WorldWideScience

Sample records for negative photoion spectroscopy

  1. Photoionization of atoms and molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samson, J.A.R.

    1976-01-01

    A literature review on the present state of knowledge in photoionization is presented. Various experimental techniques that have been developed to study photoionization, such as fluorescence and photoelectron spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, are examined. Various atoms and molecules were chosen to illustrate these techniques, specifically helium and xenon atoms and hydrogen molecules. Specialized photoionization such as in positive and negative ions, excited states, and free radicals is also treated. Absorption cross sections and ionization potentials are also discussed

  2. Imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy with velocity focusing electron optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodi, Andras; Johnson, Melanie; Gerber, Thomas; Gengeliczki, Zsolt; Sztaray, Balint; Baer, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    An imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence spectrometer at the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) beamline of the Swiss Light Source is presented and a few initial measurements are reported. Monochromatic synchrotron VUV radiation ionizes the cooled or thermal gas-phase sample. Photoelectrons are velocity focused, with better than 1 meV resolution for threshold electrons, and also act as start signal for the ion time-of-flight analysis. The ions are accelerated in a relatively low, 40-80 V cm -1 field, which enables the direct measurement of rate constants in the 10 3 -10 7 s -1 range. All electron and ion events are recorded in a triggerless multiple-start/multiple-stop setup, which makes it possible to carry out coincidence experiments at >100 kHz event frequencies. As examples, the threshold photoelectron spectrum of the argon dimer and the breakdown diagrams for hydrogen atom loss in room temperature methane and the chlorine atom loss in cold chlorobenzene are shown and discussed.

  3. Photoionization spectroscopy of deep defects responsible for current collapse in nitride-based field effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, P B; Binari, S C

    2003-01-01

    This review is concerned with the characterization and identification of the deep centres that cause current collapse in nitride-based field effect transistors. Photoionization spectroscopy is an optical technique that has been developed to probe the characteristics of these defects. Measured spectral dependences provide information on trap depth, lattice coupling and on the location of the defects in the device structure. The spectrum of an individual trap may also be regarded as a 'fingerprint' of the defect, allowing the trap to be followed in response to the variation of external parameters. The basis for these measurements is derived through a modelling procedure that accounts quantitatively for the light-induced drain current increase in the collapsed device. Applying the model to fit the measured variation of drain current increase with light illumination provides an estimate of the concentrations and photoionization cross-sections of the deep defects. The results of photoionization studies of GaN metal-semiconductor field effect transistors and AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) grown by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) are presented and the conclusions regarding the nature of the deep traps responsible are discussed. Finally, recent photoionization studies of current collapse induced by short-term (several hours) bias stress in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs are described and analysed for devices grown by both MOCVD and molecular beam epitaxy. (topical review)

  4. Two-color threshold photoionization spectroscopy of jet-cooled indole clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, James; Ivanco, Michael; Smith, Mark A.; Wallace, Stephen C.

    1986-06-01

    We report the results of a comprehensive investigation of the two-color threshold photoionization of jet-cooled indole clusters. Using two-color photoionization spectroscopy, we have probed both the neutral excited levels and the ground ionic states of indole clusters containing non-polar (Ar, CH 4, CF 4, C 6H 6) and polar (H 2O, MeOH, EtOH, NH 3, N(CH 3) 3) solvent species. These studies have allowed the determination of accurate cluster ionization energies (IEs) as well as the assignment of electronic absorption features to clusters of known composition. The determination of the cluster IE, which is typically lower than that of bare indole, has allowed us to investigate the importance of charge-induced dipole and charge-dipole attractive forces in the binding of the ion-neutral clusters. In addition, we have found that the shape of the photoionization efficiency (PIE) spectra gives valuable information regarding the relative shape and/or position of the potential energy surfaces of the neutral excited and ground ionic states of the clusters. We have also identified two distinct conformational isomers of the indole-(H 2O) 1 hydrogen bonded cluster using the techniques of electronic spectroscopy, two-color threshold ionization spectroscopy and mass analysis.

  5. Advances in threshold photoelectron spectroscopy (TPES) and threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence (TPEPICO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Tomas; Tuckett, Richard P

    2017-04-12

    The history and evolution of molecular threshold photoelectron spectroscopy and threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy (TPEPICO) over the last fifty years are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on instrumentation and the extraction of dynamical information about energy selected ion dissociation, not on the detailed spectroscopy of certain molecules. Three important advances have expanded greatly the power of the technique, and permitted its implementation on modern synchrotron radiation beamlines. The use of velocity focusing of threshold electrons onto an imaging detector in the 1990s simultaneously improved the sensitivity and electron energy resolution, and also facilitated the subtraction of hot electron background in both threshold electron spectroscopy and TPEPICO studies. The development of multi-start multi-stop collection detectors for both electrons and ions in the 2000s permitted the use of the full intensity of modern synchrotron radiation thereby greatly improving the signal-to-noise ratio. Finally, recent developments involving imaging electrons in a range of energies as well as ions onto separate position-sensitive detectors has further improved the collection sensitivity so that low density samples found in a variety of studies can be investigated. As a result, photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy is now well positioned to address a range of challenging problems that include the quantitative determination of compositions of isomer mixtures, and the detection and spectroscopy of free radicals produced in pyrolysis or discharge sources as well as in combustion studies.

  6. Threshold photoelectron spectroscopy and photoionization total ion yield spectroscopy of simple organic acids, aldehydes, ketones and amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yencha, Andrew J; Malins, Andrew E R; Siggel-King, Michele R F; Eypper, Marie; King, George C

    2009-01-01

    We have initiated a research program to investigate the ionization behavior of some simple organic molecules containing the carboxyl group (R 2 C=O), where R could be H, OH, NH 2 , or CH 3 or other aliphatic or aromatic carbon groups, using threshold photoelectron spectroscopy and photoionization total ion yield spectroscopy. We report here on the simplest organic acid, formic acid, and two simple aldehydes: acetaldehyde and the simplest unsaturated aldehyde, 2-propenal (acrolein). The objective of this study was to characterize the valence cationic states of these molecules with vibrational structural resolution.

  7. TOPICAL REVIEW: Photoionization spectroscopy of deep defects responsible for current collapse in nitride-based field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, P. B.; Binari, S. C.

    2003-11-01

    This review is concerned with the characterization and identification of the deep centres that cause current collapse in nitride-based field effect transistors. Photoionization spectroscopy is an optical technique that has been developed to probe the characteristics of these defects. Measured spectral dependences provide information on trap depth, lattice coupling and on the location of the defects in the device structure. The spectrum of an individual trap may also be regarded as a 'fingerprint' of the defect, allowing the trap to be followed in response to the variation of external parameters. The basis for these measurements is derived through a modelling procedure that accounts quantitatively for the light-induced drain current increase in the collapsed device. Applying the model to fit the measured variation of drain current increase with light illumination provides an estimate of the concentrations and photoionization cross-sections of the deep defects. The results of photoionization studies of GaN metal semiconductor field effect transistors and AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) grown by metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) are presented and the conclusions regarding the nature of the deep traps responsible are discussed. Finally, recent photoionization studies of current collapse induced by short-term (several hours) bias stress in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs are described and analysed for devices grown by both MOCVD and molecular beam epitaxy.

  8. Three-colour photoionization optogalvanic spectroscopy in U-Ne hollow cathode discharges: observation of even-parity autoionization states of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, P.K.; Seema, A.U.; Das, R.C.; Shah, M.L.; Dev, Vas; Suri, B.M.

    2013-01-01

    Three-colour three-step photoionization spectroscopy of uranium has been performed in a U-Ne hollow cathode discharge tube by temporally resolving three-colour photoionization optogalvanic (PIOG) signal from the normal optogalvanic (OG) signal using three tunable pulsed dye lasers. U-Ne hollow cathode discharge tube has been used as a source of uranium atomic vapour and photoionization detector. Using this technique, photoionization spectra of uranium have been investigated systematically in the energy region 52150-52590 cm -1 , through three different excitation pathways, originating from its ground state, 0 cm -1 ( 5 L 0 6 ). By analyzing the three-colour photoionization spectra sixty new even-parity autoionization resonances of uranium have been identified and their probable total angular momentum (J) values have been assigned according to the J-momentum selection rule. (author)

  9. Photodissociation of acrylonitrile at 193 nm: A photofragment translational spectroscopy study using synchrotron radiation for product photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blank, D.A.; Suits, A.G.; Lee, Y.T.; North, S.W.; Hall, G.E.

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the photodissociation of acrylonitrile (H 2 CCHCN) at 193 nm using the technique of photofragment translational spectroscopy. The experiments were performed at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline at the Advanced Light Source and used tunable vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation for product photoionization. We have identified four primary dissociation channels including atomic and molecular hydrogen elimination, HCN elimination, and CN elimination. There is significant evidence that all of the dissociation channels occur on the ground electronic surface following internal conversion from the initially optically prepared state. The product translational energy distributions reflect near statistical simple bond rupture for the radical dissociation channels, while substantial recombination barriers mediate the translational energy release for the two molecular elimination channels. Photoionization onsets have provided additional insight into the chemical identities of the products and their internal energy content. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  10. Binding energies and isomerization in metallocene ions from threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Révész, Agnes; Szepes, László; Baer, Tomas; Sztáray, Bálint

    2010-12-22

    Metallocene ions (Cp(2)M(+), M = Cr, Co, Ni) were studied by threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy (TPEPICO) to investigate the mechanism, energetics, and kinetics of the ionic dissociation processes. The examined energy-selected Cp(2)M(+) ions fragment by losing the neutral cyclopentadienyl ligand. In addition, CH and C(2)H(2) losses appear as minor channels, while the cobaltocene ion also loses an H atom. A possible isomerization pathway has also been observed for Cp(2)Ni(+), yielding a complex with pentafulvalene (C(10)H(8)) with a loss of H(2). In order to determine the 0 K appearance energies for the CpM(+) fragment ions, the asymmetric time-of-flight peak shapes and the breakdown diagrams of the energy-selected metallocene ions were modeled by both the rigid activated complex (RAC) Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) theory and the simplified statistical adiabatic channel model (SSACM). The following appearance energies were obtained with SSACM, which is more reliable for loose transition states: 10.57 ± 0.14, 11.01 ± 0.13, and 10.18 ± 0.13 eV for M = Cr, Co, and Ni, respectively. These values combined with the corresponding adiabatic ionization energies yield M-Cp bond dissociation energies in Cp(2)M(+) ions of 5.04 ± 0.16, 5.77 ± 0.15, and 3.96 ± 0.15 eV. Density functional calculations at the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level of theory were used to determine the structures of these complexes and to provide parameters necessary for the analysis of the experimental data. The trends in the M-Cp bond energies can be related to the electronic structures of the metallocene ions based on a simple molecular orbital picture.

  11. VUV photoionization of acetamide studied by electron/ion coincidence spectroscopy in the 8-24 eV photon energy range

    KAUST Repository

    Schwell, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A VUV photoionization study of acetamide was carried out over the 8-24 eV photon energy range using synchrotron radiation and photoelectron/photoion coincidence (PEPICO) spectroscopy. Threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence (TPEPICO) measurements were also made. Photoion yield curves and branching ratios were measured for the parent ion and six fragment ions. The adiabatic ionization energy of acetamide was determined as I.E. (1 2A′) = (9.71 ± 0.02) eV, in agreement with an earlier reported photoionization mass spectrometry (PIMS) value. The adiabatic energy of the first excited state of the ion, 1 2A″, was determined to be ≈10.1 eV. Assignments of the fragment ions and the pathways of their formation by dissociative photoionization were made. The neutral species lost in the principal dissociative photoionization processes are CH 3, NH 2, NH 3, CO, HCCO and NH 2CO. Heats of formation are derived for all ions detected and are compared with literature values. Some astrophysical implications of these results are discussed. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Photoionization of atmospheric gases studied by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mics, Zoltan; Kužel, Petr; Jungwirth, Pavel; Bradforth, S. E.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 465, 1-3 (2008), s. 20-24 ISSN 0009-2614 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/06/0286 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : terahertz * pump -probe * atmospheric gases * photoionization * plasma Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.169, year: 2008

  13. Spectroscopy of transient neutral species via negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, A.

    1991-12-01

    Negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy has been used to study two types of transient neutral species: bound free radicals (NO{sub 2} and NO{sub 3}) and unstable neutral species ((IHI) and (FH{sub 2})). The negative ion time-of-flight photoelectron spectrometer used for these experiments is described in detail.

  14. Spectroscopy of transient neutral species via negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Alexandra [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1991-12-01

    Negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy has been used to study two types of transient neutral species: bound free radicals (NO2 and NO3) and unstable neutral species ([IHI] and [FH2]). The negative ion time-of-flight photoelectron spectrometer used for these experiments is described in detail.

  15. Probing photoelectron multiple interferences via Fourier spectroscopy in energetic photoionization of Xe-C60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, Andrea; McCune, Matthew A.; De, Ruma; Chakraborty, Himadri S.; Madjet, Mohamed E.

    2010-01-01

    Considering the photoionization of the Xe-C 60 endohedral compound, we study in detail the ionization cross sections of various levels of the system at energies higher than the plasmon resonance region. Five classes of single-electron levels are identified depending on their spectral character. Each class engenders distinct oscillations in the cross section, emerging from the interference between active ionization modes specific to that class. Analysis of the cross sections based on their Fourier transforms unravels oscillation frequencies that carry unique fingerprints of the emitting level.

  16. Laser photoionization spectroscopy of the zinc atom and the study of zinc sulfide evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukhlibaev, O.; Alimov, U.Zh.

    2000-01-01

    The frequencies of 5s 3 S 1 - np 3 P 1 Rydberg transitions, quantum defects for n = 15-50, and energies of high-lying P states of the Zn atom were measured by three-step laser excitation with subsequent ionization by a pulsed electric field. Free Zn atoms were produced through effusion of Zn vapor from an atomizer during the thermal dissociation of ZnS molecules. The evaporation kinetics was studied, and the ZnS vapor pressure was measured by the detection of photoionic signals of Zn

  17. Probing photoelectron multiple interferences via Fourier spectroscopy in energetic photoionization of Xe@C60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Andrea; McCune, Matthew A.; de, Ruma; Madjet, Mohamed E.; Chakraborty, Himadri S.

    2010-09-01

    Considering the photoionization of the Xe@C60 endohedral compound, we study in detail the ionization cross sections of various levels of the system at energies higher than the plasmon resonance region. Five classes of single-electron levels are identified depending on their spectral character. Each class engenders distinct oscillations in the cross section, emerging from the interference between active ionization modes specific to that class. Analysis of the cross sections based on their Fourier transforms unravels oscillation frequencies that carry unique fingerprints of the emitting level.

  18. Photoionization effects in ionization fronts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrayas, Manuel [Departamento de Electromagnetismo, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Fontelos, Marco A [Departamento de Matematicas, Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas, C/Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Trueba, Jose L [Departamento de Electromagnetismo, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-12-21

    In this paper we study the effects of photoionization processes on the propagation of both negative and positive ionization fronts in streamer discharge. We show that negative fronts accelerate in the presence of photoionization events. The appearance and propagation of positive ionization fronts travelling with constant velocity is explained as the result of the combined effects of photoionization and electron diffusion. The photoionization range plays an important role in the selection of the velocity of the ionization front as we show in this work.

  19. Time-resolved photoion imaging spectroscopy: Determining energy distribution in multiphoton absorption experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, D. B.; Shi, F. D.; Chen, L.; Martin, S.; Bernard, J.; Yang, J.; Zhang, S. F.; Chen, Z. Q.; Zhu, X. L.; Ma, X.

    2018-04-01

    We propose an approach to determine the excitation energy distribution due to multiphoton absorption in the case of excited systems following decays to produce different ion species. This approach is based on the measurement of the time-resolved photoion position spectrum by using velocity map imaging spectrometry and an unfocused laser beam with a low fluence and homogeneous profile. Such a measurement allows us to identify the species and the origin of each ion detected and to depict the energy distribution using a pure Poisson's equation involving only one variable which is proportional to the absolute photon absorption cross section. A cascade decay model is used to build direct connections between the energy distribution and the probability to detect each ionic species. Comparison between experiments and simulations permits the energy distribution and accordingly the absolute photon absorption cross section to be determined. This approach is illustrated using C60 as an example. It may therefore be extended to a wide variety of molecules and clusters having decay mechanisms similar to those of fullerene molecules.

  20. Investigation of electronically excited indole relaxation dynamics via photoionization and fragmentation pump-probe spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, T. J.; Yu, Hui; Ullrich, Susanne

    2014-07-01

    The studies herein investigate the involvement of the low-lying 1La and 1Lb states with 1ππ* character and the 1πσ* state in the deactivation process of indole following photoexcitation at 201 nm. Three gas-phase, pump-probe spectroscopic techniques are employed: (1) Time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (TR-PES), (2) hydrogen atom (H-atom) time-resolved kinetic energy release (TR-KER), and (3) time-resolved ion yield (TR-IY). Each technique provides complementary information specific to the photophysical processes in the indole molecule. In conjunction, a thorough examination of the electronically excited states in the relaxation process, with particular focus on the involvement of the 1πσ* state, is afforded. Through an extensive analysis of the TR-PES data presented here, it is deduced that the initial excitation of the 1Bb state decays to the 1La state on a timescale beyond the resolution of the current experimental setup. Relaxation proceeds on the 1La state with an ultrafast decay constant (IY experiments, both specifically probing 1πσ* dynamics, exhibit similar decay constants, further validating these observations.

  1. Photoionization Spectroscopy of Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Phan Danh

    Studies of the electronic energies in van der Waals molecules (sometimes referred to as clusters or complexes) help one unravel the microscopic details of the condensed state. Furthermore, they provide the connection between gas-phase and condensed-phase sciences. To achieve this goal, we undertake (1) the spectroscopic studies of van der Waals complexes; (2) the determination of the ionization energies of van der Waals complexes, as well as of mixed alkali metal clusters (e.g., K(,n)O); and (3) the studies of processes that occur upon and after the ionization of van der Waals molecules (namely, dissociation and intracluster reactions). A brief discussion of the non-equilibrium synthesis of weakly bound molecules is given. The operation and performance of the pulsed supersonic jet are described along with some theoretical considerations. The characteristic features of the technique of laser ionization are presented with emphasis on its performance as a spectroscopic tool. Resonance two-photon ionization and time-of-flight mass spectrometry provide us with the tool to measure the perturbed electronic excited state of van der Waals complexes. In these studies, the chromophore species is an aromatic molecule having a single ring (phenylacetylene and para-xylene); and the "solvent" species are rare gas atoms, as well as a variey of molecules. In the case of chromophore-rare gas complexes, the S(,1) excited state is red-shifted, with respect to the nascent chromophore, and the magnitude of the shift shows a definite dependence on the atomic polarizability. Other salient trends of the measured spectral shifts are also discussed. In the measurement of complex ionization energies, the use of two tunable UV lasers is required. With p-xylene(.)Ar(,n) complexes (n = 1-6), these energies vary almost linearly with the number of atoms. Also discussed in the text are the effects of ionization in a weak DC field. A simple hydrogenic model of field-ionization is experimentally verified for molecules and vdW molecules. In a separate set of experiments, the ionization energies of alkali-metal clusters (e.g., K(,n)O) are determined using a heated oven source and a broadband UV light source. The use of an electrostatic mirror (mass reflectron) allows us to study metastability of cluster ions and to measure the unimolecular decay rates of protonated ammonia clusters (cluster size (LESSTHEQ) 25). The intracluster ion-molecule reaction is studied for the (p-xylene(.)amine) complexes.

  2. Photoionization microplasma sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafaev, A. S.; Rastvorova, I. V.; Podenko, S. S.; Tsyganov, A. B.

    2017-11-01

    New developments in the physics of plasma are presented, specifically, research of completely new method of atoms’ and molecules’ detection in gaseous phase – collisional electron spectroscopy. As a result, the microplasma sensor for quality and quantity analysis of the gaseous mixture was created. It works in the discharge afterglow mode using He as a buffer gas. In addition, the modification of the sensor using resonance photon photoionization was developed. This consideration gives the opportunity for wide practical appliance as an individual gas analyzer for industrial and medical purposes.

  3. Negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy of SeO-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coe, J.V.; Snodgrass, J.T.; Freidhoff, C.B.; McHugh, K.M.; Bowen, K.H.

    1985-01-01

    Negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy (NIPES) involves a kinetic energy analysis of electrons which are photodetached when a mass selected beam of negative ions is crossed with a fixed frequency laser beam. The photodetachment spectra of SeO - displays transitions from the X 2 PI state of SeO - to both the X 3 Σ - and a 1 Δ states of SeO. The singlet-triplet splitting of SeO is readily observable since selection rules regarding spin do not apply in the bound to free state process of photodetachment. The electron affinity of SeO and the negative ion potential parameters of SeO - have been determined

  4. Bimolecular reaction dynamics from photoelectron spectroscopy of negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradforth, S.E.

    1992-11-01

    The transition state region of a neutral bimolecular reaction may be experimentally investigated by photoelectron spectroscopy of an appropriate negative ion. The photoelectron spectrum provides information on the spectroscopy and dynamics of the short lived transition state and may be used to develop model potential energy surfaces that are semi-quantitative in this important region. The principles of bound → bound negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy are illustrated by way of an example: a full analysis of the photoelectron bands of CN - , NCO - and NCS - . Transition state photoelectron spectra are presented for the following systems Br + HI, Cl + HI, F + HI, F + CH 3 0H,F + C 2 H 5 OH,F + OH and F + H 2 . A time dependent framework for the simulation and interpretation of the bound → free transition state photoelectron spectra is subsequently developed and applied to the hydrogen transfer reactions Br + HI, F + OH → O( 3 P, 1 D) + HF and F + H 2 . The theoretical approach for the simulations is a fully quantum-mechanical wave packet propagation on a collinear model reaction potential surface. The connection between the wavepacket time evolution and the photoelectron spectrum is given by the time autocorrelation function. For the benchmark F + H 2 system, comparisons with three-dimensional quantum calculations are made

  5. Negative Thermal Expansion Coefficient of Graphene Measured by Raman Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Duhee; Son, Young-Woo; Cheong, Heonsik

    2011-01-01

    The thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of single-layer graphene is estimated with temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy in the temperature range between 200 and 400 K. It is found to be strongly dependent on temperature but remains negative in the whole temperature range, with a room temperature value of -8.0x10^{-6} K^{-1}. The strain caused by the TEC mismatch between graphene and the substrate plays a crucial role in determining the physical properties of graphene, and hence its effect...

  6. Negative thermal expansion coefficient of graphene measured by Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Duhee; Son, Young-Woo; Cheong, Hyeonsik

    2011-08-10

    The thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of single-layer graphene is estimated with temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy in the temperature range between 200 and 400 K. It is found to be strongly dependent on temperature but remains negative in the whole temperature range with a room temperature value of (-8.0 ± 0.7) × 10(-6) K(-1). The strain caused by the TEC mismatch between graphene and the substrate plays a crucial role in determining the physical properties of graphene, and hence its effect must be accounted for in the interpretation of experimental data taken at cryogenic or elevated temperatures.

  7. Dissociative photoionization of quinoline and isoquinoline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, J.; Sztáray, B.; Oomens, J.; Hemberger, P.; Bodi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Two nitrogen-containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon isomers of C9H7N composition, quinoline, and isoquinoline have been studied by imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy at the VUV beamline of the Swiss Light Source. High resolution threshold photoelectron spectra have been

  8. Photoionization and molecular structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palma, A.

    1983-01-01

    A presentation is here given of the theoretical work on photoionization and molecular structure carried out by the author and coworkers. The implications of the photoionization process on the molecular geometry are emphasized. In particular, the ionization effect on deep orbitals is considered and it is shown that, contrary to traditional thinking, these orbitals have relevant effects on the molecular geometry. The problem of calculating photoionization relative intensities for the full spectrum is also considered, and the results of the present model are compared with experimental and other theoretical results. (author)

  9. Study of clusters using negative ion photodetachment spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yuexing [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The weak van der Waals interaction between an open-shell halogen atom and a closed-shell atom or molecule has been investigated using zero electron kinetic energy (ZEKE) spectroscopy. This technique is also applied to study the low-lying electronic states in GaAs and GaAs-. In addition, the spectroscopy and electron detachment dynamics of several small carbon cluster anions are studied using resonant multiphoton detachment spectroscopy.

  10. Connections between molecular photoionization and electron-molecule scattering with emphasis on shape resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehmer, J.L.; Dill, D.

    1979-01-01

    Most of our detailed information on the spectroscopy and dynamics of the electronic continuum of molecules is based on the complementary probes - photoionization and electron scattering. Though usually studied separately, it is most useful to appreciate the connections between these two processes since our understanding of one is often the key to interpreting or even generating new results in the other. We approach this subject in two steps. First, we very briefly outline the well-established connections, e.g., the Bethe-Born theory and comparisons of isoelectronic systems. Then we focus on a point of contact - the role of shape resonances in molecular photoionization and electron-molecule scattering - for which a substantial amount of new information has become available. Specific topics include mapping of resonances from the neutral (hν + molecule) to the negative ion (e + molecule) system, angular distributions, and interaction with vibration

  11. Photoionization-photoelectron research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowitz, J.; Ruscic, B. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The photoionization research program is aimed at understanding the basic processes of interaction of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light with atoms and molecules. This research provides valuable information on both thermochemistry and dynamics. Recent studies include atoms, clusters, hydrides, sulfides and an important fluoride.

  12. Photoionization of Ne8+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindzola, M. S.; Abdel-Naby, Sh. A.; Robicheaux, F.; Colgan, J.

    2014-05-01

    Single and double photoionization cross sections for Ne8+ are calculated using a non-perturbative fully relativistic time-dependent close-coupling method. A Bessel function expansion is used to include both dipole and quadrupole effects in the radiation field interaction and the repulsive interaction between electrons includes both the Coulomb and Gaunt interactions. The fully correlated ground state of Ne8+ is obtained by solving a time-independent inhomogeneous set of close-coupled equations. Propagation of the time-dependent close-coupled equations yields single and double photoionization cross sections for Ne8+ at energies easily accessible at advanced free electron laser facilities. This work was supported in part by grants from NSF and US DoE. Computational work was carried out at NERSC in Oakland, California, NICS in Knoxville, Tennessee, and OLCF in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  13. Photoionization bands of rubidium molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakić, M.; Pichler, G.

    2018-03-01

    We studied the absorption spectrum of dense rubidium vapor generated in a T-type sapphire cell with a special emphasis on the structured photoionization continuum observed in the 200-300 nm spectral region. The photoionization spectrum has a continuous atomic contribution with a pronounced Seaton-Cooper minimum at about 250 nm and a molecular photoionization contribution with many broad bands. We discuss the possible origin of the photoionization bands as stemming from the absorption from the ground state of the Rb2 molecule to excited states of Rb2+* and to doubly excited autoionizing states of Rb2** molecule. All these photoionization bands are located above the Rb+ and Rb2+ ionization limits.

  14. Photoionization and Electron Radical Recombination Dynamics in Photoactive Yellow Protein Investigated by Ultrafast Spectroscopy in the Visible and Near-Infrared Spectral Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, J.; Paparelli, L.; Hospes, M.; Arents, J.; Kennis, J.T.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.; Hellingwerf, K.J.; Groot, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Photoinduced ionization of the chromophore inside photoactive yellow protein (PYP) was investigated by ultrafast spectroscopy in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions. An absorption band that extended from around 550 to 850 nm was observed and ascribed to solvated electrons, ejected from

  15. Spectra of resonance surface photoionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antsiferov, V.V.; Smirnov, G.I.; Telegin, G.G. [Budker Nuclear Physics Institute, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-09-01

    The theory of nonactivated electron transfer between atoms interacting reasonantly with coherent radiation and a metal surface is developed. The spectral resonances in photoabsorption and surface photoionization are found to be related to nonlinear interference effects in the interaction between discrete atomic levels and the continuum formed by the quasi-continuous electron spectrum of a normal metal. The asymmetry in the resonance surface photoionization spectrum is shown to have a shape typical of the Fano autoionization resonances. 18 refs.

  16. Combination of lasers and synchrotron radiation in studies of atomic photoionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M. [Laboratoire d' Interaction du rayonnement X Avec la Matiere (LIXAM)-UMR 8624, CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud, Batiment 350, 91405 Orsay (France)], E-mail: michael.meyer@u-psud.fr

    2009-03-21

    Recent experiments using the combination of conventional lasers and synchrotron radiation are presented and discussed. The controlled laser-manipulation of atoms prior to ionization by the synchrotron radiation provides an ideal experimental basis for detailed investigations of atomic photoionization. Due to the recent advances in high-resolution electron spectroscopy, it has become possible to analyze the J-resolved fine structure of the final ionic states in the photoionization of laser-excited atoms enabling thereby the determination of the specific influence of the outer electron to the ionization from inner subshells. Especially, the analysis of photoemission satellites and their relative intensities bring out directly the importance of electron correlations. Furthermore, it is shown through some examples of experiments using linearly and circularly polarized radiations, how the study of magnetic dichroisms in the photoionization opens the access to a complete description of the photoionization process, in particular to the determination of partial photoionization cross-sections.

  17. Photoionization studies with molecular beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, C.Y.

    1976-09-01

    A molecular beam photoionization apparatus which combines the advantages of both the molecular beam method with photoionization mass spectrometry has been designed and constructed for carrying out some unique photoionization experiments. Rotational cooling during the supersonic expansion has resulted in high resolution photoionization efficiency curves for NO, ICl, C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ and CH/sub 3/I. The analysis of these spectra has yielded ionization potentials for these molecules to an accuracy of +- 3 MeV. Detailed autoionization structures were also resolved. This allows the investigation of the selection rules for autoionization, and the identification of the Rydberg series which converge to the excited states of the molecular ions. The degree of relaxation for thermally populated excited states has been examined using NO and ICl as examples. As a result of adiabatic cooling, a small percentage of dimers is also formed during the expansion. The photoionization efficiency curves for (NO)/sub 2/, ArICl, Ar/sub 2/, Kr/sub 2/ and Xe/sub 2/ have been obtained near the thresholds. Using the known dissociation energies of the (NO)/sub 2/, Ar/sub 2/, Kr/sub 2/ and Xe/sub 2/ van der Waals molecules, the corresponding dissociation energies for NO-NO/sup +/, Ar/sub 2//sup +/, Kr/sub 2//sup +/, and Xe/sub 2//sup +/ have been determined. The ionization mechanisms for this class of molecules are examined and discussed.

  18. Photoionization Dynamics in Pure Helium Droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterka, Darcy S.; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Wang, Chia C.; Poisson,Lionel; Neumark, Daniel M.

    2007-02-04

    The photoionization and photoelectron spectroscopy of pure He droplets are investigated at photon energies between 24.6 eV (the ionization energy of He) and 28 eV. Time-of-flight mass spectra and photoelectron images were obtained at a series of molecular beam source temperatures and pressures to assess the effect of droplet size on the photoionization dynamics. At source temperatures below 16 K, the photoelectron images are dominated by fast electrons produced via direct ionization of He atoms, with a small contribution from very slow electrons with kinetic energies below 1 meV arising from an indirect mechanism. The fast photoelectrons have as much as 0.5 eV more kinetic energy than those from atomic He at the same photon energy. This result is interpreted and simulated within the context of a 'dimer model', in which one assumes vertical ionization from two nearest neighbor He atoms to the attractive region of the He2+ potential energy curve. Possible mechanism for the slow electrons, which were also seen at energies below IE(He), are discussed, including vibrational autoionizaton of Rydberg states comprising an electron weakly bound to the surface of a large HeN+ core.

  19. Fluorescence excitation studies of molecular photoionization in external electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poliakoff, E.D.; Dehmer, J.L.; Parr, A.C.; Leroi, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    Using molecular nitrogen as an example, we show that fluorescence excitation spectroscopy can be used to measure partial photoionization cross sections of free molecules in external electric fields. The production of the N 2 + (B 2 Σ/sub u/ + ) state was studied and the threshold for this process was found to shift linearly with the square root of the applied field. This behavior is compared with the hydrogenic case and with previously studied systems

  20. Photodissociation and charge transfer dynamics of negative ions studied with femtosecond photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanni, Martin Thomas [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1999-12-01

    This dissertation presents studies aimed at understanding the potential energy surfaces and dynamics of isolated negative ions, and the effects of solvent on each. Although negative ions play important roles in atmospheric and solution phase chemistry, to a large extent the ground and excited state potential energy surfaces of gas phase negative ions are poorly characterized, and solvent effects even less well understood. In an effort to fill this gap, the author's coworkers and the author have developed a new technique, anion femtosecond photoelectron spectroscopy, and applied it to gas phase photodissociation and charge transfer processes. Studies are presented that (1) characterize the ground and excited states of isolated and clustered anions, (2) monitor the photodissociation dynamics of isolated and clustered anions, and (3) explore the charge-transfer-to-solvent states of atomic iodide clustered with polar and non-polar solvents.

  1. Photodissociation and charge transfer dynamics of negative ions studied with femtosecond photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanni, Martin T.

    1999-01-01

    This dissertation presents studies aimed at understanding the potential energy surfaces and dynamics of isolated negative ions, and the effects of solvent on each. Although negative ions play important roles in atmospheric and solution phase chemistry, to a large extent the ground and excited state potential energy surfaces of gas phase negative ions are poorly characterized, and solvent effects even less well understood. In an effort to fill this gap, the author's coworkers and the author have developed a new technique, anion femtosecond photoelectron spectroscopy, and applied it to gas phase photodissociation and charge transfer processes. Studies are presented that (1) characterize the ground and excited states of isolated and clustered anions, (2) monitor the photodissociation dynamics of isolated and clustered anions, and (3) explore the charge-transfer-to-solvent states of atomic iodide clustered with polar and non-polar solvents

  2. Attosecond photoionization dynamics in neon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omiste, Juan J.; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2018-01-01

    We study the role of electron-electron correlation in the ground-state of Ne, as well as in photoionization dynamics induced by an attosecond XUV pulse. For a selection of central photon energies around 100 eV, we find that while the mean-field time-dependent Hartree-Fock method provides qualitat......We study the role of electron-electron correlation in the ground-state of Ne, as well as in photoionization dynamics induced by an attosecond XUV pulse. For a selection of central photon energies around 100 eV, we find that while the mean-field time-dependent Hartree-Fock method provides...

  3. Photoionization sensors for non-invasive medical diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafaev, Aleksandr; Rastvorova, Iuliia; Khobnya, Kristina; Podenko, Sofia

    2016-09-01

    The analysis of biomarkers can help to identify the significant number of diseases: lung cancer, tuberculosis, diabetes, high levels of stress, psychosomatic disorders etc. To implement continuous monitoring of the state of human health, compact VUV photoionization detector with current-voltage measurement is designed by Saint-Petersburg Mining University Plasma Research Group. This sensor is based on the patented method of stabilization of electric parameters - CES (Collisional Electron Spectroscopy). During the operation at atmospheric pressure VUV photoionization sensor measures the energy of electrons, produced in the ionization with the resonance photons, whose wavelength situated in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV). A special software was developed to obtain the second-order derivative of the I-U characteristics, taken by the VUV sensor, to construct the energy spectra of the characteristic electrons. VUV photoionization detector has an unique set of parameters: small size (10*10*1 mm), low cost, wide range of recognizable molecules, as well as accuracy, sufficient for using this instrument for the medical purposes. This device can be used for non-invasive medical diagnostics without compromising the quality of life, for control of environment and human life. Work supported by Foundation for Assistance to Small Innovative Enterprises in Science and Technology.

  4. Study of small carbon and semiconductor clusters using negative ion threshold photodetachment spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, C.C.

    1994-08-01

    The bonding and electronics of several small carbon and semiconductor clusters containing less than ten atoms are probed using negative ion threshold photodetachment (zero electron kinetic energy, or ZEKE) spectroscopy. ZEKE spectroscopy is a particularly advantageous technique for small cluster study, as it combines mass selection with good spectroscopic resolution. The ground and low-lying electronic states of small clusters in general can be accessed by detaching an electron from the ground anion state. The clusters studied using this technique and described in this work are C 6 - /C 6 , Si n - /Si n (n = 2, 3, 4), Ge 2 - /Ge 2 , In 2 P - /In 2 P,InP 2 - /InP 2 , and Ga 2 As - . The total photodetachment cross sections of several other small carbon clusters and the ZEKE spectrum of the I - ·CH 3 I S N 2 reaction complex are also presented to illustrate the versatility of the experimental apparatus. Clusters with so few atoms do not exhibit bulk properties. However, each specie exhibits bonding properties that relate to the type of bonding found in the bulk. C 6 , as has been predicted, exhibits a linear cumulenic structure, where double bonds connect all six carbon atoms. This double bonding reflects how important π bonding is in certain phases of pure carbon (graphite and fullerenes). The symmetric stretch frequencies observed in the C 6 - spectra, however, are in poor agreement with the calculated values. Also observed as sharp structure in total photodetachment cross section scans was an excited anion state bound by only ∼40 cm -1 relative to the detachment continuum. This excited anion state appears to be a valence bound state, possible because of the high electron affinity of C 6 , and the open shell of the anion

  5. Evaluation of beam divergence of a negative hydrogen ion beam using Doppler shift spectroscopy diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, A. J.; Bharathi, P.; Pandya, K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Bhuyan, M.; Yadav, R. K.; Tyagi, H.; Gahlaut, A.; Chakraborty, A.

    2018-01-01

    The Doppler Shift Spectroscopy (DSS) diagnostic is in the conceptual stage to estimate beam divergence, stripping losses, and beam uniformity of the 100 keV hydrogen Diagnostics Neutral Beam of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. This DSS diagnostic is used to measure the above-mentioned parameters with an error of less than 10%. To aid the design calculations and to establish a methodology for estimation of the beam divergence, DSS measurements were carried out on the existing prototype ion source RF Operated Beam Source in India for Negative ion Research. Emissions of the fast-excited neutrals that are generated from the extracted negative ions were collected in the target tank, and the line broadening of these emissions were used for estimating beam divergence. The observed broadening is a convolution of broadenings due to beam divergence, collection optics, voltage ripple, beam focusing, and instrumental broadening. Hence, for estimating the beam divergence from the observed line broadening, a systematic line profile analysis was performed. To minimize the error in the divergence measurements, a study on error propagation in the beam divergence measurements was carried out and the error was estimated. The measurements of beam divergence were done at a constant RF power of 50 kW and a source pressure of 0.6 Pa by varying the extraction voltage from 4 kV to10 kV and the acceleration voltage from 10 kV to 15 kV. These measurements were then compared with the calorimetric divergence, and the results seemed to agree within 10%. A minimum beam divergence of ˜3° was obtained when the source was operated at an extraction voltage of ˜5 kV and at a ˜10 kV acceleration voltage, i.e., at a total applied voltage of 15 kV. This is in agreement with the values reported in experiments carried out on similar sources elsewhere.

  6. Raman Spectroscopy of Xylitol Uptake and Metabolism in Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palchaudhuri, Sunil; Rehse, Steven J.; Hamasha, Khozima; Syed, Talha; Kurtovic, Eldar; Kurtovic, Emir; Stenger, James

    2011-01-01

    Visible-wavelength Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the uptake and metabolism of the five-carbon sugar alcohol xylitol by Gram-positive viridans group streptococcus and the two extensively used strains of Gram-negative Escherichia coli, E. coli C and E. coli K-12. E. coli C, but not E. coli K-12, contains a complete xylitol operon, and the viridans group streptococcus contains an incomplete xylitol operon used to metabolize the xylitol. Raman spectra from xylitol-exposed viridans group streptococcus exhibited significant changes that persisted even in progeny grown from the xylitol-exposed mother cells in a xylitol-free medium for 24 h. This behavior was not observed in the E. coli K-12. In both viridans group streptococcus and the E. coli C derivative HF4714, the metabolic intermediates are stably formed to create an anomaly in bacterial normal survival. The uptake of xylitol by Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens occurs even in the presence of other high-calorie sugars, and its stable integration within the bacterial cell wall may discontinue bacterial multiplication. This could be a contributing factor for the known efficacy of xylitol when taken as a prophylactic measure to prevent or reduce occurrences of persistent infection. Specifically, these bacteria are causative agents for several important diseases of children such as pneumonia, otitis media, meningitis, and dental caries. If properly explored, such an inexpensive and harmless sugar-alcohol, alone or used in conjunction with fluoride, would pave the way to an alternative preventive therapy for these childhood diseases when the causative pathogens have become resistant to modern medicines such as antibiotics and vaccine immunotherapy. PMID:21037297

  7. Excited-state molecular photoionization dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, S.T.

    1995-01-01

    This review presents a survey of work using resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization and double-resonance techniques to study excited-state photoionization dynamics in molecules. These techniques routinely provide detail and precision that are difficult to achieve in single-photon ionization from the ground state. The review not only emphasizes new aspects of photoionization revealed in the excited-state experiments but also shows how the excited-state techniques can provide textbook illustrations of some fundamental mechanisms in molecular photoionization dynamics. Most of the examples are confined to diatomic molecules. (author)

  8. Study of small carbon and semiconductor clusters using negative ion threshold photodetachment spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Caroline Chick [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    The bonding and electronics of several small carbon and semiconductor clusters containing less than ten atoms are probed using negative ion threshold photodetachment (zero electron kinetic energy, or ZEKE) spectroscopy. ZEKE spectroscopy is a particularly advantageous technique for small cluster study, as it combines mass selection with good spectroscopic resolution. The ground and low-lying electronic states of small clusters in general can be accessed by detaching an electron from the ground anion state. The clusters studied using this technique and described in this work are C6-/C6, Sin-/Sin (n = 2, 3, 4), Ge2-/Ge2, In2P-/In2P,InP2-/InP2, and Ga2As-. The total photodetachment cross sections of several other small carbon clusters and the ZEKE spectrum of the I-•CH3I SN2 reaction complex are also presented to illustrate the versatility of the experimental apparatus. Clusters with so few atoms do not exhibit bulk properties. However, each specie exhibits bonding properties that relate to the type of bonding found in the bulk. C6, as has been predicted, exhibits a linear cumulenic structure, where double bonds connect all six carbon atoms. This double bonding reflects how important π bonding is in certain phases of pure carbon (graphite and fullerenes). The symmetric stretch frequencies observed in the C6- spectra, however, are in poor agreement with the calculated values. Also observed as sharp structure in total photodetachment cross section scans was an excited anion state bound by only ~40 cm-1 relative to the detachment continuum. This excited anion state appears to be a valence bound state, possible because of the high electron affinity of C6, and the open shell of the anion.

  9. Photoionization sensor CES for non-invasive medical diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafaev, Aleksandr; Rastvorova, Iuliia; Khobnya, Kristina; Podenko, Sofia

    2016-10-01

    Method CES (collisional electron spectroscopy), patented in Russia, the USA, Japan, China, Germany and Britain, allows to analyze the gaseous mixtures using electron spectroscopy under high pressures up to atmospheric without using vacuum. The design of VUV photoionization detector was developed based on this method. Such detector is used as a portable gas analyzer for continuous personal bio-medical monitoring. This detector measures energy of electrons produced in ionization with resonance photons, whose wavelength situated in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV). Nowadays, micro plasma source of such photons on resonant line of Kr with energy of 10,6 eV is developed. Only impurities are ionized and detected by the VUV-emission, meanwhile the main components of air stay neutral that reduces background signal and increases the sensibility along with accuracy. The experimental facilities with VUV photoionization sensors CES are constructed with the overall sizes about 10*10*1 mm. The watt consumption may comprise less than 1W. Increase of electrometer amplifier's sensibility and more high-aperture construction are used today to increase the sensibility of CES-detectors. The wide range of detectable molecules and high sensitivity allow the development of portable device, which can become the base of the future preventive medicine. Work supported by Foundation for Assistance to Small Innovative Enterprises in Science and Technology.

  10. 2001 Gordon Research Conference on Photoions, Photoionization and Photodetachment. Final progress report [agenda and attendees list

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Mark

    2001-01-01

    The Gordon Research Conference on Photoions, Photoionization and Photodetachment was held at Williams College, Williamstown, Massachusetts, July 8-13, 2001. The 72 conference attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field, coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, and including US and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field. There was a conscious effort to stimulate discussion about the key issues in the field today. Time for formal presentations was limited. Sessions included the following topics: Vibrational structure, Time resolved studies: nuclear wavepackets, Valence photoionization, Clusters and networks, Resonance structures and decay mechanisms, Ultrafast photoionization, Threshold photoionization, Molecule fixed properties, and Collisional phenomena

  11. EUV optics in photoionization experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartnik, Andrzej; Wachulak, Przemysław; Fiedorowicz, Henryk; Fok, Tomasz; Jarocki, Roman; Kostecki, Jerzy; Szczurek, Anna; Szczurek, Mirosław; Pina, Ladislav; Sveda, Libor

    2013-05-01

    In this work photoionized plasmas were created by irradiation of He, Ne and Ar gases with a focused EUV beam from one of two laser-plasma sources employing Nd:YAG laser systems of different parameters. First of them was a 10-Hz laser-plasma EUV source, based on a double-stream gas-puff target, irradiated with the 3-ns/0.8J laser pulse. EUV radiation in this case was focused using a gold-plated grazing incidence ellipsoidal collector in the wavelength range λ = 9÷70 nm. The most intense emission was in the relatively narrow spectral region centred at λ = 11 +/- 1 nm. The second source was based on a 10 ns/10 J/10 Hz laser system. In this case EUV radiation was focused using a gold-plated grazing incidence multifoil collector or a Mo-coated ellipsoidal collector. The most intense emission in this case was in the 5 ÷ 15 nm spectral region. Radiation fluence ranged from 60 mJ/cm2 to 400 mJ/cm2. Different gases were injected into the interaction region, perpendicularly to an optical axis of the irradiation system, using an auxiliary gas puff valve. Irradiation of the gases resulted in ionization and excitation of atoms and ions. Spectra in EUV range were measured using a grazing incidence, flat-field spectrometer (McPherson Model 251), equipped with a 450 lines/mm toroidal grating. In all cases the most intense emission lines were assigned to singly charged ions. The other emission lines belong to atoms or doubly charged ions. The spectra were excited in low density gases of the order of 1 ÷ 10% atmospheric density.

  12. Photoionization and dissociative photoionization study of HFC-152a using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Chaoqun; Wei Lixia; Yang Bin; Yang Rui; Wang Sisheng; Shan Xiaobin; Qi Fei; Zhang Yunwu; Sheng Liusi; Hao Liqing; Zhou Shikang; Wang Zhenya

    2006-01-01

    Photoionization and dissociative photoionization of HFC-152a have been studied using synchrotron radiation and a reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RTOF-MS). The ionization energy of parent molecule (11.94 ± 0.04 eV) and appearance potentials of various fragment ions have been determined by measuring their photoionization efficiency curves. Energies, symmetry point groups and ground electronic states of neutrals and cations of parent and its fragments have been calculated using GAUSSIAN-03 program with the G3 method. According to the theoretical and experimental results, some dissociation channels and their dissociation energies of CH 3 CHF 2 + have been analyzed. (authors)

  13. Discharge mechanisms and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements of single negative and positive lead-acid battery plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Alkaine, C.V. [Group of Electrochemistry and Polymers, Chemistry Department, Federal University of Sao Carlos, 13560-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Mengarda, P.; Impinnisi, P.R. [Battery Laboratory, Institute of Technology for Development - LACTEC, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2009-06-01

    This study interpreted open circuit impedance measurements of single negative and positive lead-acid battery plates, which were at different discharge levels and arranged in a four-electrode cell. This was performed in the framework of a proposed general model of charge/discharge reactions, morphological models of active materials, and based on interpretation of the characteristics of single negative and positive plates as measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). This study shows that the proposed reaction models, morphological characteristics and EIS attributions are compatible with the obtained EIS data. The analysis indicates that negative and positive plate reaction mechanisms cannot be those proposed by the dissolution-precipitation mechanism alone. Rather, the reactions seem to obey the various mechanisms and morphologic ideas proposed in the present paper. It is shown that variations in the resistivity and dielectric constants of discharged films need to be studied in greater detail than film thicknesses to gain a better understanding of the processes. (author)

  14. Hydrogen atom temperature measured with wavelength-modulated laser absorption spectroscopy in large scale filament arc negative hydrogen ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, H.; Goto, M.; Tsumori, K.; Kisaki, M.; Ikeda, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Osakabe, M.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.; Nishiyama, S.; Sasaki, K.

    2015-01-01

    The velocity distribution function of hydrogen atoms is one of the useful parameters to understand particle dynamics from negative hydrogen production to extraction in a negative hydrogen ion source. Hydrogen atom temperature is one of the indicators of the velocity distribution function. To find a feasibility of hydrogen atom temperature measurement in large scale filament arc negative hydrogen ion source for fusion, a model calculation of wavelength-modulated laser absorption spectroscopy of the hydrogen Balmer alpha line was performed. By utilizing a wide range tunable diode laser, we successfully obtained the hydrogen atom temperature of ∼3000 K in the vicinity of the plasma grid electrode. The hydrogen atom temperature increases as well as the arc power, and becomes constant after decreasing with the filling of hydrogen gas pressure

  15. Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Hal

    1968-01-01

    This booklet discusses spectroscopy, the study of absorption of radiation by matter, including X-ray, gamma-ray, microwave, mass spectroscopy, as well as others. Spectroscopy has produced more fundamental information to the study of the detailed structure of matter than any other tools.

  16. Chasing charge localization and chemical reactivity following photoionization in liquid water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maršálek, Ondřej; Elles, C. G.; Pieniazek, P. A.; Pluhařová, Eva; Vande Vondele, J.; Bradforth, S. E.; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 135, č. 22 (2011), 224510/1-224510/14 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512; GA ČR GA203/08/0114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : water photoionization * ab initio molecular dynamics * ultrafast spectroscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.333, year: 2011

  17. Studies of photoionization processes from ground-state and excited-state atoms and molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ederer, D.L.; Parr, A.C.; West, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    Recent triply-differential photoelectron spectroscopy experiments designed for the study of correlation effects in atoms and molecules are described. Final-state symmetry of the n=2 state of helium has been determined. The non-Franck-Condon behavior of vibrational branching ratios and large variations of the angular asymmetry parameter has been observed for shape resonances and autoionizing resonances in CO and other molecules. Recent observations of the photoionization of excited sodium atoms are also described

  18. Photoionization and vacancy decay of endohedral atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M. Ya.

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate the role played by the fullerenes shell in the photoionization and vacancy decay of endohedral atoms A-C 60 . It is shown, partly in the frame of a rather simple model that describes the fullerene shell, partly using only the assumption on the smallness of the atom A in comparison to the size of C 60 that it affects photoionization and the vacancy decay of A-C 60 profoundly. Namely, it leads to a number of new resonances in photoionization cross-section and other photoionization characteristics as well as strong modifications of the vacancy decay probabilities and to opening of new decay channels. We will discuss the problem of photon propagation through the C 60 shell and conclude that at any considered frequency ω, 0 ≤ ω ≤ 60 eV the C 60 enhances the incoming radiation. This shows non-metallic dielectric behavior of the 240 collectivized electrons in C 60 . We also discuss the effects of C 60 upon the fast electron inelastic scattering. The results obtained are valid qualitatively also for other than C 60 molecules, e.g. for C 70 or C 76

  19. Recoil momenta distributions in the double photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M Ya; Liverts, E Z; Drukarev, E G; Mikhai, A I

    2014-01-01

    We calculate the distributions in recoil momenta for the high energy double photoionization of helium caused by quasifree mechanism. The distributions obtain local maxima at small values of the recoil momenta. This agrees with earlier predictions and recent experimental data. Angular correlations which reach the largest value for 'back-to-back' configuration of photoelectrons are also obtained.

  20. Intershell correlations in photoionization of outer shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Ya.; Chernysheva, L.V.; Drukarev, E.G.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that the cross sections for photoionization of the outer shells are noticeably modified at the photon energies close to the thresholds of ionization of the inner shells due to correlations with the latter. The correlations may lead to increase or to decrease of the cross sections just above the ionization thresholds.

  1. Intershell correlations in photoionization of outer shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amusia, M.Ya. [The Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Chernysheva, L.V. [A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Drukarev, E.G. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, St. Petersburg 188300 (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    We demonstrate that the cross sections for photoionization of the outer shells are noticeably modified at the photon energies close to the thresholds of ionization of the inner shells due to correlations with the latter. The correlations may lead to increase or to decrease of the cross sections just above the ionization thresholds.

  2. Photoionization and vacancy decay of endohedral atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amusia, M. Ya. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: amusia@vms.huji.ac.il

    2007-10-15

    We demonstrate the role played by the fullerenes shell in the photoionization and vacancy decay of endohedral atoms A-C{sub 60}. It is shown, partly in the frame of a rather simple model that describes the fullerene shell, partly using only the assumption on the smallness of the atom A in comparison to the size of C{sub 60} that it affects photoionization and the vacancy decay of A-C{sub 60} profoundly. Namely, it leads to a number of new resonances in photoionization cross-section and other photoionization characteristics as well as strong modifications of the vacancy decay probabilities and to opening of new decay channels. We will discuss the problem of photon propagation through the C{sub 60} shell and conclude that at any considered frequency {omega}, 0 {<=} {omega} {<=} 60 eV the C{sub 60} enhances the incoming radiation. This shows non-metallic dielectric behavior of the 240 collectivized electrons in C{sub 60}. We also discuss the effects of C{sub 60} upon the fast electron inelastic scattering. The results obtained are valid qualitatively also for other than C{sub 60} molecules, e.g. for C{sub 70} or C{sub 76}.

  3. Classification of bacterial samples as negative or positive for a UTI and antibiogram using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastanos, Evdokia; Hadjigeorgiou, Katerina; Kyriakides, Alexandros; Pitris, Costas

    2011-03-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) diagnosis requires an overnight culture to identify a sample as positive or negative for a UTI. Additional cultures are required to identify the pathogen responsible for the infection and to test its sensitivity to antibiotics. A rise in ineffective treatments, chronic infections, rising health care costs and antibiotic resistance are some of the consequences of this prolonged waiting period of UTI diagnosis. In this work, Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is used for classifying bacterial samples as positive or negative for UTI. SERS spectra of serial dilutions of E.coli bacteria, isolated from a urine culture, were classified as positive (105-108 cells/ml) or negative (103-104 cells/ml) for UTI after mixing samples with gold nanoparticles. A leave-one-out cross validation was performed using the first two principal components resulting in the correct classification of 82% of all samples. Sensitivity of classification was 88% and specificity was 67%. Antibiotic sensitivity testing was also done using SERS spectra of various species of gram negative bacteria collected 4 hours after exposure to antibiotics. Spectral analysis revealed clear separation between the spectra of samples exposed to ciprofloxacin (sensitive) and amoxicillin (resistant). This study can become the basis for identifying urine samples as positive or negative for a UTI and determining their antibiogram without requiring an overnight culture.

  4. Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, S

    1976-01-01

    The three volumes of Spectroscopy constitute the one comprehensive text available on the principles, practice and applications of spectroscopy. By giving full accounts of those spectroscopic techniques only recently introduced into student courses - such as Mössbauer spectroscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy - in addition to those techniques long recognised as being essential in chemistry teaching - sucha as e.s.r. and infrared spectroscopy - the book caters for the complete requirements of undergraduate students and at the same time provides a sound introduction to special topics for graduate students.

  5. Raman spectroscopy based discrimination of NS1 positive and negative dengue virus infected serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, M.; Saleem, M.; Bilal, Maria; Khurram, M.; Khan, Saranjam; Ullah, Rahat; Ali, Hina; Ahmed, M.

    2016-09-01

    This study is intended to develop a multivariate statistical model for the prediction of nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) in dengue virus (DENV) infected blood serum in humans. The model has been developed on the basis of partial least squares regression using the Raman spectra of NS1 positive and NS1 negative samples. Human blood sera of 218 subjects is included in this study, of which 95 were NS1 positive and 123 were NS1 negative, which was confirmed with the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. For model development, 80 NS1 positive and 98 NS1 negative samples were used, while 40 DENV suspected samples were used for double blind testing of the model. This selection of samples was performed by the code in an automatic manner to avoid biasing. A laser at 785 nm was used as the excitation source to acquire Raman spectra of samples with an integration time of 15 s. The multivariate model yields coefficients of regression at corresponding Raman shifts. These coefficients represent changes in the molecular structures associated with NS1 positive and negative samples. The analysis of the regression coefficients which differentiate NS1 positive and NS1 negative groups shows an increasing trend for phosphatidylinositol, ceramide, and amide-III, and a decreasing trend for thiocyanate in the DENV infected serum. The R-squared value of the model was found to be 0.91, which is clinically acceptable. The blind testing of 40 suspected samples yields an accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of about 100% each.

  6. Observation of the negative muonium ion in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang, Yunan.

    1989-05-01

    The negative muonium ion (M/sup /minus//), which is the bound system of a positive muon and two electrons, has been produced and observed for the first time. Its counterpart H/sup /minus// is well known, and spectroscopy and collision studies with H/sup /minus// have yielded many fruitful results. Noteworthy are recent investigations of the photoionization of a relativistic H/sup /minus// beam. The negative positronium ion has also been formed and observed. The discovery of M/sup /minus// provides us with a new leptonic system for spectroscopy and collision studies, which may reveal interesting physics associated with mass effects. Since M/sup /minus// is a charged particle, it can also be used to produce a beam of exotic atoms with a small phase space. This dissertation is a detailed account of the observation of M/sup /minus//. 93 refs., 54 figs., 18 tabs

  7. Inner-shell photoionization at relativistic energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu, D.C.; Soerensen, A.H.; Belkacem, A.; Soerensen, A.H.

    1999-01-01

    At relativistic energies the cross section for the atomic photoelectric effect drops off as does the cross section for liberating any bound electron through Compton scattering. However, when the photon energy exceeds twice the rest mass of the electron, ionization may proceed via electron-positron pair creation. The cross section for this channel saturates at several times the threshold energy, and hence the most probable way of photoionizing an atom at high energy is to make the vacuum spark. We present estimates for the cross section of this 'vacuum-assisted photoionization' which proceeds either via direct pair creation on the bound electron or via pair creation on the atomic nucleus binding the inner-shell electron followed by an electron-electron or positron-electron encounter. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  8. Photoionization of cobalt impuritiesin zinc oxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ivanov, V.; Godlewski, M.; Dejneka, Alexandr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 252, č. 9 (2015), s. 1988-1992 ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011029; GA ČR GAP108/12/1941 Grant - others:SAFMAT(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/22132 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : absorption band * cobalt * photoionization * electron spin resonance * pulsed mode * ZnO Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.522, year: 2015

  9. Raman spectroscopy based screening of IgG positive and negative sera for dengue virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, M.; Saleem, M.; Bial, Maria; Khan, Saranjam; Ullah, Rahat; Ali, Hina; Ahmed, M.; Ikram, Masroor

    2017-11-01

    A quantitative analysis for the screening of immunoglobulin-G (IgG) positive human sera samples is presented for the dengue virus infection. The regression model was developed using 79 samples while 20 samples were used to test the performance of the model. The R-square (r 2) value of 0.91 was found through a leave-one-sample-out cross validation method, which shows the validity of this model. This model incorporates the molecular changes associated with IgG. Molecular analysis based on regression coefficients revealed that myristic acid, coenzyme-A, alanine, arabinose, arginine, vitamin C, carotene, fumarate, galactosamine, glutamate, lactic acid, stearic acid, tryptophan and vaccenic acid are positively correlated with IgG; while amide III, collagen, proteins, fatty acids, phospholipids and fucose are negatively correlated. For blindly tested samples, an excellent agreement has been found between the model predicted, and the clinical values of IgG. The parameters, which include sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve, are found to be 100%, 83.3%, 95% and 0.99, respectively, which confirms the high quality of the model.

  10. Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    This introductory booklet covers the basics of molecular spectroscopy, infrared and Raman methods, instrumental considerations, symmetry analysis of molecules, group theory and selection rules, as well as assignments of fundamental vibrational modes in molecules.......This introductory booklet covers the basics of molecular spectroscopy, infrared and Raman methods, instrumental considerations, symmetry analysis of molecules, group theory and selection rules, as well as assignments of fundamental vibrational modes in molecules....

  11. Photoionization of H2O at high resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehmer, P.M.; Chupka, W.A.

    1978-01-01

    The relative photoionization cross sections for the formation of H 2 O + , OH + , and H + from H 2 O were measured at high wavelength resolution using a 3-meter photoionization mass spectrometer equipped with a quadrupole mass flter and a 1-meter photoionization mass spectrometer equipped with a 12-inch radius, 60 0 sector magnetic mass spectrometer. Discrete structure in the parent ion photoionization efficiency curve is interpreted in terms of Rydberg series converging to excited states of the H 2 O + ion. 9 references

  12. Ultraviolet photoionization in CO/sub 2/ TEA lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, S.J.; Smith, A.L.S.

    1988-07-15

    The factors affecting spark ultraviolet (UV) emission and transmission, photoionization, and photoelectron loss mechanisms in CO/sub 2/ TEA laser gas mixtures have been investigated and compared with the results of other workers. We found two different sources of UV radiation: N/sub 2/ and an unidentified emitter, postulated to be associated with ionized electrode material; C (from CO and CO/sub 2/) appeared to have little effect. UV emission was directly proportional to the amount of stored electrical energy in the spark-discharge circuit and to the cube of the peak current produced by the discharge of this energy. The uniformity of preionization produced by two kinds of spark-free space and notched surface guided was examined and the free-space spark was found to be superior. Photoionization was found to be due to the presence of low ionization potential (IP) alkenes in unseeded and fresh gas mixtures and also to NO and NO/sub 2/ in sealed devices: these were formed as a result of spark plasma reactions. The nature of the photoionization process in NO and C/sub 3/H/sub 6/ (an alkene) was investigated; both were ionized in a single-step process. The absorption coefficient for ionizing radiation in CO/sub 2/ was measured in a gas mixture containing 9% N/sub 2/ and a N/sub 2/ free mixture and values of 1.3 and 1.9 cm/sup -1/ atm/sup -1/ were obtained. It is thought that this may be due to changes in the spark UV emission spectrum when N/sub 2/ is present. The loss of photoelectrons by third body attachment to NO, NO/sub 2/, and O/sub 2/ was monitored and only the attachment to O/sub 2/ was found to be significant. However, the oxides of N can play a dominant role in the subsequent negative ion reactions on a millisecond timescale.

  13. Studies of electron correlation in the photoionization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Richard Allen [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1979-03-01

    Electron correlation is a result of the interaction of two or more electrons confined in a region of space, and may conveniently be treated under the formalism of configuration interaction (CI). Photoionization provides a rather direct experimental method for studying configuration interaction. The types of CI involved in the photoionization process can be divided into three categories: initial state configuration interaction (ISCI), final ionic state configuration interaction (FISCI), and continuum state configuration interaction (CSCI). This thesis deals with experimental studies which reveal how the various types of CI may become manifested in photoionization. The experimental methods utilized in this work are photoelectron spectroscopy (PES), electron impact spectroscopy (EIS), and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The EIS was carried out following the discovery that the UV lamp on a Perkin-Elmer photoelectron spectrometer could be utilized as a source of low energy electrons. The time-resolved fluorescence work utilized both the tunability and the time structure of the radiation available at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL). A commercial photoelectron spectrometer equipped with a conventional UV lamp (Hei, Nei) was employed for some of the PES studies, and a novel time-of-flight photoelectron spectrometer was developed for the PES work performed using synchrotron radiation. The PES of Ba, Sm, Eu, and Yb was studied using both Hei (22.22 eV) and Nei (16.85 eV) radiation. Satellite structure observed in these spectra using Nei (and for Yb, Hei also) radiation could be satisfactorily explained by ISCI alone. The Hei spectra of Sm, Eu, and, in particular, Ba showed dramatic changes in the satellite population which could only be explained by a new mechanism, autoionization, which is a special form of CSCI. The detailed nature of this mechanism was explored in Ba using synchrotron radiation. It was found that the autoionizing level decays

  14. spectroscopy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-10-14

    Oct 14, 2015 ... Full Length Research Paper. Determination of lactic acid bacteria in Kaşar cheese and identification by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. İlkay Turhan1* and Zübeyde Öner2. 1Department of Nutrition and Dietetic, School of Health Sciences, T.C.Istanbul Arel University, 34537 Buyukcekmece /.

  15. Double Photoionization of Aligned Molecular Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanroose, Wim; Horner, Daniel A.; Martin, Fernando; Rescigno,Thomas N.; McCurdy, C. William

    2006-07-21

    We present converged, completely ab initio calculations ofthe triple differential cross sections for double photoionization ofaligned H2 molecules for a photon energy of 75.0 eV. The method ofexterior complex scaling, implemented with both the discrete variablerepresentation and B-splines, is used to solve the Schroedinger equationfor a correlated continuum wave function corresponding to a single photonhaving been absorbed by a correlated initial state. Results for a fixedinternuclear distance are compared with recent experiments and show thatintegration over experimental angular and energy resolutions is necessaryto produce good qualitative agreement, but does not eliminate somediscrepancies. Limitations of current experimental resolution are shownto sometimes obscure interesting details of the crosssection.

  16. Near threshold double photoionization of rare gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huetz, A.; Selles, P.; Waymel, D.; Mazeau, J.

    1992-01-01

    Double photoionization experiments using a helium discharge lamp have been performed for the outermost shells of krypton and xenon. For the first time both the energies and the angles of the two outgoing electrons have been selected, allowing measurements of the triple differential cross sections. These are expressed as products of two factors, the first factor accounts for symmetry and rotation and the second for angular correlation. The latter is then extracted from the experiments and compared with theoretical predictions deduced from the Wannier model. (Author)

  17. Double photoionization of helium with synchrotron x-rays: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Overview and comparison of photoionization with charged particle impact; The ratio of double to single ionization of helium: the relationship of photon and bare charged particle impact ionization; Double photoionization of helium at high energies; Compton scattering of photons from electrons bound in light elements; Electron ionization and the Compton effect in double ionization of helium; Elimination of two atomic electrons by a single energy photon; Double photoionization of helium at intermediate energies; Double Photoionization: Gauge Dependence, Coulomb Explosion; Single and Double Ionization by high energy photon impact; The effect of Compton Scattering on the double to single ionization ratio in helium; and Double ionization of He by photoionization and Compton scattering. These papers have been cataloged separately for the database.

  18. Rare earth optogalvanic spectroscopy: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destro, Marcelo G.; Neri, Jose W.; Rodrigues, Nicolau A.S.; Silveira, Carlos A.B.; Riva, Rudimar [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv/EFO), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Fotonica]. E-mail: destro@ieav.cta.br; Victor, Alessandro R. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The IEAv has special interest in the studies of rare earth isotope applications in laser medium and integrated optics as well as aerospace research. We are starting to work with Ytterbium, Erbium, Dysprosium and Neodymium laser selective photoionization research. This paper describes the preliminary results of emission and optogalvanic spectroscopy obtained from a Neodymium hollow cathode lamps. Furthermore these results were used to setup our laser systems to work to leads a Nd isotopes selective laser photoionization. (author)

  19. Separation of uranium isotopes by selective photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snavely, B.B.; Solarz, R.W.; Tuccio, S.A.

    1975-01-01

    Recent results of experiments on the laser photoseparation of U isotopes are reported. In the first series of experiments a two-step ionization process using a Xe laser to excite the atoms below the ionization level and then a Kr laser to ionize the atoms was described. Under the geometric conditions of the experiment and power of the Kr laser, enrichments between 2.5 and 3 percent were obtained in runs lasting 2 hrs. Calculations to describe the ion trajectories in the collector system reflected the two-band pattern observed on the Be collector plate. A system to study the photoionization process was assembled in which the U beam is excited to a desired energy level with a CW dye laser and an ultraviolet beam intercepts the excited U beam. An analysis of a photoionization spectrum obtained at a resolution of 8 A indicates that the peak cross section for transitions to autoionization states from the 7 M 7 level is large enough to be used in large-scale U separation systems. An ionization value of 6.15 +- 0.2 eV was deduced for the ionization potential of the U atom. (U.S.)

  20. Dye lasers in atomic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, W.; Luther, J.; Steudel, A.

    1974-01-01

    The properties of dye lasers which are relevant to atomic spectroscopy are discussed. Several experiments made possible by tunable dye lasers are discussed. Applications of high spectral density dye lasers are covered in areas such as absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, photoionization and photodetachment, and two- and multi-photon processes. Applications which take advantage of the narrow bandwidth of tunable dye lasers are discussed, including saturation spectroscopy, fluorescence line narrowing, classic absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, nonoptical detection of optical resonances, heterodyne spectroscopy, and nonlinear coherent resonant phenomena. (26 figures, 180 references) (U.S.)

  1. Synthetic oligomer analysis using atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry at different photon energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desmazières, Bernard [Global Bioenergies, 5 rue Henri Desbruyeres, 91030 Evry (France); Legros, Véronique [CNRS, UMR8587, Université d’Evry-Val-d’Essonne, Laboratoire Analyse et Modélisation pour la Biologie et l’Environnement, F-91025 Evry (France); Giuliani, Alexandre [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); UAR1008, CEPIA, INRA, Rue de la Geraudiere, F-44316 Nantes (France); Buchmann, William, E-mail: william.buchmann@univ-evry.fr [CNRS, UMR8587, Université d’Evry-Val-d’Essonne, Laboratoire Analyse et Modélisation pour la Biologie et l’Environnement, F-91025 Evry (France)

    2014-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Atmospheric pressure photoIonization mass spectra of synthetic oligomers were recorded in the negative mode by varying the photon energy using synchrotron radiation. Photon energy required for an efficient ionization of the polymer was correlated to ionization potential of the solvent (for example 9.4 eV for tetrahydrofuran). -- Highlights: •Atmospheric pressure photoionization was performed using synchrotron radiation. •Photoionization of oligomers in THF with 10% CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} produces intact [M + Cl]{sup −} ions. •The photon energy required corresponds to ionization potential of the solvent. •Polymer distributions depend on source parameters such T °C and applied voltages. •Liquid chromatography was coupled to MS using an APPI interface for polymer analysis. -- Abstract: Atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) followed by mass spectrometric detection was used to ionize a variety of polymers: polyethylene glycol, polymethyl methacrylate, polystyrene, and polysiloxane. In most cases, whatever the polymer or the solvent used (dichloromethane, tetrahydrofuran, hexane, acetone or toluene), only negative ion mode produced intact ions such as chlorinated adducts, with no or few fragmentations, in contrast to the positive ion mode that frequently led to important in-source fragmentations. In addition, it was shown that optimal detection of polymer distributions require a fine tuning of other source parameters such as temperature and ion transfer voltage. Series of mass spectra were recorded in the negative mode, in various solvents (dichloromethane, tetrahydrofuran, hexane, toluene, and acetone), by varying the photon energy from 8 eV up to 10.6 eV using synchrotron radiation. To these solvents, addition of a classical APPI dopant (toluene or acetone) was not necessary. Courtesy of the synchrotron radiation, it was demonstrated that the photon energy required for an efficient ionization of the polymer was correlated to the

  2. Photoionization and ion cyclotron resonance studies of the ion chemistry of ethylene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corderman, R. R.; Williamson, A. D.; Lebreton, P. R.; Buttrill, S. E., Jr.; Beauchamp, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    The formation of the ethylene oxide molecular ion and its subsequent ion-molecule reactions leading to the products C2H5O(+) and C3H5O(+) have been studied using time-resolved photoionization mass spectroscopy, ion cyclotron resonance spectroscopy, and photoelectron spectroscopy. An examination of the effects of internal energy on reactivity shows that the ratio of C3H5O(+) to C2H5O(+) increases by an order of magnitude with a single quantum of vibrational energy. The formation of (C2H4O/+/)-asterisk in a collision-induced isomerization is found which yields a ring-opened structure by C-C bond cleavage. The relaxed ring-opened C2H4O(+) ion reacts with neutral ethylene oxide by CH2(+) transfer to yield an intermediate product ion C3H6O(+) which gives C3H5O(+) by loss of H.

  3. Multicoincidence measurements of double photoionization in helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huetz, A.; Andric, L.; Selles, P.; Mazeau, J.; Lablanquie, P.

    1994-01-01

    A new toroidal analyser has been used to study the double photoionization of helium, for energies down to 4 eV above threshold. The two electrons are detected with equal energies, and coincidences between them for various angles of emission can be obtained simultaneously. The plane of detection contains the photon beam, in contrast with recent experiments performed in the plane perpendicular to the photon beam. The angular correlation function is extracted directly from the present measurements, which are shown to be insensitive to the Stokes parameters of the photon beam. The width of that function is not observed to vary significantly from 4 eV to 17.6 eV above threshold. (author)

  4. Valence-shell photoionization of chlorinelike Ar{sup +} ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covington, A. M.; Aguilar, A.; Covington, I. R.; Hinojosa, G.; Shirley, C. A.; Phaneuf, R. A.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Dominguez-Lopez, I.; Sant' Anna, M. M.; Schlachter, A. S.; Ballance, C. P.; McLaughlin, B. M. [Department of Physics, MS 220, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557-0058 (United States); Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 6-96, Cuernavaca 62131, Morelos (Mexico); Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36840 (United States); Institute for Theoretical Atomic and Molecular Physics, Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-14, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Absolute cross-section measurements for valence-shell photoionization of Ar{sup +} ions are reported for photon energies ranging from 27.4 to 60.0 eV. The data, taken by merging beams of ions and synchrotron radiation at a photon energy resolution of 10 meV, indicate that the primary ion beam was a statistically weighted mixture of the {sup 2}P{sub 3/2}{sup o} ground state and the {sup 2}P{sub 1/2}{sup o} metastable state of Ar{sup +}. Photoionization of this Cl-like ion is characterized by multiple Rydberg series of autoionizing resonances superimposed on a direct photoionization continuum. Observed resonance line shapes indicate interference between indirect and direct photoionization channels. Resonance features are spectroscopically assigned and their energies and quantum defects are tabulated. The measurements are satisfactorily reproduced by theoretical calculations based on an intermediate coupling semirelativistic Breit-Pauli approximation.

  5. Photoionization for benchmark studies in transition-metal catalysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schröder, Detlef

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 52, 2a (2008), s. 52-54 ISSN 1210-8529 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : mass spectrometry * photoionization * synchrotron radiation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  6. Intershell interaction in excited atom and ion photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Ya.; Avdonina, N.B.

    1989-01-01

    It is demonstrated, that the photoionization cross section of an excited electron in Cs atom isoelectronic sequence acquire additional structure if the virtual polarization of the core by the incident photon is taken into account. (orig.)

  7. Molecular alignment dependent electron interference in attosecond ultraviolet photoionization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Jun Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present molecular photoionization processes by intense attosecond ultraviolet laser pulses from numerical solutions of time-dependent Schrödinger equations. Simulations preformed on a single electron diatomic H2+ show minima in molecular photoelectron energy spectra resulting from two center interference effects which depend strongly on molecular alignment. We attribute such sensitivity to the spatial orientation asymmetry of the photoionization process from the two nuclei. A similar influence on photoelectron kinetic energies is also presented.

  8. Molecular alignment dependent electron interference in attosecond ultraviolet photoionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kai-Jun; Bandrauk, André D

    2015-01-01

    We present molecular photoionization processes by intense attosecond ultraviolet laser pulses from numerical solutions of time-dependent Schrödinger equations. Simulations preformed on a single electron diatomic [Formula: see text] show minima in molecular photoelectron energy spectra resulting from two center interference effects which depend strongly on molecular alignment. We attribute such sensitivity to the spatial orientation asymmetry of the photoionization process from the two nuclei. A similar influence on photoelectron kinetic energies is also presented.

  9. Atmospheric pressure photoionization using tunable VUV synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuliani, A.; Giorgetta, J.-L.; Ricaud, J.-P.; Jamme, F.; Rouam, V.; Wien, F.; Laprévote, O.; Réfrégiers, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Coupling of an atmospheric pressure photoionization source with a vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) beamline. ► The set up allows photoionization up to 20 eV. ► Compared to classical atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI), our set up offers spectral purity and tunability. ► Allows photoionization mass spectrometry on fragile and hard to vaporize molecules. - Abstract: We report here the first coupling of an atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) source with a synchrotron radiation beamline in the vacuum ultra-violet (VUV). A commercial APPI source of a QStar Pulsar i from AB Sciex was modified to receive photons from the DISCO beamline at the SOLEIL synchrotron radiation facility. Photons are delivered at atmospheric pressure in the 4–20 eV range. The advantages of this new set up, termed SR-APPI, over classical APPI are spectral purity and continuous tunability. The technique may also be used to perform tunable photoionization mass spectrometry on fragile compounds difficult to vaporize by classical methods.

  10. Extreme ultraviolet-induced photoionized plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartnik, Andrzej; Wachulak, Przemyslaw; Fiedorowicz, Henryk; Fok, Tomasz; Jarocki, Roman; Szczurek, Miroslaw

    2014-05-01

    In this work photoionized plasmas were created by irradiation of He or Ne gases with a focused extreme ultraviolet (EUV) beam from one of two laser-plasma sources employing Nd:YAG laser systems. The first of them was a 10 Hz laser-plasma EUV source, based on a double-stream gas-puff target, irradiated with a 3 ns per 0.8 J laser pulse. EUV radiation in this case was focused using a gold-plated grazing incidence ellipsoidal collector. The second source was based on a 10 ns per 10 J per 10 Hz laser system. In this case EUV radiation was focused using a gold-plated grazing incidence multifoil collector. Gases were injected into the interaction region, perpendicularly to an optical axis of the irradiation system, using an auxiliary gas puff valve. Spectral measurements in the EUV range were performed. In all cases the most intense emission lines were assigned to singly charged ions. The other emission lines belong to atoms or doubly charged ions.

  11. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Joong-Won; Bernstein, Elliot R.

    2014-01-01

    Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5 ′ -monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C–C and C–O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results

  12. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Joong-Won, E-mail: jshin@govst.edu [Division of Science, Governors State University, University Park, Illinois 60484-0975 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1872 (United States); Bernstein, Elliot R., E-mail: erb@lamar.colostate.edu [Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1872 (United States)

    2014-01-28

    Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5{sup ′}-monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C–C and C–O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results.

  13. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Joong-Won; Bernstein, Elliot R.

    2014-01-01

    Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5'-monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C-C and C-O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results.

  14. Photoion-pair formation in Cl 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, J.; Mayhew, C. A.; Ruščić, B.

    1988-07-01

    The relative photoion yield curves of Cl +2, Cl - and Cl + from Cl 2 (normalized to absolute cross sections) are presented, from threshold to 740 Å. A structured spectrum involving the formation of Cl +—Cl - ion pairs, and amounting to ≈ 1% of total ionization, extends from its threshold to ≈ 750 Å. The spectrum is divided into four distinct bands. The two lowest in energy must correlate with Cl +( 3P) + Cl -( 1S). The other two are inferred to have Cl +( 1D) and Cl +( 1S) asymptotes, respectively. The fine structure observed implies predissociation of photoexcited Rydberg states by ion-pair states. The Rydberg states can be assigned by their absolute energies, vibrational spacings and vibrational envelopes. The lowest-energy ion-pair band can be observed at least 0.16 eV below its thermochemical threshold at 300 K. This band has a pronounced temperature effect, which can be interpreted as an example of heterogeneous predissociation. The contribution to Cl + from dissociative ionization rapidly overwhelms the ion-pair component below 802.5 Å, the dissociative ionization threshold.

  15. Advances Toward Inner-Shell Photo-Ionization X-Ray Lasing at 45 (Angstrom)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, S. J.; Weber, F. A.; Celliers, P. M.; Eder, D. C.

    2002-01-01

    The inner-shell photo-ionization (ISPI) scheme requires photon energies at least high enough to photo-ionize the K-shell. ∼286 eV, in the case of carbon. As a consequence of the higher cross-section, the inner-shell are selectively knocked out, leaving a hole state 1s2s 2 2p 2 in the singly charged carbon ion. This generates a population inversion to the radiatively connected state 1s 2 2s 2 2p in C+, leading to gain on the 1s-2p transition at 45 (angstrom). The resonant character of the lasing transition in the single ionization state intrinsically allows much higher quantum efficiency compared to other schemes. Competing processes that deplete the population inversion include auto-ionization, Auger decay, and in particular collisional ionization of the outer-shell electrons by electrons generated during photo-ionization. These competing processes rapidly quench the gain. Consequently, the pump method must be capable of populating the inversion at a rate faster than the competing processes. This can be achieved by an ultra-fast, high intensity laser that is able to generate an ultra-fast, bright x-ray source. With current advances in the development of high-power, ultra-short pulse lasers it is possible to realize fast x-ray sources based that can deliver powerful pulses of light in the multiple hundred terawatt regime and beyond. They will discuss in greater detail concept, target design and a series of x-ray spectroscopy investigations they have conducted in order to optimize the absorber/x-ray converter--filter package

  16. Advances toward inner-shell photo-ionization x-ray lasing at 45 A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Stephen J.; Weber, Franz A.; Celliers, Peter M.; Eder, David C.

    2002-01-01

    The inner-shell photo-ionization (ISPI) scheme requires photon energies at least high enough to photo-ionize the K-shell, ∼286 eV, in the case of carbon. As a consequence of the higher cross-section, the inner-shell are 'selectively' knocked out, leaving a hole state 1s2s22p2 in the singly charged carbon ion. This generates a population inversion to the radiatively connected state 1s22s22p in C+, leading to gain on the 1s-2p transition at 45 A. The resonant character of the lasing transition in the single ionization state intrinsically allows much higher quantum efficiency compared to other schemes. Competing processes that deplete the population inversion include auto-ionization, Auger decay, and in particular collisional ionization of the outer-shell electrons by electrons generated during photo-ionization. These competing processes rapidly quench the gain. Consequently, the pump method must be capable of populating the inversion at a rate faster than the competing processes. This can be achieved by an ultra-fast, high intensity laser that is able to generate an ultra-fast, bright x-ray source. With current advances in the development of high-power, ultra-short pulse lasers it is possible to realize fast x-ray sources based that can deliver powerful pulses of light in the multiple hundred terawatt regime and beyond. We will discuss in greater detail concept, target design and a series of x-ray spectroscopy investigations we have conducted in order to optimize the absorber/x-ray converter - filter package

  17. Calculation of the photoionization cross section of the 4d10 subshell of the La atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Ya.; Sheftel, S.I.

    1976-01-01

    The photoionization cross section of 4d 10 subshell of La atom is calculated. The cross section curve near its threshold is strongly modified by rearrangement of outer shells in the process of photoionization. (Auth.)

  18. Ultra-compact photoionization analyzers. Ecological monitoring application at hazardous production facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafaev, Alexander; Rastvorova, Iuliia; Arslanova, Fatima

    2017-10-01

    It is generally recognized that careful implementation of ecological monitoring should be provided at hazardous production facilities continuously to protect the surrounding environment as well as health and safety of employees. However, the existing devices may not be able to control the environmental situation uninterruptedly due to their technical characteristics or measurement methods. Developed by The Mining University Plasma Research Group ultra-compact photoionization analyzer is proposed as innovative equipment which creates the basis for a new measuring approach. The general operating principle is based on the patented method of stabilization of electric parameters - CES (Collisional Electron Spectroscopy). During the operation at the atmospheric pressure, the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization sensor measures the energy of electrons produced by means of ionization with the resonance photons whose wavelength is situated in the VUV. A special software tool was developed to obtain the second-order derivative of the I-U characteristics, taken by the VUV sensor, to construct the characteristic electrons energy spectra. The portable analyzer with a unique set of parameters such as small size (10*10*1 mm), low cost, a wide range of recognizable molecules, great measurement accuracy at the atmospheric pressure can be effectively used both for rapid testing of air pollution load and the study of noxious factors that influence oil and gas industry employees. Dr. Sci., Ph.D, Principal Scientist, Professor.

  19. Photoionization in the Precursor of Laser Supported Detonation by Ultraviolet Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamura, Kohei; Michigami, Keisuke; Wang, Bin; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Arakawa, Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    The propagation mechanism of laser-supported detonation (LSD) is important for designing laser propulsion for a detonation type thruster. The purpose of this work to was to confirm that photo-ionization in precursor is the predominant LSD sustainment mechanism. First of all, we tried to investigate the dependency of LSD duration on ambient gas species, air and argon. We took a series of high-speed images using the laser shadow-graphy. Besides, to estimate the UV photons emitted from the plasma, we used plasma emission spectroscopy and determined the electron temperature and density. As a result, the LSD duration of argon plasma and air plasma are 0.7 μs and 0.3 μs, resp. Besides, argon plasma emitted 10 10 to 10 14 photons/seconds, which was higher than air plasma. These results reveal that LSD propagation depends on the photon-contributing photoionization. The threshold photon-emission rate of LSD termination gives the elucidation of the LSD termination condition.

  20. Triggering Excimer Lasers by Photoionization from Corona Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhongmin; Duffey, Thomas; Brown, Daniel; Kushner, Mark

    2009-10-01

    High repetition rate ArF (192 nm) excimer lasers are used for photolithography sources in microelectronics fabrication. In highly attaching gas mixtures, preionization is critical to obtaining stable, reproducible glow discharges. Photoionization from a separate corona discharge is one technique for preionization which triggers the subsequent electron avalanche between the main electrodes. Photoionization triggering of an ArF excimer laser sustained in multi-atmosphere Ne/Ar/F2/Xe gas mixtures has been investigated using a 2-dimensional plasma hydrodynamics model including radiation transport. Continuity equations for charged and neutral species, and Poisson's equation are solved coincident with the electron temperature with transport coefficients obtained from solutions of Boltzmann's equation. Photoionizing radiation is produced by a surface discharge which propagates along a corona-bar located adjacent to the discharge electrodes. The consequences of pulse power waveform, corona bar location, capacitance and gas mixture on uniformity, symmetry and gain of the avalanche discharge will be discussed.

  1. Photoionization studies of atoms and molecules using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindle, D.W.

    1988-01-01

    Photoionization studies of free atoms and molecules have undergone considerable development in the past decade, in large part due to the use of synchrotron radiation. The tunability of synchrotron radiation has permitted the study of photoionization processes near valence-and core-level ionization thresholds for atoms and molecules throught the Periodic Table. A general illustration of these types of study will be presented, with emphasis on a few of the more promising new directions in atomic and molecular physics being pursued with synchrotron radiation. (author) [pt

  2. Strong electron correlation in photoionization of spin-orbit doublets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Ya.; Chernysheva, L.V.; Manson, S.T.; Msezane, A.M.; Radojevic, V.

    2002-01-01

    A new and explicitly many-body aspect of the 'leveraging' of the spin-orbit interaction is demonstrated, spin-orbit activated interchannel coupling, which can significantly alter the photoionization cross section of a spin-orbit doublet. As an example, it is demonstrated via a modified version of the spin-polarized random phase approximation with exchange, that a recently observed unexplained structure in the Xe 3d 5/2 photoionization cross section [A. Kivimaeki et al., Phys. Rev. A 63, 012716 (2000)] is entirely due to this effect. Similar features are predicted for Cs 3d 5/2 and Ba 3d 5/2

  3. Photoionization Modelling of HII Region with Stellar Wind Bubble Inside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozel, R. V., Melekh, B. Ya.

    2009-12-01

    The last results obtained from optimized photoionization modelling of HII region show a lack of Lyman continuum (Lyc) quanta in wavelength range 912 - 504 Å. It could be explained by the ionizing radiation penetrating the very thin and dense envelope of nebular plasma with high density. Presence of such envelope in HII region surrounding a starburst could be explained by a superwind bubble formation. For detailed analysis the multicomponent grid of photoionization models was culculated with ISM grains included. In this paper the comparative analysis of emission line spectra obtained from multicomponent modelling is presented.

  4. Entanglement of mixed quantum states for qubits and qudit in double photoionization of atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, M., E-mail: bminakshi@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Asansol Girls’ College, Asansol 713304 (India); Sen, S. [Department of Physics, Triveni Devi Bhalotia College, Raniganj 713347 (India)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • We study tripartite entanglement between two electronic qubits and an ionic qudit. • We study bipartite entanglement between any two subsystems of a tripartite system. • We have presented a quantitative application of entangled properties in Neon atom. - Abstract: Quantum entanglement and its paradoxical properties are genuine physical resources for various quantum information tasks like quantum teleportation, quantum cryptography, and quantum computer technology. The physical characteristic of the entanglement of quantum-mechanical states, both for pure and mixed, has been recognized as a central resource in various aspects of quantum information processing. In this article, we study the bipartite entanglement of one electronic qubit along with the ionic qudit and also entanglement between two electronic qubits. The tripartite entanglement properties also have been investigated between two electronic qubits and an ionic qudit. All these studies have been done for the single-step double photoionization from an atom following the absorption of a single photon without observing spin orbit interaction. The dimension of the Hilbert space of the qudit depends upon the electronic state of the residual photoion A{sup 2+}. In absence of SOI, when Russell–Saunders coupling (L–S coupling) is applicable, dimension of the qudit is equal to the spin multiplicity of A{sup 2+}. For estimations of entanglement and mixedness, we consider the Peres–Horodecki condition, concurrence, entanglement of formation, negativity, linear and von Neumann entropies. In case of L–S coupling, all the properties of a qubit–qudit system can be predicted merely with the knowledge of the spins of the target atom and the residual photoion.

  5. Dissociative Ionization Mechanism and Appearance Energies in Adipic Acid Revealed by Imaging Photoelectron Photoion Coincidence, Selective Deuteration, and Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heringa, Maarten F; Slowik, Jay G; Prévôt, André S H; Baltensperger, Urs; Hemberger, Patrick; Bodi, Andras

    2016-05-26

    Adipic acid, a model compound for oxygenated organic aerosol, has been studied at the VUV beamline of the Swiss Light Source. Internal energy selected cations were prepared by threshold photoionization using vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation and imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy (iPEPICO). The threshold photoelectron spectrum yields a vertical ionization energy (IE) of 10.5 eV, significantly above the calculated adiabatic IE of 8.6 eV. The cationic minimum is accessible after vertical ionization by H-transfer from one of the γ-carbons to a carbonyl oxygen and is sufficiently energetic to decay by water loss at the ionization onset. The slope of the breakdown curves, quantum chemical calculations, and selective deuteration of the carboxylic hydrogens establish the dissociative photoionization mechanism. After ionization, one γ-methylene hydrogen and the two carboxylic hydrogens are randomized prior to H2O loss. On the basis of the deuteration degree in the H2O + CO-loss product at higher energies, a direct water-loss channel without complete randomization also exists. The breakdown diagram and center of gravity of the H2O + CO-loss peak were modeled to obtain 0 K appearance energies of 10.77, 10.32, and 11.53 eV for H2O + CO loss, CH2COOH loss, and H2O + CH2COOH loss from adipic acid. These agree well with the CBS-QB3 calculated values of 10.68, 10.45, and 11.57 eV, respectively, which shows that threshold photoionization can yield energetics data as long as the dissociation is statistical, even when the parent ion cannot be observed. The results can be used as a starting point for a deeper understanding of the ionization and low-energy fragmentation of organic aerosol components.

  6. Silicon nitride grids are compatible with correlative negative staining electron microscopy and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for use in the detection of micro-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausch, V; Hermann, P; Laue, M; Bannert, N

    2014-06-01

    Successive application of negative staining transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) is a new correlative approach that could be used to rapidly and specifically detect and identify single pathogens including bioterrorism-relevant viruses in complex samples. Our objective is to evaluate the TERS-compatibility of commonly used electron microscopy (EM) grids (sample supports), chemicals and negative staining techniques and, if required, to devise appropriate alternatives. While phosphortungstic acid (PTA) is suitable as a heavy metal stain, uranyl acetate, paraformaldehyde in HEPES buffer and alcian blue are unsuitable due to their relatively high Raman scattering. Moreover, the low thermal stability of the carbon-coated pioloform film on copper grids (pioloform grids) negates their utilization. The silicon in the cantilever of the silver-coated atomic force microscope tip used to record TERS spectra suggested that Si-based grids might be employed as alternatives. From all evaluated Si-based TEM grids, the silicon nitride (SiN) grid was found to be best suited, with almost no background Raman signals in the relevant spectral range, a low surface roughness and good particle adhesion properties that could be further improved by glow discharge. Charged SiN grids have excellent particle adhesion properties. The use of these grids in combination with PTA for contrast in the TEM is suitable for subsequent analysis by TERS. The study reports fundamental modifications and optimizations of the negative staining EM method that allows a combination with near-field Raman spectroscopy to acquire a spectroscopic signature from nanoscale biological structures. This should facilitate a more precise diagnosis of single viral particles and other micro-organisms previously localized and visualized in the TEM. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Absolute measurements of chlorine Cl+ cation single photoionization cross section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez, E. M.; Juarez, A. M.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Aguilar, A.; Hernandez, L.; Antillon, A.; Macaluso, D.; Morales-Mori, A.; Gonzalez-Magana, O.; Hanstorp, D.; Covington, A. M.; Davis, V.; Calabrese, D.; Hinojosa, G.

    The photoionization of Cl+ leading to Cl2+ was measured in the photon energy range of 19.5-28.0 eV. A spectrum with a photon energy resolution of 15 meV normalized to absolute cross-section measurements is presented. The measurements were carried out by merging a Cl+ ion beam with a photon beam of

  8. Theory of photoionization of open-shell atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahabi, S.

    1983-01-01

    This dissertation comprises four investigations concerning the photoionization of open-shell atoms. The first two are concerned with anisotropic interaction effects on the photoelectron angular distribution of open-shell atoms within the Hartree-Fock approximation. Calculations are carried out for the outer p-subshells of the halogen (F, Cl, Br, and I) and chalcogen (O, S, Se, and Te) atoms as well as for the 3s-subshell of atomic Al. The second two investigations are concerned with the development and application of a many-body treatment of open-shell atom photoionization processes using a transition matrix approach. The aim of this investigation is to treat all particle-hole-type interactions so that theoretical photoionization cross sections for open-shell atoms can be calculated with the same accuracy as are random-phase approximation (RPA) results for closed-shell atoms. A graphical procedure is developed to evaluate each term in the equation satisfied by the first-order transition matrix. For those terms involving the interaction of excited virtual pairs of electrons with the ionic core, the interaction is approximated by allowing no exchange of orbital or spin angular momentum with the ionic core. This approximation leads to the RPA in the closed-shell atom case; it is used to define the RPA here for open-shell atoms. This new open-shell transition matrix approach is applied to the calculation of the photoionization cross section of atomic chlorine

  9. Intermediate obtained from photoionization, serving as precursor for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article, we have introduced an intermediate benzyl carbocation (formed as a result of photoionization) which serves as precursor for the synthesis of Schiff's base. Lifetimes of many carbocations were determined from our laboratory. During the determination of the lifetimes, our endeavor was to obtain a carbocation ...

  10. Absolute measurements of chlorine Cl+ cation single photoionization cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández, E.M.; Juárez, A.M.; Kilcoyne, A.L.D.; Aguilar, A.; Hernández, L.; Antillón, A.; Macaluso, D.; Morales-Mori, A.; González-Magaña, O.; Hanstorp, D.; Covington, A.M.; Davis, V.; Calabrese, D.; Hinojosa, G.

    2015-01-01

    The photoionization of Cl + leading to Cl 2+ was measured in the photon energy range of 19.5–28.0 eV. A spectrum with a photon energy resolution of 15 meV normalized to absolute cross-section measurements is presented. The measurements were carried out by merging a Cl + ion beam with a photon beam of highly monochromatic synchrotron radiation at the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The measured photoionization of Cl + consists of several autoionization resonances surperimposed on the direct photoionization signal. Most of the prominent resonances are assigned to members of Rydberg series originating from the singlet ground state and from metastable triplet levels within the ground-state configuration of Cl + . The direct ionization cross section is no larger than 12 Mb. - Highlights: • The single photoionization absolute cross section of Cl + ion was measured. • Numerous resonances were identified as belonging to Rydberg series. • A large population of the metastable Cl + ( 1 D 2 ) was identified. • Identified resulting Cl 2+ state terms correspond to 2 D 5/2 and 2 D 3/2

  11. Near-threshold photoionization of aromatic solutes in polar solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Bern

    2000-03-01

    In recent years, pump-probe experiments with femtosecond laser pulses have provided exciting new insight into the dynamics of excess electrons in polar liquids. Some of these findings are resulting in revisions to long-held notions in radiation chemistry. In particular, there is now increasing evidence that photoionization close to threshold proceeds by a mechanism radically different than that of charge ejection from an isolated molecule. Photoionization in this near-threshold regime does not require the promotion of an electron to the conduction band of the solvent, but can instead proceed by a mechanism that more closely resembles photoinduced electron transfer to localized electronic states. The density of these localized trapping states is substantial in water and extends as much as several eV below the conduction band edge. Charge ejection experiments in polar solvents can thus provide new information about the energy landscapes of molecular liquids. Because it is inconvenient to access the ionization threshold energy of neat liquids, our work has focused on charge ejection from aromatic compounds "doped" into the band gap of various polar solvents. This allows easier access to the energies necessary for near-threshold photoionization and allows specific solute-solvent interactions to be explored by chemical substitution. Results from femtosecond transient absorption experiments will be presented on the photoionization dynamics of indole, benzimidazole, and some nucleic acid bases. In addition, some results will be presented from photodetachment experiments on solvated radical ions.

  12. Raman spectroscopy-based screening of IgM positive and negative sera for dengue virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, M.; Saleem, M.; Bilal, Maria; Ijaz, T.; Khan, Saranjam; Ullah, Rahat; Raza, A.; Khurram, M.; Akram, W.; Ahmed, M.

    2016-11-01

    A statistical method based on Raman spectroscopy for the screening of immunoglobulin M (IgM) in dengue virus (DENV) infected human sera is presented. In total, 108 sera samples were collected and their antibody indexes (AI) for IgM were determined through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Raman spectra of these samples were acquired using a 785 nm wavelength excitation laser. Seventy-eight Raman spectra were selected randomly and unbiasedly for the development of a statistical model using partial least square (PLS) regression, while the remaining 30 were used for testing the developed model. An R-square (r 2) value of 0.929 was determined using the leave-one-sample-out (LOO) cross validation method, showing the validity of this model. It considers all molecular changes related to IgM concentration, and describes their role in infection. A graphical user interface (GUI) platform has been developed to run a developed multivariate model for the prediction of AI of IgM for blindly tested samples, and an excellent agreement has been found between model predicted and clinically determined values. Parameters like sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and area under receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve for these tested samples are also reported to visualize model performance.

  13. Molecular beam photoionization and gas-surface scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceyer, S.T.

    1979-09-01

    The energetics of the ethylene ion-molecule reactions was investigated in more detail than previously possible in two body collision experiments by photoionization of the neutral van der Waals ethylene dimer. The stability of the (C 2 H 4 ) + C 2 H 4 ion-molecule collision complex has been determined to be 18.2 +- 0.5 kcal. The highest potential barriers along the reaction coordinate for decomposition of this collision complex into C 4 H 7 + + H and C 3 H 5 + + CH 3 have been determined to be 0 +- 1.5 and 8.7 +- 1.5 kcal. In a similar manner, the energetics of the solvated ethylene dimer ion was investigated by the photoionization of the ethylene trimer. The absolute proton affinity of NH 3 (203.6 +- 1.3 kcal/mole) and the proton solvation energies by more than one NH 3 have been determined by molecular beam photoionization. In addition, the NH 3 + -NH 3 interaction energy (0.79 +- 0.05 eV) was measured by photoionization of the neutral van der Waals dimer. These experiments have shown that photoionization of van der Waals clusters is a very powerful method of determining the energetics of gas phase proton solvation. The scattering of helium atomic beams from a high Miller index platinum surface that exhibits ordered, periodic steps on the atomic scale to probe the effect of atomic steps on the scattering distribution is explored. Rainbow scattering is observed when the step edges are perpendicular to the incident helium atoms. The design, construction and operation of a beam-surface scattering apparatus are described. The first data obtained in this apparatus are presented and the interesting dynamical aspects of the oxidation of D, D 2 and CO are discussed. 75 references

  14. Photodissociation and photoionization of organosulfur radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Chia-Wei [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1994-05-27

    The dynamics of S(3P2,1,0, 1D2) production from the 193 nm photodissociation of CH3SCH3, H2S and CH3SH have been studied using 2 + 1 resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) techniques. The 193 nm photodissociation cross sections for the formation of S from CH3S and HS initially prepared in the photodissociation of CH3SCH3 and H2S are estimated to be 1 x 10-18 and 1.1 x 10-18 cm2, respectively. The dominant product from CH3S is S(1D), while that from SH is S(3P). Possible potential energy surfaces involved in the 193 nm photodissociation of CH3S($\\tilde{X}$) and SH(X) have been also examined. Threshold photoelectron (PE) spectra for SH and CH3S formed in the ultraviolet photodissociation of H2S and CH3SH, respectively, have been measured using the nonresonant two-photon pulsed field ionization (N2P-PFI) technique. The rotationally resolved N2P-PFI-PE spectrum obtained for SH indicates that photoionization dynamics favors the rotational angular momentum change ΔN < 0 with the ΔN value up to -3, an observation similar to that found in the PFI-PE spectra of OH (OD) and NO. The ionization energies for SH(X2Π3,2) and CH3S($\\tilde{X}$2E3/2) are determined to be 84,057.5 ± 3 cm-1 and 74,726 ± 8 cm-1 respectively. The spin-orbit splittings for SH(X2Π3/2, 1/2) and CH3S($\\tilde{X}$2E3/2, 1/2) are found to be 377 ± 2 and 257 ± 5 cm-1, respectively, in agreement with previous measurements. The C-S stretching frequency for CH3S+($\\tilde{X}$3A2) is 733 ± 5 cm-1. This study illustrates that the PFI-PE detection method can be a

  15. Methods of laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior, Y.; Ben-Reuven, A.; Rosenbluh, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: the one-atom maser and cavity quantum electrodynamics; Rydberg atoms and radiation; investigation of nonthermal population distributions with femtosecond optical pulses; intra- and intermolecular energy transfer of large molecules in solution after picosecond excitation; new techniques of time-resolved infrared and Raman spectroscopy using ultrashort laser pulses; spectral linewidth of semiconductor lasers; the hydrogen atom in a new light; laser frequency division and stabilization; modified optical Bloch equations for solids; CARS spectroscopy of transient species; off resonant laser induced ring emission; UV laser ionization spectroscopy and ion photochemistry; laser spectroscopy of proton-transfer in microsolvent clusters; recent advances in intramolecular electronic energy transfer; and photoionization and dissociation of the H 2 molecule near the ionization threshold

  16. Negative resistance for methanol electro-oxidation on platinum/carbon (Pt/C) catalyst investigated by an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guang-Xu; Guo, Jian-Wei; Wang, Jia; Li, Song

    2015-02-01

    The poisoning of Pt-based catalyst occurs generally during methanol electro-oxidation. Though traditional electrochemical techniques have probed these issues intensively, it is amazing to find that the negative resistance presents in the intermediate potential zone during an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurement. Based on the chemical reaction analysis, we establish an EIS model and make some numerical analyses, thus determining the specific EIS shapes and equivalent circuits relating to various potential zones. These results not only compensate the drawback for traditional electrochemical approaches, but also reveal the dynamic adsorption of CO and OH species on Pt surfaces, providing a chance for understanding bifunctional mechanism towards quantitative manners. Significantly, we clarify that the negative resistance begins from the maximum catalysis of methanol electro-catalysis and ends in the initial passive state on Pt surfaces, offering a tool for further improvement. Interestingly, our discovery for negative resistance is consistent with that in general electrochemical system, facilitating its extension and direction in future.

  17. VUV photoionization and dissociative photoionization of the prebiotic molecule acetyl cyanide: Theory and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellili, A.; Hochlaf, M., E-mail: hochlaf@univ-mlv.fr, E-mail: martin.schwell@lisa.u-pec.fr [Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, Université Paris-Est, 5 bd Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallée (France); Schwell, M., E-mail: hochlaf@univ-mlv.fr, E-mail: martin.schwell@lisa.u-pec.fr; Bénilan, Y.; Fray, N.; Gazeau, M.-C. [Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques (LISA), UMR 7583 CNRS, Institut Pierre et Simon Laplace, Universités Paris-Est Créteil et Paris Diderot, 61 Avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil (France); Mogren Al-Mogren, M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Guillemin, J.-C. [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Rennes, CNRS, UMR 6226, Allée de Beaulieu, CS 50837, 35708 Rennes Cedex 7 (France); Poisson, L. [Laboratoire Francis Perrin, CNRS URA 2453, CEA, IRAMIS, Laboratoire Interactions Dynamique et Lasers, Bât 522, F-91191 Gif/Yvette (France)

    2014-10-07

    The present combined theoretical and experimental investigation concerns the single photoionization of gas-phase acetyl cyanide and the fragmentation pathways of the resulting cation. Acetyl cyanide (AC) is inspired from both the chemistry of cyanoacetylene and the Strecker reaction which are thought to be at the origin of medium sized prebiotic molecules in the interstellar medium. AC can be formed by reaction from cyanoacetylene and water but also from acetaldehyde and HCN or the corresponding radicals. In view of the interpretation of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) experimental data obtained using synchrotron radiation, we explored the ground potential energy surface (PES) of acetyl cyanide and of its cation using standard and recently implemented explicitly correlated methodologies. Our PES covers the regions of tautomerism (between keto and enol forms) and of the lowest fragmentation channels. This allowed us to deduce accurate thermochemical data for this astrobiologically relevant molecule. Unimolecular decomposition of the AC cation turns out to be very complex. The implications for the evolution of prebiotic molecules under VUV irradiation are discussed.

  18. Application of Negative Curvature Hollow-Core Fiber in an Optical Fiber Sensor Setup for Multiphoton Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popenda, Maciej Andrzej; Stawska, Hanna Izabela; Mazur, Leszek Mateusz; Jakubowski, Konrad; Kosolapov, Alexey; Kolyadin, Anton; Bereś-Pawlik, Elżbieta

    2017-10-06

    In this paper, an application of negative curvature hollow core fiber (NCHCF) in an all-fiber, multiphoton fluorescence sensor setup is presented. The dispersion parameter (D) of this fiber does not exceed the value of 5 ps/nm × km across the optical spectrum of (680-750) nm, making it well suited for the purpose of multiphoton excitation of biological fluorophores. Employing 1.5 m of this fiber in a simple, all-fiber sensor setup allows us to perform multiphoton experiments without any dispersion compensation methods. Multiphoton excitation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) with this fiber shows a 6- and 9-fold increase, respectively, in the total fluorescence signal collected when compared with the commercial solution in the form of a hollow-core photonic band gap fiber (HCPBF). To the author's best knowledge, this is the first time an NCHCF was used in an optical-fiber sensor setup for multiphoton fluorescence experiments.

  19. Revealing isomerism in sodium-water clusters: Photoionization spectra of Na(H2O)n (n = 2-90)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierking, Christoph W.; Zurheide, Florian; Zeuch, Thomas; Med, Jakub; Parez, Stanislav; Slavíček, Petr

    2017-06-01

    Soft ionization of sodium tagged polar clusters is increasingly used as a powerful technique for sizing and characterization of small aerosols with possible application, e.g., in atmospheric chemistry or combustion science. Understanding the structure and photoionization of the sodium doped clusters is critical for such applications. In this work, we report on measurements of photoionization spectra for sodium doped water clusters containing 2-90 water molecules. While most of the previous studies focused on the ionization threshold of the Na(H2O)n clusters, we provide for the first time full photoionization spectra, including the high-energy region, which are used as reference for a comparison with theory. As reported in previous work, we have seen an initial drop of the appearance ionization energy with cluster size to values of about 3.2 eV for n electron cloud. The appearance ionization energy is determined by isomers with fully solvated sodium and a highly delocalized electron cloud, while both fully and incompletely solvated isomers with localized electron clouds can contribute to the high energy part of the photoionization spectrum. Simulations at elevated temperatures show an increased abundance of isomers with low ionization energies, an entropic effect enabling size selective infrared action spectroscopy, based on near threshold photoionization of Na(H2O)n clusters. In addition, simulations of the sodium pick-up process were carried out to study the gradual formation of the hydrated electron which is the basis of the sodium-tagging sizing.

  20. Stark shift and photoionization cross section of on-center and off-center donor impurity in a core/shell ellipsoidal quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, L.; Yan, Z. W.

    2018-04-01

    Within the framework of the effective-mass approximation and by using a variational method, the Stark shift of on-center and off-center donor impurity binding energies and photoionization cross section under a z-direction electric field in a prolate (oblate) core/shell ellipsoidal quantum dot has been studied. We have calculated the Stark shift as a function of the core and shell sizes and shapes, electric field, and impurity position. We also discuss the photoionization cross section as a function of photon energy with different core and shell sizes and shapes, electric field strengths, and impurity positions. The results show that the Stark shift depends strongly on the impurity position, it could be positive or negative. The core and shell sizes and shapes also have a pronounce influence on the Stark shift, and the Stark shift changes with them is non-monotonic, especially when the impurity is located at the -z-axis, the situation will become complicated. In addition, the core and shell sizes and shapes, impurity position, and electric field also have an important influence on the photoionization cross section. In particular, the photoionization cross section will vanish when the impurity is located at center of spherical core with spherical or prolate shell case at zero field.

  1. Resonances in electron-molecule scattering and photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, B.I.; Collins, L.A.

    1984-05-01

    The development of reliable theoretical models for calculating the decay of quasi-stationary states of molecular systems has become an important endeavor for theoretical chemists. The understanding and analysis of a wide variety of physical and chemical phenomena depend on a knowledge of the behavior of these states in both collisional and photoionization problems. In this article we describe the theory and calculation of these cross sections using our Linear Algebraic/Optical Potential method. The theory makes optimal use of the numerical methods developed to solve large sets of coupled integral equations and the bound state techniques used by quantum chemists. Calculations are presented for a representative class of diatomic and triatomic molecules at varying levels of sophistication and for collisional and photoionization cross sections. 48 references, 11 figures

  2. Electron Interference in Molecular Circular Polarization Attosecond XUV Photoionization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Jun Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-center electron interference in molecular attosecond photoionization processes is investigated from numerical solutions of time-dependent Schrödinger equations. Both symmetric H\\(_2^+\\ and nonsymmetric HHe\\(^{2+}\\ one electron diatomic systems are ionized by intense attosecond circularly polarized XUV laser pulses. Photoionization of these molecular ions shows signature of interference with double peaks (minima in molecular attosecond photoelectron energy spectra (MAPES at critical angles \\(\\vartheta_c\\ between the molecular \\(\\textbf{R}\\ axis and the photoelectron momentum \\(\\textbf{p}\\. The interferences are shown to be a function of the symmetry of electronic states and the interference patterns are sensitive to the molecular orientation and pulse polarization. Such sensitivity offers possibility for imaging of molecular structure and orbitals.

  3. Photoionization of Endohedral Atoms: Collective, Reflective and Collateral Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Himadri S.; McCune, Matthew A.; Hopper, Dale E.; Madjet, Mohamed E.; Manson, Steven T.

    2009-01-01

    The photoionization properties of a fullerene-confined atom differ dramatically from that of an isolated atom. In the low energy region, where the fullerene plasmons are active, the electrons of the confined atom emerge through a collective channel carrying a significant chunk of plasmon with it. The photoelectron angular distribution of the confined atom however shows far lesser impact of the effect. At higher energies, the interference between two single-electron ionization channels, one directly from the atom and another reflected off the fullerene cage, producuces oscillatory cross sections. But for the outermost atomic level, which transfers some electrons to the cage, oscillations are further modulated by the collateral emission from the part of the atomic charge density transferred to the cage. These various modes of emissions are studied for the photoionization of Ar endohedrally confined in C 60 .

  4. Selective photoionization of gadolinium isotopes with a polarized laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Guyadec, E.

    1990-06-01

    The aim of this study is the use of gadolinium 157 as burnable poison in nuclear reactors. Spectroscopic isotopic displacements between Gd 156 and Gd 157 are low and the separation method studied is based on differentiated behavior, concerning polarized light, of even and odd gadolinium isotopes coming from their difference of nuclear spin. On this principle is based the simplest photoionization scheme. Selective ionization of odd isotopes is realized from the fundamental state with three resonating photons colinearly polarized. The experimental study confirms the possibility of efficient photoionization. The measured selectivity between Gd 157 and even isotope is over 48 in defined conditions because it can be destroyed by a magnetic field or if photons are not well polarized. Calculations and observations are in good agreement. Odd gadolinium isotope separation is feasible and effects preventing separation are evidenced [fr

  5. A non-invasive online photoionization spectrometer for FLASH2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braune, Markus; Brenner, Günter; Dziarzhytski, Siarhei; Juranić, Pavle; Sorokin, Andrey; Tiedtke, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The stochastic nature of the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) process of free-electron lasers (FELs) effects pulse-to-pulse fluctuations of the radiation properties, such as the photon energy, which are determinative for processes of photon–matter interactions. Hence, SASE FEL sources pose a great challenge for scientific investigations, since experimenters need to obtain precise real-time feedback of these properties for each individual photon bunch for interpretation of the experimental data. Furthermore, any device developed to deliver the according information should not significantly interfere with or degrade the FEL beam. Regarding the spectral properties, a device for online monitoring of FEL wavelengths has been developed for FLASH2, which is based on photoionization of gaseous targets and the measurements of the corresponding electron and ion time-of-flight spectra. This paper presents experimental studies and cross-calibration measurements demonstrating the viability of this online photoionization spectrometer. PMID:26698040

  6. Metastable decay of photoionized niobium clusters: Evaporation vs fission fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, S.K.; Liu, K.; Riley, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    The metastable decay of photoionized niobium clusters (Nb/sub n/ + ) has been observed in a newly constructed cluster beam machine. The decay manifests itself in the time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrum as an asymmetric broadening of daughter ion peaks. Pulsed ion extraction has been used to measure the decay rate constants and to establish the mechanism of the fragmentation, evaporation and/or fission of the photoionized clusters. It is found that within the experimental time window evaporation dominates for the smaller clusters (n 6 sec -1 . The average kinetic energy release is also determined and is found to be on the order of 5 MeV. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  7. Double-photoionization of helium including quadrupole radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colgan, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ludlow, J A [AUBURN UNIV; Lee, Teck - Ghee [AUBURN UNIV; Pindzola, M S [AUBURN UNIV; Robicheaux, F [AUBURN UNIV

    2009-01-01

    Non-perturbative time-dependent close-coupling calculations are carried out for the double photoionization of helium including both dipole and quadrupole radiation effects. At a photon energy of 800 eV, accessible at CUlTent synchrotron light sources, the quadrupole interaction contributes around 6% to the total integral double photoionization cross section. The pure quadrupole single energy differential cross section shows a local maxima at equal energy sharing, as opposed to the minimum found in the pure dipole single energy differential cross section. The sum of the pure dipole and pure quadrupole single energy differentials is insensitive to non-dipole effects at 800 eV. However, the triple differential cross section at equal energy sharing of the two ejected electrons shows strong non-dipole effects due to the quadrupole interaction that may be experimentally observable.

  8. Spatially resolved photoionization of ultracold atoms on an atom chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, S.; Guenther, A.; Fortagh, J.; Zimmermann, C.

    2007-01-01

    We report on photoionization of ultracold magnetically trapped Rb atoms on an atom chip. The atoms are trapped at 5 μK in a strongly anisotropic trap. Through a hole in the chip with a diameter of 150 μm, two laser beams are focused onto a fraction of the atomic cloud. A first laser beam with a wavelength of 778 nm excites the atoms via a two-photon transition to the 5D level. With a fiber laser at 1080 nm the excited atoms are photoionized. Ionization leads to depletion of the atomic density distribution observed by absorption imaging. The resonant ionization spectrum is reported. The setup used in this experiment is suitable not only to investigate mixtures of Bose-Einstein condensates and ions but also for single-atom detection on an atom chip

  9. Dual-wavelength photo-Hall effect spectroscopy of deep levels in high resistive CdZnTe with negative differential photoconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiienko, A.; Grill, R.; Moravec, P.; Korcsmáros, G.; Rejhon, M.; Pekárek, J.; Elhadidy, H.; Šedivý, L.; Vasylchenko, I.

    2018-04-01

    Photo-Hall effect spectroscopy was used in the study of deep levels in high resistive CdZnTe. The monochromator excitation in the photon energy range 0.65-1.77 eV was complemented by a laser diode high-intensity excitation at selected photon energies. A single sample characterized by multiple unusual features like negative differential photoconductivity and anomalous depression of electron mobility was chosen for the detailed study involving measurements at both the steady and dynamic regimes. We revealed that the Hall mobility and photoconductivity can be both enhanced and suppressed by an additional illumination at certain photon energies. The anomalous mobility decrease was explained by an excitation of the inhomogeneously distributed deep level at the energy Ev + 1.0 eV, thus enhancing potential non-uniformities. The appearance of negative differential photoconductivity was interpreted by an intensified electron occupancy of that level by a direct valence band-to-level excitation. Modified Shockley-Read-Hall theory was used for fitting experimental results by a model comprising five deep levels. Properties of the deep levels and their impact on the device performance were deduced.

  10. Hydrodynamics of photoionized columns in the Eagle Nebula, M 16

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, R. J. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Whitworth, A. P.

    2001-01-01

    We present hydrodynamical simulations of the formation, structure and evolution of photoionized columns, with parameters based on those observed in the Eagle Nebula. On the basis of these simulations we argue that there is no unequivocal evidence that the dense neutral clumps at heads of the columns were cores in the pre-existing molecular cloud. In our simulations, a variety of initial conditions leads to the formation and maintenance of near-equilibrium columns. Therefore, it is likely that...

  11. Feasibility study for implementing an optical Thomson scattering system for studying photoionized plasmas on Z

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlowski, Pawel M.; Mancini, Roberto C.; Koepke, Mark E.

    2018-01-01

    Many astrophysical environments such as X-ray binaries, active galactic nuclei, and accretion disks of compact objects have photoionized plasmas. The strong photoionizing environment found near these bright X-ray sources can be produced in a scaled laboratory experiment, and direct measurements can form a testbed for spectroscopic models and photoionization codes used in analysis of these astrophysical objects. Such scaled experiments are currently being conducted using Ne filled gas cells on...

  12. X-ray emission lines from photoionized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liedahl, D.A.

    1992-11-01

    Plasma emission codes have become a standard tool for the analysis of spectroscopic data from cosmic X-ray sources. However, the assumption of collisional equilibrium, typically invoked in these codes, renders them inapplicable to many important astrophysical situations, particularly those involving X-ray photoionized nebulae, which are likely to exist in the circumsource environments of compact X-ray sources. X-ray line production in a photoionized plasma is primarily the result of radiative cascades following recombination. Through the development of atomic models of several highly-charged ions, this work extends the range of applicability of discrete spectral models to plasmas dominated by recombination. Assuming that ambient plasma conditions lie in the temperature range 10 5 --10 6 K and the density range 10 11 --10 16 cm -3 , X-ray line spectra are calculated over the wavelength range 5--45 angstrom using the HULLAC atomic physics package. Most of the work focuses on the Fe L-shell ions. Line ratios of the form (3s-2p)/(3d-2p) are shown to characterize the principal mode of line excitation, thereby providing a simple signature of photoionization. At electron densities exceeding 10 12 cm -3 , metastable state populations in the ground configurations approach their LTE value, resulting in the enrichment of the Fe L-shell recombination spectrum and a set of density-sensitive X-ray line ratios. Radiative recombination continua and emission lines produced selectively by Δn = 0 dielectronic recombination are shown to provide two classes of temperature diagnostics. Because of the extreme overionization, the recombination continua are expected to be narrow (ΔE/E much-lt 1), with ΔE = kT. Dielectronic recombination selectively drives radiative transitions that originate on states with vacancies in the 2s subshell, states that are inaccessible under pure RR population kinetics

  13. Photoionizing spectra of samarium near the ionization limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, S.; Zhang, S.; Qiu, J.; Liang, Y.; Chen, X.

    1988-01-01

    The authors report the observation of photoionizing spectra of Sm near the ionization limit using the multistep excitation approach. More than seventy new energy levels of Sm have been measured, which are located in the 45321.8-45802.9-cm -1 energy interval. The Sm atoms are selectively excited by two dye lasers pumped by the harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser. The two laser beams are generally collinear and intersect the Sm beam at a right angle. The first dye laser, at wavelength λ 1 =6807.5A, is operated with dye LDS696 and is used to excite the Sm atoms in the atomic beam from the thermally populated state 4f 6 6s 2 7 F 2 to 4f 6 6s7s 9 F 4 with two photons. The second dye laser operated with the dye DCM is used to excite Sm atoms from 4f 6 6s7s 7 F 4 to high excited states with J=3,4,5. The wavelength range of λ 2 is from 6610 to 6400 A. The λ 2 is delayed 10 ns behind λ 1 . The Sm atoms are photoionized or autoionized by λ 1 . The photoionizing signals are detected by an electron multiplier, the output of which is fed into a boxcar averager and recorded on an x-y recorder. The wavelength is determined by using the interference spectra of a Fabry-Perot etalon as a wavelength scale, and the absolute calibration is achieved with the optogalvanic spectra of a Ne atom

  14. Exploiting single photon vacuum ultraviolet photoionization to unravel the synthesis of complex organic molecules in interstellar ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abplanalp, Matthew J.; Förstel, Marko; Kaiser, Ralf I.

    2016-01-01

    Complex organic molecules (COM) such as aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, and amides are ubiquitous in the interstellar medium, but traditional gas phase astrochemical models cannot explain their formation routes. By systematically exploiting on line and in situ vacuum ultraviolet photoionization coupled with reflectron time of flight mass spectrometry (PI-ReTOF-MS) and combining these data with infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), we reveal that complex organic molecules can be synthesized within interstellar ices that are condensed on interstellar grains via non-equilibrium reactions involving suprathermal hydrogen atoms at temperatures as low as 5 K. By probing for the first time specific structural isomers without their degradation (fragment-free), the incorporation of tunable vacuum ultraviolet photoionization allows for a much greater understanding of reaction mechanisms that exist in interstellar ices compared to traditional methods, thus eliminating the significant gap between observational and laboratory data that existed for the last decades. With the commission of the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA), the number of detections of more complex organic molecules in space will continue to grow ⿿ including biorelevant molecules connected to the Origins of Life theme ⿿ and an understanding of these data will rely on future advances in sophisticated physical chemistry laboratory experiments.

  15. Alignment following Au L$_{3}$ photoionization by synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Yamaoka, H; Takahiro, K; Morikawa, T; Ito, S; Mizumaki, M; Semenov, S; Cherepkov, N; Kabachnik, N M; Mukoyama, T; 10.1088/0953-4075/36/19/001

    2003-01-01

    The alignment of Au/sup +/ ions following L/sub 3/ photoionization has been studied using a high-resolution X-ray spectrometer. We observed a small anisotropy for the angular dependence of Au L/sub l/ and L alpha emissions. The alignment parameter A/sub 20/ derived from the experimental results is compared with theoretical calculations by Hartree-Fock approximation and random phase approximation with exchange. The contribution to the alignment of quadruple interaction is discussed. (40 refs).

  16. Molecular photoionization studies of nucleobases and correlated systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poliakoff, Erwin D. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2015-03-11

    We proposed molecular photoionization studies in order to probe correlated events in fundamental scattering phenomena. In particular, we suggested that joint theoretical-experimental studies would provide a window into the microscopic aspects that are of central importance in AMO and chemical physics generally, and would generate useful data for wide array of important DOE topics, such as ultrafast dynamics, high harmonic generation, and probes of nonadiabatic processes. The unifying theme is that correlations between electron scattering dynamics and molecular geometry highlight inherently molecular aspects of the photoelectron behavior.

  17. Two-electron photoionization cross sections at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Ya.; Krivec, R.; Mandelzweig, V.B.

    2003-01-01

    Double and single electron photoionization cross sections and their ratios at high and ultra-relativistic energies are calculated for H - , He and helium-like ions in ground and excited states including triplet states. The ratios contain shake-off and quasi-free terms. A high precision non-variational wave function is used. The quasi-free mechanism increases the ratios impressively: for He we get 0.0762 instead of 0.0164 in the non-relativistic case. Ratios are inversely proportional to Z 2 , with a factor increasing from 0.094 in the nonrelativistic to 0.595 in the ultra-relativistic limit. (author)

  18. The photoionization spectrum of neutral aluminium, Al I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of Al I has been studied for the wavelength range 1160 to 2000 A by the flash pyrolysis technique. Wavelengths and derived energy levels are reported for 70 new lines converging on the 3s3p(3)P(0) limits of Al II. The autoionization parameters of the 3p(2)P(0)-3p(2)(2)S doublet have been measured. Good agreement is obtained with the experiment of Kohl and Parkinson and the recent calculation of Le Dourneuf et al. The relative photoionization cross section has been measured in the wavelength region 1200 A to 2000 A.

  19. Photoionization mass spectrometric studies of selected compounds in a molecular beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, W.M.

    1979-03-01

    Photoionization efficiency curves have been measured at moderate to high resolution for several species produced in supersonic molecular beams of acetone, acetone-d 6 and CS 2 . The molecular beam photoionization mass spectrometer which has been assembled for this work is described. The performance of this instrument has been characterized by a number of experiments and calculations

  20. Photoionization Cross-Section of Chlorine-like Iron Sunny Aggarwal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Photoionization Cross-Section of Chlorine-like Iron .... The wave functions used for the sulphur-like iron (Fe X) target states have been .... In the theory of photoionization both the initial bound state and the final continuum state ψf(k) are expanded in terms of discrete R-matrix basis sets ψk inside a sphere of radius.

  1. The photoionization of atomic Eu in the vicinity of its giant resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Ya.

    1989-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the partial photoionization cross sections of outer subshells of atomic Eu in the giant resonance region are determined by the action of the 4d-electron excitations. The cross section for photoionization of the semifilled 4f 7 subshell is also entirely dominated by the interaction with 4d 10 electrons. (orig.)

  2. Dramatic nondipole effects in low-energy photoionization: Experimental and theoretical study of Xe 5s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmers, O.; Lindle, D.W.; Baker, J.; Hudson, A.; Lotrakul, M.; Tran, I.C.; Guillemin, R.; Stolte, W.C.; Wolska, A.; Yu, S.W.; Kanter, E.P.; Kraessig, B.; Southworth, S.H.; Wehlitz, R.; Rolles, D.; Amusia, M.Ya.; Cheng, K.T.; Chernysheva, L.V.; Johnson, W.R.; Manson, S.T.

    2003-01-01

    The Xe 5s nondipole photoelectron parameter γ is obtained experimentally and theoretically from threshold to ∼200 eV photon energy. Significant nondipole effects are seen even in the threshold region of this valence shell photoionization. In addition, contrary to previous understanding, clear evidence of interchannel coupling among quadrupole photoionization channels is found

  3. Electron Spectroscopy: Ultraviolet and X-Ray Excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A. D.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Reviews recent growth in electron spectroscopy (54 papers cited). Emphasizes advances in instrumentation and interpretation (52); photoionization, cross-sections and angular distributions (22); studies of atoms and small molecules (35); transition, lanthanide and actinide metal complexes (50); organometallic (12) and inorganic compounds (2);…

  4. Negative Ion Photoelectron Spectroscopy Reveals Remarkable Noninnocence of Ligands in Nickel Bis(dithiolene) Complexes [Ni(dddt)2](-) and [Ni(edo)2](-).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing; Hou, Gao-Lei; Wang, Xuefeng; Wang, Xue-Bin

    2016-05-12

    [Ni(dddt)2](-) (dddt = 5,6-dihydro-1,4-dithiine-2,3-dithiolate) and [Ni(edo)2](-) (edo = 5,6-dihydro-1,4-dioxine-2,3-dithiolate) are two donor-type nickel bis(dithiolene) complexes, with the tendency of donating low binding energy electrons. These two structurally similar complexes differ only with respect to the outer atoms in the ligand framework where the former has four S atoms while the latter has four O atoms. Herein, we report a negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy (NIPES) study on these two complexes to probe the electronic structures of the anions and their corresponding neutrals. The NIPE spectra exhibit the adiabatic electron detachment energy (ADE) or, equivalently, the electron affinity (EA) of the neutral [Ni(L)2](0) to be relatively low for this type of complexes, 2.780 and 2.375 eV for L = dddt and edo, respectively. The 0.4 eV difference in ADEs shows a significant substitution effect for sulfur in dddt by oxygen in edo, i.e., noninnocence of the ligands, which has decreased the electronic stability of [Ni(edo)2](-) by lowering its electron binding energy by ∼0.4 eV. The observed substitution effect on gas-phase EA values correlates well with the measured redox potentials for [Ni(dddt)2](-/0) and [Ni(edo)2](-/0) in solutions. The singlet-triplet splitting (ΔEST) of [Ni(dddt)2](0) and [Ni(edo)2](0) is also determined from the spectra to be 0.57 and 0.53 eV, respectively. Accompanying DFT calculations and molecular orbital (MO) composition analyses show significant ligand contributions to the redox MOs and allow the components of the orbitals involved in each electronic transition and spectral assignments to be identified.

  5. Attosecond delays in photoionization: time and quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maquet, Alfred; Caillat, Jérémie; Taïeb, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses topics regarding time measurements performed on quantum systems. The motivation is linked to the advent of ‘attophysics’ which makes feasible to follow the motion of electrons in atoms and molecules, with time resolution at the attosecond (1 as = 10 −18 s) level, i.e. at the natural scale for electronic processes in these systems. In this context, attosecond ‘time-delays’ have been recently measured in experiments on photoionization and the question arises if such advances could cast a new light on the still active discussion on the status of the time variable in quantum mechanics. One issue still debatable is how to decide whether one can define a quantum time operator with eigenvalues associated to measurable ‘time-delays’, or time is a parameter, as it is implicit in the Newtonian classical mechanics. One objective of this paper is to investigate if the recent attophysics-based measurements could shed light on this parameter–operator conundrum. To this end, we present here the main features of the theory background, followed by an analysis of the experimental schemes that have been used to evidence attosecond ‘time-delays’ in photoionization. Our conclusion is that these results reinforce the view that time is a parameter which cannot be defined without reference to classical mechanics. (tutorial)

  6. Photoionization of the outer electrons in noble gas endohedral atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M. Ya.; Baltenkov, A. S.; Chernysheva, L. V.

    2008-01-01

    We suggest a prominent modification of the outer shell photoionization cross section in noble gas (NG) endohedral atoms NG-C n under the action of the electron shell of fullerene C n . This shell leads to two important effects: a strong enhancement of the cross section due to fullerene shell polarization under the action of the incoming electromagnetic wave and to prominent oscillation of this cross section due to the reflection of a photoelectron from the NG by the fullerene shell. Both factors lead to powerful maxima in the outer shell ionization cross sections of NG-C n , which we call giant endohedral resonances. The oscillator strength reaches a very large value in the atomic scale, 25. We consider atoms of all noble gases except He. The polarization of the fullerene shell is expressed in terms of the total photoabsorption cross section of the fullerene. The photoelectron reflection is taken into account in the framework of the so-called bubble potential, which is a spherical δ-type potential. It is assumed in the derivations that the NG is centrally located in the fullerene. It is also assumed, in accordance with the existing experimental data, that the fullerene radius R C is much larger than the atomic radius r A and the thickness Δ C of the fullerene shell. As was demonstrated recently, these assumptions allow us to represent the NG-C n photoionization cross section as a product of the NG cross section and two well-defined calculated factors

  7. Electron-spin polarization of photoions produced through photoionization from the laser-excited triplet state of Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonekura, Nobuaki; Nakajima, Takashi; Matsuo, Yukari; Kobayashi, Tohru; Fukuyama, Yoshimitsu

    2004-01-01

    We report the detailed experimental study on the production of electron-spin-polarized Sr + ions through one-photon resonant two-photon ionization via laser-excited 5s5p 3 P 1 (M J =+1) of Sr atoms produced by laser-ablation. We have experimentally confirmed that the use of laser-ablation for the production of Sr atoms prior to photoionization does not affect the electron-spin polarization. We have found that the degree of electron-spin polarization is 64±9%, which is in good agreement with our recent theoretical prediction. As we discuss in detail, we infer, from a simple analysis, that photoelectrons, being the counterpart of electron-spin-polarized Sr + ions, have approximately the same degree of electron-spin polarization. Our experimental results demonstrate that the combined use of laser-ablation technique and pulsed lasers for photoionization would be a compact and effective way to realize a pulsed source for spin-polarized ions and electrons for the studies of various spin-dependent dynamics in chemical physics

  8. Internal Energies of Ion-Sputtered Neutral Tryptophan and Thymine Molecules Determined by Vacuum Ultraviolet Photoionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jia; Takahashi, Lynelle; Wilson, Kevin R.; Leone, Stephen R.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2010-03-11

    Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization coupled to secondary neutral mass spectrometry (VUV-SNMS) of deposited tryptophan and thymine films are performed at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline. The resulting mass spectra show that while the intensity of the VUV-SNMS signal is lower than the corresponding secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) signal, the mass spectra are significantly simplified in VUV-SNMS. A detailed examination of tryptophan and thymine neutral molecules sputtered by 25 keV Bi3 + indicates that the ion-sputtered parent molecules have ~;;2.5 eV of internal energy. While this internal energy shifts the appearance energy of the photofragment ions for both tryptophan and thymine, it does not change the characteristic photoionizaton efficiency (PIE) curves of thymine versus photon energy. Further analysis of the mass spectral signals indicate that approximately 80 neutral thymine molecules and 400 tryptophan molecules are sputtered per incident Bi3 + ion. The simplified mass spectra and significant characteristic ion contributions to the VUV-SNMS spectra indicate the potential power of the technique for organic molecule surface analysis.

  9. Effects of Solvent and Ion Source Pressure on the Analysis of Anabolic Steroids by Low Pressure Photoionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengyuan; Zhu, Yanan; Yang, Jiuzhong; Zhao, Wan; Lu, Deen; Pan, Yang

    2017-04-01

    Solvent and ion source pressure were two important factors relating to the photon induced ion-molecule reactions in low pressure photoionization (LPPI). In this work, four anabolic steroids were analyzed by LPPI mass spectrometry. Both the ion species present and their relative abundances could be controlled by switching the solvent and adjusting the ion source pressure. Whereas M•+, MH+, [M - H2O]+, and solvent adducts were observed in positive LPPI, [M - H]- and various oxidation products were abundant in negative LPPI. Changing the solvent greatly affected formation of the ion species in both positive and negative ion modes. The ion intensities of the solvent adduct and oxygen adduct were selectively enhanced when the ion source pressure was elevated from 68 to 800 Pa. The limit of detection could be decreased by increasing the ion source pressure.

  10. Correlated nuclear and electronic dynamics in photoionized systems studied by quantum and mixed quantum-classical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zheng

    2014-09-01

    The advent of free electron lasers and high harmonic sources enables the investigation of electronic and nuclear dynamics of molecules and solids with atomic spatial resolution and femtosecond/attosecond time resolution, using bright and ultrashort laser pulses of frequency from terahertz to hard x-ray range. With the help of ultrashort laser pulses, the nuclear and electronic dynamics can be initiated, monitored and actively controlled at the typical time scale in the femtosecond to attosecond realm. Meanwhile, theoretical tools are required to describe the underlying mechanism. This doctoral thesis focuses on the development of theoretical tools based on full quantum mechanical multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) and mixed quantum classical approaches, which can be applied to describe the dynamical behavior of gas phase molecules and strongly correlated solids in the presence of ultrashort laser pulses. In the first part of this thesis, the focus is on the motion of electron holes in gas phase molecular ions created by extreme ultraviolet (XUV) photoionization and watched by spectroscopic approaches. The XUV photons create electron-hole in the valence orbitals of molecules by photoionization, the electron hole, as a positively charged quasi-particle, can then interact with the nuclei and the rest of electrons, leading to coupled non-Born-Oppenheimer dynamics. I present our study on electron-hole relaxation dynamics in valence ionized molecular ions of moderate size, using quantum wave packet and mixed quantum-classical approaches, using photoionized [H + (H 2 O) n ] + molecular ion as example. We have shown that the coupled motion of the electron-hole and the nuclei can be mapped out with femtosecond resolution by core-level x-ray transient absorption spectroscopy. Furthermore, in specific cases, the XUV photon can create a coherent electron hole, that can maintain its coherence to time scales of ∝ 1 picosecond. Employing XUV pump - IR probe

  11. Experimental and theoretical study on emission spectra of a nitrogen photoionized plasma induced by intense EUV pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Ismail; Bartnik, Andrzej; Skrzeczanowski, Wojciech; Wachulak, Przemyslaw; Jarocki, Roman; Fiedorowicz, Henryk; Limpouch, Jiri

    2018-01-01

    Spectral lines of low-temperature nitrogen photoionized plasma were investigated. The photoionized plasma was created in the result of irradiation N2 gas using laser plasma EUV radiation pulses. The source was based on a 10J/10ns Nd:YAG (λ = 1064 nm) laser system and a gas puff target. The EUV radiation pulses were collected and focused using a grazing incidence multifoil EUV collector. The emission spectra were measured in the ultraviolet and visible (UV/Vis) range. It was found that the plasma emission lines in the lower region of the UV range are relativley weak. Nonetheless, a part of the spectra contains strong molecular band in the 300 - 430 nm originated from second positive and first negative systems band transitions of nitrogen. These molecular band transitions were identified using a code for study the diatomic molecules, LIFBASE. The vibrational band of Δv = 0 and ±1 transitions were significantly populated than of that with Δv = ±2 and 3 transitions. A comparison of the calculated and measured spectrum is presented. With an assumption of a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), the vibrational temperature was determined from the integrated band intensities with the help of the Boltzmann plot method and compared to the temperature predicted by SPECAIR and LIFBASE simulations. A summary of the results and the variations in the vibrational temperatures was discussed.

  12. Experimental and theoretical study on emission spectra of a nitrogen photoionized plasma induced by intense EUV pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Ismail

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectral lines of low-temperature nitrogen photoionized plasma were investigated. The photoionized plasma was created in the result of irradiation N2 gas using laser plasma EUV radiation pulses. The source was based on a 10J/10ns Nd:YAG (λ = 1064 nm laser system and a gas puff target. The EUV radiation pulses were collected and focused using a grazing incidence multifoil EUV collector. The emission spectra were measured in the ultraviolet and visible (UV/Vis range. It was found that the plasma emission lines in the lower region of the UV range are relativley weak. Nonetheless, a part of the spectra contains strong molecular band in the 300 - 430 nm originated from second positive and first negative systems band transitions of nitrogen. These molecular band transitions were identified using a code for study the diatomic molecules, LIFBASE. The vibrational band of Δv = 0 and ±1 transitions were significantly populated than of that with Δv = ±2 and 3 transitions. A comparison of the calculated and measured spectrum is presented. With an assumption of a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE, the vibrational temperature was determined from the integrated band intensities with the help of the Boltzmann plot method and compared to the temperature predicted by SPECAIR and LIFBASE simulations. A summary of the results and the variations in the vibrational temperatures was discussed.

  13. A theoretical study on the photoionization of the valence orbitals of phosphine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento Edmar M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a theoretical study on the photoionization of phosphine in the static-exchange level and frozen core approximation, using the method of continued fractions. The main subject of the present study is to investigate in which extent the Hartree-Fock description of the target applied to molecular photoionization is valid. Also, the role played by multichannel coupling is analysed. Our study shows that single-channel Hartree-Fock calculations can provide reliable results except for photon energies near the photoionization threshold.

  14. Photoionization microscopy of hydrogen atom near a metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hai-Feng; Wang Lei; Liu Xiao-Jun; Liu Hong-Ping

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the ionization of Rydberg hydrogen atom near a metal surface with a semiclassical analysis of photoionization microscopy. Interference patterns of the electron radial distribution are calculated at different scaled energies above the classical saddle point and at various atom—surface distances. We find that different types of trajectories contribute predominantly to different manifolds in a certain interference pattern. As the scaled energy increases, the structure of the interference pattern evolves smoothly and more types of trajectories emerge. As the atom approaches the metal surface closer, there are more types of trajectories contributing to the interference pattern as well. When the Rydberg atom comes very close to the metal surface or the scaled energy approaches the zero field ionization energy, the potential induced by the metal surface will make atomic system chaotic. The results also show that atoms near a metal surface exhibit similar properties like the atoms in the parallel electric and magnetic fields. (atomic and molecular physics)

  15. Direct double photoionization of the valence shell of Be

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citrini, F.; Malegat, L.; Selles, P.; Kazansky, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    The hyperspherical R-matrix method with semiclassical outgoing waves is used to study the direct double photoionization (DPI) of the valence shell of the lightest alkaline earth-metal Be. The absolute fully integrated, singly, doubly, and triply differential cross sections obtained are compared with the single set of measurements available and with recent calculations based on the convergent close coupling and time-dependent close coupling methods. The level of agreement between all these data is very encouraging. A comparison is also made between the DPI of He and the direct DPI of the valence shell of Be. It confirms that the electron-electron correlations are stronger in the valence 2s shell of Be than in the 1s shell of He, thus contributing to a desirable clarification

  16. Injection and laser acceleration of ions based on the resonant surface photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antsiferov, V.V.; Smirnov, G.I.; Telegin, G.G.

    1993-01-01

    The collective effects have been investigated of the injection and acceleration of the ion beams due to the resonant surface photoionization. The considered scheme of the laser accelerator allows to obtain positive ions with relativistic velocities. 11 refs., 2 figs

  17. Attosecond time delays in the photoionization of noble gas atoms studied in TDLDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magrakvelidze, Maia; Chakraborty, Himadri; Madjet, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    We perform time-dependent local density functional calculations of the quantum phase and time delays of valence photoionization of noble gas atoms. Results may be accessed by XUV-IR interferometric metrology. (paper)

  18. Attosecond time delay in the valence photoionization of C240 versus C60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Kele; Magrakvelidze, Maia; Anstine, Dylan; Chakraborty, Himadri; Madjet, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    We investigate effects of electron correlations on the attosecond time delay of the photoionization from HOMO and HOMO-1 electrons in C 240 . A comparison with earlier C 60 results assesses the molecular size effect. (paper)

  19. Double-Exponentially Decayed Photoionization in CREI Effect: Numerical Experiment on 3D H2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Li; Ting-Ying, Wang; Gui-Zhong, Zhang; Wang-Hua, Xiang; III, W. T. Hill

    2008-01-01

    On the platform of the 3D H 2 + system, we perform a numerical simulation of its photoionization rate under excitation of weak to intense laser intensities with varying pulse durations and wavelengths. A novel method is proposed for calculating the photoionization rate: a double exponential decay of ionization probability is best suited for fitting this rate. Confirmation of the well-documented charge-resonance-enhanced ionization (CREI) effect at medium laser intensity and finding of ionization saturation at high light intensity corroborate the robustness of the suggested double-exponential decay process. Surveying the spatial and temporal variations of electron wavefunctions uncovers a mechanism for the double-exponentially decayed photoionization probability as onset of electron ionization along extra degree of freedom. Henceforth, the new method makes clear the origins of peak features in photoionization rate versus internuclear separation. It is believed that this multi-exponentially decayed ionization mechanism is applicable to systems with more degrees of motion

  20. Investigation of thallium evaporation by the method of laser resonance photoionization of atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukhlibaev, O; Temorov, Zh.P.

    1998-01-01

    Using the method of laser stepwise resonance photoionization the evaporation rate the vapor pressure were measured for metallic thallium in the temperature range of 480-1205 K. The minimal pressure having been measured equals 10 -9 Pa

  1. Photoionization of lanthanum and its ions in the region of the 'giant' resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Ya.

    1989-01-01

    The photoionization cross sections of outer and intermediate shells including 4d of La and its ions are calculated in the region of the 'giant' resonance. The prominent effects of both intershell correlational effects and rearrangement are demonstrated. (orig.)

  2. Measurement of absolute photo-ionization cross sections using magnesium magneto-optical traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, D.N.; Thomsen, J.W. [Niels Bohr Institute, Oersted Laboratory, Copenhagen (Denmark)]. E-mail: jwt@fys.ku.dk

    2002-05-14

    This paper reports on an experimental study of resonant photo-ionization of the 3s3p {sup 1}P{sub 1} level of magnesium using near-resonant light at 285 nm. We extract an absolute photo-ionization cross section of (8.1{+-}2.3)x10{sup -17} cm{sup 2} using a magneto-optical trap and compare this value to current theoretical calculations. We find good agreement between theory and experiment. (author)

  3. A laser photoionization method for the study of the CdS evaporation kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adzhimambetov, R.R.; Muzhdabaev, I.Sh.; Tursunov, A.T.; Khalilov, E.E.; Khamraev, Kh.S.

    2003-01-01

    The evaporation rates and saturation vapor pressures of cadmium sulfide and pure metallic cadmium are measured in the temperature ranges 585-950 K and 350-535 K, respectively, using laser resonance multistep photoionization. It is shown that CdS thermally dissociates into Cd atoms and S 2 molecules. The study is carried out in the framework of a scheme proposed earlier for photoionization of cadmium atoms. The measured minimum vapor pressure of pure cadmium is 10 -11 Torr

  4. Unravelling the Complex Structure of AGN-driven Outflows. II. Photoionization and Energetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouzos, Marios; Woo, Jong-Hak; Bae, Hyun-Jin

    2016-12-01

    Outflows have been shown to be prevalent in galaxies hosting luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs); they present a physically plausible way to couple the AGN energy output with the interstellar medium of their hosts. Despite their prevalence, accurate characterization of these outflows has been challenging. In the second of a series of papers, we use Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph integral field unit (IFU) data of six local (z connecting the extreme kinematics of the ionized gas to the AGN photoionization. The kinematic component related to the AGN-driven outflow is clearly separated from other kinematic components, such as virial motions or rotation, on the velocity and velocity dispersion diagram. Our spatially resolved kinematic analysis reveals that 30 to 90% of the total mass and kinetic energy of the outflow is contained within the central kpc of the galaxy. The spatially integrated mass and kinetic energy of the gas entrained in the outflow correlate well with the AGN bolometric luminosity and results in energy conversion efficiencies between 0.01% and 1%. Intriguingly, we detect ubiquitous signs of ongoing circumnuclear star formation. Their small size, the centrally contained mass and energy, and the universally detected circumnuclear star formation cast doubts on the potency of these AGN-driven outflows as agents of galaxy-scale negative feedback.

  5. UNRAVELLING THE COMPLEX STRUCTURE OF AGN-DRIVEN OUTFLOWS. II. PHOTOIONIZATION AND ENERGETICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karouzos, Marios; Woo, Jong-Hak; Bae, Hyun-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Outflows have been shown to be prevalent in galaxies hosting luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs); they present a physically plausible way to couple the AGN energy output with the interstellar medium of their hosts. Despite their prevalence, accurate characterization of these outflows has been challenging. In the second of a series of papers, we use Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph integral field unit (IFU) data of six local ( z  < 0.1) and moderate-luminosity Type 2 AGNs to study the ionization properties and energetics of AGN-driven outflows. We find strong evidence connecting the extreme kinematics of the ionized gas to the AGN photoionization. The kinematic component related to the AGN-driven outflow is clearly separated from other kinematic components, such as virial motions or rotation, on the velocity and velocity dispersion diagram. Our spatially resolved kinematic analysis reveals that 30 to 90% of the total mass and kinetic energy of the outflow is contained within the central kpc of the galaxy. The spatially integrated mass and kinetic energy of the gas entrained in the outflow correlate well with the AGN bolometric luminosity and results in energy conversion efficiencies between 0.01% and 1%. Intriguingly, we detect ubiquitous signs of ongoing circumnuclear star formation. Their small size, the centrally contained mass and energy, and the universally detected circumnuclear star formation cast doubts on the potency of these AGN-driven outflows as agents of galaxy-scale negative feedback.

  6. Multi-site and multi-depth near-infrared spectroscopy in a model of simulated (central) hypovolemia: Lower body negative pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Bartels (Sebastiaan); R. Bezemer (Rick); F.J.W. Wallis de Vries (Floris); D.M.J. Milstein (Dan); A.A.P. Lima (Alexandre ); T.G.V. Cherpanath (Thomas); A.H. van den Meiracker (Anton); J. van Bommel (Jasper); M. Heger (Michal); J.M. Karemaker (John); C. Ince (Can)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: To test the hypothesis that the sensitivity of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in reflecting the degree of (compensated) hypovolemia would be affected by the application site and probing depth. We simultaneously applied multi-site (thenar and forearm) and multi-depth (15-2.5

  7. Proof of principle for successful characterization of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from skin by use of raman spectroscopy and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.F.M. Willemse-Erix; J-W. Jachtenberg (Jan-Willem); H. Barutçi; G.J. Puppels (Gerwin); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); A. Voss (Andreas); K. Maquelin (Kees)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractCoagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are among the most frequently isolated bacterial species in clinical microbiology, and most CNS-related infections are hospital acquired. Distinguishing between these frequently multiple-antibiotic-resistant isolates is important for both treatment

  8. Photoionization of N-Alkyl N, N', - in Organized Molecular Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenland, Christopher John

    The electron donors N-Alkyl N,N^ ',N^' -trimethylbenzidines (C_{rm n }TMB with n = 1 to 16) were synthesized then photoionized in rapidly frozen micellar, vesicular and reversed micellar solutions. The N-alkyl functionalization of these electron donors alters the solubilization location of C_{rm n}TMB with respect to the aqueous interface in these organized molecular assemblies. The alteration of the solubilization location affects the, relative photoyield. Electron spin resonance is used to quantify and identify the photoproduced radicals in these rapidly frozen solution. Electron spin echo modulation spectroscopy is used to monitor the distance of the cation radical of C_{rm n}TMB to the deuterated aqueous interface. In micelles, longer N-alkyl chains on C _{rm n}TMB push the benzidine moiety towards the aqueous interface. However the photoyield remains constant versus the C_{rm n}TMB alkyl chain length. The lack of a photoyield trend is interpreted in terms of the solubilization geometry which determines the paths of electron escape to form charge separated products. In vesicles, the longer the alkyl chain on C _{rm n}TMB, the deeper the benzidine moiety is located, and the lower the photoyield. The relative photoyield in bilayer vesicles depends on the proximity of the electron donor to the interface. In Aerosol dioctyl reversed micelles in isooctane, a negligible C_{rm n}TMB alkyl chain length effect is observed. Instead the water pool size, which can be manipulated by altering the mole ratio of water to surfactant, is the dominant factor which controls the net photoyield.

  9. Synchrotron-based valence shell photoionization of CH radical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gans, B., E-mail: berenger.gans@u-psud.fr, E-mail: christian.alcaraz@u-psud.fr; Falvo, C. [Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d’Orsay (ISMO), CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91405 Orsay (France); Holzmeier, F.; Röder, A. [Institut of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, University of Würzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); Krüger, J.; Garcia, G. A. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin BP 48, F-91192 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Lopes, A.; Alcaraz, C., E-mail: berenger.gans@u-psud.fr, E-mail: christian.alcaraz@u-psud.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique, UMR 8000 CNRS—Univ. Paris-Sud, Univ. Paris-Saclay, Bât. 350, Centre Universitaire Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Fittschen, C. [Université Lille, CNRS, UMR 8522–PC2A–Physicochimie des Processus de Combustion et de l’Atmosphère, F-59000 Lille (France); Loison, J.-C. [Institut des Sciences Moléculaires, UMR 5255 CNRS—Université de Bordeaux, Bât. A12, 351 cours de la Libération, F-33405 Talence Cedex (France)

    2016-05-28

    We report the first experimental observations of X{sup +} {sup 1}Σ{sup +}←X {sup 2}Π and a{sup +} {sup 3}Π←X {sup 2}Π single-photon ionization transitions of the CH radical performed on the DESIRS beamline at the SOLEIL synchrotron facility. The radical was produced by successive hydrogen-atom abstractions on methane by fluorine atoms in a continuous microwave discharge flow tube. Mass-selected ion yields and photoelectron spectra were recorded as a function of photon energy using a double imaging photoelectron/photoion coincidence spectrometer. The ion yield appears to be strongly affected by vibrational and electronic autoionizations, which allow the observation of high Rydberg states of the neutral species. The photoelectron spectra enable the first direct determinations of the adiabatic ionization potential and the energy of the first triplet state of the cation with respect to its singlet ground state. This work also brings valuable information on the complex electronic structure of the CH radical and its cation and adds new observations to complement our understanding of Rydberg states and autoionization processes.

  10. Kinematical vortices in double photoionization of helium by attosecond pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djiokap, J. M. Ngoko; Meremianin, A. V.; Manakov, N. L.; Hu, S. X.; Madsen, L. B.; Starace, Anthony F.

    2017-07-01

    Two-armed helical vortex structures are predicted in the two-electron momentum distributions produced in double photoionization (DPI) of the He atom by a pair of time-delayed elliptically polarized attosecond pulses with opposite helicities. These predictions are based upon both a first-order perturbation theory analysis and numerical solutions of the two-electron, time-dependent Schrödinger equation in six spatial dimensions. The helical vortex structures originate from Ramsey interference of a pair of ionized two-electron wave packets, each having a total angular momentum of unity, and appear in the sixfold differential DPI probability distribution for any energy partitioning between the two electrons. The vortex structures are exquisitely sensitive to the time delay between the two pulses, their relative phase, their ellipticity, and their handedness; moreover, they occur in a variety of electron detection geometries. However, the vortex structures only occur when the angular separation β =cos-1(p̂1.p̂2) between the electron momenta p1 and p2 is held fixed. The vortex structures can also be observed in the fourfold differential DPI probability distribution obtained by averaging the sixfold differential probability over the emission angles of one electron. Such kinematical vortices are a general phenomenon that may occur in any ionization process, initiated by two time-delayed short pulses with opposite ellipticities, for particular detection geometries.

  11. Microfabricated planar glass gas chromatography with photoionization detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Alastair C; Hamilton, Jacqueline F; Rhodes, Christopher N; Halliday, Jaydene; Bartle, Keith D; Homewood, Philip; Grenfell, Robin J P; Goody, Brian; Harling, Alice M; Brewer, Paul; Vargha, Gergely; Milton, Martin J T

    2010-01-29

    We report the development of a microfabricated gas chromatography system suitable for the separation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and compatible with use as a portable measurement device. Hydrofluoric acid etching of 95x95mm Schott B270 wafers has been used to give symmetrical hemi-spherical channels within a glass substrate. Two matching glass plates were subsequently cold bonded with the channels aligned; the flatness of the glass surfaces resulted in strong bonding through van der Waals forces. The device comprised gas fluidic interconnections, injection zone and 7.5 and 1.4m long, 320microm internal diameter capillaries. Optical microscopy confirmed the capillaries to have fully circular channel profiles. Direct column heating and cooling could be achieved using a combination of resistive heaters and Peltier devices. The low thermal conductivity of glass allowed for multiple uniform temperature zones to be achieved within a single glass chip. Temperature control over the range 10-200 degrees C was achieved with peak power demand of approximately 25W. The 7.5m capillary column was static coated with a 2microm film of non-polar dimethylpolysiloxane stationary phase. A standard FID and a modified lightweight 100mW photoionization detector (PID) were coupled to the column and performance tested with gas mixtures of monoaromatic and monoterpene species at the parts per million concentration level. The low power GC-PID device showed good performance for a small set of VOCs and sub ng detection sensitivity to monoaromatics. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Study of Pair and many-body interactions in rare-gas halide atom clusters using negative ion zero electron kinetic energy (ZEKE) and threshold photodetachment spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yourshaw, Ivan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1998-07-09

    The diatomic halogen atom-rare gas diatomic complexes KrBr-, XeBr-, and KrCl- are studied in this work by zero electron kinetic energy (ZEKE) spectroscopy in order to characterize the weak intermolecular diatomic potentials of these species. Also, the ZEKE and threshold photodetachment spectra of the polyatomic clusters ArnBr- (n = 2-9) and ArnI- (n = 2-19) are studied to obtain information about the non-additive effects on the interactions among the atoms. This work is part of an ongoing effort to characterize the pair and many-body potentials of the complete series of rare gas halide clusters. In these studies we obtain information about both the anionic and neutral clusters.

  13. Negative affect is related to reduced differential neural responses to social and non-social stimuli in 5-to-8-month-old infants: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kant, Anne; Biro, Szilvia; Levelt, Claartje; Huijbregts, Stephan

    2017-12-14

    Both social perception and temperament in young infants have been related to social functioning later in life. Previous functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) data (Lloyd-Fox et al., 2009) showed larger blood-oxygenation changes for social compared to non-social stimuli in the posterior temporal cortex of five-month-old infants. We sought to replicate and extend these findings by using fNIRS to study the neural basis of social perception in relation to infant temperament (Negative Affect) in 37 five-to-eight-month-old infants. Infants watched short videos displaying either hand and facial movements of female actors (social dynamic condition) or moving toys and machinery (non-social dynamic condition), while fNIRS data were collected over temporal brain regions. Negative Affect was measured using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire. Results showed significantly larger blood-oxygenation changes in the right posterior-temporal region in the social compared to the non-social condition. Furthermore, this differential activation was smaller in infants showing higher Negative Affect. Our results replicate those of Lloyd-Fox et al. and confirmed that five-to-eight-month-old infants show cortical specialization for social perception. Furthermore, the decreased cortical sensitivity to social stimuli in infants showing high Negative Affect may be an early biomarker for later difficulties in social interaction. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Approaches for calculating alignment and orientation of photoionized open shell atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmann, B [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Str. 9, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Kleiman, U [Department of Physics, 206 Allison Laboratory, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849-5311 (United States)

    2006-01-28

    A method is proposed for calculating alignment and orientation for open shell atoms after photoionization of an inner shell by relating the open shell dipole matrix elements to those independent of the outer open shell configuration. Thus, an extended and usually non-trivial numerical open shell approach is avoided. Our method can be applied to different configuration potentials which is illustrated by Hartree-Fock calculations of alignment and orientation which have been performed for the L{sub 3} photoionization of K, Au, Sc and Mn, and for the M{sub 5} and N{sub 7} photoionization of In and Tl, applying different numerical approaches. Dramatic effects have been found for Mn. The alignment of Au is compared to the experiment.

  15. The Multiplexed Chemical Kinetic Photoionization Mass Spectrometer: A New Approach To Isomer-resolved Chemical Kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, David L.; Zou, Peng; Johnsen, Howard; Hayden, Carl C.; Taatjes, Craig A.; Knyazev, Vadim D.; North, Simon W.; Peterka, Darcy S.; Ahmed, Musahid; Leone, Stephen R.

    2008-08-28

    We have developed a multiplexed time- and photon-energy?resolved photoionizationmass spectrometer for the study of the kinetics and isomeric product branching of gasphase, neutral chemical reactions. The instrument utilizes a side-sampled flow tubereactor, continuously tunable synchrotron radiation for photoionization, a multi-massdouble-focusing mass spectrometer with 100percent duty cycle, and a time- and positionsensitive detector for single ion counting. This approach enables multiplexed, universal detection of molecules with high sensitivity and selectivity. In addition to measurement of rate coefficients as a function of temperature and pressure, different structural isomers can be distinguished based on their photoionization efficiency curves, providing a more detailed probe of reaction mechanisms. The multiplexed 3-dimensional data structure (intensity as a function of molecular mass, reaction time, and photoionization energy) provides insights that might not be available in serial acquisition, as well as additional constraints on data interpretation.

  16. Dissociation mechanisms and dynamics of doubly charged CD3CN observed by PEPIPICO spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, C.; Tada, S.; Yamamoto, K.; Senba, Y.; Yoshida, H.; Hiraya, A.; Wada, S.; Tanaka, K.; Tabayashi, K.

    2006-01-01

    Dissociation of free acetonitrile-d 3 molecule, CD 3 CN induced by core level excitation was studied near the nitrogen K-edge by time-of-flight fragment mass spectroscopy. A variety of atomic and molecular fragment cations such as D + , CD n + , C 2 D n + , and CD n CN + were detected using the effusive CD 3 CN beam. Photoelectron-photoion-photoion coincidence technique was applied to analyse the dissociation mechanisms and dynamics of doubly charged CD 3 CN 2+ following the N(1s-π * ) excitation. The charge separation mechanisms of core-excited CD 3 CN were discussed in connection with Auger final state distributions

  17. Atomic photoelectron-spectroscopy studies using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobrin, P.H.

    1983-02-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy combined with tunable synchrotron radiation has been used to study the photoionization process in several atomic systems. The time structure of the synchrotron radiation source at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) was used to record time-of-flight (TOF) photoelectron spectra of gaseous Cd, Hg, Ne, Ar, Ba, and Mn. The use of two TOF analyzers made possible the measurement of photoelectron angular distributions as well as branching ratios and partial cross sections

  18. Photo-ionization of aluminum in a hot cavity for the selective production of exotic species project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, D.; Makhathini, L.; Tomaselli, A.; Grassi, D.; Corradetti, S.; Manzolaro, M.; Vasquez, J.; Calderolla, M.; Rossignoli, M.; Monetti, A.; Andrighetto, A.; Prete, G.

    2014-02-01

    SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) is an Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) based accelerator facility that will be built in the Legnaro-Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Laboratory (Italy), intended to provide intense neutron-rich radioactive ion beams obtained by proton-induced fission of a uranium carbide (UCx) target. Besides this main target material, silicon carbide (SiC) will be the first to be used to deliver p-rich beams. This target will also validate the functionality of the SPES facility with aluminum beam as result of impinging SiC target with proton beam. In the past, off line studies on laser photoionization of aluminum have been performed in Pavia Spectroscopy Laboratory and in Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro; a XeCl excimer laser was installed in order to test the laser ionization in the SPES hot cavity. With the new Wien filter installed a better characterization of the ionization process in terms of efficiency was performed and results are discussed.

  19. Photoionization Cross-Section of Chlorine-like Iron Sunny Aggarwal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Photoionization Cross-Section of Chlorine-like Iron. Sunny Aggarwal. ∗. , Jagjit Singh, A. K. S. Jha & Man Mohan. Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India. ∗ e-mail: Sunny.kmc87@gmail.com. Received 2012 April 17; accepted 2012 July 25. Abstract. Semi-relativistic calculations are ...

  20. First prediction of the direct effect of a confined atom on photoionization of the confining fullerene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCune, Matthew A; De, Ruma; Chakraborty, Himadri S; Madjet, Mohamed E

    2010-01-01

    We predict that the confined atom can qualitatively modify the energetic photoionization of some cage levels, even though these levels are of very dominant fullerene character. The effect imposes strong new oscillations in the cross sections which are forbidden to the ionization of empty fullerenes. Results are presented for the AratC 60 endofullerene compound. (fast track communication)

  1. Thin-Layer Chromatography/Desorption Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry of Lipids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rejšek, Jan; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Vaikkinen, A.; Haapala, M.; Kauppila, T. J.; Kostiainen, R.; Cvačka, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 24 (2016), s. 12279-12286 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/12/0750 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization * thin - layer chromatography * lipids Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 6.320, year: 2016

  2. From Fundamentals to Applications: Recent Developments in Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Suzanne J.; van Leeuwen, S.M.; Karst, U.

    2006-01-01

    Only five years after the first publication on atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI), this technique has evolved rapidly as a very useful complement to established ionization techniques for liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). This is reflected in a rapidly increasing number of

  3. Interacting supernovae from photoionization-confined shells around red supergiant stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Jonathan; Mohamed, Shazrene; Gvaramadze, Vasilii V.; Kotak, Rubina; Langer, Norbert; Meyer, Dominique M.-A.; Moriya, Takashi J.; Neilson, Hilding R.

    2014-08-01

    Betelgeuse, a nearby red supergiant, is a fast-moving star with a powerful stellar wind that drives a bow shock into its surroundings. This picture has been challenged by the discovery of a dense and almost static shell that is three times closer to the star than the bow shock and has been decelerated by some external force. The two physically distinct structures cannot both be formed by the hydrodynamic interaction of the wind with the interstellar medium. Here we report that a model in which Betelgeuse's wind is photoionized by radiation from external sources can explain the static shell without requiring a new understanding of the bow shock. Pressure from the photoionized wind generates a standing shock in the neutral part of the wind and forms an almost static, photoionization-confined shell. Other red supergiants should have much more massive shells than Betelgeuse, because the photoionization-confined shell traps up to 35 per cent of all mass lost during the red supergiant phase, confining this gas close to the star until it explodes. After the supernova explosion, massive shells dramatically affect the supernova light curve, providing a natural explanation for the many supernovae that have signatures of circumstellar interaction.

  4. Total absorption and photoionization cross sections of water vapor between 100 and 1000 A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, G. N.; Samson, J. A. R.

    1986-01-01

    Absolute photoabsorption and photoionization cross sections of water vapor are reported at a large number of discrete wavelengths between 100 and 1000 A with an estimate error of + or - 3 percent in regions free from any discrete structure. The double ionization chamber technique utilized is described. Recent calculations are shown to be in reasonable agreement with the present data.

  5. Detuning effect in multistep photo-ionization of atomic isotope of heavy element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakaida, Ikuo; Akaoka, Katsuaki; Miyabe, Masabumi; Oba, Masaki; Arisawa, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    Detuning effect on the excitation wavelength in 3-step photoionization of atomic isotope of heavy element was experimentally obtained and the role of the isotope shift and hyperfine structure in each transition level was discussed. To achieve high selectivity, the combination of the HFS and isotope sift of upper and lower energy level including the autoionizing level was important. (author)

  6. Photoionization modelling of planetary nebulae - II. Galactic bulge nebulae, a comparison with literature results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, PAM; Van de Steene, GC

    1999-01-01

    We have constructed photoionization models of five galactic bulge planetary nebulae using our automatic method, which enables a fully self-consistent determination of the physical parameters of a planetary nebula. The models are constrained using the spectrum, the IRAS and radio fluxes and the

  7. A photoionization model of the compact HII region G29.96-0.02

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morisset, C; Schaerer, D; Martin-Hernandez, NL; Peeters, E; Damour, F; Baluteau, JP; Cox, P; Roelfsema, P

    We present a detailed photoionization model of G29.96-0.02 (hereafter G29.96), one of the brightest Galactic Ultra Compact HII (UCHII) regions in the Galaxy. This source has been observed extensively at radio and infrared wavelengths. The most recent data include a complete ISO (SWS and LWS)

  8. Reactivity and properties of dications generated by photoionization of 2,5-norbornadiene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shaffer, Christopher; Schröder, Detlef; Roithová, J.; Zins, E. L.; Alcaraz, C.; Žabka, Ján; Polášek, Miroslav; Ascenzi, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 336, Feb 15 (2013), s. 17-26 ISSN 1387-3806 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1223; GA ČR GAP208/11/0446 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : dications * norbornadiene * photoionization * reactive monitoring * synchrotron radiation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.227, year: 2013

  9. The manifestation of intershell interactions in the process of atomic photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Y.

    1979-01-01

    It is demonstrated that intershell and intertransition correlations considerably modify the partial photoionization cross sections, leading in some cases to total collectivization of the few-electron subshells. Correlations also play a significant role in the angular distributions of photoelectrons and Augerelectrons and in the polarization of photoelectrons. The joint manifestations of correlational and relativistic effects are discussed. (author)

  10. Application of a novel metabolomic approach based on atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry using flow injection analysis for the study of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Domínguez, Raúl; García-Barrera, Tamara; Gómez-Ariza, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    The use of atmospheric pressure photoionization is not widespread in metabolomics, despite its considerable potential for the simultaneous analysis of compounds with diverse polarities. This work considers the development of a novel analytical approach based on flow injection analysis and atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry for rapid metabolic screening of serum samples. Several experimental parameters were optimized, such as type of dopant, flow injection solvent, and their flows, given that a careful selection of these variables is mandatory for a comprehensive analysis of metabolites. Toluene and methanol were the most suitable dopant and flow injection solvent, respectively. Moreover, analysis in negative mode required higher solvent and dopant flows (100 µl min(-1) and 40 µl min(-1), respectively) compared to positive mode (50 µl min(-1) and 20 µl min(-1)). Then, the optimized approach was used to elucidate metabolic alterations associated with Alzheimer's disease. Thereby, results confirm the increase of diacylglycerols, ceramides, ceramide-1-phosphate and free fatty acids, indicating membrane destabilization processes, and reduction of fatty acid amides and several neurotransmitters related to impairments in neuronal transmission, among others. Therefore, it could be concluded that this metabolomic tool presents a great potential for analysis of biological samples, considering its high-throughput screening capability, fast analysis and comprehensive metabolite coverage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Photoionization of S3+ using the Breit-Pauli R-matrix method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancalie, V.

    2018-01-01

    Sulphur is one of the most abundant chemical elements in the universe and a large number of lines have been observed in the spectra of astrophysical object. The S IV and SV ions considered in this work have received much interest in the last decade. The main objective of the present work is to report on photoionization cross-sections of S IV using the Breit-Pauli R-matrix (BPRM) method. We have carried out extensive non-relativistic and relativistic calculations of the photoionization cross sections to focus on relativistic effects. The reliability of the atomic data presented here has been carefully tested. We have exploited the BPRM code to describe the atomic wavefunctions and generate the energy levels for the SV 81 fine-structure bound target states and the corresponding A-values for transitions between these levels. The partial and total cross sections for the photoionization of the Al-like S3+ ground and excited states are determined for photon energy ranging from the S4+ 3s2 threshold up to the S4+ 4s threshold. We present statistically weighted, level resolved ground photoionization cross sections for the S IV ion. Both resonance positions and the oscillator strengths are presented. Extensive comparison of the present calculated values with those obtained from direct theoretical scattering calculation is also presented. To the best of our knowledge, the work reported herein describes for the first time a detailed relativistic photoionization calculation for this system, and the results are relevant to the laboratory and astrophysical plasmas.

  12. Near-threshold photoionization of hydrogenlike uranium studied in ion-atom collisions via the time-reversed process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöhlker, T; Ma, X; Ludziejewski, T; Beyer, H F; Bosch, F; Brinzanescu, O; Dunford, R W; Eichler, J; Hagmann, S; Ichihara, A; Kozhuharov, C; Krämer, A; Liesen, D; Mokler, P H; Stachura, Z; Swiat, P; Warczak, A

    2001-02-05

    Radiative electron capture, the time-reversed photoionization process occurring in ion-atom collisions, provides presently the only access to photoionization studies for very highly charged ions. By applying the deceleration mode of the ESR storage ring, we studied this process in low-energy collisions of bare uranium ions with low- Z target atoms. This technique allows us to extend the current information about photoionization to much lower energies than those accessible for neutral heavy elements in the direct reaction channel. The results prove that for high- Z systems, higher-order multipole contributions and magnetic corrections persist even at energies close to the threshold.

  13. Modeling Photoionization of Aqueous DNA and Its Components

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pluhařová, Eva; Slavíček, P.; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 5 (2015), s. 1209-1217 ISSN 0001-4842 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA13-34168S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : DNA * photoelectron spectroscopy * ab initio calculations * polarizable continuum solvent model Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 22.003, year: 2015

  14. Photoionization and fragmentation of H3O+ under XUV irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domesle, C.; Dziarzhytski, S.; Guerassimova, N.

    2013-01-01

    The photolysis of the hydronium cation H3O+ has been studied at the extreme ultraviolet wavelengths of 35.56±0.24 nm (34.87±0.24 eV) and 21.85±0.17 nm (56.74±0.44 eV) using a crossed ion-photon beam setup at the free-electron laser FLASH. Coincidence photoelectron and photofragment spectroscopy w...

  15. Measurement of Odor-Plume Structure in a Wind Tunnel Using a Photoionization Detector and a Tracer Gas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Justus, Kristine

    2002-01-01

    The patterns of stimulus available to moths flying along pheromone plumes in a 3-m-long wind tunnel were characterized using a high frequency photoionization detector in conjunction with an inert tracer gas...

  16. When negation is not negation

    OpenAIRE

    Milicevic, Nataša

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I will discuss the formation of different types of yes/no questions in Serbian (examples in (1)), focusing on the syntactically and semantically puzzling example (1d), which involves the negative auxiliary inversion. Although there is a negative marker on the fronted auxiliary, the construction does not involve sentential negation. This coincides with the fact that the negative quantifying NPIs cannot be licensed. The question formation and sentential negation have similar synta...

  17. Lithium photoionization cross-section and dynamic polarizability using square integrable basis sets and correlated wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollauer, E.; Nascimento, M.A.C.

    1985-01-01

    The photoionization cross-section and dynamic polarizability for lithium atom are calculated using a discrete basis set to represent both the bound and the continuum-states of the atom, to construct an approximation to the dynamic polarizability. From the imaginary part of the complex dynamic polarizability one extracts the photoionization cross-section and from its real part the dynamic polarizability. The results are in good agreement with the experiments and other more elaborate calculations (Author) [pt

  18. Photoionization cross-section of donor impurity in spherical quantum dots under electric and intense laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burileanu, L.M.

    2014-01-01

    Using a perturbative method we have investigated the behavior of the binding energy and photoionization cross-section of a donor impurity in spherical GaAs–GaAlAs quantum dots under the influence of electric and intense high-frequency laser fields. The dependencies of the binding energy and photoionization cross-section on electric and laser field strength, dot radius and impurity position were investigated. Our results show that the amplitude of photoionization cross-section grows with the dot radius increase and the peak of the cross-section blue shifts with the laser intensity increment. We have found that the binding energy is not a monotonically function of laser intensity: it decreases or increases depending on electric field regime. The studied effects are even more pronounced as the quantum dot radius is smaller. -- Highlights: • A photoionization cross-section study in quantum dots under laser and electric fields. • The photoionization cross-section peaks are red shifted by the electric field. • The photoionization cross-section peaks are blue shifted by the laser field. • The combined effects of applied fields strongly affect the binding energy

  19. Photo-electron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation of molecular radicals and fragments produced by laser photo-dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahon, Laurent

    1991-01-01

    This research thesis reports the combined use of a laser and of a synchrotron radiation in order to respectively photo-dissociate a molecule and to photo-ionize fragments which are analysed by photo-electron spectroscopy. This association allows, on the one hand, radical photo-ionization to be studied, and, on the other hand, polyatomic molecule photo-dissociation to be studied. The author studied the photo-excitation and/or photo-ionization in layer 4d (resp. 3d) of atomic iodine (resp. bromine) produced almost complete laser photo-dissociation of I 2 (resp. Br 2 ). He discuses the processes of relaxation of transitions from valence 4d to 5p (resp. 3d to 4p) which occur either by direct self-ionization or by resonant Auger effect, and reports the study of photo-dissociation of s-tetrazine (C 2 N 4 H 2 ) [fr

  20. Investigating the Fundamentals of Molecular Depth Profiling Using Strong-field Photoionization of Sputtered Neutrals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willingham, D; Brenes, D A; Winograd, N; Wucher, A

    2011-01-01

    Molecular depth profiles of model organic thin films were performed using a 40 keV C 60 + cluster ion source in concert with TOF-SIMS. Strong-field photoionization of intact neutral molecules sputtered by 40 keV C 60 + primary ions was used to analyze changes in the chemical environment of the guanine thin films as a function of ion fluence. Direct comparison of the secondary ion and neutral components of the molecular depth profiles yields valuable information about chemical damage accumulation as well as changes in the molecular ionization probability. An analytical protocol based on the erosion dynamics model is developed and evaluated using guanine and trehalose molecular secondary ion signals with and without comparable laser photoionization data.

  1. Hartree-Fock calculation of the differential photoionization cross sections of small Li clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galitskiy, S A; Artemyev, A N; Jänkälä, K; Lagutin, B M; Demekhin, Ph V

    2015-01-21

    Cross sections and angular distribution parameters for the single-photon ionization of all electron orbitals of Li2-8 are systematically computed in a broad interval of the photoelectron kinetic energies for the energetically most stable geometry of each cluster. Calculations of the partial photoelectron continuum waves in clusters are carried out by the single center method within the Hartree-Fock approximation. We study photoionization cross sections per one electron and analyze in some details general trends in the photoionization of inner and outer shells with respect to the size and geometry of a cluster. The present differential cross sections computed for Li2 are in a good agreement with the available theoretical data, whereas those computed for Li3-8 clusters can be considered as theoretical predictions.

  2. A virtual observatory for photoionized nebulae: the Mexican Million Models database (3MdB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisset, C.; Delgado-Inglada, G.; Flores-Fajardo, N.

    2015-04-01

    Photoionization models obtained with numerical codes are widely used to study the physics of the interstellar medium (planetary nebulae, HII regions, etc). Grids of models are performed to understand the effects of the different parameters used to describe the regions on the observables (mainly emission line intensities). Most of the time, only a small part of the computed results of such grids are published, and they are sometimes hard to obtain in a user-friendly format. We present here the Mexican Million Models dataBase (3MdB), an effort to resolve both of these issues in the form of a database of photoionization models, easily accessible through the MySQL protocol, and containing a lot of useful outputs from the models, such as the intensities of 178 emission lines, the ionic fractions of all the ions, etc. Some examples of the use of the 3MdB are also presented.

  3. Coherent correlation enhancement of outer shell photoionization cross sections of alkali-like ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Y.; Avdonina, B.; Pratt, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    An alkali-like ion interaction with inner electrons of an alkali-like ion leads to a significant increase in the photoionization cross section of the outer s electron. This occurs not only for ground-state ions with one s electron in the outer shell, but also when the outer s electron is in an excited state. The reason for this amplification, in addition to coherent enhancement in summing of the correlation amplitudes, is that the zero in the direct amplitude occurs below threshold. This leads to a constructive interference with the correlation amplitude above the photoionization threshold, in contrast to a destructive interference in the case of a neutral atom with the same electronic configuration, for which the zero occurs above threshold. Results of this research were published

  4. The 'KER' effect in the double photoionization of H{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colgan, J [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Reddish, T J [Department of Physics, University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Ave, Ontario, N9B 3P4 (Canada); Huetz, A; Gisselbrecht, M; Lavollee, M [CNRS-Universite Paris Sud, UMR8624, Laboratoire d' interaction du rayonnement X avec la matiere, Bat. 350, Centre d' Orsay, 91405, Orsay (France); Bolognesi, P; Avaldi, L [CNR - IMIP Area della Ricerca di Roma 1, CP 10 00016 Monterotondo Scalo (Italy); Pindzola, M S [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)], E-mail: jcolgan@lanl.gov

    2008-11-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical work examining the double photoionization of H{sub 2} has uncovered surprising changes in the fully differential cross sections as a function of the kinetic energy released to the protons (which is equivalent to different internuclear separations of the molecule). We describe the recent joint theoretical and experimental investigations which have uncovered the physical reasons for this phenomenon. We show that the observed variations are solely due to the {epsilon}{sub {sigma}} component of the polarization vector along the molecular axis. Our conclusions are supported by further investigations of the photoionization of H{sub 2}{sup +}, in which similar dramatic variations in the photoelectron angular distributions for the {sigma}{sub g} {yields} {sigma}{sub u} transition are found as the internuclear separation is varied. The angular distributions for the {sigma}{sub g} {yields} {pi}{sub u} transition show little dependence on the internuclear separation.

  5. Electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegde, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    An introduction to the various techniques in electron spectroscopy is presented. These techniques include: (1) UV Photoelectron spectroscopy, (2) X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy, (3) Auger electron spectroscopy, (4) Electron energy loss spectroscopy, (5) Penning ionization spectroscopy and (6) Ion neutralization spectroscopy. The radiations used in each technique, the basis of the technique and the special information obtained in structure determination in atoms and molecules by each technique are summarised. (A.K.)

  6. Valence-shell photoionization of the Cl-like ion Ar{sup +}: Experiment and theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covington, A M; Covington, I R; Shirley, C A; Phaneuf, R A [Department of Physics, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557 (United States); Aguilar, A; Schlachter, A S [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hinojosa, G; Alvarez, I; Cisneros, C; Dominguez-Lopez, I [Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Cuernavaca, Mor. 62210 (Mexico); Sant' Anna, M M [Instituto do Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janerio, Caixa Postal 68528, 21945-970, Rio de Janerio RJ (Brazil); Ballance, C P [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn AL 36840 (United States); McLaughlin, B M, E-mail: acovington@unr.ed, E-mail: b.mclaughlin@qub.ac.u [ITAMP, Harvard-Smithosian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Absolute photoionization cross-section measurements for Ar{sup +} ions and theoretical calculations performed within the semi-relativistic Breit-Pauli R-matrix approximation are reported for the photon energy range 27.4 eV to 60.0 eV. The resonance features are assigned spectroscopically, and their energies and quantum defects tabulated with excellent agreement being obtained between experiment and theory.

  7. Anomalous Abundances in Gaseous Nebulae From Recombination and Collisional Lines: Improved Photoionization and Recombination Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Anil Kumar; Nahar, S. N.; Eissner, W. B.; Montenegro, M.

    2011-01-01

    A perplexing anomaly arises in the determination of abundances of common elements in gaseous nebulae, as derived from collisionally excited lines (CEL) as opposed to those from Recombination Lines (RCL). The "abundance discrepancy factors" can range from a factor of 2 to an order of magnitude or more. That has led to quite different interpretation of the physical structure and processes in gaseous nebulae, such as temperature fluctuations across the object, or metal-rich concentrations leading to a dual-abundnace scenario. We show that the problem may lie in inaccuracies in photoionization and recombination models neglecting low-energy resonance phenomena due to fine structure. Whereas the atomic physics of electron impact excitation of forbidden lines is well understood, and accurate collision strengths have long been available, that is not generally the case for electron-ion recombination cross sections. A major problem is the inclusion of relativisitic effects as it pertains to the existence of very low-energy fine structure resonances in photoionization cross sections. We carry out new relativistic calculations for photoionization and recombination cross sections using a recently extended version of the Breit-Pauli R-matrix codes, and the unified electron-ion recombination method that subsumes both the radiative and the dielectronic recombination (RR and DR) processes in an ab initio and self-consistent manner. We find that near-thresold resonances manifest themselves within fine structure levels of the ground state of ions, enhancing low-temperature recombination rate coefficients at 1000-10,000 K. The resulting enahncement in level-specific and total recombination rate coefficients should therefore lead to reduced abundances derived from RCL, and in accordance with those from CEL. We present results for photoionization of O II into, and recombination from, O III. Theoretical cross sections are benchmarked against high-resolution measurements from synchrotron

  8. Multiwire proportional chamber and multistage avalanche chamber with low concentration photoionization gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Pingde; Xu Zhiqing; Tang Xiaowei

    1986-01-01

    The characteristics of multiwire proportional chamber and multistage avalanche chamber filled with argon and photoionization gas (C 2 H 5 ) 3 N were measured. The spatial resolution curves and output pulse height spectra were measured as well. Low concentration (C 2 H 5 ) 3 N can play an effective part in quenching. At very low concentration, the phenomena of avalanche transverse expansion was observed obviously

  9. [Photoionization ion mobility spectrometry (UV-IMS) for the isomeric volatile organic compounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hu; Niu, Wen-qi; Wang, Hong-mei; Huang, Chao-qun; Jiang, Hai-he; Chu, Yan-nan

    2012-01-01

    The construction and performance study is reported for a newly developed ultraviolet photoionization ion mobility spectrometry (UV-IMS). In the present paper, an UV-IMS technique was firstly developed to detect eleven isomeric volatile organic compounds including the differences in the structure of carbon chain, the style of function group and the position of function group. Their reduced mobility values were determined and increased in this order: linears alcohols homemade UV-IMS was around ppb-ppm.

  10. Internal energy selection in vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of ethanol and ethanol dimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodi, Andras

    2013-10-01

    Internal energy selected ethanol monomer and ethanol dimer ions were prepared by threshold photoionization of a supersonic molecular beam seeded with ethanol. The dissociative photoionization processes of the monomer, the lowest-energy CH3-loss channel of the dimer, and the fragmentation of larger clusters were found to be disjunct from the ionization onset to about 12 eV, which made it possible to determine the 0 K appearance energy of C-C bond breaking in the H-donor unit of the ethanol dimer cation as 9.719 ± 0.004 eV. This reaction energy is used together with ab initio calculations in a thermochemical cycle to determine the binding energy change from the neutral ethanol dimer to a protonated ethanol-formaldehyde adduct. The cycle also shows general agreement between experiment, theory, and previously published enthalpies of formation. The role of the initial ionization site, or rather the initial photoion state, is also discussed based on the dimer breakdown diagram and excited state calculations. There is no evidence for isolated state behavior, and the ethanol dimer dissociative photoionization processes appear to be governed by statistical theory and the ground electronic state of the ion. In the monomer breakdown diagram, the smoothly changing branching ratio between H and CH3 loss is at odds with rate theory predictions, and shows that none of the currently employed few-parameter rate models, appropriate for experimental rate curve fitting, yields a correct description for this process in the experimental energy range.

  11. Chiral micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CMEKC)-atmospheric pressure photoionization of benzoin derivatives using mixed molecular micelles

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jun; Shamsi, Shahab A.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work we report, for the first time, the successful on-line coupling of chiral micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CMEKC) to atmospheric pressure photo-ionization mass spectrometry (APPI-MS). Four structurally similar neutral test solutes (e.g., benzoin derivatives) were successfully ionized by APPI-MS. The mass spectra in the positive ion mode showed that the protonated molecular ions of benzoins are not the most abundant fragment ions. Simultaneous enantioseparation by CME...

  12. Development of a hand-portable photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieckman, S.L.; Bostrom, G.A.; Waterfield, L.G.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Raptis, A.C.

    1996-01-01

    ANL is currently developing a portable chemical sensor system based on laser desorption photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. It will incorporate direct sampling, a cryocooler base sample adsorption and concentration, and direct surface multiphoton ionization. All components will be in a package 9 x 11 x 4 in., weighing 15-18 lbs. A sample spectrum is given for a NaCl sample

  13. High-frequency two-electron photoionization cross section of triplet states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivec, R.; Amusia, M.Ya.; Mandelzweig, V.B.

    2003-01-01

    Using high precision wave functions describing the triplet ground and excited 3 S states of the He atom and heliumlike ions, the cross sections of single- and double-electron photoionization are calculated. The dependence of the ratio R of the double and single ionization cross sections on the nuclear charge Z and the principal quantum number of excitation n is studied. The results obtained are compared to those for previously studied singlet states

  14. Photoionization cross section in a spherical quantum dot: Effects of some parabolic confining electric potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tshipa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical investigation of the effects of spatial variation of confining electric potential on photoionization cross section (PCS in a spherical quantum dot is presented. The potential profiles considered here are the shifted parabolic potential and the inverse lateral shifted parabolic potential compared with the well-studied parabolic potential. The primary findings are that parabolic potential and the inverse lateral shifted parabolic potential blue shift the peaks of the PCS while the shifted parabolic potential causes a red shift.

  15. Classical two-split interference effects in double photoionization of molecular hydrogen at high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horner, Daniel A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Miyabe, S [LBNL; Rescigno, T N [LBNL; Mccurdy, C W [LBNL; Morales, F [MADRID, SPAIN; Martin, F [MADRID, SPAIN

    2009-01-01

    The authors report a thorough theoretical study of one photon double ionization of H{sub 2}. They suggest that interference effects reported in one photon ionization will be reproducible in the case of double ionization when one of the photons carriers most of the available energy and the other electron is not observed. These calculations reproduce recent double photoionization experiments of H{sub 2}.

  16. Continuum multiple-scattering approach to electron-molecule scattering and molecular photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehmer, J.L.; Dill, D.

    1979-01-01

    The multiple-scattering approach to the electronic continuum of molecules is described. The continuum multiple-scattering model (CMSM) was developed as a survey tool and, as such was required to satisfy two requirements. First, it had to have a very broad scope, which means (i) molecules of arbitrary geometry and complexity containing any atom in the periodic system, (ii) continuum electron energies from 0-1000 eV, and (iii) capability to treat a large range of processes involving both photoionization and electron scattering. Second, the structure of the theory was required to lend itself to transparent, physical interpretation of major spectral features such as shape resonances. A comprehensive theoretical framework for the continuum multiple scattering method is presented, as well as its applications to electron-molecule scattering and molecular photoionization. Highlights of recent applications in these two areas are reviewed. The major impact of the resulting studies over the last few years has been to establish the importance of shape resonances in electron collisions and photoionization of practically all (non-hydride) molecules

  17. Phase determination of harmonics by three-color photoionization of aligned molecules: The H2+ system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Shinnosuke; Bandrauk, Andre D.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the harmonic phase dependence of photoionization of aligned H 2 + with three colors: two high-order (uv) harmonics of orders (q+1) and (q-1) in the presence of a ''dressing'' ir photon such that the absorption of the (q-1) harmonic and one ir photon is resonant with the absorption of the (q+1) harmonic and emission of one ir photon. The transition amplitudes for these two interfering paths are calculated for H 2 + for a wide range of uv photon energies, internuclear distances R, and orientations. The relative phase of the ionizing harmonic photons controls the interference between the paths in the total photoionization amplitude, thus allowing for its measurement. Calculations are obtained using the H 2 + electron continuum wave functions and Green's functions for two polarizations, parallel (z) and perpendicular (x) to the internuclear axis. It is found that the phase differences of the two transition amplitudes, which are made up of harmonic and molecular phases, exhibit a sharp peak when calculated as a function of harmonic order q, and internuclear distance R. This occurs for near-vanishing total photoexcitation amplitudes where the phase of the amplitude changes abruptly by π. The orientation dependence of the interfering three-photon photoionization amplitudes provides an additional degree of freedom for harmonic phase measurements using aligned molecules, because of the orientation dependence of the molecular phase inherent in such measurements

  18. Photoionization of the 4d subshell of the La isonuclear sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyadan, Sindhu; Varma, Hari R.; Deshmukh, P. C.; Costello, J. T.; Hayden, P.; Manson, S. T.

    2015-05-01

    Photoionization studies along isonuclear sequences provide the required systematic data which are useful in many practical applications and also for testing the accuracy of various theoretical models. In the present work, we report on 4d subshell photoionization studies of some of the members of La (Z = 57) isonuclear sequence (La3+, La9+ and La11+) using relativistic random phase approximation (RRPA). Photoionization cross sections, σ, angular distribution asymmetry parameters, β, and the individual dipole matrix elements for 4d3/2 and 4d5/2 subshells are presented along with the 4d branching ratios of these ions. It is found that in La3+, the branching ratios show significant departure from the statistical value 1.5 due to the presence of Cooper minimum in the 4d --> f ionization channels. This departure is minor for the case of La9+ and La11+ since the Cooper minimum in these cases occur in the discrete part of the 4d spectrum.

  19. Vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Musahid; Ahmed, Musahid; Wilson, Kevin R.; Belau, Leonid; Kostko, Oleg

    2008-05-12

    In this work we report on thevacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters. Clusters of methanol with water are generated via co-expansion of the gas phase constituents in a continuous supersonic jet expansion of methanol and water seeded in Ar. The resulting clusters are investigated by single photon ionization with tunable vacuumultraviolet synchrotron radiation and mass analyzed using reflectron mass spectrometry. Protonated methanol clusters of the form (CH3OH)nH + (n=1-12) dominate the mass spectrum below the ionization energy of the methanol monomer. With an increase in water concentration, small amounts of mixed clusters of the form (CH3OH)n(H2O)H + (n=2-11) are detected. The only unprotonated species observed in this work are the methanol monomer and dimer. Appearance energies are obtained from the photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves for CH3OH +, (CH 3OH)2 +, (CH3OH)nH + (n=1-9), and (CH 3OH)n(H2O)H + (n=2-9 ) as a function of photon energy. With an increase in the water content in the molecular beam, there is an enhancement of photoionization intensity for methanol dimer and protonated methanol monomer at threshold. These results are compared and contrasted to previous experimental observations.

  20. Vacuum-Ultraviolet (VUV) Photoionization of Small Methanol and Methanol-Water Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostko, Oleg; Belau, Leonid; Wilson, Kevin R.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2008-04-24

    In this work, we report on the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters. Clusters of methanol with water are generated via co-expansion of the gas phase constituents in a continuous supersonic jet expansion of methanol and water seeded in Ar. The resulting clusters are investigated by single photon ionization with tunable vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation and mass analyzed using reflectron mass spectrometry. Protonated methanol clusters of the form (CH3OH)nH+(n = 1-12) dominate the mass spectrum below the ionization energy of the methanol monomer. With an increase in water concentration, small amounts of mixed clusters of the form (CH3OH n(H2O)H+ (n = 2-11) are detected. The only unprotonated species observed in this work are the methanol monomer and dimer. Appearance energies are obtained from the photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves for CH3OH+, (CH3OH)2+, (CH3OH)nH+ (n = 1-9), and (CH3OH)n(H2O)H+ (n = 2-9) as a function of photon energy. With an increasein the water content in the molecular beam, there is an enhancement of photoionization intensity for the methanol dimer and protonated methanol monomer at threshold. These results are compared and contrasted to previous experimental observations.

  1. Photoionization of ions and the general program in atomic and molecular physics at Daresbury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    The current program in Atomic and Molecular Science is focused on photoionization of atoms and small molecules. On the atomic side, experiments on the double ionization of helium were completed recently, verifying the Wannier threshold law for double photoionization. Also, the angular distribution of the electrons has just been measured, and these results show a marked divergence form theoretical expectations. Other experiments include fluorescence polarization measurements for the atomic ions calcium and strontium, which, when combined with photoelectron angular distribution measurements, form the complete photoionization experiment. A sizeable part of the program is devoted to studying molecular fragmentation. The triple coincidence technique, in which the two fragment ions are detected in coincidence with the photoelectron after the parent molecule has been doubly ionized, was developed at Daresbury, and experiments in this area continue with the addition of fluorescence measurements. Looking to the future, the atomic and molecular science program at Daresbury will move closer to applied science areas, with metal clusters and transient species becoming more prominent. Much of this work will require a source with two to three orders of magnitude advantage in photon intensity over the SRS, and a design study is presently under way for a VUV/Soft X-ray source to meet these requirements

  2. Double-continuum wave functions and double-photoionization cross sections of two-electron systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwary, S.N.

    1996-09-01

    The present review briefly presents the growing experimental as well as theoretical interests in recent years in the double-continuum wave functions and double-photoionization cross sections of two-electron systems. The validity of existing double-continuum wave functions is analyzed and the importance of electronic correlations in both the initial as well as final states wave functions involved in the transition amplitude for double-photoionization process is demonstrated. At present, we do not have comprehensive and practical double-continuum wave functions which account the full correlation of two-electron in the continuum. Basic difficulties in making accurate theoretical calculations of double ionization by a single high energy photon especially in the vicinity of the threshold, where the correlation plays an important role, are discussed. Illuminating, illustrative and representative examples are presented in order to show the present status and the progress in this field. Future challenges and directions, in high-precision double-photoionization cross sections calculations, have been discussed and suggested. (author). 133 refs, 9 figs

  3. Study of photoionization of supersonic gas jets at the pulsed power generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Kyle; Ivanov, Vladimir; Mancini, Roberto; Mayes, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    Supersonic, nitrogen, neon and argon, gas jets photoionized by a broadband x-ray flux were studied at the University of Nevada, Reno. The x-ray flux was produced by the collapse of a wire-array z-pinch implosion on the 1MA Zebra pulsed power accelerator, with photons mostly under 1keV and photon-energy integrated energy between 12kJ -16kJ. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer at 266 nm was set up to extract the atom number density profile of the jet before the Zebra shot. Air-wedge interferometers, at 266 and 532 nm, were used to determine the electron number density of the plasma during the Zebra shot. The ratio of electron to atom number densities provide the average ionization state of the plasma. A program has been developed to automate the extraction of phase shift maps from both types of interferometers. Preliminary results from the experiment are promising and show that a photoionized plasma has been created in the gas jet, thus demonstrating a new experimental platform to study photoionized plasmas in the laboratory. This work was sponsored by DOE Office of Science Grant DE-SC0014451.

  4. Tautomerism and proton transfer in photoionized acetaldehyde and acetaldehyde-water clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Palma, Tonia M; Bende, Attila

    2014-08-01

    Understanding the gas-phase chemistry of acetaldehyde can be challenging because the molecule can assume several tautomeric forms, namely keto, enol and carbene. The two last forms are the most stable ionic forms. Here, insight into the gas-phase cluster ion chemistry of homogeneous acetaldehyde and mixed water-acetaldehyde clusters is provided by mass spectrometry/vacuum ultraviolet photoionization combined with density functional theory calculations. (AA)nH(+) clusters (AA = acetaldehyde) and mixed (AA)nH3O(+) clusters were detected using tunable vacuum ultraviolet photoionization. Barrierless proton transfers were observed during the geometry optimization of the most stable dimer structures and helped to explain the cluster ion chemistry induced by photoionization, namely the formation of deprotonated tautomers and protonated keto tautomers. Water was found to catalyze the keto-enol and keto-carbene isomerizations and facilitate the proton transfer from the ionized enol or carbene part of the cluster to the neutral keto part, resulting in protonated keto structures. The production of protonated keto structures was identified to be the main fragmentation channel following ionization of the homogeneous acetaldehyde cluster and a channel for ionized mixed clusters as well. These findings are significant for a broad range of fields, including current atmospheric models, because acetaldehyde is one of the most prominent organic species in the troposphere and ions play a crucial role in aerosol formation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Probing photo-ionization: experiments on positive streamers in pure gases and mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijdam, S; Van de Wetering, F M J H; Blanc, R; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Ebert, U

    2010-01-01

    Positive streamers are thought to propagate by photo-ionization; the parameters of photo-ionization depend on the nitrogen : oxygen ratio. Therefore we study streamers in nitrogen with 20%, 0.2% and 0.01% oxygen and in pure nitrogen as well as in pure oxygen and argon. Our new experimental set-up guarantees contamination of the pure gases to be well below 1 ppm. Streamers in oxygen are difficult to measure as they emit considerably less light in the sensitivity range of our fast ICCD camera than the other gases. Streamers in pure nitrogen and in all nitrogen-oxygen mixtures look generally similar, but become somewhat thinner and branch more with decreasing oxygen content. In pure nitrogen the streamers can branch so much that they resemble feathers. This feature is even more pronounced in pure argon, with approximately 10 2 hair tips cm -3 in the feathers at 200 mbar; this density can be interpreted as the free electron density creating avalanches towards the streamer stem. It is remarkable that the streamer velocity is essentially the same for similar voltage and pressure in all nitrogen-oxygen mixtures as well as in pure nitrogen, while the oxygen concentration and therefore the photo-ionization lengths vary by more than five orders of magnitude. Streamers in argon have essentially the same velocity as well. The physical similarity of streamers at different pressures is confirmed in all gases; the minimal diameters are smaller than in earlier measurements.

  6. Impact of communicative head movements on the quality of functional near-infrared spectroscopy signals: negligible effects for affirmative and negative gestures and consistent artifacts related to raising eyebrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balardin, Joana Bisol; Morais, Guilherme Augusto Zimeo; Furucho, Rogério Akira; Trambaiolli, Lucas Romualdo; Sato, João Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is currently one of the most promising tools in the neuroscientific research to study brain hemodynamics during naturalistic social communication. The application of fNIRS by studies in this field of knowledge has been widely justified by its strong resilience to motion artifacts, including those that might be generated by communicative head and facial movements. Previous studies have focused on the identification and correction of these artifacts, but a quantification of the differential contribution of common communicative movements on the quality of fNIRS signals is still missing. We assessed the impact of four movements (nodding head up and down, reading aloud, nodding head sideways, and raising eyebrows) performed during rest and task conditions on two metrics of signal quality control: an estimative of signal-to-noise performance and the negative correlation between oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb). Channel-wise group analysis confirmed the robustness of the fNIRS technique to head nodding movements but showed a large effect of raising eyebrows in both signal quality control metrics, both during task and rest conditions. Reading aloud did not disrupt the expected anticorrelation between oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb but had a relatively large effect on signal-to-noise performance. These findings may have implications to the interpretation of fNIRS studies examining communicative processes.

  7. Impact of communicative head movements on the quality of functional near-infrared spectroscopy signals: negligible effects for affirmative and negative gestures and consistent artifacts related to raising eyebrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balardin, Joana Bisol; Zimeo Morais, Guilherme Augusto; Furucho, Rogério Akira; Trambaiolli, Lucas Romualdo; Sato, João Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is currently one of the most promising tools in the neuroscientific research to study brain hemodynamics during naturalistic social communication. The application of fNIRS by studies in this field of knowledge has been widely justified by its strong resilience to motion artifacts, including those that might be generated by communicative head and facial movements. Previous studies have focused on the identification and correction of these artifacts, but a quantification of the differential contribution of common communicative movements on the quality of fNIRS signals is still missing. We assessed the impact of four movements (nodding head up and down, reading aloud, nodding head sideways, and raising eyebrows) performed during rest and task conditions on two metrics of signal quality control: an estimative of signal-to-noise performance and the negative correlation between oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb). Channel-wise group analysis confirmed the robustness of the fNIRS technique to head nodding movements but showed a large effect of raising eyebrows in both signal quality control metrics, both during task and rest conditions. Reading aloud did not disrupt the expected anticorrelation between oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb but had a relatively large effect on signal-to-noise performance. These findings may have implications to the interpretation of fNIRS studies examining communicative processes.

  8. Communication: UV photoionization of cytosine catalyzed by Ag{sup +}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taccone, Martín I.; Berdakin, Matías; Pino, Gustavo A., E-mail: gpino@fcq.unc.edu.ar [INFIQC (CONICET – Universidad Nacional de Córdoba), Dpto. de Fisicoquímica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Centro Láser de Ciencias Moleculares, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, X5000HUA Córdoba (Argentina); Féraud, Geraldine; Dedonder-Lardeux, Claude; Jouvet, Christophe [Physique des Interactions Ioniques et Moléculaires (PIIM): UMR- 7345, CNRS, Aix Marseille Université, 13397 Marseille (France)

    2015-07-28

    The photo-induced damages of DNA in interaction with metal cations, which are found in various environments, still remain to be characterized. In this paper, we show how the complexation of a DNA base (cytosine (Cyt)) with a metal cation (Ag{sup +}) changes its electronic properties. By means of UV photofragment spectroscopy of cold ions, it was found that the photoexcitation of the CytAg{sup +} complex at low energy (315-282) nm efficiently leads to ionized cytosine (Cyt{sup +}) as the single product. This occurs through a charge transfer state in which an electron from the p orbital of Cyt is promoted to Ag{sup +}, as confirmed by ab initio calculations at the TD-DFT/B3LYP and RI-ADC(2) theory level using the SV(P) basis set. The low ionization energy of Cyt in the presence of Ag{sup +} could have important implications as point mutation of DNA upon sunlight exposition.

  9. Negative ... concord?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giannakidou, A

    The main claim of this paper is that a general theory of negative concord (NC) should allow for the possibility of NC involving scoping of a universal quantifier above negation. I propose that Greek NC instantiates this option. Greek n-words will be analyzed as polarity sensitive universal

  10. Vacuum-Ultraviolet Photoionization and Mass Spectrometric Characterization of Lignin Monomers Coniferyl and Sinapyl Alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Lynelle K.; Zhou, Jia; Kostko, Oleg; Golan, Amir; Leone, Stephen R.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2011-02-09

    The fragmentation mechanisms of monolignols under various energetic processes are studied with jet-cooled thermal desorption molecular beam (TDMB) mass spectrometry (MS), 25 keV Bi3+ secondary ion MS (SIMS), synchrotron vacuum-ultraviolet secondary neutral MS (VUV-SNMS) and theoretical methods. Experimental and calculated appearance energies of fragments observed in TDMB MS indicate that the coniferyl alcohol photoionization mass spectra contain the molecular parent and several dissociative photoionization products. Similar results obtained for sinapyl alcohol are also discussed briefly. Ionization energies of 7.60 eV ? 0.05 eV for coniferyl alcohol and<7.4 eV for both sinapyl and dihydrosinapyl alcohols are determined. The positive ion SIMS spectrum of coniferyl alcohol shares few characteristic peaks (m/z = 137 and 151) with the TDMB mass spectra, shows extensive fragmentation, and does not exhibit clear molecular parent signals. VUV-SNMS spectra, on the other hand, are dominated by the parent ion and main fragments also present in the TDMB spectra. Molecular fragmentation in VUV-SNMS spectra can be reduced by increasing the extraction delay time. Some features resembling the SIMS spectra are also observed in the desorbed neutral products. The monolignol VUV-SNMS peaks shared with the TDMB mass spectra suggest that dissociative photoionization of ion-sputtered neutral molecules predominate in the VUV-SNMS mass spectra, despite the extra internal energy imparted in the initial ion impact. The potential applications of these results to imaging mass spectrometry of bio-molecules are discussed.

  11. Measurements of meteor smoke particles during the ECOMA-2006 campaign: 1. Particle detection by active photoionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Markus; Strelnikova, Irina

    2009-03-01

    We present a new design of an in situ detector for the study of meteor smoke particles (MSPs) in the middle atmosphere. This detector combines a classical Faraday cup with a xenon-flashlamp for the active photoionization/photodetachment of MSPs and the subsequent detection of corresponding photoelectrons. This instrument was successfully launched in September 2006 from the Andøya Rocket Range in Northern Norway. A comparison of photocurrents measured during this rocket flight and measurements performed in the laboratory proves that observed signatures are truly due to photoelectrons. In addition, the observed altitude cut-off at 60 km (i.e., no signals were observed below this altitude) is fully understood in terms of the mean free path of the photoelectrons in the ambient atmosphere. This interpretation is also proven by a corresponding laboratory experiment. Consideration of all conceivable species which can be ionized by the photons of the xenon-flashlamp demonstrates that only MSPs can quantitatively explain the measured currents below an altitude of 90 km. Above this altitude, measured photocurrents are most likely due to photoionization of nitric oxide. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the active photoionization and subsequent detection of photoelectrons provides a promising new tool for the study of MSPs in the middle atmosphere. Importantly, this new technique does not rely on the a priori charge of the particles, neither is the accessible particle size range severely limited by aerodynamical effects. Based on the analysis described in this study, the geophysical interpretation of our measurements is presented in the companion paper by Strelnikova, I., et al. [2008. Measurements of meteor smoke particles during the ECOMA-2006 campaign: 2. results. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, this issue, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2008.07.011].

  12. Inner-shell photo-ionized x-ray laser schemes for low-Z elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, S. J.; Eder, D. C.; Strobel, G. L.

    1995-01-01

    Gain calculations for inner-shell photo-ionized lasing in C at 45 A are performed. An incident x-ray source represented by a 150 eV blackbody with a rise time of 50 fsec gives a gain of order 10 cm -1 . The x-ray source and thus the driving optical laser requirements are significantly reduced as compared to what is needed for Ne at 15 A. We expect that existing ultra-short pulse lasers can produce the required x-ray source and thus produce a table-top x-ray laser at 45 A

  13. Spectral distribution of Fe2+ photoionization cross section in InP:Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iikawa, F.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of Fe 2+ ( 5 E) photoionization cross section in InP at 80 0 K, using constant current photoconductivity technique, were done. The spectrum presents a threshold energy of ∼ 0,65 eV due to the transition from Fe 2+ charge state, in the ground state, to Fe 3+ with an electron emission for the minimum conduction band. In the measurement of photoluminescence at ∼ 2 0 K, a wide emission of Fe complexe with the strong lattice interaction. In order to analyse the experimental data of Fe 2+ cross section in InP, a theoretical model was used. (M.C.K.) [pt

  14. The effect of the electric field on the photoionization cross-section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sali, A.; Loumrhari, H.; Fliyou, M.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of the electric field on the donor impurity is investigated in the case of a spherical conduction band with the use of a variational procedure. An analytical expression for the photoionization cross-section as a function of photon energy within the effective mass approximation of an impurity atom in an applied field was obtained. The effect of central cell correction by means of a semi-empirical short-range potential is taken into account. It has been found that the binding energy and the spectral dependence of the cross-section are very sensitive to the electric field, the shape of the impurity potential and their combined effect

  15. Photoionized argon plasmas induced with intense soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet pulses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartnik, A.; Wachulak, P.; Fok, T.; Węgrzyński, L.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Skrzeczanowski, W.; Pisarczyk, T.; Chodukowski, T.; Kalinowska, Z.; Dudžák, Roman; Dostál, Jan; Krouský, Eduard; Skála, Jiří; Ullschmied, Jiří; Hřebíček, Jan; Medřík, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 1 (2016), s. 014009 ISSN 0741-3335 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010014 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 284464 - LASERLAB-EUROPE Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : laser-plasma * plasma radiation * photoionization * Argon plasma * Nd:YAG laser * PALS iodine laser Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics; BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers (FZU-D) Impact factor: 2.392, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0741-3335/58/1/014009

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: UV background photoionization & photoheating rates (Onorbe+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorbe, J.; Hennawi, J. F.; Lukic, Z.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we have presented results from optically thin cosmological hydrodynamical simulations using the Nyx code (Almgren+ 2013ApJ...765...39A ; Lukic+ 2015MNRAS.446.3697L). As commonly done in multiple intergalactic medium (IGM) and galaxy formation studies, the UV background is modeled as a uniform and isotropic field that evolves with redshift. Operationally, the ultraviolet background (UVB) determines the photoionization and photoheating rates of HI, HeI, and HeII, which are inputs to the code. (3 data files).

  17. Molecular photoionization cross sections in electron propagator theory: angular distributions beyond the dipole approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, G M; Kaplan, I G; Ortiz, J V

    2005-09-15

    Corrections to dipole approximation results for angular distributions in photoionization of first-row hydrides have determined by using Dyson orbitals calculated with ab initio electron propagator theory and by considering the full multipole expansion for the incident photon representation. The relative importance of first-order corrections which consist of electric quadrupole and magnetic dipole terms and of higher-order terms has been estimated as a function of photon energy. Multipole corrections to the dipole approximation depend on photon energy and on the characteristics of the Dyson orbitals.

  18. Classical two-slit interference effects in double photoionization of molecular hydrogen at high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horner, Daniel A.; Miyabe, Shungo; Rescigno, Thomas N; McCurdy, C. William; Morales, Felipe; Martin, Fernando

    2008-07-06

    Recent experiments on double photoionization of H$_2$ with photon energies between 160 and 240 eV have revealed body-frame angular distributions that suggest classical two-slit interference effects may be present when one electron carries most of the available energy and the second electron is not observed. We report precise quantum mechanical calculations that reproduce the experimental findings. They reveal that the interpretation in terms of classical diffraction is only appropriate atsubstantially higher photon energies. At the energies considered in the experiment we offer an alternative explanation based on the mixing of two non-diffractive contributions by circularly polarized light.

  19. Interelectron correlations in photoionization of outer shells near inner shell thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M Ya; Chernysheva, L V; Drukarev, E G

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the role of virtual excitations of inner shells upon outer shell photoionization. The calculations were performed in the frames of the Random Phase Approximation with Exchange (RPAE) and its generalized version GRPAE that take into account variation of the atomic field due to electron elimination and the inner vacancies decay. We apply both analytic approximation and numeric computations. The results are presented for 3p electrons in Ar and for 4d-electrons in Pd near inner shells thresholds. The effect considered proved to be quite noticeable. (paper)

  20. Theoretical analysis of time delays and streaking effects in XUV photoionization

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Jing; Ni, Hongcheng; Becker, Andreas; Jaron-Becker, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    We apply a recently proposed theoretical concept and numerical approach to obtain time delays in extreme ultraviolet (XUV) photoionization of an electron in a short- or long-range potential. The results of our numerical simulations on a space-time grid are compared to those for the well-known Wigner-Smith time delay and different methods to obtain the latter time delay are reviewed. We further use our numerical method to analyze the effect of a near-infrared streaking field on the time delay ...

  1. Ionization photophysics and spectroscopy of dicyanoacetylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, Sydney; Champion, Norbert; Schwell, Martin; Bénilan, Yves; Fray, Nicolas; Gazeau, Marie-Claire; Garcia, Gustavo A.; Gaie-Levrel, François; Guillemin, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Photoionization of dicyanoacetylene was studied using synchrotron radiation over the excitation range 8–25 eV, with photoelectron-photoion coincidence techniques. The absolute ionization cross-section and detailed spectroscopic aspects of the parent ion were recorded. The adiabatic ionization energy of dicyanoacetylene was measured as 11.80 ± 0.01 eV. A detailed analysis of the cation spectroscopy involves new aspects and new assignments of the vibrational components to excitation of the quasi-degenerate A 2 Π g , B 2 Σ g + states as well as the C 2 Σ u + and D 2 Π u states of the cation. Some of the structured autoionization features observed in the 12.4–15 eV region of the total ion yield spectrum were assigned to vibrational components of valence shell transitions and to two previously unknown Rydberg series converging to the D 2 Π u state of C 4 N 2 + . The appearance energies of the fragment ions C 4 N + , C 3 N + , C 4 + , C 2 N + , and C 2 + were measured and their heats of formation were determined and compared with existing literature values. Thermochemical calculations of the appearance potentials of these and other weaker ions were used to infer aspects of dissociative ionization pathways

  2. Rotationally resolved state-to-state photoionization and photoelectron study of titanium carbide and its cation (TiC/TiC⁺).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhihong; Huang, Huang; Chang, Yih-Chung; Zhang, Zheng; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Ng, C Y

    2014-10-14

    (+) - J'| is increased. The maximum |ΔN(+)| change of 7 observed here is also consistent with the previous experimental results for the 3d transition-metal carbides, oxides, and nitrides. However, the VIS-UV-PFI-PE spectra for TiC(+)(X(2)Σ(+); v(+) = 0 and 1, N(+)) are found to display only the negative ΔN(+) (N(+)-J'≤ 0) transitions, indicating that the cross sections for the formation of positive ΔN(+) (N(+)-J' > 0) transitions by both the channel coupling mechanism and direct photoionization are negligibly small.

  3. Rotationally resolved state-to-state photoionization and photoelectron study of titanium carbide and its cation (TiC/TiC+)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Zhihong; Huang, Huang; Chang, Yih-Chung; Zhang, Zheng; Ng, C. Y.; Yin, Qing-Zhu

    2014-01-01

    section as |ΔN + | = |N + – J′| is increased. The maximum |ΔN + | change of 7 observed here is also consistent with the previous experimental results for the 3d transition-metal carbides, oxides, and nitrides. However, the VIS-UV-PFI-PE spectra for TiC + (X 2 Σ + ; v + = 0 and 1, N + ) are found to display only the negative ΔN + (N + –J′≤ 0) transitions, indicating that the cross sections for the formation of positive ΔN + (N + –J′ > 0) transitions by both the channel coupling mechanism and direct photoionization are negligibly small

  4. DESIGN OF LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS TO STUDY PHOTOIONIZATION FRONTS DRIVEN BY THERMAL SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, R. P.; Keiter, P. A.; Davis, J. S.; Patterson, C. R [Climate and Space Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Hazak, G. [Physics Department, Nuclear Research Center-Negev (Israel); Frank, A.; Blackman, E. G. [Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14611 (United States); Busquet, Michel, E-mail: rpdrake@umich.edu [ARTEP Incorporated, Ellicot City, MD 21042 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    This paper analyzes the requirements of a photoionization-front experiment that could be driven in the laboratory, using thermal sources to produce the necessary flux of ionizing photons. It reports several associated conclusions. Such experiments will need to employ the largest available facilities, capable of delivering many kJ to MJ of energy to an X-ray source. They will use this source to irradiate a volume of neutral gas, likely of N, on a scale of a few mm to a few cm, increasing with source energy. For a gas pressure of several to ten atmospheres at room temperature, and a source temperature near 100 eV, one will be able to drive a photoionization front through a system of tens to hundreds of photon mean free paths. The front should make the familiar transition from the so-called R-Type to D-Type as the radiation flux diminishes with distance. The N is likely to reach the He-like state. Preheating from the energetic photons appears unlikely to become large enough to alter the essential dynamics of the front beyond some layer near the surface. For well-chosen experimental conditions, competing energy transport mechanisms are small.

  5. Photoionization cross sections and asymmetry parameters for the valence shell of methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavín, C; Vega, M V; Velasco, A M

    2012-12-06

    Theoretical cross sections for photoionization of the methanol valence orbitals in covering a region up to 80 eV beyond the first ionization potential are reported. The molecular quantum defect orbital, MQDO, method, which has proved to be reliable in previous applications to molecular photoionization, has been used. To our knowledge, predictions of electronic partial cross section profiles on this molecule are made here for the first time, and we are not aware of any reported experimental data. Partial cross sections for production of parent and fragment ions of methanol have also been calculated and compared with previous measurements. In addition, the MQDO method has been used to calculate the angular distribution of photoelectrons for the valence orbitals of methanol over the 11-50 eV photon energy range. Our results are compared with experimental data, showing a good agreement in most cases. We hope that the present results might be of use in atmospheric and interstellar chemistry, where this molecule plays an important role.

  6. SOLAR PHOTOIONIZATION RATES FOR INTERSTELLAR NEUTRALS IN THE INNER HELIOSPHERE: H, He, O, AND Ne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochsler, P.; Kucharek, H.; Möbius, E. [Space Science Center and Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Bzowski, Maciej; Sokół, Justyna M. [Space Research Center of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Ul. Bartycka 18A, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland); Didkovsky, Leonid; Wieman, Seth, E-mail: bochsler@space.unibe.ch [Space Sciences Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1341 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Extreme UV (EUV) spectra from the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED)/Solar EUV Experiment are used to infer photoionization rates in the inner heliosphere. Relating these rates to various proxies describing the solar EUV radiation, we construct a multi-linear model which allows us to extrapolate ionization rates back to periods when no routine measurements of the solar EUV spectral distribution have been available. Such information is important, e.g., for comparing conditions of the interstellar neutral particles in the inner heliosphere at the time of Ulysses/GAS observations with conditions during the more recent observations of the Interstellar Boundary Explorer. From a period of 11 yr when detailed spectra from both TIMED and three proxies—Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/CELIAS/SEM-rates, F10.7 radio flux, and Mg II core-to-wing indices—have been available, we conclude that the simple model is able to reproduce the photoionization rates with an uncertainty of typically 5%.

  7. Theoretical Studies of Starburst Infrared Emission: Luminosity Indicators in Dusty Photoionized Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottorff, Mark; LaMothe, Joseph; Momjian, Emmanuel; Verner, Ekaterina; Vinkovic, Dejan; Ferland, Gary J.

    1998-01-01

    The luminosity of the central source in ionizing radiation is an essential parameter in a photoionized environment and is one of the most fundamental physical quantities one can measure. We outline a method of determining the luminosity for any emission-line region using only infrared data. In dusty environments, grains compete with hydrogen in absorbing continuum radiation. Grains produce infrared emission, and hydrogen produces recombination lines. We have computed a very large variety of photoionization models, using ranges of abundances, grain mixtures, ionizing continua, densities, and ionization parameters. The conditions were appropriate for such diverse objects as H(II) regions, planetary nebulae, starburst galaxies, and the narrow- and broad-line regions of active nuclei. The ratio of the total thermal grain emission relative to H-Beta (IR/H-Beta) is the primary indicator of whether the cloud behaves as a classical Stroemgren sphere (a hydrogen-bounded nebula) or whether grains absorb most of the incident continuum (a dust-bounded nebula). We find two global limits: when IR/H-Beta > 100, the grains act as a bolometer to measure the luminosity.

  8. Cavity-enhanced photoionization of an ultracold rubidium beam for application in focused ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Haaf, G.; Wouters, S. H. W.; Mutsaers, P. H. A.; Vredenbregt, E. J. D.

    2017-11-01

    A two-step photoionization strategy of an ultracold rubidium beam for application in a focused ion beam instrument is analyzed and implemented. In this strategy the atomic beam is partly selected with an aperture after which the transmitted atoms are ionized in the overlap of a tightly cylindrically focused excitation laser beam and an ionization laser beam whose power is enhanced in a build-up cavity. The advantage of this strategy, as compared to without the use of a build-up cavity, is that higher ionization degrees can be reached at higher currents. Optical Bloch equations including the photoionization process are used to calculate what ionization degree and ionization position distribution can be reached. Furthermore, the ionization strategy is tested on an ultracold beam of 85Rb atoms. The beam current is measured as a function of the excitation and ionization laser beam intensity and the selection aperture size. Although details are different, the global trends of the measurements agree well with the calculation. With a selection aperture diameter of 52 μ m , a current of (170 ±4 ) pA is measured, which according to calculations is 63% of the current equivalent of the transmitted atomic flux. Taking into account the ionization degree the ion beam peak reduced brightness is estimated at 1 ×107 A/(m2sr eV ).

  9. Vibrationally specific photoionization cross sections of acrolein leading to the Χ~A' ionic state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Domínguez, Jesús A.; Lucchese, Robert R.; Fulfer, K. D.; Hardy, David; Poliakoff, E. D.; Aguilar, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    The vibrational branching ratios in the photoionization of acrolein for ionization leading to the Χ ~ A ' ion state were studied. Computed logarithmic derivatives of the cross section and the corresponding experimental data derived from measured vibrational branching ratios for several normal modes (ν 9 , ν 10 , ν 11 , and ν 12 ) were found to be in relatively good agreement, particularly for the lower half of the 11–100 eV photon energy range considered. Two shape resonances have been found near photon energies of 15.5 and 23 eV in the photoionization cross section and have been demonstrated to originate from the partial cross section of the A ′ scattering symmetry. The wave functions computed at the resonance complex energies are delocalized over the whole molecule. By looking at the dependence of the cross section on the different normal mode displacements together with the wave function at the resonant energy, a qualitative explanation is given for the change of the cross sections with respect to changing geometry

  10. Collective effects in isolated atoms (many-body aspects of photoionization process)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Y.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter examines outer and intermediate many-electron shells and demonstrates that photoionization is of collective nature because in the atomic reaction to the external electromagnetic field at least all electrons of the ionized subshell take part. Performs the calculation of complex atom photoionization using random phase approximation with exchange (RPAE). Explains that in RPAE the ionization amplitude is presented as a sum of two terms, describing the direct knock-out and the induced one which is connected with a variation of the self-consistent field, caused by polarization of atomic shells under the action of the external field. Discusses collective effects in outer shells; deviation from RPAE prediction in outer shells; excitations ''two electrons-two holes'' and autoionizing states; collective effects in inner shells; and bremsstrahlung. Observes a large number of many-particle effects which manifest themselves practically in all atomic processes. Finds that by correcting and improving the one-electron approximation it becomes possible even in its frame to include much of what seems to be many-electron corrections

  11. Photoionization of the subvalent subshells of noble gas endohedrals: interference of three resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M Ya; Baltenkov, A S; Chernysheva, L V

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate strong interference patterns in the photoionization cross-section of the subvalent subshells of noble gas (NG) endohedral atoms NG at F. This interference is a result of common action of three factors: the effect of neighbouring atomic subshells, reflection of photoelectron waves by the fullerene F shell and resonance modification of the incoming photon beam by the complex effect under the action of the F electrons. We have considered the outer ns-subshells for Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe noble gas atoms. The polarization of the fullerene shell is expressed via the F total photoabsorption cross-section. The photoelectron reflection from the static F potential is taken into account in the frame of the so-called bubble potential which is a spherical δ-type potential. It is assumed that the NG atom is centrally located in the fullerene. It is also assumed in accordance with the available experimental data that the fullerene radius is much bigger than the atomic radius and the thickness of the fullerene shell. These assumptions permit the NG at F photoionization cross-section to be presented as a product of the NG atomic cross-section and two calculated factors that account for polarization of the F electron shell and reflection of photoelectrons by the fullerene static potential

  12. Photoionization of the subvalent subshells of noble gas endohedrals: interference of three resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amusia, M Ya [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Baltenkov, A S [Arifov Institute of Electronics, Tashkent 100125 (Uzbekistan); Chernysheva, L V [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St.-Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: amusia@vms.huji.ac.il

    2008-08-28

    We demonstrate strong interference patterns in the photoionization cross-section of the subvalent subshells of noble gas (NG) endohedral atoms NG at F. This interference is a result of common action of three factors: the effect of neighbouring atomic subshells, reflection of photoelectron waves by the fullerene F shell and resonance modification of the incoming photon beam by the complex effect under the action of the F electrons. We have considered the outer ns-subshells for Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe noble gas atoms. The polarization of the fullerene shell is expressed via the F total photoabsorption cross-section. The photoelectron reflection from the static F potential is taken into account in the frame of the so-called bubble potential which is a spherical {delta}-type potential. It is assumed that the NG atom is centrally located in the fullerene. It is also assumed in accordance with the available experimental data that the fullerene radius is much bigger than the atomic radius and the thickness of the fullerene shell. These assumptions permit the NG at F photoionization cross-section to be presented as a product of the NG atomic cross-section and two calculated factors that account for polarization of the F electron shell and reflection of photoelectrons by the fullerene static potential.

  13. Vibrational spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Rajai Atalla

    2010-01-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy is an important tool in modern chemistry. In the past two decades, thanks to significant improvements in instrumentation and the development of new interpretive tools, it has become increasingly important for studies of lignin. This chapter presents the three important instrumental methods-Raman spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and...

  14. A hybridGaussian-discrete variable representation approach to molecular continuum processes II: application to photoionization of diatomic Li2+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rescigno, Thomas N; Yip, Frank L.; McCurdy, C. William; Rescigno, Thomas N.

    2008-08-01

    We describe an approach for studying molecular photoionization with a hybrid basis that combines the functionality of analytic basis sets to represent electronic coordinates near the nuclei of a molecule with numerically-defined grid-based functions. We discuss the evaluation of the various classes of two-electron integrals that occur in a hybrid basis consisting of Gaussian type orbitals (GTOs) and discrete variable representation (DVR) functions. This combined basis is applied to calculate single photoionization cross sections for molecular Li_2+, which has a large equilibrium bond distance (R=5.86a_0). The highly non-spherical nature of Li_2+ molecules causes higher angular momentum components to contribute significantly to the cross section even at low photoelectron energies, resulting in angular distributions that appear to be f-wave dominated near the photoionization threshold. At higher energies, where the de Broglie wavelength of the photoelectron becomes comparable with the bond distance, interference effects appear in the photoionization cross section. These interference phenomena appear at much lower energies than would be expected for diatomic targets with shorter internuclear separations.

  15. Real-time monitoring of trace-level VOCs by an ultrasensitive compact lamp-based VUV photoionization mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, W. Q.; Shu, J. N.; Zhang, P.; Li, Z.; Li, N. N.; Liang, M.; Yang, B.

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we report on the development of a compact lamp-based vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometer (PIMS; hereafter referred to as VUV-PIMS) in our laboratory; it is composed of a radio frequency-powered VUV lamp, a VUV photoionizer, an ion-immigration region, and a reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer. By utilizing the novel photoionizer consisting of a photoionization cavity and a VUV light baffle, extremely low background noise was obtained. An ultrasensitive detection limit (2σ) of 3 pptv was achieved for benzene after an acquisition time of 10 s. To examine its potential for application in real-time sample monitoring, the developed VUV-PIMS was employed for the continuous measurement of urban air for six days in Beijing, China. Strong signals of trace-level volatile organic compounds such as benzene and its alkylated derivatives were observed in the mass spectra. These initial experimental results reveal that the instrument can be used for the online monitoring of trace-level species in the atmosphere.

  16. Feasibility of desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to monitor urinary steroid metabolites during pregnancy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaikkinen, A.; Rejšek, Jan; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Kauppila, T. J.; Cvačka, Josef; Kostiainen, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 880, Jun 23 (2015), s. 84-92 ISSN 0003-2670 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M200551204 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : desorption electrospray ionization * desorption atmospheric pressure * photoionization * mass spectrometry * pregnancy Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.712, year: 2015

  17. Terahertz spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation I will review methods for spectroscopy in the THz range, with special emphasis on the practical implementation of the technique known ad THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). THz-TDS has revived the old field of far-infrared spectroscopy, and enabled a wealth of new...... activities that promise commercial potential for spectroscopic applications in the THz range. This will be illustrated with examples of spectroscopy of liquids inside their bottles as well as sensitive, quantitative spectroscopy in waveguides....

  18. Optimization and application of atmospheric pressure chemical and photoionization hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry for speciation of oxygen-containing compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acter, Thamina; Kim, Donghwi; Ahmed, Arif; Jin, Jang Mi; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon; Kim, Young Hwan; Kim, Sunghwan

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a detailed investigation of the feasibility of optimized positive and negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) mass spectrometry (MS) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) MS coupled to hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) for structural assignment of diverse oxygen-containing compounds. The important parameters for optimization of HDX MS were characterized. The optimized techniques employed in the positive and negative modes showed satisfactory HDX product ions for the model compounds when dichloromethane and toluene were employed as a co-solvent in APCI- and APPI-HDX, respectively. The evaluation of the mass spectra obtained from 38 oxygen-containing compounds demonstrated that the extent of the HDX of the ions was structure-dependent. The combination of information provided by different ionization techniques could be used for better speciation of oxygen-containing compounds. For example, (+) APPI-HDX is sensitive to compounds with alcohol, ketone, or aldehyde substituents, while (-) APPI-HDX is sensitive to compounds with carboxylic functional groups. In addition, the compounds with alcohol can be distinguished from other compounds by the presence of exchanged peaks. The combined information was applied to study chemical compositions of degraded oils. The HDX pattern, double bond equivalent (DBE) distribution, and previously reported oxidation products were combined to predict structures of the compounds produced from oxidation of oil. Overall, this study shows that APCI- and APPI-HDX MS are useful experimental techniques that can be applied for the structural analysis of oxygen-containing compounds.

  19. Spectroscopy of Deep Traps in Cu2S-CdS Junction Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenijus Gaubas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cu2S-CdS junctions of the polycrystalline material layers have been examined by combining the capacitance deep level transient spectroscopy technique together with white LED light additional illumination (C-DLTS-WL and the photo-ionization spectroscopy (PIS implemented by the photocurrent probing. Three types of junction structures, separated by using the barrier capacitance characteristics of the junctions and correlated with XRD distinguished precipitates of the polycrystalline layers, exhibit different deep trap spectra within CdS substrates.

  20. Modelling injection rates of PUIs from photoionization using kinetic simulations of interstellar neutrals traversing the heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keilbach, D.; Drews, C.; Taut, A.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies of the inflow direction of the local insterstellar medium from PUI density distributions have shown that the extrema of the longitudinal distribution of PUI velocities (with respect to the solar wind speed) can be attributed to the radial velocity of the interstellar neutral seed population and is symmetric around the inflow direction of the local interstellar medium. This work is aimed to model pickup ion injection rates from photoionization (which is the main process of interstellar PUI production) throughout the heliosphere. To that end a seed population of interstellar neutrals is injected into a model heliosphere at 60 AU distance from the sun, whereas each particle's initial speed is given by a maxwellian distribution at a temperature of 1 eV and an inflow speed of 22 km/s. Then the density of the interstellar neutrals is integrated over the model heliosphere, while the movement of the neutrals is simulated using timestep methods. To model the focusing of the interstellar neutral trajectories from the sun's gravitational potential the model heliosphere contains a central gravitational potential.Each neutral test particle can be ionized via photoionization with a per-timestep probability antiproportional to the neutral's distance to the sun squared. By tracking the ionization rate location-dependently, PUI injection rates have been determined. Therefore using these simulations the density distributions of different species of interstellar neutrals have been calculated. In addition location-dependent injection rates of different species of PUIs have been calculated, which show an increased rate of PUI production in the focusing cone region (e.g. for He+ PUIs), but also in the crescent region (e.g. for O+ PUIs).Furthermore the longitudinal distribution of the neutrals' velocity at 1 AU is calculated from the simulation's results in order to estimate the PUI cut-off as a function of ecliptic longitude. Figure: Simulated He neutral density (left

  1. EVIDENCE FOR ULTRA-FAST OUTFLOWS IN RADIO-QUIET ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. DETAILED PHOTOIONIZATION MODELING OF Fe K-SHELL ABSORPTION LINES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tombesi, F.; Cappi, M.; Dadina, M.; Reeves, J. N.; Palumbo, G. G. C.; Braito, V.

    2011-01-01

    X-ray absorption line spectroscopy has recently shown evidence for previously unknown Ultra-fast Outflows (UFOs) in radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs). These have been detected essentially through blueshifted Fe XXV/XXVI K-shell transitions. In the previous paper of this series we defined UFOs as those highly ionized absorbers with an outflow velocity higher than 10,000 km s –1 and assessed the statistical significance of the associated blueshifted absorption lines in a large sample of 42 local radio-quiet AGNs observed with XMM-Newton. The present paper is an extension of that work. First, we report a detailed curve of growth analysis of the main Fe XXV/XXVI transitions in photoionized plasmas. Then, we estimate an average spectral energy distribution for the sample sources and directly model the Fe K absorbers in the XMM-Newton spectra with the detailed Xstar photoionization code. We confirm that the frequency of sources in the radio-quiet sample showing UFOs is >35% and that the majority of the Fe K absorbers are indeed associated with UFOs. The outflow velocity distribution spans from ∼10,000 km s –1 (∼0.03c) up to ∼100,000 km s –1 (∼0.3c), with a peak and mean value of ∼42,000 km s –1 (∼0.14c). The ionization parameter is very high and in the range log ξ ∼ 3-6 erg s –1 cm, with a mean value of log ξ ∼ 4.2 erg s –1 cm. The associated column densities are also large, in the range N H ∼ 10 22 -10 24 cm –2 , with a mean value of N H ∼ 10 23 cm –2 . We discuss and estimate how selection effects, such as those related to the limited instrumental sensitivity at energies above 7 keV, may hamper the detection of even higher velocities and higher ionization absorbers. We argue that, overall, these results point to the presence of extremely ionized and possibly almost Compton-thick outflowing material in the innermost regions of AGNs. This also suggests that UFOs may potentially play a significant role in the expected

  2. Evidence for Ultra-fast Outflows in Radio-quiet Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Detailed Photoionization Modeling of Fe K-shell Absorption Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, F.; Cappi, M.; Reeves, J. N.; Palumbo, G. G. C.; Braito, V.; Dadina, M.

    2011-11-01

    X-ray absorption line spectroscopy has recently shown evidence for previously unknown Ultra-fast Outflows (UFOs) in radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs). These have been detected essentially through blueshifted Fe XXV/XXVI K-shell transitions. In the previous paper of this series we defined UFOs as those highly ionized absorbers with an outflow velocity higher than 10,000 km s-1 and assessed the statistical significance of the associated blueshifted absorption lines in a large sample of 42 local radio-quiet AGNs observed with XMM-Newton. The present paper is an extension of that work. First, we report a detailed curve of growth analysis of the main Fe XXV/XXVI transitions in photoionized plasmas. Then, we estimate an average spectral energy distribution for the sample sources and directly model the Fe K absorbers in the XMM-Newton spectra with the detailed Xstar photoionization code. We confirm that the frequency of sources in the radio-quiet sample showing UFOs is >35% and that the majority of the Fe K absorbers are indeed associated with UFOs. The outflow velocity distribution spans from ~10,000 km s-1 (~0.03c) up to ~100,000 km s-1 (~0.3c), with a peak and mean value of ~42,000 km s-1 (~0.14c). The ionization parameter is very high and in the range log ξ ~ 3-6 erg s-1 cm, with a mean value of log ξ ~ 4.2 erg s-1 cm. The associated column densities are also large, in the range N H ~ 1022-1024 cm-2, with a mean value of N H ~ 1023 cm-2. We discuss and estimate how selection effects, such as those related to the limited instrumental sensitivity at energies above 7 keV, may hamper the detection of even higher velocities and higher ionization absorbers. We argue that, overall, these results point to the presence of extremely ionized and possibly almost Compton-thick outflowing material in the innermost regions of AGNs. This also suggests that UFOs may potentially play a significant role in the expected cosmological feedback from AGNs and their study can

  3. Anatomy of the AGN in NGC 5548. IX. Photoionized emission features in the soft X-ray spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Junjie; Kaastra, J. S.; Mehdipour, M.; Gu, Liyi; Costantini, E.; Kriss, G. A.; Bianchi, S.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Behar, E.; Di Gesu, L.; Ponti, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Ebrero, J.

    2018-04-01

    The X-ray narrow emission line region (NELR) of the archetypal Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 has been interpreted as a single-phase photoionized plasma that is absorbed by some of the warm absorber components. This scenario requires those overlaying warm absorber components to have larger distance (to the central engine) than the X-ray NELR, which is not fully consistent with the distance estimates found in the literature. Therefore, we reanalyze the high-resolution spectra obtained in 2013-2014 with the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) aboard XMM-Newton to provide an alternative interpretation of the X-ray narrow emission features. We find that the X-ray narrow emission features in NGC 5548 can be described by a two-phase photoionized plasma with different ionization parameters (logξ = 1.3 and 0.1) and kinematics (vout = -50 and -400 km s-1), and no further absorption by the warm absorber components. The X-ray and optical NELR might be the same multi-phase photoionized plasma. Both X-ray and optical NELR have comparable distances, asymmetric line profiles, and the underlying photoionized plasma is turbulent and compact in size. The X-ray NELR is not the counterpart of the UV/X-ray absorber outside the line of sight because their distances and kinematics are not consistent. In addition, X-ray broad emission features that we find in the spectrum can be accounted for by a third photoionized emission component. The RGS spectrum obtained in 2016 is analyzed as well, where the luminosity of most prominent emission lines (the O VII forbidden line and O VIII Lyα line) are the same (at a 1σ confidence level) as in 2013-2014.

  4. Systematic Comparison of Photoionized Plasma Codes with Application to Spectroscopic Studies of AGN in X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdipour, M.; Kaastra, J. S.; Kallman, T.

    2016-01-01

    Atomic data and plasma models play a crucial role in the diagnosis and interpretation of astrophysical spectra, thus influencing our understanding of the Universe. In this investigation we present a systematic comparison of the leading photoionization codes to determine how much their intrinsic differences impact X-ray spectroscopic studies of hot plasmas in photoionization equilibrium. We carry out our computations using the Cloudy, SPEX, and XSTAR photoionization codes, and compare their derived thermal and ionization states for various ionizing spectral energy distributions. We examine the resulting absorption-line spectra from these codes for the case of ionized outflows in active galactic nuclei. By comparing the ionic abundances as a function of ionization parameter, we find that on average there is about 30 deviation between the codes in where ionic abundances peak. For H-like to B-like sequence ions alone, this deviation in is smaller at about 10 on average. The comparison of the absorption-line spectra in the X-ray band shows that there is on average about 30 deviation between the codes in the optical depth of the lines produced at log 1 to 2, reducing to about 20 deviation at log 3. We also simulate spectra of the ionized outflows with the current and upcoming high-resolution X-ray spectrometers, on board XMM-Newton, Chandra, Hitomi, and Athena. From these simulations we obtain the deviation on the best-fit model parameters, arising from the use of different photoionization codes, which is about 10 to40. We compare the modeling uncertainties with the observational uncertainties from the simulations. The results highlight the importance of continuous development and enhancement of photoionization codes for the upcoming era of X-ray astronomy with Athena.

  5. Final state selection in the 4p photoemission of Rb by combining laser spectroscopy with soft-x-ray photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, J.; Tchaplyguine, M.; Rander, T.; Bergersen, H.; Lindblad, A.; Oehrwall, G.; Svensson, S.; Heinaesmaeki, S.; Sankari, R.; Osmekhin, S.; Aksela, S.; Aksela, H.

    2005-01-01

    Fine structure resolved 4p photoemission studies have been performed on free rubidium atoms in the ground state and after excitation into the [Kr]5p 2 P 1/2 and 2 P 3/2 states. The 4p 5 5p final states have been excited in the 4p 6 5s→4p 5 5p conjugate shakeup process from ground state atoms as well as by direct photoemission from laser excited atoms. The relative intensities differ considerably in these three excitation schemes. The differences in the laser excited spectra could be described well using calculations based on the pure jK-coupling scheme. Thereby it was possible to specify the character of the various final states. Furthermore it has been possible to resolve two of the final states whose energy separation is smaller than the experimental resolution by selectively exciting them in a two step scheme, where the laser selects the spin-orbit coupling in the intermediate state and determines the final state coupling after x-ray photoemission

  6. Photo-Ionization of Noble Gases: A Demonstration of Hybrid Coupled Channels Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Pramod Majety

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here an application of the recently developed hybrid coupled channels approach to study photo-ionization of noble gas atoms: Neon and Argon. We first compute multi-photon ionization rates and cross-sections for these inert gas atoms with our approach and compare them with reliable data available from R-matrix Floquet theory. The good agreement between coupled channels and R-matrix Floquet theory show that our method treats multi-electron systems on par with the well established R-matrix theory. We then apply the time dependent surface flux (tSURFF method with our approach to compute total and angle resolved photo-electron spectra from Argon with linearly and circularly polarized 12 nm wavelength laser fields, a typical wavelength available from Free Electron Lasers (FELs.

  7. Two-color photoionization of calcium using SHG and LED light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, C.; Almendros, M.; Rohde, F.; Hennrich, M.; Eschner, J.

    2010-09-01

    We present a photoionization method to load single 40Ca ions in a linear Paul trap from an atomic beam. Neutral Ca I atoms are resonantly excited from the ground state to the intermediate 4s4p 1P1-level using coherent 423 nm radiation produced by single-pass second harmonic generation in a periodically poled KTiOPO4 crystal pumped with an 120 mW extended-cavity diode laser. Ionization is then attained with a high-power light emitting diode imaged to the trap center, using an appropriately designed optical system composed of standard achromatic doublet lenses. The setup simplifies previous implementations at similar efficiency, and it hardly requires any maintenance at all.

  8. Valence shell photoionization energies and cross-sections of NF sub 3 and PF sub 3

    CERN Document Server

    Jürgensen, A

    2003-01-01

    Relative outer valence shell ionization potentials and cross-sections were determined for the isostructural, Group 15, trifluorides NF sub 3 and PF sub 3 in the gas phase using synchrotron radiation. Excitation photon energies ranged from 70 to 160 eV. The experimental spectra were assigned and cross-sections analyzed with the aid of both MS-X alpha and ab initio calculations. Spectral differences in peak energies and relative intensities are related to structural and electronic differences between these two fluoride molecules. Valence shell ionization potentials were compared to calculated values obtained by several different methods. The partial photoionization cross-sections for each orbital were obtained as a function of excitation energy and compared to theoretical results obtained with the X alpha method.

  9. Terahertz Pulse Generation in Underdense Relativistic Plasmas: From Photoionization-Induced Radiation to Coherent Transition Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déchard, J.; Debayle, A.; Davoine, X.; Gremillet, L.; Bergé, L.

    2018-04-01

    Terahertz to far-infrared emission by two-color, ultrashort optical pulses interacting with underdense helium gases at ultrahigh intensities (>1019 W /cm2 ) is investigated by means of 3D particle-in-cell simulations. The terahertz field is shown to be produced by two mechanisms occurring sequentially, namely, photoionization-induced radiation (PIR) by the two-color pulse, and coherent transition radiation (CTR) by the wakefield-accelerated electrons escaping the plasma. We exhibit laser-plasma parameters for which CTR proves to be the dominant process, providing terahertz bursts with field strength as high as 100 GV /m and energy in excess of 10 mJ. Analytical models are developed for both the PIR and CTR processes, which correctly reproduce the simulation data.

  10. Photoionized argon plasmas induced with intense soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet pulses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartnik, A.; Wachulak, P.; Fok, T.; Węgrzyński, L.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Skrzeczanowski, W.; Pisarczyk, T.; Chodukowski, T.; Kalinowska, Z.; Dudžák, Roman; Dostál, Jan; Krouský, Eduard; Skála, Jiří; Ullschmied, Jiří; Hřebíček, Jan; Medřík, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 1 (2016), č. článku 014009. ISSN 0741-3335 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010014 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 284464 - LASERLAB-EUROPE Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : laser-plasma * plasma radiation * photoionization * Argon plasma * Nd:YAG laser * PALS iodine laser Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics; BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics); Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) (FZU-D) Impact factor: 2.392, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0741-3335/58/1/014009

  11. Data for First Responder Use of Photoionization Detectors for Vapor Chemical Constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith A. Daum; Matthew G. Watrous; M. Dean Neptune; Daniel I. Michael; Kevin J. Hull; Joseph D. Evans

    2006-11-01

    First responders need appropriate measurement technologies for evaluating incident scenes. This report provides information about photoionization detectors (PIDs), obtained from manufacturers and independent laboratory tests, and the use of PIDs by first responders, obtained from incident commanders in the United States and Canada. PIDs are valued for their relatively low cost, light weight, rapid detection response, and ease of use. However, it is clear that further efforts are needed to provide suitable instruments and decision tools to incident commanders and first responders for assessing potential hazardous chemical releases. Information provided in this report indicates that PIDs should always be part of a decision-making context in which other qualitative and more definitive tests and instruments are used to confirm a finding. Possible amelioratory actions ranging from quick and relatively easy fixes to those requiring significant additional effort are outlined in the report.

  12. Control of the spin polarization of photoelectrons/photoions using short laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    We present a generic pump-probe scheme to control spin polarization of photoelectrons/photoions by short laser pulses. By coherently exciting fine structure manifolds of a multi-valence-electron system by the pump laser, a superposition of fine structure states is created. Since each fine structure state can be further decomposed into a superposition of various spin states of valence electrons, each spin component evolves differently in time. This means that varying the time delay between the pump and probe lasers leads to the control of spin states. Specific theoretical results are presented for two-valence-electron atoms, in particular for Mg, which demonstrate that not only the degree of spin polarization but also its sign can be manipulated through time delay. Since the underline physics is rather general and transparent, the presented idea may be potentially applied to nanostructures such as quantum wells and quantum dots

  13. Matrix radiolysis and photoionization of CFCl3. Infrared spectra of CFCl+2 and the parent cation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prochaska, F.T.; Andrews, L.

    1978-01-01

    The ''Freon'' compound CFCl 3 has been subjected to radiolysis and photoionization during condensation with excess argon at 15 K. Infrared spectra of the matrix samples identified stable and free radical products and new absorptions which are attributed to charged species. The molecular ion bands exhibited three different behavior patterns on filtered mercury arc photolysis: The most photosensitive bands, destroyed by 420--1000 nm light, are assigned to the parent cation; several absorptions which photodissociated with 290--1000 nm radiation are due to a molecular anionic species; and new bands reduced by 220--1000 nm light are assigned to the daughter cation CFCl + 2 . The vibrational assignments were confirmed by carbon-13 substitution

  14. Interference effects at photoionization of Rydberg atoms by a strong electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Movsesyan, A.M.; Fedorov, M.V.

    1989-01-01

    The photoionization of Rydberg atoms in a strong electromagnetic field is considered. Degeneration of the levels with respect to the orbital moment, their Stark splitting and the possibility of resonant interaction with levels of lower energy are taken into account. The complex quasi-energies of the system, photoelectron spectrum in the limit of an infinite duration of interaction and the time dependence of the total ionization probability are found. It is shown that a narrowing of the quasi-energy levels occurs in a strong field. Against a background of the quasi- continuum the quasi-energy spectrum consists of more or less narrow levels. In this case the photoelectron spectrum acquires a multi-peak form. With increasing field strength the height of the peaks increases, whereas their width decreases. The ionization rate decreases with increasing field strength. The presence of a quasi-continuum is the cause of the partially non-exponential nature of the atomic disintegration

  15. Large Enhancement in High-Energy Photoionization of Fe XVII and Missing Continuum Plasma Opacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Sultana N.; Pradhan, Anil K.

    2016-06-01

    Aimed at solving the outstanding problem of solar opacity, and radiation transport plasma models in general, we report substantial photoabsorption in the high-energy regime due to atomic core photoexcitations not heretofore considered. In extensive R -matrix calculations of unprecedented complexity for an important iron ion Fe xvii (Fe16 + ), with a wave function expansion of 99 Fe xviii (Fe17 + ) LS core states from n ≤4 complexes (equivalent to 218 fine structure levels), we find (i) up to orders of magnitude enhancement in background photoionization cross sections, in addition to strongly peaked photo-excitation-of-core resonances not considered in current opacity models, and ii) demonstrate convergence with respect to successive core excitations. The resulting increase in the monochromatic continuum, and 35% in the Rosseland mean opacity, are compared with the "higher-than-predicted" iron opacity measured at the Sandia Z -pinch fusion device at solar interior conditions.

  16. MPI_XSTAR: MPI-based Parallelization of the XSTAR Photoionization Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danehkar, Ashkbiz; Nowak, Michael A.; Lee, Julia C.; Smith, Randall K.

    2018-02-01

    We describe a program for the parallel implementation of multiple runs of XSTAR, a photoionization code that is used to predict the physical properties of an ionized gas from its emission and/or absorption lines. The parallelization program, called MPI_XSTAR, has been developed and implemented in the C++ language by using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) protocol, a conventional standard of parallel computing. We have benchmarked parallel multiprocessing executions of XSTAR, using MPI_XSTAR, against a serial execution of XSTAR, in terms of the parallelization speedup and the computing resource efficiency. Our experience indicates that the parallel execution runs significantly faster than the serial execution, however, the efficiency in terms of the computing resource usage decreases with increasing the number of processors used in the parallel computing.

  17. Parabolic versus spherical partial cross sections for photoionization excitation of He near threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouri, C.; Selles, P.; Malegat, L.; Kwato Njock, M. G.

    2006-01-01

    Spherical and parabolic partial cross sections and asymmetry parameters, defined in the ejected electron frame, are presented for photoionization excitation of the helium atom at 0.1 eV above its double ionization threshold. A quantitative law giving the dominant spherical partial wave l dom for each excitation level n is obtained. The parabolic partial cross sections are shown to satisfy the same approximate selection rules as the related Rydberg series of doubly excited states (K,T) n A . The analysis of radial and angular correlations reveals the close relationship between double excitation, ionization excitation, and double ionization. Opposite to a widespread belief, the observed value of the asymmetry parameter is shown to result from the interplay of radial correlations and symmetry constraints, irrespective of angular correlations. Finally, the measurement of parabolic partial cross sections is proposed as a challenge to experimentalists

  18. Double photoionization: 2. Analysis of experimental triple differential cross sections in helium and neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malegat, L.; Selles, P.; Mazeau, J.; Huetz, A.; Lablanquie, P.

    1997-01-01

    We use the general formalism established in the companion paper 1 to analyse recent measurements of the triple differential cross sections for double photoionization of He and Ne, for equal energy sharing and for 1 S e symmetry of the residual ion. A dynamical factor, which depends on the energy and on the mutual angle between the two electrons, is extracted from the experiments without relying on nay dynamical approximation. This factor is expanded with respect to the one-electron angular momentum l, up to a maximum value l max , which measures the degree of angular correlation attained by the electron pair. We discuss the physical meaning of l max , and the dependence of the dynamical factor on the target, which is observed when comparing helium and neon results. (author)

  19. Theoretical photoionization spectra in the UV photon energy range for a Mg-like Al+ ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae-Soung; Kim, Young Soon

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, we report the photoionization cross sections of the Al + ion calculated for the photon energy range 20-26 eV and 30-50 eV. We have expanded our previous calculation (2007 J. Phys. Soc. Japan 76 014302) with an optimized admixture of the initial ground state 3s 21 S and exited states 3s3p 1,3 P, 3s3d 1,3 D and 3s4s 1,3 S, and obtained significantly improved predictions for the main background and autoionizing resonance structures of the reported experimental spectra. The absolute measurements of the photoionization cross sections of the Al + ion in these energy ranges have been performed by West et al (2001 Phys. Rev. A 63 052719), and they reported that the prominent peaks around 21 eV were attributed to the effects of the significant influence of the small fraction of the fourth-order radiation with energies around 84 eV from the synchrotron source. In our previous work, the main shape for these cross sections was calculated assuming an admixture of initial 3s 21 S and 3s3p 3 P states, only with a rough overall estimate for the experimental spectra in the photon energy range 20-26 eV, and without these peaks around 21 eV. The report of the experimental assignment attributes these peaks to the excitation of a 2p electron from the core. However, our present results with the new admixture reveal similar peaks without considering the possibility of the core excitation

  20. REVERBERATION AND PHOTOIONIZATION ESTIMATES OF THE BROAD-LINE REGION RADIUS IN LOW-z QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negrete, C. Alenka [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (Mexico); Dultzin, Deborah [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Marziani, Paola [INAF, Astronomical Observatory of Padova, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Sulentic, Jack W., E-mail: cnegrete@inaoep.mx, E-mail: deborah@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: paola.marziani@oapd.inaf.it, E-mail: sulentic@iaa.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, E-18008 Granada (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    Black hole mass estimation in quasars, especially at high redshift, involves the use of single-epoch spectra with signal-to-noise ratio and resolution that permit accurate measurement of the width of a broad line assumed to be a reliable virial estimator. Coupled with an estimate of the radius of the broad-line region (BLR) this yields the black hole mass M{sub BH}. The radius of the BLR may be inferred from an extrapolation of the correlation between source luminosity and reverberation-derived r{sub BLR} measures (the so-called Kaspi relation involving about 60 low-z sources). We are exploring a different method for estimating r{sub BLR} directly from inferred physical conditions in the BLR of each source. We report here on a comparison of r{sub BLR} estimates that come from our method and from reverberation mapping. Our ''photoionization'' method employs diagnostic line intensity ratios in the rest-frame range 1400-2000 A (Al III {lambda}1860/Si III] {lambda}1892, C IV {lambda}1549/Al III {lambda}1860) that enable derivation of the product of density and ionization parameter with the BLR distance derived from the definition of the ionization parameter. We find good agreement between our estimates of the density, ionization parameter, and r{sub BLR} and those from reverberation mapping. We suggest empirical corrections to improve the agreement between individual photoionization-derived r{sub BLR} values and those obtained from reverberation mapping. The results in this paper can be exploited to estimate M{sub BH} for large samples of high-z quasars using an appropriate virial broadening estimator. We show that the width of the UV intermediate emission lines are consistent with the width of H{beta}, thereby providing a reliable virial broadening estimator that can be measured in large samples of high-z quasars.

  1. Photoionization Models of NGC 2363 and Their Implications for the Ionizing Star Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luridiana, Valentina; Peimbert, Manuel; Leitherer, Claus

    1999-12-01

    Using the photoionization code CLOUDY, we compute photoionization models for the giant extragalactic H II region NGC 2363 and compare them with optical observational data. We mainly focus on F(Hβ), Ne, EW(Hβ), and the ratios of I(λ5007), I(λ4363), I(λ3727), I(λ6300), I(λ6720), and I(λ4686) to I(Hβ). We discuss the variations of the emission spectra obtained with different input parameters. With low-metallicity models (Z=0.10 Zsolar) we were not able to reproduce the observed features of the spectrum. We review the implications of the λ4686 feature on the stellar population of NGC 2363, showing that it might indicate the presence of Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars, a fact that would conflict with the metallicity of the region. We suggest several possible solutions to this contradiction, such as inadequate stellar evolutionary tracks, a nonstandard star formation process, and a revised metallicity. Focusing on the last possibility, we further show that the disagreement can be satisfactorily overcome by allowing for spatial temperature fluctuations in the nebula. The presence of temperature fluctuations allows a self-consistent scenario, which naturally accounts for the origin of the fluctuations themselves as a result of injection of mechanical energy by W-R winds and supernova explosions. Accordingly, we show that the metallicity of NGC 2363 has most probably been underestimated and that a value of Z~=0.25 Zsolar is in better agreement with the observational data than the usually adopted value Z~=0.10 Zsolar. We further find that a star formation episode extended over a time interval of ~1.6 Myr gives a better fit than a strictly instantaneous burst. We also derive values for the slope and the high-mass end of the initial mass function, the age of the stellar cluster, and the total gaseous mass of the H II region.

  2. Photoelectron photoion coincidence imaging of ultrafast control in multichannel molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, C Stefan; Ram, N Bhargava; Irimia, Daniel; Janssen, Maurice H M

    2011-01-01

    The control of multichannel ionic fragmentation dynamics in CF3I is studied by femtosecond pulse shaping and velocity map photoelectron photoion coincidence imaging. When CF3I is photoexcited with femtosecond laser pulses around 540 nm there are two major ions observed in the time-of-flight mass spectrum, the parent CF3I+ ion and the CF3+ fragment ion. In this first study we focussed on the influence of LCD-shaped laser pulses on the molecular dynamics. The three-dimensional recoil distribution of electrons and ions were imaged in coincidence using a single time-of-flight delay line detector. By fast switching of the voltages on the various velocity map ion lenses after detection of the electron, both the electron and the coincident ion are measured with the same imaging detector. These results demonstrate that a significant simplification of a photoelectron-photoion coincidence imaging apparatus is in principle possible using switched lens voltages. It is observed that shaped laser fields like chirped pulses, double pulses, and multiple pulses can enhance the CF3+CF3I+ ratio by up to 100%. The total energetics of the dynamics is revealed by analysis of the coincident photoelectron spectra and the kinetic energy of the CF3+ and I fragments. Both the parent CF3I+ and the CF3+ fragment result from a five-photon excitation process. The fragments are formed with very low kinetic energy. The photoelectron spectra and CF3+/CF3I+ ratio vary with the center wavelength of the shaped laser pulses. An optimal enhancement of the CF3+/CF3I+ ratio by about 60% is observed for the double pulse excitation when the pulses are spaced 60 fs apart. We propose that the control mechanism is determined by dynamics on neutral excited states and we discuss the results in relation to the location of electronically excited (Rydberg) states of CF3I.

  3. Modern spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Hollas, J Michael

    2013-01-01

    The latest edition of this highly acclaimed title introduces the reader to a wide range of spectroscopies, and includes both the background theory and applications to structure determination and chemical analysis.  It covers rotational, vibrational, electronic, photoelectron and Auger spectroscopy, as well as EXAFs and the theory of lasers and laser spectroscopy. A  revised and updated edition of a successful, clearly written book Includes the latest developments in modern laser techniques, such as cavity ring-down spectroscopy and femtosecond lasers Provides numerous worked examples, calculations and questions at the end of chapters.

  4. Electronic spectroscopies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Schoonheydt, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared region is a versatile spectroscopic technique, as both d-d and charge transfer transitions of supported TMI can be probed. One of the advantages of electronic spectroscopy is that the obtained information is

  5. Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrard, Donald L.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews literature on Raman spectroscopy from late 1981 to late 1983. Topic areas include: instrumentation and sampling; liquids and solutions; gases and matrix isolation; biological molecules; polymers; high-temperature and high-pressure studies; Raman microscopy; thin films and surfaces; resonance-enhanced and surface-enhanced spectroscopy; and…

  6. Chemical spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckert, J.; Brun, T.O.; Dianoux, A.J.; Howard, J.; Rush, J.J.; White, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of chemical spectroscopy with neutrons is to utilize the dependence of neutron scattering cross-sections on isotope and on momentum transfer (which probes the spatial extent of the excitation) to understand fundamental and applied aspects of the dynamics of molecules and fluids. Chemical spectroscopy is divided into three energy ranges: vibrational spectroscopy, 25-500 MeV, for which much of the work is done on Be-filter analyzer instruments; low energy spectroscopy, less than 25 MeV; and high resolution spectroscopy, less than 1 MeV, which typically is performed on backscattering spectrometers. Representative examples of measurements of the Q-depenence of vibrational spectra, higher energy resolution as well as extension of the Q-range to lower values at high energy transfers, and provisions of higher sensitivities in vibrational spectroscopy are discussed. High resolution, high sensitivity, and polarization analysis studies in low energy spectroscopy are discussed. Applications of very high resolution spectroscopy are also discussed

  7. Optical Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrhaug, Erling

    The work presented in this thesis is broadly concerned with how complexation reactions and molecular motion can be characterized with the standard techniques in optical spectroscopy. The thesis aims to show a relatively broad range of methods for probing physico-chemical properties in fluorophore...... containing systems and are characterized using techniques in optical spectroscopy. Of the standard techniques in optical spectroscopy, particular attention has been paid to those based on time-resolved measurements and polarization, which is reflected in the experiment design in the projects. Not all...... reactions by optical spectroscopy. In project 1 simple steady-state absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy is used to determine the stoichiometries and equilibrium constants in the inclusion complex formation between cyclodextrins and derivatives of the water-insoluble oligo(phenylene vinylene) in aqueous...

  8. Fast analysis of 29 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Liu, Chun-Hu

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs are ubiquitous in the environment. Some of them are probable carcinogens and some are source markers. This work presents an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-APPI-MS/MS) method for simultaneous analysis of 20 PAHs and nine nitro-PAHs. These compounds are separated in 15 minutes in the positive mode and 11 minutes in the negative mode, one half of GC/MS analysis time. Two pairs of precursor/product ions are offered, which is essential for confirmation. This method separates and quantifies benzo[a]pyrene (the most toxic PAHs) and non-priority benzo[e]pyrene (isomers, little toxicity) to avoid overestimation of toxin levels, demonstrating its importance for health-related researches. With 0.5% 2,4-difluoroanisole in chlorobenzene as the dopant, limits of detection of PAHs except acenaphthylene and those of nitro-PAHs except 2-nitrofluoranthene are below 10 pg and 3 pg, respectively, mostly lower than or comparable to those reported using LC-related systems. The responses were linear over two orders of magnitude with fairly good accuracy and precision. Certified reference materials and real aerosol samples were analyzed to demonstrate its applicability. This fast, sensitive, and reliable method is the first UHPLC-APPI-MS/MS method capable of simultaneously analyzing 29 environmentally and toxicologically important PAHs and nitro-PAHs. PMID:26265155

  9. Laser spectroscopy and laser isotope separation of atomic gadolinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y. W.; Yamanaka, C.; Nomaru, K.; Kou, K.; Niki, H.; Izawa, Y.; Nakai, S.

    1994-01-01

    Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) is a process which uses intense pulsed lasers to selectively photoionize one isotopic species of a chemical element, after which these ions are extracted electromagnetically. The AVLIS has several advantages over the traditional methods based on the mass difference, such as high selectivity, low energy consumption, short starting time and versatility to any atoms. The efforts for atomic vapor laser isotope separation at ILT and ILE, Osaka University have been concentrated into the following items: 1) studies on laser spectroscopy and laser isotope separation of atomic gadolinium, 2) studies on interaction processes including coherent dynamics, propagation effects and atom-ion collision in AVLIS system, 3) development of laser systems for AVLIS. In this paper, we present experimental results on the laser spectroscopy and laser isotope separation of atomic gadolinium.

  10. Measurements of fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields for 66Dy using synchrotron radiation induced selective photoionization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Rajnish; Kumar, Anil; Czyzycki, M.; Migliori, A.; Karydas, A. G.; Puri, Sanjiv

    2017-09-01

    The L shell fluorescence (ω1, ω2, ω3) and Coster-Kronig (f12, f13, f23) yields for 66Dy have been deduced from the Li (i = 1-3) sub-shell X-ray intensities measured at different incident photon energies across its Li absorption edge energies. Three sets of photoionization cross sections used for determination of these yields include two sets of theoretical values based on the non-relativistic Hartree-Fock-Slater model and the self-consistent Dirac-Hartree-Fock model, and the third one is that deduced from independently measured mass attenuation coefficients of 66Dy. The present experimental fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields deduced using the self-consistent Dirac-Hartree-Fock model based photoionization cross sections have been found to be in good agreement with the semi-empirical values tabulated by Krause [1] and the Dirac-Hartree-Slater model based values.

  11. Experimental evidence and theoretical analysis of photoionized plasma under x-ray radiation produced by intense laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feilu; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Kato, Daiji; Li, Yutong; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Jie; Takabe, Hideaki

    2008-04-01

    We composed a time-dependent detailed-configuration-accounting atomic model, which solves rate equations for level population distributions including collisional and radiative atomic processes based on the screened hydrogenic model (R. M. More, Handbook of Plasma Physics, vol. 3, Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers, 1991). This model is used to interpret recent photoionization experiment on the large-scale laser system Gekko-XII (Yamanaka et al., 1981, IEEE, J. Quantum Electron. 17, 1639). In this experiment, the nitrogen gas was bathed in a Planckian radiation field of 80eV and was ionized beyond He-like state (open K-shell). It indicates the ionization parameter is around 10 erg cm/s under near steady-state conditions and the reasonable range of the electron temperature is 20-30eV. The comparison of synthetic and experimental spectra shows reasonable agreement and photoionization plays a significant role in this experiment.

  12. Evidence of temperature dependent activation barriers for near-threshold aqueous photoionization of 2‧-deoxyguanosine and tryptophan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadantonakis, George A.; Stevenson, Kenneth L.; LeBreton, Pierre R.

    2001-09-01

    Alkaline 2‧-deoxyguanosine undergoes one- and two-photon laser photoionization at 266 nm. Similar to tryptophan and indole, the one-photon quantum yield increases five-fold between 296 and 362 K. Earlier Arrhenius analyses of tryptophan and indole photoionization rate constants, yielded unreasonably large pre-exponential factors (1013-1018 s-1). An analysis employing pre-exponential factors for diffusion controlled reactions (1010-1011 s-1) provides evidence of activation barriers that decrease with increasing temperature over a range where water structure undergoes significant changes. In the context of Marcus theory, this analysis suggests that curvatures of the electron-transfer free energy surfaces decrease as temperature increases.

  13. Electronic Absorption Spectra of Neutral Perylene (C20H12), Terrylene (C30H16), and Quaterrylene (C40H20) and their Positive and Negative Ions: Ne Matrix-Isolation Spectroscopy and Time Dependent Density Functional Theory Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasinski, Thomas M.; Weisman, Jennifer L.; Lee, Timothy J.; Salama, Farid; Head-Gordon, Martin; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present a full experimental and theoretical study of an interesting series of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the oligorylenes. The absorption spectra of perylene, terrylene and quaterrylene in neutral, cationic and anionic charge states are obtained by matrix-isolation spectroscopy in Ne. The experimental spectra are dominated by a bright state that red shifts with growing molecular size. Excitation energies and state symmetry assignments are supported by calculations using time dependent density functional theory methods. These calculations also provide new insight into the observed trends in oscillator strength and excitation energy for the bright states: the oscillator strength per unit mass of carbon increases along the series.

  14. Competitive fragmentation pathways of acetic acid dimer explored by synchrotron VUV photoionization mass spectrometry and electronic structure calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan Jiwen; Hu Yongjun; Zou Hao [MOE Key laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Cao Lanlan; Liu Fuyi; Shan Xiaobin; Sheng Liusi [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China)

    2012-09-28

    In present study, photoionization and dissociation of acetic acid dimers have been studied with the synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry and theoretical calculations. Besides the intense signal corresponding to protonated cluster ions (CH{sub 3}COOH){sub n}{center_dot}H{sup +}, the feature related to the fragment ions (CH{sub 3}COOH)H{sup +}{center_dot}COO (105 amu) via {beta}-carbon-carbon bond cleavage is observed. By scanning photoionization efficiency spectra, appearance energies of the fragments (CH{sub 3}COOH){center_dot}H{sup +} and (CH{sub 3}COOH)H{sup +}{center_dot}COO are obtained. With the aid of theoretical calculations, seven fragmentation channels of acetic acid dimer cations were discussed, where five cation isomers of acetic acid dimer are involved. While four of them are found to generate the protonated species, only one of them can dissociate into a C-C bond cleavage product (CH{sub 3}COOH)H{sup +}{center_dot}COO. After surmounting the methyl hydrogen-transfer barrier 10.84 {+-} 0.05 eV, the opening of dissociative channel to produce ions (CH{sub 3}COOH){sup +} becomes the most competitive path. When photon energy increases to 12.4 eV, we also found dimer cations can be fragmented and generate new cations (CH{sub 3}COOH){center_dot}CH{sub 3}CO{sup +}. Kinetics, thermodynamics, and entropy factors for these competitive dissociation pathways are discussed. The present report provides a clear picture of the photoionization and dissociation processes of the acetic acid dimer in the range of the photon energy 9-15 eV.

  15. The detection and mapping of the spatial distribution of insect defense compounds by desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization Orbitrap mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rejšek, Jan; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Hanus, Robert; Vaikkinen, A.; Haapala, M.; Kauppila, T. J.; Kostiainen, R.; Cvačka, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 886, Jul 30 (2015), s. 91-97 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-25137P Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M200551204 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization * ambient mass spectrometry * insect chemical defense * exocrine glands * termite * stink bug Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.712, year: 2015

  16. Interference, confinement and non Franck-Condon effects in photoionization of H{sub 2} molecules at high photon energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J; MartIn, F [Departamento de Quimica, C-9, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Fojon, O, E-mail: jorge@phys.au.d, E-mail: ofojon@fceia.unr.edu.a, E-mail: fernando.martin@uam.e [Institute de Fisica Rosario (CONICET-UNR), Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina)

    2009-11-01

    We study in detail photoionization of H{sub 2} molecules by high energy photons. Bound and continuum states are accurately evaluated by using B-spline basis functions. The usual Franck-Condon behavior is not followed when the molecule is parallel to the polarization direction. The origin of this anomaly is related to interference effects. Moreover, it is shown that at these high photon energies, the nuclear asymmetry parameter exhibits a reminiscence of these interference patterns.

  17. Laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Demtröder, Wolfgang

    Keeping abreast of the latest techniques and applications, this new edition of the standard reference and graduate text on laser spectroscopy has been completely revised and expanded. While the general concept is unchanged, the new edition features a broad array of new material, e.g., ultrafast lasers (atto- and femto-second lasers) and parametric oscillators, coherent matter waves, Doppler-free Fourier spectroscopy with optical frequency combs, interference spectroscopy, quantum optics, the interferometric detection of gravitational waves and still more applications in chemical analysis, medical diagnostics, and engineering.

  18. Hadron Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binon, F.; Frere, J.M.; Peigneux, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    HADRON 89 is the third of a series of biennial conferences on hadron spectroscopy which are now replacing the former separate meson and baryon spectroscopy conferences. The first one, HADRON 85, was held at the University of Maryland. The second one, HADRON 87, has taken place at KEK in Tsukuba in Japan. This conference is divided into 7 sessions bearing on: - session 1 Light mesons and exotics (19 conferences) - session 2 Light mesons and exotics-theory-phonomenology (15 conferences) - session 3 Theoretical problems (14 conferences) - session 4 New detectors factories (9 conferences) - session 5 Baryons (7 conferences) - session 6 Heavy flavor spectroscopy (7 conferences) - session 7 Concluding hadron 89 (3 conferences)

  19. A VUV photoionization measurement and ab-initio calculation of the ionization energy of gas phase SiO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostko, Oleg; Ahmed, Musahid; Metz, Ricardo B.

    2008-12-05

    In this work we report on the detection and vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of gas phase SiO2 generated in situ via laser ablation of silicon in a CO2 molecular beam. The resulting species are investigated by single photon ionization with tunable VUV synchrotron radiation and mass analyzed using reflectron mass spectrometry. Photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves are recorded for SiO and SiO2 and ionization energy estimates are revealed from such measurements. A state-to-state ionizationenergy of 12.60 (+-0.05) eV is recorded by fitting two prominent peaks in the PIE curve for the following process: 1SUM O-Si-O --> 2PRODg [O-Si-O]+. Electronic structure calculations aid in the interpretation of the photoionization process and allow for identification of the symmetric stretch of 2PRODg [O-Si-O]+ which is observed in the PIE spectrum to be 0.11 eV (890 cm-1) above the ground state of the cation and agrees with the 892 cm-1 symmetric stretch frequency calculated at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ level.

  20. Spectral lines and characteristic of temporal variations in photoionized plasmas induced with laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, I.; Bartnik, A.; Wachulak, P.; Skrzeczanowski, W.; Jarocki, R.; Fiedorowicz, H.

    2017-11-01

    Spectral lines for Kr/Ne/H2 photoionized plasma in the ultraviolet and visible (UV/Vis) wavelength ranges have been created using a laser-produced plasma (LPP) EUV source. The source is based on a double-stream gas puff target irradiated with a commercial Nd:YAG laser. The laser pulses were focused onto a gas stream, injected into a vacuum chamber synchronously with the EUV pulses. Spectral lines from photoionization in neutral Kr/Ne/H2 and up to few charged states were observed. The intense emission lines were associated with the Kr transition lines. Experimental and theoretical investigations on intensity variations for some ionic lines are presented. A decrease in the intensity with the delay time between the laser pulse and the spectrum acquisition was revealed. Electron temperature and electron density in the photoionized plasma have been estimated from the characteristic emission lines. Temperature was obtained using Boltzmann plot method, assuming that the population density of atoms and ions are considered in a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). Electron density was calculated from the Stark broadening profile. The temporal evaluation of the plasma and the way of optimizing the radiation intensity of LPP EUV sources is discussed.

  1. Ionization photophysics and spectroscopy of dicyanoacetylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, Sydney, E-mail: Sydney.Leach@obspm.fr, E-mail: Martin.Schwell@lisa.u-pec.fr; Champion, Norbert [LERMA UMR CNRS 8112, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 5 place Jules-Jansen, 92195 Meudon (France); Schwell, Martin, E-mail: Sydney.Leach@obspm.fr, E-mail: Martin.Schwell@lisa.u-pec.fr; Bénilan, Yves; Fray, Nicolas; Gazeau, Marie-Claire [LISA UMR CNRS 7583, Université Paris-Est Créteil and Université Paris Diderot, Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, 61 Avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil (France); Garcia, Gustavo A.; Gaie-Levrel, François [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, St. Aubin, B.P. 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Guillemin, Jean-Claude [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Rennes, CNRS UMR 6226, 11 Allée de Beaulieu, CS 50837, 35708 Rennes Cedex 7 (France)

    2013-11-14

    Photoionization of dicyanoacetylene was studied using synchrotron radiation over the excitation range 8–25 eV, with photoelectron-photoion coincidence techniques. The absolute ionization cross-section and detailed spectroscopic aspects of the parent ion were recorded. The adiabatic ionization energy of dicyanoacetylene was measured as 11.80 ± 0.01 eV. A detailed analysis of the cation spectroscopy involves new aspects and new assignments of the vibrational components to excitation of the quasi-degenerate A{sup 2}Π{sub g}, B{sup 2}Σ{sub g}{sup +} states as well as the C{sup 2}Σ{sub u}{sup +} and D{sup 2}Π{sub u} states of the cation. Some of the structured autoionization features observed in the 12.4–15 eV region of the total ion yield spectrum were assigned to vibrational components of valence shell transitions and to two previously unknown Rydberg series converging to the D{sup 2}Π{sub u} state of C{sub 4}N{sub 2}{sup +}. The appearance energies of the fragment ions C{sub 4}N{sup +}, C{sub 3}N{sup +}, C{sub 4}{sup +}, C{sub 2}N{sup +}, and C{sub 2}{sup +} were measured and their heats of formation were determined and compared with existing literature values. Thermochemical calculations of the appearance potentials of these and other weaker ions were used to infer aspects of dissociative ionization pathways.

  2. Electronic spectroscopies

    OpenAIRE

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Schoonheydt, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared region is a versatile spectroscopic technique, as both d-d and charge transfer transitions of supported TMI can be probed. One of the advantages of electronic spectroscopy is that the obtained information is directly chemical since the outer shell electrons of the TMI are probed and provide information about the oxidation state and coordination environment of TMI on surfaces. Furthermore, the DRS technique ca...

  3. Fluorescence spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagatolli, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy is a powerful experimental tool used by scientists from many disciplines. During the last decades there have been important developments on distinct fluorescence methods, particularly those related to the study of biological phenomena. This chapter discusses the foundati......Fluorescence spectroscopy is a powerful experimental tool used by scientists from many disciplines. During the last decades there have been important developments on distinct fluorescence methods, particularly those related to the study of biological phenomena. This chapter discusses...

  4. Applications of photon-in, photon-out spectroscopy with third-generation, synchrotron-radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindle, D.W.; Perera, R.C.C.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Mother nature's finest test probe; soft x-ray emission spectroscopy with high-brightness synchrotron radiation sources; anisotropy and polarization of x-ray emission from atoms and molecules; valence-hole fluorescence from molecular photoions as a probe of shape-resonance ionization: progress and prospects; structural biophysics on third-generation synchrotron sources; ultra-soft x-ray fluorescence-yield XAFS: an in situ photon-in, photon-out spectroscopy; and x-ray microprobe: an analytical tool for imaging elemental composition and microstructure

  5. The optical variability of SDSS quasars from multi-epoch spectroscopy. I. Results from 60 quasars with ≥ six-epoch spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Hengxiao; Gu, Minfeng

    2014-01-01

    In a sample of 60 quasars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with at least six-epoch spectroscopy, we investigate the variability of emission lines and continuum luminosity at various aspects. A strong anti-correlation between the variability and continuum luminosity at 2500 Å is found for the sample, which is consistent with previous works. In individual sources, we find that half of the sample objects follow the trend of being bluer when brighter, while the remaining half follow the redder-when-brighter (RWB) trend. Although the mechanism for RWB is unclear, the effects of host galaxy contribution due to seeing variations cannot be completely ruled out. As expected from the photoionization model, the positive correlations between the broad emission line and continuum luminosity are found in most individual sources, as well as for the whole sample. We confirm the Baldwin effect in most individual objects and the whole sample, while a negative Baldwin effect is also found in several quasars, which can be at least partly (if not all) due to the host galaxy contamination. We find positive correlations between the broad emission line luminosity and line width in most individual quasars, as well as the whole sample, implying a line base that is more variable than the line core.

  6. The optical variability of SDSS quasars from multi-epoch spectroscopy. I. Results from 60 quasars with ≥ six-epoch spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Hengxiao; Gu, Minfeng, E-mail: hxguo@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: gumf@shao.ac.cn [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2014-09-01

    In a sample of 60 quasars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with at least six-epoch spectroscopy, we investigate the variability of emission lines and continuum luminosity at various aspects. A strong anti-correlation between the variability and continuum luminosity at 2500 Å is found for the sample, which is consistent with previous works. In individual sources, we find that half of the sample objects follow the trend of being bluer when brighter, while the remaining half follow the redder-when-brighter (RWB) trend. Although the mechanism for RWB is unclear, the effects of host galaxy contribution due to seeing variations cannot be completely ruled out. As expected from the photoionization model, the positive correlations between the broad emission line and continuum luminosity are found in most individual sources, as well as for the whole sample. We confirm the Baldwin effect in most individual objects and the whole sample, while a negative Baldwin effect is also found in several quasars, which can be at least partly (if not all) due to the host galaxy contamination. We find positive correlations between the broad emission line luminosity and line width in most individual quasars, as well as the whole sample, implying a line base that is more variable than the line core.

  7. Hybrid Orbital and Numerical Grid Representationfor Electronic Continuum Processes: Double Photoionization of Atomic Beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yip, Frank L; McCurdy, C. William; Rescigno, Thomas N

    2010-04-19

    A general approach for ab initio calculations of electronic continuum processes is described in which the many-electron wave function is expanded using a combination of orbitals at short range and the finite-element discrete variable representation(FEM-DVR) at larger distances. The orbital portion of the basis allows the efficient construction of many-electron configurations in which some of the electrons are bound, but because the orbitals are constructed from an underlying FEM-DVR grid, the calculation of two-electron integrals retains the efficiency of the primitive FEM-DVR approach. As an example, double photoionization of beryllium is treated in a calculation in which the 1s{sup 2} core is frozen. This approach extends the use of exterior complex scaling (ECS) successfully applied to helium and H{sub 2} to calculations with two active electrons on more complicated targets. Integrated, energy-differential and triply-differential cross sections are exhibited, and the results agree well with other theoretical investigations.

  8. Derivatizations for improved detection of alcohols by gas chromatography and photoionization detection (GC-PID)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krull, I.S.; Swartz, M.; Driscoll, J.N.

    1984-01-01

    Pentafluorophenyldimethylsilyl chloride (flophemesyl chloride, Fl) is a well known derivatization reagent for improved electron capture detection (ECD) in gas chromatography (GC)(GC-ECD), but it has never been utilized for improved detectability and sensitivity in GC-photoionization detection (GC-PID). A wide variety of flophemesyl alcohol derivatives have been used in order to show a new approach for realizing greatly reduced minimum detection limits (MDL) of virtually all alcohol derivatives in GC-PID analysis. This particular derivatization approach is inexpensive and easy to apply, leading to quantitative or near 100% conversion of the starting alcohols to the expected flophemesyl ethers (silyl ethers). Detection limits can be lowered by 2-3 orders of magnitude for such derivatives when compared with the starting alcohols, along with calibration plots that are linear over 5-7 orders of magnitude. Specific GC conditions have been developed for many flophemesyl derivatives, in all cases using packed columns. Both ECD and PID relative response factors (RRFs) and normalized RRFs have been determined, and such ratios can now be used for improved analytic identification from complex sample matrices, where appropriate. 28 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  9. Indole: A model system for one-photon threshold photoionization in polar media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jamine; Robinson, G. Wilse

    1984-08-01

    Indole in a sufficiently polar medium, such as water, presents a relatively simple example of the one-photon near-threshold photoionization process in the condensed phase. This photoejection mechanism is the main object of study in this paper. To carry out this study, dynamic processes of indole in its first excited singlet state S1 are explored as a function of temperature in mixed water/methanol solvents. In mixed solvents having high water content, the dominant radiationless transition in the higher temperature regimes is a localized photoejection process. In pure methanol, electron photoejection is unimportant, indicating a distinction between aqueous solvents and other hydrophilic solvents that goes far beyond dielectric constant considerations. A water ``cage,'' composed of 4±1 water molecules, and probably quite close to the parent cation, is the electron acceptor. The apparently unique structure of this water cluster, different from that in normal water, is thought to be responsible for the large activation energy (43.4 kJ/mol-1) for this photoejection mechanism. A Markov random walk matrix method is adopted in order to analyze the photoelectron process in different mixture configurations. Good agreement between observed and theoretical results over the entire solvent concentration range for both the fluorescence decay rates and the fluorescence quantum yields at various temperatures between -15 and +75 °C supports the assumed model. It is interesting to speculate about possible roles of threshold electrons in chemical and biological long range electron transfer reactions.

  10. Hyperspherical time-dependent method with semiclassical outgoing waves for double photoionization of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazansky, A.K.; Selles, P.; Malegat, L.

    2003-01-01

    The hyperspherical time-dependent method with semiclassical outgoing waves for study of double photoionization of helium is presented. It is closely related to the hyperspherical R-matrix method with semiclassical outgoing waves [Phys. Rev. A 65, 032711 (2002)]: both split configuration space into two regions to solve the stationary inhomogeneous Schroedinger equation associated with the one-photon ionization problem, and both apply the same treatment to the outer region. However, the two methods differ radically in their treatments of the problem in the inner region: the most recent one applies a time-dependent approach for calculating the stationary wave function, while the previous one uses a R-matrix treatment. The excellent agreement observed between the triple differential cross sections obtained from these two basically different methods provides very strong support for both of them. Importantly, the very different numerical structures of both methods might make the most recent one a better candidate for investigating the near-threshold region

  11. A direct recursive residue generation method: application to photoionization of hydrogen in static electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, H.O.; Goscinski, O.

    1994-01-01

    In studies of hydrogenic systems via the recursive residue generation method (RRGM) the major bottleneck is the matrix vector product HC, between the Hamiltonian matrix H and a Lanczos vector C. For highly excited states and/or strong perturbations the size of H grows fast leading to storage problems. By making use of direct methods, i.e. avoidance of explicit construction of large Hamiltonian matrices, such problems can be overcome. Utilizing the underlying analytical properties of the Laguerre basis e -λr L k 2l+2 (2λr) a direct RRGM (D-RRGM) for the unperturbed hydrogenic Hamiltonian is derived, changing the storage needs from scaling as N 2 to 4N where N is the number of radial functions for each factorized H o (l,m) block with the possibility of parallel processing. A further computational simplification is introduced by putting the expression for the photoionization (PI) cross section in the rational form conventionally used in the representation of density of states (DOS). This allows the construction of the PI cross section directly from the tridiagonal Lanczos matrix avoiding the explicit calculation of individual eigen values and eigenvectors. (Author)

  12. Calculation of photoionization differential cross sections using complex Gauss-type orbitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Rei; Yabushita, Satoshi

    2017-09-05

    Accurate theoretical calculation of photoelectron angular distributions for general molecules is becoming an important tool to image various chemical reactions in real time. We show in this article that not only photoionization total cross sections but also photoelectron angular distributions can be accurately calculated using complex Gauss-type orbital (cGTO) basis functions. Our method can be easily combined with existing quantum chemistry techniques including electron correlation effects, and applied to various molecules. The so-called two-potential formula is applied to represent the transition dipole moment from an initial bound state to a final continuum state in the molecular coordinate frame. The two required continuum functions, the zeroth-order final continuum state and the first-order wave function induced by the photon field, have been variationally obtained using the complex basis function method with a mixture of appropriate cGTOs and conventional real Gauss-type orbitals (GTOs) to represent the continuum orbitals as well as the remaining bound orbitals. The complex orbital exponents of the cGTOs are optimized by fitting to the outgoing Coulomb functions. The efficiency of the current method is demonstrated through the calculations of the asymmetry parameters and molecular-frame photoelectron angular distributions of H2+ and H2 . In the calculations of H2 , the static exchange and random phase approximations are employed, and the dependence of the results on the basis functions is discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A study of the ionized gas in Stephan's Quintet from integral field spectroscopy observations★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Baras, M.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Díaz, A. I.; Sánchez, S. F.; Pasquali, A.

    2014-07-01

    Stephan's Quintet (SQ) is a famous interacting compact group of galaxies in an important stage of dynamical evolution, but surprisingly very few spectroscopic studies are found in the literature. We present optical integral field spectroscopy (IFS) observations of the SQ from the PPAK IFS Nearby Galaxies Survey, that provide a powerful way of studying with spatial resolution the physical characteristics of the ionized gas within the group. The nature of the gas emission is analysed using 2D maps of continuum-subtracted, pure emission-line intensities, stacked spectra, diagnostic diagrams, and photoionization model predictions. In the case of NGC 7319, we study the galaxy-wide high-velocity outflow emission by comparing the emission properties with theoretical shock and AGN models. We conclude that the excitation mechanism of the gas in this galaxy is a mixture of AGN photoionization and shocks with a photoionizing precursor. The emission spectra from the large-scale shock front in the interacting pair NGC 7318A/B is analysed, confirming the presence of several kinematic components. Comparison with predictions from theoretical shock models suggests that the gas emission is consistent with shocks without a photoionizing precursor, low pre-shock density, and velocities in the range of ˜200-400 km s-1. The gas oxygen abundance for NGC 7318B is determined using an updated O3N2 calibration. Although NGC 7317 shows no significant gas emission, an ionizing cluster is found southwest of this galaxy, probably the result of tidal interaction. As a by-product, we analyse the gas emission of the foreground galaxy NGC 7320.

  14. Optogalvanic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pianarosa, P.; Demers, Y.; Gagne, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Laser induced optogalvanic spectroscopy in a hollow cathode-produced plasma has been used to resolve the isotopic structure of some absorption lines in uranium. We have shown that the optogalvanic signal associated with any isotope can be related to the concentration of that isotope in a multi-isotopic sample. From the results we have obtained, optogalvanic spectroscopy of sputtered samples appears to be an interesting approach to the isotopic analysis of both natural and enriched uranium and could easily be applied to the analysis of other fissile elements, such as the plutonium isotopes

  15. Emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    This 16th article in the series of biennial reviews of emission spectroscopy surveys with emphasis the emission spectrochemical literature appearing in referred publications during 1976 and 1977. Books and general reviews of emission spectroscopy and closely related subjects are considered in the first section, whereas specific reviews and texts are included in each of the five tropical sections. Spectral descriptions and classifications are examined in the second section. An abbreviated instrumentation section follows, and standards, samples, calibrations, and calculations are evaluated in the fourth section. The emphasis on excitation sources reflects the size of section five. In the sixth section, important applications are explored

  16. Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman spectroscopy has gained increased use and importance in recent years for accurate and precise detection of physical and chemical properties of food materials, due to the greater specificity and sensitivity of Raman techniques over other analytical techniques. This book chapter presents Raman s...

  17. Bioimpedance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klösgen, Beate; Rümenapp, Christine; Gleich, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    causes relaxation processes with characteristic contributions to the frequency-dependent complex dielectric constant. These dipolar relaxations were initially described by Debye (Polare Molekeln 1929). They are the basis of impedance spectroscopy (K’Owino and Sadik Electroanalysis 17(23):2101–2113, 2005...

  18. Ultrasonic nebulization extraction/low pressure photoionization mass spectrometry for direct analysis of chemicals in matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengyuan; Zhu, Yanan; Zhou, Zhongyue; Yang, Jiuzhong; Qi, Fei; Pan, Yang

    2015-09-03

    A novel ultrasonic nebulization extraction/low-pressure photoionization (UNE-LPPI) system has been designed and employed for the rapid mass spectrometric analysis of chemicals in matrices. An ultrasonic nebulizer was used to extract the chemicals in solid sample and nebulize the solvent in the nebulization cell. Aerosols formed by ultrasonic were evaporated by passing through a transferring tube, and desolvated chemicals were ionized by the emitted light (10.6 eV) from a Krypton discharge lamp at low pressure (∼68 Pa). First, a series of semi/non-volatile compounds with different polarities, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), amino acids, dipeptides, drugs, nucleic acids, alkaloids, and steroids were used to test the system. Then, the quantification capability of UNE-LPPI was checked with: 1) pure chemicals, such as 9,10-phenanthrenequinone and 1,4-naphthoquinone dissolved in solvent; 2) soil powder spiked with different amounts of phenanthrene and pyrene. For pure chemicals, the correlation coefficient (R(2)) for the standard curve of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone in the range of 3 ng-20 μg mL(-1) was 0.9922, and the measured limits of detection (LOD) was 1 ng ml(-1). In the case of soil powder, linear relationships for phenanthrene and pyrene from 10 to 400 ng mg(-1) were obtained with correlation coefficients of 0.9889 and 0.9893, respectively. At last, the feasibility of UNE-LPPI for the detection of chemicals in real matrices such as tablets and biological tissues (tea, Citrus aurantium peel and sage (Salvia officinalis) leaf) were successfully demonstrated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Charge Exchange Reaction in Dopant-Assisted Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization and Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaikkinen, Anu; Kauppila, Tiina J; Kostiainen, Risto

    2016-08-01

    The efficiencies of charge exchange reaction in dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DA-APCI) and dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization (DA-APPI) mass spectrometry (MS) were compared by flow injection analysis. Fourteen individual compounds and a commercial mixture of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were chosen as model analytes to cover a wide range of polarities, gas-phase ionization energies, and proton affinities. Chlorobenzene was used as the dopant, and methanol/water (80/20) as the solvent. In both techniques, analytes formed the same ions (radical cations, protonated molecules, and/or fragments). However, in DA-APCI, the relative efficiency of charge exchange versus proton transfer was lower than in DA-APPI. This is suggested to be because in DA-APCI both dopant and solvent clusters can be ionized, and the formed reagent ions can react with the analytes via competing charge exchange and proton transfer reactions. In DA-APPI, on the other hand, the main reagents are dopant-derived radical cations, which favor ionization of analytes via charge exchange. The efficiency of charge exchange in both DA-APPI and DA-APCI was shown to depend heavily on the solvent flow rate, with best efficiency seen at lowest flow rates studied (0.05 and 0.1 mL/min). Both DA-APCI and DA-APPI showed the radical cation of chlorobenzene at 0.05-0.1 mL/min flow rate, but at increasing flow rate, the abundance of chlorobenzene M(+.) decreased and reagent ion populations deriving from different gas-phase chemistry were recorded. The formation of these reagent ions explains the decreasing ionization efficiency and the differences in charge exchange between the techniques. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  20. PHOTOIONIZATION MODELS FOR THE SEMI-FORBIDDEN C iii] 1909 EMISSION IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaskot, A. E. [Department of Astronomy, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01063 (United States); Ravindranath, S. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    The increasing neutrality of the intergalactic medium at z  > 6 suppresses Ly α emission, and spectroscopic confirmation of galaxy redshifts requires the detection of alternative ultraviolet lines. The strong [C iii]  λ 1907+C iii]  λ 1909 doublet frequently observed in low-metallicity, actively star-forming galaxies is a promising emission feature. We present CLOUDY photoionization model predictions for C iii] equivalent widths (EWs) and line ratios as a function of starburst age, metallicity, and ionization parameter. Our models include a range of C/O abundances, dust content, and gas density. We also examine the effects of varying the nebular geometry and optical depth. Only the stellar models that incorporate binary interaction effects reproduce the highest observed C iii] EWs. The spectral energy distributions from the binary stellar population models also generate observable C iii] over a longer timescale relative to single-star models. We show that diagnostics using C iii] and nebular He ii  λ 1640 can separate star-forming regions from shock-ionized gas. We also find that density-bounded systems should exhibit weaker C iii] EWs at a given ionization parameter, and C iii] EWs could, therefore, select candidate Lyman continuum-leaking systems. In almost all models, C iii] is the next strongest line at <2700 Å after Ly α , and C iii] reaches detectable levels for a wide range of conditions at low metallicity. C iii] may therefore serve as an important diagnostic for characterizing galaxies at z  > 6.

  1. PHOTOIONIZATION MODELS FOR THE SEMI-FORBIDDEN C iii] 1909 EMISSION IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaskot, A. E.; Ravindranath, S.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing neutrality of the intergalactic medium at z  > 6 suppresses Ly α emission, and spectroscopic confirmation of galaxy redshifts requires the detection of alternative ultraviolet lines. The strong [C iii]  λ 1907+C iii]  λ 1909 doublet frequently observed in low-metallicity, actively star-forming galaxies is a promising emission feature. We present CLOUDY photoionization model predictions for C iii] equivalent widths (EWs) and line ratios as a function of starburst age, metallicity, and ionization parameter. Our models include a range of C/O abundances, dust content, and gas density. We also examine the effects of varying the nebular geometry and optical depth. Only the stellar models that incorporate binary interaction effects reproduce the highest observed C iii] EWs. The spectral energy distributions from the binary stellar population models also generate observable C iii] over a longer timescale relative to single-star models. We show that diagnostics using C iii] and nebular He ii  λ 1640 can separate star-forming regions from shock-ionized gas. We also find that density-bounded systems should exhibit weaker C iii] EWs at a given ionization parameter, and C iii] EWs could, therefore, select candidate Lyman continuum-leaking systems. In almost all models, C iii] is the next strongest line at <2700 Å after Ly α , and C iii] reaches detectable levels for a wide range of conditions at low metallicity. C iii] may therefore serve as an important diagnostic for characterizing galaxies at z  > 6.

  2. Radiative Recombination and Photoionization Data for Tungsten Ions. Electron Structure of Ions in Plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvina B. Trzhaskovskaya

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical studies of tungsten ions in plasmas are presented. New calculations of the radiative recombination and photoionization cross-sections, as well as radiative recombination and radiated power loss rate coefficients have been performed for 54 tungsten ions for the range W6+–W71+. The data are of importance for fusion investigations at the reactor ITER, as well as devices ASDEX Upgrade and EBIT. Calculations are fully relativistic. Electron wave functions are found by the Dirac–Fock method with proper consideration of the electron exchange. All significant multipoles of the radiative field are taken into account. The radiative recombination rates and the radiated power loss rates are determined provided the continuum electron velocity is described by the relativistic Maxwell–Jüttner distribution. The impact of the core electron polarization on the radiative recombination cross-section is estimated for the Ne-like iron ion and for highly-charged tungsten ions within an analytical approximation using the Dirac–Fock electron wave functions. The effect is shown to enhance the radiative recombination cross-sections by ≲20%. The enhancement depends on the photon energy, the principal quantum number of polarized shells and the ion charge. The influence of plasma temperature and density on the electron structure of ions in local thermodynamic equilibrium plasmas is investigated. Results for the iron and uranium ions in dense plasmas are in good agreement with previous calculations. New calculations were performed for the tungsten ion in dense plasmas on the basis of the average-atom model, as well as for the impurity tungsten ion in fusion plasmas using the non-linear self-consistent field screening model. The temperature and density dependence of the ion charge, level energies and populations are considered.

  3. Time-Dependent Photoionization of Gaseous Nebulae: The Pure Hydrogen Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, J.; Elhoussieny, E. E.; Bautista, M. A.; Kallman, Timothy R.

    2013-01-01

    We study the problem of time-dependent photoionization of low density gaseous nebulae subjected to sudden changes in the intensity of ionizing radiation. To this end, we write a computer code that solves the full timedependent energy balance, ionization balance, and radiation transfer equations in a self-consistent fashion for a simplified pure hydrogen case. It is shown that changes in the ionizing radiation yield ionizationthermal fronts that propagate through the cloud, but the propagation times and response times to such fronts vary widely and nonlinearly from the illuminated face of the cloud to the ionization front (IF). IFthermal fronts are often supersonic, and in slabs initially in pressure equilibrium such fronts yield large pressure imbalances that are likely to produce important dynamical effects in the cloud. Further, we studied the case of periodic variations in the ionizing flux. It is found that the physical conditions of the plasma have complex behaviors that differ from any steady-state solution. Moreover, even the time average of ionization and temperature is different from any steady-state case. This time average is characterized by overionization and a broader IF with respect to the steady-state solution for a mean value of the radiation flux. Around the time average of physical conditions there is a large dispersion in instantaneous conditions, particularly across the IF, which increases with the period of radiation flux variations. Moreover, the variations in physical conditions are asynchronous along the slab due to the combination of nonlinear propagation times for thermal frontsIFs and equilibration times.

  4. Desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization with polydimethylsiloxane as extraction phase and sample plate material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaikkinen, A. [Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, P.O. Box 56, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Kotiaho, T. [Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, P.O. Box 56, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Kostiainen, R. [Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, P.O. Box 56, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Kauppila, T.J., E-mail: tiina.kauppila@helsinki.fi [Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, P.O. Box 56, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-12-03

    Desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization (DAPPI) is an ambient ionization technique for mass spectrometry (MS) that can be used to ionize polar as well as neutral and completely non-polar analytes. In this study polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used as a solid phase extraction sorbent for DAPPI-MS analysis. Pieces of PDMS polymer were soaked in an aqueous sample, where the analytes were sorbed from the sample solution to PDMS. After this, the extracted analytes were desorbed directly from the polymer by the hot DAPPI spray solvent plume, without an elution step. Swelling and extracting the PDMS with a cleaning solvent prior to extraction diminished the high background in the DAPPI mass spectrum caused by PDMS oligomers. Acetone, hexane, pentane, toluene, diisopropylamine and triethylamine were tested for this purpose. The amines were most efficient in reducing the PDMS background, but they also suppressed the signals of low proton affinity analytes. Toluene was chosen as the optimum cleaning solvent, since it reduced the PDMS background efficiently and gave intensive signals of most of the studied analytes. The effects of DAPPI spray solvents toluene, acetone and anisole on the PDMS background and the ionization of analytes were also compared and extraction conditions were optimized. Anisole gave a low background for native PDMS, but toluene ionized the widest range of analytes. Analysis of verapamil, testosterone and anthracene from purified, spiked wastewater was performed to demonstrate that the method is suited for in-situ analysis of water streams. In addition, urine spiked with several analytes was analyzed by the PDMS method and compared to the conventional DAPPI procedure, where sample droplets are applied on PMMA surface. With the PDMS method the background ion signals caused by the urine matrix were lower, the S/N ratios of analytes were 2-10 times higher, and testosterone, anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene that were not detected from PMMA in urine

  5. Evaluation of photoionization detector performance in photocatalytic studies for removing volatile organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rismanchian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of photoionization detector (PID system as a substitution for gas chromatography in the measurement of a 3 xylene isomer mixtures as a representative of the volatile organic compounds in photocatalytic studies. Materials and Methods: This study has been carried out by using test setup for generating known concentrations from equal ratio of 3 xylene isomers. The concentration values to be evaluated were classified into 4 concentration ranges from 0.1 of threshold limit values (TLV to 2 of TLV to evaluate the PID system appliance compared with that in the reference method. The test was done 4 times for each evaluation concentration in 3 relative humidity levels (0%, 20%, and 80%. Results: The correlation between the PID results and the National Institue of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH reference method results in an atmosphere with relative humidity of 0%, 20%, and 80% were good and, respectively, were 0.993, 0.992, and 0.991 and total correlation was 0.989. The paired t test indicates a significant difference between actual concentrations in reference method and the extracted concentration from PID. Conclusions: Although the results presented by PID in the present study are different from those extracted from the reference method (from 10 to 260 ppm, the equipment response is linear. So, the results are acceptable in photocatalytic studies in case the contaminant concentration is measured by the same equipment either before or after the reactor for calculation of the removal efficiency. PID calibration with the test material(s is recommended.

  6. Influence of the partial temporal coherence of short FEL pulses on two-colour photoionization and photoinduced Auger decay of atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazansky, A K; Sazhina, I P; Kabachnik, N M

    2013-01-01

    The influence of the partial temporal coherence of free electron laser (FEL) radiation on the sidebands arising in the electron spectra of laser-assisted photoionization and photoinduced Auger decay of atoms is theoretically analysed. A simple model is developed which describes the inner-shell photoionization by a short (femtosecond) FEL pulse and the following Auger decay in a strong field of an infrared laser. The model is based on the time-dependent approach and uses the strong field approximation for both photo- and Auger electrons. Particular calculations have been carried out for Ne 1s photoionization and KLL Auger emission. We demonstrate that the temporal coherence of FEL pulses influences the line widths in the photoelectron spectrum. For a small coherence time the sidebands in this spectrum cannot be resolved. On the other hand, our calculations show that in the Auger electron spectrum the sidebands are practically independent of the coherence time of the ionizing pulse.

  7. Flame chemistry of alkane-rich gasoline fuels and a surrogate using photoionization mass spectrometry: I. Primary reference fuel

    KAUST Repository

    Selim, H.

    2015-03-30

    Improving the gasoline engines performance requires thorough understanding of their fundamental chemistry of combustion. Since the actual gasoline fuels are difficult to examine, due to the lack of knowledge about their exact composition as well as their numerous fuel components, the approach of using simpler gasoline fuels with limited number of components or using surrogate fuels has become more common. In this study, the combustion chemistry of laminar premixed flame of different gasoline fuels/surrogate has been examined. In this particular paper, the primary reference fuel, PRF84, has been examined at equivalence ratio of 1 and pressure of 20 Torr. The gas analysis was conducted using vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry.

  8. Frustration of direct photoionization of Ar clusters in intense extreme ultraviolet pulses from a free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwayama, H; Nagaya, K; Yao, M; Fukuzawa, H; Liu, X-J; Pruemper, G; Ueda, K; Motomura, K; Saito, N; Rudenko, A; Okunishi, M; Shimada, K; Harada, T; Toyoda, M; Yanagihara, M; Yamamoto, M; Ullrich, J; Foucar, L; Czasch, A; Doerner, R

    2009-01-01

    We have measured the kinetic energies of fragment ions from Ar clusters (average cluster size (N)∼ 10-600) exposed to intense extreme ultraviolet free electron laser pulses (λ ∼ 61 nm, I∼ 1.3x 10 11 W cm -2 ). For small clusters ((N)∼ 200. Considering how many photoelectrons can escape from the cluster, it was found that the size dependence of the ion kinetic energy exhibited the frustration of direct photoionization, which resulted from the strong Coulomb potential of the highly ionized cluster.

  9. High-resolution threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence experiments performed on beamline 9.0.2.2: Kinetic energy release study of the process SF{sub 6} + hv {yields} SF{sub 5}{sup +} F + e{sup -}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, M.; Ng, C.Y. [Ames Lab., IA (United States); Hsu, C.W.; Heimann, P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometry has been used extensively to determine the energetics of neutral radicals and radical cations, as well as to study the dynamics of the dissociative photoionization process. Very often these measurements are concerned with determining the appearance energy (AE) for a dissociative ionization process, as well as determining the heats of formation of the species involved. One such photoionization mass spectrometric technique employed on End Station 2 of the Chemical Dynamics Beamline (9.0.2.2) at the Advanced Light Source is the threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence (TPEPICO) method. TPEPICO involves measuring the time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrum of a given cation in coincidence with threshold photoelectrons at a known photoionization energy.

  10. Flexoelectric spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J F

    2013-08-21

    Flexoelectricity is an increasingly popular subject because it can be extremely large in thin films and permits switching of devices in nonpolar (non-piezoelectric) crystals via application of inhomogeneous stresses. However, recent work has been limited to macroscopic measurement of voltage or strain. Here, we discuss the vibrational spectroscopy of flexoelectricity as a recommended new tool for thin-film characterization, with special emphasis upon incommensurate crystals.

  11. Flexoelectric spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J F

    2013-01-01

    Flexoelectricity is an increasingly popular subject because it can be extremely large in thin films and permits switching of devices in nonpolar (non-piezoelectric) crystals via application of inhomogeneous stresses. However, recent work has been limited to macroscopic measurement of voltage or strain. Here, we discuss the vibrational spectroscopy of flexoelectricity as a recommended new tool for thin-film characterization, with special emphasis upon incommensurate crystals. (viewpoint)

  12. Photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosch, A.

    1982-01-01

    In this work examples of the various aspects of photoelectron spectroscopy are given. The investigation was started with the development of an angle-resolved spectrometer so that the first chapters deal with angle-resolved ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy. To indicate the possibilities and pitfalls of the technique, in chapter II the theory is briefly reviewed. In chapter III the instrument is described. The system is based on the cylindrical mirror deflection analyzer, which is modified and improved for angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. In combination with a position sensitive detector, a spectrometer is developed with which simultaneously several angle-resolved spectra can be recorded. In chapter IV, the results are reported of angle-integrated UPS experiments on dilute alloys. Using the improved energy resolution of the instrument the author was able to study the impurity states more accurately and shows that the photoemission technique has become an important tool in the study of impurities and the interactions involved. XPS and Auger results obtained from dilute alloys are presented in chapter V. It is shown that these systems are especially suited for the study of correlation effects and can provide interesting problems related to the satellite structure and the interaction of the impurity with the host. In chapter VI, the valence bands of ternary alloys are studied with UPS and compared to recent band structure calculation. The core level shifts are analyzed in a simple, thermodynamic scheme. (Auth.)

  13. Interaction between 4p photoionization and 3p resonant excitation channels of krypton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buhr, T.; Kover, A.; Varga, D.; Muller, A.; Ricz, S.; Justus-Liebig- Universitat Giessen, Giessen; Holste, K.; Borovik, Jr.A.A.; Bernhardt, D.; Schippers, S.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The angular distribution of Kr 4p photoelectrons was measured employing a linearly polarized photon beam at energies from 205 eV to 230 eV. In this range the Kr 3p→ns/md (n,m=4,5,6, etc.) resonances can be excited. The experimental anisotropy parameters (β, γ and δ) were determined for the Kr 4p shell and its fine structure components. The measurement was carried out at beamline BW3 of the DORIS III synchrotron light source at HASYLAB (Hamburg, Germany). The ESA-22D electrostatic electron spectrometer was used to analyze the emitted electrons. The spectrometer consists of a spherical and a cylindrical mirror analyzer. The spherical mirror focuses the electrons from the scattering plane to the entrance slit of the cylindrical analyzer performing the energy analysis of the electrons. (For detailed description of an ESA- 22-type electron spectrometer see Ref. [1].) The measured dipole anisotropy parameters ? of Kr 4p photoelectrons are shown in Fig. 1 as a function of photon energy. Resonance-like structure can be seen in the photon energy dependence of the dipole parameters. This structure indicates that the channel interactions are important between the 3p resonant excitation-autoionization and 4p direct photoionization processes in krypton. The natural line width of the 3p photoelectron peaks was determined from the measured spectra and it is about 0.8 eV while the experimental width of the resonance near 220 eV photon energy (3p 1/2 -1 →5s resonant excitation) is approximately 2 eV in Fig. 1. This broadening can be explained with the strong interference between the ionization and excitation channels. As before, we conclude that the angular distribution of photoelectrons is strongly influenced by the excitation processes. Acknowledgements. The authors wish to thank the DORIS III staff for providing excellent working conditions. This work was supported by the NKTH-OTKA (Grant No. K67719), and by the European Community

  14. The influence of the positronium photoionization rate on the polar cap X-ray luminosity of radio pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsukov, D. P.; Vorontsov, M. V.

    2017-12-01

    The influence of the positronium photoionization rate on the polar cap X-ray luminosity of old radio pulsars is considered. It is assumed that the polar cap is heated only by reverse positrons accelerated in the pulsar diode. It is supposed that the pulsar diode is in a stationary state with the lower plate located near the star surface (polar cap model) occupies all the pulsar tube cross section and operates in the regime of steady space charge by the limited electron flow. The influence of a small-scale magnetic field on the electric field inside the pulsar diode is taken into account. The reverse positron current is calculated in the framework of two models: rapid and gradual screening. To calculate the production rate of electron-positron pairs we take into account only the curvature radiation of primary electrons and its absorption in the magnetic field. It is assumed that some fraction of electron-positron pairs is created in a bound state (positronium). Later, such positroniums are photoionized by thermal photons from the polar cap.

  15. Vibrationally specific photoionization cross sections of acrolein leading to the Χ{sup ~}A{sup '} ionic state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Domínguez, Jesús A.; Lucchese, Robert R., E-mail: lucchese@mail.chem.tamu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3255 (United States); Fulfer, K. D.; Hardy, David; Poliakoff, E. D. [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Aguilar, A. A. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-09-07

    The vibrational branching ratios in the photoionization of acrolein for ionization leading to the Χ{sup ~}A{sup '} ion state were studied. Computed logarithmic derivatives of the cross section and the corresponding experimental data derived from measured vibrational branching ratios for several normal modes (ν{sub 9}, ν{sub 10}, ν{sub 11}, and ν{sub 12}) were found to be in relatively good agreement, particularly for the lower half of the 11–100 eV photon energy range considered. Two shape resonances have been found near photon energies of 15.5 and 23 eV in the photoionization cross section and have been demonstrated to originate from the partial cross section of the A{sup ′} scattering symmetry. The wave functions computed at the resonance complex energies are delocalized over the whole molecule. By looking at the dependence of the cross section on the different normal mode displacements together with the wave function at the resonant energy, a qualitative explanation is given for the change of the cross sections with respect to changing geometry.

  16. Near-threshold photoionization of the Xe 3d spin-orbit doublet: Relativistic, relaxation, and intershell interaction effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radojevic, V.; Davidovic, D.M.; Amusia, M.Ya.

    2003-01-01

    Results of calculations of the near-threshold photoionization of the xenon 3d spin-orbit doublet are reported. Our theoretical analysis is undertaken in order to interpret and enlighten the very detailed measurements of this process [A. Kivimaeki et al., Phys. Rev. A 63, 012716 (2001)], which revealed a previously unobserved interesting feature--an additional broad maximum--in the partial xenon 3d 5/2 cross section. This double maximum was not produced by earlier calculations, except in the recent study by Amusia et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093002 (2002)], which, in contrast to the present one, is not ab initio and relativistic in character. The partial photoionization cross sections of 3d 5/2 and 3d 3/2 subshells, photoelectron anisotropy parameters, and spin-polarization parameters that were so far not studied either experimentally or theoretically are calculated. Many-electron correlations, relativistic effects, and relaxation effects of the ionic core in the ionization process are taken into account by using the relativistic random-phase approximation, modified to include the relaxation of the considered subshell

  17. Analysis of selective androgen receptor modulators by gas chromatography-microchip atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luosujärvi, Laura; Haapala, Markus; Thevis, Mario; Saarela, Ville; Franssila, Sami; Ketola, Raimo A; Kostiainen, Risto; Kotiaho, Tapio

    2010-02-01

    A gas chromatography-microchip atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometric (GC-microAPPI-MS) method was developed and used for the analysis of three 2-quinolinone-derived selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). SARMs were analyzed from spiked urine samples, which were hydrolyzed and derivatized with N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide before analysis. Trimethylsilyl derivatives of SARMs formed both radical cations (M(+*)) and protonated molecules ([M + H](+)) in photoionization. Better signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) were obtained in MS/MS analysis using the M(+*) ions as precursor ions than using the [M + H](+) ions, and therefore the M(+*) ions were selected for the precursor ions in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) analysis. Limits of detection (LODs) with the method ranged from 0.01 to 1 ng/mL, which correspond to instrumental LODs of 0.2-20 pg. Limits of quantitation ranged from 0.03 to 3 ng/mL. The mass spectrometric response to the analytes was linear (R > or = 0.995) from the LOQ concentration level up to 100 ng/mL concentration, and intra-day repeatabilities were 5%-9%. In addition to the GC-microAPPI-MS study, the proof-of-principle of gas chromatography-microchip atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-Orbitrap MS (GC-microAPCI-Orbitrap MS) was demonstrated. 2010 American Society for Mass Spectrometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of photoionised plasmas at Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, R. C.

    2011-06-01

    Photoionised plasmas are found in astrophysical environments such as x-ray binaries, active galactic nuclei, and in the accretion disks of compact objects. The Z facility at Sandia National Laboratories is a powerful source of x-rays that enables us to produce and study in the laboratory photoionised plasmas relevant for astrophysics under well characterized conditions. We discuss an experimental and theory/modeling effort in which the intense x-ray flux emitted at the collapse of a z-pinch experiment conducted at Z is employed to produce a neon photoionized plasma. The broad-band x-ray radiation flux from the z-pinch is used to both create the neon photoionised plasma and provide a source of backlighting photons to study the atomic kinetics through K-shell line absorption spectroscopy. The plasma is contained in a cm-scale gas cell located at about 5 cm from the z-pinch, and the filling pressure is carefully monitored all the way to shot time since it determines the particle number density of the plasma. Time-integrated and gated transmission spectra are recorded with a TREX spectrometer equipped with two elliptically-bent crystals and a set of slits to record up to six spatially-resolved spectra per crystal in the same shot. The spectral resolution is approximately 1000. The transmission data shows line absorption transitions in several ionization stages of neon including Be-, Li-, He- and H-like Ne ions. Detailed modeling calculations of the absorption spectra are used to interpret and model the high-resolution transmission spectra recorded in the Z experiments with the goal of extracting the ion population distribution of the plasma. Furthermore, the analysis of the gated data provides a window into the dynamics of the photoionized plasma. The data analysis is performed with the aid of a novel application of genetic algorithms to plasma spectroscopy.

  19. Stabilization of silver nanoparticles in nonanoic acid: A temperature activated conformation reaction observed with surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henneke, Dale E.; Malyavanatham, Gokul; Kovar, Desiderio; O'Brien, D.T.; Becker, M.F.; Nichols, William T.; Keto, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by ultraviolet (λ=248 nm) laser ablation of an aerosol of micron-sized source particles entrained in nitrogen. As a result of thermionic electron emission and photoionization, nanoparticles produced in this manner were highly charged. The resulting aerosol was primarily composed of nanometer sized particles. The charged nanoparticles were deflected by an electric field that was perpendicular to the aerosol flow. Deflected nanoparticles were deposited directly into n-nonanoic acid flowing along the negative collection electrode. Suspensions of nanoparticles collected in this manner were dark gray in color and were found to be flocculated. When the suspensions were heated to temperatures above 75 deg. C, a color change from gray to clear was observed. Ultraviolet/visible extinction spectroscopy was performed on each suspension following annealing at different temperatures and times. By modeling the absorption decrease as a first order reaction, a good fit for the data was found. Analysis by dynamic light scattering (DLS) showed that the initial mean flocculent size of the gray suspensions was 602 nm. DLS analysis of the suspensions taken at different annealing intervals showed that the flocculent size decreased, but maintained a narrow size distribution until the size shrank below the instrument resolution limit. The reduction in flocculent size coincided with the observed color change, and an irreversible transition to a deflocculated primary nanoparticle suspension is observed. Surface enhanced Raman scattering is used to confirm that the reaction results from a change in the orientation of the nonanoic molecule on the surface of the nanoparticle

  20. Laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Demtröder, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Keeping abreast of the latest techniques and applications, this new edition of the standard reference and graduate text on laser spectroscopy has been completely revised and expanded. While the general concept is unchanged, the new edition features a broad array of new material, e.g., frequency doubling in external cavities, reliable cw-parametric oscillators, tunable narrow-band UV sources, more sensitive detection techniques, tunable femtosecond and sub-femtosecond lasers (X-ray region and the attosecond range), control of atomic and molecular excitations, frequency combs able to synchronize independent femtosecond lasers, coherent matter waves, and still more applications in chemical analysis, medical diagnostics, and engineering.

  1. Hadron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    Spectra of hadrons show various and complex structures due to the strong coupling constants of the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) constituting its fundamental theory. For their understandings, two parameters, i.e., (1) the quark mass and (2) their excitation energies are playing important roles. In low energies, for example, rather simple structures similar to the positronium appear in the heavy quarks such as charms and bottoms. It has been, however, strongly suggested by the recent experiments that the molecular resonant state shows up when the threshold to decay to mesons is exceeded. On the other hand, chiral symmetry and its breaking play important roles in the dynamics of light quarks. Strange quarks are in between and show special behaviors. In the present lecture, the fundamental concept of the hadron spectroscopy based on the QCD is expounded to illustrate the present understandings and problems of the hadron spectroscopy. Sections are composed of 1. Introduction, 2. Fundamental Concepts (hadrons, quarks and QCD), 3. Quark models and exotic hadrons, 4. Lattice QCD and QCD sum rules. For sections 1 to 3, only outline of the concepts is described because of the limited space. Exotic hadrons, many quark pictures of light hadrons and number of quarks in hadrons are described briefly. (S. Funahashi)

  2. Evidence for Ultra-Fast Outflows in Radio-Quiet AGNs. 2; Detailed Photoionization Modeling of Fe K-Shell Absorption Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, Francesco; Clapp, M.; Reeves, J. N.; Palumbo, G. G. C.; Braito, V.; Dadina, M.

    2011-01-01

    X-ray absorption line spectroscopy has recently shown evidence for previously unknown Ultra-fast Outflows (UFOs) in radio-quiet AGNs. In the previous paper of this series we defined UFOs as those absorbers with an outflow velocity higher than 10,000km/s and assessed the statistical significance of the associated blue shifted FeK absorption lines in a large sample of 42 local radio-quiet AGNs observed with XMM-Newton. In the present paper we report a detailed curve of growth analysis and directly model the FeK absorbers with the Xstar photo-ionization code. We confirm that the frequency of sources in the radio-quiet sample showing UFOs is >35%. The outflow velocity distribution spans from \\sim10,000km/s (\\sim0.03c) up to \\siml00,000kmis (\\sim0.3c), with a peak and mean value of\\sim42,000km/s (\\sim0.14c). The ionization parameter is very high and in the range log\\xi 3-6 erg s/cm, with a mean value of log\\xi 4.2 erg s/cm. The associated column densities are also large, in the range N_H\\siml0(exp 22)-10(exp 24)/sq cm, with a mean value of N_H\\siml0(exp23)/sq cm. We discuss and estimate how selection effects, such as those related to the limited instrumental sensitivity at energies above 7keV, may hamper the detection of even higher velocities and higher ionization absorbers. We argue that, overall, these results point to the presence of extremely ionized and possibly almost Compton thick outflowing material in the innermost regions of AGNs. This also suggests that UFOs may potentially play a significant role in the expected cosmological feedback from AGNs and their study can provide important clues on the connection between accretion disks, winds and jets.

  3. Oscillatory behavior of the valence photoionization properties of N2 and O2 due to coherent photoelectron emission from two sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viefhaus, Jens; Ilchen, Markus; Deinert, Sascha; Glaser, Leif; Scholz, Frank; Walter, Peter; Braune, Markus; Meißner, André; Tribedi, Lokesh; Becker, Uwe

    2012-11-01

    Coherent two-center photoelectron emission has been predicted for all electron subshells. So far, however, is has been only proven for the innermost 1s-subshell only. We present first results for the valence photoionization of N2 and O2 showing oscillatory behavior in both, the partial cross section σ and the angular distribution asymmetry parameter β.

  4. Lineshape of Ne 1s photoionization satellite [1s2s]({sup 3}S)3s and its valence Auger decay spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarzhemsky, V.G.; Amusia, M.Ya.; Chernysheva, L.V

    2002-12-15

    Lineshape of Ne1s photoionization satellite [1s2s]({sup 3}S)3s({sup 2}S) and lineshapes of corresponding low-energy Auger spectra are calculated using the Many-Body Perturbation Theory. The results obtained reproduce the experimentally observed asymmetrical lineshape of photoelectron satellite and its intensity.

  5. Threshold photoelectron spectroscopy of the imidogen radical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Gustavo A., E-mail: gustavo.garcia@synchrotron-soleil.fr [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, St. Aubin, BP 48, 91192 Gif sur Yvette (France); Gans, Bérenger [Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d’Orsay, Univ Paris-Sud, CNRS, Bât 210, Univ Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Tang, Xiaofeng [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, St. Aubin, BP 48, 91192 Gif sur Yvette (France); Ward, Michael; Batut, Sébastien [PC2A, Université de Lille 1, UMR CNRS-USTL 8522, Cité Scientifique Bât. C11, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Nahon, Laurent [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, St. Aubin, BP 48, 91192 Gif sur Yvette (France); Fittschen, Christa [PC2A, Université de Lille 1, UMR CNRS-USTL 8522, Cité Scientifique Bât. C11, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Loison, Jean-Christophe [ISM, Université de Bordeaux, CNRS, 351 cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence Cedex (France)

    2015-08-15

    We present the threshold photoelectron spectroscopy of the imidogen radical (NH) recorded in the photon energy region up to 1 eV above its first ionization threshold. The radical was produced by reaction of NH{sub 3} and F in a microwave discharge flow-tube and photoionized using vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation. A double imaging coincidence spectrometer was used to record mass-selected spectra and avoid contributions from the byproducts present in the reactor and background gas. The energy region includes the ground X{sup +2}Π and first electronically excited a{sup +4}Σ{sup −} states of NH{sup +}. Strong adiabatic transitions and weak vibrational progressions up to v{sup +} = 2 are observed for both electronic states. The rotational profile seen in the origin band has been modeled using existing neutral and cationic spectroscopic constants leading to a precise determination of the adiabatic ionization energy at 13.480 ± 0.002 eV.

  6. Graphene Membranes for Atmospheric Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherup, Robert S; Eren, Baran; Hao, Yibo; Bluhm, Hendrik; Salmeron, Miquel B

    2016-05-05

    Atmospheric pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is demonstrated using single-layer graphene membranes as photoelectron-transparent barriers that sustain pressure differences in excess of 6 orders of magnitude. The graphene serves as a support for catalyst nanoparticles under atmospheric pressure reaction conditions (up to 1.5 bar), where XPS allows the oxidation state of Cu nanoparticles and gas phase species to be simultaneously probed. We thereby observe that the Cu(2+) oxidation state is stable in O2 (1 bar) but is spontaneously reduced under vacuum. We further demonstrate the detection of various gas-phase species (Ar, CO, CO2, N2, O2) in the pressure range 10-1500 mbar including species with low photoionization cross sections (He, H2). Pressure-dependent changes in the apparent binding energies of gas-phase species are observed, attributable to changes in work function of the metal-coated grids supporting the graphene. We expect atmospheric pressure XPS based on this graphene membrane approach to be a valuable tool for studying nanoparticle catalysis.

  7. Historical survey of resonance ionization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, G.S.

    1984-04-01

    We have recently celebrated the 10th birthday of Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS), and this seems an appropriate time to review the history of its development. Basically, RIS is a photophysics process in which tunable light sources are used to remove a valence electron from an atom of selected atomic number, Z. If appropriate lasers are used as the light source, one electron can be removed from each atom of the selected Z in the laser pulse. This implies that RIS can be a very efficient, as well as selective, ionization process. In what we normally call RIS, laser schemes are employed which preserve both of these features. In contrast, multiphoton ionization (MPI) is more general, although not necessarily Z selective or very efficient because resonances are often not used. Early research completed in the USSR and described as selective two-step photoionization, employed resonances to ionize the rubidium atom and served to guide work on laser isotope separation. 29 references, 8 figures

  8. Photoelectron-Auger electron coincidence spectroscopy of free molecules: New experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, Volker; Barth, Silko; Lischke, Toralf; Joshi, Sanjeev; Arion, Tiberiu; Mucke, Melanie; Foerstel, Marko; Bradshaw, Alex M.; Hergenhahn, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    Photoelectron-Auger electron coincidence spectroscopy probes the dicationic states produced by Auger decay following the photoionization of core or inner valence levels in atoms, molecules or clusters. Moreover, the technique provides valuable insight into the dynamics of core hole decay. This paper serves the dual purpose of demonstrating the additional information obtained by this technique compared to Auger spectroscopy alone as well as of describing the new IPP/FHI apparatus at the BESSY II synchrotron radiation source. The distinguishing feature of the latter is the capability to record both the photoelectron and Auger electron with good energy and angle resolution, for which purpose a large hemispherical electrostatic analyser is combined with several linear time-of-flight spectrometers. New results are reported for the K-shell photoionization of oxygen (O 2 ) and the subsequent KVV Auger decay. Calculations in the literature for non-coincident O 2 Auger spectra are found to be in moderately good agreement with the new data.

  9. Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemcik, T.

    1984-01-01

    The emission and absorption of photons taking place without changes in the frequency spectrum of the crystal lattice are known as the Moessbauer effect. It takes place in the low energy levels of heavy nuclei in solid lattices at low temperatures. On the basis of the hyperfine structure of Moessbauer spectra the notions are explained of isomer shift, quadrupole splitting and magnetic splitting. The principle and function are explained of Moessbauer spectrometers and the methods of graphical processing of spectra, also the use of the least square fit. Moessbauer spectroscopy is nondestructive, highly sensitive and selective and makes structural resolution possible. It is used for quantitative and qualitative analysis of compounds. Examples are given of the use of this method for mineralogical and crystallo-chemical analysis of lunar minerals and rocks, for analysis of corrosion products of iron and for phase analysis of alloys. (M.D.)

  10. Photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    Research activities in photoelectron spectroscopy at Lawrence Radiation Laboratory during 1976 are described. Topics covered include: the orientation of CO on Pt(III) and Ni(III) surfaces from angle-resolved photoemission; photoemission from CO on Pt(III) in the range 40 eV less than or equal to dirac constant ω less than or equal to 150 eV; photoemission studies of electron states at clean surfaces using synchrotron radiation; angle and energy dependent photoemission studies of plasmon loss structure in Al and In; d-orbital directed photoemission from copper; interpretation of angle-resolved x-ray photoemission from valence bands; atomic cross-section effects in soft x-ray photoemission from Ag, Au, and Pt valence bands; x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies of the electronic structure of transition metal difluorides; x-ray photoemission investigation of the density of states of B'-NiAl; the electronic structure of SrTiO 3 and some simple related oxides; fluorescence lifetime measurements of np 5 (n+1)S' states in krypton and xenon; Zeeman beats in the resonance fluorescence of the 3P 1 , states in krypton and xenon; lifetime measurements of rare-gas dimers; configuration interaction effects in the atomic photoelectron spectra of Ba, Sm, Eu, and Yb; glow discharge lamps as electron sources for electron impact excitation; electron impact excitation of electron correlation states in Ca, Sr, and Ba; photoelectron spectroscopy of atomic and molecular bismuth; relativistic effects in the uv photoelectron spectra of group VI diatomic molecules; and relative gas-phase acidities and basicities from a proton potential model

  11. Spectroscopy of uranium within the SILVA program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avril, R.; Petit, Alain D.; Radwan, J.; Vors, E.

    1993-05-01

    The multistep photoionization of uranium atoms implies choosing an irradiation scheme and this choice is only possible if the following spectroscopic parameters are known: oscillator strength, isotopic shift, hyperfine structure, lifetime, autoionization spectrum. In order to measure these parameters two kinds of experimental set-up are used: laser induced fluorescence and laser induced photoionization techniques. Since the oscillator strengths determine the laser fluences needed for an effective atomic photoionization, this parameter must be accurately measured and two different methods are used: the saturation method, and branching ratio plus lifetime.

  12. Laboratory Infrared Spectroscopy of Gaseous Negatively Charged Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, J.; Berden, G.; Oomens, J.

    2014-01-01

    Based largely on infrared spectroscopic evidence, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules are now widely accepted to occur abundantly in the interstellar medium. Laboratory infrared spectra have been obtained for a large variety of neutral and cationic PAHs, but data for anionic PAHs are

  13. Ultrafast molecular photoionization by two-color orthogonally polarized ultraviolet laser pulses: Effects of relative pulse phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kai-Jun; Chelkowski, Szczepan; Bandrauk, André D.

    2017-09-01

    We present molecular photoionization by two-color 2ω1 =ω2 orthogonally polarized ultraviolet laser pulses. Simulations are performed on aligned H+ by numerically solving time-dependent Schrödinger equations. Two ionization processes with one ω2 photon interfering with two ω1 photon absorption are studied at different molecular alignments. Molecular frame photoelectron momentum and angular distributions exhibit asymmetries which are functions of the relative pulse phase. For resonant excitation processes by the ω1 pulse, symmetric distributions are obtained. An attosecond ionization model is adopted to describe the ultrafast ionization dynamics. The dependence of the ionization asymmetry on the molecular alignment allows to further monitor interference effects on orbital symmetry.

  14. Photoionization of Xe inside C60: Atom-fullerene hybridization, giant cross-section enhancement, and correlation confinement resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madjet, Mohamed E.; Renger, Thomas; Hopper, Dale E.; McCune, Matthew A.; Chakraborty, Himadri S.; Rost, Jan-M.; Manson, Steven T.

    2010-01-01

    A theoretical study of the subshell photoionization of the Xe atom endohedrally confined in C 60 is presented. Powerful hybridization of the Xe 5s state with the bottom edge of C 60 π band is found that induces strong structures in the 5s ionization, causing the cross section to differ significantly from earlier results that omit this hybridization. The hybridization also affects the angular distribution asymmetry parameter of Xe 5p ionization near the Cooper minimum. The 5p cross section, on the other hand, is greatly enhanced by borrowing considerable oscillator strength from the C 60 giant plasmon resonance via the atom-fullerene dynamical interchannel coupling. Beyond the C 60 plasmon energy range the atomic subshell cross sections display confinement-induced oscillations in which, over the large 4d shape resonance region, the dominant 4d oscillations induce their ''clones'' in all degenerate weaker channels known as correlation confinement resonances.

  15. Application of Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization H/D-exchange Mass Spectrometry for Speciation of Sulfur-containing Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acter, Thamina; Kim, Donghwi; Ahmed, Arif; Ha, Ji-Hyoung; Kim, Sunghwan

    2017-08-01

    Herein we report the observation of atmospheric pressure in-source hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) of thiol group for the first time. The HDX for thiol group was optimized for positive atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) mass spectrometry (MS). The optimized HDX-MS was applied for 31 model compounds (thiols, thiophenes, and sulfides) to demonstrate that exchanged peaks were observed only for thiols. The optimized method has been successfully applied to the isolated fractions of sulfur-rich oil samples. The exchange of one and two thiol hydrogens with deuterium was observed in the thiol fraction; no HDX was observed in the other fractions. Thus, the results presented in this study demonstrate that the HDX-MS method using APPI ionization source can be effective for speciation of sulfur compounds. This method has the potential to be used to access corrosion problems caused by thiol-containing compounds. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  16. Application of Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization H/D-exchange Mass Spectrometry for Speciation of Sulfur-containing Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acter, Thamina; Kim, Donghwi; Ahmed, Arif; Ha, Ji-Hyoung; Kim, Sunghwan

    2017-08-01

    Herein we report the observation of atmospheric pressure in-source hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) of thiol group for the first time. The HDX for thiol group was optimized for positive atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) mass spectrometry (MS). The optimized HDX-MS was applied for 31 model compounds (thiols, thiophenes, and sulfides) to demonstrate that exchanged peaks were observed only for thiols. The optimized method has been successfully applied to the isolated fractions of sulfur-rich oil samples. The exchange of one and two thiol hydrogens with deuterium was observed in the thiol fraction; no HDX was observed in the other fractions. Thus, the results presented in this study demonstrate that the HDX-MS method using APPI ionization source can be effective for speciation of sulfur compounds. This method has the potential to be used to access corrosion problems caused by thiol-containing compounds.

  17. Simulation of self-focusing of laser beam through medium with multi-step photo-ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaoka, Katsuaki; Wakaida, Ikuo; Arisawa, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    We built a computation code for the coupled nonlinear Maxwell-Density Matrix equations of multi-level atomic systems including transverse and time-dependent variations. Numerical solutions for two-level atomic systems shown as a function of laser detuning in Na and U are in good agreement with the experimental result. Applying this code to the laser beam propagation through medium with two-step photo-ionization, it is concluded that the group velocity in the spatial edge of a laser pulse is slower than that in the center, and the self-focusing and the temporal reshaping of the laser pulse used for the first-excitation are more distinguished than that used for ionization. (author)

  18. Threshold Photoelectron Photoion Coincidence (TPEPICO) Studies. The Road to ± 0.1 kJ/mol Thermochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, Tomas [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2013-10-14

    The threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence (TPEPICO) technique is utilized to investigate the dissociation dynamics and thermochemistry of energy selected medium to large organic molecular ions. The reactions include parallel and consecutive steps that are modeled with the statistical theory in order to extract dissociation onsets for multiple dissociation paths. These studies are carried out with the aid of molecular orbital calculations of both ions and the transition states connecting the ion structure to their products. The results of these investigations yield accurate heats of formation of ions, free radicals, and stable molecules. In addition, they provide information about the potential energy surface that governs the dissociation process. Isomerization reactions prior to dissociation are readily inferred from the TPEPICO data.

  19. High-energy behavior of the double photoionization of helium from 2 to 12 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, J.C.; Sellin, I.A.; Johnson, B.M.; Lindle, D.W.; Miller, R.D.; Berrah, N.; Azuma, Y.; Berry, H.G.; Lee, D.

    1993-01-01

    We report the ratio of double-to-single photoionization of He at several photon energies from 2 to 12 keV. By time-of-flight methods, we find a ratio consistent with an asymptote at 1.5%±0.2%, essentially reached by hν∼4 keV. Fair agreement is obtained with older shake calculations of Byron and Joachain [Phys. Rev. 164, 1 (1967)], of Aberg [Phys. Rev. A 2, 1726 (1970)], and with recent many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) of Ishihara, Hino, and McGuire [Phys. Rev. A 44, 6980 (1991)]. The result lies below earlier MPBT calculations by Amusia et al. [J. Phys. B 8, 1248 (1975)] (2.3%), and well above semiempirical predictions of Samson [Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2861 (1990)], who expects no asymptote and predicts σ(He 2+ )/σ(He + )=0.3% at 12 keV

  20. Atomic and molecular photoelectron and Auger-electron-spectroscopy studies using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southworth, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    Electron spectroscopy, combined with synchrotron radiation, was used to measure the angular distributions of photoelectrons and Auger electrons from atoms and molecules as functions of photon energy. The branching ratios and partial cross sections were also measured in certain cases. By comparison with theoretical calculations, the experimental results are interpreted in terms of the characteristic electronic structure and ionization dynamics of the atomic or molecular sample. The time structure of the synchrotron radiation source was used to record time-of-flight (TOF) spectra of the ejected electrons. The double-angle-TOF method for the measurement of photoelectron angular distributions is discussed. This technique offers the advantages of increased electron collection efficiency and the elimination of certain systematic errors. An electron spectroscopy study of inner-shell photoexcitation and ionization of Xe, photoelectron angular distributions from H 2 and D 2 , and photoionization cross sections and photoelectron asymmetries of the valence orbitals of NO are reported

  1. Theoretical photoionization spectra in the UV photon energy range for a Mg-like Al{sup +} ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae-Soung [e-Business Department, Kyonggi Institute of Technology, Siheung, Jungwang-Dong 2121-3, Kyonggi-Do 429-792 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Soon [Department of Physics, Myongji University, San 38-2 Namdong, Cheoin-gu, Yongin, Kyonggi-Do 449-728 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: dskim@kinst.ac.kr

    2008-08-28

    In the present work, we report the photoionization cross sections of the Al{sup +} ion calculated for the photon energy range 20-26 eV and 30-50 eV. We have expanded our previous calculation (2007 J. Phys. Soc. Japan 76 014302) with an optimized admixture of the initial ground state 3s{sup 21}S and exited states 3s3p{sup 1,3}P, 3s3d{sup 1,3}D and 3s4s{sup 1,3}S, and obtained significantly improved predictions for the main background and autoionizing resonance structures of the reported experimental spectra. The absolute measurements of the photoionization cross sections of the Al{sup +} ion in these energy ranges have been performed by West et al (2001 Phys. Rev. A 63 052719), and they reported that the prominent peaks around 21 eV were attributed to the effects of the significant influence of the small fraction of the fourth-order radiation with energies around 84 eV from the synchrotron source. In our previous work, the main shape for these cross sections was calculated assuming an admixture of initial 3s{sup 21}S and 3s3p{sup 3}P states, only with a rough overall estimate for the experimental spectra in the photon energy range 20-26 eV, and without these peaks around 21 eV. The report of the experimental assignment attributes these peaks to the excitation of a 2p electron from the core. However, our present results with the new admixture reveal similar peaks without considering the possibility of the core excitation.

  2. Ionization of EPA contaminants in direct and dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization and atmospheric pressure laser ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppila, Tiina J; Kersten, Hendrik; Benter, Thorsten

    2015-06-01

    Seventy-seven EPA priority environmental pollutants were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) equipped with an optimized atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) and an atmospheric pressure laser ionization (APLI) interface with and without dopants. The analyzed compounds included e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro compounds, halogenated compounds, aromatic compounds with phenolic, acidic, alcohol, and amino groups, phthalate and adipatic esters, and aliphatic ethers. Toluene, anisole, chlorobenzene, and acetone were tested as dopants. The widest range of analytes was ionized using direct APPI (66/77 compounds). The introduction of dopants decreased the amount of compounds ionized in APPI (e.g., 54/77 with toluene), but in many cases the ionization efficiency increased. While in direct APPI the formation of molecular ions via photoionization was the main ionization reaction, dopant-assisted (DA) APPI promoted ionization reactions, such as charge exchange and proton transfer. Direct APLI ionized a much smaller amount of compounds than APPI (41/77 compounds), showing selectivity towards compounds with low ionization energies (IEs) and long-lived resonantly excited intermediate states. DA-APLI, however, was able to ionize a higher amount of compounds (e.g. 51/77 with toluene), as the ionization took place entirely through dopant-assisted ion/molecule reactions similar to those in DA-APPI. Best ionization efficiency in APPI and APLI (both direct and DA) was obtained for PAHs and aromatics with O- and N-functionalities, whereas nitro compounds and aliphatic ethers were the most difficult to ionize. Halogenated aromatics and esters were (mainly) ionized in APPI, but not in APLI.

  3. Meson spectroscopy with COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Nerling, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The COMPASS fixed-target experiment at CERN SPS is dedicated to the study of hadron structure and dynamics. In the physics programme using hadron beams, the focus is on the detection of new states, in particular the search for $J^{PC}$ exotic states and glueballs. After a short pilot run in 2004 (190 GeV/c negative pion beam, lead target), we started our hadron spectroscopy programme in 2008 by collecting an unprecedented statistics with a negative hadron beam (190 GeV/c) on a liquid hydrogen target. A similar amount of data with positive hadron beam (190 GeV/c) has been taken in 2009, as well as some additional data with negative beam on nuclear targets. The spectrometer features a large angular acceptance and high momentum resolution and also good coverage by electromagnetic calorimetry, crucial for the detection of final states involving $\\pi^0$ or $\\eta$. A first important result is the observation of a significant $J^{PC}$ spin exotic signal consistent with the disputed $\\pi_1(1600)$ in the pilot run dat...

  4. SIMP spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochberg, Yonit; Kuflik, Eric; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    We study the interactions between strongly interacting massive particle dark matter and the Standard Model via a massive vector boson that is kinetically mixed with the hypercharge gauge boson. The relic abundance is set by 3→2 self-interactions of the dark matter, while the interactions with the vector mediator enable kinetic equilibrium between the dark and visible sectors. We show that a wide range of parameters is phenomenologically viable and can be probed in various ways. Astrophysical and cosmological constraints are evaded due to the p-wave nature of dark matter annihilation into visible particles, while direct detection methods using electron recoils can be sensitive to parts of the parameter space. In addition, we propose performing spectroscopy of the strongly coupled dark sector at e + e − colliders, where the energy of a mono-photon can track the resonance structure of the dark sector. Alternatively, some resonances may decay back into Standard Model leptons or jets, realizing ‘hidden valley’ phenomenology at the LHC and ILC in a concrete fashion.

  5. SIMP spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochberg, Yonit [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California,Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California,Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kuflik, Eric [Department of Physics, LEPP, Cornell University,Ithaca NY 14853 (United States); Murayama, Hitoshi [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California,Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California,Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI),University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo,Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Center for Japanese Studies, University of California,Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-05-16

    We study the interactions between strongly interacting massive particle dark matter and the Standard Model via a massive vector boson that is kinetically mixed with the hypercharge gauge boson. The relic abundance is set by 3→2 self-interactions of the dark matter, while the interactions with the vector mediator enable kinetic equilibrium between the dark and visible sectors. We show that a wide range of parameters is phenomenologically viable and can be probed in various ways. Astrophysical and cosmological constraints are evaded due to the p-wave nature of dark matter annihilation into visible particles, while direct detection methods using electron recoils can be sensitive to parts of the parameter space. In addition, we propose performing spectroscopy of the strongly coupled dark sector at e{sup +}e{sup −} colliders, where the energy of a mono-photon can track the resonance structure of the dark sector. Alternatively, some resonances may decay back into Standard Model leptons or jets, realizing ‘hidden valley’ phenomenology at the LHC and ILC in a concrete fashion.

  6. Amateur spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, M. V.

    1998-06-01

    (The 1997 Presidential Address to the British Astronomical Association.) Auguste Comte is remembered for an unfortunate remark. In 1825 he said the chemical composition of stars would never be revealed. Within a decade or so the heart of the atom was being explored in remote stars through the science of spectroscopy. In simplistic terms one can regard the atom as a miniature solar system, but with the novel option that electrons (representing planets) having the ability to 'jump' from one orbit to another. In 'falling' to a lower orbit a photon of light of precise wavelength is released to travel outwards. When the electron 'jumps' to a higher orbit a photon of light is absorbed. This is taking place on a vast scale which we observe as lines in the spectrum - their position and prominence relates to the particular atomic element, temperature and pressure within the stellar atmosphere. It is beyond the scope of this Address to discuss the various processes that affect spectra, or to provide a mathematical explanation which can be found elsewhere. In any case the lack of a deep understanding does not preclude enjoyable or useful observations. Methods and results from amateurs conducting such observations are discussed in this paper.

  7. Planetary spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, U.

    1988-01-01

    The main goal of the research is charge coupled device (CCD) spectroscopic and imaging studies of the solar system in support of spacecraft investigations. Studies include the physical behavior of comets, the atmosphere of the gaseous planets, and the solid surfaces of satellites and asteroids. The major observing program consisted of approximately 50 nights of photometry of Comet Halley in order to resolve the controversy over this comet's rotation period. This data is presently being analyzed. Additional observing projects included the spectroscopic occultation of Charon by Pluto, reflection spectroscopy of Mercury, and a spectrum of the satellite Oberon. Mercury data does not corroborate the Fe(++) absorption feature reported by McCord and Clark at 8800 A but instead potentially shows a weaker feature at longer wavelengths. This position is in much closer accord with expectations for Mercury since a band center near 8800 A implies too little Fe(++) on Mercury, especially if band shifts with temperature are considered. The Pluto project proved that the deep methane absorptions visible in their combined specta are due soley to Pluto with Charon showing a flat and featureless spectrum. It appears that if Charon ever contained a substantial methane component, the satellite's low surface gravity could not hold it and the methane evaporated and escaped

  8. Negating the Verum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsnes, Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    an (aboutness-)topic. The negation of a verum predicate explains why preposed negation—like other constructions with verum-focus—fails to license strong negative polarity items and fails to rule out positive ones. The lack of a topic explains why preposed negation is preferred with non-referential subjects...

  9. Sentential Negation in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

  10. Negative ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Junzo; Takagi, Toshinori

    1983-01-01

    Negative ion sources have been originally developed at the request of tandem electrostatic accelerators, and hundreds of nA to several μA negative ion current has been obtained so far for various elements. Recently, the development of large current hydrogen negative ion sources has been demanded from the standpoint of the heating by neutral particle beam injection in nuclear fusion reactors. On the other hand, the physical properties of negative ions are interesting in the thin film formation using ions. Anyway, it is the present status that the mechanism of negative ion action has not been so fully investigated as positive ions because the history of negative ion sources is short. In this report, the many mechanisms about the generation of negative ions proposed so far are described about negative ion generating mechanism, negative ion source plasma, and negative ion generation on metal surfaces. As a result, negative ion sources are roughly divided into two schemes, plasma extraction and secondary ion extraction, and the former is further classified into the PIG ion source and its variation and Duoplasmatron and its variation; while the latter into reflecting and sputtering types. In the second half of the report, the practical negative ion sources of each scheme are described. If the mechanism of negative ion generation will be investigated more in detail and the development will be continued under the unified know-how as negative ion sources in future, the development of negative ion sources with which large current can be obtained for any element is expected. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  11. Polemic and Descriptive Negations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horslund, Camilla Søballe

    2011-01-01

    as such may be more or less central to the meaning of the utterance. The present paper investigates the role of morphosyntactic and prosodic prominence as well as register and social setting on the interpretation of negations. It seems plausible to expect that if the negation as such is central to the meaning...... of the utterance (as in polemic negations), the negation will be articulated prominently in order to emphasise this importance. Likewise, if the negation is not central to the meaning of the utterance, it should not be articulated prominently. Moreover, it is plausible to expect descriptive negations to be more...... common in certain social context or genres, while polemic negations are more likely to come up in other genres and social settings. Previous studies have shown a relation between articulatory prominence and register, which may further inform the analysis. Hence, the paper investigates how articulatory...

  12. Generation of x-ray pulses with rapid rise times to pump inner-shell photo-ionized x-ray lasing in carbon at 45 angstrom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, S.J.; Eder, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    An investigation of the rapid rise time of x-ray emission from targets heated by an ultrashort-pulse high-intensity optical laser was conducted for use as a pump for inner-shell photo-ionized x-ray lasing. Results of x-ray rise times from instantaneously heated Au rod targets show little benefit for using optical pulse widths less than 30 fs. Gain calculations for inner-shell photo-ionized lasing show that large gains can be obtained for pulse widths between 30 and 100 fs. Calculated spectra, using the hydrodynamic/atomic kinetics code LASNEX, from a 1 J, 65 fs FWHM pulse optical laser incident on a structured Au target gave a gain of 1 1.5 cm -1 in C at 45 angstrom

  13. Real-time analysis of soot emissions from bituminous coal pyrolysis and combustion with a vacuum ultraviolet photoionization aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shaokai; Zhang, Yang; Meng, Junwang; Shu, Jinian

    2009-01-15

    This paper reports on-line analyses of the soot emissions from the Inner Mongolia bituminous coal combustion and pyrolysis processes with a vacuum ultraviolet photoionization aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (VUV-ATOFMS). The soot particles are generated by heating a small amount of screened coal powder in synthetic air and nitrogen atmosphere in a tubular oven. The vacuum ultraviolet photoionization time-of-flight (VUV-TOF) mass spectra of the soot particles emitted from combustion and pyrolysis at different oven temperatures and different stages are obtained. The VUV-TOF mass spectra are assigned with the references of the results of the off-line GC/MS analysis.

  14. Direct Analysis of Organic Compounds in Liquid Using a Miniature Photoionization Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer with Pulsed Carrier-Gas Capillary Inlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinqiong; Yu, Quan; Zhang, Qian; Ni, Kai; Qian, Xiang; Tang, Fei; Wang, Xiaohao

    2017-08-01

    A miniature ion trap mass spectrometer with capillary direct sampling and vacuum ultraviolet photoionization source was developed to conduct trace analysis of organic compounds in liquids. Self-aspiration sampling is available where the samples are drawn into the vacuum chamber through a capillary with an extremely low flow rate (less than 1 μL/min), which minimizes sample consumption in each analysis to tens of micrograms. A pulsed gas-assisted inlet was designed and optimized to promote sample transmission in the tube and facilitate the cooling of ions, thereby improving instrument sensitivity. A limit of detection of 2 ppb could be achieved for 2,4-dimethylaniline in a methanol solution. The sampling system described in the present study is specifically suitable for a miniature photoionization ion trap mass spectrometer that can perform rapid and online analysis for liquid samples. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  15. A new technique in the theory of angular distributions in atomic processes: the angular distribution of photoelectrons in single and double photoionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manakov, N.L.; Meremianin, A.V. [Voronezhskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Voronezh (Russian Federation); Marmo, S.I. [Voronezhskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Voronezh (Russian Federation)]|[Palermo Univ. (Italy)

    1996-07-14

    Special reduction formulae for bipolar harmonics with higher ranks of internal spherical functions are derived, which will be useful in problems involving multiple expansions in spherical functions. Together with irreducible tensor operator techniques these results provide a new and effective approach, which enables one to extract the geometrical and dynamical factors from the cross sections of atomic processes with polarized particles with an accurate account of all the polarization effects. The angular distribution of polarized electrons and the circular dichroism in photoionization of polarized atoms with an arbitrary angular momentum J{sub O} are presented in an invariant vector form. A specific circular dichroism, which is caused by the correlation of electron and atom orientations, is discussed. The angular distribution of escaping electrons in double photoionization of unpolarized atom is presented in a simple form. A convenient parametrization is proposed for describing the dependence of the photoprocess cross sections on the polarization state of the photon beam. (Author).

  16. Photoionized plasmas induced in neon with extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray pulses produced using low and high energy laser systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartnik, A.; Wachulak, P.; Fok, T.; Wergrzynski, L.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Pisarczyk, T.; Chodukowski, T.; Kalinowska, Z.; Dudžák, Roman; Dostál, Jan; Krouský, Eduard; Skála, Jiří; Ullschmied, Jiří; Hřebíček, Jan; Medřík, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 4 (2015), č. článku 043302. ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010014 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : photoionized plasmas * laser plasma * EUV Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.207, year: 2015 http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/pop/22/4/10.1063/1.4919024

  17. Negative Ion Density Fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igor Kaganovich

    2000-01-01

    Negative ions tend to stratify in electronegative plasmas with hot electrons (electron temperature Te much larger than ion temperature Ti, Te > Ti ). The boundary separating a plasma containing negative ions, and a plasma, without negative ions, is usually thin, so that the negative ion density falls rapidly to zero-forming a negative ion density front. We review theoretical, experimental and numerical results giving the spatio-temporal evolution of negative ion density fronts during plasma ignition, the steady state, and extinction (afterglow). During plasma ignition, negative ion fronts are the result of the break of smooth plasma density profiles during nonlinear convection. In a steady-state plasma, the fronts are boundary layers with steepening of ion density profiles due to nonlinear convection also. But during plasma extinction, the ion fronts are of a completely different nature. Negative ions diffuse freely in the plasma core (no convection), whereas the negative ion front propagates towards the chamber walls with a nearly constant velocity. The concept of fronts turns out to be very effective in analysis of plasma density profile evolution in strongly non-isothermal plasmas

  18. Imaging with Mass Spectrometry: A SIMS and VUV-Photoionization Study of Ion-Sputtered Atoms and Clusters from GaAs and Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Lynelle; Zhou, Jia; Wilson, Kevin R.; Leone, Stephen R.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2008-12-05

    A new mass spectrometry surface imaging method is presented in which ion-sputtered neutrals are postionized by wavelength-tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light from a synchrotron source. Mass spectra and signal counts of the photoionized neutrals from GaAs (100) and Au are compared to those of the secondary ions. While clusters larger than dimers are more efficiently detected as secondary ions, certain species, such as As2, Au and Au2, are more efficiently detected through the neutral channel. Continuously tuning the photon wavelength allows photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves to be obtained for sputtered Asm (m=1,2) and Aun (n=1-4). From the observed ionization thresholds, sputtered neutral As and Au show no clear evidence of electronic excitation, while neutral clusters have photoionization onsets shifted to lower energies by ~;;0.3 eV. These shifts are attributed to unresolved vibrational and rotational excitations. High-spatial resolution chemical imaging with synchrotron VUV postionization is demonstrated at two different photon energies using a copper TEM grid embedded in indium. The resulting images are used to illustrate the use of tunable VUV light for verifying mass peak assignments by exploiting the unique wavelength-dependent PIE of each sputtered neutral species. This capability is valuable for identifying compounds when imaging chemically complex systems with mass spectrometry-based techniques.

  19. Ultrapressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay using atmospheric pressure photoionization (UPLC-APPI-MS/MS) for quantification of 4-methoxydiphenylmethane in pharmacokinetic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhan, Nashid; Fitzpatrick, Sean; Shim, Yun M; Paige, Mikell; Chow, Diana Shu-Lian

    2016-09-05

    4-Methoxydiphenylmethane (4-MDM), a selective augmenter of Leukotriene A4 Hydrolase (LTA4H), is a new anti-inflammatory compound for potential treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Currently, there is no liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of 4-MDM. A major barrier for developing the LC-MS/MS method is the inability of electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) to ionize 4-MDM due to its hydrophobicity and lack of any functional group for ionization. With the advent of atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) technique, many hydrophobic compounds have been demonstrated to ionize by charge transfer reactions. In this study, a highly sensitive ultrapressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry assay using atmospheric pressure photoionization (UPLC-APPI-MS/MS) for the quantifications of 4-MDM in rat plasma has been developed and validated. 4-MDM was extracted from the plasma by solid phase extraction (SPE) and separated chromatographically using a reverse phase C8 column. The photoionization (PI) was achieved by introducing anisole as a dopant to promote the reaction of charge transfer. The assay with a linear range of 5 (LLOQ)-400ngmL(-1) met the regulatory requirements for accuracy, precision and stability. The validated assay was employed to quantify the plasma concentrations of 4-MDM after an oral dosing in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Excitation and photo-ionization of ultra-cold potassium atoms in the AC-driven magneto optical trap (AC-MOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agomuo, John; Murray, Andrew; Harvey, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    The operation of a new cold atom trap (the AC-MOT) and its application in photoionization experiments is described. Ionization of cold K atoms in the AC-MOT is discussed, the ionization proceeding in a stepwise fashion using a combination of infra-red radiation with that from a blue diode laser. A significant limitation of magneto optical trapping (MOT) techniques has been the requirement to eliminate the magnetic fields prior to the interaction occurring. To address this, the AC-MOT was invented in Manchester. This is a pulsed trap, so that the magnetic fields are completely eliminated prior to the electron interaction. Low energy electrons can then be extracted from laser photoionization. In this work, the potassium is cooled to ~0.25mK. Photoionization proceeds by a stepwise route, atoms excited by the trapping laser at ~766nm being ionized by radiation at ~448nm. Both fluorescence from the atoms and the ion yield are used to determine details of the interaction. These techniques are being studied since it then is possible to create cold electron bunches of high coherence. A detailed description of the AC-MOT, its operation and application will be presented. A new cold electron source being built in Manchester will also be discussed. I wish to acknowledge the financial support from Tertiary Education Trust Fund Nigeria and Nigerian Defence Academy Kaduna.

  1. Photoionization Modeling of Oxygen K Absorption in the Interstellar Medium:. [The Chandra Grating Spectra of XTE J1817-330

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatuzz, E.; Garcia, J.; Mendoza, C.; Kallman, T. R.; Witthoeft, M.; Lohfink, A.; Bautista, M. A.; Palmeri, P.; Quinet, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present detailed analyses of oxygen K absorption in the interstellar medium (ISM) using four high-resolution Chandra spectra toward the X-ray low-mass binary XTE J1817-330. The 11-25 Angstrom broadband is described with a simple absorption model that takes into account the pile-up effect and results in an estimate of the hydrogen column density. The oxygen K-edge region (21-25 Angstroms) is fitted with the physical warmabs model, which is based on a photoionization model grid generated with the xstar code with the most up-to-date atomic database. This approach allows a benchmark of the atomic data which involves wavelength shifts of both the K lines and photoionization cross sections in order to fit the observed spectra accurately. As a result we obtain a column density of N(sub H) = 1.38 +/- 0.01 × 10(exp 21) cm(exp -2); an ionization parameter of log xi = -2.70 +/- 0.023; an oxygen abundance of A(sub O) = 0.689 (+0.015/-0.010); and ionization fractions of O(sub I)/O = 0.911, O(sub II)/O = 0.077, and O(sub III)/O = 0.012 that are in good agreement with results from previous studies. Since the oxygen abundance in warmabs is given relative to the solar standard of Grevesse & Sauval, a rescaling with the revision by Asplund et al. yields A(sub O) = 0.952(+0.020/-0.013), a value close to solar that reinforces the new standard.We identify several atomic absorption lines-K(alpha), K(beta), and K(gamma) in O(sub I) and O(sub II) and K(alpha) in O(sub III), O(sub VI), and O(sub VII)-the last two probably residing in the neighborhood of the source rather than in the ISM. This is the first firm detection of oxygen K resonances with principal quantum numbers n greater than 2 associated with ISM cold absorption.

  2. Photoionization Modeling of Oxygen K Absorption in the Interstellar Medium: The Chandra Grating Spectra of XTE J1817-330

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatuzz, E.; Garcia, J.; Menodza, C.; Kallman, T. R.; Witthoeft, M.; Lohfink, A.; Bautista, M. A.; Palmeri, P.; Quinet, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present detailed analyses of oxygen K absorption in the interstellar medium (ISM) using four high-resolution Chandra spectra towards the X-ray low-mass binary XTE J1817-330. The 11-25 A broadband is described with a simple absorption model that takes into account the pileup effect and results in an estimate of the hydrogen column density. The oxygen K-edge region (21-25 A) is fitted with the physical warmabs model, which is based on a photoionization model grid generated with the XSTAR code with the most up-to-date atomic database. This approach allows a benchmark of the atomic data which involves wavelength shifts of both the K lines and photoionization cross sections in order to fit the observed spectra accurately. As a result we obtain: a column density of N(sub H) = 1.38 +/- 0.01 x 10(exp 21) cm(exp -2); ionization parameter of log xi = .2.70 +/- 0.023; oxygen abundance of A(sub O) = 0.689(exp +0.015./-0.010); and ionization fractions of O I/O = 0.911, O II/O = 0.077, and O III/O = 0.012 that are in good agreement with previous studies. Since the oxygen abundance in warmabs is given relative to the solar standard of Grevesse and Sauval (1998), a rescaling with the revision by Asplund et al. (2009) yields A(sub O) = 0.952(exp +0.020/-0.013, a value close to solar that reinforces the new standard. We identify several atomic absorption lines.K-alpha , K-beta, and K-gamma in O I and O II; and K-alpha in O III, O VI, and O VII--last two probably residing in the neighborhood of the source rather than in the ISM. This is the first firm detection of oxygen K resonances with principal quantum numbers n greater than 2 associated to ISM cold absorption.

  3. PHOTOIONIZATION MODELING OF OXYGEN K ABSORPTION IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM: THE CHANDRA GRATING SPECTRA OF XTE J1817-330

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatuzz, E.; Mendoza, C.; García, J.; Lohfink, A.; Kallman, T. R.; Witthoeft, M.; Bautista, M. A.; Palmeri, P.; Quinet, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present detailed analyses of oxygen K absorption in the interstellar medium (ISM) using four high-resolution Chandra spectra toward the X-ray low-mass binary XTE J1817-330. The 11-25 Å broadband is described with a simple absorption model that takes into account the pile-up effect and results in an estimate of the hydrogen column density. The oxygen K-edge region (21-25 Å) is fitted with the physical warmabs model, which is based on a photoionization model grid generated with the XSTAR code with the most up-to-date atomic database. This approach allows a benchmark of the atomic data which involves wavelength shifts of both the K lines and photoionization cross sections in order to fit the observed spectra accurately. As a result we obtain a column density of N H = 1.38 ± 0.01 × 10 21 cm –2 ; an ionization parameter of log ξ = –2.70 ± 0.023; an oxygen abundance of A O = 0.689 +0.015 -0.010 ; and ionization fractions of O I/O = 0.911, O II/O = 0.077, and O III/O = 0.012 that are in good agreement with results from previous studies. Since the oxygen abundance in warmabs is given relative to the solar standard of Grevesse and Sauval, a rescaling with the revision by Asplund et al. yields A O =0.952 +0.020 -0.013 , a value close to solar that reinforces the new standard. We identify several atomic absorption lines—Kα, Kβ, and Kγ in O I and O II and Kα in O III, O VI, and O VII—the last two probably residing in the neighborhood of the source rather than in the ISM. This is the first firm detection of oxygen K resonances with principal quantum numbers n > 2 associated with ISM cold absorption.

  4. LARGE-SCALE SHOCK-IONIZED AND PHOTOIONIZED GAS IN M83: THE IMPACT OF STAR FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sungryong; Calzetti, Daniela; Dopita, Michael A.; Blair, William P.; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Bond, Howard E.; Balick, Bruce; Carollo, Marcella; Disney, Michael J.; Frogel, Jay A.; Hall, Donald; Holtzman, Jon A.; Kimble, Randy A.; McCarthy, Patrick J.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Paresce, Francesco; Saha, Abhijit; Silk, Joseph I.; Trauger, John T.; Walker, Alistair R.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the ionization structure of the nebular gas in M83 using the line diagnostic diagram, [O III](5007 A)/Hβ versus [S II](6716 A+6731 A)/Hα, with the newly available narrowband images from the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We produce the diagnostic diagram on a pixel-by-pixel (0.''2 x 0.''2) basis and compare it with several photo- and shock-ionization models. We select four regions from the center to the outer spiral arm and compare them in the diagnostic diagram. For the photoionized gas, we observe a gradual increase of the log ([O III]/Hβ) ratios from the center to the spiral arm, consistent with the metallicity gradient, as the H II regions go from super-solar abundance to roughly solar abundance from the center out. Using the diagnostic diagram, we separate the photoionized from the shock-ionized component of the gas. We find that the shock-ionized Hα emission ranges from ∼2% to about 15%-33% of the total, depending on the separation criteria used. An interesting feature in the diagnostic diagram is a horizontal distribution around log ([O III]/Hβ) ∼ 0. This feature is well fit by a shock-ionization model with 2.0 Z sun metallicity and shock velocities in the range of 250-350 km s -1 . A low-velocity shock component, -1 , is also detected and is spatially located at the boundary between the outer ring and the spiral arm. The low-velocity shock component can be due to (1) supernova remnants located nearby, (2) dynamical interaction between the outer ring and the spiral arm, and (3) abnormal line ratios from extreme local dust extinction. The current data do not enable us to distinguish among those three possible interpretations. Our main conclusion is that, even at the HST resolution, the shocked gas represents a small fraction of the total ionized gas emission at less than 33% of the total. However, it accounts for virtually all of the mechanical energy produced by the central starburst in M83.

  5. VUV spectroscopy and photochemistry of five interstellar and putative prebiotic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwell, M.; Gaie-Levrel, F.; Bénilan, Y.; Gazeau, M.-C.; Fray, N.; Saul, G.; Champion, N.; Leach, S.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2012-02-01

    For many years, our group has been investigating the VUV spectroscopy and photochemistry of molecules of astrophysical (Jochims et al. 2006a,b; Leach et al. 2008; Schwell et al. 2012) and prebiotic interest (Schwell et al. 2006). Polyynes and cyano-polyynes that are abundant in the interstellar medium (ISM) and in planetary atmospheres, have been investigated too (e.g. Fray et al. 2010). An aerosol source for reactive and thermo-labile compounds has been developed (Gaie-Levrel et al. 2011) to perform gas-phase measurements. These are necessary to measure intrinsic molecular properties and to compare to quantum chemical calculations. Besides measuring absolute absorption and photoionization cross sections, dissociative channels and their involved excited states are identified for a number of molecules of interstellar interest. Branching ratios of the respective elementary photoreactions are determined in order to understand and model the photochemistry occurring in the ISM. Some very recent results on the dissociative photoionization of methylformate (MF), glycolaldehyde (GA), dimethylether (DIM), aminoacetonitrile (AAC) and cyanoacetylene (CA), are presented here.

  6. Development of an electron electron ion coincidence analyzer for Auger photoelectron coincidence spectroscopy (APECS) and electron ion coincidence (EICO) spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakiuchi, Takuhiro; Kobayashi, Eiichi; Okada, Naoyuki; Oyamada, Ken; Okusawa, Makoto; Okudaira, Koji K.; Mase, Kazuhiko

    2007-01-01

    We have developed an electron electron ion coincidence (EEICO) analyzer for Auger photoelectron coincidence spectroscopy (APECS) and electron ion coincidence (EICO) spectroscopy. It consists of a coaxially symmetric mirror electron energy analyzer (coASMA), a miniature cylindrical mirror electron energy analyzer (CMA), a miniature time-of-flight ion mass spectrometer (TOF-MS), a xyz stage, a tilt-adjustment mechanism, and a conflat flange with an outer diameter of 203 mm. A sample surface is irradiated by synchrotron radiation, and emitted electrons are energy-analyzed and detected by the coASMA and the CMA, while desorbed ions are detected by the TOF-MS. The performance of the new EEICO analyzer was tested by measuring Si-LVV-Si-2p APECS data of clean Si(1 1 1)7 x 7 and Si(1 1 1)7 x 7 covered by dissociated H 2 O, and by measuring the Auger-electron photoion coincidence (AEPICO) spectra of condensed H 2 O at the 4a 1 <- O 1s resonance

  7. Negative thermal expansion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.S.O.

    1997-01-01

    The recent discovery of negative thermal expansion over an unprecedented temperature range in ZrW 2 O 8 (which contracts continuously on warming from below 2 K to above 1000 K) has stimulated considerable interest in this unusual phenomenon. Negative and low thermal expansion materials have a number of important potential uses in ceramic, optical and electronic applications. We have now found negative thermal expansion in a large new family of materials with the general formula A 2 (MO 4 ) 3 . Chemical substitution dramatically influences the thermal expansion properties of these materials allowing the production of ceramics with negative, positive or zero coefficients of thermal expansion, with the potential to control other important materials properties such as refractive index and dielectric constant. The mechanism of negative thermal expansion and the phase transitions exhibited by this important new class of low-expansion materials will be discussed. (orig.)

  8. PREFACE: International Symposium on (e,2e), Double Photoionization and Related Topics & 15th International Symposium on Polarization and Correlation in Electronic and Atomic Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicholas L. S.; deHarak, Bruno A.

    2010-01-01

    From 30 July to 1 August 2009, over a hundred scientists from 18 countries attended the International Symposium on (e,2e), Double Photoionization and Related Topics and the 15th International Symposium on Polarization and Correlation in Electronic and Atomic Collisions which were held at the W T Young Library of the University of Kentucky, USA. Both conferences were satellite meetings of the XXVI International Conference on Photonic, Electronic and Atomic Collisions (ICPEAC) held in Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA, 21-28 July 2009. These symposia covered a broad range of experimental and theoretical topics involving excitation, ionization (single and multiple), and molecular fragmentation, of a wide range of targets by photons and charged particles (polarized and unpolarized). Atomic targets ranged from hydrogen to the heavy elements and ions, while molecular targets ranged from H2 to large molecules of biological interest. On the experimental front, cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy (COLTRIMS), also known as the Reaction Microscope because of the complete information it gives about a wide variety of reactions, is becoming commonplace and has greatly expanded the ability of researchers to perform previously inaccessible coincidence experiments. Meanwhile, more conventional spectrometers are also advancing and have been used for increasingly sophisticated and exacting measurements. On the theoretical front great progress has been made in the description of target states, and in the scattering calculations used to describe both simple and complex reactions. The international nature of collaborations between theorists and experimentalists is exemplified by, for example, the paper by Ren et al which has a total of 13 authors of whom the experimental group of six is from Heidelberg, Germany, one theoretical group is from Australia, with the remainder of the theoreticians coming from several different institutions in the United States. A total of 52 invited talks and

  9. B-spline algebraic diagrammatic construction: Application to photoionization cross-sections and high-order harmonic generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruberti, M.; Averbukh, V. [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Decleva, P. [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita’ di Trieste, Via Giorgieri 1, I-34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2014-10-28

    We present the first implementation of the ab initio many-body Green's function method, algebraic diagrammatic construction (ADC), in the B-spline single-electron basis. B-spline versions of the first order [ADC(1)] and second order [ADC(2)] schemes for the polarization propagator are developed and applied to the ab initio calculation of static (photoionization cross-sections) and dynamic (high-order harmonic generation spectra) quantities. We show that the cross-section features that pose a challenge for the Gaussian basis calculations, such as Cooper minima and high-energy tails, are found to be reproduced by the B-spline ADC in a very good agreement with the experiment. We also present the first dynamic B-spline ADC results, showing that the effect of the Cooper minimum on the high-order harmonic generation spectrum of Ar is correctly predicted by the time-dependent ADC calculation in the B-spline basis. The present development paves the way for the application of the B-spline ADC to both energy- and time-resolved theoretical studies of many-electron phenomena in atoms, molecules, and clusters.

  10. Photoionization of the 4d10 subshell of cadmium: Photoelectron angular distributions and polarization of fluorescence radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodosiou, Constantine E.; Starace, Anthony F.; Tambe, B. R.; Manson, Steven T.

    1981-07-01

    Relativistic Dirac-Fock calculations are presented for the photoelectron angular distribution asymmetry parameter β corresponding to 4d-subshell photoionization in Cd and for the linear polarization PL of the subsequent fluorescence radiation, for photon energies less than 185 eV. Near threshold, our results for β lie lower than previous relativistic Dirac-Slater and nonrelativistic many-body-perturbation-theory (MBPT) calculations. The agreement with very recent measurements by Heinzmann and Schönhense is very good. Our calculations show that PL(2D52-->2P32)=-0.059 and -0.058 at incident photon energies hν=40.2 and 45.6 eV, respectively. These results lie above the nonrelativistic independent-electron theory absolute maximum of -0.061 for PL, but the agreement with recent measurements lying above this maximum is still not very good. Except for this peaking of PL(2D52-->2P32) above the nonrelativistic theory maximum for 40.2Kelly. We also find that PL(2D32-->2P32)=+ 0.134 at hν=21.2 eV, in excellent agreement with the experimental value of + 0.12+/-0.04 of Caldwell and Zare.

  11. Polarization transfer in x-ray transitions due to photoionization in highly charged copper-like ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kun; Chen, Zhan-Bin; Xie, Lu-You; Dong, Chen-Zhong

    2018-02-01

    Using the density matrix theory and the multi-configuration Dirac-Fock method, the 3{d}3/2 subshell photoionization of highly charged ions is studied, together with their subsequent radiative decay. The effects of polarization transfer on the linear polarization and angular distribution of the 3{d}94{s}2{}2{D}3/2\\to 3{d}104p{}2{P}1/2 characteristic line photoemission for selected Cu-like Zn+, Ba27+, {{{W}}}45+, and {{{U}}}63+ ions are investigated. Our results show that the polarization transfer, arising from the originally polarized incident light, may lead to a considerable change in the alignment parameters and the polarization properties of the radiation, the character of which is highly sensitive to the initial photon polarization, yet virtually independent of the photon energy. These characteristics are very similar to those of the electron bremsstrahlung process reported by Märtin et al (2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 264801). The present results are compared with available experimental results and show a good quantitative agreement.

  12. Study of low temperature chlorine atom initiated oxidation of methyl and ethyl butyrate using synchrotron photoionization TOF-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czekner, Joseph; Taatjes, Craig A; Osborn, David L; Meloni, Giovanni

    2018-02-21

    The initial oxidation products of methyl butyrate (MB) and ethyl butyrate (EB) are studied using a time- and energy-resolved photoionization mass spectrometer. Reactions are initiated with Cl˙ radicals in an excess of oxygen at a temperature of 550 K and a pressure of 6 Torr. Ethyl crotonate is the sole isomeric product that is observed from concerted HO 2 -elimination from initial alkylperoxy radicals formed in the oxidation of EB. Analysis of the potential energy surface of each possible alkylperoxy radical shows that the CH 3 CH(OO)CH 2 C([double bond, length as m-dash]O)OCH 2 CH 3 (R γ O 2 ) and CH 3 CH 2 CH(OO)C([double bond, length as m-dash]O)OCH 2 CH 3 (R β O 2 ) radicals are the isomers that could undergo this concerted HO 2 -elimination. Two lower-mass products (formaldehyde and acetaldehyde) are observed in both methyl and ethyl butyrate reactions. Secondary reactions of alkylperoxy radicals with HO 2 radicals can decompose into the aforementioned products and smaller radicals. These pathways are the likely explanation for the formation of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde.

  13. Feasibility of capillary liquid chromatography-microchip-atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry for pesticide analysis in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruve, Anneli; Haapala, Markus; Saarela, Ville; Franssila, Sami; Kostiainen, Risto; Kotiaho, Tapio; Ketola, Raimo A

    2011-06-24

    A new and sensitive analytical method, using capillary liquid chromatography (capLC) with a microfabricated heated nebulizer chip for atmospheric pressure photoionization and tandem mass spectrometry (μAPPI-MS/MS), was developed for the analysis of selected carbamate pesticides in a tomato matrix. The performance of the instrumental method was evaluated, using seven pesticides, namely oxamyl, methomyl, aldicarb, carbofuran, pirimicarb, thiocarb, and ditalimfos. The limits of detection achieved with the capLC-μAPPI-MS/MS method in the positive ion mode were low, ranging from 0.25 ng mL(-1) for pirimicarb to 5 ng mL(-1) for oxamyl and methomyl, corresponding to 5 and 0.25 μg kg(-1) for tomato samples, respectively, which are clearly below the maximum residue limits for them in fruits and vegetables. The repeatability of the instrumental method ranged from 2.9 to 13.9% (RSD) at a low (0.05 μg mL(-1)) concentration level. An adequate linearity (r(2)=0.984-0.999) at a concentration range from 0.005 to 5.0 μg mL(-1) was observed for all pesticides. The results obtained show that the capLC-μAPPI-MS/MS method developed could be used for the analysis of selected pesticides from tomato. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Feasibility of gas chromatography-microchip atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry in analysis of anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintikka, Laura; Haapala, Markus; Franssila, Sami; Kuuranne, Tiia; Leinonen, Antti; Kostiainen, Risto

    2010-12-24

    Mass spectrometers equipped with atmospheric pressure ion sources (API-MS) have been designed to be interfaced with liquid chromatographs (LC) and have rarely been connected to gas chromatographs (GC). Recently, we introduced a heated nebulizer microchip and showed its potential to interface liquid microseparation techniques and GC with API-MS. This study demonstrates the feasibility of GC-microchip atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-μAPPI-MS/MS) in the analysis of underivatized anabolic steroids in urine. The APPI microchip provides high ionization efficiency and produces abundant protonated molecules or molecular ions with minimal fragmentation. The feasibility of GC-μAPPI-MS/MS in the analysis of six selected anabolic steroids in urine samples was studied with respect to intra-batch repeatability, linearity, linear range, and limit of detection (LOD). The method showed good sensitivity (LODs 0.2-1 ng/mL), repeatability (relative standard deviationanabolic steroids. Quantitative performance of the method was tested with two authentic urine samples, and the results were in good agreement with those obtained with conventional GC-electron ionization-MS after derivatization. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Online study on the co-pyrolysis of coal and corn with vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jun-Jie; Liu, Yue-Xi; Zhu, Ya-Nan; Pan, Yang; Tian, Zhen-Yu

    2017-11-01

    With the aim to support the experimental tests in a circulating fluidized bed pilot plant, the pyrolysis processes of coal, corn, and coal-corn blend have been studied with an online pyrolysis photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Py-PI-TOFMS). The mass spectra at different temperatures (300-800°C) as well as time-evolved profiles of selected species were measured. The pyrolysis products such as alkanes, alkenes, phenols, aromatics, as well as nitrogen- and sulfur-containing species were detected. As temperature rises, the relative ion intensities of high molecular weight products tend to decrease, while those of aromatics increase significantly. During the co-pyrolysis, coal can promote the reaction temperature of cellulose in corn. Time-evolved profiles demonstrate that coal can affect pyrolysis rate of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin of corn in blend. This work shows that Py-PI-TOFMS is a powerful approach to permit a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the co-pyrolysis of coal and biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Global Photoionization Response to Prompt Emission and Outliers: Different Origin of Long Gamma-ray Bursts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Xin, L. P.; Qiu, Y. L.; Xu, D. W.; Wei, J. Y.

    2018-03-01

    By using the line ratio C IV λ1549/C II λ1335 as a tracer of the ionization ratio of the interstellar medium (ISM) illuminated by a long gamma-ray burst (LGRB), we identify a global photoionization response of the ionization ratio to the photon luminosity of the prompt emission assessed by either L iso/E peak or {L}iso}/{E}peak}2. The ionization ratio increases with both L iso/E peak and L iso/E 2 peak for a majority of the LGRBs in our sample, although there are a few outliers. The identified dependence of C IV/C II on {L}iso}/{E}peak}2 suggests that the scatter of the widely accepted Amati relation is related to the ionization ratio in the ISM. The outliers tend to have relatively high C IV/C II values as well as relatively high C IV λ1549/Si IV λ1403 ratios, which suggests an existence of Wolf–Rayet stars in the environment of these LGRBs. We finally argue that the outliers and the LGRBs following the identified C IV/C II‑L iso/E peak ({L}iso}/{E}peak}2) correlation might come from different progenitors with different local environments.

  17. 3D spectroscopy in distant radio galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca-Volmerange, B.

    Star formation rates in distant radio galaxies are crucial for understanding the evolution of galaxies. Most processes at works in these targets observed at the most remote epochs are directly or not related to primeval sources of star formation: interplays of starbursts and AGNs, interactions of radio jets with environmental clouds, cooling flows, metal enrichment and dust distributions. Signatures of typical star formation (emission line ratios, equivalent widths, stellar continua) are observed in distant galaxies. However in most cases, they are superimposed to signatures of other processes (shocks, AGN light scattering), in particular at high z with the decrease of angular resolution and surface brightness. A larger variety of environmental components (lobes, jets, clouds and nucleus) simultaneously contribute to the global emission. So that to separate the various emission processes becomes rapidly essential with higher distances. The 3D spectroscopy is unique to disentangle the various physical processes triggering star formation at high redshifts. Shocks and regions photoionized by the central AGN are identified from their typical features and may be localized in the various zones of the radio galaxy extended to its environment. We present results of a long term observational program with the successive Integral Field Units (IFU) TIGER and OASIS at CFHT. The present sample consists of three galaxies of increasing z: 3C 171 (z = 0.238), 3C 435A (z = 0.470) and 4C 41.17 (z = 3.8). Line ratios, continua and velocity fields are locally measured. Interpretations of emission line ratios, velocity fields, equivalent widths, are possible with a coupled code based on CLOUDY and MAPPINGSIII results, as proposed by Moy et al. (2000, 2001). Stellar and nebular continua are interpreted with the help of our evolutionary synthesis model PÉGASE2. All models take into account metallicity effects.

  18. Negative thermal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrera, G D; Bruno, J A O; Barron, T H K; Allan, N L

    2005-01-01

    There has been substantial renewed interest in negative thermal expansion following the discovery that cubic ZrW 2 O 8 contracts over a temperature range in excess of 1000 K. Substances of many different kinds show negative thermal expansion, especially at low temperatures. In this article we review the underlying thermodynamics, emphasizing the roles of thermal stress and elasticity. We also discuss vibrational and non-vibrational mechanisms operating on the atomic scale that are responsible for negative expansion, both isotropic and anisotropic, in a wide range of materials. (topical review)

  19. Study on laser atomic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Min; Song, Kyu Seok; Jeong, Do Young; Kim, Chul Joong; Han, Phil Soon

    1992-01-01

    Electric discharge type atomic vaporizer is developed for the spectroscopic study on actinide elements. Laser induced fluorescence study on actinide elements is performed by using this high temperature type atomizer. For the effective photoionization of elements, copper vapor laser pumped dye laser and electron beam heating type atomic vaporizer are built and their characteristics are measured. In addition, resonance ionization mass spectroscopic analysis for lead sample as well as laser induced fluorescence study on uranium sample in solution phase is made. (Author)

  20. Isotropic Single Negative Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Protiva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of simple, and therefore cheap, planar resonators for building 3D isotropic metamaterials. These resonators are: a broadside-coupled split ring resonator with a magnetic response providing negative permeability; an electric dipole terminated by a loop inductor together with a double H-shaped resonator with an electric response providing negative permittivity. Two kinds of 3D isotropic single negative metamaterials are reported. The first material consists of unit cells in the form of a cube bearing on its faces six equal planar resonators with tetrahedral symmetry. In the second material, the planar resonators boxed into spherical plastic shells and randomly distributed in a hosting material compose a real 3D volumetric metamaterial with an isotropic response. In both cases the metamaterial shows negative permittivity or permeability, according to the type of resonators that are used. The experiments prove the isotropic behavior of the cells and of the metamaterial specimens.

  1. Sub-Doppler spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansch, T.W.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter examines Doppler-free saturation spectroscopy, tunable cw sources, and Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy. Discusses saturation spectroscopy; continuous wave saturation spectroscopy in the ultraviolet; and two-photon spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen 1S-2S. Focuses on Doppler-free laser spectroscopy of gaseous samples. Explains that in saturation spectroscopy, a monochromatic laser beam ''labels'' a group of atoms within a narrow range of axial velocities through excitation or optical pumping, and a Doppler-free spectrum of these selected atoms is observed with a second, counterpropagating beam. Notes that in two-photon spectroscopy it is possible to record Doppler-free spectra without any need for velocity selection by excitation with two counterpropagating laser beams whose first order Doppler shifts cancel

  2. Progress in K spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leith, D.W.G.S.

    1977-07-01

    The progress in the field of K* spectroscopy is reviewed within the framework of the simple harmonic oscillator quark model, and contrasted with the recent progress made in the charmonium spectroscopy

  3. Basic molecular spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Gorry, PA

    1985-01-01

    BASIC Molecular Spectroscopy discusses the utilization of the Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) programming language in molecular spectroscopy. The book is comprised of five chapters that provide an introduction to molecular spectroscopy through programs written in BASIC. The coverage of the text includes rotational spectra, vibrational spectra, and Raman and electronic spectra. The book will be of great use to students who are currently taking a course in molecular spectroscopy.

  4. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J

    1997-01-01

    This series describes selected advances in the area of atomic spectroscopy. It is primarily intended for the reader who has a background in atmoic spectroscopy; suitable to the novice and expert. Although a widely used and accepted method for metal and non-metal analysis in a variety of complex samples, Advances in Atomic Spectroscopy covers a wide range of materials. Each Chapter will completely cover an area of atomic spectroscopy where rapid development has occurred.

  5. Symposium on atomic spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Topics covered by the conference include: fast beam spectroscopy; astrophysical and other spectra; highly ionized spectroscopy; complex spectra; rydberg levels; fine structure, hyperfine structure and isotope shift; lineshapes; lifetimes, oscillator strengths and Einstein coefficients; and spectroscopy with lasers. Abstracts of the conference papers are presented. (GHT)

  6. Symposium on atomic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Topics covered by the conference include: fast beam spectroscopy; astrophysical and other spectra; highly ionized spectroscopy; complex spectra; rydberg levels; fine structure, hyperfine structure and isotope shift; lineshapes; lifetimes, oscillator strengths and Einstein coefficients; and spectroscopy with lasers. Abstracts of the conference papers are presented

  7. Meson Spectroscopy at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Grube, Boris

    2016-11-29

    The goal of the COMPASS experiment at CERN is to study the structure and dynamics of hadrons. The two-stage spectrometer used by the experiment has large acceptance and covers a wide kinematic range for charged as well as neutral particles and can therefore measure a wide range of reactions. The spectroscopy of light mesons is performed with negative (mostly $\\pi^-$) and positive ($p$, $\\pi^+$) hadron beams with a momentum of 190 GeV/$c$. The light-meson spectrum is measured in different final states produced in diffractive dissociation reactions with squared four-momentum transfer $t$ to the target between 0.1 and 1.0 $(\\text{GeV}/c)^2$. The flagship channel is the $\\pi^-\\pi^-\\pi^+$ final state, for which COMPASS has recorded the currently world's largest data sample. These data not only allow to measure the properties of known resonances with high precision, but also to observe new states. Among these is a new axial-vector signal, the $a_1(1420)$, with unusual properties. Novel analysis techniques have been...

  8. NEGATION AFFIXES IN ENGLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedy Subandowo -

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This research entitled "Negation Affixes in English". This study is aimed to describe the various negation affixes in English, morphological process, morphophonemic and meaning. The research data were taken from various sources of English grammar book, morphology, research journal and the book which relatees to the research. English grammar books used in this study are written by Otto Jesperson, Marcella Frank, Greenbaum and Geoffrey Leech.  The method used in this research is the descriptive-qualitative method. While the data collection techniques are performed by using jot-down method. And the results of analysis are presented in tabular form and descriptive method. The result of the research shows that English has six types of negative affixes which are categorized by the intensity of its appearance, such as dis-, in-, non-, un-, anti- and -less. Based on the function, negation affixes are divided into several categories such as adjectives, nouns, verbs, and adverbs. The morphophonemic affix in- has four allomorphs, they are in-, im-, il- and ir- . While the analysis revealed that negation affixes have some basic meanings, such as ‘not’, ‘without’, and ‘anti’.

  9. Note: Deep UV-pump THz-probe spectroscopy of the excess electron in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Arian; Savolainen, Janne; Shalit, Andrey; Hamm, Peter

    2017-06-28

    In the work of Savolainen et al. [Nat. Chem. 6, 697 (2014)], we studied the excess (hydrated) electron in water with the help of transient THz spectroscopy, which is a sensitive probe of its delocalization length. In that work, we used laser pulses at 800 nm, 400 nm, and 267 nm for photoionization. While the detachment mechanism for 400 nm and 267 nm is complicated and requires a concerted nuclear rearrangement, we provided evidence that 800 nm pumping excites the excess electron directly and vertically into the conduction band, despite a highly nonlinear field-ionization process. In the present note, we extend that work to 200 nm pumping, which provides a much cleaner way to reach the conduction band. We show that the detachment pathways upon 200 nm and 800 nm pumping are in essence the same, as indicated by the same initial size of the electron wavefunction and the same time scales for the collapse of the wavefunction and geminate recombination.

  10. Coherent Raman spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Eesley, G L

    1981-01-01

    Coherent Raman Spectroscopy provides a unified and general account of the fundamental aspects of nonlinear Raman spectroscopy, also known as coherent Raman spectroscopy. The theoretical basis from which coherent Raman spectroscopy developed is described, along with its applications, utility, and implementation as well as advantages and disadvantages. Experimental data which typifies each technique is presented. This book is comprised of four chapters and opens with an overview of nonlinear optics and coherent Raman spectroscopy, followed by a discussion on nonlinear transfer function of matter

  11. Nedtrykt af negative nyheder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Morten; Søberg, Pernille Frantz

    2016-01-01

    I adskillige år er det blevet debatteret, hvorvidt nyhedernes negative fokus har konsekvenser for borgerne, og om det i sid-ste ende får flere til at vende ryggen til nyhederne. Vores viden om effekterne af positive og negative nyheder er dog begrænset, og derfor undersøges det i denne artikel......, hvordan henholdsvis positive og negative tv-nyheder påvirker seernes humør, hukom-melse af information fra indslaget og lyst til at se yderligere tv-nyheder. Det gør vi i et survey-eksperiment (N=204), hvor tre grupper så enten et originalt indslag eller det samme indslag klippet med henholdsvis et...

  12. On Various Negative Translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several proof translations of classical mathematics into intuitionistic mathematics have been proposed in the literature over the past century. These are normally referred to as negative translations or double-negation translations. Among those, the most commonly cited are translations due to Kolmogorov, Godel, Gentzen, Kuroda and Krivine (in chronological order. In this paper we propose a framework for explaining how these different translations are related to each other. More precisely, we define a notion of a (modular simplification starting from Kolmogorov translation, which leads to a partial order between different negative translations. In this derived ordering, Kuroda and Krivine are minimal elements. Two new minimal translations are introduced, with Godel and Gentzen translations sitting in between Kolmogorov and one of these new translations.

  13. Negative ion sourcery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Os, C.F.A. van.

    1989-01-01

    The work described in this thesis is involved by current research programs in the field of nuclear-fusion. A brief introduction to fusion is given, anticipated problems related to current drive of the fusion plasma are pinpointed and probable suggestions to overcome these problems are described. One probable means for current drive is highlighted; Neutral Beam Injection (NBI). This is based on injecting a 1 MeV neutral hydrogen or deuterium beam into a fusion plasma. Negative ions are needed as primary particles because they can easily be neutralized at 1 MeV. The two current schemes for production of negative ions are described, volume production and negative surface ionization. The latter method is extensively studied in this thesis. (author). 171 refs.; 55 figs.; 7 tabs

  14. Desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization high-resolution mass spectrometry: a complementary approach for the chemical analysis of atmospheric aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshintsev, Jevgeni; Vaikkinen, Anu; Lipponen, Katriina; Vrkoslav, Vladimir; Cvačka, Josef; Kostiainen, Risto; Kotiaho, Tapio; Hartonen, Kari; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa; Kauppila, Tiina J

    2015-07-15

    On-line chemical characterization methods of atmospheric aerosols are essential to increase our understanding of physicochemical processes in the atmosphere, and to study biosphere-atmosphere interactions. Several techniques, including aerosol mass spectrometry, are nowadays available, but they all suffer from some disadvantages. In this research, desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization high-resolution (Orbitrap) mass spectrometry (DAPPI-HRMS) is introduced as a complementary technique for the fast analysis of aerosol chemical composition without the need for sample preparation. Atmospheric aerosols from city air were collected on a filter, desorbed in a DAPPI source with a hot stream of toluene and nitrogen, and ionized using a vacuum ultraviolet lamp at atmospheric pressure. To study the applicability of the technique for ambient aerosol analysis, several samples were collected onto filters and analyzed, with the focus being on selected organic acids. To compare the DAPPI-HRMS data with results obtained by an established method, each filter sample was divided into two equal parts, and the second half of the filter was extracted and analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). The DAPPI results agreed with the measured aerosol particle number. In addition to the targeted acids, the LC/MS and DAPPI-HRMS methods were found to detect different compounds, thus providing complementary information about the aerosol samples. DAPPI-HRMS showed several important oxidation products of terpenes, and numerous compounds were tentatively identified. Thanks to the soft ionization, high mass resolution, fast analysis, simplicity and on-line applicability, the proposed methodology has high potential in the field of atmospheric research. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. The Herschel Planetary Nebula Survey (HerPlaNS): A Comprehensive Dusty Photoionization Model of NGC6781.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Masaaki; Ueta, Toshiya; van Hoof, Peter A M; Sahai, Raghvendra; Aleman, Isabel; Zijlstra, Albert A; Chu, You-Hua; Villaver, Eva; Leal-Ferreira, Marcelo L; Kastner, Joel; Szczerba, Ryszard; Exter, Katrina M

    2017-08-01

    We perform a comprehensive analysis of the planetary nebula (PN) NGC 6781 to investigate the physical conditions of each of its ionized, atomic, and molecular gas and dust components and the object's evolution, based on panchromatic observational data ranging from UV to radio. Empirical nebular elemental abundances, compared with theoretical predictions via nucleosynthesis models of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, indicate that the progenitor is a solar-metallicity, 2.25-3.0 M ⊙ initial-mass star. We derive the best-fit distance of 0.46 kpc by fitting the stellar luminosity (as a function of the distance and effective temperature of the central star) with the adopted post-AGB evolutionary tracks. Our excitation energy diagram analysis indicates high-excitation temperatures in the photodissociation region (PDR) beyond the ionized part of the nebula, suggesting extra heating by shock interactions between the slow AGB wind and the fast PN wind. Through iterative fitting using the Cloudy code with empirically derived constraints, we find the best-fit dusty photoionization model of the object that would inclusively reproduce all of the adopted panchromatic observational data. The estimated total gas mass (0.41 M ⊙ ) corresponds to the mass ejected during the last AGB thermal pulse event predicted for a 2.5 M ⊙ initial-mass star. A significant fraction of the total mass (about 70%) is found to exist in the PDR, demonstrating the critical importance of the PDR in PNe that are generally recognized as the hallmark of ionized/H + regions.

  16. HR Del REMNANT ANATOMY USING TWO-DIMENSIONAL SPECTRAL DATA AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL PHOTOIONIZATION SHELL MODELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Manoel; Diaz, Marcos

    2009-01-01

    The HR Del nova remnant was observed with the IFU-GMOS at Gemini North. The spatially resolved spectral data cube was used in the kinematic, morphological, and abundance analysis of the ejecta. The line maps show a very clumpy shell with two main symmetric structures. The first one is the outer part of the shell seen in Hα, which forms two rings projected in the sky plane. These ring structures correspond to a closed hourglass shape, first proposed by Harman and O'Brien. The equatorial emission enhancement is caused by the superimposed hourglass structures in the line of sight. The second structure seen only in the [O III] and [N II] maps is located along the polar directions inside the hourglass structure. Abundance gradients between the polar caps and equatorial region were not found. However, the outer part of the shell seems to be less abundant in oxygen and nitrogen than the inner regions. Detailed 2.5-dimensional photoionization modeling of the three-dimensional shell was performed using the mass distribution inferred from the observations and the presence of mass clumps. The resulting model grids are used to constrain the physical properties of the shell as well as the central ionizing source. A sequence of three-dimensional clumpy models including a disk-shaped ionization source is able to reproduce the ionization gradients between polar and equatorial regions of the shell. Differences between shell axial ratios in different lines can also be explained by aspherical illumination. A total shell mass of 9 x 10 -4 M sun is derived from these models. We estimate that 50%-70% of the shell mass is contained in neutral clumps with density contrast up to a factor of 30.

  17. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J

    2000-01-01

    This fifth volume of the successful series Advances in Atomic Spectroscopy continues to discuss and investigate the area of atomic spectroscopy.It begins with a description of the use of various atomic spectroscopic methods and applications of speciation studies in atomic spectroscopy. The emphasis is on combining atomic spectroscopy with gas and liquid chromatography. In chapter two the authors describe new developments in tunable lasers and the impact they will have on atomic spectroscopy. The traditional methods of detection, such as photography and the photomultiplier, and how they are being replaced by new detectors is discussed in chapter three. The very active area of glow discharge atomic spectrometry is presented in chapter four where, after a brief introduction and historical review, the use of glow discharge lamps for atomic spectroscopy and mass spectrometry are discussed. Included in this discussion is geometry and radiofrequency power. The future of this source in atomic spectroscopy is also dis...

  18. High energy photoelectron spectroscopy in basic and applied science: Bulk and interface electronic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knut, Ronny; Lindblad, Rebecka; Gorgoi, Mihaela; Rensmo, Håkan; Karis, Olof

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We demonstrate how hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy can be used to investigate interface properties of multilayers. •By combining HAXPES and statistical methods we are able to provide quantitative analysis of the interface diffusion process. •We show how photoionization cross sections can be used to map partial density of states contributions to valence states. •We use HAXPES to provide insight into the valence electronic structure of e.g. multiferroics and dye-sensitized solar cells. -- Abstract: With the access of new high-performance electron spectrometers capable of analyzing electron energies up to the order of 10 keV, the interest for photoelectron spectroscopy has grown and many new applications of the technique in areas where electron spectroscopies were considered to have limited use have been demonstrated over the last few decades. The technique, often denoted hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HX-PES or HAXPES), to distinguish the experiment from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy performed at lower energies, has resulted in an increasing interest in photoelectron spectroscopy in many areas. The much increased mean free path at higher kinetic energies, in combination with the elemental selectivity of the core level spectroscopies in general has led to this fact. It is thus now possible to investigate the electronic structure of materials with a substantially enhanced bulk sensitivity. In this review we provide examples from our own research using HAXPES which to date has been performed mainly at the HIKE facility at the KMC-1 beamline at HZB, Berlin. The review exemplifies the new opportunities using HAXPES to address both bulk and interface electronic properties in systems relevant for applications in magnetic storage, energy related research, but also in purely curiosity driven problems

  19. Multicomponent mixed dopant optimization for rapid screening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure photoionization high-resolution mass spectrometry

    KAUST Repository

    Sioud, Salim

    2012-05-04

    RATIONALE To enhance the ionization efficiencies in atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry a dopant with favorable ionization energy such as chlorobenzene is typically used. These dopants are typically toxic and difficult to mix with water-soluble organic solvents. In order to achieve a more efficient and less toxic dopant, a multicomponent mixed dopant was explored. METHODS A multicomponent mixed dopant for non-targeted rapid screening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was developed and optimized using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to atmospheric pressure photoionization high-resolution mass spectrometry. Various single and multicomponent mixed dopants consisting of ethanol, chlorobenzene, bromobenzene, anisole and toluene were evaluated. RESULTS Fourteen out of eighteen PAHs were successfully separated and detected at low pg/μL levels within 5 min with high mass accuracy ≤4 ppm. The optimal mixed multicomponent dopant consisted of ethanol/chlorobenzene/bromobenzene/anisole (98.975:0.1:0.9:0.025, v/v %) and it improved the limit of detection (LOD) by 2- to 10-fold for the tested PAHs compared to those obtained with pure chlorobenzene. CONCLUSIONS A novel multicomponent dopant that contains 99% ethanol and 1% mixture of chlorobenzene, bromobenzene and anisole was found to be an effective dopant mixture to ionize PAHs. The developed UPLC multicomponent dopant assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization high-resolution mass spectrometry offered a rapid non targeted screening method for detecting the PAHs at low pg/;μL levels within a 5 min run time with high mass accuracy a;circ4 ppm. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Depressionens negative spiral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Artiklen formidler resultater fra en longitudinel undersøgelse af det selvforstærkende, negative samspil imellem udvikling og vedligeholdelse af alderdomsdepression via primære miljøbelastninger og via  den deprimerede ældre som belastning for miljøet, som i sin tur "svarer negativt" på lidelsen og...

  1. Quantum logic without negation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapatrin, R.R. (Dept. of Mathematics, SPb UEF, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation))

    1994-05-01

    The algebraic tools based on generating semigroups are suggested to describe property lattices possessing the relation of exclusivity rather than the operation of negation. The reduction to standard situation of orthocomplemented and orthomodular lattices is described. As an example of non-orthocomplementable property lattice that of a hypothetical ''topologymeter'' is studied. (orig.)

  2. The Negative Repetition Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Peterson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental property of human memory is that repetition enhances memory. Peterson and Mulligan (2012) recently documented a surprising "negative repetition effect," in which participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once. Words within a pair rhymed, and…

  3. Photoionization Modeling of Infrared Fine-Structure Lines in Luminous Galaxies with Central Dust-Bounded Nebulae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fischer, Jacqueline; Allen, Robert; Dudley, C. C; Satyapal, Shobita; Luhman, Michael L; Wolfire, Mark G; Smith, Howard A

    2001-01-01

    Far-infrared spectroscopy of a small sample of IR-bright galaxies taken with the Infrared Space Observatory Long Wavelength Spectrometer has revealed a dramatic progression extending from strong fine...

  4. Photoionization of bonding and antibonding-type atom-fullerene hybrid states in Cd@C60 vs Zn@C60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javani, Mohammad H; Manson, Steven T; De, Ruma; Chakraborty, Himadri S; Madjet, Mohamed E

    2014-01-01

    Powerful hybridization of the Cd 4d state with the d-angular momentum state of C 60 π symmetry is found in the local density approximation (LDA) structure of Cd@C 60 ground state. The photoionization of the resulting symmetric and antisymmetric levels are computed using the time dependent LDA method to include electron correlations. Cross sections exhibit effects of the C 60 plasmonic motion coherently coupled to the diffraction-type cavity oscillations induced by local emissions from C 60 . The Cd@C 60 results exhibit a substantial difference from our previous results for Zn@C 60 . (paper)

  5. Photoionization pathways and thresholds in generation of Lyman-α radiation by resonant four-wave mixing in Kr-Ar mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Oleg A. Louchev; Norihito Saito; Yu Oishi; Koji Miyazaki; Kotaro Okamura; Jumpei Nakamura; Masahiko Iwasaki; Satoshi Wada

    2016-01-01

    We develop a set of analytical approximations for the estimation of the combined effect of various photoionization processes involved in the resonant four-wave mixing generation of ns pulsed Lyman-α (L-α) radiation by using 212.556 nm and 820-845 nm laser radiation pulses in Kr-Ar mixture: (i) multi-photon ionization, (ii) step-wise (2+1)-photon ionization via the resonant 2-photon excitation of Kr followed by 1-photon ionization and (iii) laser-induced avalanche ionization produced by genera...

  6. Reduction of reversed micelle entrapped cytochrome c and cytochrome c3 by electrons generated by pulse radiolysis or by pyrene photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlsser, A.J.W.G.; Fendler, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    Horse heart cytochrome c and cytochrome c 3 , isolated from Desulfovibrio vulgaris, have been incorporated in sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT) entrapped water pools in heptane. The absorption spectra of the cytochromes have been found to be strongly dependent on the water to AOT concentration ratios. The proteins solubilized in heptane by the AOT reversed micelles have retained their ability to mediate electron transfer. They reacted very rapidly with hydrated electrons, generated pulse radiolytically or, alternatively, formed in the laser photoionization of pyrene

  7. Measurement of the ratio of double-to-single photoionization of helium at 2.8 keV using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, J.C.; Lindle, D.W.; Keller, N.; Miller, R.D.; Azuma, Y.; Mansour, N.B.; Berry, H.G.; Sellin, I.A.

    1991-01-01

    We report the first measurement of the ratio of double-to-single photoionization of helium well above the double-ionization threshold. Using a time-of-flight technique, we find He ++ /He + =1.6±0.3% at hν=2.8 keV. This value lies between calculations by Amusia (2.3%) and by Samson, who predicts 1.2% by analogy with electron-impact ionization cross sections of singly charged ions. Good agreement is obtained with older shake calculations of Byron and Joachain, and of Aberg, who predict 1.7%

  8. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric confirmatory method for determining aflatoxin M1 in cow milk: comparison between electrospray and atmospheric pressure photoionization sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaliere, Chiara; Foglia, Patrizia; Pastorini, Elisabetta; Samperi, Roberto; Laganà, Aldo

    2006-01-06

    A liquid chromatography/electrospray (ESI)-tandem mass spectrometric method for the measurement of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk is described. Milk sample after protein precipitation with acetone was cleaned-up with a Carbograph-4 cartridge. Performances of the ESI source were compared with those of the atmospheric pressure photoionization source (APPI). Although a method quantification limit (MQL) of 6 ng/kg could be achieved operating with APPI source with respect to an MQL of 12 ng/kg with ESI, all the other performances being similar, then ESI was preferred as being more robust and widespread at present.

  9. Analytical capabilities of high performance liquid chromatography - Atmospheric pressure photoionization - Orbitrap mass spectrometry (HPLC-APPI-Orbitrap-MS) for the trace determination of novel and emerging flame retardants in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacs, D; Bartkevics, V

    2015-10-22

    A new analytical method was established and validated for the analysis of 27 brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including so called "emerging" and "novel" BFRs (EBFRs and NBFRs) in fish samples. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to Orbitrap mass spectrometry (Orbitrap-MS) employing atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) interface operated in negative mode was used for the identification/quantitation of contaminants. HPLC-Orbitrap-MS analysis provided a fast separation of selected analytes within 14 min, thus demonstrating a high throughput processing of samples. The developed methodology was tested by intralaboratory validation in terms of recovery, repeatability, linear calibration ranges, instrumental and method limits of quantitation (i-LOQ and m-LOQ), and where possible, trueness was verified by analysis of certified reference materials (CRMs). Recoveries of analytes were between 80 and 119%, while the repeatability in terms of relative standard deviations (RSDs) was in the range from 1.2 to 15.5%. The measured values for both analyzed CRMs agreed with the provided consensus values, revealing the recovery of reference concentrations in 72-119% range. The elaborated method met the sensitivity criterion according to Commission Recommendation 2014/118/EU on monitoring of BFRs in food products for majority of the compounds. The concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in real samples determined by HPLC-APPI-Orbitrap-MS method and validated gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) method were found to be in a good agreement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Spectroscopy of Burn Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    first task was to select and purchase a Visible/Near- infrared spectrophotometer suitable for non-contacting spectroscopy of biological tissues...FiLE COPY AD 0 NContract No: DAMD17-88-C-8125 N Title: Spectroscopy of Burn Wounds I Principal Investigator: Martin A. Afromowitz, Ph.D. PI Address...Include Security Classification) SPECTROSCOPY OF BURN WOUNDS 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Martin A. Afromowitz, Ph.D., and James B. Callis, Ph.D. 13a. TYPE OF

  11. Advances in DUV spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchhave, Preben; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Mogensen, Claus Tilsted

    The would-be advantages of deep UV (DUV) spectroscopy are well known, but the potential applications have so far not been fully realized due to technological limitations and, perhaps, lack of bright ideas. However, new components and new knowledge about DUV spectra and spectroscopic methods...... combined with increasing needs for solutions to practical problems in environmental protection, medicine and pollution monitoring promise a new era in DUV spectroscopy. Here we shall review the basis for DUV spectroscopy, both DUV fluorescence and DUV Raman spectroscopy, and describe recent advances...

  12. Negative differential resistance of TEMPO molecules on Si(111)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallbäck, A.S.V.M.; Poelsema, Bene; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Negative differential resistance (NDR) has been observed for individual 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO) molecules on Si(1 1 1) in ultra high vacuum (UHV) scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS) measurements at room temperature. NDR effects were observed exclusively at

  13. Total OH reactivity measurements using a new fast Gas Chromatographic Photo-Ionization Detector (GC-PID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sinha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary and most important oxidant in the atmosphere is the hydroxyl radical (OH. Currently OH sinks, particularly gas phase reactions, are poorly constrained. One way to characterize the overall sink of OH is to measure directly the ambient loss rate of OH, the total OH reactivity. To date, direct measurements of total OH reactivity have been either performed using a Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF system ("pump-and-probe" or "flow reactor" or the Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM with a Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS. Both techniques require large, complex and expensive detection systems. This study presents a feasibility assessment for CRM total OH reactivity measurements using a new detector, a Gas Chromatographic Photoionization Detector (GC-PID. Such a system is smaller, more portable, less power consuming and less expensive than other total OH reactivity measurement techniques.

    Total OH reactivity is measured by the CRM using a competitive reaction between a reagent (here pyrrole with OH alone and in the presence of atmospheric reactive molecules. The new CRM method for total OH reactivity has been tested with parallel measurements of the GC-PID and the previously validated PTR-MS as detector for the reagent pyrrole during laboratory experiments, plant chamber and boreal field studies. Excellent agreement of both detectors was found when the GC-PID was operated under optimum conditions. Time resolution (60–70 s, sensitivity (LOD 3–6 s−1 and overall uncertainty (25% in optimum conditions for total OH reactivity were similar to PTR-MS based total OH reactivity measurements. One drawback of the GC-PID system was the steady loss of sensitivity and accuracy during intensive measurements lasting several weeks, and a possible toluene interference. Generally, the GC-PID system has been shown to produce closely comparable results to the PTR-MS and thus in suitable environments (e.g. forests it

  14. Hand-held photoionization instruments for quantitative detection of sarin vapor and for rapid qualitative screening of contaminated objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip A; Lepage, Carmela Jackson; Harrer, Kristin L; Brochu, Paul J

    2007-10-01

    Suitable detectors are needed to support survey needs of incident responders and health care personnel who may receive patients from an incident with exposures to hazardous chemicals. In the health care setting, such a detector would avoid cross-contamination to workers, patients, and to the treatment facility and associated equipment. An ideal survey detector would be sensitive, hand-held, capable of extended battery operation, and would provide a nearly immediate detector response on exposure to a broad range of high-concern chemicals. For responders, important capabilities would include quantitative measurement of gas/vapor contamination, and for both response and health care settings, qualitative detection of contaminated people and objects. In this study, the operating characteristics of photoionization detector (PID) instruments were examined using O-isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate (sarin) in a laboratory setting. Instrument response factors were calculated for quantitation of airborne sarin, and speed of detector response and recovery were examined with point-contaminated cloth material. By sampling a range of sarin-contaminated air, calculated isobutylene unit response factors for high-and moderate-sensitivity commercial PID instrument types were 11.3 and 14.0 (dry air) and 20.1 and 44.4 (50% relative humidity), respectively. Response of the PID systems was highly correlated to concentration sampled, with R(2) values greater than or equal to 0.997 for all combinations of PID detector type and humidity. While not sensitive enough to warn the unprotected public against a chemical with an extremely low "safe" exposure concentration, quantitation with available PID instruments could be useful to quickly prioritize corrective measures for a PID-detectable chemical. Qualitative survey characteristics were examined for the more sensitive PID tested using a piece of cloth material contaminated by a 1.0 micro L droplet of liquid sarin. Rapid response and

  15. K-shell photoionization of ground-state Li-like carbon ions [C{sup 3+}]: experiment, theory and comparison with time-reversed photorecombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, A; Schippers, S [Institut fuer Atom- und Molekuelphysik, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Phaneuf, R A; Scully, S W J; Aguilar, A; Covington, A M; Emmons, E D; Gharaibeh, M F [Department of Physics, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557 (United States); Alvarez, I; Cisneros, C; Hinojosa, G [Centro de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 6-96, Cuernavaca 62131 (Mexico); Schlachter, A S [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); McLaughlin, B M, E-mail: b.mclaughlin@qub.ac.u [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, David Bates Building, 7 College Park, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-14

    Absolute cross sections for the K-shell photoionization of ground-state Li-like carbon [C{sup 3+}(1s{sup 2}2s {sup 2}S)] ions were measured by employing the ion-photon merged-beams technique at the Advanced Light Source. The energy ranges 299.8-300.15 eV, 303.29-303.58 eV and 335.61-337.57 eV of the [1s(2s2p){sup 3}P]{sup 2}P, [1s(2s2p){sup 1}P]{sup 2}P and [(1s2s){sup 3}S 3p]{sup 2}P resonances, respectively, were investigated using resolving powers of up to 6000. The autoionization linewidth of the [1s(2s2p){sup 1}P]{sup 2}P resonance was measured to be 27 +- 5 meV and compares favourably with a theoretical result of 26 meV obtained from the intermediate coupling R-matrix method. The present photoionization cross section results are compared with the outcome from photorecombination measurements by employing the principle of detailed balance.

  16. Photoionization cross section of the 4p55d[7/2] J=4 state and radiative lifetimes of three states of Kr I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, B.D.; Glab, W.L.; Ogorzalek-Loo, R.

    1993-01-01

    Three states in Kr I were studied in a pure Kr discharge at pressures ≤15 mTorr. Two-photon excitation from the metastable 4p 5 5s[3/2] J=2 state produced the 4p 5 5d[7/2] J=4 state whose photoionization cross section and lifetime were measured. The photoionization cross section at λ=1064 nm is 32±5 Mb, and the radiative lifetime is 142±12 ns. One-photon excitation produced the 4p 5 5p[5/2] J=2 and J=3 states of Kr I, whose radiative lifetimes were measured. In contrast to previous lifetime measurements of these two 5p states, this work used both state-specific excitation and low pressures. The pressures were low enough that collisional transfer between these two states was negligible. In a very clean 8-mm-diam cell, the 5p[5/2] J=3 lifetime increased with Kr pressure. This increase is attributed to radiation trapping on the 5s[3/2] J=2 to 5p[5/2] J=3 transition. This radiation trapping by the metastable first excited state of Kr I was observed in a pure Kr discharge at pressures below 4 mTorr

  17. Photoionization pathways and thresholds in generation of Lyman-α radiation by resonant four-wave mixing in Kr-Ar mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg A. Louchev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We develop a set of analytical approximations for the estimation of the combined effect of various photoionization processes involved in the resonant four-wave mixing generation of ns pulsed Lyman-α (L-α radiation by using 212.556 nm and 820-845 nm laser radiation pulses in Kr-Ar mixture: (i multi-photon ionization, (ii step-wise (2+1-photon ionization via the resonant 2-photon excitation of Kr followed by 1-photon ionization and (iii laser-induced avalanche ionization produced by generated free electrons. Developed expressions validated by order of magnitude estimations and available experimental data allow us to identify the area for the operation under high input laser intensities avoiding the onset of full-scale discharge, loss of efficiency and inhibition of generated L-α radiation. Calculations made reveal an opportunity for scaling up the output energy of the experimentally generated pulsed L-α radiation without significant enhancement of photoionization.

  18. Photoionization pathways and thresholds in generation of Lyman-α radiation by resonant four-wave mixing in Kr-Ar mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louchev, Oleg A.; Saito, Norihito; Oishi, Yu; Miyazaki, Koji; Okamura, Kotaro; Nakamura, Jumpei; Iwasaki, Masahiko; Wada, Satoshi

    2016-09-01

    We develop a set of analytical approximations for the estimation of the combined effect of various photoionization processes involved in the resonant four-wave mixing generation of ns pulsed Lyman-α (L-α ) radiation by using 212.556 nm and 820-845 nm laser radiation pulses in Kr-Ar mixture: (i) multi-photon ionization, (ii) step-wise (2+1)-photon ionization via the resonant 2-photon excitation of Kr followed by 1-photon ionization and (iii) laser-induced avalanche ionization produced by generated free electrons. Developed expressions validated by order of magnitude estimations and available experimental data allow us to identify the area for the operation under high input laser intensities avoiding the onset of full-scale discharge, loss of efficiency and inhibition of generated L-α radiation. Calculations made reveal an opportunity for scaling up the output energy of the experimentally generated pulsed L-α radiation without significant enhancement of photoionization.

  19. Photoionization and trans-to-cis isomerization of β-cyclodextrin-encapsulated azobenzene induced by two-color two-laser-pulse excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Tatsuya; Hara, Michihiro

    2018-03-01

    Azobenzene (1) and the complex resulting from the incorporation of 1 with cyclodextrin (1/CD) are attractive for light-driven applications such as micromachining and chemical biology tools. The highly sensitive photoresponse of 1 is crucial for light-driven applications containing both 1 and 1/CD to reach their full potential. In this study, we investigated the photoionization and trans-to-cis isomerization of 1/CD induced by one- and two-color two-laser pulse excitation. Photoionization of 1/CD, which was induced by stepwise two-photon absorption, was observed using laser pulse excitation at 266 nm. Additionally, simultaneous irradiation with 266 and 532 nm laser pulses increased the trans-to-cis isomerization yield (Υt → c) by 27%. It was concluded that the increase in Υt → c was caused by the occurrence of trans-to-cis isomerization in the higher-energy singlet state (Sn), which was reached by S1 → Sn transition induced by laser pulse excitation at 532 nm. The results of this study are potentially applicable in light-driven applications such as micromachining and chemical biology tools.

  20. Analysis of anabolic steroids in urine by gas chromatography-microchip atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry with chlorobenzene as dopant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintikka, Laura; Haapala, Markus; Kuuranne, Tiia; Leinonen, Antti; Kostiainen, Risto

    2013-10-18

    A gas chromatography-microchip atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-μAPPI-MS/MS) method was developed for the analysis of anabolic androgenic steroids in urine as their trimethylsilyl derivatives. The method utilizes a heated nebulizer microchip in atmospheric pressure photoionization mode (μAPPI) with chlorobenzene as dopant, which provides high ionization efficiency by producing abundant radical cations with minimal fragmentation. The performance of GC-μAPPI-MS/MS was evaluated with respect to repeatability, linearity, linear range, and limit of detection (LOD). The results confirmed the potential of the method for doping control analysis of anabolic steroids. Repeatability (RSD<10%), linearity (R(2)≥0.996) and sensitivity (LODs 0.05-0.1ng/mL) were acceptable. Quantitative performance of the method was tested and compared with that of conventional GC-electron ionization-MS, and the results were in good agreement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization tandem mass spectrometric (LC-APPI-MS/MS) method for the determination of triterpenoids in medicinal plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobo, Luciana Assis; Viana, Carine; Lameira, Osmar Alves; de Carvalho, Leandro Machado

    2016-08-01

    An analytical method using liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization tandem mass spectrometry with toluene as a dopant was developed for the determination of triterpenes in medicinal plant extracts. The 12 compounds determined have been shown to exhibit biological activity, such as gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and anti-tumor effects. The parameters of the atmospheric pressure photoionization interface were optimized to obtain the highest possible sensitivity for all of the compounds. The limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.4 to 157.9 µg l -1 and 1.3 to 526.4 µg l -1 , respectively. The method was validated and applied to extracts of five medicinal plants species (Mansoa alliacea (Lam.) A.H.Gentry, Bauhinia variegata var variegata, Bauhinia variegata var alboflava, Cecropia obtuse Trécul and Cecropia palmate Willd) from the Amazonian region. The concentrations of the six triterpenes quantified in the samples ranged from 0.424 mg kg -1 for ursolic acid to 371.96 mg kg -1 for β-amyrin, which were quantified by using the standard addition method (n = 3). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Determination of ionization energies of CnN (n=4-12): Vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization experiments and theoretical calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostko, Oleg; Zhou, Jia; Sun, Bian Jian; Lie, Jie Shiuan; Chang, Agnes H.H.; Kaiser, Ralf I.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2010-01-01

    Results from single photon vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of astrophysically relevant CnN clusters, n = 4 - 12, in the photon energy range of 8.0 eV to 12.8 eV are presented. The experimental photoionization efficiency curves, combined with electronic structure calculations, provide improved ionization energies of the CnN species. A search through numerous nitrogen-terminated CnN isomers for n=4-9 indicates that the linear isomer has the lowest energy, and therefore should be the most abundant isomer in the molecular beam. Comparison with calculated results also shed light on the energetics of the linear CnN clusters, particularly in the trends of the even-carbon and the odd-carbon series. These results can help guide the search of potential astronomical observations of these neutral molecules together with their cations in highly ionized regions or regions with a high UV/VUV photon flux (ranging from the visible to VUV with flux maxima in the Lyman-a region) in the interstellar medium.

  3. Heterodyned holographic spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, NG

    In holographic spectroscopy an image of an interference pattern is projected onto a detector and transformed back to the input spectrum. The general characteristics are similar to those of Fourier transform spectroscopy, but the spectrum is obtained without scanning. In the heterodyned arrangement

  4. Hadron spectroscopy: Workshop summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comyn, M.

    1993-01-01

    The hadron spectroscopy sessions of the Working Group on Hadron and Nuclear Spectroscopy are summarized. The present status of the field is discussed, along with the main priorities and open questions for the future. The required characteristics of optimum future facilities are outlined

  5. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    GENERAL ARTICLE. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy. Every Molecule is Different! Kankan Bhattacharyya. Keywords. Single-molecule spectroscopy. (SMS), confocal microscopy,. FCS, sm-FRET, FLIM. 1 High-resolution spectrum re- fers to a spectrum consisting of very sharp lines. The sharp lines clearly display transitions to ...

  6. Acoustic force spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitters, G.; Kamsma, D.; Thalhammer, G.; Ritsch-Marte, M.; Peterman, E.J.G.; Wuite, G.J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Force spectroscopy has become an indispensable tool to unravel the structural and mechanochemical properties of biomolecules. Here we extend the force spectroscopy toolbox with an acoustic manipulation device that can exert forces from subpiconewtons to hundreds of piconewtons on thousands of

  7. Infrared diode laser spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Civiš, Svatopluk; Cihelka, Jaroslav; Matulková, Irena

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 4 (2010), s. 408-420 ISSN 1230-3402 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : FTIR spectroscopy * absorption spectroscopy * laser diodes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.027, year: 2010

  8. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  9. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  10. Quantum-limit spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ficek, Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    This book covers the main ideas, methods, and recent developments of quantum-limit optical spectroscopy and applications to quantum information, resolution spectroscopy, measurements beyond quantum limits, measurement of decoherence, and entanglement. Quantum-limit spectroscopy lies at the frontier of current experimental and theoretical techniques, and is one of the areas of atomic spectroscopy where the quantization of the field is essential to predict and interpret the existing experimental results. Currently, there is an increasing interest in quantum and precision spectroscopy both theoretically and experimentally, due to significant progress in trapping and cooling of single atoms and ions. This progress allows one to explore in the most intimate detail the ways in which light interacts with atoms and to measure spectral properties and quantum effects with high precision. Moreover, it allows one to perform subtle tests of quantum mechanics on the single atom and single photon scale which were hardly eve...

  11. Negative circular polarization as a universal property of quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Matthew W.; Spencer, Peter; Murray, Ray [The Blackett Laboratory, Department of Physics, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-23

    This paper shows that negative circular polarization, a spin flip of polarized carriers resulting in emission of opposite helicity, can be observed in undoped, n-doped, and p-doped InAs/GaAs quantum dots. These results contradict the usual interpretation of the effect. We show using power dependent and time resolved spectroscopy that the generation of negative circular polarization correlates with excited state emission. Furthermore, a longer spin lifetime of negatively polarized excitons is observed where emission is largely ground state in character.

  12. Size effects in van der Waals clusters studied by spin and angle-resolved electron spectroscopy and multi-coincidence ion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolles, D; Pesic, Z D; Zhang, H; Bilodeau, R C; Bozek, J D; Berrah, N

    2007-01-01

    We have studied the valence and inner-shell photoionization of free rare-gas clusters by means of angle and spin resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and momentum resolving electron-multi-ion coincidence spectroscopy. The electron measurements probe the evolution of the photoelectron angular distribution and spin polarization parameters as a function of photon energy and cluster size, and reveal a strong cluster size dependence of the photoelectron angular distributions in certain photon energy regions. In contrast, the spin polarization parameter of the cluster photoelectrons is found to be very close to the atomic value for all covered photon energies and cluster sizes. The ion imaging measurements, which probe the fragmentation dynamics of multiply charged van der Waals clusters, also exhibit a pronounced cluster size dependence

  13. [Negative pressure therapy: NPT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, H

    2015-01-01

    Negative pressure therapy or treatment (NPT) is used very frequently in hospitals in both surgical and medical departments. NPT consists of maintaining the wound surface at a pressure below ambient atmospheric pressure by means of a specially designed dressing attached to a depressurisation device as well as a system to drain exudate. NPT has been shown to be beneficial in increasing blood flow, thanks to feedback resulting from the decreased oxygen pressure, angiogenesis and reduction of the wound surface area. The French Health Authority (HAS) has issued recommendations for good use in a specific and limited series of applications. NPT may be used in post-traumatic or post-surgical wounds, burns, and in chronic wounds, such as bedsores and ulcers. It is also effective as an adjuvant treatment for infected wounds. In recent years, various different NPT devices have become commercially available. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of negative ions on current growth and ionizing wave propagation in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, L.E.

    1975-01-01

    The spatiotemporal development of electron and ion densities, electric fields, and luminosity are calculated for electron pulse experiments in overvolted parallel-plane gaps by numerically solving continuity equations together with Poisson's equation. Experimental coefficients for primary ionization, cathode photoemission, photoionization, and luminosity are used. Unambiguous determination of the coefficients for attachment, detachment, and charge transfer is not possible from available experimental results. Therefore, the calculations are repeated for three sets of coefficients for these processes, corresponding to the following assumptions: unstable negative ions, stable negative ions, and no negative ions. The results of the calculations show, in each case, that the electron pulse initiates an avalanche which grows exponentially until the onset of space-charge effects. The calculated growth rate is strongly affected by the assumed attachment, detachment, and charge-transfer coefficients. When the total number of electrons in the avalanche reaches approx.10 8 , anode- and cathode-directed ionizing waves, or streamers, develop from the avalanche and produce a weakly ionized filamentary plasma. The calculated ionizing wave velocities are strongly increasing functions of the space-charge--enhanced electric field within the waves and are insensitive to the assumed attachment, detachment, and charge-transfer coefficients. The numerically calculated ionizing wave velocities are in approximate agreement with a simple analytical theory

  15. Homogeneity spoil spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, J.; Boesch, C.; Martin, E.; Grutter, R.

    1987-01-01

    One of the problems of in vivo MR spectroscopy of P-31 is spectra localization. Surface coil spectroscopy, which is the method of choice for clinical applications, suffers from the high-intensity signal from subcutaneous muscle tissue, which masks the spectrum of interest from deeper structures. In order to suppress this signal while maintaining the simplicity of surface coil spectroscopy, the authors introduced a small sheet of ferromagnetically dotted plastic between the surface coil and the body. This sheet destroys locally the field homogeneity and therefore all signal from structures around the coil. The very high reproducibility of the simple experimental procedure allows long-term studies important for monitoring tumor therapy

  16. Cavity-enhanced spectroscopies

    CERN Document Server

    van Zee, Roger

    2003-01-01

    ""Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopy"" discusses the use of optical resonators and lasers to make sensitive spectroscopic measurements. This volume is written by the researcchers who pioneered these methods. The book reviews both the theory and practice behind these spectroscopic tools and discusses the scientific discoveries uncovered by these techniques. It begins with a chapter on the use of optical resonators for frequency stabilization of lasers, which is followed by in-depth chapters discussing cavity ring-down spectroscopy, frequency-modulated, cavity-enhanced spectroscopy, intracavity spectr

  17. Photoionization using the xchem approach: Total and partial cross sections of Ne and resonance parameters above the 2 s22 p5 threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marante, Carlos; Klinker, Markus; Kjellsson, Tor; Lindroth, Eva; González-Vázquez, Jesús; Argenti, Luca; Martín, Fernando

    2017-08-01

    The XCHEM approach interfaces well established quantum chemistry packages with scattering numerical methods in order to describe single-ionization processes in atoms and molecules. This should allow one to describe electron correlation in the continuum at the same level of accuracy as quantum chemistry methods do for bound states. Here we have applied this method to study multichannel photoionization of Ne in the vicinity of the autoionizing states lying between the 2 s22 p5 and 2 s 2 p6 ionization thresholds. The calculated total photoionization cross sections are in very good agreement with the absolute measurement of Samson et al. [J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 123, 265 (2002), 10.1016/S0368-2048(02)00026-9], and with independent benchmark calculations performed at the same level of theory. From these cross sections, we have extracted resonance positions, total autoionization widths, Fano profile parameters, and correlation parameters for the lowest three autoionizing states. The values of these parameters are in good agreement with those reported in earlier theoretical and experimental work. We have also evaluated β asymmetry parameter and partial photoionization cross sections and, from the latter, partial autoionization widths and Starace parameters for the same resonances, not yet available in the literature. Resonant features in the calculated β parameter are in good agreement with the experimental observations. We have found that the three lowest resonances preferentially decay into the 2 p-1ɛ d continuum rather than into the 2 p-1ɛ s one [Phys. Rev. A 89, 043415 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.043415], in agreement with previous expectations, and that in the vicinity of the resonances the partial 2 p-1ɛ s cross section can be larger than the 2 p-1ɛ d one, in contrast with the accepted idea that the latter should amply dominate in the whole energy range. These results show the potential of the XCHEM approach to describe highly correlated process

  18. Significance of negative ion formation in sputtering and SIMS analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuomo, J.J.; Gambino, R.J.; Harper, J.M.E.; Kuptsis, J.D.; Webber, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    An unexpected substrate etching phenomenon during the sputtering of certain intermetallic compounds has been found to be caused by a large flux of negative metal ions from the sputtering target. The substrates directly under the target in a diode geometry are etched (eroded) rather than coated with a film. The occurrence of this substrate etching has been correlated with negative ion yields measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). We find a high yield of negative metal ions from several intermetallic compounds in addition to the highly ionic compounds previously reported. A model based on electron charge transfer is presented which predicts when negative ion formation will be important, and the dependence of etch rate on target voltage is also treated. We predict that negative ion effects will be found in the sputtering of a wide range of compounds

  19. Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Christine; Peters, Georg

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The definition of the heterogeneous group of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) is still based on diagnostic procedures that fulfill the clinical need to differentiate between Staphylococcus aureus and those staphylococci classified historically as being less or nonpathogenic. Due to patient- and procedure-related changes, CoNS now represent one of the major nosocomial pathogens, with S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus being the most significant species. They account substantially for foreign body-related infections and infections in preterm newborns. While S. saprophyticus has been associated with acute urethritis, S. lugdunensis has a unique status, in some aspects resembling S. aureus in causing infectious endocarditis. In addition to CoNS found as food-associated saprophytes, many other CoNS species colonize the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals and are less frequently involved in clinically manifested infections. This blurred gradation in terms of pathogenicity is reflected by species- and strain-specific virulence factors and the development of different host-defending strategies. Clearly, CoNS possess fewer virulence properties than S. aureus, with a respectively different disease spectrum. In this regard, host susceptibility is much more important. Therapeutically, CoNS are challenging due to the large proportion of methicillin-resistant strains and increasing numbers of isolates with less susceptibility to glycopeptides. PMID:25278577

  20. Microdosimetry of negative pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amols, H.I.; Dicello, J.F.; Lane, T.F.

    1976-01-01

    The radiation quality of negative and positive pions of initial momentum 168MeV/c has been determined at eight different depths in a liquid phantom. The measurements were made with a 2.5cm diameter spherical proportional counter with Shonka A-150 neutron tissue equivalent plastic walls. The gas pressure in the sensitive volume was chosen to stimulate a diameter of 2μm in unit density material. Dose distributions as a function of lineal energy change slowly in the entrance and plateau regions with a dose mean lineal energy of 6-8keV/μm. Less than 3% of the dose is delivered in excess of 50keV/μm in this region. In the Bragg peak region the distributions change rapidly as a function of depth with the dose mean lineal energy increasing to 38keV/μm at the peak and to 57keV/μm just beyond the peak. On the basis of these microdosimetric data predictions of RBE and OER have been made with the use of both the theory of dual radiation action and also the delta ray theory of cell survival. The former has been used to predict biological response at low doses and the latter at high doses. A comparison is made between the two theories at intermediate doses. The results of these calculations are not inconsistant with recent biological data

  1. Negative ion beam extraction in ROBIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, Gourab, E-mail: bansal@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India); Gahlaut, Agrajit; Soni, Jignesh; Pandya, Kaushal; Parmar, Kanu G.; Pandey, Ravi; Vuppugalla, Mahesh; Prajapati, Bhavesh; Patel, Amee; Mistery, Hiren [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India); Chakraborty, Arun; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak; Singh, Mahendrajit J.; Phukan, Arindam; Yadav, Ratnakar K.; Parmar, Deepak [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, A-29, Sector 25, GIDC, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 380025 (India)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► A RF based negative hydrogen ion beam test bed has been set up at IPR, India. ► Ion source has been successfully commissioned and three campaigns of plasma production have been carried out. ► Extraction system (35 kV) has been installed and commissioning has been initiated. Negative ion beam extraction is immediate milestone. -- Abstract: The RF based single driver −ve ion source experiment test bed ROBIN (Replica Of BATMAN like source in INDIA) has been set up at Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), India in a technical collaboration with IPP, Garching, Germany. A hydrogen plasma of density 5 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −3} is expected in driver region of ROBIN by launching 100 kW RF power into the driver by 1 MHz RF generator. The cesiated source is expected to deliver a hydrogen negative ion beam of 10 A at 35 kV with a current density of 35 mA/cm{sup 2} as observed in BATMAN. In first phase operation of the ROBIN ion source, a hydrogen plasma has been successfully generated (without extraction system) by coupling 80 kW RF input power through a matching network with high power factor (cos θ > 0.8) and different plasma parameters have been measured using Langmuir probes and emission spectroscopy. The plasma density of 2.5 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −3} has been measured in the extraction region of ROBIN. For negative hydrogen ion beam extraction in second phase operation, extraction system has been assembled and installed with ion source on the vacuum vessel. The source shall be first operated in volume mode for negative ion beam extraction. The commissioning of the source with high voltage power supply has been initiated.

  2. IR Spectroscopy. An introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenzler, H.; Gremlich, H.U.

    2002-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: absorption and molecular design, spectrometers, sample preparation, qualitative spectral interpretation and assertions, near-infrared and far-infrared spectroscopy, reference spectra and expert systems

  3. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    ARTICLE. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Biological Applications. B G Hegde. Recently, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectros- copy has emerged as a powerful tool to study the structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules such as proteins, protein aggregates ... research interests are.

  4. Foundations of laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Stenholm, Stig

    2005-01-01

    A simple presentation of the theoretical foundations of steady-state laser spectroscopy, this text helps students to apply theory to calculations with a systematic series of examples and exercises. 1984 edition.

  5. Charmonium spectroscopy, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahn, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    The state of charmonium spectroscopy is reviewed. All analyses proceed from a spin-dependent, non-relativistic Schroedinger equation. Many of the possible branching ratios for charm like states are investigated. 17 refs

  6. Dual THz comb spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Takeshi

    2017-08-01

    Optical frequency combs are innovative tools for broadband spectroscopy because a series of comb modes can serve as frequency markers that are traceable to a microwave frequency standard. However, a mode distribution that is too discrete limits the spectral sampling interval to the mode frequency spacing even though individual mode linewidth is sufficiently narrow. Here, using a combination of a spectral interleaving and dual-comb spectroscopy in the terahertz (THz) region, we achieved a spectral sampling interval equal to the mode linewidth rather than the mode spacing. The spectrally interleaved THz comb was realized by sweeping the laser repetition frequency and interleaving additional frequency marks. In low-pressure gas spectroscopy, we achieved an improved spectral sampling density of 2.5 MHz and enhanced spectral accuracy of 8.39 × 10-7 in the THz region. The proposed method is a powerful tool for simultaneously achieving high resolution, high accuracy, and broad spectral coverage in THz spectroscopy.

  7. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hink, M.A.; Verveer, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy techniques allow the quantification of fluorescent molecules present at the nanomolar concentration level. After a brief introduction to the technique, this chapter presents a protocol including background information in order to measure and quantify the

  8. EDITORIAL: Nano Meets Spectroscopy Nano Meets Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, David J. S.

    2012-08-01

    The multidisciplinary two-day Nano Meets Spectroscopy (NMS) event was held at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Teddington, UK, in September 2011. The event was planned from the outset to be at the interface of several areas—in particular, spectroscopy and nanoscience, and to bring together topics and people with different approaches to achieving common goals in biomolecular science. Hence the meeting cut across traditional boundaries and brought together researchers using diverse techniques, particularly fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy. Despite engaging common problems, these techniques are frequently seen as mutually exclusive with the two communities rarely interacting at conferences. The meeting was widely seen to have lived up to its billing in good measure. It attracted the maximum capacity of ~120 participants, including 22 distinguished speakers (9 from outside the UK), over 50 posters and a vibrant corporate exhibition comprising 10 leading instrument companies and IOP Publishing. The organizers were Professor David Birch (Chair), Dr Karen Faulds and Professor Duncan Graham of the University of Strathclyde, Professor Cait MacPhee of the University of Edinburgh and Dr Alex Knight of NPL. The event was sponsored by the European Science Foundation, the Institute of Physics, the Royal Society of Chemistry, NPL and the Scottish Universities Physics Alliance. The full programme and abstracts are available at http://sensor.phys.strath.ac.uk/nms/program.php. The programme was quite ambitious in terms of the breadth and depth of scope. The interdisciplinary and synergistic concept of 'X meets Y' played well, cross-fertilization between different fields often being a source of inspiration and progress. Fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy provided the core, but the meeting had little repetition and also attracted contributions on more specialist techniques such as CARS, super-resolution, single molecule and chiral methods. In terms of application the

  9. Spectroscopy stepping stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, M.R.; Sturman, B.T.

    2003-01-01

    Determining the elemental composition of samples has long been a basic task of analytical science. Some very powerful and convenient approaches are based on the wavelength-specific absorption or emission of light by gas-phase atoms. Techniques briefly described as examples of analytical atomic spectrometry include atomic emission and absorption spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma emission and mass spectroscopy and laser induced breakdown spectrometry

  10. Matrix photoionization and radiolysis of the fluorobromomethanes. Infrared spectra and photochemistry of CFBr2+, CF2Br+, CF3+, and the parent cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prochaska, F.T.; Andrews, L.

    1978-01-01

    The molecules CFBr 3 , CF 2 Br 2 , CF 3 Br, and C-13 enriched CF 3 Br have been subjected to matrix radiolysis and argon resonance photoionization during condensation with excess argon at 15 K. Infrared spectra showed stable and free radical products and new absorptions due to charged species. The molecular ion bands exhibited different behavior on filtered high-pressure mercury arc photolysis. Absorptions reduced by 220 to 1000-nm light are assigned to CFBr 2 + , CF 2 Br + , and CF 3 + ; other bands destroyed by photolysis are assigned to the parent cations. Li and Na atom reactions with the fluorobromomethane molecules confirmed the identification of the CFBr 2 and CF 2 Br free radicals. Other product bands destroyed by mercury arc light, some of which were generated upon photolysis of the sodium-fluorobromomethane samples, are assigned to molecular anions. 5 figures, 6 tables

  11. Double photoionization of helium at an excess energy of 60 eV using left- and right-elliptically-polarized light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, S.A.; Cvejanovic, S.; Dawson, C.; Reddish, T.J.; Seccombe, D.P.; Huetz, A.; Malegat, L.; Selles, P.; Kazansky, A.K.; Danjo, A.; Soejima, K.; Okuno, K.; Yagishita, A.

    2002-01-01

    Helium double photoionization (γ,2e) triple differential cross sections (TDCSs) were measured at an excess energy of 60 eV using a dual toroidal spectrometer and synchrotron radiation from a helical undulator (BL-28A, Photon Factory, Japan). Energy-sharing ratios (R=E 2 /E 1 ) for the two ejected electrons of 5 and 11 are studied with both right- and left-handed elliptically polarized light. The TDCSs are found to be in good agreement with those obtained using the hyperspherical R matrix with semiclassical outgoing waves theory. The circular dichroism for a limited mutual angular range (φ 12 ≅110 deg. -200 deg.) is determined from the experimental data for both R=5 and 11, and compared to theoretical calculations performed over the complete range of mutual angles. No dynamic nodes are found in either the experimental (within the explored φ 12 range) or theoretical circular dichroism for these R values at this excess energy

  12. High-energy double photoeffect and photoionization with excitation from 2 {sup 1}S and 2 {sup 3}S states of helium-like ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amusia, M.Ya. [The Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel); A F Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, 194921 St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Mikhailov, A.I.; Mikhailov, I.A. [St Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, 188350 St Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1999-10-28

    Double ionization and ionization with excitation of helium-like ions with Z>>1 from 2 {sup 1}S and 2 {sup 3}S states on the absorption of a high-frequency photon have been considered. The analytical calculation is performed in the non-relativistic photon energy range in the lowest order of perturbation theory in the inter-electron interaction. Coulomb wavefunctions and the Coulomb Green function are used as a zeroth-order approximation. Differential and total cross sections of the processes are expressed via the corresponding values for the single photoionization. The photoelectron energy spectrum is obtained in the marginal energy range (i.e. for p{sub 1}>>p{sub 2}, p{sub 1} and p{sub 2} momenta of photoelectrons) for the double-ionization process. Simple relations between the cross sections of double ionization and ionization with excitation are derived. (author)

  13. The influence of the charge-exchange reactions of carbon in the photoionization models for spectrum-line emitting region in the quasi-stellar objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Pellegrini, P.S. de.

    1976-08-01

    The charge exchange reactions: C +2 + H sub(e) 0 → H +1 + C +1 and C +2 + H 0 → H +1 + C +1 were taken into account in the ionization equilibrium of Carbon in photoionization models for line emitting regions of quasi-stellar objects. The new ionization structure of Carbon was obtained and the intensities of the most important emission lines of this element usually observed in QSO's with large redshifts were calculated. The charge exchange with Hidrogen produces negligible effects while the importance of taking into account the charge exchange with Helium can be seen from the change of the ionization structure of Carbon in all considered models. The homogeneous optically thin model is shown not to be consistent with the observations. For non homogeneous optically thick models observable changes in line intensities occur when in the region where charge exhange is dominant the electron density is high enough to produce collisional excitation and consequent line emission. (Author)

  14. Soft X-Ray Photoionizing Organic Matter from Comet Wild 2: Evidence for the Production of Organic Matter by Impact Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Wirick, S.; Flynn, G. J.; Jacobsen, C.; Na

    2011-01-01

    The Stardust mission collected both mineral and organic matter from Comet Wild 2 [1,2,3,4]. The organic matter discovered in Comet Wild 2 ranges from aromatic hydrocarbons to simple aliphatic chains and is as diverse and complex as organic matter found in carbonaceous chondrites and interplanetary dust particles.[3,5,6,7,8,9]. Compared to insoluble organic matter from carbonaceous chondrites the organic matter in Comet Wild 2 more closely resembles organic matter found in the IDPS both hydrous and anhydrous. Common processes for the formation of organic matter in space include: Fischer-Tropsch, included with this aqueous large body and moderate heating alterations; UV irradiation of ices; and; plasma formation and collisions. The Fischer-Tropsch could only occur on large bodies processes, and the production of organic matter by UV radiation is limited by the penetration depth of UV photons, on the order of a few microns or less for most organic matter, so once organic matter coats the ices it is formed from, the organic production process would stop. Also, the organic matter formed by UV irradiation would, by the nature of the process, be in-sensitive to photodissocation from UV light. The energy of soft X-rays, 280-300 eV occur within the range of extreme ultraviolet photons. During the preliminary examination period we found a particle that nearly completely photoionized when exposed to photons in the energy range 280-310eV. This particle experienced a long exposure time to the soft x-ray beam which caused almost complete mass loss so little chemical information was obtain. During the analysis of our second allocation we have discovered another particle that photoionized at these energies but the exposure time was limited and more chemical information was obtained.

  15. Meaning of the negative impedance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conciauro, G.; Puglisi, M.

    1981-06-01

    It is shown that the negative real part of an input impedance does not mean instability of the related circuit. A negative real part of the input impedance means only that the concerned circuit is active.

  16. Meaning of the negative impedance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conciauro, G.; Puglisi, M.

    1981-06-01

    It is shown that the negative real part of an input impedance does not mean instability of the related circuit. A negative real part of the input impedance means only that the concerned circuit is active

  17. Negative index in chiral metamaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, S.; Plum, E.; Menzel, C.; Rockstuhl, C.; Zheludev, N.; Zhang, W.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that planar metamaterial lacking of mirror symmetry shows asymmetric transmission of terahertz waves and bands of positive, negative and zero phase and group velocities indicating a polarization sensitive negative index and slow-light media.

  18. Negative dimensional integrals. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliday, I.G.; Ricotta, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    We propose a new method of evaluating integrals based on negative dimensional integration. We compute Feynman graphs by considering analytic extensions. Propagators are raised to negative integer powers and integrated over negative integer dimensions. We are left with the problem of computing polynomial integrals and summing finite series. (orig.)

  19. Thermodynamics of negative absolute pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Martinas, K.

    1984-03-01

    The authors show that the possibility of negative absolute pressure can be incorporated into the axiomatic thermodynamics, analogously to the negative absolute temperature. There are examples for such systems (GUT, QCD) processing negative absolute pressure in such domains where it can be expected from thermodynamical considerations. (author)

  20. Negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, A.L.C.

    1979-01-01

    This thesis describes some aspects of Negative Chemical Ionization (NCI) mass spectrometry. The reasons for the growing interest in NCI are: (i) to extend the basic knowledge of negative ions and their reactions in the gas phase; (ii) to investigate whether or not this knowledge of negative ions can be used successfully to elucidate the structure of molecules by mass spectrometry. (Auth.)

  1. The case for negative senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaupel, James W; Baudisch, Annette; Dölling, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Negative senescence is characterized by a decline in mortality with age after reproductive maturity, generally accompanied by an increase in fecundity. Hamilton (1966) ruled out negative senescence: we adumbrate the deficiencies of his model. We review empirical studies of various plants and some...... kinds of animals that may experience negative senescence and conclude that negative senescence may be widespread, especially in indeterminate-growth species for which size and fertility increase with age. We develop optimization models of life-history strategies that demonstrate that negative senescence...

  2. Moessbauer spectroscopy. Tutorial book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Yutaka; Langouche, Guido

    2013-01-01

    First textbook on Moessbauer Spectroscopy covering the complete field. Offers a concise introduction to all aspects of Moessbauer spectroscopy by the leading experts in the field. Tutorials on Moessbauer Spectroscopy. Since the discovery of the Moessbauer Effect many excellent books have been published for researchers and for doctoral and master level students. However, there appears to be no textbook available for final year bachelor students, nor for people working in industry who have received only basic courses in classical mechanics, electromagnetism, quantum mechanics, chemistry and materials science. The challenge of this book is to give an introduction to Moessbauer Spectroscopy for this level. The ultimate goal of this book is to give this audience not only a scientific introduction to the technique, but also to demonstrate in an attractive way the power of Moessbauer Spectroscopy in many fields of science, in order to create interest among the readers in joining the community of Moessbauer spectroscopists. This is particularly important at times where in many Moessbauer laboratories succession is at stake.

  3. Investigation of the ionization mechanism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using an ethanol/bromobenzene/chlorobenzene/anisole mixture as a dopant in liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry

    KAUST Repository

    Amad, Maan H.

    2012-09-23

    RATIONALE An ethanol-based multicomponent dopant consisting of ethanol/chlorobenzene/bromobenzene/anisole (98.975:0.1:0.9:0.025, v/v/v/v) has been used as a dopant for atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study the mechanism of ionization of PAHs assisted by the ethanol-based multicomponent dopant is investigated. METHODS The reactant background cluster ions of the ethanol-based multicomponent dopant observed in the positive ion APPI were studied. These studies were performed to investigate the mechanism behind the generation of a molecular radical cation (M +•) for PAHs by APPI assisted by the ethanol-based multicomponent dopant. Full scan and MS/MS analyses were conducted using an LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer. The effect of acidification of the mobile phase on the dopant cluster ion formation was also investigated. RESULTS With the ethanol-based multicomponent dopant, a single type of molecular radical cation M +• was observed for the studied PAHs. The characteristic ion signal of the multicomponent dopant mixture consisted of mainly anisole photoions at m/z 108.05697 and its adduct ions at m/z 124.05188 and 164.07061. The anisole ion response at m/z 108.05697 was stable in the presence of acetonitrile, methanol, water and 0.1% formic acid mobile phase composition. CONCLUSIONS The abundance formation of anisole photoions shows the universality of this multicomponent dopant in ionizing compounds with ionization energy ranging from 7.1-8.2 eV. Since the ionization energy of anisole is 8.2 eV and is lower than those of chlorobenzene (9.07 eV) and bromobenzene (9.0 eV), the mechanism of formation of anisole photoions even with its very minute amounts was not only governed by its photoionization by the krypton lamp photon energy (10.0 eV and 10.6 eV), but also by charge transfer from bromobenzene and chlorobenzene radical cations. PAH molecules were mainly ionized by charge transfer reaction from

  4. Spatially Resolved Spectroscopy of the Globular Cluster RZ 2109 and the Nature of its Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Mark B.; Zepf, Stephen E.; Kundu, Arunav; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Rhode, Katherine L.; Salzer, John J.; Waters, Christopher Z.; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Stern, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    We present optical Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS) spectroscopy of RZ 2109, a globular cluster (GC) in the elliptical galaxy NGC 4472. This GC is notable for hosting an ultraluminous X-ray source as well as associated strong and broad [O III] λλ4959, 5007 emission. We show that the HST/STIS spectroscopy spatially resolves the [O III] emission in RZ 2109. While we are unable to make a precise determination of the morphology of the emission-line nebula, the best-fitting models all require that the [O III] λ5007 emission has a half-light radius in the range 3-7 pc. The extended nature of the [O III] λ5007 emission is inconsistent with published models that invoke an intermediate-mass black hole origin. It is also inconsistent with the ionization of ejecta from a nova in the cluster. The spatial scale of the nebula could be produced via the photoionization of a strong wind driven from a stellar mass black hole accreting at roughly its Eddington rate. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  5. SPATIALLY RESOLVED SPECTROSCOPY OF THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER RZ 2109 AND THE NATURE OF ITS BLACK HOLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peacock, Mark B.; Zepf, Stephen E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Kundu, Arunav [Eureka Scientific, Inc., 2452 Delmer Street, Suite 100 Oakland, CA 94602 (United States); Maccarone, Thomas J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Rhode, Katherine L.; Salzer, John J. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Waters, Christopher Z. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Stern, Daniel, E-mail: mpeacock@msu.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2012-11-10

    We present optical Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS) spectroscopy of RZ 2109, a globular cluster (GC) in the elliptical galaxy NGC 4472. This GC is notable for hosting an ultraluminous X-ray source as well as associated strong and broad [O III] {lambda}{lambda}4959, 5007 emission. We show that the HST/STIS spectroscopy spatially resolves the [O III] emission in RZ 2109. While we are unable to make a precise determination of the morphology of the emission-line nebula, the best-fitting models all require that the [O III] {lambda}5007 emission has a half-light radius in the range 3-7 pc. The extended nature of the [O III] {lambda}5007 emission is inconsistent with published models that invoke an intermediate-mass black hole origin. It is also inconsistent with the ionization of ejecta from a nova in the cluster. The spatial scale of the nebula could be produced via the photoionization of a strong wind driven from a stellar mass black hole accreting at roughly its Eddington rate.

  6. Plasmon enhanced spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroca, Ricardo F

    2013-04-21

    Surface enhanced spectroscopy encompasses a broad field of linear and nonlinear optical techniques that arose with the discovery of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect. SERS enabled ultrasensitive and single molecule detection with molecular fingerprint specificity, opening the door for a large variety of chemical sensing applications. Basically, from the beginning it was realized that the necessary condition for SERS to be observed was the presence of a metallic nanostructure, and with this condition, the optical enhancement found a home in the field of plasmonics. Although plasmonic practitioners claim that SERS is "the most spectacular application of plasmonics", perhaps it is more appropriate to say that the spectacular development of plasmonics is due to SERS. Here is a brief recollection from surface enhanced spectroscopy to plasmon enhanced spectroscopy.

  7. Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Zeitler, Axel; Kuwata-Gonokami, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    "This book presents the current state of knowledge in the field of terahertz spectroscopy, providing a comprehensive source of information for beginners and experienced researchers alike whose interests lie in this area. The book aims to explain the fundamental physics that underpins terahertz  technology and to describe its key applications. Highlights of scientific research in the field of terahertz science are also outlined in some chapters, providing an overview as well as giving an insight into future directions for research.  Over the past decade terahertz spectroscopy has developed into one of the most rapidly growing areas of its kind, gaining an important impact across a wide range of scientific disciplines. Due to substantial advances in femtosecond laser technology, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) has established itself as the dominant spectroscopic technique for experimental scientists interested in measurements at this frequency range. In solids and liquids THz radiation is in reso...

  8. Negative snakes in JET: evidence for negative shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, R.D.; Alper, B.; Edwards, A.W.

    1994-01-01

    The signature of the negative snakes from the soft X-ray cameras is very similar to the more usual snakes except that the localised region of the snake has, compared with its surroundings, decreased rather than increased emission. Circumstances where negative snakes have been seen are reviewed. The negative snake appears as a region of increased resistance and of increased impurity density. The relationship between the shear and the current perturbation is shown, and it seem probable that the magnetic shear is reversed at the point of the negative snake, i.e. that q is decreasing with radius. 6 refs., 6 figs

  9. Infrared spectroscopy of stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, K. M.; Ridgway, S. T.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reviews applications of IR techniques in stellar classification, studies of stellar photospheres, elemental and isotopic abundances, and the nature of remnant and ejected matter in near-circumstellar regions. Qualitative IR spectral classification of cool and hot stars is discussed, along with IR spectra of peculiar composite star systems and of obscured stars, and IR characteristics of stellar populations. The use of IR spectroscopy in theoretical modeling of stellar atmospheres is examined, IR indicators of stellar atmospheric composition are described, and contributions of IR spectroscopy to the study of stellar recycling of interstellar matter are summarized. The future of IR astronomy is also considered.

  10. Ultrafast Internal Conversion of Aromatic Molecules Studied by Photoelectron Spectroscopy using Sub-20 fs Laser Pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshinori Suzuki

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article describes our recent experimental studies on internal conversion via a conical intersection using photoelectron spectroscopy. Ultrafast S2(ππ*–S1(nπ* internal conversion in pyrazine is observed in real time using sub-20 fs deep ultraviolet pulses (264 and 198 nm. While the photoelectron kinetic energy distribution does not exhibit a clear signature of internal conversion, the photoelectron angular anisotropy unambiguously reveals the sudden change of electron configuration upon internal conversion. An explanation is presented as to why these two observables have different sensitivities to internal conversion. The 198 nm probe photon energy is insufficient for covering the entire Franck-Condon envelopes upon photoionization from S2/S1 to D1/D0. A vacuum ultraviolet free electron laser (SCSS producing 161 nm radiation is employed to solve this problem, while its pulse-to-pulse timing jitter limits the time resolution to about 1 ps. The S2–S1 internal conversion is revisited using the sub-20 fs 159 nm pulse created by filamentation four-wave mixing. Conical intersections between D1(π−1 and D0(n−1 and also between the Rydberg state with a D1 ion core and that with a D0 ion core of pyrazine are studied by He(I photoelectron spectroscopy, pulsed field ionization photoelectron spectroscopy and one-color resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization spectroscopy. Finally, ultrafast S2(ππ*–S1(ππ* internal conversion in benzene and toluene are compared with pyrazine.

  11. Charging of mesospheric aerosol particles: the role of photodetachment and photoionization from meteoric smoke and ice particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rapp

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Time constants for photodetachment, photoemission, and electron capture are considered for two classes of mesospheric aerosol particles, i.e., meteor smoke particles (MSPs and pure water ice particles. Assuming that MSPs consist of metal oxides like Fe2O3 or SiO, we find that during daytime conditions photodetachment by solar photons is up to 4 orders of magnitude faster than electron attachment such that MSPs cannot be negatively charged in the presence of sunlight. Rather, even photoemission can compete with electron capture unless the electron density becomes very large (>>1000 cm−3 such that MSPs should either be positively charged or neutral in the case of large electron densities. For pure water ice particles, however, both photodetachment and photoemission are negligible due to the wavelength characteristics of its absorption cross section and because the flux of solar photons has already dropped significantly at such short wavelengths. This means that water ice particles should normally be negatively charged. Hence, our results can readily explain the repeated observation of the coexistence of positive and negative aerosol particles in the polar summer mesopause, i.e., small MSPs should be positively charged and ice particles should be negatively charged. These results have further important implications for our understanding of the nucleation of mesospheric ice particles as well as for the interpretation of incoherent scatter radar observations of MSPs.

  12. Negative Attitudes, Network and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe

    use Danish register data to find a signficant positive correlation between negative attitudes towards immigrants and high school attendance and find a positive impact of networking on high school attendance. In both the macro and the micro-econometric analysis we run the same regressions for natives......We consider the impact of negative attitudes against immigrants and immigration on educational choice in a search and wage bargaining model including networking. We consider two cases in terms of the importance of negative attitudes againts immigrants for high and low educated individuals and find...... that more negative attitudes against immigrants has a positive impact on education in one case and a negative impact in the other and has no impact on natives. Immigration improves employment perspectives for immigrants and thereby increases immigrant education whereas endogenous negative attitudes lead...

  13. Wages, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of the attitudes on immigrants welfare. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are of importance: they both affect their labour market outcomes and their quality of life. We...... interpret the negative effect on wages as evidence of labour market discrimination. We estimate the welfare effects of negative attitudes, through their wage and local amenities, for immigrants with different levels of skills, origin, gender and age....

  14. On Negation as Mitigation: The Case of Negative Irony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giora, Rachel; Fein, Ofer; Ganzi, Jonathan; Levi, Natalie Alkeslassy; Sabah, Hadas

    2005-01-01

    Four experiments support the view of negation as mitigation (Giora, Balaban, Fein, & Alkabets, 2004). They show that when irony involves some sizable gap between what is said and what is criticized (He is exceptionally bright said of an idiot), it is rated as highly ironic (Giora, 1995). A negated version of that overstatement (He is not…

  15. Intense negative heavy ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yoshiharu; Takagi, Akira; Ikegami, Kiyoshi; Ueno, Akira; Fukumoto, Sadayoshi

    1990-08-01

    Negative ion sources based on plasma-surface interactions (BLAKE ion source) have been developed at KEK for producing negative heavy ions. The first negative heavy ion source (BLAKE-II) was developed by modifying the ordinary negative hydrogen ion source with converter (BLAKE-I) placed into the plasma. It generates various species of negative heavy ions with intense beam currents. For example, a more than 10 mA Au- ion beam was obtained from the ion source. Recently, the large scaled negative heavy ion source (BLAKE-III) has been developed and in the preliminary test experiment, more than 100 mA Cu- ion beam has been stably obtained with a 10% duty factor in pulsed operation. The BLAKE-II ion source was attached to the BNL 15 MV and Tsukuba University TANDEM accelerators and large current negative heavy ion beams were successfully accelerated in pulsed mode operation. Also, it was found that the space charge effect should be carefully considered for such a large current acceleration in a tandem accelerator, especially at the injection beam line and low energy end. In order to examine the negative ion formation process fundamentally, negative ion production probability related on sputtered particle velocity was measured and the results showed exponential dependence of the production probability on particle velocity as Norskov and Lindquist's theory predicted.

  16. Prestarlike functions with negative coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Silverman

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available The extreme points for prestarlike functions having negative coefficients are determined. Coefficient, distortion and radii of univalence, starlikeness, and convexity theorems are also obtained.

  17. Negative ions of polyatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christophorou, LG.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper general concepts relating to, and recent advances in, the study of negative ions of polyatomic molecules are discussed with emphasis on halocarbons. The topics dealt with in the paper are as follows: basic electron attachment processes, modes of electron capture by molecules, short-lived transient negative ions, dissociative electron attachment to ground-state molecules and to hot molecules (effects of temperature on electron attachment), parent negative ions, effect of density, nature, and state of the medium on electron attachment, electron attachment to electronically excited molecules, the binding of attached electrons to molecules (electron affinity), and the basic and the applied significance of negative-ion studies

  18. Valence and inner-valence shell dissociative photoionization of CO in the 26-33 eV range. II. Molecular-frame and recoil-frame photoelectron angular distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, M.; Houver, J.C.; Raseev, G.

    2012-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical results for molecular-frame photoemission are presented for inner-valence shell photoionization of the CO molecule induced by linearly and circularly polarized light. The experimental recoil frame photoelectron angular distributions (RFPADs) obtained from dissociative...... for the case of general elliptically polarized light, to obtain the RFPAD rather than the molecular frame photoelectron angular distribution (MFPAD), which would be obtained with the assumption of instantaneous dissociation. We have considered photoionization of CO for the photon energies of 26.0 eV, 29.5 e......V, and 32.5 eV. A comparison of experimental and theoretical RFPADs allows us to identify the ionic states detected in the experimental studies. In addition to previously identified states, we found evidence for the 2 (2)Delta state with an ionization potential of 25.3 eV and (2)Sigma(+) states...

  19. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 2. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy: Every Molecule is Different! Kankan Bhattacharyya. General Article Volume 20 Issue 2 February 2015 pp 151-164. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  20. Astronomical Spectroscopy -24 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in Mendeleev's Periodic Table when the latter was formulated in. 1869. Cesium was discovered ten years earlier, in 1859; it is the first element discovered by spectroscopy. Kirchhoff and Bunsen continued their search; another new element was discovered in. 1860. It was named rubidium, and it filled up another slot in the.