychological outcomes. Post-exercise assessments indicate that overall, enjoyment of, and preferences for interval exercise are equal or greater than for continuous exercise, and participants can hold relatively positive social cognitions regarding interval exercise. Although several methodological issues (e.g., inconsistent use of terminology, measures and protocols) and gaps (e.g., data on adherence and real-world protocols) require attention, from a psychological perspective, the emerging data support the viability of interval exercise as an alternative to continuous exercise.

  13. [Construction of the Time Management Scale and examination of the influence of time management on psychological stress response].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imura, Tomoya; Takamura, Masahiro; Okazaki, Yoshihiro; Tokunaga, Satoko

    2016-10-01

    We developed a scale to measure time management and assessed its reliability and validity. We then used this scale to examine the impact of time management on psychological stress response. In Study 1-1, we developed the scale and assessed its internal consistency and criterion-related validity. Findings from a factor analysis revealed three elements of time management, “time estimation,” “time utilization,” and “taking each moment as it comes.” In Study 1-2, we assessed the scale’s test-retest reliability. In Study 1-3, we assessed the validity of the constructed scale. The results indicate that the time management scale has good reliability and validity. In Study 2, we performed a covariance structural analysis to verify our model that hypothesized that time management influences perceived control of time and psychological stress response, and perceived control of time influences psychological stress response. The results showed that time estimation increases the perceived control of time, which in turn decreases stress response. However, we also found that taking each moment as it comes reduces perceived control of time, which in turn increases stress response.

  14. Understanding less than nothing: Children’s neural response to negative numbers shifts across age and accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret M Gullick

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined the brain activity underlying the development of our understanding of negative numbers, which are amounts lacking direct physical counterparts. Children performed a paired comparison task with positive and negative numbers during an fMRI session. As previously shown in adults, both pre-instruction fifth graders and post-instruction seventh graders demonstrated typical behavioral and neural distance effects to negative numbers, where response times and parietal and frontal activity increased as comparison distance decreased. We then determined the factors impacting the distance effect in each age group. Behaviorally, the fifth grader distance effect for negatives was significantly predicted only by positive comparison accuracy, indicating that children who were generally better at working with numbers were better at comparing negatives. In seventh graders, negative comparison accuracy significantly predicted their distance effect, indicating that children who were better at working with negative numbers demonstrated a more typical distance effect. Across children, as age increased, the negative number distance effect increased in the bilateral IPS and decreased frontally, indicating a frontoparietal shift consistent with previous numerical development literature. In contrast, as task accuracy increased, the parietal distance effect increased in the left IPS and decreased in the right, possibly indicating a change from an approximate understanding of negatives’ values to a more exact, precise representation (particularly supported by the left IPS with increasing expertise. These shifts separately indicate the effects of increasing maturity generally in numeric processing and specifically in negative number understanding.

  15. Physicians' responses to patients' expressions of negative emotions in hospital consultations: a video-based observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjaaland, Trond A; Finset, Arnstein; Jensen, Bård Fossli; Gulbrandsen, Pål

    2011-09-01

    Patients express their negative emotions in medical consultations either implicitly as cue to an underlying unpleasant emotion or explicitly as a clear, unambiguous concern. The health provider's response to such cues and concerns is important for the outcome of consultations. Yet, physicians often neglect patient's negative emotions. Most studies of this subject are from primary health care. We aimed to describe how physicians in a hospital respond to negative emotions in an outpatient setting. Ninety six consultations were videotaped in a general teaching hospital. The Verona Coding Definitions of Emotional Sequences was used to identify patients' expression of negative emotions in terms of cue and concern and to code physicians' subsequent responses. Cohen's kappa was used as interrater reliability measure. Acceptable kappa level was set to .60. We observed 163 expressions of negative emotions. In general, the physician responses to patients' cues and concerns did not include follow up or exploration. Concerns more often than cues led to lack of emotional exploration. When patients expressed negative emotions or cues to such, hospital physicians tended to move away from emotional communication, particularly if the emotion was expressed as an explicit concern. Medical training should enable physicians' to explore the patients' emotions in situations where it will improve the medical treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Physiological and psychological responses to expressions of emotion and empathy in post-stress communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Makiko; Fujita, Mizuho; Yamada, Shigeyuki

    2009-01-01

    The effects of communicating during and after expressing emotions and receiving empathy after exposure to stress were investigated for 18 female students (9 pairs). After mental and physical tasks, a subject spoke to a listener about the stress task. In Experiment 1, responses to speaking about negative emotions aroused by the task (the "with emotion" condition) were compared to speaking about only objective facts about the task (the control). In Experiment 2, responses to empathetic reactions from the listener (the "with empathy" condition) were compared to no reaction (the control). Electroencephalograms were recorded, and heart rate variability (HRV) was calculated from electrocardiogram data. Subjective stress was estimated by a visual analog scale. Experiment 1 demonstrated that expressing emotions activated the left temporal region (T3) in the "with emotion" condition. In Experiment 2, physiological responses depended on cognition of different elements of empathy. During communication, feeling that the listener had the same emotion decreased the subject's T3 activity and sympathetic activity balance indicated by HRV. After communication, feeling that the listener understood her emotions decreased bilateral frontal and temporal activity. On the other hand, subjective stress did not differ between conditions in both experiments. These findings indicate that the comfort of having shared a message reduced physiological activity, especially in the "with empathy" condition. Conversely, even in the "with empathy" condition, not sharing a message can result in more discomfort or stress than the control. Sharing might be associated with cognition of the degree of success of communication, which reflected in the physiological responses. In communication, therefore, expressing emotions and receiving empathy did not in themselves reduce stress, and the level of cognition of having shared a message is a key factor in reducing stress.

  17. The psychological response to injury in student athletes: a narrative review with a focus on mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putukian, Margot

    2016-02-01

    Injury is a major stressor for athletes and one that can pose significant challenges. Student athletes must handle rigorous academic as well as athletic demands that require time as well as significant physical requirements. Trying to perform and succeed in the classroom and on the playing field has become more difficult as the demands and expectations have increased. If an athlete is injured, these stressors increase. Stress is an important antecedent to injuries and can play a role in the response to, rehabilitation and return to play after injury. The psychological response to injury can trigger and/or unmask mental health issues including depression and suicidal ideation, anxiety, disordered eating, and substance use/abuse. There are barriers to mental health treatment in athletes. They often consider seeking help as a sign of weakness, feeling that they should be able to 'push through' psychological obstacles as they do physical ones. Athletes may not have developed healthy coping behaviours making response to injury especially challenging. I discuss the current state of knowledge regarding the psychological response to injury and delineate resources necessary to direct the injured athlete to a mental health care provider if appropriate. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Central nervous system involvement in the autonomic responses to psychological distress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Morree, H.M.; Szabó, B.M.; Rutten, G.J.; Kop, W.J.

    2013-01-01

    Psychological distress can trigger acute coronary syndromes and sudden cardiac death in vulnerable patients. The primary pathophysiological mechanism that plays a role in stress-induced cardiac events involves the autonomic nervous system, particularly disproportional sympathetic activation and

  19. Intensity response function of the photopic negative response (PhNR): effect of age and test-retest reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Nabin R; Ly, Emma; Viswanathan, Suresh

    2017-08-01

    To assess the effect of age and test-retest reliability of the intensity response function of the full-field photopic negative response (PhNR) in normal healthy human subjects. Full-field electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded from one eye of 45 subjects, and 39 of these subjects were tested on two separate days with a Diagnosys Espion System (Lowell, MA, USA). The visual stimuli consisted of brief (test-retest reliability was assessed with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Bland-Altman analysis. Holm's correction was applied to account for multiple comparisons. V max of BT was significantly smaller than that of PT and b-wave, and the V max of PT and b-wave was not significantly different from each other. The slope parameter n was smallest for BT and the largest for b-wave and the difference between the slopes of all three measures were statistically significant. Small differences observed in the mean values of K for the different measures did not reach statistical significance. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test indicated no significant differences between the two test visits for any of the Naka-Rushton parameters for the three ERG measures, and the Bland-Altman plots indicated that the mean difference between test and retest measurements of the different fit parameters was close to zero and within 6% of the average of the test and retest values of the respective parameters for all three ERG measurements, indicating minimal bias. While the coefficient of reliability (COR, defined as 1.96 times the standard deviation of the test and retest difference) of each fit parameter was more or less comparable across the three ERG measurements, the %COR (COR normalized to the mean test and retest measures) was generally larger for BT compared to both PT and b-wave for each fit parameter. The Naka-Rushton fit parameters did not show statistically significant changes with age for any of the ERG measures when corrections were applied for multiple comparisons. However, the V max of

  20. Human amygdala response to dynamic facial expressions of positive and negative surprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrticka, Pascal; Lordier, Lara; Bediou, Benoît; Sander, David

    2014-02-01

    Although brain imaging evidence accumulates to suggest that the amygdala plays a key role in the processing of novel stimuli, only little is known about its role in processing expressed novelty conveyed by surprised faces, and even less about possible interactive encoding of novelty and valence. Those investigations that have already probed human amygdala involvement in the processing of surprised facial expressions either used static pictures displaying negative surprise (as contained in fear) or "neutral" surprise, and manipulated valence by contextually priming or subjectively associating static surprise with either negative or positive information. Therefore, it still remains unresolved how the human amygdala differentially processes dynamic surprised facial expressions displaying either positive or negative surprise. Here, we created new artificial dynamic 3-dimensional facial expressions conveying surprise with an intrinsic positive (wonderment) or negative (fear) connotation, but also intrinsic positive (joy) or negative (anxiety) emotions not containing any surprise, in addition to neutral facial displays either containing ("typical surprise" expression) or not containing ("neutral") surprise. Results showed heightened amygdala activity to faces containing positive (vs. negative) surprise, which may either correspond to a specific wonderment effect as such, or to the computation of a negative expected value prediction error. Findings are discussed in the light of data obtained from a closely matched nonsocial lottery task, which revealed overlapping activity within the left amygdala to unexpected positive outcomes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Energy distribution extraction of negative charges responsible for positive bias temperature instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Shang-Qing; Yang Hong; Wang Wen-Wu; Tang Bo; Tang Zhao-Yun; Wang Xiao-Lei; Xu Hao; Luo Wei-Chun; Zhao Chao; Yan Jiang; Chen Da-Peng; Ye Tian-Chun

    2015-01-01

    A new method is proposed to extract the energy distribution of negative charges, which results from electron trapping by traps in the gate stack of nMOSFET during positive bias temperature instability (PBTI) stress based on the recovery measurement. In our case, the extracted energy distribution of negative charges shows an obvious dependence on energy, and the energy level of the largest energy density of negative charges is 0.01 eV above the conduction band of silicon. The charge energy distribution below that energy level shows strong dependence on the stress voltage. (paper)

  2. Differential Effects of Positive versus Negative Self-Involving Counselor Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, Pam; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the effects of positive and negative counselor disclosure using typescripts of hypothetical counseling interviews. Results indicated impact of condition was mixed, with each having some desirable effects. (PAS)

  3. The joyful, yet balanced, amygdala: moderated responses to positive but not negative stimuli in trait happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, William A.; Kirkland, Tabitha

    2013-01-01

    Although much is known about the neural dynamics of maladaptive affective styles, the mechanisms of happiness and well-being are less clear. One possibility is that the neural processes of trait happiness are the opposite of those involved in depression/anxiety: ‘rose-colored glasses’ cause happy people to focus on positive cues while remaining oblivious to threats. Specifically, because negative affective styles have been associated with increased amygdala activation to negative stimuli, it ...

  4. Negative emotional stimuli reduce contextual cueing but not response times in inefficient search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunar, Melina A; Watson, Derrick G; Cole, Louise; Cox, Angeline

    2014-02-01

    In visual search, previous work has shown that negative stimuli narrow the focus of attention and speed reaction times (RTs). This paper investigates these two effects by first asking whether negative emotional stimuli narrow the focus of attention to reduce the learning of a display context in a contextual cueing task and, second, whether exposure to negative stimuli also reduces RTs in inefficient search tasks. In Experiment 1, participants viewed either negative or neutral images (faces or scenes) prior to a contextual cueing task. In a typical contextual cueing experiment, RTs are reduced if displays are repeated across the experiment compared with novel displays that are not repeated. The results showed that a smaller contextual cueing effect was obtained after participants viewed negative stimuli than when they viewed neutral stimuli. However, in contrast to previous work, overall search RTs were not faster after viewing negative stimuli (Experiments 2 to 4). The findings are discussed in terms of the impact of emotional content on visual processing and the ability to use scene context to help facilitate search.

  5. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 fine-tunes inflammatory responses in murine Gram-negative sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt Thøgersen, Mariane; Gawish, Riem; Martins, Rui

    2015-01-01

    During infections, TLR-mediated responses require tight regulation to allow for pathogen removal, while preventing overwhelming inflammation and immunopathology. The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-2 negatively regulates inflammation by macrophages and impacts on phagocytosis...... was followed by an accelerated resolution and ultimately improved survival, associated with the induction of the negative regulator A20. Upon infection with Escherichia coli, the otherwise beneficial effect of an exaggerated early immune response in TREM-2(-/-) animals was counteracted by a 50% reduction...... in bacterial phagocytosis. In line with this, TREM-2(-/-) peritoneal macrophages (PMs) exhibited augmented inflammation following TLR4 stimulation, demonstrating the presence and negative regulatory functionality of TREM-2 on primary PMs. Significantly, we identified a high turnover rate because TREM-2 RNA...

  6. EGR-1 and DUSP-1 are important negative regulators of pro-allergic responses in airway epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golebski, Korneliusz; van Egmond, Danielle; de Groot, Esther J.; Roschmann, Kristina I. L.; Fokkens, Wytske J.; van Drunen, Cornelis M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Primary nasal epithelium of house dust mite allergic individuals is in a permanently activated inflammatory transcriptional state. Objective: To investigate whether a deregulated expression of EGR-1 and/or DUSP-1, two potential negative regulators of pro-inflammatory responses, could

  7. Mapping and characterization of positive and negative BOLD responses to visual stimulation in multiple brain regions at 7T

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorge, João; Figueiredo, Patrícia; Gruetter, Rolf; Van der Zwaag, W.

    External stimuli and tasks often elicit negative BOLD responses in various brain regions, and growing experimental evidence supports that these phenomena are functionally meaningful. In this work, the high sensitivity available at 7T was explored to map and characterize both positive (PBRs) and

  8. How the doc should (not) talk: When breaking bad news with negations influences patients' immediate responses and medical adherence intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, C.F.; Beukeboom, C.J.; Sparks, L

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We investigate the role of specific formulations in a doctor's bad news delivery. We focus on the effects of negations and message framing on patients' immediate responses to the message and the doctor, and long-term consequences including quality of life and medical adherence intentions.

  9. Negative Stimulus-Response Compatibility Observed with a Briefly Displayed Image of a Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainio, Lari

    2011-01-01

    Manual responses can be primed by viewing an image of a hand. The left-right identity of the viewed hand reflexively facilitates responses of the hand that corresponds to the identity. Previous research also suggests that when the response activation is triggered by an arrow, which is backward-masked and presented briefly, the activation manifests…

  10. DMPD: Lipopolysaccharide sensing an important factor in the innate immune response toGram-negative bacterial infections: benefits and hazards of LPShypersensitivity. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available se toGram-negative bacterial infections: benefits and hazards of LPShypersensitivity. Freudenberg MA, Tchapt...portant factor in the innate immune response toGram-negative bacterial infections: benefits and hazards of L...une response toGram-negative bacterial infections: benefits and hazards of LPShyp

  11. Workplace Disruption following Psychological Trauma: Influence of Incident Severity Level on Organizations' Post-Incident Response Planning and Execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFraia, G S

    2016-04-01

    Psychologically traumatic workplace events (known as critical incidents), which occur globally, are increasing in prevalence within the USA. Assisting employers in their response is a growing practice area for occupational medicine, occupational social work, industrial psychology and other occupational health professions. Traumatic workplace events vary greatly in their level of organizational disruption. To explore whether extent of workplace disruption influences organizations' decisions for post-incident response planning and plan execution. Administrative data mining was employed to examine practice data from a workplace trauma response unit in the USA. Bivariate analyses were conducted to test whether scores from an instrument measuring extent of workplace disruption associated with organizational decisions regarding post-incident response. The more severe and disruptive the incident, the more likely organizations planned for and followed through to deliver on-site interventions. Following more severe incidents, organizations were also more likely to deliver group sessions and to complete follow-up consultations to ensure ongoing worker recovery. Increasing occupational health practitioners' knowledge of varying levels of organizational disruption and familiarity with a range of organizational response strategies improves incident assessment, consultation and planning, and ensures interventions delivered are consistent with the level of assistance needed on both worker and organizational levels.

  12. Workplace Disruption following Psychological Trauma: Influence of Incident Severity Level on Organizations' Post-Incident Response Planning and Execution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GS DeFraia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychologically traumatic workplace events (known as critical incidents, which occur globally, are increasing in prevalence within the USA. Assisting employers in their response is a growing practice area for occupational medicine, occupational social work, industrial psychology and other occupational health professions. Traumatic workplace events vary greatly in their level of organizational disruption. Objective: To explore whether extent of workplace disruption influences organizations' decisions for post-incident response planning and plan execution. Methods: Administrative data mining was employed to examine practice data from a workplace trauma response unit in the USA. Bivariate analyses were conducted to test whether scores from an instrument measuring extent of workplace disruption associated with organizational decisions regarding post-incident response. Results: The more severe and disruptive the incident, the more likely organizations planned for and followed through to deliver on-site interventions. Following more severe incidents, organizations were also more likely to deliver group sessions and to complete follow-up consultations to ensure ongoing worker recovery. Conclusion: Increasing occupational health practitioners' knowledge of varying levels of organizational disruption and familiarity with a range of organizational response strategies improves incident assessment, consultation and planning, and ensures interventions delivered are consistent with the level of assistance needed on both worker and organizational levels.

  13. SILICOMB PEEK Kirigami cellular structures: mechanical response and energy dissipation through zero and negative stiffness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virk, K; Marsh, M; Monti, A; Trehard, T; Hazra, K; Boba, K; Remillat, C D L; Scarpa, F; Farrow, I R

    2013-01-01

    The work describes the manufacturing, testing and parametric analysis of cellular structures exhibiting zero Poisson’s ratio-type behaviour, together with zero and negative stiffness effects. The cellular structures are produced in flat panels and curved configurations, using a combination of rapid prototyping techniques and Kirigami (Origami and cutting) procedures for PEEK (Polyether Ether Ketone) thermoplastic composites. The curved cellular configurations show remarkable large deformation behaviours, with zero and negative stiffness regimes depending also on the strain rate applied. These unusual stiffness characteristics lead to a large increase of energy absorption during cyclic tests. (paper)

  14. [Expression of negative emotional responses to the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake: Analysis of big data from social media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Asako; Komori, Masashi; Matsumura, Naohiro; Maeda, Kazutoshi

    2015-06-01

    In this article, we investigated the expression of emotional responses to the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake by analyzing the frequency of negative emotional terms in tweets posted on Twitter, one of the most popular social media platforms. We focused on differences in time-series variations and diurnal changes between two kinds of disasters: natural disasters (earthquakes and tsunamis) and nuclear accidents. The number of tweets containing negative emotional responses increased sharply shortly after the first huge earthquake and decreased over time, whereas tweets about nuclear accidents showed no correlation with elapsed time. Expressions of anxiety about natural disasters had a circadian rhythm, with a peak at midnight, whereas expressions of anger about the nuclear accident were highly sensitive to critical events related to the accident. These findings were discussed in terms of similarities and differences compared to earlier studies on emotional responses in social media.

  15. Proportionate Responses to Life Events Influence Clinicians' Judgments of Psychological Abnormality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nancy S.; Paulus, Daniel J.; Gonzalez, Jeffrey S.; Khalife, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Psychological abnormality is a fundamental concept in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM-IV-TR"; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) and in all clinical evaluations. How do practicing clinical psychologists use the context of life events to judge the abnormality of a person's current behaviors? The appropriate…

  16. Intensifying the Dominant Response II: Nonconscious Negative Affect, Cognitive Demand, and Conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Jennifer L.; Laliker, Melanie

    2002-01-01

    Examines mechanisms that may account for why evaluations made by participants involved in conversations are more influenced by subliminal negative cues than are evaluations made by observers. Explains three studies in which subliminal priming tasks were used with differing cognitive loads and self-preservation concerns among a group of…

  17. The Pervasive Negative Effects of Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation: Response to Cameron (2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deci, Edward L.; Ryan, Richard M.; Koestner, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Replies to commentary by J. Cameron asserting that the negative results of extrinsic reward on intrinsic motivation are limited and avoidable. Suggests that the most recent meta analysis by Cameron and others shares methodological weaknesses with an earlier analysis, lacking ecological validity. (SLD)

  18. Neuroticism modulates amygdala-prefrontal connectivity in response to negative emotional facial expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Henk R.; Demenescu, Liliana R.; Aleman, Andre; Renken, Remco; van Tol, Marie-Jose; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Veltman, Dick. J.; Roelofs, Karin

    2010-01-01

    Neuroticism is associated with the experience of negative affect and the development of affective disorders. While evidence exists for a modulatory role of neuroticism on task induced brain activity, it is unknown how neuroticism affects brain connectivity, especially the crucial coupling between

  19. Age Differences in Negative Emotional Responses to Daily Stressors Depend on Time since Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stacey B.; Ram, Nilam; Smyth, Joshua M.; Almeida, David M.; Sliwinski, Martin J.

    2017-01-01

    Research on age differences in the experience of negative emotional states have produced inconsistent results, particularly when emotion is examined in the context of daily stress. Strength and vulnerability integration (SAVI; Charles, 2010) theory postulates that age differences in emotional states are contingent upon whether a stressor occurred,…

  20. Nonlinear transient dynamic response of pressure relief valves for a negative containment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, T.S.; Duff, C.G.; Tang, J.H.K.

    1979-01-01

    The response of the piston for the postulated simultaneous effect of pressure and an earthquake is obtained for different parameters and accident conditions. Response quantities such as accelerations, displacements, rotations, diaphragm forces as well as opening time during a design basis earthquake are obtained. The results of the different analyses, as related to the functional operability of the valves, are evaluated and discussed. (orig.)

  1. The bovine acute phase response to endotoxin and Gram-negative bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine

    The overall aims of the work presented in this thesis were to characterize bovine cytokine and acute phase protein (APP) responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and to investigate how LPS-induced clinical and immunoinflammatory responses differed between individual cows. Two kinds of experimental e...

  2. Cardiac Vagal Control and Depressive Symptoms in Response to Negative Emotional Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonhajzerova, I; Visnovcova, Z; Mestanikova, A; Jurko, A; Mestanik, M

    We aimed to study complex cardiovagal control using heart rate variability (HRV), linear and nonlinear analyses at rest and during negative emotional stress in healthy students with varying depressive symptoms. ECG recording in 20 students was performed at baseline, negative emotional stress, and recovery period. The HRV parameters evaluated were the following: RR interval, spectral power in high-frequency band (HF-HRV), and symbolic dynamics index 2LV%. The subjects were divided into two groups based on the score of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) - normal mood (BDI: 0.6 ± 0.2) and mild mood disturbance (BDI: 14.3 ± 1.4). We found significantly lower logHF-HRV during emotional stress in mild mood disturbance compared with normal mood (p = 0.047). No significant differences were found in the remaining parameters. We conclude that negative emotional stress attenuated the cardiovagal control during mood disturbance, which points to discrete abnormalities in the neurocardiac reflex system associated with depressive symptoms. Hampered cardiovagal control could represent a potential pathomechanism leading to depression-linked cardiovascular complications.

  3. Magnetosphere and ionosphere response to a positive-negative pulse pair of solar wind dynamic pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, A.; Degeling, A. W.

    2017-12-01

    Simulations and observations had shown that single positive/negative solar wind dynamic pressure pulse would excite geomagnetic impulsive events along with ionosphere and/or magnetosphere vortices which are connected by field aligned currents(FACs). In this work, a large scale ( 9min) magnetic hole event in solar wind provided us with the opportunity to study the effects of positive-negative pulse pair (△p/p 1) on the magnetosphere and ionosphere. During the magnetic hole event, two traveling convection vortices (TCVs, anti-sunward) first in anticlockwise then in clockwise rotation were detected by geomagnetic stations located along the 10:30MLT meridian. At the same time, another pair of ionospheric vortices azimuthally seen up to 3 MLT first in clockwise then in counter-clockwise rotation were also appeared in the afternoon sector( 14MLT) and centered at 75 MLAT without obvious tailward propagation feature. The duskside vortices were also confirmed in SuperDARN radar data. We simulated the process of magnetosphere struck by a positive-negative pulse pair and it shows that a pair of reversed flow vortices in the magnetosphere equatorial plane appeared which may provide FACs for the vortices observed in ionosphere. Dawn dusk asymmetry of the vortices as well as the global geomagnetism perturbation characteristics were also discussed.

  4. Age Differences in Affective and Cardiovascular Responses to a Negative Social Interaction: The Role of Goals, Appraisals, and Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Gloria; Charles, Susan T.

    2014-01-01

    Older adults often report less affective reactivity to interpersonal tensions than younger individuals, but few studies have directly investigated mechanisms explaining this effect. The current study examined whether older adults’ differential endorsement of goals, appraisals, and emotion regulation strategies (i.e., conflict avoidance/de-escalation, self-distraction) during a controlled negative social interaction may explain age differences in affective and cardiovascular responses to the conflict discussion. Participants (N=159; 80 younger adults, 79 older adults) discussed hypothetical dilemmas with disagreeable confederates. Throughout the laboratory session, participants’ subjective emotional experience, blood pressure, and pulse rate were assessed. Older adults generally exhibited less reactivity (negative affect reactivity, diastolic blood pressure reactivity, and pulse rate reactivity) to the task, and more pronounced positive and negative affect recovery following the task, than did younger adults. Older adults appraised the task as more enjoyable and the confederate as more likeable, and more strongly endorsed goals to perform well on the task, which mediated age differences in negative affect reactivity, pulse rate reactivity, and positive affect recovery (i.e., increases in post-task positive affect), respectively. In addition, younger adults showed increased negative affect reactivity with greater use of self-distraction, whereas older adults did not. Together, findings suggest that older adults respond less negatively to unpleasant social interactions than younger adults, and these responses are explained in part by older adults’ pursuit of different motivational goals, less threatening appraisals of the social interaction, and more effective use of self-distraction, compared to younger adults. PMID:24773101

  5. An evaluation of the impact of the European Association of Social Psychology: A response to Schruijer (2012)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hewstone, M.; Liebkind, K.; Lewicka, M.; Laszlo, J.; Voci, A.; Contarello, A.; Gomez, A.; Hantzi, A.; Bilewicz, M.; Guinote, A.; Graf, Sylvie; Petkova, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 3 (2012), s. 117-126 ISSN 0952-6951 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : social psychology * science * European Association of Social Psychology Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.442, year: 2012

  6. Special edition into the future with industrial psychology as discipline and profession: challenges and responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo H. Veldsman

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Industrial Psychology is faced with changes on all fronts. The world of work is transforming; the expectations and needs of stakeholders are shifting; a new professional practice framework has come into force in South Africa; the competitive demands imposed on organisations are different; the global village has become a way of life; and a socio-political transformation, accompanied by the revision of labour legislation, has occurred in South Africa.

  7. Neurocysticercosis as an important differential of paradoxical response during antituberculosis therapy in HIV-negative patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivonirina Andry Rakotoarivelo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis can simulate a paradoxical response during antituberculosis therapy with neurological ailments. We report the case of a 31 year-old-man, treated for tuberculous meningitis who developed neurological deficit after nine weeks of early antituberculous therapy. The diagnosis of neurocysticercosis was confirmed by CT scan and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Neurocysticercosis should be sought as an important differential of paradoxical response during antituberculosis therapy.

  8. A negative relationship between ventral striatal loss anticipation response and impulsivity in borderline personality disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Herbort, Maike C.; Soch, Joram; W?stenberg, Torsten; Krauel, Kerstin; Pujara, Maia; Koenigs, Michael; Gallinat, J?rgen; Walter, Henrik; Roepke, Stefan; Schott, Bj?rn H.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) frequently exhibit impulsive behavior, and self-reported impulsivity is typically higher in BPD patients when compared to healthy controls. Previous functional neuroimaging studies have suggested a link between impulsivity, the ventral striatal response to reward anticipation, and prediction errors. Here we investigated the striatal neural response to monetary gain and loss anticipation and their relationship with impulsivity in 21 female BP...

  9. Mapping and characterization of positive and negative BOLD responses to visual stimulation in multiple brain regions at 7T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, João; Figueiredo, Patrícia; Gruetter, Rolf; van der Zwaag, Wietske

    2018-02-20

    External stimuli and tasks often elicit negative BOLD responses in various brain regions, and growing experimental evidence supports that these phenomena are functionally meaningful. In this work, the high sensitivity available at 7T was explored to map and characterize both positive (PBRs) and negative BOLD responses (NBRs) to visual checkerboard stimulation, occurring in various brain regions within and beyond the visual cortex. Recently-proposed accelerated fMRI techniques were employed for data acquisition, and procedures for exclusion of large draining vein contributions, together with ICA-assisted denoising, were included in the analysis to improve response estimation. Besides the visual cortex, significant PBRs were found in the lateral geniculate nucleus and superior colliculus, as well as the pre-central sulcus; in these regions, response durations increased monotonically with stimulus duration, in tight covariation with the visual PBR duration. Significant NBRs were found in the visual cortex, auditory cortex, default-mode network (DMN) and superior parietal lobule; NBR durations also tended to increase with stimulus duration, but were significantly less sustained than the visual PBR, especially for the DMN and superior parietal lobule. Responses in visual and auditory cortex were further studied for checkerboard contrast dependence, and their amplitudes were found to increase monotonically with contrast, linearly correlated with the visual PBR amplitude. Overall, these findings suggest the presence of dynamic neuronal interactions across multiple brain regions, sensitive to stimulus intensity and duration, and demonstrate the richness of information obtainable when jointly mapping positive and negative BOLD responses at a whole-brain scale, with ultra-high field fMRI. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Fluoxetine ameliorates atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in BALB/c mice through reducing psychological stress and inflammatory response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxi Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a common chronic inflammatory skin disorder, and patients with AD suffer from severe psychological stress, which markedly increases the prevalence rate of depression and anxiety disorders in later life. Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, has recently been reported to exert anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. However, it is unclear whether fluoxetine is effective in the treatment of AD through reducing psychological stress and inflammatory reaction. Here, we reported that a BALB/c mouse model of AD was induced by application of 2,4‑dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB onto hairless dorsal skin. Chronic fluoxetine treatment (10 mg/kg per day, i.p. significantly attenuated AD-like symptoms, as reflected by a dramatic decrease in scratching bouts, as well as a decrease in anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors. Furthermore, these behavioral changes were accompanied by a significant decrease in epidermal thickness, the number of mast cells in skin tissue, mRNA levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4 and IL-13 in the spleen, as well as serum immunoglobulin E (IgE in the DNCB-treated mice by treatment with fluoxetine. Taken together, these results indicate that fluoxetine may suppress psychological stress and inflammatory response during AD development, and subsequently ameliorate AD symptoms, suggesting that fluoxetine may be a potential therapeutic agent against AD in clinic.

  11. Liver enzymes and psychological well-being response to aerobic exercise training in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Kader, Shehab M; Al-Jiffri, Osama H; Al-Shreef, Fadwa M

    2014-06-01

    Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is a medical condition that has broad implications for a person's physical and psychological health. The aim of this study was to detect changes in liver enzymes and psychological well-being in response to aerobic exercise training in patients with CHC. Fifty CHC patients were included in two equal groups. The first group (A) received aerobic exercise training in addition to their regular medical treatment. The second group (B) received no training and only has their regular medical treatment. The program consisted of three sessions per week for three months. There was a significant decrease in mean values of Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Gamma - Glutamyltransferase (GGT), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI ) & Profile of Mood States(POMS) and increase in Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) in group (A) after treatments, but the changes in group (B) were not significant. Also, there were significant differences between mean levels of the investigated parameters in group (A) and group (B) at the end of the study. Aerobic exercise training improves hepatic enzymes and psychological well-being in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

  12. Quadratic solitons for negative effective second-harmonic diffraction as nonlocal solitons with periodic nonlocal response function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, B.K.; Bache, Morten; Krolikowski, W.

    2012-01-01

    We employ the formal analogy between quadratic and nonlocal solitons to investigate analytically the properties of solitons and soliton bound states in second-harmonic generation in the regime of negative diffraction or dispersion of the second harmonic. We show that in the nonlocal description...... this regime corresponds to a periodic nonlocal response function. We then use the strongly nonlocal approximation to find analytical solutions of the families of single bright solitons and their bound states in terms of Mathieu functions....

  13. HapX positively and negatively regulates the transcriptional response to iron deprivation in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Hee Jung

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans is a major cause of illness in immunocompromised individuals such as AIDS patients. The ability of the fungus to acquire nutrients during proliferation in host tissue and the ability to elaborate a polysaccharide capsule are critical determinants of disease outcome. We previously showed that the GATA factor, Cir1, is a major regulator both of the iron uptake functions needed for growth in host tissue and the key virulence factors such as capsule, melanin and growth at 37°C. We are interested in further defining the mechanisms of iron acquisition from inorganic and host-derived iron sources with the goal of understanding the nutritional adaptation of C. neoformans to the host environment. In this study, we investigated the roles of the HAP3 and HAPX genes in iron utilization and virulence. As in other fungi, the C. neoformans Hap proteins negatively influence the expression of genes encoding respiratory and TCA cycle functions under low-iron conditions. However, we also found that HapX plays both positive and negative roles in the regulation of gene expression, including a positive regulatory role in siderophore transporter expression. In addition, HapX also positively regulated the expression of the CIR1 transcript. This situation is in contrast to the negative regulation by HapX of genes encoding GATA iron regulatory factors in Aspergillus nidulans and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Although both hapX and hap3 mutants were defective in heme utilization in culture, only HapX made a contribution to virulence, and loss of HapX in a strain lacking the high-affinity iron uptake system did not cause further attenuation of disease. Therefore, HapX appears to have a minimal role during infection of mammalian hosts and instead may be an important regulator of environmental iron uptake functions. Overall, these results indicated that C. neoformans employs multiple strategies for iron acquisition during infection.

  14. The Use of Smartphones as a Digital Security Blanket: The Influence of Phone Use and Availability on Psychological and Physiological Responses to Social Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, John F; Hooker, Emily D; Rohleder, Nicolas; Pressman, Sarah D

    2018-05-01

    Mobile phones are increasingly becoming a part of the social environment, and when individuals feels excluded during a socially stressful situation, they often retreat to the comfort of their phone to ameliorate the negativity. This study tests whether smartphone presence does, in fact, alter psychological and physiological responses to social stress. Participants (N = 148, 84% female, mean age = 20.4) were subjected to a peer, social-exclusion stressor. Before exclusion, participants were randomized to one of the following three conditions: (1) phone-present with use encouraged, (2) phone-present with use restricted, or (3) no phone access. Saliva samples and self-report data were collected throughout the study to assess salivary alpha amylase (sAA), cortisol, and feelings of exclusion. Participants in both phone-present conditions reported lower feelings of exclusion compared with individuals who had no access to their phone (F(2,143) = 5.49, p = .005). Multilevel modeling of sAA responses revealed that the individuals in the restricted-phone condition had a significantly different quadratic trajectory after the stressor compared with the phone use (υ = -0.12, z = -2.15, p = .032), and no-phone conditions (υ = -0.14, z = -2.64, p = .008). Specifically, those in the restricted-phone condition showed a decrease in sAA after exclusion, those in the no-phone condition showed a gradual increase, and phone users exhibited little change. Cortisol responses to the stressor did not vary by condition. Taken together, these results suggest that the mere presence of a phone (and not necessarily phone use) can buffer against the negative experience and effects of social exclusion.

  15. Cortisol awakening response and negative emotionality linked to asymmetry in major limbic fibre bundle architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kathrine Skak; Jernigan, Terry L; Iversen, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    associated with higher CAR, were also correlated with higher right relative to left cingulum FA. Elevated CAR was associated with the degree of FA asymmetry within both the cingulum and the uncinate fasciculus, but in opposing directions. These results suggest that the balance between left- and right......The limbic system plays an important role in regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis as well as aspects of emotion, and both neuroendocrine disturbance and increased negative emotionality are associated with risk for developing affective disorders. However, the extent to which...

  16. Meaning in life and mastery mediate the relationship of negative reminiscence with psychological distress among older adults with mild to moderate depressive symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, J.; Cappeliez, Philippe; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas; Westerhof, Gerben Johan

    2012-01-01

    To understand the adaptive value of reminiscence, a mediational model of reminiscence was tested in a sample of older adults with mild to moderate depressive symptoms. Using structural equation modeling, we investigated if psychological resources (mastery and meaning in life) mediate the relation

  17. The negative effect of decreasing the level of activity in coping with pain in rheumatoid arthritis: An increase in psychological distress and disease impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lankveld, W.G.J.M. van; Näring, G.W.B.; Pad Bosch, P. van 't; Putte, L.B.A. van de

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of coping with pain in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on subsequent changes in psychological distress and disease impact. A sample of 109 randomly selected RA patients was asked to participate in a longitudinal study. Patients were measured at

  18. A nomogram for predicting pathological complete response in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Xi; Jiang, Yi-Zhou; Chen, Sheng; Yu, Ke-Da; Ma, Ding; Sun, Wei; Shao, Zhi-Min; Di, Gen-Hong

    2016-01-01

    The response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy has been proven to predict long-term clinical benefits for patients. Our research is to construct a nomogram to predict pathological complete response of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative breast cancer patients. We enrolled 815 patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy from 2003 to 2015 and divided them into a training set and a validation set. Univariate logistic regression was performed to screen for predictors and construct the nomogram; multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify independent predictors. After performing the univariate logistic regression analysis in the training set, tumor size, hormone receptor status, regimens of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy were the final predictors for the construction of the nomogram. The multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that T4 status, hormone receptor status and receiving regimen of paclitaxel and carboplatin were independent predictors of pathological complete response. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the training set and the validation set was 0.779 and 0.701, respectively. We constructed and validated a nomogram to predict pathological complete response in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative breast cancer patients. We also identified tumor size, hormone receptor status and paclitaxel and carboplatin regimen as independent predictors of pathological complete response. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2652-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  19. Impact of Viewing vs. Not Viewing a Real Forest on Physiological and Psychological Responses in the Same Setting

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    Masahiro Horiuchi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the impact of viewing versus not viewing a real forest on human subjects’ physiological and psychological responses in the same setting. Fifteen healthy volunteers (11 males, four females, mean age 36 years participated. Each participant was asked to view a forest while seated in a comfortable chair for 15 min (Forest condition vs. sitting the same length of time with a curtain obscuring the forest view (Enclosed condition. Both conditions significantly decreased blood pressure (BP variables, i.e., systolic BP, diastolic BP, and mean arterial pressure between pre and post experimental stimuli, but these reductions showed no difference between conditions. Interestingly, the Forest viewing reduced cerebral oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2 assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS and improved the subjects’ Profile of Mood States (POMS scores, whereas the Enclosed condition increased the HbO2 and did not affect the POMS scores. There were no significant differences in saliva amylase or heart rate variability (HRV between the two conditions. Collectively, these results suggest that viewing a real forest may have a positive effect on cerebral activity and psychological responses. However, both viewing and not viewing the forest had similar effects on cardiovascular responses such as BP variables and HRV.

  20. Prosocial attitudes and empathic behavior in emotional positive versus negative situations: brain response (ERPs) and source localization (LORETA) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Canavesio, Ylenia

    2013-03-01

    The present research firstly investigated the neural correlates (ERPs, event-related potentials) of attitudes to engage in prosocial-helping behaviors, and secondly, it analyzed the relation between these brain-based potentials and personal profile (high vs. low empathic profile). It was considered the subjects' behavior in response to specific emotional situations (positive vs. negative) in case it was required a possible prosocial intervention. Thirty-one subjects were invited to empathize with the emotional contexts (videotapes that reproduced two person's exchanges) and to decide whether to intervene or not to support these persons. BEES questionnaire for empathic behavior was submitted to the subjects after the experimental session. ERP acquisition and LORETA source analysis revealed a negative ongoing deflection (N200 effect) more prefrontally distributed (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) in response to prosocial intervention options mainly for negative and positive contexts. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between high-empathic profiles, intervention behaviors (higher frequency of interventions) and N200 amplitude (higher peak). These results highlight the role of emotions in prosocial behavior, since the N200 effect was considered a marker of the emotional significance of the interpersonal situation. Secondly, the empathic trait may explain the prosocial decisional processes: Higher empathic trait contributes to induce subject's intervention behavior which in turn appears to be directly related to the cortical responsiveness within the prefrontal areas.

  1. The Relationship of Parental Warm Responsiveness and Negativity to Emerging Behavior Problems Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Shari L.; Cassedy, Amy; Walz, Nicolay C.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Stancin, Terry; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2013-01-01

    Parenting behaviors play a critical role in the child's behavioral development, particularly for children with neurological deficits. This study examined the relationship of parental warm responsiveness and negativity to changes in behavior following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in young children relative to an age-matched cohort of children with orthopedic injuries (OI). It was hypothesized that responsive parenting would buffer the adverse effects of TBI on child behavior, whereas parental negativity would exacerbate these effects. Children, ages 3–7 years, hospitalized for TBI (n = 80) or OI (n = 113), were seen acutely and again 6 months later. Parent–child dyads were videotaped during free play. Parents completed behavior ratings (Child Behavior Checklist; T. M. Achenbach & L. A. Rescorla, 2001) at both visits, with baseline ratings reflecting preinjury behavior. Hypotheses were tested using multiple regression, with preinjury behavior ratings, race, income, child IQ, family functioning, and acute parental distress serving as covariates. Parental responsiveness and negativity had stronger associations with emerging externalizing behaviors and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms among children with severe TBI. Findings suggest that parenting quality may facilitate or impede behavioral recovery following early TBI. Interventions that increase positive parenting may partially ameliorate emerging behavior problems. PMID:21244154

  2. Toll-8/Tollo negatively regulates antimicrobial response in the Drosophila respiratory epithelium.

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    Idir Akhouayri

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Barrier epithelia that are persistently exposed to microbes have evolved potent immune tools to eliminate such pathogens. If mechanisms that control Drosophila systemic responses are well-characterized, the epithelial immune responses remain poorly understood. Here, we performed a genetic dissection of the cascades activated during the immune response of the Drosophila airway epithelium i.e. trachea. We present evidence that bacteria induced-antimicrobial peptide (AMP production in the trachea is controlled by two signalling cascades. AMP gene transcription is activated by the inducible IMD pathway that acts non-cell autonomously in trachea. This IMD-dependent AMP activation is antagonized by a constitutively active signalling module involving the receptor Toll-8/Tollo, the ligand Spätzle2/DNT1 and Ect-4, the Drosophila ortholog of the human Sterile alpha and HEAT/ARMadillo motif (SARM. Our data show that, in addition to Toll-1 whose function is essential during the systemic immune response, Drosophila relies on another Toll family member to control the immune response in the respiratory epithelium.

  3. Sample size determination for a three-arm equivalence trial of Poisson and negative binomial responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Wei; Tsong, Yi; Zhao, Zhigen

    2017-01-01

    Assessing equivalence or similarity has drawn much attention recently as many drug products have lost or will lose their patents in the next few years, especially certain best-selling biologics. To claim equivalence between the test treatment and the reference treatment when assay sensitivity is well established from historical data, one has to demonstrate both superiority of the test treatment over placebo and equivalence between the test treatment and the reference treatment. Thus, there is urgency for practitioners to derive a practical way to calculate sample size for a three-arm equivalence trial. The primary endpoints of a clinical trial may not always be continuous, but may be discrete. In this paper, the authors derive power function and discuss sample size requirement for a three-arm equivalence trial with Poisson and negative binomial clinical endpoints. In addition, the authors examine the effect of the dispersion parameter on the power and the sample size by varying its coefficient from small to large. In extensive numerical studies, the authors demonstrate that required sample size heavily depends on the dispersion parameter. Therefore, misusing a Poisson model for negative binomial data may easily lose power up to 20%, depending on the value of the dispersion parameter.

  4. Visual mismatch negativity for changes in orientation--a sensory memory-dependent response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astikainen, Piia; Lillstrang, Elina; Ruusuvirta, Timo

    2008-12-01

    It remains unclear whether the mismatch negativity of event-related potentials (ERPs) in vision resembles its auditory counterpart in terms of memory relatedness. We recorded ERPs to visual bars in adult humans engaged in an auditory task. In one condition, a bar ('standard') repeated at 400- or 1100-ms non-stimulated intervals was rarely (P = 0.1) replaced by another bar of a different orientation ('deviant'). In the other condition (400-ms intervals), the occurrences of the standards were replaced by 10 (P = 0.1 each) bars of different orientations, including that of the deviant ('control-deviant'). Deviants shifted ERPs towards negative polarity relative to standards in occipital electrodes and towards positive polarity in frontal electrodes at 185-205 ms post-stimulus but only when 400-ms non-stimulated intervals were applied. Furthermore, the shift existed even relative to ERPs to control-deviants. The findings suggest that, as in audition, vision supports the detection of voluntarily unattended changes per se within the constraints of sensory memory. The findings also pave the way for the future exploration of both intact and impaired memory-based visual processing and memory capacity.

  5. Automatic Change Detection to Facial Expressions in Adolescents: Evidence from Visual Mismatch Negativity Responses

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    Tongran eLiu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a critical period for the neurodevelopment of social-emotional processing, wherein the automatic detection of changes in facial expressions is crucial for the development of interpersonal communication. Two groups of participants (an adolescent group and an adult group were recruited to complete an emotional oddball task featuring on happy and one fearful condition. The measurement of event-related potential (ERP was carried out via electroencephalography (EEG and electrooculography (EOG recording, to detect visual mismatch negativity (vMMN with regard to the automatic detection of changes in facial expressions between the two age groups. The current findings demonstrated that the adolescent group featured more negative vMMN amplitudes than the adult group in the fronto-central region during the 120-200 ms interval. During the time window of 370-450 ms, only the adult group showed better automatic processing on fearful faces than happy faces. The present study indicated that adolescents posses stronger automatic detection of changes in emotional expression relative to adults, and sheds light on the neurodevelopment of automatic processes concerning social-emotional information.

  6. Global negative vegetation feedback to climate warming responses of leaf litter decomposition rates in cold biomes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, J.H.C.; van Bodegom, P.M.; Aerts, R.; Gallaghan, T.V.; van Logtestijn, R.S.P; Alatalo, J.; Chapin, F.S. III; Gerdol, R.; Gudmundsson, J.; Gwynn-Jones, D.; Hartley, A.E.; Hik, D.S.; Hofgaard, A.; Jonsdottir, I.S.; Karlsson, S.; Klein, J.A.; Laundre, J.; Magnusson, B.; Michelsel, A.; Molau, U.; Onipchenko, V.G.; Quested, H.M.; Sandvik, S.M.; Schmidt, I.K.; Shaver, G.R.; Solhleim, B.; Soudzilovskaia, N.A.; Stenstrom, A.; Tolvanen, A.; Totland, O.; Wada, N.; Welker, J.M.; Zhao, X.; Team, M.O.L.

    2007-01-01

    Whether climate change will turn cold biomes from large long-term carbon sinks into sources is hotly debated because of the great potential for ecosystem-mediated feedbacks to global climate. Critical are the direction, magnitude and generality of climate responses of plant litter decomposition.

  7. Asymmetrical Responses of Ecosystem Processes to Positive Versus Negative Precipitation Extremes: a Replicated Regression Experimental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, A. J.; Smith, M. D.

    2016-12-01

    Heightened climatic variability due to atmospheric warming is forecast to increase the frequency and severity of climate extremes. In particular, changes to interannual variability in precipitation, characterized by increases in extreme wet and dry years, are likely to impact virtually all terrestrial ecosystem processes. However, to date experimental approaches have yet to explicitly test how ecosystem processes respond to multiple levels of climatic extremity, limiting our understanding of how ecosystems will respond to forecast increases in the magnitude of climate extremes. Here we report the results of a replicated regression experimental approach, in which we imposed 9 and 11 levels of growing season precipitation amount and extremity in mesic grassland during 2015 and 2016, respectively. Each level corresponded to a specific percentile of the long-term record, which produced a large gradient of soil moisture conditions that ranged from extreme wet to extreme dry. In both 2015 and 2016, asymptotic responses to water availability were observed for soil respiration. This asymmetry was driven in part by transitions between soil moisture versus temperature constraints on respiration as conditions became increasingly dry versus increasingly wet. In 2015, aboveground net primary production (ANPP) exhibited asymmetric responses to precipitation that largely mirrored those of soil respiration. In total, our results suggest that in this mesic ecosystem, these two carbon cycle processes were more sensitive to extreme drought than to extreme wet years. Future work will assess ANPP responses for 2016, soil nutrient supply and physiological responses of the dominant plant species. Future efforts are needed to compare our findings across a diverse array of ecosystem types, and in particular how the timing and magnitude of precipitation events may modify the response of ecosystem processes to increasing magnitudes of precipitation extremes.

  8. Career Management and the Changing Psychological Contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Carol

    2002-01-01

    A 1993 survey in a British bank revealed a lack of strategic approaches to career management and a negative psychological contract. A 2000 follow-up showed that employees viewed the new contract as a regression from a relational to a transactional approach. They had increased responsibility for career development, but management failed to provide…

  9. An error-related negativity potential investigation of response monitoring function in individuals with Internet addiction disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhe eZhou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Internet addiction disorder (IAD is an impulse disorder or at least related to impulse control disorder. Deficits in executive functioning, including response monitoring, have been proposed as a hallmark feature of impulse control disorders. The error-related negativity (ERN reflects individual’s ability to monitor behavior. Since IAD belongs to a compulsive-impulsive spectrum disorder, theoretically, it should present response monitoring functional deficit characteristics of some disorders, such as substance dependence, ADHD or alcohol abuse, testing with an Erikson flanker task. Up to now, no studies on response monitoring functional deficit in IAD were reported. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether IAD displays response monitoring functional deficit characteristics in a modified Erikson flanker task.23 subjects were recruited as IAD group. 23 matched age, gender and education healthy persons were recruited as control group. All participants completed the modified Erikson flanker task while measured with event-related potentials (ERPs. IAD group made more total error rates than did controls (P < 0.01; Reactive times for total error responses in IAD group were shorter than did controls (P < 0.01. The mean ERN amplitudes of total error response conditions at frontal electrode sites and at central electrode sites of IAD group were reduced compared with control group (all P < 0.01. These results revealed that IAD displays response monitoring functional deficit characteristics and shares ERN characteristics of compulsive-impulsive spectrum disorder.

  10. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  11. Blood pressure response to psychological stressors in adults after prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Painter, Rebecca C.; de Rooij, Susanne R.; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Phillips, David I.; Osmond, Clive; Barker, David J.; Bleker, Otto P.; Roseboom, Tessa J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There is increasing evidence that restricted prenatal growth is associated with exaggerated blood pressure responses to stress. We investigated the effect of maternal undernutrition on the adult offspring's stress response. DESIGN: A historical cohort study. METHODS: We performed

  12. Discursive Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molder, te H.F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Discursive psychology examines how psychological issues are made relevant and put to use in everyday talk. Unlike traditional psychological perspectives, discursive psychology does not approach the question of what psychology comprises and explains from an analyst's perspective. Instead, the focus

  13. A rice gene of de novo origin negatively regulates pathogen-induced defense response.

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    Wenfei Xiao

    Full Text Available How defense genes originated with the evolution of their specific pathogen-responsive traits remains an important problem. It is generally known that a form of duplication can generate new genes, suggesting that a new gene usually evolves from an ancestral gene. However, we show that a new defense gene in plants may evolve by de novo origination, resulting in sophisticated disease-resistant functions in rice. Analyses of gene evolution showed that this new gene, OsDR10, had homologs only in the closest relative, Leersia genus, but not other subfamilies of the grass family; therefore, it is a rice tribe-specific gene that may have originated de novo in the tribe. We further show that this gene may evolve a highly conservative rice-specific function that contributes to the regulation difference between rice and other plant species in response to pathogen infections. Biologic analyses including gene silencing, pathologic analysis, and mutant characterization by transformation showed that the OsDR10-suppressed plants enhanced resistance to a broad spectrum of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae strains, which cause bacterial blight disease. This enhanced disease resistance was accompanied by increased accumulation of endogenous salicylic acid (SA and suppressed accumulation of endogenous jasmonic acid (JA as well as modified expression of a subset of defense-responsive genes functioning both upstream and downstream of SA and JA. These data and analyses provide fresh insights into the new biologic and evolutionary processes of a de novo gene recruited rapidly.

  14. Technology and Teaching: Promoting Active Learning Using Individual Response Technology in Large Introductory Psychology Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Christopher R.; Feldman, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    Individual response technology (IRT), in which students use wireless handsets to communicate real-time responses, permits the recording and display of aggregated student responses during class. In comparison to a traditional class that did not employ IRT, students using IRT performed better on exams and held positive attitudes toward the…

  15. Effects of BCAA, arginine and carbohydrate combined drink on post-exercise biochemical response and psychological condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Mei-Chich; Chien, Kuei-Yu; Hsu, Cheng-Chen; Chung, Chia-Jung; Chan, Kuei-Hui; Su, Borcherng

    2011-04-30

    This study investigated the effects of BCAA, arginine and carbohydrate combined beverage (BCAA Drink) on biochemical responses and psychological conditions during recovery after a single bout of exhaustive exercise. Fourteen healthy males were assigned to drink either BCAA Drink (BA trial) or placebo (PL trial) on two sessions separated by 2 weeks. Blood samples of each subject were collected before exercise, 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 120 min and 24 h after exercise. No significant differences in the levels of lactate, ammonia, creatine kinase and glycerol between the two groups were observed at any of the time points. However, the levels of glucose and insulin were significantly higher in the BA trial as compared to those in the PL trial at the 40 and 60 min recovery points. Furthermore, the testosterone-to-cortisol ratio at the 120 min recovery point was significantly higher in the BA trial as compared to that in the PL trial. The results indicate the occurrence of anabolic response during the recovery period. The benefit of BCAA Drink was also performed by Profile of Mood States to assess the psychological condition. Fatigue score increased immediately at exhaustion in both groups, but the decrease in the fatigue score at 120 min recovery point was significant only in BA trial. These data indicate that a single bout of exhaustive exercise enhanced the feeling of fatigue. The detrimental consequence was reduced by an ingestion of BCAA Drink.

  16. Elongated Hypocotyl 5-Homolog (HYH Negatively Regulates Expression of the Ambient Temperature-Responsive MicroRNA Gene MIR169

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    Phanu T. Serivichyaswat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis microRNA169 (miR169 is an ambient temperature-responsive microRNA that plays an important role in stress responses and the floral transition. However, the transcription factors that regulate the expression of MIR169 have remained unknown. In this study, we show that Elongated Hypocotyl 5-Homolog (HYH directly binds to the promoter of MIR169a and negatively regulates its expression. Absolute quantification identified MIR169a as the major locus producing miR169. GUS reporter assays revealed that the deletion of a 498-bp fragment (–1,505 to –1,007, relative to the major transcriptional start site of MIR169a abolished its ambient temperature-responsive expression. DNA-affinity chromatography followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis identified transcription factor HYH as a trans-acting factor that binds to the 498-bp promoter fragment of pri-miR169a. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation–quantitative PCR demonstrated that the HYH.2 protein, a predominant isoform of HYH, directly associated with a G-box-like motif in the 498-bp fragment of pri-miR169a. Higher enrichment of HYH.2 protein on the promoter region of MIR169a was seen at 23°C, consistent with the presence of more HYH.2 protein in the cell at the temperature. Transcript levels of pri-miR169a increased in hyh mutants and decreased in transgenic plants overexpressing HYH. Consistent with the negative regulation of MIR169a by HYH, the diurnal levels of HYH mRNA and pri-miR169a showed opposite patterns. Taken together, our results suggest that HYH is a transcription factor that binds to a G-box-like motif in the MIR169a promoter and negatively regulates ambient temperature-responsive expression of MIR169a at higher temperatures in Arabidopsis.

  17. Periodic upright posture negates the suppression of neuroendocrine response to head down bedrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C. E.; Vernikos, J.; Evans, J.; Ohara, D.

    1992-01-01

    Head down bedrest (HDT) decreases plasma neurohormone levels, attaining a nadir within four hours. The present study evaluates the effect of periodic standing or exercises (+G(z)) on this acute suppression of plasma neurohormones. Methods: Nine male subjects (mean plus or minus SE age 37 plus or minus 2 yr; height 182 plus or minus 2 cm; weight 83 plus or minus 3 kg) were admitted to the Human Research Facility on three occasions separated by one month. Subjects were assigned to head down tilt (minus 6 degrees) or 15-minutes of standing or moderate exercise at the end of each hour. Initially during an ambulatory period, subjects were placed in a supine position for 45-min and a control blood sample obtained. The next day following 4 hours of HDT with or without standing or exercise a blood sample was taken 45-min (3 3/4 hours into HDT) after the preceding stand or exercise. Blood was withdrawn and all plasma samples frozen for determination of neurohormone levels within the same assay. Plasma aldosterone, Plasma Renin Activity (PRA) vasopressin (AVP) and cortisol levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) levels were measured by electrochemical detection following HPLC. Values were compared by ANOVA, P less than 0.05. Results: Control levels following 45-min supine were not different between treatments. HDT suppressed plasma aldosterone (13.9 plus or minus 3.7 to 6.6 plus or minus 0.7 ng/dl) and NE levels (299 plus or minus 35 to 217 plus or minus 23 pg/dl), E (69 plus or minus 15 to 65 plus or minus 21 pg/ml), and PRA (0.64 plus or minus 0.13 to 0.58 plus or minus 0.17 ngAl/m/hr) were not significantly altered. Standing or exercise negated the decrease in aldosterone and NE levels due to HDT. Conclusions: Periodic upright posture (+G(z)) with or without exercise for 15-min out of each hour negates the acute suppression of aldosterone and NE associated with HDT.

  18. AIM2-Like Receptors Positively and Negatively Regulate the Interferon Response Induced by Cytosolic DNA

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    Yuki Nakaya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cytosolic DNAs derived from retrotransposons serve as pathogen-associated molecular patterns for pattern recognition receptors (PRRs that stimulate the induction of interferons (IFNs and other cytokines, leading to autoimmune disease. Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase is one PRR that senses retrotransposon DNA, activating type I IFN responses through the stimulator of IFN genes (STING. Absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2-like receptors (ALRs have also been implicated in these pathways. Here we show that the mouse ALR IFI205 senses cytosolic retrotransposon DNA independently of cyclic GMP-AMP production. AIM2 antagonizes IFI205-mediated IFN induction activity by sequestering it from STING. We also found that the complement of genes located in the ALR locus in C57BL/6 and AIM2 knockout mice are different and unique, which has implications for interpretation of the sensing of pathogens in different mouse strains. Our data suggest that members of the ALR family are critical to the host IFN response to endogenous DNA.

  19. Effectiveness of the Comalli Stroop Test as a measure of negative response bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arentsen, Timothy J; Boone, Kyle Brauer; Lo, Tracy T Y; Goldberg, Hope E; Cottingham, Maria E; Victor, Tara L; Ziegler, Elizabeth; Zeller, Michelle A

    2013-01-01

    Practice guidelines recommend the use of multiple performance validity tests (PVTs) to detect noncredible performance during neuropsychological evaluations, and PVTs embedded in standard cognitive tests achieve this goal most efficiently. The present study examined the utility of the Comalli version of the Stroop Test as a measure of response bias in a large sample of "real world" noncredible patients (n = 129) as compared with credible neuropsychology clinic patients (n=233). The credible group performed significantly better than the noncredible group on all trials, but particularly on word-reading (Stroop A) and color-naming (Stroop B); cut-scores for Stroop A and Stroop B trials were associated with moderate sensitivity (49-53%) as compared to the low sensitivity found for the color interference trial (29%). Some types of diagnoses (including learning disability, severe traumatic brain injury, psychosis, and depression), very advanced age (⩾80), and lowered IQ were associated with increased rates of false positive identifications, suggesting the need for some adjustments to cut-offs in these subgroups. Despite some previous reports of an inverted Stroop effect (i.e., color-naming worse than color interference) in noncredible subjects, individual Stroop word reading and color naming trials were much more effective in identifying response bias.

  20. Morality, responsibility and risk: negative gay men's perceived proximity to HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Peter

    2008-05-01

    In order to examine the ways in which men's perceptions of their social surroundings influence how they experience and negotiate sexual risk, we conducted a qualitative study with 36 men who lived in London or Birmingham, had five or more male partners in the previous year and believed themselves to be HIV negative. Men were recruited into two sub-samples (18 men each). The high proximity group personally knew someone with HIV and had a positive sexual partner in the year prior to interview. The low proximity group had never personally known anyone with HIV and had never had a sexual partner who they knew or believed to be HIV positive. Data was collected via semi-structured interviews. Men in the low proximity groups used moral discourses to articulate beliefs and social norms around the disclosure of HIV which may act as a deterrent to sexual partners disclosing. Although most expected positive sexual partners to disclose, they had difficulty in articulating how they would respond to disclosure and how they would manage any consequent sexual risk. For the men in the high proximity group, living around HIV constituted a part of everyday life. Disclosure and discussion of HIV did not violate their social norms. The majority did not expect positive sexual partners to disclose to them and knew how they would respond to such disclosure if it occurred. Men in this group did not use moral discourses but talked practically about better and worse ways of managing disclosure. Proximity to HIV is mediated by strong social norms and self-perpetuating moral discourses which effectively creates a social divide between men who perceive themselves to be in low proximity to HIV and their HIV positive contacts and sexual partners. Men with perceived low proximity to HIV are appropriate as a target group for HIV prevention.

  1. Effects of an NMDA antagonist on the auditory mismatch negativity response to transcranial direct current stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, Danielle; de la Salle, Sara; Baddeley, Ashley; Knott, Verner

    2017-05-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive form of brain stimulation which uses a weak constant current to alter cortical excitability and activity temporarily. tDCS-induced increases in neuronal excitability and performance improvements have been observed following anodal stimulation of brain regions associated with visual and motor functions, but relatively little research has been conducted with respect to auditory processing. Recently, pilot study results indicate that anodal tDCS can increase auditory deviance detection, whereas cathodal tDCS decreases auditory processing, as measured by a brain-based event-related potential (ERP), mismatch negativity (MMN). As evidence has shown that tDCS lasting effects may be dependent on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activity, the current study investigated the use of dextromethorphan (DMO), an NMDA antagonist, to assess possible modulation of tDCS's effects on both MMN and working memory performance. The study, conducted in 12 healthy volunteers, involved four laboratory test sessions within a randomised, placebo and sham-controlled crossover design that compared pre- and post-anodal tDCS over the auditory cortex (2 mA for 20 minutes to excite cortical activity temporarily and locally) and sham stimulation (i.e. device is turned off) during both DMO (50 mL) and placebo administration. Anodal tDCS increased MMN amplitudes with placebo administration. Significant increases were not seen with sham stimulation or with anodal stimulation during DMO administration. With sham stimulation (i.e. no stimulation), DMO decreased MMN amplitudes. Findings from this study contribute to the understanding of underlying neurobiological mechanisms mediating tDCS sensory and memory improvements.

  2. Ocular surface squamous neoplasia in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients and response to 5-fluorouracil in Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutt RJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Robert J Nutt,1 John L Clements,2 William H Dean3 1Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK; 2Boa Vista Eye Clinic, Benguela, Angola; 3Bristol Eye Hospital, Bristol, UK Background: Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN is becoming increasingly prevalent and aggressive in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is a phenomenon linked with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, although association rates in Angola are currently unknown. A topical treatment that is effective in HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals may be preferable to surgery in some contexts. We aimed to estimate the proportion of OSSN associated with HIV in Angola and to report on the success of topical 5-fluorouracil as a primary treatment in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients.Methods: Photographs of OSSNs taken at presentation and following treatment with 5-fluorouracil in patients presenting to Boa Vista Eye Clinic, Angola, between October 2011 and July 2013 were grouped into HIV-positive and HIV-negative groups and analyzed to compare presenting features and treatment response. Eighty-one OSSNs were analyzed for clinical features and 24 met the inclusion criteria for analysis of treatment response.Results: Eighty-two patients presented with OSSN between October 2011 and July 2013. Twenty-one (26% were HIV-positive and typically had OSSNs that exhibited more pathological features than those in HIV-negative patients. Twenty-four (29% patients met the inclusion criteria for analysis of treatment response; of these, 26 (91% OSSNs in both groups displayed at least partial resolution after one treatment course. In the HIV-positive group, five of eight patients displayed complete resolution, two showed partial resolution, and one failed. In the HIV-negative group, five of 16 showed complete resolution, ten of 16 had partial resolution, and one failed.Conclusion: Individuals presenting with OSSN in Angola are more likely to have HIV infection compared

  3. Negative and positive components of psychological masculinity and femininity and their relationships to self-reports of neurotic and acting out behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, J T; Helmreich, R L; Holahan, C K

    1979-10-01

    Negatively valued masculinity (M-) and femininity (F-) personality scales were developed to supplement the positively valued Masculinity (M+) and Femininity (F+) scales of the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ; Spence & Helmreich). M- consisted of traits that had been judged to be (a) more typical of males than females, (b) undesirable in both sexes, and (c ) agentic or instrumental in content. Two F- scales were developed, both containing stereotypically feminine, undesirable traits, one set of traits referring to communionlike characteristics (Fc-) and the other to verbal passive-aggressive qualities (FVA-). Significant sex differences in the predicted direction were found on all scales. In both sexes, low and typically nonsignificant correlations were found between parallel positive and negative scales, but highly significant negative correlations were found between positive and negative cross-sex scales. These findings provide additional evidence for the multidimentionslity of masculinity and femininity. Scores on a self-esteem measure were positively correlated with M+ and F+, uncorrelated with M-, and negatively correlated with the F- scales. Different patterns of scores were associated with two types of problem behaviors. In both sexes, neuroticism was most highly correlated (in a negative direction) with M+, and acting out behavoir was most strongly correlated (in a positive direction) with M-. The next highest correlation in both instances was with FVA-.

  4. Hemodynamic responses to seated and supine lower body negative pressure - Comparison with +Gz acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polese, Alvese; Sandler, Harold; Montgomery, Leslie D.

    1992-01-01

    The hemodynamic responses to LBNP in seated subjects and in subjects in supine body positions were compared and were correlated with hemodynamic changes which occurred during a simulated (by centrifugation) Shuttle reentry acceleration with a slow onset rate of 0.002 G/s and during gradual onset exposures to +3 Gz and +4 Gz. Results demonstrate that seated LBNP at a level of -40 mm Hg can serve as a static simulator for changes in the heart rate and in mean blood pressure induced by gradual onset acceleration stress occurring during Shuttle reentry. The findings also provide a rationale for using LBNP during weightlessness as a means of imposing G-loading on the circulation prior to reentry.

  5. AIM2-Like Receptors Positively and Negatively Regulate the Interferon Response Induced by Cytosolic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, Yuki; Lilue, Jingtao; Stavrou, Spyridon; Moran, Eileen A; Ross, Susan R

    2017-07-05

    Cytosolic DNAs derived from retrotransposons serve as pathogen-associated molecular patterns for pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that stimulate the induction of interferons (IFNs) and other cytokines, leading to autoimmune disease. Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase is one PRR that senses retrotransposon DNA, activating type I IFN responses through the stimulator of IFN genes (STING). Absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2)-like receptors (ALRs) have also been implicated in these pathways. Here we show that the mouse ALR IFI205 senses cytosolic retrotransposon DNA independently of cyclic GMP-AMP production. AIM2 antagonizes IFI205-mediated IFN induction activity by sequestering it from STING. We also found that the complement of genes located in the ALR locus in C57BL/6 and AIM2 knockout mice are different and unique, which has implications for interpretation of the sensing of pathogens in different mouse strains. Our data suggest that members of the ALR family are critical to the host IFN response to endogenous DNA. IMPORTANCE Autoimmune diseases like Aicardi-Goutières syndrome and lupus erythematosus arise when cells of the immune system become activated and attack host cells and tissues. We found that DNA generated by endogenous retroviruses and retroelements in inbred mice and mouse cells is recognized by several host proteins found in macrophages that are members of the ALR family and that these proteins both suppress and activate the pathways leading to the generation of cytokines and IFNs. We also show that there is great genetic diversity between different inbred mouse strains in the ALR genes, which might contribute to differential susceptibility to autoimmunity. Understanding how immune cells become activated is important to the control of disease. Copyright © 2017 Nakaya et al.

  6. Preventing the Development of Observationally Learnt Fears in Children by Devaluing the Model's Negative Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Gemma; Field, Andy P; Askew, Chris

    2015-10-01

    Vicarious learning has become an established indirect pathway to fear acquisition. It is generally accepted that associative learning processes underlie vicarious learning; however, whether this association is a form of conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus (CS-US) learning or stimulus-response (CS-CR) learning remains unclear. Traditionally, these types of learning can be dissociated in a US revaluation procedure. The current study explored the effects of post-vicarious learning US revaluation on acquired fear responses. Ninety-four children (46 males and 48 females) aged 6 to 10 years first viewed either a fear vicarious learning video or a neutral vicarious learning video followed by random allocation to one of three US revaluation conditions: inflation; deflation; or control. Inflation group children were presented with still images of the adults in the video and told that the accompanying sound and image of a very fast heart rate monitor belonged to the adult. The deflation group were shown the same images but with the sound and image of a normal heart rate. The control group received no US revaluation. Results indicated that inflating how scared the models appeared to be did not result in significant increases in children's fear beliefs, avoidance preferences, avoidance behavior or heart rate for animals above increases caused by vicarious learning. In contrast, US devaluation resulted in significant decreases in fear beliefs and avoidance preferences. Thus, the findings provide evidence that CS-US associations underpin vicarious learning and suggest that US devaluation may be a successful method for preventing children from developing fear beliefs following a traumatic vicarious learning episode with a stimulus.

  7. Mammary gene expression profiles during an intramammary challenge reveal potential mechanisms linking negative energy balance with impaired immune response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey; Drackley, J K; Morin, D E

    2010-01-01

    Our objective was to compare mammary tissue gene expression profiles during a Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis) mastitis challenge between lactating cows subjected to dietary-induced negative energy balance (NEB; n = 5) and cows fed ad libitum to maintain positive energy balance (PEB; n = 5...... 0.05), with 86 DEG up-regulated and 201 DEG down-regulated. Canonical pathways most affected by NEB were IL-8 Signaling (10 genes), Glucocorticoid Receptor Signaling (13), and NRF2-mediated Oxidative Stress Response (10). Among genes differentially expressed by NEB, Cell Growth and Proliferation (48...

  8. Can you catch a liar? How negative emotions affect brain responses when lying or telling the truth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mado Proverbio

    Full Text Available The capacity to deceive others is a complex mental skill that requires the ability to suppress truthful information. The polygraph is widely used in countries such as the USA to detect deception. However, little is known about the effects of emotional processes (such as the fear of being found guilty despite being innocent on the physiological responses that are used to detect lies. The aim of this study was to investigate the time course and neural correlates of untruthful behavior by analyzing electrocortical indexes in response to visually presented neutral and affective questions. Affective questions included sexual, shameful or disgusting topics. A total of 296 questions that were inherently true or false were presented to 25 subjects while ERPs were recorded from 128 scalp sites. Subjects were asked to lie on half of the questions and to answer truthfully on the remaining half. Behavioral and ERP responses indicated an increased need for executive control functions, namely working memory, inhibition and task switching processes, during deceptive responses. Deceptive responses also elicited a more negative N400 over the prefrontal areas and a smaller late positivity (LP 550-750 ms over the prefrontal and frontal areas. However, a reduction in LP amplitude was also elicited by truthful affective responses. The failure to observe a difference in LP responses across conditions likely results from emotional interference. A swLORETA inverse solution was computed on the N400 amplitude (300-400 ms for the dishonest - honest contrast. These results showed the activation of the superior, medial, middle and inferior frontal gyri (BA9, 11, 47 and the anterior cingulate cortex during deceptive responses. Our results conclude that the N400 amplitude is a reliable neural marker of deception.

  9. HPA AXIS RELATED GENES AND RESPONSE TO PSYCHOLOGICAL THERAPIES: GENETICS AND EPIGENETICS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, Susanna; Keers, Robert; Lester, Kathryn J.; Coleman, Jonathan R. I.; Breen, Gerome; Arendt, Kristian; Blatter-Meunier, Judith; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy; Fjermestad, Krister; Havik, Odd E.; Herren, Chantal; Hogendoorn, Sanne M.; Hudson, Jennifer L.; Krause, Karen; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Morris, Talia; Nauta, Maaike; Rapee, Ronald M.; Rey, Yasmin; Schneider, Silvia; Schneider, Sophie C.; Silverman, Wendy K.; Thastum, Mikael; Thirlwall, Kerstin; Waite, Polly; Eley, Thalia C.; Wong, Chloe C. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning has been implicated in the development of stress-related psychiatric diagnoses and response to adverse life experiences. This study aimed to investigate the association between genetic and epigenetics in HPA axis and response to cognitive

  10. Psychology and Ecology: Beliefs in Technology and the Diffusion of Ecological Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, Richard J.

    1985-01-01

    Compared attitudes of individuals who engage in such environmentally responsible activities as recycling, energy conservation, or consumer boycotting. Results show that personal commitment to environmentally corrective behaviors is importantly determined by the person's evaluative response to widely publicized environmental topics. Theoretical and…

  11. The Impact of Student Response Systems on the Learning Experience of Undergraduate Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walklet, Elaine; Davis, Sarah; Farrelly, Daniel; Muse, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Student response systems (SRS) are hand-held devices or mobile phone polling systems which collate real-time, individual responses to on-screen questions. Previous research examining their role in higher education has highlighted both advantages and disadvantages of their use. This paper explores how different SRS influence the learning experience…

  12. SlBIR3 Negatively Regulates PAMP Responses and Cell Death in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhua Huang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bri1-associated kinase 1 (BAK1-interacting receptor-like kinase (BIR proteins have been shown to play important roles in regulating growth and development, pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI responses, and cell death in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. We identified four BIR family members in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, including SlBIR3, an ortholog of AtBIR3 from A. thaliana. SlBIR3 is predicted to encode a membrane localized non-arginine-aspartate (non-RD kinase that, based on protein sequence, does not have autophosphorylation activity but that can be phosphorylated in vivo. We established that SlBIR3 interacts with SlBAK1 and AtBAK1 using yeast two-hybrid assays and co-immunoprecipitation and maltose-binding protein pull down assays. We observed that SlBIR3 overexpression in tomato (cv. micro-tom and A. thaliana has weak effect on growth and development through brassinosteroid (BR signaling. SlBIR3 overexpression in A. thaliana suppressed flg22-induced defense responses, but did not affect infection with the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae (PstDC3000. This result was confirmed using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS in tomato in conjunction with PstDC3000 infection. Overexpression of SlBIR3 in tomato (cv. micro-tom and A. thaliana resulted in enhanced susceptibility to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. In addition, co-silencing SlBIR3 with SlSERK3A or SlSERK3B using VIGS and the tobacco rattle virus (TRV-RNA2 vector containing fragments of both the SlSERK3 and SlBIR3 genes induced spontaneous cell death, indicating a cooperation between the two proteins in this process. In conclusion, our study revealed that SlBIR3 is the ortholog of AtBIR3 and that it participates in BR, PTI, and cell death signaling pathways.

  13. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia as a predictor of eating disorder symptoms in college students: Moderation by responses to stress and parent psychological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaied, Jamie L; Wagner, Caitlin; Breslend, Nicole Lafko; Flynn, Megan

    2016-04-01

    This longitudinal study examined the prospective contribution of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a key physiological indicator of self-regulation, to eating disorder symptoms in college students, and whether this link was moderated by maladaptive responses to stress and parent psychological control. At Wave 1, college students' RSA was measured at rest. At Waves 1 and 2 (six-month follow-up), students reported on their eating disorder symptoms, coping and involuntary responses to stress, and perceptions of their parents' use of psychological control. Significant three-way interactions indicated that the link between RSA and subsequent eating disorder symptoms was contingent on responses to stress and parent psychological control. In the context of maladaptive responses to stress and high psychological control, RSA predicted increased eating disorder symptoms over time. In the absence of parent psychological control, high RSA was beneficial in most cases, even when individuals reported maladaptive responses to stress. This study presents novel evidence that high RSA contributes to risk for or resilience to eating disorder symptoms over time. RSA can be protective against eating disorder symptoms, but in some contexts, the self-regulation resources that high RSA provides may be inappropriately applied to eating cognitions and behaviors. This research highlights the importance of examining physiological functioning conjointly with other risk factors as precursors to eating disorder symptoms over time. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. What they bring: baseline psychological distress differentially predicts neural response in social exclusion by children's friends and strangers in best friend dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddam, Suman; Laws, Holly; Crawford, Jessica L; Wu, Jia; Bolling, Danielle Z; Mayes, Linda C; Crowley, Michael J

    2016-11-01

    Friendships play a major role in cognitive, emotional and social development in middle childhood. We employed the online Cyberball social exclusion paradigm to understand the neural correlates of dyadic social exclusion among best friends assessed simultaneously. Each child played with their friend and an unfamiliar player. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were assessed via electroencephalogram during exclusion by friend and unfamiliar peer. Data were analyzed with hierarchical linear modeling to account for nesting of children within friendship dyads. Results showed that stranger rejection was associated with larger P2 and positive slow wave ERP responses compared to exclusion by a friend. Psychological distress differentially moderated the effects of friend and stranger exclusion such that children with greater psychological distress were observed to have larger neural responses (larger P2 and slow wave) to exclusion by a stranger compared to exclusion by a friend. Conversely, children with lower levels of psychological distress had larger neural responses for exclusion by a friend than by a stranger. Psychological distress within the dyad differentially predicted the P2 and slow wave response. Findings highlight the prominent, but differential role of individual and dyadic psychological distress levels in moderating responses to social exclusion in middle childhood. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press.

  15. Negative responses of Collembola in a forest soil (Alptal, Switzerland) under experimentally increased N deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guoliang; Schleppi, Patrick; Li Maihe; Fu Shenglei

    2009-01-01

    The response of specific groups of organisms, like Collembola to atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is still scarcely known. We investigated the Collembola community in a subalpine forest (Alptal, Switzerland) as subjected for 12 years to an experimentally increased N deposition (+25 on top of ambient 12 kg N ha -1 year -1 ). In the 0-5 cm soil layer, there was a tendency of total Collembola densities to be lower in N-treated than in control plots. The density of Isotomiella minor, the most abundant species, was significantly reduced by the N addition. A tendency of lower Collembola group richness was observed in N-treated plots. The Density-Group index (d DG ) showed a significant reduction of community diversity, but the Shannon-Wiener index (H') was not significantly affected by the N addition. The Collembola community can be considered as a bioindicator of N inputs exceeding the biological needs, namely, soil N saturation. - Collembola community, which was significantly affected by a long-term N addition experiment, can be considered as a bioindicator of N saturation.

  16. Impact analyses for negative flexural responses (hogging) in railway prestressed concrete sleepers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaewunruen, S; Ishida, T; Remennikov, AM

    2016-01-01

    By nature, ballast interacts with railway concrete sleepers in order to provide bearing support to track system. Most train-track dynamic models do not consider the degradation of ballast over time. In fact, the ballast degradation causes differential settlement and impact forces acting on partial and unsupported tracks. Furthermore, localised ballast breakages underneath railseat increase the likelihood of centrebound cracks in concrete sleepers due to the unbalanced support under sleepers. This paper presents a dynamic finite element model of a standard-gauge concrete sleeper in a track system, taking into account the tensionless nature of ballast support. The finite element model was calibrated using static and dynamic responses in the past. In this paper, the effects of centre-bound ballast support on the impact behaviours of sleepers are highlighted. In addition, it is the first to demonstrate the dynamic effects of sleeper length on the dynamic design deficiency in concrete sleepers. The outcome of this study will benefit the rail maintenance criteria of track resurfacing in order to restore ballast profile and appropriate sleeper/ballast interaction. (paper)

  17. Negative responses of Collembola in a forest soil (Alptal, Switzerland) under experimentally increased N deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Guoliang, E-mail: xugl@scbg.ac.c [Institute of Ecology, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Schleppi, Patrick; Li Maihe [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, CH-8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Fu Shenglei, E-mail: sfu@scib.ac.c [Institute of Ecology, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China)

    2009-07-15

    The response of specific groups of organisms, like Collembola to atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is still scarcely known. We investigated the Collembola community in a subalpine forest (Alptal, Switzerland) as subjected for 12 years to an experimentally increased N deposition (+25 on top of ambient 12 kg N ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}). In the 0-5 cm soil layer, there was a tendency of total Collembola densities to be lower in N-treated than in control plots. The density of Isotomiella minor, the most abundant species, was significantly reduced by the N addition. A tendency of lower Collembola group richness was observed in N-treated plots. The Density-Group index (d{sub DG}) showed a significant reduction of community diversity, but the Shannon-Wiener index (H') was not significantly affected by the N addition. The Collembola community can be considered as a bioindicator of N inputs exceeding the biological needs, namely, soil N saturation. - Collembola community, which was significantly affected by a long-term N addition experiment, can be considered as a bioindicator of N saturation.

  18. Impact analyses for negative flexural responses (hogging) in railway prestressed concrete sleepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewunruen, S.; Ishida, T.; Remennikov, AM

    2016-09-01

    By nature, ballast interacts with railway concrete sleepers in order to provide bearing support to track system. Most train-track dynamic models do not consider the degradation of ballast over time. In fact, the ballast degradation causes differential settlement and impact forces acting on partial and unsupported tracks. Furthermore, localised ballast breakages underneath railseat increase the likelihood of centrebound cracks in concrete sleepers due to the unbalanced support under sleepers. This paper presents a dynamic finite element model of a standard-gauge concrete sleeper in a track system, taking into account the tensionless nature of ballast support. The finite element model was calibrated using static and dynamic responses in the past. In this paper, the effects of centre-bound ballast support on the impact behaviours of sleepers are highlighted. In addition, it is the first to demonstrate the dynamic effects of sleeper length on the dynamic design deficiency in concrete sleepers. The outcome of this study will benefit the rail maintenance criteria of track resurfacing in order to restore ballast profile and appropriate sleeper/ballast interaction.

  19. Family Stress and Parental Responses to Children’s Negative Emotions: Tests of the Spillover, Crossover, and Compensatory Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A.; O’Brien, Marion; Blankson, A. Nayena; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.

    2010-01-01

    The relations between 4 sources of family stress (marital dissatisfaction, home chaos, parental depressive symptoms, and job role dissatisfaction) and the emotion socialization practice of mothers’ and fathers’ responses to children’s negative emotions were examined. Participants included 101 couples with 7-year-old children. Dyadic analyses were conducted using the Actor–Partner Interdependence Model and relations were tested in terms of the spillover, crossover, and compensatory hypotheses. Results suggest that measures of family stress relate to supportive and nonsupportive parental responses, though many of these relations differ by parent gender. The results are discussed in terms of the 3 theoretical hypotheses, all of which are supported to some degree depending on the family stressor examined. PMID:19803603

  20. Family stress and parental responses to children's negative emotions: tests of the spillover, crossover, and compensatory hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A; O'Brien, Marion; Blankson, A Nayena; Calkins, Susan D; Keane, Susan P

    2009-10-01

    The relations between 4 sources of family stress (marital dissatisfaction, home chaos, parental depressive symptoms, and job role dissatisfaction) and the emotion socialization practice of mothers' and fathers' responses to children's negative emotions were examined. Participants included 101 couples with 7-year-old children. Dyadic analyses were conducted using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model and relations were tested in terms of the spillover, crossover, and compensatory hypotheses. Results suggest that measures of family stress relate to supportive and nonsupportive parental responses, though many of these relations differ by parent gender. The results are discussed in terms of the 3 theoretical hypotheses, all of which are supported to some degree depending on the family stressor examined.

  1. The Effects of Season of Birth on the Inflammatory Response to Psychological Stress in Hainan Island, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki Yazawa

    Full Text Available Season of birth (SOB has been investigated as one of the environmental factors that might epigenetically determine the physiology of individuals. This study investigated the role of SOB in the association between Quality of Life (QOL, a proxy of psychological stress status, and C-reactive protein (CRP concentration (i.e., inflammatory status among 1,085 adults (aged 20-57 years old in Hainan Island, China. High sensitivity CRP concentration was measured in dried blood spot samples, while the abbreviated version of the World Health Organization's QOL questionnaire was used to gather information on six QOL domains. Analysis stratified by three historically distinct age groups revealed a significant association between CRP concentration, SOB, QOL and an interaction between SOB and QOL among the youngest and oldest groups. In the oldest group, those born in the dry season had a higher CRP concentration with worse QOL whereas in the youngest group, there was a higher CRP concentration with better QOL. Annual per capita rice production, a proxy of population nutritional status in the year of birth, was found to predict CRP concentration only among the second oldest group. These findings suggest that the early environment might affect the immune response to psychological stress in adulthood and that its effect may differ by the time period in which people were born.

  2. The Effects of Season of Birth on the Inflammatory Response to Psychological Stress in Hainan Island, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazawa, Aki; Inoue, Yosuke; Stickley, Andrew; Li, Dandan; Du, Jianwei; Watanabe, Chiho

    2015-01-01

    Season of birth (SOB) has been investigated as one of the environmental factors that might epigenetically determine the physiology of individuals. This study investigated the role of SOB in the association between Quality of Life (QOL), a proxy of psychological stress status, and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration (i.e., inflammatory status) among 1,085 adults (aged 20-57 years old) in Hainan Island, China. High sensitivity CRP concentration was measured in dried blood spot samples, while the abbreviated version of the World Health Organization's QOL questionnaire was used to gather information on six QOL domains. Analysis stratified by three historically distinct age groups revealed a significant association between CRP concentration, SOB, QOL and an interaction between SOB and QOL among the youngest and oldest groups. In the oldest group, those born in the dry season had a higher CRP concentration with worse QOL whereas in the youngest group, there was a higher CRP concentration with better QOL. Annual per capita rice production, a proxy of population nutritional status in the year of birth, was found to predict CRP concentration only among the second oldest group. These findings suggest that the early environment might affect the immune response to psychological stress in adulthood and that its effect may differ by the time period in which people were born.

  3. Chinua Achebe's novel Things fall apart as a response to the negative portrayal of Africans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Babnik

    2009-12-01

    Given that Achebe’s fi rst novel, whose publication sparked an incident at Ibadan University in 1952, was in itself an act of rebellion and a form of rejoinder to the colonial representation of Africans, it is understandable that the absence of personality, historicity, and understanding are integral to his novels. Writing an »African« novel or »anti-novel« meant transcending the »objectivity« of colonial discourse and drawing into one’s consciousness the history and culture of the Igbo people (primarily from southeast Nigeria, although the description of pre-colonial society at the moment of its fi rst contact with the white man does not imply a nostalgic return to the past, as is notable for instance in the négritude movement. Th e potency of Achebe’s novel lies in the fact that by invoking Igbo culture he has turned the colonial perception of Africans as inferior on its head, although the anti-colonial dialectics are intimately bound up with his representation of the African woman. Achebe’s women are marginalized just as in Fanon’s work – the novel Th ings Fall Apart is in some ways a response to Fanon’s theoretical work Th e Wretched of the Earth. Women in Achebe’s trilogy Th ings Fall Apart, No Longer at Ease, and Arrow of God have above all a symbolic and metaphorical role, being represented as the mother of the land, whereas men are individual fi gures. Th is representation of women is linked to the fact that the fi rst two novels, which were written before the independence of Nigeria in 1960, develop the idea of the national struggle for liberation, which reaffi rms the humanity and manhood of the colonized, whereas colonialism only assigned to Africans the attributes of children or at best those of women. In Achebe’s favor, one can say that Okunkwo, as the reincarnation of the social ideal of manhood, is continually fi ghting with the basic tenet of both the preceding (i.e., his father’s and future (i.e., his son’s generation

  4. Latent classes of resilience and psychological response among only-child loss parents in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, An-Ni; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Huang, Fei-Fei; Ye, Man; Yao, Shu-Yu; Luo, Yuan-Hui; Li, Zhi-Hua; Zhang, Jie; Su, Pan

    2017-10-01

    Only-child loss parents in China recently gained extensive attention as a newly defined social group. Resilience could be a probable solution out of the psychological dilemma. Using a sample of 185 only-child loss people, this study employed latent class analysis (a) to explore whether different classes of resilience could be identified, (b) to determine socio-demographic characteristics of each class, and (c) to compare the depression and the subjective well-being of each class. The results supported a three-class solution, defined as 'high tenacity-strength but moderate optimism class', 'moderate resilience but low self-efficacy class' and 'low tenacity but moderate adaption-dependence class'. Parents with low income and medical insurance of low reimbursement type and without endowment insurance occupied more proportions in the latter two classes. The latter two classes also had a significant higher depression scores and lower subjective well-being scores than high tenacity-strength but moderate optimism class. Future work should care those socio-economically vulnerable bereaved parents, and an elastic economic assistance policy was needed. To develop targeted resilience interventions, the emphasis of high tenacity-strength but moderate optimism class should be the optimism. Moderate resilience but low self-efficacy class should be self-efficacy, and low tenacity but moderate adaption-dependence class should be tenacity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Behavioural and psychological responses of lower educated smokers to the smoke-free legislation in Dutch hospitality venues: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Heiden, Sander; Gebhardt, Winifred A; Willemsen, Marc C; Nagelhout, Gera E; Dijkstra, Arie

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, smoke-free legislation was implemented in hospitality venues (HV) in the Netherlands. We investigated how continuing smokers with a lower educational background respond behaviourally and psychologically to the legislation and the norm it communicates. In 2010, 18 lower-educated daily smokers were interviewed. Transcripts were analysed with MAXQDA software. Theories of self-awareness and social in- and exclusion were applied to interpret findings. Smokers had become more self-aware and the experience of a more negative norm surrounding smoking had made them reevaluate their smoking. Smokers had also become more self-aware of their own smoking, both in HV and in general. Feelings of increased social exclusion were reported. Participants dealt with the increased awareness and feelings of social exclusion in different ways depending on their evaluation of the smoking ban, changes in attitude towards own smoking, changes in HV patronage and changes in smoking behaviour. Theories of self-awareness and social in- and exclusion were useful in understanding consequences of a HV smoking ban on continuing smokers. Four different types of responses were identified, i.e. (1) actively trying to quit, (2) socially conscious smoking, (3) feeling victimised and (4) rejecting the norm. Implications for future smoke-free legislation are discussed.

  6. Reflections on the Jungian nature of psychology as the discipline of interiority: a response to Saban's 'Misunderstandings'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoedl, John

    2015-11-01

    Psychology as the discipline of interiority is the name of the psychology that has developed from Wolfgang Giegerich's work in the field of analytical psychology. This article offers a counterview to that of Mark Saban's claim that Giegerich's psychology is 'irrelevant' to Jungians today and is based on a fundamental misunderstanding of the nature of Jungian psychology. It will be shown that, in fact, it is a fundamental misunderstanding of Giegerich's work that has led Saban to form erroneous conclusions. Links between Jung's and Giegerich's conceptions of the 'objective psyche' will be highlighted, along with other examples of how, contrary to Saban's conclusions, psychology as the discipline of interiority has obvious connections to, and grounding in, Jungian psychology. © 2015, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  7. The effect of blood volume loss on cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure using a mathematical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, E. H.; Srinivasan, R. S.; Charles, J. B.; Fortney, S. M.

    1994-01-01

    Different mathematical models of varying complexity have been proposed in recent years to study the cardiovascular (CV) system. However, only a few of them specifically address the response to lower body negative pressure (LBNP), a stress that can be applied in weightlessness to predict changes in orthostatic tolerance. Also, the simulated results produced by these models agree only partially with experimental observations. In contrast, the model proposed by Melchior et al., and modified by Karam et al. is a simple representation of the CV system capable of accurately reproducing observed LBNP responses up to presyncopal levels. There are significant changes in LBNP response due to a loss of blood volume and other alterations that occur in weightlessness and related one-g conditions such as bedrest. A few days of bedrest can cause up to 15% blood volume loss (BVL), with consequent decreases in both stroke volume and cardiac output, and increases in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and total peripheral resistance. These changes are more pronounced at higher levels of LBNP. This paper presents the results of a simulation study using our CV model to examine the effect of BVL on LBNP response.

  8. Cognitive Defusion versus Thought Distraction: A Clinical Rationale, Training, and Experiential Exercise in Altering Psychological Impacts of Negative Self-Referential Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Akihiko; Feinstein, Amanda B.; Wendell, Johanna W.; Sheehan, Shawn T.

    2010-01-01

    Using two modes of intervention delivery, the present study compared the effects of a cognitive defusion strategy with a thought distraction strategy on the emotional discomfort and believability of negative self-referential thoughts. One mode of intervention delivery consisted of a clinical rationale and training (i.e., Partial condition). The…

  9. Mental Fatigue Alters Cortical Activation and Psychological Responses, Impairing Performance in a Distance-Based Cycling Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio O. Pires

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We sought to verify if alterations in prefrontal cortex (PFC activation and psychological responses would play along with impairments in pacing and performance of mentally fatigued cyclists.Materials and Methods: Eight recreational cyclists performed two preliminary sessions to familiarize them with the rapid visual information processing (RVP test, psychological scales and 20 km cycling time trial (TT20km (session 1, as well as to perform a VO2MAX test (session 2. Thereafter, they performed a TT20km either after a RVP test (30 min or a time-matched rest control session (session 3 and 4 in counterbalanced order. Performance and psychological responses were obtained throughout the TT20km while PFC electroencephalography (EEG was obtained at 10 and 20 km of the TT20km and throughout the RVP test. Increases in EEG theta band power indicated a mental fatigue condition. Repeated-measures mixed models design and post-hoc effect size (ES were used in comparisons.Results: Cyclists completed the trial ~2.7% slower in mental fatigue (34.3 ± 1.3 min than in control (33.4 ± 1.1 min, p = 0.02, very large ES, with a lower WMEAN (224.5 ± 17.9 W vs. 240.2 ± 20.9 W, respectively; p = 0.03; extremely large ES. There was a higher EEG theta band power during RVP test (p = 0.03; extremely large ES, which remained during the TT20km (p = 0.01; extremely large ES. RPE increased steeper in mental fatigue than in control, together with isolated reductions in motivation at 2th km (p = 0.04; extremely large ES, felt arousal at the 2nd and 4th km (p = 0.01; extremely large ES, and associative thoughts to exercise at the 6th and 16th km (p = 0.02; extremely large ES of the TT20km.Conclusions: Mentally fatigued recreational cyclists showed impaired performance, altered PFC activation and faster increase in RPE during a TT20km.

  10. Sleep disruption is related to poor response inhibition in individuals with obsessive-compulsive and repetitive negative thought symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nota, Jacob A; Schubert, Jessica R; Coles, Meredith E

    2016-03-01

    Obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms and repetitive negative thinking (RNT) are associated with poor inhibitory control. Sleep disruptions may partially mediate these relations and/or act as a "second hit" to individuals with OC symptoms and RNT. Models including habitual (past month) hours slept and bedtimes were tested. We employed a go/no-go task that allowed us to examine the relation between sleep and inhibition with various task contingencies. Sixty-seven unselected individuals were recruited from the participant pool at a public university. Bias-corrected bootstrap estimates did not show that sleep disruption mediated the relation between OC symptoms and response inhibition nor the relation between RNT and response inhibition. Multiple linear regression analyses found significant interactions between hours slept and OC symptom severity and between RNT and hours slept to predict poor response inhibition. Hours slept significantly negatively predicted commission errors when OC symptoms and RNT levels were relatively heightened but not when OC symptoms and RNT levels were relatively low. These effects were present in blocks where task contingencies were designed to shape a no-go bias. No significant relations were found with habitual bedtimes. The cross-sectional study design precludes testing the temporal precedence of symptoms in the "second hit" model. The unselected sample also limits generalization to clinical samples. These findings support a "second hit" model of interaction between sleep disruption and perseverative thoughts and behaviors. Further research on the mechanisms of the relation between sleep disruption and perseverative thought symptoms (OC and RNT) is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dyadic Power Theory, Touch, and Counseling Psychology: A Response to Smith, Vogel, Madon, and Edwards (2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Norah E.; Abra, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Smith, Vogel, Madon, and Edwards' (2011) recent article tested dyadic power theory (DPT) by examining the use of touch as a compliance-gaining tactic in the conflicts of married couples. In this response, we raise a methodological issue about the touch behaviors examined by Smith et al. and also pose a theoretical critique that their test of DPT…

  12. Translation Fidelity of Psychological Scales: An Item Response Theory Analysis of an Individualism-Collectivism Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontempo, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Describes a method for assessing the quality of translations based on item response theory (IRT). Results from the IRT technique with French and Chinese versions of a scale measuring individualism-collectivism for samples of 250 U.S., 357 French, and 290 Chinese undergraduates show how several biased items are detected. (SLD)

  13. Mediation and Moderation of Psychological Pain Treatments: Response Expectancies and Hypnotic Suggestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milling, Leonard S.; Reardon, John M.; Carosella, Gina M.

    2006-01-01

    The mediator role of response expectancies and the moderator role of hypnotic suggestibility were evaluated in the analogue treatment of pain. Approximately 1,000 participants were assessed for hypnotic suggestibility. Later, as part of a seemingly unrelated experiment, 188 of these individuals were randomly assigned to distraction,…

  14. Psychological Considerations in the Assessment and Treatment of Pain in Neurorehabilitation and Psychological Factors Predictive of Therapeutic Response: Evidence and Recommendations from the Italian Consensus Conference on Pain in Neurorehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Giusti, Emanuele M; Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Saviola, Donatella; Gatti, Arianna; Gabrielli, Samantha; Lacerenza, Marco; Pietrabissa, Giada; Cattivelli, Roberto; Spatola, Chiara A M; Corti, Stefania; Novelli, Margherita; Villa, Valentina; Cottini, Andrea; Lai, Carlo; Pagnini, Francesco; Castelli, Lorys; Tavola, Mario; Torta, Riccardo; Arreghini, Marco; Zanini, Loredana; Brunani, Amelia; Capodaglio, Paolo; D'Aniello, Guido E; Scarpina, Federica; Brioschi, Andrea; Priano, Lorenzo; Mauro, Alessandro; Riva, Giuseppe; Repetto, Claudia; Regalia, Camillo; Molinari, Enrico; Notaro, Paolo; Paolucci, Stefano; Sandrini, Giorgio; Simpson, Susan G; Wiederhold, Brenda; Tamburin, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    In order to provide effective care to patients suffering from chronic pain secondary to neurological diseases, health professionals must appraise the role of the psychosocial factors in the genesis and maintenance of this condition whilst considering how emotions and cognitions influence the course of treatment. Furthermore, it is important not only to recognize the psychological reactions to pain that are common to the various conditions, but also to evaluate how these syndromes differ with regards to the psychological factors that may be involved. As an extensive evaluation of these factors is still lacking, the Italian Consensus Conference on Pain in Neurorehabilitation (ICCPN) aimed to collate the evidence available across these topics. To determine the psychological factors which are associated with or predictive of pain secondary to neurological conditions and to assess the influence of these aspects on the outcome of neurorehabilitation. Two reviews were performed. In the first, a PUBMED search of the studies assessing the association between psychological factors and pain or the predictive value of these aspects with respect to chronic pain was conducted. The included papers were then rated with regards to their methodological quality and recommendations were made accordingly. In the second study, the same methodology was used to collect the available evidence on the predictive role of psychological factors on the therapeutic response to pain treatments in the setting of neurorehabilitation. The first literature search identified 1170 results and the final database included 189 articles. Factors such as depression, anxiety, pain catastrophizing, coping strategies, and cognitive functions were found to be associated with pain across the various conditions. However, there are differences between chronic musculoskeletal pain, migraine, neuropathy, and conditions associated with complex disability with regards to the psychological aspects that are involved. The

  15. Examining the role of emotion in suicidality: negative urgency as an amplifier of the relationship between components of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior and lifetime number of suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestis, Michael D; Joiner, Thomas E

    2011-03-01

    Joiner's (2005) interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior posits that an individual must exhibit elevations on three variables--perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and the acquired capability for suicide--in order to enact lethal self-harm. Thus far, however, no research has examined the role of emotion in this process or whether the interaction of these three variables is more problematic for certain populations than for others. We sought to address these voids by examining the role of negative urgency as an amplifier of the relationship between the components of the theory and lifetime number of suicide attempts. Results indicated that the four-way interaction of negative urgency and the three components of the theory predicted lifetime number of suicide attempts, controlling for depression symptoms and sex. Additionally, the three-way interaction of the theory components significantly predicted lifetime number of suicide attempts in the full sample. Furthermore, for individuals with negative urgency scores at or above the median, the three-way interaction of the theory components significantly predicted lifetime number of suicide attempts whereas, for individuals with negative urgency scores below the median, the interaction was non-significant. These findings indicate that, although elevations on the three components of the theory may be dangerous for anyone, this is particularly true for individuals exhibiting high levels of negative urgency, as they might be more likely to quickly develop suicidal ideation and resort to painful self-harming behaviors while experiencing negative affective states. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Psychological stress exerts effects on pathogenesis of hepatitis B via type-1/type-2 cytokines shift toward type-2 cytokine response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YingLi He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychological and physical stress has been demonstrated to have an impact on health through modulation of immune function. Despite high prevalence of stress among patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV infection, little is known about whether and how stress exerts an effect on the course of hepatitis B. METHODS: Eighty patients with chronic hepatitis B(CHB completed the Perceived Stress Scale-10(PSS-10 and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory(STAI. Fresh whole blood was subject to flow cytometry for lymphocytes count. Plasma samples frozen at -80 °C were thawed for cytokines, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and virus load. These patients were grouped into high or low perceived stress, state anxiety and trait anxiety groups according to the scale score. Sociodemographic, disease-specific characteristics, lymphocytes count and cytokines were compared. RESULTS: Firstly, a negative association between ALT and stress (t =  -4.308; p =  .000, state anxiety (t =  -3.085; p =  .003 and trait anxiety (t =  -4.925; p =  .000 were found. As ALT is a surrogate marker of hepatocytes injury, and liver injury is a consequence of immune responses. Next, we tested the relationship between stress/anxiety and lymphocytes. No statistical significance were found with respect to counts of total T cells, CD4+ T cell, CD8+ T cell, NK cell, and B cell count between high and low stress group. Type-2 cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10 level was significantly higher in high stress group relative to lower counterpart (t = 6.538; p = 0.000, and type-1 cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-γ level shown a decreased tendency in high stress group (t =  -1.702; p = 0.093. Finally, INF-γ:IL-10 ratio displayed significant decrease in high perceived stress(t =  -4.606; p = 0.000, state anxiety(t =  -5.126; p = 0.000 and trait anxiety(t =  -4.670; p = 0.000 groups relative to low counterparts. CONCLUSION: Our data show stress is not related to the lymphocyte cells

  17. A non-linear association between self-reported negative emotional response to stress and subsequent allostatic load: prospective results from the Whitehall II cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dich, Nadya; Doan, Stacey N; Kivimäki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2014-11-01

    Previous research suggests that high levels of negative emotions may affect health. However, it is likely that the absence of an emotional response following stressful events may also be problematic. Accordingly, we investigated whether a non-linear association exists between negative emotional response to major life events and allostatic load, a multisystem indicator of physiological dysregulation. Study sample was 6764 British civil service workers from the Whitehall II cohort. Negative emotional response was assessed by self-report at baseline. Allostatic load was calculated using cardiovascular, metabolic and immune function biomarkers at three clinical follow-up examinations. A non-linear association between negative emotional response and allostatic load was observed: being at either extreme end of the distribution of negative emotional response increased the risk of physiological dysregulation. Allostatic load also increased with age, but the association between negative emotional response and allostatic load remained stable over time. These results provide evidence for a more nuanced understanding of the role of negative emotions in long-term physical health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The IDA-LIKE peptides IDL6 and IDL7 are negative modulators of stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vie, Ane Kjersti; Najafi, Javad; Winge, Per; Cattan, Ester; Wrzaczek, Michael; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko; Miller, Gad; Brembu, Tore; Bones, Atle M

    2017-06-15

    Small signalling peptides have emerged as important cell to cell messengers in plant development and stress responses. However, only a few of the predicted peptides have been functionally characterized. Here, we present functional characterization of two members of the IDA-LIKE (IDL) peptide family in Arabidopsis thaliana, IDL6 and IDL7. Localization studies suggest that the peptides require a signal peptide and C-terminal processing to be correctly transported out of the cell. Both IDL6 and IDL7 appear to be unstable transcripts under post-transcriptional regulation. Treatment of plants with synthetic IDL6 and IDL7 peptides resulted in down-regulation of a broad range of stress-responsive genes, including early stress-responsive transcripts, dominated by a large group of ZINC FINGER PROTEIN (ZFP) genes, WRKY genes, and genes encoding calcium-dependent proteins. IDL7 expression was rapidly induced by hydrogen peroxide, and idl7 and idl6 idl7 double mutants displayed reduced cell death upon exposure to extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Co-treatment of the bacterial elicitor flg22 with IDL7 peptide attenuated the rapid ROS burst induced by treatment with flg22 alone. Taken together, our results suggest that IDL7, and possibly IDL6, act as negative modulators of stress-induced ROS signalling in Arabidopsis. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  19. SNT-2 interacts with ERK2 and negatively regulates ERK2 signaling in response to EGF stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Lin; Gotoh, Noriko; Zhang Shengliang; Shibuya, Masabumi; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Tsuchida, Nobuo

    2004-01-01

    The control of cellular responses with fibroblast growth factors and neurotrophins is mediated through membrane-linked docking proteins, SNT (suc1-binding neurotrophic target)-1/FRS2α and SNT-2/FRS2β. ERK1/2 are members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family that regulate diverse cellular activities in response to various stimuli. Here, we demonstrate that SNT-2 does not become tyrosine phosphorylated significantly in response to EGF but forms a complex with ERK2 via the region of 186-252 amino acid residues, and the complex formation is enhanced upon EGF stimulation. SNT-2 downregulates ERK2 phosphorylation, suppresses and delays ERK2 nuclear accumulation which occurs following EGF stimulation. In contrast, the mutant SNT-2 which carries deletion of 186-252 amino acids and lacks ERK2 binding does not have these effects. These observations suggest that SNT-2 negatively regulates ERK2 signaling activated via EGF stimulation through direct binding to ERK2

  20. Psychological Stress and the Cutaneous Immune Response: Roles of the HPA Axis and the Sympathetic Nervous System in Atopic Dermatitis and Psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M. F. Hall

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological stress, an evolutionary adaptation to the fight-or-flight response, triggers a number of physiological responses that can be deleterious under some circumstances. Stress signals activate the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis and the sympathetic nervous system. Elements derived from those systems (e.g., cortisol, catecholamines and neuropeptides can impact the immune system and possible disease states. Skin provides a first line of defense against many environmental insults. A number of investigations have indicated that the skin is especially sensitive to psychological stress, and experimental evidence shows that the cutaneous innate and adaptive immune systems are affected by stressors. For example, psychological stress has been shown to reduce recovery time of the stratum corneum barrier after its removal (innate immunity and alters antigen presentation by epidermal Langerhans cells (adaptive immunity. Moreover, psychological stress may trigger or exacerbate immune mediated dermatological disorders. Understanding how the activity of the psyche-nervous -immune system axis impinges on skin diseases may facilitate coordinated treatment strategies between dermatologists and psychiatrists. Herein, we will review the roles of the HPA axis and the sympathetic nervous system on the cutaneous immune response. We will selectively highlight how the interplay between psychological stress and the immune system affects atopic dermatitis and psoriasis.

  1. Attributions of blame and responsibility in sexual harassment: reexamining a psychological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Kristen M; Apple, Kevin J; Kahn, Arnold S

    2011-04-01

    Kelley's (Nebr Symp Motiv 15:192-238, 1967) attribution theory can inform sexual harassment research by identifying how observers use consensus, consistency, and distinctiveness information in determining whether a target or perpetrator is responsible for a sexual harassment situation. In this study, Kelley's theory is applied to a scenario in which a male perpetrator sexually harasses a female target in a university setting. Results from 314 predominantly female college students indicate that consistency and consensus information significantly affect participants' judgments of blame and responsibility for the situation. The authors discuss the importance of the reference groups used to derive consensus and distinctiveness information, and reintroduce Kelley's attribution theory as a means of understanding observers' perceptions of sexual harassment.

  2. Can decision-making skills affect responses to psychological stress in healthy women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Ruiz, Ana; Garcia-Rios, M Carmen; Fernandez-Sanchez, José Carlos; Perez-Garcia, Miguel; Muñoz-García, Miguel Angel; Peralta-Ramirez, Maria Isabel

    2012-12-01

    In recent studies showing how stress can affect an individual's decision-making process, the cognitive component of decision-making could also be considered a coping resource available to individuals when faced with a stressful situation. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) constitutes the standard test for the assessment of decision-making skills under conditions of uncertainty. Responses of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to psychosocial stress, in turn, have been estimated by means of cortisol measurements. Our main objective in this study was to test if good and bad IGT performers show distinct HPA axis responses, when challenged in a classic psychosocial stress test. Because women have been shown to outperform men on the IGT under the influence of psychosocial stress, we chose a sample of 40 women to take the IGT before they were exposed to a public speaking task in a virtual environment. The activation of the HPA axis, involved in the stress response, was assessed by examining the levels of cortisol in the subjects' saliva at the following four stages: before the challenge, after the challenge, and 10 and 20 min after the task. Participants were divided into two groups according to their level of performance, good or poor, on the IGT. Results showed statistically significant differences between the groups for pre-exposure cortisol levels and for cortisol levels 20 min after exposure. Overall cortisol levels were significantly higher in the group with poor performance on the IGT. It appears that good decision-making, which may be an important resource for coping with stress, is associated with a lower HPA axis response to a psychosocial stressor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Initial psychological responses to Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neto Felix

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The outbreak of the pandemic flu, Influenza A H1N1 (Swine Flu in early 2009, provided a major challenge to health services around the world. Previous pandemics have led to stockpiling of goods, the victimisation of particular population groups, and the cancellation of travel and the boycotting of particular foods (e.g. pork. We examined initial behavioural and attitudinal responses towards Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu" in the six days following the WHO pandemic alert level 5, and regional differences in these responses. Methods 328 respondents completed a cross-sectional Internet or paper-based questionnaire study in Malaysia (N = 180 or Europe (N = 148. Measures assessed changes in transport usage, purchase of preparatory goods for a pandemic, perceived risk groups, indicators of anxiety, assessed estimated mortality rates for seasonal flu, effectiveness of seasonal flu vaccination, and changes in pork consumption Results 26% of the respondents were 'very concerned' about being a flu victim (42% Malaysians, 5% Europeans, p Conclusion Initial responses to Influenza A show large regional differences in anxiety, with Malaysians more anxious and more likely to reduce travel and to buy masks and food. Discussions with family and friends may reinforce existing anxiety levels. Particular groups (homosexuals, prostitutes, the homeless are perceived as at greater risk, potentially leading to increased prejudice during a pandemic. Europeans underestimated mortality of seasonal flu, and require more information about the protection given by seasonal flu inoculation.

  4. Time course of physiological and psychological responses in humans during a 20-day severe-cold-acclimation programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Brazaitis

    Full Text Available The time course of physiological and psychological markers during cold acclimation (CA was explored. The experiment included 17 controlled (i.e., until the rectal temperature reached 35.5°C or 170 min had elapsed; for the CA-17 session, the subjects (n = 14 were immersed in water for the same amount of time as that used in the CA-1 session head-out water immersions at a temperature of 14°C over 20 days. The data obtained in this study suggest that the subjects exhibited a thermoregulatory shift from peripheral-to-central to solely central input thermoregulation, as well as from shivering to non-shivering thermogenesis throughout the CA. In the first six CA sessions, a hypothermic type of acclimation was found; further CA (CA-7 to CA-16 led to a transitional shift to a hypothermic-insulative type of acclimation. Interestingly, when the subjects were immersed in water for the same time as that used in the CA-1 session (CA-17, the CA led to a hypothermic type of acclimation. The presence of a metabolic type of thermogenesis was evident only under thermoneutral conditions. Cold-water immersion decreased the concentration of cold-stress markers, reduced the activity of the innate immune system, suppressed specific immunity to a lesser degree and yielded less discomfort and cold sensation. We found a negative correlation between body mass index and Δ metabolic heat production before and after CA.

  5. Development and Pilot Trial of an Intervention to Reduce Disclosure Recipients Negative Social Reactions and Victims Psychological Distress and Problem Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-06

    Social Skills; Self-Criticism; Post-traumatic Stress Disorder; Depression; Alcohol Abuse; Drinking, College; Alcohol Drinking; Alcohol; Harmful Use; Social Stigma; Social Norms; Social Responsibility; Social Behavior; Empathy; Coping Skills; Coping Behavior

  6. Significance of psychological stress response and health-related quality of life in spouses of cancer patients when given bad news

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyoko Kugimoto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study illuminates the degree of psychological stress response experienced by spouses of cancer patients when given bad news at three different times (notification of the name of the disease, notification of recurrence, and notification of terminality as well as the factors that influence the response and the health status of the spouse as measured by health-related quality of life (QOL. Methods: A total of 203 individuals (57 men and 146 women who had received the three types of news were surveyed using a self-report questionnaire on psychological stress response, marital satisfaction, and health-related QOL scales. Results: The degree of the psychological stress response was the highest for notification of terminality, followed by notification of the name of the disease, and notification of recurrence. The influencing factors varied depending on the notification period. Although no significant difference was observed for health-related QOL among the three notification types, significant differences were observed for certain items when compared with national standard values. Conclusions: When a notification of terminality, which produced the highest psychological stress response, is given, providing care that considers health-related QOL is necessary not only for patients but also for their spouses.

  7. SALT-RESPONSIVE ERF1 is a negative regulator of grain filling and gibberellin-mediated seedling establishment in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Romy; Schippers, Jos H M; Mieulet, Delphine; Watanabe, Mutsumi; Hoefgen, Rainer; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2014-02-01

    Grain quality is an important agricultural trait that is mainly determined by grain size and composition. Here, we characterize the role of the rice transcription factor (TF) SALT-RESPONSIVE ERF1 (SERF1) during grain development. Through genome-wide expression profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation, we found that SERF1 directly regulates RICE PROLAMIN-BOX BINDING FACTOR (RPBF), a TF that functions as a positive regulator of grain filling. Loss of SERF1 enhances RPBF expression resulting in larger grains with increased starch content, while SERF1 overexpression represses RPBF resulting in smaller grains. Consistently, during grain filling, starch biosynthesis genes such as GRANULE-BOUND STARCH SYNTHASEI (GBSSI), STARCH SYNTHASEI (SSI), SSIIIa, and ADP-GLUCOSE PYROPHOSPHORYLASE LARGE SUBUNIT2 (AGPL2) are up-regulated in SERF1 knockout grains. Moreover, SERF1 is a direct upstream regulator of GBSSI. In addition, SERF1 negatively regulates germination by controlling RPBF expression, which mediates the gibberellic acid (GA)-induced expression of RICE AMYLASE1A (RAmy1A). Loss of SERF1 results in more rapid seedling establishment, while SERF1 overexpression has the opposite effect. Our study reveals that SERF1 represents a negative regulator of grain filling and seedling establishment by timing the expression of RPBF.

  8. Response and binding elements for ligand-dependent positive transcription factors integrate positive and negative regulation of gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenfeld, M.G.; Glass, C.K.; Adler, S.; Crenshaw, E.B. III; He, X.; Lira, S.A.; Elsholtz, H.P.; Mangalam, H.J.; Holloway, J.M.; Nelson, C.; Albert, V.R.; Ingraham, H.A.

    1988-01-01

    Accurate, regulated initiation of mRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II is dependent on the actions of a variety of positive and negative trans-acting factors that bind cis-acting promoter and enhancer elements. These transcription factors may exert their actions in a tissue-specific manner or function under control of plasma membrane or intracellular ligand-dependent receptors. A major goal in the authors' laboratory has been to identify the molecular mechanisms responsible for the serial activation of hormone-encoding genes in the pituitary during development and the positive and negative regulation of their transcription. The anterior pituitary gland contains phenotypically distinct cell types, each of which expresses unique trophic hormones: adrenocorticotropic hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, growth hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone. The structurally related prolactin and growth hormone genes are expressed in lactotrophs and somatotrophs, respectively, with their expression virtually limited to the pituitary gland. The reported transient coexpression of these two structurally related neuroendocrine genes raises the possibility that the prolactin and growth hormone genes are developmentally controlled by a common factor(s)

  9. Environmental stewardship and corporate social responsibility: Implication for consumers’ resistance to negative information. The case of apple in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Larbi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There are several studies that have investigated the effect of corporate social responsibility (CSR on consumer behavior. However, these studies demonstrate conflicting results on how CSR influences consumer purchasing behavior and retention; for example, in event of negative information about a firm. Therefore, the effectiveness of CSR in advancing the core business of firms remains unresolved. This research uses a qualitative approach to examine how CSR affords firms greater levels of goodwill with consumers. The study focuses on the case of Apple in China. Both primary and secondary data were collected through interviews, review of literature, newspaper reports, blogs, social media, and official websites of institutions and corporate entities. A deductive analytical approach was used to examine how consumers perceive CSR, and how that impacts on their attitude towards a firm when confronted with negative information. The study found low level of awareness of CSR in consumers. Moreover, the findings demonstrate that consumers tend to attach more importance to CSR when they identify with the problems associated with the actions or inactions of a firm. The study shows that firms can only enjoy the full benefits of CSR by creating public awareness of such endeavours

  10. Plasmon response of a metal-semiconductor multilayer 4π-spiral as a negative-index metamaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadivand, Arash, E-mail: aahma011@fiu.edu; Pala, Nezih [Florida International University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (United States)

    2014-12-15

    In this study, we investigate the optical response and plasmonic features of a multilayer 4π-spiral composed of metal-semiconductor arms, numerically, by employing a finite-difference time-domain method. We verified that the proposed structure is able to support strong plasmon and Fano resonances in the circular arms. We showed that the negative polarizability of the spiral provides an opportunity to consider the examined 4π-spiral structure as a meta-atom. Quantifying the effective refractive index of the structure for the presence of various semiconductor substances such as Si, GaP, and InP, we obtained the highest possible value for the associated figure of merit (FOM). Ultimately, for a finite spiral structure with a compositional and multilayer arrangement of Au and GaP arms, the FOM is determined as approximately ∼62.3.

  11. Individual differences in response to positive and negative stimuli: endocannabinoid-based insight on approach and avoidance behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela eLaricchiuta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Approach and avoidance behaviors - the primary responses to the environmental stimuli of danger, novelty and reward - are associated with the brain structures that mediate cognitive functionality, reward sensitivity and emotional expression. Individual differences in approach and avoidance behaviors are modulated by the functioning of amygdaloid-hypothalamic-striatal and striatal-cerebellar networks implicated in action and reaction to salient stimuli. The nodes of these networks are strongly interconnected and by acting on them the endocannabinoid and dopaminergic systems increase the intensity of appetitive or defensive motivation. This review analyzes the approach and avoidance behaviors in humans and rodents, addresses neurobiological and neurochemical aspects of these behaviors, and proposes a possible synaptic plasticity mechanism, related to endocannabinoid-dependent long-term potentiation and depression that allows responding to salient positive and negative stimuli.

  12. Stigma and self-esteem across societies: avoiding blanket psychological responses to gay men experiencing homophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervoulis, Karyofyllis; Lyons, Evanthia; Dinos, Sokratis

    2015-08-01

    Aims and method The relationship between homophobia (varying from actual and perceived to internalised) and measures of well-being is well documented. A study in Athens, Greece and London, UK attempted to examine this relationship in two cities with potentially different levels of homophobia. One-hundred and eighty-eight men who have sex with men (MSM) living in London and 173 MSM living in Athens completed a survey investigating their views on their sexuality, perceptions of local homophobia and their identity evaluation in terms of global self-esteem. Results The results confirmed a negative association between homophobia and self-esteem within each city sample. However, Athens MSM, despite perceiving significantly higher levels of local homophobia than London MSM, did not differ on most indicators of internalised homophobia and scored higher on global self-esteem than London MSM. The city context had a significant impact on the relationship. Clinical implications The findings are discussed in relation to the implications they pose for mental health professionals dealing with MSM from communities experiencing variable societal stigmatisation and its effect on a positive sense of self.

  13. Using high-level construal and perceptions of changeability to promote self-change over self-protection motives in response to negative feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belding, Jennifer N; Naufel, Karen Z; Fujita, Kentaro

    2015-06-01

    Diagnostic negative information presents people with a motivational dilemma. Although negative feedback can provide useful information with which to guide future self-improvement efforts, it also presents short-term affective costs. We propose that construal level, jointly with the perceived changeability of the feedback domain, determines whether people choose to accept or dismiss such information. Whereas low-level construal promotes short-term self-protection motivation (promoting dismissal), high-level construal promotes long-term self-change motivation (promoting acceptance)--to the extent that change is perceived as possible. Four studies support this hypothesis and examine underlying cognitive and motivational mechanisms. The present work may provide an integrative theoretical framework for understanding when people will be open to and accept negative diagnostic information, and has important practical implications for promoting self-change efforts. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  14. Early growth response-1 negative feedback regulates skeletal muscle postprandial insulin sensitivity via activating Ptp1b transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Tao, Wei-Wei; Chong, Dan-Yang; Lai, Shan-Shan; Wang, Chuang; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Tong-Yu; Xue, Bin; Li, Chao-Jun

    2018-03-15

    Postprandial insulin desensitization plays a critical role in maintaining whole-body glucose homeostasis by avoiding the excessive absorption of blood glucose; however, the detailed mechanisms that underlie how the major player, skeletal muscle, desensitizes insulin action remain to be elucidated. Herein, we report that early growth response gene-1 ( Egr-1) is activated by insulin in skeletal muscle and provides feedback inhibition that regulates insulin sensitivity after a meal. The inhibition of the transcriptional activity of Egr-1 enhanced the phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (InsR) and Akt, thus increasing glucose uptake in L6 myotubes after insulin stimulation, whereas overexpression of Egr-1 decreased insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, deletion of Egr-1 in the skeletal muscle improved systemic insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, which resulted in lower blood glucose levels after refeeding. Mechanistic analysis demonstrated that EGR-1 inhibited InsR phosphorylation and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle by binding to the proximal promoter region of protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) and directly activating transcription. PTP1B knockdown largely restored insulin sensitivity and enhanced glucose uptake, even under conditions of EGR-1 overexpression. Our results indicate that EGR-1/PTP1B signaling negatively regulates postprandial insulin sensitivity and suggest a potential therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of excessive glucose absorption.-Wu, J., Tao, W.-W., Chong, D.-Y., Lai, S.-S., Wang, C., Liu, Q., Zhang, T.-Y., Xue, B., Li, C.-J. Early growth response-1 negative feedback regulates skeletal muscle postprandial insulin sensitivity via activating Ptp1b transcription.

  15. Effect of suspension systems on the physiological and psychological responses to sub-maximal biking on simulated smoothand bumpy tracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titlestad, John; Fairlie-Clarke, Tony; Whittaker, Arthur; Davie, Mark; Watt, Ian; Grant, Stanley

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the physiological and psychological responses of cyclists riding on a hard tail bicycle and on a full suspension bicycle. Twenty males participated in two series of tests. A test rig held the front axle of the bicycle steady while the rear wheel rotated against a heavy roller with bumps (or no bumps) on its surface. In the first series of tests, eight participants (age 19-27 years, body mass 65-82 kg) were tested on both the full suspension and hard tail bicycles with and without bumps fitted to the roller. The second series of test repeated the bump tests with a further six participants (age 22-31 years, body mass 74-94 kg) and also involved an investigation of familiarization effects with the final six participants (age 21-30 years, body mass 64-80 kg). Heart rate, oxygen consumption (VO(2)), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and comfort were recorded during 10 min sub-maximal tests. Combined data for the bumps tests show that the full suspension bicycle was significantly different (P < 0.001) from the hard tail bicycle on all four measures. Oxygen consumption, heart rate and RPE were lower on average by 8.7 (s = 3.6) ml . kg(-1) . min(-1), 32.1 (s = 12.1) beats . min(-1) and 2.6 (s = 2.0) units, respectively. Comfort scores were higher (better) on average by 1.9 (s = 0.8) units. For the no bumps tests, the only statistically significant difference (P = 0.008) was in VO(2), which was lower for the hard tail bicycle by 2.2 (s = 1.7) ml . kg(-1) . min(-1). The results indicate that the full suspension bicycle provides a physiological and psychological advantage over the hard tail bicycle during simulated sub-maximal exercise on bumps.

  16. Integration of white matter network is associated with interindividual differences in psychologically mediated placebo response in migraine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jixin; Ma, Shaohui; Mu, Junya; Chen, Tao; Xu, Qing; Dun, Wanghuan; Tian, Jie; Zhang, Ming

    2017-10-01

    Individual differences of brain changes of neural communication and integration in the modular architecture of the human brain network exist for the repeated migraine attack and physical or psychological stressors. However, whether the interindividual variability in the migraine brain connectome predicts placebo response to placebo treatment is still unclear. Using DTI and graph theory approaches, we systematically investigated the topological organization of white matter networks in 71 patients with migraine without aura (MO) and 50 matched healthy controls at three levels: global network measure, nodal efficiency, and nodal intramodule/intermodule efficiency. All patients participated in an 8-week sham acupuncture treatment to induce analgesia. In our results, 30% (n = 21) of patients had 50% change in migraine days from baseline after placebo treatment. At baseline, abnormal increased network integration was found in MO patients as compared with the HC group, and the increased global efficiency before starting clinical treatment was associated with their following placebo response. For nodal efficiency, significantly increased within-subnetwork nodal efficiency and intersubnetwork connectivity of the hippocampus and middle frontal gyrus in patients' white matter network were correlated with the responses of follow-up placebo treatment. Our findings suggested that the trait-like individual differences in pain-related maladaptive stress interfered with and diminished the capacity of chronic pain modulation differently, and the placebo response for treatment could be predicted from a prior white matter network modular structure in migraineurs. Hum Brain Mapp 38:5250-5259, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Tomato NAC transcription factor SlSRN1 positively regulates defense response against biotic stress but negatively regulates abiotic stress response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liu

    Full Text Available Biotic and abiotic stresses are major unfavorable factors that affect crop productivity worldwide. NAC proteins comprise a large family of transcription factors that play important roles in plant growth and development as well as in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In a virus-induced gene silencing-based screening to identify genes that are involved in defense response against Botrytis cinerea, we identified a tomato NAC gene SlSRN1 (Solanum lycopersicum Stress-related NAC1. SlSRN1 is a plasma membrane-localized protein with transactivation activity in yeast. Expression of SlSRN1 was significantly induced by infection with B. cinerea or Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst DC3000, leading to 6-8 folds higher than that in the mock-inoculated plants. Expression of SlSRN1 was also induced by salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and by drought stress. Silencing of SlSRN1 resulted in increased severity of diseases caused by B. cinerea and Pst DC3000. However, silencing of SlSRN1 resulted in increased tolerance against oxidative and drought stresses. Furthermore, silencing of SlSRN1 accelerated accumulation of reactive oxygen species but attenuated expression of defense genes after infection by B. cinerea. Our results demonstrate that SlSRN1 is a positive regulator of defense response against B. cinerea and Pst DC3000 but is a negative regulator for oxidative and drought stress response in tomato.

  18. Negative and positive participant responses to the composite international diagnostic interview - Results of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, R. de; Have, M.L. ten; Dorsselaer, S.A.F.M. van; Schoemaker, C.G.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the emotional responses of participants in community surveys to standardised psychiatric interviews like the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). This study investigates the proportion of subjects responding negatively or positively to the CIDI, and identifies

  19. Physiological and psychological responses of humans to the index of greenness of an interior space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji-Young; Park, Sin-Ae; Jung, Soo-Jin; Lee, Ji-Young; Son, Ki-Cheol; An, Youn-Joo; Lee, Sang-Woo

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the optimal index of greenness in terms of psychophysiological responses and subjective preference. We recruited 103 adult (51 male, 52 female) participants, who were examined individually in an interior space (lab) setting at Konkuk University, Seoul, South Korea. Participants observed plants in the space for 3min per experimental index of greenness (5%, 20%, 50%, and 80%). During this period, heart rate variability (HRV) and electroencephalographic (EEG) physiological responses were measured, and the participant's preference for index of greenness and subjective index of greenness was determined via surveys. HRV values were normal, and not significantly different, except that male participants showed higher mean variability between cardiac NN intervals and greater autonomic activity than female participants (P<0.05). EEG data were not significantly different, except that female participants had a significantly higher mean amplitude at the left occipital (O1) electrode than male participants (P<0.01). Subjectively, participants preferred the 50% index of greenness the most, though they consistently reported the subjective index of greenness to be ∼15% higher than the actual level. We conclude that given a limited interior space, even a small amount of greenery may exert a relaxing effect on people. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Behavioural, physiological and psychological responses of passengers to the thermal environment of boarding a flight in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuxin; Liu, Hong; Li, Baizhan; Cheng, Yong; Mmereki, Daniel; Kong, Deyu

    2018-06-01

    In practice, passengers actively respond to the thermal environment when they board an aircraft in winter, which is not considered in the current standards. In this study, the behavioural, physiological and psychological responses to the thermal environment were examined at 22 °C (with 68 subjects), 20 °C and 26 °C (with 32 subjects). The results showed that the three air temperature levels had significant effect on nozzle usage and clothing adjustment behaviours, surface skin temperature, and thermal sensation vote (TSV). The walking/waiting states prior to boarding the aircraft cabin had a significant effect on the proportion of jacket removal, TSV and thermal comfort vote. After 10 min in the aircraft cabin, the subjects maintained their comfort in a wider range of the thermal environment when the behavioural adjustments existed compared to when they did not. Thus, a suggestion was made for behavioural adjustments to be provided in aircraft cabins. Practitioner Summary: Experimental investigation of human responses was conducted in an aircraft cabin. Analysis showed that the subjects maintained their comfort in a wider range of the thermal environment when the behavioural adjustments existed compared to when they did not. Thus, a suggestion was made for behavioural adjustments to be provided in aircraft cabins.

  1. Sex-specific effects of mindfulness on romantic partners' cortisol responses to conflict and relations with psychological adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie; Laurent, Sean; Hertz, Robin; Egan-Wright, Dorianne; Granger, Douglas A

    2013-12-01

    Mindfulness is known to improve individuals' and couples' subjective stress regulation, but little is known about how it impacts hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to acute psychosocial stress. The current study tested effects of dispositional mindfulness facets on young adult couples' cortisol responses to a conflict discussion stressor, as well as associations with psychological adjustment. One hundred heterosexual couples completed the five facet mindfulness questionnaire one week before engaging in a conflict discussion task. Each partner provided five saliva samples from pre- to post-conflict, which were assayed for cortisol. Measures of adjustment - depression and anxiety symptoms and global well-being - were also completed at this session. Hierarchical linear modeling of cortisol trajectories revealed sex-specific effects; whereas women's mindfulness (nonreactivity facet) predicted higher conflict stress cortisol levels, men's mindfulness (describing facet) predicted less pronounced cortisol reactivity/recovery curves. These patterns were related to better adjustment-lower depression symptoms for women and greater well-being for men. Implications for sex differences in mindfulness benefits are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of psychological stress test on the cardiac response of public safety workers: alternative parameters to autonomic balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Franco, M. R.; Vargas-Luna, F. M.; Delgadillo-Holtfort, I.

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that public safety workers (PSW) face many stressful situations that yield them as high-risk population for suffering chronic stress diseases. In this multidisciplinary research the cardiac response to induced psychological stress by a short duration Stroop test was evaluated in 20 female and 19 male PSW, in order to compare traditionally used cardiac response parameters with alternative ones. Electrocardiograms have been recorded using the Eindhoven electrodes configuration for 1 min before, 3 min during and 1 min after the test. Signals analysis has been performed for the heart rate and the power spectra of its variability and of the variability of the amplitude of the R-wave, i.e. the highest peak of the electrocardiographic signal periodic sequence. The results demonstrated that the traditional autonomic balance index shows no significant differences between stages. In contrast, the median of the area of the power spectrum of the R-wave amplitude variability in the frequency region dominated by the autonomous nervous system (0.04-to-0.4 Hz) is the more sensitive parameter. Moreover, this parameter allows to identify gender differences consistent with those encountered in other studies.

  3. Effects of psychological stress test on the cardiac response of public safety workers: alternative parameters to autonomic balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerta-Franco, M R; Vargas-Luna, F M; Delgadillo-Holtfort, I

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that public safety workers (PSW) face many stressful situations that yield them as high-risk population for suffering chronic stress diseases. In this multidisciplinary research the cardiac response to induced psychological stress by a short duration Stroop test was evaluated in 20 female and 19 male PSW, in order to compare traditionally used cardiac response parameters with alternative ones. Electrocardiograms have been recorded using the Eindhoven electrodes configuration for 1 min before, 3 min during and 1 min after the test. Signals analysis has been performed for the heart rate and the power spectra of its variability and of the variability of the amplitude of the R-wave, i.e. the highest peak of the electrocardiographic signal periodic sequence. The results demonstrated that the traditional autonomic balance index shows no significant differences between stages. In contrast, the median of the area of the power spectrum of the R-wave amplitude variability in the frequency region dominated by the autonomous nervous system (0.04-to-0.4 Hz) is the more sensitive parameter. Moreover, this parameter allows to identify gender differences consistent with those encountered in other studies

  4. Psychological considerations in the assessment and treatment of pain in neurorehabilitation and psychological factors predictive of therapeutic response: evidence and recommendations from the Italian Consensus Conference on Pain in Neurorehabilitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca eCastelnuovo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn order to provide effective care to patients suffering from chronic pain secondary to neurological diseases, health professionals must appraise the role of the psychosocial factors in the genesis and maintenance of this condition whilst considering how emotions and cognitions influence the course of treatment. Furthermore, it is important not only to recognize the psychological reactions to pain that are common to the various conditions, but also to evaluate how these syndromes differ with regards to the psychological factors that may be involved. As an extensive evaluation of these factors is still lacking, the Italian Consensus Conference on Pain in Neurorehabilitation aimed to collate the evidence available across these topics. ObjectivesTo determine the psychological factors which are associated with or predictive of pain secondary to neurological conditions and to assess the influence of these aspects on the outcome of neurorehabilitation. MethodsTwo reviews were performed. In the first, a PUBMED search of the studies assessing the association between psychological factors and pain or the predictive value of these aspects with respect to chronic pain was conducted. The included papers were then rated with regards to their methodological quality and recommendations were made accordingly. In the second study, the same methodology was used to collect the available evidence on the predictive role of psychological factors on the therapeutic response to pain treatments in the setting of neurorehabilitation.ResultsThe first literature search identified 1170 results and the final database included 189 articles. Factors such as depression, anxiety, pain catastrophizing, coping strategies and cognitive functions were found to be associated with pain across the various conditions. However, there are differences between chronic musculoskeletal pain, migraine, neuropathy and conditions associated with complex disability with regards to the

  5. A Historical Overview and Contemporary Expansion of Psychological Theories of Determinism, Probabilistic Causality, Indeterminate Free Will, and Moral and Legal Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Duffy; Ratheal, Juli D'Ann

    2009-01-01

    The authors provide a historical overview of the development of contemporary theories of counseling and psychology in relation to determinism, probabilistic causality, indeterminate free will, and moral and legal responsibility. They propose a unique model of behavioral causality that incorporates a theory of indeterminate free will, a concept…

  6. Negative rebound and disinvestment effects in response to an improvement in energy efficiency in the UK economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Karen

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses a computable general equilibrium (CGE) framework to investigate the conditions under which rebound effects may occur in response to increases in energy efficiency in the UK national economy. Previous work for the UK has suggested that rebound effects will occur even where key elasticities of substitution in production are set close to zero. The research reported in this paper involves carrying out a systematic sensitivity analysis, where relative price sensitivity is gradually introduced into the system, focusing specifically on elasticities of substitution in production and trade parameters, in order to determine conditions under which rebound effects become a likely outcome. The main result is that, while there is positive pressure for rebound effects even where (direct and indirect) demands for energy are very price inelastic, this may be partially or wholly offset by negative income, competitiveness and disinvestment effects, which also occur in response to falling energy prices. The occurrence of disinvestment effects is of particular interest. These occur where falling energy prices reduce profitability in domestic energy supply sectors, leading to a contraction in capital stock in these sectors, which may in turn lead to rebound effects that are smaller in the long run than in the short run, a result that runs contrary to the predictions of previous theoretical work in this area.

  7. Negative rebound and disinvestment effects in response to an improvement in energy efficiency in the UK economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Karen [Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde, Sir William Duncan Building, 130 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0GE (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    This paper uses a computable general equilibrium (CGE) framework to investigate the conditions under which rebound effects may occur in response to increases in energy efficiency in the UK national economy. Previous work for the UK has suggested that rebound effects will occur even where key elasticities of substitution in production are set close to zero. The research reported in this paper involves carrying out a systematic sensitivity analysis, where relative price sensitivity is gradually introduced into the system, focusing specifically on elasticities of substitution in production and trade parameters, in order to determine conditions under which rebound effects become a likely outcome. The main result is that, while there is positive pressure for rebound effects even where (direct and indirect) demands for energy are very price inelastic, this may be partially or wholly offset by negative income, competitiveness and disinvestment effects, which also occur in response to falling energy prices. The occurrence of disinvestment effects is of particular interest. These occur where falling energy prices reduce profitability in domestic energy supply sectors, leading to a contraction in capital stock in these sectors, which may in turn lead to rebound effects that are smaller in the long run than in the short run, a result that runs contrary to the predictions of previous theoretical work in this area. (author)

  8. Negative affectivity and social inhibition in cardiovascular disease: evaluating type-D personality and its assessment using item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emons, Wilco H M; Meijer, Rob R; Denollet, Johan

    2007-07-01

    Individuals with increased levels of both negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI)-referred to as type-D personality-are at increased risk of adverse cardiac events. We used item response theory (IRT) to evaluate NA, SI, and type-D personality as measured by the DS14. The objectives of this study were (a) to evaluate the relative contribution of individual items to the measurement precision at the cutoff to distinguish type-D from non-type-D personality and (b) to investigate the comparability of NA, SI, and type-D constructs across the general population and clinical populations. Data from representative samples including 1316 respondents from the general population, 427 respondents diagnosed with coronary heart disease, and 732 persons suffering from hypertension were analyzed using the graded response IRT model. In Study 1, the information functions obtained in the IRT analysis showed that (a) all items had highest measurement precision around the cutoff and (b) items are most informative at the higher end of the scale. In Study 2, the IRT analysis showed that measurements were fairly comparable across the general population and clinical populations. The DS14 adequately measures NA and SI, with highest reliability in the trait range around the cutoff. The DS14 is a valid instrument to assess and compare type-D personality across clinical groups.

  9. Coping as a mediator of the relationship between stress mindset and psychological stress response: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Horiuchi,Satoshi; Tsuda,Akira; Aoki,Shuntaro; Yoneda,Kenichiro; Sawaguchi,Yusuke

    2018-01-01

    Satoshi Horiuchi,1 Akira Tsuda,2 Shuntaro Aoki,3,4 Kenichiro Yoneda,5 Yusuke Sawaguchi6 1Faculty of Social Welfare, Iwate Prefectural University, Iwate, 2Department of Psychology, Kurume University, Fukuoka, 3Research Fellow of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, 4Graduate School of Psychological Science, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, Hokkaido, 5Graduate School of Psychology, Kurume University, Fukuoka, 6Graduate School of Social Welfare, Iwate Prefectural University,...

  10. Effects of foliage plants on human physiological and psychological responses at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumeno, Desto; Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    2015-02-01

    Escalation of task demands and time pressures tends to make a worker run into work stress, which leads to mental fatigue and depression. The mental fatigue can be reduced when attention capacity is restored. Nature can serve as a source of fascination which can restore the attention capacity. People bring plants indoors so they can experience nature in their workplace. The stress and fatigue are also affected by air temperatures. The increase or decrease of temperatures from the comfort zone may induce the stress and fatigue. The objective of this study is to investigate the intervention of using foliage plants placed inside a building at different air temperature levels. The effects of foliage plants on human stress and fatigue were measured by human physiological responses such as heart rate, amylase level, electroencephalography (EEG), and the secondary task-reaction time. Several different tasks, namely typing, math and logical sequences are included in the investigation of these studies. Fifteen subjects, with the age ranged from 22 to 38 years old have participated in the study using within subject design. From the study, it is revealed that the presence of foliage plants at several temperatures have different effects on meditation, secondary task reaction time and typing accuracy. This study also revealed that the presence of plants on several types of tasks has different effects of attention which are useful for increasing work performance.

  11. Chinese Employees' Psychological Responses to Abusive Supervisors: The Roles of Gender and Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Jiang, Jiang; Yang, Liuqin; Shing Chan, Darius Kwan

    2016-06-01

    Drawing on the conservation of resources theory, the relations between abusive supervision and emotional exhaustion and intent to leave were examined, as well as the gender differences in these relations. Moreover, the moderating effect of self-esteem was tested in an integrated model stipulating that the gender-moderating effect was mediated by the abusive supervision × self-esteem interaction. Data were collected from 264 employees (111 men; M age = 32.0 years; M tenure = 9.2 years). Results of regression analyses indicated that abusive supervision was positively correlated to emotional exhaustion and intent to leave. Women reported higher emotional exhaustion and intent to leave than men. The relations of interest were stronger among employees with higher self-esteem (emotional exhaustion: β = 0.44; intent to leave: β = 0.53). The interaction of abusive supervision × self-esteem mediated the gender-moderating effect. Women's stronger responses to abusive supervision may be related to their higher self-esteem, possibly because of the importance of employment to Chinese women. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. EGR-1 and DUSP-1 are important negative regulators of pro-allergic responses in airway epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golebski, Korneliusz; van Egmond, Danielle; de Groot, Esther J; Roschmann, Kristina I L; Fokkens, Wytske J; van Drunen, Cornelis M

    2015-05-01

    Primary nasal epithelium of house dust mite allergic individuals is in a permanently activated inflammatory transcriptional state. To investigate whether a deregulated expression of EGR-1 and/or DUSP-1, two potential negative regulators of pro-inflammatory responses, could contribute to the activation of the inflammatory state. We silenced the expression of EGR-1 or DUSP-1 in the airway epithelial cell line NCI-H292. The cell lines were stimulated in a 24-h time course with the house dust mite allergen or poly(I:C). RNA expression profiles of cytokines were established using q-PCR and protein levels were determined in supernatants with ELISA. The shRNA-mediated gene silencing reduced expression levels of EGR-1 by 92% (p<0.0001) and of DUSP-1 by 76% (p<0.0001). Both mutant cells lines showed an increased and prolonged response to the HDM allergen. The mRNA induction of IL-6 was 4.6 fold (p=0.02) and 2.4 fold higher (p=0.01) in the EGR-1 and DUSP-1 knock-down, respectively when compared to the induced levels in the control cell line. For IL-8, the induction levels were 4.6 fold (p=0.01) and 13.0 (p=0.001) fold higher. The outcome was largely similar, yet not identical at the secreted protein levels. Furthermore, steroids were able to suppress the poly(I:C) induced cytokine levels by 70-95%. Deregulation of EGR-1 and/or DUSP-1 in nasal epithelium could be responsible for the prolonged activated transcriptional state observed in vivo in allergic disease. This could have clinical consequences as cytokine levels after the steroid treatment in EGR-1 or DUSP-1 knock-down remained higher than in the control cell line. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. PKD1 mediates negative feedback of PI3K/Akt activation in response to G protein-coupled receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ni

    Full Text Available We examined whether protein kinase D1 (PKD1 mediates negative feeback of PI3K/Akt signaling in intestinal epithelial cells stimulated with G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR agonists. Exposure of intestinal epithelial IEC-18 cells to increasing concentrations of the PKD family inhibitor kb NB 142-70, at concentrations that inhibited PKD1 activation, strikingly potentiated Akt phosphorylation at Thr(308 and Ser(473 in response to the mitogenic GPCR agonist angiotensin II (ANG II. Enhancement of Akt activation by kb NB 142-70 was also evident in cells with other GPCR agonists, including vasopressin and lysophosphatidic acid. Cell treatment with the structurally unrelated PKD family inhibitor CRT0066101 increased Akt phosphorylation as potently as kb NB 142-70 [corrected]. Knockdown of PKD1 with two different siRNAs strikingly enhanced Akt phosphorylation in response to ANG II stimulation in IEC-18 cells. To determine whether treatment with kb NB 142-70 enhances accumulation of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3 in the plasma membrane, we monitored the redistribution of Akt-pleckstrin homology domain-green fluorescent protein (Akt-PH-GFP in single IEC-18 cells. Exposure to kb NB 142-70 strikingly increased membrane accumulation of Akt-PH-GFP in response to ANG II. The translocation of the PIP3 sensor to the plasma membrane and the phosphorylation of Akt was completed prevented by prior exposure to the class I p110α specific inhibitor A66. ANG II markedly increased the phosphorylation of p85α detected by a PKD motif-specific antibody and enhanced the association of p85α with PTEN. Transgenic mice overexpressing PKD1 showed a reduced phosphorylation of Akt at Ser(473 in intestinal epithelial cells compared to wild type littermates. Collectively these results indicate that PKD1 activation mediates feedback inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling in intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo.

  14. Mind wandering during attention performance: Effects of ADHD-inattention symptomatology, negative mood, ruminative response style and working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkman, Lisa M; Markus, C Rob; Franklin, Michael S; van Dalfsen, Jens H

    2017-01-01

    In adulthood, depressive mood is often comorbid with ADHD, but its role in ADHD-inattentiveness and especially relations with mind wandering remains to be elucidated. This study investigated the effects of laboratory-induced dysphoric mood on task-unrelated mind wandering and its consequences on cognitive task performance in college students with high (n = 46) or low (n = 44) ADHD-Inattention symptomatology and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity symptoms in the normal range. These non-clinical high/low ADHD-Inattention symptom groups underwent negative or positive mood induction after which mind wandering frequency was measured in a sustained attention (SART), and a reading task. Effects of ruminative response style and working memory capacity on mind wandering frequency were also investigated. Significantly higher frequencies of self -reported mind wandering in daily life, in the SART and reading task were reported in the ADHD-Inattention symptom group, with detrimental effects on text comprehension in the reading task. Induced dysphoric mood did specifically enhance the frequency of mind wandering in the ADHD-Inattention symptom group only during the SART, and was related to their higher self-reported intrusive ruminative response styles. Working memory capacity did not differ between high/low attention groups and did not influence any of the reported effects. These combined results suggest that in a non-clinical sample with high ADHD-inattention symptoms, dysphoric mood and a ruminative response style seem to be more important determinants of dysfunctional mind wandering than a failure in working memory capacity/executive control, and perhaps need other ways of remediation, like cognitive behavioral therapy or mindfulness training.

  15. Mind wandering during attention performance: Effects of ADHD-inattention symptomatology, negative mood, ruminative response style and working memory capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Jonkman

    Full Text Available In adulthood, depressive mood is often comorbid with ADHD, but its role in ADHD-inattentiveness and especially relations with mind wandering remains to be elucidated. This study investigated the effects of laboratory-induced dysphoric mood on task-unrelated mind wandering and its consequences on cognitive task performance in college students with high (n = 46 or low (n = 44 ADHD-Inattention symptomatology and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity symptoms in the normal range.These non-clinical high/low ADHD-Inattention symptom groups underwent negative or positive mood induction after which mind wandering frequency was measured in a sustained attention (SART, and a reading task. Effects of ruminative response style and working memory capacity on mind wandering frequency were also investigated.Significantly higher frequencies of self -reported mind wandering in daily life, in the SART and reading task were reported in the ADHD-Inattention symptom group, with detrimental effects on text comprehension in the reading task. Induced dysphoric mood did specifically enhance the frequency of mind wandering in the ADHD-Inattention symptom group only during the SART, and was related to their higher self-reported intrusive ruminative response styles. Working memory capacity did not differ between high/low attention groups and did not influence any of the reported effects.These combined results suggest that in a non-clinical sample with high ADHD-inattention symptoms, dysphoric mood and a ruminative response style seem to be more important determinants of dysfunctional mind wandering than a failure in working memory capacity/executive control, and perhaps need other ways of remediation, like cognitive behavioral therapy or mindfulness training.

  16. Emotional arousal and recognition memory are differentially reflected in pupil diameter responses during emotional memory for negative events in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämmerer, Dorothea; Hopkins, Alexandra; Betts, Matthew J; Maaß, Anne; Dolan, Ray J; Düzel, Emrah

    2017-10-01

    A better memory for negative emotional events is often attributed to a conjoint impact of increased arousal and noradrenergic modulation (NA). A decline in NA during aging is well documented but its impact on memory function during aging is unclear. Using pupil diameter (PD) as a proxy for NA, we examined age differences in memory for negative events in younger (18-30 years) and older (62-83 years) adults based on a segregation of early arousal to negative events, and later retrieval-related PD responses. In keeping with the hypothesis of reduced age-related NA influences, older adults showed attenuated induced PD responses to negative emotional events. The findings highlight a likely contribution of NA to negative emotional memory, mediated via arousal that may be compromised with aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Understanding consumer's responses to negative emotions related to crowding on satisfaction and impulse purchase in retail: the mediating role of coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlette Cassia Oliveira Ferreira

    Full Text Available Abstract The perception of crowding, understood as an individual's response to crowds, can be observed in retail environments and influences positive and negative emotions. In this research we test the mediating effect of coping – rational strategies adopted to deal with negative emotions – in the relationship between negative emotions (resulting from crowding perception and consumer behavior (measured by impulse purchase and satisfaction. The findings related to coping explain to what extent there is a positive response to human density in the retail environment. For this, a theoretical model was developed which includes the relationships among perception of crowding, positive and negative emotions, and consumer behavior. The model enhances the understanding of the crowding phenomenon by including relationships mediated by an oppositional strategy (coping dimension between negative emotions and consumer behaviors. To test the theoretical model, a survey was conducted with 456 respondents and hypothesis tests using structural equation modeling. It was evidenced that crowding perception has more robust effects on negative emotions than positive emotions. It is emphasized that with the inclusion of opposition mediation, the weak direct relationship between negative emotions and behaviors, becomes a positive relationship between negative emotion and impulse purchase, and negative emotion and satisfaction. In addition to the theoretical contributions of the tested model, future research and managerial implications are proposed at the end of the article.

  18. Transrepression of the estrogen receptor promoter by calcitriol in human breast cancer cells via two negative vitamin D response elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Srilatha; Krishnan, Aruna V; Peng, Lihong; Lundqvist, Johan; Feldman, David

    2013-08-01

    Calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3), the hormonally active metabolite of vitamin D, exerts its anti-proliferative activity in breast cancer (BCa) cells by multiple mechanisms including the downregulation of the expression of estrogen receptor α (ER). We analyzed an ∼3.5 kb ER promoter sequence and demonstrated the presence of two potential negative vitamin D response elements (nVDREs), a newly identified putative nVDRE upstream at -2488 to -2473 bp (distal nVDRE) and a previously published sequence (proximal nVDRE) at -94 to -70 bp proximal to the P1 start site. Transactivation analysis using ER promoter deletion constructs and heterologous promoter-reporter constructs revealed that both nVDREs functioned to mediate calcitriol transrepression. In the electrophoretic mobility shift assay, the vitamin D receptor (VDR) showed strong binding to both nVDREs in the presence of calcitriol, and the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated the recruitment of the VDR to the distal nVDRE site. Mutations in the 5' hexameric DNA sequence of the distal nVDRE resulted in the loss of calcitriol-mediated transrepression and the inhibition of protein-DNA complex formation, demonstrating the importance of these nucleotides in VDR DNA binding and transrepression. A putative nuclear factor-Y (NFY) binding site, identified within the distal nVDRE, led to the findings that NFY bound to the distal nVDRE site interfered with the binding of the VDR at the site and reduced calcitriol-mediated transrepression. In conclusion, the ER promoter region contains two negative VDREs that act in concert to bind to the VDR and both nVDREs are required for the maximal inhibition of ER expression by calcitriol. The suppression of ER expression and estrogen-mediated signaling by calcitriol in BCa cells suggests that vitamin D may be useful in the treatment of ER+ BCa.

  19. Clinical Initial Response of Neoadjuvant Chemotheraphy in Triple Negative, HER-2, and Luminal Types of Breast Cancer in Denpasar (A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristianto Yuli Yarso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Triple Negative, Luminal, HER-2 subtypes of breast cancer are markers to predict behavior, aggressiveness, and response to chemotherapy. The aim of this study is to understand character and response to standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy in different subtypes of breast cancer. Method: This is a descriptive study of breast cancer subtypes. From 687 patients (2003-2010 351 patients have IHC data which divided into 3 groups, Triple negative, Luminal, and HER-2. We used 10% as a cut off point for ER, PR, while 30% & positive 3 for HER-2. We determined initial clinical response after 3 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy although only 77 got standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy and had clinical response data. We used 50% diameters depreciation & no metastasis as cut off point for respond group. Results: There were 116 (33% Triple Negative, 60 (17% HER-2, and 175 (50% Luminal Subtypes. The mean of age for 351 patients are 48.32 (23-82 years. In this study, it was obtained that no significant difference of means of age (p=0.24 in these 3 groups. Triple negative group significantly more advance in grade if compared with the other two groups (p=0.02. HER-2 group had highest response with standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy (50%, Luminal group had (49%, and Triple negative group had only (15% response. One pCR in HER-2 group. There were no difference ages in subtypes. Triple negative has more advances in grade. HER-2 group has highest response to standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy and Triple negative has lowest response to standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

  20. The role of psychological inflexibility in Beck's cognitive model of depression in a sample of undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Ruiz

    Full Text Available Beck's cognitive model of depression proposes that depressogenic schemas have an effect on depressive symptoms by increasing the frequency of negative automatic thoughts in response to negative life events. We aimed to test a moderated, serial mediation model where psychological inflexibility, a core concept of the Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT model of psychopathology, both mediates and moderates the relationship between depressogenic schemas and the frequency of negative automatic thoughts. A cross-sectional design was used in which 210 undergraduates responded to questionnaires assessing the constructs of interest. Results supported the proposed moderated mediation model. Both psychological inflexibility and negative automatic thoughts were significant mediators of the relationship between depressogenic schemas and depressive symptoms, and psychological inflexibility also moderated the effect of depressogenic schemas on negative automatic thoughts. We conclude that the role of psychological inflexibility in the cognitive model of depression deserves more attention.

  1. LGBT psychology and feminist psychology: bridging the divide

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, V.; Peel, E.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we outline some of the similarities and differences between lesbian and gay psychology (more recently known as LGBT psychology) and feminist psychology. Both fields developed in response to the oppressive practices of psychology; however, lesbian and gay psychologists have been far more willing to using the theoretical and methodological tools of mainstream psychology than have feminist psychologists. Feminist psychologists have enthusiastically embraced qualitative and critica...

  2. An item response theory analysis of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles: comparing male and female probationers and prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D

    2014-09-01

    An item response theory (IRT) analysis of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) was performed on 26,831 (19,067 male and 7,764 female) federal probationers and compared with results obtained on 3,266 (3,039 male and 227 female) prisoners from previous research. Despite the fact male and female federal probationers scored significantly lower on the PICTS thinking style scales than male and female prisoners, discrimination and location parameter estimates for the individual PICTS items were comparable across sex and setting. Consistent with the results of a previous IRT analysis conducted on the PICTS, the current results did not support sentimentality as a component of general criminal thinking. Findings from this study indicate that the discriminative power of the individual PICTS items is relatively stable across sex (male, female) and correctional setting (probation, prison) and that the PICTS may be measuring the same criminal thinking construct in male and female probationers and prisoners. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Operationalizing and Measuring (a Kind of Free Will (and Responsibility. Towards a New Framework for Psychology, Ethics, and Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lavazza

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Free will is usually defined by three conditions: (1 the ability to do otherwise; (2 control of one’s own choices; (3 responsiveness to reasons. The compatibility of free will with determinism lies at the heart of the philosophical debate at the metaphysical level. This debate, while being increasingly refined, has not yet reached a conclusion. Recently, neuroscience and empirical psychology have tried to settle the problem of free will with a series of experiments that go in the direction of so-called illusionism: free will as the conscious control of our behavior cannot exist, being a mere illusion. But even in this case, the experimental results are challenged at various levels. Considering that in most moral and legal systems, the subject’s liability derives from their freedom, the usefulness of preserving the concept of freedom – which incidentally responds to a very strong commonsensical intuition – suggests the need for an operational solution. This could be done by resorting to the concepts of capacity and cognitive control, which are measured by a set of well-established neuropsychological tests. Our preliminary proposal is to create an index, the first step towards a specific quantification and measurement of free will, to be used especially in ethical and legal contexts. Theoretical premises, practical difficulties and objections to this approach are also discussed and addressed.

  4. LACK OF REPRODUCIBILITY OF A SINGLE NEGATIVE STING CHALLENGE RESPONSE IN THE ASSESSMENT OF ANAPHYLACTIC RISK IN PATIENTS WITH SUSPECTED YELLOW JACKET HYPERSENSITIVITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FRANKEN, HH; DUBOIS, AEJ; MINKEMA, HJ; VANDERHEIDE, S; DEMONCHY, JGR

    To investigate the reproducibility of a single negative response to sting challenge with a living insect, we rechallenged a group of 61 patients who showed no clinical response to a first sting challenge. All patients had previously had symptoms suggestive of anaphylaxis after a yellow jacket field

  5. Overt leptin response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation negatively correlates with pregnancy outcome in in vitro fertilization--embryo transfer cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Chakrabarti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: A critical body mass of adipose tissue is essential for the normal development of female reproductive functions. Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone encoded by the ′Ob′ gene has been proposed as a peripheral signal indicating the adequacy of nutritional status for reproductive functions. It is reported as a direct regulator of gametogenic and steroidogenic potential of ovary. Though leptin is widely present in reproductive tissues, its relationship to reproductive hormones is still poorly understood. Aims: Present investigation attempts to explore ovarian response to secretory profile of leptin and its impact on pregnancy outcome in women undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET. Settings and Design: Patients enrolled for IVF-ET underwent pituitary-ovarian suppression by ′Long Protocol′ GnRH-agonist downregulation followed by ovarian stimulation. Materials and Methods: Sera were procured at different phases of IVF-ET for the assay of estradiol, progesterone, human chorionic gonadotropin, and for leptin. Ovarian follicular fluids were also assayed for leptin. Luteinized granulosa cells were cultured in vitro to evaluate their steroidogenic potential. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analyses were done by student′s t-test, ANOVA, and Chi-square tests as applicable. All results were expressed as Mean ± SE. P values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Positive correlation was observed between serum and ovarian follicular fluid leptin. A negative correlation was noted between the serum leptin levels and endometrial thickness. Conclusions: Elevated leptin response may exert adverse impacts on pregnancy success during IVF-ET possibly by modulating uterine receptivity.

  6. Steroid hormones and psychological responses to soccer matches: Insights from a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maamer Slimani

    Full Text Available The present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the perturbations in hormonal and psychological homeostasis in response to soccer match-play. These perturbations were explored according to match outcome (i.e., win versus loss, gender, type of contest (i.e., competitive versus non-competitive fixtures and competitive level (i.e., novice versus high-level. The review was conducted according to the Population/Intervention or Exposure/Comparison/Outcome(s (PICO criteria and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA guidelines. Match outcome, type of contest and competitive levels were moderator variables in the examined steroid hormones responses to a soccer match-play. Different testosterone responses were seen between match winners (increase and losers (decrease when compared to pre-game or baseline values (p <0.05, whilst no changes could be detected for cortisol relative to match outcome in female soccer players. Males (Δ% = 6.26; ES = 0.28 demonstrated a marginally lower increase in testosterone levels when compared to females (Δ% = 49.16; ES = 1.00, though not statistically significant. Females (Δ% = 162.7; ES = 0.98 did not demonstrate elevated cortisol match response compared to males (Δ% = 34.60; ES = 1.20. Male novice soccer match-play increased cortisol levels compared to high-level soccer match-play (Q = 18.08, p<0.001. Competitive soccer matches increased cortisol levels compared to non-competitive fixtures (i.e., collegiate tournament. Additionally, competitive levels moderate the relationship between a soccer match and testosterone levels (p <0.001, regardless of gender differences. From the presented systematic review and meta-analysis it appears (1 cortisol changes are associated with cognitive anxiety in starter female soccer players, while (2 testosterone changes are associated with changes in mood state in females and social connectedness in male soccer players. This

  7. HPA axis response to psychological stress and treatment retention in residential substance abuse treatment: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughters, Stacey B; Richards, Jessica M; Gorka, Stephanie M; Sinha, Rajita

    2009-12-01

    Substance abuse treatment programs are often characterized by high rates of premature treatment dropout, which increases the likelihood of relapse to drug use. Negative reinforcement models of addiction emphasize an individual's inability to tolerate stress as a key factor for understanding poor substance use treatment outcomes, and evidence indicates that dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis contributes to an individual's inability to respond adaptively to stress. The aim of the current study was to examine whether HPA axis response to stress is predictive of treatment retention among a sample of drug users in residential substance abuse treatment. Prospective study assessing treatment retention among 102 individuals enrolled in residential substance abuse treatment. Participants completed two computerized stress tasks, and HPA axis response to stress was measured via salivary cortisol at five time points from baseline (pre-stress) to 30 min post-stress exposure. The main outcome measures were treatment dropout (categorical) and total number of days in treatment (continuous). A significantly higher salivary cortisol response to stress was observed in treatment dropouts compared to treatment completers. Further, Cox proportional hazards survival analyses indicated that a higher peak cortisol response to stress was associated with a shorter number of days to treatment dropout. Results indicate that a higher salivary cortisol level in response to stress is associated with an inability to remain in substance abuse treatment. These findings are the first to document a biological marker of stress as a predictor of substance abuse treatment dropout, and support the development and implementation of treatments targeting this vulnerability.

  8. Trait aspects of auditory mismatch negativity predict response to auditory training in individuals with early illness schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagianti, Bruno; Roach, Brian J; Fisher, Melissa; Loewy, Rachel; Ford, Judith M; Vinogradov, Sophia; Mathalon, Daniel H

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have heterogeneous impairments of the auditory processing system that likely mediate differences in the cognitive gains induced by auditory training (AT). Mismatch negativity (MMN) is an event-related potential component reflecting auditory echoic memory, and its amplitude reduction in schizophrenia has been linked to cognitive deficits. Therefore, MMN may predict response to AT and identify individuals with schizophrenia who have the most to gain from AT. Furthermore, to the extent that AT strengthens auditory deviance processing, MMN may also serve as a readout of the underlying changes in the auditory system induced by AT. Fifty-six individuals early in the course of a schizophrenia-spectrum illness (ESZ) were randomly assigned to 40 h of AT or Computer Games (CG). Cognitive assessments and EEG recordings during a multi-deviant MMN paradigm were obtained before and after AT and CG. Changes in these measures were compared between the treatment groups. Baseline and trait-like MMN data were evaluated as predictors of treatment response. MMN data collected with the same paradigm from a sample of Healthy Controls (HC; n = 105) were compared to baseline MMN data from the ESZ group. Compared to HC, ESZ individuals showed significant MMN reductions at baseline ( p = .003). Reduced Double-Deviant MMN was associated with greater general cognitive impairment in ESZ individuals ( p = .020). Neither ESZ intervention group showed significant change in MMN. We found high correlations in all MMN deviant types (rs = .59-.68, all ps < .001) between baseline and post-intervention amplitudes irrespective of treatment group, suggesting trait-like stability of the MMN signal. Greater deficits in trait-like Double-Deviant MMN predicted greater cognitive improvements in the AT group ( p = .02), but not in the CG group. In this sample of ESZ individuals, AT had no effect on auditory deviance processing as assessed by MMN. In ESZ individuals, baseline MMN

  9. A novel branched chain amino acids responsive transcriptional regulator, BCARR, negatively acts on the proteolytic system in Lactobacillus helveticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taketo Wakai

    Full Text Available Transcriptional negative regulation of the proteolytic system of Lactobacillus helveticus CM4 in response to amino acids seems to be very important for the control of antihypertensive peptide production; however, it remains poorly understood. A 26-kDa protein with N-terminal cystathionine β-synthase domains (CBS domain protein, which seems to be involved in the regulatory system, was purified by using a DNA-sepharose bound 300-bp DNA fragment corresponding to the upstream regions of the six proteolytic genes that are down-regulated by amino acids. The CBS domain protein bound to a DNA fragment corresponding to the region upstream of the pepV gene in response to branched chain amino acids (BCAAs. The expression of the pepV gene in Escherichia coli grown in BCAA-enriched medium was repressed when the CBS domain protein was co-expressed. These results reveal that the CBS domain protein acts as a novel type of BCAA-responsive transcriptional regulator (BCARR in L. helveticus. From comparative analysis of the promoter regions of the six proteolysis genes, a palindromic AT-rich motif, 5'-AAAAANNCTWTTATT-3', was predicted as the consensus DNA motif for the BCARR protein binding. Footprint analysis using the pepV promotor region and gel shift analyses with the corresponding short DNA fragments strongly suggested that the BCARR protein binds adjacent to the pepV promoter region and affects the transcription level of the pepV gene in the presence of BCAAs. Homology search analysis of the C-terminal region of the BCARR protein suggested the existence of a unique βαββαβ fold structure that has been reported in a variety of ACT (aspartate kinase-chorismate mutase-tyrA domain proteins for sensing amino acids. These results also suggest that the sensing of BCAAs by the ACT domain might promote the binding of the BCARR to DNA sequences upstream of proteolysis genes, which affects the gene expression of the proteolytic system in L. helveticus.

  10. Help of third-year medical students decreases first-year medical students' negative psychological reactions on the first day of gross anatomy dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houwink, Aletta P; Kurup, Anil N; Kollars, Joshua P; Kral Kollars, Catharine A; Carmichael, Stephen W; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2004-05-01

    The assistance of third-year medical students (MS3) may be an easy, inexpensive, educational method to decrease physical and emotional stress among first-year medical students (MS1) on the first day of gross anatomy dissection. In the academic years 2000-2001 and 2001-2002, a questionnaire on the emotional and physical reactions on the first day of dissection was distributed to 84 MS1 at Mayo Medical School (Rochester, MN); 74 (88%) responded. Student perceptions were assessed on a 5-point Likert scale. The 42 second-year medical students (MS2) whose first academic year was 1999-2000 were used as a control group, because they had not had assistance from MS3. MS2 completed the same questionnaire (59% response rate). Data were collected from MS1 on the day of their first gross anatomy dissection. The most frequent reactions were headache, disgust, grief or sadness, and feeling light-headed. Significant differences (alpha vs. 88%), reporting lower levels of anxiety (23% vs. 48%), headache (14% vs. 36%), disgust (9% vs. 20%), feeling light-headed (11% vs. 24%), and reaction to the smell of the cadaver and laboratory (8% vs. 52%). MS1 commented that having MS3 at the dissection table was extremely helpful. They relied less on their peers and felt they learned more efficiently about the dissection techniques and anatomical structures. Using MS3 as assistants is one method to reduce fear and anxiety on the first day of gross anatomy dissection. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Comparison of Psychological and Physiological Responses to Imposed vs. Self-selected High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Erin; Cantacessi, Cheyann; McNamer, Olivia; Holmes, Heather; von Bargen, Robert; Ramirez, Richard; Gallagher, Daren; Vargas, Stacy; Santia, Ben; Rodriguez, Karen; Astorino, Todd A

    2018-05-08

    Kellogg, E, Cantacessi, C, McNamer, O, Holmes, H, von Bargen, R, Ramirez, R, Gallagher, D, Vargas, S, Santia, B, Rodriguez, K, and Astorino, TA. Comparison of psychological and physiological responses to imposed vs. self-selected high-intensity interval training. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-High-intensity interval training elicits similar physiological adaptations as moderate intensity continuous training (MICT). Some studies report greater enjoyment to a bout of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) vs. MICT, which is surprising considering that HIIE is more intense and typically imposed on the participant. This study compared physiological and perceptual responses between imposed and self-selected HIIE. Fourteen adults (age = 24 ± 3 years) unfamiliar with HIIE initially performed ramp exercise to exhaustion to measure maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max) followed by 2 subsequent sessions whose order was randomized. Imposed HIIE consisted of eight 60 seconds bouts at 80 percent peak power output (%PPO) separated by 60 seconds recovery at 10 %PPO. Self-selected HIIE (HIIESS) followed the same structure, but participants freely selected intensity in increments of 10 %PPO to achieve a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) ≥7. During exercise, heart rate, V[Combining Dot Above]O2, blood lactate concentration (BLa), affect (+5 to -5), and RPE were assessed. Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale was measured after exercise. Results showed higher V[Combining Dot Above]O2 (+10%, p = 0.013), BLa (p = 0.001), and RPE (p = 0.001) in HIIESS vs. HIIEIMP, and lower affect (p = 0.01), and enjoyment (87.6 ± 15.7 vs. 95.7 ± 11.7, p = 0.04). There was a significantly higher power output in self-selected vs. imposed HIIE (263.9 ± 81.4 W vs. 225.2 ± 59.6 W, p < 0.001). Data suggest that intensity mediates affective responses rather than the mode of HIIE performed by the participant.

  12. Psychological barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. C.

    2004-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes treatment outcomes ultimately depend on patients and their ability to make long-term behavioural changes that support good self-care and metabolic control. Patients' perceptions about diabetes and diabetes-related complications can have a strong influence on their emotional well...... of lifestyle changes and pharmacological therapy in preventing future complications. Negative emotions and preconceptions about treatment can also discourage adherence to treatment plans. 'Psychological Insulin resistance' caused by fear and concerns about insulin and daily insulin injections can discourage...... many patients from starting insulin therapy, even if oral agents have failed. Depression, stress and anxiety represent further obstacles to optimum self-care and the attainment of glucose goals. Healthcare professionals should endeavour to understand and accommodate these issues when setting personal...

  13. Noise sensitivity in relation to baseline arousal, physiological response and psychological features to noise exposure during task performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, K.; Hofman, W.F.; van Kamp, I.

    2010-01-01

    People who consider themselves sensitive to noise, experience more noise annoyance, sleep disturbance and reduced daytime performance. Besides psychological factors, an association with cardiovascular reactions during noise has been established in noise sensitives. Decreased efficiency of the

  14. Dogs cannot bark: event-related brain responses to true and false negated statements as indicators of higher-order conscious processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Cornelia; Kübler, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated event-related brain potentials elicited by true and false negated statements to evaluate if discrimination of the truth value of negated information relies on conscious processing and requires higher-order cognitive processing in healthy subjects across different levels of stimulus complexity. The stimulus material consisted of true and false negated sentences (sentence level) and prime-target expressions (word level). Stimuli were presented acoustically and no overt behavioral response of the participants was required. Event-related brain potentials to target words preceded by true and false negated expressions were analyzed both within group and at the single subject level. Across the different processing conditions (word pairs and sentences), target words elicited a frontal negativity and a late positivity in the time window from 600-1000 msec post target word onset. Amplitudes of both brain potentials varied as a function of the truth value of the negated expressions. Results were confirmed at the single-subject level. In sum, our results support recent suggestions according to which evaluation of the truth value of a negated expression is a time- and cognitively demanding process that cannot be solved automatically, and thus requires conscious processing. Our paradigm provides insight into higher-order processing related to language comprehension and reasoning in healthy subjects. Future studies are needed to evaluate if our paradigm also proves sensitive for the detection of consciousness in non-responsive patients.

  15. Dogs cannot bark: event-related brain responses to true and false negated statements as indicators of higher-order conscious processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Herbert

    Full Text Available The present study investigated event-related brain potentials elicited by true and false negated statements to evaluate if discrimination of the truth value of negated information relies on conscious processing and requires higher-order cognitive processing in healthy subjects across different levels of stimulus complexity. The stimulus material consisted of true and false negated sentences (sentence level and prime-target expressions (word level. Stimuli were presented acoustically and no overt behavioral response of the participants was required. Event-related brain potentials to target words preceded by true and false negated expressions were analyzed both within group and at the single subject level. Across the different processing conditions (word pairs and sentences, target words elicited a frontal negativity and a late positivity in the time window from 600-1000 msec post target word onset. Amplitudes of both brain potentials varied as a function of the truth value of the negated expressions. Results were confirmed at the single-subject level. In sum, our results support recent suggestions according to which evaluation of the truth value of a negated expression is a time- and cognitively demanding process that cannot be solved automatically, and thus requires conscious processing. Our paradigm provides insight into higher-order processing related to language comprehension and reasoning in healthy subjects. Future studies are needed to evaluate if our paradigm also proves sensitive for the detection of consciousness in non-responsive patients.

  16. Visual spatial attention enhances the amplitude of positive and negative fMRI responses to visual stimulation in an eccentricity-dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressler, David W.; Fortenbaugh, Francesca C.; Robertson, Lynn C.; Silver, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Endogenous visual spatial attention improves perception and enhances neural responses to visual stimuli at attended locations. Although many aspects of visual processing differ significantly between central and peripheral vision, little is known regarding the neural substrates of the eccentricity dependence of spatial attention effects. We measured amplitudes of positive and negative fMRI responses to visual stimuli as a function of eccentricity in a large number of topographically-organized cortical areas. Responses to each stimulus were obtained when the stimulus was attended and when spatial attention was directed to a stimulus in the opposite visual hemifield. Attending to the stimulus increased both positive and negative response amplitudes in all cortical areas we studied: V1, V2, V3, hV4, VO1, LO1, LO2, V3A/B, IPS0, TO1, and TO2. However, the eccentricity dependence of these effects differed considerably across cortical areas. In early visual, ventral, and lateral occipital cortex, attentional enhancement of positive responses was greater for central compared to peripheral eccentricities. The opposite pattern was observed in dorsal stream areas IPS0 and putative MT homolog TO1, where attentional enhancement of positive responses was greater in the periphery. Both the magnitude and the eccentricity dependence of attentional modulation of negative fMRI responses closely mirrored that of positive responses across cortical areas. PMID:23562388

  17. Characterization of Imidazopyridine Compounds as Negative Allosteric Modulators of Proton-Sensing GPR4 in Extracellular Acidification-Induced Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayaka Tobo

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptor 4 (GPR4, previously proposed as the receptor for sphingosylphosphorylcholine, has recently been identified as the proton-sensing G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR coupling to multiple intracellular signaling pathways, including the Gs protein/cAMP and G13 protein/Rho. In the present study, we characterized some imidazopyridine compounds as GPR4 modulators that modify GPR4 receptor function. In the cells that express proton-sensing GPCRs, including GPR4, OGR1, TDAG8, and G2A, extracellular acidification stimulates serum responsive element (SRE-driven transcriptional activity, which has been shown to reflect Rho activity, with different proton sensitivities. Imidazopyridine compounds inhibited the moderately acidic pH-induced SRE activity only in GPR4-expressing cells. Acidic pH-stimulated cAMP accumulation, mRNA expression of inflammatory genes, and GPR4 internalization within GPR4-expressing cells were all inhibited by the GPR4 modulator. We further compared the inhibition property of the imidazopyridine compound with psychosine, which has been shown to selectively inhibit actions induced by proton-sensing GPCRs, including GPR4. In the GPR4 mutant, in which certain histidine residues were mutated to phenylalanine, proton sensitivity was significantly shifted to the right, and psychosine failed to further inhibit acidic pH-induced SRE activation. On the other hand, the imidazopyridine compound almost completely inhibited acidic pH-induced action in mutant GPR4. We conclude that some imidazopyridine compounds show specificity to GPR4 as negative allosteric modulators with a different action mode from psychosine, an antagonist susceptible to histidine residues, and are useful for characterizing GPR4-mediated acidic pH-induced biological actions.

  18. Characterization of Imidazopyridine Compounds as Negative Allosteric Modulators of Proton-Sensing GPR4 in Extracellular Acidification-Induced Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobo, Ayaka; Tobo, Masayuki; Nakakura, Takashi; Ebara, Masashi; Tomura, Hideaki; Mogi, Chihiro; Im, Dong-Soon; Murata, Naoya; Kuwabara, Atsushi; Ito, Saki; Fukuda, Hayato; Arisawa, Mitsuhiro; Shuto, Satoshi; Nakaya, Michio; Kurose, Hitoshi; Sato, Koichi; Okajima, Fumikazu

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor 4 (GPR4), previously proposed as the receptor for sphingosylphosphorylcholine, has recently been identified as the proton-sensing G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) coupling to multiple intracellular signaling pathways, including the Gs protein/cAMP and G13 protein/Rho. In the present study, we characterized some imidazopyridine compounds as GPR4 modulators that modify GPR4 receptor function. In the cells that express proton-sensing GPCRs, including GPR4, OGR1, TDAG8, and G2A, extracellular acidification stimulates serum responsive element (SRE)-driven transcriptional activity, which has been shown to reflect Rho activity, with different proton sensitivities. Imidazopyridine compounds inhibited the moderately acidic pH-induced SRE activity only in GPR4-expressing cells. Acidic pH-stimulated cAMP accumulation, mRNA expression of inflammatory genes, and GPR4 internalization within GPR4-expressing cells were all inhibited by the GPR4 modulator. We further compared the inhibition property of the imidazopyridine compound with psychosine, which has been shown to selectively inhibit actions induced by proton-sensing GPCRs, including GPR4. In the GPR4 mutant, in which certain histidine residues were mutated to phenylalanine, proton sensitivity was significantly shifted to the right, and psychosine failed to further inhibit acidic pH-induced SRE activation. On the other hand, the imidazopyridine compound almost completely inhibited acidic pH-induced action in mutant GPR4. We conclude that some imidazopyridine compounds show specificity to GPR4 as negative allosteric modulators with a different action mode from psychosine, an antagonist susceptible to histidine residues, and are useful for characterizing GPR4-mediated acidic pH-induced biological actions.

  19. Humanizing online brand communications in response to negative word of mouth: the effects of proactive and reactive webcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, G.; Willemsen, L.M.; Eisend, M.; Langner, T.

    2011-01-01

    By means of an experiment, we study the most effective means for companies to counter complaints as expressed in negative electronic word of mouth (NWOM). The results show that negative brand evaluations engendered by NWOM, can be attenuated by webcare interventions dependent on type of strategy

  20. MEN`S PHYSICAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL RESPONSE TO VASECTOMY ACCEPTOR OF FAMILY PLANNING PROGRAM IN SUKOHARJO CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winarsih Nur Ambarwati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Indonesia is on the fourth position in the world as the most populated nation in 2009. Great number of people with lack of skill would give potential burden in the nation development. Generally, the outcome of Indonesian Family Planing Program(FPP acceptor to Indonesian women is sufficient which is ranging to 59 percent of the total 60,3 percent of participants but if compared to men's participation in is still insignificant. Husband's participation as participant is still low 1.3% consisted of 0.9 percent condom user, 0.4 percent vasectomy user. To describe experiences of Indonesian men following vasectomy in relation to their physical, psychological and social responses to vasectomy. Method: The research design of this research uses descriptive qualitative study. The sample selection was done using theoretical sampling technique. The data collection instrument of grounded theory research is the researcher herself, while other instruments are namely field report, audiotape, videotape, and notes. The data analysis is utilized Colaizzi`s method. Result: Numbers of participants were 7 persons. Physical change after the vasectomy surgery is on general physical change (there is no change felt, the body's stamina raises, healthier, less energy, or weary and physical change on reproduction organ is none. Sexual ability has no change, it increases, it also decreases. The sexual satisfaction is the same, more satisfi ed, or less satisfied. The characteristic change of spermatid is the same, there is change (lesser quantity, more dissolved, and ignore it. All participants said that they feel more comfortable in doing sex after vasectomy surgery. Most participants feel confidence of their sexual ability. The participants' perspective had no difference and feel difference, or there is a change. Most participants stated that vasectomy is the right decision, but few felt disappointed. The social environment response toward men as the

  1. Clinical and psychological risk factors for aggressive behavior in minors with delinquent behavior , have not reached the age of criminal responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Martynova I.R.

    2016-01-01

    The results of empirical studies of clinical and psychological risk factors for aggressive behavior in adolescents. The main sample and comparison group - juveniles with delinquent behavior, not reached (n = 60) and age of criminal responsibility (n = 60). The control group of adolescents with conventionally normative behavior (n = 20). It is shown that the main group examinees have a number of serious problems that increase the risk of aggressive behavior. Reduced mood, anxiety, emotional in...

  2. Decolonising Australian Psychology: Discourses, Strategies, and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat Dudgeon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Colonisation in Australia has had a devastating and lasting impact on the wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia (herein referred to as Indigenous Australians. This paper discusses the role of psychology in Australia and the negative impact that certain disciplinary theories and practices have had on Indigenous Australians. The impact has been further exacerbated by the failure of mainstream policy makers and mental health practitioners to recognise the key, distinctive cultural and social determinants that contribute to Aboriginal health and wellbeing. There is a growing response by Aboriginal psychologists, critical social theorists, and their allies to decolonise psychological theory and practice to redress this situation. This paper outlines key decolonising strategies that have been effective in interrupting those aspects of psychology that are inimical to Aboriginal wellbeing.

  3. Dependency, self-criticism and negative affective responses following imaginary rejection and failure threats: meaning-making processes as moderators or mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Avi; Priel, Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the intervening role of meaning-making processes in emotional responses to negative life events based on Blatt's (1974, 2004) formulations concerning the role of personality predispositions in depression. In a pre/post within-subject study design, a community sample of 233 participants reacted to imaginary scenarios of interpersonal rejection and achievement failure. Meaning-making processes relating to threats to self-definition and interpersonal relatedness were examined following the exposure to the scenarios. The results indicated that the personality predisposition of Dependency, but not Self-Criticism predicted higher levels of negative affect following the interpersonal rejection event, independent of baseline levels of negative affect. This effect was mediated by higher levels of negative meaning-making processes related to the effect of the interpersonal rejection scenario on Dependent individuals' senses of interpersonal relatedness and self-worth. In addition, both Self-Criticism and Dependency predicted higher levels of negative affect following the achievement failure event, independent of baseline levels of negative affect. Finally, the effect of Self-Criticism was mediated by higher levels of negative meaning-making processes related to the effect of the achievement failure scenario on self-critical individuals' senses of self-definition.

  4. Psychological first-aid training for paraprofessionals: a systems-based model for enhancing capacity of rural emergency responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, O Lee; Perry, Charlene; Azur, Melissa; Taylor, Henry G; Bailey, Mark; Links, Jonathan M

    2011-08-01

    Ensuring the capacity of the public health, emergency preparedness system to respond to disaster-related need for mental health services is a challenge, particularly in rural areas in which the supply of responders with relevant expertise rarely matches the surge of demand for services. This investigation established and evaluated a systems-based partnership model for recruiting, training, and promoting official recognition of community residents as paraprofessional members of the Maryland Medical Professional Volunteer Corps. The partners were leaders of local health departments (LHDs), faith-based organizations (FBOs), and an academic health center (AHC). A one-group, quasi-experimental research design, using both post-test only and pre-/post-test assessments, was used to determine the feasibility, effectiveness, and impact of the overall program and of a one-day workshop in Psychological First Aid (PFA) for Paraprofessionals. The training was applied to and evaluated for 178 citizens drawn from 120 Christian parishes in four local health jurisdictions in rural Maryland. Feasibility-The model was demonstrated to be practicable, as measured by specific criteria to quantify partner readiness, willingness, and ability to collaborate and accomplish project aims. Effectiveness-The majority (93-99%) of individual participants "agreed" or "strongly agreed" that, as a result of the intervention, they understood the conceptual content of PFA and were confident about ("perceived self-efficacy") using PFA techniques with prospective disaster survivors. Impact-Following PFA training, 56 of the 178 (31.5%) participants submitted same-day applications to be paraprofessional responders in the Volunteer Corps. The formal acceptance of citizens who typically do not possess licensure in a health profession reflects a project-engendered policy change by the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. These findings are consistent with the conclusion that it is feasible to

  5. Resilience and Psychological Distress in Psychology and Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Stephen; Licinio, Julio

    2017-04-01

    The authors investigated levels of resilience and psychological distress in medical and psychology students, factors that may affect these levels, the relationship between resilience and psychological distress, and student opinion on causes of stress and possible interventions. A voluntary anonymous online survey was distributed to University of Adelaide medical and psychology students. Medical and psychology students (n = 560; response rate = 24.7%) had similar mean resilience and psychological distress scores, and 47.9% of medical students and 55.1% of psychology students were psychologically distressed. Higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of distress (p Students supported resilience-based interventions, greater financial support, clearer learning objectives and more continuous assessment as potential means to reduce the effects of stress. Higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of psychological distress. Further studies are required to determine the efficacy of resilience-based interventions in these groups.

  6. Extended spectrum β-lactamases, carbapenemases and mobile genetic elements responsible for antibiotics resistance in Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Salabi, Allaaeddin; Walsh, Timothey R; Chouchani, Chedly

    2013-05-01

    Infectious diseases due to Gram-negative bacteria are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Antimicrobial agents represent one major therapeutic tools implicated to treat these infections. The misuse of antimicrobial agents has resulted in the emergence of resistant strains of Gram-negatives in particular Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermenters; they have an effect not only on a human but on the public health when bacteria use the resistance mechanisms to spread in the hospital environment and to the community outside the hospitals by means of mobile genetic elements. Gram-negative bacteria have become increasingly resistant to antimicrobial agents. They have developed several mechanisms by which they can withstand to antimicrobials, these mechanisms include the production of Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and carbapenemases, furthermore, Gram-negative bacteria are now capable of spreading such resistance between members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermenters using mobile genetic elements as vehicles for such resistance mechanisms rendering antibiotics useless. Therefore, addressing the issue of mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance is considered one of most urgent priorities. This review will help to illustrate different resistance mechanisms; ESBLs, carbapenemases encoded by genes carried by mobile genetic elements, which are used by Gram-negative bacteria to escape antimicrobial effect.

  7. Development of a psychological test to measure ability-based emotional intelligence in the Indonesian workplace using an item response theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajrianthi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fajrianthi,1 Rizqy Amelia Zein2 1Department of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 2Department of Personality and Social Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia Abstract: This study aimed to develop an emotional intelligence (EI test that is suitable to the Indonesian workplace context. Airlangga Emotional Intelligence Test (Tes Kecerdasan Emosi Airlangga [TKEA] was designed to measure three EI domains: 1 emotional appraisal, 2 emotional recognition, and 3 emotional regulation. TKEA consisted of 120 items with 40 items for each subset. TKEA was developed based on the Situational Judgment Test (SJT approach. To ensure its psychometric qualities, categorical confirmatory factor analysis (CCFA and item response theory (IRT were applied to test its validity and reliability. The study was conducted on 752 participants, and the results showed that test information function (TIF was 3.414 (ability level = 0 for subset 1, 12.183 for subset 2 (ability level = -2, and 2.398 for subset 3 (level of ability = -2. It is concluded that TKEA performs very well to measure individuals with a low level of EI ability. It is worth to note that TKEA is currently at the development stage; therefore, in this study, we investigated TKEA’s item analysis and dimensionality test of each TKEA subset. Keywords: categorical confirmatory factor analysis, emotional intelligence, item response theory 

  8. Oedipal Issues in Counseling Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kenneth R.

    1991-01-01

    Analyzes current status of counseling psychology from perspective of Freudian, drive-structure theory. Argues that counseling psychology has committed classical response to oedipal conflict in its treatment of counselor education by identifying with aggressor (psychiatry and clinical psychology). Recommends more unified relationship between…

  9. Cardiovascular and immune responses to acute psychological stress in young and old women: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benschop, R. J.; Geenen, R.; Mills, P. J.; Naliboff, B. D.; Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K.; Herbert, T. B.; van der Pompe, G.; Miller, G. E.; Matthews, K. A.; Godaert, G. L.; Gilmore, S. L.; Glaser, R.; Heijnen, C. J.; Dopp, J. M.; Bijlsma, J. W.; Solomon, G. F.; Cacioppo, J. T.

    1998-01-01

    To describe the relationships between cardiovascular and natural killer (NK) cell number changes on acute psychological stress in women. Data from eight different studies were analyzed. A total of 128 healthy female subjects, 85 younger (18-45 years) and 43 older (49-87 years), had been subjected to

  10. A Predictive Model on North Korean Refugees' Adaptation to South Korean Society: Resilience in Response to Psychological Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Hee Lim, PhD

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The results suggest that resilience can be improved through self-efficacy. It was the most significant factor decreasing psychological trauma and increasing resilience. Therefore, we need to develop programs for self-efficacy. The results also provide basic data for policy making for North Korean refugees.

  11. Let It Go: Lingering Negative Affect in Response to Daily Stressors Is Associated With Physical Health Years Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Kate A; Charles, Susan T; Almeida, David M

    2018-03-01

    The way we respond to life's daily stressors has strong implications for our physical health. Researchers have documented the detrimental effects of initial emotional reactivity to daily stressors on future physical health outcomes but have yet to examine the effects of emotions that linger after a stressor occurs. The current study investigated how negative affect that lingers the day after a minor stressor occurs is associated with health-related outcomes. Participants ( N = 1,155) in a community-based, nationwide study answered questions about daily stressors and affect across 8 consecutive days and about their physical health almost 10 years later. Multilevel models indicated that people experience heightened levels of negative affect the day after a stressor occurs. Furthermore, higher levels of lingering negative affect are associated with greater numbers of chronic conditions and worse functional limitations 10 years later. Findings suggest that affective recovery from daily stressors has unique importance for long-term physical health.

  12. Mothers' power assertion; children's negative, adversarial orientation; and future behavior problems in low-income families: early maternal responsiveness as a moderator of the developmental cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2015-02-01

    Parental power assertion, a key dimension of family environment, generally sets in motion detrimental developmental cascades; however, evidence suggests that other qualities of parenting, such as responsiveness, can significantly moderate those processes. Mechanisms that account for such moderating effects are not fully understood. We propose a conceptual model of processes linking parental power assertion, parental responsiveness, children's negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the parent, and behavior problems. We test that model in a short-term longitudinal design involving 186 low-income, ethnically diverse mothers and their toddlers. When children were 30 months, the dyads were observed in multiple, lengthy, naturalistic laboratory interactions to assess behaviorally mothers' responsiveness and their power-assertive control style. At 33 months, we observed behavioral indicators of children's negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the mothers in several naturalistic and standardized paradigms. At 40 months, mothers rated children's behavior problems. The proposed moderated mediation sequence, tested using a new approach, PROCESS (Hayes, 2013), was supported. The indirect effect from maternal power assertion to children's negative, adversarial orientation to future behavior problems was present when mothers' responsiveness was either low or average but absent when mothers were highly responsive. This study elucidates a potential process that may link parental power assertion with behavior problems and highlights how positive aspects of parenting can moderate this process and defuse maladaptive developmental cascades. It also suggests possible targets for parenting intervention and prevention efforts. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Mothers’ Power Assertion, Children’s Negative, Adversarial Orientation, and Future Behavior Problems in Low-Income Families: Early Maternal Responsiveness as a Moderator of the Developmental Cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2014-01-01

    Parental power assertion, a key dimension of family environment, generally sets in motion detrimental developmental cascades; however, evidence suggests that other qualities of parenting, such as responsiveness, can significantly moderate those processes. Mechanisms that account for such moderating effects are not fully understood. We propose a conceptual model of processes linking parental power assertion, parental responsiveness, children’s negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the parent, and behavior problems. We test that model in a short-term longitudinal design involving 186 low-income, ethnically diverse mothers and their toddlers. When children were 30 months, the dyads were observed in multiple, lengthy, naturalistic laboratory interactions to assess behaviorally mothers’ responsiveness and their power-assertive control style. At 33 months, we observed behavioral indicators of children’s negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the mothers in several naturalistic and standardized paradigms. At 40 months, mothers rated children’s behavior problems. The proposed moderated mediation sequence, tested using a new approach, PROCESS (Hayes, 2013), was supported. The indirect effect from maternal power assertion to children’s negative, adversarial orientation to future behavior problems was present when mothers’ responsiveness was either low or average but absent when mothers were highly responsive. This study elucidates a potential process that may link parental power assertion with behavior problems and highlights how positive aspects of parenting can moderate this process and defuse maladaptive developmental cascades. It also suggests possible targets for parenting intervention and prevention efforts. PMID:25401483

  14. Investigative psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Canter, David V.

    2010-01-01

    The domain of Investigative Psychology covers all aspects of psychology that are relevant to the conduct of criminal or civil investigations. Its focus is on the ways in which criminal activities may be examined and understood in order for the detection of crime to be effective and legal proceedings to be appropriate. As such Investigative Psychology is concerned with psychological input to the full range of issues that relate to the management, investigation and prosecution of crime

  15. The Context Matters: Outcome Probability and Expectation Mismatch Modulate the Feedback Negativity When Self-Evaluation of Response Correctness Is Possible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leue, Anja; Cano Rodilla, Carmen; Beauducel, André

    2015-01-01

    Individuals typically evaluate whether their performance and the obtained feedback match. Previous research has shown that feedback negativity (FN) depends on outcome probability and feedback valence. It is, however, less clear to what extent previous effects of outcome probability on FN depend on self-evaluations of response correctness. Therefore, we investigated the effects of outcome probability on FN amplitude in a simple go/no-go task that allowed for the self-evaluation of response correctness. We also investigated effects of performance incompatibility and feedback valence. In a sample of N = 22 participants, outcome probability was manipulated by means of precues, feedback valence by means of monetary feedback, and performance incompatibility by means of feedback that induced a match versus mismatch with individuals' performance. We found that the 100% outcome probability condition induced a more negative FN following no-loss than the 50% outcome probability condition. The FN following loss was more negative in the 50% compared to the 100% outcome probability condition. Performance-incompatible loss resulted in a more negative FN than performance-compatible loss. Our results indicate that the self-evaluation of the correctness of responses should be taken into account when the effects of outcome probability and expectation mismatch on FN are investigated.

  16. Creativity, Psychopathology, and Emotion Processing: A Liberal Response Bias for Remembering Negative Information Is Associated with Higher Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drus, Marina; Kozbelt, Aaron; Hughes, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    To what extent do more creative people process emotional information differently than less creative people? This study examined the role of emotion processing in creativity and its implications for the creativity-psychopathology association. A total of 117 participants performed a memory recognition task for negative, positive, and neutral words;…

  17. Survival is associated with complete response on MRI after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in ER-positive HER2-negative breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loo, Claudette E; Rigter, Lisanne S; Pengel, Kenneth E; Wesseling, Jelle; Rodenhuis, Sjoerd; Peeters, Marie-Jeanne T F D Vrancken; Sikorska, Karolina; Gilhuijs, Kenneth G A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pathological complete remission (pCR) of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer is rarely achieved after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). In addition, the prognostic value of pCR for this breast cancer subtype is limited. We

  18. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  19. Kantian Psychologism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sperber, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/377312894

    2017-01-01

    For more than a hundred years now, the dominant view amongst scholars has been that Kant's philosophy has nothing to do with psychology, or, at the very least, that psychology is inessential to Kant's philosophical project. In the early reception of Kant's work, however, psychology played a central

  20. Patients with Parkinson's disease display a dopamine therapy related negative bias and an enlarged range in emotional responses to facial emotional stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Daniel; Svärd, Joakim; Michelgård Palmquist, Åsa; Fischer, Håkan; Svenningsson, Per

    2017-09-01

    The literature on emotional processing in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients shows mixed results. This may be because of various methodological and/or patient-related differences, such as failing to adjust for cognitive functioning, depression, and/or mood. In the current study, we tested PD patients and healthy controls (HCs) using emotional stimuli across a variety of tasks, including visual search, short-term memory (STM), categorical perception, and emotional stimulus rating. The PD and HC groups were matched on cognitive ability, depression, and mood. We also explored possible relationships between task results and antiparkinsonian treatment effects, as measured by levodopa equivalent dosages (LED), in the PD group. The results show that PD patients use a larger emotional range compared with HCs when reporting their impression of emotional faces on rated emotional valence, arousal, and potency. The results also show that dopaminergic therapy was correlated with stimulus rating results such that PD patients with higher LED scores rated negative faces as less arousing, less negative, and less powerful. Finally, results also show that PD patients display a general slowing effect in the visual search tasks compared with HCs, indicating overall slowed responses. There were no group differences observed in the STM or categorical perception tasks. Our results indicate a relationship between emotional responses, PD, and dopaminergic therapy, in which PD per se is associated with stronger emotional responses, whereas LED levels are negatively correlated with the strength of emotional responses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. PSYCHOLOGICAL SKILLS USAGE AND THE COMPETITIVE ANXIETY RESPONSE AS A FUNCTION OF SKILL LEVEL IN RUGBY UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Neil

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the intensity and direction of competitive anxiety symptoms and psychological skill usage in rugby union players of different skill levels. Elite (n=65 and nonelite (n=50 participants completed measures of competitive anxiety, self- confidence, and psychological skills. The elite group reported more facilitative interpretations of competitive anxiety symptoms, higher levels of self-confidence, lower relaxation usage, and greater imagery and self-talk use than their nonelite counterparts. The findings suggest that nonelite performers primarily use relaxation strategies to reduce anxiety intensity. In contrast, elite athletes appear to maintain intensity levels and adopt a combination of skills to interpret symptoms as facilitative to performance. Potential mechanisms for this process include the use of imagery and verbal persuasion efficacy-enhancement techniques to protect against debilitating symptom interpretations

  2. Psychological skills usage and the competitive anxiety response as a function of skill level in rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Richard; D Mellalieu, Stephen; Hanton, Sheldon

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the intensity and direction of competitive anxiety symptoms and psychological skill usage in rugby union players of different skill levels. Elite (n=65) and nonelite (n=50) participants completed measures of competitive anxiety, self- confidence, and psychological skills. The elite group reported more facilitative interpretations of competitive anxiety symptoms, higher levels of self-confidence, lower relaxation usage, and greater imagery and self-talk use than their nonelite counterparts. The findings suggest that nonelite performers primarily use relaxation strategies to reduce anxiety intensity. In contrast, elite athletes appear to maintain intensity levels and adopt a combination of skills to interpret symptoms as facilitative to performance. Potential mechanisms for this process include the use of imagery and verbal persuasion efficacy-enhancement techniques to protect against debilitating symptom interpretations. Key PointsNonelite performers primarily use relaxation strategies to reduce anxiety intensity.Elite athletes maintain intensity levels and adopt a combination of psychological skills to interpret symptoms as facilitative.This process occurs through imagery and verbal persuasion efficacy-enhancement techniques.Nonelite performers who are debilitators should implement relaxation-based programs. However, in high activation level sports performers should reduce symptom intensity, restructure cognitions, and then raise activation states again to appropriate levels.Elite performers who are debilitators should implement cognitive restructuring techniques to interpret their anxiety as facilitative via a combination of goal setting, self-talk, and imagery.

  3. Socioecological psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro

    2014-01-01

    Socioecological psychology investigates humans' cognitive, emotional, and behavioral adaption to physical, interpersonal, economic, and political environments. This article summarizes three types of socioecological psychology research: (a) association studies that link an aspect of social ecology (e.g., population density) with psychology (e.g., prosocial behavior), (b) process studies that clarify why there is an association between social ecology and psychology (e.g., residential mobility → anxiety → familiarity seeking), and (c) niche construction studies that illuminate how psychological states give rise to the creation and maintenance of a social ecology (e.g., familiarity seeking → dominance of national chain stores). Socioecological psychology attempts to bring the objectivist perspective to psychological science, investigating how objective social and physical environments, not just perception and construal of the environments, affect one's thinking, feeling, and behaviors, as well as how people's thinking, feeling, and behaviors give rise to social and built environments.

  4. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Giorgiana GRAMA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The psychological contract became known as a research paradigm within corporate research, providing a broad framework which explains the employee-company relations. Despite all this, there are still many debates on the concept and a series of criticism were expressed that led to the necessity of some more rigorous theoretical and empirical analysis. The psychological contract refers to the unwritten, implicit expectations that employees have from the company and vice versa; it is that which defines the things the employee expects from the employer. Consequently, each of the parties involved in the contract may have different perceptions on these commitments and obligations. Thus the psychological contract may be regarded as an exchange relation between the employer and the employee. Breaking the psychological contract affects the performance, the morale, and the motivation of the staff in a negative manner. The information presented in this paper is intended to contribute to the theoretical and methodological development of the concept.

  5. Behavioural changes, sharing behaviour and psychological responses after receiving direct-to-consumer genetic test results: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kelly F J; Wesselius, Anke; Schreurs, Maartje A C; Schols, Annemie M W J; Zeegers, Maurice P

    2018-01-01

    It has been hypothesised that direct-to-consumer genetic tests (DTC-GTs) could stimulate health behaviour change. However, genetic testing may also lead to anxiety and distress or unnecessarily burden the health care system. The aim is to review and meta-analyse the effects of DTC-GT on (1) behaviour change, (2) psychological response and (3) medical consumption. A systematic literature search was performed in three databases, using "direct-to-consumer genetic testing" as a key search term. Random effects meta-analyses were performed when at least two comparable outcomes were available. After selection, 19 articles were included involving 11 unique studies. Seven studies involved actual consumers who paid the retail price, whereas four included participants who received free genetic testing as part of a research trial (non-actual consumers). In meta-analysis, 23% had a positive lifestyle change. More specifically, improved dietary and exercise practices were both reported by 12%, whereas 19% quit smoking. Seven percent of participants had subsequent preventive checks. Thirty-three percent shared their results with any health care professional and 50% with family and/or friends. Sub-analyses show that behaviour change was more prevalent among non-actual consumers, whereas sharing was more prevalent among actual consumers. Results on psychological responses showed that anxiety, distress and worry were low or absent and that the effect faded with time. DTC-GT has potential to be effective as a health intervention, but the right audience needs to be addressed with tailored follow-up. Research is needed to identify consumers who do and do not change behaviour or experience adverse psychological responses.

  6. Individual and Group Responses of Fourteen and Fifteen Year Olds to Short Stories, Novels, Poems, and Thematic Apperception Tests: Case Studies Based on Piagetian Genetic Epistemology and Freudian Psychoanalytic Ego Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosky, Anthony R.

    A descriptive profile of adolescent response to literature is presented in this study, which also examines findings in terms of psychoanalytic concepts that relate response to life styles in terms of Piaget's genetic epistemology. There are two primary questions in this investigation: What is the psychological dynamic of response to literature? By…

  7. Blunted neuroactive steroid and HPA axis responses to stress are associated with reduced sleep quality and negative affect in pregnancy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Shannon K; O'Buckley, Todd K; Schiller, Crystal E; Stuebe, Alison; Morrow, A Leslie; Girdler, Susan S

    2016-04-01

    Anxiety during pregnancy has been linked to adverse maternal health outcomes, including postpartum depression (PPD). However, there has been limited study of biological mechanisms underlying behavioral predictors of PPD during pregnancy. Considering the shared etiology of chronic stress amongst antenatal behavioral predictors, the primary goal of this pilot study was to examine associations among stress-related physiological factors (including GABA-ergic neurosteroids) and stress-related behavioral indices of anxiety during pregnancy. Fourteen nulliparous women in their second trimester of a singleton pregnancy underwent speech and mental arithmetic stress, following a 2-week subjective and objective recording of sleep-wake behavior. Lower cortisol, progesterone, and a combined measure of ALLO + pregnanolone throughout the entire stressor protocol (area under the curve, AUC) were associated with greater negative emotional responses to stress, and lower cortisol AUC was associated with worse sleep quality. Lower adrenocorticotropic hormone was associated with greater anxious and depressive symptoms. Stress produced paradoxical reductions in cortisol, progesterone, and a combined measure of allopregnanolone + pregnanolone, while tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone levels were elevated. These data suggest that cortisol, progesterone, and ALLO + pregnanolone levels in the second trimester of pregnancy are inversely related to negative emotional symptoms, and the negative impact of acute stress challenge appears to exert its effects by reducing these steroids to further promote negative emotional responses.

  8. When negation is not negation

    OpenAIRE

    Milicevic, Nataša

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I will discuss the formation of different types of yes/no questions in Serbian (examples in (1)), focusing on the syntactically and semantically puzzling example (1d), which involves the negative auxiliary inversion. Although there is a negative marker on the fronted auxiliary, the construction does not involve sentential negation. This coincides with the fact that the negative quantifying NPIs cannot be licensed. The question formation and sentential negation have similar synta...

  9. Fetal programming: excess prenatal testosterone reduces postnatal luteinizing hormone, but not follicle-stimulating hormone responsiveness, to estradiol negative feedback in the female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Hirendra N; Manikkam, Mohan; Herkimer, Carol; Dell'Orco, James; Welch, Kathleen B; Foster, Douglas L; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2005-10-01

    Exposure of female sheep fetuses to excess testosterone (T) during early to midgestation produces postnatal hypergonadotropism manifest as a selective increase in LH. This hypergonadotropism may result from reduced sensitivity to estradiol (E2) negative feedback and/or increased pituitary sensitivity to GnRH. We tested the hypothesis that excess T before birth reduces responsiveness of LH and FSH to E2 negative feedback after birth. Pregnant ewes were treated with T propionate (100 mg/kg in cotton seed oil) or vehicle twice weekly from d 30-90 gestation. Responsiveness to E2 negative feedback was assessed at 12 and 24 wk of age in the ovary-intact female offspring. Our experimental strategy was first to arrest follicular growth and reduce endogenous E2 by administering the GnRH antagonist (GnRH-A), Nal-Glu (50 microg/kg sc every 12 h for 72 h), and then provide a fixed amount of exogenous E2 via an implant. Blood samples were obtained every 20 min at 12 wk and every 10 min at 24 wk before treatment, during and after GnRH-A treatment both before and after E2 implant. GnRH-A ablated LH pulsatility, reduced FSH by approximately 25%, and E2 production diminished to near detection limit of assay at both ages in both groups. Prenatal T treatment produced a precocious and selective reduction in responsiveness of LH but not FSH to E2 negative feedback, which was manifest mainly at the level of LH/GnRH pulse frequency. Collectively, these findings support the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to excess T decreases postnatal responsiveness to E2 inhibitory feedback of LH/GnRH secretion to contribute to the development of hypergonadotropism.

  10. Psychological Impact of AIDS on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfer, Myron L.

    There are at least three aspects to the psychological impact of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) on children. First is the psychological response of the child with AIDS; second, the response of the child in a group at high risk for AIDS; and third, the psychological response of children in general to the perceived threat from AIDS.…

  11. Reducing attentional capture of emotion by broadening attention: increased global attention reduces early electrophysiological responses to negative stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Philip A; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2012-05-01

    Decades of research has shown the influence of emotion on attentional capture, and more recently, the influence of emotion on neurophysiological processes related to attentional capture. The current research tested whether some of the earliest neurophysiological underpinnings of emotive attentional processes can be influenced by attentional manipulations of broadening versus narrowing. Previous research has shown that negative affects high in motivational intensity (e.g., disgust, fear) cause a relative narrowing of attentional scope (Gable and Harmon-Jones, 2010a; Easterbrook, 1959). Because of the strong link between motivation and attention, attentional scope should also influence the attentional capture of negative stimuli. The current study manipulated a local attentional scope or global attentional scope, then measured attentional capture towards disgust and neutral pictures using the N1 event-related potential component. Results revealed that a manipulated global attentional scope reduced N1 amplitude towards disgust pictures compared to a manipulated local attentional scope. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Constitutive MHC class I molecules negatively regulate TLR-triggered inflammatory responses via the Fps-SHP-2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sheng; Liu, Xingguang; Bao, Yan; Zhu, Xuhui; Han, Chaofeng; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Xuemin; Li, Weihua; Cao, Xuetao

    2012-04-22

    The molecular mechanisms that fine-tune Toll-like receptor (TLR)-triggered innate inflammatory responses remain to be fully elucidated. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules can mediate reverse signaling and have nonclassical functions. Here we found that constitutively expressed membrane MHC class I molecules attenuated TLR-triggered innate inflammatory responses via reverse signaling, which protected mice from sepsis. The intracellular domain of MHC class I molecules was phosphorylated by the kinase Src after TLR activation, then the tyrosine kinase Fps was recruited via its Src homology 2 domain to phosphorylated MHC class I molecules. This led to enhanced Fps activity and recruitment of the phosphatase SHP-2, which interfered with TLR signaling mediated by the signaling molecule TRAF6. Thus, constitutive MHC class I molecules engage in crosstalk with TLR signaling via the Fps-SHP-2 pathway and control TLR-triggered innate inflammatory responses.

  13. Moral psychology (ethics).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Chrisoula

    2010-07-01

    This article examines a selection of currently lively debates in the quickly evolving, interdisciplinary field of moral psychology. Topics discussed include the possibility of amoralism, the nature of rationality, the (ir)rationality of emotions and intuitions, the psychology of cooperation and of (rational) commitment, weakness of will, free will, and the assignment of moral responsibility. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Destination branding by residents : The role of perceived responsibility in positive and negative word-of-mouth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuring, Jelmer; Haartsen, Tialda

    2017-01-01

    The importance of residents’ communication about their home region as tourist destination is increasingly acknowledged in the place branding process. However, the extent to which residents feel responsible for communicating Destination Images (DIs), and how these attributions affect word-of-mouth

  15. Ascaris suum infection negatively affects the response to a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccination and subsequent challenge infection in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is vital to understand the possible mechanisms that may impair optimal vaccine efficacy. The hypothesis posed in this study was that a concurrent Ascaris suum infection of pigs vaccinated with a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh) vaccine would modulate the protective immune response to a subsequent ch...

  16. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  17. Catechol-O-methyltransferase gene variants may associate with negative symptom response and plasma concentrations of prolactin in schizophrenia after amisulpride treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Yen; Yeh, Yi-Wei; Kuo, Shin-Chang; Ho, Pei-Shen; Liang, Chih-Sung; Yen, Che-Hung; Lu, Ru-Band; Huang, San-Yuan

    2016-03-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme is involved in the pathogenesis of psychotic symptoms and may be associated with a therapeutic response to antipsychotic drugs. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between COMT variants, plasma prolactin level, and the therapeutic effectiveness of amisulpride treatment in patients with schizophrenia. A 12-week naturalistic study of amisulpride treatment was carried out in 185 Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia. The patients were screened for 14 single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the COMT gene. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used to assess the improvement of psychopathological symptoms from the baseline to the end point in each subject. For better presentation of time-course changes in response status, a mixed model for repeated-measures (MMRM) analysis of symptom improvement during the 12-week treatment period was conducted. The change in plasma prolactin level after amisulpride treatment was also examined (n=51). No significant differences in the genotype frequencies of the COMT variants investigated were observed between responders and non-responders. Moreover, an MMRM analysis of psychopathological symptom improvement during the 12-week treatment course showed that it depended significantly on COMT variants (rs4680, rs4633, and rs6267), particularly regarding changes in negative symptoms. The increase in plasma prolactin levels observed was influenced by the COMT rs4680 variant and was positively correlated with a reduction in PANSS negative scores. Our results suggest that variation of the COMT gene is associated with treatment response regarding negative symptoms and prolactin changes after amisulpride treatment in patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical and psychological risk factors for aggressive behavior in minors with delinquent behavior , have not reached the age of criminal responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martynova I.R.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of empirical studies of clinical and psychological risk factors for aggressive behavior in adolescents. The main sample and comparison group - juveniles with delinquent behavior, not reached (n = 60 and age of criminal responsibility (n = 60. The control group of adolescents with conventionally normative behavior (n = 20. It is shown that the main group examinees have a number of serious problems that increase the risk of aggressive behavior. Reduced mood, anxiety, emotional instability, feeling of physical distress, sensitivity to external impacts, vulnerability in social interaction, communication difficulties, leading to increased mental stress. It acts predispozitciej an aggressive response. Hostility, susceptibility to reactions of irritation and anger at the lack of formation of mechanisms of deterrence immediate motivation, increase the likelihood of aggression. It is possible that the described problems are clinical conditionality. Therefore, a timely multidisciplinary evaluation of risk factors for aggressive behavior. Its elements can be screening for mental health.

  19. Positive response to neoadjuvant cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin in topoisomerase II nonamplified/HER2/neu negative/polysomy 17 absent breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry G Kaplan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Henry G Kaplan1, Judith A Malmgren2,3, Mary Atwood1, Lynn C Goldstein41Swedish Cancer Institute at Swedish Medical Center, Seattle, Washington, USA; 2HealthStat Consulting Inc., Seattle, Washington, USA; 3School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA; 4PhenoPath Laboratories, Seattle, Washington, USAPurpose: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu, topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A, and polysomy 17 may predict tumor responsiveness to doxorubicin (DOX therapy.Methods: We identified neoadjuvant DOX/cyclophosphamide treated breast cancer patients in our registry from 1997 to 2008 with sufficient tissue for testing (n = 34. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH testing was done on deparaffinized tissue sections pretreated using vendor’s standard protocol modification, and incubated with US Food and Drug Administration approved Abbott Diagnostics Vysis PathVysion™ probe set, including Spectrum-Green-conjugated probe to a-satellite DNA located at the centromere of chromosome 17 (17p11.1–q11.1 and a Spectrum-Orange-conjugated probe to the TOP2A gene. Morphometric analysis was performed using a MetaSystems image analysis system. Manual counting was performed on all samples in which autofluorescence and/or artifact prevented the counting of sufficient numbers of cells. A ratio >2.0 was considered positive for TOP2A amplification. Polysomy 17 (PS17 presence was defined as signals of ≥2.5. Outcomes were pathological complete response (pCR, partial response (PR, and nonresponse (NR.Results: Of 34 patients tested, one was TOP2A amplified (hormone receptor negative/HER2 ­negative, partial responder. The subset of TOP2A nonamplified, HER2 negative, and PS17 absent (n = 23 patients had treatment response: pCR = 2 (9%, PR = 14 (61%, and NR = 7 (30%. Including the two PS17 present and HER2-positive patients (n = 33, 76% of TOP2A nonamplified patients had pCR or PR

  20. Psychological Risk Factors in Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Robert A.; Houle, Timothy T.; Rhudy, Jamie L.; Norton, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Headache is a chronic disease that occurs with varying frequency and results in varying levels of disability. To date, the majority of research and clinical focus has been on the role of biological factors in headache and headache-related disability. However, reliance on a purely biomedical model of headache does not account for all aspects of headache and associated disability. Using a biopsychosocial framework, the current manuscript expands the view of what factors influence headache by considering the role psychological (i.e., cognitive and affective) factors have in the development, course, and consequences of headache. The manuscript initially reviews evidence showing that neural circuits responsible for cognitive–affective phenomena are highly interconnected with the circuitry responsible for headache pain. The manuscript then reviews the influence cognitions (locus of control and self-efficacy) and negative affect (depression, anxiety, and anger) have on the development of headache attacks, perception of headache pain, adherence to prescribed treatment, headache treatment outcome, and headache-related disability. The manuscript concludes with a discussion of the clinical implications of considering psychological factors when treating headache. PMID:17371358

  1. Sublethal pesticide doses negatively affect survival and the cellular responses in American foulbrood-infected honeybee larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Javier Hernández; Krainer, Sophie; Engert, Antonia; Schuehly, Wolfgang; Riessberger-Gallé, Ulrike; Crailsheim, Karl

    2017-02-01

    Disclosing interactions between pesticides and bee infections is of most interest to understand challenges that pollinators are facing and to which extent bee health is compromised. Here, we address the individual and combined effect that three different pesticides (dimethoate, clothianidin and fluvalinate) and an American foulbrood (AFB) infection have on mortality and the cellular immune response of honeybee larvae. We demonstrate for the first time a synergistic interaction when larvae are exposed to sublethal doses of dimethoate or clothianidin in combination with Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of AFB. A significantly higher mortality than the expected sum of the effects of each individual stressor was observed in co-exposed larvae, which was in parallel with a drastic reduction of the total and differential hemocyte counts. Our results underline that characterizing the cellular response of larvae to individual and combined stressors allows unmasking previously undetected sublethal effects of pesticides in colony health.

  2. Peripheral Microvascular Responses to Whole-Body Tilting, G(z) Centrifugation, and Lower Body Negative Pressure Stresses in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit, G. A.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Buckley, T. M.; Ballard, R. E.; Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    The response of the cutaneous microcirculation to orthostatic stress varies along the length of the body due to the interaction of central controls with regional responses to local blood pressure. We hypothesize that artificial orthostatic stresses such as Gz centrifugation and LBNP differ from whole-body tilting in terms of the distribution of microvascular blood flow. Cutaneous microvascular flows were measured by laser Doppler flowmetry at the neck, thigh, and leg of 15 normal subjects. Volunteers underwent stepwise head-up tilt (HUT) and short- and long-arm centrifugation protocols from supine control (0 Gz) to 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 0.8, 0.6, 0.4, 0.2, and 0 Gz at the feet, for 30-s periods with 10-s transitions between levels. The same subjects underwent a corresponding supine LBNP protocol, up to 100 mmHg (in 20 mmHg increments) and back to zero pressure, which produced transmural pressure across blood vessels in the foot approximately equal to the HUT protocol. In general, application of all orthostatic stresses produced significant flow reductions in the lower body (p less than 0.05) and inconsistent changes in the neck. At low levels of each stress (0.4 Gz, 40 mmHg), LBNP generated the greatest relative reduction in flow in the lower body (-66.9+/-5.7%, thigh; -60.6 +/-5.7%, leg, mean +/- SE). HUT caused a less severe flow reduction than LBNP at the thigh and leg (-39.9 +/- 8.1% and -55.9+/-4.8%), while the effects induced by both forms of centrifugation were the least profound. Higher levels of each stress generally resulted in similar responses. These responses exhibit a consistent relationship to hypothesized changes in local microvascular transmural pressure, suggesting that myogenic and veno-arteriolar reflexes play a significant role in determining microvascular perfusion during orthostatic stress.

  3. Acute pharmacologically induced shifts in serotonin availability abolish emotion-selective responses to negative face emotions in distinct brain networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grady, Cheryl Lynn; Siebner, Hartwig R; Hornboll, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacological manipulation of serotonin availability can alter the processing of facial expressions of emotion. Using a within-subject design, we measured the effect of serotonin on the brain's response to aversive face emotions with functional MRI while 20 participants judged the gender...... of neutral, fearful and angry faces. In three separate and counterbalanced sessions, participants received citalopram (CIT) to raise serotonin levels, underwent acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) to lower serotonin, or were studied without pharmacological challenge (Control). An analysis designed to identify...

  4. Alcohol dysregulates corticotropin-releasing-hormone (CRH promoter activity by interfering with the negative glucocorticoid response element (nGRE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena M Przybycien-Szymanska

    Full Text Available EtOH exposure in male rats increases corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN, a brain region responsible for coordinating stress and anxiety responses. In this study we identified the molecular mechanisms involved in mediating these effects by examining the direct effects of EtOH on CRH promoter activity in a neuronal cell line derived from the PVN (IVB. In addition, we investigated the potential interactions of EtOH and glucocorticoids on the CRH promoter by concomitantly treating cells with EtOH and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR antagonist RU486, and by sequentially deleting GR binding sites within glucocorticoid response element (GRE on the CRH promoter. Cells were transiently transfected with a firefly luciferase reporter construct containing 2.5 kb of the rat wild type (WT or mutated CRH promoter. Our results showed that EtOH treatment induced a biphasic response in CRH promoter activity. EtOH exposure for 0.5 h significantly decreased promoter activity compared to vehicle treated controls, whereas promoter activity was significantly increased after 2.0 h of EtOH exposure. Treatment with RU486, or deletion of the GR binding sites 1 and 2 within the GRE, abolished the EtOH-induced increase in the promoter activity, however did not affect EtOH-induced decrease in CRH promoter activity at an earlier time point. Overall, our data suggest that alcohol exposure directly regulates CRH promoter activity by interfering with the normal feedback mechanisms of glucocorticoids mediated by GR signaling at the GRE site of the CRH promoter.

  5. Anger arousal and behavioral anger regulation in everyday life among people with chronic low back pain: Relationships with spouse responses and negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, John W; Gerhart, James I; Bruehl, Stephen; Post, Kristina M; Smith, David A; Porter, Laura S; Schuster, Erik; Buvanendran, Asokumar; Fras, Anne Marie; Keefe, Francis J

    2016-01-01

    To determine the degree to which anger arousal and anger regulation (expression, inhibition) in the daily lives of people with chronic pain were related to spouse support, criticism, and hostility as perceived by patients and as reported by spouses. Married couples (N = 105, 1 spouse with chronic low back pain) completed electronic daily diaries, with assessments 5 times/day for 14 days. On these diaries, patients completed items on their own anger arousal, anger expression, and inhibition, and on perceived spouse support, criticism, and hostility. Spouses reported on their responses toward patients and their negative affect. Hierarchical linear modeling tested concurrent and lagged relationships. Patient-reported increases in anger arousal and anger expression were predominantly related to concurrent decreases in patient-perceived and spouse-reported spouse support, concurrent increases in patient-perceived and spouse-reported spouse criticism and hostility, and increases in spouse-reported negative affect. Relationships for anger expression remained significant with anger arousal controlled. These effects were especially strong for male patients. Spouses reported greater negative affect when patients were present than when they were not. Social support may facilitate adjustment to chronic pain, with declining support and overt criticism and hostility possibly adversely impacting pain and function. Results suggest that patient anger arousal and expression may be related to a negative interpersonal environment for married couples coping with chronic low back pain. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Cognitive responses to stress, depression, and anxiety and their relationship to ADHD symptoms in first year psychology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Sandra J; Harrison, Allyson G

    2013-01-01

    To explore the relationship between levels of reported depression, anxiety, and stress with scores on the Conners's Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS). Information was obtained from 84 1st-year psychology students using the CAARS, the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), and the Life Experiences Survey (LES). Approximately 23%, 18%, and 12% of students scored above critical values on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., DSM-IV) Inattention Symptoms, the DSM-IV ADHD Symptoms Total, and the Inattention/Restlessness subscales, respectively. CAARS scores were positively related to reported levels of depression, anxiety, and stress, which accounted for significant variance among the three subscales. Only 5% of participants scored above recommended critical values on the ADHD index; however, a significant amount of the variance on this measure was also attributable to the DASS. Mood symptoms such as depression, anxiety, and stress may obscure correct attribution of cause in those being evaluated for ADHD.

  7. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  8. Psychological experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, Martijn; Emmanuel, Steven M.; McDonald, William; Stewart, Jon

    2015-01-01

    For Kierkegaard the ‘psychological experiment’ is a literary strategy. It enables him to dramatize an existential conflict in an experimental mode. Kierkegaard’s aim is to study the source of movement that animates the existing individual (this is the psychological part). However, he is not

  9. Sex differences in platelet reactivity and cardiovascular and psychological response to mental stress in patients with stable ischemic heart disease: insights from the REMIT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Zainab; Boyle, Stephen; Ersboll, Mads; Vora, Amit N; Zhang, Ye; Becker, Richard C; Williams, Redford; Kuhn, Cynthia; Ortel, Thomas L; Rogers, Joseph G; O'Connor, Christopher M; Velazquez, Eric J; Jiang, Wei

    2014-10-21

    Although emotional stress is associated with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and related clinical events, sex-specific differences in the psychobiological response to mental stress have not been clearly identified. We aimed to study the differential psychological and cardiovascular responses to mental stress between male and female patients with stable IHD. Patients with stable IHD enrolled in the REMIT (Responses of Mental Stress-Induced Myocardial Ischemia to Escitalopram) study underwent psychometric assessments, transthoracic echocardiography, and platelet aggregation studies at baseline and after 3 mental stress tasks. Mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia (MSIMI) was defined as the development or worsening of regional wall motion abnormality, reduction of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≥8% by transthoracic echocardiography, and/or ischemic ST-segment change on electrocardiogram during 1 or more of the 3 mental stress tasks. In the 310 participants with known IHD (18% women, 82% men), most baseline characteristics were similar between women and men (including heart rate, blood pressure, and LVEF), although women were more likely to be nonwhite, living alone (p mental stress, women had more MSIMI (57% vs. 41%; p mental stress in women and men. Further studies should test the association of sex differences in cardiovascular and platelet reactivity in response to mental stress and long-term outcomes. (Responses of Myocardial Ischemia to Escitalopram Treatment [REMIT]; NCT00574847). Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Negative mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, Richard T

    2015-01-01

    Some physical aspects of negative mass are examined. Several unusual properties, such as the ability of negative mass to penetrate any armor, are analysed. Other surprising effects include the bizarre system of negative mass chasing positive mass, naked singularities and the violation of cosmic censorship, wormholes, and quantum mechanical results as well. In addition, a brief look into the implications for strings is given. (paper)

  11. Once the rockets are up, who should care where they come down? The problem of responsibility ascription for the negative consequences of biofuel innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempels, T H; Van den Belt, H

    2016-01-01

    Responsible Innovation (RI) is often heralded in EU policy circles as a means to achieve ethically acceptable, sustainable innovations. Yet, conceptual questions on the specific notion of 'responsibility' and to what extent an innovation can be 'responsible' are only partly addressed. In this chapter the question of responsibility for the indirect negative effects of biofuel innovations is explored. While initially hailed as one of the much needed solutions in the global struggle against climate change, the use of biofuels has become increasingly criticised. It is argued that the increased production of biofuels has put smallholder farmers out of business, has given rise to increased food prices, sparking food riots in several countries, while also contributing to further environmental degradation as the demand for new biofuels requires the development of new croplands at the cost of forests and peat lands. In the current market-based system it is customary to disburden researchers and business companies from any responsibility for the more remote consequences of their actions. When harmful consequences are brought about through the mediation of (perhaps a long series of) market transactions, they are often considered inevitable and excusable and not an appropriate occasion for invoking anybody's responsibility. But how broad is the scope of responsibility when it comes to the above mentioned social and ecological problems? By invoking the sacred duty to "innovate", the business company could perhaps be exculpated. In our age, innovation is often so much celebrated that many negative impacts are duly accepted as the inevitable price of progress. By approaching responsibility from a perspective that takes into account the economic and ecological interconnectedness of the world, we show how the debate on Responsible Innovation in biofuels becomes tied in with global debates on economic justice and bioscarcity. In conclusion we argue that if we-assuming this

  12. Negative BOLD response and serotonin concentration within rostral subgenual portion of the anterior cingulate cortex for long-allele carriers during perceptual processing of emotional tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Shamil M.; Siadat, Mohamad R.; Babajani-Feremi, Abbas

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the effect of synaptic serotonin concentration on hemodynamic responses. The stimuli paradigm involved the presentation of fearful and threatening facial expressions to a set of 24 subjects who were either5HTTLPR long- or short-allele carriers (12 of each type in each group). The BOLD signals of the rACC from subjects of each group were averaged to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. We used a Bayesian approach to estimate the parameters of the underlying hemodynamic model. Our results, during this perceptual processing of emotional task, showed a negative BOLD signal in the rACC in the subjects with long-alleles. In contrast, the subjects with short-alleles showed positive BOLD signals in the rACC. These results suggest that high synaptic serotonin concentration in the rACC inhibits neuronal activity in a fashion similar to GABA, and a consequent negative BOLD signal ensues.

  13. Double-standards in reporting of risk and responsibility for sexual health: a qualitative content analysis of negatively toned UK newsprint articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Susan P; McDaid, Lisa M; Hilton, Shona

    2014-08-04

    The need to challenge messages that reinforce harmful negative discourses around sexual risk and responsibility is a priority in improving sexual health. The mass media are an important source of information regularly alerting, updating and influencing public opinions and the way in which sexual health issues are framed may play a crucial role in shaping expectations of who is responsible for sexual health risks and healthy sexual practices. We conducted an in-depth, qualitative analysis of 85 negatively toned newspaper articles reporting on sexual health topics to examine how risk and responsibility have been framed within these in relation to gender. Articles published in 2010 in seven UK and three Scottish national newspapers were included. A latent content analysis approach was taken, focusing on interpreting the underlying meaning of text. A key theme in the articles was men being framed as a risk to women's sexual health, whilst it was part of a women's role to "resist" men's advances. Such discourses tended to portray a power imbalance in sexual relationships between women and men. A number of articles argued that it was women who needed to take more responsibility for sexual health. Articles repeatedly suggested that women and teenage girls in particular, lacked the skills and confidence to negotiate safer sex and sex education programmes were often presented as having failed. Men were frequently portrayed as being more promiscuous and engaging in more risky sexual health behaviours than women, yet just one article drew attention to the lack of focus on male responsibility for sexual health. Gay men were used as a bench mark against which rates were measured and framed as being a risk and at risk. The framing of men as a risk to women, whilst women are presented at the same time as responsible for patrolling sexual encounters, organising contraception and preventing sexual ill health reinforces gender stereotypes and undermines efforts to promote a

  14. Measuring the Cognitions, Emotions, and Motivation Associated With Avoidance Behaviors in the Context of Pain: Preliminary Development of the Negative Responsivity to Pain Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mark P; Ward, L Charles; Thorn, Beverly E; Ehde, Dawn M; Day, Melissa A

    2017-04-01

    We recently proposed a Behavioral Inhibition System-Behavioral Activation System (BIS-BAS) model to help explain the effects of pain treatments. In this model, treatments are hypothesized to operate primarily through their effects on the domains within 2 distinct neurophysiological systems that underlie approach (BAS) and avoidance (BIS) behaviors. Measures of the model's domains are needed to evaluate and modify the model. An item pool of negative responses to pain (NRP; hypothesized to be BIS related) and positive responses (PR; hypothesized to be BAS related) were administered to 395 undergraduates, 325 of whom endorsed recurrent pain. The items were administered to 176 of these individuals again 1 week later. Analyses were conducted to develop and validate scales assessing NRP and PR domains. Three NRP scales (Despondent Response to Pain, Fear of Pain, and Avoidant Response to Pain) and 2 PR scales (Happy/Hopeful Responses and Approach Response) emerged. Consistent with the model, the scales formed 2 relatively independent overarching domains. The scales also demonstrated excellent internal consistency, and associations with criterion variables supported their validity. However, whereas the NRP scales evidenced adequate test-retest stability, the 2 PR scales were not adequately stable. The study yielded 3 brief scales assessing NRP, which may be used to further evaluate the BIS-BAS model and to advance research elucidating the mechanisms of psychosocial pain treatments. The findings also provide general support for the BIS-BAS model, while also suggesting that some minor modifications in the model are warranted.

  15. DoD’s Response When Psychological Health is Failing: Lessons Learned from Suicide Experiences. A survivor and clinician’s perspective on how suicide prevention efforts can be enhanced within the Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    When Psychological Health is Failing: Lessons Learned from Suicide Experiences January 26, 2011 COL George D. Patrin, MD, FACHE, FAAP T e Quadruple...26 JAN 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DoD’s Response When Psychological Health is Failing...provider)  Family Hx of multiple severe mental health diagnoses - depression, bipolar, schizophrenia, bulimia , alcoholism, autism  Social Hx

  16. The Socio-Communicative Development of Preterm Infants Is Resistant to the Negative Effects of Parity on Maternal Responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Ivete F R; Garotti, Marilice F; Shiramizu, Victor K M; Pereira, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Humans are born completely dependent on adult care for survival. To get the necessary support, newborns rely on socio-communicative abilities which have both innate and learned components. Maternal responsiveness (MR), as a critical aspect of mother-infant interaction, is a robust predictor of the acquisition of socio-communicative abilities. However, maternal responsiveness (MR) is influenced by parity, since mothers rely on a limited capacity of cognitive control for efficient attachment with their offspring. This fact is of particular concern for preterms, whose developing brain already faces many challenges due to their premature emergence from the womb's controlled environment and may still have to compete with siblings for mother's attention. Thus, in the present work, we aimed to understand how parity interferes with MR and whether it affects the development of socio-communicative abilities of preterm infants. We used the Social Interaction Rating Scale (SIRS) and the mother-child observation protocol in 18 dyads with gestational age <36 weeks. Dyads were separated into three groups: primiparous with twin pregnancy (TPM), primiparous (PM), and multiparous (MP). Dyadic behavior was evaluated at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Our results show that offspring size affects MR, but not the socio-communicative development of preterm infants during the first year, suggesting a level of resilience of brain systems supporting the attachment to caregivers.

  17. The Socio-Communicative Development of Preterm Infants Is Resistant to the Negative Effects of Parity on Maternal Responsiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivete F. R. Caldas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Humans are born completely dependent on adult care for survival. To get the necessary support, newborns rely on socio-communicative abilities which have both innate and learned components. Maternal responsiveness (MR, as a critical aspect of mother-infant interaction, is a robust predictor of the acquisition of socio-communicative abilities. However, maternal responsiveness (MR is influenced by parity, since mothers rely on a limited capacity of cognitive control for efficient attachment with their offspring. This fact is of particular concern for preterms, whose developing brain already faces many challenges due to their premature emergence from the womb's controlled environment and may still have to compete with siblings for mother's attention. Thus, in the present work, we aimed to understand how parity interferes with MR and whether it affects the development of socio-communicative abilities of preterm infants. We used the Social Interaction Rating Scale (SIRS and the mother-child observation protocol in 18 dyads with gestational age <36 weeks. Dyads were separated into three groups: primiparous with twin pregnancy (TPM, primiparous (PM, and multiparous (MP. Dyadic behavior was evaluated at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Our results show that offspring size affects MR, but not the socio-communicative development of preterm infants during the first year, suggesting a level of resilience of brain systems supporting the attachment to caregivers.

  18. When Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Meets Organizational Psychology: New Frontiers in Micro-CSR Research, and Fulfilling a Quid Pro Quo through Multilevel Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David A; Willness, Chelsea R; Glavas, Ante

    2017-01-01

    Researchers, corporate leaders, and other stakeholders have shown increasing interest in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)-a company's discretionary actions and policies that appear to advance societal well-being beyond its immediate financial interests and legal requirements. Spanning decades of research activity, the scholarly literature on CSR has been dominated by meso- and macro-level perspectives, such as studies within corporate strategy that examine relationships between firm-level indicators of social/environmental performance and corporate financial performance. In recent years, however, there has been an explosion of micro-oriented CSR research conducted at the individual level of analysis, especially with respect to studies on how and why job seekers and employees perceive and react to CSR practices. This micro-level focus is reflected in 12 articles published as a Research Topic collection in Frontiers in Psychology (Organizational Psychology Specialty Section) titled "CSR and organizational psychology: Quid pro quo." In the present article, the authors summarize and integrate findings from these Research Topic articles. After describing some of the "new frontiers" these articles explore and create, the authors strive to fulfill a "quid pro quo" with some of the meso- and macro-oriented CSR literatures that paved the way for micro-CSR research. Specifically, the authors draw on insights from the Research Topic articles to inform a multilevel model that offers multiple illustrations of how micro-level processes among individual stakeholders can explain variability in meso (firm)-level relationships between CSR practices and corporate performance. The authors also explore an important implication of these multilevel processes for macro-level societal impact.

  19. When Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Meets Organizational Psychology: New Frontiers in Micro-CSR Research, and Fulfilling a Quid Pro Quo through Multilevel Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David A.; Willness, Chelsea R.; Glavas, Ante

    2017-01-01

    Researchers, corporate leaders, and other stakeholders have shown increasing interest in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)—a company’s discretionary actions and policies that appear to advance societal well-being beyond its immediate financial interests and legal requirements. Spanning decades of research activity, the scholarly literature on CSR has been dominated by meso- and macro-level perspectives, such as studies within corporate strategy that examine relationships between firm-level indicators of social/environmental performance and corporate financial performance. In recent years, however, there has been an explosion of micro-oriented CSR research conducted at the individual level of analysis, especially with respect to studies on how and why job seekers and employees perceive and react to CSR practices. This micro-level focus is reflected in 12 articles published as a Research Topic collection in Frontiers in Psychology (Organizational Psychology Specialty Section) titled “CSR and organizational psychology: Quid pro quo.” In the present article, the authors summarize and integrate findings from these Research Topic articles. After describing some of the “new frontiers” these articles explore and create, the authors strive to fulfill a “quid pro quo” with some of the meso- and macro-oriented CSR literatures that paved the way for micro-CSR research. Specifically, the authors draw on insights from the Research Topic articles to inform a multilevel model that offers multiple illustrations of how micro-level processes among individual stakeholders can explain variability in meso (firm)-level relationships between CSR practices and corporate performance. The authors also explore an important implication of these multilevel processes for macro-level societal impact. PMID:28439247

  20. bHLH003, bHLH013 and bHLH017 are new targets of JAZ repressors negatively regulating JA responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fonseca

    Full Text Available Cell reprogramming in response to jasmonates requires a tight control of transcription that is achieved by the activity of JA-related transcription factors (TFs. Among them, MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4 have been described as activators of JA responses. Here we characterized the function of bHLH003, bHLH013 and bHLH017 that conform a phylogenetic clade closely related to MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4. We found that these bHLHs form homo- and heterodimers and also interact with JAZ repressors in vitro and in vivo. Phenotypic analysis of JA-regulated processes, including root and rosette growth, anthocyanin accumulation, chlorophyll loss and resistance to Pseudomonas syringae, on mutants and overexpression lines, suggested that these bHLHs are repressors of JA responses. bHLH003, bHLH013 and bHLH017 are mainly nuclear proteins and bind DNA with similar specificity to that of MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4, but lack a conserved activation domain, suggesting that repression is achieved by competition for the same cis-regulatory elements. Moreover, expression of bHLH017 is induced by JA and depends on MYC2, suggesting a negative feed-back regulation of the activity of positive JA-related TFs. Our results suggest that the competition between positive and negative TFs determines the output of JA-dependent transcriptional activation.

  1. SIRT6 Acts as a Negative Regulator in Dengue Virus-Induced Inflammatory Response by Targeting the DNA Binding Domain of NF-κB p65

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengcheng Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is a mosquito-borne single-stranded RNA virus causing human disease with variable severity. The production of massive inflammatory cytokines in dengue patients has been associated with dengue disease severity. However, the regulation of these inflammatory responses remains unclear. In this study, we report that SIRT6 is a negative regulator of innate immune responses during DENV infection. Silencing of Sirt6 enhances DENV-induced proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production. Overexpression of SIRT6 inhibits RIG-I-like receptor (RLR and Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3 mediated NF-κB activation. The sirtuin core domain of SIRT6 is required for the inhibition of NF-κB p65 function. SIRT6 interacts with the DNA binding domain of p65 and competes with p65 to occupy the Il6 promoter during DENV infection. Collectively, our study demonstrates that SIRT6 negatively regulates DENV-induced inflammatory response via RLR and TLR3 signaling pathways.

  2. BRUTUS and its paralogs, BTS LIKE1 and BTS LIKE2, encode important negative regulators of the iron deficiency response in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindt, Maria N; Akmakjian, Garo Z; Pivarski, Kara L; Punshon, Tracy; Baxter, Ivan; Salt, David E; Guerinot, Mary Lou

    2017-07-19

    Iron (Fe) is required for plant health, but it can also be toxic when present in excess. Therefore, Fe levels must be tightly controlled. The Arabidopsis thaliana E3 ligase BRUTUS (BTS) is involved in the negative regulation of the Fe deficiency response and we show here that the two A. thaliana BTS paralogs, BTS LIKE1 (BTSL1) and BTS LIKE2 (BTSL2) encode proteins that act redundantly as negative regulators of the Fe deficiency response. Loss of both of these E3 ligases enhances tolerance to Fe deficiency. We further generated a triple mutant with loss of both BTS paralogs and a partial loss of BTS expression that exhibits even greater tolerance to Fe-deficient conditions and increased Fe accumulation without any resulting Fe toxicity effects. Finally, we identified a mutant carrying a novel missense mutation of BTS that exhibits an Fe deficiency response in the root when grown under both Fe-deficient and Fe-sufficient conditions, leading to Fe toxicity when plants are grown under Fe-sufficient conditions.

  3. Examining the Changing Landscape of School Psychology Practice: A Survey of School-Based Practitioners regarding Response to Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Amanda L.; Long, Lori

    2010-01-01

    As Response to Intervention (RtI) approaches become more common in educational systems throughout the country, it is increasingly important to identify how practitioners perceive these changes and how they obtain the skills necessary to face emergent roles and responsibilities. In this exploratory study, a national sample of 557 school…

  4. An investigation into psychological stress and its determinants in Xinjiang desert oil workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Li; Guan, Suzhen; Liu, Jiwen

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The present study aims to investigate psychological stress and its determinants in Xinjiang field oil workers. Specifically, we aim to elucidate the mechanisms underlying psychological stress by comprehensively and quantitatively evaluating the processes involved in psychological stress, the factors which influence it, and their relationship. The participants were 1200 field oil workers in Xinjiang who had been in service for at least 1 year. A structural equation model based on data from the symptom checklist, social support research scale, personality questionnaire, occupational burnout questionnaire, and occupational stress questionnaire was constructed to investigate the social (environmental) factors that influence physiological stress and the interplay among these factors. The positive incidence of psychological stress in the field oil workers in Xinjiang was 12.54%. The structural equation model indicated that the main factors that influenced psychological stress in these workers included social support (0.077), occupational role (0.165), personal strain response (0.139), personality (0.189), and occupational burnout (0.380). Among these factors, occupational role, personality, and occupational burnout had a relatively strong predictive power for psychological stress reactions. The cortisol level in workers with positive psychological stress was significantly higher than that in workers with negative psychological stress. Occupational stress, personality, and occupational burnout exert an impact on psychological stress in field oil workers. Therefore, interventions to address these factors should be taken to reduce the incidence of psychological stress. PMID:29642166