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Sample records for negative faces revealed

  1. A negative compatibility effect in priming of emotional faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jennifer D; Lleras, Alejandro; Oriet, Chris; Enns, James T

    2007-10-01

    The negative compatibility effect (NCE) is the surprising result that low-visibility prime arrows facilitate responses to opposite-direction target arrows. Here we compare the priming obtained with simple arrows to the priming of emotions when categorizing human faces, which represents a more naturalistic set of stimuli and for which there are no preexisting response biases. When inverted faces with neutral expressions were presented alongside emotional prime and target faces, only strong positive priming occurred. However, when the neutral faces were made to resemble the target faces in geometry (upright orientation), time (flashing briefly), and space (appearing in the same location), positive priming gradually weakened and became negative priming. Implications for theories of the NCE are discussed.

  2. Open-Set Face Verification Algorithm Using Competitive Negative Samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Qiong; DING Xiao-qing

    2006-01-01

    A novel face verification algorithm using competitive negative samples is proposed.In the algorithm,the tested face matches not only with the claimed client face but also with competitive negative samples,and all the matching scores are combined to make a final decision.Based on the algorithm,three schemes,including closestnegative-sample scheme,all-negative-sample scheme,and closest-few-negative-sample scheme,are designed.They are tested and compared with the traditional similaritybased verification approach on several databases with different features and classifiers.Experiments demonstrate that the three schemes reduce the verification error rate by 25.15%,30.24%,and 30.97%,on average,respectively.

  3. Face gender and stereotypicality influence facial trait evaluation: Counter-stereotypical female faces are negatively evaluated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Clare A M; Young, Andrew W; Mootz, Carmen A; Oldmeadow, Julian A

    2015-05-01

    The facial first impressions literature has focused on trait dimensions, with less research on how social categories (like gender) may influence first impressions of faces. Yet, social psychological studies have shown the importance of categories like gender in the evaluation of behaviour. We investigated whether face gender affects the positive or negative evaluation of faces in terms of first impressions. In Study 1, we manipulated facial gender stereotypicality, and in Study 2, facial trustworthiness or dominance, and examined the valence of resulting spontaneous descriptions of male and female faces. For both male and female participants, counter-stereotypical (masculine or dominant looking), female faces were perceived more negatively than facially stereotypical male or female faces. In Study 3, we examined how facial dominance and trustworthiness affected rated valence across 1,000 male and female ambient face images, and replicated the finding that dominance is more negatively evaluated for female faces. In Study 4, the same effect was found with short stimulus presentations. These findings integrate the facial first impressions literature with evaluative differences based on social categories. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Enhanced Early Posterior Negativity to Fearful Faces in Patients with Anxiety Disorder.

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    Yoon, Sunkyung; Shim, Miseon; Kim, Hyang Sook; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2016-03-01

    Patients with anxiety disorders (AnDs) have distinct patterns of threat-related emotional processing compared to healthy controls (HCs). The current study investigated the temporal course of emotional processing in AnDs by examining Event-related potential (ERP) components. Twenty-three AnDs and twenty-four age- and gender-matched HCs viewed emotional (fearful, happy) and neutral faces while their electroencephalograms were recorded. Early (P100, N170), middle (early posterior negativity; EPN), and late ERP components late positive potential were analyzed. To localize ERP source activity, standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) was used. AnDs displayed significantly enhanced mean amplitude of the EPN compared to HCs when fearful faces were presented. In addition, the EPN's mean amplitude elicited by fearful faces was more pronounced than for happy and neutral faces in AnDs, whereas in HCs the EPN elicited by fearful faces was only augmented compared to neutral faces. Finally, sLORETA analysis revealed that the source activity of the EPN (fearful minus happy face condition) was increased in the cuneus and precuneus in AnDs compared to HCs. Our results indicate that the EPN is a distinct ERP component modulated by facial emotional processing in AnDs. Furthermore, the results show that anxiety symptoms enhance selective attention for fearful faces. Finally, it revealed that the cuneus and precuneus are involved in fearful face processing in AnDs.

  5. Does my face FIT?: a face image task reveals structure and distortions of facial feature representation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina T Fuentes

    Full Text Available Despite extensive research on face perception, few studies have investigated individuals' knowledge about the physical features of their own face. In this study, 50 participants indicated the location of key features of their own face, relative to an anchor point corresponding to the tip of the nose, and the results were compared to the true location of the same individual's features from a standardised photograph. Horizontal and vertical errors were analysed separately. An overall bias to underestimate vertical distances revealed a distorted face representation, with reduced face height. Factor analyses were used to identify separable subconfigurations of facial features with correlated localisation errors. Independent representations of upper and lower facial features emerged from the data pattern. The major source of variation across individuals was in representation of face shape, with a spectrum from tall/thin to short/wide representation. Visual identification of one's own face is excellent, and facial features are routinely used for establishing personal identity. However, our results show that spatial knowledge of one's own face is remarkably poor, suggesting that face representation may not contribute strongly to self-awareness.

  6. Automatic detection of trustworthiness of the face: a visual mismatch negativity study.

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    Kovács-Bálint, Z; Stefanics, G; Trunk, A; Hernádi, I

    2014-03-01

    Recognizing intentions of strangers from facial cues is crucial in everyday social interactions. Recent studies demonstrated enhanced event-related potential (ERP) responses to untrustworthy compared to trustworthy faces. The aim of the present study was to investigate the electrophysiological correlates of automatic processing of trustworthiness cues in a visual oddball paradigm in two consecutive experimental blocks. In one block, frequent trustworthy (p = 0.9) and rare untrustworthy face stimuli (p = 0.1) were briefly presented on a computer screen with each stimulus consisting of four peripherally positioned faces. In the other block stimuli were presented with reversed probabilities enabling the comparison of ERPs evoked by physically identical deviant and standard stimuli. To avoid attentional effects participants engaged in a central detection task. Analyses of deviant minus standard difference waveforms revealed that deviant untrustworthy but not trustworthy faces elicited the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) component. The present results indicate that adaptation occurred to repeated unattended trustworthy (but not untrustworthy) faces, i.e., an automatic expectation was elicited towards trustworthiness signals, which was violated by deviant untrustworthy faces. As an evolutionary adaptive mechanism, the observed fast detection of trustworthiness-related social facial cues may serve as the basis of conscious recognition of reliable partners.

  7. Emotional expressions of old faces are perceived as more positive and less negative than young faces in young adults

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Interpreting the emotions of others through their facial expressions can provide important social information, yet the way in which we judge an emotion is subject to psychosocial factors. We hypothesized that the age of a face would bias how the emotional expressions are judged, with older faces generally more likely to be viewed as having more positive and less negative expressions than younger faces. Using two-alternative forced-choice perceptual decision tasks, participants sorted young an...

  8. Emotional Expressions of Old Faces Are Perceived as More Positive and Less Negative than Young Faces in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Interpreting the emotions of others through their facial expressions can provide important social information, yet the way in which we judge an emotion is subject to psychosocial factors. We hypothesized that the age of a face would bias how the emotional expressions are judged, with older faces generally more likely to be viewed as having more positive and less negative expressions than younger faces. Using two-alternative forced-choice perceptual decision tasks, participants sorted young an...

  9. Trait Anxiety Is Associated with Negative Interpretations When Resolving Valence Ambiguity of Surprised Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gewnhi; Vasey, Michael W; Kim, Grace; Hu, Dixie D; Thayer, Julian F

    2016-01-01

    The current research examines whether trait anxiety is associated with negative interpretation bias when resolving valence ambiguity of surprised faces. To further isolate the neuro-cognitive mechanism, we presented angry, happy, and surprised faces at broad spatial frequency (BSF), high spatial frequency (HSF), and low spatial frequency (LSF) and asked participants to determine the valence of each face. High trait anxiety was associated with more negative interpretations of BSF (i.e., intact) surprised faces. However, the modulation of trait anxiety on the negative interpretation of surprised faces disappeared at HSF and LSF. The current study provides evidence that trait anxiety modulates negative interpretations of BSF surprised faces. However, the negative interpretation of LSF surprised faces appears to be a robust default response that occurs regardless of individual differences in trait anxiety.

  10. Trait anxiety is associated with negative interpretations when resolving valence ambiguity of surprised faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gewnhi Park

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The current research examines whether trait anxiety is associated with negative interpretation bias when resolving valence ambiguity of surprised faces. To further isolate the neuro-cognitive mechanism, we presented angry, happy, and surprised faces at broad, high, and low spatial frequency and asked participants to determine the valence of each face. High trait anxiety was associated with more negative interpretations of broad spatial frequency (i.e., intact surprised faces. However, the modulation of trait anxiety on the negative interpretation of surprised faces disappeared at high and low spatial frequencies. The current study provides evidence that trait anxiety modulates negative interpretations of broad spatial frequency surprised faces. However, the negative interpretation of low spatial frequency surprised faces appears to be a robust default response that occurs regardless of individual differences in trait anxiety.

  11. Trait Anxiety Is Associated with Negative Interpretations When Resolving Valence Ambiguity of Surprised Faces

    OpenAIRE

    Gewnhi Park; Vasey, Michael W.; Grace Kim; Dixie D Hu; Thayer, Julian F

    2016-01-01

    The current research examines whether trait anxiety is associated with negative interpretation bias when resolving valence ambiguity of surprised faces. To further isolate the neuro-cognitive mechanism, we presented angry, happy, and surprised faces at broad, high, and low spatial frequency and asked participants to determine the valence of each face. High trait anxiety was associated with more negative interpretations of broad spatial frequency (i.e., intact) surprised faces. However, the mo...

  12. The Sluggishness of Early-Stage Face Processing (N170 is Correlated with Negative and General Psychiatric Symptoms in Schizophrenia

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    Yingjun Zheng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Patients with schizophrenia exhibit consistent abnormalities in face-evoked N170. However, the relation between face-specific N170 abnormalities in schizophrenic patients and schizophrenia clinical characters, which probably based on common neural mechanisms, is still rarely discovered. Using event-related potentials (ERPs recording in both schizophrenic patients and healthy controls, the amplitude and latency of N170 were recorded when participants were passively watching face and non-face (table pictures. The results showed a face-specific N170 latency sluggishness in schizophrenic patients, i.e., the N170 latencies of schizophrenic patients were significantly longer than those of healthy controls under both upright face and inverted face conditions. Importantly, the face-related N170 latencies of the left temporo-occipital electrodes (P7 and PO7 were positively correlated with negative symptoms and general psychiatric symptoms. Besides the analysis of latencies, the N170 amplitudes became weaker in schizophrenic patients under both inverted face and inverted table conditions, with a left hemisphere dominant. More interestingly, the FIEs (the difference of N170 amplitudes between upright and inverted faces were absent in schizophrenic patients, which suggested the abnormality of holistic face processing. These results above revealed a marked symptom-relevant neural sluggishness of face-specific processing in schizophrenic patients, supporting the demyelinating hypothesis of schizophrenia.

  13. Emotional Expressions of Old Faces Are Perceived as More Positive and Less Negative than Young Faces in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norah C Hass

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Interpreting the emotions of others through their facial expressions can provide important social information, yet the way in which we judge an emotion is subject to psychosocial factors. We hypothesized that the age of a face would bias how the emotional expressions are judged, with older faces generally more likely to be viewed as having more positive and less negative expressions than younger faces. Using two-alternative forced-choice perceptual decision tasks, participants sorted young and old faces of which emotional expressions were gradually morphed into one of two categories - neutral vs. happy and neutral vs. angry. The results indicated that old faces were more frequently perceived as having a happy expression at the lower emotional intensity levels, and less frequently perceived as having an angry expression at the higher emotional intensity levels than younger faces in young adults. Critically, the perceptual decision threshold at which old faces were judged as happy was lower than for young faces, and higher for angry old faces compared to young faces. These findings suggest that the age of the face influences how its emotional expression is interpreted in social interactions.

  14. Emotional expressions of old faces are perceived as more positive and less negative than young faces in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, Norah C; Schneider, Erik J S; Lim, Seung-Lark

    2015-01-01

    Interpreting the emotions of others through their facial expressions can provide important social information, yet the way in which we judge an emotion is subject to psychosocial factors. We hypothesized that the age of a face would bias how the emotional expressions are judged, with older faces generally more likely to be viewed as having more positive and less negative expressions than younger faces. Using two-alternative forced-choice perceptual decision tasks, participants sorted young and old faces of which emotional expressions were gradually morphed into one of two categories-"neutral vs. happy" and "neutral vs. angry." The results indicated that old faces were more frequently perceived as having a happy expression at the lower emotional intensity levels, and less frequently perceived as having an angry expression at the higher emotional intensity levels than younger faces in young adults. Critically, the perceptual decision threshold at which old faces were judged as happy was lower than for young faces, and higher for angry old faces compared to young faces. These findings suggest that the age of the face influences how its emotional expression is interpreted in social interactions.

  15. Crisis Decision Theory: Decisions in the Face of Negative Events

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    Sweeney, Kate

    2008-01-01

    How do people respond to negative life events? Crisis decision theory combines the strengths of coping theories with research on decision making to predict the responses people choose under negative circumstances. The theory integrates literatures on coping, health behavior, and decision making, among others, into 3 stages that describe the…

  16. Crisis Decision Theory: Decisions in the Face of Negative Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Kate

    2008-01-01

    How do people respond to negative life events? Crisis decision theory combines the strengths of coping theories with research on decision making to predict the responses people choose under negative circumstances. The theory integrates literatures on coping, health behavior, and decision making, among others, into 3 stages that describe the…

  17. Covert face priming reveals a 'true face effect' in a case of congenital prosopagnosia.

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    Striemer, Christopher; Gingerich, Trevor; Striemer, Danielle; Dixon, Mike

    2009-12-01

    Previous research indicates that individuals with congenital prosopagnosia (CP) fail to demonstrate significant priming from faces to related names in covert recognition tasks. The interpretation has been that CP precludes the ability to acquire face representations. In the current study we replicated this important finding. In addition, we also demonstrated significant 'true face effect' in a CP patient, where face primes that matched the probe names facilitated reaction times compared to unrelated face primes. These data suggest that some individuals with CP may possess degraded face representations that facilitate the priming of a person's identity, but not semantic associates.

  18. Feeling bad and looking worse: negative affect is associated with reduced perceptions of face-healthiness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mirams

    Full Text Available Some people perceive themselves to look more, or less attractive than they are in reality. We investigated the role of emotions in enhancement and derogation effects; specifically, whether the propensity to experience positive and negative emotions affects how healthy we perceive our own face to look and how we judge ourselves against others. A psychophysical method was used to measure healthiness of self-image and social comparisons of healthiness. Participants who self-reported high positive (N = 20 or negative affectivity (N = 20 judged themselves against healthy (red-tinged and unhealthy looking (green-tinged versions of their own and stranger's faces. An adaptive staircase procedure was used to measure perceptual thresholds. Participants high in positive affectivity were un-biased in their face health judgement. Participants high in negative affectivity on the other hand, judged themselves as equivalent to less healthy looking versions of their own face and a stranger's face. Affective traits modulated self-image and social comparisons of healthiness. Face health judgement was also related to physical symptom perception and self-esteem; high physical symptom reports were associated a less healthy self-image and high self-reported (but not implicit self-esteem was associated with more favourable social comparisons of healthiness. Subject to further validation, our novel face health judgement task could have utility as a perceptual measure of well-being. We are currently investigating whether face health judgement is sensitive to laboratory manipulations of mood.

  19. Feeling bad and looking worse: negative affect is associated with reduced perceptions of face-healthiness.

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    Mirams, Laura; Poliakoff, Ellen; Zandstra, Elizabeth H; Hoeksma, Marco; Thomas, Anna; El-Deredy, Wael

    2014-01-01

    Some people perceive themselves to look more, or less attractive than they are in reality. We investigated the role of emotions in enhancement and derogation effects; specifically, whether the propensity to experience positive and negative emotions affects how healthy we perceive our own face to look and how we judge ourselves against others. A psychophysical method was used to measure healthiness of self-image and social comparisons of healthiness. Participants who self-reported high positive (N = 20) or negative affectivity (N = 20) judged themselves against healthy (red-tinged) and unhealthy looking (green-tinged) versions of their own and stranger's faces. An adaptive staircase procedure was used to measure perceptual thresholds. Participants high in positive affectivity were un-biased in their face health judgement. Participants high in negative affectivity on the other hand, judged themselves as equivalent to less healthy looking versions of their own face and a stranger's face. Affective traits modulated self-image and social comparisons of healthiness. Face health judgement was also related to physical symptom perception and self-esteem; high physical symptom reports were associated a less healthy self-image and high self-reported (but not implicit) self-esteem was associated with more favourable social comparisons of healthiness. Subject to further validation, our novel face health judgement task could have utility as a perceptual measure of well-being. We are currently investigating whether face health judgement is sensitive to laboratory manipulations of mood.

  20. Positive, but Not Negative, Facial Expressions Facilitate 3-Month-Olds' Recognition of an Individual Face

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    Brenna, Viola; Proietti, Valentina; Montirosso, Rosario; Turati, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined whether and how the presence of a positive or a negative emotional expression may affect the face recognition process at 3 months of age. Using a familiarization procedure, Experiment 1 demonstrated that positive (i.e., happiness), but not negative (i.e., fear and anger) facial expressions facilitate infants' ability to…

  1. Positive, but Not Negative, Facial Expressions Facilitate 3-Month-Olds' Recognition of an Individual Face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenna, Viola; Proietti, Valentina; Montirosso, Rosario; Turati, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined whether and how the presence of a positive or a negative emotional expression may affect the face recognition process at 3 months of age. Using a familiarization procedure, Experiment 1 demonstrated that positive (i.e., happiness), but not negative (i.e., fear and anger) facial expressions facilitate infants' ability to…

  2. Using Regression to Measure Holistic Face Processing Reveals a Strong Link with Face Recognition Ability

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    DeGutis, Joseph; Wilmer, Jeremy; Mercado, Rogelio J.; Cohan, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Although holistic processing is thought to underlie normal face recognition ability, widely discrepant reports have recently emerged about this link in an individual differences context. Progress in this domain may have been impeded by the widespread use of subtraction scores, which lack validity due to their contamination with control condition…

  3. The role of surface pigmentation for recognition revealed by contrast reversal in faces and Greebles.

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    Vuong, Quoc C; Peissig, Jessie J; Harrison, Marianne C; Tarr, Michael J

    2005-05-01

    Faces are difficult to recognize when viewed as negatives [Galper (1970). Recognition of faces in photographic negative. Psychonomic Science, 19, 207]. Here we examined the contribution of surface properties to this contrast effect, and whether it is modulated by object category. We tested observers in a matching task using faces or Greebles, presented with or without pigmentation. When stimulus pairs were shown with mismatched contrast (e.g., positive-negative), there was a decrement in performance. This decrement was larger when the stimuli were shown with pigmentation, and this difference was more pronounced with faces than with Greebles. Overall, contrast reversal disrupts the recognition of both faces and objects to a greater degree in the presence of pigmentation, suggesting that surface properties are important components of the object representation.

  4. Event-related potentials reveal the development of stable face representations from natural variability.

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    Andrews, Sally; Burton, A Mike; Schweinberger, Stefan R; Wiese, Holger

    2017-08-01

    Natural variability between instances of unfamiliar faces can make it difficult to reconcile two images as the same person. Yet for familiar faces, effortless recognition occurs even with considerable variability between images. To explore how stable face representations develop, we employed incidental learning in the form of a face sorting task. In each trial, multiple images of two facial identities were sorted into two corresponding piles. Following the sort, participants showed evidence of having learnt the faces performing more accurately on a matching task with seen than with unseen identities. Furthermore, ventral temporal event-related potentials were more negative in the N250 time range for previously seen than for previously unseen identities. These effects appear to demonstrate some degree of abstraction, rather than simple picture learning, as the neurophysiological and behavioural effects were observed with novel images of the previously seen identities. The results provide evidence of the development of facial representations, allowing a window onto natural mechanisms of face learning.

  5. Awake fMRI reveals a specialized region in dog temporal cortex for face processing

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    Dilks, Daniel D.; Cook, Peter; Weiller, Samuel K.; Berns, Helen P.; Spivak, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Recent behavioral evidence suggests that dogs, like humans and monkeys, are capable of visual face recognition. But do dogs also exhibit specialized cortical face regions similar to humans and monkeys? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in six dogs trained to remain motionless during scanning without restraint or sedation, we found a region in the canine temporal lobe that responded significantly more to movies of human faces than to movies of everyday objects. Next, using a new stimulus set to investigate face selectivity in this predefined candidate dog face area, we found that this region responded similarly to images of human faces and dog faces, yet significantly more to both human and dog faces than to images of objects. Such face selectivity was not found in dog primary visual cortex. Taken together, these findings: (1) provide the first evidence for a face-selective region in the temporal cortex of dogs, which cannot be explained by simple low-level visual feature extraction; (2) reveal that neural machinery dedicated to face processing is not unique to primates; and (3) may help explain dogs’ exquisite sensitivity to human social cues. PMID:26290784

  6. Of snakes and succor: learning secure attachment associations with novel faces via negative stimulus pairings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckes, Lane; Simpson, Jeffry A; Erickson, Alyssa

    2010-05-01

    Integrating ideas from Mikulincer and Shaver's (2003) process model of attachment and Nelson and Panksepp's (1998) neurobiological theory of an integrated social emotion system, we predicted novel attachment-related learning effects. In two experiments, we tested for a unique form of conditioning based on the social regulation of emotion. Consistent with this theoretical integration, the results indicated that people develop more positive and less negative associations with faces of people who display genuine smiles if those faces have been implicitly paired with a distressing stimulus (e.g., a striking snake). These findings could have broad implications and should be of interest to researchers who study attachment, social and affective neuroscience, emotion, learning and memory, attitudes, and interpersonal relationships.

  7. Neural Decoding Reveals Impaired Face Configural Processing in the Right Fusiform Face Area of Individuals with Developmental Prosopagnosia

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Most of human daily social interactions rely on the ability to successfully recognize faces. Yet ∼2% of the human population suffers from face blindness without any acquired brain damage [this is also known as developmental prosopagnosia (DP) or congenital prosopagnosia]). Despite the presence of severe behavioral face recognition deficits, surprisingly, a majority of DP individuals exhibit normal face selectivity in the right fusiform face area (FFA), a key brain region involved in face conf...

  8. Visual mismatch negativity reveals automatic detection of sequential regularity violation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor eStefanics

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Sequential regularities are abstract rules based on repeating sequences of environmental events, which are useful to make predictions about future events. As the processes underlying visual mismatch negativity (vMMN are sensitive to complex stimulus changes, this event-related potential component, like its auditory counterpart, may be an index of a primitive system of intelligence. Here we tested whether the visual system is capable to detect abstract sequential regularity in unattended stimulus sequences. In our first experiment we investigated the emergence of vMMN and other change-related activity to stimuli violating abstract rules. Red and green disk patterns were delivered in pairs. When in the majority of pairs the colors were identical within the pairs, deviant pairs with different colors for the second member of the pair elicited vMMN. Spatially more extended vMMN responses with longer latency were observed for deviants with 10% compared to 30% probability. In our second experiment utilizing oddball sequences, we tested the emergence of vMMN to violations of a concrete, feature-based rule of a repetition of a standard color. Deviant colors elicited a vMMN response in the oddball sequences. VMMN was larger for the second member of the pair, i.e. after a shorter stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA. This result corresponds to the expected SOA/(vMMN relationship. Our results show that the system underlying vMMN is sensitive to abstract probability rules and this component can be considered as a correlate of violated predictions about the characteristics of environmental events.

  9. Neural correlates of three types of negative life events during angry face processing in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollier-Briant, Fanny; Paillère-Martinot, Marie-Laure; Lemaitre, Hervé; Miranda, Ruben; Vulser, Hélène; Goodman, Robert; Penttilä, Jani; Struve, Maren; Fadai, Tahmine; Kappel, Viola; Poustka, Luise; Grimmer, Yvonne; Bromberg, Uli; Conrod, Patricia; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Büchel, Christian; Flor, Herta; Gallinat, Juergen; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Lawrence, Claire; Mann, Karl; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Frouin, Vincent; Rietschel, Marcella; Robbins, Trevor W; Smolka, Michael N; Schumann, Gunter; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Artiges, Eric

    2016-12-01

    Negative life events (NLE) contribute to anxiety and depression disorders, but their relationship with brain functioning in adolescence has rarely been studied. We hypothesized that neural response to social threat would relate to NLE in the frontal-limbic emotional regions. Participants (N = 685) were drawn from the Imagen database of 14-year-old community adolescents recruited in schools. They underwent functional MRI while viewing angry and neutral faces, as a probe to neural response to social threat. Lifetime NLEs were assessed using the 'distress', 'family' and 'accident' subscales from a life event dimensional questionnaire. Relationships between NLE subscale scores and neural response were investigated. Links of NLE subscales scores with anxiety or depression outcomes at the age of 16 years were also investigated. Lifetime 'distress' positively correlated with ventral-lateral orbitofrontal and temporal cortex activations during angry face processing. 'Distress' scores correlated with the probabilities of meeting criteria for Generalized Anxiety Disorder or Major Depressive Disorder at the age of 16 years. Lifetime 'family' and 'accident' scores did not relate with neural response or follow-up conditions, however. Thus, different types of NLEs differentially predicted neural responses to threat during adolescence, and differentially predicted a de novo internalizing condition 2 years later. The deleterious effect of self-referential NLEs is suggested. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Neural decoding reveals impaired face configural processing in the right fusiform face area of individuals with developmental prosopagnosia.

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    Zhang, Jiedong; Liu, Jia; Xu, Yaoda

    2015-01-28

    Most of human daily social interactions rely on the ability to successfully recognize faces. Yet ∼2% of the human population suffers from face blindness without any acquired brain damage [this is also known as developmental prosopagnosia (DP) or congenital prosopagnosia]). Despite the presence of severe behavioral face recognition deficits, surprisingly, a majority of DP individuals exhibit normal face selectivity in the right fusiform face area (FFA), a key brain region involved in face configural processing. This finding, together with evidence showing impairments downstream from the right FFA in DP individuals, has led some to argue that perhaps the right FFA is largely intact in DP individuals. Using fMRI multivoxel pattern analysis, here we report the discovery of a neural impairment in the right FFA of DP individuals that may play a critical role in mediating their face-processing deficits. In seven individuals with DP, we discovered that, despite the right FFA's preference for faces and it showing decoding for the different face parts, it exhibited impaired face configural decoding and did not contain distinct neural response patterns for the intact and the scrambled face configurations. This abnormality was not present throughout the ventral visual cortex, as normal neural decoding was found in an adjacent object-processing region. To our knowledge, this is the first direct neural evidence showing impaired face configural processing in the right FFA in individuals with DP. The discovery of this neural impairment provides a new clue to our understanding of the neural basis of DP.

  11. Revealing the relationship of couples facing prophylaxis of vertical transmission of HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tassiane Ferreira Langendorf

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective.To reveal the behavior of couples who face prophylaxis of vertical transmission of HIV. Methodology. This study, based on Heidegger's theory of phenomenology, included 14 participants (7 couples, who received prophylaxis against HIV vertical transmission. The study was conducted from February 2011 to December 2012 in a prenatal outpatient and child care unit at a hospital in the countryside of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Results. Given the possibility of infection and of having a child, the couples revealed the existential movement of staying together to face the situation. The couple learn to take care of themselves in order to be able to care for and become involved with the baby. In this relationship, they teach themselves how to be a family. Conclusion. The inclusion of men in women's health care process, with both serving as a unit, makes it possible to develop assistance in the context of considering the family as being a participant in care.

  12. Our Faces in the Dog's Brain: Functional Imaging Reveals Temporal Cortex Activation during Perception of Human Faces.

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    Cuaya, Laura V; Hernández-Pérez, Raúl; Concha, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Dogs have a rich social relationship with humans. One fundamental aspect of it is how dogs pay close attention to human faces in order to guide their behavior, for example, by recognizing their owner and his/her emotional state using visual cues. It is well known that humans have specific brain regions for the processing of other human faces, yet it is unclear how dogs' brains process human faces. For this reason, our study focuses on describing the brain correlates of perception of human faces in dogs using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We trained seven domestic dogs to remain awake, still and unrestrained inside an MRI scanner. We used a visual stimulation paradigm with block design to compare activity elicited by human faces against everyday objects. Brain activity related to the perception of faces changed significantly in several brain regions, but mainly in the bilateral temporal cortex. The opposite contrast (i.e., everyday objects against human faces) showed no significant brain activity change. The temporal cortex is part of the ventral visual pathway, and our results are consistent with reports in other species like primates and sheep, that suggest a high degree of evolutionary conservation of this pathway for face processing. This study introduces the temporal cortex as candidate to process human faces, a pillar of social cognition in dogs.

  13. Negative “gossip” stimuli modulate left-lateralized P1 component while viewing neutral faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weed, Ethan; Allen, Micah Galen; Gramm, Daniel

    Language allows us to operate more efficiently in the world. By hearing about others’ experiences, we are able to orient toward things that could be beneficial to us, and avoid hazards. This sharing of experiences is particularly prominent in the social realm. Using a binocular rivalry paradigm......, Anderson et al. (2011) showed that short “gossip” phrases modulated the length of time faces remained perceptually dominant. However, binocular rivalry is measured by self-report. We used EEG to investigate the timing of gossip’s early effect on face perception. Gossip stimuli were those used by Anderson...... et al. (2011), translated to Danish. Neutral faces were taken from the PUT database (Kasiński et al., 2008). Participants (n=30) viewed each face together with the gossip stimuli a total of six times. Following this encoding period, 32 channels of EEG were recorded while participants viewed the faces...

  14. Optimizing the Face Paradigm of BCI System by Modified Mismatch Negative Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sijie; Jin, Jing; Daly, Ian; Wang, Xingyu; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Many recent studies have focused on improving the performance of event-related potential (ERP) based brain computer interfaces (BCIs). The use of a face pattern has been shown to obtain high classification accuracies and information transfer rates (ITRs) by evoking discriminative ERPs (N200 and N400) in addition to P300 potentials. Recently, it has been proved that the performance of traditional P300-based BCIs could be improved through a modification of the mismatch pattern. In this paper, a mismatch inverted face pattern (MIF-pattern) was presented to improve the performance of the inverted face pattern (IF-pattern), one of the state of the art patterns used in visual-based BCI systems. Ten subjects attended in this experiment. The result showed that the mismatch inverted face pattern could evoke significantly larger vertex positive potentials (p < 0.05) and N400s (p < 0.05) compared to the inverted face pattern. The classification accuracy (mean accuracy is 99.58%) and ITRs (mean bit rate is 27.88 bit/min) of the mismatch inverted face pattern was significantly higher than that of the inverted face pattern (p < 0.05). PMID:27774046

  15. Optimizing the face Paradigm of BCI system by modified Mismatch Negative paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siejie Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Many recent studies have focused on improving the performance of event-related potential (ERP based brain computer interfaces (BCIs. The use of a face pattern has been shown to obtain high classification accuracies and information transfer rates (ITRs by evoking discriminative ERPs (N200 and N400 in addition to P300 potentials. Recently, it has been proved that the performance of traditional P300-based BCIs could be improved through a modification of the mismatch pattern. In this paper, a mismatch inverted face pattern (MIF-pattern was presented to improve the performance of the inverted face pattern (IF-pattern, one of the state of the art patterns used in visual-based BCI systems. Ten subjects attended in this experiment. The result showed that the mismatch inverted face pattern could evoke significantly larger vertex positive potentials (p<0.05 and N400s (p<0.05 compared to the inverted face pattern. The classification accuracy (mean accuracy is 99.58% and ITRs (mean bit rate is 27.88 bit/min of the mismatch inverted face pattern was significantly higher than that of the inverted face pattern (p<0.05.

  16. Face configuration affects speech perception: Evidence from a McGurk mismatch negativity study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskelund, Kasper; MacDonald, Ewen; Andersen, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    We perceive identity, expression and speech from faces. While perception of identity and expression depends crucially on the configuration of facial features it is less clear whether this holds for visual speech perception. Facial configuration is poorly perceived for upside-down faces...... the face is upright indicating that facial configuration can be important for visual speech perception. This effect can propagate to auditory speech perception through audiovisual integration so that Thatcherization disrupts the McGurk illusion in which visual speech perception alters perception...... perception due to the McGurk illusion without any change in the acoustic stimulus. We found that Thatcherization disrupted a strong McGurk illusion and a correspondingly strong McGurk-MMN only for upright faces. This confirms that facial configuration can be important for audiovisual speech perception...

  17. Negative differential mobility for negative carriers as revealed by space charge measurements on crosslinked polyethylene insulated model cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyssedre, G.; Vu, T. T. N.; Laurent, C.

    2015-12-01

    Among features observed in polyethylene materials under relatively high field, space charge packets, consisting in a pulse of net charge that remains in the form of a pulse as it crosses the insulation, are repeatedly observed but without complete theory explaining their formation and propagation. Positive charge packets are more often reported, and the models based on negative differential mobility(NDM) for the transport of holes could account for some charge packets phenomenology. Conversely, NDM for electrons transport has never been reported so far. The present contribution reports space charge measurements by pulsed electroacoustic method on miniature cables that are model of HVDC cables. The measurements were realized at room temperature or with a temperature gradient of 10 °C through the insulation under DC fields on the order 30-60 kV/mm. Space charge results reveal systematic occurrence of a negative front of charges generated at the inner electrode that moves toward the outer electrode at the beginning of the polarization step. It is observed that the transit time of the front of negative charge increases, and therefore the mobility decreases, with the applied voltage. Further, the estimated mobility, in the range 10-14-10-13 m2 V-1 s-1 for the present results, increases when the temperature increases for the same condition of applied voltage. The features substantiate the hypothesis of negative differential mobility used for modelling space charge packets.

  18. Paranoid males have reduced lateralisation for processing of negative emotions: an investigation using the chimeric faces test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Victoria J; McKay, Ryan T

    2014-01-01

    Reduced strength of lateralisation in patients with schizophrenia has been reported in a number of studies. However the exact nature of this relationship remains unclear. In this study, lateralisation for processing emotional faces was measured using the chimeric faces test and examined in relation to paranoia in a non-clinical sample. For males only, those with higher scores on a paranoia questionnaire had reduced lateralisation for processing negative facial emotion. For females there were no significant relationships. These findings suggest that atypical patterns of lateralisation for processing emotional stimuli may be implicated in, or associated with, increased levels of paranoia.

  19. Unbiased simulations reveal the inward-facing conformation of the human serotonin transporter and Na+ ion release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koldsø, Heidi; Noer, Pernille Rimmer; Grouleff, Julie;

    2011-01-01

    . The simulations reveal a transition of hSERT from an outward-facing occluded conformation to an inward-facing conformation in a one-substrate-bound state. Simulations with a second substrate in the proposed symport effector site did not lead to conformational changes associated with translocation. The central...

  20. Some Difficulties in Understanding Negative Numbers Faced by Students: A Qualitative Study Applied at Secondary Schools in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuadiah, Nyiayu Fahriza; Suryadi, Didi; Turmudi

    2017-01-01

    This study revealed how students' understanding of negative numbers and identified their difficulties related with the concept of integer and its counting operation as part of identifying epistemological obstacles about negative numbers. Even though teachers have explained counting operation procedure of integer, but there was concept…

  1. Eye tracking reveals a crucial role for facial motion in recognition of faces by infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Naiqi G; Quinn, Paul C; Liu, Shaoying; Ge, Liezhong; Pascalis, Olivier; Lee, Kang

    2015-06-01

    Current knowledge about face processing in infancy comes largely from studies using static face stimuli, but faces that infants see in the real world are mostly moving ones. To bridge this gap, 3-, 6-, and 9-month-old Asian infants (N = 118) were familiarized with either moving or static Asian female faces, and then their face recognition was tested with static face images. Eye-tracking methodology was used to record eye movements during the familiarization and test phases. The results showed a developmental change in eye movement patterns, but only for the moving faces. In addition, the more infants shifted their fixations across facial regions, the better their face recognition was, but only for the moving faces. The results suggest that facial movement influences the way faces are encoded from early in development.

  2. Negative differential mobility for negative carriers as revealed by space charge measurements on crosslinked polyethylene insulated model cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teyssedre, G., E-mail: gilbert.teyssedre@laplace.univ-tlse.fr; Laurent, C. [Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d' Energie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Vu, T. T. N. [Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d' Energie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); Electric Power University, 235 Hoang Quoc Viet, 10000 Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2015-12-21

    Among features observed in polyethylene materials under relatively high field, space charge packets, consisting in a pulse of net charge that remains in the form of a pulse as it crosses the insulation, are repeatedly observed but without complete theory explaining their formation and propagation. Positive charge packets are more often reported, and the models based on negative differential mobility(NDM) for the transport of holes could account for some charge packets phenomenology. Conversely, NDM for electrons transport has never been reported so far. The present contribution reports space charge measurements by pulsed electroacoustic method on miniature cables that are model of HVDC cables. The measurements were realized at room temperature or with a temperature gradient of 10 °C through the insulation under DC fields on the order 30–60 kV/mm. Space charge results reveal systematic occurrence of a negative front of charges generated at the inner electrode that moves toward the outer electrode at the beginning of the polarization step. It is observed that the transit time of the front of negative charge increases, and therefore the mobility decreases, with the applied voltage. Further, the estimated mobility, in the range 10{sup −14}–10{sup −13} m{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} for the present results, increases when the temperature increases for the same condition of applied voltage. The features substantiate the hypothesis of negative differential mobility used for modelling space charge packets.

  3. Amygdala reactivity to sad faces in preschool children: An early neural marker of persistent negative affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Gaffrey

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: The current findings provide preliminary evidence for amygdala activity as a potential biomarker of persistent negative affect during early childhood and suggest future work examining the origins and long-term implications of this relationship is necessary.

  4. Face-to-face: Perceived personal relevance amplifies face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublatzky, Florian; Pittig, Andre; Schupp, Harald T; Alpers, Georg W

    2017-05-01

    The human face conveys emotional and social information, but it is not well understood how these two aspects influence face perception. In order to model a group situation, two faces displaying happy, neutral or angry expressions were presented. Importantly, faces were either facing the observer, or they were presented in profile view directed towards, or looking away from each other. In Experiment 1 (n = 64), face pairs were rated regarding perceived relevance, wish-to-interact, and displayed interactivity, as well as valence and arousal. All variables revealed main effects of facial expression (emotional > neutral), face orientation (facing observer > towards > away) and interactions showed that evaluation of emotional faces strongly varies with their orientation. Experiment 2 (n = 33) examined the temporal dynamics of perceptual-attentional processing of these face constellations with event-related potentials. Processing of emotional and neutral faces differed significantly in N170 amplitudes, early posterior negativity (EPN), and sustained positive potentials. Importantly, selective emotional face processing varied as a function of face orientation, indicating early emotion-specific (N170, EPN) and late threat-specific effects (LPP, sustained positivity). Taken together, perceived personal relevance to the observer-conveyed by facial expression and face direction-amplifies emotional face processing within triadic group situations. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Event-Related Brain Potentials Reveal Anomalies in Temporal Processing of Faces in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, James; Dawson, Geraldine; Webb, Sara J.; Panagiotides, Heracles; Carver, Leslie J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Individuals with autism exhibit impairments in face recognition, and neuroimaging studies have shown that individuals with autism exhibit abnormal patterns of brain activity during face processing. The current study examined the temporal characteristics of face processing in autism and their relation to behavior. Method: High-density…

  6. Brain Responses Reveal That Infants' Face Discrimination Is Guided by Statistical Learning from Distributional Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altvater-Mackensen, Nicole; Jessen, Sarah; Grossmann, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Infants' perception of faces becomes attuned to the environment during the first year of life. However, the mechanisms that underpin perceptual narrowing for faces are only poorly understood. Considering the developmental similarities seen in perceptual narrowing for faces and speech and the role that statistical learning has been shown to play…

  7. Depression-related difficulties disengaging from negative faces are associated with sustained attention to negative feedback during social evaluation and predict stress recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Nuria; De Raedt, Rudi

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to clarify: 1) the presence of depression-related attention bias related to a social stressor, 2) its association with depression-related attention biases as measured under standard conditions, and 3) their association with impaired stress recovery in depression. A sample of 39 participants reporting a broad range of depression levels completed a standard eye-tracking paradigm in which they had to engage/disengage their gaze with/from emotional faces. Participants then underwent a stress induction (i.e., giving a speech), in which their eye movements to false emotional feedback were measured, and stress reactivity and recovery were assessed. Depression level was associated with longer times to engage/disengage attention with/from negative faces under standard conditions and with sustained attention to negative feedback during the speech. These depression-related biases were associated and mediated the association between depression level and self-reported stress recovery, predicting lower recovery from stress after giving the speech. PMID:28362826

  8. Neuronal correlates of view representation revealed by face-view aftereffect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noudoost, Behrad; Esteky, Hossein

    2013-03-27

    Recognition of face-views is a crucial component of our social behavior. However, little is known about the neuronal basis of face-view recognition. Recent psychophysical studies have shown that adaptation to a particular face-view changes perception of other views in humans. To understand the neuronal basis of face-view representation and the mechanisms involved in face-view adaptation, we studied the responses of inferotemporal (IT) cortex neurons before and after face-view adaptation. We first used face-view adaptation to show that monkeys, as well as humans, exhibit face-view aftereffect, suggesting the presence of a view-sensitive representation in primates. Then, we recorded from IT neurons of monkeys and found that changes in responses of these neurons can account for changes in perception of face views attributable to adaptation, indicating IT as a neural correlate of face-view perception. More importantly, we provide evidence that IT neurons with wide-view tuning not only conveyed face-view information but also exhibited neural signatures of view aftereffect before neurons with narrower tuning. Our findings show that view-dependent representation of objects does not necessarily depend on narrow-tuned neurons. The finding that wide-view tuned neurons account for view-specific perceptual changes implies the importance of accumulating sensitivity and tolerance at the level of IT neurons, as the final stage of visual object recognition.

  9. Comparison of eye movements over faces in photographic positives and negatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Saul M; Strauss, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Eye movements were recorded while subjects viewed ordinary portraits and photographic negatives of those portraits. Under both conditions they first studied sixteen portraits and then tried to decide which of forty-eight portraits they had just seen. They made more errors of recognition while viewing negatives, and their fixation patterns were significantly altered: there was a decrease in the percentage of fixations directed to the eyes, nose, and mouth, and an increase for such details as the ears, cheeks, chin, cap, and necktie. There was also a decrease in the ratio of fixations to the most fixated detail compared to the least fixated detail.

  10. Double attention bias for positive and negative emotional faces in clinical depression: evidence from an eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Almudena; Vázquez, Carmelo

    2015-03-01

    According to cognitive models, attentional biases in depression play key roles in the onset and subsequent maintenance of the disorder. The present study examines the processing of emotional facial expressions (happy, angry, and sad) in depressed and non-depressed adults. Sixteen unmedicated patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and 34 never-depressed controls (ND) completed an eye-tracking task to assess different components of visual attention (orienting attention and maintenance of attention) in the processing of emotional faces. Compared to ND, participants with MDD showed a negative attentional bias in attentional maintenance indices (i.e. first fixation duration and total fixation time) for sad faces. This attentional bias was positively associated with the severity of depressive symptoms. Furthermore, the MDD group spent a marginally less amount of time viewing happy faces compared with the ND group. No differences were found between the groups with respect to angry faces and orienting attention indices. The current study is limited by its cross-sectional design. These results support the notion that attentional biases in depression are specific to depression-related information and that they operate in later stages in the deployment of attention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Castellated tiles as the beam-facing components for the diagnostic calorimeter of the negative ion source SPIDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peruzzo, S.; Cervaro, V.; Dalla Palma, M.; Delogu, R.; De Muri, M.; Fasolo, D.; Franchin, L.; Pasqualotto, R.; Pimazzoni, A.; Rizzolo, A.; Tollin, M.; Zampieri, L.; Serianni, G.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the results of numerical simulations and experimental tests carried out to assess the feasibility and suitability of graphite castellated tiles as beam-facing component in the diagnostic calorimeter of the negative ion source SPIDER (Source for Production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from Radio frequency plasma). The results indicate that this concept could be a reliable, although less performing, alternative for the present design based on carbon fiber composite tiles, as it provides thermal measurements on the required spatial scale.

  12. Castellated tiles as the beam-facing components for the diagnostic calorimeter of the negative ion source SPIDER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peruzzo, S., E-mail: simone.peruzzo@igi.cnr.it; Cervaro, V.; Dalla Palma, M.; Delogu, R.; Fasolo, D.; Franchin, L.; Pasqualotto, R.; Rizzolo, A.; Tollin, M.; Serianni, G. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); De Muri, M. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); INFN-LNL, v.le dell’Università 2, I-35020 Legnaro, PD (Italy); Pimazzoni, A. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Università degli Studi di Padova, Via 8 Febbraio 2, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Zampieri, L. [Università degli Studi di Padova, Via 8 Febbraio 2, I-35122 Padova (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    This paper presents the results of numerical simulations and experimental tests carried out to assess the feasibility and suitability of graphite castellated tiles as beam-facing component in the diagnostic calorimeter of the negative ion source SPIDER (Source for Production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from Radio frequency plasma). The results indicate that this concept could be a reliable, although less performing, alternative for the present design based on carbon fiber composite tiles, as it provides thermal measurements on the required spatial scale.

  13. How the Thatcher illusion reveals evolutionary differences in the face processing of primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, Kimberly B; Taubert, Jessica; Smith, Carolynn L; Parr, Lisa A

    2013-09-01

    Face recognition in humans is a complex cognitive skill that requires sensitivity to unique configurations of eyes, mouth, and other facial features. The Thatcher illusion has been used to demonstrate the importance of orientation when processing configural information within faces. Transforming an upright face so that the eyes and mouth are inverted renders the face grotesque; however, when this "Thatcherized" face is inverted, the effect disappears. Due to the use of primate models in social cognition research, it is important to determine the extent to which specialized cognitive functions like face processing occur across species. To date, the Thatcher illusion has been explored in only a few species with mixed results. Here, we used computerized tasks to examine whether nonhuman primates perceive the Thatcher illusion. Chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys were required to discriminate between Thatcherized and unaltered faces presented upright and inverted. Our results confirm that chimpanzees perceived the Thatcher illusion, but rhesus monkeys did not, suggesting species differences in the importance of configural information in face processing. Three further experiments were conducted to understand why our results differed from previously published accounts of the Thatcher illusion in rhesus monkeys.

  14. Diffusion Modelling Reveals the Decision Making Processes Underlying Negative Judgement Bias in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire A Hales

    Full Text Available Human decision making is modified by emotional state. Rodents exhibit similar biases during interpretation of ambiguous cues that can be altered by affective state manipulations. In this study, the impact of negative affective state on judgement bias in rats was measured using an ambiguous-cue interpretation task. Acute treatment with an anxiogenic drug (FG7142, and chronic restraint stress and social isolation both induced a bias towards more negative interpretation of the ambiguous cue. The diffusion model was fit to behavioural data to allow further analysis of the underlying decision making processes. To uncover the way in which parameters vary together in relation to affective state manipulations, independent component analysis was conducted on rate of information accumulation and distances to decision threshold parameters for control data. Results from this analysis were applied to parameters from negative affective state manipulations. These projected components were compared to control components to reveal the changes in decision making processes that are due to affective state manipulations. Negative affective bias in rodents induced by either FG7142 or chronic stress is due to a combination of more negative interpretation of the ambiguous cue, reduced anticipation of the high reward and increased anticipation of the low reward.

  15. Diffusion Modelling Reveals the Decision Making Processes Underlying Negative Judgement Bias in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Claire A; Robinson, Emma S J; Houghton, Conor J

    2016-01-01

    Human decision making is modified by emotional state. Rodents exhibit similar biases during interpretation of ambiguous cues that can be altered by affective state manipulations. In this study, the impact of negative affective state on judgement bias in rats was measured using an ambiguous-cue interpretation task. Acute treatment with an anxiogenic drug (FG7142), and chronic restraint stress and social isolation both induced a bias towards more negative interpretation of the ambiguous cue. The diffusion model was fit to behavioural data to allow further analysis of the underlying decision making processes. To uncover the way in which parameters vary together in relation to affective state manipulations, independent component analysis was conducted on rate of information accumulation and distances to decision threshold parameters for control data. Results from this analysis were applied to parameters from negative affective state manipulations. These projected components were compared to control components to reveal the changes in decision making processes that are due to affective state manipulations. Negative affective bias in rodents induced by either FG7142 or chronic stress is due to a combination of more negative interpretation of the ambiguous cue, reduced anticipation of the high reward and increased anticipation of the low reward.

  16. Functional MRI reveals compromised neural integrity of the face processing network in congenital prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidan, Galia; Behrmann, Marlene

    2009-07-14

    The summed activity of multiple nodes of a distributed cortical network supports face recognition in humans, including "core" ventral occipitotemporal cortex (VOTC) regions, and "extended" regions outside VOTC. Many individuals with congenital prosopagnosia-an impairment in face processing-exhibit normal blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) activation in the core VOTC regions. These individuals evince a reduction in the structural integrity of the white matter tracts connecting VOTC to anterior temporal and frontal cortices, part of the "extended" face network. The impairment in congenital prosopagnosia may arise, therefore, not from a dysfunction of the core VOTC areas but from a failure to propagate signals between the intact VOTC and the extended nodes of the network. Using the fMR adaptation paradigm with famous and unknown faces, we show that individuals with congenital prosopagnosia evince normal adaptation effects in VOTC, indicating sensitivity to facial identity, but show no differential activation for familiar versus unknown faces outside VOTC, particularly in the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex and the anterior paracingulate cortex. Normal BOLD activation in VOTC is thus insufficient to subserve intact face recognition, and disrupted information propagation between VOTC and the extended face processing network may explain the functional impairment in congenital prosopagnosia.

  17. Brain imaging reveals neuronal circuitry underlying the crow's perception of human faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzluff, John M; Miyaoka, Robert; Minoshima, Satoshi; Cross, Donna J

    2012-09-25

    Crows pay close attention to people and can remember specific faces for several years after a single encounter. In mammals, including humans, faces are evaluated by an integrated neural system involving the sensory cortex, limbic system, and striatum. Here we test the hypothesis that birds use a similar system by providing an imaging analysis of an awake, wild animal's brain as it performs an adaptive, complex cognitive task. We show that in vivo imaging of crow brain activity during exposure to familiar human faces previously associated with either capture (threatening) or caretaking (caring) activated several brain regions that allow birds to discriminate, associate, and remember visual stimuli, including the rostral hyperpallium, nidopallium, mesopallium, and lateral striatum. Perception of threatening faces activated circuitry including amygdalar, thalamic, and brainstem regions, known in humans and other vertebrates to be related to emotion, motivation, and conditioned fear learning. In contrast, perception of caring faces activated motivation and striatal regions. In our experiments and in nature, when perceiving a threatening face, crows froze and fixed their gaze (decreased blink rate), which was associated with activation of brain regions known in birds to regulate perception, attention, fear, and escape behavior. These findings indicate that, similar to humans, crows use sophisticated visual sensory systems to recognize faces and modulate behavioral responses by integrating visual information with expectation and emotion. Our approach has wide applicability and potential to improve our understanding of the neural basis for animal behavior.

  18. Brain imaging reveals neuronal circuitry underlying the crow’s perception of human faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzluff, John M.; Miyaoka, Robert; Minoshima, Satoshi; Cross, Donna J.

    2012-01-01

    Crows pay close attention to people and can remember specific faces for several years after a single encounter. In mammals, including humans, faces are evaluated by an integrated neural system involving the sensory cortex, limbic system, and striatum. Here we test the hypothesis that birds use a similar system by providing an imaging analysis of an awake, wild animal’s brain as it performs an adaptive, complex cognitive task. We show that in vivo imaging of crow brain activity during exposure to familiar human faces previously associated with either capture (threatening) or caretaking (caring) activated several brain regions that allow birds to discriminate, associate, and remember visual stimuli, including the rostral hyperpallium, nidopallium, mesopallium, and lateral striatum. Perception of threatening faces activated circuitry including amygdalar, thalamic, and brainstem regions, known in humans and other vertebrates to be related to emotion, motivation, and conditioned fear learning. In contrast, perception of caring faces activated motivation and striatal regions. In our experiments and in nature, when perceiving a threatening face, crows froze and fixed their gaze (decreased blink rate), which was associated with activation of brain regions known in birds to regulate perception, attention, fear, and escape behavior. These findings indicate that, similar to humans, crows use sophisticated visual sensory systems to recognize faces and modulate behavioral responses by integrating visual information with expectation and emotion. Our approach has wide applicability and potential to improve our understanding of the neural basis for animal behavior. PMID:22984177

  19. Face processing changes in normal aging revealed by fMRI adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunjo; Grady, Cheryl L; Habak, Claudine; Wilson, Hugh R; Moscovitch, Morris

    2011-11-01

    We investigated the neural correlates of facial processing changes in healthy aging using fMRI and an adaptation paradigm. In the scanner, participants were successively presented with faces that varied in identity, viewpoint, both, or neither and performed a head size detection task independent of identity or viewpoint. In right fusiform face area (FFA), older adults failed to show adaptation to the same face repeatedly presented in the same view, which elicited the most adaptation in young adults. We also performed a multivariate analysis to examine correlations between whole-brain activation patterns and behavioral performance in a face-matching task tested outside the scanner. Despite poor neural adaptation in right FFA, high-performing older adults engaged the same face-processing network as high-performing young adults across conditions, except the one presenting a same facial identity across different viewpoints. Low-performing older adults used this network to a lesser extent. Additionally, high-performing older adults uniquely recruited a set of areas related to better performance across all conditions, indicating age-specific involvement of this added network. This network did not include the core ventral face-processing areas but involved the left inferior occipital gyrus, frontal, and parietal regions. Although our adaptation results show that the neuronal representations of the core face-preferring areas become less selective with age, our multivariate analysis indicates that older adults utilize a distinct network of regions associated with better face matching performance, suggesting that engaging this network may compensate for deficiencies in ventral face processing regions.

  20. Atypical Asymmetry for Processing Human and Robot Faces in Autism Revealed by fNIRS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne E Jung

    Full Text Available Deficits in the visual processing of faces in autism spectrum disorder (ASD individuals may be due to atypical brain organization and function. Studies assessing asymmetric brain function in ASD individuals have suggested that facial processing, which is known to be lateralized in neurotypical (NT individuals, may be less lateralized in ASD. Here we used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS to first test this theory by comparing patterns of lateralized brain activity in homologous temporal-occipital facial processing regions during observation of faces in an ASD group and an NT group. As expected, the ASD participants showed reduced right hemisphere asymmetry for human faces, compared to the NT participants. Based on recent behavioral reports suggesting that robots can facilitate increased verbal interaction over human counterparts in ASD, we also measured responses to faces of robots to determine if these patterns of activation were lateralized in each group. In this exploratory test, both groups showed similar asymmetry patterns for the robot faces. Our findings confirm existing literature suggesting reduced asymmetry for human faces in ASD and provide a preliminary foundation for future testing of how the use of categorically different social stimuli in the clinical setting may be beneficial in this population.

  1. Ancient mitochondrial DNA reveals convergent evolution of giant short-faced bears (Tremarctinae) in North and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kieren J; Bray, Sarah C; Bover, Pere; Soibelzon, Leopoldo; Schubert, Blaine W; Prevosti, Francisco; Prieto, Alfredo; Martin, Fabiana; Austin, Jeremy J; Cooper, Alan

    2016-04-01

    The Tremarctinae are a subfamily of bears endemic to the New World, including two of the largest terrestrial mammalian carnivores that have ever lived: the giant, short-faced bears Arctodus simus from North America and Arctotherium angustidens from South America (greater than or equal to 1000 kg). Arctotherium angustidens became extinct during the Early Pleistocene, whereas Arctodus simus went extinct at the very end of the Pleistocene. The only living tremarctine is the spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus), a largely herbivorous bear that is today only found in South America. The relationships among the spectacled bears (Tremarctos), South American short-faced bears (Arctotherium) and North American short-faced bears (Arctodus) remain uncertain. In this study, we sequenced a mitochondrial genome from an Arctotherium femur preserved in a Chilean cave. Our molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the South American short-faced bears were more closely related to the extant South American spectacled bear than to the North American short-faced bears. This result suggests striking convergent evolution of giant forms in the two groups of short-faced bears (Arctodus and Arctotherium), potentially as an adaptation to dominate competition for megafaunal carcasses. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Ancient mitochondrial DNA reveals convergent evolution of giant short-faced bears (Tremarctinae) in North and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bover, Pere; Soibelzon, Leopoldo; Schubert, Blaine W.; Prevosti, Francisco; Prieto, Alfredo; Martin, Fabiana; Austin, Jeremy J.; Cooper, Alan

    2016-01-01

    The Tremarctinae are a subfamily of bears endemic to the New World, including two of the largest terrestrial mammalian carnivores that have ever lived: the giant, short-faced bears Arctodus simus from North America and Arctotherium angustidens from South America (greater than or equal to 1000 kg). Arctotherium angustidens became extinct during the Early Pleistocene, whereas Arctodus simus went extinct at the very end of the Pleistocene. The only living tremarctine is the spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus), a largely herbivorous bear that is today only found in South America. The relationships among the spectacled bears (Tremarctos), South American short-faced bears (Arctotherium) and North American short-faced bears (Arctodus) remain uncertain. In this study, we sequenced a mitochondrial genome from an Arctotherium femur preserved in a Chilean cave. Our molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the South American short-faced bears were more closely related to the extant South American spectacled bear than to the North American short-faced bears. This result suggests striking convergent evolution of giant forms in the two groups of short-faced bears (Arctodus and Arctotherium), potentially as an adaptation to dominate competition for megafaunal carcasses. PMID:27095265

  3. Who are you expecting? Biases in face perception reveal prior expectations for sex and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Tamara Lea; Otsuka, Yumiko; Clifford, Colin Walter Giles

    2016-01-01

    A person's appearance contains a wealth of information, including indicators of their sex and age. Because first impressions can set the tone of subsequent relationships, it is crucial we form an accurate initial impression. Yet prior expectation can bias our decisions: Studies have reported biases to respond "male" when asked to report a person's sex from an image of their face and to place their age closer to their own. Perceptual expectation effects and cognitive response biases may both contribute to these inaccuracies. The current research used a Bayesian modeling approach to establish the perceptual biases involved when estimating the sex and age of an individual from their face. We demonstrate a perceptual bias for male and older faces evident under conditions of uncertainty. This suggests the well-established male bias is perceptual in origin and may be impervious to cognitive control. In comparison, the own age anchor effect is not operationalized at the perceptual level: The perceptual expectation is for a face of advanced age. Thus, distinct biases in the estimation of age operate at the perceptual and cognitive levels.

  4. A beamformer analysis of MEG data reveals frontal generators of the musically elicited mismatch negativity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lappe

    Full Text Available To localize the neural generators of the musically elicited mismatch negativity with high temporal resolution we conducted a beamformer analysis (Synthetic Aperture Magnetometry, SAM on magnetoencephalography (MEG data from a previous musical mismatch study. The stimuli consisted of a six-tone melodic sequence comprising broken chords in C- and G-major. The musical sequence was presented within an oddball paradigm in which the last tone was lowered occasionally (20% by a minor third. The beamforming analysis revealed significant right hemispheric neural activation in the superior temporal (STC, inferior frontal (IFC, superior frontal (SFC and orbitofrontal (OFC cortices within a time window of 100-200 ms after the occurrence of a deviant tone. IFC and SFC activation was also observed in the left hemisphere. The pronounced early right inferior frontal activation of the auditory mismatch negativity has not been shown in MEG studies so far. The activation in STC and IFC is consistent with earlier electroencephalography (EEG, optical imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies that reveal the auditory and inferior frontal cortices as main generators of the auditory MMN. The observed right hemispheric IFC is also in line with some previous music studies showing similar activation patterns after harmonic syntactic violations. The results demonstrate that a deviant tone within a musical sequence recruits immediately a distributed neural network in frontal and prefrontal areas suggesting that top-down processes are involved when expectation violation occurs within well-known stimuli.

  5. Network modeling reveals prevalent negative regulatory relationships between signaling sectors in Arabidopsis immune signaling.

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    Masanao Sato

    Full Text Available Biological signaling processes may be mediated by complex networks in which network components and network sectors interact with each other in complex ways. Studies of complex networks benefit from approaches in which the roles of individual components are considered in the context of the network. The plant immune signaling network, which controls inducible responses to pathogen attack, is such a complex network. We studied the Arabidopsis immune signaling network upon challenge with a strain of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae expressing the effector protein AvrRpt2 (Pto DC3000 AvrRpt2. This bacterial strain feeds multiple inputs into the signaling network, allowing many parts of the network to be activated at once. mRNA profiles for 571 immune response genes of 22 Arabidopsis immunity mutants and wild type were collected 6 hours after inoculation with Pto DC3000 AvrRpt2. The mRNA profiles were analyzed as detailed descriptions of changes in the network state resulting from the genetic perturbations. Regulatory relationships among the genes corresponding to the mutations were inferred by recursively applying a non-linear dimensionality reduction procedure to the mRNA profile data. The resulting static network model accurately predicted 23 of 25 regulatory relationships reported in the literature, suggesting that predictions of novel regulatory relationships are also accurate. The network model revealed two striking features: (i the components of the network are highly interconnected; and (ii negative regulatory relationships are common between signaling sectors. Complex regulatory relationships, including a novel negative regulatory relationship between the early microbe-associated molecular pattern-triggered signaling sectors and the salicylic acid sector, were further validated. We propose that prevalent negative regulatory relationships among the signaling sectors make the plant immune signaling network a "sector

  6. The telltale face: possible mechanisms behind defector and cooperator recognition revealed by emotional facial expression metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács-Bálint, Zsófia; Bereczkei, Tamás; Hernádi, István

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the role of facial cues in cooperator and defector recognition. First, a face image database was constructed from pairs of full face portraits of target subjects taken at the moment of decision-making in a prisoner's dilemma game (PDG) and in a preceding neutral task. Image pairs with no deficiencies (n = 67) were standardized for orientation and luminance. Then, confidence in defector and cooperator recognition was tested with image rating in a different group of lay judges (n = 62). Results indicate that (1) defectors were better recognized (58% vs. 47%), (2) they looked different from cooperators (p facial microexpression analysis, defection was strongly linked with depressed lower lips and less opened eyes. Significant correlation was found between the intensity of micromimics and the rating of images in the cooperator-defector dimension. In summary, facial expressions can be considered as reliable indicators of momentary social dispositions in the PDG. Females may exhibit an evolutionary-based overestimation bias to detecting social visual cues of the defector face.

  7. Face-name association task reveals memory networks in patients with left and right hippocampal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamer, Silke; Milian, Monika; Erb, Michael; Rona, Sabine; Lerche, Holger; Ethofer, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to identify reorganization processes of episodic memory networks in patients with left and right temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) due to hippocampal sclerosis as well as their relations to neuropsychological memory performance. We investigated 28 healthy subjects, 12 patients with left TLE (LTLE) and 9 patients with right TLE (RTLE) with hippocampal sclerosis by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using a face-name association task, which combines verbal and non-verbal memory functions. Regions-of-interest (ROIs) were defined based on the group results of the healthy subjects. In each ROI, fMRI activations were compared across groups and correlated with verbal and non-verbal memory scores. The face-name association task yielded activations in bilateral hippocampus (HC), left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), left superior frontal gyrus (SFG), left superior temporal gyrus, bilateral angular gyrus (AG), bilateral medial prefrontal cortex and right anterior temporal lobe (ATL). LTLE patients demonstrated significantly less activation in the left HC and left SFG, whereas RTLE patients showed significantly less activation in the HC bilaterally, the left SFG and right AG. Verbal memory scores correlated with activations in the left and right HC, left SFG and right ATL and non-verbal memory scores with fMRI activations in the left and right HC and left SFG. The face-name association task can be employed to examine functional alterations of hippocampal activation during encoding of both verbal and non-verbal material in one fMRI paradigm. Further, the left SFG seems to be a convergence region for encoding of verbal and non-verbal material.

  8. Children with dyslexia reveal abnormal native language representations: evidence from a study of mismatch negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Jennifer; Leppänen, Paavo H T; Bartling, Jürgen; Csépe, Valéria; Démonet, Jean-Francois; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2011-08-01

    Although a deficit perceiving phonemes, as indexed by the mismatch negativity (MMN), is apparent in developmental dyslexia (DD), studies have not yet addressed whether this deficit might be a result of deficient native language speech representations. The present study examines how a native-vowel prototype and an atypical vowel are discriminated by 9-year-old children with (n = 14) and without (n = 12) DD. MMN was elicited in all conditions in both groups. The control group revealed enhanced MMN to the native-vowel prototype in comparison to the atypical vowel. Children with DD did not show enhanced MMN amplitude to the native-vowel prototype, suggesting impaired tuning to native language speech representations. Furthermore, higher MMN amplitudes to the native-vowel prototype correlated with more advanced reading (r = - .47) and spelling skills (r = - .52). Copyright © 2011 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  9. High-resolution imaging of expertise reveals reliable object selectivity in the fusiform face area related to perceptual performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGugin, Rankin Williams; Gatenby, J Christopher; Gore, John C; Gauthier, Isabel

    2012-10-16

    The fusiform face area (FFA) is a region of human cortex that responds selectively to faces, but whether it supports a more general function relevant for perceptual expertise is debated. Although both faces and objects of expertise engage many brain areas, the FFA remains the focus of the strongest modular claims and the clearest predictions about expertise. Functional MRI studies at standard-resolution (SR-fMRI) have found responses in the FFA for nonface objects of expertise, but high-resolution fMRI (HR-fMRI) in the FFA [Grill-Spector K, et al. (2006) Nat Neurosci 9:1177-1185] and neurophysiology in face patches in the monkey brain [Tsao DY, et al. (2006) Science 311:670-674] reveal no reliable selectivity for objects. It is thus possible that FFA responses to objects with SR-fMRI are a result of spatial blurring of responses from nonface-selective areas, potentially driven by attention to objects of expertise. Using HR-fMRI in two experiments, we provide evidence of reliable responses to cars in the FFA that correlate with behavioral car expertise. Effects of expertise in the FFA for nonface objects cannot be attributed to spatial blurring beyond the scale at which modular claims have been made, and within the lateral fusiform gyrus, they are restricted to a small area (200 mm(2) on the right and 50 mm(2) on the left) centered on the peak of face selectivity. Experience with a category may be sufficient to explain the spatially clustered face selectivity observed in this region.

  10. Methylome sequencing in triple-negative breast cancer reveals distinct methylation clusters with prognostic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirzaker, Clare; Zotenko, Elena; Song, Jenny Z; Qu, Wenjia; Nair, Shalima S; Locke, Warwick J; Stone, Andrew; Armstong, Nicola J; Robinson, Mark D; Dobrovic, Alexander; Avery-Kiejda, Kelly A; Peters, Kate M; French, Juliet D; Stein, Sandra; Korbie, Darren J; Trau, Matt; Forbes, John F; Scott, Rodney J; Brown, Melissa A; Francis, Glenn D; Clark, Susan J

    2015-02-02

    Epigenetic alterations in the cancer methylome are common in breast cancer and provide novel options for tumour stratification. Here, we perform whole-genome methylation capture sequencing on small amounts of DNA isolated from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and matched normal samples. We identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) enriched with promoters associated with transcription factor binding sites and DNA hypersensitive sites. Importantly, we stratify TNBCs into three distinct methylation clusters associated with better or worse prognosis and identify 17 DMRs that show a strong association with overall survival, including DMRs located in the Wilms tumour 1 (WT1) gene, bi-directional-promoter and antisense WT1-AS. Our data reveal that coordinated hypermethylation can occur in oestrogen receptor-negative disease, and that characterizing the epigenetic framework provides a potential signature to stratify TNBCs. Together, our findings demonstrate the feasibility of profiling the cancer methylome with limited archival tissue to identify regulatory regions associated with cancer.

  11. Negative regulators of insulin signaling revealed in a genome-wide functional screen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Min A Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes develops due to a combination of insulin resistance and beta-cell failure and current therapeutics aim at both of these underlying causes. Several negative regulators of insulin signaling are known and are the subject of drug discovery efforts. We sought to identify novel contributors to insulin resistance and hence potentially novel targets for therapeutic intervention. METHODOLOGY: An arrayed cDNA library encoding 18,441 human transcripts was screened for inhibitors of insulin signaling and revealed known inhibitors and numerous potential novel regulators. The novel hits included proteins of various functional classes such as kinases, phosphatases, transcription factors, and GTPase associated proteins. A series of secondary assays confirmed the relevance of the primary screen hits to insulin signaling and provided further insight into their modes of action. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Among the novel hits was PALD (KIAA1274, paladin, a previously uncharacterized protein that when overexpressed led to inhibition of insulin's ability to down regulate a FOXO1A-driven reporter gene, reduced upstream insulin-stimulated AKT phosphorylation, and decreased insulin receptor (IR abundance. Conversely, knockdown of PALD gene expression resulted in increased IR abundance, enhanced insulin-stimulated AKT phosphorylation, and an improvement in insulin's ability to suppress FOXO1A-driven reporter gene activity. The present data demonstrate that the application of arrayed genome-wide screening technologies to insulin signaling is fruitful and is likely to reveal novel drug targets for insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome.

  12. Microtubule organization within mitotic spindles revealed by serial block face scanning electron microscopy and image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Faye M; Honnor, Thomas R; Clarke, Nicholas I; Starling, Georgina P; Beckett, Alison J; Johansen, Adam M; Brettschneider, Julia A; Prior, Ian A; Royle, Stephen J

    2017-05-15

    Serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM) is a powerful method to analyze cells in 3D. Here, working at the resolution limit of the method, we describe a correlative light-SBF-SEM workflow to resolve microtubules of the mitotic spindle in human cells. We present four examples of uses for this workflow that are not practical by light microscopy and/or transmission electron microscopy. First, distinguishing closely associated microtubules within K-fibers; second, resolving bridging fibers in the mitotic spindle; third, visualizing membranes in mitotic cells, relative to the spindle apparatus; and fourth, volumetric analysis of kinetochores. Our workflow also includes new computational tools for exploring the spatial arrangement of microtubules within the mitotic spindle. We use these tools to show that microtubule order in mitotic spindles is sensitive to the level of TACC3 on the spindle. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Heat stress evaluation of two-layer chemical demilitarization ensembles with a full face negative pressure respirator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Oclla Michele; Guerrina, Ryan; Ashley, Candi D; Bernard, Thomas E

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the heat stress effects of three protective clothing ensembles: (1) protective apron over cloth coveralls including full face negative pressure respirator (APRON); (2) the apron over cloth coveralls with respirator plus protective pants (APRON+PANTS); and (3) protective coveralls over cloth coveralls with respirator (PROTECTIVE COVERALLS). In addition, there was a no-respirator ensemble (PROTECTIVE COVERALLS-noR), and WORK CLOTHES as a reference ensemble. Four acclimatized male participants completed a full set of five trials, and two of the participants repeated the full set. The progressive heat stress protocol was used to find the critical WBGT (WBGTcrit) and apparent total evaporative resistance (Re,T,a) at the upper limit of thermal equilibrium. The results (WBGTcrit [°C-WBGT] and Re,T,a [kPa m(2) W(-1)]) were WORK CLOTHES (35.5, 0.0115), APRON (31.6, 0.0179), APRON+PANTS (27.7, 0.0244), PROTECTIVE COVERALLS (25.9, 0.0290), and PROTECTIVE COVERALLS-noR (26.2, 0.0296). There were significant differences among the ensembles. Supporting previous studies, there was little evidence to suggest that the respirator contributed to heat stress.

  14. The Negative Correlation between Fiber Color and Quality Traits Revealed by QTL Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hongjie; Guo, Lixue; Wang, Gaskin; Sun, Junling; Pan, Zhaoe; He, Shoupu; Zhu, Heqin; Sun, Jie; Du, Xiongming

    2015-01-01

    Naturally existing colored cotton was far from perfection due to having genetic factors for lower yield, poor fiber quality and monotonous color. These factors posed a challenge to colored cotton breeding and innovation. To identify novel quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fiber color along with understanding of correlation between fiber color and quality in colored cotton, a RIL and two F2 populations were generated from crosses among Zong128 (Brown fiber cotton) and two white fiber cotton lines which were then analyzed in four environments. Two stable and major QTLs (qLC-7-1, qFC-7-1) for fiber lint and fuzz color were detected accounting for 16.01%-59.85% of the phenotypic variation across multiple generations and environments. Meanwhile, some minor QTLs were also identified on chromosomes 5, 14, 21 and 24 providing low phenotypic variation (color and quality has been detected between flanking markers NAU1043 and NAU3654 on chromosome 7 (A genome) over multiple environments. Of which, qLC-7-1, qFC-7-1 were responsible for positive effects and improved fiber color in offsprings. Meanwhile, the QTLs (qFL-7-1, qFU-7-1, qFF-7-1, qFE-7-1, and qFS-7-1) for fiber quality had negative effects and explained 2.19%-8.78% of the phenotypic variation. This multiple-effect locus for fiber color and quality may reveal the negative correlation between the two types of above traits, so paving the way towards cotton genetic improvement.

  15. Applying Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Model to Identify the Negative Influences Facing Children with Physical Disabilities in Rural Areas in Kwa-Zulu Natal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Brenda; Nel, Norma

    2013-01-01

    Children with visible physical disabilities (CWPDs) living in rural areas of South Africa are a matter of particular concern. While all children living in rural areas face negative influences such as poverty and the high incidence of HIV/AIDS, this situation is exacerbated for CWPDs who are more vulnerable to these influences (Human Sciences…

  16. Origin of Phytolith Carbon Revealed by Isotopic Measurements of Extracted Phytoliths from FACE Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyerson, P. E.; Santos, G.; Alexandre, A. E.; Harutyunyan, A.; Badeck, F.; Cattivelli, L.

    2013-12-01

    Radiocarbon dating of C encapsulated in phytoliths (phytC) is being explored as an age control tool in many Earth Science disciplines with limited success. However, because plants take up small amounts of C (1-3%) of varying ages from soils, recent studies have suggested that phytC is at least partially derived from soil organic matter (SOM) based on anomalously old 14C phytC ages derived from living plants. It appears that most phytolith digestion methods are not able to fully dissolve the more weathering-resistant SOM already stored in plant tissue [2,3], leading to a proportional increase of transported soil-C residues, thus biasing the 14C values [4]. We extracted phytoliths from graminae spp. grown in free-air carbon enrichment experiments (FACE). For each grass set, one group was grown under 14C-free elevated CO2 conditions (shifting the bulk plant tissue towards thousands of years old) while the other was grown under ambient atmospheric CO2. We used two newly developed protocols, which produce pure phytoliths [5]: a multiple-step wet-oxidation process with KOH digestion (pH≥14); and a multiple-step dry ashing at 500°C coupled with wet-oxidation. Radiocarbon analyses of phytC yielded initially contradictory results: a) when phytoliths were extracted by both protocols, ambient-air phytC 14C ages were thousands of years old; b) when a mild wet-oxidation extraction was employed (KOH; pH≥11), ambient-air 14C phytC values were post-bomb (modern), but still 14C depleted. To evaluate the thermal behavior of the C species of phytC, we used a thermal-optical C aerosol analyzer, with a stepwise temperature ramp from zero to 860°C under an oxidizing atmosphere. Thermograms indicate that the phytoliths contain a complex array of phytC molecules, with some of the C species released at temperatures as low as 300°C, and suggesting that phytC is formed by a continuum of C (possibly of several ages). This was verified by 'roasting' duplicates of pure phytolith extracts

  17. Analysis of surface protein expression reveals the growth pattern of the gram-negative outer membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan S Ursell

    Full Text Available The outer membrane (OM of Gram-negative bacteria is a complex bilayer composed of proteins, phospholipids, lipoproteins, and lipopolysaccharides. Despite recent advances revealing the molecular pathways underlying protein and lipopolysaccharide incorporation into the OM, the spatial distribution and dynamic regulation of these processes remain poorly understood. Here, we used sequence-specific fluorescent labeling to map the incorporation patterns of an OM-porin protein, LamB, by labeling proteins only after epitope exposure on the cell surface. Newly synthesized LamB appeared in discrete puncta, rather than evenly distributed over the cell surface. Further growth of bacteria after labeling resulted in divergence of labeled LamB puncta, consistent with a spatial pattern of OM growth in which new, unlabeled material was also inserted in patches. At the poles, puncta remained relatively stationary through several rounds of division, a salient characteristic of the OM protein population as a whole. We propose a biophysical model of growth in which patches of new OM material are added in discrete bursts that evolve in time according to Stokes flow and are randomly distributed over the cell surface. Simulations based on this model demonstrate that our experimental observations are consistent with a bursty insertion pattern without spatial bias across the cylindrical cell surface, with approximately one burst of ≈ 10(-2 µm(2 of OM material per two minutes per µm(2. Growth by insertion of discrete patches suggests that stochasticity plays a major role in patterning and material organization in the OM.

  18. Functional biogeography of ocean microbes revealed through non-negative matrix factorization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingpeng Jiang

    Full Text Available The direct "metagenomic" sequencing of genomic material from complex assemblages of bacteria, archaea, viruses and microeukaryotes has yielded new insights into the structure of microbial communities. For example, analysis of metagenomic data has revealed the existence of previously unknown microbial taxa whose spatial distributions are limited by environmental conditions, ecological competition, and dispersal mechanisms. However, differences in genotypes that might lead biologists to designate two microbes as taxonomically distinct need not necessarily imply differences in ecological function. Hence, there is a growing need for large-scale analysis of the distribution of microbial function across habitats. Here, we present a framework for investigating the biogeography of microbial function by analyzing the distribution of protein families inferred from environmental sequence data across a global collection of sites. We map over 6,000,000 protein sequences from unassembled reads from the Global Ocean Survey dataset to [Formula: see text] protein families, generating a protein family relative abundance matrix that describes the distribution of each protein family across sites. We then use non-negative matrix factorization (NMF to approximate these protein family profiles as linear combinations of a small number of ecological components. Each component has a characteristic functional profile and site profile. Our approach identifies common functional signatures within several of the components. We use our method as a filter to estimate functional distance between sites, and find that an NMF-filtered measure of functional distance is more strongly correlated with environmental distance than a comparable PCA-filtered measure. We also find that functional distance is more strongly correlated with environmental distance than with geographic distance, in agreement with prior studies. We identify similar protein functions in several components and

  19. Acute pharmacologically induced shifts in serotonin availability abolish emotion-selective responses to negative face emotions in distinct brain networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grady, Cheryl Lynn; Siebner, Hartwig R; Hornboll, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    enhanced the neural response of this set of regions to angry faces, relative to Control, and CIT also enhanced activity for neutral faces. The net effect of these changes in both networks was to abolish the selective response to fearful expressions. These results suggest that a normal level of serotonin...... distributed brain responses identified two brain networks with modulations of activity related to face emotion and serotonin level. The first network included the left amygdala, bilateral striatum, and fusiform gyri. During the Control session this network responded only to fearful faces; increasing serotonin...... decreased this response to fear, whereas reducing serotonin enhanced the response of this network to angry faces. The second network involved bilateral amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and these regions also showed increased activity to fear during the Control session. Both drug challenges...

  20. Fluorescence mapping of mitochondrial TIM23 complex reveals a water-facing, substrate-interacting helix surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alder, Nathan N; Jensen, Robert E; Johnson, Arthur E

    2008-08-08

    Protein translocation across the mitochondrial inner membrane is mediated by the TIM23 complex. While its central component, Tim23, is believed to form a protein-conducting channel, the regions of this subunit that face the imported protein are unknown. To examine Tim23 structure and environment in intact membranes at high resolution, various derivatives, each with a single, environment-sensitive fluorescent probe positioned at a specific site, were assembled into functional TIM23 complexes in active mitochondria and analyzed by multiple spectral techniques. Probes placed sequentially throughout a transmembrane region that was identified by crosslinking as part of the protein-conducting channel revealed an alpha helix in an amphipathic environment. Probes on the aqueous-facing helical surface specifically underwent spectral changes during protein import, and their accessibility to hydrophilic quenching agents is considered in terms of channel gating. This approach has therefore provided an unprecedented view of a translocon channel structure in an intact, fully operational, membrane-embedded complex.

  1. Abnormal patterns of cerebral lateralisation as revealed by the Universal Chimeric Faces Task in individuals with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sandie; Workman, Lance; Yeomans, Heather

    2012-01-01

    A previous study by Workman, Chilvers, Yeomans, and Taylor (2006), using the "Universal" Chimeric Faces Task (UCFT) for six emotional expressions, demonstrated that an overall left hemispatial/right hemisphere (RH) advantage has begun to develop by the age of 7-8. Moreover, the development of this left hemispatial advantage was observed to correlate positively with the ability to read emotions in the faces of others. Adopting the UCFT, the current study compared autistic children (11-15) with unimpaired children of two age groups (5-6 and 7-8) from this previous study. The autistic children showed a left hemispatial/RH advantage only for the two emotional expressions of "happiness" and "anger". Results for the autistic children revealed a similar overall pattern of lateralisation to the 5-6-year-olds and one that is less lateralised than the pattern for the 7-8-year-olds. Autistic children appear to show a developmental deficit for left hemispatial/RH advantage for emotional expression with the exception of "happiness" and "anger." The findings are discussed in terms of role hemisphericity and an approach-avoidance model.

  2. Genetic analysis reveals population structuring and a bottleneck in the black-faced lion tamarin (Leontopithecus caissara).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, M M; Nascimento, A T A; Nali, C; Velastin, G O; Mangini, P B; Valladares-Padua, C B; Galetti, P M

    2011-01-01

    The ability of a population to evolve in a changing environment may be compromised by human-imposed barriers to gene flow. We investigated the population structure and the possible occurrence of a genetic bottleneck in two isolated populations of the black-faced lion tamarin (Leontopithecus caissara), a species with very reduced numbers (less than 400) in a very restricted range in the Atlantic Forest of southeast Brazil. We determined the genotypes of 52 individuals across 9 microsatellite loci. We found genetic divergence between the populations, each exhibiting low genetic diversity. Analysis revealed broad- and fine-scale population structuring. Both populations have evidently experienced population reduction and a genetic bottleneck without presenting any apparent detrimental effect. Anyway, measures should be taken to effectively protect the forests where L. caissara occurs in order to allow its populations to increase and counteract the eventual effects of genetic impoverishment. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. A negative genetic interaction map in isogenic cancer cell lines reveals cancer cell vulnerabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vizeacoumar, Franco J; Arnold, Roland; Vizeacoumar, Frederick S; Chandrashekhar, Megha; Buzina, Alla; Young, Jordan T F; Kwan, Julian H M; Sayad, Azin; Mero, Patricia; Lawo, Steffen; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Brown, Kevin R; Baryshnikova, Anastasia; Mak, Anthony B; Fedyshyn, Yaroslav; Wang, Yadong; Brito, Glauber C; Kasimer, Dahlia; Makhnevych, Taras; Ketela, Troy; Datti, Alessandro; Babu, Mohan; Emili, Andrew; Pelletier, Laurence; Wrana, Jeff; Wainberg, Zev; Kim, Philip M; Rottapel, Robert; O‧Brien, Catherine A; Andrews, Brenda; Boone, Charles; Moffat, Jason

    ...‐scale sequencing efforts. Using genome‐scale pooled shRNA screening technology, we mapped negative genetic interactions across a set of isogenic cancer cell lines and confirmed hundreds of these interactions in orthogonal co...

  4. Unbiased simulations reveal the inward-facing conformation of the human serotonin transporter and Na(+ ion release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Koldsø

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Monoamine transporters are responsible for termination of synaptic signaling and are involved in depression, control of appetite, and anxiety amongst other neurological processes. Despite extensive efforts, the structures of the monoamine transporters and the transport mechanism of ions and substrates are still largely unknown. Structural knowledge of the human serotonin transporter (hSERT is much awaited for understanding the mechanistic details of substrate translocation and binding of antidepressants and drugs of abuse. The publication of the crystal structure of the homologous leucine transporter has resulted in homology models of the monoamine transporters. Here we present extended molecular dynamics simulations of an experimentally supported homology model of hSERT with and without the natural substrate yielding a total of more than 1.5 µs of simulation of the protein dimer. The simulations reveal a transition of hSERT from an outward-facing occluded conformation to an inward-facing conformation in a one-substrate-bound state. Simulations with a second substrate in the proposed symport effector site did not lead to conformational changes associated with translocation. The central substrate binding site becomes fully exposed to the cytoplasm leaving both the Na(+-ion in the Na2-site and the substrate in direct contact with the cytoplasm through water interactions. The simulations reveal how sodium is released and show indications of early events of substrate transport. The notion that ion dissociation from the Na2-site drives translocation is supported by experimental studies of a Na2-site mutant. Transmembrane helices (TMs 1 and 6 are identified as the helices involved in the largest movements during transport.

  5. Dissociating positive and negative influences of verbal processing on the recognition of pictures of faces and objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakabayashi, Kazuyo; Burton, A Mike; Brandimonte, Maria A; Lloyd-Jones, Toby J

    2012-03-01

    Four experiments investigated the role of verbal processing in the recognition of pictures of faces and objects. We used (a) a stimulus-encoding task where participants learned sequentially presented pictures in control, articulatory suppression, and describe conditions and then engaged in an old-new picture recognition test and (b) a poststimulus-encoding task where participants learned the stimuli without any secondary task and then either described or not a single item from memory before the recognition test. The main findings were as follows: First, verbalization influenced picture recognition. Second, there were contrasting influences of verbalization on the recognition of faces, compared with objects, that were driven by (a) the stage of processing during which verbalization took place (as assessed by the stimulus-encoding and poststimulus-encoding tasks), (b) whether verbalization was subvocal (whereby one goes through the motions of speaking but without making any sound) or overt, and (c) stimulus familiarity. During stimulus encoding there was a double dissociation whereby subvocal verbalization interfered with the recognition of faces but not objects, while overt verbalization benefited the recognition of objects but not faces. In addition, stimulus familiarity provided an independent and beneficial influence on performance. Post stimulus encoding, overt verbalization interfered with the recognition of both faces and objects, and this interference was apparent for unfamiliar but not familiar stimuli. Together these findings extend work on verbalization to picture recognition and place important parameters on stimulus and task constraints that contribute to contrasting beneficial and detrimental effects of verbalization on recognition memory.

  6. Dynamics of Disagreement: Large-Scale Temporal Network Analysis Reveals Negative Interactions in Online Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkova, Milena; García-Gavilanes, Ruth; Yasseri, Taha

    2016-11-01

    Disagreement and conflict are a fact of social life. However, negative interactions are rarely explicitly declared and recorded and this makes them hard for scientists to study. In an attempt to understand the structural and temporal features of negative interactions in the community, we use complex network methods to analyze patterns in the timing and configuration of reverts of article edits to Wikipedia. We investigate how often and how fast pairs of reverts occur compared to a null model in order to control for patterns that are natural to the content production or are due to the internal rules of Wikipedia. Our results suggest that Wikipedia editors systematically revert the same person, revert back their reverter, and come to defend a reverted editor. We further relate these interactions to the status of the involved editors. Even though the individual reverts might not necessarily be negative social interactions, our analysis points to the existence of certain patterns of negative social dynamics within the community of editors. Some of these patterns have not been previously explored and carry implications for the knowledge collection practice conducted on Wikipedia. Our method can be applied to other large-scale temporal collaboration networks to identify the existence of negative social interactions and other social processes.

  7. Face Super-resolution With Non-negative Featrue Basis Constraint%非负特征基约束的人脸超分辨率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰诚栋; 胡瑞敏; 韩镇; 卢涛

    2011-01-01

    Principal Component Analysis (PC A) is commonly used for human face images representation in face super-resolution. But the features extracted by PCA are holistic and difficult to have semantic interpretation. In order to synthesize a better super-resolution face image with the results of the face images representation, we propose face a super-resolution algorithm with non-negative featrue basis constraint The algorithm uses the NMF to obtain non-negative featrue basis of face sample images, and the target image is regularized by Markov random fields, with maximum a posteriori probability approach. Finally, the steepest descent method is used to optimize non-negative featrue basis coefficient of high-resolution image. Experimental results show that, in the subjective and objective quality, the face super-resolution algorithm with non-negative feature basis constrait performs better than PCA-based algorithms.%主成分分析(PCA)是人脸超分辨率申常用的人脸图像表达方法,但是PCA方法的特征是整体的且难以语义解释.为了使表达的结果更好地用于合成超分辨率人脸图像,提出一种非负特征基约束的人脸超分辨率算法.该算法利用非负矩阵分解(NMF)获取样本人脸图像的非负特征基,结合最大后验概率的方法,对目标图像进行马尔可夫随机场正则约束,最速下降法优化得到高分辨率人脸图像的非负特征基系数.实验结果表明,在主客观质量上,非负特征基约束的人脸超分辨率算法的性能胜过基于PCA的算法.

  8. Aging and attentional biases for emotional faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Mara; Carstensen, Laura L

    2003-09-01

    We examined age differences in attention to and memory for faces expressing sadness, anger, and happiness. Participants saw a pair of faces, one emotional and one neutral, and then a dot probe that appeared in the location of one of the faces. In two experiments, older adults responded faster to the dot if it was presented on the same side as a neutral face than if it was presented on the same side as a negative face. Younger adults did not exhibit this attentional bias. Interactions of age and valence were also found for memory for the faces, with older adults remembering positive better than negative faces. These findings reveal that in their initial attention, older adults avoid negative information. This attentional bias is consistent with older adults' generally better emotional well-being and their tendency to remember negative less well than positive information.

  9. Shades of Emotion: What the Addition of Sunglasses or Masks to Faces Reveals about the Development of Facial Expression Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Debi; Kikutani, Mariko; Doge, Paula; Whitaker, Lydia; Majid, Asifa

    2012-01-01

    Three studies investigated developmental changes in facial expression processing, between 3 years-of-age and adulthood. For adults and older children, the addition of sunglasses to upright faces caused an equivalent decrement in performance to face inversion. However, younger children showed "better" classification of expressions of faces wearing…

  10. Shades of Emotion: What the Addition of Sunglasses or Masks to Faces Reveals about the Development of Facial Expression Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Debi; Kikutani, Mariko; Doge, Paula; Whitaker, Lydia; Majid, Asifa

    2012-01-01

    Three studies investigated developmental changes in facial expression processing, between 3 years-of-age and adulthood. For adults and older children, the addition of sunglasses to upright faces caused an equivalent decrement in performance to face inversion. However, younger children showed "better" classification of expressions of faces wearing…

  11. Complement factor 5a receptor chimeras reveal the importance of lipid-facing residues in transport competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klco, Jeffery M; Sen, Saurabh; Hansen, Jakob L

    2009-01-01

    . Despite relatively conservative substitutions, the lipid-facing chimeras (TM1, TM2, TM4, TM5, TM6 or TM7) were retained in the endoplasmic reticulum/cis-Golgi network. With the exception of the TM7 chimera that did not bind ligand, the lipid-facing chimeras bound ligand with low affinity, but similar...... oligomerization studies demonstrated energy transfer between the wild-type complement factor 5a receptor and the lipid-facing chimeras, suggesting that the lipid-facing residues within a single TM segment are not essential for oligomerization. These studies highlight the importance of the lipid-facing residues...

  12. A Transposon-based Analysis Reveals RASA1 Is Involved in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Cabrera, Cristian; Quintana, Rita M; Bravo, Ana; Casanova, M Llanos; Page, Angustias; Alameda, Josefa P; Paramio, Jesús M; Maroto, Alicia; Salamanca, Javier; Dupuy, Adam J; Ramírez, Angel; Navarro, Manuel

    2017-03-15

    RAS genes are mutated in 20% of human tumors, but these mutations are very rare in breast cancer. Here, we used a mouse model to generate tumors upon activation of a mutagenic T2Onc2 transposon via expression of a transposase driven by the keratin K5 promoter in a p53(+/-) background. These animals mainly developed mammary tumors, most of which had transposon insertions in one of two RASGAP genes, neurofibromin1 (Nf1) and RAS p21 protein activator (Rasa1). Immunohistochemical analysis of a collection of human breast tumors confirmed that low expression of RASA1 is frequent in basal (triple-negative) and estrogen receptor negative tumors. Bioinformatic analysis of human breast tumors in The Cancer Genome Atlas database showed that although RASA1 mutations are rare, allelic loss is frequent, particularly in basal tumors (80%) and in association with TP53 mutation. Inactivation of RASA1 in MCF10A cells resulted in the appearance of a malignant phenotype in the context of mutated p53. Our results suggest that alterations in the Ras pathway due to the loss of negative regulators of RAS may be a common event in basal breast cancer. Cancer Res; 77(6); 1357-68. ©2017 AACR.

  13. Study of cognitive tendencies in recognizing negative emotional faces%消极情绪面孔识别的认知偏向性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马娉娉; 王异芳; 魏萍

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究人们在对生气、害怕、难过3种消极情绪面孔识别时的认知偏向性.方法 借鉴了传统的侧抑制范式,用E-Prime软件编写程序,采用简单随机抽样的方法对48名大学生(男性19名,女性29名)的正确率和反应时进行了分析.结果 所有情况下,男、女被试对生气面孔反应的正确率都显著高于害怕和难过(分别为96.60%,94.50%,94.40%)(P<0.05);在反应时上,当分心刺激是害怕面孔或没有分心刺激时,被试对生气面孔的反应时显著快于害怕和难过[2种分心情况下反应时分别为:害怕(801.27±140.99)ms,生气(723.94±151.37)ms,难过(812.21±148.85)ms;害怕(788.17±148.81)ms,生气(694.28±111.99)ms,难过(763.57±133.91)ms,P<0.05];当分心刺激为生气或难过面孔时,被试对生气面孔的反应时显著快于害怕(两种分心情况下的反应时分别为:害怕[824.09±164.42)ms,生气(721.48±124.06)ms,难过(760.50±131.12)ms;害怕(798.95±146.40)ms,生气(702.55±136.07)ms,难过(750.48±133.86)ms,P<0.05].结论 不同的消极情绪面孔同时出现时,被试的反应不存在侧抑制效应,但体现出了生气优势效应及其他倾向性,为临床上诊断和治疗与情绪障碍有关的精神疾病提供了一定的依据.%Objective To study the cognitive tendencies in recognizing negative emotional faces.Methods The experiment used the traditional flanker paradigm for reference.Forty-eight university students (19 males,29 females) finished the flanker tasks deigned by E-Prime, and their accuracy rate and reaction time were recorded in the study.Results ANOVA revealed that,in all cases,the accuracy rate of anger was significant higher than fear and sadness (96.60% ,94.50% ,94.40% ) (P<0.05).And when the flanking stimuli were fear faces or there were no flanking stimuli, the reaction time of anger was much shorter than fear and sadness ( respectively,fear(801.27 ± 140.99) ms,anger(723.94 ± 151.37 ) ms, sadness(812.21

  14. The hand in motion of liberals and conservatives reveals the differential processing of positive and negative information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, Luciana; Castelli, Luigi; Negri, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    Recent research revealed that political conservatives and liberals differ in the processing of valenced information. In particular, conservatives (vs. liberals) tend to weigh negative information more than positive information in their perception of the physical and social world. In the present work, we further investigated the ideology-based asymmetries in the processing of negative and positive information examining both the attention-grabbing power of negative information and the trajectories of the movements performed by respondents when required to categorize positive and negative stimuli. To this end we employed a modified version of the Mouse-Tracking procedure (Freeman & Ambady, 2010), recording hand movements during the execution of categorization tasks. Results showed that conservatives were indeed slower to start and execute response actions to negative stimuli, and, more specifically, the trajectories of their movements signaled avoidance tendencies aimed at increasing the distance from negative stimuli. In addition, this pattern of findings emerged both when participants were asked to categorize the stimuli according to their valence and when the same stimuli had to be categorized on the basis of irrelevant perceptual features. Overall, results demonstrate that conservatives and liberals process valenced information differently, perform different spontaneous movements when exposed to them, and that such asymmetries are largely independent from current processing goals.

  15. A Novel Approach to Revealing Positive and Negative Co-Regulated Genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Hai Zhao; Guo-Ren Wang; Ying Yin; Guang-Yu Xu

    2007-01-01

    As explored by biologists, there is a real and emerging need to identify co-regulated gene clusters, which includeboth positive and negative regulated gene clusters. However, the existing pattern-based and tendency-based clusteringapproaches are only designed for finding positive regulated gene clusters. In this paper, a new subspace clustering modelcalled g-Cluster is proposed for gene expression data. The proposed model has the following advantages: 1) find both positiveand negative co-regulated genes in a shot, 2) get away from the restriction of magnitude transformation relationship amongco-regulated genes, and 3) guarantee quality of clusters and significance of regulations using a novel similarity measurementgCode and a user-specified regulation threshold 5, respectively. No previous work measures up to the task which has been set.Moreover, MDL technique is introduced to avoid insignificant g-Clusters generated. A tree structure, namely GS-tree, is alsodesigned, and two algorithms combined with efficient pruning and optimization strategies to identify all qualified g-Clusters.Extensive experiments are conducted on real and synthetic datasets. The experimental results show that 1) the algorithmis able to find an amount of co-regulated gene clusters missed by previous models, which are potentially of high biologicalsignificance, and 2) the algorithms are effective and efficient, and outperform the existing approaches.

  16. The duration of disgusted and fearful faces is judged longer and shorter than that of neutral faces: the attention-related time distortions as revealed by behavioral and electrophysiological measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan eZhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Time perception has been shown to be altered by emotions. This study employed event-related potentials (ERPs to examine the effects of two threat-related emotions on the judgment of time intervals in the range of 490-910 ms. We demonstrated that disgust and fear have distinct influences on time perception. At the behavioral level, disgusted faces were estimated longer and fearful faces were estimated shorter (i.e., the generalization gradient for the disgusted faces was shifted left while the generalization gradient for the fearful faces was shifted right when compared with neutral faces. Accordingly, the contingent negative variation, an online ERP index of timing, displayed larger area in disgust and smaller area in fear conditions when compared with neutral condition (disgust = 1.94 ± 2.35 μV•s, neutral = 1.40 ± 2.5 μV•s, and fear = 1.00 ± 2.26 μV•s. These findings indicated that specific neural mechanisms may underlie the attention effects of different subtypes of threat-related emotions on timing; compared with neutral faces, fearful faces are likely to attract more attentional resources while disgusted faces may attract less attentional resources for emotional processing. The major contribution of the current study is to provide neural correlates of fear vs. disgust divergence in the aspect of time perception and to demonstrate beyond the behavioral level that the categorization of threat-related emotions should be refined so to highlight the adaptability of the human defense system.

  17. Categorical dimensions of human odor descriptor space revealed by non-negative matrix factorization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chennubhotla, Chakra [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh PA; Castro, Jason [Bates College

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to most other sensory modalities, the basic perceptual dimensions of olfaction remain un- clear. Here, we use non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) - a dimensionality reduction technique - to uncover structure in a panel of odor profiles, with each odor defined as a point in multi-dimensional descriptor space. The properties of NMF are favorable for the analysis of such lexical and perceptual data, and lead to a high-dimensional account of odor space. We further provide evidence that odor di- mensions apply categorically. That is, odor space is not occupied homogenously, but rather in a discrete and intrinsically clustered manner. We discuss the potential implications of these results for the neural coding of odors, as well as for developing classifiers on larger datasets that may be useful for predicting perceptual qualities from chemical structures.

  18. Error-related negativity in the skilled brain of pianists reveals motor simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Cozzi, Matteo; Orlandi, Andrea; Carminati, Manuel

    2017-03-27

    Evidences have been provided of a crucial role of multimodal audio-visuomotor processing in subserving the musical ability. In this paper we investigated whether musical audiovisual stimulation might trigger the activation of motor information in the brain of professional pianists, due to the presence of permanent gestures/sound associations. At this aim EEG was recorded in 24 pianists and naive participants engaged in the detection of rare targets while watching hundreds of video clips showing a pair of hands in the act of playing, along with a compatible or incompatible piano soundtrack. Hands size and apparent distance allowed self-ownership and agency illusions, and therefore motor simulation. Event-related potentials (ERPs) and relative source reconstruction showed the presence of an Error-related negativity (ERN) to incongruent trials at anterior frontal scalp sites, only in pianists, with no difference in naïve participants. ERN was mostly explained by an anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) source. Other sources included "hands" IT regions, the superior temporal gyrus (STG) involved in conjoined auditory and visuomotor processing, SMA and cerebellum (representing and controlling motor subroutines), and regions involved in body parts representation (somatosensory cortex, uncus, cuneus and precuneus). The findings demonstrate that instrument-specific audiovisual stimulation is able to trigger error shooting and correction neural responses via motor resonance and mirroring, being a possible aid in learning and rehabilitation. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. When Elderly Outperform Young Adults—Integration in Vision Revealed by the Visual Mismatch Negativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaál, Zsófia Anna; Bodnár, Flóra; Czigler, István

    2017-01-01

    We studied the possibility of age-related differences of visual integration at an automatic and at a task-related level. Data of 15 young (21.9 ± 1.8 years) and 15 older (66.6 ± 3.5 years) women were analyzed in our experiment. Automatic processing was investigated in a passive oddball paradigm, and the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) of event-related brain potentials was measured. Letters and pseudo-letters were presented either as single characters, or the characters were presented successively in two fragments. In case of simultaneous presentation of the two fragments (whole character) vMMN emerged in both age groups. However, in successive presentation vMMN was elicited only by the deviant pseudo-letters, and only in the older group. The longest stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) in this group was 50 ms, indicating longer information persistence in elderly. In a psychophysical experiment, the task was to indicate, which member of a character pair was a legal letter. Again, the letters and pseudo-letters were presented as fragments. We obtained successful integration at 30 ms (0 ms interstimulus interval), but not at longer SOAs in both age groups, showing that in case of task-relevant stimulation level there was no detectable age-related performance difference. We interpreted the results as the efficiency of local inhibitory circuits is compromised in elderly, leading to longer stimulus persistence, and hence better visual perception in this particular case.

  20. Integration of consonant and pitch processing as revealed by the absence of additivity in mismatch negativity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Gao

    Full Text Available Consonants, unlike vowels, are thought to be speech specific and therefore no interactions would be expected between consonants and pitch, a basic element for musical tones. The present study used an electrophysiological approach to investigate whether, contrary to this view, there is integrative processing of consonants and pitch by measuring additivity of changes in the mismatch negativity (MMN of evoked potentials. The MMN is elicited by discriminable variations occurring in a sequence of repetitive, homogeneous sounds. In the experiment, event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded while participants heard frequently sung consonant-vowel syllables and rare stimuli deviating in either consonant identity only, pitch only, or in both dimensions. Every type of deviation elicited a reliable MMN. As expected, the two single-deviant MMNs had similar amplitudes, but that of the double-deviant MMN was also not significantly different from them. This absence of additivity in the double-deviant MMN suggests that consonant and pitch variations are processed, at least at a pre-attentive level, in an integrated rather than independent way. Domain-specificity of consonants may depend on higher-level processes in the hierarchy of speech perception.

  1. When Elderly Outperform Young Adults-Integration in Vision Revealed by the Visual Mismatch Negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaál, Zsófia Anna; Bodnár, Flóra; Czigler, István

    2017-01-01

    We studied the possibility of age-related differences of visual integration at an automatic and at a task-related level. Data of 15 young (21.9 ± 1.8 years) and 15 older (66.6 ± 3.5 years) women were analyzed in our experiment. Automatic processing was investigated in a passive oddball paradigm, and the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) of event-related brain potentials was measured. Letters and pseudo-letters were presented either as single characters, or the characters were presented successively in two fragments. In case of simultaneous presentation of the two fragments (whole character) vMMN emerged in both age groups. However, in successive presentation vMMN was elicited only by the deviant pseudo-letters, and only in the older group. The longest stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) in this group was 50 ms, indicating longer information persistence in elderly. In a psychophysical experiment, the task was to indicate, which member of a character pair was a legal letter. Again, the letters and pseudo-letters were presented as fragments. We obtained successful integration at 30 ms (0 ms interstimulus interval), but not at longer SOAs in both age groups, showing that in case of task-relevant stimulation level there was no detectable age-related performance difference. We interpreted the results as the efficiency of local inhibitory circuits is compromised in elderly, leading to longer stimulus persistence, and hence better visual perception in this particular case.

  2. Processing of acoustic and phonological information of lexical tones in Mandarin Chinese revealed by mismatch negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Keke; Wang, Ruiming; Li, Li; Li, Ping

    2014-01-01

    The accurate perception of lexical tones in tonal languages involves the processing of both acoustic information and phonological information carried by the tonal signal. In this study we evaluated the relative role of the two types of information in native Chinese speaker's processing of tones at a preattentive stage with event-related potentials (ERPs), particularly the mismatch negativity (MNN). Specifically, we distinguished the acoustic from the phonological information by manipulating phonological category and acoustic interval of the stimulus materials. We found a significant main effect of phonological category for the peak latency of MMN, but a main effect of both phonological category and acoustic interval for the mean amplitude of MMN. The results indicated that the two types of information, acoustic and phonological, play different roles in the processing of Chinese lexical tones: acoustic information only impacts the extent of tonal processing, while phonological information affects both the extent and the time course of tonal processing. Implications of these findings are discussed in light of neurocognitive processes of phonological processing.

  3. Improving outcomes in the management of Gram-negative bacterial infections in the face of growing antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Susan

    2016-10-01

    26th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID 2016): 9-12 April 2016, Amsterdam, The Netherlands The European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID), the annual meeting of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology, had a record attendance at the 2016 meeting, with more than 11,600 scientists and clinicians from 120 countries sharing the latest research and information on infectious diseases. This article reviews sessions on the growing threat of antibiotic resistance in the management of Gram-negative bacterial infections and potential solutions, including optimizing initial drug choice and dosing, development of new options and improving antimicrobial stewardship.

  4. Event-related repetitive TMS reveals distinct, critical roles for right OFA and bilateral posterior STS in judging the sex and trustworthiness of faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhelyova, Milena P; Ellison, Amanda; Atkinson, Anthony P

    2011-10-01

    Judging the sex of faces relies on cues related to facial morphology and spatial relations between features, whereas judging the trustworthiness of faces relies on both structural and expressive cues that signal affective valence. The right occipital face area (OFA) processes structural cues and has been associated with sex judgments, whereas the posterior STS processes changeable facial cues related to muscle movements and is activated when observers judge trustworthiness. It is commonly supposed that the STS receives inputs from the OFA, yet it is unknown whether these regions have functionally dissociable, critical roles in sex and trustworthiness judgments. We addressed this issue using event-related, fMRI-guided repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Twelve healthy volunteers judged the sex of individually presented faces and, in a separate session, whether those same faces were trustworthy or not. Relative to sham stimulation, RTs were significantly longer for sex judgments when rTMS was delivered over the right OFA but not the right or left STS, and for trustworthiness judgments on male but not female faces when rTMS was delivered over the right STS or left STS but not the right OFA. Nonetheless, an analysis of the RT distributions revealed a possible critical role also for the right OFA in trustworthiness judgments, limited to faces with longer RTs, perhaps reflecting the later, ancillary use of structural cues related to the sex of the face. On the whole, our findings provide evidence that evaluations of the trustworthiness and sex of faces rely on functionally dissociable cortical regions.

  5. Eye-tracking the own-race bias in face recognition: revealing the perceptual and socio-cognitive mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Peter J; Pake, J Michael

    2013-12-01

    Own-race faces are recognised more accurately than other-race faces and may even be viewed differently as measured by an eye-tracker (Goldinger, Papesh, & He, 2009). Alternatively, observer race might direct eye-movements (Blais, Jack, Scheepers, Fiset, & Caldara, 2008). Observer differences in eye-movements are likely to be based on experience of the physiognomic characteristics that are differentially discriminating for Black and White faces. Two experiments are reported that employed standard old/new recognition paradigms in which Black and White observers viewed Black and White faces with their eye-movements recorded. Experiment 1 showed that there were observer race differences in terms of the features scanned but observers employed the same strategy across different types of faces. Experiment 2 demonstrated that other-race faces could be recognised more accurately if participants had their first fixation directed to more diagnostic features using fixation crosses. These results are entirely consistent with those presented by Blais et al. (2008) and with the perceptual interpretation that the own-race bias is due to inappropriate attention allocated to the facial features (Hills & Lewis, 2006, 2011).

  6. Hidden Markov model analysis reveals the advantage of analytic eye movement patterns in face recognition across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuk, Tim; Crookes, Kate; Hayward, William G; Chan, Antoni B; Hsiao, Janet H

    2017-12-01

    It remains controversial whether culture modulates eye movement behavior in face recognition. Inconsistent results have been reported regarding whether cultural differences in eye movement patterns exist, whether these differences affect recognition performance, and whether participants use similar eye movement patterns when viewing faces from different ethnicities. These inconsistencies may be due to substantial individual differences in eye movement patterns within a cultural group. Here we addressed this issue by conducting individual-level eye movement data analysis using hidden Markov models (HMMs). Each individual's eye movements were modeled with an HMM. We clustered the individual HMMs according to their similarities and discovered three common patterns in both Asian and Caucasian participants: holistic (looking mostly at the face center), left-eye-biased analytic (looking mostly at the two individual eyes in addition to the face center with a slight bias to the left eye), and right-eye-based analytic (looking mostly at the right eye in addition to the face center). The frequency of participants adopting the three patterns did not differ significantly between Asians and Caucasians, suggesting little modulation from culture. Significantly more participants (75%) showed similar eye movement patterns when viewing own- and other-race faces than different patterns. Most importantly, participants with left-eye-biased analytic patterns performed significantly better than those using either holistic or right-eye-biased analytic patterns. These results suggest that active retrieval of facial feature information through an analytic eye movement pattern may be optimal for face recognition regardless of culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Response inhibition results in the emotional devaluation of faces: neural correlates as revealed by fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doallo, Sonia; Raymond, Jane E; Shapiro, Kimron L; Kiss, Monika; Eimer, Martin; Nobre, Anna C

    2012-08-01

    Although it is well established that prior experience with faces determines their subsequent social-emotional evaluation, recent work shows that top-down inhibitory mechanisms, including response inhibition, can lead to social devaluation after even a single, brief exposure. These rapidly induced effects indicate interplay among perceptual, attentional, response-selection and social-emotional networks; yet, the brain mechanisms underlying this are not well understood. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural mechanism mediating the relationship between inhibitory control and emotional devaluation. Participants performed two tasks: (i) a Go/No-Go task in response to faces and (ii) a trustworthiness rating task involving the previously seen faces. No-Go faces were rated as significantly less trustworthy than Go faces. By examining brain activations during Task 1, behavioral measures and brain activations obtained in Task 2 could be predicted. Specifically, activity in brain areas during Task 1 associated with (i) executive control and response suppression (i.e. lateral prefrontal cortex) and (ii) affective responses and value representation (i.e. orbitofrontal cortex), systematically covaried with behavioral ratings and amygdala activity obtained during Task 2. The present findings offer insights into the neural mechanisms linking inhibitory processes to affective responses.

  8. The "Virtual Face" of Distance Learning at Public Colleges and Universities: What Do Websites Reveal about Administrative Student Support Services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie J.; Meyer, Katrina A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how higher education institutions support their distance learning initiatives through their institutional websites--their "virtual face." The population was 40 institutions, of which 10 each were doctoral/research, master, baccalaureate, and community college, located in 40 different states. Using a researcher-developed…

  9. Conspecific brood parasitism in the white-faced ibis Plegadis chihi (Aves: Pelecaniformes) revealed by microsatellites' based kinship-reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro e Souza, Andiara Silos Moraes; Del Lama, Silvia Nassif; Miño, Carolina Isabel

    2013-06-01

    The white-faced ibis Plegadis chihi Vieillot, 1817 (Pelecaniformes: Threskiornithidae) is a socially monogamous colonially breeding bird in which behavioral and ecological observations suggest the occurrence of conspecific brood parasitism (CBP). We inferred aspects of the genetic mating system of P. chihi in nature, using a genetic approach in the absence of parental information. We used five heterologous microsatellite loci and a multiple-step methodological approach to infer kinship patterns among 104 pairs of nestlings sampled inside 80 nests in a breeding colony from southern Brazil. The estimated effective population size was 69 white-faced ibises (95% CI: 50-98), enough to ensure long-term population survival. Kinship patterns were identified for 38% of the analyzed pairs: 60% of the diagnosed pairs were identified as full-siblings, 2.5% as half-siblings and 37.5% as unrelated individuals. CBP could explain the presence of unrelated nestlings within broods, in agreement with available non-genetic evidence. The presence of half-siblings within broods could indicate extra-pair paternity. Results suggest that a non-strictly monogamous genetic mating system may be present in the white-faced ibis. This study is the first molecular approach to better characterize the reproductive behavior of P. chihi in the wild. Our findings set the stage for further research to investigate the possible causes and consequences of alternative reproductive strategies in this species.

  10. Early activation of Broca's area in grammar processing as revealed by the syntactic mismatch negativity and distributed source analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Jeff; Mejias, Sandrine; Schelstraete, Marie-Anne; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Shtyrov, Yury; Van der Lely, Heather K J

    2014-01-01

    Though activation of Broca's region in the combinatorial processing of symbols (language, music) has been revealed by neurometabolic studies, most previous neurophysiological research found the earliest grammar indices in the temporal cortex, with inferior-frontal generators becoming active at relatively late stages. We use the attention- and task-free syntactic mismatch negativity (sMMN) event-related potential (ERP) to measure rapid and automatic sensitivity of the human brain to grammatical information in participants' native language (French). Further, sources underlying the MMN were estimated by applying the Parametrical Empirical Bayesian (PEB) approach, with the Multiple Sparse Priors (MSP) technique. Results showed reliable grammar-related activation focused on Broca's region already in the 150-190 ms time window, providing robust documentation of its involvement in the first stages of syntactic processing.

  11. Structure of a TCR with High Affinity for Self-antigen Reveals Basis for Escape from Negative Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y Yin; Y Li; M Kerzic; R Martin; R Mariuzza

    2011-12-31

    The failure to eliminate self-reactive T cells during negative selection is a prerequisite for autoimmunity. To escape deletion, autoreactive T-cell receptors (TCRs) may form unstable complexes with self-peptide-MHC by adopting suboptimal binding topologies compared with anti-microbial TCRs. Alternatively, escape can occur by weak binding between self-peptides and MHC. We determined the structure of a human autoimmune TCR (MS2-3C8) bound to a self-peptide from myelin basic protein (MBP) and the multiple sclerosis-associated MHC molecule HLA-DR4. MBP is loosely accommodated in the HLA-DR4-binding groove, accounting for its low affinity. Conversely, MS2-3C8 binds MBP-DR4 as tightly as the most avid anti-microbial TCRs. MS2-3C8 engages self-antigen via a docking mode that resembles the optimal topology of anti-foreign TCRs, but is distinct from that of other autoreactive TCRs. Combined with a unique CDR3 conformation, this docking mode compensates for the weak binding of MBP to HLA-DR4 by maximizing interactions between MS2-3C8 and MBP. Thus, the MS2-3C8-MBP-DR4 complex reveals the basis for an alternative strategy whereby autoreactive T cells escape negative selection, yet retain the ability to initiate autoimmunity.

  12. A prisoner's dilemma with asymmetrical payoffs: revealing the challenges faced by performing arts health and wellness practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Gongbing; Visentin, Peter

    2010-03-01

    In a prisoner's dilemma, constructed narratives are used to demonstrate problems within individual rationality and decision-making. Performing artists can be seen as facing a type of prisoner's dilemma in their careers: they must practice repeated movements for long periods in order to improve, yet despite the short-term perception of gained artistic benefit, the long-term consequences may be playing-related musculoskeletal disorders and injury. To help avoid such an outcome, educators and health and wellness practitioners must function as negotiators, engaging in discussions of artistry as part of establishing credibility and encouraging behaviors that keep artists in efficient, healthy behaviors. By setting practice time limits that are considerate of the intensity of each specific task, performers can improve their performance on a daily basis and become more skilled at planning their future training.

  13. Negative Ion Photoelectron Spectroscopy Reveals Thermodynamic Advantage of Organic Acids in Facilitating Formation of Bisulfate Ion Clusters: Atmospheric Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Gao-Lei; Lin, Wei; Deng, Shihu; Zhang, Jian; Zheng, Weijun; Paesani, Francesco; Wang, Xue B.

    2013-03-07

    Recent lab and field measurements have indicated critical roles of organic acids in enhancing new atmospheric aerosol formation. Such findings have stimulated theoretical studies with the aim of understanding interaction of organic acids with common aerosol nucleation precursors like bisulfate (HSO4-). In this Letter, we report a combined negative ion photoelectron spectroscopic and theoretical investigation of molecular clusters formed by HSO4- with succinic acid (SUA, HO2C(CH2)2CO2H), HSO4-(SUA)n (n = 0-2), along with HSO4-(H2O)n and HSO4-(H2SO4)n. It is found that one SUA molecule can stabilize HSO4- by ca. 39 kcal/mol, triple the corresponding value that one water molecule is capable of (ca. 13 kcal/mol). Molecular dynamics simulations and quantum chemical calculations reveal the most plausible structures of these clusters and attribute the stability of these clusters due to formation of strong hydrogen bonds. This work provides direct experimental evidence showing significant thermodynamic advantage by involving organic acid molecules to promote formation and growth in bisulfate clusters and aerosols.

  14. Morphology and structure of lipoproteins revealed by an optimized negative-staining protocol of electron microscopy[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Song, James; Cavigiolio, Giorgio; Ishida, Brian Y.; Zhang, Shengli; Kane, John P.; Weisgraber, Karl H.; Oda, Michael N.; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Pownall, Henry J.; Ren, Gang

    2011-01-01

    Plasma lipoprotein levels are predictors of risk for coronary artery disease. Lipoprotein structure-function relationships provide important clues that help identify the role of lipoproteins in cardiovascular disease. The compositional and conformational heterogeneity of lipoproteins are major barriers to the identification of their structures, as discovered using traditional approaches. Although electron microscopy (EM) is an alternative approach, conventional negative staining (NS) produces rouleau artifacts. In a previous study of apolipoprotein (apo)E4-containing reconstituted HDL (rHDL) particles, we optimized the NS method in a way that eliminated rouleaux. Here we report that phosphotungstic acid at high buffer salt concentrations plays a key role in rouleau formation. We also validate our protocol for analyzing the major plasma lipoprotein classes HDL, LDL, IDL, and VLDL, as well as homogeneously prepared apoA-I-containing rHDL. High-contrast EM images revealed morphology and detailed structures of lipoproteins, especially apoA-I-containing rHDL, that are amenable to three-dimensional reconstruction by single-particle analysis and electron tomography. PMID:20978167

  15. Metadynamics simulations reveal a Na+ independent exiting path of galactose for the inward-facing conformation of vSGLT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Bisha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sodium-Galactose Transporter (SGLT is a secondary active symporter which accumulates sugars into cells by using the electrochemical gradient of Na+ across the membrane. Previous computational studies provided insights into the release process of the two ligands (galactose and sodium ion into the cytoplasm from the inward-facing conformation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus sodium/galactose transporter (vSGLT. Several aspects of the transport mechanism of this symporter remain to be clarified: (i a detailed kinetic and thermodynamic characterization of the exit path of the two ligands is still lacking; (ii contradictory conclusions have been drawn concerning the gating role of Y263; (iii the role of Na+ in modulating the release path of galactose is not clear. In this work, we use bias-exchange metadynamics simulations to characterize the free energy profile of the galactose and Na+ release processes toward the intracellular side. Surprisingly, we find that the exit of Na+ and galactose is non-concerted as the cooperativity between the two ligands is associated to a transition that is not rate limiting. The dissociation barriers are of the order of 11-12 kcal/mol for both the ion and the substrate, in line with kinetic information concerning this type of transporters. On the basis of these results we propose a branched six-state alternating access mechanism, which may be shared also by other members of the LeuT-fold transporters.

  16. Using Negative Emotions to Trace the Experience of Borderline Personality Pathology: Interconnected Relationships Revealed in an Experience Sampling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Mary Kate; Fleeson, William; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Furr, R Michael

    2016-02-01

    While emotional difficulties are highly implicated in borderline personality disorder (BPD), the dynamic relationships between emotions and BPD symptoms that occur in everyday life are unknown. The current paper examined the function of negative emotions as they relate to BPD symptoms in real time. Experience sampling methodology with 281 participants measured negative emotions and borderline symptoms, expressed as a spectrum of experiences, five times daily for two weeks. Overall, having a BDP diagnosis was associated with experiencing more negative emotions. Multilevel modeling supported positive concurrent relationships between negative emotions and BPD symptoms. Lagged models showed that even after 3 hours negative emotions and several symptoms continued to influence each other. Therefore, results indicated that negative emotions and BPD symptoms are intricately related; some evidenced long-lasting relationships. This research supports emotion-symptom contingencies within BPD and provides insight regarding the reactivity and functionality of negative emotions in borderline pathology.

  17. Substrate-Guided Front-Face Reaction Revealed by Combined Structural Snapshots and Metadynamics for the Polypeptide N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lira-Navarrete, Erandi; Iglesias-Fernández, Javier; Zandberg, Wesley F

    2014-01-01

    of structural snapshots of the enzyme during the catalytic cycle and combine these with quantum-mechanics/molecular-mechanics (QM/MM) metadynamics to unravel the catalytic mechanism of this retaining enzyme at the atomic-electronic level of detail. Our study provides a detailed structural rationale...... for an ordered bi-bi kinetic mechanism and reveals critical aspects of substrate recognition, which dictate the specificity for acceptor Thr versus Ser residues and enforce a front-face SN i-type reaction in which the substrate N-acetyl sugar substituent coordinates efficient glycosyl transfer....

  18. Interpersonal self-support and attentional disengagement from emotional faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ling-Xiang; Shi, Xu-Liang; Zhang, Ran-Ran; Hollon, Steven D

    2015-01-08

    Prior studies have shown that interpersonal self-support is related to emotional symptoms. The present study explored the relationship between interpersonal self-support and attentional disengagement from emotional faces. A spatial cueing task was administrated to 21 high and 24 low interpersonal self-support Chinese undergraduate students to assess difficulty in shifting away from emotional faces. The Sidak corrected multiple pairwise tests revealed that the low interpersonal self-support group had greater response latencies on negative faces than neutral faces or positive faces in the invalid cues condition, F(2, 41) = 5.68, p interpersonal self-support group responded more slowly than the high interpersonal self-support group to negative faces, F(1, 42) = 7.63, p interpersonal self-support is related to difficulty disengaging from negative emotional information and suggest that interpersonal self-support may refer to emotional dispositions, especially negative emotional dispositions.

  19. Generalization of affective learning about faces to perceptually similar faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verosky, Sara C; Todorov, Alexander

    2010-06-01

    Different individuals have different (and different-looking) significant others, friends, and foes. The objective of this study was to investigate whether these social face environments can shape individual face preferences. First, participants learned to associate faces with positive, neutral, or negative behaviors. Then, they evaluated morphs combining novel faces with the learned faces. The morphs (65% and 80% novel faces) were within the categorical boundary of the novel faces: They were perceived as those faces in a preliminary study. Moreover, a second preliminary study showed that following the learning, the morphs' categorization as similar to the learned faces was indistinguishable from the categorization of actual novel faces. Nevertheless, in the main experiment, participants evaluated morphs of "positive" faces more positively than morphs of "negative" faces. This learning generalization effect increased as a function of the similarity of the novel faces to the learned faces. The findings suggest that general learning mechanisms based on similarity can account for idiosyncratic face preferences.

  20. DNA repair prognostic index modelling reveals an essential role for base excision repair in influencing clinical outcomes in ER negative and triple negative breast cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fatah, Tarek M.A.; Arora, Arvind; Moseley, Paul M.; Perry, Christina; Rakha, Emad A.; Green, Andrew R.; Chan, Stephen Y.T.; Ellis, Ian O.; Madhusudan, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Stratification of oestrogen receptor (ER) negative and triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs) is urgently needed. In the current study, a cohort of 880 ER- (including 635 TNBCs) was immuno-profiled for a panel of DNA repair proteins including: Pol β, FEN1, APE1, XRCC1, SMUG1, PARP1, BRCA1, ATR, ATM, DNA-PKcs, Chk1, Chk2, p53, and TOPO2. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models (with backward stepwise exclusion of these factors, using a criterion of p < 0.05 for retention of factors in the model) were used to identify factors that were independently associated with clinical outcomes. XRCC1 (p = 0.002), pol β (p = 0.032) FEN1 (p = 0.001) and BRCA1 (p = 0.040) levels were independently associated with poor BCSS. Subsequently, DNA repair index prognostic (DRPI) scores for breast cancer specific survival (BCSS) were calculated and two prognostic groups (DRPI-PGs) were identified. Patients in prognostic group 2 (DRPI-PG2) have higher risk of death (p < 0.001). Furthermore, in DRPI-PG2 patients, exposure to anthracycline reduced the risk of death [(HR (95% CI) = 0.79 (0.64–0.98), p = 0.032) by 21–26%. In addition, DRPI-PG2 patients have adverse clinicopathological features including higher grade, lympho-vascular invasion, Her-2 positive phenotype, compared to those in DRPI-PG1 (p < 0.01). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves indicated that the DRPI outperformed the currently used prognostic factors and adding DRPI to lymph node stage significantly improved their performance as a predictor for BCSS [p < 0.00001, area under curve (AUC) = 0.70]. BER strongly influences pathogenesis of ER- and TNBCs. The DRPI accurately predicts BCSS and can also serve as a valuable prognostic and predictive tool for TNBCs. PMID:26267318

  1. Does the face of Venus reveal whether she is Earth's fraternal twin or identical twin separated at birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrekar, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    Venus has nearly the same diameter and bulk composition as Earth, yet lacks a dynamo and evidence for plate tectonics. Its dense CO2 greenhouse creates a surface T of 460°C. Orbital and landed spectroscopy indicate a basaltic crust, with possible analogs to terrestrial continents. Radar images and altimetry reveal a volcanic surface, with regions of intense tectonic deformation, including rifts, mountain belts and large, intensely deformed plateaus. The sparse impact craters give a resurfacing age of 0.3-1 b.y. Their distribution cannot be distinguished from a random one, and fit models with either a single, rapid resurfacing pulse or ongoing resurfacing. Incorporating geologic constraints favors ongoing resurfacing. Ar isotope data indicate less interior outgassing than Earth, assuming a similar volatile inventory. Gravity and topography data, along with geologic features, provide evidence for ~10 large mantle plumes, similar to the number on Earth. The gravity/topography data at these hotspots suggests no low viscosity zone, perhaps implying a dry interior. Positive thermal emissivity from the Venus Express mission correlate with volcanic flows at several hotspots and can be interpreted as unweathered basalt, implying geologically recent activity. In addition, there are ~500 coronae, which are unique to Venus and likely form via small-scale upwelling, downwelling, or a combination. Many of the larger coronae may be sites of plume-induced subduction (see Davaille abstract), although subduction does not appear to create plates. I will discuss possible reasons Venus and Earth may have evolved differently and supporting evidence from surface observations. Did early impact or magma ocean history modify interior volatile or radiogenic content? Does high surface T and its effect on rheology and mineralogy inhibit plate tectonics? What is the evidence for a wet or dry interior? What could new missions tell us about these questions?

  2. Sharpest views of Betelgeuse reveal how supergiant stars lose mass-Unveiling the true face of a behemoth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    the size of a tennis ball on the International Space Station (ISS), as seen from the ground. "Thanks to these outstanding images, we have detected a large plume of gas extending into space from the surface of Betelgeuse," says Pierre Kervella from the Paris Observatory, who led the team. The plume extends to at least six times the diameter of the star, corresponding to the distance between the Sun and Neptune. "This is a clear indication that the whole outer shell of the star is not shedding matter evenly in all directions," adds Kervella. Two mechanisms could explain this asymmetry. One assumes that the mass loss occurs above the polar caps of the giant star, possibly because of its rotation. The other possibility is that such a plume is generated above large-scale gas motions inside the star, known as convection - similar to the circulation of water heated in a pot. To arrive at a solution, astronomers needed to probe the behemoth in still finer detail. To do this Keiichi Ohnaka from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, and his colleagues used interferometry. With the AMBER instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope Interferometer, which combines the light from three 1.8-metre Auxiliary Telescopes of the VLT, the astronomers obtained observations as sharp as those of a giant, virtual 48-metre telescope. With such superb resolution, the astronomers were able to detect indirectly details four times finer still than the amazing NACO images had already allowed (in other words, the size of a marble on the ISS, as seen from the ground). "Our AMBER observations are the sharpest observations of any kind ever made of Betelgeuse. Moreover, we detected how the gas is moving in different areas of Betelgeuse's surface ― the first time this has been done for a star other than the Sun", says Ohnaka. The AMBER observations revealed that the gas in Betelgeuse's atmosphere is moving vigorously up and down, and that these bubbles are as large as the

  3. The Processing of Causal and Hierarchical Relations in Semantic Memory as Revealed by N400 and Frontal Negativity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuling Liang

    Full Text Available Most current studies investigating semantic memory have focused on associative (ring-emerald or taxonomic relations (bird-sparrow. Little is known about the question of how causal relations (virus-epidemic are stored and accessed in semantic memory. The goal of this study was to examine the processing of causally related, general associatively related and hierarchically related word pairs when participants were required to evaluate whether pairs of words were related in any way. The ERP data showed that the N400 amplitude (200-500 ms elicited by unrelated related words was more negative than all related words. Furthermore, the late frontal distributed negativity (500-700 ms elicited by causally related words was smaller than hierarchically related words, but not for general associated words. These results suggested the processing of causal relations and hierarchical relations in semantic memory recruited different degrees of cognitive resources, especially for role binding.

  4. Multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) reveals abnormal fMRI activity in both the “core” and “extended” face network in congenital prosopagnosia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivolta, Davide; Woolgar, Alexandra; Palermo, Romina; Butko, Marina; Schmalzl, Laura; Williams, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to identify faces is mediated by a network of cortical and subcortical brain regions in humans. It is still a matter of debate which regions represent the functional substrate of congenital prosopagnosia (CP), a condition characterized by a lifelong impairment in face recognition, and affecting around 2.5% of the general population. Here, we used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to measure neural responses to faces, objects, bodies, and body-parts in a group of seven CPs and ten healthy control participants. Using multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) of the fMRI data we demonstrate that neural activity within the “core” (i.e., occipital face area and fusiform face area) and “extended” (i.e., anterior temporal cortex) face regions in CPs showed reduced discriminability between faces and objects. Reduced differentiation between faces and objects in CP was also seen in the right parahippocampal cortex. In contrast, discriminability between faces and bodies/body-parts and objects and bodies/body-parts across the ventral visual system was typical in CPs. In addition to MVPA analysis, we also ran traditional mass-univariate analysis, which failed to show any group differences in face and object discriminability. In sum, these findings demonstrate (i) face-object representations impairments in CP which encompass both the “core” and “extended” face regions, and (ii) superior power of MVPA in detecting group differences. PMID:25431556

  5. Multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA reveals abnormal fMRI activity in both the core and extended face network in congenital prosopagnosia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide eRivolta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability to identify faces is mediated by a network of cortical and subcortical brain regions in humans. It is still a matter of debate which regions represent the functional substrate of congenital prosopagnosia (CP, a condition characterized by a lifelong impairment in face recognition, and affecting around 2.5% of the general population. Here, we used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI to measure neural responses to faces, objects, bodies and body-parts in a group of seven CPs and ten healthy control participants. Using multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA of the fMRI data we demonstrate that neural activity within the core (i.e., occipital face area and fusiform face area and extended (i.e., anterior temporal cortex face regions in CPs showed reduced discriminability between faces and objects. Reduced differentiation between faces and objects in CP was also seen in the right parahippocampal cortex. In contrast, discriminability between faces and bodies/body-parts and objects and bodies/body-parts across the ventral visual system was typical in CPs. In addition to MVPA analysis, we also ran traditional mass-univariate analysis, which failed to show any group differences in face and object discriminability. In sum, these findings demonstrate (i face-object representations impairments in CP which encompass both the core and extended face regions, and (ii superior power of MVPA in detecting group differences.

  6. Multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) reveals abnormal fMRI activity in both the "core" and "extended" face network in congenital prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivolta, Davide; Woolgar, Alexandra; Palermo, Romina; Butko, Marina; Schmalzl, Laura; Williams, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    The ability to identify faces is mediated by a network of cortical and subcortical brain regions in humans. It is still a matter of debate which regions represent the functional substrate of congenital prosopagnosia (CP), a condition characterized by a lifelong impairment in face recognition, and affecting around 2.5% of the general population. Here, we used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to measure neural responses to faces, objects, bodies, and body-parts in a group of seven CPs and ten healthy control participants. Using multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) of the fMRI data we demonstrate that neural activity within the "core" (i.e., occipital face area and fusiform face area) and "extended" (i.e., anterior temporal cortex) face regions in CPs showed reduced discriminability between faces and objects. Reduced differentiation between faces and objects in CP was also seen in the right parahippocampal cortex. In contrast, discriminability between faces and bodies/body-parts and objects and bodies/body-parts across the ventral visual system was typical in CPs. In addition to MVPA analysis, we also ran traditional mass-univariate analysis, which failed to show any group differences in face and object discriminability. In sum, these findings demonstrate (i) face-object representations impairments in CP which encompass both the "core" and "extended" face regions, and (ii) superior power of MVPA in detecting group differences.

  7. Mammary gene expression profiles during an intramammary challenge reveal potential mechanisms linking negative energy balance with impaired immune response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey; Drackley, J K; Morin, D E;

    2010-01-01

    Our objective was to compare mammary tissue gene expression profiles during a Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis) mastitis challenge between lactating cows subjected to dietary-induced negative energy balance (NEB; n = 5) and cows fed ad libitum to maintain positive energy balance (PEB; n = 5......) in order to better understand the mechanisms associated with NEB and risk of mastitis during the transition period. The NEB cows were feed-restricted to 60% of calculated net energy for lactation requirements for 7 d, and cows assigned to PEB were fed the same diet for ad libitum intake. Five days after...... feed restriction, one rear mammary quarter of each cow was inoculated with 5,000 cfu of S. uberis (O140J). At 20 h post-inoculation, S. uberis-infected mammary quarters from all cows were biopsied for RNA extraction. Energy balance (NEB vs. PEB) resulted in 287 differentially expressed genes (DEG; FDR...

  8. Long-term memory traces for familiar spoken words in tonal languages as revealed by the Mismatch Negativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiphinich Kotchabhakdi

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Mismatch negativity (MMN, a primary response to an acoustic change and an index of sensory memory, was used to investigate the processing of the discrimination between familiar and unfamiliar Consonant-Vowel (CV speech contrasts. The MMN was elicited by rare familiar words presented among repetitive unfamiliar words. Phonetic and phonological contrasts were identical in all conditions. MMN elicited by the familiar word deviant was larger than that elicited by the unfamiliar word deviant. The presence of syllable contrast did significantly alter the word-elicited MMN in amplitude and scalp voltage field distribution. Thus, our results indicate the existence of word-related MMN enhancement largely independent of the word status of the standard stimulus. This enhancement may reflect the presence of a longterm memory trace for familiar spoken words in tonal languages.

  9. Mammary gene expression profiles during an intramammary challenge reveal potential mechanisms linking negative energy balance with impaired immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyes, Kasey M; Drackley, James K; Morin, Dawn E; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Everts, Robin E; Lewin, Harris A; Loor, Juan J

    2010-04-01

    Our objective was to compare mammary tissue gene expression profiles during a Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis) mastitis challenge between lactating cows subjected to dietary-induced negative energy balance (NEB; n = 5) and cows fed ad libitum to maintain positive energy balance (PEB; n = 5) to better understand the mechanisms associated with NEB and risk of mastitis during the transition period. The NEB cows were feed-restricted to 60% of calculated net energy for lactation requirements for 7 days, and cows assigned to PEB were fed the same diet for ad libitum intake. Five days after feed restriction, one rear mammary quarter of each cow was inoculated with 5,000 cfu of S. uberis (O140J). At 20 h postinoculation, S. uberis-infected mammary quarters from all cows were biopsied for RNA extraction. Negative energy balance resulted in 287 differentially expressed genes (DEG; false discovery rate ≤ 0.05), with 86 DEG upregulated and 201 DEG downregulated in NEB vs. PEB. Canonical pathways most affected by NEB were IL-8 signaling (10 genes), glucocorticoid receptor signaling (13), and NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response (10). Among the genes differentially expressed by NEB, cell growth and proliferation (48) and cellular development (36) were the most enriched functions. Regarding immune response, HLA-A was upregulated due to NEB, whereas the majority of genes involved in immune response were downregulated (e.g., AKT1, IRAK1, MAPK9, and TRAF6). This study provided new avenues for investigation into the mechanisms relating NEB and susceptibility to mastitis in lactating dairy cows.

  10. Population differences in breast cancer: survey in indigenous African women reveals over-representation of triple-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Dezheng; Ikpatt, Francis; Khramtsov, Andrey; Dangou, Jean-Marie; Nanda, Rita; Dignam, James; Zhang, Bifeng; Grushko, Tatyana; Zhang, Chunling; Oluwasola, Olayiwola; Malaka, David; Malami, Sani; Odetunde, Abayomi; Adeoye, Adewumi O; Iyare, Festus; Falusi, Adeyinka; Perou, Charles M; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I

    2009-09-20

    Compared with white women, black women experience a disproportionate burden of aggressive breast cancer for reasons that remain unknown and understudied. In the first study of its kind, we determined the distribution of molecular subtypes of invasive breast tumors in indigenous black women in West Africa. The study comprised 507 patients diagnosed with breast cancer between 1996 and 2007 at six geographic regions in Nigeria and Senegal. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded sections were constructed into tissue microarrays and immunostained with 15 antibodies. Five molecular subtypes were determined, and hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted to explore subgroups for unclassified cases. The mean (+/- standard deviation) age of 378 patients in the first cohort was 44.8 +/- 11.8 years, with the majority of women presenting with large (4.4 +/- 2.0 cm) high-grade tumors (83%) in advanced stages (72% node positive). The proportions of estrogen receptor (ER) -positive, progesterone receptor-positive, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) -positive tumors were 24%, 20%, and 17%, respectively. Triple negativity for these markers was predominant, including basal-like (27%) and unclassified subtype (28%). Other subtypes were luminal A (27%), luminal B (2%), and HER2 positive/ER negative (15%). The findings were replicated in the second cohort of 129 patients. The unclassified cases could be grouped into a bad prognosis branch, with expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, B-cell lymphoma extra-large protein, and Cyclin E, and a good prognosis branch, with expression of B-cell lymphoma protein 2 and Cyclin D1. These findings underscore the urgent need for research into the etiology and treatment of the aggressive molecular subtypes that disproportionately affect young women in the African diaspora.

  11. Multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) reveals abnormal fMRI activity in both the 'core' and 'extended' face network in congenital prosopagnosia

    OpenAIRE

    Rivolta, Davide; Woolgar, Alexandra; Palermo, Romina; Butko, Marina; Schmalzl, Laura; Williams, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to identify faces is mediated by a network of cortical and subcortical brain regions in humans. It is still a matter of debate which regions represent the functional substrate of congenital prosopagnosia (CP), a condition characterized by a lifelong impairment in face recognition, and affecting around 2.5% of the general population. Here, we used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to measure neural responses to faces, objects, bodies, and body-parts in a group of seven C...

  12. Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Female NOD Mice Reveals Daily Rhythms and a Negative Correlation With Body Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korstanje, Ron; Ryan, Jennifer L; Savage, Holly S; Lyons, Bonnie L; Kane, Kevin G; Sukoff Rizzo, Stacey J

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies with continuous glucose monitoring in mice have been limited to several days or weeks, with the mouse's physical attachment to the equipment affecting behavior and measurements. In the current study, we measured blood glucose and body temperature at 10-second intervals for 12 weeks in a cohort of NOD/ShiLtJ female mice using wireless telemetry. This allowed us to obtain a high-resolution profile of the circadian rhythm of these two parameters and the onset of hyperglycemic development in real time. The most striking observations were the elevated nocturnal concentrations of glucose into the diabetic range days before elevations in diurnal glucose (when glucose concentrations are historically measured) and the strong, negative correlation between elevated blood glucose concentrations and body temperature with a steady decline of the body temperature with diabetes development. Taken together, this technological advancement provides improved resolution in the study of the disease trajectory of diabetes in mouse models, including relevant translatability to the current technologies of continuous glucose monitoring now regularly used in patients. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  13. Memory traces for spoken words in the brain as revealed by the hemodynamic correlate of the mismatch negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtyrov, Yury; Osswald, Katja; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2008-01-01

    The mismatch negativity response, considered a brain correlate of automatic preattentive auditory processing, is enhanced for word stimuli as compared with acoustically matched pseudowords. This lexical enhancement, taken as a signature of activation of language-specific long-term memory traces, was investigated here using functional magnetic resonance imaging to complement the previous electrophysiological studies. In passive oddball paradigm, word stimuli were randomly presented as rare deviants among frequent pseudowords; the reverse conditions employed infrequent pseudowords among word stimuli. Random-effect analysis indicated clearly distinct patterns for the different lexical types. Whereas the hemodynamic mismatch response was significant for the word deviants, it did not reach significance for the pseudoword conditions. This difference, more pronounced in the left than right hemisphere, was also assessed by analyzing average parameter estimates in regions of interests within both temporal lobes. A significant hemisphere-by-lexicality interaction confirmed stronger blood oxygenation level-dependent mismatch responses to words than pseudowords in the left but not in the right superior temporal cortex. The increased left superior temporal activation and the laterality of cortical sources elicited by spoken words compared with pseudowords may indicate the activation of cortical circuits for lexical material even in passive oddball conditions and suggest involvement of the left superior temporal areas in housing such word-processing neuronal circuits.

  14. Whole blood transcriptome analysis reveals potential competition in metabolic pathways between negative energy balance and response to inflammatory challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvier-Muller, Juliette; Allain, Charlotte; Tabouret, Guillaume; Enjalbert, Francis; Portes, David; Noirot, Céline; Rupp, Rachel; Foucras, Gilles

    2017-05-24

    Negative Energy Balance (NEB) is considered to increase susceptibility to mastitis. The objective of this study was to improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms by comparing transcriptomic profiles following NEB and a concomitant mammary inflammation. Accordingly, we performed RNA-seq analysis of blood cells in energy-restricted ewes and control-diet ewes at four different time points before and after intra mammary challenge with phlogogenic ligands. Blood leucocytes responded to NEB by shutting down lipid-generating processes, including cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis, probably under transcriptional control of SREBF 1. Furthermore, fatty acid oxidation was activated and glucose oxidation and transport inhibited in response to energy restriction. Among the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in response to energy restriction, 64 genes were also differential in response to the inflammatory challenge. Opposite response included the activation of cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis during the inflammatory challenge. Moreover, activation of glucose oxidation and transport coupled with the increase of plasma glucose concentration in response to the inflammatory stimuli suggested a preferential utilization of glucose as the energy source during this stress. Leucocyte metabolism therefore undergoes strong metabolic changes during an inflammatory challenge, which could be in competition with those induced by energy restriction.

  15. Left hemisphere lateralization for lexical and acoustic pitch processing in Cantonese speakers as revealed by mismatch negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Feng; Zhang, Caicai; Hu, Axu; Zhao, Guoping

    2013-12-01

    For nontonal language speakers, speech processing is lateralized to the left hemisphere and musical processing is lateralized to the right hemisphere (i.e., function-dependent brain asymmetry). On the other hand, acoustic temporal processing is lateralized to the left hemisphere and spectral/pitch processing is lateralized to the right hemisphere (i.e., acoustic-dependent brain asymmetry). In this study, we examine whether the hemispheric lateralization of lexical pitch and acoustic pitch processing in tonal language speakers is consistent with the patterns of function- and acoustic-dependent brain asymmetry in nontonal language speakers. Pitch contrast in both speech stimuli (syllable /ji/ in Experiment 1) and nonspeech stimuli (harmonic tone in Experiment 1; pure tone in Experiment 2) was presented to native Cantonese speakers in passive oddball paradigms. We found that the mismatch negativity (MMN) elicited by lexical pitch contrast was lateralized to the left hemisphere, which is consistent with the pattern of function-dependent brain asymmetry (i.e., left hemisphere lateralization for speech processing) in nontonal language speakers. However, the MMN elicited by acoustic pitch contrast was also left hemisphere lateralized (harmonic tone in Experiment 1) or showed a tendency for left hemisphere lateralization (pure tone in Experiment 2), which is inconsistent with the pattern of acoustic-dependent brain asymmetry (i.e., right hemisphere lateralization for acoustic pitch processing) in nontonal language speakers. The consistent pattern of function-dependent brain asymmetry and the inconsistent pattern of acoustic-dependent brain asymmetry between tonal and nontonal language speakers can be explained by the hypothesis that the acoustic-dependent brain asymmetry is the consequence of a carryover effect from function-dependent brain asymmetry. Potential evolutionary implication of this hypothesis is discussed. © 2013.

  16. Gene expression profiling reveals clear differences between EBV-positive and EBV-negative posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morscio, J; Dierickx, D; Ferreiro, J F; Herreman, A; Van Loo, P; Bittoun, E; Verhoef, G; Matthys, P; Cools, J; Wlodarska, I; De Wolf-Peeters, C; Sagaert, X; Tousseyn, T

    2013-05-01

    Posttransplant patients are at risk of developing a potentially life-threatening posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), most often of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) morphology and associated with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the clinicopathological and molecular-genetic characteristics of posttransplant DLBCL and to elucidate whether EBV(+) and EBV(-) posttransplant DLBCL are biologically different. We performed gene expression profiling studies on 48 DLBCL of which 33 arose posttransplantation (PT-DLBCL; 72% EBV+) and 15 in immunocompetent hosts (IC-DLBCL; none EBV+). Unsupervised hierarchical analysis showed clustering of samples related to EBV-status rather than immune status. Except for decreased T cell signaling these cases were inseparable from EBV(-) IC-DLBCL. In contrast, a viral response signature clearly segregated EBV(+) PT-DLBCL from EBV(-) PT-DLBCL and IC-DLBCL cases that were intermixed. The broad EBV latency profile (LMP1+/EBNA2+) was expressed in 59% of EBV(+) PT-DLBCL and associated with a more elaborate inflammatory response compared to intermediate latency (LMP1+/EBNA2-). Inference analysis revealed a role for innate and tolerogenic immune responses (including VSIG4 and IDO1) in EBV(+) PT-DLBCL. In conclusion we can state that the EBV signature is the most determining factor in the pathogenesis of EBV(+) PT-DLBCL.

  17. Profiling of FSHR negative allosteric modulators on LH/CGR reveals biased antagonism with implications in steroidogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Mohammed Akli; Yvinec, Romain; Jégot, Gwenhaël; Dias, James A; Poli, Sonia-Maria; Poupon, Anne; Crépieux, Pascale; Reiter, Eric

    2016-11-15

    Biased signaling has recently emerged as an interesting means to modulate the function of many G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Previous studies reported two negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), ADX68692 and ADX68693, with differential effects on FSHR-mediated steroidogenesis and ovulation. In this study, we attempted to pharmacologically profile these NAMs on the closely related luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin hormone receptor (LH/CGR) with regards to its canonical Gs/cAMP pathway as well as to β-arrestin recruitment in HEK293 cells. The NAMs' effects on cAMP, progesterone and testosterone production were also assessed in murine Leydig tumor cell line (mLTC-1) as well as rat primary Leydig cells. We found that both NAMs strongly antagonized LH/CGR signaling in the different cell models used with ADX68693 being more potent than ADX68692 to inhibit hCG-induced cAMP production in HEK293, mLTC-1 and rat primary Leydig cells as well as β-arrestin 2 recruitment in HEK293 cells. Interestingly, differential antagonism of the two NAMs on hCG-promoted steroidogenesis in mLTC-1 and rat primary Leydig cells was observed. Indeed, a significant inhibition of testosterone production by the two NAMs was observed in both cell types, whereas progesterone production was only inhibited by ADX68693 in rat primary Leydig cells. In addition, while ADX68693 totally abolished testosterone production, ADX68692 had only a partial effect in both mLTC-1 and rat primary Leydig cells. These observations suggest biased effects of the two NAMs on LH/CGR-dependent pathways controlling steroidogenesis. Interestingly, the pharmacological profiles of the two NAMs with respect to steroidogenesis were found to differ from that previously shown on FSHR. This illustrates the complexity of signaling pathways controlling FSHR- and LH/CGR-mediated steroidogenesis, suggesting differential implication of cAMP and β-arrestins mediated by

  18. What the Face and Body Reveal: In-Group Emotion Effects and Stereotyping of Emotion in African American and European American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuminello, Elizabeth R.; Davidson, Denise

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether 3- to 7-year-old African American and European American children's assessment of emotion in face-only, face + body, and body-only photographic stimuli was affected by in-group emotion recognition effects and racial or gender stereotyping of emotion. Evidence for racial in-group effects was found, with European American…

  19. "Man You've Been a Naughty Boy, You Let Your Face Grow Long": On the Celebration of Negative Affect in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Paul; Kakos, Michalis

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the authors explore the phenomena of positive attitudes towards negative affect among young adolescent as reflected in the appearance and behaviours of "radical peer crowds", such as Punks, Goths and Emos. The authors consider the significance of this in relation to the history of melancholy and theories of identity…

  20. MicroRNA deregulation in triple negative breast cancer reveals a role of miR-498 in regulating BRCA1 expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamala, Nerea; Vargas, Maria Teresa; González-Cámpora, Ricardo; Arias, Jose Ignacio; Menéndez, Primitiva; Andrés-León, Eduardo; Yanowsky, Kira; Llaneza-Folgueras, Ana; Miñambres, Rebeca; Martínez-Delgado, Beatriz; Benítez, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that BRCA1 pathway contributes to the behavior of sporadic triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), but little is known about the mechanisms underlying this association. Considering the central role that microRNAs (miRNAs) play in gene expression regulation, the aim of this study was to identify miRNAs specifically deregulated in TNBC and investigate their involvement in BRCA1 regulation. Using locked nucleic acid (LNA)-based microarrays, expression levels of 1919 miRNAs were measured in paraffin-embedded tissues from 122 breast tumors and 11 healthy breast tissue samples. Differential miRNA expression was explored among the main subtypes of breast cancer, and 105 miRNAs were identified as specific for triple negative tumors. In silico prediction revealed that miR-498 and miR-187-5p target BRCA1, and these results were confirmed by luciferase reporter assay. While miR-187-5p was found overexpressed in a luminal B cell line, miR-498 was highly expressed in a triple negative cell line, Hs578T, and its expression was negatively correlated with the levels of BRCA1. We functionally demonstrated that miR-498 inhibits BRCA1 in breast cancer cell lines, and showed that inhibition of miR-498 led to reduced proliferation in the triple negative cell line Hs578T. Our results indicate that miR-498 regulates BRCA1 expression in breast cancer and its overexpression could contribute to the pathogenesis of sporadic TNBC via BRCA1 downregulation. PMID:26933805

  1. The Effect of Affective Context on Visuocortical Processing of Neutral Faces in Social Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Matthias J; Moscovitch, David A

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that verbal context information alters the neural processing of ambiguous faces such as faces with no apparent facial expression. In social anxiety, neutral faces may be implicitly threatening for socially anxious individuals due to their ambiguous nature, but even more so if these neutral faces are put in self-referential negative contexts. Therefore, we measured event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in response to neutral faces which were preceded by affective verbal information (negative, neutral, positive). Participants with low social anxiety (LSA; n = 23) and high social anxiety (HSA; n = 21) were asked to watch and rate valence and arousal of the respective faces while continuous EEG was recorded. ERP analysis revealed that HSA showed elevated P100 amplitudes in response to faces, but reduced structural encoding of faces as indexed by reduced N170 amplitudes. In general, affective context led to an enhanced early posterior negativity (EPN) for negative compared to neutral facial expressions. Moreover, HSA compared to LSA showed enhanced late positive potentials (LPP) to negatively contextualized faces, whereas in LSA this effect was found for faces in positive contexts. Also, HSA rated faces in negative contexts as more negative compared to LSA. These results point at enhanced vigilance for neutral faces regardless of context in HSA, while structural encoding seems to be diminished (avoidance). Interestingly, later components of sustained processing (LPP) indicate that LSA show enhanced visuocortical processing for faces in positive contexts (happy bias), whereas this seems to be the case for negatively contextualized faces in HSA (threat bias). Finally, our results add further new evidence that top-down information in interaction with individual anxiety levels can influence early-stage aspects of visual perception.

  2. A novel TCR transgenic model reveals that negative selection involves an immediate, Bim-dependent pathway and a delayed, Bim-independent pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Kovalovsky

    Full Text Available A complete understanding of negative selection has been elusive due to the rapid apoptosis and clearance of thymocytes in vivo. We report a TCR transgenic model in which expression of the TCR during differentiation occurs only after V(DJ-like recombination. TCR expression from this transgene closely mimics expression of the endogenous TCRalpha locus allowing for development that is similar to wild type thymocytes. This model allowed us to characterize the phenotypic changes that occurred after TCR-mediated signaling in self-reactive thymocytes prior to their deletion in a highly physiological setting. Self-reactive thymocytes were identified as being immature, activated and CD4(loCD8(lo. These cells had upregulated markers of negative selection and were apoptotic. Elimination of Bim reduced the apoptosis of self-reactive thymocytes, but it did not rescue their differentiation and the cells remained at the immature CD4(loCD8(lo stage of development. These cells upregulate Nur77 and do not contribute to the peripheral T cell repertoire in vivo. Remarkably, development past the CD4(loCD8(lo stage was possible once the cells were removed from the negatively selecting thymic environment. In vitro development of these cells occurred despite their maintenance of high intracellular levels of Nur77. Therefore, in vivo, negatively selected Bim-deficient thymocytes are eliminated after prolonged developmental arrest via a Bim-independent pathway that is dependent on the thymic microenvironment. These data newly reveal a layering of immediate, Bim-dependent, and delayed Bim-independent pathways that both contribute to elimination of self-reactive thymocytes in vivo.

  3. 抑郁症患者对负性情绪面孔的注意偏向%Attention Bias to Negative Emotional Faces in Clinical Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许媛美; 盛利; 张英辉; 何小琼; 赵正前; 王文娟; 翟长平

    2016-01-01

    Objective:According to the characteristics of behaviorism when executing cue-target paradigm ,to ex‐plore clinical depressions’ cognitive features of attention bias of negative emotional information .Methods:Selected clinical depressions were in accordance with international psychiatric diagnosis and classification standard (ICD -10) ,20-case control group were selected in terms of gender ,age ,and education years which matched with depres‐sion group .Using the Chinese facial affective picture system established by psychological research institutes in Chi‐nese academy of sciences as stimulus materials ,selected cue-target paradigm as current experiment paradigm ,com‐paring the difference of mean reaction time and accuracy between two groups of subjects under the condition of dif‐ferent clues .Results:Compared to the control subjects ,clinical depressions’ total mean reaction time was longer(t=‐5 5.79 ,P<0 0.1) .The difference of control group between invalid task reaction time and effective one was positive , and the difference of depression group was negative .Both groups showed that the accuracy of effective tasks was higher than invalid one ,and the neutral one was higher than negative one(t=8 3.53 ,2 9.94 ,7 3.63 ,4 4.99 ;P<0 0.1) . Conclusion:①Compared to control subjects ,clinical depression’s speed of cognitive processing when executing cue-target paradigm is slower ,which can interpret the symptom characteristics of depression which are retardation of thinking and hypobulia .②Normal person shows cuing effect to negative emotional pictures ,clinical depression shows inhibition of return ,prompts that clinical depression tends to be attracted by negative information .%目的:通过分析抑郁症患者在执行线索提示任务时的行为学特点,探索抑郁症患者对负性情绪信息注意偏向的认知特点。方法:筛选出符合国际精神疾病诊断与分类标准(ICD -10)的抑郁症患者20例(抑郁组

  4. Forming a negative impression of another person correlates with activation in medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iidaka, Tetsuya; Harada, Tokiko; Sadato, Norihiro

    2011-09-01

    Neural correlates involved in the formation of negative impression from face were investigated using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging and a partial conditioning paradigm. Eighteen normal volunteers underwent imaging while they viewed the faces of two unfamiliar individuals: one individual's face was partially accompanied by negative emotion but the other's was not. After the volunteers learned the relationship between the faces and the emotion, they formed a more negative impression of the person's face when the emotion was presented. Subtraction analysis of the individuals' neutral faces revealed activation in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and superior temporal sulcus, but this activity did not correlate with the change of impression from face. On the other hand, the response in the left amygdala negatively correlated with the change of impression from face in the first run. Time modulation analysis revealed that activity in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex associated with negative emotion was the largest in the initial part of the acquisition. These results suggest that a negative impression from face may be formed by orchestrated activity in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and amygdala, and that the activity has a prominent role in the initial acquisition of negative emotion.

  5. An eye tracking system for monitoring face scanning patterns reveals the enhancing effect of oxytocin on eye contact in common marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Manato; Shimono, Kohei; Yoneyama, Toshihiro; Nakako, Tomokazu; Matsumoto, Kenji; Ogi, Yuji; Konoike, Naho; Nakamura, Katsuki; Ikeda, Kazuhito

    2017-09-01

    Eye tracking systems are used to investigate eyes position and gaze patterns presumed as eye contact in humans. Eye contact is a useful biomarker of social communication and known to be deficient in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Interestingly, the same eye tracking systems have been used to directly compare face scanning patterns in some non-human primates to those in human. Thus, eye tracking is expected to be a useful translational technique for investigating not only social attention and visual interest, but also the effects of psychiatric drugs, such as oxytocin, a neuropeptide that regulates social behavior. In this study, we report on a newly established method for eye tracking in common marmosets as unique New World primates that, like humans, use eye contact as a mean of communication. Our investigation was aimed at characterizing these primates face scanning patterns and evaluating the effects of oxytocin on their eye contact behavior. We found that normal common marmosets spend more time viewing the eyes region in common marmoset's picture than the mouth region or a scrambled picture. In oxytocin experiment, the change in eyes/face ratio was significantly greater in the oxytocin group than in the vehicle group. Moreover, oxytocin-induced increase in the change in eyes/face ratio was completely blocked by the oxytocin receptor antagonist L-368,899. These results indicate that eye tracking in common marmosets may be useful for evaluating drug candidates targeting psychiatric conditions, especially ASDs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Purified monomeric ligand.MD-2 complexes reveal molecular and structural requirements for activation and antagonism of TLR4 by Gram-negative bacterial endotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioannini, Theresa L; Teghanemt, Athmane; Zhang, DeSheng; Esparza, Gregory; Yu, Liping; Weiss, Jerrold

    2014-08-01

    A major focus of work in our laboratory concerns the molecular mechanisms and structural bases of Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin recognition by host (e.g., human) endotoxin-recognition proteins that mediate and/or regulate activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. Here, we review studies of wild-type and variant monomeric endotoxin.MD-2 complexes first produced and characterized in our laboratories. These purified complexes have provided unique experimental reagents, revealing both quantitative and qualitative determinants of TLR4 activation and antagonism. This review is dedicated to the memory of Dr. Theresa L. Gioannini (1949-2014) who played a central role in many of the studies and discoveries that are reviewed.

  7. Face pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... begin in other places in the body. Abscessed tooth (ongoing throbbing pain on one side of the lower face that ... face, and aggravated by eating. Call a dentist. Pain is persistent, ... by other unexplained symptoms. Call your primary provider.

  8. Femtosecond Hydrogen Bond Dynamics of Bulk-like and Bound Water at Positively and Negatively Charged Lipid Interfaces Revealed by 2D HD-VSFG Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prashant Chandra; Inoue, Ken-Ichi; Nihonyanagi, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Shoichi; Tahara, Tahei

    2016-08-26

    Interfacial water in the vicinity of lipids plays an important role in many biological processes, such as drug delivery, ion transportation, and lipid fusion. Hence, molecular-level elucidation of the properties of water at lipid interfaces is of the utmost importance. We report the two-dimensional heterodyne-detected vibrational sum frequency generation (2D HD-VSFG) study of the OH stretch of HOD at charged lipid interfaces, which shows that the hydrogen bond dynamics of interfacial water differ drastically, depending on the lipids. The data indicate that the spectral diffusion of the OH stretch at a positively charged lipid interface is dominated by the ultrafast (dynamics, while the dynamics at a negatively charged lipid interface exhibit sub-picosecond dynamics almost exclusively, implying that fast hydrogen bond fluctuation is prohibited. These results reveal that the ultrafast hydrogen bond dynamics at the positively charged lipid-water interface are attributable to the bulk-like property of interfacial water, whereas the slow dynamics at the negatively charged lipid interface are due to bound water, which is hydrogen-bonded to the hydrophilic head group.

  9. Important Role of FTO in the Survival of Rare Panresistant Triple-Negative Inflammatory Breast Cancer Cells Facing a Severe Metabolic Challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balraj Singh

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that only 0.01% cells survive a metabolic challenge involving lack of glutamine in culture medium of SUM149 triple-negative Inflammatory Breast Cancer cell line. These cells, designated as SUM149-MA for metabolic adaptability, are resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs, and they efficiently metastasize to multiple organs in nude mice. We hypothesized that obesity-related molecular networks, which normally help in cellular and organismal survival under metabolic challenges, may help in the survival of MA cells. The fat mass and obesity-associated protein FTO is overexpressed in MA cells. Obesity-associated cis-acting elements in non-coding region of FTO regulate the expression of IRX3 gene, thus activating obesity networks. Here we found that IRX3 protein is significantly overexpressed in MA cells (5 to 6-fold as compared to the parental SUM149 cell line, supporting our hypothesis. We also obtained evidence that additional key regulators of energy balance such as ARID5B, IRX5, and CUX1 P200 repressor could potentially help progenitor-like TNBC cells survive in glutamine-free medium. MO-I-500, a pharmacological inhibitor of FTO, significantly (>90% inhibited survival and/or colony formation of SUM149-MA cells as compared to untreated cells or those treated with a control compound MO-I-100. Curiously, MO-I-500 treatment also led to decreased levels of FTO and IRX3 proteins in the SUM149 cells initially surviving in glutamine-free medium as compared to MO-I-100 treatment. Interestingly, MO-I-500 treatment had a relatively little effect on cell growth of either the SUM149 or SUM149-MA cell line when added to a complete medium containing glutamine that does not pose a metabolic challenge. Importantly, once selected and cultured in glutamine-free medium, SUM149-MA cells were no longer affected by MO-I-500 even in Gln-free medium. We conclude that panresistant MA cells contain interconnected molecular networks that govern

  10. Facing Aggression: Cues Differ for Female versus Male Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geniole, Shawn N.; Keyes, Amanda E.; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Carré, Justin M.; McCormick, Cheryl M.

    2012-01-01

    The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio), is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio even when other cues in the face related to masculinity were controlled statistically. Nevertheless, correlations between the face ratio and judgements of aggression were smaller for female than for male faces (F1,36 = 7.43, p = 0.01). In Study 1, there was no significant relationship between judgements of femininity and of aggression in female faces. In Study 2, the association between judgements of masculinity and aggression was weaker in female faces than for male faces in Study 1. The weaker association in female faces may be because aggression and masculinity are stereotypically male traits. Thus, in Study 3, observers rated faces on nurturing (a stereotypically female trait) and on femininity. Judgements of nurturing were associated with femininity (positively) and masculinity (negatively) ratings in both female and male faces. In summary, the perception of aggression differs in female versus male faces. The sex difference was not simply because aggression is a gendered construct; the relationships between masculinity/femininity and nurturing were similar for male and female faces even though nurturing is also a gendered construct. Masculinity and femininity ratings are not associated with aggression ratings nor with the face ratio for female faces. In contrast, all four variables are highly inter-correlated in male faces, likely because these cues in male faces serve as “honest signals”. PMID:22276184

  11. Recognition of Face and Emotional Facial Expressions in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Tayyib Kadak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a genetically transferred neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe and permanent deficits in many interpersonal relation areas like communication, social interaction and emotional responsiveness. Patients with autism have deficits in face recognition, eye contact and recognition of emotional expression. Both recognition of face and expression of facial emotion carried on face processing. Structural and functional impairment in fusiform gyrus, amygdala, superior temporal sulcus and other brain regions lead to deficits in recognition of face and facial emotion. Therefore studies suggest that face processing deficits resulted in problems in areas of social interaction and emotion in autism. Studies revealed that children with autism had problems in recognition of facial expression and used mouth region more than eye region. It was also shown that autistic patients interpreted ambiguous expressions as negative emotion. In autism, deficits related in various stages of face processing like detection of gaze, face identity, recognition of emotional expression were determined, so far. Social interaction impairments in autistic spectrum disorders originated from face processing deficits during the periods of infancy, childhood and adolescence. Recognition of face and expression of facial emotion could be affected either automatically by orienting towards faces after birth, or by “learning” processes in developmental periods such as identity and emotion processing. This article aimed to review neurobiological basis of face processing and recognition of emotional facial expressions during normal development and in autism.

  12. Social judgments from faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Alexander; Mende-Siedlecki, Peter; Dotsch, Ron

    2013-06-01

    People make rapid and consequential social judgments from minimal (non-emotional) facial cues. There has been rapid progress in identifying the perceptual basis of these judgments using data-driven, computational models. In contrast, our understanding of the neural underpinnings of these judgments is rather limited. Meta-analyses of neuroimaging studies find a wide range of seemingly inconsistent responses in the amygdala that co-vary with social judgments from faces. Guided by computational models of social judgments, these responses can be accounted by positing that the amygdala (and posterior face selective regions) tracks face typicality. Atypical faces, whether positively or negatively evaluated, elicit stronger responses in the amygdala. We conclude with the promise of data-driven methods for modeling neural responses to social judgments from faces.

  13. Broad-Host-Range Expression Reveals Native and Host Regulatory Elements That Influence Heterologous Antibiotic Production in Gram-Negative Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia Jia; Tang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Michelle; Nguyen, Darlene; Moore, Bradley S

    2017-09-05

    Heterologous expression has become a powerful tool for studying microbial biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs). Here, we extend the transformation-associated recombination cloning and heterologous expression platform for microbial BGCs to include Gram-negative proteobacterial expression hosts. Using a broad-host-range expression platform, we test the implicit assumption that biosynthetic pathways are more successfully expressed in more closely related heterologous hosts. Cloning and expression of the violacein BGC from Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea 2ta16 revealed robust production in two proteobacterial hosts, Pseudomonas putida KT2440 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404, but very little production of the antibiotic in various laboratory strains of Escherichia coli, despite their closer phylogenetic relationship. We identified a nonclustered LuxR-type quorum-sensing receptor from P. luteoviolacea 2ta16, PviR, that increases pathway transcription and violacein production in E. coli by ∼60-fold independently of acyl-homoserine lactone autoinducers. Although E. coli harbors the most similar homolog of PviR identified from all of the hosts tested, overexpression of various E. coli transcription factors did not result in a statistically significant increase in violacein production, while overexpression of two A. tumefaciens PviR homologs significantly increased production. Thus, this work not only introduces a new genetic platform for the heterologous expression of microbial BGCs, it also challenges the assumption that host phylogeny is an accurate predictor of host compatibility.IMPORTANCE Although Gram-positive heterologous hosts such as Streptomyces have been developed and optimized to support diverse secondary metabolic reactions, there has been comparatively less work on Gram-negative hosts, some of which grow faster and are easier to work with. This work presents a new genetic platform for direct cloning and broad-host-range heterologous expression of BGCs

  14. The effect of affective context on visuocortical processing of neutral faces in social anxiety - An ERP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J Wieser

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that verbal context information alters the neural processing of ambiguous faces such as faces with no apparent facial expression. In social anxiety, neutral faces may be implicitly threatening for socially anxious individuals due to their ambiguous nature, but even more so if these neutral faces are put in self-referential negative contexts. Therefore, we measured event-related brain potentials (ERPs in response to neutral faces which were preceded by affective verbal information (negative, neutral, positive. Participants with low social anxiety (LSA; n = 23 and high social anxiety (HSA; n = 21 were asked to watch and rate valence and arousal of the respective faces while continuous EEG was recorded. ERP analysis revealed that HSA showed elevated P100 amplitudes in response to faces, but reduced structural encoding of faces as indexed by reduced N170 amplitudes. In general, affective context led to an enhanced early posterior negativity (EPN for negative compared to neutral facial expressions. Moreover, HSA compared to LSA showed enhanced late positive potentials (LPP to negatively contextualized faces, whereas in LSA this effect was found for faces in positive contexts. Also, HSA rated faces in negative contexts as more negative compared to LSA. These results point at enhanced vigilance for neutral faces regardless of context in HSA, while structural encoding seems to be diminished (avoidance. Interestingly, later components of sustained processing (LPP indicate that LSA show enhanced visuocortical processing for faces in positive contexts (happy bias, whereas this seems to be the case for negatively contextualized faces in HSA (threat bias. Finally, our results add further new evidence that top-down information in interaction with individual anxiety levels can influence early-stage aspects of visual perception.

  15. Spontaneous kisspeptin neuron firing in the adult mouse reveals marked sex and brain region differences but no support for a direct role in negative feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Croft, Simon; Piet, Richard; Mayer, Christian; Mai, Oliver; Boehm, Ulrich; Herbison, Allan E

    2012-11-01

    Kisspeptin-Gpr54 signaling is critical for the GnRH neuronal network controlling fertility. The present study reports on a kisspeptin (Kiss)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) mouse model enabling brain slice electrophysiological recordings to be made from Kiss neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARN) and rostral periventricular region of the third ventricle (RP3V). Using dual immunofluorescence, approximately 90% of GFP cells in the RP3V of females, and ARN in both sexes, are shown to be authentic Kiss-synthesizing neurons in adult mice. Cell-attached recordings of ARN Kiss-GFP cells revealed a marked sex difference in their mean firing rates; 90% of Kiss-GFP cells in males exhibited slow irregular firing (0.17 ± 0.04 Hz) whereas neurons from diestrous (0.01 ± 0.01 Hz) and ovariectomized (0 Hz) mice were mostly or completely silent. In contrast, RP3V Kiss-GFP cells were all spontaneously active, exhibiting tonic, irregular, and bursting firing patterns. Mean firing rates were significantly (P neurons at the time of the proestrous GnRH surge revealed a significant decline in firing rate after the surge. Together, these observations demonstrate unexpected sex differences in the electrical activity of ARN Kiss neurons and markedly different patterns of firing by Kiss neurons in the ARN and RP3V. Although data supported a positive influence of gonadal steroids on RP3V Kiss neuron firing, no direct evidence was found to support the previously postulated role of ARN Kiss neurons in the estrogen-negative feedback mechanism.

  16. Anisotropic mechanical and optical response and negative Poisson’s ratio in Mo2C nanomembranes revealed by first-principles simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Bohayra; Shahrokhi, Masoud; Makaremi, Meysam; Rabczuk, Timon

    2017-03-01

    Transition metal carbides include a wide variety of materials with attractive properties that are suitable for numerous and diverse applications. A most recent experimental advance could provide a path toward the successful synthesis of large-area and high-quality ultrathin Mo2C membranes with superconducting properties. In the present study, we used first-principles density functional theory calculations to explore the mechanical and optical response of single-layer and free-standing Mo2C. Uniaxial tensile simulations along the armchair and zigzag directions were conducted and we found that while the elastic properties are close along various loading directions, the nonlinear regimes in stress-strain curves are considerably different. We found that Mo2C sheets present negative Poisson’s ratio and thus can be categorized as an auxetic material. Our simulations also reveal that Mo2C films retain their metallic electronic characteristic upon uniaxial loading. We found that for Mo2C nanomembranes the dielectric function becomes anisotropic along in-plane and out-of-plane directions. Our findings can be useful for the practical application of Mo2C sheets in nanodevices.

  17. Loss of PTB or negative regulation of Notch mRNA reveals distinct zones of Notch and actin protein accumulation in Drosophila embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric S Wesley

    Full Text Available Polypyrimidine Tract Binding (PTB protein is a regulator of mRNA processing and translation. Genetic screens and studies of wing and bristle development during the post-embryonic stages of Drosophila suggest that it is a negative regulator of the Notch pathway. How PTB regulates the Notch pathway is unknown. Our studies of Drosophila embryogenesis indicate that (1 the Notch mRNA is a potential target of PTB, (2 PTB and Notch functions in the dorso-lateral regions of the Drosophila embryo are linked to actin regulation but not their functions in the ventral region, and (3 the actin-related Notch activity in the dorso-lateral regions might require a Notch activity at or near the cell surface that is different from the nuclear Notch activity involved in cell fate specification in the ventral region. These data raise the possibility that the Drosophila embryo is divided into zones of different PTB and Notch activities based on whether or not they are linked to actin regulation. They also provide clues to the almost forgotten role of Notch in cell adhesion and reveal a role for the Notch pathway in cell fusions.

  18. Assessment of variation in immunosuppressive pathway genes reveals TGFBR2 to be associated with prognosis of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer after chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Lei (Jieping); A. Rudolph (Anja); K.B. Moysich (Kirsten); M. Rafiq (Meena); T.W. Behrens (Timothy); E.L. Goode (Ellen); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); P. Seibold (Petra); P.A. Fasching (Peter); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); V. Kristensen (Vessela); F.J. Couch (Fergus); U. Hamann (Ute); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); U. Eilber (Ursula); M.K. Bolla (Manjeet); J. Dennis (Joe); Q. Wang (Qing); A. Lindblom (Annika); A. Mannermaa (Arto); D. Lambrechts (Diether); M. García-Closas (Montserrat); P. Hall (Per); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); M. Shah (Mitul); R.N. Luben (Robert); L. Haeberle (Lothar); A.B. Ekici (Arif); M.W. Beckmann (Matthias); J.A. Knight (Julia); G. Glendon (Gord); S. Tchatchou (Sandrine); G.G. Alnæs (Grethe Grenaker); A.-L. Borresen-Dale (Anne-Lise); S. Nord (Silje); J.E. Olson (Janet); B. Hallberg (Boubou); C. Vachon (Celine); D. Torres (Diana); H.U. Ulmer (Hans); T. Rud̈iger (Thomas); A. Jager (Agnes); C.H.M. van Deurzen (Carolien); M.M.A. Tilanus-Linthorst (Madeleine); T.A. Muranen (Taru); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); C. Blomqvist (Carl); S. Margolin (Sara); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); J.M. Hartikainen (J.); V. Kataja (Vesa); S. Hatse (Sigrid); H. Wildiers (Hans); A. Smeets (Ann); J.D. Figueroa (Jonine); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); J. Lissowska (Jolanta); J. Li (Jingmei); M.K. Humphreys (Manjeet); K.-A. Phillips (Kelly-Anne); S.C. Linn (Sabine); S. Cornelissen (Sten); S.A.J. van den Broek (Sandra Alexandra); D. Kang (Daehee); J.-Y. Choi (J.); S.K. Park (Sue); K.Y. Yoo; C.-N. Hsiung (Chia-Ni); P.-E. Wu (Pei-Ei); M.-F. Hou (Ming-Feng); C-Y. Shen (Chen-Yang); S.-H. Teo; N.A.M. Taib (Nur Aishah Mohd); C.-H. Yip (Cheng-Har); G.F. Ho (Gwo Fuang); K. Matsuo (Keitaro); H. Ito (Hidemi); H. Iwata (Hisato); K. Tajima (Kazuo); A.M. Dunning (Alison); J. Benítez (Javier); K. Czene (Kamila); L. Sucheston (Lara); T. Maishman (Tom); W. Tapper (William); D. Eccles (Diana); D.F. Easton (Douglas); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Tumor lymphocyte infiltration is associated with clinical response to chemotherapy in estrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancer. To identify variants in immunosuppressive pathway genes associated with prognosis after adjuvant chemotherapy for ER-negative patients, we st

  19. Enabling dynamics in face analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dibeklioğlu, H.

    2014-01-01

    Most of the approaches in automatic face analysis rely solely on static appearance. However, temporal analysis of expressions reveals interesting patterns. For a better understanding of the human face, this thesis focuses on temporal changes in the face, and dynamic patterns of expressions. In addit

  20. Single-trial EEG-informed fMRI reveals spatial dependency of BOLD signal on early and late IC-ERP amplitudes during face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirsich, Jonathan; Bénar, Christian; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Descoins, Médéric; Soulier, Elisabeth; Le Troter, Arnaud; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Liégeois-Chauvel, Catherine; Guye, Maxime

    2014-10-15

    Simultaneous EEG-fMRI has opened up new avenues for improving the spatio-temporal resolution of functional brain studies. However, this method usually suffers from poor EEG quality, especially for evoked potentials (ERPs), due to specific artifacts. As such, the use of EEG-informed fMRI analysis in the context of cognitive studies has particularly focused on optimizing narrow ERP time windows of interest, which ignores the rich diverse temporal information of the EEG signal. Here, we propose to use simultaneous EEG-fMRI to investigate the neural cascade occurring during face recognition in 14 healthy volunteers by using the successive ERP peaks recorded during the cognitive part of this process. N170, N400 and P600 peaks, commonly associated with face recognition, were successfully and reproducibly identified for each trial and each subject by using a group independent component analysis (ICA). For the first time we use this group ICA to extract several independent components (IC) corresponding to the sequence of activation and used single-trial peaks as modulation parameters in a general linear model (GLM) of fMRI data. We obtained an occipital-temporal-frontal stream of BOLD signal modulation, in accordance with the three successive IC-ERPs providing an unprecedented spatio-temporal characterization of the whole cognitive process as defined by BOLD signal modulation. By using this approach, the pattern of EEG-informed BOLD modulation provided improved characterization of the network involved than the fMRI-only analysis or the source reconstruction of the three ERPs; the latter techniques showing only two regions in common localized in the occipital lobe.

  1. Passing faces: sequence-dependent variations in the perceptual processing of emotional faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Christian; Hewig, Johannes; Osinsky, Roman

    2016-10-01

    There is broad evidence that contextual factors influence the processing of emotional facial expressions. Yet temporal-dynamic aspects, inter alia how face processing is influenced by the specific order of neutral and emotional facial expressions, have been largely neglected. To shed light on this topic, we recorded electroencephalogram from 168 healthy participants while they performed a gender-discrimination task with angry and neutral faces. Our event-related potential (ERP) analyses revealed a strong emotional modulation of the N170 component, indicating that the basic visual encoding and emotional analysis of a facial stimulus happen, at least partially, in parallel. While the N170 and the late positive potential (LPP; 400-600 ms) were only modestly affected by the sequence of preceding faces, we observed a strong influence of face sequences on the early posterior negativity (EPN; 200-300 ms). Finally, the differing response patterns of the EPN and LPP indicate that these two ERPs represent distinct processes during face analysis: while the former seems to represent the integration of contextual information in the perception of a current face, the latter appears to represent the net emotional interpretation of a current face.

  2. Cardiac myocyte diversity and a fibroblast network in the junctional region of the zebrafish heart revealed by transmission and serial block-face scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafontant, Pascal J; Behzad, Ali R; Brown, Evelyn; Landry, Paul; Hu, Norman; Burns, Alan R

    2013-01-01

    The zebrafish has emerged as an important model of heart development and regeneration. While the structural characteristics of the developing and adult zebrafish ventricle have been previously studied, little attention has been paid to the nature of the interface between the compact and spongy myocardium. Here we describe how these two distinct layers are structurally and functionally integrated. We demonstrate by transmission electron microscopy that this interface is complex and composed primarily of a junctional region occupied by collagen, as well as a population of fibroblasts that form a highly complex network. We also describe a continuum of uniquely flattened transitional cardiac myocytes that form a circumferential plate upon which the radially-oriented luminal trabeculae are anchored. In addition, we have uncovered within the transitional ring a subpopulation of markedly electron dense cardiac myocytes. At discrete intervals the transitional cardiac myocytes form contact bridges across the junctional space that are stabilized through localized desmosomes and fascia adherentes junctions with adjacent compact cardiac myocytes. Finally using serial block-face scanning electron microscopy, segmentation and volume reconstruction, we confirm the three-dimensional nature of the junctional region as well as the presence of the sheet-like fibroblast network. These ultrastructural studies demonstrate the previously unrecognized complexity with which the compact and spongy layers are structurally integrated, and provide a new basis for understanding development and regeneration in the zebrafish heart.

  3. Cardiac Myocyte Diversity and a Fibroblast Network in the Junctional Region of the Zebrafish Heart Revealed by Transmission and Serial Block-Face Scanning Electron Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Lafontant, Pascal J.

    2013-08-23

    The zebrafish has emerged as an important model of heart development and regeneration. While the structural characteristics of the developing and adult zebrafish ventricle have been previously studied, little attention has been paid to the nature of the interface between the compact and spongy myocardium. Here we describe how these two distinct layers are structurally and functionally integrated. We demonstrate by transmission electron microscopy that this interface is complex and composed primarily of a junctional region occupied by collagen, as well as a population of fibroblasts that form a highly complex network. We also describe a continuum of uniquely flattened transitional cardiac myocytes that form a circumferential plate upon which the radially-oriented luminal trabeculae are anchored. In addition, we have uncovered within the transitional ring a subpopulation of markedly electron dense cardiac myocytes. At discrete intervals the transitional cardiac myocytes form contact bridges across the junctional space that are stabilized through localized desmosomes and fascia adherentes junctions with adjacent compact cardiac myocytes. Finally using serial block-face scanning electron microscopy, segmentation and volume reconstruction, we confirm the three-dimensional nature of the junctional region as well as the presence of the sheet-like fibroblast network. These ultrastructural studies demonstrate the previously unrecognized complexity with which the compact and spongy layers are structurally integrated, and provide a new basis for understanding development and regeneration in the zebrafish heart. © 2013 Lafontant et al.

  4. Revealing the neural networks associated with processing of natural social interaction and the related effects of actor-orientation and face-visibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggar, Manish; Shelly, Elizabeth Walter; Lepage, Jean-Francois; Hoeft, Fumiko; Reiss, Allan L

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the intentions and desires of those around us is vital for adapting to a dynamic social environment. In this paper, a novel event-related functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) paradigm with dynamic and natural stimuli (2s video clips) was developed to directly examine the neural networks associated with processing of gestures with social intent as compared to nonsocial intent. When comparing social to nonsocial gestures, increased activation in both the mentalizing (or theory of mind) and amygdala networks was found. As a secondary aim, a factor of actor-orientation was included in the paradigm to examine how the neural mechanisms differ with respect to personal engagement during a social interaction versus passively observing an interaction. Activity in the lateral occipital cortex and precentral gyrus was found sensitive to actor-orientation during social interactions. Lastly, by manipulating face-visibility we tested whether facial information alone is the primary driver of neural activation differences observed between social and nonsocial gestures. We discovered that activity in the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and fusiform gyrus (FFG) was partially driven by observing facial expressions during social gestures. Altogether, using multiple factors associated with processing of natural social interaction, we conceptually advance our understanding of how social stimuli is processed in the brain and discuss the application of this paradigm to clinical populations where atypical social cognition is manifested as a key symptom. © 2013.

  5. Revealing the Molecular Portrait of Triple Negative Breast Tumors in an Understudied Population through Omics Analysis of Formalin-Fixed and Paraffin-Embedded Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaca-Paniagua, Felipe; Alvarez-Gomez, Rosa María; Maldonado-Martínez, Hector Aquiles; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Fragoso-Ontiveros, Veronica; Lasa-Gonsebatt, Federico; Herrera, Luis Alonso; Cantú, David; Bargallo-Rocha, Enrique; Mohar, Alejandro; Durand, Geoffroy; Forey, Nathalie; Voegele, Catherine; Vallée, Maxime; Le Calvez-Kelm, Florence; McKay, James; Ardin, Maude; Villar, Stéphanie; Zavadil, Jiri; Olivier, Magali

    2015-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), defined by the lack of expression of the estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal receptor 2, is an aggressive form of breast cancer that is more prevalent in certain populations, in particular in low- and middle-income regions. The detailed molecular features of TNBC in these regions remain unexplored as samples are mostly accessible as formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) archived tissues, a challenging material for advanced genomic and transcriptomic studies. Using dedicated reagents and analysis pipelines, we performed whole exome sequencing and miRNA and mRNA profiling of 12 FFPE tumor tissues collected from pathological archives in Mexico. Sequencing analyses of the tumor tissues and their blood pairs identified TP53 and RB1 genes as the most frequently mutated genes, with a somatic mutation load of 1.7 mutations/exome Mb on average. Transcriptional analyses revealed an overexpression of growth-promoting signals (EGFR, PDGFR, VEGF, PIK3CA, FOXM1), a repression of cell cycle control pathways (TP53, RB1), a deregulation of DNA-repair pathways, and alterations in epigenetic modifiers through miRNA:mRNA network de-regulation. The molecular programs identified were typical of those described in basal-like tumors in other populations. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using archived clinical samples for advanced integrated genomics analyses. It thus opens up opportunities for investigating molecular features of tumors from regions where only FFPE tissues are available, allowing retrospective studies on the search for treatment strategies or on the exploration of the geographic diversity of breast cancer.

  6. Revealing the Molecular Portrait of Triple Negative Breast Tumors in an Understudied Population through Omics Analysis of Formalin-Fixed and Paraffin-Embedded Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaca-Paniagua, Felipe; Alvarez-Gomez, Rosa María; Maldonado-Martínez, Hector Aquiles; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Fragoso-Ontiveros, Veronica; Lasa-Gonsebatt, Federico; Herrera, Luis Alonso; Cantú, David; Bargallo-Rocha, Enrique; Mohar, Alejandro; Durand, Geoffroy; Forey, Nathalie; Voegele, Catherine; Vallée, Maxime; Le Calvez-Kelm, Florence; McKay, James; Ardin, Maude; Villar, Stéphanie; Zavadil, Jiri; Olivier, Magali

    2015-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), defined by the lack of expression of the estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal receptor 2, is an aggressive form of breast cancer that is more prevalent in certain populations, in particular in low- and middle-income regions. The detailed molecular features of TNBC in these regions remain unexplored as samples are mostly accessible as formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) archived tissues, a challenging material for advanced genomic and transcriptomic studies. Using dedicated reagents and analysis pipelines, we performed whole exome sequencing and miRNA and mRNA profiling of 12 FFPE tumor tissues collected from pathological archives in Mexico. Sequencing analyses of the tumor tissues and their blood pairs identified TP53 and RB1 genes as the most frequently mutated genes, with a somatic mutation load of 1.7 mutations/exome Mb on average. Transcriptional analyses revealed an overexpression of growth-promoting signals (EGFR, PDGFR, VEGF, PIK3CA, FOXM1), a repression of cell cycle control pathways (TP53, RB1), a deregulation of DNA-repair pathways, and alterations in epigenetic modifiers through miRNA:mRNA network de-regulation. The molecular programs identified were typical of those described in basal-like tumors in other populations. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using archived clinical samples for advanced integrated genomics analyses. It thus opens up opportunities for investigating molecular features of tumors from regions where only FFPE tissues are available, allowing retrospective studies on the search for treatment strategies or on the exploration of the geographic diversity of breast cancer. PMID:25961742

  7. Revealing the Molecular Portrait of Triple Negative Breast Tumors in an Understudied Population through Omics Analysis of Formalin-Fixed and Paraffin-Embedded Tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Vaca-Paniagua

    Full Text Available Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC, defined by the lack of expression of the estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal receptor 2, is an aggressive form of breast cancer that is more prevalent in certain populations, in particular in low- and middle-income regions. The detailed molecular features of TNBC in these regions remain unexplored as samples are mostly accessible as formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE archived tissues, a challenging material for advanced genomic and transcriptomic studies. Using dedicated reagents and analysis pipelines, we performed whole exome sequencing and miRNA and mRNA profiling of 12 FFPE tumor tissues collected from pathological archives in Mexico. Sequencing analyses of the tumor tissues and their blood pairs identified TP53 and RB1 genes as the most frequently mutated genes, with a somatic mutation load of 1.7 mutations/exome Mb on average. Transcriptional analyses revealed an overexpression of growth-promoting signals (EGFR, PDGFR, VEGF, PIK3CA, FOXM1, a repression of cell cycle control pathways (TP53, RB1, a deregulation of DNA-repair pathways, and alterations in epigenetic modifiers through miRNA:mRNA network de-regulation. The molecular programs identified were typical of those described in basal-like tumors in other populations. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using archived clinical samples for advanced integrated genomics analyses. It thus opens up opportunities for investigating molecular features of tumors from regions where only FFPE tissues are available, allowing retrospective studies on the search for treatment strategies or on the exploration of the geographic diversity of breast cancer.

  8. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Skip to Content Menu Closed (Tap to Open) Home Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search All ... What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help Home Watch Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search ...

  9. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search All Videos PTSD Basics PTSD Treatment What is AboutFace? ... Watch Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search All Videos Learn More PTSD Basics PTSD Treatment What ...

  10. Face Forward

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Last November, surgeons in France successfully performed the world's first face transplant surgery. Ten days later, Chen Huanran in Beijing began soliciting patients who were ready to accept a face transplant, searching for China's first such patient through an advertisement on his website and other channels. Chen, chief orthopedic surgeon at the Plastic Surgery Hospital under the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, has conducted more than 300 transsexual operations and was considered one of the top com...

  11. Face processing biases in social anxiety: an electrophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Jason S; Huppert, Jonathan D; Duval, Elizabeth; Simons, Robert F

    2008-04-01

    Studies of information processing biases in social anxiety suggest abnormal processing of negative and positive social stimuli. To further investigate these biases, behavioral performance and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were measured, while high- and low-socially anxious individuals performed a modified version of the Erikson flanker task comprised of negative and positive facial expressions. While no group differences emerged on behavioral measures, ERP results revealed the presence of a negative face bias in socially anxious subjects as indexed by the parietally maximal attention- and memory-related P3/late positive potential. Additionally, non-anxious subjects evidenced the presence of a positive face bias as reflected in the centrally maximal early attention- and emotion-modulated P2 and the frontally maximal response monitoring-related correct response negativity. These results demonstrate the sensitivity of different processing stages to different biases in high- versus low-socially anxious individuals that may prove important in advancing models of anxious pathology.

  12. Event-related potentials reveal task-dependence and inter-individual differences in negation processing during silent listening and explicit truth-value evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, C; Kissler, J

    2014-09-26

    In sentences such as dogs cannot fly/bark, evaluation of the truth-value of the sentence is assumed to appear after the negation has been integrated into the sentence structure. Moreover negation processing and truth-value processing are considered effortful processes, whereas processing of the semantic relatedness of the words within sentences is thought to occur automatically. In the present study, modulation of event-related brain potentials (N400 and late positive potential, LPP) was investigated during an implicit task (silent listening) and active truth-value evaluation to test these theoretical assumptions and determine if truth-value evaluation will be modulated by the way participants processed the negated information implicitly prior to truth-value verification. Participants first listened to negated sentences and then evaluated these sentences for their truth-value in an active evaluation task. During passive listening, the LPP was generally more pronounced for targets in false negative (FN) than true negative (TN) sentences, indicating enhanced attention allocation to semantically-related but false targets. N400 modulation by truth-value (FN>TN) was observed in 11 out of 24 participants. However, during active evaluation, processing of semantically-unrelated but true targets (TN) elicited larger N400 and LPP amplitudes as well as a pronounced frontal negativity. This pattern was particularly prominent in those 11 individuals, whose N400 modulation during silent listening indicated that they were more sensitive to violations of the truth-value than to semantic priming effects. The results provide evidence for implicit truth-value processing during silent listening of negated sentences and for task dependence related to inter-individual differences in implicit negation processing. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Body cues, not facial expressions, discriminate between intense positive and negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviezer, Hillel; Trope, Yaacov; Todorov, Alexander

    2012-11-30

    The distinction between positive and negative emotions is fundamental in emotion models. Intriguingly, neurobiological work suggests shared mechanisms across positive and negative emotions. We tested whether similar overlap occurs in real-life facial expressions. During peak intensities of emotion, positive and negative situations were successfully discriminated from isolated bodies but not faces. Nevertheless, viewers perceived illusory positivity or negativity in the nondiagnostic faces when seen with bodies. To reveal the underlying mechanisms, we created compounds of intense negative faces combined with positive bodies, and vice versa. Perceived affect and mimicry of the faces shifted systematically as a function of their contextual body emotion. These findings challenge standard models of emotion expression and highlight the role of the body in expressing and perceiving emotions.

  14. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). Watch the intro This is AboutFace In these videos, Veterans, family members, and ... to hear what they have to say. What is PTSD? → How does PTSD affect loved ones? → Am ...

  15. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... traumatic event — like combat, an assault, or a disaster — it's normal to feel scared, keyed up, or sad at first. But if it's been months or years since the trauma and you're not feeling better, you may have PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). Watch the intro This is AboutFace In ...

  16. Temporal pole activity during perception of sad faces, but not happy faces, correlates with neuroticism trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimura, Koji; Konishi, Seiki; Miyashita, Yasushi

    2009-03-27

    It is known that the temporal cortex is involved in perception of emotional facial expressions, and the involvement is relatively independent of the emotional valence of those expressions. The present study revealed a valence-dependent aspect of the temporal cortex through individual differences analyses involving the neuroticism trait, one of the representative affective personality traits. Functional MRI was administered while subjects classified expressions of faces, and neuroticism scores were obtained from individual subjects. Significant brain activity was observed in the temporal pole (TP) during perception of both happy and sad expressions relative to neutral expressions. Correlational analyses revealed that TP activity during perception of sad expressions, but not happy expressions, correlated with the neuroticism scores. These results demonstrate differential roles for the temporal cortex in perception of happy and sad faces, and suggest that TP recruitment during understanding of negative emotions is dependent on the personality of the individuals.

  17. Reading faces and Facing words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robotham, Julia Emma; Lindegaard, Martin Weis; Delfi, Tzvetelina Shentova

    It has long been argued that perceptual processing of faces and words is largely independent, highly specialised and strongly lateralised. Studies of patients with either pure alexia or prosopagnosia have strongly contributed to this view. The aim of our study was to investigate how visual...

  18. Reading faces and Facing words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robotham, Julia Emma; Lindegaard, Martin Weis; Delfi, Tzvetelina Shentova

    performed within normal range on at least one test of visual categorisation, strongly suggesting that their abnormal performance with words and faces does not represent a generalised visuo-perceptual deficit. Our results suggest that posterior areas in both hemispheres may be critical for both reading...

  19. Quantified Faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette-Marie Zacher

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The article presents three contemporary art projects that, in various ways, thematise questions regarding numerical representation of the human face in relation to the identification of faces, for example through the use of biometric video analysis software, or DNA technology. The Dutch...... and critically examine bias in surveillance technologies, as well as scientific investigations, regarding the stereotyping mode of the human gaze. The American artist Heather Dewey-Hagborg creates three-dimensional portraits of persons she has “identified” from their garbage. Her project from 2013 entitled....... The three works are analysed with perspectives to historical physiognomy and Francis Galton's composite portraits from the 1800s. It is argued that, rather than being a statistical compression like the historical composites, contemporary statistical visual portraits (composites) are irreversible...

  20. Citrobacter koseri folliculitis of the face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raia, D D; Barbareschi, M; Veraldi, S

    2015-10-01

    We report a case of severe Citrobacter koseri folliculitis of the face in a boy with acne. A 15-year-old boy affected by acne was admitted because of a rash located on the face. Dermatological examination revealed two large plaques, with numerous pustules, eschars and crusts, located bilaterally and symmetrically on the cheeks. Three bacteriological examinations were positive for C. koseri. The patient was successfully treated with i.m. ceftriaxone. C. koseri is a Gram-negative, aerobic, mobile, nonsporulating bacillus belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. It can cause meningitis, central nervous system abscess and sepsis, almost exclusively in infants and immunocompromised hosts. Respiratory tract and urinary infections have been reported in elderly people. Furthermore, rare cases of skin infections have been described.

  1. Recognition advantage of happy faces: tracing the neurocognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Manuel G; Beltrán, David

    2013-09-01

    The present study aimed to identify the brain processes-and their time course-underlying the typical behavioral recognition advantage of happy facial expressions. To this end, we recorded EEG activity during an expression categorization task for happy, angry, fearful, sad, and neutral faces, and the correlation between event-related-potential (ERP) patterns and recognition performance was assessed. N170 (150-180 ms) was enhanced for angry, fearful and sad faces; N2 was reduced and early posterior negativity (EPN; both, 200-320 ms) was enhanced for happy and angry faces; P3b (350-450 ms) was reduced for happy and neutral faces; and slow positive wave (SPW; 700-800 ms) was reduced for happy faces. This reveals (a) an early processing (N170) of negative affective valence (i.e., angry, fearful, and sad), (b) discrimination (N2 and EPN) of affective intensity or arousal (i.e., angry and happy), and (c) facilitated categorization (P3b) and decision (SPW) due to expressive distinctiveness (i.e., happy). In addition, N2, EPN, P3b, and SPW were related to categorization accuracy and speed. This suggests that conscious expression recognition and the typical happy face advantage depend on encoding of expressive intensity and, especially, on later response selection, rather than on the early processing of affective valence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. P2-31: In-Group Advantage in Negative Facial Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chuan Hsu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available To perceive facial expressions is suggested to be universal. However, studies have shown the in-group advantage (IGA in recognition of facial expressions (e.g., Matsumoto, 1989, 1992 which is that people understand emotions more accurately when these emotions are expressed by members of their own culture group. A balanced design was used to investigate whether this IGA was showed in Western people and as well as in Asian people (Taiwanese. An emotional identification task was adopted to ask participants to identify positive (happy and negative (sadness, fear, and anger faces among Eastern and Western faces. We used Eastern faces from the Taiwanese Facial Expression Image Database (Chen, 2007 and Western faces from Ekman & Frisen (1979. Both reaction times and accuracies of performance were measured. Results showed that even all participants can identify positive and negative faces accurately; Asia participants responded significantly faster to negative Eastern faces than to negative Western faces. The similar IGA effect was also shown in Western participants. However, no such culture difference was found to positive faces. The results revealed the in-group advantage of the perception of facial expressions was specific to negative emotions and question the universality of perceiving facial expressions.

  3. FRET imaging and statistical signal processing reveal positive and negative feedback loops regulating the morphology of randomly migrating HT-1080 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunida, Katsuyuki; Matsuda, Michiyuki; Aoki, Kazuhiro

    2012-05-15

    Cell migration plays an important role in many physiological processes. Rho GTPases (Rac1, Cdc42, RhoA) and phosphatidylinositols have been extensively studied in directional cell migration. However, it remains unclear how Rho GTPases and phosphatidylinositols regulate random cell migration in space and time. We have attempted to address this issue using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging and statistical signal processing. First, we acquired time-lapse images of random migration of HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cells expressing FRET biosensors of Rho GTPases and phosphatidyl inositols. We developed an image-processing algorithm to extract FRET values and velocities at the leading edge of migrating cells. Auto- and cross-correlation analysis suggested the involvement of feedback regulations among Rac1, phosphatidyl inositols and membrane protrusions. To verify the feedback regulations, we employed an acute inhibition of the signaling pathway with pharmaceutical inhibitors. The inhibition of actin polymerization decreased Rac1 activity, indicating the presence of positive feedback from actin polymerization to Rac1. Furthermore, treatment with PI3-kinase inhibitor induced an adaptation of Rac1 activity, i.e. a transient reduction of Rac1 activity followed by recovery to the basal level. In silico modeling that reproduced the adaptation predicted the existence of a negative feedback loop from Rac1 to actin polymerization. Finally, we identified MLCK as the probable controlling factor in the negative feedback. These findings quantitatively demonstrate positive and negative feedback loops that involve actin, Rac1 and MLCK, and account for the ordered patterns of membrane dynamics observed in randomly migrating cells.

  4. FACE RECOGNITION FROM FRONT-VIEW FACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuLifang; ShenLansun

    2003-01-01

    This letter presents a face normalization algorithm based on 2-D face model to rec-ognize faces with variant postures from front-view face.A 2-D face mesh model can be extracted from faces with rotation to left or right and the corresponding front-view mesh model can be estimated according to facial symmetry.Then based on the relationship between the two mesh models,the nrmalized front-view face is formed by gray level mapping.Finally,the face recognition will be finished based on Principal Component Analysis(PCA).Experiments show that better face recognition performance is achieved in this way.

  5. FACE RECOGNITION FROM FRONT-VIEW FACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Lifang; Shen Lansun

    2003-01-01

    This letter presents a face normalization algorithm based on 2-D face model to recognize faces with variant postures from front-view face. A 2-D face mesh model can be extracted from faces with rotation to left or right and the corresponding front-view mesh model can be estimated according to the facial symmetry. Then based on the inner relationship between the two mesh models, the normalized front-view face is formed by gray level mapping. Finally, the face recognition will be finished based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Experiments show that better face recognition performance is achieved in this way.

  6. Face adaptation improves gender discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Shen, Jianhong; Chen, Juan; Fang, Fang

    2011-01-01

    Adaptation to a visual pattern can alter the sensitivities of neuronal populations encoding the pattern. However, the functional roles of adaptation, especially in high-level vision, are still equivocal. In the present study, we performed three experiments to investigate if face gender adaptation could affect gender discrimination. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that adapting to a male/female face could selectively enhance discrimination for male/female faces. Experiment 3 showed that the discrimination enhancement induced by face adaptation could transfer across a substantial change in three-dimensional face viewpoint. These results provide further evidence suggesting that, similar to low-level vision, adaptation in high-level vision could calibrate the visual system to current inputs of complex shapes (i.e. face) and improve discrimination at the adapted characteristic.

  7. What’s in a Face? How Face Gender and Current Affect Influence Perceived Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Daniel A.; Hayes-Skelton, Sarah A.; Ciaramitaro, Vivian M.

    2016-01-01

    Faces drive our social interactions. A vast literature suggests an interaction between gender and emotional face perception, with studies using different methodologies demonstrating that the gender of a face can affect how emotions are processed. However, how different is our perception of affective male and female faces? Furthermore, how does our current affective state when viewing faces influence our perceptual biases? We presented participants with a series of faces morphed along an emotional continuum from happy to angry. Participants judged each face morph as either happy or angry. We determined each participant’s unique emotional ‘neutral’ point, defined as the face morph judged to be perceived equally happy and angry, separately for male and female faces. We also assessed how current state affect influenced these perceptual neutral points. Our results indicate that, for both male and female participants, the emotional neutral point for male faces is perceptually biased to be happier than for female faces. This bias suggests that more happiness is required to perceive a male face as emotionally neutral, i.e., we are biased to perceive a male face as more negative. Interestingly, we also find that perceptual biases in perceiving female faces are correlated with current mood, such that positive state affect correlates with perceiving female faces as happier, while we find no significant correlation between negative state affect and the perception of facial emotion. Furthermore, we find reaction time biases, with slower responses for angry male faces compared to angry female faces. PMID:27733839

  8. Negative effects of internet interventions: a qualitative content analysis of patients' experiences with treatments delivered online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozental, Alexander; Boettcher, Johanna; Andersson, Gerhard; Schmidt, Brad; Carlbring, Per

    2015-01-01

    Internet interventions are defined as the delivery of health care-related treatments via an online or a smartphone interface, and have been shown to be a viable alternative to face-to-face treatments. However, not all patients benefit from such treatments, and it is possible that some may experience negative effects. Investigations of face-to-face treatments indicate that deterioration occurs in 5-10% of all patients. The nature and scope of other negative effects of Internet interventions is, however, largely unknown. Hence, the current study explored patients' reported negative experiences while undergoing treatments delivered via the Internet. Data from four large clinical trials (total N = 558) revealed that 9.3% of patients reported some type of negative effects. Qualitative content analysis was used to explore the patients' responses to open-ended questions regarding their negative experiences. Results yielded two broad categories and four subcategories of negative effects: patient-related negative effects (insight and symptom) and treatment-related negative effects (implementation and format). Results emphasize the importance of always considering negative effects in Internet-based interventions, and point to several ways of preventing such experiences, including regular assessment of negative events, increasing the flexibility of treatment schedules and therapist contact, as well as prolonging the treatment duration.

  9. Social Network Analysis Reveals the Negative Effects of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD Symptoms on Friend-Based Student Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Won Kim

    Full Text Available Social network analysis has emerged as a promising tool in modern social psychology. This method can be used to examine friend-based social relationships in terms of network theory, with nodes representing individual students and ties representing relationships between students (e.g., friendships and kinships. Using social network analysis, we investigated whether greater severity of ADHD symptoms is correlated with weaker peer relationships among elementary school students.A total of 562 sixth-graders from two elementary schools (300 males provided the names of their best friends (maximum 10 names. Their teachers rated each student's ADHD symptoms using an ADHD rating scale.The results showed that 10.2% of the students were at high risk for ADHD. Significant group differences were observed between the high-risk students and other students in two of the three network parameters (degree, centrality and closeness used to assess friendship quality, with the high-risk group showing significantly lower values of degree and closeness compared to the other students. Moreover, negative correlations were found between the ADHD rating and two social network analysis parameters.Our findings suggest that the severity of ADHD symptoms is strongly correlated with the quality of social and interpersonal relationships in students with ADHD symptoms.

  10. Dominant negative RPW8.2 fusion proteins reveal the importance of haustorium-oriented protein trafficking for resistance against powdery mildew in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiong; Berkey, Robert; Pan, Zhiyong; Wang, Wenming; Zhang, Yi; Ma, Xianfeng; King, Harlan; Xiao, Shunyuan

    2015-01-01

    Powdery mildew fungi form feeding structures called haustoria inside epidermal cells of host plants to extract photosynthates for their epiphytic growth and reproduction. The haustorium is encased by an interfacial membrane termed the extrahaustorial membrane (EHM). The atypical resistance protein RPW8.2 from Arabidopsis is specifically targeted to the EHM where RPW8.2 activates haustorium-targeted (thus broad-spectrum) resistance against powdery mildew fungi. EHM-specific localization of RPW8.2 suggests the existence of an EHM-oriented protein/membrane trafficking pathway during EHM biogenesis. However, the importance of this specific trafficking pathway for host defense has not been evaluated via a genetic approach without affecting other trafficking pathways. Here, we report that expression of EHM-oriented, nonfunctional RPW8.2 chimeric proteins exerts dominant negative effect over functional RPW8.2 and potentially over other EHM-localized defense proteins, thereby compromising both RPW8.2-mediated and basal resistance to powdery mildew. Thus, our results highlight the importance of the EHM-oriented protein/membrane trafficking pathway for host resistance against haustorium-forming pathogens such as powdery mildew fungi.

  11. Long-term data reveal a population decline of the tropical lizard Anolis apletophallus, and a negative affect of el nino years on population growth rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Stapley

    Full Text Available Climate change threatens biodiversity worldwide, however predicting how particular species will respond is difficult because climate varies spatially, complex factors regulate population abundance, and species vary in their susceptibility to climate change. Studies need to incorporate these factors with long-term data in order to link climate change to population abundance. We used 40 years of lizard abundance data and local climate data from Barro Colorado Island to ask how climate, total lizard abundance and cohort-specific abundance have changed over time, and how total and cohort-specific abundance relate to climate variables including those predicted to make the species vulnerable to climate change (i.e. temperatures exceeding preferred body temperature. We documented a decrease in lizard abundance over the last 40 years, and changes in the local climate. Population growth rate was related to the previous years' southern oscillation index; increasing following cooler-wetter, la niña years, decreasing following warmer-drier, el nino years. Within-year recruitment was negatively related to rainfall and minimum temperature. This study simultaneously identified climatic factors driving long-term population fluctuations and climate variables influencing short-term annual recruitment, both of which may be contributing to the population decline and influence the population's future persistence.

  12. Genetic mapping reveals that sinefungin resistance in Toxoplasma gondii is controlled by a putative amino acid transporter locus that can be used as a negative selectable marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, Michael S; Khan, Asis; Sibley, L David

    2015-02-01

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping studies have been integral in identifying and understanding virulence mechanisms in the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. In this study, we interrogated a different phenotype by mapping sinefungin (SNF) resistance in the genetic cross between type 2 ME49-FUDR(r) and type 10 VAND-SNF(r). The genetic map of this cross was generated by whole-genome sequencing of the progeny and subsequent identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) inherited from the parents. Based on this high-density genetic map, we were able to pinpoint the sinefungin resistance phenotype to one significant locus on chromosome IX. Within this locus, a single nonsynonymous SNP (nsSNP) resulting in an early stop codon in the TGVAND_290860 gene was identified, occurring only in the sinefungin-resistant progeny. Using CRISPR/CAS9, we were able to confirm that targeted disruption of TGVAND_290860 renders parasites sinefungin resistant. Because disruption of the SNR1 gene confers resistance, we also show that it can be used as a negative selectable marker to insert either a positive drug selection cassette or a heterologous reporter. These data demonstrate the power of combining classical genetic mapping, whole-genome sequencing, and CRISPR-mediated gene disruption for combined forward and reverse genetic strategies in T. gondii.

  13. Famous face recognition, face matching, and extraversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Karen; Poyarekar, Siddhi

    2015-01-01

    It has been previously established that extraverts who are skilled at interpersonal interaction perform significantly better than introverts on a face-specific recognition memory task. In our experiment we further investigate the relationship between extraversion and face recognition, focusing on famous face recognition and face matching. Results indicate that more extraverted individuals perform significantly better on an upright famous face recognition task and show significantly larger face inversion effects. However, our results did not find an effect of extraversion on face matching or inverted famous face recognition.

  14. The special status of sad infant faces: age and valence differences in adults' cortical face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colasante, Tyler; Mossad, Sarah I; Dudek, Joanna; Haley, David W

    2016-12-20

    Understanding the relative and joint prioritization of age- and valence-related face characteristics in adults' cortical face processing remains elusive because these two characteristics have not been manipulated in a single study of neural face processing. We used electroencephalography to investigate adults' P1, N170, P2 and LPP responses to infant and adult faces with happy and sad facial expressions. Viewing infant vs adult faces was associated with significantly larger P1, N170, P2 and LPP responses, with hemisphere and/or participant gender moderating this effect in select cases. Sad faces were associated with significantly larger N170 responses than happy faces. Sad infant faces were associated with significantly larger N170 responses in the right hemisphere than all other combinations of face age and face valence characteristics. We discuss the relative and joint neural prioritization of infant face characteristics and negative facial affect, and their biological value as distinct caregiving and social cues.

  15. Negative Ion Photoelectron Spectroscopy Reveals Remarkable Noninnocence of Ligands in Nickel Bis(dithiolene) Complexes [Ni(dddt)2](-) and [Ni(edo)2](.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing; Hou, Gao-Lei; Wang, Xuefeng; Wang, Xue-Bin

    2016-05-12

    [Ni(dddt)2](-) (dddt = 5,6-dihydro-1,4-dithiine-2,3-dithiolate) and [Ni(edo)2](-) (edo = 5,6-dihydro-1,4-dioxine-2,3-dithiolate) are two donor-type nickel bis(dithiolene) complexes, with the tendency of donating low binding energy electrons. These two structurally similar complexes differ only with respect to the outer atoms in the ligand framework where the former has four S atoms while the latter has four O atoms. Herein, we report a negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy (NIPES) study on these two complexes to probe the electronic structures of the anions and their corresponding neutrals. The NIPE spectra exhibit the adiabatic electron detachment energy (ADE) or, equivalently, the electron affinity (EA) of the neutral [Ni(L)2](0) to be relatively low for this type of complexes, 2.780 and 2.375 eV for L = dddt and edo, respectively. The 0.4 eV difference in ADEs shows a significant substitution effect for sulfur in dddt by oxygen in edo, i.e., noninnocence of the ligands, which has decreased the electronic stability of [Ni(edo)2](-) by lowering its electron binding energy by ∼0.4 eV. The observed substitution effect on gas-phase EA values correlates well with the measured redox potentials for [Ni(dddt)2](-/0) and [Ni(edo)2](-/0) in solutions. The singlet-triplet splitting (ΔEST) of [Ni(dddt)2](0) and [Ni(edo)2](0) is also determined from the spectra to be 0.57 and 0.53 eV, respectively. Accompanying DFT calculations and molecular orbital (MO) composition analyses show significant ligand contributions to the redox MOs and allow the components of the orbitals involved in each electronic transition and spectral assignments to be identified.

  16. Attentional Bias Toward Face-related Words Among Females with Facial Negative Physical Self: Evidence from An Eye-movement Study%相貌负面身体自我女性对相貌词的注意偏向:眼动的证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇慧; 苏艳华; 罗小春; 陈红

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies found cognitive bias toward body-related information among individuals with fat negative physical self. However, little is known about the cognitive bias toward face-related information among individuals with facial negative physical self (FNPS). The current study aimed to investigate the attentional bias towards face-related words among females with FNPS. A modified dot probe paradigm was adopted. In the experiment, we used positive and negative face-related words as stimuli. A pair of words was presented in each trial. There were totally four types of word pairing conditions: positive face-related word-neutral word condition (PosNeu), negative face-related word-neutral word condition (NegNeu), positive face-related word-negative face-related word condition (PosNeg), and neutral word -neutral word condition (NeuNeu). We recorded the eye-movement while subjects were viewing the words. In NegNeu condition, we found that, compared to controls, females with FNPS were more frequently and faster to direct their initial gazes to negative face-related words. Furthermore, they also showed a longer fixation on the negative word. However, the total gaze durations on both types of words were not significantly different. These results implied an attention vigilance-maintenance pattern for negative face-related words. In contrary, females with FNPS showed a slower rate to direct their gazes to positive words in PosNeu condition. Consistently, in PosNeg condition, females with FNPS showed the same attentional bias toward negative face-related words compared to positive face-related words. Furthermore, behavioral results showed that females with FNPS had difficulty in attention disengagement from negative face-related words, which were evident in both NegNeu and PosNeg condition. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that females with FNPS had an attention vigilance-maintenance pattern toward negative face-related words.%采用改进的点探

  17. Facing Life after Facing Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knox, Jeanette Bresson Ladegaard

    2016-01-01

    explored this new approach to rehabilitation by carrying out an empirical-philosophical study of three Socratic dialogue groups (SDG) that I conducted at the Center for Cancer and Health in Copenhagen, Denmark. This article identifies three common features in the relevance of philosophizing through...... Socratic dialogue that the study revealed and demonstrates how these features connect to the dialogues' experimental and communal dimension....

  18. 阿多诺否定辩证法的"非同一性"思想探析%On the Reveal Essence of Identity of Adorno's Negative Dialectics Thought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红梅; 李馨宇

    2015-01-01

    Based on the theoretical and practical basis of the identity of Adorno's negative dialectics, and according to reveal essence of identity, this article describes of the existence of the identity mode 'Star Cluster' , so as to reveal the core of Adorno's negative dialectics theory content and essence of identity thought, thus can have a better understanding of Adorno's negative dialectics thought.%本文从阿多诺否定辩证法非同一思想的理论和现实基础展开, 通过对同一性思想实质的揭示, 以及对非同一性存在的模式 "星丛" 状态的描述, 以期能够揭示阿多诺否定辩证法的核心理论 "非同一性" 思想的内容和实质, 从而更好的理解阿多诺的否定辩证法思想.

  19. Individual differences in anxiety predict neural measures of visual working memory for untrustworthy faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meconi, Federica; Luria, Roy; Sessa, Paola

    2014-12-01

    When facing strangers, one of the first evaluations people perform is to implicitly assess their trustworthiness. However, the underlying processes supporting trustworthiness appraisal are poorly understood. We hypothesized that visual working memory (VWM) maintains online face representations that are sensitive to physical cues of trustworthiness, and that differences among individuals in representing untrustworthy faces are associated with individual differences in anxiety. Participants performed a change detection task that required encoding and maintaining for a short interval the identity of one face parametrically manipulated to be either trustworthy or untrustworthy. The sustained posterior contralateral negativity (SPCN), an event-related component (ERP) time-locked to the onset of the face, was used to index the resolution of face representations in VWM. Results revealed greater SPCN amplitudes for trustworthy faces when compared with untrustworthy faces, indicating that VWM is sensitive to physical cues of trustworthiness, even in the absence of explicit trustworthiness appraisal. In addition, differences in SPCN amplitude between trustworthy and untrustworthy faces correlated with participants' anxiety, indicating that healthy college students with sub-clinical high anxiety levels represented untrustworthy faces in greater detail compared with students with sub-clinical low anxiety levels. This pattern of findings is discussed in terms of the high flexibility of aversive/avoidance and appetitive/approach motivational systems. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Individual differences in anxiety predict neural measures of visual working memory for untrustworthy faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Roy; Sessa, Paola

    2014-01-01

    When facing strangers, one of the first evaluations people perform is to implicitly assess their trustworthiness. However, the underlying processes supporting trustworthiness appraisal are poorly understood. We hypothesized that visual working memory (VWM) maintains online face representations that are sensitive to physical cues of trustworthiness, and that differences among individuals in representing untrustworthy faces are associated with individual differences in anxiety. Participants performed a change detection task that required encoding and maintaining for a short interval the identity of one face parametrically manipulated to be either trustworthy or untrustworthy. The sustained posterior contralateral negativity (SPCN), an event-related component (ERP) time-locked to the onset of the face, was used to index the resolution of face representations in VWM. Results revealed greater SPCN amplitudes for trustworthy faces when compared with untrustworthy faces, indicating that VWM is sensitive to physical cues of trustworthiness, even in the absence of explicit trustworthiness appraisal. In addition, differences in SPCN amplitude between trustworthy and untrustworthy faces correlated with participants’ anxiety, indicating that healthy college students with sub-clinical high anxiety levels represented untrustworthy faces in greater detail compared with students with sub-clinical low anxiety levels. This pattern of findings is discussed in terms of the high flexibility of aversive/avoidance and appetitive/approach motivational systems. PMID:24493843

  1. Facing a real person: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pönkänen, Laura M; Hietanen, Jari K; Peltola, Mikko J; Kauppinen, Pasi K; Haapalainen, Antti; Leppänen, Jukka M

    2008-03-05

    Although faces are typically perceived in the context of human interaction, face processing is commonly studied by displaying faces on a computer screen. This study on event-related potential examined whether the processing of faces differs depending on whether participants are viewing faces live or on a computer screen. In both the conditions, the participants were shown a real face, a dummy face, and a control object. N170 and early posterior negativity discriminated between faces and control object in both the conditions. Interestingly, early posterior negativity differentiated between the real face and the dummy face only in the live condition. The results indicate that a live face, as a potentially interacting stimulus, is processed differently than an inanimate face already at the early processing stages.

  2. Trustworthy-Looking Face Meets Brown Eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Karel Kleisner; Lenka Priplatova; Peter Frost; Jaroslav Flegr

    2013-01-01

    We tested whether eye color influences perception of trustworthiness. Facial photographs of 40 female and 40 male students were rated for perceived trustworthiness. Eye color had a significant effect, the brown-eyed faces being perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones. Geometric morphometrics, however, revealed significant correlations between eye color and face shape. Thus, face shape likewise had a significant effect on perceived trustworthiness but only for male faces, the eff...

  3. Age-related differences in attentional bias for emotional faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszczyk, Jennifer C; Fernandes, Myra A

    2014-01-01

    Past research suggests an aging-related positivity effect in orienting to faces. However, these studies have eschewed direct comparison of orienting when positive and negative faces are presented simultaneously, thereby potentially underestimating the degree to which emotional valence influences such effects. In the current study younger and older adults viewed face pairs for 1000 ms, and upon face-pair offset indicated the location of a dot that appeared in the former location of one of the faces, to assess attentional orienting. When shown negative-neutral pairs, both age groups were biased to attend to negative faces, but when shown positive-negative pairs only younger adults showed a bias toward negative; older adults showed a lack of orienting toward either emotional face. Results suggest younger adults have a negativity bias in attention orienting regardless of the valence of nearby stimuli, whereas older adults show an absence of this bias when positive information is present.

  4. Mesoscale morphology at nanoscale resolution: serial block-face scanning electron microscopy reveals fine 3D detail of a novel silk spinneret system in a tube-building tanaid crustacean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, Tomonari; Kakui, Keiichi; Miyazaki, Naoyuki; Murata, Kazuyoshi; Palmer, A Richard

    2016-01-01

    The study of morphology is experiencing a renaissance due to rapid improvements in technologies for 3D visualization of complex internal and external structures. But 3D visualization of the internal structure of mesoscale objects - those in the 10-1000 μm range - remains problematic. They are too small for microCT, many lack suitable specific fluorescent markers for confocal microscopy, or they require labor-intensive stacking and smoothing of individual TEM images. Here we illustrate the first comprehensive morphological description of a complete mesoscale biological system at nanoscopic resolution using ultra-modern technology for 3D visualization - serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM). The SBF-SEM machine combines an in-chamber ultramicrotome, which creates a serial array of exposed surfaces, with an SEM that images each surface as it is exposed. The serial images are then stacked automatically by 3D reconstruction software. We used SBF-SEM to study the spinneret (thread-producing) system of a small, tube-dwelling crustacean that weaves tubes of silk. Thread-producing ability is critical for the survival of many small-bodied animals but the basic morphology of these systems remains mysterious due to the limits of traditional microscopy. SBF-SEM allowed us to describe - in full 3D - well-resolved components (glands, ducts, pores, and associated nerves and muscles) of the spinneret system in the thoracic legs and body segments of Sinelobus sp. (Crustacea, Peracarida, Tanaidacea), a tube-building tanaid only 2 mm in body length. The 3D reconstruction by SBF-SEM revealed at nanoscale resolution a unique structure to the gland and duct systems: In each of three thread-producing thoracic segments, two separate ducts, derived from two separate glands located in the body, run through the entire leg and merge at the leg tip just before the spinneret pore opening. We also resolved nerves connecting to individual setae, spines and pores on the

  5. Evaluating face trustworthiness: a model based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Alexander; Baron, Sean G; Oosterhof, Nikolaas N

    2008-06-01

    Judgments of trustworthiness from faces determine basic approach/avoidance responses and approximate the valence evaluation of faces that runs across multiple person judgments. Here, based on trustworthiness judgments and using a computer model for face representation, we built a model for representing face trustworthiness (study 1). Using this model, we generated novel faces with an increased range of trustworthiness and used these faces as stimuli in a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study (study 2). Although participants did not engage in explicit evaluation of the faces, the amygdala response changed as a function of face trustworthiness. An area in the right amygdala showed a negative linear response-as the untrustworthiness of faces increased so did the amygdala response. Areas in the left and right putamen, the latter area extended into the anterior insula, showed a similar negative linear response. The response in the left amygdala was quadratic--strongest for faces on both extremes of the trustworthiness dimension. The medial prefrontal cortex and precuneus also showed a quadratic response, but their response was strongest to faces in the middle range of the trustworthiness dimension.

  6. European cinema: face to face with Hollywood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Elsaesser

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different debate

  7. Mapping Teacher-Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Greg; Cook, Ian

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses Deleuze and Guattari's concept of faciality to analyse the teacher's face. According to Deleuze and Guattari, the teacher-face is a special type of face because it is an "overcoded" face produced in specific landscapes. This paper suggests four limit-faces for teacher faciality that actualise different mixes of significance and…

  8. Implementation of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry in Routine Clinical Laboratories Improves Identification of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci and Reveals the Pathogenic Role of Staphylococcus lugdunensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argemi, Xavier; Riegel, Philippe; Lavigne, Thierry; Lefebvre, Nicolas; Grandpré, Nicolas; Hansmann, Yves; Jaulhac, Benoit; Prévost, Gilles; Schramm, Frédéric

    2015-07-01

    The use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for staphylococcal identification is now considered routine in laboratories compared with the conventional phenotypical methods previously used. We verified its microbiological relevance for identifying the main species of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) by randomly selecting 50 isolates. From 1 January 2007 to 31 August 2008, 12,479 staphylococci were isolated with phenotypic methods, of which 4,594 were identified as Staphylococcus aureus and 7,885 were coagulase negative staphylococci. Using MALDI-TOF MS from 1 January 2011 to 31 August 2012, 14,913 staphylococci were identified, with 5,066 as S. aureus and 9,847 as CoNS. MALDI-TOF MS allowed the identification of approximately 85% of the CoNS strains, whereas only 14% of the CoNS strains were identified to the species level with phenotypic methods because they were often considered contaminants. Furthermore, the use of MALDI-TOF MS revealed the occurrence of recently characterized Staphylococcus species, such as S. pettenkoferi, S. condimenti, and S. piscifermentans. Microbiological relevance analysis further revealed that some species displayed a high rate of microbiological significance, i.e., 40% of the S. lugdunensis strains included in the analysis were associated with infection risk. This retrospective microbiological study confirms the role of MALDI-TOF MS in clinical settings for the identification of staphylococci with clinical consequences. The species distribution reveals the occurrence of the recently identified species S. pettenkoferi and putative virulent species, including S. lugdunensis. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Simultaneous face and voice processing in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Taosheng; Pinheiro, Ana P; Zhao, Zhongxin; Nestor, Paul G; McCarley, Robert W; Niznikiewicz, Margaret

    2016-05-15

    While several studies have consistently demonstrated abnormalities in the unisensory processing of face and voice in schizophrenia (SZ), the extent of abnormalities in the simultaneous processing of both types of information remains unclear. To address this issue, we used event-related potentials (ERP) methodology to probe the multisensory integration of face and non-semantic sounds in schizophrenia. EEG was recorded from 18 schizophrenia patients and 19 healthy control (HC) subjects in three conditions: neutral faces (visual condition-VIS); neutral non-semantic sounds (auditory condition-AUD); neutral faces presented simultaneously with neutral non-semantic sounds (audiovisual condition-AUDVIS). When compared with HC, the schizophrenia group showed less negative N170 to both face and face-voice stimuli; later P270 peak latency in the multimodal condition of face-voice relative to unimodal condition of face (the reverse was true in HC); reduced P400 amplitude and earlier P400 peak latency in the face but not in the voice-face condition. Thus, the analysis of ERP components suggests that deficits in the encoding of facial information extend to multimodal face-voice stimuli and that delays exist in feature extraction from multimodal face-voice stimuli in schizophrenia. In contrast, categorization processes seem to benefit from the presentation of simultaneous face-voice information. Timepoint by timepoint tests of multimodal integration did not suggest impairment in the initial stages of processing in schizophrenia.

  10. Pleasant and unpleasant odors influence hedonic evaluations of human faces: an event-related potential study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Jane Cook

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Odors can alter hedonic evaluations of human faces, but the neural mechanisms of such effects are poorly understood. The present study aimed to analyze the neural underpinning of odor-induced changes in evaluations of human faces in an odor-priming paradigm, using event-related potentials (ERPs. Healthy, young participants (N = 20 rated neutral faces presented after a three second pulse of a pleasant odor (jasmine, unpleasant odor (methylmercaptan, or no-odor control (clean air. Neutral faces presented in the pleasant odor condition were rated more pleasant than the same faces presented in the no-odor control condition, which in turn were rated more pleasant than faces in the unpleasant odor condition. Analysis of face-related potentials revealed four clusters of electrodes significantly affected by odor condition at specific time points during long-latency epochs (600−950 ms. In the 620−640 ms interval, two scalp-time clusters showed greater negative potential in the right parietal electrodes in response to faces in the pleasant odor condition, compared to those in the no-odor and unpleasant odor conditions. At 926 ms, face-related potentials showed greater positivity in response to faces in the pleasant and unpleasant odor conditions at the left and right lateral frontal-temporal electrodes, respectively. Our data shows that odor-induced shifts in evaluations of faces were associated with amplitude changes in the late (> 600 and ultra-late (> 900 ms latency epochs. The observed amplitude changes during the ultra-late epoch are consistent with a left/right hemisphere bias towards pleasant/unpleasant odor effects. Odors alter evaluations of human faces, even when there is a temporal lag between presentation of odors and faces. Our results provide an initial understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying effects of odors on hedonic evaluations.

  11. Pleasant and Unpleasant Odors Influence Hedonic Evaluations of Human Faces: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stephanie; Fallon, Nicholas; Wright, Hazel; Thomas, Anna; Giesbrecht, Timo; Field, Matt; Stancak, Andrej

    2015-01-01

    Odors can alter hedonic evaluations of human faces, but the neural mechanisms of such effects are poorly understood. The present study aimed to analyze the neural underpinning of odor-induced changes in evaluations of human faces in an odor-priming paradigm, using event-related potentials (ERPs). Healthy, young participants (N = 20) rated neutral faces presented after a 3 s pulse of a pleasant odor (jasmine), unpleasant odor (methylmercaptan), or no-odor control (clean air). Neutral faces presented in the pleasant odor condition were rated more pleasant than the same faces presented in the no-odor control condition, which in turn were rated more pleasant than faces in the unpleasant odor condition. Analysis of face-related potentials revealed four clusters of electrodes significantly affected by odor condition at specific time points during long-latency epochs (600−950 ms). In the 620−640 ms interval, two scalp-time clusters showed greater negative potential in the right parietal electrodes in response to faces in the pleasant odor condition, compared to those in the no-odor and unpleasant odor conditions. At 926 ms, face-related potentials showed greater positivity in response to faces in the pleasant and unpleasant odor conditions at the left and right lateral frontal-temporal electrodes, respectively. Our data shows that odor-induced shifts in evaluations of faces were associated with amplitude changes in the late (>600) and ultra-late (>900 ms) latency epochs. The observed amplitude changes during the ultra-late epoch are consistent with a left/right hemisphere bias towards pleasant/unpleasant odor effects. Odors alter evaluations of human faces, even when there is a temporal lag between presentation of odors and faces. Our results provide an initial understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying effects of odors on hedonic evaluations. PMID:26733843

  12. Isotropic Single Negative Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Protiva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of simple, and therefore cheap, planar resonators for building 3D isotropic metamaterials. These resonators are: a broadside-coupled split ring resonator with a magnetic response providing negative permeability; an electric dipole terminated by a loop inductor together with a double H-shaped resonator with an electric response providing negative permittivity. Two kinds of 3D isotropic single negative metamaterials are reported. The first material consists of unit cells in the form of a cube bearing on its faces six equal planar resonators with tetrahedral symmetry. In the second material, the planar resonators boxed into spherical plastic shells and randomly distributed in a hosting material compose a real 3D volumetric metamaterial with an isotropic response. In both cases the metamaterial shows negative permittivity or permeability, according to the type of resonators that are used. The experiments prove the isotropic behavior of the cells and of the metamaterial specimens.

  13. Classroom Management and Negative Reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Robert T.

    Of the four simple consequences for behavior, none is more misunderstood than negative reinforcement. A Negative Reinforcement Quiz administered to 233 student teachers from two universities revealed that the vast majority of respondents mistakenly viewed negative reinforcement as a synonym for punishment, and believe that negative reinforcement…

  14. Normal composite face effects in developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotti, Federica; Wu, Esther; Yang, Hua; Jiahui, Guo; Duchaine, Bradley; Cook, Richard

    2017-08-10

    Upright face perception is thought to involve holistic processing, whereby local features are integrated into a unified whole. Consistent with this view, the top half of one face appears to fuse perceptually with the bottom half of another, when aligned spatially and presented upright. This 'composite face effect' reveals a tendency to integrate information from disparate regions when faces are presented canonically. In recent years, the relationship between susceptibility to the composite effect and face recognition ability has received extensive attention both in participants with normal face recognition and participants with developmental prosopagnosia. Previous results suggest that individuals with developmental prosopagnosia may show reduced susceptibility to the effect suggestive of diminished holistic face processing. Here we describe two studies that examine whether developmental prosopagnosia is associated with reduced composite face effects. Despite using independent samples of developmental prosopagnosics and different composite procedures, we find no evidence for reduced composite face effects. The experiments yielded similar results; highly significant composite effects in both prosopagnosic groups that were similar in magnitude to the effects found in participants with normal face processing. The composite face effects exhibited by both samples and the controls were greatly diminished when stimulus arrangements were inverted. Our finding that the whole-face binding process indexed by the composite effect is intact in developmental prosopagnosia indicates that other factors are responsible for developmental prosopagnosia. These results are also inconsistent with suggestions that susceptibility to the composite face effect and face recognition ability are tightly linked. While the holistic process revealed by the composite face effect may be necessary for typical face perception, it is not sufficient; individual differences in face recognition ability

  15. Mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim

  16. Biased allocation of faces to social categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dotsch, R.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2011-01-01

    Three studies show that social categorization is biased at the level of category allocation. In all studies, participants categorized faces. In Studies 1 and 2, participants overallocated faces with criminal features-a stereotypical negative trait-to the stigmatized Moroccan category, especially if

  17. Visual attention to emotional face in schizophrenia: an eye tracking study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mania Asgharpour

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Deficits in the processing of facial emotions have been reported extensively in patients with schizophrenia. To explore whether restricted attention is the cause of impaired emotion processing in these patients, we examined visual attention through tracking eye movements in response to emotional and neutral face stimuli in a group of patients with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. We also examined the correlation between visual attention allocation and symptoms severity in our patient group.Thirty adult patients with schizophrenia and 30 matched healthy controls participated in this study. Visual attention data were recorded while participants passively viewed emotional-neutral face pairs for 500 ms. The relationship between the visual attention and symptoms severity were assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS in the schizophrenia group. Repeated Measures ANOVAs were used to compare the groups.Comparing the number of fixations made during face-pairs presentation, we found that patients with schizophrenia made fewer fixations on faces, regardless of the expression of the face. Analysis of the number of fixations on negative-neutral pairs also revealed that the patients made fewer fixations on both neutral and negative faces. Analysis of number of fixations on positive-neutral pairs only showed more fixations on positive relative to neutral expressions in both groups. We found no correlations between visual attention pattern to faces and symptom severity in schizophrenic patients.The results of this study suggest that the facial recognition deficit in schizophrenia is related to decreased attention to face stimuli. Finding of no difference in visual attention for positive-neutral face pairs between the groups is in line with studies that have shown increased ability to positive emotional perception in these patients.

  18. Original and Mirror Face Images and Minimum Squared Error Classification for Visible Light Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In real-world applications, the image of faces varies with illumination, facial expression, and poses. It seems that more training samples are able to reveal possible images of the faces. Though minimum squared error classification (MSEC is a widely used method, its applications on face recognition usually suffer from the problem of a limited number of training samples. In this paper, we improve MSEC by using the mirror faces as virtual training samples. We obtained the mirror faces generated from original training samples and put these two kinds of samples into a new set. The face recognition experiments show that our method does obtain high accuracy performance in classification.

  19. Original and Mirror Face Images and Minimum Squared Error Classification for Visible Light Face Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong

    2015-01-01

    In real-world applications, the image of faces varies with illumination, facial expression, and poses. It seems that more training samples are able to reveal possible images of the faces. Though minimum squared error classification (MSEC) is a widely used method, its applications on face recognition usually suffer from the problem of a limited number of training samples. In this paper, we improve MSEC by using the mirror faces as virtual training samples. We obtained the mirror faces generated from original training samples and put these two kinds of samples into a new set. The face recognition experiments show that our method does obtain high accuracy performance in classification.

  20. Young and Older Emotional Faces: Are there Age-Group Differences in Expression Identification and Memory?

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Studies finding that older compared to young adults are less able to identify facial expressions and have worse memory for negative than positive faces have used only young faces. Studies finding that both age groups are more accurate at recognizing faces of their own than other ages have used mostly neutral faces. Thus, age-differences in processing faces may not extend to older faces, and preferential memory for own-age faces may not extend to emotional faces. To investigate these possibili...

  1. Face-Lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tests and Procedures Face-lift By Mayo Clinic Staff A face-lift (rhytidectomy) is a cosmetic surgical procedure to improve the look of your face and neck. During a face-lift, facial soft tissues are lifted, excess skin is ...

  2. The subliminal affective priming effects of faces displaying various levels of arousal: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tian-Tian; Lu, Yong

    2014-11-07

    This study on the subliminal affective priming effects of faces displaying various levels of arousal employed event-related potentials (ERPs). The participants were asked to rate the arousal of ambiguous medium-arousing faces that were preceded by high- or low-arousing priming faces presented subliminally. The results revealed that the participants exhibited arousal-consistent variation in their arousal level ratings of the probe faces exclusively in the negative prime condition. Compared with high-arousing faces, the low-arousing faces tended to elicit greater late positive component (LPC, 450-660ms) and greater N400 (330-450ms) potentials. These findings support the following conclusions: (1) the effect of subliminal affective priming of faces can be detected in the affective arousal dimension; (2) valence may influence the subliminal affective priming effect of the arousal dimension of emotional stimuli; and (3) the subliminal affective priming effect of face arousal occurs when the prime stimulus affects late-stage processing of the probe.

  3. Biased allocation of faces to social categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotsch, Ron; Wigboldus, Daniël H J; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2011-06-01

    Three studies show that social categorization is biased at the level of category allocation. In all studies, participants categorized faces. In Studies 1 and 2, participants overallocated faces with criminal features--a stereotypical negative trait--to the stigmatized Moroccan category, especially if they were prejudiced. On the contrary, the stereotype-irrelevant negative trait stupid did not lead to overallocation to the Moroccan category. In Study 3, using the stigmatized category homosexual, the previously used negative trait criminal--irrelevant to the homosexual stereotype--did not lead to overallocation, but the stereotype-relevant positive trait femininity did. These results demonstrate that normative fit is higher for faces with stereotype-relevant features regardless of valence. Moreover, individual differences in implicit prejudice predicted the extent to which stereotype-relevant traits elicited overallocation: Whereas more negatively prejudiced people showed greater overallocation of faces associated with negative stereotype-relevant traits, they showed less overallocation of faces associated with positive stereotype-relevant traits. These results support our normative fit hypothesis: In general, normative fit is better for faces with stereotypical features. Moreover, normative fit is enhanced for prejudiced individuals when these features are evaluatively congruent. Social categorization thus may be biased in itself.

  4. A review of brain oscillations in perception of faces and emotional pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güntekin, Bahar; Başar, Erol

    2014-05-01

    The differentiation of faces, facial expressions and affective pictures involves processes of higher mental activity that have considerable applications in the psychology of moods and emotions. At present, the search for functional correlates of brain oscillations is an important trend in neuroscience. Furthermore, analyses of oscillatory responses provide key knowledge on the physiology of brain dynamics. Studies analysing oscillatory dynamics in face perception and emotional pictures have increased in recent years; however, the literature lacks a review of the current state of the art. This study provides a comprehensive review of the delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma oscillatory responses on presentation of faces, facial expressions and affective pictures (International Affective Picture System, IAPS). The reviewed literature revealed that the brain is more sensitive to emotional stimuli than neutral stimuli. A common and reliable finding from all reviewed studies was the increased brain responsiveness towards negative emotional pictures (face expression or IAPS). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Social Psychological Face Perception: Why Appearance Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A.; Montepare, Joann M.

    2009-01-01

    We form first impressions from faces despite warnings not to do so. Moreover, there is considerable agreement in our impressions, which carry significant social outcomes. Appearance matters because some facial qualities are so useful in guiding adaptive behavior that even a trace of those qualities can create an impression. Specifically, the qualities revealed by facial cues that characterize low fitness, babies, emotion, and identity are overgeneralized to people whose facial appearance resembles the unfit (anomalous face overgeneralization), babies (babyface overgeneralization), a particular emotion (emotion face overgeneralization), or a particular identity (familiar face overgeneralization). We review studies that support the overgeneralization hypotheses and recommend research that incorporates additional tenets of the ecological theory from which these hypotheses are derived: the contribution of dynamic and multi-modal stimulus information to face perception; bidirectional relationships between behavior and face perception; perceptual learning mechanisms and social goals that sensitize perceivers to particular information in faces. PMID:20107613

  6. Culture shapes how we look at faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Blais

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Face processing, amongst many basic visual skills, is thought to be invariant across all humans. From as early as 1965, studies of eye movements have consistently revealed a systematic triangular sequence of fixations over the eyes and the mouth, suggesting that faces elicit a universal, biologically-determined information extraction pattern. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we monitored the eye movements of Western Caucasian and East Asian observers while they learned, recognized, and categorized by race Western Caucasian and East Asian faces. Western Caucasian observers reproduced a scattered triangular pattern of fixations for faces of both races and across tasks. Contrary to intuition, East Asian observers focused more on the central region of the face. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate that face processing can no longer be considered as arising from a universal series of perceptual events. The strategy employed to extract visual information from faces differs across cultures.

  7. Differential effects of face-realism and emotion on event-related brain potentials and their implications for the uncanny valley theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Sebastian; Zell, Eduard; Botsch, Mario; Kissler, Johanna

    2017-03-01

    Cartoon characters are omnipresent in popular media. While few studies have scientifically investigated their processing, in computer graphics, efforts are made to increase realism. Yet, close approximations of reality have been suggested to evoke sometimes a feeling of eeriness, the “uncanny valley” effect. Here, we used high-density electroencephalography to investigate brain responses to professionally stylized happy, angry, and neutral character faces. We employed six face-stylization levels varying from abstract to realistic and investigated the N170, early posterior negativity (EPN), and late positive potential (LPP) event-related components. The face-specific N170 showed a u-shaped modulation, with stronger reactions towards both most abstract and most realistic compared to medium-stylized faces. For abstract faces, N170 was generated more occipitally than for real faces, implying stronger reliance on structural processing. Although emotional faces elicited highest amplitudes on both N170 and EPN, on the N170 realism and expression interacted. Finally, LPP increased linearly with face realism, reflecting activity increase in visual and parietal cortex for more realistic faces. Results reveal differential effects of face stylization on distinct face processing stages and suggest a perceptual basis to the uncanny valley hypothesis. They are discussed in relation to face perception, media design, and computer graphics.

  8. Differential effects of face-realism and emotion on event-related brain potentials and their implications for the uncanny valley theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Sebastian; Zell, Eduard; Botsch, Mario; Kissler, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    Cartoon characters are omnipresent in popular media. While few studies have scientifically investigated their processing, in computer graphics, efforts are made to increase realism. Yet, close approximations of reality have been suggested to evoke sometimes a feeling of eeriness, the “uncanny valley” effect. Here, we used high-density electroencephalography to investigate brain responses to professionally stylized happy, angry, and neutral character faces. We employed six face-stylization levels varying from abstract to realistic and investigated the N170, early posterior negativity (EPN), and late positive potential (LPP) event-related components. The face-specific N170 showed a u-shaped modulation, with stronger reactions towards both most abstract and most realistic compared to medium-stylized faces. For abstract faces, N170 was generated more occipitally than for real faces, implying stronger reliance on structural processing. Although emotional faces elicited highest amplitudes on both N170 and EPN, on the N170 realism and expression interacted. Finally, LPP increased linearly with face realism, reflecting activity increase in visual and parietal cortex for more realistic faces. Results reveal differential effects of face stylization on distinct face processing stages and suggest a perceptual basis to the uncanny valley hypothesis. They are discussed in relation to face perception, media design, and computer graphics. PMID:28332557

  9. Differential effects of face-realism and emotion on event-related brain potentials and their implications for the uncanny valley theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Sebastian; Zell, Eduard; Botsch, Mario; Kissler, Johanna

    2017-03-23

    Cartoon characters are omnipresent in popular media. While few studies have scientifically investigated their processing, in computer graphics, efforts are made to increase realism. Yet, close approximations of reality have been suggested to evoke sometimes a feeling of eeriness, the "uncanny valley" effect. Here, we used high-density electroencephalography to investigate brain responses to professionally stylized happy, angry, and neutral character faces. We employed six face-stylization levels varying from abstract to realistic and investigated the N170, early posterior negativity (EPN), and late positive potential (LPP) event-related components. The face-specific N170 showed a u-shaped modulation, with stronger reactions towards both most abstract and most realistic compared to medium-stylized faces. For abstract faces, N170 was generated more occipitally than for real faces, implying stronger reliance on structural processing. Although emotional faces elicited highest amplitudes on both N170 and EPN, on the N170 realism and expression interacted. Finally, LPP increased linearly with face realism, reflecting activity increase in visual and parietal cortex for more realistic faces. Results reveal differential effects of face stylization on distinct face processing stages and suggest a perceptual basis to the uncanny valley hypothesis. They are discussed in relation to face perception, media design, and computer graphics.

  10. Don't look at me in anger! Enhanced processing of angry faces in anticipation of public speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Matthias J; Pauli, Paul; Reicherts, Philipp; Mühlberger, Andreas

    2010-03-01

    Anxiety is supposed to enhance the processing of threatening information. Here, we investigated the cortical processing of angry faces during anticipated public speaking. To elicit anxiety, a group of participants was told that they would have to perform a public speech. As a control condition, another group was told that they would have to write a short essay. During anticipation of these tasks, participants saw facial expressions (angry, happy, and neutral) while electroencephalogram was recorded. Event-related potential analysis revealed larger N170 amplitudes for angry compared to happy and neutral faces in the anxiety group. The early posterior negativity as an index of motivated attention was also enhanced for angry compared to happy and neutral faces in participants anticipating public speaking. These results indicate that fear of public speaking influences early perceptual processing of faces such that especially the processing of angry faces is facilitated.

  11. 基于2D-PCA特征描述的非负权重邻域嵌入人脸超分辨率重建算法%Novel Neighbor Embedding Face Hallucination Based on Non-negative Weights and 2D-PCA Feature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹明明; 干宗良; 崔子冠; 李然; 朱秀昌

    2015-01-01

    In neighbor embedding based face hallucination, the training and reconstruction processes are performed in the feature space, thus the feature selection is important. In addition, there is no constraint specified for the signs of the weights generated in neighbor embedding algorithm, which leads to over-fitting and degradation of the recovered face images. Considering the importance of feature selection and the constraints of weights, a novel neighbor embedding face hallucination method is proposed based on non-negative weights and Two-Dimensional Principal Component Analysis (2D-PCA) features. First, the face images are partitioned into patches, and the local visual primitives are obtained by k-means clustering algorithm. The face image patches are classified with the local visual primitives generated before. Second, the feature of face image patches is captured with 2D-PCA, and the low and high dictionary is established. Finally, a novel non-negative weights solution method is used to obtain the weights. The experiment results show that the weights computed by the proposed method have more stable behavior and obviously less over-fitting phenomenon, furthermore, the recovery face images have better subjective and objective quality.%在基于邻域嵌入人脸图像的超分辨率重建算法中,训练和重建均在特征空间进行,因此,特征选择对算法性能具有较大影响。另外,算法模型对重建权重未加限定,导致负数权重出现而产生过拟合效应,使得重建人脸图像质量衰退。考虑到人脸图像的特征选择以及权重符号限定的重要作用,该文提出一种基于2维主成分分析(2D- PCA)特征描述的非负权重邻域嵌入人脸超分辨率重建算法。首先将人脸图像分成若干子块,利用K均值聚类获得图像子块的局部视觉基元,并利用得到的局部视觉基元对图像子块分类。然后,利用2D-PCA 对每一类人脸图像子块提取特征,并建

  12. Cyberbullying: the new face of workplace bullying?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privitera, Carmel; Campbell, Marilyn Anne

    2009-08-01

    While the subject of cyberbullying of children and adolescents has begun to be addressed, less attention and research have focused on cyberbullying in the workplace. Male-dominated workplaces such as manufacturing settings are found to have an increased risk of workplace bullying, but the prevalence of cyberbullying in this sector is not known. This exploratory study investigated the prevalence and methods of face-to-face bullying and cyberbullying of males at work. One hundred three surveys (a modified version of the revised Negative Acts Questionnaire [NAQ-R]) were returned from randomly selected members of the Australian Manufacturing Workers' Union (AMWU). The results showed that 34% of respondents were bullied face-to-face, and 10.7% were cyberbullied. All victims of cyberbullying also experienced face-to-face bullying. The implications for organizations' "duty of care" in regard to this new form of bullying are indicated.

  13. Nation, Face, and Identity: An Initial Investigation of National Face in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Hwang, Kwang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates a key concept in East Asia, face, and represents the first attempt to empirically examine the concept of face at the national level. Controlling for the level of national identification, Study 1 employed the scenario experiment method among samples of native Chinese and Taiwanese populations and revealed that national face exhibits patterns reverse of personal face. Using the experimental method, Study 2 replicated the findings of Study 1 and provided support for the different mechanisms underneath national face and personal face. Study 3 replicated the findings of Study 2 and additionally showed that national face exerts a significant inhibitory effect on face process. Findings are discussed in terms of possible implications for intergroup and international relations. Expanding on extant scholarship on face and across three studies with different experimental paradigms, this research turns our attention from face at the personal level to face at the national level by introducing the construct of national face and examining its manifestations in East Asia. The results advance our understanding of the psychological mechanism driving face concern in East Asia. They make a strong and unique case for the psychological existence of national face as an empirically distinct construct and an important psychological resource for East Asians. PMID:27774081

  14. Probing the Feature Map for Faces in Visual Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Yang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Controversy surrounds the mechanisms underlying the pop-out effect for faces in visual search. Is there a feature map for faces? If so, does it rely on the categorical distinction between faces and nonfaces, or on image-level face semblance? To probe the feature map, we compared search efficiency for faces, and nonface stimuli with high, low, and no face semblance. First, subjects performed a visual search task with objects as distractors. Only faces popped-out. Moreover, search efficiency for nonfaces correlated with image-level face semblance of the target. In a second experiment, faces were used as distractors but nonfaces did not pop-out. Interestingly, search efficiency for nonfaces was not modulated by face semblance, although searching for a face among faces was particularly difficult, reflecting a categorical boundary between nonfaces and faces. Finally, inversion and contrast negation significantly interacted with the effect of face semblance, ruling out the possibility that search efficiency solely depends on low-level features. Our study supports a parallel search for faces that is perhaps preattentive. Like other features (color, orientation etc., there appears to be a continuous face feature map for visual search. Our results also suggest that this map may include both image-level face semblance and face categoricity.

  15. Negative learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oppenheimer, M. [Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Department of Geosciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); O' Neill, B.C. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria)]|[Institute for the Study of Society and Environment, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Webster M. [MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2008-07-15

    New technical information may lead to scientific beliefs that diverge over time from the a posteriori right answer. We call this phenomenon, which is particularly problematic in the global change arena, negative learning. Negative learning may have affected policy in important cases, including stratospheric ozone depletion, dynamics of the West Antarctic ice sheet, and population and energy projections. We simulate negative learning in the context of climate change with a formal model that embeds the concept within the Bayesian framework, illustrating that it may lead to errant decisions and large welfare losses to society. Based on these cases, we suggest approaches to scientific assessment and decision making that could mitigate the problem. Application of the tools of science history to the study of learning in global change, including critical examination of the assessment process to understand how judgments are made, could provide important insights on how to improve the flow of information to policy makers.

  16. Initial Orientation of Attention towards Emotional Faces in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Ahmadi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Early recognition of negative emotions is considered to be of vital importance. It seems that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have some difficulties recognizing facial emotional expressions, especially negative ones. This study investigated the preference of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder for negative (angry, sad facial expressions compared to normal children.Method: Participants were 35 drug naive boys with ADHD, aged between 6-11 years ,and 31 matched healthy children. Visual orientation data were recorded while participants viewed face pairs (negative-neutral pairs shown for 3000ms. The number of first fixations made to each expression was considered as an index of initial orientation. Results: Group comparisons revealed no difference between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder group and their matched healthy counterparts in initial orientation of attention. A tendency towards negative emotions was found within the normal group, while no difference was observed between initial allocation of attention toward negative and neutral expressions in children with ADHD .Conclusion: Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder do not have significant preference for negative facial expressions. In contrast, normal children have a significant preference for negative facial emotions rather than neutral faces.

  17. Negative Certainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariso, José María

    2017-01-01

    The definitions of "negative knowledge" and the studies in this regard published to date have not considered the categorial distinction Wittgenstein established between knowledge and certainty. Hence, the important role that certainty, despite its omission, should have in these definitions and studies has not yet been shown. In this…

  18. Negative Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Mary J.

    1974-01-01

    Examination of models for representing integers demonstrates that formal operational thought is required for establishing the operations on integers. Advocated is the use of many models for introducing negative numbers but, apart from addition, it is recommended that operations on integers be delayed until the formal operations stage. (JP)

  19. Negative Certainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariso, José María

    2017-01-01

    The definitions of "negative knowledge" and the studies in this regard published to date have not considered the categorial distinction Wittgenstein established between knowledge and certainty. Hence, the important role that certainty, despite its omission, should have in these definitions and studies has not yet been shown. In this…

  20. Compositional effects on the ignition of FACE gasolines

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-05-08

    As regulatory measures for improved fuel economy and decreased emissions are pushing gasoline engine combustion technologies towards extreme conditions (i.e., boosted and intercooled intake with exhaust gas recirculation), fuel ignition characteristics become increasingly important for enabling stable operation. This study explores the effects of chemical composition on the fundamental ignition behavior of gasoline fuels. Two well-characterized, high-octane, non-oxygenated FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) gasolines, FACE F and FACE G, having similar antiknock indices but different octane sensitivities and chemical compositions are studied. Ignition experiments were conducted in shock tubes and a rapid compression machine (RCM) at nominal pressures of 20 and 40. atm, equivalence ratios of 0.5 and 1.0, and temperatures ranging from 650 to 1270. K. Results at temperatures above 900. K indicate that ignition delay time is similar for these fuels. However, RCM measurements below 900. K demonstrate a stronger negative temperature coefficient behavior for FACE F gasoline having lower octane sensitivity. In addition, RCM pressure profiles under two-stage ignition conditions illustrate that the magnitude of low-temperature heat release (LTHR) increases with decreasing fuel octane sensitivity. However, intermediate-temperature heat release is shown to increase as fuel octane sensitivity increases. Various surrogate fuel mixtures were formulated to conduct chemical kinetic modeling, and complex multicomponent surrogate mixtures were shown to reproduce experimentally observed trends better than simpler two- and three-component mixtures composed of n-heptane, iso-octane, and toluene. Measurements in a Cooperative Fuels Research (CFR) engine demonstrated that the multicomponent surrogates accurately captured the antiknock quality of the FACE gasolines. Simulations were performed using multicomponent surrogates for FACE F and G to reveal the underlying chemical

  1. Faces affect recognition in schizophrenia [Rozpoznawanie emocjonalnej ekspresji mimicznej przez osoby chore na schizofrenię

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prochwicz, Katarzyna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinical observations and the results of many experimental researches indicate that individuals suffering from schizophrenia reveal difficulties in the recognition of emotional states experienced by other people; however the causes and the range of these problems have not been clearly described. Despite early research results confirming that difficulties in emotion recognition are related only to negative emotions, the results of the researches conducted over the lat 30 years indicate that emotion recognition problems are a manifestation of a general cognitive deficit, and they do not concern specific emotions.The article contains a review of the research on face affect recognition in schizophrenia. It discusses the causes of these difficulties, the differences in the accuracy of the recognition of specific emotions, the relationship between the symptoms of schizophrenia and the severity of problems with face perception, and the types of cognitive processes which influence the disturbances in face affect recognition. Particular attention was paid to the methodology of the research on face affect recognition, including the methods used in control tasks relying on the identification of neutral faces designed to assess the range of deficit underlying the face affect recognition problems. The analysis of methods used in particular researches revealed some weaknesses. The article also deals with the question of the possibilities of improving the ability to recognise the emotions, and briefly discusses the efficiency of emotion recognition training programs designed for patients suffering from schizophrenia.

  2. About (above) a face - a face

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This text intents to unfold some considerations regardind the perception of the image of the Lóri’s face, from the book Uma aprendizagem ou o livro dos prazeres, published by Clarice Lispector in 1969. For that, will be studied the politicians devices who involve the apprehension of the face as a qualifying of the subject and, at the same time, its relation with the lenguage.

  3. About (above a face - a face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Cervelin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This text intents to unfold some considerations regardind the perception of the image of the Lóri’s face, from the book Uma aprendizagem ou o livro dos prazeres, published by Clarice Lispector in 1969. For that, will be studied the politicians devices who involve the apprehension of the face as a qualifying of the subject and, at the same time, its relation with the lenguage.

  4. Negative hydrogen ion production mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacal, M. [UPMC, LPP, Ecole Polytechnique, UMR CNRS 7648, Palaiseau (France); Wada, M. [School of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Negative hydrogen/deuterium ions can be formed by processes occurring in the plasma volume and on surfaces facing the plasma. The principal mechanisms leading to the formation of these negative ions are dissociative electron attachment to ro-vibrationally excited hydrogen/deuterium molecules when the reaction takes place in the plasma volume, and the direct electron transfer from the low work function metal surface to the hydrogen/deuterium atoms when formation occurs on the surface. The existing theoretical models and reported experimental results on these two mechanisms are summarized. Performance of the negative hydrogen/deuterium ion sources that emerged from studies of these mechanisms is reviewed. Contemporary negative ion sources do not have negative ion production electrodes of original surface type sources but are operated with caesium with their structures nearly identical to volume production type sources. Reasons for enhanced negative ion current due to caesium addition to these sources are discussed.

  5. Negative hydrogen ion production mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacal, M.; Wada, M.

    2015-06-01

    Negative hydrogen/deuterium ions can be formed by processes occurring in the plasma volume and on surfaces facing the plasma. The principal mechanisms leading to the formation of these negative ions are dissociative electron attachment to ro-vibrationally excited hydrogen/deuterium molecules when the reaction takes place in the plasma volume, and the direct electron transfer from the low work function metal surface to the hydrogen/deuterium atoms when formation occurs on the surface. The existing theoretical models and reported experimental results on these two mechanisms are summarized. Performance of the negative hydrogen/deuterium ion sources that emerged from studies of these mechanisms is reviewed. Contemporary negative ion sources do not have negative ion production electrodes of original surface type sources but are operated with caesium with their structures nearly identical to volume production type sources. Reasons for enhanced negative ion current due to caesium addition to these sources are discussed.

  6. Face Context Influences Local Part Processing: An ERP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Sun, Yaoru; Zhao, Lun

    2017-01-01

    Perception of face parts on the basis of features is thought to be different from perception of whole faces, which is more based on configural information. Face context is also suggested to play an important role in face processing. To investigate how face context influences the early-stage perception of facial local parts, we used an oddball paradigm that tested perceptual stages of face processing rather than recognition. We recorded the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by whole faces and face parts presented in four conditions (upright-normal, upright-thatcherised, inverted-normal and inverted-thatcherised), as well as the ERPs elicited by non-face objects (whole houses and house parts) with corresponding conditions. The results showed that face context significantly affected the N170 with increased amplitudes and earlier peak latency for upright normal faces. Removing face context delayed the P1 latency but did not affect the P1 amplitude prominently for both upright and inverted normal faces. Across all conditions, neither the N170 nor the P1 was modulated by house context. The significant changes on the N170 and P1 components revealed that face context influences local part processing at the early stage of face processing and this context effect might be specific for face perception. We further suggested that perceptions of whole faces and face parts are functionally distinguished.

  7. The composite face illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jennifer; Gray, Katie L H; Cook, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Few findings in cognitive science have proved as influential as the composite face effect. When the top half of one face is aligned with the bottom half of another, and presented upright, the resulting composite arrangement induces a compelling percept of a novel facial configuration. Findings obtained using composite face procedures have contributed significantly to our understanding of holistic face processing, the detrimental effects of face inversion, the development of face perception, and aberrant face perception in clinical populations. Composite paradigms continue to advance our knowledge of face perception, as exemplified by their recent use for investigating the perceptual mechanisms underlying dynamic face processing. However, the paradigm has been the subject of intense scrutiny, particularly over the last decade, and there is a growing sense that the composite face illusion, whilst easy to illustrate, is deceptively difficult to measure and interpret. In this review, we provide a focussed overview of the existing composite face literature, and identify six priorities for future research. Addressing these gaps in our knowledge will aid the evaluation and refinement of theoretical accounts of the illusion.

  8. Associative ERP effects with memories of artificial faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, E; Bobes, M A; Aubert, E; Valdes-Sosa, M

    1994-07-01

    A previous study (Valdes-Sosa and Bobes, 1990) described a negative ERP component evoked by mis-matches in a face-feature matching task, using photographs of real faces. This component could be N400 (or an analogue), elicited by associative priming within a non-linguistic domain: that of face structure. To confirm this it is necessary to demonstrate that semantic/linguistic recoding was not a necessary condition in triggering the negativity. This means falsifying what we call the 'priming by proxy' hypothesis, and locating the triggering mis-match within face structure. In this paper subjects studied artificial schematic faces over several sessions, and 1 week later were presented with a face-feature matching task with simultaneous ERP recording. Since no semantic information or verbal labels were available, eliciting a mis-match negativity with these faces contradicts the 'priming by proxy' hypothesis. In a first experiment, in which the subjects learning was controlled through a face familiarity decision task, no significant mis-match negativity was found. However, in a second experiment in which learning was controlled through a forced-choice face-feature match, a significant mis-match negativity was found in the subsequent recording session. This result supports the idea that a component similar to N400 can be elicited by an associative mis-match restricted to the face-structural domain.

  9. Genotyping of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman reveals the dominance of Panton–Valentine leucocidin-negative ST6-IV/t304 clone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. Udo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA genotypes circulating at a tertiary hospital in the Sultanate of Oman. A total of 79 MRSA isolates were obtained from different clinical samples and investigated using antibiogram, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec, Spa typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST. The isolates were susceptible to linezolid, vancomycin, teicoplanin, tigecycline and mupirocin but were resistant to tetracycline (30.4%, erythromycin (26.6%, clindamycin (24.1%, trimethoprim (19.0%, ciprofloxacin (17.7%, fusidic acid (15.2% and gentamicin (12.7%. Molecular typing revealed 19 PFGE patterns, 26 Spa types and 21 sequence types. SCCmec-IV (86.0% was the dominant SCCmec type, followed by SCCmec-V (10.1%. SCCmec-III (2.5% and SCCmec-II (1.3% were less common. ST6-IV/t304 (n = 30 and ST1295-IV/t690 (n = 12 were the dominant genotypes followed by ST772-V/t657 (n = 5, ST30-IV/t019/t021 (n = 5, ST22-IV/t852 (n = 4, ST80-IV/t044 (n = 3 and 18 single genotypes that were isolated sporadically. On the basis of SCCmec typing and MLST, 91.2% of the isolates were classified as community-associated MRSA and 8.8% of the isolates (consisting of four ST22-IV/t852, one ST239-III/t632, one ST5-III/t311 and one ST5-II/t003 were classified as healthcare-associated MRSA. The study has revealed the dominance of a Panton–Valentine leucocidin-negative ST6-IV/t304 clone and provided insights into the distribution of antibiotic resistance in MRSA at the tertiary hospital in Oman. It also highlights the importance of surveillance in detecting the emergence of new MRSA clones in a healthcare facility.

  10. Global alteration of the drug-binding pocket of human P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) by substitution of fifteen conserved residues reveals a negative correlation between substrate size and transport efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahedi, Shahrooz; Chufan, Eduardo E; Ambudkar, Suresh V

    2017-11-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an ATP-dependent efflux pump, is linked to the development of multidrug resistance in cancer cells. However, the drug-binding sites and translocation pathways of this transporter are not yet well-characterized. We recently demonstrated the important role of tyrosine residues in regulating P-gp ATP hydrolysis via hydrogen bond formations with high affinity modulators. Since tyrosine is both a hydrogen bond donor and acceptor, and non-covalent interactions are key in drug transport, in this study we investigated the global effect of enrichment of tyrosine residues in the drug-binding pocket on the drug binding and transport function of P-gp. By employing computational analysis, 15 conserved residues in the drug-binding pocket of human P-gp that interact with substrates were identified and then substituted with tyrosine, including 11 phenylalanine (F72, F303, F314, F336, F732, F759, F770, F938, F942, F983, F994), two leucine (L339, L975), one isoleucine (I306), and one methionine (M949). Characterization of the tyrosine-rich P-gp mutant in HeLa cells demonstrated that this major alteration in the drug-binding pocket by introducing fifteen additional tyrosine residues is well tolerated and has no measurable effect on total or cell surface expression of this mutant. Although the tyrosine-enriched mutant P-gp could transport small to moderate size (1000 Daltons) substrates such as NBD-cyclosporine A, Bodipy-paclitaxel and Bodipy-vinblastine was significantly decreased. This was further supported by the physico-chemical characterization of seventeen tested substrates, which revealed a negative correlation between drug transport and molecular size for the tyrosine-enriched P-gp mutant. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. The effect of contrast polarity reversal on face detection: evidence of perceptual asymmetry from sweep VEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu-Shuang, Joan; Ales, Justin M; Rossion, Bruno; Norcia, Anthony M

    2015-03-01

    Contrast polarity inversion (i.e., turning dark regions light and vice versa) impairs face perception. We investigated the perceptual asymmetry between positive and negative polarity faces (matched for overall luminance) using a sweep VEP approach in the context of face detection (Journal of Vision 12 (2012) 1-18). Phase-scrambled face stimuli alternated at a rate of 3 Hz (6 images/s). The phase coherence of every other stimulus was parametrically increased so that a face gradually emerged over a 20-s stimulation sequence, leading to a 3 Hz response reflecting face detection. Contrary to the 6 Hz response, reflecting low-level visual processing, this 3 Hz response was larger and emerged earlier over right occipito-temporal channels for positive than negative polarity faces. Moreover, the 3 Hz response emerged abruptly to positive polarity faces, whereas it increased linearly for negative polarity faces. In another condition, alternating between a positive and a negative polarity face also elicited a strong 3 Hz response, indicating an asymmetrical representation of positive and negative polarity faces even at supra-threshold levels (i.e., when both stimuli were perceived as faces). Overall, these findings demonstrate distinct perceptual representations of positive and negative polarity faces, independently of low-level cues, and suggest qualitatively different detection processes (template-based matching for positive polarity faces vs. linear accumulation of evidence for negative polarity faces).

  12. The amygdala and FFA track both social and non-social face dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Christopher P; Dotsch, Ron; Todorov, Alexander

    2010-10-01

    The amygdala is thought to perform a number of social functions, and has received much attention for its role in processing social properties of faces. In particular, it has been shown to respond more to facial expressions than to neutral faces, and more to positively valenced and negatively valenced faces than faces in the middle of the continuum. However, when these findings are viewed in the context of a multidimensional face space, an important question emerges. Face space is a vector space where every face can be represented as a point in the space. The origin of the space represents the average face. In this context, positively valenced and negatively valenced faces are further away from the average face than faces in the middle of the continuum. It is therefore unclear if the amygdala response to positively valenced and negatively valenced faces is due to their social properties or to their general distance from the average face. Here, we compared the amygdala response to a set of faces that varied along two dimensions centered around the average face but differing in social content. In both the amygdala and much of the posterior face network, we observed a similar response to both dimensions, with stronger responses to the extremes of the dimensions than to faces near the average face. These findings suggest that the responses in these regions to socially relevant faces may be partially due to general distance from the average face.

  13. Reprint of: The amygdala and FFA track both social and non-social face dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Christopher P; Dotsch, Ron; Todorov, Alexander

    2011-03-01

    The amygdala is thought to perform a number of social functions, and has received much attention for its role in processing social properties of faces. In particular, it has been shown to respond more to facial expressions than to neutral faces, and more to positively valenced and negatively valenced faces than faces in the middle of the continuum. However, when these findings are viewed in the context of a multidimensional face space, an important question emerges. Face space is a vector space where every face can be represented as a point in the space. The origin of the space represents the average face. In this context, positively valenced and negatively valenced faces are further away from the average face than faces in the middle of the continuum. It is therefore unclear if the amygdala response to positively valenced and negatively valenced faces is due to their social properties or to their general distance from the average face. Here, we compared the amygdala response to a set of faces that varied along two dimensions centered around the average face but differing in social content. In both the amygdala and much of the posterior face network, we observed a similar response to both dimensions, with stronger responses to the extremes of the dimensions than to faces near the average face. These findings suggest that the responses in these regions to socially relevant faces may be partially due to general distance from the average face.

  14. Familiar smiling faces in Alzheimer's disease: understanding the positivity-related recognition bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werheid, Katja; McDonald, Rebecca S; Simmons-Stern, Nicholas; Ally, Brandon A; Budson, Andrew E

    2011-08-01

    Recent research has revealed a recognition bias favoring positive faces and other stimuli in older compared to younger adults. However, it is yet unclear whether this bias reflects an age-related preference for positive emotional stimuli, or an affirmatory bias used to compensate for episodic memory deficits. To follow up this point, the present study examined recognition of emotional faces and current mood state in patients with mild Alzheimer disease (AD) and healthy controls. Expecting lower overall memory performance, more negative and less positive mood in AD patients, the critical question was whether the positivity-related recognition bias would be increased compared to cognitively unimpaired controls. Eighteen AD patients and 18 healthy controls studied happy, neutral, and angry faces, which in a subsequent recognition task were intermixed with 50% distracter faces. As expected, the patient group showed reduced memory performance, along with a less positive and more negative mood. The recognition bias for positive faces persisted. This pattern supports the view that the positivity-induced recognition bias represents a compensatory, gist-based memory process that is applied when item-based recognition fails.

  15. Oracle ADF Faces cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Gawish, Amr

    2014-01-01

    This is a cookbook that covers more than 80 different recipes to teach you about different aspects of Oracle ADF Faces. It follows a practical approach and covers how to build your components for reuse in different applications. This book will also help you in tuning the performance of your ADF Faces application. If you are an ADF developer who wants to harness the power of Oracle ADF Faces to create exceptional user interfaces and reactive applications, this book will provide you with the recipes needed to do just that. You will not need to be familiar with Oracle ADF Faces, but you should be

  16. Females excel at basic face perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBain, Ryan; Norton, Dan; Chen, Yue

    2009-02-01

    Females are generally better than males at recognizing facial emotions. However, it is not entirely clear whether and in what way females may also excel at non-affective face recognition. Here, we tested males and females on two perceptual face recognition tasks that involved only neutral expressions: detection and identity discrimination. On face detection (Experiment 1), females were significantly more accurate than males in detecting upright faces. This gender difference was reduced during inverted face detection, and not present during tree detection, suggesting that the magnitude of the gender difference for performance co-varies with the extent to which face processing mechanisms are involved. On facial identity discrimination (Experiment 2), females again outperformed males, particularly when face images were masked by visual noise, or the delay between comparison face images was extended from 0.5 to 3s. These results reveal a female advantage in processing face-specific information and underscore the role of perceptual factors in socially relevant gender differences.

  17. Fear of negative evaluation moderates effects of social exclusion on selective attention to social signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroaki; Ikegami, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that fear of negative evaluation (FNE) moderates responses to exclusion in late-stage social outcomes (e.g., social judgements and behaviours). People with low levels of FNE show affiliative responses, feeling compelled to recover their sense of belonging, whereas people with high levels of FNE do not. This study examined whether FNE also moderates responses to exclusion in early-stage interpersonal perception, manifested in selective attention. The experiment using a dot-probe task revealed that exclusion led participants with low levels of FNE to increase attention to signs of social acceptance (i.e., smiling faces). It also revealed that exclusion led those with high levels of FNE to pay more attention to signs of social threat (i.e., angry faces) relative to those of social acceptance. Thus, exclusion makes the motivation to protect oneself from social threats dominant over the motivation to reestablish social bonds among those who fear negative evaluation.

  18. Implementing soul studio activities in oncology nurses with negative emotion facing patients' death%心灵工作室在肿瘤科护士面对患者死亡所致负性情绪中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖柳红; 黄敏清; 宋文强

    2013-01-01

    目的:分析肿瘤科护士面对患者死亡所产生的负性情绪;探讨心灵工作室降低护士负性情绪的效果.方法:建立心灵工作室,为62名肿瘤科护士开展为期4个月共16次的心理健康促进活动,提供其宣泄患者死亡所致负性情绪的平台;活动前、后均使用症状自评量表(SCL-90)进行评估.结果:活动前护士内心压抑、恐惧无助、自认倒霉;活动后护士内心坦然、敞开心扉、自我释放.活动后SCL-90测评因子中的躯体化、强迫症状、抑郁、焦虑、恐怖的评分均低于活动前,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01).结论:心灵工作室心理健康促进活动可以减轻肿瘤科护士面对患者死亡的负性情绪,增强其心理调适能力,从而提升其心理健康水平.%Objective:To analyze negative emotion in oncology nurses when facing death in patients,and explore the effect of soul studio in reducing negative emotion of nurses.Methods:The authors established soul studio for 62 oncology nurses,organized 16 times mental health promotion activities in four months,and provided a platform for them to release negative emotion.The symptom rating scale (SCL-90) was used to evaluate their mental status before and after the activities.Results:Nurses felt depressive,fear and helpless before the activities.After the activities,nurses became open and released.Scores of factors in SCL-90,such as somatization,obsessive-compulsive,depression,anxiety,and phobic anxiety after the activities were lower than that before (P<0.05 or P<0.01).Conclusion:Mental health promotion activity of soul studio could reduce negative emotion of nurses and enhance their capacity of psychological adjustment so as to improve their mental health.

  19. Congenital prosopagnosia: multistage anatomical and functional deficits in face processing circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkelacker, V; Grüter, M; Klaver, P; Grüter, T; Specht, K; Weis, S; Kennerknecht, I; Elger, C E; Fernandez, G

    2011-05-01

    Face recognition is a primary social skill which depends on a distributed neural network. A pronounced face recognition deficit in the absence of any lesion is seen in congenital prosopagnosia. This study investigating 24 congenital prosopagnosic subjects and 25 control subjects aims at elucidating its neural basis with fMRI and voxel-based morphometry. We found a comprehensive behavioral pattern, an impairment in visual recognition for faces and buildings that spared long-term memory for faces with negative valence. Anatomical analysis revealed diminished gray matter density in the bilateral lingual gyrus, the right middle temporal gyrus, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In most of these areas, gray matter density correlated with memory success. Decreased functional activation was found in the left fusiform gyrus, a crucial area for face processing, and in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, whereas activation of the medial prefrontal cortex was enhanced. Hence, our data lend strength to the hypothesis that congenital prosopagnosia is explained by network dysfunction and suggest that anatomic curtailing of visual processing in the lingual gyrus plays a substantial role. The dysfunctional circuitry further encompasses the fusiform gyrus and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which may contribute to their difficulties in long-term memory for complex visual information. Despite their deficits in face identity recognition, processing of emotion related information is preserved and possibly mediated by the medial prefrontal cortex. Congenital prosopagnosia may, therefore, be a blueprint of differential curtailing in networks of visual cognition.

  20. Face recognition performance of individuals with Asperger syndrome on the Cambridge Face Memory Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedley, Darren; Brewer, Neil; Young, Robyn

    2011-12-01

    Although face recognition deficits in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), including Asperger syndrome (AS), are widely acknowledged, the empirical evidence is mixed. This in part reflects the failure to use standardized and psychometrically sound tests. We contrasted standardized face recognition scores on the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) for 34 individuals with AS with those for 42, IQ-matched non-ASD individuals, and age-standardized scores from a large Australian cohort. We also examined the influence of IQ, autistic traits, and negative affect on face recognition performance. Overall, participants with AS performed significantly worse on the CFMT than the non-ASD participants and when evaluated against standardized test norms. However, while 24% of participants with AS presented with severe face recognition impairment (>2 SDs below the mean), many individuals performed at or above the typical level for their age: 53% scored within +/- 1 SD of the mean and 9% demonstrated superior performance (>1 SD above the mean). Regression analysis provided no evidence that IQ, autistic traits, or negative affect significantly influenced face recognition: diagnostic group membership was the only significant predictor of face recognition performance. In sum, face recognition performance in ASD is on a continuum, but with average levels significantly below non-ASD levels of performance.

  1. Face inversion decreased information about facial identity and expression in face-responsive neurons in macaque area TE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugase-Miyamoto, Yasuko; Matsumoto, Narihisa; Ohyama, Kaoru; Kawano, Kenji

    2014-09-10

    To investigate the effect of face inversion and thatcherization (eye inversion) on temporal processing stages of facial information, single neuron activities in the temporal cortex (area TE) of two rhesus monkeys were recorded. Test stimuli were colored pictures of monkey faces (four with four different expressions), human faces (three with four different expressions), and geometric shapes. Modifications were made in each face-picture, and its four variations were used as stimuli: upright original, inverted original, upright thatcherized, and inverted thatcherized faces. A total of 119 neurons responded to at least one of the upright original facial stimuli. A majority of the neurons (71%) showed activity modulations depending on upright and inverted presentations, and a lesser number of neurons (13%) showed activity modulations depending on original and thatcherized face conditions. In the case of face inversion, information about the fine category (facial identity and expression) decreased, whereas information about the global category (monkey vs human vs shape) was retained for both the original and thatcherized faces. Principal component analysis on the neuronal population responses revealed that the global categorization occurred regardless of the face inversion and that the inverted faces were represented near the upright faces in the principal component analysis space. By contrast, the face inversion decreased the ability to represent human facial identity and monkey facial expression. Thus, the neuronal population represented inverted faces as faces but failed to represent the identity and expression of the inverted faces, indicating that the neuronal representation in area TE cause the perceptual effect of face inversion.

  2. Holistic face processing of own- and other-age faces in young and older adults: ERP evidence from the composite face task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Holger; Kachel, Ulrike; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2013-07-01

    Participants more accurately remember own-age relative to other-age faces (own-age bias, OAB). The present study tested whether this effect is related to more efficient holistic processing of own-age faces. Young adult and older participants performed a composite face task with young and old faces, in which they indicated whether the upper half of two subsequent composite faces was identical or not. The lower half of the second face was always different, and face halves were horizontally misaligned in 50% of the trials. Both participant groups were more efficient to correctly identify same upper halves in the misaligned relative to the aligned condition, and this composite face effect (CFE), a marker of holistic face processing, was stronger for young faces. Analysis of event-related potentials revealed strong misalignment effects in the N170, which were more pronounced for young faces in both groups. Critically, in the subsequent N250r a stronger misalignment effect for young faces was detected in young participants only. Since N250r may reflect the facilitated access of a perceptual representation of a previously presented face, this finding is interpreted to reflect young participants' more efficient representation of own-age faces as a whole, which may contribute to their OAB in memory.

  3. En face optical coherence tomography of transient light response at photoreceptor outer segments in living frog eyecup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Benquan; Lu, Rongwen; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Jiang, Yuqiang; Yao, Xincheng

    2013-11-15

    This study was designed to test the feasibility of en face mapping of the transient intrinsic optical signal (IOS) response at photoreceptor outer segments and to assess the effect of spatial resolution on functional IOS imaging of retinal photoreceptors. A line-scan optical coherence tomography (LS-OCT) was constructed to achieve depth-resolved functional IOS imaging of living frog eyecups. Rapid en face OCT revealed transient IOS almost immediately (IOS kinetics may reflect dynamics of G-protein binding and releasing in early phases of visual transduction, and high resolution is essential to differentiate positive and negative IOS changes in adjacent locations.

  4. Tolerance of geometric distortions in infant's face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Wakayo; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the current study is to reveal the effect of global linear transformations (shearing, horizontal stretching, and vertical stretching) on the recognition of familiar faces (e.g., a mother's face) in 6- to 7-month-old infants. In this experiment, we applied the global linear transformations to both the infants' own mother's face and to a stranger's face, and we tested infants' preference between these faces. We found that only 7-month-old infants maintained preference for their own mother's face during the presentation of vertical stretching, while the preference for the mother's face disappeared during the presentation of shearing or horizontal stretching. These findings suggest that 7-month-old infants might not recognize faces based on calculating the absolute distance between facial features, and that the vertical dimension of facial features might be more related to infants' face recognition rather than the horizontal dimension.

  5. Faces in the dark: Interactive effects of darkness and anxiety on the memory for threatening faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi F Nakashima

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the current research, we extend past work on the effects of ambient darkness and threat to the domain of memory for expressive faces. In one study, we examined the effects of ambient darkness and individual differences in state anxiety on memory of unfamiliar expressive faces. Here, participants were seated in either a dark or light room and encoded a set of unfamiliar faces with angry, happy, and neutral facial expressions. A subsequent recognition task revealed an interactive effect of ambient darkness, anxiety, and target expression. Highly anxious participants in ambient darkness had worse memory for angry faces than did low-anxiety participants. On the other hand, the recognition performance for happy faces was affected neither by the darkness nor state anxiety. The results suggest not only that ambient darkness has its strongest effect on anxious perceivers, but also that person x situation effects should be considered in face recognition research.

  6. An exploration into pedagogic frailty: Transitioning from face-to-face to online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Niculescu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pedagogic frailty and concept mapping can simultaneously encourage personal and organisational change by supporting critical reflection and resilience. These ideas are nascent within higher education institutions and currently, at the University of Surrey, are only developed through face-to-face sessions. This revealed the need for a scalable intervention which engages academics with the discourse on introspective and professional development practices. In response, we have created the design for a blended programme of online foundation for concept mapping leading to face-to-face workshops to explore the pedagogic frailty model. This paper will discuss some significant challenges arising from transitioning self-reflective practices from face-to-face to online spaces. In the process, we will consider ways in which learning design can take the learner context into account.

  7. Handbook of Face Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Stan Z

    2011-01-01

    This highly anticipated new edition provides a comprehensive account of face recognition research and technology, spanning the full range of topics needed for designing operational face recognition systems. After a thorough introductory chapter, each of the following chapters focus on a specific topic, reviewing background information, up-to-date techniques, and recent results, as well as offering challenges and future directions. Features: fully updated, revised and expanded, covering the entire spectrum of concepts, methods, and algorithms for automated face detection and recognition systems

  8. Face Search at Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dayong; Otto, Charles; Jain, Anil K

    2016-06-20

    rsons of interest among the billions of shared photos on these websites. Despite significant progress in face recognition, searching a large collection of unconstrained face images remains a difficult problem. To address this challenge, we propose a face search system which combines a fast search procedure, coupled with a state-of-the-art commercial off the shelf (COTS) matcher, in a cascaded framework. Given a probe face, we first filter the large gallery of photos to find the top-k most similar faces using features learned by a convolutional neural network. The k retrieved candidates are re-ranked by combining similarities based on deep features and those output by the COTS matcher. We evaluate the proposed face search system on a gallery containing 80 million web-downloaded face images. Experimental results demonstrate that while the deep features perform worse than the COTS matcher on a mugshot dataset (93.7% vs. 98.6% TAR@FAR of 0.01%), fusing the deep features with the COTS matcher improves the overall performance (99.5% TAR@FAR of 0.01%). This shows that the learned deep features provide complementary information over representations used in state-of-the-art face matchers. On the unconstrained face image benchmarks, the performance of the learned deep features is competitive with reported accuracies. LFW database: 98.20% accuracy under the standard protocol and 88.03% TAR@FAR of 0.1% under the BLUFR protocol; IJB-A benchmark: 51.0% TAR@FAR of 0.1% (verification), rank 1 retrieval of 82.2% (closed-set search), 61.5% FNIR@FAR of 1% (open-set search). The proposed face search system offers an excellent trade-off between accuracy and scalability on galleries with millions of images. Additionally, in a face search experiment involving photos of the Tsarnaev brothers, convicted of the Boston Marathon bombing, the proposed cascade face search system could find the younger brother's (Dzhokhar Tsarnaev) photo at rank 1 in 1 second on a 5M gallery and at rank 8 in 7

  9. Empathy costs: Negative emotional bias in high empathisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikovani, George; Babuadze, Lasha; Iashvili, Nino; Gvalia, Tamar; Surguladze, Simon

    2015-09-30

    Excessive empathy has been associated with compassion fatigue in health professionals and caregivers. We investigated an effect of empathy on emotion processing in 137 healthy individuals of both sexes. We tested a hypothesis that high empathy may underlie increased sensitivity to negative emotion recognition which may interact with gender. Facial emotion stimuli comprised happy, angry, fearful, and sad faces presented at different intensities (mild and prototypical) and different durations (500ms and 2000ms). The parameters of emotion processing were represented by discrimination accuracy, response bias and reaction time. We found that higher empathy was associated with better recognition of all emotions. We also demonstrated that higher empathy was associated with response bias towards sad and fearful faces. The reaction time analysis revealed that higher empathy in females was associated with faster (compared with males) recognition of mildly sad faces of brief duration. We conclude that although empathic abilities were providing for advantages in recognition of all facial emotional expressions, the bias towards emotional negativity may potentially carry a risk for empathic distress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Response bias-related impairment of early subjective face discrimination in social anxiety disorders: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yanyan; Gu, Ruolei; Cao, Jianqin; Bi, Xuejing; Wu, Haiyan; Liu, Xun

    2017-02-05

    Considerable research has shown that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is accompanied by various negative cognitive biases, such as social feedback expectancy bias, memory bias, and interpretation bias. However, whether the memory bias in individuals with SAD is actually a manifestation of response bias, and whether such response bias is associated with deficits in face discrimination, remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated response bias (i.e., a tendency to recognize more negative evaluations) to faces with positive (social acceptance) or negative (social rejection) social evaluations in individuals with SAD and healthy controls (HCs) using event-related potentials (ERPs). Behavioral results revealed significant group differences in response bias in the forced-choice recall task, but no difference in overall memory accuracy. ERP results demonstrated that HCs showed a larger N170 to faces that had rejected them as compared to those that had accepted them, but this effect was not evident in the SAD group. Further analysis showed that response bias was correlated with the ΔN170 (rejected - accepted) amplitude. We concluded that the response bias in individuals with SAD is resulted from impairments in early discrimination of social faces, as reflected by the absent early N170 differentiation effect, which was associated with their combined negative biases.

  11. Learning about faces: effects of trustworthiness on affective evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado, Luis; Román, Francisco J; Fernández-Cahill, María; Diéguez-Risco, Teresa; Romero-Ferreiro, Verónica

    2011-11-01

    The results of two studies on the relationship between evaluations of trustworthiness, valence and arousal of faces are reported. In Experiment 1, valence and trustworthiness judgments of faces were positively correlated, while arousal was negatively correlated with both trustworthiness and valence. In Experiment 2, learning about faces based on their emotional expression and the extent to which this learning is influenced by perceived trustworthiness was investigated. Neutral faces of different models differing in trustworthiness were repeatedly associated with happy or with angry expressions and the participants were asked to categorize each neutral face as belonging to a "friend" or to an "enemy" based on these associations. Four pairing conditions were defined in terms of the congruency between trustworthiness level and expression: Trustworthy-congruent, trustworthy-incongruent, untrustworthy-congruent and untrustworthy-incongruent. Categorization accuracy during the learning phase and face evaluation after learning were measured. During learning, participants learned to categorize with similar efficiency trustworthy and untrustworthy faces as friends or enemies and thus no effects of congruency were found. In the evaluation phase, faces of enemies were rated as more negative and arousing than those of friends, thus showing that learning was effective to change the affective value of the faces. However, faces of untrustworthy models were still judged on average more negative and arousing than those of trustworthy ones. In conclusion, although face trustworthiness did not influence learning of associations between faces and positive or negative social information it did have a significant influence on face evaluation that was manifest even after that learning.

  12. Exploring the spatio-temporal neural basis of face learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Xu, Yang; Jew, Carol A; Pyles, John A; Kass, Robert E; Tarr, Michael J

    2017-06-01

    Humans are experts at face individuation. Although previous work has identified a network of face-sensitive regions and some of the temporal signatures of face processing, as yet, we do not have a clear understanding of how such face-sensitive regions support learning at different time points. To study the joint spatio-temporal neural basis of face learning, we trained subjects to categorize two groups of novel faces and recorded their neural responses using magnetoencephalography (MEG) throughout learning. A regression analysis of neural responses in face-sensitive regions against behavioral learning curves revealed significant correlations with learning in the majority of the face-sensitive regions in the face network, mostly between 150-250 ms, but also after 300 ms. However, the effect was smaller in nonventral regions (within the superior temporal areas and prefrontal cortex) than that in the ventral regions (within the inferior occipital gyri (IOG), midfusiform gyri (mFUS) and anterior temporal lobes). A multivariate discriminant analysis also revealed that IOG and mFUS, which showed strong correlation effects with learning, exhibited significant discriminability between the two face categories at different time points both between 150-250 ms and after 300 ms. In contrast, the nonventral face-sensitive regions, where correlation effects with learning were smaller, did exhibit some significant discriminability, but mainly after 300 ms. In sum, our findings indicate that early and recurring temporal components arising from ventral face-sensitive regions are critically involved in learning new faces.

  13. A Novel Face Recognition Algorithm for Distinguishing Faces with Various Angles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Zhong Lu

    2008-01-01

    In order to distinguish faces of various angles during face recognition, an algorithm of the combination of approximate dynamic programming (ADP) called action dependent heuristic dynamic programming (ADHDP) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) is presented. ADP is used for dynamically changing the values of the PSO parameters. During the process of face recognition, the discrete cosine transformation (DCT) is first introduced to reduce negative effects. Then, Karhunen-Loeve (K-L) transformation can be used to compress images and decrease data dimensions. According to principal component analysis (PCA), the main parts of vectors are extracted for data representation. Finally, radial basis function (RBF) neural network is trained to recognize various faces. The training of RBF neural network is exploited by ADP-PSO. In terms of ORL Face Database, the experimental result gives a clear view of its accurate efficiency.

  14. Comparison of face Recognition Algorithms on Dummy Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruni Singh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the age of rising crime face recognition is enormously important in the contexts of computer vision, psychology, surveillance, fraud detection, pattern recognition, neural network, content based video processing, etc. Face is a non intrusive strong biometrics for identification and hence criminals always try to hide their facial organs by different artificial means such as plastic surgery, disguise and dummy. The availability of a comprehensive face database is crucial to test the performance of these face recognition algorithms. However, while existing publicly-available face databases contain face images with a wide variety of poses, illumination, gestures and face occlusions but there is no dummy face database is available in public domain. The contributions of this research paper are: i Preparation of dummy face database of 110 subjects ii Comparison of some texture based, feature based and holistic face recognition algorithms on that dummy face database, iii Critical analysis of these types of algorithms on dummy face database.

  15. Is Face Distinctiveness Gender Based?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouin, Jean-Yves; Gallay, Mathieu

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to study the role of gender category in evaluations of face distinctiveness. In Experiment 1, participants had to evaluate the distinctiveness and the femininity-masculinity of real or artificial composite faces. The composite faces were created by blending either faces of the same gender (sexed composite faces,…

  16. Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Chao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available For many philosophers working in the area of Population Ethics, it seems that either they have to confront the Repugnant Conclusion (where they are forced to the conclusion of creating massive amounts of lives barely worth living, or they have to confront the Non-Identity Problem (where no one is seemingly harmed as their existence is dependent on the “harmful” event that took place. To them it seems there is no escape, they either have to face one problem or the other. However, there is a way around this, allowing us to escape the Repugnant Conclusion, by using what I will call Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU – which though similar to anti-frustrationism, has some important differences in practice. Current “positive” forms of utilitarianism have struggled to deal with the Repugnant Conclusion, as their theory actually entails this conclusion; however, it seems that a form of Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU easily escapes this dilemma (it never even arises within it.

  17. Perception of novel faces: the parts have it!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobmaier, Janek S; Mast, Fred W

    2007-01-01

    It has been suggested that, as a result of expertise, configural information plays a predominant role in face processing. We investigated this idea using novel and learned faces. In experiment 1, sixteen participants matched two subsequently presented blurred or scrambled faces, which could be either upright or inverted, in a sequential same -different matching task. By means of blurring, featural information is hampered, whilst scrambling disrupts configural information. Each face was unfamiliar to the participants and was presented for 1000 ms. An ANOVA on the d' values revealed a significant advantage for scrambled faces. In experiment 2, fourteen participants were tested with the same design, except that the second face was always intact. Again, the ANOVA on the d' values revealed a significant advantage for scrambled faces. In experiment 3 half of the faces were learned in a familiarisation block prior to the experiment. The ANOVA of these d' values revealed a significant interaction of familiarity and condition, showing that blurred stimuli were better recognised when the faces were familiar. These results suggest that recognition of novel faces, compared to learned faces, relies relatively more on the processing of featural information. In the course of familiarisation the importance of configural information increases.

  18. Trustworthy-looking face meets brown eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Kleisner

    Full Text Available We tested whether eye color influences perception of trustworthiness. Facial photographs of 40 female and 40 male students were rated for perceived trustworthiness. Eye color had a significant effect, the brown-eyed faces being perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones. Geometric morphometrics, however, revealed significant correlations between eye color and face shape. Thus, face shape likewise had a significant effect on perceived trustworthiness but only for male faces, the effect for female faces not being significant. To determine whether perception of trustworthiness was being influenced primarily by eye color or by face shape, we recolored the eyes on the same male facial photos and repeated the test procedure. Eye color now had no effect on perceived trustworthiness. We concluded that although the brown-eyed faces were perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones, it was not brown eye color per se that caused the stronger perception of trustworthiness but rather the facial features associated with brown eyes.

  19. Trustworthy-looking face meets brown eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleisner, Karel; Priplatova, Lenka; Frost, Peter; Flegr, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    We tested whether eye color influences perception of trustworthiness. Facial photographs of 40 female and 40 male students were rated for perceived trustworthiness. Eye color had a significant effect, the brown-eyed faces being perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones. Geometric morphometrics, however, revealed significant correlations between eye color and face shape. Thus, face shape likewise had a significant effect on perceived trustworthiness but only for male faces, the effect for female faces not being significant. To determine whether perception of trustworthiness was being influenced primarily by eye color or by face shape, we recolored the eyes on the same male facial photos and repeated the test procedure. Eye color now had no effect on perceived trustworthiness. We concluded that although the brown-eyed faces were perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones, it was not brown eye color per se that caused the stronger perception of trustworthiness but rather the facial features associated with brown eyes.

  20. Time course of implicit processing and explicit processing of emotional faces and emotional words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frühholz, Sascha; Jellinghaus, Anne; Herrmann, Manfred

    2011-05-01

    Facial expressions are important emotional stimuli during social interactions. Symbolic emotional cues, such as affective words, also convey information regarding emotions that is relevant for social communication. Various studies have demonstrated fast decoding of emotions from words, as was shown for faces, whereas others report a rather delayed decoding of information about emotions from words. Here, we introduced an implicit (color naming) and explicit task (emotion judgment) with facial expressions and words, both containing information about emotions, to directly compare the time course of emotion processing using event-related potentials (ERP). The data show that only negative faces affected task performance, resulting in increased error rates compared to neutral faces. Presentation of emotional faces resulted in a modulation of the N170, the EPN and the LPP components and these modulations were found during both the explicit and implicit tasks. Emotional words only affected the EPN during the explicit task, but a task-independent effect on the LPP was revealed. Finally, emotional faces modulated source activity in the extrastriate cortex underlying the generation of the N170, EPN and LPP components. Emotional words led to a modulation of source activity corresponding to the EPN and LPP, but they also affected the N170 source on the right hemisphere. These data show that facial expressions affect earlier stages of emotion processing compared to emotional words, but the emotional value of words may have been detected at early stages of emotional processing in the visual cortex, as was indicated by the extrastriate source activity.

  1. Low dimensional representation of face space by face-selective inferior temporal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Sina; Dehaqani, Mohammad-Reza A; Esteky, Hossein

    2017-05-01

    The representation of visual objects in primate brain is distributed and multiple neurons are involved in encoding each object. One way to understand the neural basis of object representation is to estimate the number of neural dimensions that are needed for veridical representation of object categories. In this study, the characteristics of the match between physical-shape and neural representational spaces in monkey inferior temporal (IT) cortex were evaluated. Specifically, we examined how the number of neural dimensions, stimulus behavioral saliency and stimulus category selectivity of neurons affected the correlation between shape and neural representational spaces in IT cortex. Single-unit recordings from monkey IT cortex revealed that there was a significant match between face space and its neural representation at lower neural dimensions, whereas the optimal match for the non-face objects was observed at higher neural dimensions. There was a statistically significant match between the face and neural spaces only in the face-selective neurons, whereas a significant match was observed for non-face objects in all neurons regardless of their category selectivity. Interestingly, the face neurons showed a higher match for the non-face objects than for the faces at higher neural dimensions. The optimal representation of face space in the responses of the face neurons was a low dimensional map that emerged early (~150 ms post-stimulus onset) and was followed by a high dimensional and relatively late (~300 ms) map for the non-face stimuli. These results support a multiplexing function for the face neurons in the representation of very similar shape spaces, but with different dimensionality and timing scales. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Facing Sound - Voicing Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønstrup, Ansa

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on examples of contemporary audiovisual art, with a special focus on the Tony Oursler exhibition Face to Face at Aarhus Art Museum ARoS in Denmark in March-July 2012. My investigation involves a combination of qualitative interviews with visitors, observations of the audienc......´s interactions with the exhibition and the artwork in the museum space and short analyses of individual works of art based on reception aesthetics and phenomenology and inspired by newer writings on sound, voice and listening....

  3. Conjunction Faces Alter Confidence-Accuracy Relations for Old Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinitz, Mark Tippens; Loftus, Geoffrey R.

    2017-01-01

    The authors used a state-trace methodology to investigate the informational dimensions used to recognize old and conjunction faces (made by combining parts of separately studied faces). Participants in 3 experiments saw faces presented for 1 s each. They then received a recognition test; faces were presented for varying brief durations and…

  4. Pedagogical Characteristics of Online and Face-to-Face Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuensch, Karl; Aziz, Shahnaz; Ozan, Erol; Kishore, Masao; Tabrizi, M. H. Nassehzadeh

    2008-01-01

    Currently, many students have had experience with both face-to-face and online classes. We asked such students at 46 different universities in the United States to evaluate the pedagogical characteristics of their most recently completed face-to-face class and their most recently completed online class. The results show that students rate online…

  5. Bayesian Face Recognition and Perceptual Narrowing in Face-Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    During the first year of life, infants' face recognition abilities are subject to "perceptual narrowing", the end result of which is that observers lose the ability to distinguish previously discriminable faces (e.g. other-race faces) from one another. Perceptual narrowing has been reported for faces of different species and different races, in…

  6. The Impact of Early Bilingualism on Face Recognition Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Sonia; Burfin, Sabine; Méary, David; Ruiz-Tada, Elisa; Costa, Albert; Pascalis, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Early linguistic experience has an impact on the way we decode audiovisual speech in face-to-face communication. The present study examined whether differences in visual speech decoding could be linked to a broader difference in face processing. To identify a phoneme we have to do an analysis of the speaker’s face to focus on the relevant cues for speech decoding (e.g., locating the mouth with respect to the eyes). Face recognition processes were investigated through two classic effects in face recognition studies: the Other-Race Effect (ORE) and the Inversion Effect. Bilingual and monolingual participants did a face recognition task with Caucasian faces (own race), Chinese faces (other race), and cars that were presented in an Upright or Inverted position. The results revealed that monolinguals exhibited the classic ORE. Bilinguals did not. Overall, bilinguals were slower than monolinguals. These results suggest that bilinguals’ face processing abilities differ from monolinguals’. Early exposure to more than one language may lead to a perceptual organization that goes beyond language processing and could extend to face analysis. We hypothesize that these differences could be due to the fact that bilinguals focus on different parts of the face than monolinguals, making them more efficient in other race face processing but slower. However, more studies using eye-tracking techniques are necessary to confirm this explanation. PMID:27486422

  7. The impact of early bilingualism on face recognition processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Kandel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Early linguistic experience has an impact on the way we decode audiovisual speech in face-to-face communication. The present study examined whether differences in visual speech decoding could be linked to a broader difference in face processing. To identify a phoneme we have to do an analysis of the speaker’s face to focus on the relevant cues for speech decoding (e.g., locating the mouth with respect to the eyes. Face recognition processes were investigated through two classic effects in face recognition studies: the Other Race Effect (ORE and the Inversion Effect. Bilingual and monolingual participants did a face recognition task with Caucasian faces (own race, Chinese faces (other race and cars that were presented in an Upright or Inverted position. The results revealed that monolinguals exhibited the classic ORE. Bilinguals did not. Overall, bilinguals were slower than monolinguals. These results suggest that bilinguals’ face processing abilities differ from monolinguals’. Early exposure to more than one language may lead to a perceptual organization that goes beyond language processing and could extend to face analysis. We hypothesize that these differences could be due to the fact that bilinguals focus on different parts of the face than monolinguals, making them more efficient in other race face processing but slower. However, more studies using eye-tracking techniques are necessary to confirm this explanation.

  8. Psychophysical thresholds of face visibility during infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelskov, Sofie; Kouider, Sid

    2010-01-01

    . By contrast, 15 month-olds not only revealed adult-like thresholds, but also improved their performance through memory-based strategies. Our results imply that the development of face visibility follows a non-linear course and is determined by a radical improvement occurring between 10 and 15 months....

  9. Stirring faces: mixing in a quiescent fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Brunton, Steven L

    2012-01-01

    This fluid dynamics video depicts the mixing that occurs as a two-dimensional flat plate plunges sinusoidally in a quiescent fluid. Finite-time Lyapunov exponents reveal sets that are attracting or repelling. As the flow field develops, strange faces emerge.

  10. Real Time Face Quality Assessment for Face Log Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamal, Nasrollahi; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    Summarizing a long surveillance video to just a few best quality face images of each subject, a face-log, is of great importance in surveillance systems. Face quality assessment is the back-bone for face log generation and improving the quality assessment makes the face logs more reliable....... Developing a real time face quality assessment system using the most important facial features and employing it for face logs generation are the concerns of this paper. Extensive tests using four databases are carried out to validate the usability of the system....

  11. Face recognition system and method using face pattern words and face pattern bytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yufeng

    2014-12-23

    The present invention provides a novel system and method for identifying individuals and for face recognition utilizing facial features for face identification. The system and method of the invention comprise creating facial features or face patterns called face pattern words and face pattern bytes for face identification. The invention also provides for pattern recognitions for identification other than face recognition. The invention further provides a means for identifying individuals based on visible and/or thermal images of those individuals by utilizing computer software implemented by instructions on a computer or computer system and a computer readable medium containing instructions on a computer system for face recognition and identification.

  12. Multibiometrics for face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Raymond; Deravi, Farzin; Tao, Qian

    2008-01-01

    Fusion is a popular practice to combine multiple sources of biometric information to achieve systems with greater performance and flexibility. In this paper various approaches to fusion within a multibiometrics context are considered and an application to the fusion of 2D and 3D face information is

  13. Multibiometrics for face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Deravi, Farzin; Tao, Q.

    Fusion is a popular practice to combine multiple sources of biometric information to achieve systems with greater performance and flexibility. In this paper various approaches to fusion within a multibiometrics context are considered and an application to the fusion of 2D and 3D face information is

  14. Two Faces of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Conger, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the inconsistency between Japanese exploitation of world natural resources and gestures to provide leadership in ecologically innovative technology. Explores Japanese culture, power structure, population trends, environmental ethics, industrialism, and international business practices as they relate to the philosophical face of…

  15. Bayesian Face Sketch Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nannan; Gao, Xinbo; Sun, Leiyu; Li, Jie

    2017-03-01

    Exemplar-based face sketch synthesis has been widely applied to both digital entertainment and law enforcement. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian framework for face sketch synthesis, which provides a systematic interpretation for understanding the common properties and intrinsic difference in different methods from the perspective of probabilistic graphical models. The proposed Bayesian framework consists of two parts: the neighbor selection model and the weight computation model. Within the proposed framework, we further propose a Bayesian face sketch synthesis method. The essential rationale behind the proposed Bayesian method is that we take the spatial neighboring constraint between adjacent image patches into consideration for both aforementioned models, while the state-of-the-art methods neglect the constraint either in the neighbor selection model or in the weight computation model. Extensive experiments on the Chinese University of Hong Kong face sketch database demonstrate that the proposed Bayesian method could achieve superior performance compared with the state-of-the-art methods in terms of both subjective perceptions and objective evaluations.

  16. Facing Up to Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Elizabeth Kubler

    1972-01-01

    Doctor urges that Americans accept death as a part of life and suggests ways of helping dying patients and their families face reality calmly, with peace. Dying children and their siblings, as well as children's feelings about relatives' deaths, are also discussed. (PD)

  17. Autonomous Face Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    and Rhea Diamond. "From Piecemeal to Configurational Repre- sentation of Faces," Science, 195:312-314 (Jan 1977). 3. Damasio , Antonio R...34Prosopagnosia," Trends in Neuroscience, 8:132-135 (1985). 4. Damasio , Antonio R. and others. "Prosopagnosia: Anatomic Basis and Behav- ioral Mechanisms

  18. PrimeFaces blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Jonna, Sudheer

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with experience of frontend UI development, and want to take the plunge to develop stunning UI applications with the most popular JSF framework, PrimeFaces, then this book is for you. For those with entrepreneurial aspirations, this book will provide valuable insights into how to utilize successful business models.

  19. Facing Up to Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Elizabeth Kubler

    1972-01-01

    Doctor urges that Americans accept death as a part of life and suggests ways of helping dying patients and their families face reality calmly, with peace. Dying children and their siblings, as well as children's feelings about relatives' deaths, are also discussed. (PD)

  20. Treatment with escitalopram improves the attentional bias toward negative facial expressions in patients with major depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhenhe; Cao, Suxia; Li, Hengfen; Li, Youhui

    2015-10-01

    We hypothesized that treatment with escitalopram would improve cognitive bias and contribute to the recovery process for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Many previous studies have established that patients with MDD tend to pay selective attention to negative stimuli. The assessment of the level of cognitive bias is regarded as a crucial dimension of treatment outcomes for MDD. To our knowledge, no prior studies have been reported on the effects of treatment with escitalopram on attentional bias in MDD, employing a dot probe task of facial expression. We studied 25 patients with MDD and 25 controls, and used a dot probe task of facial expression to measure cognitive bias. The patients' psychopathologies were rated using the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) at baseline and after 8 weeks of treatment with escitalopram. All participants performed the facial expression dot probe task. The results revealed that the 8 week escitalopram treatment decreased the HAMD scores. The patients with MDD at baseline exhibited an attentional bias towards negative faces, however, no significant bias toward either negative or happy faces were observed in the controls. After the 8 week escitalopram treatment, no significant bias toward negative faces was observed in the patient group. In conclusion, patients with MDD pay more attention to negative facial expressions, and treatment with escitalopram improves this attentional bias toward negative facial expressions. This is the first study, to our knowledge, on the effects of treatment with escitalopram on attentional bias in patients with MDD that has employed a dot probe task of facial expression.

  1. Neural mechanisms underlying the effects of face-based affective signals on memory for faces: a tentative model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukiura, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    In our daily lives, we form some impressions of other people. Although those impressions are affected by many factors, face-based affective signals such as facial expression, facial attractiveness, or trustworthiness are important. Previous psychological studies have demonstrated the impact of facial impressions on remembering other people, but little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying this psychological process. The purpose of this article is to review recent functional MRI (fMRI) studies to investigate the effects of face-based affective signals including facial expression, facial attractiveness, and trustworthiness on memory for faces, and to propose a tentative concept for understanding this affective-cognitive interaction. On the basis of the aforementioned research, three brain regions are potentially involved in the processing of face-based affective signals. The first candidate is the amygdala, where activity is generally modulated by both affectively positive and negative signals from faces. Activity in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), as the second candidate, increases as a function of perceived positive signals from faces; whereas activity in the insular cortex, as the third candidate, reflects a function of face-based negative signals. In addition, neuroscientific studies have reported that the three regions are functionally connected to the memory-related hippocampal regions. These findings suggest that the effects of face-based affective signals on memory for faces could be modulated by interactions between the regions associated with the processing of face-based affective signals and the hippocampus as a memory-related region. PMID:22837740

  2. Age-Dependent Face Detection and Face Categorization Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Claus-Christian Carbon; Martina Grüter; Thomas Grüter

    2013-01-01

    Empirical studies on the development of face processing skills with age show inconsistent patterns concerning qualitative vs. quantitative changes over time or the age range for peak cognitive performance. In the present study, we tested the proficiency in face detection and face categorization with a large sample of participants (N = 312; age range: 2-88 yrs). As test objects, we used so-called Mooney faces, two-tone (black and white) images of faces lacking critical information of a local, ...

  3. This study aims at examining the effects of electronic banking on banks profitability in Jordan. How banking sector finds itself before a new fact imposed by technology revolution and digits to change their work mechanisms from traditional means to electronic means and the challenges banks face as a result. Furthermore, this study investigates the reasons behinds providing electronic banking services through internet, their impact on banking services in general and banks profitability in particular. Risks and challenges involved are discussed Results and recommendations are included. Results revealed that electronic banking service has a negative effect on banks profitability on the short term. The importance of this study and the factors that make it unique is that, it discusses solely the topic of the effects of electronic banking on banks profitability, while most of other studies discuss the topic in general term. The findings of the study are the impact of electronic banking on banks profitability will be feature of the short run due to the capital investment by the banks on infrastructure and training but will be positive on the long run.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Z. Siam

    2006-01-01

    This study aims at examining the effects of electronic banking on banks profitability in Jordan. How banking sector finds itself before a new fact imposed by technology revolution and digits to change their work mechanisms from traditional means to electronic means and the challenges banks face as a result. Furthermore, this study investigates the reasons behinds providing electronic banking services through internet, their impact on banking services in general and banks profitability in part...

  4. Face aftereffects predict individual differences in face recognition ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennett, Hugh W; McKone, Elinor; Edwards, Mark; Susilo, Tirta

    2012-01-01

    Face aftereffects are widely studied on the assumption that they provide a useful tool for investigating face-space coding of identity. However, a long-standing issue concerns the extent to which face aftereffects originate in face-level processes as opposed to earlier stages of visual processing. For example, some recent studies failed to find atypical face aftereffects in individuals with clinically poor face recognition. We show that in individuals within the normal range of face recognition abilities, there is an association between face memory ability and a figural face aftereffect that is argued to reflect the steepness of broadband-opponent neural response functions in underlying face-space. We further show that this correlation arises from face-level processing, by reporting results of tests of nonface memory and nonface aftereffects. We conclude that face aftereffects can tap high-level face-space, and that face-space coding differs in quality between individuals and contributes to face recognition ability.

  5. Nonverbal behavior during face-to-face social interaction in schizophrenia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Mary; Healey, Patrick G T; McCabe, Rosemarie

    2014-01-01

    Patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia display social cognitive deficits. However, little is known about patients' nonverbal communication during their social encounters with others. This review identified 17 studies investigating nonverbal communication in patients' unscripted face-to-face interactions, addressing a) nonverbal differences between patients and others, b) nonverbal behavior of the patients' partners, c) the association between nonverbal behavior and symptoms, and d) the association between nonverbal behavior and social outcomes. Patients displayed fewer nonverbal behaviors inviting interaction, with negative symptoms exacerbating this pattern. Positive symptoms were associated with heightened nonverbal behavior. Patients' partners changed their own nonverbal behavior in response to the patient. Reduced prosocial behaviors, inviting interaction, were associated with poorer social outcomes. The evidence suggests that patients' nonverbal behavior, during face-to-face interaction, is influenced by patients symptoms and impacts the success of their social interactions.

  6. Human faces are slower than chimpanzee faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M Burrows

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While humans (like other primates communicate with facial expressions, the evolution of speech added a new function to the facial muscles (facial expression muscles. The evolution of speech required the development of a coordinated action between visual (movement of the lips and auditory signals in a rhythmic fashion to produce "visemes" (visual movements of the lips that correspond to specific sounds. Visemes depend upon facial muscles to regulate shape of the lips, which themselves act as speech articulators. This movement necessitates a more controlled, sustained muscle contraction than that produced during spontaneous facial expressions which occur rapidly and last only a short period of time. Recently, it was found that human tongue musculature contains a higher proportion of slow-twitch myosin fibers than in rhesus macaques, which is related to the slower, more controlled movements of the human tongue in the production of speech. Are there similar unique, evolutionary physiologic biases found in human facial musculature related to the evolution of speech? METHODOLOGY/PRINICIPAL FINDINGS: Using myosin immunohistochemistry, we tested the hypothesis that human facial musculature has a higher percentage of slow-twitch myosin fibers relative to chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. We sampled the orbicularis oris and zygomaticus major muscles from three cadavers of each species and compared proportions of fiber-types. Results confirmed our hypothesis: humans had the highest proportion of slow-twitch myosin fibers while chimpanzees had the highest proportion of fast-twitch fibers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate that the human face is slower than that of rhesus macaques and our closest living relative, the chimpanzee. They also support the assertion that human facial musculature and speech co-evolved. Further, these results suggest a unique set of evolutionary selective pressures on

  7. Neural correlates of recognition memory for emotional faces and scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keightley, Michelle L; Chiew, Kimberly S; Anderson, John A E; Grady, Cheryl L

    2011-01-01

    We examined the influence of emotional valence and type of item to be remembered on brain activity during recognition, using faces and scenes. We used multivariate analyses of event-related fMRI data to identify whole-brain patterns, or networks of activity. Participants demonstrated better recognition for scenes vs faces and for negative vs neutral and positive items. Activity was increased in extrastriate cortex and inferior frontal gyri for emotional scenes, relative to neutral scenes and all face types. Increased activity in these regions also was seen for negative faces relative to positive faces. Correct recognition of negative faces and scenes (hits vs correct rejections) was associated with increased activity in amygdala, hippocampus, extrastriate, frontal and parietal cortices. Activity specific to correctly recognized emotional faces, but not scenes, was found in sensorimotor areas and rostral prefrontal cortex. These results suggest that emotional valence and type of visual stimulus both modulate brain activity at recognition, and influence multiple networks mediating visual, memory and emotion processing. The contextual information in emotional scenes may facilitate memory via additional visual processing, whereas memory for emotional faces may rely more on cognitive control mediated by rostrolateral prefrontal regions.

  8. Social and emotional relevance in face processing: Happy faces of future interaction partners enhance the LPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian eBublatzky

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Human face perception is modulated by both emotional valence and social relevance, but their interaction has rarely been examined. Event-related brain potentials (ERP to happy, neutral, and angry facial expressions with different degrees of social relevance were recorded. Social relevance was manipulated by presenting pictures of two specific face actors as future interaction partners (meet condition, whereas two other face actors remained non-relevant. As a further control condition all stimuli were presented without specific task instructions (passive viewing condition. A within-subject design (Facial Expression x Relevance x Task was implemented, where randomly ordered face stimuli of four actors (2 women, from the KDEF were presented for 1s to 26 participants (16 female. Results showed an augmented N170, early posterior negativity (EPN, and late positive potential (LPP for emotional in contrast to neutral facial expressions. Of particular interest, face processing varied as a function of instructed social relevance. Whereas the meet condition was accompanied with unspecific effects regardless of relevance (P1, EPN, viewing potential interaction partners was associated with increased LPP amplitudes. The LPP was specifically enhanced for happy facial expressions of the future interaction partners. This underscores that social relevance can impact face processing already at an early stage of visual processing. These findings are discussed within the framework of motivated attention and face processing theories.

  9. Eigenvector Weighting Function in Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang Ying Han

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Graph-based subspace learning is a class of dimensionality reduction technique in face recognition. The technique reveals the local manifold structure of face data that hidden in the image space via a linear projection. However, the real world face data may be too complex to measure due to both external imaging noises and the intra-class variations of the face images. Hence, features which are extracted by the graph-based technique could be noisy. An appropriate weight should be imposed to the data features for better data discrimination. In this paper, a piecewise weighting function, known as Eigenvector Weighting Function (EWF, is proposed and implemented in two graph based subspace learning techniques, namely Locality Preserving Projection and Neighbourhood Preserving Embedding. Specifically, the computed projection subspace of the learning approach is decomposed into three partitions: a subspace due to intra-class variations, an intrinsic face subspace, and a subspace which is attributed to imaging noises. Projected data features are weighted differently in these subspaces to emphasize the intrinsic face subspace while penalizing the other two subspaces. Experiments on FERET and FRGC databases are conducted to show the promising performance of the proposed technique.

  10. Giant Merkel Cell Carcinoma Involving the Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savaş Yaylı

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare, aggressive, malignant cutaneous tumor. It usually appears on the sun-exposed areas such as the head and neck in the elderly. A 72-year-old female patient was admitted to our clinic with the complaints of a big mass on her face. She described that the mass on her left cheek rapidly grew in three months. Her family and own medical history was unremarkable for skin cancers. On physical examination, there were no pathological findings except for a palpable submandibular lymphadenopathy. Dermatological examination revealed a giant tumoral lesion 9x9 cm in diameter, containing crusted and ulcerated areas on her left cheek. Histopathological examination of the specimen obtained from the lesion showed a neoplastic infiltration consisting small, atypic cells with big, round, hyperchromatic nucleus, narrow cytoplasms, and prominent nucleoulus in some areas, showing high mitotic activity. The neoplasm, which had apoptotic bodies and necrobiosis, also invaded the full thickness of the skin, and the epidermis was very thin. In immunochemistry, CK20 was strongly positive, S100 was focally positive, and EMA was positive, while synaptophysin, chromogranin, vimentin, CD3, CD20, as well as CD45, and CD99 were all negative. Based on these findings, the patient was diagnosed as having Merkel cell carcinoma. On the systemic screening for metastases, nodular lesions in the lungs compatible with metastases were detected on computed tomography. By the consultations with plastic and reconstructive surgeons and oncologists, she was accepted as inoperable and etoposide monotherapy was administered. In this report, we aimed to underline the importance of early diagnosis while presenting a case of giant Merkel cell carcinoma which shows an aggressive progression with lung metastases.

  11. Asymmetric neurocognitive representation of ethnic in-group/out-group faces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA YiNa; GE JianQiao; XU XiaoJing; FAN Yan; YANG ShengMin; HAN ShiHui

    2009-01-01

    To investigate asymmetric neurocognitive representation of ethnic in-group and out-group members,we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) to faces in a perceptual task after the faces had been primed with positive or negative affective links. The affective link priming did not influence the ERPs to ethnic out-group faces. However, relative to the positive affective link priming, the negative affective link priming increased the amplitudes of an early frontal negativity (N100) and a following central negativity but decreased the amplitude of a late positive potential elicited by ethnic in-group faces.Moreover, the N100 amplitude correlated with the degree of negative attitudes towards ethnic in-group faces. The findings suggest that multiple-level neural mechanisms are involved in individuation of heterogeneous ethnic in-group faces.

  12. Measuring sexual dimorphism with a race-gender face space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, William J; Finklea, Kristin M; Winkielman, Piotr; Huber, David E

    2014-10-01

    Faces are complex visual objects, and faces chosen to vary in 1 regard may unintentionally vary in other ways, particularly if the correlation is a property of the population of faces. Here, we present an example of a correlation that arises from differences in the degree of sexual dimorphism. In Experiment 1, paired similarity ratings were collected for a set of 40 real face images chosen to vary in terms of gender and race (Asian vs. White). Multidimensional scaling (MDS) placed these stimuli in a "face space," with different attributes corresponding to different dimensions. Gender was found to vary more for White faces, resulting in a negative or positive correlation between gender and race when only considering male or only considering female faces. This increased sexual dimorphism for White faces may provide an alternative explanation for differences in face processing between White and Asian faces (e.g., the own-race bias, face attractiveness biases, etc.). Studies of face processing that are unconfounded by this difference in the degree of sexual dimorphism require stimuli that are decorrelated in terms of race and gender. Decorrelated faces were created using a morphing technique, spacing the morphs uniformly around a ring in the 2-dimensional (2D) race-gender plane. In Experiment 2, paired similarity ratings confirmed the 2D positions of the morph faces. In Experiment 3, race and gender category judgments varied uniformly for these decorrelated stimuli. Our results and stimuli should prove useful for studying sexual dimorphism and for the study of face processing more generally.

  13. Automated Face Recognition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    atestfOl.feature-vectjJ -averageljJ); for(j=l; <num-coefsj++) for(i= 5 num-train-faces;i++) sdlQjI -(btrainhil.feaure..vecU1- veagU (btraintil.feature- vecU ... vecU ])* (atest(O1.feature-vecUJ - btrain[iI.feature- vecU ]) + temp; btrain(ii.distance = sqrt ( (double) temp); I**** Store the k-nearest neighbors rank

  14. Auto Industry Faces Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A number of indicators show that China's auto industry is facing a new round of large-scale restructuring. When the global auto industry was undergoing reorganization 10 years ago, China's auto industry was in its early stages, acting in a relatively closed market, and thus it missed out on that important event. However, the situation is different today. In the past decade, China's auto industry has grown at a rapid pace. While the world's major transnational companies are

  15. Negation and negative concord in romance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, Henriëtte de; Sag, I.A.

    This paper addresses the two interpretations a combination of negative indefinites can get in concord languages like French, namely a concord reading which amounts to a single negation, or a double negation reading. We develop an analysis in a polyadic framework, in which a sequence of

  16. Decoding of faces and face components in face-sensitive human visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F Nichols

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A great challenge to the field of visual neuroscience is to understand how faces are encoded and represented within the human brain. Here we show evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI for spatially distributed processing of the whole face and its components in face-sensitive human visual cortex. We used multi-class linear pattern classifiers constructed with a leave-one-scan-out verification procedure to discriminate brain activation patterns elicited by whole faces, the internal features alone, and the external head outline alone. Furthermore, our results suggest that whole faces are represented disproportionately in the fusiform cortex (FFA whereas the building blocks of faces are represented disproportionately in occipitotemporal cortex (OFA. Faces and face components may therefore be organized with functional clustering within both the FFA and OFA, but with specialization for face components in the OFA and the whole face in the FFA.

  17. Face-space: A unifying concept in face recognition research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Tim; Lewis, Michael B; Hills, Peter J

    2016-10-01

    The concept of a multidimensional psychological space, in which faces can be represented according to their perceived properties, is fundamental to the modern theorist in face processing. Yet the idea was not clearly expressed until 1991. The background that led to the development of face-space is explained, and its continuing influence on theories of face processing is discussed. Research that has explored the properties of the face-space and sought to understand caricature, including facial adaptation paradigms, is reviewed. Face-space as a theoretical framework for understanding the effect of ethnicity and the development of face recognition is evaluated. Finally, two applications of face-space in the forensic setting are discussed. From initially being presented as a model to explain distinctiveness, inversion, and the effect of ethnicity, face-space has become a central pillar in many aspects of face processing. It is currently being developed to help us understand adaptation effects with faces. While being in principle a simple concept, face-space has shaped, and continues to shape, our understanding of face perception.

  18. Exploring individual differences in online and face-to-face help-seeking intentions in case of impending mental health problems: The role of adult attachment, perceived social support, psychological distress and self-stigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Apolinário-Hagen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Even though common mental health problems such as depression are a global burden calling for efficient prevention strategies, still many distressed individuals face hurdles to access public mental healthcare. Thus, computerized Internet-based psychological services have been suggested as viable approach to overcome barriers, such as self-stigma, and to inform the access to professional support on a large scale. However, little research has targeted predictors of online and face-to-face help-seeking intentions. Objective: This study aimed at determining whether associations between attachment insecurity and the willingness to seek online versus face-to-face counselling in case of impending emotional problems are mediated by both perceived social support and psychological distress and moderated by self-stigma. Methods: Data was collected from 301 adults from the German-speaking general population (age: M = 34.42, SD = 11.23; range: 18 - 65 years; 72.1% female through an anonymous online survey. Determinants of seeking help were assessed with the self-report measures Experiences in Close Relationship-Scale, Perceived Stress Questionnaire, ENRICHD-Social Support Inventory and an adapted version of the General Help Seeking Questionnaire (i.e. case vignette. Mediation analyses were performed with the SPSS-macro PROCESS by Hayes. Results: About half of the sample indicated being not aware of online counselling. As expected, insecure attachment was associated with less perceived social support and increased psychological distress. Mediational analyses revealed negative relationships between both attachment avoidance and self-stigma with face-to-face help-seeking intentions. Moreover, the relationship between attachment anxiety and the willingness to seek face-to-face counselling was mediated by social support. In contrast, none of the predictors of online counselling was statistically significant. Conclusions: Overall, this study identified

  19. Olfactory-visual integration facilitates perception of subthreshold negative emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Lucas R; Gitelman, Darren R; Schuyler, Brianna; Li, Wen

    2015-10-01

    A fast growing literature of multisensory emotion integration notwithstanding, the chemical senses, intimately associated with emotion, have been largely overlooked. Moreover, an ecologically highly relevant principle of "inverse effectiveness", rendering maximal integration efficacy with impoverished sensory input, remains to be assessed in emotion integration. Presenting minute, subthreshold negative (vs. neutral) cues in faces and odors, we demonstrated olfactory-visual emotion integration in improved emotion detection (especially among individuals with weaker perception of unimodal negative cues) and response enhancement in the amygdala. Moreover, while perceptual gain for visual negative emotion involved the posterior superior temporal sulcus/pSTS, perceptual gain for olfactory negative emotion engaged both the associative olfactory (orbitofrontal) cortex and amygdala. Dynamic causal modeling (DCM) analysis of fMRI timeseries further revealed connectivity strengthening among these areas during crossmodal emotion integration. That multisensory (but not low-level unisensory) areas exhibited both enhanced response and region-to-region coupling favors a top-down (vs. bottom-up) account for olfactory-visual emotion integration. Current findings thus confirm the involvement of multisensory convergence areas, while highlighting unique characteristics of olfaction-related integration. Furthermore, successful crossmodal binding of subthreshold aversive cues not only supports the principle of "inverse effectiveness" in emotion integration but also accentuates the automatic, unconscious quality of crossmodal emotion synthesis.

  20. Deep sequencing of the TP53 gene reveals a potential risk allele for non-small cell lung cancer and supports the negative prognostic value of TP53 variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deben, Christophe; Van den Bossche, Jolien; Van Der Steen, Nele; Lardon, Filip; Wouters, An; de Beeck, Ken Op; Hermans, Christophe; Jacobs, Julie; Peeters, Marc; Van Camp, Guy; Rolfo, Christian; Deschoolmeester, Vanessa; Pauwels, Patrick

    2017-02-01

    The TP53 gene remains the most frequently altered gene in human cancer, of which variants are associated with cancer risk, therapy resistance, and poor prognosis in several tumor types. To determine the true prognostic value of TP53 variants in non-small cell lung cancer, this study conducted further research, particularly focusing on subtype and tumor stage. Therefore, we determined the TP53 status of 97 non-small cell lung cancer adenocarcinoma patients using next generation deep sequencing technology and defined the prognostic value of frequently occurring single nucleotide polymorphisms and mutations in the TP53 gene. Inactivating TP53 mutations acted as a predictor for both worse overall and progression-free survival in stage II-IV patients and patients treated with DNA-damaging (neo)adjuvant therapy. In stage I tumors, the Pro-allele of the TP53 R72P polymorphism acted as a predictor for worse overall survival. In addition, we detected the rare R213R (rs1800372, minor allele frequency: 0.0054) polymorphism in 7.2% of the patients and are the first to show the significant association with TP53 mutations in non-small cell lung cancer adenocarcinoma patients (p = 0.003). In conclusion, Our findings show an important role for TP53 variants as negative predictors for the outcome of non-small cell lung cancer adenocarcinoma patients, especially for TP53 inactivating mutations in advanced stage tumors treated with DNA-damaging agents, and provide the first evidence of the R213R G-allele as possible risk factor for non-small cell lung cancer.

  1. Escaping Embarrassment: Face-Work in the Rap Cipher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jooyoung

    2009-01-01

    How do individuals escape embarrassing moments in interaction? Drawing from ethnographic fieldwork, in-depth interviews, and video recordings of weekly street corner ciphers (impromptu rap sessions), this paper expands Goffman's theory of defensive and protective face-work. The findings reveal formulaic and indirect dimensions of face-work. First,…

  2. Escaping Embarrassment: Face-Work in the Rap Cipher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jooyoung

    2009-01-01

    How do individuals escape embarrassing moments in interaction? Drawing from ethnographic fieldwork, in-depth interviews, and video recordings of weekly street corner ciphers (impromptu rap sessions), this paper expands Goffman's theory of defensive and protective face-work. The findings reveal formulaic and indirect dimensions of face-work. First,…

  3. Age-dependent face detection and face categorization performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon, Claus-Christian; Grüter, Martina; Grüter, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Empirical studies on the development of face processing skills with age show inconsistent patterns concerning qualitative vs. quantitative changes over time or the age range for peak cognitive performance. In the present study, we tested the proficiency in face detection and face categorization with a large sample of participants (N = 312; age range: 2-88 yrs). As test objects, we used so-called Mooney faces, two-tone (black and white) images of faces lacking critical information of a local, featural and relational nature, reflecting difficult real world face processing conditions. We found that performance in the assessment of gender and age from Mooney faces increases up to about age 15, and decreases from 65 years on. The implications of these findings are discussed in the light of classic and recent findings from face development literature.

  4. A comparative study of face processing using scrambled faces

    OpenAIRE

    Taubert, Jessica; Aagten-Murphy, David; Parr, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    It is a widespread assumption that all primate species process faces in the same way because the species are closely related and they engage in similar social interactions. However, this approach ignores potentially interesting and informative differences that may exist between species. This paper describes a comparative study of holistic face processing. Twelve subjects (six chimpanzees Pan troglodytes and six rhesus monkeys Macaca mulatta) were trained to discriminate whole faces (faces wit...

  5. Negative Ion Photoelectron Spectroscopy Reveals Remarkable Noninnocence of Ligands in Nickel Bis(dithiolene) Complexes [Ni(dddt) 2 ] - and [Ni(edo) 2 ] -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xing; Hou, Gao-Lei; Wang, Xuefeng; Wang, Xue-Bin

    2016-04-21

    [Ni(dddt)2] (dddt = 5,6-dihydro-1,4-dithiine-2,3-dithiolate) and [Ni(edo)2] (edo = 5,6-dihydro-1,4-dioxine-2,3-dithiolate) are two donor-type nickel bis(dithiolene) complexes, with the tendency of donating low binding energy electrons. These two structurally similar complexes differ only with respect to the outer atoms in the ligand framework where the former has four S atoms while the latter has four O atoms. Herein, we report a negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy (NIPES) study on these two complexes to probe electronic structures of the anions and their corresponding neutrals. The NIPE spectra exhibit the adiabatic electron detachment energy (ADE) or, equivalently, the electron affinity (EA) of the neutral [Ni(L)2]0 to be relatively low for this type complexes, 2.780 and 2.375 eV for L = dddt and edo, respectively. The 0.4 eV difference in ADEs shows significant substitution effect for sulfur in dddt by oxygen in edo, i.e., noninnocence of the ligands, which has decreased the electronic stability of [Ni(edo)2] by lowering its electron binding energy by ~0.4 eV. The observed substitution effect on gas-phase EA values correlates well with the measured redox potentials for [Ni(dddt)2]–/0 and [Ni(edo)2]–/0 in solutions. The singlet-triplet splitting (ΔEST) of [Ni(dddt)2]0 and [Ni(edo)2]0 is also determined from the spectra to be 0.57 and 0.53 eV, respectively. Accompanying DFT calculations and molecular orbital (MO) composition analyses show significant ligand contributions to the redox MOs and allow the components of the orbitals involved in each electronic transition and spectral assignments to be identified.

  6. Gene network and pathway analysis of bovine mammary tissue challenged with Streptococcus uberis reveals induction of cell proliferation and inhibition of PPARγ signaling as potential mechanism for the negative relationships between immune response and lipid metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Zas Sandra L

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information generated via microarrays might uncover interactions between the mammary gland and Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis that could help identify control measures for the prevention and spread of S. uberis mastitis, as well as improve overall animal health and welfare, and decrease economic losses to dairy farmers. The main objective of this study was to determine the most affected gene networks and pathways in mammary tissue in response to an intramammary infection (IMI with S. uberis and relate these with other physiological measurements associated with immune and/or metabolic responses to mastitis challenge with S. uberis O140J. Results Streptococcus uberis IMI resulted in 2,102 (1,939 annotated differentially expressed genes (DEG. Within this set of DEG, we uncovered 20 significantly enriched canonical pathways (with 20 to 61 genes each, the majority of which were signaling pathways. Among the most inhibited were LXR/RXR Signaling and PPARα/RXRα Signaling. Pathways activated by IMI were IL-10 Signaling and IL-6 Signaling which likely reflected counter mechanisms of mammary tissue to respond to infection. Of the 2,102 DEG, 1,082 were up-regulated during IMI and were primarily involved with the immune response, e.g., IL6, TNF, IL8, IL10, SELL, LYZ, and SAA3. Genes down-regulated (1,020 included those associated with milk fat synthesis, e.g., LPIN1, LPL, CD36, and BTN1A1. Network analysis of DEG indicated that TNF had positive relationships with genes involved with immune system function (e.g., CD14, IL8, IL1B, and TLR2 and negative relationships with genes involved with lipid metabolism (e.g., GPAM, SCD, FABP4, CD36, and LPL and antioxidant activity (SOD1. Conclusion Results provided novel information into the early signaling and metabolic pathways in mammary tissue that are associated with the innate immune response to S. uberis infection. Our study indicated that IMI challenge with S. uberis (strain O140J elicited

  7. Face-to-Face Interference in Typical and Atypical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riby, Deborah M.; Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth; Whittle, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Visual communication cues facilitate interpersonal communication. It is important that we look at faces to retrieve and subsequently process such cues. It is also important that we sometimes look away from faces as they increase cognitive load that may interfere with online processing. Indeed, when typically developing individuals hold face gaze…

  8. Contextual Valence and Sociality Jointly Influence the Early and Later Stages of Neutral Face Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengsi Xu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated that face perception is influenced by emotional contextual information. However, because facial expressions are routinely decoded and understood during social communication, sociality should also be considered—that is, it seems necessary to explore whether emotional contextual effects are influenced by the sociality of contextual information. Furthermore, although one behavioural study has explored the effects of context on selective attention to faces, the exact underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Therefore, the current study investigated how valence and sociality of contextual information influenced the early and later stages of neutral face processing. We first employed an established affective learning procedure, wherein neutral faces were paired with verbal information that differed in valence (negative, neutral and sociality (social, non-social, to manipulate contextual information. Then, to explore the effects of context on face perception, participants performed a face perception task, while the N170, early posterior negativity (EPN, and late positive potential (LPP components were measured. Finally, to explore the effects of context on selective attention, participants performed a dot probe task while the N2pc was recorded. The results showed that, in the face perception task, faces paired with negative social information elicited greater EPN and LPP than did faces paired with neutral social information; no differences existed between faces paired with negative and neutral non-social information. In the dot probe task, faces paired with negative social information elicited a more negative N2pc amplitude (indicating attentional bias than did faces paired with neutral social information; the N2pc did not differ between faces paired with negative and neutral non-social information. Together, these results suggest that contextual information influenced both face perception and selective attention, and

  9. Contextual Valence and Sociality Jointly Influence the Early and Later Stages of Neutral Face Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengsi; Li, Zhiai; Diao, Liuting; Fan, Lingxia; Yang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that face perception is influenced by emotional contextual information. However, because facial expressions are routinely decoded and understood during social communication, sociality should also be considered-that is, it seems necessary to explore whether emotional contextual effects are influenced by the sociality of contextual information. Furthermore, although one behavioral study has explored the effects of context on selective attention to faces, the exact underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Therefore, the current study investigated how valence and sociality of contextual information influenced the early and later stages of neutral face processing. We first employed an established affective learning procedure, wherein neutral faces were paired with verbal information that differed in valence (negative, neutral) and sociality (social, non-social), to manipulate contextual information. Then, to explore the effects of context on face perception, participants performed a face perception task, while the N170, early posterior negativity (EPN), and late positive potential (LPP) components were measured. Finally, to explore the effects of context on selective attention, participants performed a dot probe task while the N2pc was recorded. The results showed that, in the face perception task, faces paired with negative social information elicited greater EPN and LPP than did faces paired with neutral social information; no differences existed between faces paired with negative and neutral non-social information. In the dot probe task, faces paired with negative social information elicited a more negative N2pc amplitude (indicating attentional bias) than did faces paired with neutral social information; the N2pc did not differ between faces paired with negative and neutral non-social information. Together, these results suggest that contextual information influenced both face perception and selective attention, and these context

  10. Interference between face and non-face domains of perceptual expertise: a replication and extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curby, Kim M; Gauthier, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    As car expertise increases, so does interference between the visual processing of faces and that of cars; this suggests performance trade-offs across domains of real-world expertise. Such interference between expert domains has been previously revealed in a relatively complex design, interleaving 2-back part-judgment task with faces and cars (Gauthier et al., 2003). However, the basis of this interference is unclear. Experiment 1A replicated the finding of interference between faces and cars, as a function of car expertise. Experiments 1B and 2 investigated the mechanisms underlying this effect by (1) providing baseline measures of performance and (2) assessing the specificity of this interference effect. Our findings support the presence of expertise-dependent interference between face and non-face domains of expertise. However, surprisingly, it is in the condition where faces are processed among cars with a disrupted configuration where expertise has a greater influence on faces. This finding highlights how expertise-related processing changes also occur for transformed objects of expertise and that such changes can also drive interference across domains of expertise.

  11. Evidence for view-invariant face recognition units in unfamiliar face learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchells, David B; Brooks, Joseph L; Johnston, Robert A

    2017-05-01

    Many models of face recognition incorporate the idea of a face recognition unit (FRU), an abstracted representation formed from each experience of a face which aids recognition under novel viewing conditions. Some previous studies have failed to find evidence of this FRU representation. Here, we report three experiments which investigated this theoretical construct by modifying the face learning procedure from that in previous work. During learning, one or two views of previously unfamiliar faces were shown to participants in a serial matching task. Later, participants attempted to recognize both seen and novel views of the learned faces (recognition phase). Experiment 1 tested participants' recognition of a novel view, a day after learning. Experiment 2 was identical, but tested participants on the same day as learning. Experiment 3 repeated Experiment 1, but tested participants on a novel view that was outside the rotation of those views learned. Results revealed a significant advantage, across all experiments, for recognizing a novel view when two views had been learned compared to single view learning. The observed view invariance supports the notion that an FRU representation is established during multi-view face learning under particular learning conditions.

  12. Face Patch Resting State Networks Link Face Processing to Social Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwiedrzik, Caspar M; Zarco, Wilbert; Everling, Stefan; Freiwald, Winrich A

    2015-01-01

    Faces transmit a wealth of social information. How this information is exchanged between face-processing centers and brain areas supporting social cognition remains largely unclear. Here we identify these routes using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in macaque monkeys. We find that face areas functionally connect to specific regions within frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices, as well as subcortical structures supporting emotive, mnemonic, and cognitive functions. This establishes the existence of an extended face-recognition system in the macaque. Furthermore, the face patch resting state networks and the default mode network in monkeys show a pattern of overlap akin to that between the social brain and the default mode network in humans: this overlap specifically includes the posterior superior temporal sulcus, medial parietal, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, areas supporting high-level social cognition in humans. Together, these results reveal the embedding of face areas into larger brain networks and suggest that the resting state networks of the face patch system offer a new, easily accessible venue into the functional organization of the social brain and into the evolution of possibly uniquely human social skills.

  13. Face Patch Resting State Networks Link Face Processing to Social Cognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caspar M Schwiedrzik

    Full Text Available Faces transmit a wealth of social information. How this information is exchanged between face-processing centers and brain areas supporting social cognition remains largely unclear. Here we identify these routes using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in macaque monkeys. We find that face areas functionally connect to specific regions within frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices, as well as subcortical structures supporting emotive, mnemonic, and cognitive functions. This establishes the existence of an extended face-recognition system in the macaque. Furthermore, the face patch resting state networks and the default mode network in monkeys show a pattern of overlap akin to that between the social brain and the default mode network in humans: this overlap specifically includes the posterior superior temporal sulcus, medial parietal, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, areas supporting high-level social cognition in humans. Together, these results reveal the embedding of face areas into larger brain networks and suggest that the resting state networks of the face patch system offer a new, easily accessible venue into the functional organization of the social brain and into the evolution of possibly uniquely human social skills.

  14. Cortical Thickness in Fusiform Face Area Predicts Face and Object Recognition Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGugin, Rankin W; Van Gulick, Ana E; Gauthier, Isabel

    2016-02-01

    The fusiform face area (FFA) is defined by its selectivity for faces. Several studies have shown that the response of FFA to nonface objects can predict behavioral performance for these objects. However, one possible account is that experts pay more attention to objects in their domain of expertise, driving signals up. Here, we show an effect of expertise with nonface objects in FFA that cannot be explained by differential attention to objects of expertise. We explore the relationship between cortical thickness of FFA and face and object recognition using the Cambridge Face Memory Test and Vanderbilt Expertise Test, respectively. We measured cortical thickness in functionally defined regions in a group of men who evidenced functional expertise effects for cars in FFA. Performance with faces and objects together accounted for approximately 40% of the variance in cortical thickness of several FFA patches. Whereas participants with a thicker FFA cortex performed better with vehicles, those with a thinner FFA cortex performed better with faces and living objects. The results point to a domain-general role of FFA in object perception and reveal an interesting double dissociation that does not contrast faces and objects but rather living and nonliving objects.

  15. Challenges facing production grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Today's global communities of users expect quality of service from distributed Grid systems equivalent to that their local data centers. This must be coupled to ubiquitous access to the ensemble of processing and storage resources across multiple Grid infrastructures. We are still facing significant challenges in meeting these expectations, especially in the underlying security, a sustainable and successful economic model, and smoothing the boundaries between administrative and technical domains. Using the Open Science Grid as an example, I examine the status and challenges of Grids operating in production today.

  16. Many Faces of Migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Antić Gaber

    2013-12-01

    The title “Many faces of migration”, connecting contributions in this special issue, is borrowed from the already mentioned Gallup Institute’s report on global migration (Esipova, 2011. The guiding principle in the selection of the contributions has been their diversity, reflected also in the list of disciplines represented by the authors: sociology, geography, ethnology and cultural anthropology, history, art history, modern Mediterranean studies, gender studies and media studies. Such an approach necessarily leads not only to a diverse, but at least seemingly also incompatib

  17. Faced with a dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Vinggaard; Christiansen, Anne Hjøllund; Petersson, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    's legal right to choose TOP and considerations about the foetus' right to live were suppressed. Midwives experienced a dilemma when faced with aborted foetuses that looked like newborns and when aborted foetuses showed signs of life after a termination. Furthermore, they were critical of how physicians...... counsel women/couples after prenatal diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: The midwives' practice in relation to late TOP was characterised by an acknowledgement of the growing ethical status of the foetus and the emotional reactions of the women/couples going through late TOP. Other professions as well as structural...

  18. Native and Non-Native Speakers in Online and Face-to-Face Discussions: Leveling the Playing Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlas, Anne Cummings; Schuh, Kathy L.; Alessi, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the role of native language in the context of online versus face-to-face learning environments. Findings from a mixed-methods analysis revealed that native language was a factor in distinguishing among the learning opportunities in these two classes. Data for the online course were 10 archived asynchronous discussions on…

  19. The Impact of Electronic Health Records on Healthcare Professional's Beliefs and Attitudes toward Face to Face Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickles, Kenneth Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The impact of electronic health records on healthcare professional's beliefs and attitudes toward face to face communication during patient and provider interactions was examined. Quantitative survey research assessed user attitudes towards an electronic health record system and revealed that healthcare professionals from a wide range of…

  20. Probing the face-space of individuals with prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Mayu; Doyle, Jaime; Humphreys, Kate; Behrmann, Marlene

    2010-05-01

    A useful framework for understanding the mental representation of facial identity is face-space (Valentine, 1991), a multi-dimensional cognitive map in which individual faces are coded relative to the average of previously encountered faces, and in which the distance among faces represents their perceived similarity. We examined whether individuals with prosopagnosia, a disorder characterized by an inability to recognize familiar faces despite normal visual acuity and intellectual abilities, evince behavior consistent with this underlying representational schema. To do so, we compared the performance of 6 individuals with congenital prosopagnosia (CP), with a group of age- and gender-matched control participants in a series of experiments involving judgments of facial identity. We used digital images of male and female faces and morphed them to varying degrees relative to an average face, to create caricatures, anti-caricatures, and anti-faces (i.e. faces of the opposite identity). Across 5 behavioral tasks, CP individuals' performance was similar to that of the control group and consistent with the face-space framework. As a test of the sensitivity of our measures in revealing face processing abnormalities, we also tested a single acquired prosopagnosic (AP) individual, whose performance on the same tasks deviated significantly from the control and CP groups. The findings suggest that, despite an inability to recognize individual identities, CPs perceive faces in a manner consistent with norm-based coding of facial identity, although their representation is likely supported by a feature-based strategy. We suggest that the apparently normal posterior cortical regions, including the fusiform face area, serve as the neural substrate for at least a coarse, feature-based face-space map in CP and that their face recognition impairment arises from the disconnection between these regions and more anterior cortical sites.

  1. Face-body integration of intense emotional expressions of victory and defeat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Xia, Lisheng; Zhang, Dandan

    2017-01-01

    Human facial expressions can be recognized rapidly and effortlessly. However, for intense emotions from real life, positive and negative facial expressions are difficult to discriminate and the judgment of facial expressions is biased towards simultaneously perceived body expressions. This study employed event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the neural dynamics involved in the integration of emotional signals from facial and body expressions of victory and defeat. Emotional expressions of professional players were used to create pictures of face-body compounds, with either matched or mismatched emotional expressions in faces and bodies. Behavioral results showed that congruent emotional information of face and body facilitated the recognition of facial expressions. ERP data revealed larger P1 amplitudes for incongruent compared to congruent stimuli. Also, a main effect of body valence on the P1 was observed, with enhanced amplitudes for the stimuli with losing compared to winning bodies. The main effect of body expression was also observed in N170 and N2, with winning bodies producing larger N170/N2 amplitudes. In the later stage, a significant interaction of congruence by body valence was found on the P3 component. Winning bodies elicited lager P3 amplitudes than losing bodies did when face and body conveyed congruent emotional signals. Beyond the knowledge based on prototypical facial and body expressions, the results of this study facilitate us to understand the complexity of emotion evaluation and categorization out of laboratory. PMID:28245245

  2. Naso-Temporal Asymmetries: Suppression of Emotional Faces in the Temporal Visual Hemifield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Framorando, David; Bapst, Mylène; Vuille, Nathalie; Pegna, Alan J.

    2017-01-01

    An ongoing debate exists regarding the possible existence of a retino-tectal visual pathway projecting to the amygdala, which would rapidly process information involving threatening or behaviorally-relevant stimuli. It has been suggested that this route might be responsible for the involuntary capture of attention by potentially dangerous stimuli. In separate studies, anatomical evidence has suggested that the retino-tectal pathway relies essentially on projections from the nasal hemiretina (temporal visual field). In this study, we chose to take advantage of this anatomical difference to further investigate whether emotional facial expressions are indeed processed through a subcortical pathway. Using EEG, participants performed a monocular spatial attention paradigm in which lateralized, task-irrelevant distractors were presented, followed by a target. The distractors were fearful faces that appeared either in nasal or temporal visual hemifield (by virtue of their monocular presentations), while the neutral face was presented simultaneously on the opposite side. Participants were asked to identify a target letter that appeared subsequently in the nasal or temporal visual hemifield. Event-related potentials (ERPs) results revealed that fearful faces appearing in the temporal visual hemifield produced a strong inhibitory response, while a negative deflection reflecting attentional capture followed presentations of fear in the nasal hemifield. These effects can be explained by a greater sensitivity of the subcortical pathway for emotional stimuli. Fearful faces conveyed through this route are processed more effectively, consequently necessitating more vigorous suppression in order for targets to be dealt with adequately. PMID:28197067

  3. Electrophysiological brain dynamics during the esthetic judgment of human bodies and faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Francisco; Martín-Loeches, Manuel

    2015-01-12

    This experiment investigated how the esthetic judgment of human body and face modulates cognitive and affective processes. We hypothesized that judgments on ugliness and beauty would elicit separable event-related brain potentials (ERP) patterns, depending on the esthetic value of body and faces in both genders. In a pretest session, participants evaluated images in a range from very ugly to very beautiful, what generated three sets of beautiful, ugly and neutral faces and bodies. In the recording session, they performed a task consisting in a beautiful-neutral-ugly judgment. Cognitive and affective effects were observed on a differential pattern of ERP components (P200, P300 and LPC). Main findings revealed a P200 amplitude increase to ugly images, probably the result of a negativity bias in attentional processes. A P300 increase was found mostly to beautiful images, particularly to female bodies, consistent with the salience of these stimuli, particularly for stimulus categorization. LPC appeared significantly larger to both ugly and beautiful images, probably reflecting later, decision processes linked to keeping information in working memory. This finding was especially remarkable for ugly male faces. Our findings are discussed on the ground of evolutionary and adaptive value of esthetics in person evaluation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Hold Item.

  4. Aging changes in the face

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004004.htm Aging changes in the face To use the sharing ... face with age References Brodie SE, Francis JH. Aging and disorders of the eye. In: Fillit HM, ...

  5. On Multiplying Negative Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Mary L.; Dunn, Kenneth A.

    1985-01-01

    Comments on the history of negative numbers, some methods that can be used to introduce the multiplication of negative numbers to students, and an explanation of why the product of two negative numbers is a positive number are included. (MNS)

  6. The effects of mothers' past infant-holding preferences on their adult children's face processing lateralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervloed, M.P.J.; Hendriks, A.W.C.J.; Eijnde, E. van den

    2011-01-01

    Face processing development is negatively affected when infants have not been exposed to faces for some time because of congenital cataract blocking all vision (Le Grand, Mondloch, Maurer, & Brent, 2001). It is not clear, however, whether more subtle differences in face exposure may also have an inf

  7. The Effects of Mothers' Past Infant-Holding Preferences on Their Adult Children's Face Processing Lateralisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.; Hendriks, Angelique W.; van den Eijnde, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Face processing development is negatively affected when infants have not been exposed to faces for some time because of congenital cataract blocking all vision (Le Grand, Mondloch, Maurer, & Brent, 2001). It is not clear, however, whether more subtle differences in face exposure may also have an influence. The present study looked at the effect of…

  8. Adjective metaphors evoke negative meanings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Maki; Utsumi, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Previous metaphor studies have paid much attention to nominal metaphors and predicative metaphors, but little attention has been given to adjective metaphors. Although some studies have focused on adjective metaphors, they only examined differences in the acceptability of various types of adjective metaphors. This paper explores the cognitive effects evoked by adjective metaphors. Three psychological experiments revealed that (1) adjective metaphors, especially those modified by color adjectives, tend to evoke negative effect; (2) although the meanings of metaphors are basically affected by the meanings of their vehicles, when a vehicle has a neutral meaning, negative meanings are evoked most frequently for adjective metaphors compared to nominal and predicative metaphors; (3) negative meanings evoked by adjective metaphors are related to poeticness, and poetic metaphors evoke negative meanings more easily than less poetic metaphors. Our research sheds new light on studies of the use of metaphor, which is one of the most basic human cognitive abilities.

  9. [Face recognition in patients with schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Hirokazu; Shinohara, Kazuyuki

    2012-07-01

    It is well known that patients with schizophrenia show severe deficiencies in social communication skills. These deficiencies are believed to be partly derived from abnormalities in face recognition. However, the exact nature of these abnormalities exhibited by schizophrenic patients with respect to face recognition has yet to be clarified. In the present paper, we review the main findings on face recognition deficiencies in patients with schizophrenia, particularly focusing on abnormalities in the recognition of facial expression and gaze direction, which are the primary sources of information of others' mental states. The existing studies reveal that the abnormal recognition of facial expression and gaze direction in schizophrenic patients is attributable to impairments in both perceptual processing of visual stimuli, and cognitive-emotional responses to social information. Furthermore, schizophrenic patients show malfunctions in distributed neural regions, ranging from the fusiform gyrus recruited in the structural encoding of facial stimuli, to the amygdala which plays a primary role in the detection of the emotional significance of stimuli. These findings were obtained from research in patient groups with heterogeneous characteristics. Because previous studies have indicated that impairments in face recognition in schizophrenic patients might vary according to the types of symptoms, it is of primary importance to compare the nature of face recognition deficiencies and the impairments of underlying neural functions across sub-groups of patients.

  10. Pgu-Face: A dataset of partially covered facial images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Reza Salari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce a human face image dataset. Images were taken in close to real-world conditions using several cameras, often mobile phone׳s cameras. The dataset contains 224 subjects imaged under four different figures (a nearly clean-shaven countenance, a nearly clean-shaven countenance with sunglasses, an unshaven or stubble face countenance, an unshaven or stubble face countenance with sunglasses in up to two recording sessions. Existence of partially covered face images in this dataset could reveal the robustness and efficiency of several facial image processing algorithms. In this work we present the dataset and explain the recording method.

  11. Elastic Face, An Anatomy-Based Biometrics Beyond Visible Cue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsap, L V; Zhang, Y; Kundu, S J; Goldgof, D B; Sarkar, S

    2004-03-29

    This paper describes a face recognition method that is designed based on the consideration of anatomical and biomechanical characteristics of facial tissues. Elastic strain pattern inferred from face expression can reveal an individual's biometric signature associated with the underlying anatomical structure, and thus has the potential for face recognition. A method based on the continuum mechanics in finite element formulation is employed to compute the strain pattern. Experiments show very promising results. The proposed method is quite different from other face recognition methods and both its advantages and limitations, as well as future research for improvement are discussed.

  12. FaceID: A face detection and recognition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, M.B.; Rao, N.S.V.; Olman, V.; Uberbacher, E.C.; Mann, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    A face detection system that automatically locates faces in gray-level images is described. Also described is a system which matches a given face image with faces in a database. Face detection in an Image is performed by template matching using templates derived from a selected set of normalized faces. Instead of using original gray level images, vertical gradient images were calculated and used to make the system more robust against variations in lighting conditions and skin color. Faces of different sizes are detected by processing the image at several scales. Further, a coarse-to-fine strategy is used to speed up the processing, and a combination of whole face and face component templates are used to ensure low false detection rates. The input to the face recognition system is a normalized vertical gradient image of a face, which is compared against a database using a set of pretrained feedforward neural networks with a winner-take-all fuser. The training is performed by using an adaptation of the backpropagation algorithm. This system has been developed and tested using images from the FERET database and a set of images obtained from Rowley, et al and Sung and Poggio.

  13. A novel thermal face recognition approach using face pattern words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yufeng

    2010-04-01

    A reliable thermal face recognition system can enhance the national security applications such as prevention against terrorism, surveillance, monitoring and tracking, especially at nighttime. The system can be applied at airports, customs or high-alert facilities (e.g., nuclear power plant) for 24 hours a day. In this paper, we propose a novel face recognition approach utilizing thermal (long wave infrared) face images that can automatically identify a subject at both daytime and nighttime. With a properly acquired thermal image (as a query image) in monitoring zone, the following processes will be employed: normalization and denoising, face detection, face alignment, face masking, Gabor wavelet transform, face pattern words (FPWs) creation, face identification by similarity measure (Hamming distance). If eyeglasses are present on a subject's face, an eyeglasses mask will be automatically extracted from the querying face image, and then masked with all comparing FPWs (no more transforms). A high identification rate (97.44% with Top-1 match) has been achieved upon our preliminary face dataset (of 39 subjects) from the proposed approach regardless operating time and glasses-wearing condition.e

  14. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Spreeuwers, Luuk; Veldhuis, Raymond; Quaglia, Adamo; Epifano, Calogera M.

    2012-01-01

    The improvements of automatic face recognition during the last 2 decades have disclosed new applications like border control and camera surveillance. A new application field is forensic face recognition. Traditionally, face recognition by human experts has been used in forensics, but now there is a

  15. The fusiform face area responds equivalently to faces and abstract shapes in the left and central visual fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotnick, Scott D; White, Rachel C

    2013-12-01

    The fusiform face area (FFA) is widely believed to be specialized for processing faces. Although the FFA is most responsive to faces, this region also consistently responds to non-face items. This suggests that the FFA may be tuned to a feature that is shared by faces and non-face items. Based on the known left visual field face-processing bias along with evidence that the FFA responds to the visual feature of shape, we hypothesized that the FFA may be particularly tuned to shapes presented in the left visual field. We tested this hypothesis using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In a face localizer run, participants viewed blocks of faces or objects. In a separate run, blocks of intact or scrambled abstract shapes were presented in the left, the central, or the right visual field. Within each of the eleven face-processing regions-of-interest (identified by contrasting faces and objects), the magnitude of activity associated with faces was compared to the magnitude of activity associated with intact shapes. Consistent with previous results, collapsing over shape visual field location, the magnitude of activity associated with faces was greater than the magnitude of activity associated with shapes in the FFA. However, separating by shape visual field location revealed an equivalent magnitude of activity associated with faces and shapes in the FFA when shapes were presented in the left and central visual fields. These findings indicate that the FFA, rather than being specialized for holistic face processing, mediates shape processing in the left and central visual fields.

  16. Face Processing: Models For Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Matthew A.; Pentland, Alexander P.

    1990-03-01

    The human ability to process faces is remarkable. We can identify perhaps thousands of faces learned throughout our lifetime and read facial expression to understand such subtle qualities as emotion. These skills are quite robust, despite sometimes large changes in the visual stimulus due to expression, aging, and distractions such as glasses or changes in hairstyle or facial hair. Computers which model and recognize faces will be useful in a variety of applications, including criminal identification, human-computer interface, and animation. We discuss models for representing faces and their applicability to the task of recognition, and present techniques for identifying faces and detecting eye blinks.

  17. Imprinting and flexibility in human face cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkowska, Urszula M.; Terraube, Julien; Kaminski, Gwenaël

    2016-01-01

    Faces are an important cue to multiple physiological and psychological traits. Human preferences for exaggerated sex typicality (masculinity or femininity) in faces depend on multiple factors and show high inter-subject variability. To gain a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying facial femininity preferences in men, we tested the interactive effect of family structure (birth order, sibling sex-ratio and number of siblings) and parenthood status on these preferences. Based on a group of 1304 heterosexual men, we have found that preference for feminine faces was not only influenced by sibling age and sex, but also that fatherhood modulated this preference. Men with sisters had a weaker preference for femininity than men with brothers, highlighting a possible effect of a negative imprinting-like mechanism. What is more, fatherhood increased strongly the preference for facial femininity. Finally, for fathers with younger sisters only, the more the age difference increased between them, the more femininity preference increased. Overall our findings bring new insight into how early-acquired experience at the individual level may determine face preference in adulthood, and what is more, how these preferences are flexible and potentially dependent on parenthood status in adult men. PMID:27680495

  18. Response inhibition of face stimuli linked to inferior frontal gyrus microstructure in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Skjold, Jonathan; Baaré, William Frans Christiaan; Jernigan, Terry Lynne

    . Inhibition of negative faces has been shown to be more difficult than that of positive faces1,3. The brain network underlying response inhibition includes the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), right presupplementary motor area (preSMA), and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) bilaterally 4–6. The white...... that better response inhibition (i.e. lower false alarm rate) of negative faces would be associated with higher FA in right IFG, right preSMA, and bilateral SLF in adolescents....

  19. Facing the Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai

    2014-01-01

    China's rise signifies a gradual transformation of the international system from unipolarity to a non-unipolar world. ,4s an organization of small and middle powers, ASEAN faces strategic uncertainties brought about by the power transition in the system. Deepening economic interdependence between...... ASEAN and China has amplified the economic cost for the ASEAN states to use traditional military means to deal with China s rise. Applying institutional balancing theory, this paper examines how ASEAN has adopted various institutional instruments, such as the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), the East Asia...... Summit (EAS), the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), and the ASEAN Community, to constrain and shape China's behaviour in the region in the post-Cold War era. It argues that due to globalization and economic interdependence, the power transition in the 21st century is different from...

  20. Préface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marguerite Mendell

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available C’est avec grand plaisir que je contribue la préface de ce numéro d’Interventions économiques dédié à la pertinence de la pensée de Karl Polanyi au début du 21ème siècle. Je suis très reconnaissante aux éditeurs, Diane Gabrielle Tremblay, Jean-Marc Fontan et Jean Louis Laville d’avoir pris l’initiative de préparer ce numéro pour le 11ème colloque international de l’Institut Karl Polanyi, qui correspond aussi au 20ème anniversaire de l’Institut, établi à l’Université Concordia en 1988. Interve...

  1. PCA Based Rapid and Real Time Face Recognition Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T R Chandrashekar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Economical and efficient that is used in various applications is face Biometric which has been a popular form biometric system. Face recognition system is being a topic of research for last few decades. Several techniques are proposed to improve the performance of face recognition system. Accuracy is tested against intensity, distance from camera, and pose variance. Multiple face recognition is another subtopic which is under research now a day. Speed at which the technique works is a parameter under consideration to evaluate a technique. As an example a support vector machine performs really well for face recognition but the computational efficiency degrades significantly with increase in number of classes. Eigen Face technique produces quality features for face recognition but the accuracy is proved to be comparatively less to many other techniques. With increase in use of core processors in personal computers and application demanding speed in processing and multiple face detection and recognition system (for example an entry detection system in shopping mall or an industry, demand for such systems are cumulative as there is a need for automated systems worldwide. In this paper we propose a novel system of face recognition developed with C# .Net that can detect multiple faces and can recognize the faces parallel by utilizing the system resources and the core processors. The system is built around Haar Cascade based face detection and PCA based face recognition system with C#.Net. Parallel library designed for .Net is used to aide to high speed detection and recognition of the real time faces. Analysis of the performance of the proposed technique with some of the conventional techniques reveals that the proposed technique is not only accurate, but also is fast in comparison to other techniques.

  2. Exclusion of identification by negative superposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takač Šandor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents the first report of negative superposition in our country. Photo of randomly selected young, living woman was superimposed on the previously discovered female skull. Computer program Adobe Photoshop 7.0 was used in work. Digitilized photographs of the skull and face, after uploaded to computer, were superimposed on each other and displayed on the monitor in order to assess their possible similarities or differences. Special attention was payed to matching the same anthropometrical points of the skull and face, as well as following their contours. The process of fitting the skull and the photograph is usually started by setting eyes in correct position relative to the orbits. In this case, lower jaw gonions go beyond the face contour and gnathion is highly placed. By positioning the chin, mouth and nose their correct anatomical position cannot be achieved. All the difficulties associated with the superposition were recorded, with special emphasis on critical evaluation of work results in a negative superposition. Negative superposition has greater probative value (exclusion of identification than positive (possible identification. 100% negative superposition is easily achieved, but 100% positive - almost never. 'Each skull is unique and viewed from different perspectives is always a new challenge'. From this point of view, identification can be negative or of high probability.

  3. FACE RECOGNITION USING FEATURE EXTRACTION AND NEURO-FUZZY TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Vyas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Face is a primary focus of attention in social intercourse, playing a major role in conveying identity and emotion. The human ability to recognize faces is remarkable. People can recognize thousands of faces learned throughout their lifetime and identify familiar faces at a glance even after years of separation. This skill is quite robust, despite large changes in the visual stimulus due to viewing conditions, expression, aging, and distractions such as glasses, beards or changes in hair style. In this work, a system is designed to recognize human faces depending on their facial features. Also to reveal the outline of the face, eyes and nose, edge detection technique has been used. Facial features are extracted in the form of distance between important feature points. After normalization, these feature vectors are learned by artificial neural network and used to recognize facial image.

  4. Emotional contexts modulate intentional memory suppression of neutral faces: Insights from ERPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierguidi, Lapo; Righi, Stefania; Gronchi, Giorgio; Marzi, Tessa; Caharel, Stephanie; Giovannelli, Fabio; Viggiano, Maria Pia

    2016-08-01

    The main goal of present work is to gain new insight into the temporal dynamics underlying the voluntary memory control for neutral faces associated with neutral, positive and negative contexts. A directed forgetting (DF) procedure was used during the recording of EEG to answer the question whether is it possible to forget a face that has been encoded within a particular emotional context. A face-scene phase in which a neutral face was showed in a neutral or emotional scene (positive, negative) was followed by the voluntary memory cue (cue phase) indicating whether the face had to-be remember or to-be-forgotten (TBR and TBF). Memory for faces was then assessed with an old/new recognition task. Behaviorally, we found that it is harder to suppress faces-in-positive-scenes compared to faces-in-negative and neutral-scenes. The temporal information obtained by the ERPs showed: 1) during the face-scene phase, the Late Positive Potential (LPP), which indexes motivated emotional attention, was larger for faces-in-negative-scenes compared to faces-in-neutral-scenes. 2) Remarkably, during the cue phase, ERPs were significantly modulated by the emotional contexts. Faces-in-neutral scenes showed an ERP pattern that has been typically associated to DF effect whereas faces-in-positive-scenes elicited the reverse ERP pattern. Faces-in-negative scenes did not show differences in the DF-related neural activities but larger N1 amplitude for TBF vs. TBR faces may index early attentional deployment. These results support the hypothesis that the pleasantness or unpleasantness of the contexts (through attentional broadening and narrowing mechanisms, respectively) may modulate the effectiveness of intentional memory suppression for neutral information. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Comparative studies of face recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2012-07-01

    Every human being is proficient in face recognition. However, the reason for and the manner in which humans have attained such an ability remain unknown. These questions can be best answered-through comparative studies of face recognition in non-human animals. Studies in both primates and non-primates show that not only primates, but also non-primates possess the ability to extract information from their conspecifics and from human experimenters. Neural specialization for face recognition is shared with mammals in distant taxa, suggesting that face recognition evolved earlier than the emergence of mammals. A recent study indicated that a social insect, the golden paper wasp, can distinguish their conspecific faces, whereas a closely related species, which has a less complex social lifestyle with just one queen ruling a nest of underlings, did not show strong face recognition for their conspecifics. Social complexity and the need to differentiate between one another likely led humans to evolve their face recognition abilities.

  6. Neural correlates of recognition memory for emotional faces and scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Keightley, Michelle L.; Chiew, Kimberly S.; Anderson, John A. E.; Grady, Cheryl L.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the influence of emotional valence and type of item to be remembered on brain activity during recognition, using faces and scenes. We used multivariate analyses of event-related fMRI data to identify whole-brain patterns, or networks of activity. Participants demonstrated better recognition for scenes vs faces and for negative vs neutral and positive items. Activity was increased in extrastriate cortex and inferior frontal gyri for emotional scenes, relative to neutral scenes and ...

  7. Impaired processing of self-face recognition in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirot, France; Lesage, Marine; Pedron, Lya; Meyer, Isabelle; Thomas, Pierre; Cottencin, Olivier; Guardia, Dewi

    2016-03-01

    Body image disturbances and massive weight loss are major clinical symptoms of anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of body changes and eating attitudes on self-face recognition ability in AN. Twenty-seven subjects suffering from AN and 27 control participants performed a self-face recognition task (SFRT). During the task, digital morphs between their own face and a gender-matched unfamiliar face were presented in a random sequence. Participants' self-face recognition failures, cognitive flexibility, body concern and eating habits were assessed with the Self-Face Recognition Questionnaire (SFRQ), Trail Making Test (TMT), Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), respectively. Subjects suffering from AN exhibited significantly greater difficulties than control participants in identifying their own face (p = 0.028). No significant difference was observed between the two groups for TMT (all p > 0.1, non-significant). Regarding predictors of self-face recognition skills, there was a negative correlation between SFRT and body mass index (p = 0.01) and a positive correlation between SFRQ and EDI-2 (p < 0.001) or BSQ (p < 0.001). Among factors involved, nutritional status and intensity of eating disorders could play a part in impaired self-face recognition.

  8. Electrophysiological correlates of face-evoked person knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, JohnMark; Shehzad, Zarrar; McCarthy, Gregory

    2016-07-01

    Face recognition includes identifying a face as perceptually familiar and recollecting biographical information, or person-knowledge, associated with the face. The majority of studies examining the neural basis of face recognition have confounded these stages by comparing brain responses evoked by novel and perceptually familiar famous faces. Here, we recorded EEG in two tasks in which subjects viewed two sets of faces that were equally perceptually familiar, but which had differing levels of associated person-knowledge. Our results dissociated the effects of person-knowledge from perceptual familiarity. Faces with associated biographical information elicited a larger ∼600ms centroparietal positivity in both a passive viewing task in which subjects viewed faces without explicitly responding, and an active question-answering task in which subjects indicated whether or not they knew particular facts about the faces. In the question task only, person-knowledge was associated with a negative ERP difference over right posterior scalp over the 170-450ms interval which appeared again at long latency (>900ms).

  9. [Face recognition in patients with autism spectrum disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Yosuke; Inagaki, Masumi

    2012-07-01

    The present study aimed to review previous research conducted on face recognition in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Face recognition is a key question in the ASD research field because it can provide clues for elucidating the neural substrates responsible for the social impairment of these patients. Historically, behavioral studies have reported low performance and/or unique strategies of face recognition among ASD patients. However, the performance and strategy of ASD patients is comparable to those of the control group, depending on the experimental situation or developmental stage, suggesting that face recognition of ASD patients is not entirely impaired. Recent brain function studies, including event-related potential and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, have investigated the cognitive process of face recognition in ASD patients, and revealed impaired function in the brain's neural network comprising the fusiform gyrus and amygdala. This impaired function is potentially involved in the diminished preference for faces, and in the atypical development of face recognition, eliciting symptoms of unstable behavioral characteristics in these patients. Additionally, face recognition in ASD patients is examined from a different perspective, namely self-face recognition, and facial emotion recognition. While the former topic is intimately linked to basic social abilities such as self-other discrimination, the latter is closely associated with mentalizing. Further research on face recognition in ASD patients should investigate the connection between behavioral and neurological specifics in these patients, by considering developmental changes and the spectrum clinical condition of ASD.

  10. Modulation of the composite face effect by unintended emotion cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Katie L H; Murphy, Jennifer; Marsh, Jade E; Cook, Richard

    2017-04-01

    When upper and lower regions from different emotionless faces are aligned to form a facial composite, observers 'fuse' the two halves together, perceptually. The illusory distortion induced by task-irrelevant ('distractor') halves hinders participants' judgements about task-relevant ('target') halves. This composite-face effect reveals a tendency to integrate feature information from disparate regions of intact upright faces, consistent with theories of holistic face processing. However, observers frequently perceive emotion in ostensibly neutral faces, contrary to the intentions of experimenters. This study sought to determine whether this 'perceived emotion' influences the composite-face effect. In our first experiment, we confirmed that the composite effect grows stronger as the strength of distractor emotion increased. Critically, effects of distractor emotion were induced by weak emotion intensities, and were incidental insofar as emotion cues hindered image matching, not emotion labelling per se. In Experiment 2, we found a correlation between the presence of perceived emotion in a set of ostensibly neutral distractor regions sourced from commonly used face databases, and the strength of illusory distortion they induced. In Experiment 3, participants completed a sequential matching composite task in which half of the distractor regions were rated high and low for perceived emotion, respectively. Significantly stronger composite effects were induced by the high-emotion distractor halves. These convergent results suggest that perceived emotion increases the strength of the composite-face effect induced by supposedly emotionless faces. These findings have important implications for the study of holistic face processing in typical and atypical populations.

  11. Understanding face perception by means of prosopagnosia and neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossion, Bruno

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the human neuro-anatomy of face recognition is a long-standing goal of Cognitive Neuroscience. Studies of patients with face recognition impairment following brain damage (i.e., acquired prosopagnosia) have revealed the specificity of face recognition, the importance and nature of holistic/configural perception of individual faces, and the distribution of this function in the ventral occipito-temporal (VOT) cortex, with a right hemispheric dominance. Yet, neuroimaging studies in this field have essentially focused on a single face-selective area of the VOT and underestimated the right hemisphere superiority. Findings in these studies have also been taken as supporting a hierarchical view of face perception, according to which a face is decomposed into parts in early face-selective areas, these parts being subsequently integrated into a whole representation in higher-order areas. This review takes a historical and current perspective on the study of acquired prosopagnosia and neuroimaging that challenges this latter view. It argues for a combination of these methods, an approach suggesting a coarse-to-fine emergence of the holistic face percept in a non-hierarchical network of cortical face-selective areas.

  12. Comparing Face Detection and Recognition Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Korra, Jyothi

    2016-01-01

    This paper implements and compares different techniques for face detection and recognition. One is find where the face is located in the images that is face detection and second is face recognition that is identifying the person. We study three techniques in this paper: Face detection using self organizing map (SOM), Face recognition by projection and nearest neighbor and Face recognition using SVM.

  13. The neural basis of self-face recognition after self-concept threat and comparison with important others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Lili; Qi, Mingming; Zhang, Qinglin; Yang, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The implicit positive association (IPA) theory attributed self-face advantage to the IPA with self-concept. Previous behavioral study has found that self-concept threat (SCT) could eliminate the self-advantage in face recognition over familiar-face, without taking levels of facial familiarity into account. The current event-related potential study aimed to investigate whether SCT could eliminate the self-face advantage over stranger-face. Fifteen participants completed a "self-friend" comparison task in which participants identified the face orientation of self-face and friend-face after SCT and non-self-concept threat (NSCT) priming, and a "self-stranger" comparison task was also completed in which participants identified the face orientation of self-face and stranger-face after SCT and NSCT priming. The results showed that the N2 amplitudes were more negative for processing friend-face than self-face after NSCT priming, but there was no significant difference between them after SCT priming. Moreover, the N2 amplitudes were more negative for processing stranger-face than self-face both after SCT priming and after NSCT priming. Furthermore, SCT manipulated the N2 amplitudes of friend-face rather than self-face. Overall, the present study made a supplementary to the current IPA theory and further indicated that SCT would only eliminate this self-face recognition advantage when comparing with important others.

  14. Elektronická komunikace vs. komunikace face to face

    OpenAIRE

    Pipková, Zuzana

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with new forms of communication particularly electronic ones. The main goal is to distinguish electronic communication from face to face communication in a way that differs from traditional media theories. By using examples of the most important medium in electronic communication, Internet, it is shown that nowadays we have such forms of electronic communication that surpass the traditional classification of oral/written communication, immediate/mediate communication, face t...

  15. Holistic crowding of Mooney faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzin, Faraz; Rivera, Susan M; Whitney, David

    2009-06-29

    An object or feature is generally more difficult to identify when other objects are presented nearby, an effect referred to as crowding. Here, we used Mooney faces to examine whether crowding can also occur within and between holistic face representations (C. M. Mooney, 1957). Mooney faces are ideal stimuli for this test because no cues exist to distinguish facial features in a Mooney face; to find any facial feature, such as an eye or a nose, one must first holistically perceive the image as a face. Through a series of six experiments we tested the effect of crowding on Mooney face recognition. Our results demonstrate crowding between and within Mooney faces and fulfill the diagnostic criteria for crowding, including eccentricity dependence and lack of crowding in the fovea, critical flanker spacing consistent with less than half the eccentricity of the target, and inner-outer flanker asymmetry. Further, our results show that recognition of an upright Mooney face is more strongly impaired by upright Mooney face flankers than inverted ones. Taken together, these results suggest crowding can occur selectively between high-level representations of faces and that crowding must occur at multiple levels in the visual system.

  16. [A review of face illusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaoka, Akiyoshi

    2012-07-01

    A variety of "face illusions," including the gaze illusion, face inversion effects, geometrical illusions, reversible figures, and other interesting phenomena related to face perception, are reviewed in the present report, with many sample images. The "gaze illusion" or the illusion of eye direction includes the Wollaston illusion, the luminance-induced gaze shift, the Bogart illusion, the eye-shadow-dependent gaze illusion, the Mona Lisa effect, etc. "Face inversion effects" refer to the Thatcher illusion, the fat face-thin illusion, underestimation of the upright face, the nose-shortening illusion of the inverted face, etc. "Geometrical illusions" include the Lee-Freire illusion, Yang's iris illusion, overestimation of the farther eye, the eye-shadow-dependent eye-size illusion, etc. "Reversible figures" contain the whole-part reversible figure, Rubin's vase-face illusion, or hybrid images. "Other interesting phenomena" include the flashed face distortion effect, the presidential illusion, predominance of the mouth or eyebrows over eye expression, the eye direction aftereffect, etc. It is suggested that some of these phenomena are highly specific to face perception.

  17. The effect of familiarity on face adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Laurence, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Face adaptation techniques have been used extensively to investigate how faces are processed. It has even been suggested that face adaptation is functional in calibrating the visual system to the diet of faces to which an observer is exposed. Yet most adaptation studies to date have used unfamiliar faces: few have used faces with real world familiarity. Familiar faces have more abstractive representations than unfamiliar faces. The experiments in this thesis therefore examined face adaptation...

  18. Adaptation improves face trustworthiness discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, B. D.; Dzhelyova, M.; Perrett, D. I.; Barraclough, N. E.

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation to facial characteristics, such as gender and viewpoint, has been shown to both bias our perception of faces and improve facial discrimination. In this study, we examined whether adapting to two levels of face trustworthiness improved sensitivity around the adapted level. Facial trustworthiness was manipulated by morphing between trustworthy and untrustworthy prototypes, each generated by morphing eight trustworthy and eight untrustworthy faces, respectively. In the first experiment, just-noticeable differences (JNDs) were calculated for an untrustworthy face after participants adapted to an untrustworthy face, a trustworthy face, or did not adapt. In the second experiment, the three conditions were identical, except that JNDs were calculated for a trustworthy face. In the third experiment we examined whether adapting to an untrustworthy male face improved discrimination to an untrustworthy female face. In all experiments, participants completed a two-interval forced-choice (2-IFC) adaptive staircase procedure, in which they judged which face was more untrustworthy. JNDs were derived from a psychometric function fitted to the data. Adaptation improved sensitivity to faces conveying the same level of trustworthiness when compared to no adaptation. When adapting to and discriminating around a different level of face trustworthiness there was no improvement in sensitivity and JNDs were equivalent to those in the no adaptation condition. The improvement in sensitivity was found to occur even when adapting to a face with different gender and identity. These results suggest that adaptation to facial trustworthiness can selectively enhance mechanisms underlying the coding of facial trustworthiness to improve perceptual sensitivity. These findings have implications for the role of our visual experience in the decisions we make about the trustworthiness of other individuals. PMID:23801979

  19. Adaptation improves face trustworthiness discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, B D; Dzhelyova, M; Perrett, D I; Barraclough, N E

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation to facial characteristics, such as gender and viewpoint, has been shown to both bias our perception of faces and improve facial discrimination. In this study, we examined whether adapting to two levels of face trustworthiness improved sensitivity around the adapted level. Facial trustworthiness was manipulated by morphing between trustworthy and untrustworthy prototypes, each generated by morphing eight trustworthy and eight untrustworthy faces, respectively. In the first experiment, just-noticeable differences (JNDs) were calculated for an untrustworthy face after participants adapted to an untrustworthy face, a trustworthy face, or did not adapt. In the second experiment, the three conditions were identical, except that JNDs were calculated for a trustworthy face. In the third experiment we examined whether adapting to an untrustworthy male face improved discrimination to an untrustworthy female face. In all experiments, participants completed a two-interval forced-choice (2-IFC) adaptive staircase procedure, in which they judged which face was more untrustworthy. JNDs were derived from a psychometric function fitted to the data. Adaptation improved sensitivity to faces conveying the same level of trustworthiness when compared to no adaptation. When adapting to and discriminating around a different level of face trustworthiness there was no improvement in sensitivity and JNDs were equivalent to those in the no adaptation condition. The improvement in sensitivity was found to occur even when adapting to a face with different gender and identity. These results suggest that adaptation to facial trustworthiness can selectively enhance mechanisms underlying the coding of facial trustworthiness to improve perceptual sensitivity. These findings have implications for the role of our visual experience in the decisions we make about the trustworthiness of other individuals.

  20. Adaptation improves face trustworthiness discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce D Keefe

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation to facial characteristics, such as gender and viewpoint, has been shown to both bias our perception of faces and improve facial discrimination. In this study, we examined whether adapting to two levels of face trustworthiness improved sensitivity around the adapted level. Facial trustworthiness was manipulated by morphing between trustworthy and untrustworthy prototypes, each generated by morphing eight trustworthy and eight untrustworthy faces respectively. In the first experiment, just-noticeable differences (JNDs were calculated for an untrustworthy face after participants adapted to an untrustworthy face, a trustworthy face, or did not adapt. In the second experiment, the three conditions were identical, except that JNDs were calculated for a trustworthy face. In the third experiment we examined whether adapting to an untrustworthy male face improved discrimination to an untrustworthy female face. In all experiments, participants completed a two-interval forced-choice adaptive staircase procedure, in which they judged which face was more untrustworthy. JNDs were derived from a psychometric function fitted to the data. Adaptation improved sensitivity to faces conveying the same level of trustworthiness when compared to no adaptation. When adapting to and discriminating around a different level of face trustworthiness there was no improvement in sensitivity and JNDs were equivalent to those in the no adaptation condition. The improvement in sensitivity was found to occur even when adapting to a face with different gender and identity. These results suggest that adaptation to facial trustworthiness can selectively enhance mechanisms underlying the coding of facial trustworthiness to improve perceptual sensitivity. These findings have implications for the role of our visual experience in the decisions we make about the trustworthiness of other individuals.

  1. Face-n-Food: Gender Differences in Tuning to Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A.; Scheffler, Klaus; Sokolov, Alexander N.

    2015-01-01

    Faces represent valuable signals for social cognition and non-verbal communication. A wealth of research indicates that women tend to excel in recognition of facial expressions. However, it remains unclear whether females are better tuned to faces. We presented healthy adult females and males with a set of newly created food-plate images resembling faces (slightly bordering on the Giuseppe Arcimboldo style). In a spontaneous recognition task, participants were shown a set of images in a predetermined order from the least to most resembling a face. Females not only more readily recognized the images as a face (they reported resembling a face on images, on which males still did not), but gave on overall more face responses. The findings are discussed in the light of gender differences in deficient face perception. As most neuropsychiatric, neurodevelopmental and psychosomatic disorders characterized by social brain abnormalities are sex specific, the task may serve as a valuable tool for uncovering impairments in visual face processing. PMID:26154177

  2. Face recognition in emotional scenes: observers remember the eye shape but forget the nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Kaitlin F; Schwartz, Noah Z

    2013-01-01

    Face recognition is believed to be a highly specialized process that allows individuals to recognize faces faster and more accurately than ordinary objects. However, when faces are viewed in highly emotional contexts, the process becomes slower and less accurate. This suggests a change in recognition strategy compared to recognition in non-arousing contexts. Here we explore this finding by using a novel paradigm to determine which face dimensions are most important for recognizing faces that were initially encoded in highly emotional contexts. Participants were asked to recognize faces from a 3-alternative display after viewing a similar face that was embedded in either a neutral, positive, or negative emotional scene. Results showed that individuals rely on eye shape when recognizing faces that were encoded while embedded in either positive or negative emotional contexts, and ignore nose shape when recognizing faces that were encoded while embedded in negative emotional scenes. The findings suggest that, after encoding that face during heightened emotional arousal, individuals are more likely to commit errors when identifying a face on the basis of nose shape, and less likely to commit errors when identifying a face on the basis of eye shape.

  3. Ambiguity Revealed

    OpenAIRE

    Subir Bose; Matthew Polisson; Ludovic Renou

    2012-01-01

    We derive necessary and suffcient conditions for data sets composed of state-contingent prices and consumption to be consistent with two prominent models of decision making under ambiguity: variational preferences and smooth ambiguity. The revealed preference conditions for the maxmin expected utility and subjective expected utility models are characterized as special cases.

  4. Ambiguity revealed

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, Ralph-C; Bose, Subir; Polisson, Matthew; Renou, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for data sets composed of state-contingent prices and consumption to be consistent with two prominent models of decision making under uncertainty: variational preferences and smooth ambiguity. The revealed preference conditions for subjective expected utility, maxmin expected utility, and multiplier preferences are characterised as special cases. We implement our tests on data from a portfolio choice experiment.

  5. Virtual Professional Learning Communities: Teachers' Perceptions of Virtual Versus Face-to-Face Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Tom J.; Parker, Joyce M.; Eberhardt, Jan; Koehler, Matthew J.; Lundeberg, Mary A.

    2013-06-01

    Research suggests that professional development that engages teachers in instructional inquiry over an extended time through collaborative professional learning communities (PLCs) is effective in improving instruction and student achievement. Still, most professional development is offered as short-duration workshops that are not effective in changing practice. Barriers to the implementation of PLCs include lack of shared meeting time and a shortage of teachers who share the same subject areas or common goals and interests. Convening teachers from multiple districts can alleviate this problem, but teachers are reluctant to travel for meetings due to time and cost restraints. Video-conferencing software offers a solution to these barriers while serving to foster the sense of community needed for PLCs to be effective. The researchers describe the use of Virtual PLCs in which two groups of teachers met monthly for one school year to collaboratively analyze evidence collected as part of their teacher inquiry plans. With help from a facilitator, these groups developed a relationship similar to other groups meeting face-to-face as part of the same professional development program. Analysis of the reflections of teacher-participants and facilitators revealed that teachers prefer face-to-face meetings, but that the virtual and face-to-face meetings provided teachers with similar social interactions in the PLC experience. The findings suggest that teachers perceive videoconferencing as an effective tool for facilitating PLCs when distance and time are practical barriers to face-to-face meetings. Practical considerations for developing and facilitating virtual PLCs are also discussed.

  6. Properties of Auditory Temporal Integration Revealed by Mismatch Negativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Stimulus de- viance and evoked potentials,” Biological Psychology, 14, pp.53– 98, 1982. [8] A. Baddeley, “Working memory,” in The Cognitive Neuro- sciences, M. S. Gazzaniga , Ed., Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995, pp.755–764.

  7. Learning to Discriminate Face Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Fang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Although visual feature leaning has been well studied, we still know little about the mechanisms of perceptual learning of complex object. Here, human perceptual learning in discrimination of in-depth orientation of face view was studied using psychophysics, EEG and fMRI. We trained subjects to discriminate face orientations around a face view (i.e. 30° over eight daily sessions, which resulted in a significant improvement in sensitivity to the face view orientation. This improved sensitivity was highly specific to the trained orientation and persisted up to six months. Different from perceptual learning of simple visual features, this orientation-specific learning effect could completely transfer across changes in face size, visual field and face identity. A complete transfer also occurred between two partial face images that were mutually exclusive but constituted a complete face. However, the transfer of the learning effect between upright and inverted faces and between a face and a paperclip object was very weak. Before and after training, we measured EEG and fMRI BOLD signals responding to both the trained and the untrained face views. Analyses of ERPs and induced gamma activity showed that face view discrimination training led to a larger reduction of N170 latency at the left occipital-temporal area and a concurrent larger decrease of induced gamma activity at the left frontal area with the trained face view, compared with the untrained ones. BOLD signal amplitude and MVPA analyses showed that, in face-selective cortical areas, training did not lead to a significant amplitude change, but induced a more reliable spatial pattern of neural activity in the left FFA. These results suggest that the visual system had learned how to compute face orientation from face configural information more accurately and that a large amount of plastic changes took place at a level of higher visual processing where size-, location-, and identity

  8. Facing the Crises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Baker

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Timely, provocative, and theoretically sophisticated, the essays comprising In the Face of Crises: Anglophone Literature in the Postmodern World situate their work amid several critical global concerns: the devastation wreaked by global capitalism following the worldwide financial crash, the financial sector’s totalizing grip upon the world economy, the challenge to traditional definitions of “human nature” and identity posed by technologies of the body and of warfare, the quest of indigenous communities for healing from the continuing traumatic effects of colonization, and the increasing corporatization of the academy as an apparatus of the neo-liberal state – to specify only a few. Edited by Professors Ljubica Matek and Jasna Poljak Rehlicki, these essays deploy a broad range of contemporary theories, representing recent developments in cultural studies, the new economic criticism, postcolonial film studies, feminism and gender studies, and the new historicism. The eleven essays selected by Matek and Rehlicki offer convincing support for their claim that humanistic research delving into Anglophone literature, far from being a “non-profitable” pursuit in an increasingly technologized society, affords clarifying insights into contemporary “economic, cultural, and social processes in the globalizing and globalized culture of the West” (ix.

  9. Face au risque

    CERN Document Server

    Grosse, Christian; November, Valérie

    2007-01-01

    Ce volume collectif sur le risque inaugure la collection L'ÉQUINOXE. Ancré dans l'histoire pour mesurer les continuités et les ruptures, il illustre la manière dont les sciences humaines évaluent et mesurent les enjeux collectifs du risque sur les plans politiques, scientifiques, énergétiques, juridiques et éthiques. Puisse-t-il nourrir la réflexion sur la culture et la prévention du risque. Ses formes épidémiques, écologiques, sociales, terroristes et militaires nourrissent les peurs actuelles, structurent les projets sécuritaires et constituent - sans doute - les défis majeurs à notre modernité. Dans la foulée de la richesse scientifique d'Equinoxe, L'ÉQUINOXE hérite de son esprit en prenant à son tour le pari de contribuer - non sans risque - à enrichir en Suisse romande et ailleurs le champ éditorial des sciences humaines dont notre société a besoin pour forger ses repères. Après Face au risque suivra cet automne Du sens des Lumières. (MICHEL PORRET Professeur Ordinaire à la F...

  10. Negating the Verum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsnes, Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    In Danish the base position of the negation (and negated quantifier phrases) is between the subject and the finite verb in embedded clauses. However, in embedded clauses introduced by a non-veridical complementizer such as hvis ‘if’ or om ‘whether’, the negation can also appear between the comple......In Danish the base position of the negation (and negated quantifier phrases) is between the subject and the finite verb in embedded clauses. However, in embedded clauses introduced by a non-veridical complementizer such as hvis ‘if’ or om ‘whether’, the negation can also appear between...

  11. Negation in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋炳

    2016-01-01

    Every language has its own unique ways of negation and English is no exception. More importance should be attached to when a negative English sentence is translated into its Chinese equivalent. Negation in English can be realized in many differ-ent ways. In the first place, the different types of negation in English will be analyzed. In addition, the affixes and lexicons used to denote negation will be investigated. The last part is mainly concerning the idioms and other expressions which denote nega-tive meanings. In order to make the views much more clearly, some Chinese equivalents of the English sentences will be offered here.

  12. Ansiedade social e atribuição de emoções a faces neutras Social snxiety and attribution of affect to neutral faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Torro Alves

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Trabalhos anteriores têm revelado vieses no reconhecimento de emoções e padrões diferenciais de ativação cerebral no transtorno de ansiedade social. No presente estudo, foi investigada a atribuição de emoções a faces neutras em 22 indivíduos com ansiedade social e 20 voluntários controles. Através do método da escolha forçada, participantes atribuíram emoções de alegria, medo, raiva ou tristeza a faces neutras. Verificou-se que homens e mulheres com ansiedade social atribuíram mais frequentemente emoções de raiva e tristeza às faces neutras, respectivamente. A atribuição de raiva por homens pode estar associada à tendência masculina em detectar sinais de hostilidade no ambiente social, enquanto que o aumento na atribuição de tristeza pelas mulheres pode estar associado à facilitação na identificação de emoções negativas. Os resultados sugerem que a ansiedade social afeta diferentemente os sexos e têm implicações importantes sobre o uso da face neutra como condição de base ou controle nas neurociências comportamentais.Previous research has revealed facial emotion recognition biases and distinctive patterns of brain activation in social anxiety disorder. We investigated the attribution of emotion to neutral facial displays in 22 subjects with social anxiety and 20 healthy controls. Using a forced choice paradigm, participants labeled neutral faces as happy, fearful, angry or sad. The most frequent emotional labels attributed by males and females to neutral faces were anger and sadness, respectively. These findings are discussed according to the notion that the attribution of anger by men may be associated with the male tendency to detect hostile environmental signs, whereas the increased attribution of sadness by females might be associated with facilitated identification of negative affect. The results suggest that social anxiety disorder differentially affects males and females and has important

  13. Holistic face training enhances face processing in developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGutis, Joseph; Cohan, Sarah; Nakayama, Ken

    2014-06-01

    Prosopagnosia has largely been regarded as an untreatable disorder. However, recent case studies using cognitive training have shown that it is possible to enhance face recognition abilities in individuals with developmental prosopagnosia. Our goal was to determine if this approach could be effective in a larger population of developmental prosopagnosics. We trained 24 developmental prosopagnosics using a 3-week online face-training program targeting holistic face processing. Twelve subjects with developmental prosopagnosia were assessed before and after training, and the other 12 were assessed before and after a waiting period, they then performed the training, and were then assessed again. The assessments included measures of front-view face discrimination, face discrimination with view-point changes, measures of holistic face processing, and a 5-day diary to quantify potential real-world improvements. Compared with the waiting period, developmental prosopagnosics showed moderate but significant overall training-related improvements on measures of front-view face discrimination. Those who reached the more difficult levels of training ('better' trainees) showed the strongest improvements in front-view face discrimination and showed significantly increased holistic face processing to the point of being similar to that of unimpaired control subjects. Despite challenges in characterizing developmental prosopagnosics' everyday face recognition and potential biases in self-report, results also showed modest but consistent self-reported diary improvements. In summary, we demonstrate that by using cognitive training that targets holistic processing, it is possible to enhance face perception across a group of developmental prosopagnosics and further suggest that those who improved the most on the training task received the greatest benefits.

  14. Neural mechanisms underlying the effects of face-based affective signals on memory for faces: a tentative model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eTsukiura

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available When we encounter someone in our daily lives, we form impressions of that person. Although those impressions are affected by many factors, face-based affective signals such as facial expression, facial attractiveness, or trustworthiness are important. Previous psychological studies have demonstrated the impact of facial impressions on remembering other people, but little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying this psychological process. The purpose of this article is to review recent functional MRI (fMRI studies to investigate the effects of face-based affective signals including facial expression, facial attractiveness, and trustworthiness on memory for faces, and to propose a concept for understanding this affective-cognitive interaction. On the basis of the aforementioned research, three brain regions are potentially involved in the processing of face-based affective signals. The first candidate is the amygdala, where activity is generally modulated by both affectively positive and negative signals from faces. Activity in the orbitofrontal cortex, as the second candidate, increases as a function of perceived positive signals from faces; whereas activity in the insular cortex, as the third candidate, reflects a function of face-based negative signals. In addition, neuroscientific studies have reported that the three regions are functionally connected to the memory-related hippocampal regions. These findings suggest that the effects of face-based affective signals on memory for faces could be modulated by interactions between the regions associated with the processing of face-based affective signals and the hippocampus as a memory-related region.

  15. The evolution of holistic processing of faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren eBurke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine the holistic processing of faces from an evolutionary perspective, clarifying what such an approach entails, and evaluating the extent to which the evidence currently available permits any strong conclusions. While it seems clear that the holistic processing of faces depends on mechanisms evolved to perform that task, our review of the comparative literature reveals that there is currently insufficient evidence (or sometimes insufficiently compelling evidence to decide when in our evolutionary past such processing may have arisen. It is also difficult to assess what kinds of selection pressures may have led to evolution of such a mechanism, or even what kinds of information holistic processing may have originally evolved to extract, given that many sources of socially relevant face-based information other than identity depend on integrating information across different regions of the face – judgements of expression, behavioural intent, attractiveness, sex, age, etc. We suggest some directions for future research that would help to answer these important questions.

  16. Holistic processing predicts face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richler, Jennifer J; Cheung, Olivia S; Gauthier, Isabel

    2011-04-01

    The concept of holistic processing is a cornerstone of face-recognition research. In the study reported here, we demonstrated that holistic processing predicts face-recognition abilities on the Cambridge Face Memory Test and on a perceptual face-identification task. Our findings validate a large body of work that relies on the assumption that holistic processing is related to face recognition. These findings also reconcile the study of face recognition with the perceptual-expertise work it inspired; such work links holistic processing of objects with people's ability to individuate them. Our results differ from those of a recent study showing no link between holistic processing and face recognition. This discrepancy can be attributed to the use in prior research of a popular but flawed measure of holistic processing. Our findings salvage the central role of holistic processing in face recognition and cast doubt on a subset of the face-perception literature that relies on a problematic measure of holistic processing.

  17. Winning Faces Vary By Ideology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Lasse; Petersen, Michael Bang

    2016-01-01

    for others. Utilizing research on ideological stereotypes and the determinants of facial preferences, we focus on the relationship between the facial dominance of the source and the ideology of the receiver. Across five studies, we demonstrate that a dominant face is a winning face when the audience...... is conservative but backfires and decreases success when the audience is liberal. On the other hand, a non-dominant face constitutes a winning face among liberal audiences but backfires among conservatives. These effects seemingly stem from deep-seated psychological responses and shape both the election...

  18. Study of Face Recognition Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Kaushik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of both face recognition and detection techniques is carried out using the algorithms like Principal Component Analysis (PCA, Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA and Line Edge Map (LEM. These algorithms show different rates of accuracy under different conditions. The automatic recognition of human faces presents a challenge to the pattern recognition community. Typically, human faces are different in shapes with minor similarity from person to person. Furthermore, lighting condition changes, facial expressions and pose variations further complicate the face recognition task as one of the difficult problems in pattern analysis.

  19. Teaching On-Line versus Face-to-Face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Glenn Gordon; Ferguson, David; Caris, Mieke

    2002-01-01

    Investigates and describes the current instructor experience of teaching college courses over the Web versus in face-to-face formats in terms of teaching strategies, social issues, and media effects. Discusses communication styles, relationship between students and instructors, instructor workload, and discussion patterns, and proposes a model…

  20. Effects of aging on face identification and holistic face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konar, Yaroslav; Bennett, Patrick J; Sekuler, Allison B

    2013-08-09

    Several studies have shown that face identification accuracy is lower in older than younger adults. This effect of aging might be due to age differences in holistic processing, which is thought to be an important component of human face processing. Currently, however, there is conflicting evidence as to whether holistic face processing is impaired in older adults. The current study therefore re-examined this issue by measuring response accuracy in a 1-of-4 face identification task and the composite face effect (CFE), a common index of holistic processing, in older adults. Consistent with previous reports, we found that face identification accuracy was lower in older adults than in younger adults tested in the same task. We also found a significant CFE in older adults that was similar in magnitude to the CFE measured in younger subjects with the same task. Finally, we found that there was a significant positive correlation between the CFE and face identification accuracy. This last result differs from the results obtained in a previous study that used the same tasks and which found no evidence of an association between the CFE and face identification accuracy in younger adults. Furthermore, the age difference was found with subtraction-, regression-, and ratio-based estimates of the CFE. The current findings are consistent with previous claims that older adults rely more heavily on holistic processing to identify objects in conditions of limited processing resources.

  1. Registration of 3D Face Scans with Average Face Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salah, A.A.; Alyuz, N.; Akarun, L.

    2008-01-01

    The accuracy of a 3D face recognition system depends on a correct registration that aligns the facial surfaces and makes a comparison possible. The best results obtained so far use a costly one-to-all registration approach, which requires the registration of each facial surface to all faces in the g

  2. Addressee Identification In Face-to-Face Meetings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jovanovic, N.; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Nijholt, Antinus; McCarthy, D.; Wintner, S.

    We present results on addressee identification in four-participants face-to-face meetings using Bayesian Network and Naive Bayes classifiers. First, we investigate how well the addressee of a dialogue act can be predicted based on gaze, utterance and conversational context features. Then, we explore

  3. Cyber- and Face-to-Face Bullying: Who Crosses Over?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hwayeon Helene; Braithwaite, Valerie; Ahmed, Eliza

    2016-01-01

    A total of 3956 children aged 12-13 years who completed the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC Wave 5) were studied about their experiences of traditional face-to-face bullying and cyberbullying in the last month. In terms of prevalence, sixty percent of the sample had been involved in traditional bullying as the victim and/or the…

  4. Finding Hope in the Face-to-Face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgoose, Jennifer Y C; Edgoose, Julian M

    2017-05-01

    What does it mean to look into the face of a patient who looks back? Face-to-face encounters are at the heart of the patient-clinician relationship but their singular significance is often lost amid the demands of today's high-tech, metric-driven health care systems. Using the framework provided by the philosopher and Holocaust survivor Emmanuel Levinas, the authors explore the unique responsibility and potential for hope found only in face-to-face encounters. Revisiting this most fundamental attribute of medicine is likely our greatest chance to reclaim who we are as clinicians and why we do what we do. © 2017 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  5. Seeing ghosts: negative body evaluation predicts overestimation of negative social feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleva, Jessica M; Lange, Wolf-Gero; Jansen, Anita; Martijn, Carolien

    2014-06-01

    The current study investigated whether negative body evaluation predicts women's overestimation of negative social feedback related to their own body (i.e., covariation bias). Sixty-five female university students completed a computer task where photos of their own body, of a control woman's body, and of a neutral object, were followed by nonverbal social feedback (i.e., facial crowds with equal numbers of negative, positive, and neutral faces). Afterward, women estimated the percentage of negative, positive, and neutral social feedback that followed their own body, the control woman's body, and the neutral object. The findings provided evidence for a covariation bias: negative body evaluation predicted higher estimates of negative social feedback for women's own body, but not for the other stimuli. Additionally, the covariation bias was not explained by differences in how women interpreted the social feedback (the facial stimuli). Clinical implications of the covariation bias to body image are discussed.

  6. Neurodynamic studies on emotional and inverted faces in an oddball paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susac, Ana; Ilmoniemi, Risto J; Pihko, Elina; Supek, Selma

    2004-01-01

    The detection of a change in a face stimulus was studied in an oddball paradigm. Event-related potentials (ERPs) and MEG responses to face stimuli were recorded in four conditions: 1) happy standard, neutral deviant; 2) neutral standard, neutral deviant; 3) inverted happy standard, inverted neutral deviant; 4) inverted neutral standard, inverted neutral deviant. In all conditions, the target was a face with glasses. Neutral deviants elicited a negative deflection (with a maximum around 280 ms) in ERP and MEG responses, an effect similar to auditory mismatch negativity. Face inversion diminished deviance-related negativity, implying an important role of face recognition in the observed effect. Emotional content and larger physical differences between stimuli in conditions 1 and 3 compared to conditions 2 and 4 did not show statistically significant effect on the neutral-deviant-related negativity.

  7. Sentential Negation in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

  8. Sentential Negation in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

  9. REVEALED ALTRUISM

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, James C; Friedman, Daniel; Sadiraj, Vjollca

    2009-01-01

    This pap er develops a theory of revealed preferences over oneís own and othersímonetary payo§s. We intro duce ìmore altruistic thanî(MAT), a partial ordering over preferences, and interpret it with known parametric mo dels. We also intro duce and illustrate ìmore generous thanî (MGT), a partial ordering over opp ortunity sets. Several recent discussions of altruism fo cus on two player extensive form games of complete information in which the Örst mover (FM) cho oses a more or less gen...

  10. The impact of professional isolation on teleworker job performance and turnover intentions: does time spent teleworking, interacting face-to-face, or having access to communication-enhancing technology matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Timothy D; Veiga, John F; Dino, Richard N

    2008-11-01

    Although the teleworking literature continues to raise concerns regarding the adverse consequences of professional isolation, researchers have not examined its impact on work outcomes. Consequently, the authors first examine professional isolation's direct impact on job performance and turnover intentions among teleworkers and then investigate the contingent role of 3 salient work-mode-related factors. Survey data from a matched sample of 261 professional-level teleworkers and their managers revealed that professional isolation negatively impacts job performance and, contrary to expectations, reduces turnover intentions. Moreover, professional isolation's impact on these work outcomes is increased by the amount of time spent teleworking, whereas more face-to-face interactions and access to communication-enhancing technology tend to decrease its impact. On the basis of these findings, an agenda for future research on professional isolation is offered that takes into account telework's growing popularity as a work modality.

  11. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Veldhuis, Raymond; Spreeuwers, Luuk

    2010-01-01

    Beside a few papers which focus on the forensic aspects of automatic face recognition, there is not much published about it in contrast to the literature on developing new techniques and methodologies for biometric face recognition. In this report, we review forensic facial identification which is t

  12. Age-invariant face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Unsang; Tong, Yiying; Jain, Anil K

    2010-05-01

    One of the challenges in automatic face recognition is to achieve temporal invariance. In other words, the goal is to come up with a representation and matching scheme that is robust to changes due to facial aging. Facial aging is a complex process that affects both the 3D shape of the face and its texture (e.g., wrinkles). These shape and texture changes degrade the performance of automatic face recognition systems. However, facial aging has not received substantial attention compared to other facial variations due to pose, lighting, and expression. We propose a 3D aging modeling technique and show how it can be used to compensate for the age variations to improve the face recognition performance. The aging modeling technique adapts view-invariant 3D face models to the given 2D face aging database. The proposed approach is evaluated on three different databases (i.g., FG-NET, MORPH, and BROWNS) using FaceVACS, a state-of-the-art commercial face recognition engine.

  13. Newborns' Mooney-Face Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Irene; Simion, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether newborns detect a face on the basis of a Gestalt representation based on first-order relational information (i.e., the basic arrangement of face features) by using Mooney stimuli. The incomplete 2-tone Mooney stimuli were used because they preclude focusing both on the local features (i.e., the fine…

  14. PrimeFaces beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, K Siva Prasad

    2013-01-01

    A guide for beginner's with step-by-step instructions and an easy-to-follow approach.PrimeFaces Beginners Guide is a simple and effective guide for beginners, wanting to learn and implement PrimeFaces in their JSF-based applications. Some basic JSF and jQuery skills are required before you start working through the book.

  15. Parallel Processing in Face Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Ulla; Leuthold, Hartmut; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined face perception models with regard to the functional and temporal organization of facial identity and expression analysis. Participants performed a manual 2-choice go/no-go task to classify faces, where response hand depended on facial familiarity (famous vs. unfamiliar) and response execution depended on facial expression…

  16. Side-View Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santemiz, Pinar; Spreeuwers, Luuk J.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Biggelaar , van den Olivier

    2011-01-01

    As a widely used biometrics, face recognition has many advantages such as being non-intrusive, natural and passive. On the other hand, in real-life scenarios with uncontrolled environment, pose variation up to side-view positions makes face recognition a challenging work. In this paper we discuss th

  17. Modeling Social Perception of Faces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todorov, A.T.; Oosterhof, N.N.

    2011-01-01

    The face is our primary source of visual information for identifying people and reading their emotional and mental states. With the exception of prosopagnosics (who are unable to recognize faces) and those suffering from such disorders of social cognition as autism, people are extremely adept at the

  18. Priming with threatening faces modulates the self-face advantage by enhancing the other-face processing rather than suppressing the self-face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Lili; Qi, Mingming; Li, Haijiang; Hitchman, Glenn; Yang, Juan; Liu, Yijun

    2015-05-22

    Social emotional information influences self-processing in everyday activities, but few researchers have investigated this process. The current ERP study adopted a prime paradigm to investigate how socially threatening faces impact on the self-face processing advantage. After being primed with emotional faces (happy, angry or neutral), participants judged whether the target face (self, friend, and stranger) was familiar or unfamiliar. Results showed an interaction effect between the prime face and the target face at posterior P3, suggesting that after priming with happy and neutral faces, self-faces elicited larger P3 amplitudes than friend-faces and stranger-faces; however, after priming with angry faces, the P3 amplitudes were not significantly different between self-face and friend-face. Moreover, the P3 amplitudes of self-faces did not differ between priming with angry and neutral faces; however, the P3 amplitude of both friend-faces and stranger-faces showed enhanced responses after priming with angry faces compared to priming with neutral faces. We suggest that the self-face processing advantage (self vs. friend) could be weakened by priming with threatening faces, through enhancement of the other-faces processing rather than suppression of self-faces processing in angry vs. neutral face prime.

  19. Emotion-independent face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Liyanage C.; Esther, Kho G. P.

    2000-12-01

    Current face recognition techniques tend to work well when recognizing faces under small variations in lighting, facial expression and pose, but deteriorate under more extreme conditions. In this paper, a face recognition system to recognize faces of known individuals, despite variations in facial expression due to different emotions, is developed. The eigenface approach is used for feature extraction. Classification methods include Euclidean distance, back propagation neural network and generalized regression neural network. These methods yield 100% recognition accuracy when the training database is representative, containing one image representing the peak expression for each emotion of each person apart from the neutral expression. The feature vectors used for comparison in the Euclidean distance method and for training the neural network must be all the feature vectors of the training set. These results are obtained for a face database consisting of only four persons.

  20. Effective indexing for face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochenkov, I.; Sochenkova, A.; Vokhmintsev, A.; Makovetskii, A.; Melnikov, A.

    2016-09-01

    Face recognition is one of the most important tasks in computer vision and pattern recognition. Face recognition is useful for security systems to provide safety. In some situations it is necessary to identify the person among many others. In this case this work presents new approach in data indexing, which provides fast retrieval in big image collections. Data indexing in this research consists of five steps. First, we detect the area containing face, second we align face, and then we detect areas containing eyes and eyebrows, nose, mouth. After that we find key points of each area using different descriptors and finally index these descriptors with help of quantization procedure. The experimental analysis of this method is performed. This paper shows that performing method has results at the level of state-of-the-art face recognition methods, but it is also gives results fast that is important for the systems that provide safety.

  1. Genetic specificity of face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Plomin, Robert

    2015-10-13

    Specific cognitive abilities in diverse domains are typically found to be highly heritable and substantially correlated with general cognitive ability (g), both phenotypically and genetically. Recent twin studies have found the ability to memorize and recognize faces to be an exception, being similarly heritable but phenotypically substantially uncorrelated both with g and with general object recognition. However, the genetic relationships between face recognition and other abilities (the extent to which they share a common genetic etiology) cannot be determined from phenotypic associations. In this, to our knowledge, first study of the genetic associations between face recognition and other domains, 2,000 18- and 19-year-old United Kingdom twins completed tests assessing their face recognition, object recognition, and general cognitive abilities. Results confirmed the substantial heritability of face recognition (61%), and multivariate genetic analyses found that most of this genetic influence is unique and not shared with other cognitive abilities.

  2. Learning faces: similar comparator faces do not improve performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott P Jones

    Full Text Available Recent evidence indicates that comparison of two similar faces can aid subsequent discrimination between them. However, the fact that discrimination between two faces is facilitated by comparing them directly does not demonstrate that comparison produces a general improvement in the processing of faces. It remains an open question whether the opportunity to compare a "target" face to similar faces can facilitate the discrimination of the exposed target face from other nonexposed faces. In Experiment 1, selection of a target face from an array of novel foils was not facilitated by intermixed exposure to the target and comparators of the same sex. Experiment 2 also found no advantage for similar comparators (morphed towards the target over unmorphed same sex comparators, or over repeated target exposure alone. But all repeated exposure conditions produced better performance than a single brief presentation of the target. Experiment 3 again demonstrated that repeated exposure produced equivalent learning in same sex and different sex comparator conditions, and also showed that increasing the number of same sex or different sex comparators failed to improve identification. In all three experiments, exposure to a target alongside similar comparators failed to support selection of the target from novel test stimuli to a greater degree than exposure alongside dissimilar comparators or repeated target exposure alone. The current results suggest that the facilitatory effects of comparison during exposure may be limited to improving discrimination between exposed stimuli, and thus our results do not support the idea that providing the opportunity for comparison is a practical means for improving face identification.

  3. Association with emotional information alters subsequent processing of neutral faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Lily; Fujioka, Takako; Chan, Jessica; McQuiggan, Douglas A; Anderson, Adam K; Ryan, Jennifer D

    2014-01-01

    The processing of emotional as compared to neutral information is associated with different patterns in eye movement and neural activity. However, the 'emotionality' of a stimulus can be conveyed not only by its physical properties, but also by the information that is presented with it. There is very limited work examining the how emotional information may influence the immediate perceptual processing of otherwise neutral information. We examined how presenting an emotion label for a neutral face may influence subsequent processing by using eye movement monitoring (EMM) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) simultaneously. Participants viewed a series of faces with neutral expressions. Each face was followed by a unique negative or neutral sentence to describe that person, and then the same face was presented in isolation again. Viewing of faces paired with a negative sentence was associated with increased early viewing of the eye region and increased neural activity between 600 and 1200 ms in emotion processing regions such as the cingulate, medial prefrontal cortex, and amygdala, as well as posterior regions such as the precuneus and occipital cortex. Viewing of faces paired with a neutral sentence was associated with increased activity in the parahippocampal gyrus during the same time window. By monitoring behavior and neural activity within the same paradigm, these findings demonstrate that emotional information alters subsequent visual scanning and the neural systems that are presumably invoked to maintain a representation of the neutral information along with its emotional details.

  4. Microwave gain medium with negative refractive index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Dexin; Chang, Kihun; Ran, Lixin; Xin, Hao

    2014-12-19

    Artificial effective media are attractive because of the fantastic applications they may enable, such as super lensing and electromagnetic invisibility. However, the inevitable loss due to their strongly dispersive nature is one of the fundamental challenges preventing such applications from becoming a reality. In this study, we demonstrate an effective gain medium based on negative resistance, to overcompensate the loss of a conventional passive metamaterial, meanwhile keeping its original negative-index property. Energy conservation-based theory, full-wave simulation and experimental measurement show that a fabricated sample consisting of conventional sub-wavelength building blocks with embedded microwave tunnel diodes exhibits a band-limited Lorentzian dispersion simultaneously with a negative refractive index and a net gain. Our work provides experimental evidence to the assertion that a stable net gain in negative-index gain medium is achievable, proposing a potential solution for the critical challenge current metamateiral technology faces in practical applications.

  5. Microwave gain medium with negative refractive index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Dexin; Chang, Kihun; Ran, Lixin; Xin, Hao

    2014-12-01

    Artificial effective media are attractive because of the fantastic applications they may enable, such as super lensing and electromagnetic invisibility. However, the inevitable loss due to their strongly dispersive nature is one of the fundamental challenges preventing such applications from becoming a reality. In this study, we demonstrate an effective gain medium based on negative resistance, to overcompensate the loss of a conventional passive metamaterial, meanwhile keeping its original negative-index property. Energy conservation-based theory, full-wave simulation and experimental measurement show that a fabricated sample consisting of conventional sub-wavelength building blocks with embedded microwave tunnel diodes exhibits a band-limited Lorentzian dispersion simultaneously with a negative refractive index and a net gain. Our work provides experimental evidence to the assertion that a stable net gain in negative-index gain medium is achievable, proposing a potential solution for the critical challenge current metamateiral technology faces in practical applications.

  6. [Neural basis of self-face recognition: social aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Motoaki

    2012-07-01

    Considering the importance of the face in social survival and evidence from evolutionary psychology of visual self-recognition, it is reasonable that we expect neural mechanisms for higher social-cognitive processes to underlie self-face recognition. A decade of neuroimaging studies so far has, however, not provided an encouraging finding in this respect. Self-face specific activation has typically been reported in the areas for sensory-motor integration in the right lateral cortices. This observation appears to reflect the physical nature of the self-face which representation is developed via the detection of contingency between one's own action and sensory feedback. We have recently revealed that the medial prefrontal cortex, implicated in socially nuanced self-referential process, is activated during self-face recognition under a rich social context where multiple other faces are available for reference. The posterior cingulate cortex has also exhibited this activation modulation, and in the separate experiment showed a response to attractively manipulated self-face suggesting its relevance to positive self-value. Furthermore, the regions in the right lateral cortices typically showing self-face-specific activation have responded also to the face of one's close friend under the rich social context. This observation is potentially explained by the fact that the contingency detection for physical self-recognition also plays a role in physical social interaction, which characterizes the representation of personally familiar people. These findings demonstrate that neuroscientific exploration reveals multiple facets of the relationship between self-face recognition and social-cognitive process, and that technically the manipulation of social context is key to its success.

  7. FACIAL ASYMMETRY IS NEGATIVELY RELATED TO CONDITION IN FEMALE MACAQUE MONKEYS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Anthony C; Paukner, Annika; Woodward, Ruth A; Suomi, Stephen J

    2012-09-01

    The face is an important visual trait in social communication across many species. In evolutionary terms there are large and obvious selective advantages in detecting healthy partners, both in terms of avoiding individuals with poor health to minimise contagion and in mating with individuals with high health to help ensure healthy offspring. Many models of sexual selection suggest that an individual's phenotype provides cues to their quality. Fluctuating asymmetry is a trait that is proposed to be an honest indicator of quality and previous studies have demonstrated that rhesus monkeys gaze longer at symmetric faces, suggesting preferences for such faces. The current study examined the relationship between measured facial symmetry and measures of health in a captive population of female rhesus macaque monkeys. We measured asymmetry from landmarks marked on front-on facial photographs and computed measures of health based on veterinary health and condition ratings, number of minor and major wounds sustained, and gain in weight over the first four years of life. Analysis revealed that facial asymmetry was negatively related to condition related health measures, with symmetric individuals being healthier than more asymmetric individuals. Facial asymmetry appears to be an honest indicator of health in rhesus macaques and asymmetry may then be used by conspecifics in mate-choice situations. More broadly, our data support the notion that faces are valuable sources of information in non-human primates and that sexual selection based on facial information is potentially important across the primate lineage.

  8. Threatening faces and social anxiety: A literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staugaard, Søren Risløv

    2010-01-01

    salient to people with fears of social interaction or negative evaluation. The purpose of this literature review is to systematically evaluate the accumulated research and suggest possible avenues for further research. The main conclusion is that photographs of threatening faces engage a broad range...

  9. Exploring manifold structure of face images via multiple graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Alghamdi, Masheal

    2013-12-24

    Geometric structure in the data provides important information for face image recognition and classification tasks. Graph regularized non-negative matrix factorization (GrNMF) performs well in this task. However, it is sensitive to the parameters selection. Wang et al. proposed multiple graph regularized non-negative matrix factorization (MultiGrNMF) to solve the parameter selection problem by testing it on medical images. In this paper, we introduce the MultiGrNMF algorithm in the context of still face Image classification, and conduct a comparative study of NMF, GrNMF, and MultiGrNMF using two well-known face databases. Experimental results show that MultiGrNMF outperforms NMF and GrNMF for most cases.

  10. Interpretation of emotionally ambiguous faces in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucks, Romola S; Garner, Matthew; Tarrant, Louise; Bradley, Brendan P; Mogg, Karin

    2008-11-01

    Research suggests that there is an age-related decline in the processing of negative emotional information, which may contribute to the reported decline in emotional problems in older people. We used a signal detection approach to investigate the effect of normal aging on the interpretation of ambiguous emotional facial expressions. High-functioning older and younger adults indicated which emotion they perceived when presented with morphed faces containing a 60% to 40% blend of two emotions (mixtures of happy, sad, or angry faces). They also completed measures of mood, perceptual ability, and cognitive functioning. Older and younger adults did not differ significantly in their ability to discriminate between positive and negative emotions. Response-bias measures indicated that older adults were significantly less likely than younger adults to report the presence of anger in angry-happy face blends. Results are discussed in relation to other research into age-related effects on emotion processing.

  11. Young and older emotional faces: are there age group differences in expression identification and memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Natalie C; Johnson, Marcia K

    2009-06-01

    Studies have found that older compared with young adults are less able to identify facial expressions and have worse memory for negative than for positive faces, but those studies have used only young faces. Studies finding that both age groups are more accurate at recognizing faces of their own than other ages have used mostly neutral faces. Thus, age differences in processing faces may not extend to older faces, and preferential memory for own age faces may not extend to emotional faces. To investigate these possibilities, young and older participants viewed young and older faces presented either with happy, angry, or neutral expressions; participants identified the expressions displayed and then completed a surprise face recognition task. Older compared with young participants were less able to identify expressions of angry young and older faces and (based on participants' categorizations) remembered angry faces less well than happy faces. There was no evidence of an own age bias in memory, but self-reported frequency of contact with young and older adults and awareness of own emotions played a role in expression identification of and memory for young and older faces.

  12. Modeling human dynamics of face-to-face interaction networks

    CERN Document Server

    Starnini, Michele; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo

    2013-01-01

    Face-to-face interaction networks describe social interactions in human gatherings, and are the substrate for processes such as epidemic spreading and gossip propagation. The bursty nature of human behavior characterizes many aspects of empirical data, such as the distribution of conversation lengths, of conversations per person, or of inter-conversation times. Despite several recent attempts, a general theoretical understanding of the global picture emerging from data is still lacking. Here we present a simple model that reproduces quantitatively most of the relevant features of empirical face-to-face interaction networks. The model describes agents which perform a random walk in a two dimensional space and are characterized by an attractiveness whose effect is to slow down the motion of people around them. The proposed framework sheds light on the dynamics of human interactions and can improve the modeling of dynamical processes taking place on the ensuing dynamical social networks.

  13. Temporal networks of face-to-face human interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Barrat, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The ever increasing adoption of mobile technologies and ubiquitous services allows to sense human behavior at unprecedented levels of details and scale. Wearable sensors are opening up a new window on human mobility and proximity at the finest resolution of face-to-face proximity. As a consequence, empirical data describing social and behavioral networks are acquiring a longitudinal dimension that brings forth new challenges for analysis and modeling. Here we review recent work on the representation and analysis of temporal networks of face-to-face human proximity, based on large-scale datasets collected in the context of the SocioPatterns collaboration. We show that the raw behavioral data can be studied at various levels of coarse-graining, which turn out to be complementary to one another, with each level exposing different features of the underlying system. We briefly review a generative model of temporal contact networks that reproduces some statistical observables. Then, we shift our focus from surface ...

  14. Ethical considerations in face transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charles S; Gander, Brian; Cunningham, Michael; Furr, Allen; Vasilic, Dalibor; Wiggins, Osborne; Banis, Joseph C; Vossen, Marieke; Maldonado, Claudio; Perez-Abadia, Gustavo; Barker, John H

    2007-10-01

    Human face transplantation is now a clinical reality. The surgical techniques necessary to perform these procedures have been used routinely in reconstructive microsurgery for many years. From an immunological standpoint since face and hand contain mostly the same tissues it is reasonable to assume that the same immunosuppressive regimen found to be effective in human hand transplants should also work in face transplantation. It is the ethical issues associated with the risks and benefits of performing facial transplantation that have posed the greatest challenges leading up to performing this new procedure. In this editorial, we will review some of the main events that have led to the recently performed human face transplants, specifically focusing on the key ethical issues at the center of this debate. We will discuss how the research and clinical experience in human hand transplantation laid the foundation for performing face transplantation and describe the research and the ethical guidelines upon which a team at the University of Louisville based their position "to move ahead" in spite of much criticism. Finally we will outline some of the key arguments against face transplantation, and conclude with a discussion on what comes next now that the first human face transplants have been performed.

  15. Multithread Face Recognition in Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakshina Ranjan Kisku

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Faces are highly challenging and dynamic objects that are employed as biometrics evidence in identity verification. Recently, biometrics systems have proven to be an essential security tools, in which bulk matching of enrolled people and watch lists is performed every day. To facilitate this process, organizations with large computing facilities need to maintain these facilities. To minimize the burden of maintaining these costly facilities for enrollment and recognition, multinational companies can transfer this responsibility to third-party vendors who can maintain cloud computing infrastructures for recognition. In this paper, we showcase cloud computing-enabled face recognition, which utilizes PCA-characterized face instances and reduces the number of invariant SIFT points that are extracted from each face. To achieve high interclass and low intraclass variances, a set of six PCA-characterized face instances is computed on columns of each face image by varying the number of principal components. Extracted SIFT keypoints are fused using sum and max fusion rules. A novel cohort selection technique is applied to increase the total performance. The proposed protomodel is tested on BioID and FEI face databases, and the efficacy of the system is proven based on the obtained results. We also compare the proposed method with other well-known methods.

  16. A reconstructive ethic in the face of globalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Adriana Alvarez Osses

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This investigation seeks to expound a critical ethic of hegemonic globalisation. We reflect on the common good ethics of Franz Hinkelammert, the contribution made by the intercultural dialogue of Raúl Fornet-Betancourt, the Ethics of Liberation of Enrique Dussel, and the situated, contextual thinking of Rodolfo Kusch. At the same time, the text reflects on the dilemmas of  globalisation, especially with respect to polarisation and mutual incomprehension. We attempt to descry prospects for a situated critical ethic in the face of the cultural and economic order which governs the world. It is also important to consider the relevance of other assumptions which seek  to change the logic of negation and non-recognition that have led to the Self and Totality. As part of this prospect, we propose a reconstructive ethic for the rehabilitation of a world order which has no ears for the voice of the victims of the profit imperative and a functional ethic based on utilitarism. This reveals a void in supportive behavior which demands a more responsible attitude towards those sectors which have always been passed over. Thus we propose  an ethic which will strengthen dialogue in pursuit of other possibilities for the human race.

  17. Face-induced expectancies influence neural mechanisms of performance monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinsky, Roman; Seeger, Jennifer; Mussel, Patrick; Hewig, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    In many daily situations, the consequences of our actions are predicted by cues that are often social in nature. For instance, seeing the face of an evaluator (e.g., a supervisor at work) may activate certain evaluative expectancies, depending on the history of prior encounters with that particular person. We investigated how such face-induced expectancies influence neurocognitive functions of performance monitoring. We recorded an electroencephalogram while participants completed a time-estimation task, during which they received performance feedback from a strict and a lenient evaluator. During each trial, participants first saw the evaluator's face before performing the task and, finally, receiving feedback. Therefore, faces could be used as predictive cues for the upcoming evaluation. We analyzed electrocortical signatures of performance monitoring at the stages of cue processing, task performance, and feedback reception. Our results indicate that, at the cue stage, seeing the strict evaluator's face results in an anticipatory preparation of fronto-medial monitoring mechanisms, as reflected by a sustained negative-going amplitude shift (i.e., the contingent negative variation). At the performance stage, face-induced expectancies of a strict evaluation rule led to increases of early performance monitoring signals (i.e., frontal-midline theta power). At the final stage of feedback reception, violations of outcome expectancies differentially affected the feedback-related negativity and frontal-midline theta power, pointing to a functional dissociation between these signatures. Altogether, our results indicate that evaluative expectancies induced by face-cues lead to adjustments of internal performance monitoring mechanisms at various stages of task processing.

  18. Micro-syntactic variation in American English Negative Concord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Blanchette

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a series of quantitative gradient acceptability judgment studies of English negative sentences. Adult native speakers of American English recruited via Amazon’s Mechanical Turk were asked to rate sentences on a scale of 1 to 7 on the basis of their naturalness. The main study compares sentences with the marker 'n’t 'and either a negative object (e.g. ‘John didn’t eat nothing’ or a negative subject in canonical position (‘nobody didn’t eat’. Each sentence type has two possible interpretations, one in which the two negatives contribute a single semantic negation, the so-called Negative Concord reading, and another in which the two negations yield a semantic Double Negation logically equivalent to an affirmative. While mean acceptability ratings were below the median for all items, statistical analyses of the gradient data revealed that speakers prefer Negative Concord over Double Negation readings for sentences with negative objects. To rule out a processing explanation for the preference for negative objects over sentence initial negatives, a follow-up study tested the acceptability of sentences with a single negative subject or object and no negative marker. This revealed a preference for subjects, suggesting that the object preference in the two negatives study is a true grammatical effect. A third study revealed that Double Negation constructions are unacceptable overall even in explicit denial contexts, and a fourth study added Negative Auxiliary Inversion constructions (e.g. ‘Didn’t nobody eat’, to compare three types of Negative Concord. The results of all four studies are argued to reveal an English grammar that generates both Negative Concord and Double Negation, and in which Negative Concord is generated despite its unacceptability and reported absence in usage.

  19. Face shield design against blast-induced head injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Long Bin; Tse, Kwong Ming; Tan, Yuan Hong; Sapingi, Mohamad Ali Bin; Tan, Vincent Beng Chye; Lee, Heow Pueh

    2017-03-22

    Blast-induced traumatic brain injury has been on the rise in recent years because of the increasing use of improvised explosive devices in conflict zones. Our study investigates the response of a helmeted human head subjected to a blast of 1 atm peak overpressure, for cases with and without a standard polycarbonate (PC) face shield and for face shields comprising of composite PC and aerogel materials and with lateral edge extension. The novel introduction of aerogel into the laminate face shield is explored and its wave-structure interaction mechanics and performance in blast mitigation is analysed. Our numerical results show that the face shield prevented direct exposure of the blast wave to the face and help delays the transmission of the blast to reduce the intracranial pressures (ICPs) at the parietal lobe. However, the blast wave can diffract and enter the midface region at the bottom and side edges of the face shield, resulting in traumatic brain injury. This suggests that the bottom and sides of the face shield are important regions to focus on to reduce wave ingress. The laminated PC/aerogel/PC face shield yielded higher peak positive and negative ICPs at the frontal lobe, than the original PC one. For the occipital and temporal brain regions, the laminated face shield performed better than the original. The composite face shield with extended edges reduced ICP at the temporal lobe but increases ICP significantly at the parietal lobe, which suggests that a greater coverage may not lead to better mitigating effects. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Revealing Rembrandt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Parker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our results emphasised the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt’s portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings.

  1. Unilateral demodicidosis of face mimicking Hansens disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Vashisht

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Demodicosis is a common parasitic infection of the hair follicles and the pilosebaceous unit by the Demodex mites viz. Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis. Infection by this parasite is common among immunocompromised and elderly. We report a case of facial Demodicosis which presented like atypical rosacea with a gradually progressing swelling and redness on right side of face which was initially diagnosed as a case of Hansen’s disease. Skin biopsy revealed follicular dilatation with presence of Demodex mite along with intense perifollicular lymphomononuclear infiltrate. Patient was treated with oral tab Ivermectin 12 mg stat along with topical gel metronidazole twice daily to which he responded favourably.

  2. Development of Neural Sensitivity to Face Identity Correlates with Perceptual Discriminability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natu, Vaidehi S; Barnett, Michael A; Hartley, Jake; Gomez, Jesse; Stigliani, Anthony; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2016-10-19

    Face perception is subserved by a series of face-selective regions in the human ventral stream, which undergo prolonged development from childhood to adulthood. However, it is unknown how neural development of these regions relates to the development of face-perception abilities. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure brain responses of ventral occipitotemporal regions in children (ages, 5-12 years) and adults (ages, 19-34 years) when they viewed faces that parametrically varied in dissimilarity. Since similar faces generate lower responses than dissimilar faces due to fMRI adaptation, this design objectively evaluates neural sensitivity to face identity across development. Additionally, a subset of subjects participated in a behavioral experiment to assess perceptual discriminability of face identity. Our data reveal three main findings: (1) neural sensitivity to face identity increases with age in face-selective but not object-selective regions; (2) the amplitude of responses to faces increases with age in both face-selective and object-selective regions; and (3) perceptual discriminability of face identity is correlated with the neural sensitivity to face identity of face-selective regions. In contrast, perceptual discriminability is not correlated with the amplitude of response in face-selective regions or of responses of object-selective regions. These data suggest that developmental increases in neural sensitivity to face identity in face-selective regions improve perceptual discriminability of faces. Our findings significantly advance the understanding of the neural mechanisms of development of face perception and open new avenues for using fMRI adaptation to study the neural development of high-level visual and cognitive functions more broadly.

  3. On the domain-specificity of the visual and non-visual face-selective regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Vadim

    2016-08-01

    What happens in our brains when we see a face? The neural mechanisms of face processing - namely, the face-selective regions - have been extensively explored. Research has traditionally focused on visual cortex face-regions; more recently, the role of face-regions outside the visual cortex (i.e., non-visual-cortex face-regions) has been acknowledged as well. The major quest today is to reveal the functional role of each this region in face processing. To make progress in this direction, it is essential to understand the extent to which the face-regions, and particularly the non-visual-cortex face-regions, process only faces (i.e., face-specific, domain-specific processing) or rather are involved in a more domain-general cognitive processing. In the current functional MRI study, we systematically examined the activity of the whole face-network during face-unrelated reading task (i.e., written meaningful sentences with content unrelated to faces/people and non-words). We found that the non-visual-cortex (i.e., right lateral prefrontal cortex and posterior superior temporal sulcus), but not the visual cortex face-regions, responded significantly stronger to sentences than to non-words. In general, some degree of sentence selectivity was found in all non-visual-cortex cortex. Present result highlights the possibility that the processing in the non-visual-cortex face-selective regions might not be exclusively face-specific, but rather more or even fully domain-general. In this paper, we illustrate how the knowledge about domain-general processing in face-regions can help to advance our general understanding of face processing mechanisms. Our results therefore suggest that the problem of face processing should be approached in the broader scope of cognition in general.

  4. Bracing Zonohedra With Special Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Gyula

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of simpler preliminary design gives useful input for more complicated three-dimensional building frame structure. A zonohedron, as a preliminary structure of design, is a convex polyhedron for which each face possesses central symmetry. We considered zonohedron as a special framework with the special assumption that the polygonal faces can be deformed in such a way that faces remain planar and centrally symmetric, moreover the length of all edges remains unchanged. Introducing some diagonal braces we got a new mechanism. This paper deals with the flexibility of this kind of mechanisms, and investigates the rigidity of the braced framework. The flexibility of the framework can be characterized by some vectors, which represent equivalence classes of the edges. A necessary and sufficient condition for the rigidity of the braced rhombic face zonohedra is posed. A real mechanical construction, based on two simple elements, provides a CAD prototype of these new mechanisms.

  5. Face Recognition using Curvelet Transform

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Rami

    2011-01-01

    Face recognition has been studied extensively for more than 20 years now. Since the beginning of 90s the subject has became a major issue. This technology is used in many important real-world applications, such as video surveillance, smart cards, database security, internet and intranet access. This report reviews recent two algorithms for face recognition which take advantage of a relatively new multiscale geometric analysis tool - Curvelet transform, for facial processing and feature extraction. This transform proves to be efficient especially due to its good ability to detect curves and lines, which characterize the human's face. An algorithm which is based on the two algorithms mentioned above is proposed, and its performance is evaluated on three data bases of faces: AT&T (ORL), Essex Grimace and Georgia-Tech. k-nearest neighbour (k-NN) and Support vector machine (SVM) classifiers are used, along with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for dimensionality reduction. This algorithm shows good results, ...

  6. Face Recognition in Various Illuminations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh D. Parmar,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Face Recognition (FR under various illuminations is very challenging. Normalization technique is useful for removing the dimness and shadow from the facial image which reduces the effect of illumination variations still retaining the necessary information of the face. The robust local feature extractor which is the gray-scale invariant texture called Local Binary Pattern (LBP is helpful for feature extraction. K-Nearest Neighbor classifier is utilized for the purpose of classification and to match the face images from the database. Experimental results were based on Yale-B database with three different sub categories. The proposed method has been tested to robust face recognition in various illumination conditions. Extensive experiment shows that the proposed system can achieve very encouraging performance in various illumination environments.

  7. Similarity measures for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Vezzetti, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Face recognition has several applications, including security, such as (authentication and identification of device users and criminal suspects), and in medicine (corrective surgery and diagnosis). Facial recognition programs rely on algorithms that can compare and compute the similarity between two sets of images. This eBook explains some of the similarity measures used in facial recognition systems in a single volume. Readers will learn about various measures including Minkowski distances, Mahalanobis distances, Hansdorff distances, cosine-based distances, among other methods. The book also summarizes errors that may occur in face recognition methods. Computer scientists "facing face" and looking to select and test different methods of computing similarities will benefit from this book. The book is also useful tool for students undertaking computer vision courses.

  8. Covert Face Recognition without Prosopagnosia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Ellis

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment is reported where subjects were presented with familiar or unfamiliar faces for supraliminal durations or for durations individually assessed as being below the threshold for recognition. Their electrodermal responses to each stimulus were measured and the results showed higher peak amplitude skin conductance responses for familiar than for unfamiliar faces, regardless of whether they had been displayed supraliminally or subliminally. A parallel is drawn between elevated skin conductance responses to subliminal stimuli and findings of covert recognition of familiar faces in prosopagnosic patients, some of whom show increased electrodermal activity (EDA to previously familiar faces. The supraliminal presentation data also served to replicate similar work by Tranel et al (1985. The results are considered alongside other data indicating the relation between non-conscious, “automatic” aspects of normal visual information processing and abilities which can be found to be preserved without awareness after brain injury.

  9. More Than a Pretty Face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The various facial make up designs in the Sichuan Opera are Chinese art treasures With the flick of a wrist,the intricate patterns painted on the opera performer’s face magically shift;the audience,awed

  10. Face recognition using Krawtchouk moment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Sheeba Rani; D Devaraj

    2012-08-01

    Feature extraction is one of the important tasks in face recognition. Moments are widely used feature extractor due to their superior discriminatory power and geometrical invariance. Moments generally capture the global features of the image. This paper proposes Krawtchouk moment for feature extraction in face recognition system, which has the ability to extract local features from any region of interest. Krawtchouk moment is used to extract both local features and global features of the face. The extracted features are fused using summed normalized distance strategy. Nearest neighbour classifier is employed to classify the faces. The proposed method is tested using ORL and Yale databases. Experimental results show that the proposed method is able to recognize images correctly, even if the images are corrupted with noise and possess change in facial expression and tilt.

  11. Metacognitive deficits predict future levels of negative symptoms in schizophrenia controlling for neurocognition, affect recognition, and self-expectation of goal attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaker, Paul H; Kukla, Marina; Dubreucq, Julien; Gumley, Andrew; McLeod, Hamish; Vohs, Jenifer L; Buck, Kelly D; Minor, Kyle S; Luther, Lauren; Leonhardt, Bethany L; Belanger, Elizabeth A; Popolo, Raffaele; Dimaggio, Giancarlo

    2015-10-01

    The recalcitrance of negative symptoms in the face of pharmacologic treatment has spurred interest in understanding the psychological factors that contribute to their formation and persistence. Accordingly, this study investigated whether deficits in metacognition, or the ability to form integrated ideas about oneself, others, and the world, prospectively predicted levels of negative symptoms independent of deficits in neurocognition, affect recognition and defeatist beliefs. Participants were 53 adults with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Prior to entry into a rehabilitation program, all participants completed concurrent assessments of metacognition with the Metacognitive Assessment Scale-Abbreviated, negative symptoms with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, neurocognition with the MATRICS battery, affect recognition with the Bell Lysaker Emotion Recognition Task, and one form of defeatist beliefs with the Recovery Assessment Scale. Negative symptoms were then reassessed one week, 9weeks, and 17weeks after entry into the program. A mixed effects regression model revealed that after controlling for baseline negative symptoms, a general index of neurocognition, defeatist beliefs and capacity for affect recognition, lower levels of metacognition predicted higher levels of negative symptoms across all subsequent time points. Poorer metacognition was able to predict later levels of elevated negative symptoms even after controlling for initial levels of negative symptoms. Results may suggest that metacognitive deficits are a risk factor for elevated levels of negative symptoms in the future. Clinical implications are also discussed.

  12. Training of familiar face recognition and visual scan paths for faces in a child with congenital prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzl, Laura; Palermo, Romina; Green, Melissa; Brunsdon, Ruth; Coltheart, Max

    2008-07-01

    In the current report we describe a successful training study aimed at improving recognition of a set of familiar face photographs in K., a 4-year-old girl with congenital prosopagnosia (CP). A detailed assessment of K.'s face-processing skills showed a deficit in structural encoding, most pronounced in the processing of facial features within the face. In addition, eye movement recordings revealed that K.'s scan paths for faces were characterized by a large percentage of fixations directed to areas outside the internal core features (i.e., eyes, nose, and mouth), in particular by poor attendance to the eye region. Following multiple baseline assessments, training focused on teaching K. to reliably recognize a set of familiar face photographs by directing visual attention to specific characteristics of the internal features of each face. The training significantly improved K.'s ability to recognize the target faces, with her performance being flawless immediately after training as well as at a follow-up assessment 1 month later. In addition, eye movement recordings following training showed a significant change in K.'s scan paths, with a significant increase in the percentage of fixations directed to the internal features, particularly the eye region. Encouragingly, not only was the change in scan paths observed for the set of familiar trained faces, but it generalized to a set of faces that was not presented during training. In addition to documenting significant training effects, our study raises the intriguing question of whether abnormal scan paths for faces may be a common factor underlying face recognition impairments in childhood CP, an issue that has not been explored so far.

  13. Face recognition: a model specific ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy B Wilmer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In our everyday lives, we view it as a matter of course that different people are good at different things. It can be surprising, in this context, to learn that most of what is known about cognitive ability variation across individuals concerns the broadest of all cognitive abilities, often labeled g. In contrast, our knowledge of specific abilities, those that correlate little with g, is severely constrained. Here, we draw upon our experience investigating an exceptionally specific ability, face recognition, to make the case that many specific abilities could easily have been missed. In making this case, we derive key insights from earlier false starts in the measurement of face recognition’s variation across individuals, and we highlight the convergence of factors that enabled the recent discovery that this variation is specific. We propose that the case of face recognition ability illustrates a set of tools and perspectives that could accelerate fruitful work on specific cognitive abilities. By revealing relatively independent dimensions of human ability, such work would enhance our capacity to understand the uniqueness of individual minds.

  14. 3D Face Apperance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Astrom, K

    2006-01-01

    We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations......We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations...

  15. 3D Face Appearance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Åström, Kalle

    2006-01-01

    We build a 3d face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical jacobian of its resulting 2d rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations.}......We build a 3d face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical jacobian of its resulting 2d rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations.}...

  16. Carbon-Type Analysis and Comparison of Original and Reblended FACE Diesel Fuels (FACE 2, FACE 4, and FACE 7)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bays, J. Timothy; King, David L.; O' Hagan, Molly J.

    2012-10-01

    This report summarizes the carbon-type analysis from 1H and 13C{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) diesel blends, FD-2B, FD 4B, and FD-7B, and makes comparison of the new blends with the original FACE diesel blends, FD 2A, FD 4A, and FD-7A, respectively. Generally, FD-2A and FD-2B are more similar than the A and B blends of FD-4 and FD-7. The aromatic carbon content is roughly equivalent, although the new FACE blends have decreased monoaromatic content and increased di- and tri-cycloaromatic content, as well as a higher overall aromatic content, than the original FACE blends. The aromatic components of the new FACE blends generally have a higher alkyl substitution with longer alkyl substituents. The naphthenic and paraffinic contents remained relatively consistent. Based on aliphatic methyl and methylene carbon ratios, cetane numbers for FD-2A and -2B, and FD-7A and -7B are predicted to be consistent, while the cetane number for FD-4B is predicted to be higher than FD-4A. Overall, the new FACE fuel blends are fairly consistent with the original FACE fuel blends, but there are observable differences. In addition to providing important comparative compositional information on reformulated FACE diesel blends, this report also provides important information about the capabilities of the team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in the use of NMR spectroscopy for the detailed characterization and comparison of fuels and fuel blends.

  17. Negative effects of positive reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perone, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Procedures classified as positive reinforcement are generally regarded as more desirable than those classified as aversive-those that involve negative reinforcement or punishment. This is a crude test of the desirability of a procedure to change or maintain behavior. The problems can be identified on the basis of theory, experimental analysis, and consideration of practical cases. Theoretically, the distinction between positive and negative reinforcement has proven difficult (some would say the distinction is untenable). When the distinction is made purely in operational terms, experiments reveal that positive reinforcement has aversive functions. On a practical level, positive reinforcement can lead to deleterious effects, and it is implicated in a range of personal and societal problems. These issues challenge us to identify other criteria for judging behavioral procedures.

  18. The Analysis of Negative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛琨

    2009-01-01

    @@ Chapter 1 The Meaning of Negation Negation,in our daily life,is very commonly used.When you deny something,you use it;when you refuse something,you use it too.And the most common negatiom"no"and"not"are used by US every day.

  19. The Idea Is Good, but…: Failure to Replicate Associations of Oxytocinergic Polymorphisms with Face-Inversion in the N170.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha J L Munk

    Full Text Available In event-related potentials, the N170 manifests itself especially in reaction to faces. In the healthy population, face-inversion leads to stronger negative amplitudes and prolonged latencies of the N170, effects not being present in patients with autism-spectrum-disorder (ASD. ASD has frequently been associated with differences in oxytocinergic neurotransmission. This ERP-study aimed to investigate the face-inversion effect in association with oxytocinergic candidate genes. It was expected that risk-allele-carriers of the oxytocin-receptor-gene-polymorphism (rs53576 and of CD38 (rs379863 responded similar to upright and inverted faces as persons with ASD. Additionally, reactions to different facial emotional expressions were studied. As there have been difficulties with replications of those molecular genetic association studies, we aimed to replicate our findings in a second study.Seventy-two male subjects in the first-, and seventy-eight young male subjects in the replication-study conducted a face-inversion-paradigm, while recording EEG. DNA was extracted from buccal cells.Results revealed stronger N170-amplitudes and longer latencies in reaction to inverted faces in comparison to upright ones. Furthermore, effects of emotion on N170 were evident. Those effects were present in the first and in the second study. Whereas we found molecular-genetic associations of oxytocinergic polymorphisms with the N170 in the first study, we failed to do so in the replication sample.Results indicate that a deeper theoretical understanding of this research-field is needed, in order to generate possible explanations for these findings. Results, furthermore, support the hypotheses that success of reproducibility is correlated with strength of lower original p-values and larger effect sizes in the original study.

  20. The Idea Is Good, but…: Failure to Replicate Associations of Oxytocinergic Polymorphisms with Face-Inversion in the N170

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, Aisha J. L.; Hermann, Andrea; El Shazly, Jasmin; Grant, Phillip; Hennig, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Background In event-related potentials, the N170 manifests itself especially in reaction to faces. In the healthy population, face-inversion leads to stronger negative amplitudes and prolonged latencies of the N170, effects not being present in patients with autism-spectrum-disorder (ASD). ASD has frequently been associated with differences in oxytocinergic neurotransmission. This ERP-study aimed to investigate the face-inversion effect in association with oxytocinergic candidate genes. It was expected that risk-allele-carriers of the oxytocin-receptor-gene-polymorphism (rs53576) and of CD38 (rs379863) responded similar to upright and inverted faces as persons with ASD. Additionally, reactions to different facial emotional expressions were studied. As there have been difficulties with replications of those molecular genetic association studies, we aimed to replicate our findings in a second study. Method Seventy-two male subjects in the first-, and seventy-eight young male subjects in the replication-study conducted a face-inversion-paradigm, while recording EEG. DNA was extracted from buccal cells. Results Results revealed stronger N170-amplitudes and longer latencies in reaction to inverted faces in comparison to upright ones. Furthermore, effects of emotion on N170 were evident. Those effects were present in the first and in the second study. Whereas we found molecular-genetic associations of oxytocinergic polymorphisms with the N170 in the first study, we failed to do so in the replication sample. Conclusion Results indicate that a deeper theoretical understanding of this research-field is needed, in order to generate possible explanations for these findings. Results, furthermore, support the hypotheses that success of reproducibility is correlated with strength of lower original p-values and larger effect sizes in the original study. PMID:27015428

  1. Face activated neurodynamic cortical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susac, Ana; Ilmoniemi, Risto J; Ranken, Doug; Supek, Selma

    2011-05-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have shown that complex visual stimuli, such as faces, activate multiple brain regions, yet little is known on the dynamics and complexity of the activated cortical networks during the entire measurable evoked response. In this study, we used simulated and face-evoked empirical MEG data from an oddball study to investigate the feasibility of accurate, efficient, and reliable spatio-temporal tracking of cortical pathways over prolonged time intervals. We applied a data-driven, semiautomated approach to spatio-temporal source localization with no prior assumptions on active cortical regions to explore non-invasively face-processing dynamics and their modulation by task. Simulations demonstrated that the use of multi-start downhill simplex and data-driven selections of time intervals submitted to the Calibrated Start Spatio-Temporal (CSST) algorithm resulted in improved accuracy of the source localization and the estimation of the onset of their activity. Locations and dynamics of the identified sources indicated a distributed cortical network involved in face processing whose complexity was task dependent. This MEG study provided the first non-invasive demonstration, agreeing with intracranial recordings, of an early onset of the activity in the fusiform face gyrus (FFG), and that frontal activation preceded parietal for responses elicited by target faces.

  2. Children Can Learn New Facts Equally Well From Interactive Media Versus Face to Face Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Kristine; Ghrear, Siba; Li, Vivian; Haddock, Taeh; Coleman, Patrick; Birch, Susan A J

    2016-01-01

    Today's children have more opportunities than ever before to learn from interactive technology, yet experimental research assessing the efficacy of children's learning from interactive media in comparison to traditional learning approaches is still quite scarce. Moreover, little work has examined the efficacy of using touch-screen devices for research purposes. The current study compared children's rate of learning factual information about animals during a face-to-face instruction from an adult female researcher versus an analogous instruction from an interactive device. Eighty-six children ages 4 through 8 years (64% male) completed the learning task in either the Face-to-Face condition (n = 43) or the Interactive Media condition (n = 43). In the Learning Phase of the experiment, which was presented as a game, children were taught novel facts about animals without being told that their memory of the facts would be tested. The facts were taught to the children either by an adult female researcher (Face-to-Face condition) or from a pre-recorded female voice represented by a cartoon Llama (Interactive Media condition). In the Testing Phase of the experiment that immediately followed, children's memory for the taught facts was tested using a 4-option forced-choice paradigm. Children's rate of learning was significantly above chance in both conditions and a comparison of the rates of learning across the two conditions revealed no significant differences. Learning significantly improved from age 4 to age 8, however, even the preschool-aged children performed significantly above chance, and their performance did not differ between conditions. These results suggest that, interactive media can be equally as effective as one-on-one instruction, at least under certain conditions. Moreover, these results offer support for the validity of using interactive technology to collect data for research purposes. We discuss the implications of these results for children's learning

  3. Social and emotional relevance in face processing: happy faces of future interaction partners enhance the late positive potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublatzky, Florian; Gerdes, Antje B M; White, Andrew J; Riemer, Martin; Alpers, Georg W

    2014-01-01

    Human face perception is modulated by both emotional valence and social relevance, but their interaction has rarely been examined. Event-related brain potentials (ERP) to happy, neutral, and angry facial expressions with different degrees of social relevance were recorded. To implement a social anticipation task, relevance was manipulated by presenting faces of two specific actors as future interaction partners (socially relevant), whereas two other face actors remained non-relevant. In a further control task all stimuli were presented without specific relevance instructions (passive viewing). Face stimuli of four actors (2 women, from the KDEF) were randomly presented for 1s to 26 participants (16 female). Results showed an augmented N170, early posterior negativity (EPN), and late positive potential (LPP) for emotional in contrast to neutral facial expressions. Of particular interest, face processing varied as a function of experimental tasks. Whereas task effects were observed for P1 and EPN regardless of instructed relevance, LPP amplitudes were modulated by emotional facial expression and relevance manipulation. The LPP was specifically enhanced for happy facial expressions of the anticipated future interaction partners. This underscores that social relevance can impact face processing already at an early stage of visual processing. These findings are discussed within the framework of motivated attention and face processing theories.

  4. Statistical Model-Based Face Pose Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Xinliang; YANG Jie; LI Feng; WANG Huahua

    2007-01-01

    A robust face pose estimation approach is proposed by using face shape statistical model approach and pose parameters are represented by trigonometric functions. The face shape statistical model is firstly built by analyzing the face shapes from different people under varying poses. The shape alignment is vital in the process of building the statistical model. Then, six trigonometric functions are employed to represent the face pose parameters. Lastly, the mapping function is constructed between face image and face pose by linearly relating different parameters. The proposed approach is able to estimate different face poses using a few face training samples. Experimental results are provided to demonstrate its efficiency and accuracy.

  5. Cross-correlation in face discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simpson, William A.; Loffler, Gunter; Tucha, Lara

    2013-01-01

    An extensive body of literature suggests that face perception depends critically upon specialised face processing mechanisms. Although it seems clear that specialised face processing is required to explain face recognition, face discrimination is a simpler task that could possibly be solved with a g

  6. Does a single session of electroconvulsive therapy alter the neural response to emotional faces in depression? A randomised sham-controlled functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Kessing, Lars V; Ott, Caroline V; Macoveanu, Julian; Harmer, Catherine J; Jørgensen, Anders; Revsbech, Rasmus; Jensen, Hans M; Paulson, Olaf B; Siebner, Hartwig R; Jørgensen, Martin B

    2017-09-01

    Negative neurocognitive bias is a core feature of major depressive disorder that is reversed by pharmacological and psychological treatments. This double-blind functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigated for the first time whether electroconvulsive therapy modulates negative neurocognitive bias in major depressive disorder. Patients with major depressive disorder were randomised to one active ( n=15) or sham electroconvulsive therapy ( n=12). The following day they underwent whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3T while viewing emotional faces and performed facial expression recognition and dot-probe tasks. A single electroconvulsive therapy session had no effect on amygdala response to emotional faces. Whole-brain analysis revealed no effects of electroconvulsive therapy versus sham therapy after family-wise error correction at the cluster level, using a cluster-forming threshold of Z>3.1 ( p2.3; pelectroconvulsive therapy-induced changes in parahippocampal and superior frontal responses to fearful versus happy faces as well as in fear-specific functional connectivity between amygdala and occipito-temporal regions. Across all patients, greater fear-specific amygdala - occipital coupling correlated with lower fear vigilance. Despite no statistically significant shift in neural response to faces after a single electroconvulsive therapy session, the observed trend changes after a single electroconvulsive therapy session point to an early shift in emotional processing that may contribute to antidepressant effects of electroconvulsive therapy.

  7. Effect of Affective Personality Information on Face Processing: Evidence from ERPs

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Qiu L.; Wang, Han L.; Dzhelyova, Milena; Huang, Ping; Mo, Lei

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which there are the neural correlates of the affective personality influence on face processing using event-related potentials (ERPs). In the learning phase, participants viewed a target individual’s face (expression neutral or faint smile) paired with either negative, neutral or positive sentences describing previous typical behavior of the target. In the following EEG testing phase, participants completed gender judgments of the learned faces. Statistical a...

  8. Effect of Affective Personality Information on Face Processing: Evidence from ERPs

    OpenAIRE

    Qiuling eLuo; Hanlin eWang; Milena eDzhelyova; Lei eMo

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the extent to which there are neural correlates of the influence of affective personality information on face processing, using event-related potentials (ERPs). In the learning phase, participants viewed a target individual’s face (with a neutral expression or faint smile) paired with negative, neutral or positive sentences describing the target’s previous typical behavior. In the following EEG testing phase, participants completed gender judgments of the learned faces. Stat...

  9. The Positivity Bias Phenomenon in Face Perception Given Different Information on Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Mo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The negativity bias has been shown in many fields, including in face processing. We assume that this bias stems from the potential threat inlayed in the stimuli (e.g., negative moral behaviors in previous studies. In the present study, we conducted one behavioral and one event-related potentials (ERPs experiments to test whether the positivity bias rather than negativity bias will arise when participants process information whose negative aspect involves no threat, i.e., the ability information. In both experiments, participants first completed a valence rating (negative-to-positive of neutral facial expressions. Further, in the learning period, participants associated the neutral faces with high-ability, low-ability, or control sentences. Finally, participants rated these facial expressions again. Results of the behavioral experiment showed that compared with pre-learning, the expressions of the faces associated with high ability sentences were classified as more positive in the post-learning expression rating task, and the faces associated with low ability sentences were evaluated as more negative. Meanwhile, the change in the high-ability group was greater than that of the low-ability group. The ERP data showed that the faces associated with high-ability sentences elicited a larger early posterior negativity, an ERP component considered to reflect early sensory processing of the emotional stimuli, than the faces associated with control sentences. However, no such effect was found in faces associated with low-ability sentences. To conclude, high ability sentences exerted stronger influence on expression perception than did low ability ones. Thus, we found a positivity bias in this ability-related facial perceptual task. Our findings demonstrate an effect of valenced ability information on face perception, thereby adding to the evidence on the opinion that person-related knowledge can influence face processing. What’s more, the positivity

  10. The Positivity Bias Phenomenon in Face Perception Given Different Information on Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sasa; Xiang, Yanhui; Xie, Jiushu; Ye, Yanyan; Li, Tianfeng; Mo, Lei

    2017-01-01

    The negativity bias has been shown in many fields, including in face processing. We assume that this bias stems from the potential threat inlayed in the stimuli (e.g., negative moral behaviors) in previous studies. In the present study, we conducted one behavioral and one event-related potentials (ERPs) experiments to test whether the positivity bias rather than negativity bias will arise when participants process information whose negative aspect involves no threat, i.e., the ability information. In both experiments, participants first completed a valence rating (negative-to-positive) of neutral facial expressions. Further, in the learning period, participants associated the neutral faces with high-ability, low-ability, or control sentences. Finally, participants rated these facial expressions again. Results of the behavioral experiment showed that compared with pre-learning, the expressions of the faces associated with high ability sentences were classified as more positive in the post-learning expression rating task, and the faces associated with low ability sentences were evaluated as more negative. Meanwhile, the change in the high-ability group was greater than that of the low-ability group. The ERP data showed that the faces associated with high-ability sentences elicited a larger early posterior negativity, an ERP component considered to reflect early sensory processing of the emotional stimuli, than the faces associated with control sentences. However, no such effect was found in faces associated with low-ability sentences. To conclude, high ability sentences exerted stronger influence on expression perception than did low ability ones. Thus, we found a positivity bias in this ability-related facial perceptual task. Our findings demonstrate an effect of valenced ability information on face perception, thereby adding to the evidence on the opinion that person-related knowledge can influence face processing. What's more, the positivity bias in non

  11. Negative thermal expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, G D [Departamento de QuImica, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia SJB, Ciudad Universitaria, 9000 Comodoro Rivadavia (Argentina); Bruno, J A O [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Departamento de QuImica Inorganica, AnalItica y QuImica FIsica, Pabellon 2, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Barron, T H K [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock' s Close, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); Allan, N L [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock' s Close, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom)

    2005-02-02

    There has been substantial renewed interest in negative thermal expansion following the discovery that cubic ZrW{sub 2}O{sub 8} contracts over a temperature range in excess of 1000 K. Substances of many different kinds show negative thermal expansion, especially at low temperatures. In this article we review the underlying thermodynamics, emphasizing the roles of thermal stress and elasticity. We also discuss vibrational and non-vibrational mechanisms operating on the atomic scale that are responsible for negative expansion, both isotropic and anisotropic, in a wide range of materials. (topical review)

  12. Toward a Negative Anthropology

    OpenAIRE

    Johannssen, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Can philosophy say what man is? What is gained or lost by making theoretical assumptions about the human being? This essay examines the “negative anthropology” of the early Frankfurt School by asking how Max Horkheimer, Theodor W. Adorno and Ulrich Sonnemann engage with the question “What is man?” Negative anthropology turns out to be more than the critique of philosophical anthropology: By understanding the human being as the ensemble of what it is not, negative anthropology avoids the predi...

  13. Negative transverse impedance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, W.

    1989-06-12

    Recently, measurements in the SPS show that the coherent tune shift in the horizontal direction has positive values whereas that in the vertical direction has negative ones. Thus the existence of negative transverse impedance gets confirmed in a real machine. This stimulates us to start a new round of systematic studies on this interesting phenomenon. The results obtained from our computer simulations are presented in this note. Our simulations demonstrate that the negative transverse impedance may appear when the rotational symmetry embedded in a discontinuity is broken, and that the geometries that we have studies may be the source of the positive horizontal tune shift measured in the SPS.

  14. Holographic Quantum Entanglement Negativity

    CERN Document Server

    Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Sengupta, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    We propose a holographic prescription to compute the entanglement negativity for conformal field theories at finite temperatures which exactly reproduces the entanglement negativity for (1+1)- dimensional conformal field theories at finite temperatures dual to (2+1)- dimensional bulk Euclidean BTZ black holes. We observe that the holographic entanglement negativity captures the distillable pure quantum entanglement and is related to the holographic mutual information. The application of our prescription to higher dimensional conformal field theories at finite temperatures within a $AdS_{d+1}/CFT_{d}$ scenario involving dual bulk $AdS$-Schwarzschild black holes is discussed to elucidate the universality of our conjecture.

  15. Ethnicity identification from face images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoguang; Jain, Anil K.

    2004-08-01

    Human facial images provide the demographic information, such as ethnicity and gender. Conversely, ethnicity and gender also play an important role in face-related applications. Image-based ethnicity identification problem is addressed in a machine learning framework. The Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) based scheme is presented for the two-class (Asian vs. non-Asian) ethnicity classification task. Multiscale analysis is applied to the input facial images. An ensemble framework, which integrates the LDA analysis for the input face images at different scales, is proposed to further improve the classification performance. The product rule is used as the combination strategy in the ensemble. Experimental results based on a face database containing 263 subjects (2,630 face images, with equal balance between the two classes) are promising, indicating that LDA and the proposed ensemble framework have sufficient discriminative power for the ethnicity classification problem. The normalized ethnicity classification scores can be helpful in the facial identity recognition. Useful as a "soft" biometric, face matching scores can be updated based on the output of ethnicity classification module. In other words, ethnicity classifier does not have to be perfect to be useful in practice.

  16. Atypical face gaze in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepagnier, Cheryl; Sebrechts, Marc M; Peterson, Rebecca

    2002-06-01

    An eye-tracking study of face and object recognition was conducted to clarify the character of face gaze in autistic spectrum disorders. Experimental participants were a group of individuals diagnosed with Asperger's disorder or high-functioning autistic disorder according to their medical records and confirmed by the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R). Controls were selected on the basis of age, gender, and educational level to be comparable to the experimental group. In order to maintain attentional focus, stereoscopic images were presented in a virtual reality (VR) headset in which the eye-tracking system was installed. Preliminary analyses show impairment in face recognition, in contrast with equivalent and even superior performance in object recognition among participants with autism-related diagnoses, relative to controls. Experimental participants displayed less fixation on the central face than did control-group participants. The findings, within the limitations of the small number of subjects and technical difficulties encountered in utilizing the helmet-mounted display, suggest an impairment in face processing on the part of the individuals in the experimental group. This is consistent with the hypothesis of disruption in the first months of life, a period that may be critical to typical social and cognitive development, and has important implications for selection of appropriate targets of intervention.

  17. Effect of Affective Personality Information on Face Processing: Evidence from ERPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qiu L; Wang, Han L; Dzhelyova, Milena; Huang, Ping; Mo, Lei

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which there are the neural correlates of the affective personality influence on face processing using event-related potentials (ERPs). In the learning phase, participants viewed a target individual's face (expression neutral or faint smile) paired with either negative, neutral or positive sentences describing previous typical behavior of the target. In the following EEG testing phase, participants completed gender judgments of the learned faces. Statistical analyses were conducted on measures of neural activity during the gender judgment task. Repeated measures ANOVA of ERP data showed that faces described as having a negative personality elicited larger N170 than did those with a neutral or positive description. The early posterior negativity (EPN) showed the same result pattern, with larger amplitudes for faces paired with negative personality than for others. The size of the late positive potential was larger for faces paired with positive personality than for those with neutral and negative personality. The current study indicates that affective personality information is associated with an automatic, top-down modulation on face processing.

  18. Effect of Affective Personality Information on Face Processing: Evidence from ERPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuling eLuo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the extent to which there are neural correlates of the influence of affective personality information on face processing, using event-related potentials (ERPs. In the learning phase, participants viewed a target individual’s face (with a neutral expression or faint smile paired with negative, neutral or positive sentences describing the target’s previous typical behavior. In the following EEG testing phase, participants completed gender judgments of the learned faces. Statistical analyses were conducted on measures of neural activity during the gender judgment task. Repeated measures ANOVA of ERP data showed that faces described as having a negative personality elicited larger N170 than did those with a neutral or positive description. The early posterior negativity (EPN showed the same pattern, with larger amplitudes for faces paired with negative personality than for others. The size of the late positive potential (LPP was larger for faces paired with positive personality than for those with neutral and negative personality. The current study indicates that affective personality information is associated with an automatic, top-down modulation of face processing.

  19. A brain network processing the age of faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    György A Homola

    Full Text Available Age is one of the most salient aspects in faces and of fundamental cognitive and social relevance. Although face processing has been studied extensively, brain regions responsive to age have yet to be localized. Using evocative face morphs and fMRI, we segregate two areas extending beyond the previously established face-sensitive core network, centered on the inferior temporal sulci and angular gyri bilaterally, both of which process changes of facial age. By means of probabilistic tractography, we compare their patterns of functional activation and structural connectivity. The ventral portion of Wernicke's understudied perpendicular association fasciculus is shown to interconnect the two areas, and activation within these clusters is related to the probability of fiber connectivity between them. In addition, post-hoc age-rating competence is found to be associated with high response magnitudes in the left angular gyrus. Our results provide the first evidence that facial age has a distinct representation pattern in the posterior human brain. We propose that particular face-sensitive nodes interact with additional object-unselective quantification modules to obtain individual estimates of facial age. This brain network processing the age of faces differs from the cortical areas that have previously been linked to less developmental but instantly changeable face aspects. Our probabilistic method of associating activations with connectivity patterns reveals an exemplary link that can be used to further study, assess and quantify structure-function relationships.

  20. Logo and Negative Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawn, Candace A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes LOGO's turtle graphics capabilities based on a sixth-grade classroom's activities with negative numbers and Logo programming. A sidebar explains LOGO and offers suggestions to teachers for using LOGO effectively. (LRW)

  1. Atomic negative ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brage, T.

    1991-12-31

    We review some of the recent progress in the studies of alkaline-earth, negative ions. Computations of autodetachment rates, electron affinities and transition wavelengths are discussed and some new and improved results are given.

  2. Atomic negative ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brage, T.

    1991-01-01

    We review some of the recent progress in the studies of alkaline-earth, negative ions. Computations of autodetachment rates, electron affinities and transition wavelengths are discussed and some new and improved results are given.

  3. Correlations between psychometric schizotypy, scan path length, fixations on the eyes and face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Peter J; Eaton, Elizabeth; Pake, J Michael

    2016-01-01

    Psychometric schizotypy in the general population correlates negatively with face recognition accuracy, potentially due to deficits in inhibition, social withdrawal, or eye-movement abnormalities. We report an eye-tracking face recognition study in which participants were required to match one of two faces (target and distractor) to a cue face presented immediately before. All faces could be presented with or without paraphernalia (e.g., hats, glasses, facial hair). Results showed that paraphernalia distracted participants, and that the most distracting condition was when the cue and the distractor face had paraphernalia but the target face did not, while there was no correlation between distractibility and participants' scores on the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). Schizotypy was negatively correlated with proportion of time fixating on the eyes and positively correlated with not fixating on a feature. It was negatively correlated with scan path length and this variable correlated with face recognition accuracy. These results are interpreted as schizotypal traits being associated with a restricted scan path leading to face recognition deficits.

  4. On Applicability of Face--Saving Theory in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘倩雅

    2013-01-01

      Brown and Levinson’s face theory is a theory of interpersonal relationship. It has successfully explained the influence of“face”in people’s daily communications. The theory is built on the basis of western culture and ignores the cultural difference of“face”in China. It is not free from limitations the absoluteness of which exerts a checking effort on its universal applicability. This paper probes from the perspective of the influence of context and culture that the application of Face—Saving theory in actual com⁃munications in China, especially from those restrictions on the use of negative face in China.

  5. Neural and Behavioral Evidence for Infants' Sensitivity to the Trustworthiness of Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Sarah; Grossmann, Tobias

    2016-11-01

    Face evaluation is a key aspect of face processing in humans, serving important functions in regulating social interactions. Adults and preschool children readily evaluate faces with respect to a person's trustworthiness and dominance. However, it is unclear whether face evaluation is mainly a product of extensive learning or a foundational building block of face perception already during infancy. We examined infants' sensitivity to facial signs of trustworthiness (Experiment 1) and dominance (Experiment 2) by measuring ERPs and looking behavior in response to faces that varied with respect to the two facial attributes. Results revealed that 7-month-old infants are sensitive to facial signs of trustworthiness but not dominance. This sensitivity was reflected in infants' behavioral preference and in the modulation of brain responses previously linked to emotion detection from faces. These findings provide first evidence that processing faces with respect to trustworthiness has its origins in infancy and shed light on the behavioral and neural correlates of this early emerging sensitivity.

  6. Compulsive exercise: links, risks and challenges faced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichtenstein MB

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mia Beck Lichtenstein,1 Cecilie Juul Hinze,2 Bolette Emborg,3 Freja Thomsen,2 Simone Daugaard Hemmingsen4 1Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, 2Research Unit for Telepsychiatry and E-mental Health, Mental Health Services in the Region of Southern Denmark, Odense, 3Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, 4Research Unit, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Mental Health Services in the Region of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark Abstract: Compulsive exercise is a condition described since 1970s. It is characterized by a craving for physical training, resulting in uncontrollable excessive exercise behavior with harmful consequences, such as injuries and impaired social relations. It has not been accepted as a mental disorder in either International Classification of Diseases or Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The aim of this literature review was to critically examine the research on links (comorbidity, risks (negative consequences, and challenges faced (problems in a treatment context. This review found that compulsive exercise is associated with eating disorder pathology, perfectionism, neuroticism, narcissism, and obsessive compulsive traits. The most prominent negative consequences were injuries, social impairment, and depression, but more research is needed to uncover the potential dysfunction resulting from compulsive exercise. As the condition is not recognized as a psychiatric disorder, studies on treatment interventions are sparse. Problems with compliance have been reported; therefore, motivational interviewing has been proposed as a treatment approach, in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy. This review summarizes and discusses findings on links/comorbidity, risks/negative consequences, and treatment challenges. We suggest that future studies should pay attention to both prevention and counseling in sports settings, where compulsive exercise

  7. Optimizing Face Recognition Using PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Abdullah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Principle Component Analysis PCA is a classical feature extraction and data representation technique widely used in pattern recognition. It is one of the most successful techniques in face recognition. But it has drawback of high computational especially for big size database. This paper conducts a study to optimize the time complexity of PCA (eigenfaces that does not affects the recognition performance. The authors minimize the participated eigenvectors which consequently decreases the computational time. A comparison is done to compare the differences between the recognition time in the original algorithm and in the enhanced algorithm. The performance of the original and the enhanced proposed algorithm is tested on face94 face database. Experimental results show that the recognition time is reduced by 35% by applying our proposed enhanced algorithm. DET Curves are used to illustrate the experimental results.

  8. Optimizing Face Recognition Using PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Abdullah

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Principle Component Analysis PCA is a classical feature extraction and data representation technique widely used in pattern recognition. It is one of the most successful techniques in face recognition. But it has drawback of high computational especially for big size database. This paper conducts a study to optimize the time complexity of PCA (eigenfaces that does not affects the recognition performance. The authorsminimize the participated eigenvectors which consequently decreases the computational time. A comparison is done to compare the differences between the recognition time in the original algorithm and in the enhanced algorithm. The performance of the original and the enhanced proposed algorithm is tested on face94 face database. Experimental results show that the recognition time is reduced by 35% by applying our proposed enhanced algorithm. DET Curves are used to illustrate the experimental results.

  9. The Cambridge Mindreading Face-Voice Battery for Children (CAM-C): complex emotion recognition in children with and without autism spectrum conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Ofer; Sinai-Gavrilov, Yana; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Difficulties in recognizing emotions and mental states are central characteristics of autism spectrum conditions (ASC). However, emotion recognition (ER) studies have focused mostly on recognition of the six 'basic' emotions, usually using still pictures of faces. This study describes a new battery of tasks for testing recognition of nine complex emotions and mental states from video clips of faces and from voice recordings taken from the Mindreading DVD. This battery (the Cambridge Mindreading Face-Voice Battery for Children or CAM-C) was given to 30 high-functioning children with ASC, aged 8 to 11, and to 25 matched controls. The ASC group scored significantly lower than controls on complex ER from faces and voices. In particular, participants with ASC had difficulty with six out of nine complex emotions. Age was positively correlated with all task scores, and verbal IQ was correlated with scores in the voice task. CAM-C scores were negatively correlated with parent-reported level of autism spectrum symptoms. Children with ASC show deficits in recognition of complex emotions and mental states from both facial and vocal expressions. The CAM-C may be a useful test for endophenotypic studies of ASC and is one of the first to use dynamic stimuli as an assay to reveal the ER profile in ASC. It complements the adult version of the CAM Face-Voice Battery, thus providing opportunities for developmental assessment of social cognition in autism.

  10. Understanding the Correlates of Face-to-Face and Cyberbullying Victimization Among U.S. Adolescents: A Social-Ecological Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun Sung; Lee, Jungup; Espelage, Dorothy L; Hunter, Simon C; Patton, Desmond Upton; Rivers, Tyrone

    2016-01-01

    Using a national sample of 7,533 U.S. adolescents in grades 6-10, this study compares the social-ecological correlates of face-to-face and cyberbullying victimization. Results indicate that younger age, male sex, hours spent on social media, family socioeconomic status (SES; individual context), parental monitoring (family context), positive feelings about school, and perceived peer support in school (school context) were negatively associated with both forms of victimization. European American race, Hispanic/Latino race (individual), and family satisfaction (family context) were all significantly associated with less face-to-face victimization only, and school pressure (school context) was significantly associated with more face-to-face bullying. Peer groups accepted by parents (family context) were related to less cyberbullying victimization, and calling/texting friends were related to more cyberbullying victimization. Research and practice implications are discussed.

  11. Face Detection Based on Skin Color Segmentation Using Fuzzy Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco A. Pujol

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Face detection is the first step of any automated face recognition system. One of the most popular approaches to detect faces in color images is using a skin color segmentation scheme, which in many cases needs a proper representation of color spaces to interpret image information. In this paper, we propose a fuzzy system for detecting skin in color images, so that each color tone is assumed to be a fuzzy set. The Red, Green, and Blue (RGB, the Hue, Saturation and Value (HSV, and the YCbCr (where Y is the luminance and Cb,Cr are the chroma components color systems are used for the development of our fuzzy design. Thus, a fuzzy three-partition entropy approach is used to calculate all of the parameters needed for the fuzzy systems, and then, a face detection method is also developed to validate the segmentation results. The results of the experiments show a correct skin detection rate between 94% and 96% for our fuzzy segmentation methods, with a false positive rate of about 0.5% in all cases. Furthermore, the average correct face detection rate is above 93%, and even when working with heterogeneous backgrounds and different light conditions, it achieves almost 88% correct detections. Thus, our method leads to accurate face detection results with low false positive and false negative rates.

  12. Eye-tracking analysis of face observing and face recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Iskra

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Images are one of the key elements of the content of the World Wide Web. One group of web images are also photos of people. When various institutions (universities, research organizations, companies, associations, etc. present their staff, they should include photos of people for the purpose of more informative presentation. The fact is, that there are many specifies how people see face images and how do they remember them. Several methods to investigate person’s behavior during use of web content can be performed and one of the most reliable method among them is eye tracking. It is very common technique, particularly when it comes to observing web images. Our research focused on behavior of observing face images in process of memorizing them. Test participants were presented with face images shown at different time scale. We focused on three main face elements: eyes, mouth and nose. The results of our analysis can help not only in web presentation, which are, in principle, not limited by time observation, but especially in public presentations (conferences, symposia, and meetings.

  13. Effects of attractiveness on face memory separated from distinctiveness: evidence from event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Holger; Altmann, Carolin S; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2014-04-01

    The present study examined effects of attractiveness on behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) correlates of face memory. Extending previous reports, we controlled for potential moderating effects of distinctiveness, a variable known to affect memory. Attractive and unattractive faces were selected on the basis of a rating study, and were matched for distinctiveness. In a subsequent recognition memory experiment, we found more accurate memory for unattractive relative to attractive faces. Additionally, an attractiveness effect in the early posterior negativity (EPN) during learning, with larger amplitudes for attractive than unattractive faces, correlated significantly with the magnitude of the memory advantage for unattractive faces at test. These findings establish a contribution of attractiveness to face memory over and above the well-known effect of distinctiveness. Additionally, as the EPN is typically enhanced for affective stimuli, our ERP results imply that the processing of emotionally relevant attractive faces during learning may hamper their encoding into memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The social evaluation of faces: a meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mende-Siedlecki, Peter; Said, Christopher P; Todorov, Alexander

    2013-03-01

    Neuroscience research on the social evaluation of faces has accumulated over the last decade, yielding divergent results. We used a meta-analytic technique, multi-level kernel density analysis (MKDA), to analyze 29 neuroimaging studies on face evaluation. Across negative face evaluations, we observed the most consistent activations in bilateral amygdala. Across positive face evaluations, we observed the most consistent activations in medial prefrontal cortex, pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC), medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC), left caudate and nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Based on additional analyses comparing linear and non-linear responses, we propose a ventral/dorsal dissociation within the amygdala, wherein separate populations of neurons code for face valence and intensity, respectively. Finally, we argue that some of the differences between studies are attributable to differences in the typicality of face stimuli. Specifically, extremely attractive faces are more likely to elicit responses in NAcc/caudate and mOFC.

  15. Saving Face and Group Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Mao, Lei; Villeval, Marie-Claire

    2015-01-01

    their self- but also other group members' image. This behavior is frequent even in the absence of group identity. When group identity is more salient, individuals help regardless of whether the least performer is an in-group or an out-group. This suggests that saving others' face is a strong social norm.......Are people willing to sacrifice resources to save one's and others' face? In a laboratory experiment, we study whether individuals forego resources to avoid the public exposure of the least performer in their group. We show that a majority of individuals are willing to pay to preserve not only...

  16. Embedded Face Detection and Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göksel Günlü

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The need to increase security in open or public spaces has in turn given rise to the requirement to monitor these spaces and analyse those images on‐site and on‐time. At this point, the use of smart cameras ‐ of which the popularity has been increasing ‐ is one step ahead. With sensors and Digital Signal Processors (DSPs, smart cameras generate ad hoc results by analysing the numeric images transmitted from the sensor by means of a variety of image‐processing algorithms. Since the images are not transmitted to a distance processing unit but rather are processed inside the camera, it does not necessitate high‐ bandwidth networks or high processor powered systems; it can instantaneously decide on the required access. Nonetheless, on account of restricted memory, processing power and overall power, image processing algorithms need to be developed and optimized for embedded processors. Among these algorithms, one of the most important is for face detection and recognition. A number of face detection and recognition methods have been proposed recently and many of these methods have been tested on general‐purpose processors. In smart cameras ‐ which are real‐life applications of such methods ‐ the widest use is on DSPs. In the present study, the Viola‐Jones face detection method ‐ which was reported to run faster on PCs ‐ was optimized for DSPs; the face recognition method was combined with the developed sub‐region and mask‐based DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform. As the employed DSP is a fixed‐point processor, the processes were performed with integers insofar as it was possible. To enable face recognition, the image was divided into sub‐ regions and from each sub‐region the robust coefficients against disruptive elements ‐ like face expression, illumination, etc. ‐ were selected as the features. The discrimination of the selected features was enhanced via LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis and then employed for

  17. [Endoscopy and face-lift].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardour, J C; Abbou, R

    2017-08-02

    For many years, the face-lift has not been the only intervention for facial rejuvenation. It is necessary today to specify the type of face-lift, cervico-facial lifting, frontal lifting or facelift. We will consider in this article the frontal lift and centro-facial lift and its possible execution assisted by endoscopy with therefore minimal scars, hidden in the scalp. We will consider successively its technique, its indications and its results highlighting a very long hold over time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Instant PrimeFaces starter

    CERN Document Server

    Hlavats, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant Primefaces Starter is a fast-paced, introductory guide designed to give you all the information you need to start using Primfaces, instantly.Instant PrimeFaces Starter is great for developers looking to get started quickly with PrimeFaces. It's assumed that you have some JSF experience already, as well as familiarity with other Java technologies such as CDI and JPA and an understanding of MVC principles, object-relational mapping (ORM),

  19. Face Recognition in Uncontrolled Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhey Shyam

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method of facial image representation for face recognition in uncontrolled environment. It is named as augmented local binary patterns (A-LBP that works on both, uniform and non-uniform patterns. It replaces the central non-uniform pattern with a majority value of the neighbouring uniform patterns obtained after processing all neighbouring non-uniform patterns. These patterns are finally combined with the neighbouring uniform patterns, in order to extract discriminatory information from the local descriptors. The experimental results indicate the vitality of the proposed method on particular face datasets, where the images are prone to extreme variations of illumination.

  20. A Survey: Face Recognition Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sharif

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the existing techniques of face recognition are to be encountered along with their pros and cons to conduct a brief survey. The most general methods include Eigenface (Eigenfeatures, Hidden Markov Model (HMM, geometric based and template matching approaches. This survey actually performs analysis on these approaches in order to constitute face representations which will be discussed as under. In the second phase of the survey, factors affecting the recognition rates and processes are also discussed along with the solutions provided by different authors.