WorldWideScience

Sample records for negative off-site impacts

  1. Assessing off-site impacts of wildfires on aquatic organisms using in-situ assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ré, Ana; Saraiva, MariaJoão; Puga, João; Campos, Isabel; Pereira, Joana; Keizer, Jacob; Goncalves, Fernando; Abrantes, Nelson

    2017-04-01

    Wildfires have been recognized as an important source of diffuse pollution to aquatic systems, particularly through the production and transport of pyrolytic substances such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals associated to ash/soil loads. However, the effects of these compounds from recently burnt areas on the aquatic biota have been largely ignored. Hence, the main goal of this study was to assess the ecotoxicological effects of wildfires in aquatic systems through the use of in situ experiments. In this sense, five sites were selected in a catchment partially burnt: two in the main water course - Ceira river (Miranda do Corvo, Portugal), being one located upstream (RUS) and the other downstream (RDS) the burnt area; two in tributary streams within the burnt area (SUS and SDS); and finally one in a stream located in the unburnt part of the catchment (CS). During the first post-fire rainfall events, distinct organisms, including the water flea Daphnia magna, the freshwater shrimp Atyaephyra desmaresti, the freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea and the mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki were exposed in situ, in all five sites, using dedicated test chambers. After four days of field exposition, the mortality and post-exposure feeding inhibition were evaluated. Feeding depression after exposure time was selected as a sub-lethal endpoint because it is a quick, sensitive and ecologically relevant indicator of toxic stress. The results showed negligible mortality for all the species and sites, thus lethality was not sensitive to discern impacts among the assessed sites. Conversely, the sub-lethal post-exposure feeding inhibition endpoint, revealed a decrease of feeding rate, in streams within the burnt area (SUS and SDS), that seemed to be the most affected places in the study area. Conversely, the sites outside the burnt area, both on river (RUS) and on the stream (CS), showed no adverse effects in this endpoint. Hence, the current results pointed-out that

  2. Off-Site Storage and Special Collections: A Study in Use and Impact in ARL Libraries in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priddle, Charlotte; McCann, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Special collections libraries collect and preserve materials of intellectual and cultural heritage, providing access to unique research resources. As their holdings continue to expand, special collections in research libraries confront increased space pressures. Off-site storage facilities, used frequently by research libraries for general…

  3. LHCb Off-site HLT Farm Demonstration

    CERN Document Server

    Neufeld, Niko

    2012-01-01

    The LHCb High Level Trigger (HLT) farm consists of about 1300 nodes, which are housed in the underground server room. Due to the constraints of the power supply and cooling system, it is difficult to install more servers in this room for the future. Off-site farm is a solution to enlarge the computing capacity. In this paper, we will demonstrate the concept of LHCb off-site HLT farm extension into the CERN computing center. Furthermore, the performance of the key technologies have been tested in the lab.

  4. CLOSURE OF OFF-SITE TELNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Denise Heagerty

    2002-01-01

    To reduce the number of regular break-ins on CERN machines due to passwords exposed on the network in clear text, OFF-SITE TELNET ACCESS TO CERN WILL BE BLOCKED in the CERN firewall from Tuesday 28 January 2003 If you use telnet to access CERN computers from outside CERN then please see the link below for alternative access means and further advice http://cern.ch/security/telnet Denise Heagerty, CERN Computer Security officer, Computer.Security@cern.ch

  5. Closure of Off-Site FTP

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    To reduce the number of regular break-ins on CERN machines due to passwords exposed on the network in clear text, OFF-SITE FTP ACCESS TO CERN WILL BE BLOCKED in the CERN firewall from: Tuesday 20th January 2004 If you use ftp to access CERN computers from outside CERN then please see the link below for alternative access means and further advice: http://cern.ch/security/ftp Denise Heagerty, CERN Computer Security officer, Computer.Security@cern.ch

  6. Closure of Off-Site FTP

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    To reduce the number of regular break-ins on CERN machines due to passwords exposed on the network in clear text, OFF-SITE FTP ACCESS TO CERN WILL BE BLOCKED in the CERN firewall from: Tuesday 20th January 2004 If you use ftp to access CERN computers from outside CERN then please see the link below for alternative access means and further advice: http://cern.ch/security/ftp Denise Heagerty, CERN Computer Security officer, Computer.Security@cern.ch

  7. Closure of Off-Site Telnet

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    To reduce the number of regular break-ins on CERN machines due to passwords exposed on the network in clear text, OFF-SITE TELNET ACCESS TO CERN WILL BE BLOCKED in the CERN firewall from Tuesday 28th January 2003 If you use telnet to access CERN computers from outside CERN then please see the link below for alternative access means and further advice http://cern.ch/security/telnet Denise Heagerty, CERN Computer Security officer, Computer.Security@cern.ch

  8. Off-Site Source Recovery Project Overview.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coel-Roback, Rebecca J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-29

    This report introduces the Off-Site Source Recovery project and gives a summary of domestic and international work. The mission of OSRP is to eliminate excess, unwanted, abandoned, or orphan radioactive sealed sources that pose a potential risk to health, safety, and national security. OSRP identifies and tracks disused sealed sources potentially requiring recovery, and performs special form encapsulation for sealed sources to simplify transportation.

  9. The Off-Site Rule. CERCLA Information Brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, B.

    1994-03-01

    Under Section 121(d)(3) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986, wastes generated as a result of CERCLA remediation activities and transferred off-site must be managed at a facility operating in compliance with federal laws. EPA issued its Off-Site Policy (OSWER Directive No. 9834, 11), which gave guidance on complying with this particular requirement. Specifically, EPA requires off-site waste management facilities to fulfill EPA`s definition of acceptability and has established detailed procedures for issuing and reviewing unacceptability determinations. EPA proposed amending the National Contingency Plan (NCP) (40 CFR part 300) to include the requirements contained in the Off-Site Policy (53 FR 48218). On September 22, 1993 EPA published the Off-Site Rules [58 FR 49200], which became effective on October 22, 1993. The primary purpose of the Off-Site Rule is to clarify and codify CERCLA`s requirement to prevent wastes generated from remediation activities conducted under CERCLA from contributing to present or future environmental problems at off-site waste management facilities that receive them. Thus, the Off-Site Rule requires that CERCLA wastes only be sent to off-site facilities that meet EPA`s acceptability criteria. The final Off-Site Rule makes two major changes to the proposed Off-Site Rule: (1) only EPA, not an authorized State, can make determinations of the acceptability of off-site facilities that manage CERCLA wastes, and (2) the Off-Site eliminate the distinction between CERCLA wastes governed under pre-SARA and post-SARA agreements. The purpose of this information Brief is to highlight and clarify EPA`s final Off-Site and its implications on DOE remedial actions under CERCLA.

  10. Extensive management of field margins enhances their potential for off-site soil erosion mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hamada E; Reineking, Björn

    2016-03-15

    Soil erosion is a widespread problem in agricultural landscapes, particularly in regions with strong rainfall events. Vegetated field margins can mitigate negative impacts of soil erosion off-site by trapping eroded material. Here we analyse how local management affects the trapping capacity of field margins in a monsoon region of South Korea, contrasting intensively and extensively managed field margins on both steep and shallow slopes. Prior to the beginning of monsoon season, we equipped a total of 12 sites representing three replicates for each of four different types of field margins ("intensive managed flat", "intensive managed steep", "extensive managed flat" and "extensive managed steep") with Astroturf mats. The mats (n = 15/site) were placed before, within and after the field margin. Sediment was collected after each rain event until the end of the monsoon season. The effect of management and slope on sediment trapping was analysed using linear mixed effects models, using as response variable either the sediment collected within the field margin or the difference in sediment collected after and before the field margin. There was no difference in the amount of sediment reaching the different field margin types. In contrast, extensively managed field margins showed a large reduction in collected sediment before and after the field margins. This effect was pronounced in steep field margins, and increased with the size of rainfall events. We conclude that a field margin management promoting a dense vegetation cover is a key to mitigating negative off-site effects of soil erosion in monsoon regions, particularly in field margins with steep slopes.

  11. Pathways for Off-site Corporate PV Procurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, Jenny S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-06

    Through July 2017, corporate customers contracted for more than 2,300 MW of utility-scale solar. This paper examines the benefits, challenges, and outlooks for large-scale off-site solar purchasing through four pathways: power purchase agreements, retail choice, utility partnerships (green tariffs and bilateral contracts with utilities), and by becoming a licensed wholesale seller of electricity. Each pathway differs based on where in the United States it is available, the value provided to a corporate off-taker, and the ease of implementation. The paper concludes with a discussion of future pathway comparison, noting that to deploy more corporate off-site solar, new procurement pathways are needed.

  12. Pesticide use and off-site risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide use and off-site risk assessment: a case study of glyphosate fate in Chinese Loess soil Xiaomei Yang Abstract: Repeated applications of pesticide may contaminate the soil and water, threatening their quality within

  13. Pesticide use and off-site risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide use and off-site risk assessment: a case study of glyphosate fate in Chinese Loess soil Xiaomei Yang Abstract: Repeated applications of pesticide may contaminate the soil and water, threatening their quality within

  14. LHCb: The LHCb off-Site HLT Farm Demonstration

    CERN Multimedia

    Liu, Guoming

    2012-01-01

    The LHCb High Level Trigger (HLT) farm consists of about 1300 nodes, which are housed in the underground server room of the experiment point. Due to the constraints of the power supply and cooling system, it is difficult to install more servers in this room for the future. Off-site computing farm is a solution to enlarge the computing capacity. In this paper, we will demonstrate the LHCb off-site HLT farm which locate in the CERN computing center. Since we use private IP addresses for the HLT farm, we would need virtual private network (VPN) to bridge both sites. There are two kinds of traffic in the event builder: control traffic for the control and monitoring of the farm and the Data Acquisition (DAQ) traffic. We adopt IP tunnel for the control traffic and Network Address Translate (NAT) for the DAQ traffic. The performance of the off-site farm have been tested and compared with the on-site farm. The effect of the network latency has been studied. To employ a large off-site farm, one of the potential bottle...

  15. Supplemental information related to risk assessment for the off-site transportation of low-level mixed waste for the U.S. Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monette, F.A.; Biwer, B.M.; LePoire, D.J.; Lazaro, M.A.; Antonopoulos, A.A.; Hartmann, H.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Chen, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

    1996-12-01

    This report provides supplemental information to support the human health risk assessment conducted for the transportation of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) in support of the US Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The assessment considers both the radioactive and chemical hazards associated with LLMW transportation. Detailed descriptions of the transportation health risk assessment methods and results of the assessment are presented in Appendix E of the WM PEIS. This report presents additional information that is not included in Appendix E but that was needed to conduct the transportation risk assessment for Waste Management (WM) LLMW. Included are definitions of the LLMW alternatives considered in the WM PEIS; data related to the inventory and to the physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics of WM LLMW; an overview of the risk assessment methods; and detailed results of the assessment for each WM LLMW case considered.

  16. Supplemental information related to risk assessment for the off-site transportation of transuranic waste for the U.S. Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monette, F.A.; Biwer, B.M.; LePoire, D.J.; Chen, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

    1996-12-01

    This report presents supplemental information to support the human health risk assessment conducted for the transportation of transuranic waste (TRUW) in support of the US Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). Detailed descriptions of the transportation health risk assessment method and results of the assessment are presented in Appendix E of the WM PEIS and are not repeated in this report. This report presents additional information that is not presented in Appendix E but is necessary to conduct the transportation risk assessment for Waste Management (WM) contact- and remote-handed (CH and RH) TRUW. Included are definitions of the TRUW alternatives considered in the WM PEIS, data related to the inventory and to the physical and radiological characteristics of CH and RH TRUW, and detailed results of the assessment for each WM TRUW case considered.

  17. Supplemental information related to risk assessment for the off-site transportation of low-level waste for the U.S. Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monette, F.A.; Biwer, B.M.; LePoire, D.J.; Chen, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

    1996-12-01

    This report presents supplemental information to support the human health risk assessment conducted for the transportation of low-level waste (LLW) in support of the US Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). Detailed descriptions of the transportation health risk assessment method and results of the assessment are presented in Appendix E of the WM PEIS and are not repeated in this report. This report presents additional information that is not presented in Appendix E but that was needed to conduct the transportation risk assessment for Waste Management (WM) LLW. Included are definition of the LLW alternatives considered in the WM PEIS, data related to the inventory and to the physical and radiological characteristics of WM LLW, an overview of the risk assessment method, and detailed results of the assessment for each WM LLW alternative considered.

  18. Effects of source term characteristics on Off Site consequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seok Jung; Ahn, Kwang Il [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Off site consequence analysis in Level 3 PSA is mainly affected by source term release characteristics of nuclear plant. The severe accident analysis codes for quantifying the source term release characteristics such as MELCOR and MAAP provide detailed information of these characteristics to assess the off site consequence. The aforementioned characteristics, however, have not been considered in the consequence analysis of domestic plants because of large uncertainty in these characteristics so far. Recently, the USNRC SOARCA report showed an approach to utilize detailed source term characteristics provided by MELCOR code to quantify the off site consequence more realistically. Main purpose of this study is to assess effects of the MELCOR source term characteristics on the off site consequence analysis of a domestic nuclear power plant, in a similar fashion to the SOARCA approach. Among many features characterizing source term, the most important one is to determine initial and boundary conditions of atmospheric dispersion such as:- Release amounts of source term - Release time and duration Moreover, plumes features (i.e., radiation clouds) affect atmospheric dispersion that shapes plume characteristics as follows: - Initial dimension of plumes - Plume rise - Deposition of radioactive materials during dispersion Although the current severe accident codes have some limitation in providing the entire source term release characteristics needed in the consequence analysis, the essential information for these features could be obtained from these codes. It is noted that the typical approaches, which generate source term information for the consequence analysis from the severe accident codes, should require a technical manipulation by the experts of consequence analysis. The present effort focused on an identification of insights to utilize source term characteristics of the severe accident codes.

  19. The negative impact of antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, N D; Temkin, E; Carmeli, Y

    2016-05-01

    Antibacterial therapy is one of the most important medical developments of the twentieth century; however, the spread of resistance in healthcare settings and in the community threatens the enormous gains made by the availability of antibiotic therapy. Infections caused by resistant bacteria lead to up to two-fold higher rates of adverse outcomes compared with similar infections caused by susceptible strains. These adverse outcomes may be clinical or economic and reflect primarily the failure or delay of antibiotic treatment. The magnitude of these adverse outcomes will be more pronounced as disease severity, strain virulence, or host vulnerability increases. The negative impacts of antibacterial resistance can be measured at the patient level by increased morbidity and mortality, at the healthcare level by increased resource utilization, higher costs and reduced hospital activity and at the society level by antibiotic treatment guidelines favouring increasingly broad-spectrum empiric therapy. In this review we will discuss the negative impact of antibiotic resistance on patients, the healthcare system and society.

  20. Planning, Coordinating, and Managing Off-Site Storage is an Area of Increasing, Professional Responsibility for Special Collections Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Goertzen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To measure the use of off-site storage for special collections materials and to examine how this use impacts core special collections activities. Design – Survey questionnaire containing both structured and open ended questions. Follow-up interviews were also conducted. Setting – Association of Research Libraries (ARL member institutions in the United States of America. Subjects – 108 directors of special collections. Methods – Participants were recruited via email; contact information was compiled through professional directories, web searches, and referrals from professionals at ARL member libraries. The survey was sent out on October 31, 2013, and two reminder emails were distributed before it closed three weeks later. The survey was created and distributed using Qualtrics, a research software that supports online data collection and analysis. All results were analyzed using Microsoft Excel and Qualtrics. Main Results – The final response rate was 58% (63 out of 108. The majority (51 participants, or 81% reported use of off-site storage for library collections. Of this group, 91% (47 out of 51 house a variety of special collections in off-site storage. The criteria most frequently utilized to designate these materials to off-site storage are use (87%, size (66%, format (60%, and value (57%. The authors found that special collections directors are most likely to send materials to off-site storage facilities that are established and in use by other departments at their home institution; access to established workflows, especially those linked to transit and delivery, and space for expanding collections are benefits. In regard to core special collections activities, results indicated that public service was most impacted by off-site storage. The authors discussed challenges related to patron use and satisfaction. In regard to management and processing, directors faced challenges using the same level of staff to maintain

  1. Health effects models for off-site radiological consequence analysis on nuclear reactor accidents (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homma, Toshimitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Takahashi, Tomoyuki [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst; Yonehara, Hidenori [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)] [eds.

    2000-12-01

    This report is a revision of JAERI-M 91-005, 'Health Effects Models for Off-Site Radiological Consequence Analysis of Nuclear Reactor Accidents'. This revision provides a review of two revisions of NUREG/CR-4214 reports by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission which is the basis of the JAERI health effects models and other several recent reports that may impact the health effects models by international organizations. The major changes to the first version of the JAERI health effects models and the recommended parameters in this report are for late somatic effects. These changes reflect recent changes in cancer risk factors that have come from longer followup and revised dosimetry in major studies on the Japanese A-bomb survivors. This report also provides suggestions about future revisions of computational aspects on health effects models. (author)

  2. Impact of negation salience and cognitive resources on negation during attitude formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Kathryn L; Rydell, Robert J

    2012-10-01

    Because of the increased cognitive resources required to process negations, past research has shown that explicit attitude measures are more sensitive to negations than implicit attitude measures. The current work demonstrated that the differential impact of negations on implicit and explicit attitude measures was moderated by (a) the extent to which the negation was made salient and (b) the amount of cognitive resources available during attitude formation. When negations were less visually salient, explicit but not implicit attitude measures reflected the intended valence of the negations. When negations were more visually salient, both explicit and implicit attitude measures reflected the intended valence of the negations, but only when perceivers had ample cognitive resources during encoding. Competing models of negation processing, schema-plus-tag and fusion, were examined to determine how negation salience impacts the processing of negations.

  3. Exploring Impact: Negative Effects of Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Egbert, Henrik; Sedlarski, Teodor

    2011-01-01

    he sociological literature on social networks emphasizes by and large positive network effects. Negative effects of such networks are discussed rather rarely. This paper tackles negative effects by applying economic theory, particularly neoclassical theory, new institutional theory and the results from experimental economics to the concept of social networks. In the paper it is assumed that social networks are exclusive and since exclusiveness affects the allocation of resources, negative ext...

  4. 13 CFR 120.1025 - Off-site reviews and monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Off-site reviews and monitoring. 120.1025 Section 120.1025 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Risk-Based Lender Oversight Supervision § 120.1025 Off-site reviews and monitoring. SBA may conduct...

  5. 40 CFR 1400.5 - Internet access to certain off-site consequence analysis data elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Internet access to certain off-site... DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION Public Access § 1400.5 Internet access to certain off... elements in the risk management plan database available on the Internet: (a) The concentration of...

  6. Multicriteria relocation analysis of an off-site radioactive monitoring network for a nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Ning, Shu-Kuang; Chen, Jen-Chang

    2006-08-01

    Due to increasing environmental consciousness in most countries, every utility that owns a commercial nuclear power plant has been required to have both an on-site and off-site emergency response plan since the 1980s. A radiation monitoring network, viewed as part of the emergency response plan, can provide information regarding the radiation dosage emitted from a nuclear power plant in a regular operational period and/or abnormal measurements in an emergency event. Such monitoring information might help field operators and decision-makers to provide accurate responses or make decisions to protect the public health and safety. This study aims to conduct an integrated simulation and optimization analysis looking for the relocation strategy of a long-term regular off-site monitoring network at a nuclear power plant. The planning goal is to downsize the current monitoring network but maintain its monitoring capacity as much as possible. The monitoring sensors considered in this study include the thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) and air sampling system (AP) simultaneously. It is designed for detecting the radionuclide accumulative concentration, the frequency of violation, and the possible population affected by a long-term impact in the surrounding area regularly while it can also be used in an accidental release event. With the aid of the calibrated Industrial Source Complex-Plume Rise Model Enhancements (ISC-PRIME) simulation model to track down the possible radionuclide diffusion, dispersion, transport, and transformation process in the atmospheric environment, a multiobjective evaluation process can be applied to achieve the screening of monitoring stations for the nuclear power plant located at Hengchun Peninsula, South Taiwan. To account for multiple objectives, this study calculated preference weights to linearly combine objective functions leading to decision-making with exposure assessment in an optimization context. Final suggestions should be useful for

  7. Negative Impacts of High-Stakes Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minarechová, Michaela

    2012-01-01

    High-stakes testing is not a new phenomenon in education. It has become part of the education system in many countries. These tests affect the school systems, teachers, students, politicians and parents, whether that is in a positive or negative sense. High-stakes testing is associated with concepts such as a school's accountability, funding…

  8. Negative Impacts of High-Stakes Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minarechová, Michaela

    2012-01-01

    High-stakes testing is not a new phenomenon in education. It has become part of the education system in many countries. These tests affect the school systems, teachers, students, politicians and parents, whether that is in a positive or negative sense. High-stakes testing is associated with concepts such as a school's accountability, funding and…

  9. Qingtongxia Aluminum Carrying Out Off-site Renovation in Ningdong Energy & Chemical Base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Recently,the off-site renovation project of Qingtongxia Aluminum commenced the con- struction in Linhe General Industrial Park of Ningdong Energy & Chemical Base,symboliz- ing a concrete step of Qingtongxia Aluminum

  10. AMCO Off-Site Air Monitoring Polygons, Oakland CA, 2017, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This feature class was developed to support the AMCO Chemical Superfund Site air monitoring process and depicts a single polygon layer, Off-Site Air Monitors,...

  11. 40 CFR 1400.8 - Access to off-site consequence analysis information by Federal government officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INFORMATION DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION Access to Off-Site Consequence Analysis Information by Government Officials. § 1400.8 Access to off-site consequence analysis information by Federal... analysis information by Federal government officials. 1400.8 Section 1400.8 Protection of...

  12. 40 CFR 1400.9 - Access to off-site consequence analysis information by State and local government officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION Access to Off-Site Consequence Analysis Information by Government Officials. § 1400.9 Access to off-site consequence analysis... analysis information by State and local government officials. 1400.9 Section 1400.9 Protection...

  13. Impact of Negative Sequence Current Injection by Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhary, Sanjay; Göksu, Ömer; Teodorescu, Remus

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the impact from negative sequence current injection by wind power plants in power systems under steady-state and short-term unbalanced conditions, including faults. The separate positive and negative sequence current control capability of the grid-side converter...

  14. Using RFID to enhance security in off-site data storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Carmona, Miguel A; Marsa-Maestre, Ivan; de la Hoz, Enrique; Velasco, Juan R

    2010-01-01

    Off-site data storage is one of the most widely used strategies in enterprises of all sizes to improve business continuity. In medium-to-large size enterprises, the off-site data storage processes are usually outsourced to specialized providers. However, outsourcing the storage of critical business information assets raises serious security considerations, some of which are usually either disregarded or incorrectly addressed by service providers. This article reviews these security considerations and presents a radio frequency identification (RFID)-based, off-site, data storage management system specifically designed to address security issues. The system relies on a set of security mechanisms or controls that are arranged in security layers or tiers to balance security requirements with usability and costs. The system has been successfully implemented, deployed and put into production. In addition, an experimental comparison with classical bar-code-based systems is provided, demonstrating the system's benefits in terms of efficiency and failure prevention.

  15. On-Site or Off-Site Renewable Energy Supply Options?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund;

    2012-01-01

    The concept of a Net Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) encompasses two options of supplying renewable energy, which can offset energy use of a building, in particular on-site or off-site renewable energy supply. Currently, the on-site options are much more popular than the off-site; however, taking...... into consideration the limited area of roof and/or façade, primarily in the dense city areas, the Danish weather conditions, the growing interest and number of wind turbine co-ops, the off-site renewable energy supply options could become a meaningful solution for reaching ‘zero’ energy goal in the Danish context....... Therefore, this paper deploys the life cycle cost analysis and takes the private economy perspective to investigate the life cycle cost of different renewable energy supply options, and to identify the costoptimal combination between energy efficiency and renewable energy generation. The analysis includes...

  16. An establishment of MELCOR code to generate source terms for off site consequence analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. H.; Han, S.; Ahn, K. I. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Since the Fukushima accident, an effective approach to a source term analysis for off site consequence analyses has been needed. The MELCOR code has the capability to assess the source term characteristics for this kind of demand. A comprehensive effort is required to use the MELCOR code for a source term analysis effectively. For this purpose, the following works are required: - Review and assess the MELCOR model relevant to source term characterization - Generate input files for source term analysis - Utilize the source term parameters This paper shows an effort to establish the MELCOR code to generate source terms for an off site consequence analysis.

  17. Off-site training of laparoscopic skills, a scoping review using a thematic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Ebbe; Kleif, Jakob; Bjerrum, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    on learning theories including proficiency-based learning, deliberate practice, and self-regulated learning. CONCLUSIONS: Methods of instructional design vary widely in off-site training of laparoscopic skills. Implementation can be facilitated by organizing courses and training curricula following sound...... education theories such as proficiency-based learning and deliberate practice. Directed self-regulated learning has the potential to improve off-site laparoscopic skills training; however, further studies are needed to demonstrate the effect of this type of instructional design....

  18. Negative Impact of HRM Complementarity on Knowledge Transfer in MNCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana

    2005-01-01

    -related outcomes will result incrowding effect of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation and be negative. Hypothesesderived from these arguments are tested on the data from 92 subsidiaries of Danishmultinational corporations located in 11 countries.Extrinsic/intrinsic motivation, HRM practices, knowledge transfer......This paper explores reasons for negative complementarity among HRM practices. It isbuilt upon the premise that there are certain HRM practices influencing extrinsic andintrinsic motivation of knowledge receivers. If those HRM practices are applied in acomplementary way, their impact on knowledge...

  19. Impact of Negative Sequence Current Injection by Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhary, Sanjay; Göksu, Ömer; Teodorescu, Remus;

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the impact from negative sequence current injection by wind power plants in power systems under steady-state and short-term unbalanced conditions, including faults. The separate positive and negative sequence current control capability of the grid-side converters...... of full scale converter type wind turbines may be utilized to alter voltage imbalance at the point of connection and further into the grid, in turn changing the resultant negative sequence current flow in the grid. The effects of such control actions have been analyzed and discussed through theoretical...

  20. Applying a process based erosion model to assess off-site effects of soil erosion from the regional scale to the measure level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindewolf, Marcus; Arevalo, Annika; Saathoff, Ulfert; Käpermann, Philipp; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    Since soil erosion is one of the most important issues of global soil degradation, great effort was put into the application of erosion models for the assessment and prevention of on-site damages. Beside the primary impact of soil loss in decreasing soil fertility, erosion can cause significant impacts if transported sediments are entering downslope ecosystems, settlements, infrastructure or traffic routes. These off-site damages can be very costly, affect a lot of people and contaminate water-resources. The analysis of these problems is intensified by the requirements of new legislation, such as the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD), providing new challenges for planning authorities in order to combat off-site damage. Hence there is strong public and scientific interest in understanding the processes of sediment as well as particle attached nutrient and pollutant transport. Predicting the frequency, magnitude and extent of off-site impacts of water erosion is a necessary precondition for adequate risk assessments and mitigation measures. Process based models are increasingly used for the simulation of soil erosion. Regarding the requirements of the WFD, these models need to deliver comparable estimates from the regional scale to the level of mitigation measures. This study aims on the application of the process based model EROSION 3D for off-site risk assessment on different scales for the German federal state of Saxony using available geo data, data base applications and GIS-routines. Following issues were investigated: - Where are the expected sediment deposition areas? - Which settlements, infrastructures and traffic routes are affected by sediment fluxes? - Which river sections are affected by sediment inputs? - Which river sections are affected by nutrient and heavy metal inputs? The model results identify the Saxon loess belt as highly endangered by off-site damages although hotspots can be found in the northern flatlands and the southern mountain range as

  1. 40 CFR 300.440 - Procedures for planning and implementing off-site response actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... applies to any remedial or removal action involving the off-site transfer of any hazardous substance... emergency removal actions under CERCLA, emergency actions taken during remedial actions, or response actions... administrative or judicial challenge to the finding of noncompliance or uncontrolled releases upon which...

  2. On-Site or Off-Site Renewable Energy Supply Options?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2012-01-01

    into consideration the limited area of roof and/or façade, primarily in the dense city areas, the Danish weather conditions, the growing interest and number of wind turbine co-ops, the off-site renewable energy supply options could become a meaningful solution for reaching ‘zero’ energy goal in the Danish context...

  3. Off-Site Supervision in Social Work Education: What Makes It Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Sarah P.; Mertz, Linda K. P.; Fortune, Anne E.

    2015-01-01

    The field practicum is the signature pedagogy of the social work profession, yet field directors struggle to find adequate field placements--both in quantity and quality. To accommodate more students with a dwindling pool of practicum sites, creative models of field supervision have emerged. This article considers off-site supervision and its…

  4. Design of simulation-based medical education and advantages and disadvantages of in situ simulation versus off-site simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorensen, J.L.; Ostergaard, D.; Leblanc, V.; Ottesen, B.; Konge, L.; Dieckmann, P.; Vleuten, C. van der

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Simulation-based medical education (SBME) has traditionally been conducted as off-site simulation in simulation centres. Some hospital departments also provide off-site simulation using in-house training room(s) set up for simulation away from the clinical setting, and these activities

  5. Minutes of the workshop on off-site release criteria for contaminated materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.P.N.

    1989-11-01

    A one and one-half-day workshop was held May 2-3, 1989, at the Pollard Auditorium in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, with the objective of formulating a strategy for developing reasonable and uniform criteria for releasing radioactively contaminated materials from the US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. This report contains the minutes of the workshop. At the conclusion of the workshop, a plan was formulated to facilitate the development of the above-mentioned off-site release criteria.

  6. Off-site interaction effect in the Extended Hubbard Model with SCRPA method

    OpenAIRE

    Harir, S.; Bennai, M.; Boughaleb, Y.

    2009-01-01

    The Self Consistent Random Phase Approximation (SCRPA) and a Direct Analytical (DA) method are proposed to solve the Extended Hubbard Model in 1D. We have considered an Extended Hubbard Model (EHM) including on-site and off-site interactions for closed chains in one dimension with periodic boundary conditions. The comparison of the SCRPA results with ones obtained by a Direct Analytical approach shows that the SCRPA treats the problem of these closed chains with a rigorous manner. The analysi...

  7. Developments in the JRodos decision support system for off-site nuclear emergency management and rehabilitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landman, Claudia [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Pro-Science GmbH, Ettlingen (Germany); Raskob, Wolfgang; Trybushnyi, Dmytro [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    JRodos is a non-commercial computer-based decision support system for nuclear accidents. The simulation models for assessing radiological and other consequences and the system features and components allow real-time operation for off-site emergency management as well as the use as a tool for preparing exercises and pre-plannng of countermeasures. There is an active user community that takes influence on further developments.

  8. Assessment of uncertainties in early off-site consequences from nuclear reactor accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madni, I.K.; Cazzoli, E.G. (Brookhaven National Lab., Dept. of Nuclear Energy, Upton, NY (US)); Khatib-Rahbar, M. (Energy Research, Inc., Rockville, MD (US))

    1990-04-01

    A simplified approach has been developed to calculate uncertainties in early off-site consequences from nuclear reactor accidents. The consequence model (SMART) is based on a solution procedure that uses simplified meteorology and involves direct analytic integration of air concentration equations over time and position. This is different from the discretization approach currently used in the CRAC2 and MACCS codes. The SMART code is fast running, thereby providing a valuable tool for sensitivity and uncertainty studies. The code was benchmarked against both MACCS version 1.4 and CRAC2. Results of benchmarketing and detailed sensitivity and uncertainty analyses using SMART are presented.

  9. Off-Site Prefabrication: What Does it Require from the Trade Contractor?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekdik, Baris; Hall, Daniel; Aslesen, Sigmund

    2016-01-01

    understand and improve existing construction processes, relatively few contributions have focused on the opportunities for industrialization from the trade contractor’s perspective. This paper uses an in-depth case study to address the deployment strategy for off-site fabrication techniques and processes...... at only one case study, the conclusions are limited in generalizability to other prefabrication operations. However, it represents an important in-depth case from the trade contractors’ perspective and will contribute to the growing body of research focused on industrialization and prefabrication in lean...... construction. ....

  10. Evaluation of angler reporting accuracy in an off-site survey to estimate statewide steelhead harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, J. L.; Whitney, D.; Schill, D. J.; Quist, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Accuracy of angler-reported data on steelhead, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), harvest in Idaho, USA, was quantified by comparing data recorded on angler harvest permits to the numbers that the same group of anglers reported in an off-site survey. Anglers could respond to the off-site survey using mail or Internet; if they did not respond using these methods, they were called on the telephone. A majority of anglers responded through the mail, and the probability of responding by Internet decreased with increasing age of the respondent. The actual number of steelhead harvested did not appear to influence the response type. Anglers in the autumn 2012 survey overreported harvest by 24%, whereas anglers in the spring 2013 survey under-reported steelhead harvest by 16%. The direction of reporting bias may have been a function of actual harvest, where anglers harvested on average 2.6 times more fish during the spring fishery than the autumn. Reporting bias that is a function of actual harvest can have substantial management and conservation implications because the fishery will be perceived to be performing better at lower harvest rates and worse when harvest rates are higher. Thus, these findings warrant consideration when designing surveys and evaluating management actions.

  11. Off-site toxic consequence assessment: a simplified modeling procedure and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnaccia, Joe; Hoppe, Tom

    2008-11-15

    An assessment of off-site exposure from spills/releases of toxic chemicals can be conducted by compiling site-specific operational, geographic, demographic, and meteorological data and by using screening-level public-domain modeling tools (e.g., RMP Comp, ALOHA and DEGADIS). In general, the analysis is confined to the following: event-based simulations (allow for the use of known, constant, atmospheric conditions), known receptor distances (on the order of miles or less), short time scale for the distances considered (order of 10's of minutes or less), gently sloping rough terrain, dense and neutrally buoyant gas dispersion, known chemical inventory and infrastructure (used to define source-term), and known toxic endpoint (defines significance). While screening-level models are relatively simple to use, care must be taken to ensure that the results are meaningful. This approach allows one to assess risk from catastrophic release (e.g., via terrorism), or plausible release scenarios (related to standard operating procedures and industry standards). In addition, given receptor distance and toxic endpoint, the model can be used to predict the critical spill volume to realize significant off-site risk. This information can then be used to assess site storage and operation parameters and to determine the most economical and effective risk reduction measures to be applied.

  12. Study on the code system for the off-site consequences assessment of severe nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sora; Mn, Byung Il; Park, Ki Hyun; Yang, Byung Mo; Suh, Kyung Suk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The importance of severe nuclear accidents and probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) were brought to international attention with the occurrence of severe nuclear accidents caused by the extreme natural disaster at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. In Korea, studies on level 3 PSA had made little progress until recently. The code systems of level 3 PSA, MACCS2 (MELCORE Accident Consequence Code System 2, US), COSYMA (COde SYstem from MAria, EU) and OSCAAR (Off-Site Consequence Analysis code for Atmospheric Releases in reactor accidents, JAPAN), were reviewed in this study, and the disadvantages and limitations of MACCS2 were also analyzed. Experts from Korea and abroad pointed out that the limitations of MACCS2 include the following: MACCS2 cannot simulate multi-unit accidents/release from spent fuel pools, and its atmospheric dispersion is based on a simple Gaussian plume model. Some of these limitations have been improved in the updated versions of MACCS2. The absence of a marine and aquatic dispersion model and the limited simulating range of food-chain and economic models are also important aspects that need to be improved. This paper is expected to be utilized as basic research material for developing a Korean code system for assessing off-site consequences of severe nuclear accidents.

  13. Predator cannibalism can intensify negative impacts on heterospecific prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsu, Kunio; Kishida, Osamu

    2015-07-01

    of hatching can strengthen predatory effects on heterospecific prey and can have impacts on various, traits of both predator and prey. Because animals commonly broaden their diet as they grow, such negative impacts of predator cannibalism on the heterospecific prey may be common in interactions between predators and prey species of similar size.

  14. Off-site interaction effect in the Extended Hubbard Model with the SCRPA method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harir, S [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Faculte des Sciences Ben M' Sik, Universite Hassan II-Mohammedia Casablanca (Morocco); Bennai, M [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Faculte des Sciences Ben M' Sik, Universite Hassan II-Mohammedia Casablanca (Morocco); Boughaleb, Y [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Faculte des Sciences Ben M' Sik, Universite Hassan II-Mohammedia Casablanca (Morocco)

    2007-10-15

    The self consistent random phase approximation (SCRPA) and a direct analytical (DA) method are proposed to solve the Extended Hubbard Model (EHM) in one dimension (1D). We have considered an EHM including on-site and off-site interactions for closed chains in 1D with periodic boundary conditions. The comparison of the SCRPA results with the ones obtained by a DA approach shows that the SCRPA treats the problem of these closed chains in a rigorous manner. The analysis of the nearest-neighbour repulsion effect on the dynamics of our closed chains shows that this repulsive interaction between the electrons of the neighbouring atoms induces supplementary conductivity, since, the SCRPA energygap vanishes when these closed chains are governed by a strong repulsive on-site interaction and intermediate nearest-neighbour repulsion.

  15. Off-site interaction effect in the Extended Hubbard Model with the SCRPA method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harir, S.; Bennai, M.; Boughaleb, Y.

    2007-10-01

    The self consistent random phase approximation (SCRPA) and a direct analytical (DA) method are proposed to solve the Extended Hubbard Model (EHM) in one dimension (1D). We have considered an EHM including on-site and off-site interactions for closed chains in 1D with periodic boundary conditions. The comparison of the SCRPA results with the ones obtained by a DA approach shows that the SCRPA treats the problem of these closed chains in a rigorous manner. The analysis of the nearest-neighbour repulsion effect on the dynamics of our closed chains shows that this repulsive interaction between the electrons of the neighbouring atoms induces supplementary conductivity, since, the SCRPA energygap vanishes when these closed chains are governed by a strong repulsive on-site interaction and intermediate nearest-neighbour repulsion.

  16. An off-site screening process for the public in radiation emergencies and disasters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Seok Won; Ho, Ha Wi; Jin, Young Woo [National Radiation Emergency Medical Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    A contamination screening process for the local population in radiation emergencies is discussed. We present an overview of the relevant Korean governmental regulations that underpin the development of an effective response system. Moreover, case studies of foreign countries responding to mass casualties are presented, and indicate that responses should be able to handle a large demand for contamination screening of the local public as well as screening of the immediate victims of the incident. We propose operating procedures for an off-site contamination screening post operated by the local government for members of the public who have not been directly harmed in the accident. In order to devise screening categories, sorting strategies assessing contamination and exposure are discussed, as well as a psychological response system. This study will lead to the effective operation of contamination screening clinics if an accident occurs. Furthermore, the role of contamination screening clinics in the overall context of the radiation emergency treatment system should be clearly established.

  17. Reverberation negatively impacts musical sound quality for cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Alexis T; Vigeant, Michelle; Munjal, Tina; Carver, Courtney; Jiradejvong, Patpong; Limb, Charles J

    2015-09-01

    Satisfactory musical sound quality remains a challenge for many cochlear implant (CI) users. In particular, questionnaires completed by CI users suggest that reverberation due to room acoustics can negatively impact their music listening experience. The objective of this study was to more specifically characterize of the effect of reverberation on musical sound quality in CI users, normal hearing (NH) non-musicians, and NH musicians using a previously designed assessment method, called Cochlear Implant-MUltiple Stimulus with Hidden Reference and Anchor (CI-MUSHRA). In this method, listeners were randomly presented with an anechoic musical segment and five-versions of this segment in which increasing amounts of reverberation were artificially added. Participants listened to the six reverberation versions and provided sound quality ratings between 0 (very poor) and 100 (excellent). Results demonstrated that on average CI users and NH non-musicians preferred the sound quality of anechoic versions to more reverberant versions. In comparison, NH musicians could be delineated into those who preferred the sound quality of anechoic pieces and those who preferred pieces with some reverberation. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to objectively compare the effects of reverberation on musical sound quality ratings in CI users. These results suggest that musical sound quality for CI users can be improved by non-reverberant listening conditions and musical stimuli in which reverberation is removed.

  18. THE EVALUATION OF SOIL EROSION OFF-SITES EFFECTS IN LARGE BASINS: THE STUDYCASE OF LERMA-CHAPALA WATERSHED, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Cotler A.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary global concerns during the new millennium is the assessment of the impact of accelerated soil erosion on the economy and the environment (Pimentel et al. 1995; Lal, 1995. Erosion damages the site on which it occurs and also has undesirable effects off-site in the larger environment. Erosion moves sediments and nutrients out of the land, creating the two most widespread water pollution problems in the rivers, lakes and dams. The nutrients impact water quality largely through the process of eutrophication caused by an excessive content of nitrogen and phosphorus. In addition to the nutrients presence, sediment and runoff may also carry toxic metals and organic compounds, such as pesticides (Brady and Weil, 1999; Lal, 1994; de Graaf, 2000; Renschler and Harbor, 2002. The sediment itself is a major pollutant causative agent, causing a wide range of environmental damages. The sedimentation of dams and canals, reduces their lifetime and efficiency, promoting a high restoration cost to the downstream users and affecting thenational budget. In this sense, sedimentation knowledge is an important tool to guide spatial planning efficiently. Despite more than six decades of research, sedimentation is still probably the most serious technical problem faced by the dam industry (Mc Cully, 2001. Many studies estimate present-day fluvial sediment and solute loads including both natural and accelerated soil erosion (Douglas, 1990. However, as Douglas mentioned (op.cit many do not include all the erosion caused by human activity, because the eroded sediment is redeposited after a short movement downslope. Many soil particles are detached and carried downslope only to be held and trapped by a plant, tree or other obstacle a little further downslope. The sediment reaching the valley floor may not be completely removed by the river, but may be redistributed as alluvial floodplain deposits. The sediment transported downstream may be redeposited

  19. Rethinking the Business Model in Construction by the Use of Off-Site System Deliverance: Case of the Shaft Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian; Hvam, Lars

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a set of insights to be used in the development of business models for off-site system deliveries contributing to the development of Off-Site Manufacturing practices (OSM). The theoretical offset for discussing the development of business models is the blue ocean strategy...... in the constant pursue of value creation and cost reduction. On the basis of that system deliverances represent a promising strategy in the future development and application of off-site manufacturing practices. The application of system deliveries is however demanding as it represents a fundamental shift...... in the existing design and production practices. More specifically the development of system deliveries requires: (1) an explicit market focus, enabling the achievement of economy of scale, (2) a coordinated and coherent development around the system deliverance focusing on its internal and external modularity...

  20. NEUTRALIZATION OF HERBICIDE NEGATIVE IMPACT ON SUGAR BEET WITH BIOSTIMULATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarenko D. Y.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Most modern chemicals designed to protect crop also actually cause negative effects on the protected plants mostly due to side effects and/or not following the application procedures correctly. It is possible to neutralize the negative effects of herbicides they have on cultivated plants with precise use of immunostimulants which will increase the plants' natural immunity against the negative effects of biotic and abiotic environmental factors

  1. The impact of parental behaviors on children's negative emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Sijia

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the role of different parental behaviors on children’s negative emotions. Parents of 152 Finnish first grade children (79 girls and 73 boys) filled in diary-formed questionnaires which measure parental behaviors including affection, behavioral control and psychological control. Children’s negative emotions are also measured by diary-formed questionnaires which are filled in by their parents. The results showed that parental affection was negatively related to children’s neg...

  2. Idaho Habitat Evaluation for Off-Site Mitigation Record : Annual Report 1988.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idaho. Dept. of Fish and Game.

    1990-03-01

    The Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) has been monitoring and evaluating existing and proposed habitat improvement projects for steelhead and chinook in the Clearwater and Salmon subbasins since 1984. Projects included in the monitoring are funded by, or proposed for funding by, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the Northwest Power Planning Act as off-site mitigation for downstream hydropower development on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. This monitoring project is also funded under the same authority. A mitigation record is being developed to use actual and potential increases in smolt production as the best measures of benefit from a habitat improvement project. This project is divided into two subprojects: general and intensive monitoring. Primary objectives of the general monitoring subproject are to determine natural production increases due to habitat improvement projects in terms of parr production and to determine natural production status and trends in Idaho. The second objective is accomplished by combining parr density from monitoring and evaluation of BPA habitat projects and from other IDFG management and research activities. The primary objective of the intensive monitoring subproject is to determine the relationships between spawning escapement, parr production, and smolt production in two Idaho streams; the upper Salmon River and Crooked River. Results of the intensive monitoring will be used to estimate mitigation benefits in terms of smolt production and to interpret natural production monitoring in Idaho. 30 refs., 19 figs., 34 tabs.

  3. Current State of Off-Site Manufacturing in Australian and Chinese Residential Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik M. A. Khalfan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many techniques have been implemented to make construction industry more productive. The key focus is on reduction of total duration, reduction in construction cost, improvements in the quality, achieving more sustainable development, and safer construction sites. One of the techniques, which is emerging in the last two decades, is the use of off-site manufacturing (OSM within the construction industry. Several research projects and industry initiatives have reported the benefits and challenges of implementation of OSM. The focus of this paper is Australian and Chinese residential construction industry and the uptake of the OSM concepts. The paper presents a brief review of the current state of OSM in the last five to seven years with the context of the above-mentioned two countries. The paper concludes that the construction industry, both in Australia and China, needs to start walking the talk with regard to OSM adoption. The paper also highlights some of the research gaps in the OSM area, especially within the housing and residential sector.

  4. Idaho Habitat Evaluation for Off-Site Mitigation Record : Annual Report 1988.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idaho. Dept. of Fish and Game.

    1990-03-01

    The Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) has been monitoring and evaluating existing and proposed habitat improvement projects for steelhead and chinook in the Clearwater and Salmon subbasins since 1984. Projects included in the monitoring are funded by, or proposed for funding by, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the Northwest Power Planning Act as off-site mitigation for downstream hydropower development on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. This monitoring project is also funded under the same authority. A mitigation record is being developed to use actual and potential increases in smolt production as the best measures of benefit from a habitat improvement project. This project is divided into two subprojects: general and intensive monitoring. Primary objectives of the general monitoring subproject are to determine natural production increases due to habitat improvement projects in terms of parr production and to determine natural production status and trends in Idaho. The second objective is accomplished by combining parr density from monitoring and evaluation of BPA habitat projects and from other IDFG management and research activities. The primary objective of the intensive monitoring subproject is to determine the relationships between spawning escapement, parr production, and smolt production in two Idaho streams; the upper Salmon River and Crooked River. Results of the intensive monitoring will be used to estimate mitigation benefits in terms of smolt production and to interpret natural production monitoring in Idaho. 30 refs., 19 figs., 34 tabs.

  5. Simulation-based multiprofessional obstetric anaesthesia training conducted in situ versus off-site leads to similar individual and team outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jette Led; van der Vleuten, Cees; Rosthøj, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of in situ simulation (ISS) versus off-site simulation (OSS) on knowledge, patient safety attitude, stress, motivation, perceptions of simulation, team performance and organisational impact. DESIGN: Investigator-initiated single-centre randomised superiority...... of team performance. Organisational impact: suggestions for organisational changes. RESULTS: The trial was conducted from April to June 2013. No differences between the two groups were found for the multiple choice question test, patient safety attitude, stress measurements, motivation or the evaluation...... of the simulations. The participants in the ISS group scored the authenticity of the simulation significantly higher than did the participants in the OSS group. Expert video assessment of team performance showed no differences between the ISS versus the OSS group. The ISS group provided more ideas and suggestions...

  6. Prognostic impact of anticardiolipin antibodies in women with recurrent miscarriage negative for the lupus anticoagulant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Christiansen, Ole Bjarne

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA) are found with increased prevalence in women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage (RM) but their impact on future pregnancy outcome in lupus anticoagulant (LAC) negative patients needs better quantification. METHODS: The impact of a repeatedly positive...

  7. Clarifying the learning experiences of healthcare professionals with in situ and off-site simulation-based medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jette Led; Navne, Laura Emdal; Martin, Helle Max;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine how the setting in in situ simulation (ISS) and off-site simulation (OSS) in simulation-based medical education affects the perceptions and learning experience of healthcare professionals. DESIGN: Qualitative study using focus groups and content analysis. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty...

  8. Idaho Habitat Evaluation for Off-Site Mitigation Record : Annual Report 1985.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrosky, Charles E.; Holubetz, Terry B.

    1986-04-01

    Evaluation approaches to document a record of credit for mitigation were developed in 1984-1985 for most of the habitat projects. Restoration of upriver anadromous fish runs through increased passage survival at main stem Columbia and Snake River dams is essential to the establishment of an off-site mitigation record, as well as to the success of the entire Fish and Wildlife program. The mitigation record is being developed to use increased smolt production (i.e., yield) at full-seeding as the basic measure of benefit from a habitat project. The IDFG evaluation approach consists of three basic, integrated levels: general monitoring, standing crop evaluations, and intensive studies. Annual general monitoring of anadromous fish densities in a small number of sections for each project will be used to follow population trends and define full-seeding levels. For most projects, smolt production will be estimated indirectly from standing crop estimates by factoring appropriate survival rates from parr to smolt stages. Intensive studies in a few key production streams will be initiated to determine these appropriate survival rates and provide other basic biological information that is needed for evaluation of the Fish and Wildlife program. A common physical habitat and fish population data base is being developed for every BPA habitat project in Idaho to be integrated at each level of evaluation. Compatibility of data is also needed between Idaho and other agencies and tribes in the Columbia River basin. No final determination of mitigation credit for any Idaho habitat enhancement project has been attainable to date.

  9. Idaho Habitat Evaluation for Off-Site Mitigation Record : Annual Report 1987.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrosky, Charles E.; Holubetz, Terry B. (Idaho Dept. of Fish and Game, Boise, ID (USA)

    1988-04-01

    The Idaho Department of Fish and Game has been monitoring and evaluating existing and proposed habitat improvement projects for steelhead (Salmo gairdneri) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Clearwater and Salmon River drainages over the last four years. Projects included in the evaluation are funded by, or proposed for funding by, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the Northwest Power Planning Act as off-site mitigation for downstream hydropower development on the Snake and Columbia rivers. A mitigation record is being developed to use increased smolt production at full seeding as the best measure of benefit from a habitat enhancement project. Determination of full benefit from a project depends on presence of adequate numbers of fish to document actual increases in fish production. The depressed nature of upriver anadromous stocks have precluded attainment of full benefit of any habitat project in Idaho. Partial benefit will be credited to the mitigation record in the interim period of run restoration. According to the BPA Work Plan, project implementors have the primary responsibility for measuring physical habitat and estimating habitat change. To date, Idaho habitat projects have been implemented primarily by the US Forest Service (USFS). The Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) have sponsored three projects (Bear Valley Mine, Yankee Fork, and the proposed East Fork Salmon River projects). IDFG implemented two barrier-removal projects (Johnson Creek and Boulder Creek) that the USFS was unable to sponsor at that time. The role of IDFG in physical habitat monitoring is primarily to link habitat quality and habitat change to changes in actual, or potential, fish production. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  10. Lessons from a BACE1 inhibitor trial: off-site but not off base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Debomoy K; Maloney, Bryan; Long, Justin M; Greig, Nigel H

    2014-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by formation of neuritic plaque primarily composed of a small filamentous protein called amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). The rate-limiting step in the production of Aβ is the processing of Aβ precursor protein (APP) by β-site APP-cleaving enzyme (BACE1). Hence, BACE1 activity plausibly plays a rate-limiting role in the generation of potentially toxic Aβ within brain and the development of AD, thereby making it an interesting drug target. A phase II trial of the promising LY2886721 inhibitor of BACE1 was suspended in June 2013 by Eli Lilly and Co., due to possible liver toxicity. This outcome was apparently a surprise to the study's team, particularly since BACE1 knockout mice and mice treated with the drug did not show such liver toxicity. Lilly proposed that the problem was not due to LY2886721 anti-BACE1 activity. We offer an alternative hypothesis, whereby anti-BACE1 activity may induce apparent hepatotoxicity through inhibiting BACE1's processing of β-galactoside α-2,6-sialyltransferase I (STGal6 I). In knockout mice, paralogues, such as BACE2 or cathepsin D, could partially compensate. Furthermore, the short duration of animal studies and short lifespan of study animals could mask effects that would require several decades to accumulate in humans. Inhibition of hepatic BACE1 activity in middle-aged humans would produce effects not detectable in mice. We present a testable model to explain the off-target effects of LY2886721 and highlight more broadly that so-called off-target drug effects might actually represent off-site effects that are not necessarily off-target. Consideration of this concept in forthcoming drug design, screening, and testing programs may prevent such failures in the future.

  11. Differential Impact of Negative Stereotyping in Employee Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Edward A.

    1972-01-01

    Author hypothesizes that occupational categories such as general management trainee, which typically rely on the perceiver's implicit personality theory, are more influenced by traits associated with negative applicant stereotyping than occupational categories dependent on specialized, advanced training, such as scientist or engineer. (Author/MB)

  12. Invasive Asian Earthworms Negatively Impact Keystone Terrestrial Salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, Julie L; Hickerson, Cari-Ann M; Anthony, Carl D

    2016-01-01

    Asian pheretimoid earthworms (e.g. Amynthas and Metaphire spp.) are invading North American forests and consuming the vital detrital layer that forest floor biota [including the keystone species Plethodon cinereus (Eastern Red-backed Salamander)], rely on for protection, food, and habitat. Plethodon cinereus population declines have been associated with leaf litter loss following the invasion of several exotic earthworm species, but there have been few studies on the specific interactions between pheretimoid earthworms and P. cinereus. Since some species of large and active pheretimoids spatially overlap with salamanders beneath natural cover objects and in detritus, they may distinctively compound the negative consequences of earthworm-mediated resource degradation by physically disturbing important salamander activities (foraging, mating, and egg brooding). We predicted that earthworms would exclude salamanders from high quality microhabitat, reduce foraging efficiency, and negatively affect salamander fitness. In laboratory trials, salamanders used lower quality microhabitat and consumed fewer flies in the presence of earthworms. In a natural field experiment, conducted on salamander populations from "non-invaded" and "pheretimoid invaded" sites in Ohio, salamanders and earthworms shared cover objects ~60% less than expected. Earthworm abundance was negatively associated with juvenile and male salamander abundance, but had no relationship with female salamander abundance. There was no effect of pheretimoid invasion on salamander body condition. Juvenile and non-resident male salamanders do not hold stable territories centered beneath cover objects such as rocks or logs, which results in reduced access to prey, greater risk of desiccation, and dispersal pressure. Habitat degradation and physical exclusion of salamanders from cover objects may hinder juvenile and male salamander performance, ultimately reducing recruitment and salamander abundance following Asian

  13. Invasive Asian Earthworms Negatively Impact Keystone Terrestrial Salamanders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie L Ziemba

    Full Text Available Asian pheretimoid earthworms (e.g. Amynthas and Metaphire spp. are invading North American forests and consuming the vital detrital layer that forest floor biota [including the keystone species Plethodon cinereus (Eastern Red-backed Salamander], rely on for protection, food, and habitat. Plethodon cinereus population declines have been associated with leaf litter loss following the invasion of several exotic earthworm species, but there have been few studies on the specific interactions between pheretimoid earthworms and P. cinereus. Since some species of large and active pheretimoids spatially overlap with salamanders beneath natural cover objects and in detritus, they may distinctively compound the negative consequences of earthworm-mediated resource degradation by physically disturbing important salamander activities (foraging, mating, and egg brooding. We predicted that earthworms would exclude salamanders from high quality microhabitat, reduce foraging efficiency, and negatively affect salamander fitness. In laboratory trials, salamanders used lower quality microhabitat and consumed fewer flies in the presence of earthworms. In a natural field experiment, conducted on salamander populations from "non-invaded" and "pheretimoid invaded" sites in Ohio, salamanders and earthworms shared cover objects ~60% less than expected. Earthworm abundance was negatively associated with juvenile and male salamander abundance, but had no relationship with female salamander abundance. There was no effect of pheretimoid invasion on salamander body condition. Juvenile and non-resident male salamanders do not hold stable territories centered beneath cover objects such as rocks or logs, which results in reduced access to prey, greater risk of desiccation, and dispersal pressure. Habitat degradation and physical exclusion of salamanders from cover objects may hinder juvenile and male salamander performance, ultimately reducing recruitment and salamander abundance

  14. Design of simulation-based medical education and advantages and disadvantages of in situ simulation versus off-site simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jette Led; Østergaard, Doris; LeBlanc, Vicki

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Simulation-based medical education (SBME) has traditionally been conducted as off-site simulation in simulation centres. Some hospital departments also provide off-site simulation using in-house training room(s) set up for simulation away from the clinical setting, and these activities...... that choice of setting for simulations does not seem to influence individual and team learning. Department-based local simulation, such as simulation in-house and especially in situ simulation, leads to gains in organisational learning. The overall objectives of simulation-based education and factors...... are called in-house training. In-house training facilities can be part of hospital departments and resemble to some extent simulation centres but often have less technical equipment. In situ simulation, introduced over the past decade, mainly comprises of team-based activities and occurs in patient care...

  15. Design of simulation-based medical education and advantages and disadvantages of in situ simulation versus off-site simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jette Led; Østergaard, Doris; LeBlanc, Vicki

    2017-01-01

    simulations. DISCUSSION: Non-randomised studies argue that in situ simulation is more effective for educational purposes than other types of simulation settings. Conversely, the few comparison studies that exist, either randomised or retrospective, show that choice of setting does not seem to influence......BACKGROUND: Simulation-based medical education (SBME) has traditionally been conducted as off-site simulation in simulation centres. Some hospital departments also provide off-site simulation using in-house training room(s) set up for simulation away from the clinical setting, and these activities...... that choice of setting for simulations does not seem to influence individual and team learning. Department-based local simulation, such as simulation in-house and especially in situ simulation, leads to gains in organisational learning. The overall objectives of simulation-based education and factors...

  16. Negative impact of asthma on patients in different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Batan Alith

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the impact of asthma on patients in Brazil, by age group (12-17 years, 18-40 years, and ≥ 41 years. Methods: From a survey conducted in Latin America in 2011, we obtained data on 400 patients diagnosed with asthma and residing in one of four Brazilian state capitals (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Curitiba, and Salvador. The data had been collected using a standardized questionnaire in face-to-face interviews. For the patients who were minors, the parents/guardians had completed the questionnaire. The questions addressed asthma control, number of hospitalizations, number of emergency room visits, and school/work absenteeism, as well as the impact of asthma on the quality of life, sleep, and leisure. We stratified the data by the selected age groups. Results: The proportions of patients who responded in the affirmative to the following questions were significantly higher in the 12- to 17-year age group than in the other two groups: "Have you had at least one episode of severe asthma that prevented you from playing/exercising in the last 12 months?" (p = 0.012; "Have you been absent from school/work in the last 12 months?" (p < 0.001; "Have you discontinued your asthma relief or control medication in the last 12 months?" (p = 0.008. In addition, 30.2% of the patients in the 12- to 17-year age group reported that normal physical exertion was very limiting (p = 0.010 vs. the other groups, whereas 14% of the patients in the ≥ 41-year age group described social activities as very limiting (p = 0.011 vs. the other groups. Conclusions: In this sample, asthma had a greater impact on the patients between 12 and 17 years of age, which might be attributable to poor treatment compliance.

  17. Negative impact of asthma on patients in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alith, Marcela Batan; Gazzotti, Mariana Rodrigues; Montealegre, Federico; Fish, James; Nascimento, Oliver Augusto; Jardim, José Roberto

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of asthma on patients in Brazil, by age group (12-17 years, 18-40 years, and ≥ 41 years). From a survey conducted in Latin America in 2011, we obtained data on 400 patients diagnosed with asthma and residing in one of four Brazilian state capitals (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Curitiba, and Salvador). The data had been collected using a standardized questionnaire in face-to-face interviews. For the patients who were minors, the parents/guardians had completed the questionnaire. The questions addressed asthma control, number of hospitalizations, number of emergency room visits, and school/work absenteeism, as well as the impact of asthma on the quality of life, sleep, and leisure. We stratified the data by the selected age groups. The proportions of patients who responded in the affirmative to the following questions were significantly higher in the 12- to 17-year age group than in the other two groups: "Have you had at least one episode of severe asthma that prevented you from playing/exercising in the last 12 months?" (p = 0.012); "Have you been absent from school/work in the last 12 months?" (p your asthma relief or control medication in the last 12 months?" (p = 0.008). In addition, 30.2% of the patients in the 12- to 17-year age group reported that normal physical exertion was very limiting (p = 0.010 vs. the other groups), whereas 14% of the patients in the ≥ 41-year age group described social activities as very limiting (p = 0.011 vs. the other groups). In this sample, asthma had a greater impact on the patients between 12 and 17 years of age, which might be attributable to poor treatment compliance.

  18. Evaluation of individual and combined management practices to reduce the off-site transport of pesticides from golf course turf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Pamela J; Horgan, Brian P; Hamlin, Jennifer L

    2017-04-01

    The detection of pesticides, associated with turfgrass management, in storm runoff and surface waters of urban watersheds has raised concerns regarding their source, potential environmental effects and a need for strategies to reduce their inputs. In previous research we discovered that hollow tine core cultivation (HTCC) was more effective than other management practices for reducing the off-site transport of pesticides with runoff from creeping bentgrass turf managed as a golf course fairway. This was primarily the result of enhanced infiltration and reduced runoff volumes associated with turf managed with hollow tines. In this study we evaluated the addition of verticutting (VC) to HTCC (HTCC+VC) in an attempt to further enhance infiltration and mitigate the off-site transport of pesticides with runoff from managed turf. Overall, greater or equal quantities of pesticides were transported with runoff from plots managed with HTCC+VC compared to HTCC or VC alone. For the pesticides evaluated HTCCtransport of the high mobility pesticides while HTCC=VC=HTCC+VC for the low mobility pesticides. It is likely the addition of VC following HTCC further increased compaction and reduced availability of recently exposed soil sorptive sites produced from the HTCC. Results of this research provides guidance to golf course managers on selection of management practices that assure quality turf while minimizing off-site transport of pesticides, improving pesticide efficacy and the environmental stewardship of managed biological systems.

  19. Impact of negative feedback in metabolic noise propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borri, Alessandro; Palumbo, Pasquale; Singh, Abhyudai

    2016-10-01

    Synthetic biology combines different branches of biology and engineering aimed at designing synthetic biological circuits able to replicate emergent properties useful for the biotechnology industry, human health and environment. The role of negative feedback in noise propagation for a basic enzymatic reaction scheme is investigated. Two feedback control schemes on enzyme expression are considered: one from the final product of the pathway activity, the other from the enzyme accumulation. Both schemes are designed to provide the same steady-state average values of the involved players, in order to evaluate the feedback performances according to the same working mode. Computations are carried out numerically and analytically, the latter allowing to infer information on which model parameter setting leads to a more efficient noise attenuation, according to the chosen scheme. In addition to highlighting the role of the feedback in providing a substantial noise reduction, our investigation concludes that the effect of feedback is enhanced by increasing the promoter sensitivity for both schemes. A further interesting biological insight is that an increase in the promoter sensitivity provides more benefits to the feedback from the product with respect to the feedback from the enzyme, in terms of enlarging the parameter design space.

  20. The negative impact of organizational cynicism on physicians and nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Rebecca L; Mohammed, Susan; Hopkins, Margaret; Shapiro, Daniel; Dellasega, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Despite the potentially severe consequences that might result, there is a paucity of research on organizational cynicism within US health care providers. In response, this study investigated the effect of cynicism on organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and interest in leaving the hospital for another job in a sample of 205 physicians and 842 nurses. Three types of cynicism were investigated: trait (dispositional), global (directed toward the hospital), and local (directed toward a specific unit or department). Findings indicate that all 3 types of cynicism were negatively related to affective organizational commitment and job satisfaction, but positively related to interest in leaving. In both nurse and physician samples, cynicism explained about half of the variance in job satisfaction and affective commitment, which is the type of commitment managers are most eager to promote. Cynicism accounted for about a quarter and a third of the variance in interest in leaving the hospital for nurses and physicians, respectively. Trait, global, and local cynicism each accounted for unique variance in affective commitment, job satisfaction, and interest in leaving, with global cynicism exerting the largest influence on each outcome. The implications for managers are that activities aimed at decreasing organizational cynicism are likely to increase affective organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and organizational tenure.

  1. THE IMPACT OF SIGNIFICANT NEGATIVE NEWS ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOR TOWARDS FAVORITE BRANDS

    OpenAIRE

    Brad Sago; Craig Hinnenkamp

    2014-01-01

    This research examines how negative corporate news in the form of a significant product related crisis impacts consumer behavior towards the company’s brand. This study analyzed changes in consumer behavior towards favorite brands after a significant product related news event happened to the makers of those brands. The research found that negative corporate news had some adverse impact on aspects of consumer affinity towards favorite brands, as well as other consumer behavior variables inc...

  2. The Impact of Early Powered Mobility on Parental Stress, Negative Emotions, and Family Social Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefft, Donita; Guerette, Paula; Furumasu, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Powered mobility has been found to have positive effects on young children with severe physical disabilities, but the impact on the family has been less well documented. We evaluated the impact of early powered mobility on parental stress, negative emotions, perceived social interactions, and parental satisfaction with wheelchair characteristics…

  3. A Development of Domestic Food Chain Model Data for Chronic Effect Estimation of Off-site Consequence Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seok-Jung; KEUM, Dong-Kwon; Jang, Seung-Cheol [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The FCM includes complex transport phenomena of radiation materials on a biokinetic system of contaminated environments. An estimation of chronic health effects is a key part of the level 3 PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment), which depends on the FCM estimation from contaminated foods ingestion. A cultural ingestion habit of a local region and agricultural productions are different to the general features over worldwide scale or case by case. This is a reason to develop a domestic FCM data for the level 3 PSA. However, a generation of the specific FCM data is a complex process and under a large degree of uncertainty due to inherent biokinetic models. As a preliminary study, the present study focuses on an infrastructure development to generation of a specific FCM data. During this process, the features of FCM data to generate a domestic FCM data were investigated. Based on the insights obtained from this process, a specific domestic FCM data was developed. The present study was developed a domestic FCM data to estimate the chronic health effects of off-site consequence analysis. From this study, an insight was obtained, that a domestic FCM data is roughly 20 times higher than the MACCS2 defaults data. Based on this observation, it is clear that the specific chronic health effects of a domestic plant site should be considered in the off-site consequence analysis.

  4. A critical realist perspective on decoupling negative environmental impacts from housing sector growth and economic growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Jin

    2012-01-01

    The question that motivates this article has been a matter of dispute: Is it possible to combine perpetual economic growth and longterm environmental sustainability based on the premise that economic growth can be fully decoupled from negative environmental impacts? The article addresses this que......The question that motivates this article has been a matter of dispute: Is it possible to combine perpetual economic growth and longterm environmental sustainability based on the premise that economic growth can be fully decoupled from negative environmental impacts? The article addresses...

  5. Cancer negatively impacts on sexual function in adolescents and young adults: The Aya Hope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettergren, Lena; Kent, Erin E; Mitchell, Sandra A; Zebrack, Brad; Lynch, Charles F; Rubenstein, Mara B; Keegan, Theresa H M; Wu, Xiao-Cheng; Parsons, Helen M; Smith, Ashley Wilder

    2016-05-30

    This cohort study examined the impact of cancer on sexual function and intimate relationships in adolescents and young adults (AYAs). We also explored factors predicting an increased likelihood that cancer had negatively affected these outcomes. Participants (n = 465, ages 15-39) in the Adolescent and Young Adult Health Outcomes and Patient Experience (AYA HOPE) study completed two surveys approximately 1 and 2 years post cancer diagnosis. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine factors negatively affected by perceptions of sexual function at 2 years post-diagnosis. Forty-nine percent of AYAs reported negative effects on sexual function at one year post cancer diagnosis and 70% of those persisted in their negative perceptions two years after diagnosis. Those reporting a negative impact at two years were more likely to be 25 years or older (OR, 2.53; 95% CI, 1.44-4.42), currently not raising children (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.06-3.08), experiencing fatigue (OR, .99; 95% CI, .975-.998) and more likely to report that their diagnosis has had a negative effect on physical appearance (OR, 3.08; 95% CI, 1.97-4.81). Clinical factors and mental health were not significant predictors of negative effects on sexual function. Many AYAs diagnosed with cancer experience a persistent negative impact on sexual life up to two years following diagnosis. The findings underscore the need to develop routine protocols to assess sexual function in AYAs with cancer and to provide comprehensive management in the clinical setting. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. The impact of screening-test negative samples not enumerated by MPN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corbellini, Luis Gustavo; Ribeiro Duarte, Ana Sofia; de Knegt, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    In microbiological surveys, false negative results in detection tests precluding the enumeration by MPN may occur. The objective of this study was to illustrate the impact of screening test failure on the probability distribution of Salmonella concentrations in pork using a Bayesian method. A tot...

  7. Rapid cooling after acute hyperthermia alters intestinal morphology and negatively impacts pig welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat stress (HS) reduces livestock welfare and productivity and can negatively impact pig health. The study objective was to determine the effects of two HS recovery methods (rapid vs. gradual cooling) on pig welfare after acute hyperthermia. In four repetitions, 36 barrows (88.7 ± 1.6 kg BW) were e...

  8. A GIS-based prediction and assessment system of off-site accident consequence for Guangdong nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X Y; Qu, J Y; Shi, Z Q; Ling, Y S

    2003-01-01

    GNARD (Guangdong Nuclear Accident Real-time Decision support system) is a decision support system for off-site emergency management in the event of an accidental release from the nuclear power plants located in Guangdong province, China. The system is capable of calculating wind field, concentrations of radionuclide in environmental media and radiation doses. It can also estimate the size of the area where protective actions should be taken and provide other information about population distribution and emergency facilities available in the area. Furthermore, the system can simulate and evaluate the effectiveness of countermeasures assumed and calculate averted doses by protective actions. All of the results can be shown and analysed on the platform of a geographical information system (GIS).

  9. Potential Negative Impact of DG on Reliability Index: A Study Based on Time-Domain Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Xuanchang

    This thesis presents an original insight of the negative impact of distributed generation on reliability index based on dynamic time-domain modeling. Models for essential power system components, such as protective devices and synchronous generators, were developed and tested. A 4 kV distribution loop which carries relatively high power demand was chosen for the analysis. The characteristic curves of all protective devices were extracted from utility database and applied to the time domain relay model. The performance of each device was investigated in details. The negative effect on reliability is due to the fuse opening caused by the installation of DG at the wrong location and inappropriate relay setup. Over 50% of the possible DG locations can produce an undesirable impact. The study conclusion is that there exists a significant potential for the installation of DG to negatively affect the reliability of power systems.

  10. The impact of negative emotions on self-concept abstraction depends on accessible information processing styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbell, Linda M; Rovenpor, Daniel R; Lair, Elicia C

    2016-10-01

    Research suggests that anger promotes global, abstract processing whereas sadness and fear promote local, concrete processing (see Schwarz & Clore, 2007 for a review). Contrary to a large and influential body of work suggesting that specific affective experiences are tethered to specific cognitive outcomes, the affect-as-cognitive-feedback account maintains that affective experiences confer positive or negative value on currently dominant processing styles, and thus can lead to either global or local processing (Huntsinger, Isbell, & Clore, 2014). The current work extends this theoretical perspective by investigating the impact of discrete negative emotions on the self-concept. By experimentally manipulating information processing styles and discrete negative emotions that vary in appraisals of certainty, we demonstrate that the impact of discrete negative emotions on the spontaneous self-concept depends on accessible processing styles. When global processing was accessible, individuals in angry (negative, high certainty) states generated more abstract statements about themselves than individuals in either sad (Experiment 1) or fearful (Experiment 2; negative, low certainty) states. When local processing was made accessible, however, the opposite pattern emerged, whereby individuals in angry states generated fewer abstract statements than individuals in sad or fearful states. Together these studies provide new insights into the mechanisms through which discrete emotions influence cognition. In contrast to theories assuming a dedicated link between emotions and processing styles, these results suggest that discrete emotions provide feedback about accessible ways of thinking, and are consistent with recent evidence suggesting that the impact of affect on cognition is highly context-dependent. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Simulation-based multiprofessional obstetric anaesthesia training conducted in situ versus off-site leads to similar individual and team outcomes: a randomised educational trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Jette Led; van der Vleuten, Cees; Rosthøj, Susanne; Østergaard, Doris; LeBlanc, Vicki; Johansen, Marianne; Ekelund, Kim; Starkopf, Liis; Lindschou, Jane; Gluud, Christian; Weikop, Pia; Ottesen, Bent

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of in situ simulation (ISS) versus off-site simulation (OSS) on knowledge, patient safety attitude, stress, motivation, perceptions of simulation, team performance and organisational impact. Design Investigator-initiated single-centre randomised superiority educational trial. Setting Obstetrics and anaesthesiology departments, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Participants 100 participants in teams of 10, comprising midwives, specialised midwives, auxiliary nurses, nurse anaesthetists, operating theatre nurses, and consultant doctors and trainees in obstetrics and anaesthesiology. Interventions Two multiprofessional simulations (clinical management of an emergency caesarean section and a postpartum haemorrhage scenario) were conducted in teams of 10 in the ISS versus the OSS setting. Primary outcome Knowledge assessed by a multiple choice question test. Exploratory outcomes Individual outcomes: scores on the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire, stress measurements (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, cognitive appraisal and salivary cortisol), Intrinsic Motivation Inventory and perceptions of simulations. Team outcome: video assessment of team performance. Organisational impact: suggestions for organisational changes. Results The trial was conducted from April to June 2013. No differences between the two groups were found for the multiple choice question test, patient safety attitude, stress measurements, motivation or the evaluation of the simulations. The participants in the ISS group scored the authenticity of the simulation significantly higher than did the participants in the OSS group. Expert video assessment of team performance showed no differences between the ISS versus the OSS group. The ISS group provided more ideas and suggestions for changes at the organisational level. Conclusions In this randomised trial, no significant differences were found regarding knowledge, patient safety attitude, motivation or stress

  12. Buffering Negative Impacts of Divorce on Children: Evaluating Impact of Divorce Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jennifer K.; Riffe, Jane; Trevisan, Dominic A.; Adesope, Olusola O.

    2014-01-01

    Following the call for more stringent evaluation methodology and recently documented national Extension presence in the field of divorce education for parents and children, the study reported here describes a local multi-level evaluation to capture program impact of a stakeholder-accepted divorce education program. Using a post-then-pre…

  13. The goal of forming accurate impressions during social interactions: attenuating the impact of negative expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberg, S L

    1989-03-01

    Investigated the idea that impression formation goals may regulate the impact that perceiver expectancies have on social interactions. In simulated interviews, interviewers Ss were given a negative expectancy about one applicant S and no expectancy about another. Half the interviewers were encouraged to form accurate impressions; the others were not. As predicted, no-goal interviewers exhibited a postinteraction impression bias against the negative-expectancy applicants, whereas the accuracy-goal interviewers did not. Moreover, the ability of the accuracy goal to reduce this bias was apparently mediated by more extensive and less biased interviewer information-gathering, which in turn elicited an improvement in negative-expectancy applicants' performances. These findings stress the theoretical and practical importance of considering the motivational context within which expectancy-tinged social interactions occur.

  14. Design of simulation-based medical education and advantages and disadvantages of in situ simulation versus off-site simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Jette Led; Østergaard, Doris; LeBlanc, Vicki; Ottesen, Bent; Konge, Lars; Dieckmann, Peter; Van der Vleuten, Cees

    2017-01-21

    Simulation-based medical education (SBME) has traditionally been conducted as off-site simulation in simulation centres. Some hospital departments also provide off-site simulation using in-house training room(s) set up for simulation away from the clinical setting, and these activities are called in-house training. In-house training facilities can be part of hospital departments and resemble to some extent simulation centres but often have less technical equipment. In situ simulation, introduced over the past decade, mainly comprises of team-based activities and occurs in patient care units with healthcare professionals in their own working environment. Thus, this intentional blend of simulation and real working environments means that in situ simulation brings simulation to the real working environment and provides training where people work. In situ simulation can be either announced or unannounced, the latter also known as a drill. This article presents and discusses the design of SBME and the advantage and disadvantage of the different simulation settings, such as training in simulation-centres, in-house simulations in hospital departments, announced or unannounced in situ simulations. Non-randomised studies argue that in situ simulation is more effective for educational purposes than other types of simulation settings. Conversely, the few comparison studies that exist, either randomised or retrospective, show that choice of setting does not seem to influence individual or team learning. However, hospital department-based simulations, such as in-house simulation and in situ simulation, lead to a gain in organisational learning. To our knowledge no studies have compared announced and unannounced in situ simulation. The literature suggests some improved organisational learning from unannounced in situ simulation; however, unannounced in situ simulation was also found to be challenging to plan and conduct, and more stressful among participants. The importance of

  15. Scaling up kangaroo mother care in South Africa: 'on-site' versus 'off-site' educational facilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Rooyen Elise

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scaling up the implementation of new health care interventions can be challenging and demand intensive training or retraining of health workers. This paper reports on the results of testing the effectiveness of two different kinds of face-to-face facilitation used in conjunction with a well-designed educational package in the scaling up of kangaroo mother care. Methods Thirty-six hospitals in the Provinces of Gauteng and Mpumalanga in South Africa were targeted to implement kangaroo mother care and participated in the trial. The hospitals were paired with respect to their geographical location and annual number of births. One hospital in each pair was randomly allocated to receive either 'on-site' facilitation (Group A or 'off-site' facilitation (Group B. Hospitals in Group A received two on-site visits, whereas delegates from hospitals in Group B attended one off-site, 'hands-on' workshop at a training hospital. All hospitals were evaluated during a site visit six to eight months after attending an introductory workshop and were scored by means of an existing progress-monitoring tool with a scoring scale of 0–30. Successful implementation was regarded as demonstrating evidence of practice (score >10 during the site visit. Results There was no significant difference between the scores of Groups A and B (p = 0.633. Fifteen hospitals in Group A and 16 in Group B demonstrated evidence of practice. The median score for Group A was 16.52 (range 00.00–23.79 and that for Group B 14.76 (range 07.50–23.29. Conclusion A previous trial illustrated that the implementation of a new health care intervention could be scaled up by using a carefully designed educational package, combined with face-to-face facilitation by respected resource persons. This study demonstrated that the site of facilitation, either on site or at a centre of excellence, did not influence the ability of a hospital to implement KMC. The choice of outreach

  16. The Impact of Positive and Negative Affect and Issue Framing on Issue Interpretation and Risk Taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal; Ross

    1998-12-01

    Two studies examined the influence of transient affective states and issue framing on issue interpretation and risk taking within the context of strategic decision making. In Study 1, participants in whom transient positive or negative affective states were induced by reading a short story showed systematic differences in issue interpretation and risk taking in a strategic decision making context. Compared to negative mood participants, those in a positive mood were more likely to interpret the strategic issue as an opportunity and displayed lower levels of risk taking. Study 2 replicated and extended these results by crossing affective states with threat and opportunity frames. Results showed that framing an issue (as a threat or an opportunity) had a stronger impact on issue interpretation among negative affect participants than among positive affect participants. Affective states also moderated the impact of issue framing on risk taking: the effect of framing on risk-taking was stronger under negative rather than positive affect. These results are interpreted via information-processing and motivational effects of affect on a decision maker. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  17. Impact of prostate cancer testing: an evaluation of the emotional consequences of a negative biopsy result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macefield, R C; Metcalfe, C; Lane, J A; Donovan, J L; Avery, K N L; Blazeby, J M; Down, L; Neal, D E; Hamdy, F C; Vedhara, K

    2010-04-27

    When testing for prostate cancer, as many as 75% of men with a raised prostate-specific antigen (PSA) have a benign biopsy result. Little is known about the psychological effect of this result for these men. In all, 330 men participating in the prostate testing for cancer and treatment (ProtecT) study were studied; aged 50-69 years with a PSA level of > or = 3 ng ml(-1) and a negative biopsy result. Distress and negative mood were measured at four time-points: two during diagnostic testing and two after a negative biopsy result. The majority of men were not greatly affected by testing or a negative biopsy result. The impact on psychological health was highest at the time of the biopsy, with around 20% reporting high distress (33 out of 171) and tense/anxious moods (35 out of 180). Longitudinal analysis on 195 men showed a significant increase in distress at the time of the biopsy compared with levels at the PSA test (difference in Impact of Events Scale (IES) score: 9.47; 95% confidence interval (CI) (6.97, 12.12); Presult (difference in score: 7.32; 95% CI (5.51, 9.52); Presult. Men should be informed of the risk of distress relating to diagnostic uncertainty before they consent to PSA testing.

  18. Elevated Appraisals of the Negative Impact of Naturally Occurring Life Events: A Risk Factor for Depressive and Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, Emmanuel Peter; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    The tendency to appraise naturally occurring life events (LEs) as having high negative impact may be a predisposing factor for the development of depression and anxiety disorders. In the current study, appraisals of the negative impact of recent LEs were examined in relationship to depressive and anxiety disorders in a sample of 653 adolescents…

  19. Elevated Appraisals of the Negative Impact of Naturally Occurring Life Events: A Risk Factor for Depressive and Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, Emmanuel Peter; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    The tendency to appraise naturally occurring life events (LEs) as having high negative impact may be a predisposing factor for the development of depression and anxiety disorders. In the current study, appraisals of the negative impact of recent LEs were examined in relationship to depressive and anxiety disorders in a sample of 653 adolescents…

  20. Mindfulness during romantic conflict moderates the impact of negative partner behaviors on cortisol responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Hertz, Robin; Nelson, Benjamin; Laurent, Sean M

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to test whether romantic partners' mindfulness-present moment, nonjudgmental awareness-during a conflict discussion could buffer the effects of negative partner behaviors on neuroendocrine stress responses. Heterosexual couples (n=88 dyads) provided 5 saliva samples for cortisol assay during a laboratory session involving a conflict discussion task. Conflict behaviors were coded by outside observers using the System for Coding Interactions in Dyads, and partners rated their mindfulness during the task using the Toronto Mindfulness Scale. Interactions tested using multilevel modeling revealed that participants with higher levels of mindfulness during the conflict showed either quicker cortisol recovery or an absence of slowed recovery in the presence of more negative partner behaviors. Whereas the attitudinal component of mindfulness (curiosity) moderated effects of negative partner engagement in the conflict (i.e., attempts to control, coerciveness, negativity and conflict), the attentional component of mindfulness (decentering) moderated the effect of partner disengagement (i.e., withdrawal). These findings lend support to the idea that mindfulness during a stressful interaction can mitigate the physiological impacts of negative behaviors.

  1. Costs for off-site disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes: Salt caverns versus other disposal methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-09-01

    According to an American Petroleum Institute production waste survey reported on by P.G. Wakim in 1987 and 1988, the exploration and production segment of the US oil and gas industry generated more than 360 million barrels (bbl) of drilling wastes, more than 20 billion bbl of produced water, and nearly 12 million bbl of associated wastes in 1985. Current exploration and production activities are believed to be generating comparable quantities of these oil field wastes. Wakim estimates that 28% of drilling wastes, less than 2% of produced water, and 52% of associated wastes are disposed of in off-site commercial facilities. In recent years, interest in disposing of oil field wastes in solution-mined salt caverns has been growing. This report provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in oil-and gas-producing states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and the amounts they charge. It also compares cavern disposal costs with the costs of other forms of waste disposal.

  2. Clarifying the learning experiences of healthcare professionals with in situ and off-site simulation-based medical education: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorensen, J.L.; Navne, L.E.; Martin, H.M.; Ottesen, B.; Albrecthsen, C.K.; Pedersen, B.W.; Kjaergaard, H.; Vleuten, C. van der

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine how the setting in in situ simulation (ISS) and off-site simulation (OSS) in simulation-based medical education affects the perceptions and learning experience of healthcare professionals. DESIGN: Qualitative study using focus groups and content analysis. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-f

  3. Off-site source recovery project case study: disposal of high activity cobalt 60 sources at the Nevada test site 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cocina, Frank G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stewart, William C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wald - Hopkins, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hageman, John P [SWRI

    2009-01-01

    The Off-Site Source Recovery Project has been operating at Los Alamos National Laboratory since 1998 to address the U.S. Department of Energy responsibility for collection and management of orphaned or disused radioactive sealed sources which may represent a risk to public health and national security if not properly managed.

  4. Positive and negative effects of social impact on evolutionary vaccination game in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Genki; Kurisaku, Takehiro

    2017-02-01

    Preventing infectious disease like flu from spreading to large communities is one of the most important issues for humans. One effective strategy is voluntary vaccination, however, there is always the temptation for people refusing to be vaccinated because once herd immunity is achieved, infection risk is greatly reduced. In this paper, we study the effect of social impact on the vaccination behavior resulting in preventing infectious disease in networks. The evolutionary simulation results show that the social impact has both positive and negative effects on the vaccination behavior. Especially, in heterogeneous networks, if the vaccination cost is low the behavior is more promoted than the case without social impact. In contrast, if the cost is high, the behavior is reduced compared to the case without social impact. Moreover, the vaccination behavior is effective in heterogeneous networks more than in homogeneous networks. This implies that the social impact puts people at risk in homogeneous networks. We also evaluate the results from the social cost related to the vaccination policy.

  5. Impact of the endoscopist's experience on the negative predictive value of capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayos Jiménez, Benito; Alcaide Suárez, Noelia; González Redondo, Guillermo; Fernández Salazar, Luis; Aller de la Fuente, Rocío; Del Olmo Martínez, Lourdes; Ruiz Rebollo, Lourdes; González Hernández, José Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The impact of the accumulated experience of the capsule endoscopy (CE) reader on the accuracy of this test is discussed. To determine whether the negative predictive value of CE findings changes along the learning curve. We reviewed the first 900 CE read by 3 gastroenterologists experienced in endoscopy over 8 years. These 900 CE were divided into 3 groups (300 CE each): group 1 consisted of the sum of the first 100 CE read by each of the 3 endoscopists; group 2, the sum of the second 100 and groups 3, the sum of the third 100. Patients with normal CE were monitored for at least 28 months to estimate the negative predictive value. A total of 54 (18%) CE in group 1, 58 (19.3%) in group 2 and 47 (15.6%) in group 3 were normal, although only 34 patients in group 1, 38 in group 2 and 36 in group 3 with normal CE completed follow up and were eventually studied. The negative predictive value was 88.2% in group 1, 89.5% in group 2 and 97% in group 3 (P>.05). The negative predictive value tended to increase, but remained high and did not change significantly after the first 100 when readers are experienced in conventional endoscopy and have preliminary specific training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U., AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  6. A study on the effect of containment filtered venting system to off-site under severe accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Ju Young; Kwon, Tae Eun; Lee, Jai Ki [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The containment filtered venting system reduces the range of the contamination area around the nuclear power plant by strengthening the integrity of the containment building. In this study, the probabilistic assessment code MACCS2 was used to assess the effect of the CFVS to off-site. The accident source term was selected from a Probabilistic Safety Analysis report of SHINKORI 1 and 2 Nuclear Power Plant. The three source term categories from 19 STC were chosen to evaluate the effective dose and thyroid dose of residents around the power plant and the dose with CFVS and without CFVS were compared. The dose was calculated according to the distance from the nuclear power plant, so the damage scale based on the distance that exceeds the IAEA criteria for effective dose (100 mSv per 7 days) and thyroid dose (50 mSv per 7 days) were compared. The effective dose reduction rates of the STC-3, STC-4, STC-6 were about 95-99% in the whole range (0⁓35 km), 96-98% for the thyroid dose. There are similar results between effective dose and thyroid dose. After applying the CFVS, the damage scale that exceeds the effective dose criteria was about 1 km (mean). Especially, the STC-4 damage scale was decreased from 26 km (mean) to 1.2 km (mean) significantly. The damage scale that exceed the thyroid dose criteria was decreased to 2⁓3 km (mean). The STC-4 damage scale was also decreased significantly as compared to STC-3, STC-6 in terms of effective dose.

  7. Exploring the impact of positive and negative emotions on cooperative behaviour in a Prisoner's Dilemma Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjell, Oscar N E; Thompson, Sam

    2013-12-19

    Objective. To explore the influences of discrete positive and negative emotions on cooperation in the context of a social dilemma game. Design. Two controlled studies were undertaken. In Study 1, 69 participants were randomly assigned to an essay emotion manipulation task designed to induce either guilt, joy or no strong emotion. In Study 2, 95 participants were randomly assigned to one of the same three tasks, and the impact of emotional condition on cooperation was explored using a repeated Prisoner's Dilemma Game. Results. Study 1 established that the manipulation task was successful in inducing the specified emotions. The analysis from Study 2 revealed no significant main effects for emotions, in contrast to previous research. However, there was a significant effect for participants' pre-existing tendency to cooperate (social value orientation; SVO). Conclusion. Methodological explanations for the result are explored, including the possible impact of trial-and-error strategies, different cooperation games and endogenous vs exogenous emotions.

  8. High intelligence prevents the negative impact of anxiety on working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuderski, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Using a large sample and the confirmatory factor analysis, the study investigated the relationships between anxiety, working memory (WM) and (fluid) intelligence. The study showed that the negative impact of anxiety on WM functioning diminishes with increasing intelligence, and that anxiety can significantly affect WM only in people below average intelligence. This effect could not be fully explained by the sheer differences in WM capacity (WMC), suggesting the importance of higher-level cognition in coping with anxiety. Although intelligence moderated the impact of anxiety on WM, it was only weakly related to anxiety. In contrast to previous studies, anxiety explained the substantial amount of WMC variance (17.8%) in less intelligent participants, but none of the variance in more intelligent ones. These results can be explained in terms of either increased motivation of intelligent but anxious people to cope with a WM task, or their ability to compensate decrements in WM.

  9. Bystander chronic infection negatively impacts development of CD8+ T cell memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelekati, Erietta; Shin, Haina; Doering, Travis A.; Dolfi, Douglas V.; Ziegler, Carly G.; Beiting, Daniel P.; Dawson, Lucas; Liboon, Jennifer; Wolski, David; Ali, Mohammed-Alkhatim A.; Katsikis, Peter D.; Shen, Hao; Roos, David S.; Haining, W. Nicholas; Lauer, Georg M.; Wherry, E. John

    2014-01-01

    Summary Epidemiological evidence suggests that chronic infections impair immune responses to unrelated pathogens and vaccines. The underlying mechanisms, however, are unclear and distinguishing effects on priming versus development of immunological memory has been challenging. We investigated whether bystander chronic infections impact differentiation of memory CD8+ T cells, the hallmark of protective immunity against intracellular pathogens. Chronic bystander infections impaired development of memory CD8+ T cells in several mouse models and humans. These effects were independent of initial priming and were associated with chronic inflammatory signatures. Chronic inflammation negatively impacted the number of bystander CD8+ T cells and their memory development. Distinct underlying mechanisms of altered survival and differentiation were revealed with the latter regulated by the transcription factors T-bet and Blimp-1. Thus, exposure to prolonged bystander inflammation impairs the effector to memory transition. These data have relevance for immunity and vaccination during persisting infections and chronic inflammation. PMID:24837104

  10. Regional diversity reverses the negative impacts of an alien predator on local species-poor communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewen, Charlie J G; Vinebrooke, Rolf D

    2016-10-01

    Species diversity is often an implicit source of biological insurance for communities against the impacts of novel perturbations, such as the introduction of an invasive species. High environmental heterogeneity (e.g., a mountainous gradient) is expected to beget greater regional species diversity and variation in functional traits related to environmental tolerances. Thus, heterogeneous metacommunities are expected to provide more tolerant colonists that buffer stressed local communities in the absence of dispersal limitation. We tested the hypothesis that importation of a regional zooplankton pool assembled from a diverse array of lakes and ponds lessens the impacts of a novel predator on local species-poor alpine communities by increasing response diversity (i.e., diversity of tolerances to environmental change) as mediated by variation in functional traits related to predator evasion. We also tested whether impacts varied with temperature, as warming may modify (e.g., dampen or amplify) invasion effects. An eight-week factorial experiment ([fishless vs. introduced Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout)] × [ambient temperature vs. heated] × [local vs. local + regional species pool]) was conducted using 32 1,000-L mesocosms. Associations between experimental treatments and species functional traits were tested by R-mode linked to Q-mode (RLQ) and fourth-corner analyses. Although the introduced predator suppressed local species richness and community biomass, colonization by several montane zooplankters reversed these negative effects, resulting in increased species diversity and production. Invasion resistance was unaffected by higher temperatures, which failed to elicit any significance impacts on the community. We discovered that the smaller body sizes of imported species drove functional overcompensation (i.e., increased production) in invaded communities. The observed ecological surprise showed how regionally sourced biodiversity from a highly

  11. Exposure to 2,4-decadienal negatively impacts upon marine invertebrate larval fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Gary S; Lewis, Ceri; Olive, Peter J W; Bentley, Matthew G

    2005-06-01

    Diatoms liberate volatile, biologically active unsaturated aldehydes following cell damage, which negatively impact upon invertebrate reproductive processes such as fertilization, embryogenesis and larval survival. 2,4-Decadienal is frequently identified among the aldehydes produced and is one of the more biologically active. The majority of studies which have examined the toxic effects of diatom aldehydes to invertebrate reproduction have scored egg production and/or hatching success as indicators of biological impacts. There are very few studies which have dealt specifically with the impacts of diatom-derived aldehydes on larval fitness. Larval stages of the polychaetes Arenicola marina and Nereis virens and the echinoderms Asterias rubens and Psammechinus miliaris exposed to 2,4-decadienal at sub 1 microg ml(-1) concentrations suffered reduced survival over the incubation period (day 1-8 post fertilization) with detectable differences for the polychates at a concentration of 0.005 and 0.01-0.1 microg ml(-1) for the echinoderms. Susceptibility of larval N. virens was investigated using stage specific 24 h exposures at 2,4-decadienal concentrations up to 1.5 microg ml(-1). A clear stage specific effect was found, with earlier larval stages most vulnerable. Nectochaete larvae (9-10 d) showed no reduction in survival at the concentrations assayed. Fluctuating asymmetry (FA), defined as random deviations from perfect bilateral symmetry, was used to analyse fitness of larval P. miliaris exposed to 2,4-decadienal at concentrations of 0.1, 0.5 and 1 microg ml(-1). The degree and frequency of asymmetrical development increased with increasing 2,4-decadienal concentration. Equally, as FA increased larval survival decreased. These results provide further support for the teratogenic nature of 2,4-decadienal and its negative impact on invertebrate larval fitness.

  12. Mirror movements in unilateral spastic cerebral palsy: Specific negative impact on bimanual activities of daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Caroline; Berweck, Steffen; Lidzba, Karen; Becher, Thomas; Staudt, Martin

    2015-09-01

    Mirror movements are involuntary movements of the other hand during voluntary unimanual movements. Some, but not all children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (USCP) show this phenomenon. In this observational study, we investigated whether these mirror movements have a specific negative impact on bimanual activities of daily living. Eighteen children (six girls; age range, 6-16 years; mean age, 12 years 1 month; SD, 3 years 3 month) with USCP, nine with and nine without mirror movements, underwent the Jebsen Taylor Hand Function Test (unimanual capacity) and the Assisting Hand Assessment (bimanual performance). In addition, we measured the time the participants needed for the completion of five activities we had identified as particularly difficult for children with mirror movements. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that mirror movements indeed have a specific negative impact on bimanual performance (Assisting Hand Assessment) and on the time needed for the completion of these five particularly difficult activities. This effect was independent from unimanual capacity. Functional therapies in children with USCP and mirror movements should address this phenomenon. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessing the Impacts of Low Level Jets' Negative Wind Shear over Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Walter; Ruiz-Columbie, Arquimedes; Tutkun, Murat; Castillo, Luciano

    2016-11-01

    Nocturnal Low Level Jets (LLJs) are defined as relative maxima in the vertical profile of the horizontal wind speed at the top of the stable boundary layer. Such peaks constitute major power resources, since they are observed at altitudes within the heights of commercial-size wind turbines. However, a wind speed maximum implies a transition from a positive wind shear below the maximum height to a negative one above. The effect that such transition inflicts on wind turbines has not been thoroughly studied. Here we focused on the impacts that the LLJ negative wind shears have over commercial size wind turbines. Using actual atmospheric LLJ data of high frequency as input for the NREL aeroelastic simulator FAST, different scenarios were created varying the LLJ maximum height with respect to the wind turbine hub height. We found only slight changes in the deflection and load averages for those scenarios, whereas the corresponding variances appear to decrease when a larger portion of the wind turbine sweeping area is affected by the negative shear. The exception was observed in the junction between the tower top and the nacelle, where a deflection maximum was detected that might reveal a critical structural point. The authors gratefully acknowledge the following Grants for this research: NSFCBET #1157246, NSFCMMI #1100948, NSFOISE1243482.

  14. Can nanotechnology deliver the promised benefits without negatively impacting soil microbial life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimkpa, Christian O

    2014-09-01

    Nanotechnology exploits the enhanced reactivity of materials at the atomic scale to improve various applications for humankind. In agriculture, potential nanotechnology applications include crop protection and fertilization. However, such benefits could come with risks for the environment: non-target plants, plant-beneficial soil microbes and other life forms could be impacted if nanoparticles (nanomaterials) contaminate the environment. This review evaluates the impact of the major metallic nanoparticles (Ag, ZnO, CuO, CeO2 , TiO2 , and FeO-based nanoparticles) on soil microbes involved in agricultural processes. The current literature indicate that in addition to population and organismal-scale effects on microbes, other subtle impacts of nanoparticles are seen in the nitrogen cycle, soil enzyme activities, and processes involved in iron metabolism, phytohormone, and antibiotic production. These effects are negative or positive, the outcome being dependent on specific nanoparticles. Collectively, published results suggest that nanotechnology portends considerable, many negative, implications for soil microbes and, thus, agricultural processes that are microbially driven. Nonetheless, the potential of plant and soil microbial processes to mitigate the bioreactivity of nanoparticles also are observed. Whereas the roots of most terrestrial plants are associated with microbes, studies of nanoparticle interactions with plants and microbes are generally conducted separately. The few studies in actual microbe-plant systems found effects of nanoparticles on the functioning of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, nitrogen fixation, as well as on the production of microbial siderophores in the plant rhizosphere. It is suggested that a better understanding of the agro-ecological ramifications of nanoparticles would require more in-depth interactive studies in combined plant-microbe-nanoparticle systems. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. The Sweet and the Bitter: Intertwined Positive and Negative Social Impacts of a Biodiversity Offset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Bidaud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Major developments, such as mines, will often have unavoidable environmental impacts. In such cases, investors, governments, or even a company's own standards increasingly require implementation of biodiversity offsets (investment in conservation with a measurable outcome with the aim of achieving 'no net loss' or even a 'net gain' of biodiversity. Where conservation is achieved by changing the behaviour of people directly using natural resources, the offset might be expected to have social impacts but such impacts have received very little attention. Using the case study of Ambatovy, a major nickel mine in the eastern rainforests of Madagascar and a company at the vanguard of developing biodiversity offsets, we explore local perceptions of the magnitude and distribution of impacts of the biodiversity offset project on local wellbeing. We used both qualitative (key informant interviews and focus group discussions and quantitative (household survey methods. We found that the biodiversity offsets, which comprise both conservation restrictions and development activities, influenced wellbeing in a mixture of positive and negative ways. However, overall, respondents felt that they had suffered a net cost from the biodiversity offset. It is a matter of concern that benefits from development activities do not compensate for the costs of the conservation restrictions, that those who bear the costs are not the same people as those who benefit, and that there is a mismatch in timing between the immediate restrictions and the associated development activities which take some time to deliver benefits. These issues matter both from the perspective of environmental justice, and for the long-term sustainability of the biodiversity benefits the offset is supposed to deliver.

  16. No time to lose: Negative impact on law student wellbeing may begin in year one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Townes O'Brien

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary results of a pilot study of law students suggest that, during the first year of law study, students may experience changes in thinking styles, stress levels, and satisfaction with life. Although further inquiry into the cause of law student distress is necessary, the authors consider certain assumptions underlying the legal curriculum—particularly the conception of a lawyer as adversarial, emotionally detached, and competitive—to be possible sources of the negative impact on student wellbeing.  It is suggested that legal educators should re-examine their curricula, particularly their conception of what it means to be a lawyer, and think creatively about ways that law schools may encourage healthier approaches to the study of law.

  17. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Usage in Skin Diseases and the Positive and Negative Impacts on Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşen Tükenmez Demirci

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Our purpose was to compare the sosciodemographical differences between Complementary and Alternative medicine (CAM users and non users with skin diseases and to investigate the positive and negative impacts of CAM among patients. Methods: The patients with dermatological conditions attending the dermatology outpatient clinic were enrolled to the study randomly. The sociodemographical properties, diagnosis of the skin diseases, duration of the disease, CAM usage and duration of usage and the positive and negative impacts of the treatments were recorded. Results: A total of 522 (302 female, 220 male, median age 34.8±16.7 patients were enrolled in the study. Eighty-eight patients (16.8% were found to have used a CAM method. The mean age of CAM users (28.2±14.3 were statistically lower than non users (36.0±16.9 (p=0.000 <0.05. The disease duration of CAM users (4.3±5.5 year was statistically longer than non-users (2.8±5.2 year. The CAM methods were mostly preferred in acne vulgaris disease (31.8%, and the mostly used CAM method was herbal therapies (59.1%. We found that 16 (18.2% out of 88 CAM users had side effects from CAM treatment while nine patients (10.3% improved. Conclusion: Complementary and alternative medicine usage is not frequent among skin diseases. The patients with longer disease duration are more prone to use CAM. The side effects rarely occur due to CAM use and we ascertain that very rarely do patients benefit from CAM methods.

  18. Solving the negative impact of congestion in the postanesthesia care unit: a cost of opportunity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Patiño, Alejandro; Acosta-Ospina, Laura Elena; Rueda, Juan-David

    2017-04-01

    Congestion in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) leads to the formation of waiting queues for patients being transferred after surgery, negatively affecting hospital resources. As patients recover in the operating room, incoming surgeries are delayed. The purpose of this study was to establish the impact of this phenomenon in multiple settings. An operational mathematical study based on the queuing theory was performed. Average queue length, average queue waiting time, and daily queue waiting time were evaluated. Calculations were based on the mean patient daily flow, PACU length of stay, occupation, and current number of beds. Data was prospectively collected during a period of 2 months, and the entry and exit time was recorded for each patient taken to the PACU. Data was imputed in a computational model made with MS Excel. To account for data uncertainty, deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses for all dependent variables were performed. With a mean patient daily flow of 40.3 and an average PACU length of stay of 4 hours, average total lost surgical opportunity time was estimated at 2.36 hours (95% CI: 0.36-4.74 hours). Cost of opportunity was calculated at $1592 per lost hour. Sensitivity analysis showed that an increase of two beds is required to solve the queue formation. When congestion has a negative impact on cost of opportunity in the surgical setting, queuing analysis grants definitive actions to solve the problem, improving quality of service and resource utilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Education attenuates the negative impact of traumatic brain injury on cognitive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumowski, James F; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; Krch, Denise; Paxton, Jessica; Deluca, John

    2013-12-01

    To investigate whether the cognitive reserve hypothesis helps to explain differential cognitive impairment among survivors of traumatic brain injury (TBI), whereby survivors with greater intellectual enrichment (estimated with education) are less vulnerable to cognitive impairment. Cross-sectional study. Medical rehabilitation research center. Survivors of moderate or severe TBI (n=44) and healthy controls (n=36). Not applicable. Intellectual enrichment was estimated with educational attainment. Group was defined as TBI or healthy control. Current cognitive status (processing speed, working memory, episodic memory) was evaluated with neuropsychological tasks. TBI survivors exhibited worse cognitive status than healthy persons (Peducation was positively correlated with cognitive status in TBI survivors (r=.54, Peducation (R(2) change=.036, P=.004), whereas higher education attenuated the negative impact of TBI on cognitive status. TBI survivors with lower education performed much worse than matched healthy persons, but this TBI-related performance discrepancy was attenuated at higher levels of education. Higher intellectual enrichment (estimated with education) reduces the negative effect of TBI on cognitive outcomes, thereby supporting the cognitive reserve hypothesis in persons with TBI. Future work is necessary to investigate whether intellectual enrichment can build cognitive reserve as a rehabilitative intervention in survivors of TBI. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Concurrent schedules of positive and negative reinforcement: differential-impact and differential-outcomes hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoon, Michael A; Critchfield, Thomas S

    2008-07-01

    Considerable evidence from outside of operant psychology suggests that aversive events exert greater influence over behavior than equal-sized positive-reinforcement events. Operant theory is largely moot on this point, and most operant research is uninformative because of a scaling problem that prevents aversive events and those based on positive reinforcement from being directly compared. In the present investigation, humans' mouse-click responses were maintained on similarly structured, concurrent schedules of positive (money gain) and negative (avoidance of money loss) reinforcement. Because gains and losses were of equal magnitude, according to the analytical conventions of the generalized matching law, bias (log b (double dagger) 0) would indicate differential impact by one type of consequence; however, no systematic bias was observed. Further research is needed to reconcile this outcome with apparently robust findings in other literatures of superior behavior control by aversive events. In an incidental finding, the linear function relating log behavior ratio and log reinforcement ratio was steeper for concurrent negative and positive reinforcement than for control conditions involving concurrent positive reinforcement. This may represent the first empirical confirmation of a free-operant differential-outcomes effect predicted by contingency-discriminability theories of choice.

  1. Impact of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci and Other Germs on Sperm Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lozano-Hernández

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS is part of the microbiota of the male genitourinary tract, sometimes it has been considered as possible pathogenic microorganism. In the 5th version of sperm manual (WHO, 2010 sperm morphology criterion is very restricted to 4% of normal heads whereas David’s criterion evaluates several spermatic forms. The abnormalities of sperm forms were evaluated according to criteria of spermatic morphology: WHO and David in semen samples with bacterial concentrations ≤ 103, 104 and ≥ 105 CFU/mL of CoNS as of other bacteria. Spermogram, sperm culture and antibodies anti-Chlamydia trachomatis IgA detection in 281 semen samples men were performed. CoNS was the most frequent germ isolated in pure culture (9.25%. Semen samples with CoNS showed higher round cells and microcephalus forms by means of David’s criterion. CoNS in higher concentrations than 104 CFU/mL may have a negative impact on sperm cellularity, sperm head and probably on fertility.

  2. Negative impact of pretreatment anemia on local control after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery for rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hye Bin; Park, Hee Chul; Park, Won [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2012-09-15

    Although anemia is considered to be a contributor to intra-tumoral hypoxia and tumor resistance to ionizing radiation in cancer patients, the impact of pretreatment anemia on local control after neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) and surgery for rectal cancer remains unclear. We reviewed the records of 247 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who were treated with NACRT followed by curative-intent surgery. The patients with anemia before NACRT (36.0%, 89/247) achieved less pathologic complete response (pCR) than those without anemia (p = 0.012). The patients with pretreatment anemia had worse 3-year local control than those without pretreatment anemia (86.0% vs. 95.7%, p = 0.005). Multivariate analysis showed that pretreatment anemia (p = 0.035), pathologic tumor and nodal stage (p = 0.020 and 0.032, respectively) were independently significant factors for local control. Pretreatment anemia had negative impacts on pCR and local control among patients who underwent NACRT and surgery for rectal cancer. Strategies maintaining hemoglobin level within normal range could potentially be used to improve local control in rectal cancer patients.

  3. The effects of positive versus negative impact reflection on change in job performance and work-life conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardador, M Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Research on task significance and relational job design suggests that information from beneficiaries of one's work fosters perceptions of impact, and thus improved work outcomes. This paper presents results from a longitudinal field experiment examining the effect of another strategy for fostering perceptions of impact - engaging employees in regular reflection about how their work benefits others. With a sample of professionals from multiple organizations, this longitudinal study examined the effect on job performance and work-life conflict of both positive and negative impact reflection. Results show that negative impact reflection had a pronounced negative effect on job performance, but no effect on work-life conflict. Positive impact reflection had a weak positive effect on work-life conflict, but no significant effect on job performance. The direction of effects seen in the no intervention condition mirrored that of the negative impact reflection condition, suggesting a possible buffering effect for positive impact reflection. This research provides empirical and theoretical contributions to the literatures on relational job design and task significance.

  4. Impact of maternal negative affectivity on light alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stene-Larsen, Kim; Torgersen, Leila; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether maternal negative affectivity, a tendency to frequent negative emotions and views, is associated with light alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy.......To investigate whether maternal negative affectivity, a tendency to frequent negative emotions and views, is associated with light alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy....

  5. Impact of Negative Quality Inconsistency on Brand Loyalty – Case of Croatian Food Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Ferenčić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Attracting and keeping consumers’ loyalty in Fast Moving Consumer Goods segment became the main concern for all producing companies and retailers, too. Many marketing researchers argue that product or service quality perception is one of the key elements in brand loyalty building process. When talking about food market, one has to be aware that food consumption has direct impact on human health and, in that context, process of building brand loyalty for food brands is not possible, or it can be hard, if the product quality of food brands is not on the expected level and according to defined food quality standards. The goal of this paper was to understand aspects of connection between food product quality and brand loyalty process better and to explore how problems with negative quality inconsistency in different food categories can influence brand loyalty. An empirical research (on-line survey was conducted to prove and explain the connection between food product quality and food brand loyalty. The research results shows that the main reasons for being loyal to a certain food brand or product are related mostly to positive brand experience, high and stabile product quality, and recognizable taste. In the context of these research results, it can be concluded that long term consumer satisfaction as a factor in food brand loyalty process depends on stabile product quality, so food manufacturers or food brand owners should be focused on preventing or minimizing the aspect of negative quality issues. Regarding research limitations, the study was conducted only on users from Croatian market; so broadening the survey to other markets should give a clearer view on the connection between food product quality and brand loyalty process.

  6. Positive and negative impacts of five Austrian gravel pit lakes on groundwater quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muellegger, Christian; Weilhartner, Andreas; Battin, Tom J; Hofmann, Thilo

    2013-01-15

    Groundwater-fed gravel pit lakes (GPLs) affect the biological, organic, and inorganic parameters of inflowing groundwater through combined effects of bank filtration at the inflow, reactions within the lake, and bank filtration at the outflow. GPLs result from wet dredging for sand and gravel and may conflict with groundwater protection programs by removing the protective soil cover and exposing groundwater to the atmosphere. We have investigated the impact on groundwater of five GPLs with different sizes, ages, and mean residence times, and all having low post-excavation anthropogenic usage. The results revealed highly active biological systems within the lake water, in which primary producers significantly reduced inflowing nitrate concentrations. Decalcification also occurred in lake water, reducing water hardness, which could be beneficial for waterworks in hard groundwater areas. Downgradient groundwater nitrate and calcium concentrations were found to be stable, with only minor seasonal variations. Biological degradation of organic material and organic micropollutants was also observed in the GPLs. For young GPLs adequate sediment deposits may not yet have formed and degradation processes at the outflow may consequently not yet be well established. However, our results showed that within 5 years from the cessation of excavation a protective sediment layer is established that is sufficient to prevent the export of dissolved organic carbon to downgradient groundwater. GPLs can improve groundwater quality in anthropogenically (e.g., pesticides and nitrate) or geologically (e.g., hardness) challenging situations. However, post-excavation usage of GPLs is often dominated by human activities such as recreational activities, water sports, or fish farming. These activities will affect lake and groundwater quality and the risks involved are difficult to predict and monitor and can lead to overall negative impacts on groundwater quality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B

  7. Positive and Negative Impacts of Cross-border M&A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴长洪; 林江

    2007-01-01

    Mergers and acquisitions of Chinese enterprises by foreign investors have moved onto the public radar in recent years.To date,the M&A frenzy has drawn widespread attention,with a mixed reaction from proponents and opponents.Proponents consider such mergers and acquisitions conducive to realizing strategic readjustment of the national economic structure,optimizing resource allocation and improving the corporate governance structure.Opponents,however,are concerned that foreign mergers and acquisitions may jeopardize China’s industrial security and erode the executive power of the central government in undertaking industrial development planning.Are the benefits of M&A outweighed by the costs,or vice versa? The focus column of this edition features two articles which debate this issue from opposing viewpoints.In the article"Positive and Negative Impacts of Cross-border M&A",the authors consider foreign M(?)A to be a new way of boosting the level of foreign investment utilization,and advocate China taking full advantage of this approach.The authors of the article"Self-Improvement Or Self-Mutilation",meanwhile,hold foreign M&A to blame for state-owned asset erosion,and insist that China should oppose mergers and acquisitions of key state- owned enterprises by foreign investors at fire-sale prices.

  8. The Invasive American Weed Parthenium hysterophorus Can Negatively Impact Malaria Control in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent O Nyasembe

    Full Text Available The direct negative effects of invasive plant species on agriculture and biodiversity are well known, but their indirect effects on human health, and particularly their interactions with disease-transmitting vectors, remains poorly explored. This study sought to investigate the impact of the invasive Neotropical weed Parthenium hysterophorus and its toxins on the survival and energy reserves of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. In this study, we compared the fitness of An. gambiae fed on three differentially attractive mosquito host plants and their major toxins; the highly aggressive invasive Neotropical weed Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae in East Africa and two other adapted weeds, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae and Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae. Our results showed that female An. gambiae fitness varied with host plants as females survived better and accumulated substantial energy reserves when fed on P. hysterophorus and R. communis compared to B. pilosa. Females tolerated parthenin and 1-phenylhepta-1, 3, 5-triyne, the toxins produced by P. hysterophorus and B. pilosa, respectively, but not ricinine produced by R. communis. Given that invasive plants like P. hysterophorus can suppress or even replace less competitive species that might be less suitable host-plants for arthropod disease vectors, the spread of invasive plants could lead to higher disease transmission. Parthenium hysterophorus represents a possible indirect effect of invasive plants on human health, which underpins the need to include an additional health dimension in risk-analysis modelling for invasive plants.

  9. Rapamycin negatively impacts insulin signaling, glucose uptake and uncoupling protein-1 in brown adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Casarrubios, Ester; de Moura, Carlos; Arroba, Ana I; Pescador, Nuria; Calderon-Dominguez, María; Garcia, Laura; Herrero, Laura; Serra, Dolors; Cadenas, Susana; Reis, Flavio; Carvalho, Eugenia; Obregon, Maria Jesus; Valverde, Ángela M

    2016-12-01

    New onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) is a metabolic disorder that affects 40% of patients on immunosuppressive agent (IA) treatment, such as rapamycin (also known as sirolimus). IAs negatively modulate insulin action in peripheral tissues including skeletal muscle, liver and white fat. However, the effects of IAs on insulin sensitivity and thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) have not been investigated. We have analyzed the impact of rapamycin on insulin signaling, thermogenic gene-expression and mitochondrial respiration in BAT. Treatment of brown adipocytes with rapamycin for 16h significantly decreased insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) protein expression and insulin-mediated protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation. Consequently, both insulin-induced glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation to the plasma membrane and glucose uptake were decreased. Early activation of the N-terminal Janus activated kinase (JNK) was also observed, thereby increasing IRS1 Ser 307 phosphorylation. These effects of rapamycin on insulin signaling in brown adipocytes were partly prevented by a JNK inhibitor. In vivo treatment of rats with rapamycin for three weeks abolished insulin-mediated Akt phosphorylation in BAT. Rapamycin also inhibited norepinephrine (NE)-induced lipolysis, the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and uncoupling protein (UCP)-1 in brown adipocytes. Importantly, basal mitochondrial respiration, proton leak and maximal respiratory capacity were significantly decreased in brown adipocytes treated with rapamycin. In conclusion, we demonstrate, for the first time the important role of brown adipocytes as target cells of rapamycin, suggesting that insulin resistance in BAT might play a major role in NODAT development.

  10. Client Violence and Its Negative Impacts on Work Attitudes of Child Protection Workers Compared to Community Service Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Junseob

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of client violence toward child protection workers and its negative impacts on the work attitudes of those workers compared with community service workers in South Korea. This study is based on the assumption that child protection workers are more vulnerable to violence than are community service workers…

  11. Investigation of the Decelerating Field of an Electron Multiplier under Negative Ion Impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Elfinn; Kjeldgaard, K.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of the decelerating field of an electron multiplier towards negative ions was investigated under standard mass spectrometric conditions. Diminishing of this decelerating field by changing of the potential of the electron multiplier increased the overall sensitivity to negative ions...... by a factor of 100. The secondary electron emission coefficient for the negative halogen ions relative to I− were measured on CuBe at the kinetic energies 1.0 and 1.5 keV....

  12. Do Digital Systems and Concepts in Modern Public Service Production Have a Negative Impact on Citizens as End-users?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Storm Pedersen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Do digital systems and concepts in modern public service production have a negative impact on citizens as end-users? To answer this research question, we shall first present our theoretical framework ‘the institutional logics perspective’ and show how we deploy this on modern public service production. Second, we claim that digital systems and concepts develop a new institutional logic within modern public service production: the ‘digital logic’. Third, we analyze and discuss the new logic´s possible impact on citizens as end-users. Fourth, we discuss the ethical dimensions of values and ethics in relation to public service production and digitizing.

  13. On-site and off-site atmospheric PBDEs in an electronic dismantling workshop in south China: Gas-particle partitioning and human exposure assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An Taicheng, E-mail: antc99@gig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Resources Utilization and Protection, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang Delin [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Resources Utilization and Protection, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li Guiying; Mai Bixian; Fu Jiamo [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Resources Utilization and Protection, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Gas samples and total suspended particle during work and off work time were investigated on-site and off-site electronic waste dismantling workshop (I- and O-EWDW), then compared with plastic recycling workshop (PRW) and waste incineration plant (WIP). TSP concentrations and total PBDE were 0.36-2.21 mg/m{sup 3} and 27-2975 ng/m{sup 3} at different workshops, respectively. BDE-47, -99, and -209 were major {Sigma}PBDE congeners at I-EWDW and WIP, while BDE-209 was only dominant congener in PRW and control sites during work time and all sites during off work time. The gas-particle partitioning result was well correlated with the subcooled liquid vapor pressure for all samples, except for WIP and I-EDWD, at park during work time, and residential area during off work time. The predicted urban curve fitted well with measured {phi} values at O-DEWD during work time, whereas it was slightly overestimated or underestimated for others. Exposure assessment revealed the highest exposure site was I-EDWD. - Highlights: > On- and off-site atmospheric PBDEs was monitored in e-waste dismantling workshops in south China. > The gas-particle partitioning result was well correlated with the subcooled liquid vapor pressure for some samples. > Exposure assessment revealed that workers in I-EDWD were the highest exposure population. - The findings of this study may serve as a valuable reference for future risk assessment and environmental management in Guiyu, South China.

  14. Magnitude processing and complex calculation is negatively impacted by mathematics anxiety while retrieval-based simple calculation is not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungmin; Cho, Soohyun

    2017-01-26

    Mathematics anxiety (MA) refers to the experience of negative affect when engaging in mathematical activity. According to Ashcraft and Kirk (2001), MA selectively affects calculation with high working memory (WM) demand. On the other hand, Maloney, Ansari, and Fugelsang (2011) claim that MA affects all mathematical activities, including even the most basic ones such as magnitude comparison. The two theories make opposing predictions on the negative effect of MA on magnitude processing and simple calculation that make minimal demands on WM. We propose that MA has a selective impact on mathematical problem solving that likely involves processing of magnitude representations. Based on our hypothesis, MA will impinge upon magnitude processing even though it makes minimal demand on WM, but will spare retrieval-based, simple calculation, because it does not require magnitude processing. Our hypothesis can reconcile opposing predictions on the negative effect of MA on magnitude processing and simple calculation. In the present study, we observed a negative relationship between MA and performance on magnitude comparison and calculation with high but not low WM demand. These results demonstrate that MA has an impact on a wide range of mathematical performance, which depends on one's sense of magnitude, but spares over-practiced, retrieval-based calculation.

  15. Positive vs. Negative: The Impact of Question Polarity in Voting Advice Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krouwel, André; van de Pol, Jasper; de Vreese, Claes

    2016-01-01

    Online Voting Advice Applications (VAAs) are survey-like instruments that help citizens to shape their political preferences and compare them with those of political parties. Especially in multi-party democracies, their increasing popularity indicates that VAAs play an important role in opinion formation for citizens, as well as in the public debate prior to elections. Hence, the objectivity and transparency of VAAs are crucial. In the design of VAAs, many choices have to be made. Extant research in survey methodology shows that the seemingly arbitrary choice to word questions positively (e.g., ‘The city council should allow cars into the city centre’) or negatively (‘The city council should ban cars from the city centre’) systematically affects the answers. This asymmetry in answers is in line with work on negativity bias in other areas of linguistics and psychology. Building on these findings, this study investigated whether question polarity also affects the answers to VAA statements. In a field experiment (N = 31,112) during the Dutch municipal elections we analysed the effects of polarity for 16 out of 30 VAA statements with a large variety of linguistic contrasts. Analyses show a significant effect of question wording for questions containing a wide range of implicit negations (such as ‘forbid’ vs. ‘allow’), as well as for questions with explicit negations (e.g., ‘not’). These effects of question polarity are found especially for VAA users with lower levels of political sophistication. As these citizens are an important target group for Voting Advice Applications, this stresses the need for VAA builders to be sensitive to wording choices when designing VAAs. This study is the first to show such consistent wording effects not only for political attitude questions with implicit negations in VAAs, but also for political questions containing explicit negations. PMID:27723776

  16. Collective Oriented Culture and Its Negative Impact upon Oral English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖春艳; 约翰·史密斯

    2015-01-01

    As one of the most distinguished features of Chinese Culture, collective oriented cul-ture is the deep structure of Chinese cultural psychology which has shaped Chinese character and inlfuenced their behavior. As a result of it, Chinese students suffer this negative effect from collective orientated culture when acquiring English, especially in oral English acquisition. TEFL teachers should be aware of cultural psychology and try their best to minimize its negative effect instead of neglecting or even en-larging it during oral English teaching.

  17. The Moderating Effect of the Negative Impact of Recent Life Events on the Relation between Intrinsic Religiosity and Death Ideation in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Danielle R.; Poindexter, Erin K.; Graham, Ryan D.; Cukrowicz, Kelly C.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers tested the hypothesis that the negative impact of recent life events would moderate the relationship between intrinsic religiosity and death ideation in older adults. Participants (n = 272) completed assessments of death ideation, intrinsic religiosity, and negative impact of recent life events. We confirmed the presence of concurrent…

  18. When Power Makes Others Speechless: The Negative Impact of Leader Power on Team Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Tost, Leigh Plunkett; Gino, Francesca; Larrick, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the impact of subjective power on leadership behavior and demonstrate that the psychological effect of power on leaders spills over to impact team effectiveness. Specifically, drawing from the approach/inhibition theory of power, power-devaluation theory, and organizational research on the antecedents of employee voice, we argue that a leader's experience of heightened power produces verbal dominance, which reduces perceptions of leader openness and team open communication. Consequ...

  19. The impact of negative attentional set upon target processing in RSVP : An ERP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Dexuan; Zhou, Xiaolin; Martens, Sander

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates whether the negative attentional set, a form of top-down attentional bias, can be set up on a trial-by-trial basis and impair online target processing in an RSVP (Rapid Serial Visual Presentation) task in which two targets are to be identified. Using the N2pc (N2 posterior

  20. Mass media negative impact on the development and education of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Zarema Shhahytova; Anastasia Sitkova

    2014-01-01

    Globalization and modernization have both positive and negative sides. With the development of information technologies, new problems appear such as mass media influence on person, perception and education of preschool age children. The authors discuss the problem of mass media influence on preschool children education.

  1. The impact of negatively reciprocal inclinations on worker behavior: Evidence from a retrenchment of pension rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montizaan, R.M.; de Grip, A.; Cörvers, F.; Dohmen, T.J.

    2016-01-01

    We document that the strength of negatively reciprocal inclinations affects workers’ reaction to unfair treatment. We exploit unique matched survey and administrative data on male public sector employees in the Netherlands and compare the job motivation of employees born in 1950, who faced a substan

  2. No negative effects of bone impaction grafting with bone and ceramic mixtures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.J.C.; Gardeniers, J.W.M.; Welten, M.L.M.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Schreurs, B.W.; Buma, P.

    2005-01-01

    Reconstructing large loaded bone defects with ceramic bone graft extenders is tempting considering the expected future donor bone shortage. However, whether there are negative effects is unknown. Standardized large defects in the acetabulum of goats were created and subsequently reconstructed with m

  3. The impact of negative attentional set upon target processing in RSVP : An ERP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Dexuan; Zhou, Xiaolin; Martens, Sander

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates whether the negative attentional set, a form of top-down attentional bias, can be set up on a trial-by-trial basis and impair online target processing in an RSVP (Rapid Serial Visual Presentation) task in which two targets are to be identified. Using the N2pc (N2 posterior co

  4. Development and transmission of antimicrobial resistance among Gram-negative bacteria in animals and their public health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukerji, Shewli; O'Dea, Mark; Barton, Mary; Kirkwood, Roy; Lee, Terence; Abraham, Sam

    2017-02-28

    Gram-negative bacteria are known to cause severe infections in both humans and animals. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Gram-negative bacteria is a major challenge in the treatment of clinical infections globally due to the propensity of these organisms to rapidly develop resistance against antimicrobials in use. In addition, Gram-negative bacteria possess highly efficient mechanisms through which the AMR can be disseminated between pathogenic and commensal bacteria of the same or different species. These unique traits of Gram-negative bacteria have resulted in evolution of Gram-negative bacterial strains demonstrating resistance to multiple classes of antimicrobials. The evergrowing resistance issue has not only resulted in limitation of treatment options but also led to increased treatment costs and mortality rates in humans and animals. With few or no new antimicrobials in production to combat severe life-threatening infections, AMR has been described as the one of the most severe, long-term threats to human health. Aside from overuse and misuse of antimicrobials in humans, another factor that has exacerbated the emergence of AMR in Gram-negative bacteria is the veterinary use of antimicrobials that belong to the same classes considered to be critically important for treating serious life-threatening infections in humans. Despite the fact that development of AMR dates back to before the introduction of antimicrobials, the recent surge in the resistance towards all available critically important antimicrobials has emerged as a major public health issue. This review thus focuses on discussing the development, transmission and public health impact of AMR in Gram-negative bacteria in animals. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  5. Impact of Antimicrobial Stewardship Programme on Carbapenem Resistance in Gram Negative Isolates in an Indian Tertiary Care Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namita Jaggi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Increasing Antimicrobial resistance in the World is constantly becoming a Global threat and there is an urgent need to prevent its spread. Various studies of last decade have shown reduced trends of antimicrobial resistance in the pathogens as an outcome of the Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs. In view of this, the present four years’ study was carried out to analyse the impact of Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs on carbapenem resistance in Gram negative isolates in a Tertiary care hospital in India. It involved a retrospective analysis of carbapenem resistance in Gram negatives for one year (July 2007 to June 2008, followed by prospective evaluation of the impact of stewardship interventions on resistance patterns (July 2008 to Jun 2011. Approach: Our study was staged into four parts: (1 July 2007 to June 2008: Resistance patterns of Gram negative isolates-E.coli, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter baumannii towards carbapenems were studied. (2 July 2008: Phase I intervention programme Implementation of an antibiotic policy in the hospital. (3 July 2008 to June 2010: The Impact of Phase I intervention programme was assessed subsequently. (4 July 2010 to June 2011: Phase II intervention programme: Formation and effective functioning of the antimicrobial stewardship committee. Results: The percentage resistance towards carbapenems in E.coli, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas and A. baumannii from July 2007-June 2008 was 1.07, 13.1, 21.3 and 12.5% respectively. Phase I intervention programme was initiated in July 2008 and Phase II in July 2010 and a subsequent reduction of 4.03% was observed in the carbapenem resistant Pseudomonas in the last stage of study period following the interventions. However the resistance in the other Gram negatives (E. coli, Klebsiella and A. baumannii rose and then stabilized. Conclusion: An antimicrobial stewardship programme with sustained and multifaceted efforts is essential to control the

  6. The impact of taxing working memory on negative and positive memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris M. Engelhard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Earlier studies have shown that horizontal eye movement (EM during retrieval of a negative memory reduces its vividness and emotionality. This may be due to both tasks competing for working memory (WM resources. This study examined whether playing the computer game “Tetris” also blurs memory. Method: Participants recalled negative and positive memories in three conditions: recall only, recall with concurrent EM, and recall with playing Tetris. Before and after these conditions, vividness, emotionality, and physiological startle responses during recall were measured. Results: A reaction time task showed that EM and Tetris both draw on WM, compared to no dual-task. Compared to recall only, EM and Tetris decreased reported emotionality and startle responses. Conclusions: The effects of EM and Tetris did not differ, even though the tasks differed in the degree of taxing WM. This suggests that taxing WM and its effects on emotional memories may not be linearly related. Potential clinical implications are discussed.

  7. The impact of positive and negative intraoperative surgeons' leadership behaviors on surgical team performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barling, Julian; Akers, Amy; Beiko, Darren

    2017-07-18

    The effects of surgeons' leadership on team performance are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the simultaneous effects of transformational, passive, abusive supervision and over-controlling leadership behaviors by surgeons on surgical team performance. Trained observers attended 150 randomly selected operations at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Observers recorded instances of the four leadership behaviors enacted by the surgeon. Postoperatively, team members completed validated questionnaires rating team cohesion and collective efficacy. Multiple regression analyses were computed. Data were analyzed using the complex modeling function in MPlus. Surgeons' abusive supervision was negatively associated with psychological safety (unstandardized B = -0.352, p team performance. Significant effects only surfaced for negative leadership behaviors; transformational leadership did not positively influence team performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Phylloplane bacteria increase the negative impact of food limitation on insect fitness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olson, Grant L.; Myers, Judith H.; Hemerik, Lia; Cory, Jenny S.

    2017-01-01

    1. When populations of herbivorous insects increase in density, they can alter the quantity or quality of their food. The impacts of diet-related stressors on insect fitness have been investigated singly, but not simultaneously. 2. Foliage quantity and quality of red alder, Alnus rubra, were

  9. Moderately high intake of folic acid has a negative impact on mouse embryonic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    The incidence of neural tube defects has diminished considerably since the implementation of food fortification with folic acid (FA). However, the impact of excess FA intake, particularly during pregnancy, requires investigation. In a recent study, we reported that a diet supplemented with 20-fold h...

  10. The impact of positive and negative income changes on the height and weight of young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buser, T.; Oosterbeek, H.; Plug, E.; Ponce, J.; Rosero, J.

    2014-01-01

    We estimate the impact of changes in unearned income on the height and weight of young children in a developing country. As source of variation we use changes in the eligibility criteria for receipt of an unconditional cash transfer in Ecuador. Two years after families lost the transfer, which they

  11. Sleep deprivation causes memory deficits by negatively impacting neuronal connectivity in hippocampal area CA1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havekes, Robbert; Park, Alan J; Tudor, Jennifer C; Luczak, Vincent G; Hansen, Rolf T; Ferri, Sarah L; Bruinenberg, Vibeke M; Poplawski, Shane G; Day, Jonathan P; Aton, Sara J; Radwańska, Kasia; Meerlo, Peter; Houslay, Miles D; Baillie, George S; Abel, Ted

    2016-01-01

    Brief periods of sleep loss have long-lasting consequences such as impaired memory consolidation. Structural changes in synaptic connectivity have been proposed as a substrate of memory storage. Here, we examine the impact of brief periods of sleep deprivation on dendritic structure. In mice, we

  12. Causes and Predictability of the Negative Indian Ocean Dipole and Its Impact on La Niña During 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eun-Pa; Hendon, Harry H

    2017-10-03

    In the latter half of 2016 Indonesia and Australia experienced extreme wet conditions and East Africa suffered devastating drought, which have largely been attributed to the occurrence of strong negative Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and weak La Niña. Here we examine the causes and predictability of the strong negative IOD and its impact on the development of La Niña in 2016. Analysis on atmosphere and ocean reanalyses and forecast sensitivity experiments using the Australian Bureau of Meteorology's dynamical seasonal forecast system reveals that this strong negative IOD, which peaked in July-September, developed primarily by the Indian Ocean surface and subsurface conditions. The long-term trend over the last 55 years in sea surface and subsurface temperatures, which is characterised by warming of the tropical Indian and western Pacific and cooling in the equatorial eastern Pacific, contributed positively to the extraordinary strength of this IOD. We further show that the strong negative IOD was a key promoter of the weak La Niña of 2016. Without the remote forcing from the IOD, this weak La Niña may have been substantially weaker because of the extraordinarily long-lasting warm surface condition over the dateline from the tail end of strong El Niño of 2015-16.

  13. Elevated atmospheric CO2 negatively impacts photosynthesis through radiative forcing and physiology-mediated climate feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Peng; Zhuang, Qianlai; Ciais, Philippe; Welp, Lisa; Li, Wenyu; Xin, Qinchuan

    2017-02-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 affects photosynthesis involving directly increasing leaf carboxylation rates, stomatal closure, and climatic effects. The direct effects are generally thought to be positive leading to increased photosynthesis, while its climatic effects can be regionally positive or negative. These effects are usually considered to be independent from each other, but they are in fact coupled through interactions between land surface exchanges of gases and heat and the physical climate system. In particular, stomatal closure reduces evapotranspiration and increases sensible heat emissions from ecosystems, leading to decreased atmospheric moisture and precipitation and local warming. We use a coupled earth system model to attribute the influence of the increase in CO2 on gross primary productivity (GPP) during the period of 1930-2011. In our model, CO2 radiative effects cause climate change that has only a negligible effect on global GPP (a reduction of 0.9 ± 2% during the last 80 years) because of opposite responses between tropical and northern biomes. On the other hand, CO2 physiological effects on GPP are both positive, by increased carboxylation rates and water use efficiency (7.1 ± 0.48% increase), and negative, by vegetation-climate feedback reducing precipitation, as a consequence of decreased transpiration and increased sensible heat in areas without water limitation (2.7 ± 1.76% reduction).When considering the coupled atmosphere-vegetation system, negative climate feedback on photosynthesis and plant growth due to the current level of CO2 opposes 29-38% of the gains from direct fertilization effects.

  14. Using signal detection theory to test the impact of negative emotion on sub-clinical paranoia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Stefan; Lincoln, Tania M

    2010-06-01

    A novel experimental paradigm for measuring state paranoia by means of signal detection theory was evaluated. A liberal response bias, indicating the tendency to recognize facial expressions as threatening, was expected to reflect paranoia. Against theoretical expectations, heightened paranoia questionnaire scores were associated with a non-liberal bias, which was not affected by negative emotion per se. However, subsequent analyses revealed that, if anxious, participants with heightened paranoia adopted a comparatively more liberal response bias. These findings corroborate the eminent role of anxiety in paranoia and demonstrate that state paranoia can be captured with the presented paradigm.

  15. Prognostic impact of dissected lymph node count on patients with node-negative gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-Ming Huang; Jian-Xian Lin; Chao-Hui Zheng; Ping Li; Jian-Wei Xie; Bi-Juan Lin; Hui-Shan Lu

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the long-term effect of the number of resected lymph nodes (LNs) on the prognosis of patients with node-negative gastric cancer. METHODS: Clinical data of 211 patients with gastric cancer, without nodal involvement, were analyzed retrospectively after D2 radical operation. We analyzed the relationship between the number of resected LNs with the 5-year survival, the recurrence rate and the post-operative complication rate.RESULTS: The 5-year survival of the entire cohort was 82.2%. The total number of dissected LNs was one of the independent prognostic factors. Among patients with comparable depth of invasion, the larger the number of resected LNs, the better the survival ( P 0.05).CONCLUSION: For node-negative gastric cancer,sufficient number of dissected LNs is recommended during D2 lymphadenectomy, to improve the long-term survival and reduce the recurrence. Suitable increments of the dissected LN count would not increase the postoperative complication rate.

  16. Negative impacts of invasive plants on conservation of sensitive desert wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, K. Kristina; Bowen, Lizabeth; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Esque, Todd C.; Berger, Andrew J.; Custer, Nathan; Waters, Shannon C.; Johnson, Jay D.; Miles, A. Keith; Lewison, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat disturbance from development, resource extraction, off-road vehicle use, and energy development ranks highly among threats to desert systems worldwide. In the Mojave Desert, United States, these disturbances have promoted the establishment of nonnative plants, so that native grasses and forbs are now intermixed with, or have been replaced by invasive, nonnative Mediterranean grasses. This shift in plant composition has altered food availability for Mojave Desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), a federally listed species. We hypothesized that this change in forage would negatively influence the physiological ecology, immune competence, and health of neonatal and yearling tortoises. To test this, we monitored the effects of diet on growth, body condition, immunological responses (measured by gene transcription), and survival for 100 captive Mojave tortoises. Tortoises were assigned to one of five diets: native forbs, native grass, invasive grass, and native forbs combined with either the native or invasive grass. Tortoises eating native forbs had better body condition and immune functions, grew more, and had higher survival rates (>95%) than tortoises consuming any other diet. At the end of the experiment, 32% of individuals fed only native grass and 37% fed only invasive grass were found dead or removed from the experiment due to poor body conditions. In contrast, all tortoises fed either the native forb or combined native forb and native grass diets survived and were in good condition. Health and body condition quickly declined for tortoises fed only the native grass (Festuca octoflora) or invasive grass (Bromus rubens) with notable loss of fat and muscle mass and increased muscular atrophy. Bromus rubens seeds were found embedded in the oral mucosa and tongue in most individuals eating that diet, which led to mucosal inflammation. Genes indicative of physiological, immune, and metabolic functions were transcribed at lower levels for individuals fed B

  17. Impact of electric field on Hofmeister effects in aggregation of negatively charged colloidal minerals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ying Tang; Hang Li; Hualing Zhu; Rui Tian; Xiaodan Gao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the aggregation kinetics of negatively charged colloidal minerals in Na+, K+, NH+4 , Mg2+, Ca2+ and Cu2+ solutions were measured and Hofmeister effects therein were estimated through total average aggregation (TAA) rates and critical coagulation concentration (CCC). Hofmeister effects of TAA rates increased exponentially with the increase in electric field strength, which cannot be explained by the classical theories (i.e., ionic size, hydration and dispersion forces), indicating strong electric field at colloidal surface was an indispensable factor in studying Hofmeister effects. Meanwhile, Hofmeister series of CCC values Na+ > K+ > NH+4 > Mg2+ > Ca2+ > Cu2+ show fine correlation with the polarization of various cations, implying that onic polarization in strong electric field would be responsible for Hofmeister effects in aggregation of colloidal minerals, and the deduction was confirmed by the calculated results of electrostatic interactions between colloidal minerals.

  18. Enhanced interannual precipitation variability increases plant functional diversity that in turn ameliorates negative impact on productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherardi, Laureano A; Sala, Osvaldo E

    2015-12-01

    Although precipitation interannual variability is projected to increase due to climate change, effects of changes in precipitation variance have received considerable less attention than effects of changes in the mean state of climate. Interannual precipitation variability effects on functional diversity and its consequences for ecosystem functioning are assessed here using a 6-year rainfall manipulation experiment. Five precipitation treatments were switched annually resulting in increased levels of precipitation variability while maintaining average precipitation constant. Functional diversity showed a positive response to increased variability due to increased evenness. Dominant grasses decreased and rare plant functional types increased in abundance because grasses showed a hump-shaped response to precipitation with a maximum around modal precipitation, whereas rare species peaked at high precipitation values. Increased functional diversity ameliorated negative effects of precipitation variability on primary production. Rare species buffered the effect of precipitation variability on the variability in total productivity because their variance decreases with increasing precipitation variance.

  19. Impacts of motivational valence on the error-related negativity elicited by full and partial errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruo, Yuya; Schacht, Annekathrin; Sommer, Werner; Masaki, Hiroaki

    2016-02-01

    Affect and motivation influence the error-related negativity (ERN) elicited by full errors; however, it is unknown whether they also influence ERNs to correct responses accompanied by covert incorrect response activation (partial errors). Here we compared a neutral condition with conditions, where correct responses were rewarded or where incorrect responses were punished with gains and losses of small amounts of money, respectively. Data analysis distinguished ERNs elicited by full and partial errors. In the reward and punishment conditions, ERN amplitudes to both full and partial errors were larger than in the neutral condition, confirming participants' sensitivity to the significance of errors. We also investigated the relationships between ERN amplitudes and the behavioral inhibition and activation systems (BIS/BAS). Regardless of reward/punishment condition, participants scoring higher on BAS showed smaller ERN amplitudes in full error trials. These findings provide further evidence that the ERN is related to motivational valence and that similar relationships hold for both full and partial errors.

  20. The negative impact of intentionally introduced Quercus rubra L. on a forest community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Woziwoda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some alien woody species used in commercial forestry become invasive and, as invaders, cause major problems in natural and semi-natural ecosystems. However, the deliberate introduction of aliens can bring unintended negative changes also within areas of their cultivation. This paper presents the effects of the intentional introduction of the North-American Quercus rubra in European mixed Scots pine-Pedunculate oak forests (POFs: Querco roboris-Pinetum (W. Mat. 1981 J. Mat. 1988. Phytosociological data from field research combined with GIS data analysis of the current distribution of Northern Red oak in the studied habitat were used to determine the composition and structure of forest communities in plots with and without Q. rubra participation.  The results show that Q. rubra significantly reduces native species richness and abundance, both in old-growth and in secondary (post-agricultural forests. Not one resident vascular plant benefits from the introduction of Northern Red oak and only a few are able to tolerate its co-occurrence. The natural restocking of all native woody species is also strongly limited by this alien tree.  The introduction of Northern Red oak significantly limits the environmental functions of the POF ecosystem and weakens its economic and social aspects. However, its further cultivation is justified from an economic point of view, as the essential function of the studied forests is commercial timber production, and the introduction of this fast growing alien tree supports the provisioning ecosystem services. A clear description of the level of trade-off between the accepted negative and positive effects of the introduction of Q. rubra on forest ecosystem services requires further interdisciplinary studies.

  1. Perceived consequences of evolution: College students perceive negative personal and social impact in evolutionary theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brem, Sarah K.; Ranney, Michael; Schindel, Jennifer

    2003-03-01

    Evolutionary science has consequences for individuals and society, ranging from the way we interpret human behavior to our notions of spirituality and the purpose of our existence. Popular portrayals of evolution depict a paradoxical theory, a source of knowledge and human connections, but also a threat to our humanity and freedom. Using quantitative and qualitative methodology, we examined how college-educated adults (n = 135) from diverse ethnic and religious backgrounds perceive the impact of evolutionary theory on individuals and society. We identified a continuum of perspectives, ranging from strong creationist to strong evolutionist. Using the model of knowledge as an ecology (Demastes, Good, & Peebles, Science Education, 79, 637-666, 1995; Nardi & O'Day, Information ecologies: Using technology with heart, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1999), we examined the relationships among participants' beliefs, their perceptions regarding the social and personal impact of evolutionary theory, their prior exposure to and knowledge of evolutionary theory, and their opinions regarding the teaching of evolution. Evolutionists and creationists differed in their prior exposure to evolutionary theory, and their opinions about some aspects of teaching, but showed striking similarities regarding perceived impact. All groups viewed the consequences of accepting evolutionary principles in a way that might be considered undesirable: increased selfishness and racism, decreased spirituality, and a decreased sense of purpose and self-determination. From a science education perspective, this one-sided interpretation is troublesome because it runs counter to the available evidence and theories in evolutionary science, and we consider ways of fostering more balanced presentation and appraisal of evolutionary theory.

  2. Life cycle assessment as a method of limitation of a negative environment impact of castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holtzer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Casting production constitutes environmental problems going far beyond the foundry plant area. Applying a notion of the life cycle the input (suppliers side and output factors (clients side can be identified. The foundry plant activities for the environment hazard mitigation can be situated on various stages of the casting life cycle. The environment impact of motorisation castings made of different materials – during the whole life cycle of castings – are discussed in the paper. It starts from the charge material production, then follows via the casting process, car assembly, car exploitation and ends at the car breaking up for scrap.

  3. Swedish Upper Secondary School Students’ Conceptions of Negative Environmental Impact and Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Lundholm

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explores relationships between upper secondary school students’ understanding of prices and environmental impacts. The study uses responses from 110 students to problems in which they were asked to explain differences in prices and also to express and justify opinions on what should be the difference in prices. Very few students expressed an environmental dimension in their understanding of price. A few students suggested that environmental impact influenced price by raising demand for “Environmentally friendly products”. A few students suggested that ‘environmentally friendly products’ had higher prices because they were more costly to produce. We found no examples of students combining both lines of explanation. However, nearly half of the students believed that prices should reflect environmental effects, and this reasoning was divided between cases where the point was justified by a broad environmental motivation and cases where the point was justified in relation to incentives–to get consumers to act in a more environmentally friendly way.

  4. Native bees buffer the negative impact of climate warming on honey bee pollination of watermelon crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Romina; Reilly, James; Bartomeus, Ignasi; Winfree, Rachael

    2013-10-01

    If climate change affects pollinator-dependent crop production, this will have important implications for global food security because insect pollinators contribute to production for 75% of the leading global food crops. We investigate whether climate warming could result in indirect impacts upon crop pollination services via an overlooked mechanism, namely temperature-induced shifts in the diurnal activity patterns of pollinators. Using a large data set on bee pollination of watermelon crops, we predict how pollination services might change under various climate change scenarios. Our results show that under the most extreme IPCC scenario (A1F1), pollination services by managed honey bees are expected to decline by 14.5%, whereas pollination services provided by most native, wild taxa are predicted to increase, resulting in an estimated aggregate change in pollination services of +4.5% by 2099. We demonstrate the importance of native biodiversity in buffering the impacts of climate change, because crop pollination services would decline more steeply without the native, wild pollinators. More generally, our study provides an important example of how biodiversity can stabilize ecosystem services against environmental change. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Impact analyses for negative flexural responses (hogging) in railway prestressed concrete sleepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewunruen, S.; Ishida, T.; Remennikov, AM

    2016-09-01

    By nature, ballast interacts with railway concrete sleepers in order to provide bearing support to track system. Most train-track dynamic models do not consider the degradation of ballast over time. In fact, the ballast degradation causes differential settlement and impact forces acting on partial and unsupported tracks. Furthermore, localised ballast breakages underneath railseat increase the likelihood of centrebound cracks in concrete sleepers due to the unbalanced support under sleepers. This paper presents a dynamic finite element model of a standard-gauge concrete sleeper in a track system, taking into account the tensionless nature of ballast support. The finite element model was calibrated using static and dynamic responses in the past. In this paper, the effects of centre-bound ballast support on the impact behaviours of sleepers are highlighted. In addition, it is the first to demonstrate the dynamic effects of sleeper length on the dynamic design deficiency in concrete sleepers. The outcome of this study will benefit the rail maintenance criteria of track resurfacing in order to restore ballast profile and appropriate sleeper/ballast interaction.

  6. On-site and off-site atmospheric PBDEs in an electronic dismantling workshop in south China: gas-particle partitioning and human exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Taicheng; Zhang, Delin; Li, Guiying; Mai, Bixian; Fu, Jiamo

    2011-12-01

    Gas samples and total suspended particle during work and off work time were investigated on-site and off-site electronic waste dismantling workshop (I- and O-EWDW), then compared with plastic recycling workshop (PRW) and waste incineration plant (WIP). TSP concentrations and total PBDE were 0.36-2.21 mg/m(3) and 27-2975 ng/m(3) at different workshops, respectively. BDE-47, -99, and -209 were major ∑PBDE congeners at I-EWDW and WIP, while BDE-209 was only dominant congener in PRW and control sites during work time and all sites during off work time. The gas-particle partitioning result was well correlated with the subcooled liquid vapor pressure for all samples, except for WIP and I-EDWD, at park during work time, and residential area during off work time. The predicted urban curve fitted well with measured φ values at O-DEWD during work time, whereas it was slightly overestimated or underestimated for others. Exposure assessment revealed the highest exposure site was I-EDWD.

  7. Low level off-road vehicle (ORV) traffic negatively impacts macroinvertebrate assemblages at sandy beaches in south-western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Rebecca; Speldewinde, Peter C; Stewart, Barbara A

    2016-04-28

    Off-road vehicle use is arguably one of the most environmentally damaging human activities undertaken on sandy beaches worldwide. Existing studies focused on areas of high traffic volumes have demonstrated significantly lower abundance, diversity and species richness of fauna in zones where traffic is concentrated. The impact of lower traffic volumes is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of relatively low-level vehicle traffic on sandy beach fauna by sampling invertebrate communities at eight beaches located in south-western Australia. We found that even low-level vehicle traffic negatively impacts the physical beach environment, and consequently, the ability of many species to survive in this habitat in the face of this disturbance. Compaction, rutting and displacement of the sand matrix were observed over a large area, resulting in significant decreases in species diversity and density, and measurable shifts in community structure on beaches that experienced off-road vehicle traffic. Communities at impact sites did not display seasonal recovery as traffic was not significantly different between seasons. Given a choice between either reducing traffic volumes, or excluding ORV traffic from beaches, our results suggest that the latter would be more appropriate when the retention of ecological integrity is the objective.

  8. Behavioral Symptoms in Motor Neuron Disease and Their Negative Impact on Caregiver Burden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Cui; Li-Ying Cui; Ming-Sheng Liu; Xiao-Guang Li; Jun-Fang Ma; Jia Fang; Qing-Yun Ding

    2015-01-01

    Background:The spectrum of abnormal behaviors in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease (ALS/MND) has been described,but its practical meaning,namely its impact on caregiver burden,has not been clearly documented in Chinese population.This study aimed to assess the distribution of abnormal behaviors in Chinese population,and to analyze the relationship between behavior changes and caregiver burden.Methods:Sixty-five patients with ALS/MND have been consecutively enrolled into registry platform of Peking Union Medical College Hospital.An investigation was performed to these patients and their caregivers using the revised ALS function rating scale,Frontal Behavioral Inventory-ALS version,the Frontal Assessment Battery,and the Caregiver Burden Inventory.Results:Twenty-eight (43.1%) patients displayed abnormal behaviors of varying degrees,with one fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of frontotemporal lobe degeneration.Irritability,logopenia,and inflexibility ranked top 3 of abnormal behavior list.Correlation analysis revealed that the degree of behavioral change and frontal cognitive status were significantly associated with caregiver burden,with more extensive impact from disinhibitive behaviors.Analysis of covariance analysis showed that after associated factors were corrected,caregivers of patients with moderate to severe behavior change reported significantly heavier developmental burden,physical burden,and total burden than those with no behavioral change.Conclusions:Neurobehavioral symptoms could present in around 40% of Chinese patients with ALS/MND,and the distribution of these behaviors was also unique.Besides,abnormal behaviors were highly related to caregivers' burden.

  9. Development of Compartment Syndrome Negatively Impacts Length of Stay and Cost After Tibia Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Alexander M; Manoli, Arthur; Konda, Sanjit R; Egol, Kenneth A

    2015-07-01

    To quantify the impact of compartment syndrome in the setting of tibial shaft fracture on hospital length of stay (LOS) and total hospital charges. Retrospective case-control study. All New York State hospital admissions from 2001 to 2011, as recorded by the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System database. Thirty three thousand six hundred twenty-nine inpatients with isolated open or closed fractures of the tibia and/or fibula (AO/OTA 41-43). Six hundred ninety-two patients developed a compartment syndrome in the setting of tibia fracture. All patients were filtered to ensure none had other complications or medical comorbidities that would increase LOS or total hospital charges. Fasciotomy and delayed closure in patients who developed a compartment syndrome. Hospital LOS (days) and total inflation-adjusted hospital charges. A total of 33,629 patients with tibial shaft fracture were included in the study. There were 32,937 patients who did not develop a compartment syndrome. For this group, the mean LOS was 6 days, and the mean inflation-adjusted hospital charges were $34,000. Patients who developed compartment syndrome remained in-house for an average of 14 days with average charges totaling $79,000. These differences were highly significant for both lengths of stay and hospital charges (P compartment syndrome, there is also a significant economic impact to the healthcare system. Compartment syndrome after a tibial fracture more than doubles LOS and total hospital charges. These findings highlight the need for a standardized care algorithm aimed toward efficiently and adequately treating acute compartment syndrome. Such an algorithm would optimize cost of care and presumably decrease LOS. Economic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  10. IDO expression in brain tumors increases the recruitment of regulatory T cells and negatively impacts survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Derek A; Balyasnikova, Irina V; Chang, Alan L; Ahmed, Atique U; Moon, Kyung-Sub; Auffinger, Brenda; Tobias, Alex L; Han, Yu; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2012-11-15

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive adult brain tumor with a poor prognosis. One hallmark of GBM is the accumulation of immunosuppressive and tumor-promoting CD4(+)FoxP3(+)GITR(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs). Here, we investigated the role of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) in brain tumors and the impact on Treg recruitment. To determine the clinical relevance of IDO expression in brain tumors, we first correlated patient survival to the level of IDO expression from resected glioma specimens. We also used novel orthotopic and transgenic models of glioma to study how IDO affects Tregs. The impact of tumor-derived and peripheral IDO expression on Treg recruitment, GITR expression, and long-term survival was determined. Downregulated IDO expression in glioma predicted a significantly better prognosis in patients. Coincidently, both IDO-competent and deficient mice showed a survival advantage bearing IDO-deficient brain tumors, when compared with IDO-competent brain tumors. Moreover, IDO deficiency was associated with a significant decrease in brain-resident Tregs, both in orthotopic and transgenic mouse glioma models. IDO deficiency was also associated with lower GITR expression levels on Tregs. Interestingly, the long-term survival advantage conferred by IDO deficiency was lost in T-cell-deficient mice. These clinical and preclinical data confirm that IDO expression increases the recruitment of immunosuppressive Tregs that lead to tumor outgrowth. In contrast, IDO deficiency decreases Treg recruitment and enhances T-cell-mediated tumor rejection. Thus, the data suggest a critical role for IDO-mediated immunosuppression in glioma and support the continued investigation of IDO-Treg interactions in the context of brain tumors. ©2012 AACR.

  11. Impact of time delays on oscillatory dynamics of interlinked positive and negative feedback loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo; Tian, Xinyu; Liu, Feng; Wang, Wei

    2016-11-01

    Interlinking a positive feedback loop (PFL) with a negative feedback loop (NFL) constitutes a typical motif in genetic networks, performing various functions in cell signaling. How time delay in feedback regulation affects the dynamics of such systems still remains unclear. Here, we investigate three systems of interlinked PFL and NFL with time delays: a synthetic genetic oscillator, a three-node circuit, and a simplified single-node model. The stability of steady states and the routes to oscillation in the single-node model are analyzed in detail. The amplitude and period of oscillations vary with a pointwise periodicity over a range of time delay. Larger-amplitude oscillations can be induced when the PFL has an appropriately long delay, in comparison with the PFL with no delay or short delay; this conclusion holds true for all the three systems. We unravel the underlying mechanism for the above effects via analytical derivation under a limiting condition. We also develop a stochastic algorithm for simulating a single reaction with two delays and show that robust oscillations can be maintained by the PFL with a properly long delay in the single-node system. This work presents an effective method for constructing robust large-amplitude oscillators and interprets why similar circuit architectures are engaged in timekeeping systems such as circadian clocks.

  12. Impact of Triple-Negative Phenotype on Prognosis of Patients With Breast Cancer Brain Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Zhiyuan [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Schlesinger, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Toulmin, Sushila [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Rich, Tyvin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Sheehan, Jason, E-mail: jps2f@virginia.edu [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To elucidate survival times and identify potential prognostic factors in patients with triple-negative (TN) phenotype who harbored brain metastases arising from breast cancer and who underwent stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods and Materials: A total of 103 breast cancer patients with brain metastases were treated with SRS and then studied retrospectively. Twenty-four patients (23.3%) were TN. Survival times were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, with a log-rank test computing the survival time difference between groups. Univariate and multivariate analyses to predict potential prognostic factors were performed using a Cox proportional hazard regression model. Results: The presence of TN phenotype was associated with worse survival times, including overall survival after the diagnosis of primary breast cancer (43 months vs. 82 months), neurologic survival after the diagnosis of intracranial metastases, and radiosurgical survival after SRS, with median survival times being 13 months vs. 25 months and 6 months vs. 16 months, respectively (p < 0.002 in all three comparisons). On multivariate analysis, radiosurgical survival benefit was associated with non-TN status and lower recursive partitioning analysis class at the initial SRS. Conclusion: The TN phenotype represents a significant adverse prognostic factor with respect to overall survival, neurologic survival, and radiosurgical survival in breast cancer patients with intracranial metastasis. Recursive partitioning analysis class also served as an important and independent prognostic factor.

  13. The negative impact of α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex deficiency on matrix substrate-level phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Gergely; Konrad, Csaba; Doczi, Judit; Starkov, Anatoly A; Kawamata, Hibiki; Manfredi, Giovanni; Zhang, Steven F; Gibson, Gary E; Beal, M Flint; Adam-Vizi, Vera; Chinopoulos, Christos

    2013-06-01

    A decline in α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) activity has been associated with neurodegeneration. Provision of succinyl-CoA by KGDHC is essential for generation of matrix ATP (or GTP) by substrate-level phosphorylation catalyzed by succinyl-CoA ligase. Here, we demonstrate ATP consumption in respiration-impaired isolated and in situ neuronal somal mitochondria from transgenic mice with a deficiency of either dihydrolipoyl succinyltransferase (DLST) or dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD) that exhibit a 20-48% decrease in KGDHC activity. Import of ATP into the mitochondrial matrix of transgenic mice was attributed to a shift in the reversal potential of the adenine nucleotide translocase toward more negative values due to diminished matrix substrate-level phosphorylation, which causes the translocase to reverse prematurely. Immunoreactivity of all three subunits of succinyl-CoA ligase and maximal enzymatic activity were unaffected in transgenic mice as compared to wild-type littermates. Therefore, decreased matrix substrate-level phosphorylation was due to diminished provision of succinyl-CoA. These results were corroborated further by the finding that mitochondria from wild-type mice respiring on substrates supporting substrate-level phosphorylation exhibited ~30% higher ADP-ATP exchange rates compared to those obtained from DLST(+/-) or DLD(+/-) littermates. We propose that KGDHC-associated pathologies are a consequence of the inability of respiration-impaired mitochondria to rely on "in-house" mitochondrial ATP reserves.

  14. Negative Impacts of the Neo-liberal Policies on the Banking Sector in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossitsa Rangelova Pavlova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning of the 1970s until the last global financial and economic crisis in 2008-2009, neo-liberal ideas guided economic policy development. It is worth noting that the Central and Eastern European countries transformed their economies from centrally planned to а market type at the peak of the liberal policies. Bulgaria offers a particularly interesting example because the country encountered a very difficult transition from one extreme of an economic system organization to another. The paper considers the reforms in the Bulgarian banking sector during the transition period from a centrally planned to a market type economy (from 1989 onward through the implementation of neo-liberal policies. The development of the banking sector and its transformation is analyzed throughout the two main periods: before and after the transition. The latter is divided into two sub-periods (phases beginning with the early 1990s, followed by the financial and bank crisis in the country, the introduction of a currency board regime in 1997, and stabilization, and ending with the global crisis in 2008-2009. This article summarizes that during the transition period, a modern banking system was established to accumulate profit rather than to promote economic growth. Following a chronological order, the negative effects of the liberalization of the Bulgarian banking sector are specified: the exportation of ownership (and control upon banking system assets, unfair asset redistribution, the emergence of the local oligarchy, the weak protection of the taxpayers and others.

  15. Trait anxiety impact on posterior activation asymmetries at rest and during evoked negative emotions: EEG investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftanas, Ljubomir I; Pavlov, Sergey V

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of the present investigation was to examine how high trait anxiety would influence cortical EEG asymmetries under non-emotional conditions and while experiencing negative emotions. The 62-channel EEG was recorded in control (n=21) and high anxiety (HA, n=18) non-patient individuals. Results showed that in HA subjects, the lowest level of arousal (eyes closed) was associated with stronger right-sided parieto-temporal theta-1 (4-6 Hz) and beta-1 (12-18 Hz) activity, whereas increased non-emotional arousal (eyes open, viewing neutral movie clip) was marked by persisting favored right hemisphere beta-1 activity. In turn, viewing aversive movie clip by the HA group led to significant lateralized decrease of the right parieto-temporal beta-1 power, which was initially higher in the emotionally neutral conditions. The EEG data suggests that asymmetrical parieto-temporal theta-1 and beta-1 EEG activity might be better interpreted in terms of Gray's BAS and BIS theory.

  16. Negative impact of urban habitat on immunity in the great tit Parus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, Juliette; Scheifler, Renaud; Belvalette, Marie; Garnier, Stéphane; Boissier, Elena; Clément-Demange, Valérie-Anne; Gète, Maud; Leblond, Matthieu; Pasteur, Baptiste; Piget, Quentin; Sage, Mickaël; Faivre, Bruno

    2016-12-01

    Urban habitats are described as having an overall negative influence on many fitness-related traits in several bird species, but a vital function such as immunity remains poorly studied. The immune response is strongly linked to individual condition, which partly depends on resource availability and the parasitic context that often differ between urban and natural habitats. A difference between the immunity of populations dwelling in urban areas and populations from more natural habitats can, therefore, be hypothesized. We conducted a 2-year experimental study on great tits (Parus major) in urban and forest areas. We stimulated the constitutive immunity of nestlings and assessed both the inflammatory response by measuring the plasma levels of haptoglobin, an inflammatory marker, and its activation cost through the loss of body mass. In addition, we checked the nestlings for ectoparasites and assessed haemosporidian prevalence in adults. Nestlings from urban sites produced relatively less haptoglobin and lost more body mass than those from forest sites, which suggests that the activation of constitutive immunity is more costly for birds living in urban sites than for those living in the forest. We detected no ectoparasite in birds in both habitats. However, urban adults showed lower haemosporidian prevalence than forest ones, suggesting a reduced exposure to these parasites and their vectors in towns. Overall, our study provides evidence for an immune difference between urban and forest populations. Because immunity is crucial for organism fitness, it is of prime interest to identify causes and processes at the origin of this difference.

  17. Negative Impact of Skeletal Muscle Loss after Systemic Chemotherapy in Patients with Unresectable Colorectal Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Miyamoto

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle depletion (sarcopenia is closely associated with limited physical ability and high mortality. This study evaluated the prognostic significance of skeletal muscle status before and after chemotherapy in patients with unresectable colorectal cancer (CRC.We conducted a retrospective analysis of 215 consecutive patients with unresectable CRC who underwent systemic chemotherapy. Skeletal muscle cross-sectional area was measured by computed tomography. We evaluated the prognostic value of skeletal muscle mass before chemotherapy and the rate of skeletal muscle change in cross-sectional area after chemotherapy.One-hundred-eighty-two patients met our inclusion criteria. There were no significant differences in progression-free survival (PFS or overall survival (OS associated with skeletal muscle mass before chemotherapy. However, 22 patients with skeletal muscle loss (>5% after chemotherapy showed significantly shorter PFS and OS compared with those without skeletal muscle loss (PFS, log-rank p = 0.029; OS, log-rank p = 0.009. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that skeletal muscle loss after chemotherapy (hazard ratio, 2.079; 95% confidence interval, 1.194-3.619; p = 0.010 was independently associated with OS.Skeletal muscle loss after chemotherapy was an independent, negative prognostic factor in unresectable CRC.

  18. The Psychological Impact of a Colorectal Cancer Diagnosis Following a Negative Fecal Occult Blood Test Result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Anne; McClements, Paula L; Steele, Robert J C; Redeker, Claudia; Sevdalis, Nick; Wardle, Jane

    2015-07-01

    Screening using fecal occult blood testing (FOBt) reduces colorectal cancer mortality, but the test has low sensitivity. A "missed" cancer may cause psychologic harms in the screened population that partially counteract the benefits of early detection. Three hundred and eleven people diagnosed with colorectal cancer (i) after a negative FOBt result (interval cancer), (ii) a positive result (screen-detected cancer), or (iii) in regions where screening was not offered, completed questions on quality of life (FACT-C), depression (CES-D), perceived diagnostic delay, and trust in the results of FOBt screening. Fifteen withheld consent to data matching with medical records, leaving a sample size of 296. Controlling for demographic and clinical variables, patients with an interval cancer reported poorer quality of life (difference in means = 6.16, P = 0.03) and more diagnostic delay (OR, 0.37; P = 0.02) than patients with screen-detected disease, with no differences in depression. No differences were observed between the interval cancer group and the group not offered screening on these measures. Patients with an interval cancer reported the lowest levels of trust in FOBt. An interval cancer has adverse effects on trust in FOBt, but does not result in worse psychologic outcomes compared with people diagnosed in areas with no screening program. People with an interval cancer report poorer quality of life than people with screen-detected disease. Improvements in test sensitivity could improve quality of life among people who complete an FOB test over and above any benefits already conferred by earlier detection. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Lack of maintenance of shortwave diathermy equipment has a negative impact on power output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirro, Rinaldo Roberto de Jesus; Guirro, Elaine Caldeira de Oliveira; Alves de Sousa, Natanael Teixeira

    2014-04-01

    Although shortwave diathermy has been widely used by physiotherapists, there are a few studies assessing the performance of the equipment in use. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the procedures adopted by physiotherapists as users of shortwave diathermy continuous (CSWD), as well as to measure the power output and frequency of CSWD equipment. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three physical therapists were interviewed and 23 CSWD equipment were evaluated. Admeasurement was carried out by using a standard phantom to simulate the electrode-skin distance, which ranged from 0.5 to 3.0 cm. Data analysis was performed by using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and a post-hoc Tukey's test or Pearson's correlation coefficient. [Results] The questionnaires showed that 48% of the interviewees use the correct electrode-skin distance, 70% use a single electrical outlet, and 35% use a grounded electrical outlet, and that 48% of the physiotherapy tables and 61% of the plinths were made of wood. However, only 13% of the interviewees perform yearly preventive maintenance. The highest power (95.56 W) was achieved at electrode-skin distances ranging from 1.0 to 1.5 cm, with distances of 2.5 cm and 3.0 cm being null in four and eight equipment, respectively. There was a negative correlation between power output and electrode-skin distance as well as between power output and purchase date. [Conclusion] The physiotherapists involved in this study had inadequate knowledge about the correct use of CSWD equipment, which may adversely affect its performance and patient safety.

  20. Codon optimization of the adenoviral fiber negatively impacts structural protein expression and viral fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Eneko; Martí-Solano, Maria; Fillat, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    Codon usage adaptation of lytic viruses to their hosts is determinant for viral fitness. In this work, we analyzed the codon usage of adenoviral proteins by principal component analysis and assessed their codon adaptation to the host. We observed a general clustering of adenoviral proteins according to their function. However, there was a significant variation in the codon preference between the host-interacting fiber protein and the rest of structural late phase proteins, with a non-optimal codon usage of the fiber. To understand the impact of codon bias in the fiber, we optimized the Adenovirus-5 fiber to the codon usage of the hexon structural protein. The optimized fiber displayed increased expression in a non-viral context. However, infection with adenoviruses containing the optimized fiber resulted in decreased expression of the fiber and of wild-type structural proteins. Consequently, this led to a drastic reduction in viral release. The insertion of an exogenous optimized protein as a late gene in the adenovirus with the optimized fiber further interfered with viral fitness. These results highlight the importance of balancing codon usage in viral proteins to adequately exploit cellular resources for efficient infection and open new opportunities to regulate viral fitness for virotherapy and vaccine development.

  1. How electromagnetic fields can influence adult stem cells: positive and negative impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziarz, Aleksandra; Kocan, Beata; Bester, Mariusz; Budzik, Sylwia; Cholewa, Marian; Ochiya, Takahiro; Banas, Agnieszka

    2016-04-18

    The electromagnetic field (EMF) has a great impact on our body. It has been successfully used in physiotherapy for the treatment of bone disorders and osteoarthritis, as well as for cartilage regeneration or pain reduction. Recently, EMFs have also been applied in in vitro experiments on cell/stem cell cultures. Stem cells reside in almost all tissues within the human body, where they exhibit various potential. These cells are of great importance because they control homeostasis, regeneration, and healing. Nevertheless, stem cells when become cancer stem cells, may influence the pathological condition. In this article we review the current knowledge on the effects of EMFs on human adult stem cell biology, such as proliferation, the cell cycle, or differentiation. We present the characteristics of the EMFs used in miscellaneous assays. Most research has so far been performed during osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. It has been demonstrated that the effects of EMF stimulation depend on the intensity and frequency of the EMF and the time of exposure to it. However, other factors may affect these processes, such as growth factors, reactive oxygen species, and so forth. Exploration of this research area may enhance the development of EMF-based technologies used in medical applications and thereby improve stem cell-based therapy and tissue engineering.

  2. Costly learning: preference for familiar food persists despite negative impact on survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Thaiany M; Hebets, Eileen A; Melo, Diogo; Willemart, Rodrigo H

    2016-07-01

    Animals often rely on events in their environment that provide information (i.e. experience) to alter their future decision-making in ways that are presumed to be beneficial. Such experience-based learning, however, does not always lead to adaptive decision-making. In this study, we use the omnivorous harvestman Heteromitobates discolor to explore the role of past diet on subsequent food choice and survival. We first tested whether a short-term homogeneous diet (rotten crickets, fresh crickets or dog food) influenced subsequent food choice (rotten cricket versus fresh cricket). We next examine the impact of diet on survival. We found that following experience with a homogeneous cricket diet, adult harvestmen displayed a learned preference for familiar food, regardless of whether it was rotten or fresh crickets; individuals experiencing dog food were equally likely to choose rotten versus fresh crickets. We additionally found that individuals that ate rotten crickets suffered shorter survival than those that ate fresh crickets. Together, our results suggest that the diet an individual experiences can lead to maladaptive food preferences-preferences that ultimately result in reduced longevity. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Genetically-Improved Tilapia Strains in Africa: Potential Benefits and Negative Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaw B. Ansah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Two genetically improved tilapia strains (GIFT and Akosombo have been created with Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia, which is native to Africa. In particular, GIFT has been shown to be significantly superior to local African tilapia strains in terms of growth rate. While development economists see the potential for food security and poverty reduction in Africa from culture of these new strains of tilapia, conservationists are wary of potential ecological and genetic impacts on receiving ecosystems and native stocks of tilapia. This study reviews the history of the GIFT technology, and identifies potential environmental and genetic risks of improved and farmed strains and tilapia in general. We also estimate the potential economic gains from the introduction of genetically improved strains in Africa, using Ghana as a case country. Employing a combination of the Economic-Surplus model and Monte Carlo simulation, we found the mean net present value (NPV of the introduction of the GIFT strain in Ghana to be approximately 1% of the country’s gross domestic product. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the difference in growth or yield between the GIFT and locally-available strains has the largest effect on mean NPV. We conclude that improvements in management practices and infrastructure could increase the yield and profitability of the local strains even if genetically-improved strains are not introduced. These improvements also will ensure the realization of the full potential of introduced strains.

  4. The negative impacts of human activities in the eastern African region: an international waters perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payet, Rolph; Obura, David

    2004-02-01

    The complex interactions between human activities and the environment at the interface of land and water is analyzed with a focus on the Somali Current (East Africa), and Indian Ocean Island States, subregions of the Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA). These 2 subregions contain some of the world's richest ecosystems, including the high biodiversity forests of Madagascar and the diverse coastal habitats of the eastern African coast. These ecosystems support local communities and national and regional economies. Current and future degradation of these systems, from water basins to continental shelves, affects the livelihoods and sustainability of the countries in the region, and long-term efforts to reduce poverty. The assessments determined that pollution and climate change are the primary environmental and social concerns in the Islands of the Indian Ocean, while freshwater shortage and unsustainable exploitation of fisheries and other living resources are the primary environmental and social concerns in East Africa. The GIWA approach, through assessing root causes of environmental concerns, enables the development of policy approaches for mitigating environmental degradation. This paper explores policy frameworks for mitigating the impacts, and reducing the drivers, of 3 environmental concerns--freshwater shortage; solid waste pollution; and climate change--addressing social and institutional causes and effects, and linking the subregions to broad international frameworks. The common theme in all 3 case studies is the need to develop integrated ecosystem and international waters policies, and mechanisms to manage conflicting interests and to limit threats to natural processes.

  5. The creation of special economic zones in China: Positive and negative impacts in its implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Orozco Plascencia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available At the end of seventies, Deng Xioaping, President applied a modernization policy in China, that during more than 30 years allow to reach high economic growth rates above 8% average per year. This reform included the instauration of four Special Economic Zones (SEZ in the southeast of the country, three in Guangdong (Shenzhen, Zhuhai and Shantao and one in Xiamen, Fujian.The purpose of this paper is to analyze the backgrounds of SEZ, the reasons of Chinese Government to implement its and the positive impacts and barriers to become operational.The conclusion in this article is that sez arise like an experiment of the Chinese central government economic policy to apply capitalist measures in design previous regions, the most important benefit has been the strong attraction of Foreing Direct Investment, explained in a surplus trade balance, sustanaible economic growht and technological transference. However, the most significative operational barrier has been the legal rigidity in the imported overseas products, a change of nacional politicideology system and problem asociated with burocracy and corruption.

  6. Negative impact of endocrine-disrupting compounds on human reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabanič, Damjan; Rupnik, Marjan; Klemenčič, Aleksandra Krivograd

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing concern about chemical pollutants that are able to mimic hormones, the so-called endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), because of their structural similarity to endogenous hormones, their ability to interact with hormone transport proteins or because of their potential to disrupt hormone metabolic pathways. Thus, the effects of endogenous hormones can be mimicked or, in some cases, completely blocked. A substantial number of environmental pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates, bisphenol A, pesticides, alkylphenols and heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury), have been shown to disrupt endocrine function. These compounds can cause reproductive problems by decreasing sperm count and quality, increasing the number of testicular germ cells and causing male breast cancer, cryptorchidism, hypospadias, miscarriages, endometriosis, impaired fertility, irregularities of the menstrual cycle, and infertility. Although EDCs may be released into the environment in different ways, the main sources is industrial waste water. The present paper critically reviews the current knowledge of the impact of EDCs on reproductive disorders in humans.

  7. Sleep deprivation causes memory deficits by negatively impacting neuronal connectivity in hippocampal area CA1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havekes, Robbert; Park, Alan J; Tudor, Jennifer C; Luczak, Vincent G; Hansen, Rolf T; Ferri, Sarah L; Bruinenberg, Vibeke M; Poplawski, Shane G; Day, Jonathan P; Aton, Sara J; Radwańska, Kasia; Meerlo, Peter; Houslay, Miles D; Baillie, George S; Abel, Ted

    2016-01-01

    Brief periods of sleep loss have long-lasting consequences such as impaired memory consolidation. Structural changes in synaptic connectivity have been proposed as a substrate of memory storage. Here, we examine the impact of brief periods of sleep deprivation on dendritic structure. In mice, we find that five hours of sleep deprivation decreases dendritic spine numbers selectively in hippocampal area CA1 and increased activity of the filamentous actin severing protein cofilin. Recovery sleep normalizes these structural alterations. Suppression of cofilin function prevents spine loss, deficits in hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and impairments in long-term memory caused by sleep deprivation. The elevated cofilin activity is caused by cAMP-degrading phosphodiesterase-4A5 (PDE4A5), which hampers cAMP-PKA-LIMK signaling. Attenuating PDE4A5 function prevents changes in cAMP-PKA-LIMK-cofilin signaling and cognitive deficits associated with sleep deprivation. Our work demonstrates the necessity of an intact cAMP-PDE4-PKA-LIMK-cofilin activation-signaling pathway for sleep deprivation-induced memory disruption and reduction in hippocampal spine density. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13424.001 PMID:27549340

  8. Nutritional Solutions to Reduce Risks of Negative Health Impacts of Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Péter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution worldwide has been associated with cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, particularly in urban settings with elevated concentrations of primary pollutants. Air pollution is a very complex mixture of primary and secondary gases and particles, and its potential to cause harm can depend on multiple factors—including physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants, which varies with fine-scale location (e.g., by proximity to local emission sources—as well as local meteorology, topography, and population susceptibility. It has been hypothesized that the intake of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients may ameliorate various respiratory and cardiovascular effects of air pollution through reductions in oxidative stress and inflammation. To date, several studies have suggested that some harmful effects of air pollution may be modified by intake of essential micronutrients (such as B vitamins, and vitamins C, D, and E and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we review the existing literature related to the potential for nutrition to modify the health impacts of air pollution, and offer a framework for examining these interactions.

  9. Costly learning: preference for familiar food persists despite negative impact on survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Animals often rely on events in their environment that provide information (i.e. experience) to alter their future decision-making in ways that are presumed to be beneficial. Such experience-based learning, however, does not always lead to adaptive decision-making. In this study, we use the omnivorous harvestman Heteromitobates discolor to explore the role of past diet on subsequent food choice and survival. We first tested whether a short-term homogeneous diet (rotten crickets, fresh crickets or dog food) influenced subsequent food choice (rotten cricket versus fresh cricket). We next examine the impact of diet on survival. We found that following experience with a homogeneous cricket diet, adult harvestmen displayed a learned preference for familiar food, regardless of whether it was rotten or fresh crickets; individuals experiencing dog food were equally likely to choose rotten versus fresh crickets. We additionally found that individuals that ate rotten crickets suffered shorter survival than those that ate fresh crickets. Together, our results suggest that the diet an individual experiences can lead to maladaptive food preferences—preferences that ultimately result in reduced longevity. PMID:27405381

  10. Nutritional Solutions to Reduce Risks of Negative Health Impacts of Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péter, Szabolcs; Holguin, Fernando; Wood, Lisa G; Clougherty, Jane E; Raederstorff, Daniel; Antal, Magda; Weber, Peter; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-12-10

    Air pollution worldwide has been associated with cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, particularly in urban settings with elevated concentrations of primary pollutants. Air pollution is a very complex mixture of primary and secondary gases and particles, and its potential to cause harm can depend on multiple factors-including physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants, which varies with fine-scale location (e.g., by proximity to local emission sources)-as well as local meteorology, topography, and population susceptibility. It has been hypothesized that the intake of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients may ameliorate various respiratory and cardiovascular effects of air pollution through reductions in oxidative stress and inflammation. To date, several studies have suggested that some harmful effects of air pollution may be modified by intake of essential micronutrients (such as B vitamins, and vitamins C, D, and E) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we review the existing literature related to the potential for nutrition to modify the health impacts of air pollution, and offer a framework for examining these interactions.

  11. Pre-existing anti-HLA antibodies negatively impact survival of pediatric aplastic anemia patients undergoing HSCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hua; He, Jun; Cai, Junchao; Yuan, Xiaoni; Jiang, Hua; Luo, Changying; Wang, Jianmin; Luo, Chengjuan; Pan, Zhijuan; Terasaki, Paul I; Ding, Lixia; Chen, Jing

    2014-11-01

    Graft failure and survival are the major problems for patients with aplastic anemia undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Previous studies showed that anti-HLA antibodies negatively impact engraftment in HSCT. This retrospective study of 51 pediatric patients with acquired aplastic anemia who underwent allogeneic HSCT at a single institution between 2006 and 2012 investigated the influence of anti-HLA antibodies on the outcome of HSCT. Serum samples collected before HSCT were tested for the presence of anti-HLA antibodies. Pre-existing anti-HLA antibodies were detected in 54.9% (28/51) of patients, among whom 39.2% (20/51) had anti-HLA class I antibodies. Anti-HLA antibodies were associated with worse five-yr survival (78.6% vs. 100%, p = 0.021) and higher treatment-related mortality (21.4% vs. 0%, p = 0.028) compared with antibody-negative patients. Anti-HLA class I antibody-positive patients had poorer five-yr survival (75.0%) than anti-HLA class I&II antibody-positive and antibody-negative patients (87.5% and 100.0%, respectively, p = 0.039). Presence of anti-HLA class I antibodies (p = 0.024) and older age (10 yr or more; p = 0.027) significantly increased the risk of post-HSCT mortality. Pre-existing anti-HLA antibodies negatively affect the outcome of HSCT in pediatric patients with aplastic anemia. Routine testing for anti-HLA antibodies concurrent with efficient treatment should be conducted prior to HSCT.

  12. Study of the impact of photoionization on negative and positive needle-plane corona discharge in atmospheric air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dordizadeh, Peyman; Adamiak, Kazimierz; Castle, G. S. Peter

    2016-12-01

    A 2D axisymmetric model of the atmospheric pressure needle-plane corona discharge incorporating the photoionization phenomenon is presented in this paper. The photoionization model was developed using a three-term exponential approximation based on a model suggested by Bourdon et al. The coefficients of the photoionization model were tuned by reproducing the results of a positive corona discharge and comparing them with the experimental data published previously in the literature. In fact, this photoionization model is an essential module for studying a self-sustained positive corona discharge. Incorporating the photoionization phenomenon in the numerical model for the negative corona discharge causes an average of 5% increase in both the frequency and the DC current of the discharge. The relative importance of the photoionization in both positive and negative coronas was put in a quantitative frame by introducing the ratio of the integral of the impact ionization source term (IIS) divided by the Integral of the photoionization source term (IPS). With the help of this ratio and the spatial distribution of the two source terms, the minor role played by the photoionization source term for the negative discharge is justified. In the case of the positive discharge, the vital importance of the photoionization for sustaining the discharge is explained. Moreover, for the negative corona discharge, comparison of the ratio of the secondary emitted electrons (SEE) from the cathode surface divided by the IPS, at different instants of the formation of a Trichel pulse was found to be beneficial for the purpose of evaluating the relative importance of the photoionization. It is concluded that, although SEE on the rising edge of the Trichel pulse is smaller than the IPS since the injected electrons from the cathode surface are generated in the area with the strongest electric field, they have a greater contribution to the discharge current.

  13. Eyewitness memory: The impact of a negative mood during encoding and/or retrieval upon recall of a non-emotive event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorley, Craig; Dewhurst, Stephen A; Abel, Joseph W; Knott, Lauren M

    2016-07-01

    The police often appeal for eyewitnesses to events that were unlikely to have been emotive when observed. An eyewitness, however, may be in a negative mood whilst encoding or retrieving such events as mood can be influenced by a range of personal, social, and environmental factors. For example, bad weather can induce a negative mood. This experiment compared the impact of negative and neutral moods during encoding and/or retrieval upon eyewitness recall of a non-emotive event. A negative mood during encoding had no impact upon the number of correct details recalled (provided participants were in a neutral mood at retrieval) but a negative mood during retrieval impaired the number of correct details recalled (provided participants were in a neutral mood at encoding). A negative mood at both time points enhanced the number of correct details recalled, demonstrating a mood-dependent memory enhancement. The forensic implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. Epidemiology and prognosis of coagulase-negative staphylococcal endocarditis: impact of vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de la Mària, Cristina; Cervera, Carlos; Pericàs, Juan M; Castañeda, Ximena; Armero, Yolanda; Soy, Dolors; Almela, Manel; Ninot, Salvador; Falces, Carlos; Mestres, Carlos A; Gatell, Jose M; Moreno, Asuncion; Marco, Francesc; Miró, José M

    2015-01-01

    This study describes coagulase-negative staphylococcal (CoNS) infective endocarditis (IE) epidemiology at our institution, the antibiotic susceptibility profile, and the influence of vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) on patient outcomes. One hundred and three adults with definite IE admitted to an 850-bed tertiary care hospital in Barcelona from 1995-2008 were prospectively included in the cohort. We observed that CoNS IE was an important cause of community-acquired and healthcare-associated IE; one-third of patients involved native valves. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most frequent species, methicillin-resistant in 52% of patients. CoNS frozen isolates were available in 88 patients. Vancomycin MICs of 2.0 μg/mL were common; almost all cases were found among S. epidermidis isolates and did not increase over time. Eighty-five patients were treated either with cloxacillin or vancomycin: 38 patients (Group 1) were treated with cloxacillin, and 47 received vancomycin; of these 47, 27 had CoNS isolates with a vancomycin MIC <2.0 μg/mL (Group 2), 20 had isolates with a vancomycin MIC ≥ 2.0 μg/mL (Group 3). One-year mortality was 21%, 48%, and 65% in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (P = 0.003). After adjusting for confounders and taking Group 2 as a reference, methicillin-susceptibility was associated with lower 1-year mortality (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.02-0.55), and vancomycin MIC ≥ 2.0 μg/mL showed a trend to higher 1-year mortality (OR 3.7, 95% CI 0.9-15.2; P=0.069). Other independent variables associated with 1-year mortality were heart failure (OR 6.2, 95% CI 1.5-25.2) and pacemaker lead IE (OR 0.1, 95%CI 0.02-0.51). In conclusion, methicillin-resistant S.epidermidis was the leading cause of CoNS IE, and patients receiving vancomycin had higher mortality rates than those receiving cloxacillin; mortality was higher among patients having isolates with vancomycin MICs ≥ 2.0 μg/mL.

  15. Increasing dietary phosphorus intake from food additives: potential for negative impact on bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Eiji; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Taketani, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    It is important to consider whether habitual high phosphorus intake adversely affects bone health, because phosphorus intake has been increasing, whereas calcium intake has been decreasing in dietary patterns. A higher total habitual dietary phosphorus intake has been associated with higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and lower serum calcium concentrations in healthy individuals. Higher serum PTH concentrations have been shown in those who consume foods with phosphorus additives. These findings suggest that long-term dietary phosphorus loads and long-term hyperphosphatemia may have important negative effects on bone health. In contrast, PTH concentrations did not increase as a result of high dietary phosphorus intake when phosphorus was provided with adequate amounts of calcium. Intake of foods with a ratio of calcium to phosphorus close to that found in dairy products led to positive effects on bone health. Several randomized controlled trials have shown positive relations between dairy intake and bone mineral density. In our loading test with a low-calcium, high-phosphorus lunch provided to healthy young men, serum PTH concentrations showed peaks at 1 and 6 h, and serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentrations increased significantly at 8 h after the meal. In contrast, the high-calcium, high-phosphorus meal suppressed the second PTH and FGF23 elevations until 8 h after the meal. This implies that adequate dietary calcium intake is needed to overcome the interfering effects of high phosphorus intake on PTH and FGF23 secretion. FGF23 acts on the parathyroid gland to decrease PTH mRNA and PTH secretion in rats with normal kidney function. However, increased serum FGF23 is an early alteration of mineral metabolism in chronic kidney disease, causing secondary hyperthyroidism, and implying resistance of the parathyroid gland to the action of FGF23 in chronic kidney disease. These findings suggest that long-term high-phosphorus diets may impair bone health

  16. Wildfire, climate, and invasive grass interactions negatively impact an indicator species by reshaping sagebrush ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Ricca, Mark; Prochazka, Brian; Brooks, Matthew L.; Doherty, Kevin E.; Kroger, Travis; Blomberg, Erik J.; Hagen, Christian A.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Iconic sagebrush ecosystems of the American West are threatened by larger and more frequent wildfires that can kill sagebrush and facilitate invasion by annual grasses, creating a cycle that alters sagebrush ecosystem recovery post disturbance. Thwarting this accelerated grass–fire cycle is at the forefront of current national conservation efforts, yet its impacts on wildlife populations inhabiting these ecosystems have not been quantified rigorously. Within a Bayesian framework, we modeled 30 y of wildfire and climatic effects on population rates of change of a sagebrush-obligate species, the greater sage-grouse, across the Great Basin of western North America. Importantly, our modeling also accounted for variation in sagebrush recovery time post fire as determined by underlying soil properties that influence ecosystem resilience to disturbance and resistance to invasion. Our results demonstrate that the cumulative loss of sagebrush to direct and indirect effects of wildfire has contributed strongly to declining sage-grouse populations over the past 30 y at large spatial scales. Moreover, long-lasting effects from wildfire nullified pulses of sage-grouse population growth that typically follow years of higher precipitation. If wildfire trends continue unabated, model projections indicate sage-grouse populations will be reduced to 43% of their current numbers over the next three decades. Our results provide a timely example of how altered fire regimes are disrupting recovery of sagebrush ecosystems and leading to substantial declines of a widespread indicator species. Accordingly, we present scenario-based stochastic projections to inform conservation actions that may help offset the adverse effects of wildfire on sage-grouse and other wildlife populations.

  17. High nymphal host density and mortality negatively impact parasitoid complex during an insect herbivore outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Aidan A G; Johnson, Scott N; Cook, James M; Riegler, Markus

    2017-08-26

    Insect herbivore outbreaks frequently occur and this may be due to factors that restrict top-down control by parasitoids, for example, host-parasitoid asynchrony, hyperparasitisation, resource limitation and climate. Few studies have examined host-parasitoid density relationships during an insect herbivore outbreak in a natural ecosystem with diverse parasitoids. We studied parasitisation patterns of Cardiaspina psyllids during an outbreak in a Eucalyptus woodland. First, we established the trophic roles of the parasitoids through a species-specific multiplex PCR approach on mummies from which parasitoids emerged. Then, we assessed host-parasitoid density relationships across three spatial scales (leaf, tree and site) over one year. We detected four endoparasitoid species of the family Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera); two primary parasitoid and one heteronomous hyperparasitoid Psyllaephagus species (the latter with female development as a primary parasitoid and male development as a hyperparasitoid), and the hyperparasitoid Coccidoctonus psyllae. Parasitoid development was host-synchronised, although synchrony between sites appeared constrained during winter (due to temperature differences). Parasitisation was predominantly driven by one primary parasitoid species and was mostly inversely host-density dependent across the spatial scales. Hyperparasitisation by C. psyllae was psyllid-density dependent at the site scale, however, this only impacted the rarer primary parasitod. High larval parasitoid mortality due to density dependent nymphal psyllid mortality (a consequence of resource limitation) compounded by a summer heat wave was incorporated in the assessment and resulted in density independence of host-parasitoid relationships. As such, high larval parasitoid mortality during insect herbivore outbreaks may contribute to the absence of host density dependent parasitisation during outbreak events. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article

  18. Negative impacts of human land use on dung beetle functional diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Barragán

    Full Text Available The loss of biodiversity caused by human activity is assumed to alter ecosystem functioning. However our understanding of the magnitude of the effect of these changes on functional diversity and their impact on the dynamics of ecological processes is still limited. We analyzed the functional diversity of copro-necrophagous beetles under different conditions of land use in three Mexican biosphere reserves. In Montes Azules pastures, forest fragments and continuous rainforest were analyzed, in Los Tuxtlas rainforest fragments of different sizes were analyzed and in Barranca de Metztitlán two types of xerophile scrub with different degrees of disturbance from grazing were analyzed. We assigned dung beetle species to functional groups based on food relocation, beetle size, daily activity period and food preferences, and as measures of functional diversity we used estimates based on multivariate methods. In Montes Azules functional richness was lower in the pastures than in continuous rainforest and rainforest fragments, but fragments and continuous forest include functionally redundant species. In small rainforest fragments (20 ha. Functional evenness and functional dispersion did not vary among habitat types or fragment size in these reserves. In contrast, in Metztitlán, functional richness and functional dispersion were different among the vegetation types, but differences were not related to the degree of disturbance by grazing. More redundant species were found in submontane than in crassicaule scrub. For the first time, a decrease in the functional diversity in communities of copro-necrophagous beetles resulting from changes in land use is documented, the potential implications for ecosystem functioning are discussed and a series of variables that could improve the evaluation of functional diversity for this biological group is proposed.

  19. Negative impacts of human land use on dung beetle functional diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragán, Felipe; Moreno, Claudia E; Escobar, Federico; Halffter, Gonzalo; Navarrete, Dario

    2011-03-23

    The loss of biodiversity caused by human activity is assumed to alter ecosystem functioning. However our understanding of the magnitude of the effect of these changes on functional diversity and their impact on the dynamics of ecological processes is still limited. We analyzed the functional diversity of copro-necrophagous beetles under different conditions of land use in three Mexican biosphere reserves. In Montes Azules pastures, forest fragments and continuous rainforest were analyzed, in Los Tuxtlas rainforest fragments of different sizes were analyzed and in Barranca de Metztitlán two types of xerophile scrub with different degrees of disturbance from grazing were analyzed. We assigned dung beetle species to functional groups based on food relocation, beetle size, daily activity period and food preferences, and as measures of functional diversity we used estimates based on multivariate methods. In Montes Azules functional richness was lower in the pastures than in continuous rainforest and rainforest fragments, but fragments and continuous forest include functionally redundant species. In small rainforest fragments (20 ha). Functional evenness and functional dispersion did not vary among habitat types or fragment size in these reserves. In contrast, in Metztitlán, functional richness and functional dispersion were different among the vegetation types, but differences were not related to the degree of disturbance by grazing. More redundant species were found in submontane than in crassicaule scrub. For the first time, a decrease in the functional diversity in communities of copro-necrophagous beetles resulting from changes in land use is documented, the potential implications for ecosystem functioning are discussed and a series of variables that could improve the evaluation of functional diversity for this biological group is proposed.

  20. Impact of chemical peeling combined with negative pressure on human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S J; Kang, I J; Shin, M K; Jeong, K H; Baek, J H; Koh, J S; Lee, S J

    2016-10-01

    In vivo changes in skin barrier function after chemical peeling with alpha hydroxyacids (AHAs) have been previously reported. However, the additional effects of physical treatment with chemical agents on skin barrier function have not been adequately studied. This study measured the degree of acute skin damage and the time required for skin barrier repair using non-invasive bioengineering methods in vivo with human skin to investigate the additional effect of a 4% AHA chemical jet accelerated at supersonic velocities. Thirteen female subjects (average age: 29.54 ± 4.86 years) participated in this study. The faces of the subjects were divided into half according to the block randomization design and were then assigned to receive AHA peeling alone or AHA peeling combined with pneumatic pressure on each side of the face. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin colour and skin blood flow were evaluated at baseline and at 30 min, 2, 5 and 7 days after treatment. The TEWL and skin blood flow were significantly increased after 30 min in chemodermabrasion compared with chemical peeling alone (P skin blood flow recovered to baseline after 2 days, and TEWL was significantly decreased at 7 days compared with chemical peeling alone (P skin barriers, but it is estimated that it can enhance the skin barrier function after 7 days compared to the use of a chemical agent alone. In addition, chemodermabrasion has a more effective impact in the dermis and relatively preserves the skin barrier. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  1. The Negative Impact of Early Peritonitis on Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yao-Peng; Wang, Shu-Chuan; Chang, Chia-Chu; Wen, Yao-Ko; Chiu, Ping-Fang; Yang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    ♦ Background: Peritonitis rate has been reported to be associated with technique failure and overall mortality in previous literatures. However, information on the impact of the timing of the first peritonitis episode on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients is sparse. The aim of this research is to study the influence of time to first peritonitis on clinical outcomes, including technique failure, patient mortality and dropout from peritoneal dialysis (PD). ♦ Methods: A retrospective observational cohort study was conducted over 10 years at a single PD unit in Taiwan. A total of 124 patients on CAPD with at least one peritonitis episode comprised the study subjects, which were dichotomized by the median of time to first peritonitis into either early peritonitis patients or late peritonitis patients. Cox proportional hazard model was used to analyze the correlation of the timing of first peritonitis with clinical outcomes. ♦ Results: Early peritonitis patients were older, more diabetic and had lower serum levels of creatinine than the late peritonitis patients. Early peritonitis patients were associated with worse technique survival, patient survival and stay on PD than late peritonitis patients, as indicated by Kaplan-Meier analysis (log-rank test, p = 0.04, p peritonitis was still a significant predictor for technique failure (hazard ratio (HR), 0.54; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.30 - 0.98), patient mortality (HR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.13 - 0.92) and dropout from PD (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.30 - 0.82). In continuous analyses, a 1-month increase in the time to the first peritonitis episode was associated with a 2% decreased risk of technique failure (HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.97 - 0.99), a 3% decreased risk of patient mortality (HR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95 - 0.99), and a 2% decreased risk of dropout from PD (HR, 98%; 95% CI, 0.97 - 0.99). Peritonitis rate was inversely correlated with time to first peritonitis according to the Spearman analysis (r = -0

  2. Utility of telepathology as a consultation tool between an off-site surgical pathology suite and affiliated hospitals in the frozen section diagnosis of lung neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisia Vitkovski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasingly, as in our institution, operating rooms are located in hospitals and the pathology suite is located at a distant location because of off-site consolidation of pathology services. Telepathology is a technology which bridges the gap between pathologists and offers a means to obtain a consultation remotely. We aimed to evaluate the utility of telepathology as a means to assist the pathologist at the time of intraoperative consultation of lung nodules when a subspecialty pathologist is not available to directly review the slide. Methods: Cases of lung nodules suspicious for a neoplasm were included. Frozen sections were prepared in the usual manner. The pathologists on the intraoperative consultation service at two of our system hospitals notified the thoracic pathologist of each case after rendering a preliminary diagnosis. The consultation was performed utilizing a Nikon™ Digital Sight camera and web-based Remote Medical Technologies™ software with live video streaming directed by the host pathologist. The thoracic pathologist rendered a diagnosis without knowledge of the preliminary interpretation then discussed the interpretation with the frozen section pathologist. The interpretations were compared with the final diagnosis rendered after sign-out. Results: One hundred and three consecutive cases were included. The frozen section pathologist and a thoracic pathologist had concordant diagnoses in 93 cases (90.2%, discordant diagnoses in nine cases (8.7%, and one case in which both deferred. There was an agreement between the thoracic pathologist′s diagnosis and the final diagnosis in 98% of total cases including 8/9 (88.9% of the total discordant cases. In two cases, if the thoracic pathologist had not been consulted, the patient would have been undertreated. Conclusions: We have shown that telepathology is an excellent consultation tool in the frozen section diagnosis of lung nodules.

  3. Urban green spaces′ effectiveness as a psychological buffer for the negative health impact of noise pollution: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Mario Dzhambov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise pollution is one of the four major pollutions in the world. Little evidence exists about the actual preventive benefits of psychological noise attenuation by urban green spaces, especially from the perspective of environmental medicine and, to the best of our knowledge, there is not a systematic analysis on this topic. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate whether there is conclusive scientific evidence for the effectiveness of urban green spaces as a psychological buffer for the negative impact of noise pollution on human health and to promote an evidence-based approach toward this still growing environmental hazard. MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for experimental and epidemiological studies published before June 04, 2013 in English and Spanish. Data was independently extracted in two step process by the authors. Due to the heterogeneity of the included studies qualitative assessment was performed. We found moderate evidence that the presence of vegetation can generally reduce the negative perception of noise (supported with an electroencephalogram test in one of the experimental studies; consistent with the data from two epidemiological studies; one experiment found no effect and one was inconclusive about the positive effect. This review fills a gap in the literature and could help researchers further clarify the proper implementation of urban green spaces as a psychological buffer in areas with population exposed to chronic noise pollution.

  4. Impacts of higher-order dispersions and saturable nonlinearities on modulation instability in negative-refractive metamaterials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Xian-Qiong; Cheng Ke; Xiang An-Ping

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the standard linear stability analysis and Drude electromagnetic model,the impacts of higher-order dispersions and three kinds of typical saturable nonlinearities on modulation instability (MI) have been analyzed and calculated for negative-refractive metamaterials (MMs).Our results show that the MI gain spectra consist of only one spectral region instead of one or two regions in ordinary materials,which may be close to or far from the zero point.Particularly,the spectrum far from the zero point has a high cut-off frequency but a narrow spectral width,which is obviously beneficial to the generation of high-repetition-rate pulse trains.Moreover,MI characteristics here will vary with the normalized angular frequency which can be modified by adjusting the structures of negative-refractive MMs,signifying the controllability of bistable solitons and MI based applications.The effects of saturable nonlinearities are similar to those in ordinary materials.

  5. The impact of bullying on health care administration staff: reduced commitment beyond the influences of negative affectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodwell, John; Demir, Defne; Parris, Melissa; Steane, Peter; Noblet, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Investigations of workplace bullying in health care settings have tended to focus on nurses or other clinical staff. However, the organizational and power structures enabling bullying in health care are present for all employees, including administrative staff. : The purpose of this study was to specifically focus on health care administration staff and examine the prevalence and consequences of workplace bullying in this occupational group. A cross-sectional study was conducted based on questionnaire data from health care administration staff who work across facilities within a medium to large health care organization in Australia. The questionnaire included measures of bullying, negative affectivity (NA), job satisfaction, organizational commitment, well-being, and psychological distress. The three hypotheses of the study were that (a) workplace bullying will be linked to negative employee outcomes, (b) individual differences on demographic factors will have an impact on these outcomes, and (c) individual differences in NA will be a significant covariate in the analyses. The hypotheses were tested using t tests and analyses of covariances. A total of 150 health care administration staff completed the questionnaire (76% response rate). Significant main effects were found for workplace bullying, with lower organizational commitment and well-being with the effect on commitment remaining over and above NA. Main effects were found for age on job satisfaction and for employment type on psychological distress. A significant interaction between bullying and employment type for psychological distress was also observed. Negative affectivity was a significant covariate for all analyses of covariance. The applications of these results include the need to consider the occupations receiving attention in health care to include administration employees, that bullying is present across health care occupations, and that some employees, particularly part-time staff, may need to be

  6. Negative impact of prolonged cold storage time before machine perfusion preservation in donation after circulatory death kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloyo, Siegfredo; Sageshima, Junichiro; Gaynor, Jeffrey J; Chen, Linda; Ciancio, Gaetano; Burke, George W

    2016-10-01

    Kidney grafts are often preserved initially in static cold storage (CS) and subsequently on hypothermic machine perfusion (MP). However, the impact of CS/MP time on transplant outcome remains unclear. We evaluated the effect of prolonged CS/MP time in a single-center retrospective cohort of 59 donation after circulatory death (DCD) and 177 matched donation after brain death (DBD) kidney-alone transplant recipients. With mean overall CS/MP times of 6.0 h/30.0 h, overall incidence of delayed graft function (DGF) was higher in DCD transplants (30.5%) than DBD transplants (7.3%, P time (P = 0.0002), male recipient (P = 0.02), and longer MP time (P = 0.08) were associated with higher DGF incidence. In evaluating the joint effects of donor type (DBD vs. DCD), CS time (time (time ≥36 h (P = 0.003) across each donor type and CS time stratum, whereas the unfavorable effect of CS time ≥6 h (P = 0.01) is primarily seen among DCD recipients. Prolonged cold ischemia time had no unfavorable effect on renal function or graft survival at 12mo post-transplant. Long CS/MP time detrimentally affects early DCD/DBD kidney transplant outcome when grafts were mainly preserved by MP; prolonged CS time before MP has a particularly negative impact in DCD kidney transplantation.

  7. Strategies to Mitigate the Negative and Accentuate the Positive Impacts of International Service-Learning on Host Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shari Galiardi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available International service-learning can have a transformative effect on student participants, but little research has been done on the impact of these experiences on host communities. The authors make the case that an emphasis on intentional personal, cultural, and group preparation is imperative to have the best possible impact on both the student and host community. Overarching strategies include: 1 preparing students for their experience prior to departure from both an individual and group development perspective; 2 designing reflection activities and discussions that include members of the host community; 3 facilitating open conversations about equitable relationships, international perspectives of Americans, and potential negative effects the group could have on the host community; 4 providing opportunities for post-travel dialogue and personal action plans for re-engaging with the local community upon return. The authors draw from both theoretical frameworks and many years of experience traveling abroad with students to underpin the strategies outlined in this article. KEYWORDSservice-learning; group development; international

  8. Organizational Justice and Perceived Organizational Support: Impact on Negative Work-Home Interference and Well-being Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Babic

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that negative work-home interference (NegWHI impacts upon several work attitudes and behaviors. In the interests of both organizational effectiveness and employee well-being, it is important to identify concepts related to NegWHI and investigate their effects on well-being outcomes. This study examines the mediating role of (1 perceived organizational support (POS in the relationship between organizational justice (OJ and NegWHI; and (2 NegWHI in the relationships between POS and four well-being outcomes. A total of 509 employees of a Belgian hospital were surveyed. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling and the bootstrapping method. Results showed that POS partially mediates the relationships between distributive and passive procedural justice and NegWHI, and fully mediates the relationship between the other justice dimensions and NegWHI. NegWHI partially mediates the relationships between POS and both job satisfaction and intention to quit, and fully mediates the relationship between POS and job strain. Furthermore, POS is positively related to job engagement. This study showed that organizations can help employees to better manage their work and family lives and reduce the impact of NegWHI by enhancing employees’ feeling that they are supported by their organization. In order to increase POS, organizations need to promote justice in the workplace.

  9. Impact of reward and punishment motivation on behavior monitoring as indexed by the error-related negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Geoffrey F

    2011-09-01

    The error-related negativity (ERN) is thought to index a neural behavior monitoring system with its source in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). While ACC is involved in a wide variety of cognitive and emotional tasks, there is debate as to what aspects of ACC function are indexed by the ERN. In one model the ERN indexes purely cognitive function, responding to mismatch between intended and executed actions. Another model posits that the ERN is more emotionally driven, elicited when an action is inconsistent with motivational goals. If the ERN indexes mismatch between intended and executed actions, then it should be insensitive to motivational valence, e.g. reward or punishment; in contrast if the ERN indexes the evaluation of responses relative to goals, then it might respond differentially under differing motivational valence. This study used a flanker task motivated by potential reward and potential punishment on different trials and also examined the N2 and P3 to the imperative stimulus, the response Pe, and the FRN and P3 to the outcome feedback to assess the impact of motivation valence on other stages of information processing in this choice reaction time task. Participants were slower on punishment motivated trials and both the N2 and ERN were larger on punishment motivated trials, indicating that loss aversion has an impact on multiple stages of information processing including behavior monitoring.

  10. Does complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use reduce negative life impact of headaches for chronic migraineurs? A national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jieun; Bhowmick, Amrita; Wachholtz, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Chronic migraine is a disabling condition that impacts multiple aspects of migraineurs' lives. Although pharmacological treatments can help to treat the pain associated with migraine headache, chronic migraineurs often experience side-effects of pharmacological treatments. Those experiences may contribute to the observed growth in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among migraineurs. Relatively little is known about the patterns of CAM treatment and the characteristics of chronic migraineurs. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to investigate the characteristics of chronic migraineurs who use CAM treatment and the relationship among satisfaction with current CAM use, negative life impact, migraine outcomes, and psychiatric comorbidities among chronic migraineurs. 2907 participants were recruited from a well-known online migraine headache resource. All participants were US adults aged 18 years or older. Migraineurs are referred to this website through various routes (e.g., referral from healthcare providers, internet search, obtaining information from research papers, personal invitation from other users, and information shared on social media etc.). Participants completed a 30-min self-report-survey in the spring of 2014. Almost half of the participants reported that they are currently using more than three different CAM treatments even though the majority of the participants reported neutral or dissatisfied with their current CAM treatment. Chronic migraineurs who use CAM treatments were more likely to experience prolonged or frequent migraine headaches (p = .018, η(2) = .0021), and experience greater negative life impact from their headaches (p = .000, η(2) = .0172) compared to non-CAM users. CAM treatment satisfaction was inversely related to the number of psychiatric comorbidities, frequency of migraines, and number of migraine symptoms (p's < .05). However, CAM treatment satisfaction was more strongly correlated with

  11. On-line Auditing:Reflections on Off-site Auditing%联网审计:非现场审计的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林忠华

    2016-01-01

    With the development of the information-based national economy,it has become an urgent task to develop information-based auditing.As a product of the high-stage of computer auditing,on-line auditing is an approach that adapts to the audit environment and is regarded as one of the major objectives of information-based audit work.As an off-site auditing approach,on-line auditing is characterized by real-time and remote audit as well as highly efficient data acquisition and analysis.The key technologies of on-line auditing involves networking technology,data acquisition and processing technology while the mandatory function and advantage thereof is the audit warning mechanism.The specialized auditing procedures include information system testing and auditing,daily on-line query,and data acquisition and analysis.At present there are still problems to be solved in the field of on-line auditing,which requires reference to pioneer successful examples and effective measures to consistently improve the on-line auditing system.%随着国民经济信息化,审计工作信息化已刻不容缓。联网审计作为计算机审计发展较高阶段的产物,是适应新的审计环境所产生的审计方式,是审计工作信息化的主攻方向之一。联网审计作为非现场审计,具有实时审计、远程审计、高效率的数据采集和分析等特征。组网技术、数据采集和处理技术是联网审计的关键技术,审计预警机制是联网审计的必备功能和优势所在。信息系统测试与审计、日常联网查询、数据采集与分析是联网审计的特殊审计程序。当前联网审计中还存在不少困难与问题,要借鉴联网审计的成功范例,采取有效对策和措施,不断完善联网审计制度。

  12. Xpert(®) MTB/RIF for smear-negative presumptive TB: impact on case notification in DR Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbonze, N B; Tabala, M; Wenzi, L K; Bakoko, B; Brouwer, M; Creswell, J; Van Rie, A; Behets, F; Yotebieng, M

    2016-02-01

    The impact of Xpert(®) MTB/RIF as a follow-on diagnostic test after smear microscopy on tuberculosis (TB) notification has not yet been well defined. Quasi-experimental design with 86 evaluation and 49 control clinics in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. Smear microscopy was supported at all 135 clinics, Xpert was placed in 15 evaluation clinics and a sputum transport system was implemented for 25 satellite clinics. The number of cases notified before and during the project (July 2012-June 2013) was obtained from the National TB Program. Of 27,147 presumptive TB cases presenting in clinics with access to Xpert, 5922 (21.8%) were smear-positive. Of 18,636 individuals with ⩾ 3 negative microscopy results, 6920 (37.1%) underwent Xpert testing, 991 (14.3%) of whom tested positive. The number of bacteriologically positive cases increased equally in evaluation clinics (15.1%, 95%CI -2.3 to 32.6) and control clinics (13.6%, 95%CI 2.6-29.3), for a difference in increase of 1.5% (95%CI -28.8 to 31.8). There was no difference in the change in smear-negative cases (-42.4%, 95%CI -111.5 to 26.6), nor in all types of TB notified (-6.1%, 95%CI -32.5 to 20.4) between the evaluation and control clinics. In part due to a restrictive algorithm, Xpert as follow-on to smear microscopy did not increase the overall number of TB notifications, nor the number of bacteriologically positive cases.

  13. Impact of negative emotion on agent persuasion%消极情感对agent劝说的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍京华; 张新刚; 董学杰

    2011-01-01

    由于agent的非人工智能特性,使其在模拟人类劝说的过程中经常会陷入僵局,影响合作.为解决该问题.结合其作为人工智能工具的情感特性,对agent劝说中的情感进行了分类;运用形势逻辑理论,构建了agent劝说中的消极情感影响模型,并举例阐述;基于该模型,在提出agent劝说的消极情感变化度的概念后,给出了相应的比较方法.并通过算例进行了验证.与已有研究相比,该研究能更进一步发挥agent的理性优势,减轻系统负担,同时促进agent之间更好地合作.%For its characteristic of non-AI, agent persuasion can always be in deadlock when it simulate human being, which is harmful to its cooperation.To do with this and combined with the characteristic of emotion as in AI, classified emotion of agent persuasion, and constructed impact model of negative emotion on agent persuasion with the theory of formal logic, which was explained clearly through an example.Based on this model, also gave relative method of comparison after gave the concept of change degree of negative emotion, which was also verified to be effective through a calculation example.The result shows that it can bring the rational advantage of agent into play and decrease the system burden, which is good to its cooperation.

  14. Recreational Physical Activity Ameliorates Some of the Negative Impact of Major Depression on Health-Related Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Burton Patten

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Major depressive episodes (MDEs have a negative effect on health-related quality of life (HRQoL. The objective of this study was to determine whether recreational physical activity can ameliorate some of this negative impact. Methods: The data source for the study was the Canadian National Population Health Survey (NPHS. The NPHS is a longitudinal study that has collected data from a representative cohort of 15,254 community residents. Sixteen years of follow-up data are available. The NPHS included: an instrument to assess MDE (the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short Form for Major Depression, an inventory of recreational activities (each associated with hours of participation and estimated metabolic expenditures and a HRQoL instrument (the Health Utility Index, Mark 3 or HUI3. Proportional hazard and linear regression models were used in this study to determine whether MDE-related declines in HRQoL were lessened by participation in an active recreational lifestyle. Results: Consistent with expectation, major depression was associated with a significant decline in HRQoL over time. While no statistical interactions were observed, the risk of diminished HRQoL in association with MDE was reduced by physical activity. In a proportional hazards model, the hazard ratio for transition to poor HRQoL was 0.7 (95% CI: 0.6 – 0.8, p < 0.0001. In linear regression models, physical activity was significantly associated with more positive HRQoL (β = 0.019, 95% CI 0.004 to – 0.034, p =0.02.Conclusions: Recreational physical activity appears to ameliorate some of the decline in HRQoL seen in association with MDE. Physical activity may be an effective tertiary preventive strategy for this condition.

  15. 'In situ simulation' versus 'off site simulation' in obstetric emergencies and their effect on knowledge, safety attitudes, team performance, stress, and motivation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Jette Led; Van der Vleuten, Cees; Lindschou, Jane; Gluud, Christian; Østergaard, Doris; LeBlanc, Vicki; Johansen, Marianne; Ekelund, Kim; Albrechtsen, Charlotte Krebs; Pedersen, Berit Woetman; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Weikop, Pia; Ottesen, Bent

    2013-07-17

    Unexpected obstetric emergencies threaten the safety of pregnant women. As emergencies are rare, they are difficult to learn. Therefore, simulation-based medical education (SBME) seems relevant. In non-systematic reviews on SBME, medical simulation has been suggested to be associated with improved learner outcomes. However, many questions on how SBME can be optimized remain unanswered. One unresolved issue is how 'in situ simulation' (ISS) versus 'off site simulation' (OSS) impact learning. ISS means simulation-based training in the actual patient care unit (in other words, the labor room and operating room). OSS means training in facilities away from the actual patient care unit, either at a simulation centre or in hospital rooms that have been set up for this purpose. The objective of this randomized trial is to study the effect of ISS versus OSS on individual learning outcome, safety attitude, motivation, stress, and team performance amongst multi-professional obstetric-anesthesia teams.The trial is a single-centre randomized superiority trial including 100 participants. The inclusion criteria were health-care professionals employed at the department of obstetrics or anesthesia at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, who were working on shifts and gave written informed consent. Exclusion criteria were managers with staff responsibilities, and staff who were actively taking part in preparation of the trial. The same obstetric multi-professional training was conducted in the two simulation settings. The experimental group was exposed to training in the ISS setting, and the control group in the OSS setting. The primary outcome is the individual score on a knowledge test. Exploratory outcomes are individual scores on a safety attitudes questionnaire, a stress inventory, salivary cortisol levels, an intrinsic motivation inventory, results from a questionnaire evaluating perceptions of the simulation and suggested changes needed in the organization, a team-based score on video

  16. Early protein malnutrition negatively impacts physical growth and neurological reflexes and evokes anxiety and depressive-like behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belluscio, Laura M; Berardino, Bruno G; Ferroni, Nadina M; Ceruti, Julieta M; Cánepa, Eduardo T

    2014-04-22

    Malnutrition is a worldwide problem affecting millions of unborn and young children during the most vulnerable stages of their development. In humans, poor maternal nutrition is a major cause of intrauterine growth restriction which is associated with an increased risk of perinatal mortality and long-term morbidity. In addition, intrauterine growth restriction correlates with neurodevelopmental delays and alterations of brain structure and neurochemistry. While there is no doubt that maternal malnutrition is a principal cause of perturbed development of the fetal brain and that all nutrients have certain influence on brain maturation, proteins appear to be the most critical for the development of neurological functions. In the present study we assessed male and female mouse offspring, born to dams protein restricted during pregnancy and lactation, in physical growth and neurobehavioral development and also in social interaction, motivation, anxiety and depressive behaviors. Moreover, we evaluate the impact of the low protein diet on dams in relation to their maternal care and anxiety-related behavior given that these clearly affect pups development. We observed that maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and lactation delayed the physical growth and neurodevelopment of the offspring in a sex-independent manner. In addition, maternal undernutrition negatively affected offspring's juvenile social play, motivation, exploratory activity and risk assessment behaviors. These findings show that protein restriction during critical periods of development detrimentally program progeny behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Hours of Work and Family Income Response to Negative Income Tax Plans. The Impact on the Working Poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, Alfred; And Others

    The negative income tax has been proposed as an effective means to combat poverty in the United States. This study, which is inferential in nature and a complement to ongoing field experimentation, is concerned with such questions as: (1) How will a negative income tax affect the working poor, (2) Will a negative income tax encourage some people…

  18. The negative impact of the disturb of the use and abuse of the alcohol in the family coexistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Arnoldo Nunes de Miranda

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The use and abuse of the alcohol progress in a slow and insidious way developing for chronic disease carting immeasurable problems in the individual's process health-disease and of the family all over the world. The present research study analyzed the negative impact in the family coexistence related to the upset of the use and alcohol abuse. It is treated of a field research with qualitative approach centered in the relatives' relieves uttered spontaneously in the act of the admission of a service of psychiatric urgency in the metropolitan area of Natal City/RN. The technician-methodological instrument of the data collection was based on the active listening research. Starting from the explanatory models where the relieves were contained, prevailing the morals associated to the ethical-legal. The discoveries reveal that the model explanatory morals of the use and abuse of alcohol is better explained by the relatives, although the moralize sense is also captured in the speeches that illustrate the other models. We verified one it refuses in accepting the patient condition, even if the relief of the current tensions of taking care of the alcoholic is the hospital. Many are the explanatory and therapeutic proposals for the problem, though we cannot lose of view the need to promote permanent educational actions that guarantee to the bearers and family a larger understanding of the lived problems and a better adaptation of the years lived adjusted the lost capacity by virtue of all the alterations happened in the continuation of the use and abuse of the alcohol in your process health-disease.

  19. BILL E. KUNKLE INTERDISCIPLINARY BEEF SYMPOSIUM: Does tall fescue toxicosis negatively impact bull growth and breeding potential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, S L; Andrae, J G

    2015-12-01

    The predominant cool-season forage in the southeastern United States is the tall fescue cultivar Kentucky 31 (KY31). Kentucky 31 possesses an endophyte (), which produces a family of toxins called ergot alkaloids. These toxins negatively affect the physiology of animals on consumption and result in the syndrome known as fescue toxicosis. Currently, the United States annually produces approximately 11.4 billion kg of beef, of which 25% originates in the southeastern region of the United States where forage systems frequently are tall fescue based. Cattle within this forage system exhibit reduced gains and reproductive performance. The result is a reduction in the nation's beef supply with annual revenue losses recently estimated at approximately US$1 billion. Our hypothesis is that exposure to these ergot alkaloids in conjunction with limited availability of nutrients decreases bull semen quality and fertility. Although the literature is clear that these toxins affect BW, body temperature, blood flow, hair growth, and female reproduction in cattle, their effect on bull reproduction and the mechanisms through which the toxins act are not well defined. Six studies published from 2004 to 2015 assessed bull growth, body composition, and semen quality of young beef bulls exposed to ergot alkaloids. If semen quality or fertility is altered, the mechanisms involved may be either direct effects of ergot alkaloids through neurotransmitter receptors or indirect effects such as inhibiting the release of prolactin (PRL). The possible effects of ergot alkaloids or PRL require establishing the presence or absence of dopamine, adrenergic, serotonin, or PRL receptors in the testis, epididymis, and sperm cell of the bull. The objective of this review is to relate our findings to the few previous studies conducted that evaluated the impact of fescue toxicosis on bull reproduction and to propose possible mechanisms of action for lowered semen quality.

  20. Impact of lower body negative pressure induced hypovolemia on peripheral venous pressure waveform parameters in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alian, Aymen A; Galante, Nicholas J; Stachenfeld, Nina S; Silverman, David G; Shelley, Kirk H

    2014-07-01

    Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) creates a reversible hypovolemia by sequestrating blood volume in the lower extremities. This study sought to examine the impact of central hypovolemia on peripheral venous pressure (PVP) waveforms in spontaneously breathing subjects. With IRB approval, 11 healthy subjects underwent progressive LBNP (baseline, -30, -75, and -90 mmHg or until the subject became symptomatic). Each was monitored for heart rate (HR), finger arterial blood pressure (BP), a chest respiratory band and PVP waveforms which are generated from a transduced upper extremity intravenous site. The first subject was excluded from PVP analysis because of technical errors in collecting the venous pressure waveform. PVP waveforms were analyzed to determine venous pulse pressure, mean venous pressure, pulse width, maximum and minimum slope (time domain analysis) together with cardiac and respiratory modulations (frequency domain analysis). No changes of significance were found in the arterial BP values at -30 mmHg LBNP, while there were significant reductions in the PVP waveforms time domain parameters (except for 50% width of the respiration induced modulations) together with modulation of the PVP waveform at the cardiac frequency but not at the respiratory frequency. As the LBNP progressed, arterial systolic BP, mean BP and pulse pressure, PVP parameters and PVP cardiac modulation decreased significantly, while diastolic BP and HR increased significantly. Changes in hemodynamic and PVP waveform parameters reached a maximum during the symptomatic phase. During the recovery phase, there was a significant reduction in HR together with a significant increase in HR variability, mean PVP and PVP cardiac modulation. Thus, in response to mild hypovolemia induced by LBNP, changes in cardiac modulation and other PVP waveform parameters identified hypovolemia before detectable hemodynamic changes.

  1. Extreme winter warming events more negatively impact small rather than large soil fauna: shift in community composition explained by traits not taxa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, S.; Phoenix, G.K.; Berke, J.W.; Callaghan, T.V.; Huyer-Brugman, F.; Berg, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Extreme weather events can have negative impacts on species survival and community structure when surpassinglethal thresholds. Extreme winter warming events in the Arctic rapidly melt snow and expose ecosystems to unseasonablywarm air (2–10 °C for 2–14 days), but returning to cold winter climate exp

  2. Filter paper inhibits in vitro protocorm-like body formation in hybrid Cymbidium and reduces synseed germination, but buffers the negative impact of antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEIXEIRA DA SILVA JAIME A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Only few studies in the plant tissue culture literature have examined the impact of filter paper on in vitro plant organogenesis. In this study, using a model plant, hybrid Cymbidium Twilight Moon ‘Day Light’, the impact of a single or double layer of Advantec #2 or Whatman #1 filter paper on new protocorm-like body (neo-PLB formation on Teixeira Cymbidium (TC medium was examined for half-PLBs (transgenic and non-transgenic, PLB-derived transverse thin cell layers (tTCLs, and PLB synseeds. In addition, the response of half-PLBs or tTCLs to two antibiotics (kanamycin and cefotaxime, commonly used in plant genetic transformation studies was investigated either directly on gelled medium or on filter paper-overlaid medium. Filter paper negatively affected most growth and developmental parameters of all the explants tested, both transgenic and non-transgenic. A double sheet of filter paper had a significantly (P ≤ 0.05 more negative impact than a single sheet, relative to the control values (i.e., no filter paper. Kanamycin inhibited neo-PLB formation on TC medium, the negative impact being greater on a single layer than on a double layer of filter paper, i.e., filter paper buffered the growth-inhibiting characteristics of kanamycin. Up to 100 mg/l, cefotaxime showed no apparent negative effects on neo-PLBs formation and growth, although hyperhydricity was observed when filter paper was not used.

  3. Be kind to your eating disorder patients: the impact of positive and negative feedback on the explicit and implicit self-esteem of female patients with eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderlinden, J.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Slagmolen, C.; Wigboldus, D.; Pieters, G.; Probst, M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lack of self-esteem may play an important role in the development of eating disorders (ED). This study investigated the differential impact of positive and negative feedback on implicit and explicit self-esteem in women with an ED (N=25) as compared to women without an ED (N=29). METHOD:

  4. Be kind to your eating disorder patients: The impact of positive and negative feedback on the explicit and implicit self-esteem of female patients with eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, J. van der; Kamphuis, J.H.; Slagmolen, C.J.J.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Pieters, G.; Probst, M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lack of self-esteem may play an important role in the development of eating disorders (ED). This study investigated the differential impact of positive and negative feedback on implicit and explicit self-esteem in women with an ED (N=25) as compared to women without an ED (N=29). METHOD:

  5. Negativity in Massive Online Open Courses: Impacts on Learning and Teaching and How Instructional Teams May Be Able to Address It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Comer, PhD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There are many positive aspects of teaching and learning in Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs, for both instructors and students. However, there is also a considerable amount of negativity in MOOCs, emerging from learners on discussion forums and through peer assessment, from disciplinary colleagues and from public discourse around MOOCs. Through mixed-methods case-study research of two diverse MOOCs (one focused on general, introductory-level content and one designed for specialized graduate students and professionals, we consider the following questions: What are the various forms that negativity takes in MOOCs? How might MOOC negativity vary among disciplines? How does negativity impact MOOC instructors and learners? We present evidence suggesting that MOOC negativity poses a serious problem that may be responsible for instructor/ learner disengagement and instructor burnout, and that anticipating and addressing such negativity can improve MOOC learning communities. Lessons learned from these two MOOCs can be beneficial not only to those involved with MOOCs, but also to those involved in other online educational contexts where faculty and learners seek to manage existing and anticipated negativity.

  6. Impact of negative emotion on the neural correlates of long-term recognition in younger and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégoria eKalpouzos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Some studies have suggested that the memory advantage for negative emotional information over neutral information (negativity effect is reduced in aging. Besides the fact that most findings are based on immediate retrieval, the neural underpinnings of long-term emotional memory in aging have so far not been investigated. To address these issues, we assessed recognition of neutral and negative scenes after one- and 3-week retention intervals in younger and older adults using fMRI. We further used an event-related design in order to disentangle successful, false and true recognition. This study revealed 4 key findings: 1 Increased retention interval induced an increased rate of false recognitions for negative scenes, cancelling out the negativity effect (present for hit rates only on discrimination in both younger and older adults; 2 In younger, but not older, adults, reduced activity of the medial temporal lobe was observed over time for neutral scenes, but not for negative scenes, where stable or increased activity was seen; 3 Engagement of amygdala was observed in older adults after a 3-week delay during successful recognition of negative scenes (hits versus misses in comparison with neutral scenes, which may indicate engagement of automatic processes, but engagement of ventrolateral prefrontal cortex was unrelated to amygdala activity and performance; and 4 After 3 weeks, but not after one week, true recognition of negative scenes was characterized by more activity in left hippocampus and lateral occipito-temporal regions (hits versus false alarms. As these regions are known to be related to consolidation mechanisms, the observed pattern may indicate the presence of delayed consolidation of true memories. Nonetheless, older adults’ low performance in discrimination of negative scenes could reflect the fact that overall, after long delays of retention, they rely more on general information rather than on perceptual detail in making

  7. Impact of negative emotion on the neural correlates of long-term recognition in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Fischer, Håkan; Rieckmann, Anna; Macdonald, Stuart W S; Bäckman, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Some studies have suggested that the memory advantage for negative emotional information over neutral information ("negativity effect") is reduced in aging. Besides the fact that most findings are based on immediate retrieval, the neural underpinnings of long-term emotional memory in aging have so far not been investigated. To address these issues, we assessed recognition of neutral and negative scenes after 1- and 3-week retention intervals in younger and older adults using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We further used an event-related design in order to disentangle successful, false, and true recognition. This study revealed four key findings: (1) increased retention interval induced an increased rate of false recognitions for negative scenes, canceling out the negativity effect (present for hit rates only) on discrimination in both younger and older adults; (2) in younger, but not older, adults, reduced activity of the medial temporal lobe was observed over time for neutral scenes, but not for negative scenes, where stable or increased activity was seen; (3) engagement of amygdala (AMG) was observed in older adults after a 3-week delay during successful recognition of negative scenes (hits vs. misses) in comparison with neutral scenes, which may indicate engagement of automatic processes, but engagement of ventrolateral prefrontal cortex was unrelated to AMG activity and performance; and (4) after 3 weeks, but not after 1 week, true recognition of negative scenes was characterized by more activity in left hippocampus and lateral occipito-temporal regions (hits vs. false alarms). As these regions are known to be related to consolidation mechanisms, the observed pattern may indicate the presence of delayed consolidation of true memories. Nonetheless, older adults' low performance in discrimination of negative scenes could reflect the fact that overall, after long delays of retention, they rely more on general information rather than on perceptual

  8. Understanding of a negative bowel screening result and potential impact on future symptom appraisal and help-seeking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnett, Karen N; Weller, David; Smith, Steve;

    2016-01-01

    ) emotional response to a negative FOBt, (ii) understanding the limitations of FOBt screening, (iii) symptom knowledge and interpretation and (iv) over-reassurance from a negative FOBt. Participants were reassured by a negative FOBt, but there was variability in the extent to which the result was interpreted...... could lead to a short-term delay in help-seeking if symptoms developed. Screening programmes should seek to emphasize the importance of the temporal nature of FOBt results with key messages about symptom recognition and prompt help-seeking behaviour....

  9. Environmental and economic estimation of negative impact of waterproofing works and materials on environment and ability to live of the person

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velichko Evgeniy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In article negative influence of waterproofing materials and works on health of people and environmental pollution is analyzed. Complex measures on maintenance of an ecological security, sanitary-and-hygienic requirements, size standards and rules both during works on a waterproof finish are resulted, and at the subsequent upkeep of buildings and premises, and also action for decrease in negative impact at carrying out of waterproofing works on a natural habitat condition, health of the workers occupied in repair-building manufacture and living. The estimation of components of the environmental and economic damage put to environment by manufacture of waterproofing works is given.

  10. Understanding of a negative bowel screening result and potential impact on future symptom appraisal and help-seeking behaviour: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Karen N; Weller, David; Smith, Steve; Orbell, Sheina; Vedsted, Peter; Steele, Robert J C; Melia, Jane W; Moss, Sue M; Patnick, Julietta; Campbell, Christine

    2017-08-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening using a faecal occult blood test (FOBt) has the potential to reduce cancer-related mortality. Symptom vigilance remains crucial as a proportion of cancers will be diagnosed between screening rounds. A negative FOBt has the potential to influence how participants respond to future symptoms of CRC. To explore (i) understanding of a negative FOBt and (ii) the potential impact of a negative FOBt upon future symptom appraisal and help-seeking behaviour. Qualitative methodology utilizing focus groups with participants who received a negative FOBt within the National Bowel Cancer Screening Programme in Coventry and Lothian. Topics explored included: experience of screening participation, interpretation and understanding of a negative result, symptom awareness and attitudes towards help-seeking. Four broad themes were identified: (i) emotional response to a negative FOBt, (ii) understanding the limitations of FOBt screening, (iii) symptom knowledge and interpretation and (iv) over-reassurance from a negative FOBt. Participants were reassured by a negative FOBt, but there was variability in the extent to which the result was interpreted as an "all clear". Some participants acknowledged the residual risk of cancer and the temporal characteristic of the result, while others were surprised that the result was not a guarantee that they did not have cancer. Participants recognized that reassurance from a negative FOBt could lead to a short-term delay in help-seeking if symptoms developed. Screening programmes should seek to emphasize the importance of the temporal nature of FOBt results with key messages about symptom recognition and prompt help-seeking behaviour. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The meaning of collective terrorist threat : Understanding the subjective causes of terrorism reduces its negative psychological impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat.

  12. The meaning of collective terrorist threat : Understanding the subjective causes of terrorism reduces its negative psychological impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat. Co

  13. Relative dissociation fractions of N2O under 15 -30 -keV H-,C- , and O- negative-ion impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dedong; Guo, Guannan; Min, Guangxin; Zhang, Xuemei

    2017-01-01

    The relative dissociation fractions of N2O are studied under 15-30-keV negative ions H-,C- , and O- impact. The recoil ions and ion pairs originating from the target molecule N2O are detected and identified in coincidence with scattered ions in single electron loss (SL) and double electron loss (DL) channels using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The dissociation fractions for the production of the fragment ions are obtained. We find that the relative dissociation fractions in SL are smaller than those in DL, and the degree of fragmentation will become greater with the impact energy increasing. We also analyze the coincident TOF spectra of two fragment ions which are produced from dissociation of N2O2 + and give the possible dissociation pathways of N2O2 + with 15 -30 -keV H-,C- , and O- impact. There are many studies on N2O with positive-ion, photon, and electron impact, and we compare our results under negative-ion impact with those works.

  14. Does the nutrition profile of vitamins, fatty acids and microelements counteract the negative impact from organohalogen pollutants on bone mineral density in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Rigét, Frank F; Beck Jensen, Jens-Erik

    2008-01-01

    ) by DXA scanning (g/cm(-2)) in 15 age and weight normalized sledge dog (Canis familiaris) bitches and their 26 pups divided into a control group (n=26) given 50-200 g/day clean pork (Suis scrofa) fat and a treated group (n=15) given 50-200 g/day OHC polluted minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata...... an impact on BMD using the present time frame and OHC concentrations (threshold levels not reached), or the difference in food composition (mainly vitamins and n3 fatty acids) conceal the potential OHC impact on BMD. Such information is important when evaluating the positive and negative health consequences...

  15. Influence of temperature on the photodegradation process using Ag-doped TiO2nanostructures: Negative impact with the nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barakata, Nasser A.M.; Kanjwal, Muzafar Ahmad; Chronakis, Ioannis S.

    In this study, the influence of the temperature on the photodegradation process using Ag-doped TiO2 nanostructures was investigated. Two morphologies were used; nanoparticles and nanofibers. The nanofibers were synthesized by electrospinning of a sol–gel consisting of titanium isopropoxide, silver......, increasing the temperature has positive impact as the best degradation was obtained at 55 °C. In contrast to the known influence of the temperature on the chemical reactions, in case of the nanofibrous morphology, the temperature has negative impact as the experimental work indicated that the optimum...... the molecules escape from the active thin film surrounding the photocatalyst. Overall, this study shows that the nanofibrous morphology strongly enhances the surface activity of the photocatalyst which generates negative influence of the temperature....

  16. Skeletal metastasis as detected by 18F-FDG PET with negative CT of the PET/CT: Frequency and impact on cancer staging and or management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Ahmed

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of our study is to assess the frequency of detection of PET positive CT negative skeletal metastases (SM and determine the impact of such detection on staging and/or management in patients who had FDG PET/CT as part of the cancer work up.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 2000 18F-FDG PET/CT scans of known cancer patients. A log was kept to record cases of suspected SM with or without bone changes from the low-dose non-contrast CT. The presence or absence of SM was evaluated based on available pathological and clinical data. The impact of detection of such lesions on cancer staging and/or management was evaluated by a board certified oncologist.Results: Of the 2000 cases, 18F-FDG PET/CT suggested SM in 146/2000 (7.3%. Of those 146 cases, 105 (72% were positive on both PET and CT. The remaining 41 (28% had PET positive CT negative bone lesions. SM was confirmed in 36/41 (88% PET positive/CT negative cases. This was based on biopsy, imaging or clinical follow-up. The detection of PET positive CT negative SM did not change staging or management in 7/36 (19.4%. However, staging and/or management was affected in 29/36 (80.6%. Conclusions: SM is not uncommon in 18F-FDG PET/CT, as it accounts for 146/2000 (7.3% of cases. PET demonstrated FDG-avid SM without a CT abnormality in at least 36/146 (25%. Patients staging and or management changed in 29/36 (80.5%. We concluded that 18F-FDG PET is sensitive in detection of SM with significant impact on staging & or management. Key words18F-FDG PET/CT, Skeletal metastasis, PET positive, CT negative

  17. Prognostic impact of clinicopathologic parameters in stage II/III breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant docetaxel and doxorubicin chemotherapy: paradoxical features of the triple negative breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Dong-Wan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prognostic factors in locally advanced breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy differ from those of early breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to identify the clinical significance of potential predictive and prognostic factors in breast cancer patients treated by neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods A total of 145 stage II and III breast cancer patients received neoadjuvant docetaxel/doxorubicin chemotherapy were enrolled in this study. We examined the clinical and biological factors (ER, PR, p53, c-erbB2, bcl-2, and Ki-67 by immunohistochemistry. We analyzed clinical outcome and their correlation with clinicopathologic parameters. Results Among the clinicopathologic parameters investigated, none of the marker was correlated with response rate (RR except triple negative phenotype. Patients with triple negative phenotype showed higher RR (83.0% in triple negative vs. 62.2% in non-triple negative, p = 0.012 and pathologic complete RR (17.0% in triple negative vs. 3.1% in non-triple negative, p = 0.005. However, relapse free survival (RFS and overall survival (OS were significantly shorter in triple negative breast cancer patients (p p = 0.021, respectively. Low histologic grade, positive hormone receptors, positive bcl-2 and low level of Ki-67 were associated with prolonged RFS. In addition, positive ER and positive bcl-2 were associated with prolonged OS. In our homogeneous patient population, initial clinical stage reflects RFS and OS more precisely than pathologic stage. In multivariate analysis, initial clinical stage was the only significant independent prognostic factor to impact on OS (hazard ratio 3.597, p = 0.044. Conclusion Several molecular markers provided useful predictive and prognostic information in stage II and III breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant docetaxel/doxorubicin chemotherapy. Triple negative phenotype was associated with shorter survival, even though it was associated

  18. 母语负迁移对英语教学的影响及应对策略%Impact of Negative Transfer to English Teaching and Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭妍

    2014-01-01

    Negative transfer exists in students' English learning process, and has played a negative impact to some extent. In this paper, pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, three levels of analysis of the causes and forms of negative migration, and ultimately come to effective coping strategies.%母语负迁移时刻存在于学生英语学习过程中,并且一定程度上起到消极的影响。本文针对语音、词汇、语法三个层面分析了母语负迁移的成因和形式,并最终得出行之有效的应对策略。

  19. Canine Comfort: Pet Affinity Buffers the Negative Impact of Ambivalence over Emotional Expression on Perceived Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Jennifer L; Quist, Michelle C; Young, Chelsie M; Steers, Mai-Ly N; Foster, Dawn W; Lu, Qian

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated pet affinity as a buffer between ambivalence over emotional expression (AEE) and social support. AEE occurs when one desires to express emotions but is reluctant to do so and is related to negative psychological outcomes. Individuals high in AEE may have difficulty receiving social support and thus may not gain accompanying benefits. Social support has been associated with positive health outcomes, and pet support is positively associated with human social support. The present study explores the potential protective effect of pet affinity. One hundred ninety-eight undergraduate dog owners completed measures assessing perceived social support, pet affinity, and AEE. AEE was expected to be negatively associated with social support, and pet affinity was expected to buffer the negative effects of AEE on social support. We found that AEE was negatively associated with perceived social support. An interaction between pet affinity and AEE emerged such that the negative association between AEE and social support was weaker among those higher in pet affinity. Thus, at high levels of AEE, those who felt a close connection with their pets reported more perceived social support than those less connected with their pets. Overall, these findings emphasize the potential benefits of pet affinity.

  20. The impact of thin idealized media images on body satisfaction: does body appreciation protect women from negative effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, Emma

    2013-09-01

    This article examines whether positive body image can protect women from negative media exposure effects. University women (N=112) were randomly allocated to view advertisements featuring ultra-thin models or control images. Women who reported high levels of body appreciation did not report negative media exposure effects. Furthermore, the protective role of body appreciation was also evident among women known to be vulnerable to media exposure. Women high on thin-ideal internalization and low on body appreciation reported appearance-discrepancies that were more salient and larger when they viewed models compared to the control group. However, women high on thin-ideal internalization and also high on body appreciation rated appearance-discrepancies as less important and no difference in size than the control group. The results support the notion that positive body image protects women from negative environmental appearance messages and suggests that promoting positive body image may be an effective intervention strategy.

  1. Reactions to perceived fairness: The impact of mortality salience and self-esteem on ratings of negative affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, K. van den

    2001-01-01

    In correspondence with terror management theory, the findings of two experiments show that reminders of death lead to stronger effects of perceived fairness on ratings of negative affect. Furthermore, in line with the theory''s self-esteem mechanism, results of Experiment 1 suggest that state

  2. Does seeding after severe forest fires in western USA mitigate negative impacts on soils and plant communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Peppin; P. Fule; J. Beyers; C. Sieg; M. Hunter

    2011-01-01

    Broadcast seeding is one of the most widely used post-wildfire emergency response treatments intended to reduce soil erosion, increase vegetative ground cover, and minimize establishment and spread of non-native plant species. However, seeding treatments can also have negative effects such as competition with recovering native plant communities and inadvertent...

  3. The Meaning of Collective Terrorist Threat: Understanding the Subjective Causes of Terrorism Reduces Its Negative Psychological Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat. Concretely, the authors investigated the effect of…

  4. Reactions to perceived fairness: The impact of mortality salience and self-esteem on ratings of negative affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, K. van den

    2001-01-01

    In correspondence with terror management theory, the findings of two experiments show that reminders of death lead to stronger effects of perceived fairness on ratings of negative affect. Furthermore, in line with the theory''s self-esteem mechanism, results of Experiment 1 suggest that state self-e

  5. Glucagon-like peptide 2 therapy reduces the negative impacts the proinflammatory response in the gut of calves with coccidiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damage to the intestinal epithelium reduces nutrient absorption and animal growth, and can have negative long-term health effects on livestock. The intestinotropic hormone glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) contributes to gut integrity, reduces inflammation, and improves nutrient absorption. The presen...

  6. Creativity as an Attribute of Positive Psychology: The Impact of Positive and Negative Affect on the Creative Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charyton, Christine; Hutchison, Shannon; Snow, Lindsay; Rahman, Mohammed A.; Elliott, John O.

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology explores how optimism can lead to health, happiness, and creativity. However, questions remain as to how affective states influence creativity. Data on creative personality, optimism, pessimism, positive and negative affect, and current and usual happiness ratings were collected on 161 college students enrolled in an…

  7. Pressure-volume curves: revisiting the impact of negative turgor during cell collapse by literature review and simulations of cell micromechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yiting; Zhang, Yanxiang; Zheng, Quan-Shui; Tyree, Melvin T

    2014-07-01

    The Scholander-Hammel pressure chamber has been used in thousands of papers to measure osmotic pressure, πc , turgor pressure, Pt , and bulk modulus of elasticity, ε, of leaf cells by pressure-volume (PV) curve analysis. PV analysis has been questioned in the past. In this paper we use micromechanical analysis of leaf cells to examine the impact on PV curve analysis of negative turgor in living cells (Pt ). Models predict negative Pt (-0.1 to -1.8 MPa) depending on leaf cell size and shape in agreement with experimental values reported by J. J. Oertli. Modeled PV curves have linear regions even when Pt is quite negative, contrary to the arguments of M.T. Tyree. Negative Pt is totally missed by PV curve analysis and results in large errors in derived πc and Pt but smaller errors in ε. A survey of leaf cell sizes vs habitat (arid, temperate, and rainforest), suggests that the majority of published PV curves result in errors of 0.1-1.8 MPa in derived πc and Pt , whereby the error increases with decreasing cell size. We propose that small cell size in leaves is an ecological adaptation that permits plants to endure negative values of water potential with relatively little water loss. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Microevolution of S-allele frequencies in wild cherry populations: respective impacts of negative frequency dependent selection and genetic drift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckel, Solenn; Klein, Etienne K; Oddou-Muratorio, Sylvie; Musch, Brigitte; Mariette, Stéphanie

    2012-02-01

    Negative frequency dependent selection (NFDS) is supposed to be the main force controlling allele evolution at the gametophytic self-incompatibility locus (S-locus) in strictly outcrossing species. Genetic drift also influences S-allele evolution. In perennial sessile organisms, evolution of allelic frequencies over two generations is mainly shaped by individual fecundities and spatial processes. Using wild cherry populations between two successive generations, we tested whether S-alleles evolved following NFDS qualitative and quantitative predictions. We showed that allelic variation was negatively correlated with parental allelic frequency as expected under NFDS. However, NFDS predictions in finite population failed to predict more than half S-allele quantitative evolution. We developed a spatially explicit mating model that included the S-locus. We studied the effects of self-incompatibility and local drift within populations due to pollen dispersal in spatially distributed individuals, and variation in male fecundity on male mating success and allelic frequency evolution. Male mating success was negatively related to male allelic frequency as expected under NFDS. Spatial genetic structure combined with self-incompatibility resulted in higher effective pollen dispersal. Limited pollen dispersal in structured distributions of individuals and genotypes and unequal pollen production significantly contributed to S-allele frequency evolution by creating local drift effects strong enough to counteract the NFDS effect on some alleles.

  9. The warmer the weather, the more gram-negative bacteria - impact of temperature on clinical isolates in intensive care units.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Schwab

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We investigated the relationship between average monthly temperature and the most common clinical pathogens causing infections in intensive care patients. METHODS: A prospective unit-based study in 73 German intensive care units located in 41 different hospitals and 31 different cities with total 188,949 pathogen isolates (102,377 Gram-positives and 86,572 Gram-negatives from 2001 to 2012. We estimated the relationship between the number of clinical pathogens per month and the average temperature in the month of isolation and in the month prior to isolation while adjusting for confounders and long-term trends using time series analysis. Adjusted incidence rate ratios for temperature parameters were estimated based on generalized estimating equation models which account for clustering effects. RESULTS: The incidence density of Gram-negative pathogens was 15% (IRR 1.15, 95%CI 1.10-1.21 higher at temperatures ≥ 20°C than at temperatures below 5°C. E. cloacae occurred 43% (IRR=1.43; 95%CI 1.31-1.56 more frequently at high temperatures, A. baumannii 37% (IRR=1.37; 95%CI 1.11-1.69, S. maltophilia 32% (IRR=1.32; 95%CI 1.12-1.57, K. pneumoniae 26% (IRR=1.26; 95%CI 1.13-1.39, Citrobacter spp. 19% (IRR=1.19; 95%CI 0.99-1.44 and coagulase-negative staphylococci 13% (IRR=1.13; 95%CI 1.04-1.22. By contrast, S. pneumoniae 35% (IRR=0.65; 95%CI 0.50-0.84 less frequently isolated at high temperatures. For each 5°C increase, we observed a 3% (IRR=1.03; 95%CI 1.02-1.04 increase of Gram-negative pathogens. This increase was highest for A. baumannii with 8% (IRR=1.08; 95%CI 1.05-1.12 followed by K. pneumoniae, Citrobacter spp. and E. cloacae with 7%. CONCLUSION: Clinical pathogens vary by incidence density with temperature. Significant higher incidence densities of Gram-negative pathogens were observed during summer whereas S. pneumoniae peaked in winter. There is increasing evidence that different seasonality due to physiologic changes underlies

  10. Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Has a Negative Impact on Quality of Life Compared with Other Comorbidities: An Epidemiological Cross-Sectional Study of 1862 Community-Dwelling Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Otani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS is common in the elderly. However, there have been few reports on its impact on quality of life (QoL in community-dwelling individuals. The purpose of this study was to clarify how symptomatic LSS affects QoL at the community level. A total of 1862 people (697 males and 1165 females, most subjects were between 40 and 85 y.o. agreed to participate and were interviewed. The presence of symptomatic LSS was assessed by a specially designed questionnaire. The Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 was also administered. In addition, the presence of comorbid conditions that affect QoL, such as osteoarthritis of the knee and hip, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, or respiratory disease, was also analyzed. The prevalence of symptomatic LSS gradually increased with age. Furthermore, the presence of symptomatic LSS had a strong negative effect on all 8 physical and mental domains and the physical component summary (PCS (OR: 1.547–2.544 but not the mental component summary (MCS. In comparison with comorbid conditions, LSS had a much stronger negative impact on health-related QoL (HR-QoL. The current study confirmed that the presence of symptomatic LSS might have a strong negative influence on HR-QoL in the community setting.

  11. Multimorbidity in older women: the negative impact of specific combinations of chronic conditions on self-rated health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, H.M.M.; Bor, H.H.; Rangelrooij-Minkels, M.J.A.; Schellevis, F.G.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Chronic diseases are considered major threats to self-rated health (SRH). In many elderly people multimorbidity is present, in elderly women more than in elderly men. This study aims at establishing the impact of multimorbidity and specific disease combinations on SRH in elderly women. O

  12. Do Digital Systems and Concept in Modern Public Service Production Have a Negative Impact on Citizens as End-Users?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, John Storm; Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2016-01-01

    production. Second, we claim that digital systems and concepts develop a new institutional logic within modern public service production: the ‘digital logic’. Third, we analyze and discuss the new logic´s possible impact on citizens as end-users. Fourth, we discuss the ethical dimensions of values and ethics...

  13. Focusing on Teacher-Student Interactions Eliminates the Negative Impact of Students' Disruptive Behavior on Teacher Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafen, Christopher A.; Ruzek, Erik A.; Gregory, Anne; Allen, Joseph P.; Mikami, Amori Yee

    2015-01-01

    This study tests the impact of a randomly assigned professional development coaching intervention (MyTeachingPartner-Secondary; MTP-S) on teacher projections of their students' educational attainment. Results indicate that students who report more behavior problems in the Fall of the academic year are projected by teachers to have lower future…

  14. Impact of Oncotype DX on treatment decisions in ER-positive, node-negative breast cancer with histologic correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biroschak, Julianne R; Schwartz, Gordon F; Palazzo, Juan P; Toll, Adam D; Brill, Kristin L; Jaslow, Rebecca J; Lee, Sun Yong

    2013-01-01

    Oncotype DX, a gene-expression profiling assay, provides stratification of patients with estrogen-receptor positive, lymph-node-negative early breast cancer into risk groups based on recurrence score, which are associated with distant recurrence and response to chemotherapy. This study aims to determine whether Oncotype DX influences clinicians' treatment decisions, and whether assay results correlate with histologic assessment. Fifty patients with estrogen-receptor positive, node-negative early breast cancer analyzed by Oncotype DX and operated on by two breast surgeons were included. To assess effect on treatment decisions, clinical vignettes were created by retrospective chart review. Physicians were then presented with the clinical vignettes and instructed to make a treatment decisions (i.e., hormone therapy alone versus hormone therapy combined with chemotherapy) both before and after knowledge of the recurrence score. To assess correlation with histologic assessment, a prospective, blinded review of tumor slides was performed by two pathologists. Based on this review, tumors were placed into low, intermediate and high risk groups for comparison with Oncotype DX assay results. Treatment decisions were changed based on Oncotype DX results in 36 and 18% of cases by breast surgeons and medical oncologists, respectively. All tumors categorized as high risk by Oncotype DX were categorized as high risk based on histologic assessment, and 96% of cases categorized as low risk by recurrence score were categorized as low or intermediate risk by histologic assessment. Oncotype DX significantly influences management of estrogen-receptor positive, lymph-node-negative early breast cancer. Further studies are needed to assess association of histologic categorization to assay results. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Negative impacts of a vertebrate predator on insect pollinator visitation and seed output in Chuquiraga oppositifolia, a high Andean shrub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Alejandro A; Arroyo, Mary T K

    2004-01-01

    Studies on plant-pollinator interactions have largely neglected the potential negative effects of the predators of pollinators on seed output, even though anti-predatory behaviour of pollinators may affect visitation patterns, pollen transfer, and therefore potentially, plant reproductive output. We tested the hypothesis that the presence of lizards and insectivorous birds, by reducing pollinator visitation, can have significant negative effects on seed output in the insect-pollinated, genetically self-incompatible lower alpine Andean shrub, Chuquiraga oppositifolia (Asteraceae). The lower alpine belt supports a high density of territorial Liolaemus (Tropiduridae) lizards and low shrubs interspersed among rocks of varying sizes, the latter inhabited by lizards and commonly used by flycatchers Muscisaxicola (Tyrannidae) as perching sites. In a 2x2 factorial predator-exclusion experiment, visitation rates of the most frequent pollinators of C. oppositifolia (the satyrid butterfly Cosmosatyrus chilensis and the syrphid fly Scaeva melanostoma), the duration of pollinator visits, and seed output, were 2-4 times greater when lizards were excluded, while birds had no effect. In a natural experiment, visits by S. melanostoma were 9 times shorter, and pollinator visitation rates of C. chilensis and S. melanostoma, and C. oppositifolia seed output were 2-3 times lower on shrubs growing adjacent to lizard-occupied rocks compared to those growing distant from rocks. Our results, verified for additional Andean sites, suggest that lizard predators can alter the behaviour of pollinators and elicit strong top-down indirect negative effects on seed output. Such effects may be especially important in high alpine plant communities, where pollinator activity can be low and erratic, and pollen limitation has been reported.

  16. Pairing images of unhealthy and healthy foods with images of negative and positive health consequences: Impact on attitudes and food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollands, Gareth J; Marteau, Theresa M

    2016-08-01

    To examine the impact of presenting images of foods paired with images of positive and negative health consequences of their consumption on food choice and attitudes. Participants (N = 711) were randomly allocated in a 2 × 3 factorial design (Food Type × Affective Valence) to 1 of 6 conditioning procedures that paired images of either energy-dense snack foods or fruit, with (a) images of negative health outcomes, (b) images of positive health outcomes, or (c) a no image control. The primary outcome was food choice assessed postintervention with a behavioral choice task. Secondary outcomes were implicit attitudes (assessed pre- and postintervention) and explicit attitudes (assessed postintervention). Presenting images of negative health outcomes led to more healthy food choices relative to control and positive image conditions, irrespective of whether they were paired with images of energy-dense snack foods or fruit. This relationship was partially mediated by changes in implicit and explicit attitudes. Images of positive health outcomes did not alter food choices. This study replicates and extends previous research showing that presenting images of negative health consequences increases healthy food choices. Because effects were elicited by manipulating affective valence irrespective of paired food type, these results appear more consistent with an explanation based on priming than on evaluative conditioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Impact on regional recurrence and survival of axillary surgery in women with node-negative primary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, C K; Düring, M; Christiansen, P M;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study examined whether axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) with removal of many normal lymph nodes resulted in a reduced rate of axillary recurrence and better survival, as reported in recent studies. METHODS: The follow-up analyses were based on 8657 patients with node-negative...... primary breast cancer treated solely by surgery. Median follow-up was 9 years. RESULTS: The number of lymph nodes removed correlated with a reduction in the rate of subsequent axillary recurrence (from 2.1 to 0.4 per cent; P = 0.037), local recurrence (from 7.4 to 3.8 per cent; P

  18. Countermeasures to Mitigate the Negative Impact of Sensory Deprivation and Social Isolation in Long-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Katharine Ridgeway OBrien; Otto, Christian; Leveton, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Long-duration space flight presents several challenges to the behavioral health of crew members. The environment that they are likely to experience will be isolated, confined, and extreme (ICE) and, as such, crew members will experience extreme sensory deprivation and social isolation. The current paper briefly notes the behavioral, cognitive, and affective consequences of psychological stress induced by ICE environments and proposes nine countermeasures aimed at mitigating the negative effects of sensory deprivation and social isolation. Implementation of countermeasures aims to maintain successful crew performance and psychological well-being in a long-duration space flight mission.

  19. The human being's spiritual experiences in a mental healthcare context; their positive and negative meaning and impact on health--a hermeneutic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koslander, Tiburtius; Lindström, Unni Å; Barbosa da Silva, António

    2013-09-01

    The study aims at describing different meanings of patients' spiritual experiences and their impact on patients' health in mental healthcare. The different contents of patients' spiritual experiences are often understood by caregivers as the expressions of patients' religious speculation. The study has a hermeneutic approach, inspired by Gadamer. Its theoretical pre-understanding is Caring Science perspective, according to which the human being is a unity of body, psyche and spirit. The sources are 32 stories selected from William James' book (1956) The Varieties of Religious Experience. They are hermeneutically interpreted and discussed in the light of international research on patients' spirituality to gain a deeper understanding. The results are three main themes: (i) the positive meanings of spirituality, (ii) the negative meanings of spirituality and (iii) the both negative and positive meaning of spirituality. Therefore, it is a very important task for mental caregivers to address patients' spiritual dimension to help them adequately.

  20. Postoperative Increase in Occiput–C2 Angle Negatively Impacts Subaxial Lordosis after Occipito–Upper Cervical Posterior Fusion Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Inada, Taigo; Furuya, Takeo; Kamiya, Koshiro; Ota, Mitsutoshi; MAKI, Satoshi; Suzuki, Takane; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Yamazaki, Masashi; Aramomi, Masaaki; Mannoji, Chikato; Koda, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective case series. Purpose To elucidate the impact of postoperative occiput–C2 (O–C2) angle change on subaxial cervical alignment. Overview of Literature In the case of occipito–upper cervical fixation surgery, it is recommended that the O–C2 angle should be set larger than the preoperative value postoperatively. Methods The present study included 17 patients who underwent occipito–upper cervical spine (above C4) posterior fixation surgery for atlantoaxial subluxation of ...

  1. Negative impacts of ultraviolet-A radiation on antioxidant and oxidative stress biomarkers of African catfish Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed Th A

    2015-07-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the ultraviolet-A (UVA) effects on biochemical, oxidative stress and antioxidant changes using aquatic species. The destructive effects of ultraviolet-A radiation on the African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus was revealed in terms of the carbonyl protein (CP), lipid peroxidation (LPO), DNA damage, super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), glutathione reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutathione (GSH) and total antioxidant (TAO) in the gills, kidney, liver, muscles and skin. Also, glucose, total lipid, total protein and cortisol content of fish serums was detected. These parameters can be used as biomarkers to identify the negative effects of UVA radiation (20, 60 and 180 min per day) for 3 days in different tissues of Clarias gariepinus. There was a significant decrease in the activity of SOD, CAT, Gpx, GSH, G6PDH, LDH, and TAO in all of the examined tissues. The pattern of GR activity in UVA exposed groups showed no significant differences compared with the control group. However, CP, LPO and DNA damage were increased significantly with exposure periods in all of the examined tissues. The exposure to different doses of UVA caused hypoglycaemia, hypolipidimia and hypoproteinimia. Cortisol levels showed a significant increase after UV exposure when compared with the control group. In conclusion, UVA exposure with different time periods has been shown to have negative effects on the blood biochemistry, hormonal and antioxidant capacity of Clarias gariepinus tissues.

  2. Does the nutrition profile of vitamins, fatty acids and microelements counteract the negative impact from organohalogen pollutants on bone mineral density in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Riget, Frank F.; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck

    2008-01-01

    ) by DXA scanning (g/cm(-2)) in 15 age and weight normalized sledge dog (Canis familiaris) bitches and their 26 pups divided into a control group (n = 26) given 50-200 g/day clean pork (Suis scrofa) fat and a treated group (n = 15) given 50-200 g/day OHC polluted minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata...... using the present time frame and OHC concentrations (threshold levels not reached), or the difference in food composition (mainly vitamins and n3 fatty acids) conceal the potential OHC impact on BMD. Such information is important when evaluating the positive and negative health consequences from eating...

  3. Smoking has a negative impact upon health related quality of life after treatment for head and neck cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kenneth; Jensen, Anders Bonde; Grau, Cai

    2006-01-01

    To examine the influence of smoking on observer based morbidity scores and patient assessed health related quality of life after treatment for head and neck cancer. The results of EORTC C30 and H&N35 questionnaires and DAHANCA morbidity scores were studied according to smoking status in 114...... recurrence free head and neck cancer patients. In contrast to observer based toxicity scoring, smoking had a significantly negative influence on 20 of the 33 quality of life scales. Previous smokers had quality of life scores in between never smokers and continuous smokers. Smoking after treatment of head...... and neck cancer adversely influenced a wide range of quality of life endpoints. Quitters had better quality of life than patients who continued to smoke after treatment, suggesting that smoking cessation may improve quality of life in addition to reducing the risk of new cancer. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Feb...

  4. Positive or negative? The impact of X-ray feedback on the formation of direct collapse black hole seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, John A.; Johansson, Peter H.; Wise, John H.

    2016-09-01

    A nearby source of Lyman-Werner (LW) photons is thought to be a central component in dissociating H2 and allowing for the formation of a direct collapse black hole seed. Nearby sources are also expected to produce copious amounts of hydrogen ionizing photons and X-ray photons. We study here the feedback effects of the X-ray photons by including a spectrum due to high-mass X-ray binaries on top of a galaxy with a stellar spectrum. We explicitly trace photon packages emerging from the nearby source and track the radiative and chemical effects of the multifrequency source (Ephoton = 0.76 eV → 7500 eV). We find that X-rays have a strongly negative feedback effect, compared to a stellar only source, when the radiative source is placed at a separation greater than ≳ 1 kpc. The X-rays heat the low and medium density gas in the envelope surrounding the collapsing halo suppressing the mass inflow. The result is a smaller enclosed mass compared to the stellar only case. However, for separations of ≲ 1 kpc, the feedback effects of the X-rays becomes somewhat neutral. The enhanced LW intensity at close separations dissociates more H2 and this gas is heated due to stellar photons alone, the addition of X-rays is then not significant. This distance dependence of X-ray feedback suggests that a Goldilocks zone exists close to a forming galaxy where X-ray photons have a much smaller negative feedback effect and ideal conditions exist for creating massive black hole seeds.

  5. Does Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Negatively Impact Long-Term Survival and Freedom from Reintervention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahzad G. Raja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently published evidence has raised concerns about worse late mortality and increasing need for reintervention after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. We undertook this study to assess the impact of off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting on survival and freedom from reintervention at 10 years. From January 2002 to December 2002, 307 consecutive patients who had isolated multivessel off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting at our institution were compared to a control group of 397 patients that underwent multivessel on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting during the same period. In addition, univariate and risk-adjusted comparisons between the two groups were performed at 10 years. Kaplan-Meier survival was similar for the two cohorts. After adjusting for clinical covariates, off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting did not emerge as a significant independent predictor of long-term mortality (Hazard Ratio 0.91; 95% Confidence Interval 0.70–1.12, readmission to hospital for cardiac cause (Hazard Ratio 0.96; 95% Confidence Interval 0.78–1.10, or the need for reintervention (Hazard Ratio 0.93; 95% Confidence Interval 0.87–1.05. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting compared with on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting does not adversely impact survival or freedom from reintervention at a 10-year follow-up.

  6. Accumulation of Peptidoglycan O-Acetylation Leads to Altered Cell Wall Biochemistry and Negatively Impacts Pathogenesis Factors of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Reuben; Frirdich, Emilisa; Sychantha, David; Biboy, Jacob; Taveirne, Michael E; Johnson, Jeremiah G; DiRita, Victor J; Vollmer, Waldemar; Clarke, Anthony J; Gaynor, Erin C

    2016-10-21

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the developed world. Despite its prevalence, its mechanisms of pathogenesis are poorly understood. Peptidoglycan (PG) is important for helical shape, colonization, and host-pathogen interactions in C. jejuni Therefore, changes in PG greatly impact the physiology of this organism. O-acetylation of peptidoglycan (OAP) is a bacterial phenomenon proposed to be important for proper cell growth, characterized by acetylation of the C6 hydroxyl group of N-acetylmuramic acid in the PG glycan backbone. The OAP gene cluster consists of a PG O-acetyltransferase A (patA) for translocation of acetate into the periplasm, a PG O-acetyltransferase B (patB) for O-acetylation, and an O-acetylpeptidoglycan esterase (ape1) for de-O-acetylation. In this study, reduced OAP in ΔpatA and ΔpatB had minimal impact on C. jejuni growth and fitness under the conditions tested. However, accumulation of OAP in Δape1 resulted in marked differences in PG biochemistry, including O-acetylation, anhydromuropeptide levels, and changes not expected to result directly from Ape1 activity. This suggests that OAP may be a form of substrate level regulation in PG biosynthesis. Ape1 acetylesterase activity was confirmed in vitro using p-nitrophenyl acetate and O-acetylated PG as substrates. In addition, Δape1 exhibited defects in pathogenesis-associated phenotypes, including cell shape, motility, biofilm formation, cell surface hydrophobicity, and sodium deoxycholate sensitivity. Δape1 was also impaired for chick colonization and adhesion, invasion, intracellular survival, and induction of IL-8 production in INT407 cells in vitro The importance of Ape1 in C. jejuni biology makes it a good candidate as an antimicrobial target. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Negative impacts of high temperatures on growth of black spruce forests intensify with the anticipated climate warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardin, Martin P; Hogg, Edward H; Bernier, Pierre Y; Kurz, Werner A; Guo, Xiao Jing; Cyr, Guillaume

    2016-02-01

    An increasing number of studies conclude that water limitations and heat stress may hinder the capacity of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) trees, a dominant species of Canada's boreal forests, to grow and assimilate atmospheric carbon. However, there is currently no scientific consensus on the future of these forests over the next century in the context of widespread climate warming. The large spatial extent of black spruce forests across the Canadian boreal forest and associated variability in climate, demography, and site conditions pose challenges for projecting future climate change responses. Here we provide an evaluation of the impacts of climate warming and drying, as well as increasing [CO2 ], on the aboveground productivity of black spruce forests across Canada south of 60°N for the period 1971 to 2100. We use a new extensive network of tree-ring data obtained from Canada's National Forest Inventory, spatially explicit simulations of net primary productivity (NPP) and its drivers, and multivariate statistical modeling. We found that soil water availability is a significant driver of black spruce interannual variability in productivity across broad areas of the western to eastern Canadian boreal forest. Interannual variability in productivity was also found to be driven by autotrophic respiration in the warmest regions. In most regions, the impacts of soil water availability and respiration on interannual variability in productivity occurred during the phase of carbohydrate accumulation the year preceding tree-ring formation. Results from projections suggest an increase in the importance of soil water availability and respiration as limiting factors on NPP over the next century due to warming, but this response may vary to the extent that other factors such as carbon dioxide fertilization, and respiration acclimation to high temperature, contribute to dampening these limitations.

  8. Accumulation of Peptidoglycan O-Acetylation Leads to Altered Cell Wall Biochemistry and Negatively Impacts Pathogenesis Factors of Campylobacter jejuni*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Reuben; Frirdich, Emilisa; Sychantha, David; Biboy, Jacob; Taveirne, Michael E.; Johnson, Jeremiah G.; DiRita, Victor J.; Vollmer, Waldemar; Clarke, Anthony J.; Gaynor, Erin C.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the developed world. Despite its prevalence, its mechanisms of pathogenesis are poorly understood. Peptidoglycan (PG) is important for helical shape, colonization, and host-pathogen interactions in C. jejuni. Therefore, changes in PG greatly impact the physiology of this organism. O-acetylation of peptidoglycan (OAP) is a bacterial phenomenon proposed to be important for proper cell growth, characterized by acetylation of the C6 hydroxyl group of N-acetylmuramic acid in the PG glycan backbone. The OAP gene cluster consists of a PG O-acetyltransferase A (patA) for translocation of acetate into the periplasm, a PG O-acetyltransferase B (patB) for O-acetylation, and an O-acetylpeptidoglycan esterase (ape1) for de-O-acetylation. In this study, reduced OAP in ΔpatA and ΔpatB had minimal impact on C. jejuni growth and fitness under the conditions tested. However, accumulation of OAP in Δape1 resulted in marked differences in PG biochemistry, including O-acetylation, anhydromuropeptide levels, and changes not expected to result directly from Ape1 activity. This suggests that OAP may be a form of substrate level regulation in PG biosynthesis. Ape1 acetylesterase activity was confirmed in vitro using p-nitrophenyl acetate and O-acetylated PG as substrates. In addition, Δape1 exhibited defects in pathogenesis-associated phenotypes, including cell shape, motility, biofilm formation, cell surface hydrophobicity, and sodium deoxycholate sensitivity. Δape1 was also impaired for chick colonization and adhesion, invasion, intracellular survival, and induction of IL-8 production in INT407 cells in vitro. The importance of Ape1 in C. jejuni biology makes it a good candidate as an antimicrobial target. PMID:27474744

  9. Negative impacts of high temperatures on growth of black spruce forests intensify with the anticipated climate warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardin, M. P.; Hogg, T.; Kurz, W.; Bernier, P. Y.; Guo, X. J.; Cyr, G.

    2015-12-01

    An increasing number of studies conclude that water limitations and heat stress may hinder the capacity of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) trees, a dominant species of Canada's boreal forests, to grow and assimilate atmospheric carbon. However, there is currently no scientific consensus on the future of these forests over the next century in the context of widespread climate warming. The large spatial extent of black spruce forests across the Canadian boreal forest and associated variability in climate, demography and site conditions pose challenges for projecting future climate change responses. Here we provide an evaluation of the impacts of climate warming and drying, as well as increasing [CO2], on the aboveground productivity of black spruce forests across Canada south of 60ºN for the period 1971 to 2100. We use a new extensive network of tree-ring data obtained from Canada's National Forest Inventory, spatially-explicit simulations of Net Primary Productivity (NPP) and its drivers, and multivariate statistical modelling. We found that soil water availability is a significant driver of black spruce inter-annual variability in productivity across broad areas of the western to eastern Canadian boreal forest. Inter-annual variability in productivity was also found to be driven by autotrophic respiration in the warmest regions. In most regions, the impacts of soil water availability and respiration on inter-annual variability in productivity occurred during the phase of carbohydrate accumulation the year preceding tree ring formation. Results from projections suggest an increase in the importance of soil water availability and respiration as limiting factors on NPP over the next century due to warming, but this response may vary to the extent that other factors such as carbon dioxide fertilization, and respiration acclimation to high temperature, contribute to dampening these limitations.

  10. Impact of metallophilicity on "colossal" positive and negative thermal expansion in a series of isostructural dicyanometallate coordination polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korcok, Jasmine L; Katz, Michael J; Leznoff, Daniel B

    2009-04-08

    Five isostructural dicyanometallate coordination polymers containing metallophilic interactions (In[M(CN)(2)](3) (M = Ag, Au), KCd[M(CN)(2)](3), and KNi[Au(CN)(2)](3)) were synthesized and investigated by variable-temperature powder X-ray diffraction to probe their thermal expansion properties. The compounds have a trigonal unit cell and show positive thermal expansion (PTE) in the ab plane, where Kagome sheets of M atoms reside, and negative thermal expansion (NTE) along the trigonal c axis, perpendicular to these sheets. The magnitude of thermal expansion is unusually large in all cases (40 x 10(-6) K(-1) thermal expansion of the series (alpha(a) = 105(2) x 10(-6) K(-1), alpha(c) = -84(2) x 10(-6) K(-1) at 295 K), while systems containing stronger Au-Au interactions show relatively reduced thermal expansion. Thus, it appears that strong metallophilic interactions hinder colossal thermal expansion behavior. Additionally, the presence of K(+) counterions also reduces the magnitude of thermal expansion.

  11. Developmental dissociation of visual dorsal stream parvo and magnocellular representations and the functional impact of negative retinotopic BOLD responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Isabel Catarina; Cunha, Gil; Castelhano, João; Sales, Francisco; Reis, Aldina; Cunha, João Paulo Silva; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2013-10-01

    Localized neurodevelopmental defects provide an opportunity to study structure-function correlations in the human nervous system. This unique multimodal case report of epileptogenic dysplasia in the visual cortex allowed exploring visual function across distinct pathways in retinotopic regions and the dorsal stream, in relation to fMRI retinotopic mapping and spike triggered BOLD responses. Pre-surgical EEG/video monitoring, MRI/DTI, EEG/fMRI, PET and SPECT were performed to characterize structure/function correlations in this patient with a very early lesion onset. In addition, we included psychophysical methods (assessing parvo/konio and magnocellular pathways) and retinotopic mapping. We could identify dorsal stream impairment (with extended contrast sensitivity deficits within the input magno system contrasting with more confined parvocellular deficits) with disrupted active visual field input representations in regions neighboring the lesion. Simultaneous EEG/fMRI identified perilesional and retinotopic bilaterally symmetric BOLD deactivation triggered by interictal spikes, which matched the contralateral spread of magnocellular dysfunction revealed in the psychophysical tests. Topographic changes in retinotopic organization further suggested long term functional effects of abnormal electrical discharges during brain development. We conclude that fMRI based visual field cortical mapping shows evidence for retinotopic dissociation between magno and parvocellular function well beyond striate cortex, identifiable in high level dorsal visual representations around visual area V3A which is consistent with the effects of epileptic spike triggered negative BOLD.

  12. Auditory scene analysis and sonified visual images. Does consonance negatively impact on object formation when using complex sonified stimuli?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David J; Simpson, Andrew J R; Proulx, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    A critical task for the brain is the sensory representation and identification of perceptual objects in the world. When the visual sense is impaired, hearing and touch must take primary roles and in recent times compensatory techniques have been developed that employ the tactile or auditory system as a substitute for the visual system. Visual-to-auditory sonifications provide a complex, feature-based auditory representation that must be decoded and integrated into an object-based representation by the listener. However, we don't yet know what role the auditory system plays in the object integration stage and whether the principles of auditory scene analysis apply. Here we used coarse sonified images in a two-tone discrimination task to test whether auditory feature-based representations of visual objects would be confounded when their features conflicted with the principles of auditory consonance. We found that listeners (N = 36) performed worse in an object recognition task when the auditory feature-based representation was harmonically consonant. We also found that this conflict was not negated with the provision of congruent audio-visual information. The findings suggest that early auditory processes of harmonic grouping dominate the object formation process and that the complexity of the signal, and additional sensory information have limited effect on this.

  13. Psychosocial Burdens Negatively Impact HIV Antiretroviral Adherence in Gay, Bisexual, and other MSM Ages 50 and Older

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkitis, Perry N.; Perez-Figueroa, Rafael Eduardo; Carreiro, Timothy; Kingdon, Molly J.; Kupprat, Sandra A.; Eddy, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    We sought to characterize HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and psychosocial correlates of adherence in a sample of gay, bisexual, and other non-gay or –bisexual identified MSM ages 50 and over. As part of a cross-sectional study we recruited a community-based sample of 199 men and assessed adherence to current ART medications along four domains: 1) missing doses in the past 4 days, 2) taking doses on the specified schedule in the past 4 days, 3) following instructions about how to take the medications (e.g. to take medications with food), and 4) missing doses in the last weekend. A total adherence score was also computed. Bivariable analyses indicated negative associations between depression, sexual compulsivity, and HIV-related stigma with each of the individual adherence variables and the composite adherence score, while an older age was found to be protective. In multivariable analyses, controlling for age and educational attainment, a higher likelihood of missing doses and failing to follow instructions were related to higher levels of HIV-related stigma, while dosing off-schedule was associated with higher levels of sexual compulsivity. These results indicate that psychosocial burdens undermine the adherence behaviors of older HIV-positive sexual minority men. Programming and services to address this compromising health behavior must embrace a holistic approach to health as informed by syndemics theory, while attending to the developmental and age-specific needs of older men. PMID:24865599

  14. Auditory Scene Analysis and sonified visual images. Does consonance negatively impact on object formation when using complex sonified stimuli?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Brown

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A critical task for the brain is the sensory representation and identification of perceptual objects in the world. When the visual sense is impaired, hearing and touch must take primary roles and in recent times compensatory techniques have been developed that employ the tactile or auditory system as a substitute for the visual system. Visual-to-auditory sonifications provide a complex, feature-based auditory representation that must be decoded and integrated into an object-based representation by the listener. However, we don’t yet know what role the auditory system plays in the object integration stage and whether the principles of auditory scene analysis apply. Here we used coarse sonified images in a two-tone discrimination task to test whether auditory feature-based representations of visual objects would be confounded when their features conflicted with the principles of auditory consonance. We found that listeners (N = 36 performed worse in an object recognition task when the auditory feature-based representation was harmonically consonant. We also found that this conflict was not negated with the provision of congruent audio-visual information. The findings suggest that early auditory processes of harmonic grouping dominate the object formation process and that the complexity of the signal, and additional sensory information have limited effect on this.

  15. Double impact: what sibling data can tell us about the long-term negative effects of parental divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfinger, Nicholas H; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Smith, Ken R

    2003-01-01

    Most prior research on the adverse consequences of parental divorce has analyzed only one child per family. As a result, it is not known whether the same divorce affects siblings differently. We address this issue by analyzing paired sibling data from the 1994 General Social Survey (GSS) and 1994 Survey of American Families (SAF). Both seemingly unrelated regressions and random effects models are used to study the effect of family background on offspring's educational attainment and marital stability. Parental divorce adversely affects the educational attainment and the probability of divorce of both children within a sibship; in other words, siblings tend to experience the same divorce the same way. However, family structure of origin only accounts for a trivial portion of the shared variance in offspring's educational attainment and marital stability, so parental divorce is only one of many factors determining how offspring fare. These findings were unchanged when controlling for a number of differences both between and within sibships. Also, the negative effects of parental divorce largely do not vary according to respondent characteristics.

  16. The Performance of Direct Disk Diffusion for Community Acquired Bacteremia due to Gram-Negative Bacilli and Its Impact on Physician Treatment Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Peter; Comerford, Adam; Umali, Jurgienne; Penney, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Background. Direct disk diffusion susceptibility testing provides faster results than standard microtitre susceptibility. The direct result may impact patient outcome in sepsis if it is accurate and if physicians use the information to promptly and appropriately change antibiotic treatment. Objective. To compare the performance of direct disk diffusion with standard susceptibility and to consider physician decisions in response to these early results, for community acquired bacteremia with Gram-negative Bacilli. Methods. Retrospective observational study of all positive blood cultures with Gram-negative Bacilli, collected over one year. Physician antibiotic treatment decisions were assessed by an infectious diseases physician based on information available to the physician at the time of the decision. Results. 89 bottles growing Gram-negative Bacilli were included in the analysis. Direct disk diffusion agreement with standard susceptibility varied widely. In 47 cases (52.8%), the physician should have changed to a narrower spectrum but did not, in 18 cases (20.2%), the physician correctly narrowed from appropriate broad coverage, and in 8 cases (9.0%), the empiric therapy was correct. Discussion. Because inoculum is not standardized, direct susceptibility results do not agree with standard susceptibility results for all drugs. Physicians do not act on direct susceptibility results. Conclusion. Direct susceptibility should be discontinued in clinical microbiology laboratories.

  17. The Performance of Direct Disk Diffusion for Community Acquired Bacteremia due to Gram-Negative Bacilli and Its Impact on Physician Treatment Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Daley

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Direct disk diffusion susceptibility testing provides faster results than standard microtitre susceptibility. The direct result may impact patient outcome in sepsis if it is accurate and if physicians use the information to promptly and appropriately change antibiotic treatment. Objective. To compare the performance of direct disk diffusion with standard susceptibility and to consider physician decisions in response to these early results, for community acquired bacteremia with Gram-negative Bacilli. Methods. Retrospective observational study of all positive blood cultures with Gram-negative Bacilli, collected over one year. Physician antibiotic treatment decisions were assessed by an infectious diseases physician based on information available to the physician at the time of the decision. Results. 89 bottles growing Gram-negative Bacilli were included in the analysis. Direct disk diffusion agreement with standard susceptibility varied widely. In 47 cases (52.8%, the physician should have changed to a narrower spectrum but did not, in 18 cases (20.2%, the physician correctly narrowed from appropriate broad coverage, and in 8 cases (9.0%, the empiric therapy was correct. Discussion. Because inoculum is not standardized, direct susceptibility results do not agree with standard susceptibility results for all drugs. Physicians do not act on direct susceptibility results. Conclusion. Direct susceptibility should be discontinued in clinical microbiology laboratories.

  18. Perceived discrimination amongst young people in socio-economically disadvantaged communities: Parental support and community identity buffer (some) negative impacts of stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Daragh; Jay, Sarah; McNamara, Namh; Stevenson, Clifford; Muldoon, Orla T

    2016-06-01

    There is increasing acceptance that children are not unaware of when they are targets of discrimination. However, discrimination as a consequence of socio-economic disadvantage remains understudied. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of perceived discrimination on well-being, perceptions of safety and school integration amongst children growing up within socio-economically disadvantaged communities in Limerick, Ireland. Mediation analysis was used to explore these relationships and to examine the potential role of parental support and community identity in boys and girls in the 6th to 9th year of compulsory education (N = 199). Results indicate perceived discrimination contributed to negative outcomes in terms of school integration, perceptions of safety and levels of well-being. Age and gender differences were observed which disadvantaged boys and younger children. All negative outcomes were buffered by parental support. Community identity also protected young people in terms of feelings of school integration and risk but not in terms of psychological well-being. Findings are discussed in terms of the different role of family and community supports for children negotiating negative social representations of their community.

  19. Flow cytometric evaluation of physico-chemical impact on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje eFröhling

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Since heat sensitivity of fruits and vegetables limits the application of thermal inactivation processes, new emerging inactivation technologies have to be established to fulfil the requirements of food safety without affecting the produce quality. The efficiency of inactivation treatments has to be ensured and monitored. Monitoring of inactivation effects is commonly performed using traditional cultivation methods which have the disadvantage of the time span needed to obtain results.The aim of this study was to compare the inactivation effects of peracetic acid (PAA, ozonated water (O3 and cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using flow cytometric methods. E. coli cells were completely depolarized after treatment (15 s with 0.25 % PAA at 10 °C, and after treatment (10 s with 3.8 mg l-1 O3 at 12°C. The membrane potential of CAPP treated cells remained almost constant at an operating power of 20 W over a time period of 3 min, and subsequently decreased within 30 s of further treatment. Complete membrane permeabilization was observed after 10 s O3 treatment, but treatment with PAA and CAPP did not completely permeabilize the cells within 2 min and 4 min, respectively. Similar results were obtained for esterase activity. O3 inactivates cellular esterase but esterase activity was detected after 4 min CAPP treatment and 2 min PAA treatment. L. innocua cells and P. carotovorum cells were also permeabilized instantaneously by O3 treatment at concentrations of 3.8 ± 1 mg l-1. However, higher membrane permeabilization of L. innocua and P. carotovorum than of E. coli was observed at CAPP treatment of 20 W. The degree of bacterial damage due to the inactivation processes is highly dependent on treatment parameters as well as on treated bacteria. Important information regarding the inactivation mechanisms can be obtained by flow cytometric measurements and this enables the definition of critical process

  20. Impact of lower- vs. upper-hemifield presentation on automatic colour-deviance detection: a visual mismatch negativity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Dagmar; Roeber, Urte; Winkler, István; Trujillo-Barreto, Nelson; Czigler, István; Schröger, Erich

    2012-09-07

    The automatic processing of deviances from the temporal context of the visual environment has become an important topic in visual cognitive sciences, which is often investigated using the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN). This event-related potential (ERP) component is elicited by an irregular stimulus (e.g., a red disc) presented in a series of stimuli (e.g., green discs) comprising a temporal regularity (e.g., colour repetition). We determined the influence of lower- vs. upper-hemifield presentation of the irregular stimulus on the vMMN while using whole-field stimulus displays controlling for sustained shifts in spatial attention. Deviances presented in the lower hemifield elicited a larger vMMN than the ones presented in the upper hemifield at a latency of 200-280ms. However, this asymmetry was preceded by deviance-related hemifield effects already emerging at an earlier latency (110-150ms), where upper-hemifield deviances elicited a positive potential but lower-hemifield deviances did not. With variable resolution electromagnetic tomography (VARETA) early deviance-related activity was localised to retinotopically organised regions of the visual cortex (BA 17/18) and vMMN-sources were localised to the middle/superior occipital gyrus, to higher areas along the temporal visual stream, but also to BA 17/18. We argue that the upper/lower-hemifield vMMN asymmetry relies at least partially on the hemifield-dependent differential sensitivity of early deviance-related activity generated in retinotopically organised regions of the visual cortex. However, a superior automatic processing of deviances presented in the lower visual hemifield may also contribute to the effect.

  1. Spatial correlations of Diceroprocta apache and its host plants: Evidence for a negative impact from Tamarix invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, A.R.; Andersen, D.C.

    2002-01-01

    1. The hypothesis that the habitat-scale spatial distribution of the, Apache cicada Diceroprocta apache Davis is unaffected by the presence of the invasive exotic saltcedar Tamarix ramosissima was tested using data from 205 1-m2 quadrats placed within the flood-plain of the Bill Williams River, Arizona, U.S.A. Spatial dependencies within and between cicada density and habitat variables were estimated using Moran's I and its bivariate analogue to discern patterns and associations at spatial scales from 1 to 30 m. 2. Apache cicadas were spatially aggregated in high-density clusters averaging 3m in diameter. A positive association between cicada density, estimated by exuvial density, and the per cent canopy cover of a native tree, Goodding's willow Salix gooddingii, was detected in a non-spatial correlation analysis. No non-spatial association between cicada density and saltcedar canopy cover was detected. 3. Tests for spatial cross-correlation using the bivariate IYZ indicated the presence of a broad-scale negative association between cicada density and saltcedar canopy cover. This result suggests that large continuous stands of saltcedar are associated with reduced cicada density. In contrast, positive associations detected at spatial scales larger than individual quadrats suggested a spill-over of high cicada density from areas featuring Goodding's willow canopy into surrounding saltcedar monoculture. 4. Taken together and considered in light of the Apache cicada's polyphagous habits, the observed spatial patterns suggest that broad-scale factors such as canopy heterogeneity affect cicada habitat use more than host plant selection. This has implications for management of lower Colorado River riparian woodlands to promote cicada presence and density through maintenance or creation of stands of native trees as well as manipulation of the characteristically dense and homogeneous saltcedar canopies.

  2. Focusing on teacher-student interactions eliminates the negative impact of students' disruptive behavior on teacher perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafen, Christopher A; Ruzek, Erik A; Gregory, Anne; Allen, Joseph P; Mikami, Amori Yee

    2015-09-01

    This study tests the impact of a randomly assigned professional development coaching intervention (MyTeachingPartner-Secondary; MTP-S) on teacher projections of their students' educational attainment. Results indicate that students who report more behavior problems in the Fall of the academic year are projected by teachers to have lower future educational attainment in the Spring of the academic year. However, analyses further indicate that participation in the MTP-S intervention moderates the association between Fall student behavior problems and teachers' Spring projections for student attainment, such that this link is not significant for students in classrooms where the teacher is participating in MTP-S. In fact, results indicate that teachers who participate in the intervention project better educational attainment for their students than teachers who are in a business-as-usual control condition, regardless of their students' behavior. Findings are discussed in terms of the role that interventions targeting classroom interactions may play in altering teachers' internal view of students, thus ultimately promoting adolescent development.

  3. The impact of early parenting bonding on young adults' internet addiction, through the mediation effects of negative relating to others and sadness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaitzaki, Argyroula E; Birtchnell, John

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study is the investigation of the potential role of negative relating to others, perceived loneliness, sadness, and anxiety, as mediators of the association between early parental bonding and adult Internet Addiction (IA). The factorial structure of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the prevalence rates of it in a Greek sample will also be investigated. A total of 774 participants were recruited from a Technological Education Institute (mean age=20.2, SD=2.8) and from high school technical schools (mean age=19.9, SD=7.4). The IAT was used to measure the degree of problematic Internet use behaviors; the Parental Bonding Instrument was used to assess one's recalled parenting experiences during the first 16years of life; the shortened Person's Relating to Others Questionnaire was used to assess one's negative (i.e. maladaptive) relating to others (NRO). Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the three-factor structure of the IAT. Only 1.0% of the sample was severely addicted to the Internet. The mediated effects of only the NRO and sadness were confirmed. Negative relating to others was found to fully mediate the effect of both the father's optimal parenting and affectionless control on IA, whereas sadness was found to fully mediate the effect of the mother's optimal parenting on IA. Overall, the results suggest that parenting style has an indirect impact on IA, through the mediating role of negative relating to others or sadness in later life. Both family-based and individual-based prevention and intervention efforts may reduce the incidence of IA.

  4. Targeting of heme oxygenase-1 attenuates the negative impact of Ikaros isoform 6 in adult BCR-ABL1-positive B-ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaojing; Zou, Xingli; Wang, Ziming; Fang, Qin; Chen, Shuya; Huang, Jun; Zhe, Nana; Yu, Meisheng; Zhang, Yaming; Wang, Jishi

    2016-08-16

    The correlation between Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and dominant-negative Ikaros isoform 6 (IK6) is unclear. Firstly, we detected that IK6 existed in 20 of 42 (47.6%) adult BCR-ABL1-positive B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCR-ABL1-positive B-ALL) by using reverse transcribed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nucleotide sequencing. IK6-positive patients had an unfavorable outcome compared with IK6-negative ones. Further study showed that the level of HO-1 expression was higher in IK6-positive patients' samples than that in IK6-negative ones. And there was a strong correlation between the expression of IK6 and HO-1. The growth of primary CD34+ leukemic cells derived from our IK6-positive patients' pool was prohibited by silencing HO-1, further promoting their apoptosis. Furthermore, primary CD34+ leukemic cells derived from IK6-positive patients shown poor responses to imatinib in comparison with wild-type (IK1) patients, suggesting that the expression of IK6 resisted to imatinib in adult BCR-ABL1-positive B-ALL. Importantly, inhibition of HO-1 also increased their sensitivity to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Finally, we found that IK6 activated downstream STAT5, and HO-1 was one of the downstream target genes of STAT5. In conclusion, HO-1 is an essential survival factor in BCR-ABL1-positive B-ALL with IK6, and targeting HO-1 can attenuate the negative impact of IK6.

  5. The Impact of Efflux Pump Inhibitors on the Activity of Selected Non-Antibiotic Medicinal Products against Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka E. Laudy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential role of non-antibiotic medicinal products in the treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria has recently been investigated. It is highly likely that the presence of efflux pumps may be one of the reasons for the weak activity of non-antibiotics, as in the case of some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, against Gram-negative rods. The activity of eight drugs of potential non-antibiotic activity, active substance standards, and relevant medicinal products were analysed with and without of efflux pump inhibitors against 180 strains of five Gram-negative rod species by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC value determination in the presence of 1 mM MgSO4. Furthermore, the influence of non-antibiotics on the susceptibility of clinical strains to quinolones with or without PAβN (Phe-Arg-β-naphthylamide was investigated. The impacts of PAβN on the susceptibility of bacteria to non-antibiotics suggests that amitriptyline, alendronate, nicergoline, and ticlopidine are substrates of efflux pumps in Gram-negative rods. Amitriptyline/Amitriptylinum showed the highest direct antibacterial activity, with MICs ranging 100–800 mg/L against all studied species. Significant decreases in the MIC values of other active substances (acyclovir, atorvastatin, and famotidine tested with pump inhibitors were not observed. The investigated non-antibiotic medicinal products did not alter the MICs of quinolones in the absence and in the presence of PAβN to the studied clinical strains of five groups of species.

  6. Coaching to vision versus coaching to improvement needs: a preliminary investigation on the differential impacts of fostering positive and negative emotion during real time executive coaching sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Anita R

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on intentional change theory (ICT; Boyatzis, 2006), this study examined the differential impact of inducing coaching recipients' vision/positive emotion versus improvement needs/negative emotion during real time executive coaching sessions. A core aim of the study was to empirically test two central ICT propositions on the effects of using the coached person's Positive Emotional Attractor (vision/PEA) versus Negative Emotional Attractor (improvement needs/NEA) as the anchoring framework of a onetime, one-on-one coaching session on appraisal of 360° feedback and discussion of possible change goals. Eighteen coaching recipients were randomly assigned to two coaching conditions, the coaching to vision/PEA condition and the coaching to improvement needs/NEA condition. Two main hypotheses were tested. Hypothesis1 predicted that participants in the vision/PEA condition would show higher levels of expressed positive emotion during appraisal of 360° feedback results and discussion of change goals than recipients in the improvement needs/NEA condition. Hypothesis2 predicted that vision/PEA participants would show lower levels of stress immediately after the coaching session than improvement needs/NEA participants. Findings showed that coaching to vision/the PEA fostered significantly lower levels of expressed negative emotion and anger during appraisal of 360° feedback results as compared to coaching to improvements needs/the NEA. Vision-focused coaching also fostered significantly greater exploration of personal passions and future desires, and more positive engagement during 360° feedback appraisal. No significant differences between the two conditions were found in emotional processing during discussion of change goals or levels of stress immediately after the coaching session. Current findings suggest that vision/PEA arousal versus improvement needs/NEA arousal impact the coaching process in quite different ways; that the coach's initial framing of the

  7. Reduced expression of argininosuccinate synthetase 1 has a negative prognostic impact in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingqing; Stewart, John; Wang, Hua; Rashid, Asif; Zhao, Jun; Katz, Matthew H.; Lee, Jeffrey E.; Fleming, Jason B.; Maitra, Anirban; Wolff, Robert A.; Varadhachary, Gauri R.; Krishnan, Sunil; Wang, Huamin

    2017-01-01

    Argininosuccinate synthetase 1 (ASS1), the rate-limiting enzyme for arginine biosynthesis, is expressed in many types of human malignancies. Recent studies showed that ASS1 may have tumor suppressor function and that ASS1 deficiency is associated with clinical aggressiveness in nasopharyngeal carcinoma, myxofibrosarcomas and bladder cancer. The goal of this study was to evaluate the prognostic impact of ASS1 expression in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Our study included two independent cohorts: untreated cohort, which was comprised of 135 patients with PDAC who underwent pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) without pre-operative neoadjuvant therapy, and treated cohort, which was comprised of 122 patients with PDAC who have completed neoadjuvant therapy and PD. The expression level of ASS1 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and the results were correlated with clinicopathologic parameters and survival using SPSS statistics. Our study showed that 12% of PDAC in untreated cohort and 15% of PDAC in treated cohort has low expression of ASS1 (ASS1-low). ASS1-low was associated with higher recurrence (p = 0.045), shorter disease-free survival (DFS, 4.8 ± 1.6 months vs 15.3 ± 2.2 months, p = 0.001) and shorter overall survival (OS, 14.6 ± 6.4 months vs 26.5 ± 3.5 months, p = 0.005) in untreated cohort and shorter OS in treated cohort compared to ASS1-high tumors. In multivariate analysis, ASS1-low (HR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.26–0.79, p = 0.005) was an independent prognostic factor for DFS in untreated cohort and an independent prognostic factor for OS (HR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.32–0.97, p = 0.04) in treated cohort. Our results provide supporting evidence for future clinical trial using arginine deprivation agents either alone or in combination with conventional chemotherapy in treating pancreatic cancer. PMID:28187218

  8. Fertilization of sea urchin eggs and sperm motility are negatively impacted under low hypergravitational forces significant to space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tash, J. S.; Kim, S.; Schuber, M.; Seibt, D.; Kinsey, W. H.

    2001-01-01

    Sperm and other flagellates swim faster in microgravity (microG) than in 1 G, raising the question of whether fertilization is altered under conditions of space travel. Such alterations have implications for reproduction of plant and animal food and for long-term space habitation by man. We previously demonstrated that microG accelerates protein phosphorylation during initiation of sperm motility but delays the sperm response to the egg chemotactic factor, speract. Thus sperm are sensitive to changes in gravitational force. New experiments using the NiZeMi centrifugal microscope examined whether low hypergravity (hyperG) causes effects opposite to microG on sperm motility, signal transduction, and fertilization. Sperm % motility and straight-line velocity were significantly inhibited by as little as 1.3 G. The phosphorylation states of FP130, an axonemal phosphoprotein, and FP160, a cAMP-dependent salt-extractable flagellar protein, both coupled to motility activation, showed a more rapid decline in hyperG. Most critically, hyperG caused an approximately 50% reduction in both the rate of sperm-egg binding and fertilization. The similar extent of inhibition of both fertilization parameters in hyperG suggests that the primary effect is on sperm rather than eggs. These results not only support our earlier microG data demonstrating that sperm are sensitive to small changes in gravitational forces but more importantly now show that this sensitivity affects the ability of sperm to fertilize eggs. Thus, more detailed studies on the impact of space flight on development should include studies of sperm function and fertilization.

  9. Simulated leakage of high pCO2 water negatively impacts bivalve dominated infaunal communities from the Western Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Hanna; Mevenkamp, Lisa; Guilini, Katja; Meyer, Stefanie; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Abele, Doris; Vanreusel, Ann; Melzner, Frank

    2016-08-01

    Carbon capture and storage is promoted as a mitigation method counteracting the increase of atmospheric CO2 levels. However, at this stage, environmental consequences of potential CO2 leakage from sub-seabed storage sites are still largely unknown. In a 3-month-long mesocosm experiment, this study assessed the impact of elevated pCO2 levels (1,500 to 24,400 μatm) on Cerastoderma edule dominated benthic communities from the Baltic Sea. Mortality of C. edule was significantly increased in the highest treatment (24,400 μatm) and exceeded 50%. Furthermore, mortality of small size classes (0-1 cm) was significantly increased in treatment levels ≥6,600 μatm. First signs of external shell dissolution became visible at ≥1,500 μatm, holes were observed at >6,600 μatm. C. edule body condition decreased significantly at all treatment levels (1,500-24,400 μatm). Dominant meiofauna taxa remained unaffected in abundance. Densities of calcifying meiofauna taxa (i.e. Gastropoda and Ostracoda) decreased in high CO2 treatments (>6,600 μatm), while the non - calcifying Gastrotricha significantly increased in abundance at 24,400 μatm. In addition, microbial community composition was altered at the highest pCO2 level. We conclude that strong CO2 leakage can alter benthic infauna community composition at multiple trophic levels, likely due to high mortality of the dominant macrofauna species C. edule.

  10. Off site demonstrations for MWLID technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gruebel, R. [Tech Reps, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Open demonstrations of technologies developed by the Office of Technology Development`s (QTD`s) Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) should facilitate regulatory acceptance and speed the transfer and commercialization of these technologies. The purpose of the present project is to identify the environmental restoration needs of hazardous waste and/or mixed waste landfill owners within a 25-mile radius of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Most municipal landfills that operated prior to the mid-1980s accepted household/commercial hazardous waste and medical waste that included low-level radioactive waste. The locations of hazardous and/or mixed waste landfills within the State of New Mexico were. identified using federal, state, municipal and Native American tribal environmental records. The records reviewed included the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Program CERCLIS Event/Site listing (which includes tribal records), the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), Solid Waste Bureau mixed waste landfill database, and the City of Albuquerque Environmental Health Department landfill database. Tribal envirorunental records are controlled by each tribal government, so each tribal environmental officer and governor was contacted to obtain release of specific site data beyond what is available in the CERCLIS listings.

  11. Phytochrome Signaling in Green Arabidopsis Seedlings: Impact Assessment of a Mutually Negative phyB-PIF Feedback Loop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pablo Leivar; Elena Monte; Megan M. Cohn; Peter H. Quail

    2012-01-01

    The reversibly red (R)/far-red (FR)-Iight-responsive phytoch rome (phy) photosensory system initiates both the deetiolation process in dark-germinated seedlings upon first exposure to light,and the shade-avoidance process in fully deetiolated seedlings upon exposure to vegetational shade.The intracellular signaling pathway from the light-activated photoreceptor conformer (Pfr) to the transcriptional network that drives these responses involves direct,physical interaction of Pfr with a small subfamily of bHLH transcription factors,termed Phy-lnteracting Factors (PIFs),which induces rapid PIF proteolytic degradation.In addition,there is evidence of further complexity in light-grown seedlings,whereby phyB-PIF interaction reciprocally induces phyB degradation,in a mutually-negative,feedback-loop configuration.Here,to assess the relative contributions of these antagonistic activities to the net phenotypic readout in light-grown seedlings,we have examined the magnitude of the light- and simulated-shade-induced responses of a pentuple phyBpif1pif3pif4pif5 (phyBpifq) mutant and various multiple pif-mutant combinations.The data (1) reaffirm that phyB is the predominant,if not exclusive,photoreceptor imposing the inhibition of hypocotyl elongation in deetiolating seedlings in response to prolonged continuous R irradiation and (2) show that the PIF quartet (PIF1,PIF3,PIF4,and PIF5) retain and exert a dual capacity to modulate hypocotyl elongation under these conditions,by concomitantly promoting cell elongation through intrinsic transcriptional-regulatory activity,and reducing phyB-inhibitory capacity through feedback-loop-induced phyB degradation.In shade-exposed seedlings,immunoblot analysis shows that the shade-imposed reduction in Pfr levels induces increases in the abundance of PIF3,and mutant analysis indicates that PIF3 acts,in conjunction with PIF4 and PIF5,to promote the known shade-induced acceleration of hypocotyl elongation.Conversely,although the quadruple pifq

  12. Structural determination of zinc dithiophosphates in lubricating oils by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with electron impact and electron-capture negative ion chemical ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becchi, M; Perret, F; Carraze, B; Beziau, J F; Michel, J P

    2001-01-05

    Pentafluorobenzyl ester derivatives were used to identify zinc dialkyldithiophosphates and diaryldithiophosphates antiwear engine oil additives by GC-electron impact ionization (EI) MS and GC-electron-capture negative ion chemical ionization (ECNCI) MS analysis. GC-EI-MS of the dialkyldithiophosphate-pentafluorobenzyl derivatives afforded characteristic fragment ions corresponding to the cleavage of one and two alkyl radicals. In most cases, information was only obtained on one alkyl chain. Additional and complete information was obtained with retention time indices using synthetic derivatives and with GC-ECNCI-MS analysis. ECNCI afforded characteristic dithiophosphate anions which allowed the determination of the total number of carbon atoms in the alkyl radicals. The diastereoisomer mixtures of 2-hydroxy-sec.-alkyl radicals were completely separated on GC analysis.

  13. Intra-individual, randomised comparison of the MRI contrast agents gadobutrol and gadoterate in imaging the distal lower limb of patients with known or suspected osteomyelitis, evaluated in an off-site blinded read

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennekamp, Werner; Roggenland, Daniela; Lemburg, Stefan; Peters, Soeren; Sterl, Sabrina; Nicolas, Volkmar [University Clinics Bergmannsheil, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Bochum (Germany); Hering, Steffen [University Clinics Bergmannsheil, Department of Internal Medicine, Bochum (Germany); Schwenke, Carsten [SCO:SSiS-Statistical Consulting, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    To prove that 1.0 M gadobutrol provides superior contrast enhancement in suspicion of osteomyelitis of the feet compared with 0.5 M gadoterate. MRI of feet was performed on 2 separate occasions. Independent injections of 1.0 M gadobutrol and 0.5 M gadoterate at doses of 0.1 mmol Gd/kg body weight were administered per patient. The interval between the two MR examinations was between 24 h and 7 days. Evaluation was performed in an off-site blinded read. 41 patients were eligible for efficacy analysis. Results of secondary efficacy variables did not show statistically significant differences. For the primary efficacy variable, a trend in favour of gadobutrol was seen in the full analysis set (ITT) population resulting in at least non-inferiority. In the per protocol (PP) analysis set gadobutrol had better contrast than gadoterate (Wilcoxon signed rank test, p = 0.0466). Imaging of the distal lower limb in this special patient population requires a large number of patients to obtain enough comparative images where non-contrast-agent-dependent factors do not disturb contrast agent efficacy. The ITT analysis showed at least non-inferiority of gadobutrol in comparison to gadoterate. The avoidance of imaging artefacts demonstrates a better outcome for gadobutrol. (orig.)

  14. The Off-Site Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs: Assessing Potential Environmental Liabilities through an Examination of Proposed Nuclear Projects,High Explosive Experiments, and High Explosive Construction Activities Volume 3 of 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck Colleen M.,Edwards Susan R.,King Maureen L.

    2011-09-01

    This document presents the results of nearly six years (2002-2008) of historical research and field studies concerned with evaluating potential environmental liabilities associated with U.S. Atomic Energy Commission projects from the Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs. The Plowshare Program's primary purpose was to develop peaceful uses for nuclear explosives. The Vela Uniform Program focused on improving the capability of detecting, monitoring and identifying underground nuclear detonations. As a result of the Project Chariot site restoration efforts in the early 1990s, there were concerns that there might be other project locations with potential environmental liabilities. The Desert Research Institute conducted archival research to identify projects, an analysis of project field activities, and completed field studies at locations where substantial fieldwork had been undertaken for the projects. Although the Plowshare and Vela Uniform nuclear projects are well known, the projects that are included in this research are relatively unknown. They are proposed nuclear projects that were not executed, proposed and executed high explosive experiments, and proposed and executed high explosive construction activities off the Nevada Test Site. The research identified 170 Plowshare and Vela Uniform off-site projects and many of these had little or no field activity associated with them. However, there were 27 projects that merited further investigation and field studies were conducted at 15 locations.

  15. The Off-Site Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs: Assessing Potential Environmental Liabilities through an Examination of Proposed Nuclear Projects,High Explosive Experiments, and High Explosive Construction Activities Volume 2 of 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck Colleen M.,Edwards Susan R.,King Maureen L.

    2011-09-01

    This document presents the results of nearly six years (2002-2008) of historical research and field studies concerned with evaluating potential environmental liabilities associated with U.S. Atomic Energy Commission projects from the Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs. The Plowshare Program's primary purpose was to develop peaceful uses for nuclear explosives. The Vela Uniform Program focused on improving the capability of detecting, monitoring and identifying underground nuclear detonations. As a result of the Project Chariot site restoration efforts in the early 1990s, there were concerns that there might be other project locations with potential environmental liabilities. The Desert Research Institute conducted archival research to identify projects, an analysis of project field activities, and completed field studies at locations where substantial fieldwork had been undertaken for the projects. Although the Plowshare and Vela Uniform nuclear projects are well known, the projects that are included in this research are relatively unknown. They are proposed nuclear projects that were not executed, proposed and executed high explosive experiments, and proposed and executed high explosive construction activities off the Nevada Test Site. The research identified 170 Plowshare and Vela Uniform off-site projects and many of these had little or no field activity associated with them. However, there were 27 projects that merited further investigation and field studies were conducted at 15 locations.

  16. The Off-Site Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs: Assessing Potential Environmental Liabilities through an Examination of Proposed Nuclear Projects,High Explosive Experiments, and High Explosive Construction Activities Volume 1 of 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck Colleen M,Edwards Susan R.,King Maureen L.

    2011-09-01

    This document presents the results of nearly six years (2002-2008) of historical research and field studies concerned with evaluating potential environmental liabilities associated with U.S. Atomic Energy Commission projects from the Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs. The Plowshare Program's primary purpose was to develop peaceful uses for nuclear explosives. The Vela Uniform Program focused on improving the capability of detecting, monitoring and identifying underground nuclear detonations. As a result of the Project Chariot site restoration efforts in the early 1990s, there were concerns that there might be other project locations with potential environmental liabilities. The Desert Research Institute conducted archival research to identify projects, an analysis of project field activities, and completed field studies at locations where substantial fieldwork had been undertaken for the projects. Although the Plowshare and Vela Uniform nuclear projects are well known, the projects that are included in this research are relatively unknown. They are proposed nuclear projects that were not executed, proposed and executed high explosive experiments, and proposed and executed high explosive construction activities off the Nevada Test Site. The research identified 170 Plowshare and Vela Uniform off-site projects and many of these had little or no field activity associated with them. However, there were 27 projects that merited further investigation and field studies were conducted at 15 locations.

  17. Does High-Quality Financial Reporting Mitigate the Negative Impact of Global Financial Crises on Firm Performance? Evidence from the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Lin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior literature has claimed that accounting plays a negative role in a financial crisis. The current study sought to determine whether this effect is dependent on the quality of financial reporting. Specifically, this study examined the impact of the quality of financial reporting (as measured via earnings quality on liquidity (measured by the bid-ask spread in the equity market during the 2008–2009 global financial crisis in the United Kingdom. We found, as expected, that market liquidity was much lower during the crisis than prior to the crisis; however, firms with high-quality financial reporting suffered fewer negative effects as a result of the financial crisis. The results were robust after controlling for other influences, such as return volatility, loss making, market value of equity, and other potential endogeneity problems. In addition, adopting alternative models for earnings quality did not alter our inferences. Our results support the notion that high-quality accounting information can reduce information asymmetry and hence enhance investor confidence during a financial crisis. The results suggest that a stable financial reporting system is an important part of that overall economic fabric. Our findings will help build a framework on which an overall financial crisis risk-management strategy can be developed to avoid future crises.

  18. Simulation of Low Gain Avalanche Detector characteristics based on the concept of negative feedback in irradiated silicon detectors with carrier impact ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbitskaya, E.; Eremin, V.; Zabrodskii, A.; Luukka, P.

    2016-12-01

    In this study the main characteristics of silicon Low Gain Avalanche Detectors (LGAD), the dependencies of the collected charge versus bias voltage and fluence, are calculated to fit experimental data. The calculations are based on two previously developed Ioffe Institute models of radiation degradation in Si detectors: 1) a model of two effective energy levels of radiation-induced defects, and 2) a mechanism of internal negative feedback responsible for the gain degradation in irradiated Si detectors originating from the avalanche multiplication at the detector junction. The combination of these models describes well the properties of irradiated p-i-n detectors in a wide range of fluences. For simulating the LGAD characteristics the models are adapted to its n+-pbi-p-p+ structure, where the built-in boron-doped layer pbi produces high electric field sufficient for carrier impact ionization. It is shown that the developed models give adequate quantitative description of the experimental results for the LGADs up to the fluence of 2×1015 n/cm2 including the detector pulse response; however, additional boron removal from the pbi layer is required to have the best correlation with the experimental data. Similar to the physical model developed for silicon strip detectors operated at high voltage, the results are interpreted in terms of the internal negative feedback mechanism. It is shown that in irradiated LGADs this feedback leads to the transfer of a significant fraction of the potential drop from the built-in layer toward the p+ contact. It initiates two negative effects, which both cause the gain degradation with irradiation: the lowering of the electric field in the n+-pbi region that reduces the multiplication probability, and the increase of the collection time and trapping-related charge losses.

  19. A cis-acting element present within the Gag open reading frame negatively impacts on the activity of the HIV-1 IRES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Valiente-Echeverría

    Full Text Available Translation initiation from the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 mRNA can occur through a cap or an IRES dependent mechanism. Cap-dependent translation initiation of the HIV-1 mRNA can be inhibited by the instability element (INS-1, a cis-acting regulatory element present within the gag open reading frame (ORF. In this study we evaluated the impact of the INS-1 on HIV-1 IRES-mediated translation initiation. Using heterologous bicistronic mRNAs, we show that the INS-1 negatively impact on HIV-1 IRES-driven translation in in vitro and in cell-based experiments. Additionally, our results show that the inhibitory effect of the INS-1 is not general to all IRESes since it does not hinder translation driven by the HCV IRES. The inhibition by the INS-1 was partially rescued in cells by the overexpression of the viral Rev protein or hnRNPA1.

  20. Are People Emotionally Predisposed to Experience Lower Quality of Life? The Impact of Negative Affectivity on Quality of Life in Patients Recovering from Cardiac Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulou, Efharis; Montgomery, Anthony J.; Benos, Alexis; Maes, Stan

    2006-01-01

    Negative affectivity has been defined as a predisposition to experience intense states of negative emotions. As a trait concept it is a dimension that reflects stable and pervasive differences in negative mood and self-concept. There has been systematic evidence linking negative affectivity to anxiety, depression, psychosomatic complaints, pain…

  1. Are People Emotionally Predisposed to Experience Lower Quality of Life? The Impact of Negative Affectivity on Quality of Life in Patients Recovering from Cardiac Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulou, Efharis; Montgomery, Anthony J.; Benos, Alexis; Maes, Stan

    2006-01-01

    Negative affectivity has been defined as a predisposition to experience intense states of negative emotions. As a trait concept it is a dimension that reflects stable and pervasive differences in negative mood and self-concept. There has been systematic evidence linking negative affectivity to anxiety, depression, psychosomatic complaints, pain…

  2. Countermeasures of Negative Impact Caused by College Students' Mobile Internet%大学生手机上网负面影响的对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘素娜

    2015-01-01

    The rapid development of mobile phone networks to the students bring endless fun and convenience, but also for the students themselves and the surrounding students, classroom, ideological and political education has brought many nega-tive effects. College students how to solve the negative impact of the mobile Internet is a system that works. This requires a policy-oriented education administrative departments, also need the correct guidance of the media, but also need to improve and enrich the school rules and regulations of the campus culture, the ultimate end result is a positive effort to have the tea-chers and the students themselves actively cooperate.%迅猛发展的手机网络在给大学生带来无尽乐趣与便利的同时,也对学生自身及周边同学、课堂、高校思想政治教育等带来了诸多负面影响。如何解决大学生手机上网产生的负面影响是一个系统的工程。这需要教育行政部门的政策导向,也需要媒体的正确引导,更需要学校规章制度的完善与校园文化的丰富,最终的落脚点是要有教师的积极努力以及学生自身的积极配合。

  3. 石油污染土壤长料堆式异位生物修复技术研究%n off site petroleum-contaminated soil bioremediation technology: soil compesttng in windrow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜昌亮; 孙铁珩; 李培军; 张春桂; 张海荣; 马学军; 姚德明; 杨桂芬 杨桂芬

    2001-01-01

    With off-site bioremediation tectmolgy, a soil contaminated by crude oil from Liaohe Oil Field was treated on a 20 ×10m prepared bed. 8 composting windrow units were set, each measured 8m in length, 2m in width, and 0.35m in height. The results showed that when the pollutant petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)was within the range of 4.16~7.72g· 100g- 1 soil, the total degradation rate of TPH reached 45.19 96 ~ 56.74 96 after 53 days operation, which indicared that a technological basis would be provided for the oremediafion of oil-contaminated soil.%应用长料堆式处理技术在长20m、宽10m的实用规模预制床上对辽河油田不同类型原油污染土壤进行了处理.处理工程设8个长条状堆料单元,每个堆料单元长8m、宽2m、高0.35m.当稀油、稠油和高凝油污染土壤中石油烃总量(TPH)为4.16~7.72g·100g-1土时,经过53d的运行,TPH去除率45.19%~56.74%.本研究为石油污染土壤异位生物修复实用化提供了技术支持.

  4. Negative impact of oral health conditions on oral health related quality of life of community dwelling elders in Mexico city, a population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrejón-Pérez, Roberto Carlos; Borges-Yáñez, S Aída; Irigoyen-Camacho, Ma Esther; Cruz-Hervert, Luis Pablo

    2017-05-01

    Oral health in old persons is frequently poor; non-functional prostheses are common and negatively affect quality of life. The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of oral health problems on oral health related quality of life in a sample of home dwelling Mexican elders. Household survey in 655 persons 70 years old and over residing in one county in Mexico City. Oral Health Related Quality of Life (Short version of the Oral Health Impact Profile validated in Mexico-OHIP-14-sp), self-perception of general and oral health, xerostomia, utilization of dental services, utilization and functionality of removable dental prostheses, dental and periodontal conditions, age, gender, marital status, schooling, depression, cognitive impairment and independence in activities of daily living (ADL). A negative binomial regression model was fitted. Mean age was 79.2 ± 7.1 years; 54.2% were women. Mean OHIP-14-Sp score was 6.8 ± 8.7, median was 4. The final model showed that men (RR = 1.30); persons with xerostomia (RR = 1.41); no utilization of removable prostheses (RR = 1.55); utilization of non-functional removable prostheses (RR = 1.69); fair self-perception of general health (RR = 1.34); equal (RR = 1.43) or worse (RR = 2.32) self-perception of oral health compared with persons of the same age; and being dependent for at least one ADL (RR = 1.71) increased the probability of higher scores of the OHIP-14-sp. Age, schooling, depression, cognitive impairment and periodontal conditions showed no association. Oral rehabilitation can improve quality of life, health education and health promotion for the elder and their caregivers may reduce the risk of dental problems. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 744-752. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  5. Negative learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oppenheimer, M. [Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Department of Geosciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); O' Neill, B.C. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria)]|[Institute for the Study of Society and Environment, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Webster M. [MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2008-07-15

    New technical information may lead to scientific beliefs that diverge over time from the a posteriori right answer. We call this phenomenon, which is particularly problematic in the global change arena, negative learning. Negative learning may have affected policy in important cases, including stratospheric ozone depletion, dynamics of the West Antarctic ice sheet, and population and energy projections. We simulate negative learning in the context of climate change with a formal model that embeds the concept within the Bayesian framework, illustrating that it may lead to errant decisions and large welfare losses to society. Based on these cases, we suggest approaches to scientific assessment and decision making that could mitigate the problem. Application of the tools of science history to the study of learning in global change, including critical examination of the assessment process to understand how judgments are made, could provide important insights on how to improve the flow of information to policy makers.

  6. Impact of ertapenem on antimicrobial resistance in a sentinel group of Gram-negative bacilli: a 6 year antimicrobial resistance surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Osorio, Carlos A; Sanchez-Martinez, Cesar O; Araujo-Melendez, Javier; Criollo, Elia; Macias-Hernandez, Alejandro E; Ponce-de-Leon, Alfredo; Ponce-de-Leon, Sergio; Sifuentes-Osornio, Jose

    2015-03-01

    To determine the association between ertapenem and resistance of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex to different antimicrobials while adjusting for relevant hospital factors. This was a retrospective time-series study conducted at a tertiary care centre from September 2002 to August 2008. The specific impact of ertapenem on the resistance of these Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) was assessed by multiple linear regression analysis, adjusting for the average length of stay, rate of hospital-acquired infections and use of 10 other antimicrobials, including type 2 carbapenems. Unadjusted analyses revealed significant increases over the duration of the study in the number of GNB resistant to meropenem/imipenem among 1000 isolates each of E. coli (0.46 ± 0.22, P  0.05) with changes in resistance for any pathogen/antimicrobial combination. After controlling for confounders, ertapenem was not associated with changes in resistance in a group of sentinel GNB, although significant variations in resistance to different antimicrobials were observed in the unadjusted analyses. These results emphasize the importance of implementation of local resistance surveillance platforms and stewardship programmes to combat the global emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Prognostic impact of 18F-FDG PET/CT staging and of pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in triple-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groheux, D; Giacchetti, S; Delord, M; de Roquancourt, A; Merlet, P; Hamy, A S; Espié, M; Hindié, E

    2015-03-01

    Mortality is high in patients with locally advanced triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), especially in those with residual tumour after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). The aim of this study was to determine if pretreatment (18)F-FDG PET/CT staging and pathological findings after NAC could together allow stratification of patients into prognostic groups. Initial staging with (18)F-FDG PET/CT was performed prospectively in 85 consecutive patients with stage II/III TNBC. Correlations between PET findings and disease-specific survival (DSS) were examined. In patients without distant metastases on PET staging, the impact of pathological response to NAC on DSS was examined. Patterns of recurrence were also analysed. (18)F-DG PET/CT revealed distant metastases in 11 of 85 patients (12.9 %). Among 74 M0 patients, 23 (31.1 %) showed a pathological complete response (pCR) at surgery, while 51 had residual invasive disease (no pCR). DSS differed considerably among the three groups of patients (log-rank P F-FDG PET/CT findings at initial staging and pathological response at the end of NAC allow three groups of patients with quite different prognoses to be defined. Extraskeletal recurrences predominated. Specific follow-up strategies in patients with TNBC who do not achieve pCR deserve investigation.

  8. Development of a Comprehensive Programme to Prevent and Reduce the Negative Impact of Railway Fatalities, Injuries and Close Calls on Railway Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardon, Cécile; Mishara, Brian L

    2015-09-01

    This article presents a strategy to prevent trauma, support and care for railway personnel who experience critical incidents (CI) on the job, usually fatalities by accident or suicide. We reviewed all publications on CI management, support and care practices in the railway industry, as well as practices in place in Canada (unpublished protocols). Semi structured interviews were conducted with 40 train engineers and conductors involved in CIs and the content was coded and analysed quantitatively. Employees' satisfaction with the help received after the incident varies according to the behaviour of the local manager, company officers and police, the level of compliance with existing company protocols to help them, the presence of unmet expectations for support and care, their perceived competency of clinicians they consulted and the level of trust toward their employers. On the basis of the interview results, the review of existing railway practices and discussions with railway stakeholders, a model protocol was developed for a comprehensive workplace prevention, support and care protocol to reduce the negative impact of railway critical incidents on employees. This protocol includes preventive actions before traumatic events occur, immediate responses at the site of incident, interventions within the first few days after the incident and longer term support and interventions provided by the company and by outsourced experts.

  9. The use of real-time off-site observations as a methodology for increasing forecast skill in prediction of large wind power ramps one or more hours ahead of their impact on a wind plant.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Wilde, Principal Investigator

    2012-12-31

    ABSTRACT Application of Real-Time Offsite Measurements in Improved Short-Term Wind Ramp Prediction Skill Improved forecasting performance immediately preceding wind ramp events is of preeminent concern to most wind energy companies, system operators, and balancing authorities. The value of near real-time hub height-level wind data and more general meteorological measurements to short-term wind power forecasting is well understood. For some sites, access to onsite measured wind data - even historical - can reduce forecast error in the short-range to medium-range horizons by as much as 50%. Unfortunately, valuable free-stream wind measurements at tall tower are not typically available at most wind plants, thereby forcing wind forecasters to rely upon wind measurements below hub height and/or turbine nacelle anemometry. Free-stream measurements can be appropriately scaled to hub-height levels, using existing empirically-derived relationships that account for surface roughness and turbulence. But there is large uncertainty in these relationships for a given time of day and state of the boundary layer. Alternatively, forecasts can rely entirely on turbine anemometry measurements, though such measurements are themselves subject to wake effects that are not stationary. The void in free-stream hub-height level measurements of wind can be filled by remote sensing (e.g., sodar, lidar, and radar). However, the expense of such equipment may not be sustainable. There is a growing market for traditional anemometry on tall tower networks, maintained by third parties to the forecasting process (i.e., independent of forecasters and the forecast users). This study examines the value of offsite tall-tower data from the WINDataNOW Technology network for short-horizon wind power predictions at a wind farm in northern Montana. The presentation shall describe successful physical and statistical techniques for its application and the practicality of its application in an operational setting. It shall be demonstrated that when used properly, the real-time offsite measurements materially improve wind ramp capture and prediction statistics, when compared to traditional wind forecasting techniques and to a simple persistence model.

  10. Negative Certainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariso, José María

    2017-01-01

    The definitions of "negative knowledge" and the studies in this regard published to date have not considered the categorial distinction Wittgenstein established between knowledge and certainty. Hence, the important role that certainty, despite its omission, should have in these definitions and studies has not yet been shown. In this…

  11. Negative Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Mary J.

    1974-01-01

    Examination of models for representing integers demonstrates that formal operational thought is required for establishing the operations on integers. Advocated is the use of many models for introducing negative numbers but, apart from addition, it is recommended that operations on integers be delayed until the formal operations stage. (JP)

  12. Negative Certainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariso, José María

    2017-01-01

    The definitions of "negative knowledge" and the studies in this regard published to date have not considered the categorial distinction Wittgenstein established between knowledge and certainty. Hence, the important role that certainty, despite its omission, should have in these definitions and studies has not yet been shown. In this…

  13. Negative Attitudes, Network and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe

    to an ambiguous impact. Empirically, we consider immigrants’ high school attendance. On the macro-level, we confirm a signficant negative correlation between negative attitudes towards immigrants and high school attendance and a positive impact of networking on high school attendance. On the individual level, we...... use Danish register data to find a signficant positive correlation between negative attitudes towards immigrants and high school attendance and find a positive impact of networking on high school attendance. In both the macro and the micro-econometric analysis we run the same regressions for natives......We consider the impact of negative attitudes against immigrants and immigration on educational choice in a search and wage bargaining model including networking. We consider two cases in terms of the importance of negative attitudes againts immigrants for high and low educated individuals and find...

  14. FDI对中国经济发展的负面影响论析%Analysis on the Negative Impact of FDI on Economic Development of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强

    2014-01-01

    FDI made great contribution to Chinese economic construction,the number of FDI in China is considerable in re-cent years,and the industry structure and regional distribution of FDI is in the continuous optimization.This article analyzes some aspects such as the mode of FDI introduction in China,the quality and efficiency of using FDI,and the impact on China’ s technological progress and market development,and mainly focus on the issue and negative impact in the introduction of FDI, including the FDI’s weak technology spillover effect,foreign-funded enterprises occupy the market,crowding out domestic capital,and FDI’s potential threat to the national economic sovereignty and security,etc.The article gives the reference sug-gestions on how to guide and use FDI efficiently,to promote the healthy development of economy in our country,such as to enhance the industry’s development planning and guidance in the introduction of FDI,improve the quality and efficiency of FDI,improve the promoting effect of FDI on domestic technological progress,and strengthen the management and control of FDI’s effect on domestic economic security.%FDI对我国的经济建设做出了较大的贡献,近年来我国利用 FDI的数量较为可观,其行业结构和地区分布在不断优化。但以往为了吸引外资,很多地区大都经历了盲目追求数量而不注重质量,只注重眼前利益而不顾长远发展的一段时期,由此造成了 FDI利用效率不高,产生恶性竞争,浪费本国资源,成本优势消失等诸多问题,对我国经济发展产生了一定的负面影响。现阶段应通过政策的引导使 FDI为国内的产业结构优化升级服务,同时还应防范外资对我国经济安全造成的风险,从而使 FDI真正起到促进我国经济平稳发展的作用。

  15. Impact of type 2 diabetes mellitus on the prognosis of early stage triple-negative breast cancer in People’s Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma FJ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fang-Jing Ma,1–3,* Zhe-Bin Liu,1,2,* Li Qu,4,* Shuang Hao,1,2 Guang-Yu Liu,1,2 Jiong Wu,1,2 Zhi-Ming Shao1,2 1Department of Breast Surgery, Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer in Shanghai, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, 2Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Breast Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Xinjiang, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of General Surgery, Zhejiang Hospital, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China  *These authors have contributed equally to this workBackground: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is one of the most common chronic metabolic diseases. Increased cause-specific mortality and decreased disease-free survival (DFS have been reported among cancer patients with T2DM compared with patients without T2DM, even after adjustments of other comorbidities. However, less is known about the impact of T2DM and other comorbidities on DFS in Chinese patients with early stage triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC.Patients and methods: We assessed patients who were newly diagnosed with early stage primary TNBC at the Department of Breast Surgery, Fudan University, from 2003 to 2011. Of the 1,100 TNBC patients, 865 female patients had invasive and early stage TNBC. The association of the variables in the T2DM and non-T2DM groups was compared using the Pearson's chi-square and independent t-tests. DFS was estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method. The effects of T2DM and other possible risk factors on DFS were assessed by Cox proportional hazards regression using univariate or multivariate analysis.Results: A total of 865 early stage primary TNBC cases were studied, including 104 (12.02% subjects with T2DM. Metastatic or recurrent disease was detected in 24 (23.08% patients in the T2DM group and 35 (4.60% patients in the non-T2DM group. Patients with T2DM exhibited a

  16. High self-assessment of disability and the surgeon's recommendation against surgical intervention may negatively impact satisfaction scores in patients with spinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Marcus D; McEvoy, Sara; Schmidt, Meic H; Bisson, Erica F

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT Patient satisfaction scores have become a common metric for health care quality. Because satisfaction scores are right-skewed, even small differences in mean scores can have a large impact. Little information, however, is available on the specific factors that play a role in satisfaction in patients with spinal disorders. The authors investigated whether disability severity and the surgeon's recommendation for or against surgical intervention were associated with patient satisfaction scores. METHODS The authors conducted a retrospective cohort study involving adult patients who were referred to a spine surgeon for an outpatient evaluation of back pain. Patients completed the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) before their clinic appointment and a Press Ganey patient satisfaction survey after their visit. Patients were grouped by self-assessed disability severity: mild to moderate (ODI Satisfaction scores were graded from 0 (very poor) to 100 (very good). Nonparametric tests were used to evaluate the association between patient satisfaction and current disability self-assessment. The authors also investigated whether the surgeon's recommendation against surgery negatively affected patient satisfaction. RESULTS One hundred thirty patients completed the ODI questionnaire before and satisfaction surveys after seeing a spine surgeon for a new outpatient back pain consultation. Of these, 68 patients had severe disability, 62 had mild to moderate disability, 67 received a recommendation for surgery, and 63 received a recommendation against surgery. Composite satisfaction scores were lower among patients who had severe disability than among those with mild to moderate disability (median [interquartile range]: 91.7 [83.7-96.4] vs 95.8 [91.0-99.3], respectively; p = 0.0040). Patients who received a recommendation against surgery reported lower satisfaction scores than those who received a recommendation for surgery (91.7 [83.5-95.8] vs 95.8 [88.5-99.8]; p = 0

  17. Medico-economic impact of MSKCC non-sentinel node prediction nomogram for ER-positive HER2-negative breast cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, Eugénie; Feron, Jean-Guillaume; Fourchotte, Virginie; Alran, Séverine; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Cottu, Paul; Lerebours, Florence; Stevens, Denise; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Sigal-Zafrani, Brigitte; Campana, François; Rouzier, Roman; Reyal, Fabien

    2017-01-01

    Background Avoiding axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for invasive breast cancers with isolated tumor cells or micrometastatic sentinel node biopsy (SNB) could decrease morbidity with minimal clinical significance. Purpose The aim of this study is to simulate the medico-economic impact of the routine use of the MSKCC non-sentinel node (NSN) prediction nomogram for ER+ HER2- breast cancer patients. Methods We studied 1036 ER+ HER2- breast cancer patients with a metastatic SNB. All had a complementary ALND. For each patient, we calculated the probability of the NSN positivity using the MSKCC nomogram. After validation of this nomogram in the population, we described how the patients’ characteristics spread as the threshold value changed. Then, we performed an economic simulation study to estimate the total cost of caring for patients treated according to the MSKCC predictive nomogram results. Results A 0.3 threshold discriminate the type of sentinel node (SN) metastases: 98.8% of patients with pN0(i+) and 91.6% of patients with pN1(mic) had a MSKCC score under 0.3 (false negative rate = 6.4%). If we use the 0.3 threshold for economic simulation, 43% of ALND could be avoided, reducing the costs of caring by 1 051 980 EUROS among the 1036 patients. Conclusion We demonstrated the cost-effectiveness of using the MSKCC NSN prediction nomogram by avoiding ALND for the pN0(i+) or pN1(mic) ER+ HER2- breast cancer patients with a MSKCC score of less than or equal to 0.3. PMID:28241044

  18. Impact of Ciprofloxacin and Clindamycin Administration on Gram-Negative Bacteria Isolated from Healthy Volunteers and Characterization of the Resistance Genes They Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Roderick M; Mafura, Muriel; Hunt, Theresa; Kirchner, Miranda; Weile, Jan; Rashid, Mamun-Ur; Weintraub, Andrej; Nord, Carl Erik; Anjum, Muna F

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, and placebo administration on culturable Gram-negative isolates and the antibiotic resistance genes they harbor. Saliva and fecal samples were collected from healthy human volunteers before and at intervals, up to 1 year after antibiotic administration. Samples were plated on selective and nonselective media to monitor changes in different colony types or bacterial species. Following ciprofloxacin administration, there was a decrease of Escherichia coli in feces and after clindamycin administration a decrease of Bacteroides in feces and Leptotrichia in saliva, which all returned to pretreatment levels within 1 to 4 months. Ciprofloxacin administration also resulted in an increase in ciprofloxacin-resistant Veillonella in saliva, which persisted for 12 months. Additionally, 949 aerobic and anaerobic isolates purified from ciprofloxacin- and clindamycin-containing plates were screened for the presence of resistance genes. Resistance gene carriage was widespread in isolates from all three treatment groups, and no association was observed between genes and antibiotic administration. Although the anaerobic component of the microbiota was not a major reservoir of aerobe-associated antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes, we detected the sulfonamide resistance gene sul2 in anaerobic isolates. The longitudinal nature of the study allowed identification of distinct Escherichia coli clones harboring multiple resistance genes, including one carrying an extended-spectrum β-lactamase blaCTX-M group 9 gene, which persisted in the gut for up to 4 months. This study provided insight into the effects of antibiotic administration on healthy microbiota and the diversity of resistance genes harbored therein.

  19. A high response to controlled ovarian stimulation induces premature luteinization with a negative impact on pregnancy outcomes in a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hwa Seon; Cha, Sun Hwa; Kim, Hye Ok; Song, In Ok; Min, Eung Gi; Yang, Kwang Moon; Park, Chan Woo

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum progesterone (P4) levels on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration and the pregnancy rate among women undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection-embryo transfer (ICSI-ET) using a flexible antagonist protocol. This prospective study included 200 IVF and ICSI-ET cycles in which a flexible antagonist protocol was used. The patients were divided into five distinct groups according to their serum P4 levels at the time of hCG administration (0.80, 0.85, 0.90, 0.95, and 1.00 ng/mL). The clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) was calculated for each P4 interval. Statistically significant differences were observed at a serum P4 level of 0.9 ng/mL. These data suggest that a serum P4 concentration of 0.9 ng/mL may represent the optimal threshold level for defining premature luteinization (PL) based on the presence of a significant negative impact on the CPR. The CPR for each round of ET was significantly lower in the PL group defined using this threshold (25.8% vs. 41.8%; p=0.019), and the number of oocytes retrieved was significantly higher than in the non-PL group (17.3±7.2 vs. 11.0±7.2; p=0.001). Elevated serum P4 levels on the day of hCG administration were associated with a reduced CPR, despite the retrieval of many oocytes. Measuring serum P4 values at the time of hCG administration is necessary in order to determine the optimal strategy for embryo transfer.

  20. 青海省香日德巴隆异地开发扶贫项目移民迁出区效果评价%Effect Evaluation of Qinghai's Xiangride-Balong Poverty Reduction Off-site Development-oriented Project in Emigrant Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费俊亮; 贾绍凤; 朱文彬

    2011-01-01

    The Xiangride-Balong Off-site Development-oriented Poverty Reduction Project (XiangBa Project) resettled peasant emigrated from Loess Plateau area of East Qinghai to xiangride-balong areas. This paper assessed the effects of Xiangba Project on the emigrant area in three aspects, ie., the effects of economy, society and ecology. The results showed that it contribute effectively to social and economic development and improvement of ecological environment in emigrant areas. However, we found some problems such as the moved households were not the poorest, the development of the fanners who have not resettled has been adversely impacted because village school and hospital moved away after most villagers moved out, and human resources have lost. Meanwhile, It put forward some suggestions for overcoming the above problems: persisting the people-oriented thinking and put pore priorities to the poorest farmers;to change the anti-poverty strategies and resettle the farmers who have not emigrated to nearby township or big village;enhance vocational skill training to improve the quality of labor.%香日德巴隆异地开发扶贫项目是把青海省东部干旱的黄土高原山区的部分贫困人口迁到香日德巴隆地区.本文以香日德巴隆扶贫开发移民迁出区为研究区域,用定性与定量的方法,分析项目的经济效果、社会效果及生态效果.结果显示:香日德巴隆异地开发扶贫项目的实施,有效地促进迁出区社会、经济的发展和改善迁出区的生态环境.同时发现存在如下一些问题:搬迁农户选择的不完全合理、未搬迁农户的发展障碍及人力资源的流失.并提出针对以上问题的建议:坚持“以人文本”的思想,充分考虑农民的利益;转变扶贫方式,就近安置未搬迁农户;加强职业技能培训,提高劳动力素质.

  1. 中国人民银行基层行对金融机构征信非现场监管问题研究%Grass-root Branches of the PBC Off-site Supervision over Credit Reference of Financial Institutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江洲

    2015-01-01

    中国人民银行基层行对银行业金融机构的监管手段单一,对其日常动态的非现场评估管理难成为当下亟待解决的问题。从非现场监管实际现状出发,综合梳理分析当前征信业相关监管政策,借鉴国外经验,立足工作实践,设计非现场监管指标体系及相关配套制度具有重要意义。%The means by which the grass-root branches of the PBC conduct supervision over the banking financial institutions is single, and the difficulty in the daily dynamic off-site assessment management of them has become a problem to be solved. Starting from the actual situation of off-site supervision, a comprehensive analysis is made on the current related regulatory policies for credit reference industry. Learning from foreign experiences and based on the practices, the paper designs an off-site supervision indicator system and some related supporting institutions.

  2. Prognostic impact of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT staging and of pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in triple-negative breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groheux, D.; Merlet, P. [Saint-Louis Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris Cedex 10 (France); University of Paris VII, B2T Doctoral School, Institut Universitaire d' Hematologie, Paris (France); Giacchetti, S.; Hamy, A.S.; Espie, M. [Saint-Louis Hospital, Breast Diseases Unit, Department of Medical Oncology, Paris (France); Delord, M. [Institut Universitaire d' Hematologie, Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Paris (France); Roquancourt, A. de [Saint-Louis Hospital, Department of Pathology, Paris (France); Hindie, E. [University of Bordeaux, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Haut-Leveque Hospital, CHU Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France)

    2014-11-29

    Mortality is high in patients with locally advanced triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), especially in those with residual tumour after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). The aim of this study was to determine if pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT staging and pathological findings after NAC could together allow stratification of patients into prognostic groups. Initial staging with {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT was performed prospectively in 85 consecutive patients with stage II/III TNBC. Correlations between PET findings and disease-specific survival (DSS) were examined. In patients without distant metastases on PET staging, the impact of pathological response to NAC on DSS was examined. Patterns of recurrence were also analysed. {sup 18}F-DG PET/CT revealed distant metastases in 11 of 85 patients (12.9 %). Among 74 M0 patients, 23 (31.1 %) showed a pathological complete response (pCR) at surgery, while 51 had residual invasive disease (no pCR). DSS differed considerably among the three groups of patients (log-rank P <.001): among patients with occult metastases on baseline PET/CT, 2-year DSS was 18.2 %, and among patients without initial metastases on PET/CT, 5-year DSS was 61.3 % in patients without pCR after NAC and 95.2 % in those with pCR. Of the 51 patients who did not achieve pCR, 21 relapsed (17 developed distant metastases). The sites of distant recurrence were: lung/pleura (nine patients), brain (eight patients), liver (six patients), distant lymph nodes (six patients) and bone (five patients). In patients with clinical stage II/III TNBC, {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT findings at initial staging and pathological response at the end of NAC allow three groups of patients with quite different prognoses to be defined. Extraskeletal recurrences predominated. Specific follow-up strategies in patients with TNBC who do not achieve pCR deserve investigation. (orig.)

  3. One day at a time: The impact of daily satisfaction with spouse responses on pain, negative affect and catastrophizing among individuals with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, Susan; Delongis, Anita

    2007-09-01

    The majority of research on pain catastrophizing has focused on its negative consequences for adjustment to chronic pain, with few investigations of factors that influence catastrophizing or its detrimental effects. Using a daily process methodology, the current study examined, first, the extent to which a supportive social environment plays a role in reduced catastrophizing, and second, the extent to which support might protect against the detrimental effects of catastrophizing on well-being. Sixty-nine married individuals with rheumatoid arthritis took part in an initial background interview, followed by twice daily telephone interviews (regarding pain intensity, negative affect, catastrophizing and satisfaction with spouse responses) for 1 week. Multi-level modeling indicated several pathways through which satisfaction with spouse responses disrupts the vicious cycle of pain, negative affect and catastrophizing. Consistent with past research, catastrophizing was associated with increases in pain and negative affect. However, when individuals reported increases in satisfaction with spouse responses they were less likely to experience increases in negative affect due to catastrophizing. Satisfaction with spouse responses also reduced the likelihood of feeling overwhelmed and helpless in dealing with daily pain. The relationship between pain and catastrophizing was attenuated in the context of increases in satisfaction with spouse responses. Negative affect was associated with increases in catastrophizing, but only when individuals reported decreases in satisfaction with spouse responses. Overall, findings were consistent with a model in which satisfaction with spouse responses serves as a coping resource, and suggests the importance of involving close others in treatments to reduce pain and catastrophizing.

  4. The Impact of Selected Higher Education Institutions on Single Family Home Values: A Hedonic Approach with GIS Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Spencer Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The presence of a college or university in a community can be a source of great pride and economic vitality. An institution's presence, however, may also generate unintended off-site impacts, such as traffic congestion, inadequate parking, heightened crime, insufficient taxable property, and deteriorating neighborhoods, which strain local…

  5. Potential impact of a microarray-based nucleic acid assay for rapid detection of Gram-negative bacteria and resistance markers in positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Nicasio; Infurnari, Laura; Ghidoli, Nadia; Valzano, Grazia; Clementi, Nicola; Burioni, Roberto; Clementi, Massimo

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated the Verigene Gram-negative blood culture (BC-GN) test, a microarray that detects Gram-negative bacteria and several resistance genes. A total of 102 positive blood cultures were tested, and the BC-GN test correctly identified 97.9% of the isolates within its panel. Resistance genes (CTX-M, KPC, VIM, and OXA genes) were detected in 29.8% of the isolates, with positive predictive values of 95.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 87.7% to 98.9%) in Enterobacteriaceae and 100% (95% CI, 75.9% to 100%) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and negative predictive values of 100% (95% CI, 93.9% to 100%) and 78.6% (95% CI, 51.0% to 93.6%), respectively.

  6. Impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohse, Detlef; Bergmann, Raymond; Mikkelsen, Rene; Zeilstra, Christiaan; Meer, van der Devaraj; Versluis, Michel

    2004-01-01

    A lot of information on impacts of solid bodies on planets has been extracted from remote observations of impact craters on planetary surfaces; experiments however with large enough impact energies as compared to the energy stored in the ground are difficult. We approach this problem by downscaled e

  7. Negativity in Massive Online Open Courses: Impacts on Learning and Teaching and How Instructional Teams May Be Able to Address It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Denise; Baker, Ryan; Wang, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    There are many positive aspects of teaching and learning in Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs), for both instructors and students. However, there is also a considerable amount of negativity in MOOCs, emerging from learners on discussion forums and through peer assessment, from disciplinary colleagues and from public discourse around MOOCs.…

  8. The Impact of Positive and Negative Ecstasy-Related Information on Ecstasy Use among College Students: Results of a Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Kathryn B.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To: (1) estimate the proportion of students exposed to specific types of information regarding the positive and negative effects of ecstasy, (2) test models that quantified the relationship between exposure to these messages and subsequent ecstasy use, controlling for peer drug use and sensation-seeking. Methods: As part of the College Life…

  9. Icodextrin does not impact infectious and culture-negative peritonitis rates in peritoneal dialysis patients: a 2-year multicentre, comparative, prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vychytil, Andreas; Remón, César; Michel, Catherine; Williams, Paul; Rodríguez-Carmona, Ana; Marrón, Belén; Vonesh, Ed; van der Heyden, Synke; Divino Filho, Jose C

    2008-11-01

    Icodextrin is a glucose polymer derived by hydrolysis of cornstarch. The different biocompatibility profile of icodextrin-containing peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions may have a positive influence on peritoneal host defence. Furthermore, cases of sterile peritonitis potentially associated with icodextrin have been reported. The primary objective of this multicentre, longitudinal, observational, non-interventional, prospective cohort study, which included 722 PD patients, was to evaluate the incidence of overall peritonitis in patients treated with icodextrin-containing PD solutions (Extraneal) used during one long-dwell exchange/day compared with those treated with non-icodextrin-containing PD solutions. The secondary objective was to determine if culture-negative peritonitis rates differed between patients treated with icodextrin from two independent manufacturers. All peritonitis episodes were assessed by a Steering Committee in a blind manner. There was no significant difference between icodextrin-treated and control patients in the adjusted overall, culture-positive or culture-negative peritonitis rates. When stratified by the icodextrin supplier, there was no significant difference in the adjusted rate of culture-negative peritonitis episodes between groups. Subjects receiving icodextrin as part of their PD regimen experienced neither a higher rate of culture-negative peritonitis nor a lower rate of infectious peritonitis compared with non-icodextrin users. There was no significant influence of the icodextrin raw material supplier on peritonitis rates.

  10. Icodextrin does not impact infectious and culture-negative peritonitis rates in peritoneal dialysis patients: a 2-year multicentre, comparative, prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vychytil, Andreas; Remón, César; Michel, Catherine; Williams, Paul; Rodríguez-Carmona, Ana; Marrón, Belén; Vonesh, Ed; van der Heyden, Synke; Filho, Jose C. Divino

    2008-01-01

    Background. Icodextrin is a glucose polymer derived by hydrolysis of cornstarch. The different biocompatibility profile of icodextrin-containing peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions may have a positive influence on peritoneal host defence. Furthermore, cases of sterile peritonitis potentially associated with icodextrin have been reported. Methods. The primary objective of this multicentre, longitudinal, observational, non-interventional, prospective cohort study, which included 722 PD patients, was to evaluate the incidence of overall peritonitis in patients treated with icodextrin-containing PD solutions (Extraneal™) used during one long-dwell exchange/day compared with those treated with non-icodextrin-containing PD solutions. The secondary objective was to determine if culture-negative peritonitis rates differed between patients treated with icodextrin from two independent manufacturers. All peritonitis episodes were assessed by a Steering Committee in a blind manner. Results. There was no significant difference between icodextrin-treated and control patients in the adjusted overall, culture-positive or culture-negative peritonitis rates. When stratified by the icodextrin supplier, there was no significant difference in the adjusted rate of culture-negative peritonitis episodes between groups. Conclusion. Subjects receiving icodextrin as part of their PD regimen experienced neither a higher rate of culture-negative peritonitis nor a lower rate of infectious peritonitis compared with non-icodextrin users. There was no significant influence of the icodextrin raw material supplier on peritonitis rates. PMID:18556747

  11. Impact of cognitive behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder on the neural dynamics of cognitive reappraisal of negative self-beliefs: randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Philippe R; Ziv, Michal; Jazaieri, Hooria; Hahn, Kevin; Heimberg, Richard; Gross, James J

    2013-10-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) is thought to enhance cognitive reappraisal in patients with SAD. Such improvements should be evident in cognitive reappraisal-related prefrontal cortex responses. To determine whether CBT for SAD modifies cognitive reappraisal-related prefrontal cortex neural signal magnitude and timing when implementing cognitive reappraisal with negative self-beliefs. DESIGN Randomized clinical trial of CBT for SAD vs wait-list control group during a study that enrolled patients from 2007 to 2010. University psychology department. Seventy-five patients with generalized SAD randomly assigned to CBT or wait list. Sixteen sessions of individual CBT for SAD. Negative emotion ratings and functional magnetic resonance imaging blood oxygen-level dependent signal when reacting to and cognitively reappraising negative self-beliefs embedded in autobiographical social anxiety situations. RESULTS During reactivity trials, compared with wait list, CBT produced (1) greater reduction in negative emotion ratings and (2) greater blood oxygen-level dependent signal magnitude in the medial prefrontal cortex. During cognitive reappraisal trials, compared with wait list, CBT produced (3) greater reduction in negative emotion ratings, (4) greater blood oxygen level-dependent signal magnitude in the dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, (5) earlier temporal onset of dorsomedial prefrontal cortex activity, and (6) greater dorsomedial prefrontal cortex-amygdala inverse functional connectivity. Modulation of cognitive reappraisal-related brain responses, timing, and functional connectivity may be important brain changes that contribute to the effectiveness of CBT for social anxiety. This study demonstrates that clinically applied neuroscience investigations can elucidate neurobiological mechanisms of change in psychiatric conditions. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00380731.

  12. The impact of emotion regulation and illness-focused coping strategies on the relation of illness-related negative emotions to subjective health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karademas, Evangelos C; Tsalikou, Calliope; Tallarou, Maria-Christina

    2011-04-01

    In this study we examined whether emotion regulation and illness-focused coping strategies mediate and/ or moderate the relation of illness-related negative emotions to patients' subjective health. One hundred and thirty-five cardiac patients participated in the study. Illness-focused coping strategies were found to mediate the relation of emotions to physical functioning, whereas emotion regulation strategies mediated the relation to psychological well-being. Moreover, an emotion regulation strategy (i.e. emotion suppression) and two illness-focused coping strategies (instrumental coping and adherence) moderated the two relationships. These findings suggest that both emotion regulation and illness-focused coping strategies are integral parts of the illness-related negative emotions-health relationship.

  13. The impact of family policy and career interruptions on women's perceptions of negative occupational consequences of full-time home care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, Anders

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the role of family policy in shaping mothers' choice between work and care and the perceived occupational consequences of that choice. A central question concerns how parental/maternal leave and childcare policies affect the occupational consequences for mothers who spend time...... on full-time caring. Using comparative data from the second round of the 2004/05 European Social Survey, the analysis shows that the duration of career interruption due to care-giving and different care policies influence mothers' subjective feelings about caring for children having negative consequences...... for their careers. On the one hand, our findings confirm the hypothesis that long-term absence from the labour market due to full-time care has negative consequences for women's occupational careers. On the other hand, our findings show that countries with well paid leave schemes combined with access to high...

  14. The negative effect of decreasing the level of activity in coping with pain in rheumatoid arthritis: An increase in psychological distress and disease impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lankveld, W.G.J.M. van; Nä ring, G.W.B.; Pad Bosch, P. van 't; Putte, L.B.A. van de

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of coping with pain in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on subsequent changes in psychological distress and disease impact. A sample of 109 randomly selected RA patients was asked to participate in a longitudinal study. Patients were measured at baselin

  15. Current knowledge on the environmental fate, potential impact, and management of growth-promoting steroids used in the US beef cattle industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growth promoting steroids and steroid-like compounds (GPSC) used by the US beef cattle industry are potential contaminants to water resources. Manure generated in concentrated animal feeding operations contains GPSCs that may enter the environment. Several studies have focused on off-site impacts of...

  16. Prognostic Value of Molecular Subtypes, Ki67 Expression and Impact of Postmastectomy Radiation Therapy in Breast Cancer Patients With Negative Lymph Nodes After Mastectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selz, Jessica, E-mail: chaumontjessica@yahoo.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie, Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint Cloud (France); Stevens, Denise; Jouanneau, Ludivine [Department of Medical Statistics, Institut Curie, Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint Cloud (France); Labib, Alain [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie, Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint Cloud (France); Le Scodan, Romuald [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Prive Saint Gregoire, Saint Gregoire (France)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To determine whether Ki67 expression and breast cancer subtypes could predict locoregional recurrence (LRR) and influence the postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) decision in breast cancer (BC) patients with pathologic negative lymph nodes (pN0) after modified radical mastectomy (MRM). Methods and Materials: A total of 699 BC patients with pN0 status after MRM, treated between 2001 and 2008, were identified from a prospective database in a single institution. Tumors were classified by intrinsic molecular subtype as luminal A or B, HER2+, and triple-negative (TN) using estrogen, progesterone, and HER2 receptors. Multivariate Cox analysis was used to determine the risk of LRR associated with intrinsic subtypes and Ki67 expression, adjusting for known prognostic factors. Results: At a median follow-up of 56 months, 17 patients developed LRR. Five-year LRR-free survival and overall survival in the entire population were 97%, and 94.7%, respectively, with no difference between the PMRT (n=191) and no-PMRT (n=508) subgroups. No constructed subtype was associated with an increased risk of LRR. Ki67 >20% was the only independent prognostic factor associated with increased LRR (hazard ratio, 4.18; 95% CI, 1.11-15.77; P<.0215). However, PMRT was not associated with better locoregional control in patients with proliferative tumors. Conclusions: Ki67 expression but not molecular subtypes are predictors of locoregional recurrence in breast cancer patients with negative lymph nodes after MRM. The benefit of adjuvant RT in patients with proliferative tumors should be further investigated in prospective studies.

  17. A brief report on the illegal cage-bird trade in southern Florida: a potentially serious negative impact on the eastern population of Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, P.W.; Manfredi, L.; Padura, M.

    2006-01-01

    Populations of Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris) have been declining annually over the past 35 years. A cursory survey indicates that illegal trapping of Painted Buntings for a black market cage-bird trade is widespread in southeastern Florida. Coupled with other negative factors confronting the eastern population, the trapping of buntings for the cagebird trade may, in time, produce dire results for this native songbird. Law enforcement personnel need to continue to monitor the illegal activity of trapping native passerines for the local songbird market and to continue to arrest those who support it.

  18. [Use of negative pressure therapy in the treatment of primary infected traumatic wounds of the foot caused by high energy impact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinović, Marin; Spanjol, Josip; Laginja, Stanislava; Grzalja, Nikola; Stiglić, Damir; Ekl, Darko; Fumić, Nera; Sepac, Brigita

    2013-10-01

    Foot injuries caused by firearms and high pressure washing machines are not common, but due to high energy can be very destructive and contaminated with microorganisms. Due to the anatomical specificity of the foot, injures of the specific structure such as blood vessels, nerves and tendon-ligament apparatus are frequent. Soft tissue defect is often present. Functional and aesthetic recovery of the foot is a challenge for the surgeon. Direct and indirect effect of the negative pressure therapy helps in wound healing and provides good preparation for definitive surgical management of wounds.

  19. Final environmental assessment for off-site transportation of low-level waste from four California sites under the management of the U.S. Department of Energy Oakland Operations Office

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The Department of Energy Oakland Operations Office (DOE/OAK) manages sites within California that generate Low Level Waste (LLW) in the course or routine site operations. It is the preference of the DOE to dispose of LLW at federally owned and DOE-operated disposal facilities; however, in some circumstances DOE Headquarters has determined that disposal at commercial facilities is appropriate, as long as the facility meets all regulatory requirements for the acceptance and disposal of LLW, including the passage of a DOE audit to determine the adequacy of the disposal site. The DOE would like to ship LLW from four DOE/OAK sites in California which generate LLW, to NRC-licensed commercial nuclear waste disposal facilities such as Envirocare in Clive, Utah and Chem Nuclear in Barnwell, South Carolina. Transportation impacts for shipment of LLW and MLLW from DOE Oakland sites to other DOE sites was included in the impacts identified in the Department`s Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM-PEIS), published in May, 1997, and determined to be low. The low impacts for shipment to commercial sites identified herein is consistent with the WM-PEIS results.

  20. Oak Ridge Health Studies Phase 1 report, Volume 2: Part A, Dose Reconstruction Feasibility Study. Tasks 1 and 2, A summary of historical activities on the Oak Ridge Reservation with emphasis on information concerning off-site emissions of hazardous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, G.M.; Buddenbaum, J.E.; Lamb, J.K.; Widner, T.E.

    1993-09-01

    The Phase I feasibility study has focused on determining the availability of information for estimating exposures of the public to chemicals and radionuclides released as a result of historical operation of the facilities at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The estimation of such past exposures is frequently called dose reconstruction. The initial project tasks, Tasks 1 and 2 were designed to identify and collect information that documents the history of activities at the ORR that resulted in the release of contamination and to characterize the availability of data that could be used to estimate the magnitude of the contaminant releases or public exposures. A history of operations that are likely to have generated off-site releases has been documented as a result of Task 1 activities. The activities required to perform this task involved the extensive review of historical operation records and interviews with present and past employees as well as other knowledgeable individuals. The investigation process is documented in this report. The Task 1 investigations have led to the documentation of an overview of the activities that have taken place at each of the major complexes, including routine operations, waste management practices, special projects, and accidents and incidents. Historical activities that appear to warrant the highest priority in any further investigations were identified based on their likely association with off-site emissions of hazardous materials as indicated by the documentation reviewed or information obtained in interviews.

  1. Media and technology use predicts ill-being among children, preteens and teenagers independent of the negative health impacts of exercise and eating habits

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, L.D.; Lim, A.F.; Felt, J.; Carrier, L.M.; Cheever, N.A.; Lara-Ruiz, J.M.; Mendoza, J.S.; Rokkum, J.

    2014-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends no screen time for children under the age of 2 and limited screen time for all children. However, no such guidelines have been proposed for preteens and teenagers. Further, research shows that children, preteens, and teenagers are using massive amounts of media and those with more screen time have been shown to have increased obesity, reduced physical activity, and decreased health. This study examined the impact of technology on four areas of ill...

  2. Impact of suppression of tumorigenicity 14 (ST14)/serine protease 14 (Prss14) expression analysis on the prognosis and management of estrogen receptor negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sauryang; Yang, Jae Woong; Kim, Chungho; Kim, Moon Gyo

    2016-06-01

    To elucidate the role of a type II transmembrane serine protease, ST14/Prss14, during breast cancer progression, we utilized publically accessible databases including TCGA, GEO, NCI-60, and CCLE. Survival of breast cancer patients with high ST14/Prss14 expression is significantly poor in estrogen receptor (ER) negative populations regardless of the ratios of ST14/Prss14 to its inhibitors, SPINT1 or SPINT2. In a clustering of 1085 selected EMT signature genes, ST14/Prss14 is located in the same cluster with CDH3, and closer to post-EMT markers, CDH2, VIM, and FN1 than to the pre-EMT marker, CDH1. Coexpression analyses of known ST14/Prss14 substrates and transcription factors revealed context dependent action. In cell lines, paradoxically, ST14/Prss14 expression is higher in the ER positive group and located closer to CDH1 in clustering. This apparent contradiction is not likely due to ST14/Prss14 expression in a cancer microenvironment, nor due to negative regulation by ER. Genes consistently coexpressed with ST14/Prss14 include transcription factors, ELF5, GRHL1, VGLL1, suggesting currently unknown mechanisms for regulation. Here, we report that ST14/Prss14 is an emerging therapeutic target for breast cancer where HER2 is not applicable. In addition we suggest that careful conclusions should be drawn not exclusively from the cell line studies for target development.

  3. 社交媒体对大学生人际关系负面影响分析%Social Media Negative Impact Analysis on College Students' Interpersonal Relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑾; 陈琦

    2016-01-01

    社交媒体的网络空间属性和大学生的心理特殊性,使得社交媒体给大学生人际关系带来很多的负面影响,社交媒体带来的网络暴力由虚拟平台向现实生活蔓延,社交媒体给大学生人际关系带来更多压力,社交媒体增加大学生人际关系中的不确定因素.结合负面影响产生的原因,本文从法律层面、教育层面和学生管理层面分析解决这一问题的对策.%Social media network spatial attributes and the psychological characteristics of college students make social media bring a lot of negative effects on college students' interpersonal relationships. Social media violence by the virtual platform of network spreads to the real life. Social media puts additional pressure on college students' interpersonal relationships. Social media increases the uncertainty factors in college students' interpersonal relationship. Combining with the causes of negative effects, the author from the legal level, education level and student management level takes an analysis to solve the problem.

  4. BACTERIAL BLOOD STREAM INFECTIONS NEGATIVELY IMPACT ON OUTCOME OF PATIENTS TREATED WITH ALLOGENEIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION: 6 YEARS SINGLE-CENTRE EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Malagola

    2017-06-01

    Results: Eighty patients experienced a BSIs for a total of 119 isolates. In 77 cases (65% a Gram positive bacteria was isolated, being coagulase negative Staphilococci the most frequent species (77% of the cases. In 42 cases (35% a Gram negative bacteria was isolated (E. coli 57% and P. aeruginosa 24%. Fluoroquinolones resistance was frequent (90% for S. epidermidis, 92% for E. coli, 90% for P. aeruginosa. Methycillin resistance of S. epidermidis was 100%, 76% of E. coli were ESBL positive and among P. aeruginosa resistance to carbapenems was 40%. The 2 years overall survival of patients with BSIs vs patients without BSIs was 46% vs 60% (HR1,48, p=0,07. P. areuginosa and E. coli were the species with the highest mortality (50% and 33%, respectively. Conclusions: These data confirms that BSIs, mainly sustained by Gram positive bacteria, are frequent in allotransplanted patients (50% of the cases and may influence the outcome of allotransplanted patients, being antibiotics resistance highly frequent among these bacteria.

  5. Research on the Negative Impact of Peer Pressure on Graduate Employment and Related Countermeasures%高校就业工作中同龄人压力的负面影响及对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢家荣; 耿佃梅

    2014-01-01

    群体性是高校大学生的显著特点。通过引入同龄人压力这一心理学概念,分析同龄人压力对高校毕业生就业工作带来的负面影响,并提出解决对策。%Group collectivism is a distinctive feature of college students. By introducing the psychological concept of peer pressure, the article analyzes its negative impact on college students in their job seeking process and proposes related countermeasures.

  6. Negative Attitudes, Network and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe

    , the impact of negative attitudes and networking taking into account that these parameters may influence high and uneducated workers as well as immigrants and natives differently, creating different incentives to acquire education for the two ethnic groups. Using rich Danish administrative data, this paper......This paper explores potential explanations behind the educational gap between young natives and immigrants using two measures, negative attitudes towards immigrants and networking, which may influence natives and immigrants differently. The paper considers, both theoretically and empirically...... finds evidence that greater negative attitudes increase incentives for males to acquire education and that networking also increases immigrant education....

  7. Negative Attitudes, Network and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe;

    This paper explores potential explanations behind the educational gap between young natives and immigrants using two measures, negative attitudes towards immigrants and networking, which may influence natives and immigrants differently. The paper considers, both theoretically and empirically......, the impact of negative attitudes and networking taking into account that these parameters may influence high and uneducated workers as well as immigrants and natives differently, creating different incentives to acquire education for the two ethnic groups. Using rich Danish administrative data, this paper...... finds evidence that greater negative attitudes increase incentives for males to acquire education and that networking also increases immigrant education....

  8. Impact of Donor Activating KIR Genes on HSCT Outcome in C1-Ligand Negative Myeloid Disease Patients Transplanted with Unrelated Donors—A Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuchel, Christine; Fürst, Daniel; Niederwieser, Dietger; Tsamadou, Chrysanthi; Wulf, Gerald; Pfreundschuh, Michael; Wagner, Eva; Stuhler, Gernot; Einsele, Hermann; Schrezenmeier, Hubert; Mytilineos, Joannis

    2017-01-01

    Natural Killer cells (NK) are lymphocytes with the potential to recognize and lyse cells which escaped T-cell mediated lysis due to their aberrant HLA expression profiles. Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) influence NK-cell activity by mediation of activating or inhibitory signals upon interaction with HLA-C (C1, C2) ligands. Therefore, absence of ligands for donor inhibitory KIRs following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) may have an influence on its outcome. Previous studies showed that C1 negative patients have a decreased HSCT outcome. Our study, based on a cohort of 200 C1-negative patients, confirmed these findings for the endpoints: overall survival (OS: HR = 1.41, CI = 1.14–1.74, p = 0.0012), disease free survival (DFS: HR = 1.27, CI = 1.05–1.53, p = 0.015), treatment related mortality (TRM: HR = 1.41, CI = 1.01–1.96, p = 0.04), and relapse incidence (RI: HR = 1.33, CI = 1.01–1.75, p = 0.04) all being inferior when compared to C1-positive patients (n = 1246). Subsequent analysis showed that these findings applied for patients with myeloid malignancies but not for patients with lymphoproliferative diseases (OS: myeloid: HR = 1.51, CI = 1.15–1.99, p = 0.003; lymphoblastic: HR = 1.26, CI = 0.91–1.75, p = 0.16; DFS: myeloid: HR = 1.31, CI = 1.01–1.70, p = 0.04; lymphoblastic: HR = 1.21, CI = 0.90–1.61, p = 0.21; RI: myeloid: HR = 1.31, CI = 1.01–1.70, p = 0.04; lymphoblastic: HR = 1.21, CI = 0.90–1.61, p = 0.21). Interestingly, within the C1-negative patient group, transplantation with KIR2DS2 resulted in better OS (9/10 matched: HR = 0.24, CI = 0.08–0.67, p = 0.007) as well as DFS (9/10 matched: HR = 0,26, CI = 0.11–0.60, p = 0.002), and transplantation with KIR2DS1 positive donors was associated with a decreased RI (HR = 0.30, CI = 0.13–0.69, p = 0.005). TRM was increased when the donor was positive for KIR2DS1 (HR = 2.61, CI = 1.26–5.41, p = 0.001). Our findings suggest that inclusion of KIR2DS1/2/5 and

  9. Selection for increased muscling in Angus cattle did not increase the glycolytic potential or negatively impact pH decline, retail colour stability or mineral content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGilchrist, P; Greenwood, P L; Pethick, D W; Gardner, G E

    2016-04-01

    This study determined the impact of selection for greater muscling in Angus cattle on myofibre characteristics, muscle enzymatics, retail colour stability, pH decline and mineral content of the semimembranosus (SM), semitendinosus (ST) and longissimus thoracis (LT). Muscle from 10 low muscled (low) and 11 high muscled (high) steers were analysed. The high steers had myofibres 22% and 24% larger in cross-sectional area in the SM and ST (Piron in the LT (Pmineral content, pH decline or retail colour stability. Myofibre hypertrophy is one mechanism leading to greater muscle mass of these high muscled cattle.

  10. The impacts of biomass properties on pyrolysis yields, economic and environmental performance of the pyrolysis-bioenergy-biochar platform to carbon negative energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenqin; Dang, Qi; Brown, Robert C; Laird, David; Wright, Mark M

    2017-10-01

    This study evaluated the impact of biomass properties on the pyrolysis product yields, economic and environmental performance for the pyrolysis-biochar-bioenergy platform. We developed and applied a fast pyrolysis, feedstock-sensitive, regression-based chemical process model to 346 different feedstocks, which were grouped into five types: woody, stalk/cob/ear, grass/plant, organic residue/product and husk/shell/pit. The results show that biomass ash content of 0.3-7.7wt% increases biochar yield from 0.13 to 0.16kg/kg of biomass, and decreases biofuel yields from 87.3 to 40.7 gallons per tonne. Higher O/C ratio (0.88-1.12) in biomass decreases biochar yield and increases biofuel yields within the same ash content level. Higher ash content of biomass increases minimum fuel selling price (MFSP), while higher O/C ratio of biomass decreases MFSP within the same ash content level. The impact of ash and O/C ratio of biomass on GHG emissions are not consistent for all feedstocks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dissecting the regulatory microenvironment of a large animal model of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: evidence of a negative prognostic impact of FOXP3+ T cells in canine B cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Dammy; Chang, Yu-Mei; Bryant, Hannah; Szladovits, Balazs; Dalessandri, Tim; Davison, Lucy J; Yallop, Elizabeth; Mills, Emily; Leo, Chiara; Lara, Ana; Stell, Anneliese; Polton, Gerry; Garden, Oliver A

    2014-01-01

    The cancer microenvironment plays a pivotal role in oncogenesis, containing a number of regulatory cells that attenuate the anti-neoplastic immune response. While the negative prognostic impact of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the context of most solid tissue tumors is well established, their role in lymphoid malignancies remains unclear. T cells expressing FOXP3 and Helios were documented in the fine needle aspirates of affected lymph nodes of dogs with spontaneous multicentric B cell lymphoma (BCL), proposed to be a model for human non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Multivariable analysis revealed that the frequency of lymph node FOXP3(+) T cells was an independent negative prognostic factor, impacting both progression-free survival (hazard ratio 1.10; p = 0.01) and overall survival (hazard ratio 1.61; p = 0.01) when comparing dogs showing higher than the median FOXP3 expression with those showing the median value of FOXP3 expression or less. Taken together, these data suggest the existence of a population of Tregs operational in canine multicentric BCL that resembles thymic Tregs, which we speculate are co-opted by the tumor from the periphery. We suggest that canine multicentric BCL represents a robust large animal model of human diffuse large BCL, showing clinical, cytological and immunophenotypic similarities with the disease in man, allowing comparative studies of immunoregulatory mechanisms.

  12. Negation and negative concord in romance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, Henriëtte de; Sag, I.A.

    This paper addresses the two interpretations a combination of negative indefinites can get in concord languages like French, namely a concord reading which amounts to a single negation, or a double negation reading. We develop an analysis in a polyadic framework, in which a sequence of

  13. Do you get where I'm coming from?: Perceived understanding buffers against the negative impact of conflict on relationship satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Amie M; Chen, Serena

    2016-02-01

    Conflict can have damaging effects on relationship health. But is all conflict detrimental? Across 7 studies, we tested the overarching hypothesis that conflict in close relationships is only detrimental when people do not feel their thoughts, feelings, and point of view are understood by their relationship partners. Supporting this, conflict was negatively associated with relationship satisfaction among participants who perceived their romantic partner as less understanding, but not among those who felt more understood by their partners. This was true cross-sectionally (Study 1), experimentally (Studies 2, 3, 6a, and 6b), in daily life (Study 4), and for both members of couples pre- to postconflict conversation in the laboratory (Study 5). The buffering effects of feeling understood could not be explained by people who felt more understood being more understanding themselves, having more general positive perceptions of their partners, fighting about less important or different types of issues, engaging in more pleasant conflict conversations, or being more satisfied with their relationships before the conflict. Perceived understanding was positively associated with conflict resolution, but this did not explain the benefits of feeling understood. Evidence from Studies 6a and 6b suggests that feeling understood during conflict may buffer against reduced relationship satisfaction in part because it strengthens the relationship and signals that one's partner is invested. Overall, these studies suggest that perceived understanding may be a critical buffer against the potentially detrimental effects of relationship conflict.

  14. The simultaneous separation and determination of chloropropanols in soy sauce and other flavoring with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in negative chemical and electron impact ionization modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaomin; Ren, Yiping; Wu, Pinggu; Han, Jianlong; Shen, Xianghong

    2006-02-01

    Both gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in electron ionization (GC-MS-EI) and negative chemical ionization (GC-MS-NCI) modes are reported in this paper for the simultaneous determination of 1,3-dichloropropan-2-ol (1,3-DCP), 2,3-dichloropropan-1-ol (2,3-DCP), 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and 2-chloropropane-1,3-diol (2-MCPD) in soy sauce and other flavoring. D(5)-3-MCPD (for 3-MCPD and 2-MCPD) and d(5)-1,3-DCP (for 1,3-DCP and 2,3-DCP) were used as the deuterium isotopic labelled internal standards. The feasibility of using heptafluorobutyric anhydride modified with triethylamine (HFBA-Et(3)N) as a new derivatization reagent to replace heptafluorobutyrylimidazole (HFBI) is proposed. Liquid/liquid extraction with hexane was introduced for high lipid content samples. A small survey was carried out of soy sauces (103 samples) and instant noodles (45 samples) and the applicability of GC-MS-NCI and GC-MS-EI was assessed in these different matrices.

  15. Prognostic impact of alternative splicing-derived hMENA isoforms in resected, node-negative, non-small-cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperduti, Isabella; Iapicca, Pierluigi; Visca, Paolo; Alessandrini, Gabriele; Antoniani, Barbara; Pilotto, Sara; Ludovini, Vienna; Vannucci, Jacopo; Bellezza, Guido; Sidoni, Angelo; Tortora, Giampaolo; Radisky, Derek C.; Crinò, Lucio; Cognetti, Francesco; Facciolo, Francesco; Mottolese, Marcella

    2014-01-01

    Risk assessment and treatment choice remain a challenge in early non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Alternative splicing is an emerging source for diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic tools. Here, we investigated the prognostic value of the actin cytoskeleton regulator hMENA and its isoforms, hMENA11a and hMENAΔv6, in early NSCLC. The epithelial hMENA11a isoform was expressed in NSCLC lines expressing E-CADHERIN and was alternatively expressed with hMENAΔv6. Enforced expression of hMENAΔv6 or hMENA11a increased or decreased the invasive ability of A549 cells, respectively. hMENA isoform expression was evaluated in 248 node-negative NSCLC. High pan-hMENA and low hMENA11a were the only independent predictors of shorter disease-free and cancer-specific survival, and low hMENA11a was an independent predictor of shorter overall survival, at multivariate analysis. Patients with low pan-hMENA/high hMENA11a expression fared significantly better (P≤0.0015) than any other subgroup. Such hybrid variable was incorporated with T-size and number of resected lymph nodes into a 3-class-risk stratification model, which strikingly discriminated between different risks of relapse, cancer-related death, and death. The model was externally validated in an independent dataset of 133 patients. Relative expression of hMENA splice isoforms is a powerful prognostic factor in early NSCLC, complementing clinical parameters to accurately predict individual patient risk. PMID:25373410

  16. Health Technology Assessment of the Negative Pressure Wound Therapy for the treatment of acute and chronic wounds: efficacy, safety, cost effectiveness, organizational and ethical impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Giorgi Rossi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: the aim of the study was to assess the safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness of negative Pressure wound therapy (nPT for people with chronic and acute wounds.

    Methods: the scope and the final draft of the report have been submitted to the stakeholders (producers, payers and patients. safety issues were addressed through a systematic review of the meta-literature. efficacy was addressed through a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (rcTs comparing nPT and other standard therapies in patients with chronic or acute lesions. cost-consequence was analyzed through a systematic review of the existing studies.

    Results: we retrieved 19 studies, 13 of which were included in the meta-analysis. Many studies had biases that may have resulted in a better performance for nPT. nPT showed: a slightly shorter healing time (-10.4 days, p=0.001, with no heterogeneity, apart from one small study with very positive results, and 40% more patients healed (p=0.002, no heterogeneity.We identified 15 original research papers on nPT costs and cost per outcome. The costs-per-patient- treated varied from +29% to -60%, with several studies reporting savings for nPT.

    Conclusions: despite serious methodological flaws, the body of evidence available was sufficient to prove some clinical benefit of nPT in severe chronic and acute wound treatment. There is a need for independent and contextualized cost analyses....

  17. Impact of Consolidation Radiation Therapy in Stage III-IV Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma With Negative Post-Chemotherapy Radiologic Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorth, Jennifer A., E-mail: jennifer.dorth@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Prosnitz, Leonard R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Broadwater, Gloria [Cancer Statistical Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Diehl, Louis F.; Beaven, Anne W. [Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Coleman, R. Edward [Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kelsey, Chris R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: While consolidation radiation therapy (i.e., RT administered after chemotherapy) is routine treatment for patients with early-stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the role of consolidation RT in stage III-IV DLBCL is controversial. Methods and Materials: Cases of patients with stage III-IV DLBCL treated from 1991 to 2009 at Duke University, who achieved a complete response to chemotherapy were reviewed. Clinical outcomes were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and were compared between patients who did and did not receive RT, using the log-rank test. A multivariate analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazards model. Results: Seventy-nine patients were identified. Chemotherapy (median, 6 cycles) consisted of anti-CD20 antibody rituximab combined with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP; 65%); cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP; 22%); or other (13%). Post-chemotherapy imaging consisted of positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) (73%); gallium with CT (14%); or CT only (13%). Consolidation RT (median, 25 Gy) was given to involved sites of disease in 38 (48%) patients. Receipt of consolidation RT was associated with improved in-field control (92% vs. 69%, respectively, p = 0.028) and event-free survival (85% vs. 65%, respectively, p = 0.014) but no difference in overall survival (85% vs. 78%, respectively, p = 0.15) when compared to patients who did not receive consolidation RT. On multivariate analysis, no RT was predictive of increased risk of in-field failure (hazard ratio [HR], 8.01, p = 0.014) and worse event-free survival (HR, 4.3, p = 0.014). Conclusions: Patients with stage III-IV DLBCL who achieve negative post-chemotherapy imaging have improved in-field control and event-free survival with low-dose consolidation RT.

  18. Evaluating energy sorghum harvest thresholds and tillage cropping systems to offset negative environmental impacts and harvesting equipment-induced soil compaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meki, M. N.; Snider, J. L.; Kiniry, J. R.; Raper, R. L.; Rocateli, A. C.

    2011-12-01

    Energy sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) could be the ideal feedstock for the cellulosic ethanol industry because of its robust establishment, broader adaptability and drought tolerance, water and nutrient use efficiency, and the relatively high annual biomass yields. Of concern, however, is the limited research data on harvest thresholds, subsequent environmental impacts and the potential cumulative effects of harvesting equipment-induced soil compaction. Indiscriminate harvests of the high volume wet energy sorghum biomass, coupled with repeated field passes, could cause irreparable damage to the soil due to compaction. Furthermore, biomass harvests result in lower soil organic matter returns to the soil, making the soil even more susceptible to soil compaction. Compacted soils result in poor root zone aeration and drainage, more losses of nitrogen from denitrification, and restricted root growth, which reduces yields. Given the many positive attributes of conservation tillage and crop residue retention, our research and extension expectations are that sustainable energy sorghum cropping systems ought to include some form of conservation tillage. The challenge is to select cropping and harvesting systems that optimize feedstock production while ensuring adequate residue biomass to sustainably maintain soil structure and productivity. Producers may have to periodically subsoil-till or plow-back their lands to alleviate problems of soil compaction and drainage, weeds, insects and disease infestations. Little, however, is known about the potential impact of these tillage changes on soil productivity, environmental integrity, and sustainability of bioenergy agro-ecosystems. Furthermore, 'safe' energy sorghum feedstock removal thresholds have yet to be established. We will apply the ALMANAC biophysical model to evaluate permissible energy sorghum feedstock harvest thresholds and the effects of subsoil tillage and periodically plowing no-tilled (NT) energy sorghum

  19. Impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellmuth, M.; Kabat, P.

    2003-01-01

    Even without the impacts of climate change, water managers face prodigious challenges in meeting sustainable development goals. Growing populations need affordable food, water and energy. Industrial development demands a growing share of water resources and contaminates those same resources with its

  20. Impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellmuth, M.; Kabat, P.

    2003-01-01

    Even without the impacts of climate change, water managers face prodigious challenges in meeting sustainable development goals. Growing populations need affordable food, water and energy. Industrial development demands a growing share of water resources and contaminates those same resources with its

  1. Forecasting Winter Storms in the Sierra: A Social Science Perspective in Keeping the Public Safe without Negatively Impacting the Local Tourism Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, R.; Wallmann, J.; Myrick, D. T.

    2010-12-01

    The National Weather Service Office in Reno is responsible for issuing Blizzard Warnings, Winter Storm Warnings, and Winter Weather Advisories for the Sierra, including the Lake Tahoe Basin and heavily traveled routes such as Interstate 80, Highway 395 and Highway 50. These forecast products prepare motorists for harsh travel conditions as well as those venturing into the backcountry, which are essential to the NWS mission of saving lives and property. During the winter season, millions of people from around the world visit the numerous world class ski resorts in the Sierra and the Lake Tahoe Basin, which is vital to the local economy. This situation creates a challenging decision for the forecasters to provide appropriate wording in winter statements to keep the public safe, without significantly impacting the local tourism-based economy. Numerous text and graphical products, including online weather briefings, are utilized by NWS Reno to highlight hazards in ensuring the public, businesses, and other government agencies are prepared for winter storms and take appropriate safety measures. The effectiveness of these product types will be explored, with past snowstorms used as examples to show how forecasters determine which type of text or graphical product is most appropriate to convey the hazardous weather threats.

  2. Negative impact of β-arrestin-1 on post-myocardial infarction heart failure via cardiac and adrenal-dependent neurohormonal mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathgate-Siryk, Ashley; Dabul, Samalia; Pandya, Krunal; Walklett, Karlee; Rengo, Giuseppe; Cannavo, Alessandro; De Lucia, Claudio; Liccardo, Daniela; Gao, Erhe; Leosco, Dario; Koch, Walter J; Lymperopoulos, Anastasios

    2014-02-01

    β-Arrestin (βarr)-1 and β-arrestin-2 (βarrs) are universal G-protein-coupled receptor adapter proteins that negatively regulate cardiac β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) function via βAR desensitization and downregulation. In addition, they mediate G-protein-independent βAR signaling, which might be beneficial, for example, antiapoptotic, for the heart. However, the specific role(s) of each βarr isoform in cardiac βAR dysfunction, the molecular hallmark of chronic heart failure (HF), remains unknown. Furthermore, adrenal βarr1 exacerbates HF by chronically enhancing adrenal production and hence circulating levels of aldosterone and catecholamines. Herein, we sought to delineate specific roles of βarr1 in post-myocardial infarction (MI) HF by testing the effects of βarr1 genetic deletion on normal and post-MI cardiac function and morphology. We studied βarr1 knockout (βarr1KO) mice alongside wild-type controls under normal conditions and after surgical MI. Normal (sham-operated) βarr1KO mice display enhanced βAR-dependent contractility and post-MI βarr1KO mice enhanced overall cardiac function (and βAR-dependent contractility) compared with wild type. Post-MI βarr1KO mice also show increased survival and decreased cardiac infarct size, apoptosis, and adverse remodeling, as well as circulating catecholamines and aldosterone, compared with post-MI wild type. The underlying mechanisms, on one hand, improved cardiac βAR signaling and function, as evidenced by increased βAR density and procontractile signaling, via reduced cardiac βAR desensitization because of cardiac βarr1 absence, and, on the other hand, decreased production leading to lower circulating levels of catecholamines and aldosterone because of adrenal βarr1 absence. Thus, βarr1, via both cardiac and adrenal effects, is detrimental for cardiac structure and function and significantly exacerbates post-MI HF.

  3. Media and technology use predicts ill-being among children, preteens and teenagers independent of the negative health impacts of exercise and eating habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, L D; Lim, A F; Felt, J; Carrier, L M; Cheever, N A; Lara-Ruiz, J M; Mendoza, J S; Rokkum, J

    2014-06-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends no screen time for children under the age of 2 and limited screen time for all children. However, no such guidelines have been proposed for preteens and teenagers. Further, research shows that children, preteens, and teenagers are using massive amounts of media and those with more screen time have been shown to have increased obesity, reduced physical activity, and decreased health. This study examined the impact of technology on four areas of ill-being-psychological issues, behavior problems, attention problems and physical health-among children (aged 4-8), preteens (9-12), and teenagers (13-18) by having 1030 parents complete an online, anonymous survey about their own and their child's behaviors. Measures included daily technology use, daily food consumption, daily exercise, and health. Hypothesis 1, which posited that unhealthy eating would predict impaired ill-being, was partially supported, particularly for children and preteens. Hypothesis 2, which posited that reduced physical activity would predict diminished health levels, was partially supported for preteens and supported for teenagers. Hypothesis 3, that increased daily technology use would predict ill-being after factoring out eating habits and physical activity, was supported. For children and preteens, total media consumption predicted illbeing while for preteens specific technology uses, including video gaming and electronic communication, predicted ill-being. For teenagers, nearly every type of technological activity predicted poor health. Practical implications were discussed in terms of setting limits and boundaries on technology use and encouraging healthy eating and physical activity at home and at school.

  4. Media and technology use predicts ill-being among children, preteens and teenagers independent of the negative health impacts of exercise and eating habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, L.D.; Lim, A.F.; Felt, J.; Carrier, L.M.; Cheever, N.A.; Lara-Ruiz, J.M.; Mendoza, J.S.; Rokkum, J.

    2015-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends no screen time for children under the age of 2 and limited screen time for all children. However, no such guidelines have been proposed for preteens and teenagers. Further, research shows that children, preteens, and teenagers are using massive amounts of media and those with more screen time have been shown to have increased obesity, reduced physical activity, and decreased health. This study examined the impact of technology on four areas of ill-being–psychological issues, behavior problems, attention problems and physical health–among children (aged 4–8), preteens (9–12), and teenagers (13–18) by having 1030 parents complete an online, anonymous survey about their own and their child's behaviors. Measures included daily technology use, daily food consumption, daily exercise, and health. Hypothesis 1, which posited that unhealthy eating would predict impaired ill-being, was partially supported, particularly for children and preteens. Hypothesis 2, which posited that reduced physical activity would predict diminished health levels, was partially supported for preteens and supported for teenagers. Hypothesis 3, that increased daily technology use would predict ill-being after factoring out eating habits and physical activity, was supported. For children and preteens, total media consumption predicted illbeing while for preteens specific technology uses, including video gaming and electronic communication, predicted ill-being. For teenagers, nearly every type of technological activity predicted poor health. Practical implications were discussed in terms of setting limits and boundaries on technology use and encouraging healthy eating and physical activity at home and at school. PMID:25717216

  5. Adjuvant Vaccine Immunotherapy of Resected, Clinically Node-negative Melanoma: Long-Term Outcome and Impact of HLA Class I Antigen Expression on Overall Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, William E.; Unger, Joseph M.; Sosman, Jeffrey A.; Flaherty, Lawrence E.; Tuthill, Ralph J.; Porter, Mark J.; Thompson, John A.; Kempf, Raymond A.; Othus, Megan; Ribas, Antoni; Sondak, Vernon K.

    2014-01-01

    Associations between HLA class I antigen expression and efficacy of a melanoma vaccine (Melacine) were initially described in stage IV melanoma. Similar associations were observed in S9035, a phase III adjuvant trial evaluating Melacine for two years versus observation in patients with stage II melanoma. This report provides long-term results. The effects of treatment on relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were evaluated, and pre-specified analyses investigated associations between treatment and HLA expression. Multivariable analyses were adjusted for tumor thickness, ulceration and site, method of nodal staging and sex. P=.01 was considered significant in subset analyses to account for multiple comparisons. For the entire study population of 689 patients, there were no significant differences in RFS or OS by arm. HLA serotyping was performed on 553 (80%) patients (vaccine 294, observation 259). Among the subpopulation with HLA-A2 and/or HLA-Cw3 serotype, vaccine arm patients (n=178) had marginally improved RFS (adjusted P=.02) and significantly improved OS compared with observation arm patients (n=145), with 10-year OS of 75% and 63%, respectively (hazard ratio 0.62, 99% CI 0.37-1.02, P=.01). There was no impact of HLA-A2 and/or HLA-Cw3 expression among observation arm patients. Analysis of mature data from S9035 indicates a significant OS benefit from adjuvant vaccine therapy for HLA-A2- and/or HLA-Cw3-expressing melanoma patients. The possibility of interactions between HLA type and outcome should be considered in future immunotherapy trials. Further investigations of melanoma-associated antigens present in Melacine and presented by HLA-A2 and HLA-Cw3 may be warranted. PMID:24994597

  6. Negative impact on growth and photosynthesis in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in the presence of the estrogen 17α-ethynylestradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocock, Tessa; Falk, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that estrogenic compounds affect development of fertilized eggs of many species of birds, fish and amphibians through disrupted activity of carbonic anhydrase (CA). The most potent activity comes from the most commonly occurring synthetic sterol, 17α-Ethynylestradiol (EE2). Less is known about the responses of aquatic phytoplankton to these compounds. Here we show for the first time that, in comparision to the control, the addition of 7 µM EE2 reduced the growth rate of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by 68% for cells grown at high CO2. When cells were grown in ambient air (low Ci) with a fully activated carbon concentrating mechanism through the induction of CA activity, the growth rates were reduced by as much as 119%. A reduced growth rate could be observed at EE2 concentrations as low as 10 pM. This was accompanied by a reduced maximum capacity for electron transport in photosystem II as determined by a lower FV/FM for low Ci-grown cells, which indicates the involvement of CAH3, a CA specifically located in the thylakoid lumen involved in proton pumping across the thylakoid membranes. These results were in agreement with an observed reduction in the chloroplastic affinity for Ci as shown by a strong increase in the Michaelis-Menten K0.5 for HCO3-. In itself, a lowering of the growth rate of a green alga by addition of the sterol EE2 warrants further investigation into the potential environmental impact by the release of treated waste water.

  7. Negative impact on growth and photosynthesis in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in the presence of the estrogen 17α-ethynylestradiol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Pocock

    Full Text Available It is well known that estrogenic compounds affect development of fertilized eggs of many species of birds, fish and amphibians through disrupted activity of carbonic anhydrase (CA. The most potent activity comes from the most commonly occurring synthetic sterol, 17α-Ethynylestradiol (EE2. Less is known about the responses of aquatic phytoplankton to these compounds. Here we show for the first time that, in comparision to the control, the addition of 7 µM EE2 reduced the growth rate of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by 68% for cells grown at high CO2. When cells were grown in ambient air (low Ci with a fully activated carbon concentrating mechanism through the induction of CA activity, the growth rates were reduced by as much as 119%. A reduced growth rate could be observed at EE2 concentrations as low as 10 pM. This was accompanied by a reduced maximum capacity for electron transport in photosystem II as determined by a lower FV/FM for low Ci-grown cells, which indicates the involvement of CAH3, a CA specifically located in the thylakoid lumen involved in proton pumping across the thylakoid membranes. These results were in agreement with an observed reduction in the chloroplastic affinity for Ci as shown by a strong increase in the Michaelis-Menten K0.5 for HCO3-. In itself, a lowering of the growth rate of a green alga by addition of the sterol EE2 warrants further investigation into the potential environmental impact by the release of treated waste water.

  8. Personality, Negativity, and Political Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron C. Weinschenk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Scholars have recently started to integrate personality traits into models of political participation. In this paper, we present the results of a survey experiment (N = 724 designed to test whether negative political messages differentially impact people with different personality traits. We found evidence that individuals with high scores on agreeableness were less likely, and individuals with high scores on extraversion were more likely, to report intending to participate in politics than their counterparts after being exposed to negative political messages. Agreeableness and extraversion also interacted with negative messages to influence specific intentions to make a political donation, attend a meeting, rally, or event, and volunteer for a political campaign. We also found suggestive evidence that agreeableness interacted with negativity to influence turnout intentions. The results of this study have important implications for the study of political engagement, the ways in which people interact with political information, and the practice of democratic politics.

  9. Off-site Migration Strategy and Immigrants' Cultural Restructuring ---Taking Hushan Immigrants Region as an Example%异地移民扶贫与民族文化重构——以云南省红河州元阳县呼山移民区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄永臻; 黄绍文; 普亚强

    2012-01-01

    In China's western development, poverty relief is the topstrategic, and government has taken various measures to achieve it, among which the off-site migration strategy has important practical significance. However, due to social, historical, natural conditions and other factors, this model still faces some problems, such as environmental adaptation, cultural adaptation, immigrants' cultural restructuring, and immigrants' moving back, causing attention from all levels of government and academics. Based on field survey, this paper analyzes problems existing in off-site migration, and presents corresponding countermeasures and suggestions for relevant decision-making.%中国西部大开发中,扶贫攻坚是头等战略,且采取了各种扶贫措施,其中异地移民扶贫措施具有重要的实践战略意义。但是,由于社会历史和自然条件等多种因素制约,异地扶贫模式仍然面临环境适应、文化适应、移民文化重组、移民回迁等诸多问题,给扶贫攻坚带来很大的难度,引起各级政府和学界的高度关注。文章从实地调查个案的基础上,剖析异地移民扶贫存在问题及其因素,并提出相应的对策建议,供有关部门决策参考。

  10. IMPACTS !

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    (Photo courtesy of Don Davis / NASA)The University of Geneva (UNIGE) and the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale of Lausanne (EPFL) are organising the 4th series of public lectures on astronomy, on the theme of "Impacts". The schedule is as follows: Il y a 100 ans : une explosion dans la Tunguska – Dr. Frédéric COURBIN, EPFL Les impacts sur Terre – Prof. Didier Queloz, UNIGE La fin des dinosaures – Dr. Stéphane Paltani, UNIGE Wednesday 7 May 2008, from 7.00 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. Auditoire CO1, EPFL, Ecublens Thursday 08 May 2008, from 7.00 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. Auditoire Rouiller, Uni-Dufour, Genève All 3 lectures will be givent each evening! Admission free Information: 022 379 22 00

  11. What Negative Impact does Wind have on the Deadline of a Construction Project? Mathematical Modeling for the Measurement and Optimization of Wind Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Hafidi Alaoui

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In regard to economic phenomena such as the expansion of trade, the interactions between markets encouraging companies to cross borders, the research for market in new areas should be accompanied by sufficient knowledge of their own environment and especially the weather conditions. Indeed, the objectives of a construction project (cost, deadline and quality are affected by a multitude of events, of internal and external origin, such as climate changes when they are severe and abrupt. Certainly, each region is characterized by a specific climate. For some regions, it is rather the wind that remains the most characterizing climate factor. Wind is widely felt in areas exposed to currents such as (trade wind, North wind, Nordet, Harmattan etc…, in other places we underestimate, see, ignore the effects of wind, particularly on a construction site. Yet, the consequences of ignoring this risk factor can be heavy on a construction company (in terms of late penalty law for example; In fact, if bad weather affects particularly on the initial works: earthworks, foundations, slab; wind effects may proclaim during all the duration of the construction site. The wind affect all project’s aspects, quality, cost, safety as well as deadline. Nevertheless there are few studies that were interested in studying relation construction‘s deadline and wind. Tangier, the city located on the Strait of Gibraltar, where the study was conducted, is exposed to wind whose origin is the Anti cyclone of the Azores, in addition to the local winds that are due to the presence of the two seas and imposing mountains, with a wind that might exceed 220km/h. The equation introduced by this study will allow evaluating (measuring the impact of wind on the deadline (expressed Δ, it shall encompass all aspects: - Limiting conditions of equipments existing in construction site (producers’ references - Recommendations of the standard practice - Regulation in terms of work

  12. On Multiplying Negative Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Mary L.; Dunn, Kenneth A.

    1985-01-01

    Comments on the history of negative numbers, some methods that can be used to introduce the multiplication of negative numbers to students, and an explanation of why the product of two negative numbers is a positive number are included. (MNS)

  13. Digital Publishing Negative Impact of Personalized Service and Its Control%数字出版个性化服务的负面影响及其控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周斌

    2013-01-01

    Early development of digital publi shing do always meet consumer demand, readers are considered as the center in the process of content production services, profit is the purpose of the business model, maximizing of freedom and opening up is the objective of construction of self-media platform, these have a certain negative impact on reading depth, grade of cultural consumption and media ecology. From the perspective of construction of the media ecology and publishing culture, research initiatives to control digital publishing negative impact of personalized service, protection authority, civilized and effective information dissemination, maintenance ecology of publishing culture, to avoid the development of digital publishing industry into a “grow first, clean up later” cycle.%数字出版发展初期没有节制地迎合读者消费需求,以读者为中心进行内容生产服务,以营利为目的进行经营模式设计,以追求自由开放最大化为目标进行自媒体平台建设,会对读者阅读深度、文化消费品位和媒介生态产生一定负面影响。从媒介生态构建和出版文化建设角度研究举措,控制数字出版个性化服务的负面影响,保障权威、文明和有效的信息传播,维护出版文化生态,以避免数字出版业的发展陷入“先发展,后治理”的怪圈。

  14. 新兵成人依恋与训练影响:神经质和消极应对的中介效应%Adult attachment and impact of training on recruits: mediating effect of neuroticism and negative coping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红政; 王创; 陈海燕; 雷美英; 赵立琼; 周宏奎

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of stressful training on recruits and relationships with adult attachment,neuroticism and negative coping style.Methods 1 962 recruits were assessed with aduh attachment scale (AAS),impact of event scale-revised (IES-R),Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ) and trait coping style questionnaire (TCSQ).Results (1) 67.84% of recruits reported the varying degrees of stress,and the total average of IES-R was 1.25±0.53.The impact of training of only-child recruits (1.28±0.56) was higher than that of none-only-child (1.22±0.51) (P<0.05).The total average of attachment close was 3.73±0.51,attachment depend was 3.24±0.53,and attachment anxiety was 2.40±0.77.(2) Attachment anxiety,neuroticism and negative coping style were all positively correlated with impact of training (r =0.384,0.570,0.543,all P< 0.01).Attachment close and depend were both negatively correlated with impact of training (r=-0.221,-0.251,all P< 0.01).(3) Neuroticism and negative coping style played a completely intermediary role between adult attachment and impact of training.(4) The multiple group analysis showed that the mediation model was adapted to the only-child or none-onlychild recruits.Conclusion Adult attachment can predict impact of training to some extent in the intermediary roles of neuroticism and negative coping style.%目的 探讨训练压力对新兵的影响程度及其与成人依恋、神经质和消极应对的关系.方法 采用成人依恋量表(AAS)、事件影响量表修订版(IES-R)、艾森克个性问卷(EPQ)和特质应对方式问卷(TCSQ)对1 962名新兵进行调查.结果 (1) 67.84%的新兵遭受训练压力的影响,IES-R总均分为(1.25±0.53)分,其中独生子[(1.28±0.56)分]的影响程度要高于非独生子[(1.22±0.51)分,P<0.05];依恋亲近总均分为(3.73±0.51)分,依恋依赖为(3.24±0.53)分,依恋焦虑为(2.40±0.77)分.(2)训练影响程度与依恋焦虑、神经质及消极应对呈正相关(r=0

  15. Chinese Negative Transfer in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红琴

    2009-01-01

    The nat ive language can help learn a foreign language, but foreign language learners const ant ly suffer negat ivet ransfer from t heir mot her language. We,as Chinese English learners in t he environment ,in t he English-Chinese t ranslat ion inChinese is oft en negat ive impact .The present paper probes int o t he essence of language t ransfer ,making a det ailed comparisonbet ween Chinese and English vocabulary in t erms of concept ual meaning,connot at ive meaning and idioms in order t o find out t hebasic principle of t ranslat ion which may help avoid negat ive t ransfer from Chinese.

  16. The Positive Impact of Negative Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Psychology, 79(4), 506–517 (1994). Northouse , Peter G. Leadership Theory and Practice . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2007. Nowack...model (FRLM), depicted in Figure 2, is one of the most widely studied leadership theories since the mid-1980s ( Northouse , 2007). This approach is... leadership theory for accurate measures of leadership behavior. Accordingly, this effort will employ a leadership behavior survey based on Bass’ (1985

  17. Negating the Verum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsnes, Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    In Danish the base position of the negation (and negated quantifier phrases) is between the subject and the finite verb in embedded clauses. However, in embedded clauses introduced by a non-veridical complementizer such as hvis ‘if’ or om ‘whether’, the negation can also appear between the comple......In Danish the base position of the negation (and negated quantifier phrases) is between the subject and the finite verb in embedded clauses. However, in embedded clauses introduced by a non-veridical complementizer such as hvis ‘if’ or om ‘whether’, the negation can also appear between...

  18. Negation in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋炳

    2016-01-01

    Every language has its own unique ways of negation and English is no exception. More importance should be attached to when a negative English sentence is translated into its Chinese equivalent. Negation in English can be realized in many differ-ent ways. In the first place, the different types of negation in English will be analyzed. In addition, the affixes and lexicons used to denote negation will be investigated. The last part is mainly concerning the idioms and other expressions which denote nega-tive meanings. In order to make the views much more clearly, some Chinese equivalents of the English sentences will be offered here.

  19. Off-site ignition probability of flammable gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rew, P J; Spencer, H; Daycock, J

    2000-01-07

    A key step in the assessment of risk for installations where flammable liquids or gases are stored is the estimation of ignition probability. A review of current modelling and data confirmed that ignition probability values used in risk analyses tend to be based on extrapolation of limited incident data or, in many cases, on the judgement of those conducting the safety assessment. Existing models tend to assume that ignition probability is a function of release rate (or flammable gas cloud size) alone and they do not consider location, density or type of ignition source. An alternative mathematical framework for calculating ignition probability is outlined in which the approach used is to model the distribution of likely ignition sources and to calculate ignition probability by considering whether the flammable gas cloud will reach these sources. Data are collated on the properties of ignition sources within three generic land-use types: industrial, urban and rural. These data are then incorporated into a working model for ignition probability in a form capable of being implemented within risk analysis models. The sensitivity of the model results to assumptions made in deriving the ignition source properties is discussed and the model is compared with other available ignition probability methods.

  20. Impact of liposomal doxorubicin-based adjuvant chemotherapy on autonomy in women over 70 with hormone-receptor-negative breast carcinoma: A French Geriatric Oncology Group (GERICO) phase II multicentre trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, Etienne G C; Mertens, Cécile; Girre, Véronique; Rousseau, Frédérique; Blot, Emmanuel; Abadie, Sophie; Uwer, Lionel; Bourbouloux, Emmanuelle; Van Praagh-Doreau, Isabelle; Mourey, Loic; Kirscher, Sylvie; Laguerre, Brigitte; Fourme, Emmanuelle; Luneau, Sylvia; Genève, Jean; Debled, Marc

    2011-10-01

    Breast cancer is a disease of ageing. Functional independence in elderly patients, measured with the Katz activities of daily living (ADL) scale, predicts overall survival and the need for welfare support. Few prospective studies have examined the feasibility of adjuvant chemotherapy and its impact on autonomy in women over 70 years of age with high-risk breast cancer. This multicentre phase II trial was designed to assess the impact of adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy on these patients' autonomy. In a two-stage Fleming design, women aged ≥70 years with histologically proven hormone-receptor-negative early breast cancer and a significant risk of recurrence (pN+ or "high risk" pN0) received 4 cycles of nonpegylated liposomal doxorubicin 60 mg/m(2) and cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks postoperatively, on an outpatient basis. The primary endpoint was the change in the ADL score during chemotherapy. Secondary endpoints include comprehensive geriatric, quality-of-life and acceptability assessments, tolerability, and long-term outcome. The results for the primary endpoint and other scales at completion of adjuvant chemotherapy are reported here, while long-term follow-up is not yet complete. Forty patients (median age 75 [70-82]) were enrolled between February 2006 and November 2007. Chemotherapy had no deleterious impact on ADL, cognition, mental status, or the frequency of comorbidities. In contrast, the number of patients at risk of malnutrition, based on the Mini Nutritional Assessment, more than doubled between baseline and the end of chemotherapy, rising from 15% to 38%. Quality-of-life deteriorated in terms of social and role functioning, likely owing to fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting. Treatment acceptability was good. The main adverse effect was neutropenia, 15% of the patients experiencing febrile neutropenia. No cardiac toxicity or toxic deaths occurred. This study demonstrates the feasibility of an adjuvant chemotherapy

  1. We Media’s Negative Impact on Public Security’s Image and Countermeasures%自媒体对公安机关形象的消极影响及应对措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩磊

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of the “We Media” industry, the transmission of online information presents a new trend. The characteristics and the unique transmission mode of “We Media” makes lots of negative information of police work be produced and circulated, which has imposed a negative impact on public security’s image, weakened the police authorities, reduced the credibility of law enforcement and impeded the smooth conduct of public security work. Therefore, in order to handle the police image crisis timely and effectively, restore the damaged image and serve people better, public security organs should strengthen their own construction by enhancing cyberspace supervision, guiding the public opinion well and so on.%随着自媒体行业的快速发展,网络信息的传播呈现新的传播态势。自媒体自身的特点及其独特的传播方式使大量有关公安工作的负面信息得以滋生和流转,对公安机关的形象产生了消极影响,进而削弱了警察权威,降低了执法公信力,不利于公安工作的顺利开展。对此,公安机关应从抓好自身建设做起,加强网络监管,做好舆论引导,及时有效地处理好公安形象危机问题,重树公安机关良好形象,更好地为人民服务。

  2. 浅析媒体暴力对观众行为态度的正负面影响%Positive and Negative Impacts of Media Violence to Audience Behavior and Attitude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄妍

    2011-01-01

    当今社会,媒体暴力对观众行为态度的影响已经俨然成为一个值得讨论的话题。国内外的许多专家学者也都对此做了无数的研究,并通过这些研究肯定了受众的行为态度是会受到媒体暴力所影响的。在本文中,我们基于任何事物都有其两面性的特点,客观的去认识媒体暴力的影响力,并阐述如何去避免其负面影响以及如何把负面影响降到最低,从而促进其积极面的发展。%Today's society,media violence on behavior and attitude of the audience already has become a topic worthy of discus-sion.Many domestic and foreign experts and scholars also have done numerous studies,and through these studies confirmed the audience's behavior and attitude will be affected by media violence.In this paper,we have everything on the characteristics of its two sides,the objective to understand the influence of media violence,and explains how to avoid its negative effects and to mini-mize the negative impact,so as to promote the positive aspects of development.

  3. Sentential Negation in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

  4. Sentential Negation in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

  5. SOIL EROSION AND CONSERVATION IN ROMANIA - SOME FIGURES, FACTS AND ITS IMPACT ON ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevastel Mircea

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Being a common and finite resource, soil - as a natural and very complex ecosystem, is essential to human society. Inseveral regions of Europe, including Romania too, soil resources are degraded due to different causes, or, sometimes,irreversibly lost, mainly due to erosion, decline in organic matter or contamination. As regard to soil erosion only, inRomania, about 42% of the total agricultural lands are affected by water erosion in different forms and intensities.Soil degradation has negative impacts on other areas also, not only in-site but also off-site, areas which are alsoconsidered of common interest for the people (e.g. air and water quality, biodiversity and climate change. Costs torestore such a damages and environmental quality in general may be very high and thus preferable to be avoided.To maintain and/or improve a good quality of the soils for a long period of time, there needed to be implemented inRomania , as much as possible, some agri-environmental schemes, according to the current EU models and policies, inparticular, through the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP.The paper briefly presents and analyzes such agri-environmental schemes developed for the agricultural lands from thehilly areas in Romania that is very affected by water erosion and landslides – the Curvature zone of Sub-Carpathians.The schemes, developed within the Research Station for Soil Erosion and Conservation Aldeni-Buzau, which belongs tothe University of Agricultural Sciences in Bucharest, is based on friendly agricultural practices to be implemented onagricultural lands located on slopes. Also, the new conceptual European model, known as Driving Forces-Pressures-State-Impacts-Responces (DPSIR, adapted for the soil erosion impact assesment on environment, will be herepresented, in order to be promoted and used on a large scale in Romania as well.

  6. Arrangements for Radiation Protection of Remediation Workers in Off-site Contaminated Areas at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP%福岛核事故场外污染整治中工作人员的辐射防护应对

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭东

    2014-01-01

    An overview of Ordinance on Prevention of Ionizing Radiation Hazards at Works to Decontaminate Soil and Wastes Contaminated by Radioactive Materials Resulting from the Great East Japan Earthquake and Related Works presented ,along with the relevant guidelines .Their implementation in Fukushima Prefecture in the year of 2013 is also summarized .It seems that efforts of Japan to cope with radiation protection of remedi-ation workers in contaminated areas off-site are far from having been turned into good practices .%简要介绍了《东日本大地震致放射性污染土壤与废物清理及相关作业中电离辐射危害防止条例》和相关导则,以及2013年间福岛县的相应监管状况,粗略呈现出福岛核事故后日本在应对场外污染整治工作人员辐射防护之需求方面的努力,亦说明今后更多地需要在整治作业实践中予以落实。

  7. Fcγ-Receptor IIIA Polymorphism p.158F Has No Negative Predictive Impact on Rituximab Therapy with and without Sequential Chemotherapy in CD20-Positive Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiner Zimmermann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We retrospectively analyzed the p.V158F polymorphism of Fcγ-receptor IIIA (FCGR3A, CD16 in patients with PTLD treated with rituximab monotherapy. Previous reports had indicated that the lower affinity F allele affects rituximab-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC and is linked to inferior outcome of rituximab monotherapy in B cell malignancies. 25 patients with PTLD after solid organ transplantation were included in this analysis. They had received 4 weekly doses of rituximab as part of two clinical trials, which had a rituximab monotherapy induction regimen in common. 16/25 patients received further treatment with CHOP-21 after rituximab monotherapy (PTLD-1, NCT01458548. The FCGR3A status was correlated to the response after 4 cycles of rituximab monotherapy. Response to rituximab monotherapy was not affected by F carrier status. This is in contrast to previous findings in B cell malignancies where investigators found a predictive impact of FCGR3A status on outcome to rituximab monotherapy. One explanation for this finding could be that ADCC is impaired in transplant recipients receiving immunosuppression. These results suggest that carrying a FCRG3A F allele does not negatively affect rituximab therapy in immunosuppressed patients.

  8. Ecological and aromatic impact of two Gram-negative bacteria (Psychrobacter celer and Hafnia alvei) inoculated as part of the whole microbial community of an experimental smear soft cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irlinger, Françoise; Yung, Stéphane Ah Yuen In; Sarthou, Anne-Sophie; Delbès-Paus, Céline; Montel, Marie-Christine; Coton, Emmanuel; Coton, Monika; Helinck, Sandra

    2012-02-15

    The impact of the growth of two Gram-negative bacteria, Psychrobacter celer and Hafnia alvei, inoculated at 10(2) and 10(6) cfu/g, on the dynamics of a multispecies community as well as on volatile aroma compound production during cheese ripening was investigated. Results showed that P. celer was able to successfully implant itself in cheese, regardless of its inoculation level. However, when it was inoculated at a high level, the bacterial biodiversity was drastically lowered from day 25 to the end of ripening. Overall, the presence of P. celer led to the higher production of volatile aroma compounds such as aldehydes, ketones and sulfur compounds. Regardless of its inoculation level, H. alvei barely affected the growth of the bacterial community and was subdominant at the end of ripening. It influenced total volatile aroma compound production with volatile sulfur compounds being the most abundant. Overall, these two bacteria were able to implant themselves in a cheese community and significantly contributed to the aromatic properties of the cheese. Their role in flavoring and their interactions with the technological microorganisms must be considered during cheese ripening and should be further investigated.

  9. Impact of communicative head movements on the quality of functional near-infrared spectroscopy signals: negligible effects for affirmative and negative gestures and consistent artifacts related to raising eyebrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balardin, Joana Bisol; Morais, Guilherme Augusto Zimeo; Furucho, Rogério Akira; Trambaiolli, Lucas Romualdo; Sato, João Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is currently one of the most promising tools in the neuroscientific research to study brain hemodynamics during naturalistic social communication. The application of fNIRS by studies in this field of knowledge has been widely justified by its strong resilience to motion artifacts, including those that might be generated by communicative head and facial movements. Previous studies have focused on the identification and correction of these artifacts, but a quantification of the differential contribution of common communicative movements on the quality of fNIRS signals is still missing. We assessed the impact of four movements (nodding head up and down, reading aloud, nodding head sideways, and raising eyebrows) performed during rest and task conditions on two metrics of signal quality control: an estimative of signal-to-noise performance and the negative correlation between oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb). Channel-wise group analysis confirmed the robustness of the fNIRS technique to head nodding movements but showed a large effect of raising eyebrows in both signal quality control metrics, both during task and rest conditions. Reading aloud did not disrupt the expected anticorrelation between oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb but had a relatively large effect on signal-to-noise performance. These findings may have implications to the interpretation of fNIRS studies examining communicative processes.

  10. Circulating CD4+ T cells that produce IL4 or IL17 when stimulated by melan-A but not by NY-ESO-1 have negative impacts on survival of patients with stage IV melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelba, Henning; Weide, Benjamin; Martens, Alexander; Derhovanessian, Evelyna; Bailur, Jithendra Kini; Kyzirakos, Christina; Pflugfelder, Annette; Eigentler, Thomas K; Di Giacomo, Anna Maria; Maio, Michele; Aarntzen, Erik H J G; de Vries, Jolanda; Sucker, Antje; Schadendorf, Dirk; Büttner, Petra; Garbe, Claus; Pawelec, Graham

    2014-08-15

    We initially observed that the presence of circulating NY-ESO-1- and/or Melan-A-specific T cells in patients with stage IV melanoma was significantly associated with prolonged survival. Here, we report the ways in which the phenotypes and functions of these T cells differentially affect survival in patients preselected for NY-ESO-1 and/or Melan-A reactivity. We assayed functional antigen-reactive T cells recognizing NY-ESO-1 and/or Melan-A after in vitro stimulation using overlapping peptide pools. After restimulation, we assayed six cytokines simultaneously by intracellular cytokine staining. This allowed us to analyze the functional antigen response of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells at the single-cell level. We observed that NY-ESO-1 stimulated mainly CD4(+) T cells, whereas Melan-A more often stimulated CD8(+) T cells. NY-ESO-1 reactivity was not associated with an additional impact on survival, whether CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, or both types of T cells were responding. In contrast, recognition of Melan-A by CD4(+) T cells was associated with reduced survival in our cohort of patients preselected for NY-ESO-1 and/or Melan-A reactivity (that is, in patients with exceptionally long survival). We further observed a negative effect on survival in patients with CD4(+) T cells producing IL4 and IL17 upon Melan-A stimulation. Their prognosis was comparable to patients without any Melan-A reactivity. The nature and prognostic impact of specific T-cell responses is different according to targeted antigen. Independent from phenotype and functional aspects, NY-ESO-1 reactivity is associated with good prognosis. In terms of Melan-A, antigen-specific CD8(+) but not CD4(+) responses are associated with prolonged survival. Clin Cancer Res; 20(16); 4390-9. ©2014 AACR. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. The Analysis of Negative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛琨

    2009-01-01

    @@ Chapter 1 The Meaning of Negation Negation,in our daily life,is very commonly used.When you deny something,you use it;when you refuse something,you use it too.And the most common negatiom"no"and"not"are used by US every day.

  12. Current United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service research on understanding agrochemical fate and transport to prevent and mitigate adverse environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapeman, Cathleen J; McConnell, Laura L; Rice, Clifford P; Sadeghi, Ali M; Schmidt, Walter F; McCarty, Gregory W; Starr, James L; Rice, Pamela J; Angier, Jonathan T; Harman-Fetcho, J A

    2003-01-01

    Environmentally and economically viable agriculture requires a variety of cultivation practices and pest management options as no one system will be appropriate for every situation. Agrochemicals are some of the many pest control tools used in an integrated approach to pest management. They are applied with the intent of maximizing efficacy while minimizing off-site movement; however, their judicious use demands a practical knowledge of their fate and effects in agricultural and natural ecosystems. Agrochemical distribution into environmental compartments is influenced by the physical and chemical properties of the agrochemical and environmental conditions, ie soil type and structure, and meteorological conditions. Agricultural Research Service (ARS) researchers working in the area of agrochemical fate have focused on accurately describing those processes that govern the transport, degradation and bioavailability of these chemicals under conditions reflecting actual agronomic practices. Results from ARS research concerning the environmental fate and effects of agrochemicals have led to the development of science-based management practices that will protect vulnerable areas of the ecosystem. The new challenge is to identify these vulnerable areas and the temporal and spatial variations prior to use of the chemical by predicting how it will behave in environmental matrices, and using that information, predict its transport and transformation within an air- or watershed. With the development of better predictive tools and GIS (Geographic Information System)-based modeling, the risks of agricultural management systems can be assessed at the watershed and basin levels, and management strategies can be identified that minimize negative environmental impacts.

  13. Differential impact of parental region of birth on negative parenting behavior and its effects on child mental health: Results from a large sample of 6 to 11 year old school children in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Husky, Mathilde; Pitrou, Isabelle; Fermanian, Christophe; Shojaei, Taraneh; Chee, Christine Chan; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Beiser, Morton

    2016-05-04

    In France, one in 10 residents has immigrated mainly from North Africa, West Africa or the Caribbean including the French West Indies. However little is known about how parents from these regions behave when they migrate to countries that have different cultural norms. It is therefore important to determine how ethno-cultural background affects parental behavior and subsequent child mental health in the context of immigration. The objectives are: 1) to compare negative parenting behaviors of French residents from diverse ethno-cultural backgrounds 2) to examine the relationship between parental region of origin and child mental health, and 3) to investigate the extent to which ethno-cultural context moderates the effect of parenting styles on child mental health. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2005 in 100 schools in South-East France. The Dominic Interactive and the parent-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire were used to assess child psychopathology. The Parent Behavior and Attitude Questionnaire was used to assess parenting styles. The final sample included data on 1,106 mother and child dyads. Caring and punitive attitudes were significantly different across mothers as a function of region of origin. This association was stronger for punitive attitudes with the highest prevalence in the Caribbean/African group, while mothers from Maghreb were more similar to French natives. Differences in caring behaviors were similar though less pronounced. Among children of Maghrebian descent, punitive parenting was associated with an increased risk of internalizing disorders while this association was weaker among children of African and Afro-Caribbean descent. Parental region of origin is an important component of both parenting styles and their effect on child mental health. Interventions on parenting should consider both the region of origin and the differential impact of origin on the effect of parenting styles, thus allowing for a finer

  14. Negative thermal expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, G D [Departamento de QuImica, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia SJB, Ciudad Universitaria, 9000 Comodoro Rivadavia (Argentina); Bruno, J A O [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Departamento de QuImica Inorganica, AnalItica y QuImica FIsica, Pabellon 2, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Barron, T H K [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock' s Close, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); Allan, N L [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock' s Close, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom)

    2005-02-02

    There has been substantial renewed interest in negative thermal expansion following the discovery that cubic ZrW{sub 2}O{sub 8} contracts over a temperature range in excess of 1000 K. Substances of many different kinds show negative thermal expansion, especially at low temperatures. In this article we review the underlying thermodynamics, emphasizing the roles of thermal stress and elasticity. We also discuss vibrational and non-vibrational mechanisms operating on the atomic scale that are responsible for negative expansion, both isotropic and anisotropic, in a wide range of materials. (topical review)

  15. Toward a Negative Anthropology

    OpenAIRE

    Johannssen, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Can philosophy say what man is? What is gained or lost by making theoretical assumptions about the human being? This essay examines the “negative anthropology” of the early Frankfurt School by asking how Max Horkheimer, Theodor W. Adorno and Ulrich Sonnemann engage with the question “What is man?” Negative anthropology turns out to be more than the critique of philosophical anthropology: By understanding the human being as the ensemble of what it is not, negative anthropology avoids the predi...

  16. Negative transverse impedance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, W.

    1989-06-12

    Recently, measurements in the SPS show that the coherent tune shift in the horizontal direction has positive values whereas that in the vertical direction has negative ones. Thus the existence of negative transverse impedance gets confirmed in a real machine. This stimulates us to start a new round of systematic studies on this interesting phenomenon. The results obtained from our computer simulations are presented in this note. Our simulations demonstrate that the negative transverse impedance may appear when the rotational symmetry embedded in a discontinuity is broken, and that the geometries that we have studies may be the source of the positive horizontal tune shift measured in the SPS.

  17. Holographic Quantum Entanglement Negativity

    CERN Document Server

    Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Sengupta, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    We propose a holographic prescription to compute the entanglement negativity for conformal field theories at finite temperatures which exactly reproduces the entanglement negativity for (1+1)- dimensional conformal field theories at finite temperatures dual to (2+1)- dimensional bulk Euclidean BTZ black holes. We observe that the holographic entanglement negativity captures the distillable pure quantum entanglement and is related to the holographic mutual information. The application of our prescription to higher dimensional conformal field theories at finite temperatures within a $AdS_{d+1}/CFT_{d}$ scenario involving dual bulk $AdS$-Schwarzschild black holes is discussed to elucidate the universality of our conjecture.

  18. Underpowered samples, false negatives, and unconscious learning

    OpenAIRE

    Vadillo, M. A.; Konstantinidis, E.; Shanks, D.R.

    2016-01-01

    The scientific community has witnessed growing concern about the high rate of false positives and unreliable results within the psychological literature, but the harmful impact of false negatives has been largely ignored. False negatives are particularly concerning in research areas where demonstrating the absence of an effect is crucial, such as studies of unconscious or implicit processing. Research on implicit processes seeks evidence of above-chance performance on some implicit behavioral...

  19. The North Slope of Alaska and Tourism: Potential Impacts on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, L. R.

    2004-12-01

    The hydrocarbon industry of Alaska is currently the leading producer of revenue for the Alaskan state economy. Second only to hydrocarbons is the tourism industry. Tourism has been a viable industry since the 1890's when cruises touted the beauty of glaciers and icebergs along the Alaskan coastline. This industry has seen a steady growth for the past few decades throughout the state. The North Slope of Alaska, particularly Prudhoe Bay and the National Petroleum Reserve, has long been associated with hydrocarbon development and today displays a landscape dotted with gravel drill pads, gas and oil pipelines and housing for the oil workers. While tourism is not usually considered hand in hand with the hydrocarbon industry, it has mimicked the development of hydrocarbons almost since the beginning. Today one not only sees the effects of the oil industry on the North Slope, but also the tourist industry as planes unload dozens of tourists, or tour buses and private vehicles arrive daily via the Dalton Highway. In Deadhorse, hotels that once only housed the oil workers now welcome the tourist, offering tours of the oil fields and adjacent areas and have become jumping off sites for wilderness trips. Tourism will create jobs as well as revenue. However, at present, there are few restrictions or guidelines in place that will deal with the potential impacts of increased tourism. Because of this there are many concerns about the possible impacts tourism and the infrastructure development will have on the North Slope. To list several concerns: (1) What are the impacts of increased tourism and the infrastructure development? (2) What will the impacts be on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), which sits a mere 60 miles to the east of Deadhorse? (3) Will hydrocarbon development in ANWR and the associated infrastructure exacerbate potential impact by encouraging greater use of the Refuge by tourists? (4) Will tourism itself have a negative impact on this fragile

  20. Isotropic Single Negative Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Protiva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of simple, and therefore cheap, planar resonators for building 3D isotropic metamaterials. These resonators are: a broadside-coupled split ring resonator with a magnetic response providing negative permeability; an electric dipole terminated by a loop inductor together with a double H-shaped resonator with an electric response providing negative permittivity. Two kinds of 3D isotropic single negative metamaterials are reported. The first material consists of unit cells in the form of a cube bearing on its faces six equal planar resonators with tetrahedral symmetry. In the second material, the planar resonators boxed into spherical plastic shells and randomly distributed in a hosting material compose a real 3D volumetric metamaterial with an isotropic response. In both cases the metamaterial shows negative permittivity or permeability, according to the type of resonators that are used. The experiments prove the isotropic behavior of the cells and of the metamaterial specimens.

  1. Logo and Negative Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawn, Candace A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes LOGO's turtle graphics capabilities based on a sixth-grade classroom's activities with negative numbers and Logo programming. A sidebar explains LOGO and offers suggestions to teachers for using LOGO effectively. (LRW)

  2. Atomic negative ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brage, T.

    1991-12-31

    We review some of the recent progress in the studies of alkaline-earth, negative ions. Computations of autodetachment rates, electron affinities and transition wavelengths are discussed and some new and improved results are given.

  3. Atomic negative ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brage, T.

    1991-01-01

    We review some of the recent progress in the studies of alkaline-earth, negative ions. Computations of autodetachment rates, electron affinities and transition wavelengths are discussed and some new and improved results are given.

  4. SOIL EROSION AND ITS IMPACTS ON ENVIRONMENT IN YIXING TEA PLANTATION OF JIANGSU PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan; ZHANG Hong; PENG Bu-zhuo; YANG Hao

    2003-01-01

    Soil erosion on sloping field has led to a lot of environmental problems. In order to reveal the seriousnessof the damage of soil erosion on sloping fields 137Cs tracer method was used to estimate soil erosion rate. 137Cs referenceinventory of 2200Bq/m2 in Yixing, southern Jiangsu Province, was estimated and a model for estimating erosion of cultivat-ed soil was established in order to avoid overestimating soil erosion rates. Then based on the soil erosion rates and mea-sured soil physical and chemical properties, direct and indirect impacts of soil erosion on environment were further dis-cussed. Direct impacts of erosion on environment included on-site and off-site impacts. The on-site impacts were thatsoil layer became thin, soil structure was deteriorated and soil nutrients decreased. The off-site impacts were that waterbodies were polluted. The indirect impacts of soil erosion on environment were the increase of fertilizer application andenergy consumption, and change of adaptability of land uses. Although erosion intensity was not serious in the studyarea, its environmental impacts should not be ignored because of great soil nutrient loss and coarseness of soil particles.

  5. [METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO THE CALCULATION OF ACTUAL AND PREVENTED AS A RESULT OF CONTROL AND SUPERVISORY ACTIVITIES, MEDICAL-DEMOGRAPHIC AND ECONOMIC LOSSES, ASSOCIATED WITH THE NEGATIVE IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, A Yu; Zaytseva, N V; May, I V; Kir'yanov, D A

    2015-01-01

    In the article there are reported the methodological approaches to the calculation of actual and avoided as a result of control and supervisory activities of economic losses caused by mortality, morbidity and disability in the population, associated with the negative impact of environmental factors. There is suggested a consistent solution of the chain of problems: the establishment of cause-and-effect relationships between indices of the health status and indices of the quality of the environment; indices of the quality of the environment and indices of the control and supervision activity of organs and institutions of Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing calculation of the cases of violations of health prevented as a result of the activity ofthe service; evaluation of their economic equivalents. Approbation of approaches on the example of the Russian Federation allowed to establish that as a result of the activity of organs and institutions of Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing in 2013, a positive trend was observed on 51 indices of quality of the habitat environment, there were prevented about 160 thousands of deaths and more than 2 million cases of disease that would be held in conditions of the lack of adequate control and surveillance measures in the field of sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population. Loss prevention of gross domestic product (GDP) amounted to more than 120 billion rubles, Tax shortfalls in the federal budget--about 25.7 billion rubles. With taking into account the costs of the federal budgetfor the activities of the Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing in 2013 in part to ensure sanitary epidemiological surveillance in the amount of 11.386 billion rubles there was prevented loss of GDP of 10.56 rubles per 1 rub. of the cost of the federal budget and there was warned the shortfall of taxes to

  6. Negative Policy Rates, Banking Flows and Exchange Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Khayat, Anwar

    2015-01-01

    Setting negative nominal rates is one of the unconventional policies implemented after the Great Recession to overcome the Zero Lower Bound. Using data from the euro area and Denmark, I assess the impact of introducing a negative interest rate on reserves. I find that it did put a depreciation pressure on the currency due to a reversal in banking flows. This effect is not only caused by policy differentials, but also by a distinct impact of going into negative territory from lowering interest...

  7. Nedtrykt af negative nyheder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Morten; Søberg, Pernille Frantz

    2016-01-01

    I adskillige år er det blevet debatteret, hvorvidt nyhedernes negative fokus har konsekvenser for borgerne, og om det i sid-ste ende får flere til at vende ryggen til nyhederne. Vores viden om effekterne af positive og negative nyheder er dog begrænset, og derfor undersøges det i denne artikel......, hvordan henholdsvis positive og negative tv-nyheder påvirker seernes humør, hukom-melse af information fra indslaget og lyst til at se yderligere tv-nyheder. Det gør vi i et survey-eksperiment (N=204), hvor tre grupper så enten et originalt indslag eller det samme indslag klippet med henholdsvis et...

  8. Covariant holographic entanglement negativity

    CERN Document Server

    Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Sengupta, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    We conjecture a holographic prescription for the covariant entanglement negativity of $d$-dimensional conformal field theories dual to non static bulk $AdS_{d+1}$ gravitational configurations in the framework of the $AdS/CFT$ correspondence. Application of our conjecture to a $AdS_3/CFT_2$ scenario involving bulk rotating BTZ black holes exactly reproduces the entanglement negativity of the corresponding $(1+1)$ dimensional conformal field theories and precisely captures the distillable quantum entanglement. Interestingly our conjecture for the scenario involving dual bulk extremal rotating BTZ black holes also accurately leads to the entanglement negativity for the chiral half of the corresponding $(1+1)$ dimensional conformal field theory at zero temperature.

  9. Polemic and Descriptive Negations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horslund, Camilla Søballe

    2011-01-01

    as such may be more or less central to the meaning of the utterance. The present paper investigates the role of morphosyntactic and prosodic prominence as well as register and social setting on the interpretation of negations. It seems plausible to expect that if the negation as such is central to the meaning...... common in certain social context or genres, while polemic negations are more likely to come up in other genres and social settings. Previous studies have shown a relation between articulatory prominence and register, which may further inform the analysis. Hence, the paper investigates how articulatory...... prominence and register may either work in concert or oppose each other with respect to the cues they provide for the interpretation....

  10. Ecological Impacts of the Space Shuttle Program at John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Carlton R.; Schmalzer, Paul A.; Breininger, David R.; Duncan, Brean W.; Drese, John H.; Scheidt, Doug A.; Lowers, Russ H.; Reyier, Eric A.; Holloway-Adkins, Karen G.; Oddy, Donna M.; Cancro, Naresa R.; Provancha, Jane A.; Foster, Tammy E.; Stolen, Eric D.

    2014-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program was one of NASAs first major undertakings to fall under the environmental impact analysis and documentation requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Space Shuttle Program activities at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the associated Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR) contributed directly and indirectly to both negative and positive ecological trends in the region through the long-term, stable expenditure of resources over the 40 year program life cycle. These expenditures provided support to regional growth and development in conjunction with other sources that altered land use patterns, eliminated and modified habitats, and contributed to cultural eutrophication of the Indian River Lagoon. At KSC, most Space Shuttle Program related actions were conducted in previously developed facilities and industrial areas with the exception of the construction of the shuttle landing facility (SLF) and the space station processing facility (SSPF). Launch and operations impacts were minimal as a result of the low annual launch rate. The majority of concerns identified during the NEPA process such as potential weather modification, acid rain off site, and local climate change did not occur. Launch impacts from deposition of HCl and particulates were assimilated as a result of the high buffering capacity of the system and low launch and loading rates. Metals deposition from exhaust deposition did not display acute impacts. Sub-lethal effects are being investigated as part of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulatory process. Major positive Space Shuttle Program effects were derived from the adequate resources available at the Center to implement the numerous environmental laws and regulations designed to enhance the quality of the environment and minimize impacts from human activities. This included reduced discharges of domestic and industrial wastewater, creation of stormwater management

  11. Negative Probabilities and Contextuality

    CERN Document Server

    de Barros, J Acacio; Oas, Gary

    2015-01-01

    There has been a growing interest, both in physics and psychology, in understanding contextuality in experimentally observed quantities. Different approaches have been proposed to deal with contextual systems, and a promising one is contextuality-by-default, put forth by Dzhafarov and Kujala. The goal of this paper is to present a tutorial on a different approach: negative probabilities. We do so by presenting the overall theory of negative probabilities in a way that is consistent with contextuality-by-default and by examining with this theory some simple examples where contextuality appears, both in physics and psychology.

  12. Depressionens negative spiral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Artiklen formidler resultater fra en longitudinel undersøgelse af det selvforstærkende, negative samspil imellem udvikling og vedligeholdelse af alderdomsdepression via primære miljøbelastninger og via  den deprimerede ældre som belastning for miljøet, som i sin tur "svarer negativt" på lidelsen og...

  13. The Negative Repetition Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Peterson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental property of human memory is that repetition enhances memory. Peterson and Mulligan (2012) recently documented a surprising "negative repetition effect," in which participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once. Words within a pair rhymed, and…

  14. Negative magnetoresistivity in holography

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Ya-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Negative magnetoresistivity is a special magnetotransport property associated with chiral anomaly in four dimensional chiral anomalous systems, which refers to the transport behavior that the DC longitudinal magnetoresistivity decreases with increasing magnetic field. We calculate the longitudinal magnetoconductivity in the presence of backreactions of the magnetic field to gravity in holographic zero charge and axial charge density systems with and without axial charge dissipation. In the absence of axial charge dissipation, we find that the quantum critical conductivity grows with increasing magnetic field when the backreaction strength is larger than a critical value, in contrast to the monotonically decreasing behavior of quantum critical conductivity in the probe limit. With axial charge dissipation, we find the negative magnetoresistivity behavior. The DC longitudinal magnetoconductivity scales as $B$ in the large magnetic field limit, which deviates from the exact $B^2$ scaling of the probe limit resul...

  15. Negative Emissions Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Danny

    2006-04-01

    Although `negative emissions' of carbon dioxide need not, in principle, involve use of biological processes to draw carbon out of the atmosphere, such `agricultural' sequestration' is the only known way to remove carbon from the atmosphere on time scales comparable to the time scale for anthropogenic increases in carbon emissions. In order to maintain the `negative emissions' the biomass must be used in such a way that the resulting carbon dioxide is separated and permanently sequestered. Two options for sequestration are in the topsoil and via geologic carbon sequestration. The former has multiple benefits, but the latter also is needed. Thus, although geologic carbon sequestration is viewed skeptically by some environmentalists as simply a way to keep using fossil fuels---it may be a key part of reversing accelerating climate forcing if rapid climate change is beginning to occur. I will first review the general approach of agricultural sequestration combined with use of resulting biofuels in a way that permits carbon separation and then geologic sequestration as a negative emissions technology. Then I discuss the process that is the focus of my company---the EPRIDA cycle. If deployed at a sufficiently large scale, it could reverse the increase in CO2 concentrations. I also estimate of benefits --carbon and other---of large scale deployment of negative emissions technologies. For example, using the EPRIDA cycle by planting and soil sequestering carbon in an area abut In 3X the size of Texas would remove the amount of carbon that is being accumulated worldwide each year. In addition to the atmospheric carbon removal, the EPRIDA approach also counters the depletion of carbon in the soil---increasing topsoil and its fertility; reduces the excess nitrogen in the water by eliminating the need for ammonium nitrate fertilizer and reduces fossil fuel reliance by providing biofuel and avoiding natural gas based fertilizer production.

  16. The Negative Influence of the Technical Means on Children's Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Luparenko

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The negative impact of the technical means (computer, TV on children's development is characterized. This negative impact means damage of physical and mental health; lack of positive moral-ethic influence, forming a soulless, spiritless person; children's detachment from real life and their impossibility to realize themselves; increased aggressiveness; disappearance of the components of children subculture; availability (in virtual world of the information which can influence child's development negatively; children's dependence on computer games, Internet-addiction, etc. The recommendations for parents to reduce the negative influence of technical means on children are given.

  17. Negative refractive index metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willie J. Padilla

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Engineered materials composed of designed inclusions can exhibit exotic and unique electromagnetic properties not inherent in the individual constituent components. These artificially structured composites, known as metamaterials, have the potential to fill critical voids in the electromagnetic spectrum where material response is limited and enable the construction of novel devices. Recently, metamaterials that display negative refractive index – a property not found in any known naturally occurring material – have drawn significant scientific interest, underscoring the remarkable potential of metamaterials to facilitate new developments in electromagnetism.

  18. Negative Ion Sources: Magnetron and Penning

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, D C

    2013-01-01

    The history of the magnetron and Penning electrode geometry is briefly outlined. Plasma generation by electrical discharge-driven electron impact ionization is described and the basic physics of plasma and electrodes relevant to magnetron and Penning discharges are explained. Negative ions and their applications are introduced, along with their production mechanisms. Caesium and surface production of negative ions are detailed. Technical details of how to build magnetron and Penning surface plasma sources are given, along with examples of specific sources from around the world. Failure modes are listed and lifetimes compared.

  19. Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Chao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available For many philosophers working in the area of Population Ethics, it seems that either they have to confront the Repugnant Conclusion (where they are forced to the conclusion of creating massive amounts of lives barely worth living, or they have to confront the Non-Identity Problem (where no one is seemingly harmed as their existence is dependent on the “harmful” event that took place. To them it seems there is no escape, they either have to face one problem or the other. However, there is a way around this, allowing us to escape the Repugnant Conclusion, by using what I will call Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU – which though similar to anti-frustrationism, has some important differences in practice. Current “positive” forms of utilitarianism have struggled to deal with the Repugnant Conclusion, as their theory actually entails this conclusion; however, it seems that a form of Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU easily escapes this dilemma (it never even arises within it.

  20. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  1. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  2. Cosmology With Negative Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Felder, G; Kofman, L A; Linde, Andrei D; Felder, Gary; Frolov, Andrei; Kofman, Lev; Linde, Andrei

    2002-01-01

    We investigate cosmological evolution in models where the effective potential V(\\phi) may become negative for some values of the field \\phi. Phase portraits of such theories in space of variables (\\phi,\\dot\\phi,H) have several qualitatively new features as compared with phase portraits in the theories with V(\\phi) > 0. Cosmological evolution in models with potentials with a "stable" minimum at V(\\phi)<0 is similar in some respects to the evolution in models with potentials unbounded from below. Instead of reaching an AdS regime dominated by the negative vacuum energy, the universe reaches a turning point where its energy density vanishes, and then it contracts to a singularity with properties that are practically independent of V(\\phi). We apply our methods to investigation of the recently proposed cyclic universe scenario. We show that in addition to the singularity problem there are other problems that need to be resolved in order to realize a cyclic regime in this scenario. We propose several modificati...

  3. Polarized negative ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeberli, W.

    1981-04-01

    This paper presents a survey of methods, commonly in use or under development, to produce beams of polarized negative ions for injection into accelerators. A short summary recalls how the hyperfine interaction is used to obtain nuclear polarization in beams of atoms. Atomic-beam sources for light ions are discussed. If the best presently known techniques are incorporated in all stages of the source, polarized H/sup -/ and D/sup -/ beams in excess of 10 ..mu..A can probably be achieved. Production of polarized ions from fast (keV) beams of polarized atoms is treated separately for atoms in the H(25) excited state (Lamb-Shift source) and atoms in the H(1S) ground state. The negative ion beam from Lamb-Shift sources has reached a plateau just above 1 ..mu..A, but this beam current is adequate for many applications and the somewhat lower beam current is compensated by other desirable characteristics. Sources using fast polarized ground state atoms are in a stage of intense development. The next sections summarize production of polarized heavy ions by the atomic beam method, which is well established, and by optical pumping, which has recently been demonstrated to yield very large nuclear polarization. A short discussion of proposed ion sources for polarized /sup 3/He/sup -/ ions is followed by some concluding remarks.

  4. Classroom Management and Negative Reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Robert T.

    Of the four simple consequences for behavior, none is more misunderstood than negative reinforcement. A Negative Reinforcement Quiz administered to 233 student teachers from two universities revealed that the vast majority of respondents mistakenly viewed negative reinforcement as a synonym for punishment, and believe that negative reinforcement…

  5. On Translation of Negative Sentences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭利彬

    2007-01-01

    The English language has its peculiarities in negation.And the method of negation in English is quite different from that in Chinese.In order to fully understand the negative sentence in English,we should make clear the classification and key points of negation first.

  6. On Translation of Negative Sentences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭利彬

    2007-01-01

    The English language has its peculiarities in negation. And the method of negation in English is quite different from that in Chinese. In order to fully understand the negative sentence in English, we should make clear the classification and key points of negation first.

  7. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibody 19A2 and a new antigen retrieval technique has prognostic impact in archival paraffin-embedded node-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siitonen, S M; Kallioniemi, O P; Isola, J J

    1993-04-01

    We evaluated whether proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry with antigen retrieval could be used as a measure of cell proliferation in archival, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues and whether the staining results have long-term prognostic significance in axillary node-negative breast cancer. Primary tumor samples obtained from 109 axillary-node-negative breast cancer cases were used for the study. The best staining results were obtained with the 19A2 antibody after microwave heating in a solution of saturated lead thiocyanate. Using this method, there was a significant correlation (linear regression, r = 0.580, P treatment may offer a useful alternative to DNA flow cytometry for the analysis of cell proliferation activity from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded breast carcinomas.

  8. Differential impact of parental region of birth on negative parenting behavior and its effects on child mental health: Results from a large sample of 6 to 11 year old school children in France

    OpenAIRE

    Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Husky, Mathilde; Pitrou, Isabelle; Fermanian, Christophe; Shojaei, Taraneh; Chee, Christine Chan; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Beiser, Morton

    2016-01-01

    Background In France, one in 10 residents has immigrated mainly from North Africa, West Africa or the Caribbean including the French West Indies. However little is known about how parents from these regions behave when they migrate to countries that have different cultural norms. It is therefore important to determine how ethno-cultural background affects parental behavior and subsequent child mental health in the context of immigration. The objectives are: 1) to compare negative parenting be...

  9. The Impact of Organization-Based Self-Esteem on Employees’ Work Alienation-The Role of Negative Emotion and Traditionality%组织自尊对员工工作疏离感影响的实证研究--消极情绪和传统性的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余璇; 陈维政

    2016-01-01

    依据自我一致理论和情感事件理论,文章探讨了组织自尊对员工工作疏离感及其各维度的影响,并检验了消极情绪的中介效应和传统性的调节效应。对448个员工样本的调查问卷进行统计分析,结果显示:(1)组织自尊对员工工作疏离感及其各维度(工作任务疏离感、工作人际疏离感和工作环境疏离感)、消极情绪有显著的负向影响;(2)消极情绪在组织自尊对员工工作疏离感及其各维度的影响中具有部分中介效应;(3)传统性在消极情绪对员工工作疏离感、工作任务疏离感、工作人际疏离感的影响中具有显著调节效应,对工作环境疏离感的影响中不具有显著调节效应。%Based on self‐consistent theory and affective event theory ,the study explored the impact of organiza‐tion‐based self‐esteem on employees’ work alienation and its various dimensions ,and examined the mediating effect of negative emotion and the moderating effect of traditionality .The results of statistical analysis from 448 employees shows that (1) Organization‐based self‐esteem has a significant negative impact on work alienation and its various dimensions(job alienation ,interpersonal alienation and environment alienation) ,and also on negative emotion;(2)Negative emotion plays a partial mediating effect in the impact of organization‐based self‐esteem on work alienation and its various dimensions ,and (3)traditionality plays a significant moderating effect in the impact of organization‐based self‐esteem on negative emotion on work alienation ,job alienation and inter‐personal alienation ,but not on environment alienation .

  10. Primitive Virtual Negative Charge

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kiyoung

    2008-01-01

    Physical fields, such as gravity and electromagnetic field, are interpreted as results from rearrangement of vacuum particles to get the equilibrium of net charge density and net mass density in 4-dimensional complex space. Then, both fields should interact to each other in that physical interaction is considered as a field-to-field interaction. Hence, Mass-Charge interaction is introduced with primitive-virtual negative charge defined for the mass. With the concept of Mass-Charge interaction electric equilibrium of the earth is discussed, especially about the electric field and magnetic field of the earth. For unsettled phenomena related with the earth's gravity, such as antigravity phenomenon, gravity anomalies during the solar eclipses, the connection between geomagnetic storms and earthquakes, etc., possible explanations are discussed.

  11. Negative optical torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Ng, Jack; Ding, Kun; Fung, Kin Hung; Lin, Zhifang; Chan, C T

    2014-09-17

    Light carries angular momentum, and as such it can exert torques on material objects. Applications of these opto-mechanical effects were limited initially due to their smallness in magnitude, but later becomes powerful and versatile after the invention of laser. Novel and practical approaches for harvesting light for particle rotation have since been demonstrated, where the structure is always subjected to a positive optical torque along a certain axis if the incident angular momentum has a positive projection on the same axis. We report here an interesting phenomenon of "negative optical torque", meaning that incoming photons carrying angular momentum rotate an object in the opposite sense. Surprisingly this can be realized quite straightforwardly in simple planar structures. Field retardation is a necessary condition and discrete rotational symmetry of material object plays an important role. The optimal conditions are explored and explained.

  12. An Annotated Bibliography of the Literature Dealing with the Impact of Divorce upon the Academic Performance, Emotional Adjustment, Self-Concept, and Behavioral Changes of Children of Divorce and the Diagnosis of and Strategies for Alleviating Negative Symptoms of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Diane M.

    Annotated citations in this bibliography are divided into two sections: (1) statistical studies concerning the impact of divorce on students, and (2) diagnostic studies and suggested strategies for dealing with the issue of marital separation and divorce and their effects in the classroom. A glossary of terms, a summary of findings, conclusions,…

  13. Triple negative breast cancer: adjuvant chemotherapy effect on survival

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steponaviciene, L; Lachej-Mikeroviene, N; Smailyte, G; Aleknavicius, E; Meskauskas, R; Didziapetriene, J

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the overall survival of patients with triple negative breast cancer and the impact of different adjuvant chemotherapy regimens on survival.Material/Methods...

  14. Metacomprehension and Negation: Assessing Readers' Awareness of the Difficulty of Negated Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Sara J.; Hover, Paige A.

    2011-01-01

    The present research explored the awareness that readers have of the difficulty of negative text and the impact that awareness has on their comprehension of that text. Participants read narrative and expository paragraphs, rated their comprehension, and answered a comprehension question. The present research established detrimental effects of…

  15. Evaluation of the nanosphere Verigene BC-GN assay for direct identification of gram-negative bacilli and antibiotic resistance markers from positive blood cultures and potential impact for more-rapid antibiotic interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Joseph T; Tran, Kim-Dung T; Barton, Karen L; Labreche, Matthew J; Sharp, Susan E

    2014-10-01

    The Verigene BC-GN assay correctly identified all 51 Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) from positive blood cultures and all 14 carbapenemase enzymes tested. The assay gave organism identification (ID) results an average of 24 h faster compared to conventional identifications. Medical management could have been modified for 31.8% of patients an average 33 h sooner. In conclusion, the BC-GN assay is a very accurate, rapid assay which would allow for more-immediate medical management decisions in patients with bacteremia from GNB. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Negative Emotional Impact of Peptic Ulcer Patients and Nursing Intervention%负性情绪对消化性溃疡的患者的影响及护理干预效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张圆媛

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨负性情绪对消化性溃疡患者的影响及护理干预的效果.方法:选取我院2009 年6月至2010 年6月收治的90 例消化性溃疡患者为研究对象,采取医院焦虑自评量表(SAS) 及抑郁自评量表(SDS) 评定患者的心理状态,并随机分为观察组和对照组,对照组采用常规护理,观察组在对照组的基础上采用心理干预,比较两组患者护理干预前后负性情绪变化及疼痛缓解率.结果:该组患者均存在不同程度的焦虑、抑郁情绪,SAS 、SDS 评分均显著高于国内常模,P<0.05.观察组患者的负性情绪改善及疼痛缓解率均显著优于对照组,P<0.05.结论:护理人员要及时评估消化性溃疡患者的负性情绪,并采用恰当的心理干预,改善其不良心理,提高治疗效果.%Objective: To explore the negative emotions of patients with peptic ulcer and nursing intervention effect. Methods: Our hospital from June 2009 to June 2010 were treated 90 cases of peptic ulcer patients in this study, to take the hospital anxiety and self-assessment scale (SAS) and self-rating depression scale (SDS) assessment of the patient's mental state , and randomly divided into two groups and the control group and the control group with conventional care, observation group were based on the use of psychological intervention, were compared before and after patient care intervention change negative emotions and pain relief rate. Results: The patients had varying degrees of anxiety, depression, SAS, SDS scores were significantly higher than the national norm, P<0.05. The patients of the negative emotions and pain relief, improvement were significantly better than the control group, P<0.05. Conclusion: Nurses need to evaluate patients with peptic ulcer negative emotion, and the use of appropriate psychological intervention to improve its adverse psychological, improve the therapeutic effect.

  17. Organized crime impact study highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porteous, S.D.

    1998-10-01

    A study was conducted to address the issue of how organized crime impacts on Canadians and their communities both socially and economically. As far as environmental crime is concerned, three main areas of concern have been identified: (1) illicit trade in ozone depleting substances, (2) illicit hazardous waste treatment, and (3) disposal of illicit trade in endangered species. To gauge the magnitude of organized crime activity, the market value of worldwide illegal trafficking in illicit drugs was estimated to be as high as $100 billion worldwide (between $1.4 to 4 billion in Canada). It is suspected that Canada supplies a substantial portion of the U.S. black market in chlorofluorocarbons with most of the rest being supplied from Mexico. Another area of concern involves the disposal of hazardous wastes. Canada produces approximately 5.9 million tonnes of hazardous waste annually. Of these, 3.2 million tonnes are sent to off-site disposal facilities for specialized treatment and recycling. The treatment of hazardous waste is a very profitable business, hence vulnerable to fraudulent practices engaged in by organized crime groups. Environmental implications of this and other environmental crimes, as well as their economic, commercial, health and safety impact were examined. Other areas of organized crime activity in Canada (drugs, economic crimes, migrant trafficking, counterfeit products, motor vehicle theft, money laundering) were also part of the study.

  18. Negative Expertise: Comparing Differently Tenured Elder Care Nurses' Negative Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartmeier, Martin; Lehtinen, Erno; Gruber, Hans; Heid, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Negative expertise is conceptualised as the professional's ability to avoid errors during practice due to certain cognitive agencies. In this study, negative knowledge (i.e. knowledge about what is wrong in a certain context and situation) is conceptualised as one such agency. This study compares and investigates the negative knowledge of elder…

  19. Large negative lateral shifts due to negative refraction

    CERN Document Server

    Benedicto, Jessica; Moreau, Antoine; Centeno, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    When a thin structure in which negative refraction occurs (a metallo-dielectric or a photonic crystal) is illuminated by a beam, the reflected and transmitted beam can undergo a large negative lateral shift. This phenomenon can be seen as an interferential enhancement of the geometrical shift and can be considered as a signature of negative refraction.

  20. Impact of mothers' negative affectivity, parental locus of control and child-feeding practices on dietary patterns of 3-year-old children: the MoBa Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ystrom, Eivind; Barker, Mary; Vollrath, Margarete E

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to (1) identify dietary patterns in 3-year-old children; (2) investigate the extent to which negative affectivity, external parental locus of control and control-oriented child-feeding practices (pressure to eat and restriction) relate to these dietary patterns; and (3) to examine to what extent external parental locus of control and control-oriented child-feeding practices serve as mediators for these effects. This study was part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, comprising 14,122 mothers completing assessments at 6 months, 18 months and 3 years post-partum. Factor analysis of the children's diet identified two weakly correlated dietary patterns, labeled 'unhealthy' and 'wholesome'. Mothers high in negative affectivity perceived they had little control over their child's behaviour, which in turn was associated with both pressuring their child to eat and restricting the child's food intake and a less wholesome and a more unhealthy diet in the child. Pressuring the child to eat was independently associated with a less wholesome and a more unhealthy diet. Restricting the child's diet was associated with a more wholesome and a less unhealthy diet. These findings held after controlling for maternal smoking, education, age, body mass index, marital status, homemaker status and child gender. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Reducing the volume, exposure and negative impacts of advertising for foods high in fat, sugar and salt to children: A systematic review of the evidence from statutory and self-regulatory actions and educational measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Stephanie A; Freeman, Ruth; Anderson, Annie S; MacGillivray, Steve

    2015-06-01

    To identify and review evidence on 1) the effectiveness of statutory and self-regulatory actions to reduce the volume, exposure or wider impact of advertising for foods high in fat, sugar and salt (HFSS) to children, and 2) the role of educational measures. A systematic review of three databases (Medline, CINAHL and PsycINFO) and grey literature was carried out. Relevant evidence included studies evaluating advertising bans and restrictions, advertising literacy programmes and parental communication styles. Relevant media included TV, internet, radio, magazines and newspaper advertising. No studies were excluded based on language or publication date. Forty-seven publications were included: 19 provided evidence for the results of statutory regulation, 25 for self-regulation, and six for educational approaches. Outcome measures varied in approach, quality and results. Findings suggested statutory regulation could reduce the volume of and children's exposure to advertising for foods HFSS, and had potential to impact more widely. Self-regulatory approaches showed varied results in reducing children's exposure. There was some limited support for educational measures. Consistency in measures from evaluations over time would assist the development and interpretation of the evidence base on successful actions and measures to reduce the volume, exposure and impact of advertising for foods HFSS to children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Christine; Peters, Georg

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The definition of the heterogeneous group of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) is still based on diagnostic procedures that fulfill the clinical need to differentiate between Staphylococcus aureus and those staphylococci classified historically as being less or nonpathogenic. Due to patient- and procedure-related changes, CoNS now represent one of the major nosocomial pathogens, with S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus being the most significant species. They account substantially for foreign body-related infections and infections in preterm newborns. While S. saprophyticus has been associated with acute urethritis, S. lugdunensis has a unique status, in some aspects resembling S. aureus in causing infectious endocarditis. In addition to CoNS found as food-associated saprophytes, many other CoNS species colonize the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals and are less frequently involved in clinically manifested infections. This blurred gradation in terms of pathogenicity is reflected by species- and strain-specific virulence factors and the development of different host-defending strategies. Clearly, CoNS possess fewer virulence properties than S. aureus, with a respectively different disease spectrum. In this regard, host susceptibility is much more important. Therapeutically, CoNS are challenging due to the large proportion of methicillin-resistant strains and increasing numbers of isolates with less susceptibility to glycopeptides. PMID:25278577

  3. Secondary negative symptoms - A review of mechanisms, assessment and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, Matthias; Aleman, André; Kaiser, Stefan

    2016-05-23

    Negative symptoms in schizophrenia may be classified as primary or secondary. Primary negative symptoms are thought to be intrinsic to schizophrenia, while secondary negative symptoms are caused by positive symptoms, depression, medication side-effects, social deprivation or substance abuse. Most of the research on secondary negative symptoms has aimed at ruling them out in order to isolate primary negative symptoms. However, secondary negative symptoms are common and can have a major impact on patient-relevant outcomes. Therefore, the assessment and treatment of secondary negative symptoms are clinically relevant. Furthermore, understanding the mechanisms underlying secondary negative symptoms can contribute to an integrated model of negative symptoms. In this review we provide an overview of concepts, evidence, assessment and treatment for the major causes of secondary negative symptoms. We also summarize neuroimaging research relevant to secondary negative symptoms. We emphasize the relevance of recent developments in psychopathological assessment of negative symptoms, such as the distinction between amotivation and diminished expression, which have only rarely been applied in research on secondary negative symptoms.

  4. Negative Refraction at Visible Frequencies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henri J. Lezec; Jennifer A. Dionne; Harry A. Atwater

    2007-01-01

    .... We demonstrate an experimental realization of a two-dimensional negative-index material in the blue-green region of the visible spectrum, substantiated by direct geometric visualization of negative refraction...

  5. Factors impacting knowledge and use of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods by postpartum HIV positive and negative women in Cape Town, South Africa: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Credé Sarah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevention of unintended pregnancies among HIV positive women is a neglected strategy in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Women who want to avoid unintended pregnancies can do this by using a modern contraceptive method. Contraceptive choice, in particular the use of long acting and permanent methods (LAPMs, is poorly understood among HIV-positive women. This study aimed to compare factors that influence women's choice in contraception and women's knowledge and attitudes towards the IUD and female sterilization by HIV-status in a high HIV prevalence setting, Cape Town, South Africa. Methods A quantitative cross-sectional survey was conducted using an interviewer-administered questionnaire amongst 265 HIV positive and 273 HIV-negative postpartum women in Cape Town. Contraceptive use, reproductive history and the future fertility intentions of postpartum women were compared using chi-squared tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum and Fisher's exact tests where appropriate. Women's knowledge and attitudes towards long acting and permanent methods as well as factors that influence women's choice in contraception were examined. Results The majority of women reported that their most recent pregnancy was unplanned (61.6% HIV positive and 63.2% HIV negative. Current use of contraception was high with no difference by HIV status (89.8% HIV positive and 89% HIV negative. Most women were using short acting methods, primarily the 3-monthly injectable (Depo Provera. Method convenience and health care provider recommendations were found to most commonly influence method choice. A small percentage of women (6.44% were using long acting and permanent methods, all of whom were using sterilization; however, it was found that poor knowledge regarding LAPMs is likely to be contributing to the poor uptake of these methods. Conclusions Improving contraceptive counselling to include LAPM and strengthening services for these methods are warranted in this setting

  6. 综合性心理干预对骨科患者负性心理及疼痛的治疗效果观察%Impact of Comprehensive Psychological Intervention on Negative Psychological and Pain of Orthopedics Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林美

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察综合性心理干预对骨科患者负性心理及疼痛的治疗效果。方法采用问卷调查对247例骨科手术患者(常规组134例,干预组113例)入院时和手术后负性心理及疼痛等情况进行评定,问卷包括焦虑自评量表(SAS)、抑郁自评量表(SDS)和视觉模拟评分法(VAS);常规组给予常规治疗和护理,干预组除常规治疗和护理外给予综合性干预措施。结果两组患者在术后12小时SAS、SDS评分均低于入院时,干预组分值下降大于常规组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);两组组患者的VAS评分在术后随着时间的延后而下降,干预组下降程度大于常规组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。干预组负性心理及疼痛的改善情况优于常规组。结论综合性心理干预是有效的,可以改善患者负性心理和疼痛,促进患者的恢复。%Objective: To observed the effect of comprehensive psychological intervention negative psychological and pain of orthopedics patients. Methods:The patients were divided into normal group and intervention group,questionnaire was adopted to investigate the effect of intervention.Results: The improvement on negative psychological and pain of intervention group was better than the normal group. Conclusion: Effective comprehensive psychological intervention can improve patients' negative psychology and pain, and promote the recovery of patients.

  7. The discussion about the negative impact of television advertising on children's moral education%论电视广告对儿童道德教育的负面影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯石岗; 王立杰; 高怡钧

    2014-01-01

    TV advertising is to promote goods or services, promote the enterprise image, and establish the consumption idea, in order to get consumer recognition, it can use a variety of media exerts a subtle influence on the children's thinking and understanding and value judgment. Television advertising is a double-edged sword, positive advertising motivating, negative ads mislead people, also can bring the enemies we make, can not only promote beauty and goodness and truth lives on for its negative effects on children's moral education are various:will have far-reaching effects on children's growth, the need to attract the attention of the social related groups.%电视广告是为了宣传商品或服务、宣传企业形象和树立消费观念,为了得到消费者的认可,它可以借助多种媒介潜移默化地影响着儿童的思想认识和价值判断。电视广告是一把双刃剑,正面的广告激励人、负面的广告误导人,既可以宣扬真善美,也可以带来假丑恶,其对儿童道德教育的负面影响是多方面的:会对儿童的成长产生深远的不良影响,需要引起社会相关群体的注意。

  8. The case for negative senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaupel, James W; Baudisch, Annette; Dölling, Martin

    2004-01-01

    kinds of animals that may experience negative senescence and conclude that negative senescence may be widespread, especially in indeterminate-growth species for which size and fertility increase with age. We develop optimization models of life-history strategies that demonstrate that negative senescence...

  9. Stocking rate impact on soil water repellency and erodibility of burnt lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavi, Ilan; Zaady, Eli

    2017-04-01

    Wildfires and prescribed burnings are common, modifying the functioning of geo-ecosystems. Such fires have been extensively studied, and reported to considerably affect soil properties. Yet, understanding of the impact of livestock grazing, or more precisely, trampling, in fire-affected lands is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of livestock trampling (hoof action) on the functioning of burnt vs. non-burnt lands. This was studied by focusing on the effects on wettability and related properties of solid soil, as well as on the quantity of unconsolidated material (detached matter) lying on the solid ground surface. The study was implemented in the semi-arid northern Negev of Israel, in lands which experienced a one cycle of (unintended) low- to moderate-fire severity. The study was conducted by allowing livestock to access plots under high, medium, and low stocking rates. Also, livestock exclusion plots were assigned as a control treatment. Soil wettability was studied by water drop penetration time (WDPT) and critical surface tension (CST) tests. Results show that fire slightly decreased the soil wettability. However, WDPT was negatively related to the stocking rate, and CST was 13% smaller in the control plots than in the livestock-presence treatments. Also, the results show that following burning, the resistance of soil to shear decreased by 70%. Mass of unconsolidated material was similar in the control plots of the burnt and non-burnt plots. At the same time, it was three-, eight-, and nine- fold greater in the plots of the burnt × low, burnt × medium, and burnt × high stocking rates, respectively, than in the corresponding non-burnt ones. This study shows that livestock trampling in low- to moderate-intensity fire-affected lands increases the shearing of the ground surface layer. On the one hand, this increases soil wettability. On the other hand, this impact considerably increases risks of on-site soil erosion and land

  10. Neural responses to negative feedback are related to negative emotionality in healthy adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santesso, Diane L.; Bogdan, Ryan; Birk, Jeffrey L.; Goetz, Elena L.; Holmes, Avram J.

    2012-01-01

    Prior neuroimaging and electrophysiological evidence suggests that potentiated responses in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), particularly the rostral ACC, may contribute to abnormal responses to negative feedback in individuals with elevated negative affect and depressive symptoms. The feedback-related negativity (FRN) represents an electrophysiological index of ACC-related activation in response to performance feedback. The purpose of the present study was to examine the FRN and underlying ACC activation using low resolution electromagnetic tomography source estimation techniques in relation to negative emotionality (a composite index including negative affect and subclinical depressive symptoms). To this end, 29 healthy adults performed a monetary incentive delay task while 128-channel event-related potentials were recorded. We found that enhanced FRNs and increased rostral ACC activation in response to negative—but not positive—feedback was related to greater negative emotionality. These results indicate that individual differences in negative emotionality—a putative risk factor for emotional disorders—modulate ACC-related processes critically implicated in assessing the motivational impact and/or salience of environmental feedback. PMID:21917847

  11. Negative ions in liquid helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrapak, A. G.; Schmidt, W. F.

    2011-05-01

    The structure of negative ions in liquid 4He is analyzed. The possibility of cluster or bubble formation around impurity ions of both signs is discussed. It is shown that in superfluid helium, bubbles form around negative alkaline earth metal ions and clusters form around halogen ions. The nature of "fast" and "exotic" negative ions is also discussed. It is assumed that "fast" ions are negative ions of helium excimer molecules localized inside bubbles. "Exotic" ions are stable negative impurity ions, which are always present in small amounts in gas discharge plasmas. Bubbles or clusters with radii smaller the radius of electron bubbles develop around these ions.

  12. Potential negative ecological effects of corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Nick M; Brudvig, Lars A; Damschen, Ellen I; Evans, Daniel M; Johnson, Brenda L; Levey, Douglas J; Orrock, John L; Resasco, Julian; Sullivan, Lauren L; Tewksbury, Josh J; Wagner, Stephanie A; Weldon, Aimee J

    2014-10-01

    Despite many studies showing that landscape corridors increase dispersal and species richness for disparate taxa, concerns persist that corridors can have unintended negative effects. In particular, some of the same mechanisms that underlie positive effects of corridors on species of conservation interest may also increase the spread and impact of antagonistic species (e.g., predators and pathogens), foster negative effects of edges, increase invasion by exotic species, increase the spread of unwanted disturbances such as fire, or increase population synchrony and thus reduce persistence. We conducted a literature review and meta-analysis to evaluate the prevalence of each of these negative effects. We found no evidence that corridors increase unwanted disturbance or non-native species invasion; however, these have not been well-studied concerns (1 and 6 studies, respectively). Other effects of corridors were more often studied and yielded inconsistent results; mean effect sizes were indistinguishable from zero. The effect of edges on abundances of target species was as likely to be positive as negative. Corridors were as likely to have no effect on antagonists or population synchrony as they were to increase those negative effects. We found 3 deficiencies in the literature. First, despite studies on how corridors affect predators, there are few studies of related consequences for prey population size and persistence. Second, properly designed studies of negative corridor effects are needed in natural corridors at scales larger than those achievable in experimental systems. Third, studies are needed to test more targeted hypotheses about when corridor-mediated effects on invasive species or disturbance may be negative for species of management concern. Overall, we found no overarching support for concerns that construction and maintenance of habitat corridors may result in unintended negative consequences. Negative edge effects may be mitigated by widening

  13. Group counseling for nursing students before negative psychological impact on employment%团体心理咨询对实习护生就业前负性心理的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖红珍; 卢志坚; 黄萍; 杨素芬; 吴国友; 叶颜凤; 张月嫦

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the group counseling on employment in nursing students before negative psy ‐chological effects . Methods Selected of 120 name internship nursing born random is divided into group and con‐trol group ,each 60 name ,group into homes internship hou application groups psychological advisory of method for training ,control group not for groups psychological advisory training ;two group are used depression since assess‐ment volume table (SDS ) ,and anxiety since assessment volume table (SAS ) and self‐confidence volume table (SES) ,on internship nursing born in for groups psychological advisory qian and groups psychological advisory training ended hou each evaluation once ,then for compared analysis . Results Study group after group counseling nursing students SDS and SAS test scores significantly lower than control group ,appeared negative psychological (SDS and SAS) significantly reduced the number of cases compared with the control group ,there was a statistically significant difference(P< 0.05) ;student practical nurses in the experimental group improved self‐confidence evalu‐ation scores than the control group ,there was a statistically significant difference (P< 0.05) . Conclusion Group counseling can effectively mitigate the negative psychology of probationer employment (anxiety and depression) and lack of self‐confidence ,improve the self‐esteem of nursing students for future employment .%目的:探讨团体心理咨询对实习护生就业前负性心理的影响。方法将120名实习护生随机分为观察组和对照组各60名 ,观察组进院实习后应用团体心理咨询的方法进行训练,对照组不进行团体心理咨询训练。两组均采用抑郁自评量表(SDS)、焦虑自评量表(SAS)和自信心量表(SES)对实习护生在心理咨询前与团体心理咨询训练结束后各测评1次,并进行对比分析。结果观察组实习护生进行团体心理咨询后 SDS

  14. Antimicrobial susceptibility of gram-negative pathogens isolated from patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections in South African hospitals (SMART Study 2004-2009): impact of the new carbapenem breakpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Adrian J; Botha, Roelof F; Poswa, Xoliswa; Senekal, Marthinus; Badal, Robert E; Grolman, David C; Richards, Guy A; Feldman, Charles; Boffard, Kenneth D; Veller, Martin; Joubert, Ivan; Pretorius, Jan

    2012-02-01

    The Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) follows trends in resistance among aerobic and facultative anaerobic gram-negative bacilli (GNB) isolated from complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs) in patients around the world. During 2004-2009, three centralized clinical microbiology laboratories serving 59 private hospitals in three large South African cities collected 1,218 GNB from complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs) and tested them for susceptibility to 12 antibiotics according to the 2011 Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Enterobacteriaceae comprised 83.7% of the isolates. Escherichia coli was the species isolated most commonly (46.4%), and 7.6% of these were extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-positive. The highest ESBL rate was documented for Klebsiella pneumoniae (41.2%). Overall, ertapenem was the antibiotic most active against susceptible species for which it has breakpoints (94.6%) followed by amikacin (91.9%), piperacillin-tazobactam (89.3%), and imipenem-cilastatin (87.1%), whereas rates of resistance to ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, and levofloxacin were documented to be 29.7%, 28.7%, 22.5%, and 21.1%, respectively. Multi-drug resistance (MDR), defined as resistance to three or more antibiotic classes, was significantly more common in K. pneumoniae (27.9%) than in E. coli (4.9%; p<0.0001) or Proteus mirabilis (4.1%; p<0.05). Applying the new CLSI breakpoints for carbapenems, susceptibility to ertapenem was reduced significantly in ESBL-positive E. coli compared with ESBL-negative isolates (91% vs. 98%; p<0.05), but this did not apply to imipenem-cilastatin (95% vs. 99%; p=0.0928). A large disparity between imipenem-cilastatin and ertapenem susceptibility in P. mirabilis and Morganella morganii was documented (24% vs. 96% and 15% vs. 92%, respectively), as most isolates of these two species had imipenem-cilastatin minimum inhibitory concentrations in the 2-4 mcg/mL range, which

  15. The negation bias: when negations signal stereotypic expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukeboom, Camiel J; Finkenauer, Catrin; Wigboldus, Daniël H J

    2010-12-01

    Research on linguistic biases shows that stereotypic expectancies are implicitly reflected in language and are thereby subtly communicated to message recipients. We examined whether these findings extend to the use of negations (e.g., not smart instead of stupid). We hypothesized that people use more negations in descriptions of stereotype-inconsistent behavior than in descriptions of stereotype-consistent behavior. In 3 studies, participants either judged the applicability of experimentally controlled person descriptions or spontaneously produced person descriptions themselves. Results provided support for this hypothesis. Moreover, a 4th study demonstrated that negations have communicative consequences. When a target person's behavior was described with negations, message recipients inferred that this behavior was an exception to the rule and that it was more likely caused by situational circumstances than by dispositional factors. These findings indicate that by using negations people implicitly communicate stereotypic expectancies and that negations play a subtle but powerful role in stereotype maintenance.

  16. Negative snakes in JET: evidence for negative shear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, R.D.; Alper, B.; Edwards, A.W. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Pearson, D. [Reading Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1994-07-01

    The signature of the negative snakes from the soft X-ray cameras is very similar to the more usual snakes except that the localised region of the snake has, compared with its surroundings, decreased rather than increased emission. Circumstances where negative snakes have been seen are reviewed. The negative snake appears as a region of increased resistance and of increased impurity density. The relationship between the shear and the current perturbation is shown, and it seem probable that the magnetic shear is reversed at the point of the negative snake, i.e. that q is decreasing with radius. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Compound negative binomial distribution with negative multinomial summands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanova, Pavlina K.; Petkova, Monika P.; Stehlík, Milan

    2016-12-01

    The class of Negative Binomial distributions seems to be introduced by Greenwood and Yule in 1920. Due to its wide spread application, investigations of distributions, closely related with it will be always contemporary. Bates, Neyman and Wishart introduce Negative Multinomial distribution. They reach it considering the mixture of independent Poisson distributed random variables with one and the same Gamma mixing variable. This paper investigates a particular case of multivariate compound distribution with one and the same compounding variable. In our case it is Negative Binomial or Sifted Negative Binomial. The summands with equal indexes in different coordinates are Negative Multinomially distributed. In case without shifting, considered as a mixture, the resulting distribution coincides with Mixed Negative Multinomial distribution with scale changed Negative Binomially distributed first parameter. We prove prove that it is Multivariate Power Series Distributed and find explicit form of its parameters. When the summands are geometrically distributed this distribution is stochastically equivalent to a product of independent Bernoulli random variable and appropriate multivariate Geometrically distributed random vector. We show that Compound Shifted Negative Binomial Distribution with Geometric Summands is a particular case of Negative Multinomial distribution with new parameters.

  18. Negative hydrogen ion production mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacal, M. [UPMC, LPP, Ecole Polytechnique, UMR CNRS 7648, Palaiseau (France); Wada, M. [School of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Negative hydrogen/deuterium ions can be formed by processes occurring in the plasma volume and on surfaces facing the plasma. The principal mechanisms leading to the formation of these negative ions are dissociative electron attachment to ro-vibrationally excited hydrogen/deuterium molecules when the reaction takes place in the plasma volume, and the direct electron transfer from the low work function metal surface to the hydrogen/deuterium atoms when formation occurs on the surface. The existing theoretical models and reported experimental results on these two mechanisms are summarized. Performance of the negative hydrogen/deuterium ion sources that emerged from studies of these mechanisms is reviewed. Contemporary negative ion sources do not have negative ion production electrodes of original surface type sources but are operated with caesium with their structures nearly identical to volume production type sources. Reasons for enhanced negative ion current due to caesium addition to these sources are discussed.

  19. Negative hydrogen ion production mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacal, M.; Wada, M.

    2015-06-01

    Negative hydrogen/deuterium ions can be formed by processes occurring in the plasma volume and on surfaces facing the plasma. The principal mechanisms leading to the formation of these negative ions are dissociative electron attachment to ro-vibrationally excited hydrogen/deuterium molecules when the reaction takes place in the plasma volume, and the direct electron transfer from the low work function metal surface to the hydrogen/deuterium atoms when formation occurs on the surface. The existing theoretical models and reported experimental results on these two mechanisms are summarized. Performance of the negative hydrogen/deuterium ion sources that emerged from studies of these mechanisms is reviewed. Contemporary negative ion sources do not have negative ion production electrodes of original surface type sources but are operated with caesium with their structures nearly identical to volume production type sources. Reasons for enhanced negative ion current due to caesium addition to these sources are discussed.

  20. Analysis of the Negative Impacts and Countermeasure of Clan Force on Rural Governance in Rural-urban Fringe Zone-based on the Investigation in Rural-urban Fringe Zones%宗族势力对城乡结合部乡村治理的负面影响及对策--基于对 S 省 W 村的调研

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王正攀; 杨伟伟

    2015-01-01

    城镇化进程中,宗族势力已成为城乡结合部乡村治理过程中的重要阻力。如何消除宗族势力对城乡结合部乡村治理的负面影响,加强农村的基层民主建设,完善乡村治理结构,已成为社会管理的难点问题。基于对我国 S 省 W 村的实地调研,列举了宗族势力对城乡结合部乡村治理在负面影响方面的两大表现,分析了产生负面影响的原因,并提出了消除负面影响的对策建议。%In the process of urbanization,the clan forces have been an important resistance to the rural governance in ru-ral-urban fringe zones.It has been a serious problem to reduce the negative impacts,strengthen the construction of rural democracy at the grassroots level,and improve the rural governance structure.This paper expounds the two negative effects of the clan force on rural governance in rural-urban fringe zones and the reasons of the negative effects,and puts forwards the countermeasure and suggestions to reduce the negative effects in the end.

  1. Wages, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of the attitudes on immigrants welfare. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are of importance: they both affect their labour market outcomes and their quality of life. We...... interpret the negative effect on wages as evidence of labour market discrimination. We estimate the welfare effects of negative attitudes, through their wage and local amenities, for immigrants with different levels of skills, origin, gender and age....

  2. On Negation as Mitigation: The Case of Negative Irony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giora, Rachel; Fein, Ofer; Ganzi, Jonathan; Levi, Natalie Alkeslassy; Sabah, Hadas

    2005-01-01

    Four experiments support the view of negation as mitigation (Giora, Balaban, Fein, & Alkabets, 2004). They show that when irony involves some sizable gap between what is said and what is criticized (He is exceptionally bright said of an idiot), it is rated as highly ironic (Giora, 1995). A negated version of that overstatement (He is not…

  3. Causality, Nonlocality, and Negative Refraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcella, Davide; Prada, Claire; Carminati, Rémi

    2017-03-31

    The importance of spatial nonlocality in the description of negative refraction in electromagnetic materials has been put forward recently. We develop a theory of negative refraction in homogeneous and isotropic media, based on first principles, and that includes nonlocality in its full generality. The theory shows that both dissipation and spatial nonlocality are necessary conditions for the existence of negative refraction. It also provides a sufficient condition in materials with weak spatial nonlocality. These fundamental results should have broad implications in the theoretical and practical analyses of negative refraction of electromagnetic and other kinds of waves.

  4. Neurobiological background of negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galderisi, Silvana; Merlotti, Eleonora; Mucci, Armida

    2015-10-01

    Studies investigating neurobiological bases of negative symptoms of schizophrenia failed to provide consistent findings, possibly due to the heterogeneity of this psychopathological construct. We tried to review the findings published to date investigating neurobiological abnormalities after reducing the heterogeneity of the negative symptoms construct. The literature in electronic databases as well as citations and major articles are reviewed with respect to the phenomenology, pathology, genetics and neurobiology of schizophrenia. We searched PubMed with the keywords "negative symptoms," "deficit schizophrenia," "persistent negative symptoms," "neurotransmissions," "neuroimaging" and "genetic." Additional articles were identified by manually checking the reference lists of the relevant publications. Publications in English were considered, and unpublished studies, conference abstracts and poster presentations were not included. Structural and functional imaging studies addressed the issue of neurobiological background of negative symptoms from several perspectives (considering them as a unitary construct, focusing on primary and/or persistent negative symptoms and, more recently, clustering them into factors), but produced discrepant findings. The examined studies provided evidence suggesting that even primary and persistent negative symptoms include different psychopathological constructs, probably reflecting the dysfunction of different neurobiological substrates. Furthermore, they suggest that complex alterations in multiple neurotransmitter systems and genetic variants might influence the expression of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. On the whole, the reviewed findings, representing the distillation of a large body of disparate data, suggest that further deconstruction of negative symptomatology into more elementary components is needed to gain insight into underlying neurobiological mechanisms.

  5. Income, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    2016-01-01

    ’ quality of life, they also affect their income. We estimate the utility effects of negative attitudes for refugees with different levels of education and gender. We also analyse how the size of the refugees’ networks relate to their quality of life and income as well as how negative attitudes towards......We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of negative attitudes on refugees’ utility from labour income and amenities. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are important: while they affect mainly the refugees...

  6. Prestarlike functions with negative coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Silverman

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available The extreme points for prestarlike functions having negative coefficients are determined. Coefficient, distortion and radii of univalence, starlikeness, and convexity theorems are also obtained.

  7. Brain representations of negative numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnes, Michael; Berger, Andrea; Tzelgov, Joseph

    2012-12-01

    Participants performed a physical comparison task of pairs of positive and pairs of negative one-digit numbers while their electrophysiological brain activity was measured. The numerical value of the presented digits was either congruent or incongruent with the physical size of the digits. Analysis has shown that the earliest event-related potential (ERP) difference between positive and negative numbers was found in the P300 ERP component peak, where there was an inverse effect of congruity in the negative pairs, compared with the positive ones. This pattern of results supports the idea that natural numbers serve as primitives of the human cognitive system, whereas negative numbers are apparently generated if needed.

  8. Neuroimaging correlates of negative priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, C; Haworth, E J; Peters, E; Hemsley, D R; Sharma, T; Gray, J A; Pickering, A; Gregory, L; Simmons, A; Bullmore, E T; Williams, S C

    2001-11-16

    Many theoretical accounts of selective attention and memory retrieval include reference to active inhibitory processes, such as those argued to underlie the negative priming effect. fMRI was used in order to investigate the areas of cortical activation associated with Stroop interference, Stroop facilitation and Stroop negative priming tasks. The most significant activation within the negative priming task was within the inferior parietal lobule, left temporal lobe and frontal lobes. Areas of cortical activation are discussed with reference to theoretical accounts of the negative priming effect.

  9. Virus-induced gene silencing of the two squalene synthase isoforms of apple tree (Malus × domestica L.) negatively impacts phytosterol biosynthesis, plastid pigmentation and leaf growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Gallón, Sandra M; Elejalde-Palmett, Carolina; Daudu, Dimitri; Liesecke, Franziska; Jullien, Frédéric; Papon, Nicolas; Dugé de Bernonville, Thomas; Courdavault, Vincent; Lanoue, Arnaud; Oudin, Audrey; Glévarec, Gaëlle; Pichon, Olivier; Clastre, Marc; St-Pierre, Benoit; Atehortùa, Lucia; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Nathalie; Besseau, Sébastien

    2017-07-01

    The use of a VIGS approach to silence the newly characterized apple tree SQS isoforms points out the biological function of phytosterols in plastid pigmentation and leaf development. Triterpenoids are beneficial health compounds highly accumulated in apple; however, their metabolic regulation is poorly understood. Squalene synthase (SQS) is a key branch point enzyme involved in both phytosterol and triterpene biosynthesis. In this study, two SQS isoforms were identified in apple tree genome. Both isoforms are located at the endoplasmic reticulum surface and were demonstrated to be functional SQS enzymes using an in vitro activity assay. MdSQS1 and MdSQS2 display specificities in their expression profiles with respect to plant organs and environmental constraints. This indicates a possible preferential involvement of each isoform in phytosterol and/or triterpene metabolic pathways as further argued using RNAseq meta-transcriptomic analyses. Finally, a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) approach was used to silence MdSQS1 and MdSQS2. The concomitant down-regulation of both MdSQS isoforms strongly affected phytosterol synthesis without alteration in triterpene accumulation, since triterpene-specific oxidosqualene synthases were found to be up-regulated to compensate metabolic flux reduction. Phytosterol deficiencies in silenced plants clearly disturbed chloroplast pigmentation and led to abnormal development impacting leaf division rather than elongation or differentiation. In conclusion, beyond the characterization of two SQS isoforms in apple tree, this work brings clues for a specific involvement of each isoform in phytosterol and triterpene pathways and emphasizes the biological function of phytosterols in development and chloroplast integrity. Our report also opens the door to metabolism studies in Malus domestica using the apple latent spherical virus-based VIGS method.

  10. The impact of music on replantation rehabilitation of patients with negative emotions%音乐对断指再植术后康复训练患者负性情绪的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张扬云

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨音乐对断指再植术后康复训练患者的负性情绪影响,并进行分析,以供参考。方法选取2011年10月~2014年10月我院收治的断指再植术后康复训练患者共72例,以此作为研究对象。并对其进行随机分为两组,每组各有36例患者。一组为实验组,该组患者采用音乐护理的方式进行临床护理;另一组为对照组,该组患者采用常规性护理法进行临床护理。两组在经过1个月的护理干预之后,运用抑郁自评表(SDS)和焦虑自评表(SAS)评估两组患者的抑郁、焦虑状况,并进行比较分析。结果对比两组患者的抑郁、焦虑状况,可以得出:实验组患者的抑郁、焦虑发生率均要明显低于对照组,且差异具有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论音乐护理的方式在护理断指再植术后康复训练患者中有肯定的应用价值,其可以有效降低患者的抑郁、焦虑发生率,提高患者的生活质量,值得在临床医学护理中推广。%Objective To investigate the effects of music on negative emotions replantation rehabilitation patients, and analyzed for reference. Methods Selected October 2011 - 2014 October our hospital replantation rehabilitation patients with a total 72 cases, as the research object. And its randomly divided into two groups of 36 patients each. One group was the experimental group, the group treated with the music the way clinical nursing care; the other was the control group, the group of patients for clinical nursing care using conventional methods. Group 2 after a month in nursing intervention, the use of self-rating depression table (SDS) and anxiety self-assessment form (SAS) to assess depression, anxiety condition two groups of patients, and compared. Results Comparison of depression, anxiety condition two groups of patients, can be drawn: the experimental group were depression, anxiety incidence rate was significantly lower than the

  11. Be Aware of Negative Reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipani, Ennio C.

    1995-01-01

    This article examines the concept of negative reinforcement in relation to the maintenance of off-task and disruptive behaviors in classrooms. Suggestions are given for determining whether negative reinforcement (in the form of escape from the instructional task) or teacher attention is maintaining the behavior. Suggestions for making tasks less…

  12. Negative supervisionsoplevelser og deres konsekvenser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    in evaluation. First part of the paper explores negative experience in supervision in general. The second part, focusing on negative experience in supervision caused by evaluation, is explored and discussed in relation to the key concept of supervisory alliance (Bordin, 1983), perceiving evaluation...

  13. Negative phototropism of rice root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@It is often believed that the stem of higher plants has characteristics of positive phototropism, and the root shows no phototropism or no sensitivity to light though the root of Arabdopsis was reported possessing characteristics of negative phototropism. In this study, a distinct negative phototropism of the root system of rice seedlings was observed.

  14. Negative refraction in outer space?

    OpenAIRE

    Mackay, Tom G.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2004-01-01

    Mediums which do not support the propagation of plane waves with negative phase velocity (NPV) when viewed at rest can support NPV propagation when they are viewed in a reference frame which is uniformly translated at sufficiently high velocity. Thus, relativistic negative refraction may be exploited in astronomical scenarios.

  15. Physics of negative absolute temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Eitan; Penrose, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Negative absolute temperatures were introduced into experimental physics by Purcell and Pound, who successfully applied this concept to nuclear spins; nevertheless, the concept has proved controversial: a recent article aroused considerable interest by its claim, based on a classical entropy formula (the "volume entropy") due to Gibbs, that negative temperatures violated basic principles of statistical thermodynamics. Here we give a thermodynamic analysis that confirms the negative-temperature interpretation of the Purcell-Pound experiments. We also examine the principal arguments that have been advanced against the negative temperature concept; we find that these arguments are not logically compelling, and moreover that the underlying "volume" entropy formula leads to predictions inconsistent with existing experimental results on nuclear spins. We conclude that, despite the counterarguments, negative absolute temperatures make good theoretical sense and did occur in the experiments designed to produce them.

  16. Analysis of Negative Correlation Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yong; Zou Xiu-fen

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes negative correlation learning for designing neural network ensembles. Negative correlation learning has been firstly analysed in terms of minimising mutual information on a regression task. By ninimising the mutual information between variables extracted by two neural networks, they are forced to convey different information about some features of their input. Based on the decision boundaries and correct response sets, negative correlation learning has been further studied on two pattern classification problems. The purpose of examining the decision boundaries and the correct response sets is not only to illustrate the learning behavior of negative correlation learning, but also to cast light on how to design more effective neural network ensembles. The experimental results showed the decision boundary of the trained neural network ensemble by negative correlation learning is almost as good as the optimum decision boundary.

  17. Models for Cometary Comae Containing Negative Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordiner, M. A.; Charnley, S. B.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of negative ions (anions) in cometary comae is known from Giotto mass spectrometry of IP/Halley. The anions O(-), OH(-), C(-), CH(-) and CN(-) have been detected, as well as unidentified anions with masses 22-65 and 85-110 amu [I]. Organic molecular anions such as C4H(-) and C6H(-) are known to have a significant impact on the charge balance of interstellar clouds and circumstellar envelopes and have been shown to act as catalysts for the gas phase synthesis of larger hydrocarbon molecules in the ISM, but their importance in cometary comae has not yet been fully explored. We present details of our new models for the chemistry of cometary comae that include atomic and molecular anions. We calculate the impact of these anions on the charge balance and examine their importance for cometary coma chemistry.

  18. Isotropic Negative Thermal Expansion Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingling; Li, Bo; Zhou, Ji

    2016-07-13

    Negative thermal expansion materials are important and desirable in science and engineering applications. However, natural materials with isotropic negative thermal expansion are rare and usually unsatisfied in performance. Here, we propose a novel method to achieve two- and three-dimensional negative thermal expansion metamaterials via antichiral structures. The two-dimensional metamaterial is constructed with unit cells that combine bimaterial strips and antichiral structures, while the three-dimensional metamaterial is fabricated by a multimaterial 3D printing process. Both experimental and simulation results display isotropic negative thermal expansion property of the samples. The effective coefficient of negative thermal expansion of the proposed models is demonstrated to be dependent on the difference between the thermal expansion coefficient of the component materials, as well as on the circular node radius and the ligament length in the antichiral structures. The measured value of the linear negative thermal expansion coefficient of the three-dimensional sample is among the largest achieved in experiments to date. Our findings provide an easy and practical approach to obtaining materials with tunable negative thermal expansion on any scale.

  19. Cognitive representation of negative numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Martin H

    2003-05-01

    To understand negative numbers, must we refer to positive number representations (the phylogenetic hypothesis), or do we acquire a negative mental number line (the ontogenetic hypothesis)? In the experiment reported here, participants made lateralized button responses to indicate the larger of two digits from the range -9 to 9. Digit pairs were displayed spatially congruent or incongruent with either a phylogenetic or an ontogenetic mental number line. The pattern of decision latencies suggests that negative numbers become associated with left space, thus supporting the ontogenetic view.

  20. Evaluation of the environmental impact of Brownfield remediation options: comparison of two life cycle assessment-based evaluation tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuyns, Valérie; Kessen, Bram

    2012-01-01

    The choice between different options for the remediation of a contaminated site traditionally relies on economical, technical and regulatory criteria without consideration of the environmental impact of the soil remediation process itself. In the present study, the environmental impact assessment of two potential soil remediation techniques (excavation and off-site cleaning and in situ steam extraction) was performed using two life cycle assessment (LCA)-based evaluation tools, namely the REC (risk reduction, environmental merit and cost) method and the ReCiPe method. The comparison and evaluation of the different tools used to estimate the environmental impact of Brownfield remediation was based on a case study which consisted of the remediation of a former oil and fat processing plant. For the environmental impact assessment, both the REC and ReCiPe methods result in a single score for the environmental impact of the soil remediation process and allow the same conclusion to be drawn: excavation and off-site cleaning has a more pronounced environmental impact than in situ soil remediation by means of steam extraction. The ReCiPe method takes into account more impact categories, but is also more complex to work with and needs more input data. Within the routine evaluation of soil remediation alternatives, a detailed LCA evaluation will often be too time consuming and costly and the estimation of the environmental impact with the REC method will in most cases be sufficient. The case study worked out in this paper wants to provide a basis for a more sounded selection of soil remediation technologies based on a more detailed assessment of the secondary impact of soil remediation.

  1. Negative ions as a source of low energy neutral beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Little consideration has been given to the impact of recent developments in negative ion source technology on the design of low energy neutral beam injectors. However, negative ion sources of improved operating efficiency, higher gas efficiency, and smaller beam divergence will lead to neutral deuterium injectors, operating at less than 100 keV, with better operating efficiencies and more compact layouts than can be obtained from positive ion systems.

  2. Adjective metaphors evoke negative meanings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Maki; Utsumi, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Previous metaphor studies have paid much attention to nominal metaphors and predicative metaphors, but little attention has been given to adjective metaphors. Although some studies have focused on adjective metaphors, they only examined differences in the acceptability of various types of adjective metaphors. This paper explores the cognitive effects evoked by adjective metaphors. Three psychological experiments revealed that (1) adjective metaphors, especially those modified by color adjectives, tend to evoke negative effect; (2) although the meanings of metaphors are basically affected by the meanings of their vehicles, when a vehicle has a neutral meaning, negative meanings are evoked most frequently for adjective metaphors compared to nominal and predicative metaphors; (3) negative meanings evoked by adjective metaphors are related to poeticness, and poetic metaphors evoke negative meanings more easily than less poetic metaphors. Our research sheds new light on studies of the use of metaphor, which is one of the most basic human cognitive abilities.

  3. Metamaterials and Negative Refractive Index

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D. R. Smith; J. B. Pendry; M. C. K. Wiltshire

    2004-01-01

    .... Artificial magnetism and negative refractive index are two specific types of behavior that have been demonstrated over the past few years, illustrating the new physics and new applications possible...

  4. Negative numbers in simple arithmetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Runa; LeFevre, Jo-Anne; Penner-Wilger, Marcie

    2010-10-01

    Are negative numbers processed differently from positive numbers in arithmetic problems? In two experiments, adults (N = 66) solved standard addition and subtraction problems such as 3 + 4 and 7 - 4 and recasted versions that included explicit negative signs-that is, 3 - (-4), 7 + (-4), and (-4) + 7. Solution times on the recasted problems were slower than those on standard problems, but the effect was much larger for addition than subtraction. The negative sign may prime subtraction in both kinds of recasted problem. Problem size effects were the same or smaller in recasted than in standard problems, suggesting that the recasted formats did not interfere with mental calculation. These results suggest that the underlying conceptual structure of the problem (i.e., addition vs. subtraction) is more important for solution processes than the presence of negative numbers.

  5. Piezoelectric enhancement under negative pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvasov, Alexander; McGilly, Leo J.; Wang, Jin; Shi, Zhiyong; Sandu, Cosmin S.; Sluka, Tomas; Tagantsev, Alexander K.; Setter, Nava

    2016-07-01

    Enhancement of ferroelectric properties, both spontaneous polarization and Curie temperature under negative pressure had been predicted in the past from first principles and recently confirmed experimentally. In contrast, piezoelectric properties are expected to increase by positive pressure, through polarization rotation. Here we investigate the piezoelectric response of the classical PbTiO3, Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 and BaTiO3 perovskite ferroelectrics under negative pressure from first principles and find significant enhancement. Piezoelectric response is then tested experimentally on free-standing PbTiO3 and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 nanowires under self-sustained negative pressure, confirming the theoretical prediction. Numerical simulations verify that negative pressure in nanowires is the origin of the enhanced electromechanical properties. The results may be useful in the development of highly performing piezoelectrics, including lead-free ones.

  6. Negative magnetic relaxation in superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnoperov E.P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It was observed that the trapped magnetic moment of HTS tablets or annuli increases in time (negative relaxation if they are not completely magnetized by a pulsed magnetic field. It is shown, in the framework of the Bean critical-state model, that the radial temperature gradient appearing in tablets or annuli during a pulsed field magnetization can explain the negative magnetic relaxation in the superconductor.

  7. Use of Negation in Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    number of individuals indicated that negation was valuable for them in their shopping on Craigslist and eBay , particularly for collectible items...research or in a quest for rare collectibles on eBay , is sufficient cause for further investigation into the notion of negation in search. Research...that use of advanced search syntax is correlated with users being online for more time, “spend[ing] less time querying and traversing search trails” (p

  8. Negative effects of positive reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Perone, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Procedures classified as positive reinforcement are generally regarded as more desirable than those classified as aversive—those that involve negative reinforcement or punishment. This is a crude test of the desirability of a procedure to change or maintain behavior. The problems can be identified on the basis of theory, experimental analysis, and consideration of practical cases. Theoretically, the distinction between positive and negative reinforcement has proven difficult (some would say t...

  9. Negative refraction in photonic crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Baba, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Asatsuma, T.

    2008-01-01

    Photonic crystals are multidimensional periodic gratings, in which the light propagation is dominated by Bragg diffraction that appears to be refraction at the flat surfaces of the crystals. The refraction angle from positive to negative, perfectly or only partially obeying Snell’s law, can be tailored based on photonic band theory. Negative refraction enables novel prism, collimation, and lens effects. Because photonic crystals usually consist of two transparent media, these effects occur at...

  10. Sleep deprivation affects reactivity to positive but not negative stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, June J; Callan, Christina; Posey, J Laura

    2015-12-01

    The current study examined the effects of partial and total sleep deprivation on emotional reactivity. Twenty-eight partially sleep-deprived participants and 31 totally sleep-deprived participants rated their valence and arousal responses to positive and negative pictures across four testing sessions during the day following partial sleep deprivation or during the night under total sleep deprivation. The results suggest that valence and arousal ratings decreased under both sleep deprivation conditions. In addition, partial and total sleep deprivation had a greater negative effect on positive events than negative events. These results suggest that sleep-deprived persons are more likely to respond less to positive events than negative events. One explanation for the current findings is that negative events could elicit more attentive behavior and thus stable responding under sleep deprivation conditions. As such, sleep deprivation could impact reactivity to emotional stimuli through automated attentional and self-regulatory processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Input calibration for negative originals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuijn, Chris

    1995-04-01

    One of the major challenges in the prepress environment consists of controlling the electronic color reproduction process such that a perfect match of any original can be realized. Whether this goal can be reached depends on many factors such as the dynamic range of the input device (scanner, camera), the color gamut of the output device (dye sublimation printer, ink-jet printer, offset), the color management software etc. The characterization of the color behavior of the peripheral devices is therefore very important. Photographs and positive transparents reflect the original scene pretty well; for negative originals, however, there is no obvious link to either the original scene or a particular print of the negative under consideration. In this paper, we establish a method to scan negatives and to convert the scanned data to a calibrated RGB space, which is known colorimetrically. This method is based on the reconstruction of the original exposure conditions (i.e., original scene) which generated the negative. Since the characteristics of negative film are quite diverse, a special calibration is required for each combination of scanner and film type.

  12. Age-related neuroinflammatory changes negatively impact on neuronal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina A Lynch

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroinflammatory changes, characterized by an increase in microglial activation and often accompanied by upregulation of inflammatory cytokines like interleukin-1β (IL-1β, are common to many, if not all, neurodegenerative diseases. Similar, though less dramatic neuroinflammatory changes are also known to occur with age. Among the consequences of these changes is an impairment in synaptic function and the evidence suggests that inflammatory cytokines may be the primary contributory factor responsible for the deficits in synaptic plasticity which have been identified in aged rodents. Specifically a decrease in the ability of aged rats to sustain long-term potentiation (LTP in perforant path-granule cells of the hippocampus is associated with increased microglial activation. This review considers the evidence which suggests a causal relationship between these changes and the factors which contribute to the age-related microglial activation, and reflects on data which demonstrate that agents which inhibit microglial activation also improve ability of rats to sustain LTP.

  13. Youth sport: positive and negative impact on young athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merkel DL

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Donna L Merkel Bryn Mawr Rehabilitation Hospital, Main Line Health System, Exton, PA, USA Abstract: Organized youth sports are highly popular for youth and their families, with approximately 45 million children and adolescent participants in the US. Seventy five percent of American families with school-aged children have at least one child participating in organized sports. On the surface, it appears that US children are healthy and happy as they engage in this traditional pastime, and families report higher levels of satisfaction if their children participate. However, statistics demonstrate a childhood obesity epidemic, with one of three children now being overweight, with an increasingly sedentary lifestyle for most children and teenagers. Increasing sports-related injuries, with 2.6 million emergency room visits a year for those aged 5–24 years, a 70%–80% attrition rate by the time a child is 15 years of age, and programs overemphasizing winning are problems encountered in youth sport. The challenges faced by adults who are involved in youth sports, from parents, to coaches, to sports medicine providers, are multiple, complex, and varied across ethnic cultures, gender, communities, and socioeconomic levels. It appears that an emphasis on fun while establishing a balance between physical fitness, psychologic well-being, and lifelong lessons for a healthy and active lifestyle are paramount for success. Keywords: youth sports, injuries, benefits, risks, prevention, specialization

  14. The Negative Impact of Goal-Oriented Instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatz, Itamar

    2015-01-01

    The phrasing of task instructions can facilitate or hinder the learning process. In this study, three groups of participants (N = 526) performed a foreign vocabulary memorization task, with modified instructions for each group. The instructions were either learning oriented, encouraging participants to improve their abilities; outcome oriented,…

  15. Adults Matter: Protecting Children from the Negative Impacts of Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners-Burrow, Nicola A.; Johnson, Danya L.; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; McKelvey, Lorraine; Gargus, Regina A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the degree to which support from parents and teachers buffers the level of depression for four groups of children involved in bullying (victim, bully, bully-victims, or not involved children). Nine hundred and seventy-seven 5th-, 9th-, and 11th-grade students in the rural South completed questionnaires on bullying, social…

  16. Youth sport: positive and negative impact on young athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Merkel DL

    2013-01-01

    Donna L Merkel Bryn Mawr Rehabilitation Hospital, Main Line Health System, Exton, PA, USA Abstract: Organized youth sports are highly popular for youth and their families, with approximately 45 million children and adolescent participants in the US. Seventy five percent of American families with school-aged children have at least one child participating in organized sports. On the surface, it appears that US children are healthy and happy as they engage in this traditional pastime, and famil...

  17. Police organizational stress: the impact of negative discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violanti, John M

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has suggested that the police organization is considered a difficult work stressor by officers. Of stress factors stemming from the police organization, excessive or unfair discipline rates high among rank and file officers. The police organization may be considered a punishment centered bureaucracy, where emphasis is placed on what is wrong and not on proper or laudatory behavior Although discipline is essential in critical occupations such as police work, it is important that such discipline be properly administered in order to avoid stress and feelings of organizational abandonment. This paper provides a general overview of present police organizational discipline prescriptions, and an example of an alternative positive-based discipline program.

  18. Positive and negative impacts of agricultural production of liquid biofuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Hester, R.E.; Harrison, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural production of liquid biofuels can have positive effects. It can decrease dependence on fossil fuels and increase farmers’ incomes. Agricultural production of mixed perennial biofuel crops may increase pollinator and avian richness. Most types of agricultural crop-based liquid biofuel pr

  19. Maximizing the Marcellus gold rush while minimizing negative impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huls, B. [BJ Services, Houston, TX (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The Marcellus Shale in the Appalachian Basin is a major resource for natural gas that has been touted as the next significant contributor to future energy needs. This geological play extends from New York to Kentucky and its gold rush type development is like no other in modern history in the region. Development is expected to continue at an accelerated pace due to technological advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. This paper addressed the environmental concerns associated with unconventional gas extraction and presented positive solutions to mitigate local conflict and to enhance cooperation and communication between industry and communities. It outlined best management practices for the use of unfamiliar chemicals and for consumptive water use for horizontal wells. 8 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  20. The Negative Impact of Organizational Cynicism on Physicians and Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Volpe, Rebecca L.; Mohammed, Susan; Hopkins, Margaret; Shapiro, Daniel; Dellasega, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Despite the potentially severe consequences that could result, there is a paucity of research on organizational cynicism within US healthcare providers. In response, this study investigated the effect of cynicism on organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and interest in leaving the hospital for another job in a sample of 205 physicians and 842 nurses. Three types of cynicism were investigated: trait (dispositional), global (directed toward the hospital), and local (directed toward a spe...